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Sample records for bpa

  1. BPA Statutes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1999-08-01

    This report contains the Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA's) authorizing statutes--the Bonneville Project Act, the Federal Columbia River Transmission System Act, the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act and other laws that contain provisions that define BPA's mission and affect the way it is carried out.

  2. BPA Facts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-03-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration is a federal nonprofit power marketing administration based in the Pacific Northwest . Although BPA is part of the U .S . Department of Energy, it is self-funding and covers its costs by selling its products and services . BPA markets wholesale electrical power from 31 federal hydro projects in the Columbia River Basin, one nonfederal nuclear plant and several small nonfederal power plants . The dams are operated by the U .S . Army Corps of Engineers and the Bureau of Reclamation . About 30 percent of the electric power used in the Northwest comes from BPA . BPA’s resources — primarily hydroelectric — make its power nearly carbon free . BPA also operates and maintains about three- fourths of the high-voltage transmission in its service territory . BPA’s service territory includes Idaho, Oregon, Washington, western Montana and small parts of eastern Montana, California, Nevada, Utah and Wyoming . BPA promotes energy efficiency, renewable resources and new technologies that improve its ability to deliver on its mission . BPA also funds regional efforts to protect and enhance fish and wildlife populations affected by hydropower development in the Columbia River Basin . BPA is committed to public service and seeks to make its decisions in a manner that provides opportunities for input from stakeholders . In its vision statement, BPA dedicates itself to providing high system reliability, low rates consistent with sound business principles, environmental stewardship and accountability

  3. Bisphenol A (BPA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... impact-resistant safety equipment, and medical devices. Epoxy resins are used as lacquers to coat metal products such as food cans, bottle tops, and water supply pipes. Some dental sealants and composites may also contribute to BPA ...

  4. Environmental Effects of BPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Canesi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Research on bisphenol A (BPA as an environmental contaminant has now major regulatory implications toward the ecosystem health, and hence it is incumbent on scientists to do their research to the highest standards possible, in order that the most appropriate decisions are made to mitigate the impacts to aquatic wildlife. However, the contribution given so far appears rather fragmented. The present overview aims to collect available information on the effects of BPA on aquatic vertebrates and invertebrates to provide a general scenario and to suggest future developments toward more comprehensive approaches useful for aquatic species protection.

  5. Sustainability at BPA 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-12-01

    THIS IS THE THIRD YEAR BPA has reported on sustainability program accomplishments. The report provides an opportunity to review progress made on sustainability initiatives, evaluate how far we have come and how much we can improve. The program has demonstrated maturation as the concepts of sustainability and resource conservation are communicated and understood. The sustainability program started as an employee-driven “grass roots” effort in 2010. Sustainability is becoming a consideration in how work is performed. The establishment of several policies supporting sustainability efforts proves the positive progress being made. In 2009, BPA became a founder and member of The Climate Registry, a nonprofit collaboration that sets standards to calculate, verify and report greenhouse gas emissions. This year, BPA completed and published our Greenhouse Gas inventory for the years of 2009, 2010 and 2011. The 2012 inventory is currently in the process of third-party verification and scheduled for public release in January 2014. These inventories provide a concrete measure of the progress we are making.

  6. Aerobic Soil Biodegradation of Bisphenol (BPA) Alternatives Bisphenol S and Bisphenol AF Compared to BPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Youn Jeong; Lee, Linda S

    2017-12-05

    Pressures to ban bisphenol A (BPA) has led to the use of alternate chemicals such as BPA analogues bisphenol S (BPS) and bisphenol AF (BPAF) in production of consumer products; however, information on their environmental fate is scarce. In this study, aerobic degradation of BPA, BPAF, and BPS at 100 μg/kg soil and 22 ± 2 °C was monitored for up to 180 days in a forest soil and an organic farm soil. At each sampling point, soils were extracted three times and analyzed by liquid chromatography high resolution mass or time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Based on compound mass recovered from soils compared to the mass applied, BPS had short half-lives of bisphenols support degradation pathways that include meta-cleavage as well as ortho-cleavage, which has not been previously shown.

  7. NIEHS/FDA CLARITY-BPA research program update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heindel, Jerrold J.; Newbold, Retha R.; Bucher, John R.; Camacho, Luísa; Delclos, K. Barry; Lewis, Sherry M.; Vanlandingham, Michelle; Churchwell, Mona I.; Twaddle, Nathan C.; McLellen, Michelle; Chidambaram, Mani; Bryant, Matthew; Woodling, Kellie; Gamboa da Costa, Gonçalo; Ferguson, Sherry A.; Flaws, Jodi; Howard, Paul C.; Walker, Nigel J.; Zoeller, R. Thomas; Fostel, Jennifer; Favaro, Carolyn; Schug, Thaddeus T.

    2016-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical used in the production of numerous consumer products resulting in potential daily human exposure to this chemical. The FDA previously evaluated the body of BPA toxicology data and determined that BPA is safe at current exposure levels. Although consistent with the assessment of some other regulatory agencies around the world, this determination of BPA safety continues to be debated in scientific and popular publications, resulting in conflicting messages to the public. Thus, the National Toxicology Program (NTP), National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), and U.S Food and Drug Administration (FDA) developed a consortium-based research program to link more effectively a variety of hypothesis-based research investigations and guideline-compliant safety testing with BPA. This collaboration is known as the Consortium Linking Academic and Regulatory Insights on BPA Toxicity (CLARITY-BPA). This paper provides a detailed description of the conduct of the study and a midterm update on progress of the CLARITY-BPA research program. PMID:26232693

  8. NIEHS/FDA CLARITY-BPA research program update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heindel, Jerrold J; Newbold, Retha R; Bucher, John R; Camacho, Luísa; Delclos, K Barry; Lewis, Sherry M; Vanlandingham, Michelle; Churchwell, Mona I; Twaddle, Nathan C; McLellen, Michelle; Chidambaram, Mani; Bryant, Matthew; Woodling, Kellie; Gamboa da Costa, Gonçalo; Ferguson, Sherry A; Flaws, Jodi; Howard, Paul C; Walker, Nigel J; Zoeller, R Thomas; Fostel, Jennifer; Favaro, Carolyn; Schug, Thaddeus T

    2015-12-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical used in the production of numerous consumer products resulting in potential daily human exposure to this chemical. The FDA previously evaluated the body of BPA toxicology data and determined that BPA is safe at current exposure levels. Although consistent with the assessment of some other regulatory agencies around the world, this determination of BPA safety continues to be debated in scientific and popular publications, resulting in conflicting messages to the public. Thus, the National Toxicology Program (NTP), National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), and U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) developed a consortium-based research program to link more effectively a variety of hypothesis-based research investigations and guideline-compliant safety testing with BPA. This collaboration is known as the Consortium Linking Academic and Regulatory Insights on BPA Toxicity (CLARITY-BPA). This paper provides a detailed description of the conduct of the study and a midterm update on progress of the CLARITY-BPA research program. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Bisphenol A (BPA) in U.S. food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schecter, Arnold; Malik, Noor; Haffner, Darrah; Smith, Sarah; Harris, T Robert; Paepke, Olaf; Birnbaum, Linda

    2010-12-15

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical used for lining metal cans and in polycarbonate plastics, such as baby bottles. In rodents, BPA is associated with early sexual maturation, altered behavior, and effects on prostate and mammary glands. In humans, BPA is associated with cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and male sexual dysfunction in exposed workers. Food is a major exposure source. We know of no studies reporting BPA in U.S. fresh food, canned food, and food in plastic packaging in peer reviewed journals. We measured BPA levels in 105 fresh and canned foods, foods sold in plastic packaging, and in cat and dog foods in cans and plastic packaging. We detected BPA in 63 of 105 samples, including fresh turkey, canned green beans, and canned infant formula. Ninety-three of these samples were triplicates which had similar detected levels. Detected levels ranged from 0.23 to 65.0 ng/g ww and were not associated with type of food or packaging but did vary with pH. BPA levels were higher for foods of pH 5 compared to more acidic and alkaline foods. Detected levels were comparable to those found by others. Further research is indicated to determine BPA levels in U.S. food in larger, representative sampling.

  10. [Research on characteristic of interrelationship between toxic organic compound BPA and Chlorella vulgaris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shan-Jia; Chen, Xiu-Rong; Yan, Long; Zhao, Jian-Guo; Zhang, Fei; Jiang, Zi-Jian

    2014-04-01

    The effects of different concentrations of bisphenol A (BPA) on Chlorella vulgaris and removal capacity of BPA by Chlorella vulgaris were investigated. Results showed that a low concentration (0-20 mg x L(-1)) of BPA promoted the growth of Chlorella vulgaris, whereas a relative high concentration (20-50 mg x L(-1)) of BPA inhibited the growth of Chlorella vulgaris, and the inhibition effect was positively correlated with the concentration of BPA. Likewise, a high dose of initial BPA (> 20 mg x L(-1)) led to a decline in the content of chlorephyll a. Chlorella vulgaris had BPA removal capacity when initial BPA concentration ranged from 2 mg x L(-1) to 50 mg x L(-1). There was positive correlation between the removal rate of BPA per cell and initial BPA concentration. The removal rate of BPA was the highest when initial BPA was 50 mg x L(-1), which appeared between lag phase and logarithmic phase.

  11. Urinary Bisphenol A (BPA) Concentrations among Workers in Industries that Manufacture and Use BPA in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Cynthia J; Jackson, Matthew V; Deddens, James A; Clark, John C; Ye, Xiaoyun; Christianson, Annette L; Meadows, Juliana W; Calafat, Antonia M

    2017-03-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) toxicity and exposure risk to humans has been the subject of considerable scientific debate; however, published occupational exposure data for BPA are limited. In 2013-2014, 77 workers at six US companies making BPA, BPA-based resins, or BPA-filled wax provided seven urine samples over two consecutive work days (151 worker-days, 525 samples). Participant information included industry, job, tasks, personal protective equipment used, hygiene behaviors, and canned food/beverage consumption. Total (free plus conjugated) BPA, quantified in urine by mass spectrometry, was detected in all samples. The geometric mean (GM) creatinine-adjusted total BPA (total BPACR) concentration was 88.0 µg g-1 (range 0.78-18900 µg g-1), ~70 times higher than in US adults in 2013-2014 (1.27 µg g-1). GM total BPACR increased during Day 1 (26.6-127 µg g-1), decreased by pre-shift Day 2 (84.4 µg g-1) then increased during Day 2 to 178 µg g-1. By industry, baseline and post-baseline total BPACR was highest in BPA-filled wax manufacturing/reclaim (GM = 111 µg g-1) and lowest in phenolic resin manufacturing (GM = 6.56 µg g-1). By job, total BPACR was highest at baseline in maintenance workers (GM = 157 µg g-1) and post-baseline in those working with molten BPA-filled wax (GM = 441 µg g-1). Workers in the job of flaking a BPA-based resin had the lowest concentrations at baseline (GM = 4.81 µg g-1) and post-baseline (GM = 23.2 µg g-1). In multiple regression models, at baseline, industry significantly predicted increased total BPACR (P = 0.0248); post-baseline, handling BPA containers (P = 0.0035), taking ≥3 process/bulk samples with BPA (P = 0.0002) and wearing a Tyvek® coverall (P = 0.0042) significantly predicted increased total BPACR (after adjusting for total BPACR at baseline, time point, and body mass index). Several work-related factors, including industry, job, and certain tasks performed, were associated with increased urinary total BPACR concentrations

  12. BPA uptake in rat tissues after partial hepatectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slatkin, D.N.; Nawrocky, M.M.; Coderre, J.A.; Fisher, C.D.; Joel, D.D.; Lombardo, D.T.; Micca, P.L.

    1996-12-31

    In boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), boron given as boronophenylalanine (BPA) accumulates transiently not only in tumors but also in normal tissues. Average boron concentrations in transplanted 9L gliosarcoma tumors of 20 rats were 2.5 to 3.7 times concentrations found in blood. Although boron levels in a variety of tissues were also higher than blood the concentrations were less than the lowest found in the tumor. Further note than although BPA is a structural analogue of phenylalanine (Phe), the pathway of BPA uptake into regenerating liver may not be linked to Phe uptake mechanisms.

  13. Environmental Effects of BPA: Focus on Aquatic Species

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Canesi, Laura; Fabbri, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Research on bisphenol A (BPA) as an environmental contaminant has now major regulatory implications toward the ecosystem health, and hence it is incumbent on scientists to do their research to the highest standards possible...

  14. The Potential Roles of Bisphenol A (BPA Pathogenesis in Autoimmunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Datis Kharrazian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA is a monomer found in commonly used consumer plastic goods. Although much attention in recent years has been placed on BPA’s impact as an endocrine disruptor, it also appears to activate many immune pathways involved in both autoimmune disease development and autoimmune reactivity provocation. The current scientific literature is void of research papers linking BPA directly to human or animal onset of autoimmunity. This paper explores the impact of BPA on immune reactivity and the potential roles these mechanisms may have on the development or provocation of autoimmune diseases. Potential mechanisms by which BPA may be a contributing risk factor to autoimmune disease development and progression include its impact on hyperprolactinemia, estrogenic immune signaling, cytochrome P450 enzyme disruption, immune signal transduction pathway alteration, cytokine polarization, aryl hydrocarbon activation of Th-17 receptors, molecular mimicry, macrophage activation, lipopolysaccharide activation, and immunoglobulin pathophysiology. In this paper a review of these known autoimmune triggering mechanisms will be correlated with BPA exposure, thereby suggesting that BPA has a role in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity.

  15. Estrogenic chemicals often leach from BPA-free plastic products that are replacements for BPA-containing polycarbonate products

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bittner, George D; Yang, Chun Z; Stoner, Matthew A

    2014-01-01

    Xenobiotic chemicals with estrogenic activity (EA), such as bisphenol A (BPA), have been reported to have potential adverse health effects in mammals, including humans, especially in fetal and infant stages...

  16. Estrogenic chemicals often leach from BPA-free plastic products that are replacements for BPA-containing polycarbonate products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, George D; Yang, Chun Z; Stoner, Matthew A

    2014-05-28

    Xenobiotic chemicals with estrogenic activity (EA), such as bisphenol A (BPA), have been reported to have potential adverse health effects in mammals, including humans, especially in fetal and infant stages. Concerns about safety have caused many manufacturers to use alternatives to polycarbonate (PC) resins to make hard and clear, reusable, plastic products that do not leach BPA. However, no study has focused on whether such BPA-free PC-replacement products, chosen for their perceived higher safety, especially for babies, also release other chemicals that have EA. We used two, well-established, mammalian cell-based, assays (MCF-7 and BG1Luc) to assess the EA of chemicals that leached into over 1000 saline or ethanol extracts of 50 unstressed or stressed (autoclaving, microwaving, and UV radiation) BPA-free PC-replacement products. An EA antagonist, ICI 182,780, was used to confirm that agonist activity in leachates was due to chemicals that activated the mammalian estrogen receptor. Many unstressed and stressed, PC-replacement-products made from acrylic, polystyrene, polyethersulfone, and Tritan™ resins leached chemicals with EA, including products made for use by babies. Exposure to various forms of UV radiation often increased the leaching of chemicals with EA. In contrast, some BPA-free PC-replacement products made from glycol-modified polyethylene terephthalate or cyclic olefin polymer or co-polymer resins did not release chemicals with detectable EA under any conditions tested. This hazard assessment survey showed that many BPA-free PC- replacement products still leached chemicals having significant levels of EA, as did BPA-containing PC counterparts they were meant to replace. That is, BPA-free did not mean EA-free. However, this study also showed that some PC-replacement products did not leach chemicals having significant levels of EA. That is, EA-free PC-replacement products could be made in commercial quantities at prices that compete with PC

  17. Estrogenic chemicals often leach from BPA-free plastic products that are replacements for BPA-containing polycarbonate products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Xenobiotic chemicals with estrogenic activity (EA), such as bisphenol A (BPA), have been reported to have potential adverse health effects in mammals, including humans, especially in fetal and infant stages. Concerns about safety have caused many manufacturers to use alternatives to polycarbonate (PC) resins to make hard and clear, reusable, plastic products that do not leach BPA. However, no study has focused on whether such BPA-free PC-replacement products, chosen for their perceived higher safety, especially for babies, also release other chemicals that have EA. Methods We used two, well-established, mammalian cell-based, assays (MCF-7 and BG1Luc) to assess the EA of chemicals that leached into over 1000 saline or ethanol extracts of 50 unstressed or stressed (autoclaving, microwaving, and UV radiation) BPA-free PC-replacement products. An EA antagonist, ICI 182,780, was used to confirm that agonist activity in leachates was due to chemicals that activated the mammalian estrogen receptor. Results Many unstressed and stressed, PC-replacement-products made from acrylic, polystyrene, polyethersulfone, and Tritan™ resins leached chemicals with EA, including products made for use by babies. Exposure to various forms of UV radiation often increased the leaching of chemicals with EA. In contrast, some BPA-free PC-replacement products made from glycol-modified polyethylene terephthalate or cyclic olefin polymer or co-polymer resins did not release chemicals with detectable EA under any conditions tested. Conclusions This hazard assessment survey showed that many BPA-free PC- replacement products still leached chemicals having significant levels of EA, as did BPA-containing PC counterparts they were meant to replace. That is, BPA-free did not mean EA-free. However, this study also showed that some PC-replacement products did not leach chemicals having significant levels of EA. That is, EA-free PC-replacement products could be made in commercial quantities at

  18. Air, hand wipe, and surface wipe sampling for Bisphenol A (BPA) among workers in industries that manufacture and use BPA in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Cynthia J; Jackson, Matthew V; Christianson, Annette L; Clark, John C; Arnold, James E; Pretty, Jack R; Deddens, James A

    2017-11-01

    For decades, bisphenol A (BPA) has been used in making polycarbonate, epoxy, and phenolic resins and certain investment casting waxes, yet published exposure data are lacking for U.S. manufacturing workers. In 2013-2014, BPA air and hand exposures were quantified for 78 workers at six U.S. companies making BPA or BPA-based products. Exposure measures included an inhalable-fraction personal air sample on each of two consecutive work days (n = 146), pre- and end-shift hand wipe samples on the second day (n = 74 each), and surface wipe samples (n = 88). Potential determinants of BPA air and end-shift hand exposures (after natural log transformation) were assessed in univariate and multiple regression mixed models. The geometric mean (GM) BPA air concentration was 4.0 µg/m 3 (maximum 920 µg/m 3 ). The end-shift GM BPA hand level (26 µg/sample) was 10-times higher than the pre-shift level (2.6 µg/sample). BPA air and hand exposures differed significantly by industry and job. BPA air concentrations and end-shift hand levels were highest in the BPA-filled wax manufacturing/reclaim industry (GM Air = 48 µg/m 3 , GM Hand-End = 130 µg/sample) and in the job of working with molten BPA-filled wax (GM Air = 43 µg/m 3 , GM Hand-End = 180 µg/sample), and lowest in the phenolic resins industry (GM Air = 0.85 µg/m 3 , GM Hand-End = 0.43 µg/sample) and in the job of flaking phenolic resins (GM AIR = 0.62 µg/m 3 , GM Hand-End = 0.38 µg/sample). Determinants of increased BPA air concentration were industry, handling BPA containers, spilling BPA, and spending ≥50% of the shift in production areas; increasing age was associated with lower air concentrations. BPA hand exposure determinants were influenced by high values for two workers; for all other workers, tasks involving contact with BPA-containing materials and spending ≥50% of the shift in production areas were associated with increased BPA hand levels. Surface wipe BPA levels were significantly lower in

  19. Load Composition Model Workflow (BPA TIP-371 Deliverable 1A)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassin, David P.; Cezar, Gustavo V.; /SLAC

    2017-07-17

    This project is funded under Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Strategic Partnership Project (SPP) 17-005 between BPA and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The project in a BPA Technology Improvement Project (TIP) that builds on and validates the Composite Load Model developed by the Western Electric Coordinating Council's (WECC) Load Modeling Task Force (LMTF). The composite load model is used by the WECC Modeling and Validation Work Group to study the stability and security of the western electricity interconnection. The work includes development of load composition data sets, collection of load disturbance data, and model development and validation. This work supports reliable and economic operation of the power system. This report was produced for Deliverable 1A of the BPA TIP-371 Project entitled \\TIP 371: Advancing the Load Composition Model". The deliverable documents the proposed work ow for the Composite Load Model, which provides the basis for the instrumentation, data acquisition, analysis and data dissemination activities addressed by later phases of the project.

  20. Removal of BPA by enzyme polymerization using NF membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escalona, Ivonne; de Grooth, Joris; Font, Josep; Nijmeijer, Dorothea C.

    2014-01-01

    The application of laccase and peroxidase from horseradish (HRP) to facilitate the removal of bisphenol A (BPA) from aqueous solutions was investigated. Effect of pH and the enzyme dose was evaluated in order to determine the optimum conditions for the enzyme performance. The results indicate that

  1. Assessment of the Geothermal Potential Within the BPA Marketing Area.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W.; Allen, Eliot D.

    1980-07-01

    The potential of geothermal energy is estimated that can be used for direct heat applications and electrical power generation within the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) marketing area. The BPA marketing area includes three principal states of Oregon, Washington, and Idaho and portions of California, Montana, Wyoming, Nevada, and Utah bordering on these three states. This area covers approximately 384,000 square miles and has an estimated population of 6,760,000. The total electrical geothermal potential within this marketing area is 4077 MW/sub e/ from hydrothermal resources and 16,000 MW/sub e/ from igneous systems, whereas the total thermal (wellhead) potential is 16.15 x 10/sup 15/ Btu/y. Approximately 200 geothermal resource sites were initially identified within the BPA marketing area. This number was then reduced to about 100 sites thought to be the most promising for development by the year 2000. These 100 sites, due to load area overlap, were grouped into 53 composite sites; 21-3/4 within BPA preference customer areas and 31-1/4 within nonpreference customer areas. The geothermal resource potential was then estimated for high-temperature (> 302/sup 0/F = 150/sup 0/C), intermediate-temperature (194 to 302/sup 0/F = 90 to 150/sup 0/C), and low-temperature (< 194/sup 0/F = 90/sup 0/C) resources.

  2. Bisphenol A (BPA) in the serum of pet dogs following short-term consumption of canned dog food and potential health consequences of exposure to BPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koestel, Zoe L; Backus, Robert C; Tsuruta, Kaoru; Spollen, William G; Johnson, Sarah A; Javurek, Angela B; Ellersieck, Mark R; Wiedmeyer, Charles E; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Xue, Jingchuan; Bivens, Nathan J; Givan, Scott A; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S

    2017-02-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widely present endocrine disruptor chemical found in many household items. Moreover, this chemical can bioaccumulate in various terrestrial and aquatic sources; thereby ensuring continual exposure of animals and humans. For most species, including humans, diet is considered the primary route of exposure. However, there has been little investigation whether commercial-brands of dog foods contain BPA and potential health ramifications of BPA-dietary exposure in dogs. We sought to determine BPA content within dog food, whether short-term consumption of these diets increases serum concentrations of BPA, and potential health consequences, as assessed by potential hematological, serum chemistry, cortisol, DNA methylation, and gut microbiome changes, in dogs associated with short-term dietary exposure to BPA. Fourteen healthy privately-owned dogs were used in this study. Blood and fecal samples were collected prior to dogs being placed for two-weeks on one of two diets (with one considered to be BPA-free), and blood and fecal samples were collected again. Serum/plasma samples were analyzed for chemistry and hematology profiles, cortisol concentrations, 5-methylcytosine in lymphocytes, and total BPA concentrations. Fecal samples were used for microbiome assessments. Both diets contained BPA, and after two-weeks of being on either diet, dogs had a significant increase in circulating BPA concentrations (pre-samples=0.7±0.15ng/mL, post-samples=2.2±0.15ng/mL, pdog food increased circulating BPA concentrations in dogs comparable to amounts detected in humans, and greater BPA concentrations were associated with serum chemistry and microbiome changes. Dogs, who share our internal and external environments with us, are likely excellent indicators of potential human health concerns to BPA and other environmental chemicals. These findings may also have relevance to aquatic and terrestrial wildlife. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Enantioselective synthesis of L-(-)-4- boronophenylalanine (L-BPA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsel, Edward G.

    1992-01-01

    A method of making substantially pure L-BPA is disclosed. The method includes the steps of reacting 4-bromobenzaldehyde with ethylene glycol to form 4-bromobenzaldehyde ethylene glycol acetal, sequentially reacting 4-bromobenzaldehyde ethyleneglycol acetal with Mg to produce the Grignard reagent and thereafter reacting with tributyl borate and then converting to an acid environment to form 4-boronobenzaldehyde, reacting 4-boronobenzaldehyde with diethanol amine to form 4-boronobenzaldehyde diethanolamine ester, condensing the 4-boronobenzaldehyde diethanolamine ester with 2-phenyl-2-oxazolin-5-one to form an azlactone, reacting the azlactone with an alkali metal hydroxide to form z-.alpha.-benzoylamino-4-boronocinnamic acid, asymmetrically hydrogenating the z-.alpha.-benzoylamino-4-boronocinnamic acid in the presence of a catalyst of a cheltate complex of rhodium (I) with chiral bisphosphines to form L-(+)-N-benzoyl-4-boronophenylalanine, and thereafter acidifying the L-(+)-N-benzoyl-4-boronophenylalanine in an organic medium to produce L-BPA.

  4. Developmental exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) alters sexual differentiation in painted turtles (Chrysemys picta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandegian, Caitlin M.; Deem, Sharon L.; Bhandari, Ramji K.; Holliday, Casey M.; Nicks, Diane; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S.; Selcer, Kyle; Tillitt, Donald E.; vom Saal, Fredrick S.; Velez, Vanessa; Yang, Ying; Holliday, Dawn K.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental chemicals can disrupt endocrine signaling and adversely impact sexual differentiation in wildlife. Bisphenol A (BPA) is an estrogenic chemical commonly found in a variety of habitats. In this study, we used painted turtles (Chrysemys picta), which have temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), as an animal model for ontogenetic endocrine disruption by BPA. We hypothesized that BPA would override TSD and disrupt sexual development. We incubated farm-raised turtle eggs at the male-producing temperature (26 °C), randomly assigned individuals to treatment groups: control, vehicle control, 17β-estradiol (E2, 20 ng/g-egg) or 0.01, 1.0, 100 μg BPA/g-egg and harvested tissues at hatch. Typical female gonads were present in 89% of the E2-treated “males”, but in none of the control males (n = 35). Gonads of BPA-exposed turtles had varying amounts of ovarian-like cortical (OLC) tissue and disorganized testicular tubules in the medulla. Although the percentage of males with OLCs increased with BPA dose (BPA-low = 30%, BPA-medium = 33%, BPA-high = 39%), this difference was not significant (p = 0.85). In all three BPA treatments, SOX9 patterns revealed disorganized medullary testicular tubules and β-catenin expression in a thickened cortex. Liver vitellogenin, a female-specific liver protein commonly used as an exposure biomarker, was not induced by any of the treatments. Notably, these results suggest that developmental exposure to BPA disrupts sexual differentiation in painted turtles. Further examination is necessary to determine the underlying mechanisms of sex reversal in reptiles and how these translate to EDC exposure in wild populations.

  5. Occupational Exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA): A Reality That Still Needs to Be Unveiled

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl) propane, is one of the most utilized industrial chemicals worldwide, with the ability to interfere with/or mimic estrogenic hormones with associated biological responses. Environmental human exposure to this endocrine disruptor, mostly through oral intake, is considered a generalized phenomenon, particularly in developed countries. However, in the context of occupational exposure, non-dietary exposure sources (e.g., air and contact) cannot be underestimated. Here, we performed a review of the literature on BPA occupational exposure and associated health effects. Relevantly, the authors only identified 19 studies from 2009 to 2017 that demonstrate that occupationally exposed individuals have significantly higher detected BPA levels than environmentally exposed populations and that the detection rate of serum BPA increases in relation to the time of exposure. However, only 12 studies performed in China have correlated potential health effects with detected BPA levels, and shown that BPA-exposed male workers are at greater risk of male sexual dysfunction across all domains of sexual function; also, endocrine disruption, alterations to epigenetic marks (DNA methylation) and epidemiological evidence have shown significant effects on the offspring of parents exposed to BPA during pregnancy. This overview raises awareness of the dramatic and consistent increase in the production and exposure of BPA and creates urgency to assess the actual exposure of workers to this xenoestrogen and to evaluate potential associated adverse health effects. PMID:29051454

  6. Molecular analysis of the apoptotic effects of BPA in acute myeloid leukemia cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del Pozzo Giovanna

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: BPA (bisphenol A or 2,2-bis(4-hydroxy-phenolpropane is present in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins, which can be used in impact-resistant safety equipment and baby bottles, as protective coatings inside metal food containers, and as composites and sealants in dentistry. Recently, attention has focused on the estrogen-like and carcinogenic adverse effects of BPA. Thus, it is necessary to investigate the cytotoxicity and apoptosis-inducing activity of this compound. Methods: Cell cycle, apoptosis and differentiation analyses; western blots. Results: BPA is able to induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in three different acute myeloid leukemias. Although some granulocytic differentiation concomitantly occurred in NB4 cells upon BPA treatment, the major action was the induction of apoptosis. BPA mediated apoptosis was caspase dependent and occurred by activation of extrinsic and intrinsic cell death pathways modulating both FAS and TRAIL and by inducing BAD phosphorylation in NB4 cells. Finally, also non genomic actions such as the early decrease of both ERK and AKT phosphorylation were induced by BPA thus indicating that a complex intersection of regulations occur for the apoptotic action of BPA. Conclusion: BPA is able to induce apoptosis in leukemia cells via caspase activation and involvement of both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of apoptosis.

  7. Bisphenol A (BPA Increases Blood Triglycerides and Low Density Lipoproteins in Albino Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oguazu CE

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA is a component of polycarbonate and other plastics including resins that line food and beverage containers. BPA is known to leach from these products into containerized foods and drinks, and is therefore thought to be routinely ingested. In this present study the possible effect of BPA on blood lipid metabolism were investigated in rats. Female albino Wistar rats were administrated oral doses of 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 and micro;g BPA/kgbw/day once to determine effect of acute exposure and repeatedly for seven days in another set of test animals to determine the effects of sub-chronic exposure. Following the treatment, serum levels of lipid parameters were examined using the Chemwell Chemical Analyser. All data were expressed as means and plusmn; SD. The result of the study revealed that BPA increased blood triglycerides and LDL of exposed rats at both acute and sub-chronic phases.

  8. Exposure to the BPA-Substitute Bisphenol S Causes Unique Alterations of Germline Function.

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    Yichang Chen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about the safety of Bisphenol A, a chemical found in plastics, receipts, food packaging and more, have led to its replacement with substitutes now found in a multitude of consumer products. However, several popular BPA-free alternatives, such as Bisphenol S, share a high degree of structural similarity with BPA, suggesting that these substitutes may disrupt similar developmental and reproductive pathways. We compared the effects of BPA and BPS on germline and reproductive functions using the genetic model system Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that, similarly to BPA, BPS caused severe reproductive defects including germline apoptosis and embryonic lethality. However, meiotic recombination, targeted gene expression, whole transcriptome and ontology analyses as well as ToxCast data mining all indicate that these effects are partly achieved via mechanisms distinct from BPAs. These findings therefore raise new concerns about the safety of BPA alternatives and the risk associated with human exposure to mixtures.

  9. Determination of Highly Sensitive Biological Cell Model Systems to Screen BPA-Related Health Hazards Using Pathway Studio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Do-Yeal; Rahman, Md Saidur; Pang, Myung-Geol

    2017-09-06

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) is a ubiquitous endocrine-disrupting chemical. Recently, many issues have arisen surrounding the disease pathogenesis of BPA. Therefore, several studies have been conducted to investigate the proteomic biomarkers of BPA that are associated with disease processes. However, studies on identifying highly sensitive biological cell model systems in determining BPA health risk are lacking. Here, we determined suitable cell model systems and potential biomarkers for predicting BPA-mediated disease using the bioinformatics tool Pathway Studio. We compiled known BPA-mediated diseases in humans, which were categorized into five major types. Subsequently, we investigated the differentially expressed proteins following BPA exposure in several cell types, and analyzed the efficacy of altered proteins to investigate their associations with BPA-mediated diseases. Our results demonstrated that colon cancer cells (SW480), mammary gland, and Sertoli cells were highly sensitive biological model systems, because of the efficacy of predicting the majority of BPA-mediated diseases. We selected glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), cytochrome b-c1 complex subunit 1 (UQCRC1), and voltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein 2 (VDAC2) as highly sensitive biomarkers to predict BPA-mediated diseases. Furthermore, we summarized proteomic studies in spermatozoa following BPA exposure, which have recently been considered as another suitable cell type for predicting BPA-mediated diseases.

  10. AGENDA KEBIJAKAN PUBLIK PADA BADAN PERPUSTAKAAN DAN ARSIP (BPA KOTA PEKANBARU

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    Hernimawati Hernimawati

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In Pekanbaru City Administration there are 43 Regional Devices Work Unit (SKPD, one of the Library and Archive Board (BPA Pekanbaru City. BPA Has a big agenda in accordance with the vision of "Realization of Information Center and Documentation and Reading Center in Pekanbaru City". Based on pre-survey conducted there are problems that lack of public participation in utilizing the existence of BPA Pekanbaru City and the limited books / references required visitors. This public policy agenda can not be implemented entirely, whereas library and archival development is implemented with the aim of raising awareness, willingness of reading interest for every individual, public, institution and school. In order to realize the highest degree of community education systematically and sustainably as a mandate of the opening of the 1945 Constitution is to educate the life of the nation.The research was conducted at the Library and Archive Board (BPA Pekanbaru City. Population and sample in this research is State Civil Apparatus that served in Library and Archives of Pekanbaru. The sampling technique used is simple random sampling (simple random. The number of civil servants 36 and daily personnel are 41 persons.From research activities conducted known that the Library and Archives (BPA Pekanbaru comes as one of the seriousness of the Government of Pekanbaru City in the intellectual life of the nation. BPA Pekanbaru has the task to provide the best service in the field of library and filing. Website managed to be one source and delivery of information BPA Pekanbaru City. Then the BPA is good enough to implement the policies that have been made. From the questionnaires given to the employees, freelance and community personnel (pengaunjung is known that as many as 17 respondents stated it was good public policy on the Library and Archives (BPA Pekanbaru. Then as many as 3 respondents stated good enough and 0 for the less good. Keywords: Agenda and Public

  11. Occupational exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) in a plastic injection molding factory in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouidhi, Wided; Thannimalay, Letchumi; Soon, Chen Sau; Ali Mohd, Mustafa

    2017-07-14

    The purpose of this study has been to assess ambient bisphenol A (BPA) levels in workplaces and urine levels of workers and to establish a BPA database for different populations in Malaysia. Urine samples were collected from plastic factory workers and from control subjects after their shift. Air samples were collected using gas analyzers from 5 sampling positions in the injection molding unit work area and from ambient air. The level of BPA in airborne and urine samples was quantified by the gas chromatography mass spectrometry - selected ion monitoring (GCMS-SIM) analysis. Bisphenol A was detected in the median range of 8-28.3 ng/m³ and 2.4-3.59 ng/m³ for the 5 sampling points in the plastic molding factory and in the ambient air respectively. The median urinary BPA concentration was significantly higher in the workers (3.81 ng/ml) than in control subjects (0.73 ng/ml). The urinary BPA concentration was significantly associated with airborne BPA levels (ρ = 0.55, p molding factory in Malaysia are occupationally exposed to BPA. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(5):743-750.

  12. Removal of bisphenol A (BPA) from water by various nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel, Suna; Kabay, Nalan; Yüksel, Mithat

    2013-12-15

    The removal of an endocrine disrupting compound, bisphenol A (BPA), from model solutions by selected nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes was studied. The commercially available membranes NF 90, NF 270, XLE BWRO, BW 30 (Dow FilmTech), CE BWRO and AD SWRO (GE Osmonics) were used to compare their performances for BPA removal. The water permeability coefficients, rejection of BPA and permeate flux values were calculated for all membranes used. No significant changes in their BPA removal were observed for all tight polyamide based NF and RO membranes tested except for loose NF 270 membrane. The polyamide based membranes exhibited much better performance than cellulose acetate membrane for BPA removal. Almost a complete rejection (≥ 98%) for BPA was obtained with three polyamide based RO membranes (BW 30, XLE BWRO and AD SWRO). But cellulose acetate based CE BWRO membrane offered a low and variable (10-40%) rejection for BPA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Toxicogenomic analysis of placenta samples from mice exposed to different doses of BPA

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    Sabrina Tait

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA, a widespread Endocrine Disrupter mainly used in food contact plastics, may induce adverse effects especially on susceptible lifestages, first of all pregnancy. The present study considered placental development as a potential target of BPA and investigated potential differences in the modes of action of two doses of BPA by a toxicogenomic approach. Pregnant CD-1 mice were administered with vehicle, 0.5 (BPA05 or 50 mg/kg (BPA50 body weight (bw/die of BPA, from gestational day (GD 1 to GD11. At GD12 dams were sacrificed and transcriptomic analysis was performed on placenta samples. Histological, histomorphometrical and immunohistochemical analyses were also performed to phenotypically anchor transcriptional changes associated with BPA exposure. The interpretation and description of the overall data are included in a manuscript under revision [1]. Here we describe the experimental design and the analysis performed on the gene expression data which are publicly available through the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO database with accession number GSE63852.

  14. Review of BPA Funded Sturgeon, Resident Fish and Wildlife Projects for 1990/1991.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1990-12-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) held a public meeting on November 19--21, 1991, for the purpose of review, coordination, and consultation of the BPA-funded projects for sturgeon, resident fish, and wildlife in the Columbia River Basin (Basin). The comments received after the meeting were favorable and the participants agreed that the meeting was stimulating and productive. The information exchanged should lead to better coordination with other projects throughout the Basin. This document list the projects by title, the project leaders and BPA's project officers, and an abstract of each leader's presentation.

  15. Bisphenol A (BPA) in food contact materials - new scientific opinion from EFSA regarding public health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćwiek-Ludwicka, Kazimiera

    2015-01-01

    The wide use of bisphenol A (BPA) as a monomer in plastics manufacture or epoxy resins intended for food contact materials (FCM) has triggered numerous concerns due to toxicological findings indicating possible endocrine disrupting properties. This article traces the evolution of the scientific opinions since 1986 when the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) for BPA and its specific migration limit (SML) from plastic FCM into food were proposed for the first time by the Scientific Committee for Food (SCF). Resent extensive scientific studies concerning refined data on toxicity and exposure to BPA from food and non-food sources (eg. dust, cosmetics, thermal paper), including the most vulnerable groups of population, allowed the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) to reduce the TDI of BPA from previously 50 µg/kg bw/day to now 4 µg/kg bw/day. EFSA's latest scientific opinion published in 2015 concludes that basing on the current estimations of total exposure to BPA from dietary and non-dietary sources for infants, children and adolescents is below the temporary TDI of 4 μg/kg bw/day. EFSA has also underlined that BPA poses no health risk at the estimated exposure levels of any population age group, including unborn children and the elderly. However, EFSA has indicated that some data on exposure and toxicological effects still require clarifications.

  16. Effects of Developmental Exposure to Bisphenol A on Spatial Navigational Learning and Memory in Rats: A CLARITY-BPA Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sarah A.; Javurek, Angela B.; Painter, Michele S.; Ellersieck, Mark R.; Welsh, Thomas H.; Camacho, Luísa; Lewis, Sherry M.; Vanlandingham, Michelle M.; Ferguson, Sherry A.; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S.

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a ubiquitous industrial chemical used in the production of a wide variety of items. Previous studies suggest BPA exposure may result in neuro-disruptive effects; however, data are inconsistent across animal and human studies. As part of the Consortium Linking Academic and Regulatory Insights on BPA Toxicity (CLARITY-BPA), we sought to determine whether female and male rats developmentally exposed to BPA demonstrated later spatial navigational learning and memory deficits. Pregnant NCTR Sprague-Dawley rats were orally dosed from gestational day 6 to parturition, and offspring were directly orally dosed until weaning (postnatal day 21). Treatment groups included a vehicle control, three BPA doses (2.5 μg/kg/day-[2.5], 25 μg/kg/day-[25], and 2500 μg/kg/day-[2500]) and a 0.5 μg/kg/day ethinyl estradiol (EE)-reference estrogen dose. At adulthood, 1/sex/litter was tested for seven days in the Barnes maze. The 2500 BPA group sniffed more incorrect holes on day 7 than those in the control, 2.5 BPA, and EE groups. The 2500 BPA females were less likely than control females to locate the escape box in the allotted time (P value= 0.04). Although 2.5 BPA females exhibited a prolonged latency, the effect did not reach significance (P value = 0.06), whereas 2.5 BPA males showed improved latency compared to control males (P value = 0.04), although the significance of this result is uncertain. No differences in serum testosterone concentration were detected in any male or female treatment groups. Current findings suggest developmental exposure of rats to BPA may disrupt aspects of spatial navigational learning and memory. PMID:26436835

  17. Developmental programming: Prenatal BPA treatment disrupts timing of LH surge and ovarian follicular wave dynamics in adult sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veiga-Lopez, A.; Beckett, E.M.; Abi Salloum, B. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Ye, W. [Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Padmanabhan, V., E-mail: vasantha@umich.edu [Department of Pediatrics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); The Reproductive Sciences Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Developmental exposure to BPA adversely affects reproductive function. In sheep, prenatal BPA treatment induces reproductive neuroendocrine defects, manifested as LH excess and dampened LH surge and perturbs early ovarian gene expression. In this study we hypothesized that prenatal BPA treatment will also disrupt ovarian follicular dynamics. Pregnant sheep were treated from days 30 to 90 of gestation with 3 different BPA doses (0.05, 0.5, or 5 mg/kg BW/day). All female offspring were estrus synchronized and transrectal ultrasonography was performed daily for 22 days to monitor ovarian follicular and corpora lutea dynamics. Blood samples were collected to assess preovulatory hormonal changes and luteal progesterone dynamics. Statistical analysis revealed that the time interval between the estradiol rise and the preovulatory LH surge was shortened in the BPA-treated females. None of the three BPA doses had an effect on corpora lutea, progestogenic cycles, and mean number or duration of ovulatory and non-ovulatory follicles. However, differences in follicular count trajectories were evident in all three follicular size classes (2–3 mm, 4–5 mm, and ≥ 6 mm) of prenatal BPA-treated animals compared to controls. Number of follicular waves tended also to be more variable in the prenatal BPA-treated groups ranging from 2 to 5 follicular waves per cycle, while this was restricted to 3 to 4 waves in control females. These changes in ovarian follicular dynamics coupled with defects in time interval between estradiol rise and preovulatory LH release are likely to lead to subfertility in prenatal BPA-treated females. - Highlights: • Prenatal BPA shortens interval between estradiol rise and preovulatory LH surge. • Prenatal BPA affects follicular count trajectory and follicular wave occurrence. • Prenatal BPA does not affect ovulatory rate and progesterone dynamics.

  18. Perinatal BPA Exposure Induces Hyperglycemia, Oxidative Stress and Decreased Adiponectin Production in Later Life of Male Rat Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunzhe Song

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The main object of the present study was to explore the effect of perinatal bisphenol A (BPA exposure on glucose metabolism in early and later life of male rat offspring, and to establish the potential mechanism of BPA-induced dysglycemia. Pregnant rats were treated with either vehicle or BPA by drinking water at concentrations of 1 and 10 µg/mL BPA from gestation day 6 through the end of lactation. We measured the levels of fasting serum glucose, insulin, adiponectin and parameters of oxidative stress on postnatal day (PND 50 and PND100 in male offspring, and adiponectin mRNA and protein expression in adipose tissue were also examined. Our results showed that perinatal exposure to 1 or 10 µg/mL BPA induced hyperglycemia with insulin resistance on PND100, but only 10 µg/mL BPA exposure had similar effects as early as PND50. In addition, increased oxidative stress and decreased adiponectin production were also observed in BPA exposed male offspring. Our findings indicated that perinatal exposure to BPA resulted in abnormal glucose metabolism in later life of male offspring, with an earlier and more exacerbated effect at higher doses. Down-regulated expression of adiponectin gene and increased oxidative stress induced by BPA may be associated with insulin resistance.

  19. Effect of BPA on the germination, root development, seedling growth and leaf differentiation under different light conditions in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wen-Juan; Xiong, Can; Wua, Qiu-Ping; Liu, Jin-Xia; Liao, Hong-Mei; Chen, Wei; Liu, Yong-Sheng; Zheng, Lei

    2013-11-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a well-known environmental toxic substance, which exerts unfavorable effects through endocrine disruptor (ER)-dependent and ER-independent mechanisms to threaten ecological systems seriously. BPA may also interact with other environmental factors, such as light and heavy metals, to have a synergetic effect in plants. However, there is little data concerning the toxic effect of BPA on the primary producers-plants and its possible interaction with light-dependent response. Here, the effects of BPA on germination, fresh weight, tap root length, and leaf differentiation were studied in Arabidopsis thaliana under different parts of light spectrum (dark, red, yellow, green, blue, and white light). Our results showed that low-dose BPA (1.0, 5.0 µM) caused an increase in the fresh weight, the tap root length and the lateral root formation of A. thaliana seedlings, while high-dose BPA (10.0, 25.0 µM) show an inhibition effect in a dose-dependent manner. Unlike karrikins, the effects of BPA on germination fresh weight and tap roots length under various light conditions are similar, which imply that BPA has no notable role in priming light response in germination and early seedling growth in A. thaliana. Meanwhile, BPA exposure influences the differentiation of A. thaliana leaf blade significantly in a light-dependent manner with little to no effect in dark and clear effect under red illumination.

  20. BPA and environmental estrogen in potable water sources in Enugu municipality, South-East, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatius, C Maduka; Francis, E Ezeonu; Emeka, E Neboh; Elvis, N Shu; Ebele, J Ikekpeazu

    2010-11-01

    BPA and environmental estrogen levels were assayed in potable water samples (38 tap water, 36 well water, 18 river water and 24 rain water samples) that were randomly collected from the different parts of Enugu metropolis, south-east Nigeria. The mean ± SD estrogen levels in tap, well, river and rain water samples were 0.10 ± 0.09, 0.05 ± 0.02, 0.05 ± 0.02 and 0.05 ± 0.02 μg/L respectively. Also, the mean BPA levels (μg/L) in the different water sources were 0.20 ± 0.07, 0.21 ± 0.07, 0.18 ± 0.04, and 0.40 ± 0.16, respectively. There was statistically significant difference (p = 0.0227) in BPA levels between the harvested rain water and the drinking tap water.

  1. BPA's Eighth Annual Energy Conservation Management Conference : Proceedings.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Energy Conservation Management Conference (8th : 1981); United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1981-01-01

    The five-year energy conservation program at Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is described at the conference. An overview of the program is presented. Topics covered in panel discussions include: how utilities can work effectively with weatherization contractors, homebuilders, energy auditors, and weatherization material suppliers; mechanisms for implementing conservation programs in the commercial sector; experiences gained in existing residential weatherization programs; and streamlining relationships between consumers, utilities, and BPA in providing services and getting feedback. The planning, programming, technical assistance, and engineering thrusts of BPA's conservation programs are discussed. Indoor air quality, renewable energy, and the regulator's role in relationships to energy conservation are discussed. Passive solar programs, DOE initiatives in solar and conservation for buildings, conservation potential in the commercial and industrial sectors, and current conservation research and development are also discussed. (MCW)

  2. Prediction and evaluation of route dependent dosimetry of BPA in rats at different life stages using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiaoxia, E-mail: Xiaoxia.Yang@fda.hhs.gov; Doerge, Daniel R.; Fisher, Jeffrey W.

    2013-07-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) has received considerable attention throughout the last decade due to its widespread use in consumer products. For the first time a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed in neonatal and adult rats to quantitatively evaluate age-dependent pharmacokinetics of BPA and its phase II metabolites. The PBPK model was calibrated in adult rats using studies on BPA metabolism and excretion in the liver and gastrointestinal tract, and pharmacokinetic data with BPA in adult rats. For immature rats the hepatic and gastrointestinal metabolism of BPA was inferred from studies on the maturation of phase II enzymes coupled with serum time course data in pups. The calibrated model predicted the measured serum concentrations of BPA and BPA conjugates after administration of 100 μg/kg of d6-BPA in adult rats (oral gavage and intravenous administration) and postnatal days 3, 10, and 21 pups (oral gavage). The observed age-dependent BPA serum concentrations were partially attributed to the immature metabolic capacity of pups. A comparison of the dosimetry of BPA across immature rats and monkeys suggests that dose adjustments would be necessary to extrapolate toxicity studies from neonatal rats to infant humans. - Highlights: • A PBPK model predicts the kinetics of bisphenol A (BPA) in young and adult rats. • BPA metabolism within enterocytes is required for fitting of oral BPA kinetic data. • BPA dosimetry in young rats is different than adult rats and young monkeys.

  3. {sup 11}B-NMR spectroscopic study on the interaction of epinephrine and p-BPA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichihara, K.; Yoshino, K. [Shinshu Univ., Department of Chemistry, Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan)

    2000-10-01

    It is studied that p-BPA (p-bronophenylalanine) which formed complex with catechol functional group has interaction with epinephrine by {sup 11}B-NMR. Two {sup 11}B-NMR resonance signals were observed at pH 7.0. The signal at 29.6 ppm is assigned to p-BPA and at 10.8 ppm is assigned to that of complex. We can determine complex formation constants (logK') in various pH. (author)

  4. Biodistribution of BPA and BSH after single, repeated and simultaneous administrations for neutron-capture therapy of cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichikawa, H. [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Cooperative Research Center of Life Sciences, Kobe Gakuin University, 1-1-3 Minatojima, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-8586 (Japan)], E-mail: ichikawa@pharm.kobegakuin.ac.jp; Taniguchi, E. [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Cooperative Research Center of Life Sciences, Kobe Gakuin University, 1-1-3 Minatojima, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-8586 (Japan); Fujimoto, T. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hyogo Cancer Center, Akashi 673-0021 (Japan); Fukumori, Y. [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Cooperative Research Center of Life Sciences, Kobe Gakuin University, 1-1-3 Minatojima, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-8586 (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    The effect of administration mode of L-BPA and BSH on the biodistribution in the melanoma-bearing hamsters was investigated. In single intravenous (i.v.) administration, BSH (100 mg BSH/kg) showed no significant retention of {sup 10}B in all the tissues, including tumors, while long-term retention of {sup 10}B in the tumor, muscle and brain was observed with L-BPA (500 mg BPA/kg). The dose escalation of L-BPA and the simultaneous single administration of L-BPA and BSH were not so effective at increasing boron accumulation in tumor after bolus i.v. injection. The boron concentration in tumor was 41 {mu}g B/g after single bolus i.v. injection even at the dose of 1000 mg BPA/kg. In contrast, two sequential bolus i.v. injections of L-BPA with the dose of 500 mg BPA/kg each was found to be effective at increasing {sup 10}B accumulation in the tumor; the maximum {sup 10}B concentration in the tumor reached 52 {mu}g B/g at 3 h after the second i.v. injection.

  5. Exposure to BPA in Children—Media-Based and Biomonitoring-Based Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista L.Y. Christensen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA is used in numerous industrial and consumer product applications resulting in ubiquitous exposure. Children’s exposure is of particular concern because of evidence of developmental effects. Childhood exposure is estimated for different age groups in two ways. The “forward” approach uses information on BPA concentrations in food and other environmental media (air, water, etc. combined with average contact rates for each medium. The “backward” approach relies on urinary biomonitoring, extrapolating backward to the intake which would have led to the observed biomarker level. The forward analysis shows that BPA intakes are dominated by canned food consumption, and that intakes are higher for younger ages. Mean intake estimates ranged from ~125 ng/kg-day for 1 year-olds to ~73 ng/kg-day among 16–20 years olds. Biomonitoring-based intakes show the same trend of lower intakes for older children, with an estimate of 121 (median to 153 (mean ng/kg-day for 2–6 years, compared with 33 (median to 53–66 (mean ng/kg-day for 16–20 years. Infant intakes were estimated to range from ~46 to 137 ng/kg-day. Recognizing uncertainties and limitations, this analysis suggests that the “forward” and “backward” methods provide comparable results and identify canned foods as a potentially important source of BPA exposure for children.

  6. Exposure assessment of adult intake of bisphenol A (BPA) with emphasis on canned food dietary exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorber, Matthew; Schecter, Arnold; Paepke, Olaf; Shropshire, William; Christensen, Krista; Birnbaum, Linda

    2015-04-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high-volume, synthetic compound found in epoxy resins and plastics used in food packaging. Food is believed to be a major source of BPA intake. In this study, we measured the concentration of BPA in convenience samplings of foodstuffs purchased in Dallas, Texas. Sampling entailed collection of 204 samples of fresh, frozen, and canned foods in two rounds in 2010. BPA was positive in 73% of the canned food samples, while it was found in only 7% of non-canned foods at low concentrations. The results of this food sampling program were used to calculate adult dietary intakes of BPA. A pathway approach combined food intakes, a "canned fraction" parameter which described what portion of total intake of that food came from canned products, and measured food concentrations. Dietary intakes were calculated as 12.6 ng/kg-day, of which 12.4 ng/kg-day was from canned foods. Canned vegetable intakes alone were 11.9 ng/kg-day. This dietary intake was compared to total intakes of BPA estimated from urine measurements of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Total adult central tendency intakes ranged from 30 to 70 ng/kg-day for NHANES cycles between 2005 and 2010. Three possibilities were explored to explain the difference between these two approaches for intake estimation. Not all foods which may have been canned, particularly canned beverages such as soft drinks, were sampled in our food sampling program. Second, non-food pathways of exposure may be important for adults, including thermal paper exposures, and dust and air exposures. Finally, our canned food concentrations may not be adequately representative of canned foods in the United States; they were found to be generally lower compared to canned food concentrations measured in six other worldwide food surveys including three in North America. Our finding that canned food concentrations greatly exceeded non-canned concentrations was consistent with other studies, and

  7. Low-dose BPA exposure alters the mesenchymal and epithelial transcriptomes of the mouse fetal mammary gland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perinaaz R Wadia

    Full Text Available Exposure of rodent fetuses to low doses of the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA causes subtle morphological changes in the prenatal mammary gland and results in pre-cancerous and cancerous lesions during adulthood. To examine whether the BPA-induced morphological alterations of the fetal mouse mammary glands are a associated with changes in mRNA expression reflecting estrogenic actions and/or b dependent on the estrogen receptor α (ERα, we compared the transcriptomal effects of BPA and the steroidal estrogen ethinylestradiol (EE2 on fetal mammary tissues of wild type and ERα knock-out mice. Mammary glands from fetuses of dams exposed to vehicle, 250 ng BPA/kg BW/d or 10 ng EE2/kg BW/d from embryonic day (E 8 were harvested at E19. Transcriptomal analyses on the ductal epithelium and periductal stroma revealed altered expression of genes involved in the focal adhesion and adipogenesis pathways in the BPA-exposed stroma while genes regulating the apoptosis pathway changed their expression in the BPA-exposed epithelium. These changes in gene expression correlated with previously reported histological changes in matrix organization, adipogenesis, and lumen formation resulting in enhanced maturation of the fat-pad and delayed lumen formation in the epithelium of BPA-exposed fetal mammary glands. Overall similarities in the transcriptomal effects of BPA and EE2 were more pronounced in the epithelium, than in the stroma. In addition, the effects of BPA and EE2 on the expression of various genes involved in mammary stromal-epithelial interactions were suppressed in the absence of ERα. These observations support a model whereby BPA and EE2 act directly on the stroma, which expresses ERα, ERβ and GPR30 in fetal mammary glands, and that the stroma, in turn, affects gene expression in the epithelium, where ERα and ERβ are below the level of detection at this stage of development.

  8. Preliminary estimation of infantile exposure to BPA based on the standard quality of baby bottles distributed in Isfahan urban society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Abdi Moghadam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study was aimed to estimate the bisphenol A (BPA intake from baby bottles, considering the diversity and the standard quality of the baby bottles distributed in an Isfahan urban society. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed in Isfahan in 2011. Baby shops ( n = 33 and drug stores ( n = 7 in four district areas were included in the study. The distribution of baby bottles was investigated regarding their brand, origin, and being labeled "BPA free." Estimation of exposure to BPA from baby bottles was made based on the national and international representative data. Results: The products marked as "BPA free" were found among the western products and limited to two of the selected areas. No "BPA free" marked baby bottle was distinguished among the Iranian made products. Of the 8% exclusively formula-fed infants, 90% may be the high consumers of BPA from polycarbonate baby bottles, with an intake of 1.5-2 μg/kg b.w./day for the moderate and 7.5-10 μg/kg b.w./day in case of worse condition. Conclusion: Considering the current globally accepted threshold daily intake (TDI for BPA, primary exposure estimation is that feeding using non-BPA-free baby bottles is not a serious health concern in Iran. Thought that threshold level of TDI is discussed to be reduced in future, improvement and revision of the national standards can be effective in reducing the exposure to BPA in Iranian infants so as to provide large margin of safety for them.

  9. The status of Tsukuba BNCT trial: BPA-based boron neutron capture therapy combined with X-ray irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, T., E-mail: tetsu_tsukuba@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai 1-1-1, Tsukuba (Japan)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai 1-1-1, Tsukuba (Japan); Nakai, K. [Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai 1-1-1, Tsukuba (Japan); Nariai, T. [Department of Neurosurgery, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Yushima 1-5-45, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Kumada, H.; Okumura, T.; Mizumoto, M.; Tsuboi, K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai 1-1-1, Tsukuba (Japan); Zaboronok, A.; Ishikawa, E.; Aiyama, H.; Endo, K.; Takada, T.; Yoshida, F.; Shibata, Y.; Matsumura, A. [Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai 1-1-1, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    The phase II trial has been prepared to assess the effectiveness of BPA (250 mg/kg)-based NCT combined with X-ray irradiation and temozolomide (75 mg/m{sup 2}) for the treatment of newly diagnosed GBM. BPA uptake is determined by {sup 18}F-BPA-PET and/or {sup 11}C-MET-PET, and a tumor with the lesion to normal ratio of 2 or more is indicated for BNCT. The maximum normal brain point dose prescribed was limited to 13.0 Gy or less. Primary end point is overall survival.

  10. Urinary BPA measurements in children and mothers from six European member states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Covaci, Adrian; Hond, Elly Den; Geens, Tinne

    2015-01-01

    -mother pairs were recruited through schools or population registers from six European member states (Belgium, Denmark, Luxembourg, Slovenia, Spain and Sweden). Children (5-12y) and mothers donated a urine sample. Information on socio-demographic characteristics, life style, dietary habits, and educational...... level of the parents was provided by mothers. After exclusion of urine samples with creatinine values below 300mg/L or above 3000mg/L, 653 children and 639 mothers remained for which BPA was measured. The geometric mean (with 95% confidence intervals) and 90th percentile were calculated for BPA...... separately in children and in mothers and were named "European reference values". After adjustment for confounders (age and creatinine), average exposure values in each country were compared with the mean of the "European reference values" by means of a weighted analysis of variance. Overall geometric means...

  11. Might iodomethyl-{alpha}-tyrosine be a surrogate for BPA in BNCT?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, Michiko; Micca, P.L.; Nawrocky, M.M.; Slatkin, D.N.

    1996-12-31

    A single-photon emission computed tomography [SPECT] imaging agent that is an analogue of a boron carrier for boron neutron-capture therapy [BNCT] of cerebral gliomas would be useful for assessing the kinetics of boron uptake in tumors and in the surrounding brain tissues noninvasively. BNCT is based on the interaction of thermalized neutrons with {sup 10}B nuclei in the targeted tumor. For BNCT of brain tumors, it is crucial that {sup 10}B concentrations in radiosensitive regions of the brain be minimal since malignant cells and vital brain tissues are often inter-mingled at the margins of the tumor. Currently, boronophenylalanine [BPA]-mediated BNCT is undergoing preliminary clinical study for postoperative radiotherapy of glioblastorna multiforme at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Investigators in Japan are developing {sup 18}F-fluoroboronophenylaianine [FBPA] as a positron {sup 18}F (T{sub 1/2} = 110 min), which is usually emission tomography [PET] surrogate for BPA. generated at a cyclotron dedicated to PET, is generally a minimally perturbing substitute for the 2-H on the aromatic ring because of its small size and the strong covalent bond it forms with carbon. However, SPECT has potential advantages over PET: (1) SPECT is clinically more widely available at lower cost; (2) most radioisotopes for the synthesis of SPECT agents can be purchased; (3) SPECT is less difficult to implement. It is thought that the quality of images derived from the two techniques would each be sufficiently informative for BNCT treatment planning purposes, provided that the SPECT and PET agents being considered were both pharmacokinetic surrogates for BPA. This study evaluated the use of {sup 123}I alpha methyltyrosine as a surrogate for BPA in BNCT.

  12. Partitioning Behavior of Bisphenol Alternatives BPS and BPAF Compared to BPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Youn Jeong; Lee, Linda S

    2017-04-04

    With the pressure to ban or limit the use of bisphenol A (BPA), production of alternatives such as bisphenol AF (BPAF) and bisphenol S (BPS) are increasing, but little is known on their partitioning behavior for use in assessing distribution in the ecosystem. Octanol-water (DowpH) and soil-water partitioning were measured at several pH values for BPA, BPAF, and BPS. Sorption isotherms were constructed from measured aqueous and soil phase concentrations and were fit sufficiently well with a linear sorption model. pH-dependent distribution was observed in both octanol-water and soil-water systems particularly for BPS and BPAF, which have lower estimated pKa values than those for BPA. Accounting for soil organic carbon (OC) content and pH was sufficient to describe sorption reasonable well across the four soils (%OC 0.1-2.5, pH 3.8-8.6); no other soil properties correlated well with bisphenol sorption. However, for a given soil especially for the two high clay low OC soils, BPS sorbed much more than expected relative to observed trends in DowpH and magnitude appeared correlated to % kaolinite; therefore, Ca2+-bridging of BPS to clay edge sites was assessed by comparing sorption from 0.01 N KCl and 0.01 N CaCl2; however, no significant differences were observed.

  13. Estrogenic effects of several BPA analogs in the developing zebrafish brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel eCano-Nicolau

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Important set of studies have demonstrated the endocrine disrupting activity of Bisphenol A (BPA. The present work aimed at defining estrogenic-like activity of several BPA structural analogs, including BPS, BPF, BPAF, and BPAP, on 4-day or 7-day post-fertilization (dpf zebrafish larva as an in vivo model. We measured the induction level of the estrogen-sensitive marker cyp19a1b gene (Aromatase B, expressed in the brain, using three different in situ/in vivo strategies: 1 Quantification of cyp19a1b transcripts using RT-qPCR in wild type 7-dpf larva brains exposed to bisphenols ; 2 Detection and distribution of cyp19a1b transcripts using in situ hybridization on 7-dpf brain sections (hypothalamus; and 3 Quantification of the cyp19a1b promoter activity in live cyp19a1b-GFP transgenic zebrafish (EASZY assay at 4-dpf larval stage. These three different experimental approaches demonstrated that BPS, BPF or BPAF exposure, similarly to BPA, significantly activates the expression of the estrogenic marker in the brain of developing zebrafish. In vitro experiments using both reporter gene assay in a glial cell context and competitive ligand binding assays strongly suggested that up-regulation of cyp19a1b is largely mediated by the zebrafish estrogen nuclear receptor alpha (zfERα. Importantly, and in contrast to other tested bisphenol A analogs, the bisphenol AP (BPAP did not show estrogenic activity in our model.

  14. [Substance monograph on bisphenol A (BPA) - reference and human biomonitoring (HBM) values for BPA in urine. Opinion of the Human Biomonitoring Commission of the German Federal Environment Agency (UBA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is used for the production of polycarbonates and synthetic resins. Many of the items that contain BPA, for example polycarbonate bottles and coated cans, are commodities from which BPA can migrate into food and drinks, resulting in ubiquitous exposure of the population. Numerous animal studies and in vitro tests have shown that BPA acts as an "endocrine disruptor". Because of the still incomplete understanding of the complex and contradictory effects of BPA at doses below the NOAEL, the toxicological significance of recent findings is uncertain. The German HBM Commission takes notice that the risk assessment is currently in flux and that in the EU and other countries precautionary bans on BPA have been introduced. In the light of the extensive and growing body of literature, the Commission does not see itself in a position to resolve this controversy, nor to answer the question of the relevance of observed effects of low BPA doses on human health. The Commission has derived reference values (RV95) and TDI-based HBM I values for total BPA in urine. The RV95 values are 30 μg/l for 3-5 year olds, 15 μg/l for 6-14 year olds, and 7 μg/l for 20-29 year olds. The HBM I value for children is 1.5 mg/l and 2.5 mg/l for adults, respectively. The Commission emphasizes that the HBM values will require immediate adjustment should the current TDI of 0.05 mg/kg bw/day be changed. For the practical application of HBM, the Commission recommends an assessment based on the RV95. Confirmed exceedance of the RV95 by repeat measurements should prompt a search for the possible source(s), following the ALARA principle.

  15. Effects of BPA and BPS exposure limited to early embryogenesis persist to impair non-associative learning in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mersha, Mahlet D; Patel, Bansri M; Patel, Dipen; Richardson, Brittany N; Dhillon, Harbinder S

    2015-09-17

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) is a polymerizing agent used in plastic bottles and several routinely used consumer items. It is classified among endocrine disrupting chemicals suspected to cause adverse health effects in mammals ranging from infertility and cancer to behavioral disorders. Work with the invertebrate lab model Caenorhabditis elegans has shown that BPA affects germ cells by disrupting double-stranded DNA break repair mechanisms. The current study utilizes this model organism to provide insight into low-dose and long-term behavioral effects of BPA and bisphenol-S (BPS), a supposed safer replacement for BPA. Experiments presented in our report demonstrate that the effects of embryonic exposure to considerably low levels of BPA persist into adulthood, affecting neural functionality as assayed by measuring habituation to mechano-sensory stimuli in C. elegans. These results are noteworthy in that they are based on low-dose exposures, following the rationale that subtler effects that may not be morphologically apparent are likely to be discernible through behavioral changes. In addition, we report that embryonic exposure to BPS follows a pattern similar to BPA. Building upon previous observations using the C. elegans model, we have shown that exposure of embryos to BPA and BPS affects their behavior as adults. These long-term effects are in line with recommended alternate low-dose chemical safety testing approaches. Our observation that the effects of BPS are similar to BPA is not unexpected, considering their structural similarity. This, to our knowledge, is the first reported behavioral study on low-dose toxicity of any endocrine disrupting chemical in C. elegans.

  16. The Autotransporter BpaB Contributes to the Virulence of Burkholderia mallei in an Aerosol Model of Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Shawn M; Michel, Frank; Hogan, Robert J; Lafontaine, Eric R

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia mallei is a highly pathogenic bacterium that causes the zoonosis glanders. Previous studies indicated that the genome of the organism contains eight genes specifying autotransporter proteins, which are important virulence factors of Gram-negative bacteria. In the present study, we report the characterization of one of these autotransporters, BpaB. Database searches identified the bpaB gene in ten B. mallei isolates and the predicted proteins were 99-100% identical. Comparative sequence analyses indicate that the gene product is a trimeric autotransporter of 1,090 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 105-kDa. Consistent with this finding, we discovered that recombinant bacteria expressing bpaB produce a protein of ≥ 300-kDa on their surface that is reactive with a BpaB-specific monoclonal antibody. Analysis of sera from mice infected with B. mallei indicated that animals produce antibodies against BpaB during the course of disease, thus establishing production of the autotransporter in vivo. To gain insight on its role in virulence, we inactivated the bpaB gene of B. mallei strain ATCC 23344 and determined the median lethal dose of the mutant in a mouse model of aerosol infection. These experiments revealed that the bpaB mutation attenuates virulence 8-14 fold. Using a crystal violet-based assay, we also discovered that constitutive production of BpaB on the surface of B. mallei promotes biofilm formation. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a biofilm factor for this organism.

  17. The Autotransporter BpaB Contributes to the Virulence of Burkholderia mallei in an Aerosol Model of Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn M Zimmerman

    Full Text Available Burkholderia mallei is a highly pathogenic bacterium that causes the zoonosis glanders. Previous studies indicated that the genome of the organism contains eight genes specifying autotransporter proteins, which are important virulence factors of Gram-negative bacteria. In the present study, we report the characterization of one of these autotransporters, BpaB. Database searches identified the bpaB gene in ten B. mallei isolates and the predicted proteins were 99-100% identical. Comparative sequence analyses indicate that the gene product is a trimeric autotransporter of 1,090 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 105-kDa. Consistent with this finding, we discovered that recombinant bacteria expressing bpaB produce a protein of ≥ 300-kDa on their surface that is reactive with a BpaB-specific monoclonal antibody. Analysis of sera from mice infected with B. mallei indicated that animals produce antibodies against BpaB during the course of disease, thus establishing production of the autotransporter in vivo. To gain insight on its role in virulence, we inactivated the bpaB gene of B. mallei strain ATCC 23344 and determined the median lethal dose of the mutant in a mouse model of aerosol infection. These experiments revealed that the bpaB mutation attenuates virulence 8-14 fold. Using a crystal violet-based assay, we also discovered that constitutive production of BpaB on the surface of B. mallei promotes biofilm formation. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a biofilm factor for this organism.

  18. Prediction and evaluation of route dependent dosimetry of BPA in rats at different life stages using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoxia; Doerge, Daniel R; Fisher, Jeffrey W

    2013-07-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) has received considerable attention throughout the last decade due to its widespread use in consumer products. For the first time a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed in neonatal and adult rats to quantitatively evaluate age-dependent pharmacokinetics of BPA and its phase II metabolites. The PBPK model was calibrated in adult rats using studies on BPA metabolism and excretion in the liver and gastrointestinal tract, and pharmacokinetic data with BPA in adult rats. For immature rats the hepatic and gastrointestinal metabolism of BPA was inferred from studies on the maturation of phase II enzymes coupled with serum time course data in pups. The calibrated model predicted the measured serum concentrations of BPA and BPA conjugates after administration of 100μg/kg of d6-BPA in adult rats (oral gavage and intravenous administration) and postnatal days 3, 10, and 21 pups (oral gavage). The observed age-dependent BPA serum concentrations were partially attributed to the immature metabolic capacity of pups. A comparison of the dosimetry of BPA across immature rats and monkeys suggests that dose adjustments would be necessary to extrapolate toxicity studies from neonatal rats to infant humans. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Holding Thermal Receipt Paper and Eating Food after Using Hand Sanitizer Results in High Serum Bioactive and Urine Total Levels of Bisphenol A (BPA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormann, Annette M.; vom Saal, Frederick S.; Nagel, Susan C.; Stahlhut, Richard W.; Moyer, Carol L.; Ellersieck, Mark R.; Welshons, Wade V.; Toutain, Pierre-Louis; Taylor, Julia A.

    2014-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting environmental contaminant used in a wide variety of products, and BPA metabolites are found in almost everyone’s urine, suggesting widespread exposure from multiple sources. Regulatory agencies estimate that virtually all BPA exposure is from food and beverage packaging. However, free BPA is applied to the outer layer of thermal receipt paper present in very high (∼20 mg BPA/g paper) quantities as a print developer. Not taken into account when considering thermal paper as a source of BPA exposure is that some commonly used hand sanitizers, as well as other skin care products, contain mixtures of dermal penetration enhancing chemicals that can increase by up to 100 fold the dermal absorption of lipophilic compounds such as BPA. We found that when men and women held thermal receipt paper immediately after using a hand sanitizer with penetration enhancing chemicals, significant free BPA was transferred to their hands and then to French fries that were eaten, and the combination of dermal and oral BPA absorption led to a rapid and dramatic average maximum increase (Cmax) in unconjugated (bioactive) BPA of ∼7 ng/mL in serum and ∼20 µg total BPA/g creatinine in urine within 90 min. The default method used by regulatory agencies to test for hazards posed by chemicals is intra-gastric gavage. For BPA this approach results in less than 1% of the administered dose being bioavailable in blood. It also ignores dermal absorption as well as sublingual absorption in the mouth that both bypass first-pass liver metabolism. The elevated levels of BPA that we observed due to holding thermal paper after using a product containing dermal penetration enhancing chemicals have been related to an increased risk for a wide range of developmental abnormalities as well as diseases in adults. PMID:25337790

  20. Holding thermal receipt paper and eating food after using hand sanitizer results in high serum bioactive and urine total levels of bisphenol A (BPA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette M Hormann

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA is an endocrine disrupting environmental contaminant used in a wide variety of products, and BPA metabolites are found in almost everyone's urine, suggesting widespread exposure from multiple sources. Regulatory agencies estimate that virtually all BPA exposure is from food and beverage packaging. However, free BPA is applied to the outer layer of thermal receipt paper present in very high (∼20 mg BPA/g paper quantities as a print developer. Not taken into account when considering thermal paper as a source of BPA exposure is that some commonly used hand sanitizers, as well as other skin care products, contain mixtures of dermal penetration enhancing chemicals that can increase by up to 100 fold the dermal absorption of lipophilic compounds such as BPA. We found that when men and women held thermal receipt paper immediately after using a hand sanitizer with penetration enhancing chemicals, significant free BPA was transferred to their hands and then to French fries that were eaten, and the combination of dermal and oral BPA absorption led to a rapid and dramatic average maximum increase (Cmax in unconjugated (bioactive BPA of ∼7 ng/mL in serum and ∼20 µg total BPA/g creatinine in urine within 90 min. The default method used by regulatory agencies to test for hazards posed by chemicals is intra-gastric gavage. For BPA this approach results in less than 1% of the administered dose being bioavailable in blood. It also ignores dermal absorption as well as sublingual absorption in the mouth that both bypass first-pass liver metabolism. The elevated levels of BPA that we observed due to holding thermal paper after using a product containing dermal penetration enhancing chemicals have been related to an increased risk for a wide range of developmental abnormalities as well as diseases in adults.

  1. Holding thermal receipt paper and eating food after using hand sanitizer results in high serum bioactive and urine total levels of bisphenol A (BPA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormann, Annette M; Vom Saal, Frederick S; Nagel, Susan C; Stahlhut, Richard W; Moyer, Carol L; Ellersieck, Mark R; Welshons, Wade V; Toutain, Pierre-Louis; Taylor, Julia A

    2014-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting environmental contaminant used in a wide variety of products, and BPA metabolites are found in almost everyone's urine, suggesting widespread exposure from multiple sources. Regulatory agencies estimate that virtually all BPA exposure is from food and beverage packaging. However, free BPA is applied to the outer layer of thermal receipt paper present in very high (∼20 mg BPA/g paper) quantities as a print developer. Not taken into account when considering thermal paper as a source of BPA exposure is that some commonly used hand sanitizers, as well as other skin care products, contain mixtures of dermal penetration enhancing chemicals that can increase by up to 100 fold the dermal absorption of lipophilic compounds such as BPA. We found that when men and women held thermal receipt paper immediately after using a hand sanitizer with penetration enhancing chemicals, significant free BPA was transferred to their hands and then to French fries that were eaten, and the combination of dermal and oral BPA absorption led to a rapid and dramatic average maximum increase (Cmax) in unconjugated (bioactive) BPA of ∼7 ng/mL in serum and ∼20 µg total BPA/g creatinine in urine within 90 min. The default method used by regulatory agencies to test for hazards posed by chemicals is intra-gastric gavage. For BPA this approach results in less than 1% of the administered dose being bioavailable in blood. It also ignores dermal absorption as well as sublingual absorption in the mouth that both bypass first-pass liver metabolism. The elevated levels of BPA that we observed due to holding thermal paper after using a product containing dermal penetration enhancing chemicals have been related to an increased risk for a wide range of developmental abnormalities as well as diseases in adults.

  2. A new approach to synergize academic and guideline-compliant research: the CLARITY-BPA research program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schug, Thaddeus T; Heindel, Jerrold J; Camacho, Luísa; Delclos, K Barry; Howard, Paul; Johnson, Anne F; Aungst, Jason; Keefe, Dennis; Newbold, Retha; Walker, Nigel J; Thomas Zoeller, R; Bucher, John R

    2013-09-01

    Recently, medical research has seen a strong push toward translational research, or "bench to bedside" collaborations, that strive to enhance the utility of laboratory science for improving medical treatment. The success of that paradigm supports the potential application of the process to other fields, such as risk assessment. Close collaboration among academic, government, and industry scientists may enhance the translation of scientific findings to regulatory decision making. The National Toxicology Program (NTP), National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), and U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) developed a consortium-based research program to link more effectively academic and guideline-compliant research. An initial proof-of-concept collaboration, the Consortium Linking Academic and Regulatory Insights on BPA Toxicity (CLARITY-BPA), uses bisphenol A (BPA) as a test chemical. The CLARITY-BPA program combines a core perinatal guideline-compliant 2-year chronic toxicity study with mechanistic studies/endpoints conducted by academic investigators. Twelve extramural grantees were selected by NIEHS through an RFA-based initiative to participate in the overall study design and conduct disease-relevant investigations using tissues and animals from the core study. While the study is expected to contribute to our understanding of potential effects of BPA, it also has ramifications beyond this specific focus. Through CLARITY-BPA, NIEHS has established an unprecedented level of collaboration among extramural grantees and regulatory researchers. By drawing upon the strengths of academic and regulatory expertise and research approaches, CLARITY-BPA represents a potential new model for filling knowledge gaps, enhancing quality control, informing chemical risk assessment, and identifying new methods or endpoints for regulatory hazard assessments. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Impact of bisphenol A (BPA) on early embryo development in the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis: Effects on gene transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbi, Teresa; Franzellitti, Silvia; Fabbri, Rita; Montagna, Michele; Fabbri, Elena; Canesi, Laura

    2016-11-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), a monomer used in plastic manufacturing, is weakly estrogenic and a potential endocrine disruptor in mammals. Although it degrades quickly, it is pseudo-persistent in the environment because of continual inputs, with reported concentrations in aquatic environments between 0.0005 and 12 μg/L. BPA represents a potential concern for aquatic ecosystems, as shown by its reproductive and developmental effects in aquatic vertebrates. In invertebrates, endocrine-related effects of BPA were observed in different species and experimental conditions, with often conflicting results, indicating that the sensitivity to this compound can vary considerably among related taxa. In the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis BPA was recently shown to affect early development at environmental concentrations. In this work, the possible effects of BPA on mussel embryos were investigated at the molecular level by evaluating transcription of 13 genes, selected on the basis of their biological functions in adult mussels. Gene expression was first evaluated in trocophorae and D-veligers (24 and 48 h post fertilization) grown in physiological conditions, in comparison with unfertilized eggs. Basal expressions showed a general up-regulation during development, with distinct transcript levels in trocophorae and D-veligers. Exposure of fertilized eggs to BPA (10 μg/L) induced a general upregulation at 24 h pf, followed by down regulation at 48 h pf. Mytilus Estrogen Receptors, serotonin receptor and genes involved in biomineralization (Carbonic Anydrase and Extrapallial Protein) were the most affected by BPA exposure. At 48 h pf, changes in gene expression were associated with irregularities in shell formation, as shown by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), indicating that the formation of the first shelled embryo, a key step in mussel development, represents a sensitive target for BPA. Similar results were obtained with the natural estrogen 17β-estradiol. The

  4. Proposed Revenues, Financial Strategy, and Program Costs for FY 1992 and 1993 : Technical Appendix, BPA Programs in Perspective.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1990-07-01

    Programs in Perspective is the Bonneville Power Administration's public involvement process (PIP) for engaging customers and other stakeholders in a regional dialog to set strategic direction and broad program plans for BPA effort. This planning leads into a biennial rate setting cycle and offers a more accessible and flexible opportunity for dialog on broad issues than is possible under the strict administrative procedures of ratemaking. The self-financed character of BPA has made this public process a necessary and valuable one to assure that those who pay BPA's rates have a clear understanding and a strong voice in the plans for use of the resulting revenues. During 1989, the previous PIP engaged the region in discussion of major strategic, issues focussing on major areas. In 1990, BPA seeks discussion of the directions and plans specifically for fiscal years 1992 and 1993. The steps taken for those years will lay the foundation for the years beyond. Thus, we have subtitled this year's process, Staying fit for the long run.'' We have consulted extensively with customers and others in the region in developing these plans. In dozens of program--specific meetings, BPA staff have talked and listened to what others think our plans ought to be. PIP now gives us a chance to review their sum total, along with projections for revenues and our overall financial position. 8 tabs., 8 figs.

  5. The molecular mechanism of bisphenol A (BPA as an endocrine disruptor by interacting with nuclear receptors: insights from molecular dynamics (MD simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanlan Li

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA can interact with nuclear receptors and affect the normal function of nuclear receptors in very low doses, which causes BPA to be one of the most controversial endocrine disruptors. However, the detailed molecular mechanism about how BPA interferes the normal function of nuclear receptors is still undiscovered. Herein, molecular dynamics simulations were performed to explore the detailed interaction mechanism between BPA with three typical nuclear receptors, including hERα, hERRγ and hPPARγ. The simulation results and calculated binding free energies indicate that BPA can bind to these three nuclear receptors. The binding affinities of BPA were slightly lower than that of E2 to these three receptors. The simulation results proved that the binding process was mainly driven by direct hydrogen bond and hydrophobic interactions. In addition, structural analysis suggested that BPA could interact with these nuclear receptors by mimicking the action of natural hormone and keeping the nuclear receptors in active conformations. The present work provided the structural evidence to recognize BPA as an endocrine disruptor and would be important guidance for seeking safer substitutions of BPA.

  6. Cu-PDC-bpa solid coordination frameworks (PDC=2,5-pyrindinedicarboxylate; bpa=1,2-DI(4-pyridil)ethane)): 2D and 3D structural flexibility producing a 3-c herringbone array next to ideal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llano-Tomé, Francisco, E-mail: francisco.llano@ehu.eus [Departamento de Mineralogía y Petrología, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU), Apdo 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Bazán, Begoña, E-mail: bego.bazan@ehu.eus [Departamento de Mineralogía y Petrología, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU), Apdo 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); BCMaterials Parque Tecnológico de Zamudio, Ibaizabal Bidea, Edificio 500–Planta 1, 48160 Derio (Spain); Urtiaga, Miren-Karmele, E-mail: karmele.urtiaga@ehu.eus [Departamento de Mineralogía y Petrología, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU), Apdo 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Barandika, Gotzone, E-mail: gotzone.barandika@ehu.eus [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU), Apdo 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Antonia Señarís-Rodríguez, M., E-mail: tonasr@udc.es [QUIMOLMAT, Centro de Investigaciones Científicas Avanzadas (CICA) and Departamento de Química Fundamental, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de A Coruña, 15071A Coruña (Spain); and others

    2015-10-15

    Combination of polycarboxylate anions and dipyridyl ligands is an effective strategy to produce solid coordination frameworks (SCF) which are crystalline materials based on connections between metal ions through organic ligands. In this context, this work is focused on two novel Cu{sup II}-based SCFs exhibiting PDC (2,5-pyridinedicarboxylate) and bpa (1,2-di(4-pyridyl)ethane), being the first structures reported in literature containing both ligands. Chemical formula are [Cu{sub 2}[(PDC){sub 2}(bpa)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]·3H{sub 2}O·DMF (1), and [Cu{sub 2}(PDC){sub 2}(bpa)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]·7H{sub 2}O (2), where DMF is dimethylformamide. Compounds 1 and 2 have been characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, differential thermal analysis (DTA) and dielectric measurements. The crystallographic analysis revealed that compounds 1 and 2 can be described as herringbone-type layers formed by helicoidal Cu-PDC-Cu chains connected through bpa ligands. Solvent molecules are crystallized between the layers, providing the inter-layer connections through hydrogen bonds. Differences between both compounds are attributable to the flexibility of bpa (in 2D) as well as to the 3D packing of the layers which is solvent dependent. This fact results in the fact that compound 2 is the most regular 3-c herringbone array reported so far. The structural dynamism of these networks is responsible for the crystalline to-amorphous to-crystalline (CAC) transformation from compound 1 to compound 2. Crystallochemical features for both compounds have also been studied and compared to similar 3-connected herringbone-arrays. - Graphical abstract: Cu-PDC-bpa 3-c herringbone arrays. - Highlights: • The most ideal herringbone array reported so far is a Cu-PDC-bpa SCF. • Conformational freedom of bpa results in 2D and 3D flexibility of the SCFs. • The flexibility of the SCFs is related to a phase transformation. • Dielectric

  7. Interaction between p-BPA and precursor of melanin prepared from Greene's hamster melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takase, M.; Yoshino, K.; Kamijo, M.; Niki, Y. [Shinshu Univ., Dept. of Chemistry, Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan); Kondoh, H.; Mishima, Y. [Mishima Inst. for Dermatological Research, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Hiratsuka, J. [Kawasaki Medical College, Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan)

    2000-10-01

    We report on the first observation of p-Boronophenylalanine (p-BPA) complex signal of {sup 11}B-NMR which appeared at 8 ppm from BF{sub 3}OEt{sub 2} in the mixed solution of BPA and SGF (small granule fraction) among subcellular fractions of Greene's hamster melanoma. SGF contains coated vesicles (CV). CV organelles in melanoma cells contain a large amount of melanin monomers. The complex signal appeared at 2 hours after the mixing and gradually increased. At 6 hours after mixing it began to decrease and became broad at 8 hours after the mixing. On the other hand, there was no such a peak in BPA-LGF system. LGF (large granule fraction) does not contain CV. (author)

  8. In vitro and in vivo estrogenic activity of BPA, BPF and BPS in zebrafish-specific assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Fol, Vincent; Aït-Aïssa, Selim; Sonavane, Manoj; Porcher, Jean-Marc; Balaguer, Patrick; Cravedi, Jean-Pierre; Zalko, Daniel; Brion, François

    2017-08-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widely used chemical that has been extensively studied as an endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC). Other bisphenols sharing close structural features with BPA, are increasingly being used as alternatives, increasing the need to assess associated hazards to the endocrine system. In the present study, the estrogenic activity of BPA, bisphenol S (BPS) and bisphenol F (BPF) was assessed by using a combination of zebrafish-specific mechanism-based in vitro and in vivo assays. The three bisphenols were found to efficiently transactivate all zebrafish estrogen receptor (zfER) subtypes in zebrafish hepatic reporter cell lines (ZELH-zfERs). BPA was selective for zfERα while BPS and BPF were slightly more potent on zfERβ subtypes. We further documented the estrogenic effect in vivo by quantifying the expression of brain aromatase using a transgenic cyp19a1b-GFP zebrafish embryo assay. All three bisphenols induced GFP in a concentration-dependent manner. BPS only partially induced brain aromatase at the highest tested concentrations (>30µM) while BPA and BPF strongly induced GFP, in an ER-dependent manner, at 1-10µM. Furthermore, we show that BPF strongly induced vitellogenin synthesis in adult male zebrafish. Overall, this study demonstrates the estrogenic activity of BPA, BPF and BPS in different cell- and tissue-contexts and at different stages of development. Differences between in vitro and in vivo responses are discussed in light of selective ER activation and the fate of the compounds in the models. This study confirms the relevance of combining cellular and whole-organism bioassays in a unique model species for the hazard assessment of candidate EDCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Migration of bisphenol A (BPA) from epoxy can coatings to jalapeño peppers and an acid food simulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munguia-Lopez, Elvia M; Peralta, Elizabeth; Gonzalez-Leon, Alberto; Vargas-Requena, Claudia; Soto-Valdez, Herlinda

    2002-12-04

    Effects of heat processing, storage time, and temperature on migration of bisphenol A (BPA) from an epoxy type can coating to an acid food simulant and jalapeño peppers were determined. Commercial jalapeño pepper cans (8 oz, dimensions 211 x 300) were stored at 25 degrees C for 40, 70, and 160 days. A solution of 3% acetic acid was canned in 211 x 300 cans from the same batch used for jalapeño peppers. Heat processing was applied to two-thirds of the cans, and the remaining cans were not heat processed. Cans were stored at 25 and 35 degrees C for 0, 40, 70, and 160 days. Results showed that there is a minimal effect of heat treatment. An effect of storage time on migration of BPA during the first 40 days at 25 degrees C was observed. An increase on migration of BPA was observed with storage time at 35 degrees C. The highest level of migration was 15.33 microg/kg of BPA at 160 days at 35 degrees C. A correction factor of approximately 0.4 was calculated for migration under simulating conditions of storage compared to the real ones. The highest level of BPA found in jalapeño peppers cans, surveyed from three supermarkets, was 5.59 +/- 2.43 microg/kg. Migration of BPA, performed according to the European and Mercosur conditions, was 65.45 +/- 5.29 microg/kg. All the migration values found in this study were below those legislation limits (3 mg/kg).

  10. Prenatal exposure to BPA alters the epigenome of the rat mammary gland and increases the propensity to neoplastic development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Dhimolea

    Full Text Available Exposure to environmental estrogens (xenoestrogens may play a causal role in the increased breast cancer incidence which has been observed in Europe and the US over the last 50 years. The xenoestrogen bisphenol A (BPA leaches from plastic food/beverage containers and dental materials. Fetal exposure to BPA induces preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions in the adult rat mammary gland. Previous results suggest that BPA acts through the estrogen receptors which are detected exclusively in the mesenchyme during the exposure period by directly altering gene expression, leading to alterations of the reciprocal interactions between mesenchyme and epithelium. This initiates a long sequence of altered morphogenetic events leading to neoplastic transformation. Additionally, BPA induces epigenetic changes in some tissues. To explore this mechanism in the mammary gland, Wistar-Furth rats were exposed subcutaneously via osmotic pumps to vehicle or 250 µg BPA/kg BW/day, a dose that induced ductal carcinomas in situ. Females exposed from gestational day 9 to postnatal day (PND 1 were sacrificed at PND4, PND21 and at first estrus after PND50. Genomic DNA (gDNA was isolated from the mammary tissue and immuno-precipitated using anti-5-methylcytosine antibodies. Detection and quantification of gDNA methylation status using the Nimblegen ChIP array revealed 7412 differentially methylated gDNA segments (out of 58207 segments, with the majority of changes occurring at PND21. Transcriptomal analysis revealed that the majority of gene expression differences between BPA- and vehicle-treated animals were observed later (PND50. BPA exposure resulted in higher levels of pro-activation histone H3K4 trimethylation at the transcriptional initiation site of the alpha-lactalbumin gene at PND4, concomitantly enhancing mRNA expression of this gene. These results show that fetal BPA exposure triggers changes in the postnatal and adult mammary gland epigenome and alters gene

  11. Boron biodistribution for BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model: Combined administration of BSH and BPA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.W. Nigg; William Bauer; Various Others

    2014-06-01

    Sodium mercaptoundecahydro-closo-dodecaborate (BSH) is being investigated clinically for BNCT. We examined the biodistribution of BSH and BPA administered jointly in different proportions in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. The 3 assayed protocols were non-toxic, and showed preferential tumor boron uptake versus precancerous and normal tissue and therapeutic tumor boron concentration values (70–85 ppm). All 3 protocols warrant assessment in BNCT studies to contribute to the knowledge of (BSH+BPA)-BNCT radiobiology for head and neck cancer and optimize therapeutic efficacy.

  12. 2007-2008 Annual Progress Report for BPA Grant Exp Restore Walla Walla River Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, Bob [WWBWC (Walla Walla Basin Watershed Council)

    2009-07-10

    WWBWC and its partners have been working on a wide variety of conservation and aquifer recharge related activities including: monitoring groundwater and surface water conditions, creating a geospatial database for the Walla Walla River valley (project focal area), expanding aquifer recharge testing at the HBDIC site and conducting an extensive outreach/education program by which to share the information, ideas and potential solutions to our current water management issues in this basin. This report is an outline of those activities and is accompanied by individual program-component (attached as appendices) reports for the areas that BPA is assisting to fund these on-the-ground projects along with the innovative research and monitoring being done to further aquifer recharge as a water management tool for the Pacific Northwest.

  13. BPA/Puget Power Northwest Washington Transmission Project Final Environmental Impact Statement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-08-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and Puget Sound Power & Light Company (Puget Power) propose to upgrade the existing high-voltage transmission system in the Whatcom and Skagit counties area between the towns of Custer and Sedro Woolley, including some areas within the City of Bellingham, starting in 1995. A Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for the project was issued in November 1993, followed by a 45-day public comment period. Public response to the DEIS included the identification of several new transmission route alternatives in the Lake Whatcom area. BPA issued a Supplemental DEIS in April 1995 to provide a second public review-and-comment period. Rebuilding an existing 230-kV line to a double-circuit 230-kV transmission line was identified in the Supplemental DEIS as the Proposed Action. The Supplemental DEIS also examined in detail a North Shore Road alternative which was proposed by some members of the public. Public comments on the EIS were listed and responded to in the Supplemental DEIS. In May 1995, a second set of open houses and public meetings was held to review the Supplemental DEIS. Electromagnetic field (EMF) effects raised as an issue in the DEIS continued to be an issue of public concern in the meetings. The EIS has identified impacts that would generally be classified as low to moderate and localized. Effects on soils and water resources in sensitive areas (e.g., near Lake Whatcom) would be low to moderate; there would be little change in magnetic fields; noise levels would remain at existing levels; and land use and property value impacts would be minimal. Threatened and endangered species would not be adversely affected, and all proposed actions in wetlands would be covered by a Corps of Engineers Nationwide Permit. Visual and socioeconomic would be low to moderate. There would be no effect on cultural resources.

  14. EVALUATION OF ORAL AND INTRAVENOUS ROUTE PHARMACOKINETICS, PLASMA PROTEIN BINDING AND UTERINE TISSUE DOSE METRICS OF BPA: A PHYSIOLOGICALLY BASED PHARMACOKINETIC APPROACH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a weakly estrogenic monomer used in the production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins, both of which are used in food contact applications. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model of BPA pharmacokinetics in rats and humans was developed t...

  15. A highly sensitive and specific capacitive aptasensor for rapid and label-free trace analysis of Bisphenol A (BPA) in canned foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzajani, Hadi; Cheng, Cheng; Wu, Jayne; Chen, Jiangang; Eda, Shigotoshi; Najafi Aghdam, Esmaeil; Badri Ghavifekr, Habib

    2017-03-15

    A rapid, highly sensitive, specific and low-cost capacitive affinity biosensor is presented here for label-free and single step detection of Bisphenol A (BPA). The sensor design allows rapid prototyping at low-cost using printed circuit board material by benchtop equipment. High sensitivity detection is achieved through the use of a BPA-specific aptamer as probe molecule and large electrodes to enhance AC-electroelectrothermal effect for long-range transport of BPA molecules toward electrode surface. Capacitive sensing technique is used to determine the bounded BPA level by measuring the sample/electrode interfacial capacitance of the sensor. The developed biosensor can detect BPA level in 20s and exhibits a large linear range from 1 fM to 10 pM, with a limit of detection (LOD) of 152.93 aM. This biosensor was applied to test BPA in canned food samples and could successfully recover the levels of spiked BPA. This sensor technology is demonstrated to be highly promising and reliable for rapid, sensitive and on-site monitoring of BPA in food samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The photophysics of fac-[Re(CO)3(NN)(bpa)](+) complexes: a theoretical/experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, S F; Sampaio, R N; Barbosa Neto, N M; Machado, A E H; Patrocinio, A O T

    2014-08-01

    The influence of the polypyridyl ligand on the photophysics of fac-[Re(CO)3(NN)(bpa)](+), bpa = 1,2-bis-(4-pyridyl)ethane and NN = 1,10-phenanthroline (phen), pyrazino[2,3-f][1,10]-phenanthroline (dpq), and dipyrido[3,2-a:2'3'-c]phenazine (dppz) has been investigated by steady state and time-resolved emission spectroscopy combined with theoretical calculations using time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT). The fac-[Re(CO)3(phen)(bpa)](+) is a typical MLCT emitter in acetonitrile with ϕ = 0.11 and τ = 970 ns. The emission lifetime and quantum yield decrease significantly in fac-[Re(CO)3(dpq)(bpa)](+) (ϕ = 0.05; τ = 375 ns) due to the presence of a close lying dark charge transfer state located at the pyrazine ring of dpq, as indicated by TD-DFT data. The luminescence of these complexes is quenched by hydroquinone with kq = (2.9 ± 0.1) × 10(9) and (2.6 ± 0.1) × 10(9) L mol(-1) s(-1), respectively, for NN = phen or dpq. These values are increased respectively to (4.6 ± 0.1) × 10(9) and (4.2 ± 0.1) × 10(9) L mol(-1) s(-1) in the 1 : 1 H2O-CH3CN mixture. In this medium Stern-Volmer constants determined by steady-state and time-resolved measurements differ from each other, which is indicative of static quenching, i.e. the pre-association of hydroquinone and the complexes through hydrogen bonding between the remote N-atom in the bpa ligand (KA ≅ 1-2 × 10(1) L mol(-1)), followed by a concerted proton-electron transfer. In contrast to other investigated complexes, fac-[Re(CO)3(dppz)(bpa)](+) is weakly emissive in acetonitrile at room temperature (ϕ ≅ 10(-4)) and does not exhibit a rigidochromic effect. This photophysical behaviour as well as TD-DFT data indicate that the lowest lying triplet excited state can be described as (3)ILdppz. The results provide additional insight into the influence of the polypyridyl ligand on the photophysical properties of Re(I) complexes.

  17. Enhanced heterogeneous photo-Fenton process modified by magnetite and EDDS: BPA degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenyu; Luo, Mengqi; Wei, Chaoshuai; Wang, Yinghui; Hanna, Khalil; Mailhot, Gilles

    2017-04-01

    In this research, magnetite and ethylenediamine-N,N'-disuccinic acid (EDDS) are used in a heterogeneous photo-Fenton system in order to find a new way to remove organic contaminants from water. Influence of different parameters including magnetite dosage, EDDS concentration, H2O2 concentration, and pH value were evaluated. The effect of different radical species including HO· and HO2·/O2·- was investigated by addition of different scavengers into the system. The addition of EDDS improved the heterogeneous photo-Fenton degradation of bisphenol A (BPA) through the formation of photochemically efficient Fe-EDDS complex. This effect is dependent on the H2O2 and EDDS concentrations and pH value. The high performance observed at pH 6.2 could be explained by the ability of O2·- to generate Fe(II) from Fe(III) species reduction. GC-MS analysis suggested that the cleavage of the two benzene rings is the first degradation step followed by oxidation leading to the formation of the benzene derivatives. Then, the benzene ring was opened due to the attack of HO· radicals producing short-chain organic compounds of low molecular weight like glycerol and ethylene glycol. These findings regarding the capability of EDDS/magnetite system to promote heterogeneous photo-Fenton oxidation have important practical implications for water treatment technologies.

  18. Analytical determination of bisphenol A (BPA) and bisphenol analogues in paper products by GC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurek, A; Leitner, E

    2017-07-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA; 4-[2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propan-2-yl]phenol), a suspected endocrine disruptor with a weak estrogenic activity, is used in a variety of consumer products, including food-contact materials made of paper and cardboard products. Due to restrictions on the use of BPA because of its potential health risks, BPA is gradually being replaced by other bisphenols because no limitations exist for these substances. This study presents a method for the simultaneous analysis of BPA, bisphenol AF (BPAF), bisphenol B (BPB), bisphenol E (BPE), bisphenol F (BPF) and bisphenol S (BPS) in paper and board products using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). Paper samples were extracted by liquid extraction, as well as by Folch extraction, derivatised with N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) and the results compared. The developed method showed good linearity (R2 > 0.9965) and precision, yielding relative standard deviations (RSDs) of less than 16.6% for reproducibility and 19.8% for repeatability. The limits of detection and limits of quantification for the different bisphenols ranged from 0.23 to 2.70 µg kg-1 paper and from 0.78 to 9.10 µg kg-1 paper, respectively. Analysis of different paper products (recycled, virgin fibre) showed that all the analysed bisphenols were present in the samples, except for BPAF and BPB. A calculation of the 'worst-case' scenario assuming a maximum potential migration of 100% of the analytes into food showed that the analysed products can be assumed to be safe regarding the migration of bisphenols.

  19. Assessment of PCDD/F, PCB, OCP and BPA dietary exposure of non-breast-fed European infants

    OpenAIRE

    Pandelova, Marchela; Piccinelli, Raffaela; Levy Lopez, Walkiria; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Molina-Molina, Jose Manuel; Arrebola, Juan Pedro; Olea, Nicolas; Leclercq, Catherine; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to obtain data on the exposure of non-breast-fed infants to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), organochlorine pesticides (OCP), and Bisphenol A (BPA) and its chlorinated derivatives through consumption of commercial infant foods with largest shares of the market in 22 EU countries. The E-Screen bioassay was employed to assess the estrogenicity of the baby foods and the ethoxyresorufin-O-de...

  20. Effect of heat processing and storage time on migration of bisphenol A (BPA) and bisphenol A-diglycidyl ether (BADGE) to aqueous food simulant from Mexican can coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munguia-Lopez, E M; Soto-Valdez, H

    2001-08-01

    Effects of heat processing and storage time (up to 70 days) on migration of bisphenol A (BPA) and bisphenol A-diglycidyl ether (BADGE) from can coatings into an aqueous food simulant were determined. Distilled water was canned in two types of Mexican cans: for tuna and for jalapeño peppers. Results showed that there is an effect of heat treatment on migration of both compounds. Storage time did not show any effect in BPA migration from tuna cans. There was an effect of storage time on BPA migration from jalapeño pepper cans. Results for BADGE migration were affected by its susceptibility to hydrolyze in aqueous simulants. BADGE concentration decreased, or was not detected, during storage in both types of cans. Migration levels for BPA and BADGE were within 0.6-83.4 and Mercosur legislation limits. Other migrating compounds were detected, although no identification was performed.

  1. Soy but not bisphenol A (BPA) or the phytoestrogen genistin alters developmental weight gain and food intake in pregnant rats and their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jinyan; Echelberger, Roger; Liu, Min; Sluzas, Emily; McCaffrey, Katherine; Buckley, Brian; Patisaul, Heather B

    2015-12-01

    Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are hypothesized to promote obesity and early puberty but their interactive effects with hormonally active diets are poorly understood. Here we assessed individual and combinatorial effects of soy diet or the isoflavone genistein (GEN; administered as the aglycone genistin GIN) with bisphenol A (BPA) on body weight, ingestive behavior and female puberal onset in Wistar rats. Soy-fed dams gained less weight during pregnancy and, although they consumed more than dams on a soy-free diet during lactation, did not become heavier. Their offspring (both sexes), however, became significantly heavier (more pronounced in males) pre-weaning. Soy also enhanced food intake and accelerated female pubertal onset in the offspring. Notably, pubertal onset was also advanced in females placed on soy diet at weaning. Males exposed to BPA plus soy diet, but not BPA alone, had lighter testes. BPA had no independent effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The effects of bisphenol A (BPA) exposure on fat mass and serum leptin concentrations have no impact on bone mineral densities in non-obese premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hong-yan; Bi, Yu-fang; Ma, Lin-ying; Zhao, Lin; Wang, Tian-ge; Zhang, Lian-zhen; Tao, Bei; Sun, Li-hao; Zhao, Yong-ju; Wang, Wei-qing; Li, Xiao-yin; Xu, Man-yin; Chen, Jia-lun; Ning, Guang; Liu, Jian-min

    2012-12-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) exposure may promote obesity, but its effect on bone mineral density (BMD) has not been reported in humans. We aimed to examine the relationships between BPA exposure, body composition, serum estradiol, leptin, osteocalcin levels and BMDs in healthy premenopausal women. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 246 healthy premenopausal women aged 20 years and older with regular menstrual cycles were investigated. Body mass index (BMI), fat mass, fat-free mass and BMDs were measured by DXA. Serum estradiol, leptin, osteocalcin, urinary BPA and NTx levels were also tested. Urinary BPA levels were positively associated with fat mass (r=0.193, p=0.006) and leptin (r=0.236, p=0.001) but not with fat-free mass after adjusting for age and BMI. BPA was not associated with serum estradiol levels, BMDs, or bone resorption marker NTx and bone formation parameter osteocalcin, either. A multivariate stepwise regression analysis confirmed that serum leptin levels were positively influenced by fat mass (β=0.746, pfat-free mass (β=-0.196, pfat-free mass, and were irrelevant of the fat mass, leptin or BPA exposure. Although BPA exposure is related with increased amount of fat mass and elevated serum leptin levels, it has neutral effect on BMDs in premenopausal women, possibly due to the exclusive role of fat-free mass, which is unrelated to BPA in determining BMDs. Copyright © 2012 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of perinatal bisphenol A exposure on the volume of sexually-dimorphic nuclei of juvenile rats: A CLARITY-BPA consortium study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arambula, Sheryl E; Fuchs, Joelle; Cao, Jinyan; Patisaul, Heather B

    2017-12-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high volume endocrine disrupting chemical found in a wide variety of products including plastics and epoxy resins. Human exposure is nearly ubiquitous, and higher in children than adults. Because BPA has been reported to interfere with sex steroid hormone signaling, there is concern that developmental exposure, even at levels below the current FDA No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) of 5mg/kg body weight (bw)/day, can disrupt brain sexual differentiation. The current studies were conducted as part of the CLARITY-BPA (Consortium Linking Academic and Regulatory Insights on BPA Toxicity) program and tested the hypothesis that perinatal BPA exposure would induce morphological changes in hormone sensitive, sexually dimorphic brain regions. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to 5 groups: BPA (2.5, 25, or 2500μg/kgbw/day), a reference estrogen (0.5μg ethinylestradiol (EE2)/kgbw/day), or vehicle. Exposure occurred by gavage to the dam from gestational day 6 until parturition, and then to the offspring from birth through weaning. Unbiased stereology was used to quantify the volume of the sexually dimorphic nucleus (SDN), the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV), the posterodorsal portion of the medial amygdala (MePD), and the locus coeruleus (LC) at postnatal day 28. No appreciable effects of BPA were observed on the volume of the SDN or LC. However, AVPV volume was enlarged in both sexes, even at levels below the FDA NOAEL. Collectively, these data suggest the developing brain is vulnerable to endocrine disruption by BPA at exposure levels below previous estimates by regulatory agencies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of Bisphenol-A (BPA) on insulin signal transduction and GLUT4 translocation in gastrocnemius muscle of adult male albino rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullainadhan, Vigneswari; Viswanathan, Mangala Priya; Karundevi, Balasubramanian

    2017-09-01

    Environmental estrogens bind to estrogen receptors, mimic estrogenic actions, and have adverse effects on human health like Bisphenol - A (BPA) which is used as a monomer in the production of polycarbonate plastics (PC) and epoxy resins which are used in variety of canned foods. Skeletal muscle plays an essential role in maintaining systemic glucose metabolism. In the present study, we investigated the possible effects of BPA on insulin signalling molecules and GLUT4 translocation in the gastrocnemius muscle of adult male rat. Rats were divided into four groups - Group I: Control (vehicle-corn oil treated), Group II, III and IV were administered with BPA (10, 100 and 400mg/kg b.wt/day, respectively) through oral gavage. Fasting blood glucose level of BPA treated groups showed a significant increase, oral glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance were also impaired in these animals. BPA significantly decreased the protein levels of insulin signalling molecules like IR, IRS-1, Akt, AS160 and its phosphorylated forms and blunts GLUT4 translocation by altering the levels of v- and t- SNARE proteins that assist the translocation process, thereby decreasing glucose uptake and oxidation in the gastrocnemius muscle. These results suggest that BPA has detrimental effects on insulin signalling molecules and GLUT4 translocation in the gastrocnemius muscle and thus impairs glucose homeostasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Oral Bisphenol A (BPA) given to rats at moderate doses is associated with erectile dysfunction, cavernosal lipofibrosis and alterations of global gene transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovanecz, I; Gelfand, R; Masouminia, M; Gharib, S; Segura, D; Vernet, D; Rajfer, J; Li, D K; Kannan, K; Gonzalez-Cadavid, N F

    2014-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), a suspected reproductive biohazard and endocrine disruptor, released from plastics is associated with ED in occupationally exposed workers. However, in rats, despite the induction of hypogonadism, apoptosis of the penile corporal smooth muscle (SM), fat infiltration into the cavernosal tissue and changes in global gene expression with the intraperitoneal administration of high dose BPA, ED was not observed. We investigated whether BPA administered orally rather than intraperitoneally to rats for longer periods and lower doses will lead to ED. Main outcome measures are ED, histological, and biochemical markers in rat penile tissues. In all, 2.5-month-old rats were given drinking water daily without and with BPA at 1 and 0.1 mg kg(-1) per day. Two months later, erectile function was determined by cavernosometry and electrical field stimulation (EFS) and serum levels of testosterone (T), estradiol (E2) and BPA were measured. Penile tissue sections were assayed by Masson (SM/collagen), Oil Red O (fat), terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) (apoptosis), immunohistochemistry for Oct4 (stem cells), and α-SM actin/calponin (SM and myofibroblasts), applying quantitative image analysis. Other markers were assayed by western blotting. DNA microarrays/microRNA (miR) assays defined transcription profiles. Orally administered BPA did not affect body weight, but (1) decreased serum T and E2; (2) reduced the EFS response and increased the drop rate; (3) increased within the corporal tissue the presence of fat, myofibroblasts and apoptosis; (4) lowered the contents of SM and stem cells, but not nerve terminals; and (5) caused alterations in the transcriptional profiles for both mRNA and miRs within the penile shaft. Long-term exposure of rats to oral BPA caused a moderate corporal veno-occlusive dysfunction (CVOD), possibly due to alterations within the corporal tissue that pose gene transcriptional changes related to inflammation

  6. Early effect of boron neutron capture therapy mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA-BNCT) on mast cells in premalignant tissue and tumors of the hamster cheek pouch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aromando, Romina F; Trivillin, Verónica A; Heber, Elisa M; Pozzi, Emiliano; Schwint, Amanda E; Itoiz, María E

    2010-05-01

    Mast cell (MC) activation in the hamster cheek pouch cancerization model is associated with the increase in tumor cell proliferation, mediated in turn by tryptase, a protease released from mast cell granules after activation. Tryptase induces tumor cell proliferation through the activation of PAR-2 (protease activated receptor-2) on the plasma membrane of carcinoma cells. The therapeutic success of boron neutron capture therapy mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA-BNCT) in tumor control in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model has been previously reported by our laboratory. Early effects of BPA-BNCT on tumors of the hamster cheek pouch include a reduction in DNA-synthesis with the concomitant decrease in the proliferation of malignant cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate the early histological changes in mast cells after BPA-BNCT in tumors and premalignant tissue of the hamster cheek pouch. Tumor-bearing pouches were treated with BPA-BNCT or beam only (neutron irradiation without prior administration of the boron compound) and sacrificed 1day after treatment. The samples were fixed in Carnoy fixative and stained with alcian blue-safranin to identify all the populations of mast cells. Total, active and inactive mast cells (MC) were counted in the connective tissue and the adventitious tissue underlying the pouch wall and at the base of the tumors in pouches treated with BPA-BNCT, in keeping with a previously described technique. BPA-BNCT induced a marked reduction in the total number of mast cells in the pouch (pBNCT and beam only elicited a qualitative change in the secretion modality of the granule content. Although further studies are needed to evaluate the subcellular effect of BNCT on mast cell granule secretion, the reduction in cell proliferation induced by BPA-BNCT would be partially due to the decrease in total mast cells in the hamster check pouch. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Developmental bisphenol A (BPA) exposure leads to sex-specific modification of hepatic gene expression and epigenome at birth that may exacerbate high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strakovsky, Rita S.; Wang, Huan; Engeseth, Nicki J. [Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign (United States); Flaws, Jodi A. [Department of Comparative Biosciences, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign (United States); Helferich, William G. [Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign (United States); Pan, Yuan-Xiang, E-mail: yxpan@illinois.edu [Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign (United States); Lezmi, Stéphane, E-mail: slezmi@illinois.edu [Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Developmental bisphenol A (BPA) exposure increases adulthood hepatic steatosis with reduced mitochondrial function. To investigate the potential epigenetic mechanisms behind developmental BPA-induced hepatic steatosis, pregnant Sprague–Dawley rats were dosed with vehicle (oil) or BPA (100 μg/kg/day) from gestational day 6 until postnatal day (PND) 21. After weaning, offspring were either challenged with a high-fat (HF; 45% fat) or remained on a control (C) diet until PND110. From PND60 to 90, both BPA and HF diet increased the fat/lean ratio in males only, and the combination of BPA and HF diet appeared to cause the highest ratio. On PND110, Oil-HF, BPA-C, and BPA-HF males had higher hepatic lipid accumulation than Oil-C, with microvesicular steatosis being marked in the BPA-HF group. Furthermore, on PND1, BPA increased and modified hepatic triglyceride (TG) and free fatty acid (FFA) compositions in males only. In PND1 males, BPA increased hepatic expression of FFA uptake gene Fat/Cd36, and decreased the expression of TG synthesis- and β-oxidation-related genes (Dgat, Agpat6, Cebpα, Cebpβ, Pck1, Acox1, Cpt1a, Cybb). BPA altered DNA methylation and histone marks (H3Ac, H4Ac, H3Me2K4, H3Me3K36), and decreased the binding of several transcription factors (Pol II, C/EBPβ, SREBP1) within the male Cpt1a gene, the key β-oxidation enzyme. In PND1 females, BPA only increased the expression of genes involved in FFA uptake and TG synthesis (Lpl, Fasn, and Dgat). These data suggest that developmental BPA exposure alters and reprograms hepatic β-oxidation capacity in males, potentially through the epigenetic regulation of genes, and further alters the response to a HF diet. - Highlights: • Developmental BPA exposure exacerbates HF-diet induced steatosis in adult males. • Gestational BPA exposure increases hepatic lipid accumulation in neonatal males. • BPA decreases Cpt1a and other hepatic β-oxidation genes in neonatal males. • BPA alters neonatal male Cpt1a

  8. Surface aspects of discolouration in Bisphenol A Polycarbonate (BPA-PC), used as lens in LED-based products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdan Mehr, M.; van Driel, W. D.; Udono, H.; Zhang, G. Q.

    2014-11-01

    The surface-related reactions during discolouration of Bisphenol A Polycarbonate (BPA-PC), used as LED lens plates, under thermal stress are studied. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been used to monitor the changes in the surface chemistry of BPA-PC plates over a temperature range of 100-140 °C for a period up to 3000 h. Increasing time under thermal stress is associated with the discolouration, and increase in the yellowing index (YI) of PC plastic lens. The XPS results show that discolouration is associated with oxidation at the surface, finding a significant increase in the signal ratio O1s/C1s in the XPS spectra of degraded specimens. During thermal ageing, the Csbnd H concentration decreases and new oxide features Cdbnd O and Osbnd Cdbnd O form, with the latter being a support for oxidation at the surface being a major reaction during discolouration. Results also show that irradiation with blue light during thermal ageing accelerates the kinetics of discolouration and the increased O1s/C1s ratio in XPS spectra.

  9. Design of Studies for Development of BPA Fish and Wildlife Mitigation Accounting Policy Phase II, Volume I, 1985-1988 Summary Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kneese, Allen V.

    1988-08-01

    As the mitigation prescribed by the Regional Act proceeds, the incremental costs of corrective measures to lessen the environmental impacts of the hydroelectric system are expected to increase and difficult questions to arise about the costs, effectiveness, and justification of alternative measures and their systemwide implications. It was deemed prudent by the BPA to anticipate this situation by launching a forward-looking research program aimed at providing methodological tools and data suitable for estimating the productivity and cost implications of mitigation alternatives in a timely manner with state-of-the-art accuracy. In this spirit, Resources for the Future (RFF) agreed at the request of the BPA to develop a research program which would provide an analytical system designed to assist the BPA Administrator and other interested and responsible parties in evaluating the ecological and economic aspects of alternative protection, enhancement, and mitigation measures. 12 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Evaluation of BPA uptake in clear cell sarcoma (CCS) in vitro and development of an in vivo model of CCS for BNCT studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, T., E-mail: fujitaku@hp.pref.hyogo.jp [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hyogo Cancer Center, Akashi 673-0021 (Japan); Andoh, T. [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Cooperative Research Center of Life Sciences, Kobe Gakuin University, Kobe 650-8586 (Japan); Sudo, T. [Section of Translational Research, Hyogo Cancer Center, Akashi 673-0021 (Japan); Fujita, I.; Imabori, M. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hyogo Cancer Center, Akashi 673-0021 (Japan); Moritake, H. [Division of Pediatrics, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki 889-1692 (Japan); Sugimoto, T. [Department of Pediatrics, Saiseikai Shigaken Hospital, Ritto 520-3046 (Japan); Sakuma, Y. [Department of Pathology, Hyogo Cancer Center, Akashi 673-0021 (Japan); Takeuchi, T. [Department of Pathology, Kochi Medical School, Nangoku 783-8505 (Japan); Sonobe, H. [Department of Pathology, Chugoku Central Hospital, Fukuyama 720-0001 (Japan); Epstein, Alan L. [Department of Pathology, Keck School of Medicine,University of Southern California, Los Angeles,CA 90033 (United States); Akisue, T. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Kirihata, M. [Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai 599-8531 (Japan); Kurosaka, M. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Fukumori, Y.; Ichikawa, H. [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Cooperative Research Center of Life Sciences, Kobe Gakuin University, Kobe 650-8586 (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    Clear cell sarcoma (CCS), a rare malignant tumor with a predilection for young adults, is of poor prognosis. Recently however, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) with the use of p-borono-L-phenylalanine (BPA) for malignant melanoma has provided good results. CCS also produces melanin; therefore, the uptake of BPA is the key to the application of BNCT to CCS. We describe, for the first time, the high accumulation of boron in CCS and the CCS tumor-bearing animal model generated for BNCT studies.

  11. BPA-Solicited Technical Review of "Echo Meadows Project Winter Artificial Recharge: Final Report for 2001 Baseline", Technical Report 2004.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, David

    2004-02-01

    The purpose of this report was to provide, at BPA's request, a technical review of interim products received for Project 2001-015-00 under contract 6925. BPA sometimes solicits technical reviews for Fish and Wildlife products or issues where outside expertise is required. External review of complex project deliverables assures BPA as a funding agency that the contractor is continuing with scientifically-credible experimental techniques envisioned in the original proposal. If the project's methodology proves feasible, there could be potential applications beyond the project area to similar situations in the Columbia Basin. The Experiment involves artificial flooding during high flow periods and a determination of the portion of the return flows that end up in the Umatilla River during low flow months and within acceptable water quality parameters (e.g., low temperature, few contaminants). Flooding could be a critical water source for aquatic organisms at times of the year when flows in the lower reaches of the Umatilla River are low and water is warmer than would be desired. The experiment was proposed to test whether 'this process, recharges the shallow aquifers of the old flood plain, for natural filtration through the alluvial soils as it returns to the Umatilla River, cleaner and cooler (about 50 degree Fahrenheit) five to six month later (about July and August) substantially cooling the river and [making it] more beneficial to anadromous [fish]'. A substantial amount of preliminary data had been collected and preliminary results were submitted in an interim report 'Echo Meadows Project Winter Artificial Recharge: Final Report for 2001 Baseline (December 2002)'. A substantial amount of addition funding was provided for the last cycle of flooding (Phases II) and final analyses of the full compliment of data collected over the life of the contract (Phase III). Third party scientific review may assist the contractor in producing a

  12. Impact of low-dose chronic exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) on adult male zebrafish adaption to the environmental complexity: Disturbing the color preference patterns and reliving the anxiety behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Sun, Ming-Zhu; Li, Xu; Zhang, Shu-Hui; Dai, Liang-Ti; Liu, Xing-Yu; Zhao, Xin; Chen, Dong-Yan; Feng, Xi-Zeng

    2017-11-01

    The extensive usage of xenobiotic endocrine disrupting chemicals (XEDCs), such as Bisphenol A (BPA), has created obvious threat to aquatic ecosystems worldwide. Although a comprehensive understanding of the adverse effect of BPA on behaviors and physiology have been proven, the potential impact of low-dose BPA on altering the basic ability of aquatic organism in adapting to the surrounded complex environment still remains elusive. In this research, we report that treatment of adult male zebrafish with chronic (7 weeks) low-dose (0.22 nM-2.2 nM) BPA, altered the ability in adapting the complex environment by disturbing the natural color preference patterns. In addition, chronic 50 ng/L (0.22 nM) BPA exposure alleviated the anxiety behavior of male zebrafish confronted with the novel environment by enhancing the preference towards light in the light/dark preference test. This phenotype was associated with less expression of serotonin (5-TH) in the hypothalamus and the down-regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in brain tissues. As such, our results show that low-dose BPA remnant in surface waters altered zebrafish behavior that are known to have ecological and evolutionary consequences. Here we reported that the impact of chronic low-dose BPA exposure on the basic capability of zebrafish to adapt to the environmental complexity. Specifically, BPA at low concentration, under the environmental safety level and 3000-fold lower than the accepted human daily exposure, interfered with the ability to discriminate color and alleviate anxiety induced by the novel environment, which finally altered the capability of male zebrafish to adapt to the environmental complexity. These findings revealed the ecological effect of low-dose BPA and regular BPA concentration standard are not necessarily safe. The result also provided the consideration of retuning the hazard concentration level of BPA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of yarn structure on wicking and its impact on bloodstain pattern analysis (BPA) on woven cotton fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingyu; Li, Jingyao; Michielsen, Stephen

    2017-07-01

    Bloodstain pattern analysis (BPA) of bloodstains on hard, non-porous surfaces has found widespread use in crime scene analysis and reconstruction for violent crimes in which bloodshed occurs. At many violent crime scenes, bloody clothing is also found and may be analyzed. However, to date, there are no definitive methods for analyzing bloodstains on textiles, even for simple drip stains. There are two major classes of textiles used for apparel and household textiles, weaves and knits. In this article, drip stains on two 100% cotton plain weave fabrics representative of bed sheets are analyzed. Since it is common practice in the manufacture of bed sheeting to use different types of yarn in the warp and weft direction to reduce cost, custom weaves were made from yarns produced by each of the three most common staple yarn production techniques to control this variable. It was found that porcine blood wicked into the fabrics made with ring spun yarn, but not into those made with open end or vortex spun yarns. The uneven wicking of blood into the different yarns resulted in elliptical-shaped stains on commercial bed sheeting that can be misleading when performing bloodstain pattern interpretation based on the stain morphology. This surprising result demonstrates that it is not sufficient to analyze the structure of the fabric, but one must also characterize the yarns from which the fabric is made. This study highlights the importance of a deeper characterization of the textile structure, even down to the yarn level, for BPA on textiles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Plastics derived endocrine disruptors (BPA, DEHP and DBP induce epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of obesity, reproductive disease and sperm epimutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Manikkam

    Full Text Available Environmental compounds are known to promote epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease in subsequent generations (F1-F3 following ancestral exposure during fetal gonadal sex determination. The current study was designed to determine if a mixture of plastic derived endocrine disruptor compounds bisphenol-A (BPA, bis(2-ethylhexylphthalate (DEHP and dibutyl phthalate (DBP at two different doses promoted epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease and associated DNA methylation epimutations in sperm. Gestating F0 generation females were exposed to either the "plastics" or "lower dose plastics" mixture during embryonic days 8 to 14 of gonadal sex determination and the incidence of adult onset disease was evaluated in F1 and F3 generation rats. There were significant increases in the incidence of total disease/abnormalities in F1 and F3 generation male and female animals from plastics lineages. Pubertal abnormalities, testis disease, obesity, and ovarian disease (primary ovarian insufficiency and polycystic ovaries were increased in the F3 generation animals. Kidney and prostate disease were only observed in the direct fetally exposed F1 generation plastic lineage animals. Analysis of the plastics lineage F3 generation sperm epigenome previously identified 197 differential DNA methylation regions (DMR in gene promoters, termed epimutations. A number of these transgenerational DMR form a unique direct connection gene network and have previously been shown to correlate with the pathologies identified. Observations demonstrate that a mixture of plastic derived compounds, BPA and phthalates, can promote epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease. The sperm DMR provide potential epigenetic biomarkers for transgenerational disease and/or ancestral environmental exposures.

  15. Plastics Derived Endocrine Disruptors (BPA, DEHP and DBP) Induce Epigenetic Transgenerational Inheritance of Obesity, Reproductive Disease and Sperm Epimutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikkam, Mohan; Tracey, Rebecca; Guerrero-Bosagna, Carlos; Skinner, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental compounds are known to promote epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease in subsequent generations (F1–F3) following ancestral exposure during fetal gonadal sex determination. The current study was designed to determine if a mixture of plastic derived endocrine disruptor compounds bisphenol-A (BPA), bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) at two different doses promoted epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease and associated DNA methylation epimutations in sperm. Gestating F0 generation females were exposed to either the “plastics” or “lower dose plastics” mixture during embryonic days 8 to 14 of gonadal sex determination and the incidence of adult onset disease was evaluated in F1 and F3 generation rats. There were significant increases in the incidence of total disease/abnormalities in F1 and F3 generation male and female animals from plastics lineages. Pubertal abnormalities, testis disease, obesity, and ovarian disease (primary ovarian insufficiency and polycystic ovaries) were increased in the F3 generation animals. Kidney and prostate disease were only observed in the direct fetally exposed F1 generation plastic lineage animals. Analysis of the plastics lineage F3 generation sperm epigenome previously identified 197 differential DNA methylation regions (DMR) in gene promoters, termed epimutations. A number of these transgenerational DMR form a unique direct connection gene network and have previously been shown to correlate with the pathologies identified. Observations demonstrate that a mixture of plastic derived compounds, BPA and phthalates, can promote epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease. The sperm DMR provide potential epigenetic biomarkers for transgenerational disease and/or ancestral environmental exposures. PMID:23359474

  16. Plastics derived endocrine disruptors (BPA, DEHP and DBP) induce epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of obesity, reproductive disease and sperm epimutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikkam, Mohan; Tracey, Rebecca; Guerrero-Bosagna, Carlos; Skinner, Michael K

    2013-01-01

    Environmental compounds are known to promote epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease in subsequent generations (F1-F3) following ancestral exposure during fetal gonadal sex determination. The current study was designed to determine if a mixture of plastic derived endocrine disruptor compounds bisphenol-A (BPA), bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) at two different doses promoted epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease and associated DNA methylation epimutations in sperm. Gestating F0 generation females were exposed to either the "plastics" or "lower dose plastics" mixture during embryonic days 8 to 14 of gonadal sex determination and the incidence of adult onset disease was evaluated in F1 and F3 generation rats. There were significant increases in the incidence of total disease/abnormalities in F1 and F3 generation male and female animals from plastics lineages. Pubertal abnormalities, testis disease, obesity, and ovarian disease (primary ovarian insufficiency and polycystic ovaries) were increased in the F3 generation animals. Kidney and prostate disease were only observed in the direct fetally exposed F1 generation plastic lineage animals. Analysis of the plastics lineage F3 generation sperm epigenome previously identified 197 differential DNA methylation regions (DMR) in gene promoters, termed epimutations. A number of these transgenerational DMR form a unique direct connection gene network and have previously been shown to correlate with the pathologies identified. Observations demonstrate that a mixture of plastic derived compounds, BPA and phthalates, can promote epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease. The sperm DMR provide potential epigenetic biomarkers for transgenerational disease and/or ancestral environmental exposures.

  17. BPA genetic monitoring - BPA Genetic Monitoring Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Initiated in 1989, this study monitors genetic changes associated with hatchery propagation in multiple Snake River sub-basins for Chinook salmon and steelhead. We...

  18. Fabricating 3D porous PANI/TiO2-graphene hydrogel for the enhanced UV-light photocatalytic degradation of BPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fangyuan; An, Weijia; Li, Yao; Liang, Yinghua; Cui, Wenquan

    2018-01-01

    Polyaniline (PANI)/TiO2 composite graphene hydrogel was successfully prepared by chemical reduction method. TiO2 and PANI were uniformly dispersed in the three-dimensional network of graphene hydrogels. This rich network of macroscopic structures not only provides desirable conditions for synergistic adsorption and photocatalytic degradation of pollutants, but also improves the chemical stability of composites. Specifically, 80% PANI/TiO2-reduced graphene oxide hydrogel (rGH) can completely degrade BPA in 40 min, and BPA was almost completely mineralized into small molecules in 65 min. After five cycles of experiments, the degradation rate of PANI/TiO2-rGH for BPA was more than 90%. XPS analysis indicated that there is a strong interaction between PANI and TiO2. Hydrogen bonding between TiO2 and rGH was also demonstrated. Quenching experiments indicated •O2- and h+ are the main active species in the degradation of BPA by PANI/TiO2-rGH and •OH and h+ are the main active species by PANI/TiO2, suggesting that rGH and PANI acts as a transmitter for e- and h+, respectively.

  19. Experimental Studies of Boronophenylalanine ((10)BPA) Biodistribution for the Individual Application of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) for Malignant Melanoma Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpano, Marina; Perona, Marina; Rodriguez, Carla; Nievas, Susana; Olivera, Maria; Santa Cruz, Gustavo A; Brandizzi, Daniel; Cabrini, Romulo; Pisarev, Mario; Juvenal, Guillermo Juan; Dagrosa, Maria Alejandra

    2015-10-01

    Patients with the same histopathologic diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma treated with identical protocols of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) have shown different clinical outcomes. The objective of the present studies was to evaluate the biodistribution of boronophenilalanina ((10)BPA) for the potential application of BNCT for the treatment of melanoma on an individual basis. The boronophenilalanine (BPA) uptake was evaluated in 3 human melanoma cell lines: MEL-J, A375, and M8. NIH nude mice were implanted with 4 10(6) MEL-J cells, and biodistribution studies of BPA (350 mg/kg intraperitoneally) were performed. Static infrared imaging using a specially modified infrared camera adapted to measure the body infrared radiance of small animals was used. Proliferation marker, Ki-67, and endothelial marker, CD31, were analyzed in tumor samples. The in vitro studies demonstrated different patterns of BPA uptake for each analyzed cell line (PBNCT treatment for each individual patient and lesion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cross-generational effects of parental low dose BPA exposure on the Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone3 system and larval behavior in medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, T; Smith, N L; Sherva, K M; Ramakrishnan, S

    2016-12-01

    Growing evidence indicates that chronic exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) may disrupt normal brain function and behavior mediated by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) pathways. Previous studies have shown that low dose BPA (200ng/ml) exposure during embryogenesis altered development of extra-hypothalamic GnRH3 systems and non-reproductive locomotor behavior in medaka. Effects of parental low-dose BPA exposure on the development of GnRH3 systems and locomotor behavior of offspring are not well known. This study examines whether the neurophysiological and behavioral effects of BPA in parents (F0 generation) are carried over to their offspring (F1 generation) using stable transgenic medaka embryos/larvae with GnRH3 neurons tagged with green fluorescent protein (GFP). Parental fish were exposed to BPA (200ng/ml) for either life-long or different developmental time windows. Fertilized F1 eggs were collected and raised in egg/fish water with no environmental exposure to BPA. All experiments were performed on F1 embryos/larvae, which were grouped based on the following parental (F0) BPA exposure conditions - (i) Group 1 (G1): through life; (ii) G2: during embryogenesis and early larval development [1-14days post fertilization (dpf)]; (iii) G3: during neurogenesis (1-5dpf); and (iv) G4: during sex differentiation (5-14dpf). Embryos from unexposed vehicle treated parents served as controls (G0). G1 embryos showed significantly reduced survival rates and delayed hatching time compared to other groups, while G4 embryos hatched significantly earlier than all other groups. At 3 dpf, the GnRH3-GFP intensity was increased by 47% in G3 embryos and decreased in G4 embryos by 59% compared to controls. At 4dpf, G1 fish showed 42% increased intensity, while GFP intensity was reduced by 44% in G3 subjects. In addition, the mean brain size of G1, G3 and G4 embryos were smaller than that of control at 4dpf. At 20dpf, all larvae from BPA-treated parents showed significantly decreased

  1. A multi-generational study on low-dose BPA exposure in Wistar rats: effects on maternal behavior, flavor intake and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudalia, Sofiane; Berges, Raymond; Chabanet, Claire; Folia, Mireille; Decocq, Laurence; Pasquis, Bruno; Abdennebi-Najar, Latifa; Canivenc-Lavier, Marie-Chantal

    2014-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a common endocrine disruptor found as an environmental and food contaminant. It exerts both developmental and behavioral effects, mainly when exposure occurs in early life. The aim of this study was to determine the multi-generational effects of chronic, human-relevant low-dose exposure to BPA on development, maternal behavior and flavor preference in Wistar rats. BPA was orally administered at a daily dose of 5 μg/kg body weight to F0 pregnant dams from the first day of gestation (GD 1) until the last day of lactation (LD 21), and then to F1 offspring from weaning (PND 21) to adulthood (PND 100). F2 offspring were not exposed. Development and clinical signs of toxicity were assessed daily. Maternal behavior was evaluated by observing nursing and pup-caring actions, as well as "non-maternal" behaviors in F0 and F1 dams from parturition until LD 8. The flavor preferences of F1 and F2 offspring were evaluated based on the intake of sweet, salt and fat solutions using the two-bottle choice test on PND 21-34 and PND 86-99. BPA exposure: 1) decreased maternal behavior in F1 dams, 2) caused developmental defects in both F1 and F2 offspring, with a noticeable decrease in anogenital distance in male rats, and 3) did not affect flavored solution intake in F1, but induced changes in sweet preference in F2 juveniles and in salt and fat solution intakes in F2 adults, and 4) induced a body weight increase in the F2 generation only, whereas food intake and water consumption did not change. Taken as a whole, our findings showed that both gestational (F0) and lifelong (F1) exposures to a human-relevant dose of BPA could induce multi-generational effects on both development and behavior. These results suggest possible selective neuroendocrine defects and/or epigenetic changes caused by BPA exposure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Investigation of the effects of subchronic low dose oral exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) and ethinyl estradiol (EE) on estrogen receptor expression in the juvenile and adult female rat hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebuli, Meghan E; Cao, Jinyan; Sluzas, Emily; Delclos, K Barry; Camacho, Luísa; Lewis, Sherry M; Vanlandingham, Michelle M; Patisaul, Heather B

    2014-07-01

    Concerns have been raised regarding the long-term impacts of early life exposure to the ubiquitous environmental contaminant bisphenol A (BPA) on brain organization. Because BPA has been reported to affect estrogen signaling, and steroid hormones play a critical role in brain sexual differentiation, there is also concern that BPA exposure could alter neural sex differences. Here, we examine the impact of subchronic exposure from gestation to adulthood to oral doses of BPA below the current no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of 5 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day on estrogen receptor (ESR) expression in sexually dimorphic brain regions of prepubertal and adult female rats. The dams were gavaged daily with vehicle (0.3% carboxymethylcellulose), 2.5, 25, 260, or 2700 μg BPA/kg bw/day, or 0.5 or 5.0 μg ethinyl estradiol (EE)/kg bw/day from gestational day 6 until labor began. Offspring were then gavaged directly from the day after birth until the day before scheduled sacrifice on postnatal days 21 or 90. Using in situ hybridization, one or more BPA doses produced significant decreases in Esr1 expression in the juvenile female rat anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) of the hypothalamus and significant decreases in Esr2 expression in the adult female rat AVPV and medial preoptic area (MPOA), relative to vehicle controls. BPA did not simply reproduce EE effects, indicating that BPA is not acting solely as an estrogen mimic. The possible consequences of long-term changes in hypothalamic ESR expression resulting from subchronic low dose BPA exposure on neuroendocrine effects are discussed and being addressed in ongoing, related work. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Toxicological Sciences 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  3. Effects of BPA on global DNA methylation and global histone 3 lysine modifications in SH-SY5Y cells: An epigenetic mechanism linking the regulation of chromatin modifiying genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senyildiz, Mine; Karaman, Ecem Fatma; Bas, Serap Sancar; Pirincci, Pelin Arda; Ozden, Sibel

    2017-10-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), an estrogenic endocrine disruptor, is widely used in the production of polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins, resulting in high risk on human health. In present study we aimed to investigate the effects of BPA on global and gene specific DNA methylation, global histone modifications and regulation of chromatin modifiying enzymes in human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y). Cells were treated with BPA at 0.1, 1 and 10μM concentrations for 48 and 96h. IC50 value of BPA was determined as 183 and 129μM in SH-SY5Y cells after 24h by MTT and NRU tests, respectively. We observed significant alterations on the 5-mC% levels (1.3 fold) and 5-hmC% levels (1.67 fold) after 10μM of BPA for 96h. Significant decrease was identified in H3K9me3 and H3K9ac after 10μM of BPA for 96h while decrease was observed in H3K4me3 at 10μM of BPA for 48h. Alterations were observed in chromatin modifiying genes including G9a, EZH2, SETD8, SETD1A, HAT1, SIRT1, DNMT1, RIZ1 and Suv39h1 after 96h of BPA exposure. Taken together, this study suggests that BPA might modulate the epigenetic regulators which would be key molecular events in the toxicity of endocrine disrupting chemicals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. One-step signal amplified lateral flow strip biosensor for ultrasensitive and on-site detection of bisphenol A (BPA) in aqueous samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Zhanlong; Qu, Wei; Deng, Yi; Chu, Huaqin; Cao, Jinxuan; Xue, Feng; Zheng, Lei; El-Nezamic, Hani Said; Wu, Yucheng; Chen, Wei

    2013-11-15

    A one-step signal amplified lateral flow strip (LFS) biosensor has been developed for ultrasensitive and on-site visual detection of bisphenol A (BPA). This signal amplified LFS was based on the dual labeling using different-sized gold nanoparticles (Duo-LFS). This Duo-LFS could achieve BPA detection with 0.5 ng/mL as the visual sensitivity by naked eye observation and with 0.076 ng/mL as the limit of detection (LOD) for semi-quantitative detection by software analysis, which is at least 10-fold improvement of the sensitivity of traditional LFS based methods. This one-step signal amplified lateral flow strip biosensor and related signal enhancement method could be adopted as a potential generous technique for all LFS-based detection methods. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of the toxic effects of brominated compounds (BDE-47, 99, 209, TBBPA) and bisphenol A (BPA) using a zebrafish liver cell line, ZFL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jie; Chan, King Ming, E-mail: kingchan@cuhk.edu.hk

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • A homologous zebrafish thyroid hormone (TH) receptor (TR) reporter gene system was developed in a zebrafish liver cell-line (ZFL) to study the possible effects of chemicals on TR activities. • BPA was found to have antagonistic effects on T3 induced TR activity, BDE-47, BDE-99, and TBBPA did not show any interference of TR activity. • Down regulation of deiodinases and some sulfation enzymes or phase II enzymes by the tested chemicals indicated their impacts on TH eleiminations. • The up-regulation of tranthyretin by BDE-47 at 96 h long-term exposure gave a link to the CYP family for its role in producing a more toxic and oxidized form. - Abstract: The toxic effects of three polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners (BDE-47, -99, and -209), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and bisphenol A (BPA), were evaluated by determining their 24 h and 96 h median lethal concentrations using a zebrafish liver cell line, ZFL. It was found that BDE-47, BDE-99 and TBBPA showed comparative cytotoxicity within the range of 1.2–4.2 μM, and were more toxic than BPA (367.1 μM at 24 h and 357.6 μM at 96 h). However, BDE-209 induced only 15% lethality with exposures up to 25 μM. The molecular stresses of BDE-47, -99, TBBPA and BPA involved in thyroid hormone (TH) homeostasis and hepatic metabolism were also investigated. Using a reporter gene system to detect zebrafish thyroid hormone receptor β (zfTRβ) transcriptional activity, the median effective concentration of triiodothyronine (T3) was determined to be 9.2 × 10{sup −11} M. BDE-47, BDE-99, TBBPA and BPA alone, however, did not exhibit zfTRβ agonistic activity. BPA displayed T3 (0.1 nM) induced zfTRβ antagonistic activity with a median inhibitory concentration of 19.3 μM. BDE-47, BDE-99 and TBBPA displayed no antagonistic effects of T3-induced zfTRβ activity. Target gene expressions were also examined under acute exposures. The significant inhibition of different types of deiodinases by all of

  6. Annual Review of BPA-Funded Projects in Natural and Artificial Propagation of Salmonids, March 27-29, 1985, Holiday Inn Airport, Portland, Oregon.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1985-04-01

    The Fish and Wildlife Division of Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) hosted a meeting for contractors to present the results of fiscal year 1984 research conducted to implement the Northwest Power Planning Council's Fish and Wildlife Program. The meeting focused on those projects specifically related to natural and artificial propagation of salmonids. The presentations were held at the Holiday Inn Airport in Portland, Oregon, on March 27-29, 1985. This document contains abstracts of the presentations from that meeting. Section 1 contains abstracts on artificial propagation, fish health, and downstream migration, and Section 2 contains abstracts on natural propagation and habitat improvement. The abstracts are indexed by BPA Project Number and by Fish and Wildlife Program Measure. The registered attendees at the meeting are listed alphabetically in Appendix A and by affiliation in Appendix B.

  7. Determination of BPA, BPB, BPF, BADGE and BFDGE in canned energy drinks by molecularly imprinted polymer cleaning up and UPLC with fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Pasquale; Di Marco Pisciottano, Ilaria; Esposito, Francesco; Fasano, Evelina; Scognamiglio, Gelsomina; Mita, Gustavo Damiano; Cirillo, Teresa

    2017-04-01

    A new method for simultaneous determination of five bisphenols in canned energy drinks by UPLC with fluorescence detection, after clean up on molecularly imprinted polymers, is herein described. The method was validated at two concentration levels, calculating trueness, repeatability and within-laboratory reproducibility, specificity, linearity of detector response, the limits of quantifications and the limits of detection for each bisphenol. The method is specific, reliable and very sensitive, allowing for determination of bisphenol F diglycidyl ether (BFDGE), bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol B (BPB), bisphenol F (BPF) and bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) down to 0.50ng/mL; it was employed to determine contamination levels from these bisphenols in forty energy drinks of different brands, collected from the market in Naples. BPA was detected in 17 out of 40 samples (42.5%); in some energy drinks also BPF, BADGE and BFDGE were determined. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A cancer research UK pharmacokinetic study of BPA-mannitol in patients with high grade glioma to optimise uptake parameters for clinical trials of BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruickshank, G.S. [University of Birmingham and University Hospital Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom)], E-mail: garth.cruickshank@uhb.nhs.uk; Ngoga, D.; Detta, A.; Green, S.; James, N.D.; Wojnecki, C.; Doran, J.; Hardie, J.; Chester, M.; Graham, N.; Ghani, Z. [University of Birmingham and University Hospital Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Halbert, G.; Elliot, M.; Ford, S. [CR-UK Formulation Unit, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Braithwaite, R.; Sheehan, T.M.T. [Regional Laboratory for Toxicology, Sandwell and West Birmingham Hospitals Trust, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Vickerman, J.; Lockyer, N. [Surface Analysis Research Centre, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Steinfeldt, H.; Croswell, G. [CR-UK Drug Development Office, London (United Kingdom)] (and others)

    2009-07-15

    This paper describes results to-date from a human pharmacokinetic study which began recruitment in December 2007. Results are presented for a single patient recruited in December 2007. A second patient was recruited in July 2008 but detailed data are not available at the time of writing. The trial is an open-label, non-comparative, non-therapeutic study of BPA-mannitol in patients with high-grade glioma, who will be undergoing stereotactic brain biopsy as part of the diagnostic process before definitive treatment. The study investigates the route of infusion (intra-venous (IV) or intra-carotid artery) and in each case will assess the effect of administration of mannitol as a blood-brain barrier disrupter. All cohorts will receive a 2 h infusion of BPA-mannitol, and for some cohorts an additional mannitol bolus will be administered at the beginning of this infusion. Measurements are made by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) of {sup 10}B concentration in samples of blood, urine, extra-cellular fluid in normal brain (via a dialysis probe), brain tissue around tumour and tumour tissue. Additional analysis of the tumour tissue is performed using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The first patient was part of the cohort having intra-venous infusion without mannitol bolus. No serious clinical problems were experienced and the assay results can be compared with available patient data from other BNCT centres. In particular we note that the peak {sup 10}B concentration in blood was 28.1 mg/ml for a total BPA administration of 350 mg/kg which is very consistent with the previous experience with BPA-fructose reported by the Helsinki group.

  9. Design of Studies for Development of BPA Fish and Wildlife Mitigation Accounting Policy Phase II, Volume II, 1985-1988 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kneese, Allen V.

    1988-08-01

    The incremental costs of corrective measures to lessen the environmental impacts of the hydroelectric system are expected to increase and difficult questions to arise about the costs, effectiveness, and justification of alternative measures and their systemwide implications. The BPA anticipate this situation by launching a forward-looking research program aimed at providing methodological tools and data suitable for estimating the productivity and cost implications of mitigation alternatives in a timely manner with state-of-the-art accuracy. Resources for the Future (RFF) agreed at the request of the BPA to develop a research program which would provide an analytical system designed to assist the BPA Administrator and other interested and responsible parties in evaluating the ecological and economic aspects of alternative protection, enhancement, and mitigation measures. While this progression from an ecological understanding to cost-effectiveness analyses is straightforward in concept, the complexities of the Columbia River system make the development of analytical methods far from simple in practice. The Phase 2 final report outlines the technical issues involved in developing an analytical system and proposes a program of research to address these issues. The report is presented in the Summary Report (Volume 1), and the present volume which consists of three technical reports: Part I, Modeling the Salmon and Steelhead Fisheries of the Columbia River Basin; Part II, Models for Cost-Effectiveness Analysis; and Part III, Ocean Fisheries Harvest Management.

  10. Comparing different gas chromatographic methods for the quantification of bisphenol A (BPA) trace levels in paper and cardboard products from the market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurek, A; Leitner, E

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA; 4,4'-(propane-2,2-diyl)diphenol), a suspected endocrine disruptor with weak estrogenic activity, is used in a variety of consumer products, including paper and cardboard products used as food contact materials. The present study compared four different gas chromatographic methods for the analysis of BPA in paper and cardboard food packages. Eighteen different food packages were extracted and BPA was determined using two different derivatisation reactions--trimethylsilylation with N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) and halide alkylation with pentafluorobenzoyl chloride (PFBOCl)--and four different separation and detection techniques. The BSTFA derivatives were quantified with (1) GC-MS in single-ion monitoring (SIM) mode with electron ionisation (EI-GC-MS) and (2) GC-MS/MS in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode using electron ionisation (EI-GC-MS/MS); while the PFBOCl derivatives were quantified with (3) GC-MS using electron ionisation (EI-GC-MS) as well as (4) GC-MS with negative chemical ionisation (NCI-GC-MS). All developed methods showed good linearity (R(2) > 0.9938), precision (CV food products was calculated for all tested paper and cardboard samples, assuming a 'worst case' scenario of 100% migration.

  11. Effects of BPA and E2 on expression profiles of genes related to hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis of half-smooth tongue sole Cynoglossus semilaevis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengling; Li, Zhaoxin; Wang, Qingyin; Zhai, Yuxiu

    2013-05-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are increasingly viewed as persistent pollutants, similar to natural hormones in function. This paper describes the expression profiles of 7 genes ( DMRT, VTG GnRHR FSHR CYP17A CYP19A, and CYP19B) involved in sex steroid synthesis and action as well as sexual development in adult male and female Cynoglossus semilaevis, after exposure to different concentrations of Bisphenol A (BPA) and 17β-estradiol (E2). Both BPA (1, 10, 50, 125, and 250 mg/kg) and E2 (0.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg) induced changes in target gene expression, although the estrogenic effects of E2 as a model estrogen were stronger. Among the 7 genes, VTG CYP17A and CYP19 responded strongly to BPA or E2 exposure and can thus serve as reference biomarkers for estrogenic EDCs exposure in marine teleosts. These data will provide a window to establish a hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal model in C. semilaevis to better understand the effect pathways of EDCs.

  12. Disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis in zebrafish embryo-larvae following waterborne exposure to BDE-47, TBBPA and BPA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Winson K. [Biochemistry Program, School of Life Sciences, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Sha Tin, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Chan, King Ming, E-mail: kingchan@cuhk.edu.hk [Biochemistry Program, School of Life Sciences, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Sha Tin, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Environmental Science Program, School of Life Sciences, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Sha Tin, Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    2012-02-15

    We performed waterborne exposures of 2,2 Prime ,4,4 Prime -tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) or bisphenol A (BPA) on zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo-larvae and quantitatively measured the expression of genes belonging to the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis to assess for adverse thyroid function. For analysis on the effects of BDE-47, TBBPA and BPA on the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid genes, zebrafish embryo-larvae were acutely exposed to lethal concentrations of the chemical agents in order to determine the 96 h-LC50 (96 h lethal median concentration) and 96 h-EC50 (96 h effective median concentration) values. Further exposures at sub-lethal concentrations were then carried out and total RNA samples were extracted to quantify the mRNA expression levels of the genes of interest. In larvae, BDE-47 was found to have significantly induced many genes of interest, namely thyroglobulin, thyroid peroxidase, thyroid receptors {alpha} and {beta}, thyroid stimulating hormone, and transthyretin. TBBPA only significantly induced three genes of interest (thyroid receptor {alpha}, thyroid stimulating hormone, and transthyretin) while BPA only induced thyroid stimulating hormone. In embryos, BDE-47 significantly induced the sodium iodide symporter and thyroid stimulating hormone. TBBPA significantly induced thyroid receptor {alpha} and thyroid stimulating hormone, while BPA did not significantly induce any of the genes. Most genes were only induced at the 75% 96 h-LC50 or 96 h-EC50 value; however, thyroid peroxidase and thyroid stimulating hormone demonstrated upregulation in a level as little as the 10% 96 h-LC50 value. The present study provides a new set of data on zebrafish mRNA induction of hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid genes from exposure to BDE-47, TBBPA, or BPA. This information would serve useful for elucidating the toxicological mechanism of brominated flame retardants, assessing appropriate safety levels in the environment for

  13. Impact of phthalate and BPA exposure during in utero windows of susceptibility on reproductive hormones and sexual maturation in peripubertal males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Deborah J; Sánchez, Brisa N; Téllez-Rojo, Martha Maria; Lee, Joyce M; Mercado-García, Adriana; Blank-Goldenberg, Clara; Peterson, Karen E; Meeker, John D

    2017-06-21

    Phthalates and BPA are endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) widely used in consumer products. Evidence suggests that phthalate and BPA exposure alters steroid hormone levels in adults, while in utero exposure has been associated with altered fetal reproductive development in boys. However, the impact of exposure during distinct critical windows of in utero development on hormone concentrations and sexual maturation during the pubertal transition has not been examined. The objective of this study was to assess trimester-specific in utero phthalate and BPA exposure in relation to measures of reproductive development among peripubertal boys in a Mexico City birth cohort. We measured maternal urinary phthalate metabolites and BPA during the first, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy. We measured serum levels of testosterone, estradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), inhibin B, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and assessed sexual maturation (Tanner staging and testicular volume) among male children at age 8-14 years (n = 109). Linear and logistic regression were used to investigate trimester-specific in utero exposure as predictors of peripubertal hormone levels and sexual maturation, respectively. In sensitivity analyses we evaluated estimated exposure at 7 weeks gestation and rates of change in exposure across pregnancy in relation to outcomes. Exposure to phthalates during the third trimester was associated with reduced odds of having a Tanner stage >1 for pubic hair development (e.g. MBzP OR = 0.18 per interquartile range (IQR) increase; 95% CI:0.03-0.97) and higher peripubertal SHBG levels (e.g. MBzP 15.2%/IQR; 95% CI:3.2-28%), while first and second trimester phthalates were not. In contrast, exposure to DEHP during the first trimester was associated with higher estradiol (11%/IQR; 95% CI:1.5-22%), while second or third trimester DEHP exposure was not. Sensitivity analyses yielded similar findings. Associations between in utero

  14. Experimental Studies of Boronophenylalanine ({sup 10}BPA) Biodistribution for the Individual Application of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) for Malignant Melanoma Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpano, Marina; Perona, Marina; Rodriguez, Carla [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); Nievas, Susana; Olivera, Maria; Santa Cruz, Gustavo A. [Department of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); Brandizzi, Daniel; Cabrini, Romulo [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); School of Dentistry, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Pisarev, Mario [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); National Research Council of Argentina, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Department of Human Biochemistry, School of Medicine, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Juvenal, Guillermo Juan [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); National Research Council of Argentina, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Dagrosa, Maria Alejandra, E-mail: dagrosa@cnea.gov.ar [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); National Research Council of Argentina, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: Patients with the same histopathologic diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma treated with identical protocols of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) have shown different clinical outcomes. The objective of the present studies was to evaluate the biodistribution of boronophenilalanina ({sup 10}BPA) for the potential application of BNCT for the treatment of melanoma on an individual basis. Methods and Materials: The boronophenilalanine (BPA) uptake was evaluated in 3 human melanoma cell lines: MEL-J, A375, and M8. NIH nude mice were implanted with 4 10{sup 6} MEL-J cells, and biodistribution studies of BPA (350 mg/kg intraperitoneally) were performed. Static infrared imaging using a specially modified infrared camera adapted to measure the body infrared radiance of small animals was used. Proliferation marker, Ki-67, and endothelial marker, CD31, were analyzed in tumor samples. Results: The in vitro studies demonstrated different patterns of BPA uptake for each analyzed cell line (P<.001 for MEL-J and A375 vs M8 cells). The in vivo studies showed a maximum average boron concentration of 25.9 ± 2.6 μg/g in tumor, with individual values ranging between 11.7 and 52.0 μg/g of {sup 10}B 2 hours after the injection of BPA. Tumor temperature always decreased as the tumors increased in size, with values ranging between 37°C and 23°C. A significant correlation between tumor temperature and tumor-to-blood boron concentration ratio was found (R{sup 2} = 0.7, rational function fit). The immunohistochemical studies revealed, in tumors with extensive areas of viability, a high number of positive cells for Ki-67, blood vessels of large diameter evidenced by the marker CD31, and a direct logistic correlation between proliferative status and boron concentration difference between tumor and blood (R{sup 2} = 0.81, logistic function fit). Conclusion: We propose that these methods could be suitable for designing new screening protocols applied before melanoma BNCT

  15. Assessing the concentration of phthalate esters (PAEs) and bisphenol A (BPA) and the genotoxic potential of treated wastewater (final effluent) in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saleh, Iman; Elkhatib, Rola; Al-Rajoudi, Tahreer; Al-Qudaihi, Ghofran

    2017-02-01

    Plasticizers such as phthalate esters (PAEs) and bisphenol A (BPA) are highly persistent organic pollutants that tend to bio-accumulate in humans through the soil-plant-animal food chain. Some studies have reported the potential carcinogenic and teratogenic effects in addition to their estrogenic activities. Water resources are scarce in Saudi Arabia, and several wastewater treatment plants (WTPs) have been constructed for agricultural and industrial use. This study was designed to: (1) measure the concentrations of BPA and six PAEs, dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and dioctyl phthalate (DOP), in secondary- and tertiary-treated wastewater collected from five WTPs in three Saudi cities for four to five weeks and (2) test their potential genotoxicity. Three genotoxicological parameters were used: % tail DNA (%T), tail moment (TM) and percentage micronuclei (%MN). Both DBP and DEHP were detected in all treated wastewater samples. DMP, DEP, BBP, DOP, and BPA were found in 83.3, 84.2, 79, 73.7 and 97.4% of the samples, respectively. The levels of DMP (pwastewater than secondary-treated wastewater, perhaps due to the influence of the molecular weight and polarity of the chemicals. Both weekly sampling frequency and WTP locations significantly affected the variability in our data. Treated wastewater from Wadi Al-Araj was able to induce DNA damage (%T and TM) in human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells that was statistically higher than wastewater from all other WTPs and in untreated TK6 cells (negative control). %MN in samples from both Wadi Al-Araj and Manfouah did not differ statistically but was significantly higher than in the untreated TK6 cells. This study also showed that the samples of tertiary-treated wastewater had a higher genotoxicological potential to induce DNA damage than the samples of secondary-treated wastewater. BPA and some PAEs in the treated wastewater

  16. Metabolic disruption in male mice due to fetal exposure to low but not high doses of bisphenol A (BPA): evidence for effects on body weight, food intake, adipocytes, leptin, adiponectin, insulin and glucose regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angle, Brittany M; Do, Rylee Phuong; Ponzi, Davide; Stahlhut, Richard W; Drury, Bertram E; Nagel, Susan C; Welshons, Wade V; Besch-Williford, Cynthia L; Palanza, Paola; Parmigiani, Stefano; vom Saal, Frederick S; Taylor, Julia A

    2013-12-01

    Exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) is implicated in many aspects of metabolic disease in humans and experimental animals. We fed pregnant CD-1 mice BPA at doses ranging from 5 to 50,000μg/kg/day, spanning 10-fold below the reference dose to 10-fold above the currently predicted no adverse effect level (NOAEL). At BPA doses below the NOAEL that resulted in average unconjugated BPA between 2 and 200pg/ml in fetal serum (AUC0-24h), we observed significant effects in adult male offspring: an age-related change in food intake, an increase in body weight and liver weight, abdominal adipocyte mass, number and volume, and in serum leptin and insulin, but a decrease in serum adiponectin and in glucose tolerance. For most of these outcomes non-monotonic dose-response relationships were observed; the highest BPA dose did not produce a significant effect for any outcome. A 0.1-μg/kg/day dose of DES resulted in some but not all low-dose BPA outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Sustainability at BPA 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-12-01

    BPA’s Sustainability Action Plan is grounded in our commitment to environmental stewardship and Executive Order 13514 that calls on the federal agencies to “lead by example” by setting a 2020 greenhouse gas emissions target, increasing energy efficiency; reducing fleet petroleum consumption; conserving water; reducing waste; supporting sustainable communities; and leveraging federal purchasing power to promoting environmentally responsible products and technologies.

  18. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for glioblastoma multiforme: a phase II study evaluating a prolonged high-dose of boronophenylalanine (BPA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksson, Roger; Capala, Jacek; Michanek, Annika; Lindahl, Sten-Ake; Salford, Leif G; Franzén, Lars; Blomquist, Erik; Westlin, Jan-Erik; Bergenheim, A Tommy

    2008-08-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) using a novel protocol for the boronophenylalanine-fructose (BPA-F) infusion. This phase II study included 30 patients, 26-69 years old, with a good performance status of which 27 have undergone debulking surgery. BPA-F (900 mg BPA/kg body weight) was given i.v. over 6h. Neutron irradiation started 2h after the completion of the infusion. Follow-up reports were monitored by an independent clinical research institute. The boron-blood concentration during irradiation was 15.2-33.7 microg/g. The average weighted absorbed dose to normal brain was 3.2-6.1 Gy (W). The minimum dose to the tumour volume ranged from 15.4 to 54.3 Gy (W). Seven patients suffered from seizures, 8 from skin/mucous problem, 5 patients were stricken by thromboembolism and 4 from abdominal disturbances in close relation to BNCT. Four patients displayed 9 episodes of grade 3-4 events (WHO). At the time for follow-up, minimum ten months, 23 out of the 29 evaluable patients were dead. The median time from BNCT treatment to tumour progression was 5.8 months and the median survival time after BNCT was 14.2 months. Following progression, 13 patients were given temozolomide, two patients were re-irradiated, and two were re-operated. Patients treated with temozolomide lived considerably longer (17.7 vs. 11.6 months). The quality of life analysis demonstrated a progressive deterioration after BNCT. Although, the efficacy of BNCT in the present protocol seems to be comparable with conventional radiotherapy and the treatment time is shorter, the observed side effects and the requirement of complex infrastructure and higher resources emphasize the need of further phase I and II studies, especially directed to improve the accumulation of (10)B in tumour cells.

  19. Biodistribution of the boron carriers boronophenylalanine (BPA) and/or decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in an experimental model of lung metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.W. Nigg; Various Others

    2014-06-01

    BNCT was proposed for the treatment of diffuse, non-resectable tumors in the lung. We performed boron biodistribution studies with 5 administration protocols employing the boron carriers BPA and/or GB-10 in an experimental model of disseminated lung metastases in rats. All 5 protocols were non-toxic and showed preferential tumor boron uptake versus lung. Absolute tumor boron concentration values were therapeutically useful (25–76 ppm) for 3 protocols. Dosimetric calculations indicate that BNCT at RA-3 would be potentially therapeutic without exceeding radiotolerance in the lung.

  20. Biodistribution of the boron carriers boronophenylalanine (BPA) and/or decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in an experimental model of lung metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivillin, V A; Garabalino, M A; Colombo, L L; González, S J; Farías, R O; Monti Hughes, A; Pozzi, E C C; Bortolussi, S; Altieri, S; Itoiz, M E; Aromando, R F; Nigg, D W; Schwint, A E

    2014-06-01

    BNCT was proposed for the treatment of diffuse, non-resectable tumors in the lung. We performed boron biodistribution studies with 5 administration protocols employing the boron carriers BPA and/or GB-10 in an experimental model of disseminated lung metastases in rats. All 5 protocols were non-toxic and showed preferential tumor boron uptake versus lung. Absolute tumor boron concentration values were therapeutically useful (25-76ppm) for 3 protocols. Dosimetric calculations indicate that BNCT at RA-3 would be potentially therapeutic without exceeding radiotolerance in the lung. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Analysis of organizational options for the uranium enrichment enterprise in relation to asset divesture. [BPA; TVA; SYNFUELS; CONRAIL; British TELECOM; COMSTAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrer, B.J.; Hattrup, M.P.; Dase, J.E.; Nicholls, A.K.

    1986-08-01

    This report presents a comparison of the characteristics of some prominent examples of independent government corporations and agencies with respect to the Department of Energy's (DOE) uranium enrichment enterprise. The six examples studied were: the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA); the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA); the Synthetic Fuels Corporation (SYNFUELS); the Consolidated Rail Corporation (CONRAIL); the British Telecommunications Corporation (British TELECOM); and the Communications Satellite Organization (COMSAT), in order of decreasing levels of government ownership and control. They range from BPA, which is organized as an agency within DOE, to COMSAT, which is privately owned and free from almost all regulations common to government agencies. Differences in the degree of government involvement in these corporations and in many other characteristics serve to illustrate that there are no accepted standards for defining the characteristics of government corporations. Thus, historical precedent indicates considerable flexibility would be available in the development of enabling legislation to reorganize the enrichment enterprise as a government corporation or independent government agency.

  2. Comparison of the pharmacokinetics between L-BPA and L-FBPA using the same administration dose and protocol: a validation study for the theranostic approach using [18F]-L-FBPA positron emission tomography in boron neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tsubasa; Hattori, Yoshihide; Ohta, Youichiro; Ishimura, Miki; Nakagawa, Yosuke; Sanada, Yu; Tanaka, Hiroki; Fukutani, Satoshi; Masunaga, Shin-Ichiro; Hiraoka, Masahiro; Ono, Koji; Suzuki, Minoru; Kirihata, Mitsunori

    2016-11-08

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a cellular-level particle radiation therapy that combines the selective delivery of boron compounds to tumour tissue with neutron irradiation. L-p-Boronophenylalanine (L-BPA) is a boron compound now widely used in clinical situations. Determination of the boron distribution is required for successful BNCT prior to neutron irradiation. Thus, positron emission tomography with [18F]-L-FBPA, an 18F-labelled radiopharmaceutical analogue of L-BPA, was developed. However, several differences between L-BPA and [18F]-L-FBPA have been highlighted, including the different injection doses and administration protocols. The purpose of this study was to clarify the equivalence between L-BPA and [19F]-L-FBPA as alternatives to [18F]-L-FBPA. SCC-VII was subcutaneously inoculated into the legs of C3H/He mice. The same dose of L-BPA or [19F]-L-FBPA was subcutaneously injected. The time courses of the boron concentrations in blood, tumour tissue, and normal tissue were compared between the groups. Next, we administered the therapeutic dose of L-BPA or the same dose of [19F]-L-FBPA by continuous infusion and compared the effects of the administration protocol on boron accumulation in tissues. There were no differences between L-BPA and [19F]-L-FBPA in the transition of boron concentrations in blood, tumour tissue, and normal tissue using the same administration protocol. However, the normal tissue to blood ratio of the boron concentrations in the continuous-infusion group was lower than that in the subcutaneous injection group. No difference was noted in the time course of the boron concentrations in tumour tissue and normal tissues between L-BPA and [19F]-L-FBPA. However, the administration protocol had effects on the normal tissue to blood ratio of the boron concentration. In estimating the BNCT dose in normal tissue by positron emission tomography (PET), we should consider the possible overestimation of the normal tissue to blood ratio of the

  3. The BPA-substitute bisphenol S alters the transcription of genes related to endocrine, stress response and biotransformation pathways in the aquatic midge Chironomus riparius (Diptera, Chironomidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Herrero

    Full Text Available Bisphenol S (BPS is an industrial alternative to the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA, and can be found in many products labeled "BPA-free". Its use has grown in recent years, and presently it is considered a ubiquitous emerging pollutant. To date there is a lack of information on the effects of BPS on invertebrates, although they represent more than 95% of known species in the animal kingdom and are crucial for the structure and proper function of ecosystems. In this study, real-time RT-PCR was used to determine the early detrimental effects of BPS on the transcriptional rate of genes in the model species Chironomus riparius, specifically those related to the ecdysone pathway (EcR, ERR, E74, Vtg, cyp18a1 crucial for insect development and metamorphosis, stress and biotransformation mechanisms (hsp70, hsp40, cyp4g, GPx, GSTd3 that regulate adaptive responses and determine survival, and ribosome biogenesis (its2, rpL4, rpL13 which is essential for protein synthesis and homeostasis. While 24-hour exposure to 0.5, 5, 50, and 500 μg/L BPS had no effect on larval survival, almost all the studied genes were upregulated following a non-monotonic dose-response curve. Genes with the greatest increases in transcriptional activity (fold change relative to control were EcR (3.8, ERR (2, E74 (2.4, cyp18a1 (2.5, hsp70 (1.7, hsp40 (2.5, cyp4g (6.4, GPx (1.8, and GST (2.1, while others including Vtg, GAPDH, and selected ribosomal genes remained stable. We also measured the transcriptional activity of these genes 24 hours after BPS withdrawal and a general downregulation compared to controls was observed, though not significant in most cases. Our findings showed that BPS exposure altered the transcriptional profile of these genes, which may have consequences for the hormone system and several metabolic pathways. Although further research is needed to elucidate its mode of action, these results raise new concerns about the safety of BPA alternatives.

  4. Soy but not bisphenol A (BPA) induces hallmarks of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and related metabolic co-morbidities in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patisaul, Heather B; Mabrey, Natalie; Adewale, Heather B; Sullivan, Alana W

    2014-11-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most common female endocrine disorder with a prevalence as high as 8-15% depending on ethnicity and the diagnostic criteria employed. The basic pathophysiology and mode of inheritance remain unclear, but environmental factors such as diet, stress and chemical exposures are thought to be contributory. Developmental exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) have been hypothesized to exacerbate risk, in part because PCOS hallmarks and associated metabolic co-morbidities can be reliably induced in animal models by perinatal androgen exposure. Here we show that lifetime exposure to a soy diet, containing endocrine active phytoestrogens, but not developmental exposure (gestational day 6-lactational day 40) to the endocrine disrupting monomer bisphenol A (BPA), can induce key features of PCOS in the rat; results which support the hypothesis that hormonally active diets may contribute to risk when consumed throughout gestation and post-natal life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Estimates of dietary exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) from light metal packaging using food consumption and packaging usage data: a refined deterministic approach and a fully probabilistic (FACET) approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldring, P K T; Castle, L; O'Mahony, C; Dixon, J

    2014-01-01

    The FACET tool is a probabilistic model to estimate exposure to chemicals in foodstuffs, originating from flavours, additives and food contact materials. This paper demonstrates the use of the FACET tool to estimate exposure to BPA (bisphenol A) from light metal packaging. For exposure to migrants from food packaging, FACET uses industry-supplied data on the occurrence of substances in the packaging, their concentrations and construction of the packaging, which were combined with data from a market research organisation and food consumption data supplied by national database managers. To illustrate the principles, UK packaging data were used together with consumption data from the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) dietary survey for 19-64 year olds for a refined deterministic verification. The UK data were chosen mainly because the consumption surveys are detailed, data for UK packaging at a detailed level were available and, arguably, the UK population is composed of high consumers of packaged foodstuffs. Exposures were run for each food category that could give rise to BPA from light metal packaging. Consumer loyalty to a particular type of packaging, commonly referred to as packaging loyalty, was set. The BPA extraction levels used for the 15 types of coating chemistries that could release BPA were in the range of 0.00005-0.012 mg dm(-2). The estimates of exposure to BPA using FACET for the total diet were 0.0098 (mean) and 0.0466 (97.5th percentile) mg/person/day, corresponding to 0.00013 (mean) and 0.00059 (97.5th percentile) mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for consumers of foods packed in light metal packaging. This is well below the current EFSA (and other recognised bodies) TDI of 0.05 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1). These probabilistic estimates were compared with estimates using a refined deterministic approach drawing on the same input data. The results from FACET for the mean, 95th and 97.5th percentile exposures to BPA lay between the

  6. Bateria Psicológica para Avaliação da Atenção (BPA: desempenho de diferentes faixas etárias Batería Psicológica para Evaluación de la Atención (BPA: desempeño de distintos rangos etarios Psychological Battery for Attention Assessment (BPA: performance of different age groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Javier Marín Rueda

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi analisar o desempenho atencional em diferentes momentos da vida. Participaram 1.759 pessoas, de ambos os sexos, e com idades variando de 6 até 82 anos. O instrumento utilizado foi a Bateria Psicológica para Avaliação da Atenção (BPA, composta pelos testes de Atenção Concentrada, Atenção Dividida e Atenção Alternada. Os resultados estão de acordo com o apontado pela literatura ao relacionar a atenção com as diferentes etapas do desenvolvimento. Nesse sentido, observou-se que houve um aumento de desempenho até o início da vida adulta, com um leve decréscimo a partir dos 30 anos, que fica mais evidente a partir dos 50 anos. Ainda, a ANOVA permitiu identificar seis faixas etárias que se diferenciaram claramente. Por fim, identificou-se que o desempenho em atenção dividida é inferior aos outros tipos de atenção. Sugerem-se novos estudos que permitam identificar e diferenciar um maior número de idades.El objetivo del estudio fue analizar la capacidad de atención en diferentes momentos de la vida. Participaron 1.759 personas, de ambos sexos, y con edades de 6 hasta 82 años. El instrumento utilizado fue la Batería Psicológica para Evaluación de la Atención (BPA, compuesta por los testes de Atención Concentrada, Atención Dividida y Atención Alternada. Los resultados están de acuerdo con lo mencionado por la literatura al relacionar la atención con las distintas etapas del desarrollo. En ese sentido, se observó que hubo un aumento en el desempeño hasta el inicio de la vida adulta, con una pequeña disminución a partir de los 30 años, que se queda más evidente a partir de los 50 años. Además, el ANOVA permitió identificar seis rangos etarios que se diferencian claramente. Finalmente, se identificó que el desempeño en atención dividida es inferior a los otros tipos de atención. Se sugieren nuevos estudios que permitan identificar y diferenciar un mayor número de edades.This study

  7. Degradation and mineralization of Bisphenol A (BPA) in aqueous solution using advanced oxidation processes: UV/H2O2 and UV/S2O8(2-) oxidation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Jyoti; Mishra, I M; Kumar, Vineet

    2015-06-01

    This work reports on the removal and mineralization of an endocrine disrupting chemical, Bisphenol A (BPA) at a concentration of 0.22 mM in aqueous solution using inorganic oxidants (hydrogen peroxide, H2O2 and sodium persulfate, Na2S2O8;S2O8(2-)) under UV irradiation at a wavelength of 254 nm and 40 W power (Io = 1.26 × 10(-6) E s(-1)) at its natural pH and a temperature of 29 ± 3 °C. With an optimum persulfate concentration of 1.26 mM, the UV/S2O8(2-) process resulted in ∼95% BPA removal after 240 min of irradiation. The optimum BPA removal was found to be ∼85% with a H2O2 concentration of 11.76 mM. At higher concentrations, either of the oxidants showed an adverse effect because of the quenching of the hydroxyl or sulfate radicals in the BPA solution. The sulfate-based oxidation process could be used over a wider initial pH range of 3-12, but the hydroxyl radical-based oxidation of BPA should be carried out in the acidic pH range only. The water matrix components (bicarbonate, chloride and humic acid) showed higher scavenging effect in hydroxyl radical-based oxidation than that in the sulfate radical-based oxidation of BPA. UV/S2O8(2-) oxidation system utilized less energy (307 kWh/m(3)) EE/O in comparison to UV/H2O2 system (509 kWh/m(3)) under optimum operating conditions. The cost of UV irradiation far outweighed the cost of the oxidants in the process. However, the total cost of treatment of persulfate-based system was much lower than that of H2O2-based oxidation system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. C4BPB/C4BPA is a new susceptibility locus for venous thrombosis with unknown protein S-independent mechanism: results from genome-wide association and gene expression analyses followed by case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buil, Alfonso; Trégouët, David-Alexandre; Souto, Juan Carlos; Saut, Noémie; Germain, Marine; Rotival, Maxime; Tiret, Laurence; Cambien, Françcois; Lathrop, Mark; Zeller, Tanja; Alessi, Marie-Christine; Rodriguez de Cordoba, Santiago; Münzel, Thomas; Wild, Philipp; Fontcuberta, Jordi; Gagnon, France; Emmerich, Joseph; Almasy, Laura; Blankenberg, Stefan; Soria, José-Manuel; Morange, Pierre-Emmanuel

    2010-06-10

    Through its binding with protein S (PS), a key element of the coagulation/fibrinolysis cascade, the C4b-binding protein (C4BP) has been hypothesized to be involved in the susceptibility to venous thrombosis (VT). To identify genetic factors that may influence the plasma levels of the 3 C4BP existing isoforms, alpha(7)beta(1), alpha(6)beta(1), and alpha(7)beta(0), we conducted a genome-wide association study by analyzing 283 437 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Genetic Analysis of Idiopathic Thrombophilia (GAIT) study composed of 352 persons. Three SNPs at the C4BPB/C4BPA locus were found genome-wide significantly associated with alpha(7)beta(0) levels. One of these SNPs was further found to explain approximately 11% of the variability of mRNA C4BPA expression in the Gutenberg Heart Study composed of 1490 persons, with no effect on C4BPB mRNA expression. The allele associated with increased alpha(7)beta(0) plasma levels and increased C4BPA expression was further found associated with increased risk of VT (odds ratio [OR] = 1.24 [1.03-1.53]) in 2 independent case-control studies (MARseille THrombosis Association study [MARTHA] and FActeurs de RIsque et de récidives de la maladie thromboembolique VEineuse [FARIVE]) gathering 1706 cases and 1379 controls. This SNP was not associated with free PS or total PS. In conclusion, we observed strong evidence that the C4BPB/C4BPA locus is a new susceptibility locus for VT through a PS-independent mechanism that remains to be elucidated.

  9. BPA Committed to Northwest Values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-09-01

    The Columbia River has been called the “crown jewel” of the Pacific Northwest. There is no question it is among the region’s greatest assets — supplying low-cost clean hydropower, making deserts bloom thanks to irrigation and providing navigation, recreation and a home for many species of fish and wildlife. The Bonneville Power Administration is proud to be a steward of this great resource. Our mission is to serve the people and environment of the Pacific Northwest. We sell wholesale power from Grand Coulee Dam and 30 other Northwest federal dams to Northwest utilities, including public utility districts, rural electric cooperatives and municipal utility departments, as well as investor-owned utilities. We operate three-fourths of the region’s high voltage transmission system that delivers that power. But, as a federal agency, we are not just a power marketer. We have public responsibilities that include, among many, promoting energy efficiency, facilitating development of renewable power, protecting fish and wildlife affected by hydro development, honoring treaty obligations to tribes and promoting a reliable energy future through collaboration and partnerships. This document describes our responsibilities to citizens in the Pacific Northwest.

  10. Sustainability at BPA May 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-05-01

    BPA’s approach to sustainability is built on the agency’s foundation of environmental stewardship partnered with its commitment to operational excellence. Around the world today, sustainable business practices are driving innovation, opening opportunities for resource and cost efficiencies, as well as increasing employee engagement and productivity. Business jumped on the bandwagon early finding that sustainability can be an important component of their company’s competitive advantage. A 2010 survey by the United Nations Global Compact/Accenture of 766 CEOs from around the globe found that, despite the economic downturn, 93 percent of the CEOs surveyed see sustainability as critical to their company’s future success. Calling on the federal government to “lead by example,” President Barack Obama issued Executive Order 13514 in October 2009 to green the government by improving “environmental, energy and economic performance.”

  11. The in vitro comparative study of the effect of BPA, BPS, BPF and BPAF on human erythrocyte membrane; perturbations in membrane fluidity, alterations in conformational state and damage to proteins, changes in ATP level and Na+/K+ ATPase and AChE activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maćczak, Aneta; Duchnowicz, Piotr; Sicińska, Paulina; Koter-Michalak, Maria; Bukowska, Bożena; Michałowicz, Jaromir

    2017-12-01

    Bisphenols are massively used in the industry, and thus the exposure of biota including humans to these substances has been noted. In this study we have assessed the effect of BPA and its selected analogs, i.e. BPS, BPF and BPAF on membrane of human red blood cells, which is the first barrier that must be overcome by xenobiotics penetrating the cell, and is commonly utilized as a model in the investigation of the effect of different xenobiotics on various cell types. Red blood cells were incubated with BPA and its analogs in the concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 250 μg/ml for 4 h and 24 h. We have noted that the compounds studied altered membrane fluidity at its hydrophobic region, increased internal viscosity and osmotic fragility of the erythrocytes and altered conformational state of membrane proteins. Moreover, bisphenols examined increased thiol groups level, caused oxidative damage to membrane proteins, decreased ATP level, depleted the activity of Na+/K + ATPase and changed the activity of AChE in human red blood cells. It has been shown that the strongest changes were noted in cells treated with BPAF, while BPS caused the weakest (or none) alterations in the parameters studied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Nine co-localized cytochrome P450 genes of the CYP2N, CYP2AD, and CYP2P gene families in the mangrove killifish Kryptolebias marmoratus genome: Identification and expression in response to B[α]P, BPA, OP, and NP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthumana, Jayesh; Kim, Bo-Mi; Jeong, Chang-Bum; Kim, Duck-Hyun; Kang, Hye-Min; Jung, Jee-Hyun; Kim, Il-Chan; Hwang, Un-Ki; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2017-06-01

    The CYP2 genes are the largest and most diverse cytochrome P450 (CYP) subfamily in vertebrates. We have identified nine co-localized CYP2 genes (∼55kb) in a new cluster in the genome of the highly resilient ecotoxicological fish model Kryptolebias marmoratus. Molecular characterization, temporal and tissue-specific expression pattern, and response to xenobiotics of these genes were examined. The CYP2 gene clusters were characterized and designated CYP2N22-23, CYP2AD12, and CYP2P16-20. Gene synteny analysis confirmed that the cluster in K. marmoratus is similar to that found in other teleost fishes, including zebrafish. A gene duplication event with diverged catalytic function was observed in CYP2AD12. Moreover, a high level of divergence in expression was observed among the co-localized genes. Phylogeny of the cluster suggested an orthologous relationship with similar genes in zebrafish and Japanese medaka. Gene expression analysis showed that CYP2P19 and CYP2N20 were consecutively expressed throughout embryonic development, whereas CYP2P18 was expressed in all adult tissues, suggesting that members of each CYP2 gene family have different physiological roles even though they are located in the same cluster. Among endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), benzo[α]pyrene (B[α]P) induced expression of CYP2N23, bisphenol A (BPA) induced CYP2P18 and CYP2P19, and 4-octylphenol (OP) induced CYP2AD12, but there was no significant response to 4-nonylphenol (NP), implying differential catalytic roles of the enzyme. In this paper, we identify and characterize a CYP2 gene cluster in the mangrove killifish K. marmoratus with differing catalytic roles toward EDCs. Our findings provide insights on the roles of nine co-localized CYP2 genes and their catalytic functions for better understanding of chemical-biological interactions in fish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The Effects of Bisphenol A (BPA) on ErbB2 Positive Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Determination of bisphenol A in canned vegetables and fruit by high performance liquid chromatography. Food Addit Contam 2001 Jan;18(1):69-75. 12. Calafat AM...boiling and brushing. Food Addit Contam, 2003. 20(7): p. 684-9. 5. Joskow, R., et al., Exposure to bisphenol A from bis-glycidyl dimethacrylate...A from cans. J Food Prot, 2003. 66(8): p. 1444-7. 7. Kang, J.H. and F. Kondo, Bisphenol A migration from cans containing coffee and caffeine. Food

  14. Radiological Assessment for the Removal of Legacy BPA Power Lines that Cross the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millsap, William J.; Brush, Daniel J.

    2013-11-13

    This paper discusses some radiological field monitoring and assessment methods used to assess the components of an old electrical power transmission line that ran across the Hanford Site between the production reactors area (100 Area) and the chemical processing area (200 Area). This task was complicated by the presence of radon daughters -- both beta and alpha emitters -- residing on the surfaces, particularly on the surfaces of weathered metals and metals that had been electrically-charged. In many cases, these activities were high compared to the DOE Surface Contamination Guidelines, which were used as guides for the assessment. These methods included the use of the Toulmin model of argument, represented using Toulmin diagrams, to represent the combined force of several strands of evidences, rather than a single measurement of activity, to demonstrate beyond a reasonable doubt that no or very little Hanford activity was present and mixed with the natural activity. A number of forms of evidence were used: the overall chance of Hanford contamination; measurements of removable activity, beta and alpha; 1-minute scaler counts of total surface activity, beta and alpha, using "background makers"; the beta activity to alpha activity ratios; measured contamination on nearby components; NaI gamma spectral measurements to compare uncontaminated and potentially-contaminated spectra, as well as measurements for the sentinel radionuclides, Am- 241 and Cs-137 on conducting wire; comparative statistical analyses; and in-situ measurements of alpha spectra on conducting wire showing that the alpha activity was natural Po-210, as well as to compare uncontaminated and potentially-contaminated spectra.

  15. Long-term effects of a binary mixture of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and bisphenol A (BPA) in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiter, Susanne; Baumann, Lisa; Farber, H

    2012-01-01

    Previous in vitro studies have reported the potential of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) to increase the toxicity of other compounds. Given the complex nature of mixtures of environmental pollutants in aquatic systems together with the persistent and bioaccumulative properties of PFOS, this study...

  16. The Bisphenol A analogue Bisphenol S binds to K-Ras4B--implications for 'BPA-free' plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöpel, Miriam; Herrmann, Christian; Scherkenbeck, Jürgen; Stoll, Raphael

    2016-02-01

    K-Ras4B is a small GTPase that belongs to the Ras superfamily of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins. GTPases function as molecular switches in cells and are key players in intracellular signalling. Ras has been identified as an oncogene and is mutated in more than 20% of human cancers. Here, we report that Bisphenol S binds into a binding pocket of K-Ras4B previously identified for various low molecular weight compounds. Our results advocate for more comprehensive safety studies on the toxicity of Bisphenol S, as it is frequently used for Bisphenol A-free food containers. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  17. Neuroendocrine disruption without direct endocrine mode of action: Polychloro-biphenyls (PCBs) and bisphenol A (BPA) as case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinson, Anneline; Franssen, Delphine; Gérard, Arlette; Parent, Anne-Simone; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre

    Endocrine disruption is commonly thought to be restricted to a direct endocrine mode of action i.e. the perturbation of the activation of a given type of hormonal receptor by its natural ligand. Consistent with the WHO definition of an endocrine disrupter, a key issue is the "altered function(s) of the endocrine system". Such altered functions can result from different chemical interactions, beyond agonistic or antagonistic effect at a given receptor. Based on neuroendocrine disruption by polychlorinated biphenyls and bisphenol A, this paper proposes different mechanistic paradigms that can result in adverse health effects. They are a consequence of altered endocrine function(s) secondary to chemical interaction with different steps in the physiological regulatory processes, thus accounting for a possibly indirect endocrine mode of action. Copyright © 2017 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Long-term effects of a binary mixture of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and bisphenol A (BPA) in zebrafish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiter, Susanne; Holbech, Henrik; Skutlarek, D

    2011-01-01

    The frequent use of perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) in industrial applications and domestic products has led on a global basis to a continuous detection of PFCs in a wide range of environmental matrices including aquatic systems. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is the most commonly detected PFC...... in biotic and abiotic samples. To date, the understanding of the potential effects of PFOS towards biological systems has reached substantial progress. However, the majority of studies have focused on acute effects, leaving long-term effects largely unexplored. Given the persistent properties...... disrupting chemical (EDC) would represent an approach where specific endpoints such as sex steroid levels could be measured and compared, thus providing a more direct hint of any interactive effects. In the present study we investigated waterborne PFOS both alone and in a binary mixture with the known EDC...

  19. Annual Review of BPA-Funded Anadromous Fish Projects, March 18-20, 1986, Holiday Inn Airport, Portland, Oregon.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1986-02-01

    This report contains descriptions of projects specifically related to anadromous salmonids. They include projects in the following categories: (1) fish and wildlife projects in western Montana; (2) fish health and physiology; (3) habitat enhancement and passage improvement - Oregon I; (4) passage improvement and natural propagation - Washington; (5) habitat enhancement and passage improvements - Oregon II; (6) future hydroelectric assessments; (7) habitat enhancement and passage improvement - Idaho; (8) downstream migration: flows and monitoring; (9) downstream migration: reservoir impacts; and (10) habitat evaluation and monitoring. (ACR)

  20. Modification of Bisphenol-A Based Bismaleimide Resin (BPA-BMI) with an Allyl-Terminated Hyperbranched Polyimide (AT-PAEKI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    AT-PAEKI is ascribable to a Claisen rearrangement , involving the allyl ether terminal groups, while the second exotherm at 305 8C is due to a...that, upon heating, AT-PAEKI can undergo a Claisen rearrangement , resulting in the formation of allylphenol groups. These allylphenol groups can then...Möck et al. [4]. For their hyperbranched aromatic polyester, they found that the value of a decreased with increasing degree of branching (DOB). For a

  1. Modification of Bisphenol-A Based Bismaleimide Resin (BPA-BMI) with an Allyl-Terminated Hyperbranched Polyimide (AT-PAEKI)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Qin, Haihu; Mather, Patrick T; Baek, Jong-Beom; Tan, Loon-Seng

    2006-01-01

    As a continuation of previous work involving synthesis of an allyl-functionalized hyperbranched polyimide, AT-PAEKI, we have studied the use of this reactive polymer as a modifier of bisphenol-A based...

  2. Synthesis, Characterization, and Cross-Linking Strategy of a Quercetin-Based Epoxidized Monomer as a Naturally-Derived Replacement for BPA in Epoxy Resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristufek, Samantha L; Yang, Guozhen; Link, Lauren A; Rohde, Brian J; Robertson, Megan L; Wooley, Karen L

    2016-08-23

    The natural polyphenolic compound quercetin was functionalized and cross-linked to afford a robust epoxy network. Quercetin was selectively methylated and functionalized with glycidyl ether moieties using a microwave-assisted reaction on a gram scale to afford the desired monomer (Q). This quercetin-derived monomer was treated with nadic methyl anhydride (NMA) to obtain a cross-linked network (Q-NMA). The thermal and mechanical properties of this naturally derived network were compared to those of a conventional diglycidyl ether bisphenol A-derived counterpart (DGEBA-NMA). Q-NMA had similar thermal properties [i.e., glass transition (Tg ) and decomposition (Td ) temperatures] and comparable mechanical properties (i.e., Young's Modulus, storage modulus) to that of DGEBA-NMA. However, it had a lower tensile strength and higher flexural modulus at elevated temperatures. The application of naturally derived, sustainable compounds for the replacement of commercially available petrochemical-based epoxies is of great interest to reduce the environmental impact of these materials. Q-NMA is an attractive candidate for the replacement of bisphenol A-based epoxies in various specialty engineering applications. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Biomonitoring of human exposures to chlorinated derivatives and structural analogs of bisphenol A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andra, Syam S.; Charisiadis, Pantelis; Arora, Manish; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Makris, Konstantinos C.

    2015-01-01

    The high reactivity of bisphenol A (BPA) with disinfectant chlorine is evident in the instantaneous formation of chlorinated BPA derivatives (Cl(x)BPA) in various environmental media that show increased estrogen-activity when compared with that of BPA. The documented health risks associated with BPA

  4. Variability and Predictors of Urinary Bisphenol A Concentrations during Pregnancy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joe M. Braun; Amy E. Kalkbrenner; Antonia M. Calafat; John T. Bernert; Xiaoyun Ye; Manori J. Silva; Dana Boyd Barr; Sheela Sathyanarayana; Bruce P. Lanphear

    Background: Prenatal bisphenol A (BPA) exposure may be associated with developmental toxicity, but few studies have examined the variability and predictors of urinary BPA concentrations during pregnancy. Objective...

  5. Pharmacokinetic modeling: Prediction and evaluation of route dependent dosimetry of bisphenol A in monkeys with extrapolation to humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Jeffrey W., E-mail: jeffrey.fisher@fda.hhs.gov; Twaddle, Nathan C.; Vanlandingham, Michelle; Doerge, Daniel R.

    2011-11-15

    A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed for bisphenol A (BPA) in adult rhesus monkeys using intravenous (iv) and oral bolus doses of 100 {mu}g d6-BPA/kg (). This calibrated PBPK adult monkey model for BPA was then evaluated against published monkey kinetic studies with BPA. Using two versions of the adult monkey model based on monkey BPA kinetic data from and , the aglycone BPA pharmacokinetics were simulated for human oral ingestion of 5 mg d16-BPA per person (Voelkel et al., 2002). Voelkel et al. were unable to detect the aglycone BPA in plasma, but were able to detect BPA metabolites. These human model predictions of the aglycone BPA in plasma were then compared to previously published PBPK model predictions obtained by simulating the Voelkel et al. kinetic study. Our BPA human model, using two parameter sets reflecting two adult monkey studies, both predicted lower aglycone levels in human serum than the previous human BPA PBPK model predictions. BPA was metabolized at all ages of monkey (PND 5 to adult) by the gut wall and liver. However, the hepatic metabolism of BPA and systemic clearance of its phase II metabolites appear to be slower in younger monkeys than adults. The use of the current non-human primate BPA model parameters provides more confidence in predicting the aglycone BPA in serum levels in humans after oral ingestion of BPA. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A bisphenol A (BPA) PBPK model for the infant and adult monkey was constructed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The hepatic metabolic rate of BPA increased with age of the monkey. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The systemic clearance rate of metabolites increased with age of the monkey. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gut wall metabolism of orally administered BPA was substantial across all ages of monkeys. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aglycone BPA plasma concentrations were predicted in humans orally given oral doses of deuterated BPA.

  6. Are environmental levels of bisphenol a associated with reproductive function in fertile men?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendiola, Jaime; Jørgensen, Niels; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2010-01-01

    Rodent and in vitro studies have demonstrated the estrogenicity of bisphenol A (BPA). However, few studies have examined the relationship between human exposure to BPA and male reproductive function.......Rodent and in vitro studies have demonstrated the estrogenicity of bisphenol A (BPA). However, few studies have examined the relationship between human exposure to BPA and male reproductive function....

  7. Biosensor immunoassays for the detection of bisphenol A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchesini, G.R.; Meulenberg, E.; Haasnoot, W.; Irth, H.

    2005-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a xenoestrogen found in the environment, in consequence, for the biosensor detection of BPA we raised antibodies (polyclonal (PAbs) and monoclonal (MAbs)) against a structural analogue of BPA, 4,4 bis-(4-hydroxyphenyl) valeric acid (BVA). The kinetics of the MAb¿BPA interaction

  8. Biosensor immunoassays for the detection of bisphenol A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchesini, G.R.; meulenberg, E.P.; Haasnoot, W.; Irth, H.

    2005-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a xenoestrogen found in the environment, in consequence, for the biosensor detection of BPA we raised antibodies (polyclonal (PAbs) and monoclonal (MAbs)) against a structural analogue of BPA, 4,4 bis-(4-hydroxyphenyl) valeric acid (BVA). The kinetics of the MAb-BPA interaction

  9. Bisphenol A removal by the Dracaena plant and the role of plant-associating bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiyood, S; Vangnai, A S; Thiravetyan, P; Inthorn, D

    2010-06-15

    Dracaena sanderiana and Dracaena fragrans plants, as representatives of native, tropical, evergreen plants with fibrous root systems, were evaluated for bisphenol A (BPA) tolerance and uptake capability. D. sanderiana demonstrated significantly higher BPA removal capability than D. fragrans. Therefore, it was chosen for further study. D. sanderiana tolerated BPA toxicity levels up to 80 microM, while higher BPA concentrations damaged the plant. In the sterile hydroponic system with an initial BPA concentration of 20 microM, the plant could uptake approximately 50% of the BPA. The plant's ability to translocate BPA was confirmed by the detection of BPA that accumulated at the roots and stems, but not at the leaves of the plant. Upon BPA exposure, the D. sanderiana secreted extracellular plant mucilage as a protective barrier to the toxic compound. In the non-sterile treatment, the BPA dissipation was contributed not only by the D. sanderiana plant, but also by the co-existing microbes. The BPA reached 85% of the initial concentration at 20 microM. Among the six plant-associating bacterial isolates, Bacillus cereus strain BPW4 and Enterobacter sp. strain BPW5 colonized the D. sanderiana root surface and facilitated BPA dissipation in the hydroponic treatment system. In addition, the success of the BPA treatment in the hazardous waste landfill leachate demonstrated the potential application of D. sanderiana plant in the phytoremediation of BPA contaminated wastewater or industrial leachate. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Biomonitoring of human exposures to chlorinated derivatives and structural analogs of bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andra, Syam S; Charisiadis, Pantelis; Arora, Manish; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Makris, Konstantinos C

    2015-12-01

    The high reactivity of bisphenol A (BPA) with disinfectant chlorine is evident in the instantaneous formation of chlorinated BPA derivatives (ClxBPA) in various environmental media that show increased estrogen-activity when compared with that of BPA. The documented health risks associated with BPA exposures have led to the gradual market entry of BPA structural analogs, such as bisphenol S (BPS), bisphenol F (BPF), bisphenol B (BPB), etc. A suite of exposure sources to ClxBPA and BPA analogs in the domestic environment is anticipated to drive the nature and range of halogenated BPA derivatives that can form when residual BPA comes in contact with disinfectant in tap water and/or consumer products. The primary objective of this review was to survey all available studies reporting biomonitoring protocols of ClxBPA and structural BPA analogs (BPS, BPF, BPB, etc.) in human matrices. Focus was paid on describing the analytical methodologies practiced for the analysis of ClxBPA and BPA analogs using hyphenated chromatography and mass spectrometry techniques, because current methodologies for human matrices are complex. During the last decade, an increasing number of ecotoxicological, cell-culture and animal-based and human studies dealing with ClxBPA exposure sources and routes of exposure, metabolism and toxicity have been published. Up to date findings indicated the association of ClxBPA with metabolic conditions, such as obesity, lipid accumulation, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, particularly in in-vitro and in-vivo studies. We critically discuss the limitations, research needs and future opportunities linked with the inclusion of ClxBPA and BPA analogs into exposure assessment protocols of relevant epidemiological studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Estimating bisphenol A exposure levels using a questionnaire targeting known sources of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Sarah Oppeneer; Harnack, Lisa; Robien, Kim

    2016-03-01

    To develop a BPA Exposure Assessment Module (BEAM) for use in large observational studies and to evaluate the ability of the BEAM to estimate bisphenol A (BPA) exposure levels. The BEAM was designed by modifying an FFQ with questions targeting known sources of BPA exposure. Frequency of intake of known dietary sources of BPA was assessed using the BEAM and three 24 h food records as a reference diet measurement tool. Urinary BPA (uBPA) levels were measured as the criterion tool in a pooled urine sample (nine spot samples per participant). Spearman correlations, linear regression and weighted kappa analysis were used to evaluate the ability of the BEAM and food records to estimate BPA exposure levels. Minneapolis/Saint Paul, MN, USA. Sixty-eight healthy adult (20-59 years) volunteers. Dietary BPA intake assessed by the BEAM was not associated with uBPA levels and was unable to predict participants' rank by uBPA levels. BEAM models with all a priori predictors explained 25 % of the variability in uBPA levels. Canned food intake assessed by food records was associated with uBPA levels, but was unable to rank participants by uBPA levels. Multivariable-adjusted food record models with a priori predictors explained 41 % of the variability in uBPA levels. Known dietary sources of BPA exposure explained less than half the variability in uBPA levels, regardless of diet assessment method. Findings suggest that a questionnaire approach may be insufficient for ranking BPA exposure level and additional important sources of BPA exposure likely exist.

  12. Influence of household cleaning practices on the magnitude and variability of urinary monochlorinated bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyvas, H; Andra, S S; Charisiadis, P; Karaolis, C; Makris, K C

    2014-08-15

    Low-dose health effects of BPA have not been adequately explored in the presence of BPA metabolites of chlorinated structure that may exert larger estrogenic effects than those of their parent compound. We hypothesized that chlorine-containing cleaning products used in household cleaning activities could modify the magnitude of total urinary BPA concentration measurements via the production of chlorinated BPA (ClBPA) derivatives. Our objective was to investigate the influence of typical household cleaning activities (dishwashing, toilet cleaning, mopping, laundry, etc.) on the magnitude and variability of urinary total BPA and mono-ClBPA levels in the general adult population. A cross-sectional study (n=224) included an adult (≥18 years) pool of participants from the general population of Nicosia, Cyprus. First morning urine voids were collected, and administered questionnaires included items about household cleaning habits, demographics, drinking water consumption rates and water source/usage patterns. Urinary concentrations of total BPA (range: 0.2-82 μg L(-1)), mono-ClBPA (16-340 ng L(-1)), and total trihalomethanes (0.1-5.0 μg L(-1)) were measured using gas chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry and large volume injection. Linear multiple regression analysis revealed that dishwashing along with age and gender (females) were able to predict urinary mono-ClBPA levels (ng g(-1)), even after adjusting for covariates; this was not the case for urinary total BPA levels (ng g(-1)). Significant (pdisinfectant (chlorine) in promoting formation of both ClBPA and THM. Urinary mono-ClBPA levels were measured for the first time using an appreciable sample size, highlighting the co-occurring patterns of both total BPA and mono-ClBPA. Epidemiological studies and probabilistic BPA risk assessment exercises should consider assessing daily intake estimates for chlorinated BPA compounds, as well. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. 24-hour human urine and serum profiles of bisphenol A: Evidence against sublingual absorption following ingestion in soup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teeguarden, Justin G; Twaddle, Nathan C; Churchwell, Mona I; Yang, Xiaoxia; Fisher, Jeffrey W; Seryak, Liesel M; Doerge, Daniel R

    2015-10-15

    Extensive first-pass metabolism of ingested bisphenol A (BPA) in the gastro-intestinal tract and liver restricts blood concentrations of bioactive BPA to <1% of total BPA in humans and non-human primates. Absorption of ingested BPA through non-metabolizing tissues of the oral cavity, recently demonstrated in dogs, could lead to the higher serum BPA concentrations reported in some human biomonitoring studies. We hypothesized that the extensive interaction with the oral mucosa by a liquid matrix, like soup, relative to solid food or capsules, might enhance absorption through non-metabolizing oral cavity tissues in humans, producing higher bioavailability and higher serum BPA concentrations. Concurrent serum and urine concentrations of d6-BPA, and its glucuronide and sulfate conjugates, were measured over a 24hour period in 10 adult male volunteers following ingestion of 30μg d6-BPA/kg body weight in soup. Absorption of d6-BPA was rapid (t1/2=0.45h) and elimination of the administered dose was complete 24h post-ingestion, evidence against any tissue depot for BPA. The maximum serum d6-BPA concentration was 0.43nM at 1.6h after administration and represented <0.3% of total d6-BPA. Pharmacokinetic parameters, pharmacokinetic model simulations, and the significantly faster appearance half-life of d6-BPA-glucuronide compared to d6-BPA (0.29h vs 0.45h) were evidence against meaningful absorption of BPA in humans through any non-metabolizing tissue (<1%). This study confirms that typical exposure to BPA in food produces picomolar to subpicomolar serum BPA concentrations in humans, not nM concentrations reported in some biomonitoring studies. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. DETERMINATION OF BISPHENOL A IN THERMAL PAPER RECEIPTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Serkan YALÇIN

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA is a chemical substance which is produced in great quantities globally and of which serious negative effects on endocrine system are suspected. It’s a commonly used color developer in thermal paper. BPA used for this purpose is in free, unbound form and one of the potential sources for BPA exposure of humans. In this study, 12 thermal paper receipt samples were collected from various workplaces selected randomly and analyzed. BPA was determined in all samples. Average value of high BPA concentrations obtained from 10 samples was found as 13.83 mg BPA/g paper. At the same time, low values being 0.40 mg BPA/g paper and 0.11 mg BPA/g paper respectively were found in two samples as compared to others.

  15. Relationship between dietary factors and bisphenol a exposure: the second Korean National Environmental Health Survey (KoNEHS 2012-2014)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jin-Soo Park; Seyoung Kim; Minkyu Park; Yeji Kim; Hyeeun Lee; Hyunrim Choi; Sinye Lim

    2017-01-01

    Even though a nationwide biomonitoring of BPA exposure was conducted on the Korean general population, there is still not enough number of studies exploring the relation between BPA exposure level and dietary factors...

  16. Endocrine Disruptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... estrogens and other hormones on human health. FDA - Bisphenol A (BPA) - A summary of FDA’s current perspective on BPA in food contact applications. Organ: Talking Glossary of Genetic Terms - “ ...

  17. Polycarbonate Bottle Use and Urinary Bisphenol a Concentrations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jenny L. Carwile; Henry T. Luu; Laura S. Bassett; Daniel A. Driscoll; Caterina Yuan; Jennifer Y. Chang; Xiaoyun Ye; Antonia M. Calafat; Karin B. Michels

    2009-01-01

    Background: Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high-production-volume chemical commonly used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastic Low-level concentrations of BPA in animals and possibly in humans may cause endocrine disruption...

  18. Urinary bisphenol A concentrations are associated with reproductive parameters in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adoamnei, Evdochia; Mendiola, Jaime; Vela-Soria, Fernando

    2018-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a pervasive environmental toxicant with known reproductive effects on sperm parameters and hormone levels. Several observational studies have investigated the associations between BPA exposure and male reproductive function, but findings are inconsistent. The objective of thi...

  19. How to Save Money on Infant Formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... least 1 year old. DO NOT reuse old plastic baby bottles. Reused or hand-me-down bottles may contain bisphenol-A (BPA). The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has banned the use of BPA in baby bottles due ...

  20. Adsorption of Bisphenol A to a Carbon Nanotube Reduced Its Endocrine Disrupting Effect in Mice Male Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenwei Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Soluble carbon nanotubes (CNTs have shown promise as materials for adsorption of environmental contaminants such as Bisphenol A (BPA, due to the high adsorption capacity and strong desorption hysteresis of BPA on CNTs. The adsorption of BPA to CNTs may change the properties of both BPA and CNTs, and induce different toxicity to human and living systems from that of BPA and CNTs alone. Herein, we report that oral exposure of BPA/MWCNT–COOH (carboxylated multi-walled carbon nantubes adduct to mice during gestation and lactation period decreased the male offspring reproductive toxicity compared with those induced by BPA alone. The adduct decreased malondialdehyde (MDA level in testis and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH in serum, but increased the level of serum testosterone in male offspring in comparison to BPA alone. Our investigations broadened the knowledge of nanotoxicity and provided important information on the safe application of CNTs.

  1. Estudos de biomonitoração do sistema urinário, circulatório e tecidos indicam grande exposição ao Bisfenol A

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenberg, Laura N.; Chahoud, Ibrahim; Heindel, Jerrold J; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Paumgartten, Francisco J.R; Schoenfelder, Gilbert

    2012-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the highest-volume chemicals produced worldwide, and human exposure to BPA is thought to be ubiquitous. Thus, there are concerns that the amount of BPA to which humans are exposed may cause adverse health effects. We examined many possibilities for why biomonitoring and toxicokinetic studies could come to seemingly conflicting conclusions. More than 80 published human biomonitoring studies that measured BPA concentrations in human tissues, urine, blood, and other f...

  2. Development of a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for assessment of human exposure to bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoxia; Doerge, Daniel R; Teeguarden, Justin G; Fisher, Jeffrey W

    2015-12-15

    A previously developed physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for bisphenol A (BPA) in adult rhesus monkeys was modified to characterize the pharmacokinetics of BPA and its phase II conjugates in adult humans following oral ingestion. Coupled with in vitro studies on BPA metabolism in the liver and the small intestine, the PBPK model was parameterized using oral pharmacokinetic data with deuterated-BPA (d6-BPA) delivered in cookies to adult humans after overnight fasting. The availability of the serum concentration time course of unconjugated d6-BPA offered direct empirical evidence for the calibration of BPA model parameters. The recalibrated PBPK adult human model for BPA was then evaluated against published human pharmacokinetic studies with BPA. A hypothesis of decreased oral uptake was needed to account for the reduced peak levels observed in adult humans, where d6-BPA was delivered in soup and food was provided prior to BPA ingestion, suggesting the potential impact of dosing vehicles and/or fasting on BPA disposition. With the incorporation of Monte Carlo analysis, the recalibrated adult human model was used to address the inter-individual variability in the internal dose metrics of BPA for the U.S. general population. Model-predicted peak BPA serum levels were in the range of pM, with 95% of human variability falling within an order of magnitude. This recalibrated PBPK model for BPA in adult humans provides a scientific basis for assessing human exposure to BPA that can serve to minimize uncertainties incurred during extrapolations across doses and species. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Effects of Water Bottle Materials and Filtration on Bisphenol A Content in Laboratory Animal Drinking Water

    OpenAIRE

    Honeycutt, Jennifer A; Nguyen, Jenny Q T; Kentner, Amanda C.; Brenhouse, Heather C.

    2017-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely used in the polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins that are found in laboratory animal husbandry materials including cages and water bottles. Concerns about BPA exposure in humans has led to investigations that suggest physiologic health risks including disruptions to the endocrine system and CNS. However, the extent of exposure of laboratory animals to BPA in drinking water is unclear. In the first study, we compared the amount of BPA contamination in water store...

  4. Adsorption and degradation of14C-bisphenol A in a soil trench.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jian; Wang, Xin-Ze; Zhang, Zhen; Sui, Yan-Ming; Wu, Hai-Lu; Feng, Ji-Meng; Tong, Xin-Nan; Zhang, Zhen-Yu

    2017-12-31

    Bisphenol A (BPA) has caused widespread concern among scholars as a result of its estrogenic toxicity. It exists mainly in natural waters, sediments, and soil, as well as sewage and wastewater sludge. Considering that BPA is a common environmental pollutant that is removed along with chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrogen, and phosphorus in drainage treatment systems, it is important to research the fate of BPA in sewage treatment systems. In this research, laboratory batch experiments on soil degradation and adsorption were conducted with 14 C-BPA, aiming to discuss the transport and degradation characteristics of BPA in both simulated facilities and a soil trench. Based on the experimental results, the Freundlich model could be applied to fit the isothermal adsorption curve of the BPA in soil. A low mobility characteristic of BPA was discovered. The mineralization rate of BPA was fast and that of the reaction showed small fluctuations. After degradation, 21.3 and 17.7% of the BPA groups (the experimental group treated with ammonia oxidase (AMO) inhibitor and the control group) were converted into 14 CO 2 , respectively. This indicates that the nitrification and degradation of BPA had a certain competitive relationship. Besides, nitrification did not significantly affect the soil residue of BPA. Through the soil trench test, the average removal rate of BPA in the soil trench was 85.5%. 14 CO 2 was discharged via the mineralization of BPA, accounting for 2.5% of the initial input. BPA easily accumulated in the bottom soil of the soil trench. BPA and its metabolites in the effluent accounted for 14.5% of the initial dosage. The residual extractable BPA and its metabolites in the soil accounted for 51.3%, and the remaining part of the unextractable residue represented 19.8% of the initial radioactive dosage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Membrane-assisted advanced oxidation processes for wastewater treatment.

    OpenAIRE

    Escalona Hernández, Ivonne Graciela

    2014-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) and tartrazine (TAR) belong to the compounds which are potentially harmful during wastewater reclamation. BPA is a typical Endocrine Disrupting Chemical and TAR is an azo dye. Variety of industry, especially paper and textile industries produces a large volume of wastewater that is polluted with BPA and dyes. Therefore, BPA and dyes-charged effluents need to be efficiently managed in order to avoid environmental problems linked to them. During the last decade, several method...

  6. Bonneville Power Administration 1998 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1998-01-01

    This is the 1998 annual report to the President by the Administrator and Chief Executive Officer of the Bonneville Power Administration. The topics of the report include financial highlights, letter to the President, review of 1998, financial data, management`s discussion and analysis, performance measures, financial statements, BPA executives, BPA offices, BPA profile.

  7. Variability of bisphenol-A concentrations in first morning, bedtime, and 24-hour urine samples in 50 North Carolina adults over a six-week period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) is a high-production volume chemical that is used to make a number of consumer products and packaged goods. Many cross-sectional studies have frequently reported detecting BPA in urine. However, limited data exist on the temporal variability of urinary BPA conce...

  8. Bisphenol A in Relation to Behavior and Learning of School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Soon-Beom; Hong, Yun-Chul; Kim, Jae-Won; Park, Eun-Jin; Shin, Min-Sup; Kim, Boong-Nyun; Yoo, Hee-Jeong; Cho, In-Hee; Bhang, Soo-Young; Cho, Soo-Churl

    2013-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) has been shown to affect brain and behavior in rodents and nonhuman primates, but there are few studies focusing on its relationship to human neurobehavior. We aimed to investigate the relationship between environmental exposure to BPA and childhood neurobehavior. Methods: Urinary BPA concentrations and behavioral and learning…

  9. 77 FR 26275 - Bonneville Power Administration; Montana-to-Washington Transmission System Upgrade Project EIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-03

    ... Bonneville Power Administration; Montana-to-Washington Transmission System Upgrade Project EIS AGENCY... (including wind generators and power marketers) requested the use of BPA's transmission system to transmit their power. To determine if BPA could offer the service requested, BPA studied the transmission system...

  10. Deprotonation induced ligand-to-metal electron transfer: Synthesis of a mixed-valence Rh(-I,I) dinuclear compound and its reaction with dioxygen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tejel, C.; Ciriano, M.A.; del Río, M.P.; van den Bruele, F.J.; Hetterscheid, D.G.H.; Tsichlis i Spithas, N.; de Bruin, B.

    2008-01-01

    Treatment of bis(2-picolyl)amine (bpa) with [{Rh(nbd)(mu-OMe))(2)] leads to unexpected and unique redox asymmetric dinuclear Rh-I, Rh+I complex [{Rh(ndb)}(2)(bpa-2H)] (2) with a pi-coordinating imine bound to a tetrahedral low valent rhodate(-I). Mono-oxygenation of the deprotonated bpa ligand in 2

  11. Dynamic experiments with high bisphenol-A concentrations modelled with an ASM model extended to include a separate XOC degrading microorganism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindblom, Erik Ulfson; Press-Kristensen, Kåre; Vanrolleghem, P.A.

    2009-01-01

    with the endocrine disrupting XOC bisphenol-A (BPA) in an activated sludge process with real wastewater were used to hypothesize an ASM-based process model including aerobic growth of a specific BPA-degrading microorganism and sorption of BPA to sludge. A parameter estimation method was developed, which...

  12. Mitigating potential of Ginkgo biloba extract and melatonin against hepatic and nephrotoxicity induced by Bisphenol A in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayssaa M. Wahby

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A is one of the anthropogenic chemicals produced worldwide, currently released into the environment and causes endocrine-disruption. The largest environmental compartments of BPA are abiotic associated with water and suspended solids that becomes an integrated part of the food chain. The present study aimed to examine the possible protective role of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE, melatonin and their combination against BPA-induced liver and kidney toxicity of male rats. Fifty rats were divided into five equal groups: control, BPA, BPA plus GBE, BPA plus melatonin and BPA plus GBE plus melatonin. The elevated activities of plasma ALT and AST in addition to increased levels of urea and creatinine concomitant with the decreased total plasma protein could reflect the injurious effect of BPA. Liver and kidney levels of TBARS were significantly increased, while GSH, SOD and GPX were decreased in BPA-treated rats. Also, CAT and GST activities were significantly disrupted in the liver and kidney of rats treated with BPA. Moreover, BPA significantly increased the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α in the liver and kidney tissues. The histopathological analysis confirmed these results. All the previous alterations in the liver and kidney could be ameliorated when BPA-treated rats were co-administrated either with GBE, melatonin or their combination. These natural substances could exhibit protective effects against BPA-induced hepato- and nephrotoxicity owing to their antioxidative and anti-inflammatory potentials. Keywords: Bisphenol A, Ginkgo biloba extract, Melatonin, Lipid peroxidation, Antioxidant enzymes, Histopathological analysis

  13. Allometric scaling for predicting human clearance of bisphenol A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collet, Séverine H., E-mail: s.collet@envt.fr; Picard-Hagen, Nicole, E-mail: n.hagen-picard@envt.fr; Lacroix, Marlène Z., E-mail: m.lacroix@envt.fr; Puel, Sylvie, E-mail: s.puel@envt.fr; Viguié, Catherine, E-mail: c.viguie@envt.fr; Bousquet-Melou, Alain, E-mail: a.bousquet-Melou@envt.fr; Toutain, Pierre-Louis, E-mail: pltoutain@wanadoo.fr; Gayrard, Véronique, E-mail: v.gayrard@envt.fr

    2015-05-01

    The investigation of interspecies differences in bisphenol A (BPA) pharmacokinetics (PK) may be useful for translating findings from animal studies to humans, identifying major processes involved in BPA clearance mechanisms, and predicting BPA PK parameters in man. For the first time, a large range of species in terms of body weight, from 0.02 kg (mice) to 495 kg (horses) was used to predict BPA clearance in man by an allometric approach. BPA PK was evaluated after intravenous administration of BPA in horses, sheep, pigs, dogs, rats and mice. A non-compartmental analysis was used to estimate plasma clearance and steady state volume of distribution and predict BPA PK parameters in humans from allometric scaling. In all the species investigated, BPA plasma clearance was high and of the same order of magnitude as their respective hepatic blood flow. By an allometric scaling, the human clearance was estimated to be 1.79 L/min (equivalent to 25.6 mL/kg.min) with a 95% prediction interval of 0.36 to 8.83 L/min. Our results support the hypothesis that there are highly efficient and hepatic mechanisms of BPA clearance in man. - Highlights: • Allometric scaling was used to predict BPA pharmacokinetic parameters in humans. • In all species, BPA plasma clearance approached hepatic blood flow. • Human BPA clearance was estimated to be 1.79 L/min.

  14. Transcriptome profiling reveals bisphenol A alternatives activate estrogen receptor alpha in human breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plasticizers with estrogenic activity, such as bisphenol A (BPA), have potential adverse health effects in humans. Due to mounting evidence of these health effects, BPA is being phased out and replaced by other bisphenol variants in “BPA-free” products. We have compared estrogeni...

  15. In vitro evidence for endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC)'s ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... competitive inhibition towards the glucuronidation of AZT, and nonlinear repression with competitive equation was used to calculate the Ki value to be 3.2 μM. Conclusion: Potential BPA-AZT interaction might occur when the patients administered with AZT is also exposed to BPA. Keywords: Bisphenol A (BPA), zidovudine ...

  16. Final Draft Strategic Marketing Plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-02-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has developed a marketing plan to define how BPA can be viable and competitive in the future, a result important to BPA`s customers and constituents. The Marketing Plan represents the preferred customer outcomes, marketplace achievements, and competitive advantage required to accomplish the Vision and the Strategic Business Objectives of the agency. The Marketing Plan contributes to successful implementation of BPA`s Strategic Business Objectives (SBOs) by providing common guidance to organizations and activities throughout the agency responsible for (1) planning, constructing, operating, and maintaining the Federal Columbia River Power System; (2) conducting business with BPA`s customers; and (3) providing required internal support services.

  17. Development of bisphenol A-removing recombinant Escherichia coli by monomeric and dimeric surface display of bisphenol A-binding peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruthamuthu, Murali Kannan; Hong, Jiyeon; Arulsamy, Kulandaisamy; Somasundaram, Sivachandiran; Hong, SoonHo; Choe, Woo-Seok; Yoo, Ik-Keun

    2017-12-20

    Peptide-displaying Escherichia coli cells were investigated for use in adsorptive removal of bisphenol A (BPA) both in Luria-Bertani medium including BPA or ATM thermal paper eluted wastewater. Two recombinant strains were constructed with monomeric and dimeric repeats of the 7-mer BPA-binding peptide (KSLENSY), respectively. Greater than threefold increased adsorption of BPA [230.4 µmol BPA per g dry cell weight (DCW)] was found in dimeric peptide-displaying cells compared to monomeric strains (63.4 µmol per g DCW) in 15 ppm BPA solution. The selective removal of BPA from a mixture of BPA analogs (bisphenol F and bisphenol S) was verified in both monomeric and dimeric peptide-displaying cells. The binding chemistry of BPA with the peptide was assumed, based on molecular docking analysis, to be the interaction of BPA with serine and asparagine residues within the 7-mer peptide sequence. The peptide-displaying cells also functioned efficiently in thermal paper eluted wastewater containing 14.5 ppm BPA.

  18. Bidirectional placental transfer of Bisphenol A and its main metabolite, Bisphenol A-Glucuronide, in the isolated perfused human placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbel, T; Gayrard, V; Puel, S; Lacroix, M Z; Berrebi, A; Gil, S; Viguié, C; Toutain, P-L; Picard-Hagen, N

    2014-08-01

    The widespread human exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disruptor interfering with developmental processes, raises the question of the risk for human health of BPA fetal exposure. In humans, highly variable BPA concentrations have been reported in the feto-placental compartment. However the human fetal exposure to BPA still remains unclear. The aim of the study was to characterize placental exchanges of BPA and its main metabolite, Bisphenol A-Glucuronide (BPA-G) using the non-recirculating dual human placental perfusion. This high placental bidirectional permeability to the lipid soluble BPA strongly suggests a transport by passive diffusion in both materno-to-fetal and feto-to-maternal direction, leading to a calculated ratio between fetal and maternal free BPA concentrations of about 1. In contrast, BPA-G has limited placental permeability, particularly in the materno-to-fetal direction. Thus the fetal exposure to BPA conjugates could be explained mainly by its limited capacity to extrude BPA-G. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of bisphenol A on P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux and ultrastructure of the sea urchin embryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bošnjak, Ivana [Laboratory for Biology and Microbial Genetics, Department of Biochemical Engineering, Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology, Pierottijeva 6, Zagreb (Croatia); Borra, Marco [Molecular Biology Service, Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale 80121, Napoli (Italy); Iamunno, Franco; Benvenuto, Giovanna [Electron Microscopy Service, Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale 80121, Napoli (Italy); Ujević, Ivana [Laboratory of Plankton and Shellfish Toxicity, Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Setaliste Ivana Mestrovica 63, 21000 Split (Croatia); Bušelić, Ivana [Laboratory for Aquaculture, Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Setaliste Ivana Mestrovica 63, 21000 Split (Croatia); Roje-Busatto, Romana [Laboratory of Plankton and Shellfish Toxicity, Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Setaliste Ivana Mestrovica 63, 21000 Split (Croatia); Mladineo, Ivona, E-mail: mladineo@izor.hr [Laboratory for Aquaculture, Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Setaliste Ivana Mestrovica 63, 21000 Split (Croatia); Assemble Marine Laboratory, Stazione Zoological Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, Naples (Italy)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Effects of BPA on embryonic development of Paracentrotus lividus were determined. • Transport assay, intracellular BPA measurements and gene expression surveys were made. • Multidrug efflux transporter P-gp/ABCB1 is involved in BPA elimination. • Endocrine disruption is inferred by orphan steroid hormone receptor (shr2) upregulation. • BPA delayed mitosis, inducing aberrant karyokinesis and dysfunctional microfilaments. - Abstract: Usage of bisphenol A (BPA) in production of polycarbonate plastics has resulted in global distribution of BPA in the environment. These high concentrations cause numerous negative effects to the aquatic biota, among which the most known is the induction of endocrine disruption. The focus of this research was to determine the effects of two experimentally determined concentrations of BPA (100 nM and 4 μM) on cellular detoxification mechanisms during the embryonic development (2-cell, pluteus) of the rocky sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus), primarily the potential involvement of multidrug efflux transport in the BPA intercellular efflux. The results of transport assay, measurements of the intracellular BPA and gene expression surveys, for the first time indicate the importance of P-glycoprotein (P-gp/ABCB1) in defense against BPA. Cytotoxic effects of BPA, validated by the immunohistochemistry (IHC) and the transmission electron microscopy (TEM), induced the aberrant karyokinesis, and consequently, the impairment of embryo development through the first cell division and retardation.

  20. Modulation of cytokine expression in human macrophages by endocrine-disrupting chemical Bisphenol-A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yanzhen; Mei, Chenfang [State Key Laboratory of Applied Microbiology Southern China, Guangzhou 510070 (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Microbial Culture Collection and Application, Guangdong Institute of Microbiology, Guangzhou 510070 (China); Liu, Hao [Affiliated Cancer Hospital and Cancer Research Institute, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 510095 (China); Wang, Hongsheng [Department of Microbial and Biochemical Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Zeng, Guoqu; Lin, Jianhui [State Key Laboratory of Applied Microbiology Southern China, Guangzhou 510070 (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Microbial Culture Collection and Application, Guangdong Institute of Microbiology, Guangzhou 510070 (China); Xu, Meiying, E-mail: xumy@gdim.cn [State Key Laboratory of Applied Microbiology Southern China, Guangzhou 510070 (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Microbial Culture Collection and Application, Guangdong Institute of Microbiology, Guangzhou 510070 (China)

    2014-09-05

    Highlights: • Effects of BPA on the cytokines expression of human macrophages were investigated. • BPA increased pro-inflammation cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 production. • BPA decreased anti-inflammation IL-10 and TGF-β production. • ERα/β/ERK/NF-κB signaling involved in BPA-mediated cytokines expression. - Abstract: Exposure to environmental endocrine-disrupting chemical Bisphenol-A (BPA) is often associated with dysregulated immune homeostasis, but the mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, the effects of BPA on the cytokines responses of human macrophages were investigated. Treatment with BPA increased pro-inflammation cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) production, but decreased anti-inflammation cytokines interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) production in THP1 macrophages, as well as in primary human macrophages. BPA effected cytokines expression through estrogen receptor α/β (ERα/β)-dependent mechanism with the evidence of ERα/β antagonist reversed the expression of cytokines. We also identified that activation of extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK)/nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signal cascade marked the effects of BPA on cytokines expression. Our results indicated that BPA effected inflammatory responses of macrophages via modulating of cytokines expression, and provided a new insight into the link between exposure to BPA and human health.

  1. Characterization of the contribution of buccal absorption to internal exposure to bisphenol A through the diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guignard, Davy; Gauderat, Glenn; Gayrard, Véronique; Lacroix, Marlène Z; Picard-Hagen, Nicole; Puel, Sylvie; Toutain, Pierre-Louis; Viguié, Catherine

    2016-07-01

    The gavage route is often used for the toxicological evaluation of food contaminants. This route does not take into account absorption of the toxicants through the buccal mucosa, as evidenced in dogs for bisphenol A (BPA). Our goal was to determine the functional significance of buccal BPA absorption during dietary exposure. Four ewes received BPA by nasogastric gavage (100 mg/kg) and through food pellets (10 mg/kg), 13 days apart. The time course of serum concentrations of BPA and its main metabolite BPA-G was submitted to non-compartmental analysis. The dietary route led to 3-fold higher bioavailability as compared to gavage. The ratio of BPA-G to BPA concentrations varied greatly over time after the food administration, but not after gavage, suggesting a delayed metabolism of BPA after dietary exposure. The maximum entrance rate of BPA in the systemic circulation, determined by deconvolution analysis, was much higher after dietary administration than after gavage and a biphasic pattern of BPA entry was observed in 3 of the 4 ewes. Our results evidenced a dual mechanism of BPA absorption (buccal and digestive) after dietary exposure and highlight the necessity to take buccal absorption into account when evaluating food contaminants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Excretion of bisphenol A into rat milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabayashi, Ken; Watanabe, Toshi

    2010-03-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine-disrupting chemical, is widely used in the production of polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins. This study analyzed the BPA concentration in rat milk, in order to assess the risk of BPA transfer to the offspring via milk. The rats ingested BPA by oral administration or by drinking the water in a polycarbonate bottle, and the milk samples were collected using an automated experimental milker. The BPA concentration in the samples of milk, drinking water, and food was analyzed by LC/MS. In the case of milk samples obtained from rats injected with BPA at 2, 4, 8, and 24 h prior to milking, the BPA concentrations were 0.462 +/- 0.182 ppm, 0.138 +/- 0.0185 ppm, 0.080 +/- 0.0197 ppm, and 0.0232 +/- 0.0051 ppm, respectively. Also, in the cases of the water sample left in polycarbonate bottle and the milk sample obtained from rats provided it as drinking water, the concentrations of BPA were 0.000332 +/- 0.00015 ppm and 0.0184 +/- 0.0050 ppm, respectively. The results indicate that the BPA administered to the dams was transferred to their milk, and that BPA concentration in milk was higher at the early period after the single bolus dose. Additionally, these results reveal that sequential elution of BPA from polycarbonate containers in a much diluted form would undergo bioaccumulation in dams and likely be transferred to pups via milk in a much concentrated form.

  3. Maternal Transfer of Bisphenol A During Nursing Causes Sperm Impairment in Male Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalb, Ana Cristina; Kalb, Ana Luiza; Cardoso, Tainã Figueiredo; Fernandes, Cristina Gevehr; Corcini, Carine Dahl; Varela Junior, Antonio Sergio; Martínez, Pablo Elías

    2016-05-01

    The health effects of environmental chemicals on animals and humans are of growing concern. Human epidemiological and animal study data indicate that reproductive disorders and diseases begin early during prenatal and postnatal development. An increase of human male reproductive disturbance in the past several decades was associated to chemicals called endocrine disruptors (ED). Bisphenol A (BPA) is a ubiquitous organic environmental contaminant with ED activity. This study verified the effect of BPA exposure via breast milk during the lactation (early postnatal) period in male mice. Dams were exposed to oral BPA (300, 900, and 3000 µg/kg/BW/day) during the breastfeeding period (21 days). BPA at all concentrations significantly impaired sperm parameters in adult mice (8 months old), but mitochondrial functionality was more affected at BPA 3000. The acrosome membrane parameter was affected by BPA concentrations from 900 to 3000, and DNA integrity showed pronounced impairment at BPA 900 and 3000. BPA 3000 treatment also induced testicular degeneration and complete aplasia in some seminiferous tubules. Testicular oxidative damage was observed, and the total antioxidant capacity was impaired in BPA 900 and 3000 treatment groups. Taken together, the present study demonstrated long-term adverse effects of BPA in male mice, including reduced sperm quality, antioxidant capacity, and changes in testicular tissue. Our results clearly demonstrate the danger of BPA transferred via lactation on sperm quality registered even after a long time-elapsed from exposure to this harmful chemical.

  4. Effects of bisphenol A treatment during pregnancy on kidney development in mice: a stereological and histopathological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuñez, P; Fernandez, T; García-Arévalo, M; Alonso-Magdalena, P; Nadal, A; Perillan, C; Arguelles, J

    2017-11-06

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical found in plastics that resembles oestrogen in organisms. Developmental exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals, such as BPA, increases the susceptibility to type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases. Animal studies have reported a nephron deficit in offspring exposed to maternal diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the prenatal BPA exposure effects on nephrogenesis in a mouse model that was predisposed to T2DM. This study quantitatively evaluated the renal structural changes using stereology and histomorphometry methods. The OF1 pregnant mice were treated with a vehicle or BPA (10 or 100 μg/kg/day) during days 9-16 of gestation (early nephrogenesis). The 30-day-old offspring were sacrificed, and tissue samples were collected and prepared for histopathological and stereology studies. Glomerular abnormalities and reduced glomerular formation were observed in the BPA offspring. The kidneys of the BPA10 and BPA100 female offspring had a significantly lower glomerular number and density than those of the CONTROL female offspring. The glomerular histomorphometry revealed a significant difference between the female and male CONTROL offspring for the analysed glomerular parameters that disappeared in the BPA10 and BPA100 offspring. In addition, the kidney histopathological examination showed typical male cuboidal epithelial cells of the Bowman capsule in the female BPA offspring. Exposure to environmentally relevant doses of BPA during embryonic development altered nephrogenesis. These structural changes could be associated with an increased risk of developing cardiometabolic diseases later in life.

  5. Bisphenol A and Hormone-Associated Cancers: Current Progress and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hui; Yang, Bao-Jun; Li, Nan; Feng, Li-Min; Shi, Xiao-Yu; Zhao, Wei-Hong; Liu, Si-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Bisphenol A (BPA), a carbon-based synthetic compound, exhibits hormone-like properties and is present ubiquitously in the environment and in human tissues due to its widespread use and biological accumulation. BPA can mimic estrogen to interact with estrogen receptors α and β, leading to changes in cell proliferation, apoptosis, or migration and thereby, contributing to cancer development and progression. At the genetic level, BPA has been shown to be involved in multiple oncogenic signaling pathways, such as the STAT3, MAPK, and PI3K/AKT pathways. Moreover, BPA may also interact with other steroid receptors (such as androgen receptor) and plays a role in prostate cancer development. This review summarizes the current literature regarding human exposure to BPA, the endocrine-disrupting effects of BPA, and the role of BPA in hormone-associated cancers of the breast, ovary, and prostate. PMID:25569640

  6. Bisphenol A in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Parra, Emilio; Herrero, Jose Antonio; Elewa, Usama; Arduán, Alberto Ortiz; Egido, Jesus

    2013-01-01

    Phenols are uremic toxins of intestinal origin formed by bacteria during protein metabolism. Of these molecules, p-cresol is the most studied and has been associated with renal function impairment and vascular damage. Bisphenol A (BPA) is a molecule with structural similarity with phenols found in plastic food and beverage containers as well as in some dialyzers. BPA is considered an environmental toxicant based on animal and cell culture studies. Japanese authorities recently banned BPA use in baby bottles based on observational association studies in newborns. BPA is excreted in urine and uremic patients present higher serum levels, but there is insufficient evidence to set cut-off levels or to link BPA to any harmful effect in CKD. However, the renal elimination and potential exposure during dialysis warrant the monitoring of BPA exposure and the design of observational studies in which the potential health risks of BPA for end-stage renal disease patients are evaluated. PMID:23997953

  7. Bisphenol A in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio González-Parra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenols are uremic toxins of intestinal origin formed by bacteria during protein metabolism. Of these molecules, p-cresol is the most studied and has been associated with renal function impairment and vascular damage. Bisphenol A (BPA is a molecule with structural similarity with phenols found in plastic food and beverage containers as well as in some dialyzers. BPA is considered an environmental toxicant based on animal and cell culture studies. Japanese authorities recently banned BPA use in baby bottles based on observational association studies in newborns. BPA is excreted in urine and uremic patients present higher serum levels, but there is insufficient evidence to set cut-off levels or to link BPA to any harmful effect in CKD. However, the renal elimination and potential exposure during dialysis warrant the monitoring of BPA exposure and the design of observational studies in which the potential health risks of BPA for end-stage renal disease patients are evaluated.

  8. Boron neutron capture therapy of glioblastoma multiforme using the p- boronophenylalanine-fructose complex and epithermal neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coderre, J.A.; Chanana, A.D.; Joel, D.D.; Liu, H.B.; Slatkin, D.N.; Wielopolski, L. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Bergland, R.; Elowitz, E. [Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Chadha, M. [Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    1994-12-31

    The amino acid analogue p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) is under investigation as a neutron capture agent for BNCT of glioblastoma multiforme. A series of patients undergoing surgical removal of tumor received BPA orally as the free amino acid. Favorable tumor/blood boron concentration ratios were obtained but the absolute amount of boron in the tumor would have been insufficient for BNCT. BPA can be solubilized at neutral pH by complexation with fructose (BPA-F). Studies with rats suggest that intraperitoneal injection of BPA-F complex produces a much higher tumor boron concentration to rat intracerebral 9L gliosarcoma that were possible with oral BPA. Higher boron concentrations have allowed higher tumor radiation doses to be delivered while maintaining the dose to the normal brain vascular endothelium below the threshold of tolerance. The experience to date of the administration of BPA-F to one patient is provided in this report.

  9. Bisphenol a in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Parra, Emilio; Herrero, Jose Antonio; Elewa, Usama; Bosch, Ricardo J; Arduán, Alberto Ortiz; Egido, Jesus

    2013-01-01

    Phenols are uremic toxins of intestinal origin formed by bacteria during protein metabolism. Of these molecules, p-cresol is the most studied and has been associated with renal function impairment and vascular damage. Bisphenol A (BPA) is a molecule with structural similarity with phenols found in plastic food and beverage containers as well as in some dialyzers. BPA is considered an environmental toxicant based on animal and cell culture studies. Japanese authorities recently banned BPA use in baby bottles based on observational association studies in newborns. BPA is excreted in urine and uremic patients present higher serum levels, but there is insufficient evidence to set cut-off levels or to link BPA to any harmful effect in CKD. However, the renal elimination and potential exposure during dialysis warrant the monitoring of BPA exposure and the design of observational studies in which the potential health risks of BPA for end-stage renal disease patients are evaluated.

  10. Bisphenol A and related compounds in dental materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleisch, Abby F; Sheffield, Perry E; Chinn, Courtney; Edelstein, Burton L; Landrigan, Philip J

    2010-10-01

    Dental sealants and composite filling materials containing bisphenol A (BPA) derivatives are increasingly used in childhood dentistry. Evidence is accumulating that BPA and some BPA derivatives can pose health risks attributable to their endocrine-disrupting, estrogenic properties. To systematically compile and critically evaluate the literature characterizing BPA content of dental materials; to assess BPA exposures from dental materials and potential health risks; and to develop evidence-based guidance for reducing BPA exposures while promoting oral health. The extant toxicological literature and material safety data sheets were used as data sources. BPA is released from dental resins through salivary enzymatic hydrolysis of BPA derivatives, and BPA is detectable in saliva for up to 3 hours after resin placement. The quantity and duration of systemic BPA absorption is not clear from the available data. Dental products containing the bisphenol A derivative glycidyl dimethacrylate (bis-GMA) are less likely to be hydrolyzed to BPA and have less estrogenicity than those containing bisphenol A dimethacrylate (bis-DMA). Most other BPA derivatives used in dental materials have not been evaluated for estrogenicity. BPA exposure can be reduced by cleaning and rinsing surfaces of sealants and composites immediately after placement. On the basis of the proven benefits of resin-based dental materials and the brevity of BPA exposure, we recommend continued use with strict adherence to precautionary application techniques. Use of these materials should be minimized during pregnancy whenever possible. Manufacturers should be required to report complete information on the chemical composition of dental products and encouraged to develop materials with less estrogenic potential.

  11. Concurrent determination of bisphenol A pharmacokinetics in maternal and fetal rhesus monkeys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, Tucker A. [Division of Neurotoxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Twaddle, Nathan C. [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Roegge, Cindy S. [Division of Neurotoxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Callicott, Ralph J. [U.S. Food and Drug Administration and Priority One Services Corp, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Fisher, Jeffrey W. [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Doerge, Daniel R., E-mail: daniel.doerge@fda.hhs.gov [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an important industrial chemical used as the monomer for polycarbonate plastic and in epoxy resins for food can liners. Worldwide biomonitoring studies consistently find a high prevalence of BPA conjugates in urine (> 90%) in amounts consistent with aggregate exposure at levels below 1 μg/kg bw/d. The current study used LC/MS/MS to measure concurrently the pharmacokinetics of aglycone (active) and conjugated (inactive) deuterated BPA (d6) in maternal and fetal rhesus monkey serum, amniotic fluid, and placenta following intravenous injection in the dam (100 μg/kg bw). Internal exposures of the fetus to aglycone d6-BPA (serum AUC) were attenuated by maternal, placental, and fetal Phase II metabolism to less than half that in the dam. Levels of aglycone and conjugated d6-BPA measured in whole placenta were consistent with a role in metabolic detoxification. The monotonic elimination of aglycone d6-BPA from the fetal compartment accompanied by persistent conjugate levels provides further evidence arguing against the hypothesis that BPA conjugates are selectively deconjugated by either the placenta or fetus. These results also provide benchmarks to guide the interpretation of human cord blood, amniotic fluid, and placenta sampling and measurement strategies as a basis for estimating fetal exposures to BPA. This study in a non-human primate model provides additional pharmacokinetic data for use in PBPK modeling of perinatal exposures to BPA from food contact, medical devices, and other environmental sources. - Highlights: ► Maternal, placental, and fetal Phase II metabolism attenuate fetal exposure to BPA. ► Serum AUC for aglycone BPA in fetal monkeys is less than half of that in the dam. ► BPA profiles in monkey fetus rule out selective deconjugation and accumulation. ► BPA levels in monkey placenta are similar to other metabolically active tissues. ► Some published human cord blood data for BPA are inconsistent with these measurements.

  12. The consumption of canned food and beverages and urinary Bisphenol A concentrations in NHANES 2003–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartle, Jennifer C.; Navas-Acien; Lawrence, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) is ubiquitous and includes dietary and environmental pathways. BPA is rapidly glucuronidated in the body, and both BPA and its conjugates can be readily measured in urine. Objectives To investigate the contribution of canned food and beverages, known sources of BPA contamination, to BPA biomarkers of exposure using dietary and urinary BPA concentration information in a representative sample of the U.S. population. Methods We evaluated 7,669 NHANES 2003–2008 participants 6 years and older with 24-hour dietary recall information and urinary BPA concentrations available. Using linear regression models, we evaluated the associations between recent canned food and beverage consumption and urinary BPA concentrations, adjusting for potential confounders. Results We found 9% of our participants consumed one canned food in the past 24 hours and 2% consumed two or more canned foods. The consumption of one canned food vs. none was associated with 24% (95% CI 1.11, 1.38) higher urinary BPA concentrations. The consumption of two or more canned foods vs. none was associated with 54% (95% CI 1.27, 1.88) higher urinary BPA concentrations. The consumption of one or more of some specific types of canned foods vs. none were associated with higher urinary BPA concentrations: 41% (95% CI 1.23, 1.63) higher BPA for vegetable and fruit, 70% (95% CI 1.18, 2.44) higher for canned pasta, and 229% (95% CI 1.22, 4.30) higher for canned soup. Canned beverages were not associated with urinary BPA concentrations. Conclusions Canned food, including some specific types such as canned vegetable and fruit, canned pasta, and canned soup were associated with higher levels of urinary BPA concentrations. PMID:27362993

  13. Bioremediation of bisphenol-A polluted soil by Sphingomonas bisphenolicum AO1 and the microbial community existing in the soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Yoshinobu; Akahira-Moriya, Ayako; Sasaki-Mori, Miho

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA, 2,2'-Bis (4-hydroxyphenyl) propane) is an artificial pollutant that is easily detected in soil and water environments. BPA decomposition and removal from the environment is relatively difficult due to its stability. This study evaluated the BPA decomposition and removal activities of the microbial community existing in the soil with or without Sphingomonas bisphenolicum AO1, and revealed the toxic effects of BPA towards the microbial community. The microbial community in soil was able to degrade BPA at 1.0 mg·g(-1) soil or lower, although its degradation was slow. On the other hand, BPA at more than 10 mg·g(-1) soil was not only degraded by the microbial community but also decreased its diversity, suggesting that BPA is harmful to many microorganisms. PCR-TTGE analysis and the cloned 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that Sphingomonadales, Xanthomonadales, Burkholderiales and Pseudomonadales in the microbial community might independently or cooperatively degrade BPA. On the other hand, supplementation with strain AO1 was able to significantly improve the BPA decomposition activity of the microbial community in soil even at 10 mg BPA·g(-1) soil, although BPA at 100 mg·g(-1) soil overwhelmed the BPA decomposition activity of strain AO1. Furthermore, it was also concluded that strain AO1 could not inhabit BPA purified soil after decomposition of BPA by strain AO1 and the soil microbial community, suggesting that the application of strain AO1 could be a low-burden method for the decomposition and removal of BPA from the natural environment.

  14. Bisphenol A and Related Compounds in Dental Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleisch, Abby F.; Sheffield, Perry E.; Chinn, Courtney; Edelstein, Burton L.; Landrigan, Philip J.

    2014-01-01

    CONTEXT Dental sealants and composite filling materials containing bisphenol A (BPA) derivatives are increasingly used in childhood dentistry. Evidence is accumulating that BPA and some BPA derivatives can pose health risks attributable to their endocrine-disrupting, estrogenic properties. OBJECTIVES To systematically compile and critically evaluate the literature characterizing BPA content of dental materials; to assess BPA exposures from dental materials and potential health risks; and to develop evidence-based guidance for reducing BPA exposures while promoting oral health. METHODS The extant toxicological literature and material safety data sheets were used as data sources. RESULTS BPA is released from dental resins through salivary enzymatic hydrolysis of BPA derivatives, and BPA is detectable in saliva for up to 3 hours after resin placement. The quantity and duration of systemic BPA absorption is not clear from the available data. Dental products containing the bisphenol A derivative glycidyl dimethacrylate (bis-GMA) are less likely to be hydrolyzed to BPA and have less estrogenicity than those containing bisphenol A dimethacrylate (bis-DMA). Most other BPA derivatives used in dental materials have not been evaluated for estrogenicity. BPA exposure can be reduced by cleaning and rinsing surfaces of sealants and composites immediately after placement. CONCLUSIONS On the basis of the proven benefits of resin-based dental materials and the brevity of BPA exposure, we recommend continued use with strict adherence to precautionary application techniques. Use of these materials should be minimized during pregnancy whenever possible. Manufacturers should be required to report complete information on the chemical composition of dental products and encouraged to develop materials with less estrogenic potential. PMID:20819896

  15. In vitro study on the agonistic and antagonistic activities of bisphenol-S and other bisphenol-A congeners and derivatives via nuclear receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina-Molina, José-Manuel, E-mail: molinajm@ugr.es [Laboratory of Medical Investigations, San Cecilio University Hospital, University of Granada, Cíber en Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Granada E-18071 (Spain); Amaya, Esperanza [Laboratory of Medical Investigations, San Cecilio University Hospital, University of Granada, Cíber en Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Granada E-18071 (Spain); Grimaldi, Marina [INSERM, U896, Montpellier F-34298 (France); Université de Montpellier I, Montpellier F-34298 (France); Sáenz, José-María; Real, Macarena; Fernández, Mariana F. [Laboratory of Medical Investigations, San Cecilio University Hospital, University of Granada, Cíber en Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Granada E-18071 (Spain); Balaguer, Patrick [INSERM, U896, Montpellier F-34298 (France); Université de Montpellier I, Montpellier F-34298 (France); Olea, Nicolás [Laboratory of Medical Investigations, San Cecilio University Hospital, University of Granada, Cíber en Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Granada E-18071 (Spain)

    2013-10-01

    Bisphenols are a group of chemicals structurally similar to bisphenol-A (BPA) in current use as the primary raw material in the production of polycarbonate and epoxy resins. Some bisphenols are intended to replace BPA in several industrial applications. This is the case of bisphenol-S (BPS), which has an excellent stability at high temperature and resistance to sunlight. Studies on the endocrine properties of BPS have focused on its interaction with human estrogen receptor alpha (hERα), but information on its interaction with other nuclear receptors is scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate interactions of BPS, BPF, BPA and its halogenated derivatives, tetrachlorobisphenol A (TCBPA), and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), with human estrogen receptors (hERα and hERβ), androgen receptor (hAR), and pregnane X receptor (hPXR), using a panel of in vitro bioassays based on competitive binding to nuclear receptors (NRs), reporter gene expression, and cell proliferation assessment. BPS, BPF, and BPA efficiently activated both ERs, while TCBPA behaved as weak hERα agonist. Unlike BPF and BPA, BPS was more active in the hERβ versus hERα assay. BPF and BPA were full hAR antagonists (BPA > BPF), whereas BPA and BPS were weak hAR agonists. Only BPA, TCBPA, and TBBPA, were hPXR agonists (TCBPA > TBBPA > BPA). These findings provide evidence that BPA congeners and derivatives disrupt multiple NRs and may therefore interfere with the endocrine system. Hence, further research is needed to evaluate the potential endocrine-disrupting activity of putative BPA substitutes. - Highlights: • We investigated the agonist/antagonist activities of BPS, BPF, BPA, TCBPA and TBBPA. • The direct interaction of these compounds with hERα, hERβ, hAR and hPXR was studied. • BPA congeners and derivatives were found to disrupt multiple NRs. • Further evaluation of their role as endocrine-disrupting chemicals is needed.

  16. The consumption of canned food and beverages and urinary Bisphenol A concentrations in NHANES 2003-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartle, Jennifer C; Navas-Acien, Ana; Lawrence, Robert S

    2016-10-01

    Exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) is ubiquitous and includes dietary and environmental pathways. BPA is rapidly glucuronidated in the body, and both BPA and its conjugates can be readily measured in urine. To investigate the contribution of canned food and beverages, known sources of BPA contamination, to BPA biomarkers of exposure using dietary and urinary BPA concentration information in a representative sample of the U.S. We evaluated 7669 NHANES 2003-2008 participants 6 years and older with 24-h dietary recall information and urinary BPA concentrations available. Using linear regression models, we evaluated the associations between recent canned food and beverage consumption and urinary BPA concentrations, adjusting for potential confounders. We found 9% of our participants consumed one canned food in the past 24h and 2% consumed two or more canned foods. The consumption of one canned food vs. none was associated with 24% (95% CI 1.11, 1.38) higher urinary BPA concentrations. The consumption of two or more canned foods vs. none was associated with 54% (95% CI 1.27, 1.88) higher urinary BPA concentrations. The consumption of one or more of some specific types of canned foods vs. none were associated with higher urinary BPA concentrations: 41% (95% CI 1.23, 1.63) higher BPA for vegetable and fruit, 70% (95% CI 1.18, 2.44) higher for canned pasta, and 229% (95% CI 1.22, 4.30) higher for canned soup. Canned beverages were not associated with urinary BPA concentrations. Canned food, including some specific types such as canned vegetable and fruit, canned pasta, and canned soup were associated with higher levels of urinary BPA concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Consumer exposure to Bisphenol A from plastic bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidabadi, Fatemeh

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a plastic monomer and plasticizer and is a chemical that has one of the highest volume production worldwide, with more than six billion pounds each year. Its' primary use is the production of polycarbonate plastics, epoxy resins used to line metal cans in a host of plastic consumer products such as toys, water pipes, drinking containers, eyeglass lenses, sports safety equipment as well as consumer electronics. Studies have shown that BPA is leached from lacquer coated cans and baby feeding bottles due to hydrolysis of the Polymer during thermal treatment. Studies have also shown that even under normal use BPA may leach from food and beverage containers. For many years Bisphenol A was treated as neutral to human health. The detection of BPA in drinking water and food products has raised the interest of many researches since 1990. Thousands of studies have examined the impact of BPA to determine its effects in laboratory animals. Numerous toxicological and biochemical studies have supported that BPA has estrogenic properties. The effects of exposure to BPA can be harmful to fetus, infants and young children. BPA is used in products where traces of it can be found in every human at higher levels of concentration than that which causes problems in animals. The National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) has defined "low dose" of endocrine disrupting chemicals as doses below no observable adverse effect (NOAE) for specific chemicals. In BPA, this dose is 50 mg/kg of body weight per day. Today there are more than 150 published results describing how low doses of BPA effects animals. A recent study reported that adult female mice, monkeys, and humans metabolized BPA at almost identical rates. Since the level of BPA and other endocrine chemicals appears to be increasing throughout the World, especially where plastics are prevalent, it is extremely important to study the effects of this chemical on man and wildlife. This research effort

  18. Urinary Concentrations of Bisphenol A and Three Other Bisphenols in Convenience Samples of U.S. Adults during 2000-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiaoyun; Wong, Lee-Yang; Kramer, Josh; Zhou, Xiaoliu; Jia, Tao; Calafat, Antonia M

    2015-10-06

    Because of regulatory actions and public concerns, the use of bisphenol A (BPA) may decrease, while the use of BPA alternatives may increase. Although BPA alternatives are considered safer than BPA, their effects on health are still largely unknown. For risk assessment, understanding exposure to these chemicals is necessary. We measured the urinary concentrations of BPA and three bisphenol analogs, bisphenol S (BPS), bisphenol F (BPF), and bisphenol AF (BPAF), in 616 archived samples collected from convenience samplings of U.S. adults at eight time points between 2000 and 2014. We detected BPA at the highest frequency and geometric mean (GM) concentrations (74-99%, 0.36-2.07 μg/L), followed by BPF (42-88%, 0.15-0.54 μg/L) and BPS (19-74%, bisphenols, the 95th percentile concentration of BPF was often comparable or higher than that of BPA. We did not observe obvious exposure trends for BPF. However, the significant changes in GM concentrations of BPA and BPS suggest that exposures may be declining (BPA) or on the rise (BPS). Nationally representative data will be useful to confirm these findings and to allow monitoring future exposure trends to BPA and some of its bisphenol alternatives.

  19. Bisphenol A from dental polycarbonate crown upregulates the expression of hTERT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Akiko; Higashino, Fumihiro; Aoyagi, Mariko; Kyo, Satoru; Nakata, Takashi; Noda, Mamoru; Shindoh, Masanobu; Kohgo, Takao; Sano, Hidehiko

    2004-10-15

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that possess estrogen-like biologic activity. Many dental materials have been reported to release BPA. However, there are few reports available on the release of BPA from dental polycarbonates. The purpose of this study was to investigate the release of BPA from dental polycarbonate crowns and to evaluate the estrogenic activity of BPA. Polycarbonate crowns were immersed in five solvents (water, ethanol, n-hepthane, acetic acid, and acetonitrile) at 37 or 65 degrees C for 24 h. The elution from the material was analyzed by high-performance liquid-chromatography (HPLC) and mass-spectrometry (MS) analysis. BPA release was detected corresponding to the degradation of dental polycarbonates under the some storage conditions (ethanol, acetic acid, and acetonitrile). A previous report proved that estrogen increased human telomerase catalytic subunit (hTERT) mRNA, whereas the effect of EDCs on the hTERT promoter has never been reported. The estrogenic activity of BPA was analyzed by luciferase assay with the use of the hTERT promoter. This assay revealed that BPA was a positive regulator of hTERT transcription. In addition, quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that BPA increased the expression level of hTERT mRNA in MCF7 cells. Herein, it is demonstrated that hTERT is a new target of BPA.

  20. Fast biodegradation of toxic bisphenol a by Pseudomonas aeruginosa NR.22 (Ps.NR.22) isolated from Malaysian local lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Him, Nik Raikhan Nik; Zainuddin, Mohammad Fiqri; Basha, Anuar Zain Anuar

    2017-12-01

    The paper focused on microbial degradation of Bisphenol A (BPA) as a safe and fast method to reduce BPA contamination in water. BPA is found in waste water, sea water and home water pipeline and it is nondegradable pollutant. Biodegradation is suggested to be practical solution for large volume of BPA. Biodegradation plays an important role and the effect of low concentration significantly decreased the degradation rate. Pseudomonas aeruginosa NR.22 (Ps.NR.22) which has been isolated from a lake at Seksyen 2, Shah Alam, was used. In Malaysia, Ps.NR.22 isolation agar is used for the BPA degradation process. It was stained with Gram negative-rod shaped bacteria that confirmed to carry a 16S rRNA gene. BPA as a sole carbon has been tested at various concentrations. The research showed that BPA was degraded at 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 ppm and the bacteria growth rate was excellent in 20 ppm BPA. Degradation of BPA was carried out for 9 hours to 18 hours and the maximum degradation was recorded at 9 hours. The value of the highest peak of growth at 540 nm was 2.0617 using 20 ppm BPA. This novel Pseudomonas aeruginosa NR.22 has great potential to be used in waste water treatment.

  1. Gene expression profiling analysis of bisphenol A-induced perturbation in biological processes in ER-negative HEK293 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Yin

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA is an environmental endocrine disruptor which has been detected in human bodies. Many studies have implied that BPA exposure is harmful to human health. Previous studies mainly focused on BPA effects on estrogen receptor (ER-positive cells. Genome-wide impacts of BPA on gene expression in ER-negative cells is unclear. In this study, we performed RNA-seq to characterize BPA-induced cellular and molecular impacts on ER-negative HEK293 cells. The microscopic observation showed that low-dose BPA exposure did not affect cell viability and morphology. Gene expression profiling analysis identified a list of differentially expressed genes in response to BPA exposure in HEK293 cells. These genes were involved in variable important biological processes including ion transport, cysteine metabolic process, apoptosis, DNA damage repair, etc. Notably, BPA up-regulated the expression of ERCC5 encoding a DNA endonuclease for nucleotide-excision repair. Further electrochemical experiment showed that BPA induced significant DNA damage in ER-positive MCF-7 cells but not in ER-negative HEK293 cells. Collectively, our study revealed that ER-negative HEK293 cells employed mechanisms in response to BPA exposure different from ER-positive cells.

  2. “Orange alert”: A fluorescent detector for bisphenol A in water environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Liyun [Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, 117543 Singapore (Singapore); Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Er, Jun Cheng [Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, 117543 Singapore (Singapore); Graduate School for Integrative Sciences and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Centre for Life Sciences, #05-01, 28 Medical Drive, 117456 Singapore (Singapore); Xu, Wang; Qin, Xian [Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, 117543 Singapore (Singapore); Samanta, Animesh; Jana, Santanu [Singapore Bioimaging Consortium, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A-STAR), 138667 Singapore (Singapore); Lee, Chi-Lik Ken [Centre for Biomedical and Life Sciences, Singapore Polytechnic, 139651 Singapore (Singapore); Chang, Young-Tae, E-mail: chmcyt@nus.edu.sg [Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, 117543 Singapore (Singapore); Graduate School for Integrative Sciences and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Centre for Life Sciences, #05-01, 28 Medical Drive, 117456 Singapore (Singapore); Singapore Bioimaging Consortium, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A-STAR), 138667 Singapore (Singapore)

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We report a BODIPY-based turn-on fluorescent bisphenol A sensor. • We tested the superior selectivity toward BPA against several bisphenol analogs and phenol. • We demonstrated the stability and robustness of this probe for analyzing BPA in real, complex water samples. - Abstract: Due to the prevalent use of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins in packaging materials and paints for ships, there has been a widespread global contamination of environmental water sources with bisphenol A (BPA). BPA, an endocrine disruptor, has been found to cause tremendous health problems. Therefore, there is an urgent need for detecting BPA in a convenient and sensitive manner to ensure water safety. Herein, we develop a fluorescent turn-on BPA probe, named Bisphenol Orange (BPO), which could conveniently detect BPA in a wide variety of real water samples including sea water, drain water and drinking water. BPO shows superior selectivity toward BPA and up to 70-fold increase in fluorescence emission at 580 nm when mixed with BPA in water. Mechanistic studies suggest a plausible water-dependent formation of hydrophobic BPA clusters which favorably trap and restrict the rotation of BPO and recover its inherent fluorescence.

  3. Bisphenol a in canned food products from canadian markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xu-Liang; Corriveau, Jeannette; Popovic, Svetlana

    2010-06-01

    A method based on solid phase extraction followed by derivatization and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was validated for the determination of bisphenol A (BPA) in canned food products. This method was used to analyze 78 canned food products for BPA. Concentrations of BPA in canned food products differed considerably among food types, but all were below the specific migration limit of 0.6 mg/kg set by the European Commission Directive for BPA in food or food simulants. Canned tuna products had the highest BPA concentrations in general, with mean and maximum values of 137 and 534 ng/g, respectively. BPA concentrations in the condensed soup products were considerably higher than those in the ready-to-serve soup products, with mean and maximum values of 105 and 189 ng/g, respectively, for the condensed soups and 15 and 34 ng/g, respectively, for the ready-to-serve soups. BPA concentrations in canned vegetable products were relatively low; about 60% of the products had BPA concentrations of less than 10 ng/g. Canned tomato paste products had lower BPA concentrations than did canned pure tomato products. The mean and maximum BPA concentrations were 1.1 and 2.1 ng/g, respectively, for tomato paste products and 9.3 and 23 ng/g, respectively, for the pure tomato products.

  4. Adsorption of bisphenol A from water by surfactant-modified zeolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yi; Wu, Deyi; Chen, Xuechu; Lin, Yan

    2010-08-15

    Zeolite synthesized from coal fly ash (ZFA) was modified with hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA) and was examined for the adsorption of bisphenol A (BPA) from water. Two ZFAs were prepared in our laboratory and were characterized to obtain chemical and mineralogical composition, surface area, and total and external cation-exchange capacity among other parameters. HDTMA was confirmed to form bilayer micelles on external surfaces of zeolites. Results indicate that, while ZFA had no affinity for BPA, the surfactant-modified ZFA (SMZFA) showed greatly enhanced adsorption capacity. Uptake of BPA was greatly influenced by pH, increasing at alkaline pH conditions which enable the deprotonation of BPA to form organic anions. The SMZFA with higher BET area and higher amount of loaded HDTMA showed greater retention for BPA. Uptake of BPA by SMZFA was improved slightly in the presence of NaCl, and was enhanced at a low temperature. We propose that BPA anions interact strongly with the positively charged heads of HDTMA, with the two hydrophobic benzene rings of BPA pointing to the inside of HDTMA bilayers. The adsorption of uncharged BPA probably involved hydrophobic partitioning into HDTMA bilayers and the coordination of the oxygen atoms of BPA with positively charged heads of HDTMA. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of bottle-feeding on serum bisphenol a levels in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhie, Young-Jun; Nam, Hyo-Kyoung; Oh, Yeon Joung; Kim, Ho-Seong; Lee, Kee-Hyoung

    2014-02-01

    Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), particularly during developmental periods, gives rise to a variety of adverse health outcomes. Bisphenol A (BPA) is a well-known EDC commonly found in plastic products including food and water containers, baby bottles, and metal can linings. This study investigates infant exposure to BPA and the effect of bottle-feeding on serum BPA levels in infants. Serum BPA levels in normal healthy infants 6 to 15 months of age (n=60) were evaluated by a competitive ELISA. BPA was detected in every study sample. Serum BPA levels of bottle-fed infants (n=30) were significantly higher than those of breast-fed infants (n=30) (96.58±102.36 vs 45.53±34.05 pg/mL, P=0.014). There were no significant differences in serum BPA levels between boys (n=31) and girls (n=29). No significant correlations were found between serum BPA levels and age, body weight, birth weight, and gestational age. Bottle-feeding seems to increase the risk of infant exposure to BPA. Establishment of health policies to reduce or prevent BPA exposure in infants is necessary.

  6. Epigenetic regulation of non-lymphoid cells by Bisphenol-A, a model endocrine disrupter: Potential Implications for Immunoregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deena eKhan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC abound in the environment since many compounds are released from chemical, agricultural, pharmaceutical and consumer product industries. Many of the EDCs such as Bisphenol A (BPA have estrogenic activity or interfere with endogenous sex hormones. Experimental studies have reported a positive correlation of BPA with reproductive toxicity, altered growth and immune dysregulation. Although the precise relevance of these studies to the environmental levels is unclear, nevertheless, their potential health implications remain a concern. One possible mechanism by which BPA can alter genes is by regulating epigenetics, including microRNA, alteration of methylation and histone acetylation. There is now wealth of information on BPA effects on non-lymphoid cells and by comparison, paucity of data on effects of BPA on the immune system. In this mini review, we will highlight BPA regulation of estrogen receptor-mediated immune cell functions and in different inflammatory conditions. In addition, BPA-mediated epigenetic regulation of non-lymphoid cells is emphasized. We recognize that most of these studies are on non-lymphoid cells, and given that BPA also affects the immune system, it is plausible that BPA could have similar epigenetic regulation in immune cells. It is hoped that this review will stimulate studies in this area to ascertain whether or not BPA epigenetically regulates the cells of the immune system.

  7. Single and competitive adsorption of 17α-ethinylestradiol and bisphenol A with estrone, β-estradiol, and estriol onto sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu; Zhang, Chen; Li, Shanshan; Zhou, Changzhi; Li, Xiaopeng

    2014-03-07

    The competitive adsorption of bisphenol A (BPA) and17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) with different endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), such as estrone (E1), β-estradiol (E2), and estriol (E3) was investigated in the water-sediment system. The primary and interaction effects of coexisted EDCs on the adsorption of BPA and EE2 were studied in binary and multiple systems. The adsorption selectivity of sediment at different initial concentrations of EDCs was also considered, based on the distribution coefficient (β). In binary systems, coexisted EDCs exhibited a positive effect on the adsorption of BPA, while E3 showed a negative effect on the adsorption of EE2. In ternary systems, the interaction of E1*E3 and E2*BPA showed a synergistic effect on the sorption of BPA and EE2, respectively. In quaternary systems, the interaction of E1*E2*E3 showed a synergistic effect on the adsorption of both BPA and EE2. In the quinary system, coexisted EDCs all showed an antagonistic effect on the adsorption of BPA and EE2, which indicated that the coexisted EDCs competed for adsorption with BPA and EE2. EDCs in the E2-EE2-BPA system presented a superior selectivity of sediment with β values of 43.48-87.86. The order of sediment selectivity (E1 > EE2 > E2 > E3 > BPA) in binary systems was in agreement with EDCs' adsorption capacity, which suggested that the adsorption was dominated by partition adsorption.

  8. T2 corrected quantification method of L-p-boronophenylalanine using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy for boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Yohei [Department of Neurosurgery, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Graduated School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Isobe, Tomonori [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Graduated School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Yamamoto, Tetsuya [Department of Neurosurgery, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Graduated School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)], E-mail: tetsu-ya@md.tsukuba.ac.jp; Shibata, Yasushi [Department of Neurosurgery, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Graduated School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Anno, Izumi [Department of Radiological Sciences, Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health Sciences (Japan); Nakai, Kei; Shirakawa, Makoto; Matsushita, Akira [Department of Neurosurgery, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Graduated School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Sato, Eisuke [School of Allied Health Sciences, Kitasato University (Japan); Matsumura, Akira [Department of Neurosurgery, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Graduated School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    In the present study, we aimed to evaluate a T2 corrected quantification method of L-p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) concentration using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). We used five phantoms containing BPA (1.5, 3.0, 5.0, 7.5, and 10 mmol/kg=15, 30, 50, 75, and 100 {mu}g{sup 10}B/g), N-acetyl-aspartic acid (NAA: 3.0 mmol/kg), creatine (Cr: 5.0 mmol/kg), and choline (Cho: 3.0 mmol/kg). The signal intensities of BPA and internal water were corrected by T2 relaxation time. The absolute concentrations of BPA were calculated by proton MRS using an internal water signal as a standard. The major BPA peaks were detected between 7.1 and 7.6 ppm. Mean T2 relaxation time was 314.3{+-}10.8 ms in BPA, 885.1{+-}39.7 ms in internal water. The calculated BPA concentrations were almost same as the actual concentration of BPA and the correlation coefficient was 0.99. Our BPA quantification method was very simple and non-invasive, also it had high accuracy. Therefore, our results indicate that proton MRS can be potentially useful technique for in vivo BPA quantification in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT)

  9. The mass flow and proposed management of bisphenol A in selected Norwegian waste streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arp, Hans Peter H; Morin, Nicolas A O; Hale, Sarah E; Okkenhaug, Gudny; Breivik, Knut; Sparrevik, Magnus

    2017-02-01

    Current initiatives for waste-handling in a circular economy favor prevention and recycling over incineration or landfilling. However, the impact of such a transition on environmental emissions of contaminants like bisphenol A (BPA) during waste-handling is not fully understood. To address this, a material flow analysis (MFA) was constructed for selected waste categories in Norway, for which the amount recycled is expected to increase in the future; glass, vehicle, electronic, plastic and combustible waste. Combined, 92tons/y of BPA are disposed of via these waste categories in Norway, with 98.5% associated with plastic and electronic waste. During the model year 2011, the MFA showed that BPA in these waste categories was destroyed through incineration (60%), exported for recycling into new products (35%), stored in landfills (4%) or released into the environment (1%). Landfilling led to the greatest environmental emissions (up to 13% of landfilled BPA), and incinerating the smallest (0.001% of incinerated BPA). From modelling different waste management scenarios, the most effective way to reduce BPA emissions are to incinerate BPA-containing waste and avoid landfilling it. A comparison of environmental and human BPA concentrations with CoZMoMAN exposure model estimations suggested that waste emissions are an insignificant regional source. Nevertheless, from monitoring studies, landfill emissions can be a substantial local source of BPA. Regarding the transition to a circular economy, it is clear that disposing of less BPA-containing waste and less landfilling would lead to lower environmental emissions, but several uncertainties remain regarding emissions of BPA during recycling, particularly for paper and plastics. Future research should focus on the fate of BPA, as well as BPA alternatives, in emerging reuse and recycling processes, as part of the transition to a circular economy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of serum bisphenol A concentrations in mice exposed to bisphenol A through the diet versus oral bolus exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieli, Paizlee T; Jašarevic, Eldin; Warzak, Denise A; Mao, Jiude; Ellersieck, Mark R; Liao, Chunyang; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Collet, Séverine H; Toutain, Pierre-Louis; Vom Saal, Frederick S; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S

    2011-09-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widely produced endocrine-disrupting chemical. Diet is a primary route of exposure, but internal exposure (serum concentrations) in animals and humans has been measured only after single oral bolus administration. We compared serum concentrations of BPA over a 24-hr period after oral bolus administration or ad libitum feeding in mice and assessed for buildup with dietary exposure. Adult female mice were administered [dimethyl-d6]-BPA (BPA-d6) as a single oral bolus (20 mg/kg body weight) or fed a diet containing 100 mg BPA-d6/kg feed weight ad libitum for 1 week. Serum concentrations were analyzed using isotope dilution liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry and compared between exposure groups over the first 23 hr and after 7 days of dietary exposure. Maximum concentration (Cmax) for BPA-d6 during the first 24 hr was reached at 1 hr and 6 hr for oral bolus and diet groups, respectively. Relative BPA-d6 bioavailability (unconjugated BPA-d6) was higher in diet-exposed mice than in the bolus group despite a relative lower absorption, a phenomenon consistent with an inhibitory effect of food on first-pass hepatic metabolism. In mice with ongoing dietary exposure, unconjugated BPA-d6 was higher on day 7 than on day 1. This is the first report of serum BPA concentrations in an animal model exposed to this chemical via the diet. Although bolus administration of BPA-d6 led to peak concentrations within 1 hr, Cmax for diet-exposed mice was delayed for several hours. However, bolus administration underestimates bioavailable serum BPA concentrations in animals-and presumably humans-than would result from dietary exposure. Exposure via diet is a more natural continuous exposure route than oral bolus exposure and is thus a better predictor of BPA concentrations in chronically exposed animals and humans.

  11. Human Exposures to Bisphenol A, Bisphenol F and Chlorinated Bisphenol A Derivatives and Thyroid Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xanthi D Andrianou

    Full Text Available Although the increasing prevalence of thyroid nodular disease (TND has been partially attributed to the more frequent usage of improved diagnostics, environmental factors, such as exposures to thyroid-disrupting chemicals may contribute to TND and altered thyroid function. We investigated the association between exposures to bisphenol A (BPA, its chlorinated derivatives (ClxBPA, and bisphenol F (BPF with TND and thyroid measures in adult women. A case-control study in Cyprus and Romania (n = 212 was conducted, where cases were those with thyroid nodules (diameter >3mm, and controls without nodules. Serum TSH and free thyroxine and urinary levels of BPA, BPF and ClxBPA were measured using immunoassays and tandem mass spectrometry, respectively. The association between exposures to BPA compounds and TND, adjusting for age, BMI, thyroid hormones and urinary iodine was assessed using logistic regression. Linear regression was used to explore associations between urinary BPA, BPF and ClxBPA and serum thyroid hormones. With the exception of a chlorinated BPA compound (30%, the rest of bisphenols were quantified in 100% of urine samples. A positive and significant (p<0.05 association was observed between urinary BPA and serum TSH that remained after adjusting for urinary creatinine, age, BMI, study site and disease status; there was no significant association between BPF or ClxBPA with TSH. None of the BPA compounds were associated with higher odds of TND. Our study found associations of urinary BPA with TSH but not with BPF or ClxBPA. A larger study would be justified.

  12. Human Exposures to Bisphenol A, Bisphenol F and Chlorinated Bisphenol A Derivatives and Thyroid Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrianou, Xanthi D.; Gängler, Stephanie; Piciu, Andra; Charisiadis, Pantelis; Zira, Christina; Aristidou, Kyriacos; Piciu, Doina; Hauser, Russ; Makris, Konstantinos C.

    2016-01-01

    Although the increasing prevalence of thyroid nodular disease (TND) has been partially attributed to the more frequent usage of improved diagnostics, environmental factors, such as exposures to thyroid-disrupting chemicals may contribute to TND and altered thyroid function. We investigated the association between exposures to bisphenol A (BPA), its chlorinated derivatives (ClxBPA), and bisphenol F (BPF) with TND and thyroid measures in adult women. A case-control study in Cyprus and Romania (n = 212) was conducted, where cases were those with thyroid nodules (diameter >3mm), and controls without nodules. Serum TSH and free thyroxine and urinary levels of BPA, BPF and ClxBPA were measured using immunoassays and tandem mass spectrometry, respectively. The association between exposures to BPA compounds and TND, adjusting for age, BMI, thyroid hormones and urinary iodine was assessed using logistic regression. Linear regression was used to explore associations between urinary BPA, BPF and ClxBPA and serum thyroid hormones. With the exception of a chlorinated BPA compound (30%), the rest of bisphenols were quantified in 100% of urine samples. A positive and significant (p<0.05) association was observed between urinary BPA and serum TSH that remained after adjusting for urinary creatinine, age, BMI, study site and disease status; there was no significant association between BPF or ClxBPA with TSH. None of the BPA compounds were associated with higher odds of TND. Our study found associations of urinary BPA with TSH but not with BPF or ClxBPA. A larger study would be justified. PMID:27783680

  13. Biochemical responses and ultrastructural changes in ethylene insensitive mutants of Arabidopsis thialiana subjected to bisphenol A exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Imran; Jan, Mehmood; Wakeel, Abdul; Azizullah, Azizullah; Liu, Bohan; Islam, Faisal; Ali, Abid; Daud, M K; Liu, Yihua; Gan, Yinbo

    2017-10-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), an important raw material in plastic industry, has become a serious environmental contaminant due to its wide spread use in different products and increasing release into the environment. BPA is known to cause adverse effects in living organisms including plants. Several studies reported that BPA affects growth and development in plants, mainly through oxidative stress. Plants are known to generally cope with stress mainly through hormonal regulation and adaptation, but little is known about the role of plant hormones in plants under BPA stress. The present study was conducted to investigate the role of ethylene in BPA induced oxidative stress in plants using Arabidopsis thaliana as a test plant. The response of ethylene insensitive mutants of Arabidopsis (ein2-1 and etr1-3) to BPA exposure was studied in comparison to the wild type Arabidopsis (WT). In all three genotypes, exposure to BPA adversely affected cellular structures, stomata and light-harvesting pigments. An increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) lipid peroxidation and other oxidative stress markers indicated that BPA induced toxicity through oxidative stress. However, the overall results revealed that WT Arabidopsis had more pronounced BPA induced damages while ein2-1 and etr1-3 mutants withstood the BPA induced stress more efficiently. The activity of antioxidant enzymes and expression of antioxidants related genes revealed that the antioxidant defense system in both mutants was more efficiently activated than in WT against BPA induced oxidative stress, which further evidenced the involvement of ethylene in regulating BPA induced oxidative stress. It is concluded that ethylene perception and signaling may be involved in BPA induced oxidative stress responses in plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Investigation of the interactions of lysozyme and trypsin with biphenol A using spectroscopic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Qing; Chen, Ting-Ting; Zhang, Hong-Mei

    2010-03-01

    The interaction between bisphenol A (BPA) and lysozyme (or trypsin) was investigated by UV-vis absorption, fluorescence, synchronous fluorescence, and three-dimensional fluorescence spectra techniques under physiological pH 7.40. BPA effectively quenched the intrinsic fluorescence of lysozyme and trypsin via static quenching. H-bonds and van der Waals interactions played a major role in stabilizing the BPA-proteinase complex. The distance r between donor and acceptor was obtained to be 1.65 and 2.26 nm for BPA-lysozyme and BPA-trypsin complexes, respectively. The effect of BPA on the conformation of lysozyme and trypsin was analyzed using synchronous fluorescence and three-dimensional fluorescence spectra.

  15. Klondike III/Biglow Canyon Wind Integration Project; Record of Decision, October 25, 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration

    2006-10-25

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has decided to implement the Proposed Action identified in the Klondike III/Biglow Canyon Wind Integration Project Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) (DOE/EIS-0374, September 2006). Under the Proposed Action, BPA will offer PPM Energy, Inc. (PPM) contract terms for interconnection of the proposed Klondike III Wind Project, located in Sherman County, Oregon, with the Federal Columbia River Transmission System (FCRTS). BPA will also offer Portland General Electric (PGE)1 contract terms for interconnection of its proposed Biglow Canyon Wind Farm, also located in Sherman County, Oregon, with the FCRTS, as proposed in the FEIS. To interconnect these wind projects, BPA will build and operate a 12-mile long, 230-kilovolt (kV) double-circuit transmission line between the wind projects and BPA's new 230-kV John Day Substation in Sherman County, Oregon. BPA will also expand its existing 500-kV John Day Substation.

  16. The bisphenol A toxicological paradox: The more we learn the less we know for sure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J.R. Paumgartten

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the overwhelming need for toxicological data on unstudied substances, a search in Pubmed reveals >7300 entries for a single chemical (bisphenol A, BPA, most of which published in the last 25 years. BPA, a component of plastics and resins and a putative xenoestrogen, is certainly the molecule for which there are more studies in the toxicological literature. It was reported that fetal / perinatal exposures of mice to BPA (in the ppb range alter prostate weight in adult males, and cause persistent changes of mammary gland morphogenesis in females. Several studies, however, failed to replicate these findings. More recently, debate on BPA health risks was boosted by a few cross-sectional epidemiology studies that reported associations between total-BPA (in urine and cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and other health problems. The urine levels, however, reflect recent BPA exposures (within hours, and aforementioned disorders start much earlier in individuals' life.

  17. First approach to assess the bioaccessibility of bisphenol A in canned seafood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Sara C; Alves, Ricardo N; Fernandes, José O; Casal, Susana; Marques, António

    2017-10-01

    Human health risks due to bisphenol A (BPA) exposure through canned food consumption are an emerging safety concern worldwide. In this study, an in vitro digestion model was used to simulate human digestion and evaluate BPA bioaccessibility in canned seafood for the first time. BPA contents of canned tuna and sardine samples and their bioaccessible and non-bioaccessible fractions were determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The 21 samples of canned tuna and sardines, all from the same producer but with different kind of sauces, showed BPA levels ranging from <1µgkg-1 (limit of quantification, LOQ) to 62µgkg-1, with variable results within and between sample groups. BPA bioaccessibility was evaluated in six positive samples, with values ranging from 80 to 99%. The results suggest that BPA bioaccessibility was slightly lower in samples with higher lipid content. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Detection of bisphenol A in food packaging based on fluorescent conjugated polymer PPESO3 and enzyme system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui; Li, Yongxin; Liu, Jintong; Tong, Jin; Su, Xingguang

    2015-10-15

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a kind of carcinogen, which can interfere with the body's endocrine system. In this paper, a new kind of fluorescent sensor for BPA detection was established based on the fluorescent conjugated polymer PPESO3. The oxidative product of BPA is able to quench PPESO3 in the presence of HRP and H2O2, and the quenched PL intensity of PPESO3 was proportionally to the concentration of BPA in the range of 1-100 μmol/L with a detection limit of 4 × 10(-7) mol/L. The proposed method has been applied to detect BPA in eight food packaging samples with satisfactory results. The proposed method has the potential for the assay of BPA in food or food packaging samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Kinetic evaluation of reactivity of bisphenol A derivatives as radical scavengers for methacrylate polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadoma, Y; Fujisawa, S

    2000-11-01

    The reactivity of bisphenol A (BPA), diethylstilbestrol (DEST) 2,2'-biphenol (22'BP), 4,4'-biphenol (44'BP) and hydroquinone (HQ) as radical scavengers was examined in 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN)- and benzoyl peroxide (BPO)-induced methyl methacrylate (MMA) polymerization with respect to kinetic considerations. The initial rate of polymerization (IRP) was found to decrease in the order: 44'BP > BPA, DEST > 22'BP > HQ, while the stoichiometric factor (n) of free radicals trapped by phenolic moiety decreased in the order: 44'BP (2.3) > HQ (2.0) > BPA, DEST (1.8) > 22'BP (0.8). It was found that BPA was a more highly efficient inhibitor than HQ and that HQ acts as a retarder at higher concentrations in the BPO system. The high activity of BPA indicated that BPA is probably oxidized by a radical interaction in the dental resin system.

  20. Fotodegradación heterogénea de bisfenol A en agua con dióxido de titanio Heterogeneous photodegradation of bisphenol A in water with titanium dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa F. Gómez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA is a monomer used in epoxy resin and polycarbonate manufacture. This molecule is considered as an endocrine disruptor that causes different diseases. The human exposition to this non biodegrable substance is increasing in the time; in particular, water is contaminated by industrial remainder flow. In this article heterogeneous photo degradation of a solution of BPA in water solution using a catalytic photo reactor with UV light and titanium dioxide (TiO2 was evaluated. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used to analyze the photo degradation of BPA solutions. The influence of titanium dioxide amount, BPA concentration, reaction temperature and the catalyst state like suspension and immobilized were also determinated. The highest elimination of BPA was 83.2%, in 240 min, beginning with 0.05 mM of BPA and 100 mg/L of TiO2 in suspension.

  1. Bisphenol A in dental sealants and its estrogen like effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manu Rathee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A or BPA-based epoxy resins are widely used in the manufacture of commercial products, including dental resins, polycarbonate plastics, and the inner coating of food cans. BPA is a precursor to the resin monomer Bis-GMA. During the manufacturing process of Bis-GMA dental sealants, Bisphenol A (BPA might be present as an impurity or as a degradation product of Bis-DMA through esterases present in saliva. Leaching of these monomers from resins can occur during the initial setting period and in conjunction with fluid sorption and desorption over time and this chemical leach from dental sealants may be bioactive. Researchers found an estrogenic effect with BPA, Bis-DMA, and Bis-GMA because BPA lacks structural specificity as a natural ligand to the estrogen receptor. It generated considerable concern regarding the safety of dental resin materials. This review focuses on the BPA in dental sealants and its estrogen-like effect.

  2. The Politics of Plastics: The Making and Unmaking of Bisphenol A “Safety”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), a synthetic chemical used in the production of plastics since the 1950s and a known endocrine disruptor, is a ubiquitous component of the material environment and human body. New research on very-low-dose exposure to BPA suggests an association with adverse health effects, including breast and prostate cancer, obesity, neurobehavioral problems, and reproductive abnormalities. These findings challenge the long-standing scientific and legal presumption of BPA's safety. The history of how BPA's safety was defined and defended provides critical insight into the questions now facing lawmakers and regulators: is BPA safe, and if not, what steps must be taken to protect the public's health? Answers to both questions involve reforms in chemical policy, with implications beyond BPA. PMID:19890158

  3. Direct site-directed photocoupling of proteins onto surfaces coated with β-cyclodextrins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Städe, Lars W; Wimmer, Reinhard; Stensballe, Allan

    2010-01-01

    . Insertion of pBpa was verified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectroscopy. A molecular dynamic simulation, with water as solvent, showed high solvent accessibility of the pBpa benzophenone group in N27pBpa-cutinase mutant. The formation of an inclusion......A method called Dock'n'Flash was developed to offer site-specific capture and direct UVA-induced photocoupling of recombinant proteins. The method involves the tagging of recombinant proteins with photoreactive p-benzoyl-L-phenylalanine (pBpa) by genetic engineering. The photoreactive pBpa tag...... is used for affinity capture of the recombinant protein by beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD), which provides hydrogen atoms to be abstracted in the photocoupling process. To exemplify the method, a recombinant, folded, and active N27pBpa mutant of cutinase from Fusarium solani pisi was produced in E. coli...

  4. Use of polycarbonate plastic products and human health

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava, R. K.; Sushila Godara

    2013-01-01

    As plastic and plastic products are being used in day to day at the cost of environment pollution, the human and wild life health and has become a global concern. Researchers found link between abnormal liver enzymes in the people and Bisphenol-A (BPA). Changes in insulin resistance, reproduction system, cardiovascular and brain function are also reported. BPA is used in the production of epoxy resins, polycarbonate resins, and polyester resins. BPA can leach out of certain plastic products i...

  5. Comparison of Serum Bisphenol A Concentrations in Mice Exposed to Bisphenol A through the Diet versus Oral Bolus Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Background: Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widely produced endocrine-disrupting chemical. Diet is a primary route of exposure, but internal exposure (serum concentrations) in animals and humans has been measured only after single oral bolus administration. Objective: We compared serum concentrations of BPA over a 24-hr period after oral bolus administration or ad libitum feeding in mice and assessed for buildup with dietary exposure. Methods: Adult female mice were administered [dimethyl-d 6]-BPA (BP...

  6. Exposure to bisphenol A, but not phthalates, increases spontaneous diabetes type 1 development in NOD mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodin, Johanna; Kocbach Bølling, Anette; Wendt, Anna; Eliasson, Lena; Becher, Rune; Kuper, Frieke; Løvik, Martinus; Nygaard, Unni Cecilie

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune destruction of insulin producing pancreatic beta-cells due to a genetic predisposition and can be triggered by environmental factors. We have previously shown that bisphenol A (BPA) accelerates the spontaneous development of diabetes in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. Here, we hypothesized that oral exposure to a mixture of the endocrine disruptors BPA and phthalates, relevant for human exposure, would accelerate diabetes development compared to BPA alone. NOD mice were exposed to BPA (1 mg/l), a mixture of phthalates (DEHP 1 mg/l, DBP 0.2 mg/l, BBP 10 mg/l and DiBP 20 mg/l) or a combination of BPA and the phthalate mixture through drinking water from conception and throughout life. Previous observations that BPA exposure increased the prevalence of diabetes and insulitis and decreased the number of tissue resident macrophages in pancreas were confirmed, and extended by demonstrating that BPA exposure also impaired the phagocytic activity of peritoneal macrophages. None of these effects were observed after phthalate exposure alone. The phthalate exposure in combination with BPA seemed to dampen the BPA effects on macrophage number and function as well as diabetes development, but not insulitis development. Exposure to BPA alone or in combination with phthalates decreased cytokine release (TNFα, IL-6, IL-10, IFNγ, IL-4) from in vitro stimulated splenocytes and lymph node cells, indicating systemic changes in immune function. In conclusion, exposure to BPA, but not to phthalates or mixed exposure to BPA and phthalates, accelerated diabetes development in NOD mice, apparently in part via systemic immune alterations including decreased macrophage function.

  7. Associations of Prenatal Urinary Bisphenol A Concentrations with Child Behaviors and Cognitive Abilities

    OpenAIRE

    Braun, Joseph M.; Muckle, Gina; Arbuckle, Tye; Bouchard, Maryse F.; Fraser, William D.; Ouellet, Emmanuel; Séguin, Jean R.; Oulhote, Youssef; Webster, Glenys M.; Lanphear, Bruce P.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Prenatal bisphenol A (BPA) exposure has been associated with adverse neurodevelopment in epidemiological studies. However, prior studies had limited statistical power to examine sex-specific effects, and few examined child cognition. Objectives: We estimated the association between prenatal BPA exposure and child neurobehavior at 3 y of age in a prospective cohort of 812 mothers and their children. Methods: We measured BPA concentration in urine samples collected at ∼ 12 wk gestat...

  8. Effects of bisphenol compounds on the growth and epithelial mesenchymal transition of MCF-7 CV human breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Youn; Choi, Ho-Gyu; Lee, Hae-Miru; Lee, Geum-A; Hwang, Kyung-A; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2017-01-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) has been considered as an endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) because it can exert estrogenic properties. For bisphenol-S (BPS) and bisphenol-F (BPF) that are BPA analogs and substitutes, their risk to estrogen-dependent cancer has been reported rarely compared with the numerous cases of BPA. In this study, we examined whether BPA, BPS, and BPF can lead to the proliferation, migration, and epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) of MCF-7 clonal variant (MCF-7 CV) breast cancer cells expressing estrogen receptors (ERs). In a cell viability assay, BPA, BPS, and BPF significantly increased proliferation of MCF-7 CV cells compared to control (DMSO) as did 17β-estradiol (E2). In Western blotting assay, BPA, BPS, and BPF enhanced the protein expression of cell cycle progression genes such as cyclin D1 and E1. In addition, MCF-7 CV cells lost cell to cell contacts and acquired fibroblast-like morphology by the treatment of BPA, BPS, or BPF for 24 hours. In cell migration assay, BPA, BPS, and BPF accelerated the migration capability of MCF-7 CV cells as did E2. In relation with the EMT process, BPA, BPS, and BPF increased the protein expression ofN-cadherin, while they decreased the protein expression of E-cadherin. When BPA, BPS, and BPF were co-treated with ICI 182,780, an ER antagonist, proliferation effects were reversed, the expression of cyclin D1 and cyclin E1 was downregulated, and the altered cell migration and expression ofN-cadherin and E-cadherin by BPA, BPS, and BPF were restored to the control level. Thus, these results imply that BPS and BPF also have the risk of breast cancer progression as much as BPA in the induction of proliferation and migration of MCF-7 CV cells by regulating the protein expression of cell cycle-related genes and EMT markersvia the ER-dependent pathway. PMID:28808208

  9. Bisphenol A and replacements in thermal paper: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björnsdotter, Maria K; de Boer, Jacob; Ballesteros-Gómez, Ana

    2017-09-01

    Thermal paper contains potentially toxic compounds such as bisphenol A (BPA), which is used as a color developer. BPA has been reported in thermal paper in concentrations up to 42,600 μg g(-1). The exposure to BPA via dermal transfer has been recently discussed as a significant contribution to the overall human exposure and the estimated daily intake (EDI) has been reported up to 218 μg d(-1). BPA has been also detected in recycled paper with concentrations up to 46 μg g(-1). Due to the fact that BPA is a known endocrine disruptor and migrates from materials, regulatory restrictions have been established to prevent risks for the human health. As a consequence, structural analogues, such as bisphenol S (BPS) have been introduced into the market. Little is known about the presence and toxicity of these emerging replacements, and concern has risen about them. The present review gives an overview of the occurrence and levels of BPA and replacements in thermal paper. BPA is still the most common color developer found in thermal paper, followed by BPS. The analytical methods used for quantification of BPA and BPA replacements in paper products are also reviewed. BPA is transferred from thermal paper products to the finger pads upon handling it. Paper-skin transfer followed by penetration of BPA depends on conditions (e.g. greasiness of fingers and use of hand cream). It is, however, still debated whether thermal paper as a source for human exposure contributes significantly to the overall internal BPA exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Gestational exposure to low dose bisphenol A alters social behavior in juvenile mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer T Wolstenholme

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA is a man-made compound used to make polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins; public health concerns have been fueled by findings that BPA exposure can reduce sex differences in brain and some behaviors. We asked if a low BPA dose, within the range measured in humans, ingested during pregnancy, would affect social behaviors in prepubertal mice. We noted sex differences in social interactions whereby females spent more time sitting side-by-side, while males engaged in more exploring and sitting alone. In addition BPA increased display of nose-to-nose contacts, play solicitations and approaches in both sexes. Interactions between sex and diet were found for self grooming, social interactions while sitting side-by-side and following the other mouse. In all these cases interactions were produced by differences between control and BPA females. We examined brains from embryos during late gestation to determine if gene expression differences might be correlated with some of the sexually dimorphic or BPA affected behaviors we observed. Because BPA treatments ended at birth we took the brains during embryogenesis to increase the probability of discovering BPA mediated effects. We also selected this embryonic age (E18.5 because it coincides with the onset of sexual differentiation of the brain. Interestingly, mRNA for the glutamate transporter, Slc1a1, was enhanced by exposure to BPA in female brains. Also we noted that BPA changed the expression of two of the three DNA methyltransferase genes, Dnmt1 and Dnmt3a. We propose that BPA affects DNA methylation of Sc1a1 during neural development. Sex differences in juvenile social interactions are affected by BPA and in particular this compound modifies behavior in females.

  11. Bisphenol a exposure in Mexico City and risk of prematurity: a pilot nested case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Mercado-García Adriana; Lamadrid-Figueroa Héctor; Sánchez Brisa N; Hu Howard; Meeker John D; Cantonwine David; Fortenberry Gamola Z; Calafat Antonia M; Téllez-Rojo Martha

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Presence of Bisphenol A (BPA) has been documented worldwide in a variety of human biological samples. There is growing evidence that low level BPA exposure may impact placental tissue development and thyroid function in humans. The aim of this present pilot study was to determine urinary concentrations of BPA during the last trimester of pregnancy among a small subset of women in Mexico City, Mexico and relate these concentrations to risk of delivering prematurely. Methods...

  12. Bisphenol a and reproductive health: update of experimental and human evidence, 2007-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretz, Jackye; Vrooman, Lisa; Ricke, William A; Hunt, Patricia A; Ehrlich, Shelley; Hauser, Russ; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Taylor, Hugh S; Swan, Shanna H; VandeVoort, Catherine A; Flaws, Jodi A

    2014-08-01

    In 2007, an expert panel reviewed associations between bisphenol A (BPA) exposure and reproductive health outcomes. Since then, new studies have been conducted on the impact of BPA on reproduction. In this review, we summarize data obtained since 2007, focusing on a) findings from human and animal studies, b) the effects of BPA on a variety of reproductive end points, and c) mechanisms of BPA action. We reviewed the literature published from 2007 to 2013 using a PubMed search based on keywords related to BPA and male and female reproduction. Because BPA has been reported to affect the onset of meiosis in both animal and in vitro models, interfere with germ cell nest breakdown in animal models, accelerate follicle transition in several animal species, alter steroidogenesis in multiple animal models and women, and reduce oocyte quality in animal models and women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF), we consider it an ovarian toxicant. In addition, strong evidence suggests that BPA is a uterine toxicant because it impaired uterine endometrial proliferation, decreased uterine receptivity, and increased implantation failure in animal models. BPA exposure may be associated with adverse birth outcomes, hyperandrogenism, sexual dysfunction, and impaired implantation in humans, but additional studies are required to confirm these associations. Studies also suggest that BPA may be a testicular toxicant in animal models, but the data in humans are equivocal. Finally, insufficient evidence exists regarding effects of BPA on the oviduct, the placenta, and pubertal development. Based on reports that BPA impacts female reproduction and has the potential to affect male reproductive systems in humans and animals, we conclude that BPA is a reproductive toxicant.

  13. Short Mountain Landfill gas recovery project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), a Federal power marketing agency, has statutory responsibilities to supply electrical power to its utility, industrial, and other customers in the Pacific Northwest. BPA's latest load/resource balance forecast, projects the capability of existing resources to satisfy projected Federal system loads. The forecast indicates a potential resource deficit. The underlying need for action is to satisfy BPA customers' demand for electrical power.

  14. Short Mountain Landfill Gas Recovery Project : Stage 1 Environmental Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-05-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), a Federal power marketing agency, has statutory responsibilities to supply electrical power to its utility, industrial, and other customers in the Pacific Northwest. BPA`s latest load/resource balance forecast, projects the capability of existing resources to satisfy projected Federal system loads. The forecast indicates a potential resource deficit. The underlying need for action is to satisfy BPA customers` demand for electrical power.

  15. Serum levels of unconjugated bisphenol A are below 0.2ng/ml in Swedish nursing women when contamination is minimized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyllenhammar, Irina; Tröger, Rikard; Glynn, Anders; Rosén, Johan; Hellenäs, Karl-Erik; Lignell, Sanna

    2014-03-01

    In this study serum levels of bisphenol A (BPA) were investigated in primiparous women from Uppsala County, Sweden, sampled 3weeks after delivery 1996-2011, in both yearly pools of serum (n=39, temporal trend study) and in 208 individual samples also present in the pools. Possible contamination risks of BPA from blood sampling equipment and sample tubes, as well as from handling of the samples were evaluated. The unconjugated form of BPA was analyzed using a UPLC-MS/MS method with a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.2ng/ml. The results show that the levels of unconjugated BPA generally were <0.2ng/ml. The sampling equipment used when taking blood samples from the women and the tubes used for storage and processing of samples did not show any detectable BPA leakage. In the first analysis of the serum samples, unconjugated BPA levels ≥0.2ng/ml were found in 12% of the individual samples and in 21% of the trend samples. However, in reanalyses of individual serum samples from the same aliquot or from new aliquots, samples with BPA levels ≥0.2ng/ml in the first analysis did not have quantifiable BPA levels. Moreover, 11% of BPA spiked calibration samples (over 200) had higher levels than could be explained by the random error of the method. Thus BPA contamination of the biobanked samples probably occurred randomly during sample handling, pooling and processing. Equipment used for sampling of children and repeated blood sampling were leaking BPA. The results show the difficulties in analyzing compounds where samples are easily contaminated from exogenous sources. It also points out that it is questionable to use biobanked samples unless absence of BPA contamination from the sampling and storage materials, and during handling of the samples, can be proven. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Short-term treatment with bisphenol-A leads to metabolic abnormalities in adult male mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago M Batista

    Full Text Available Bisphenol-A (BPA is one of the most widespread endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC used as the base compound in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastics. Although evidence points to consider exposure to BPA as a risk factor for insulin resistance, its actions on whole body metabolism and on insulin-sensitive tissues are still unclear. The aim of the present work was to study the effects of low doses of BPA in insulin-sensitive peripheral tissues and whole body metabolism in adult mice. Adult mice were treated with subcutaneous injection of 100 µg/kg BPA or vehicle for 8 days. Whole body energy homeostasis was assessed with in vivo indirect calorimetry. Insulin signaling assays were conducted by western blot analysis. Mice treated with BPA were insulin resistant and had increased glucose-stimulated insulin release. BPA-treated mice had decreased food intake, lower body temperature and locomotor activity compared to control. In skeletal muscle, insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor β subunit was impaired in BPA-treated mice. This impairment was associated with a reduced insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation in the Thr(308 residue. Both skeletal muscle and liver displayed an upregulation of IRS-1 protein by BPA. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathway was also impaired in the skeletal muscle from BPA-treated mice. In the liver, BPA effects were of lesser intensity with decreased insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor β subunit.In conclusion, short-term treatment with low doses of BPA slows down whole body energy metabolism and disrupts insulin signaling in peripheral tissues. Thus, our findings support the notion that BPA can be considered a risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes.

  17. Unconjugated bisphenol A cord blood levels in boys with descended or undescended testes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fénichel, P; Déchaux, H; Harthe, C; Gal, J; Ferrari, P; Pacini, P; Wagner-Mahler, K; Pugeat, M; Brucker-Davis, F

    2012-04-01

    Human toxicity of bisphenol A (BPA), a weak estrogenic environmental endocrine disrupting compound, widely used in plastics, baby bottles, cans and dental sealants, is under investigation. Fetal or perinatal exposure in rodents is associated with programmed adult reproductive diseases. Human epidemiological studies remain scarce, especially concerning testicular development. We have investigated the relationship between fetal exposure to BPA and cryptorchidism. Using a radioimmunoassay performed after extraction, validated by high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry, active levels of unconjugated BPA (uBPA) in cord blood (CB) were measured in 152 boys born after 34 weeks gestation, with cryptorchid or descended testes. Active uBPA was detectable in all CB samples, with values in the control group (n = 106) of 0.14-4.76 ng/ml, median: 0.9 ng/ml; mean ± SD: 1.12 ng/ml ± 0.86 ng/ml, which did not differ from cryptorchid boys (n = 46, 1.26 ± 1.13 ng/ml, P = 0.38). uBPA in controls correlated with CB inhibin B (P milk polychlorinated bisphenyl 138 (P < 0.03). uBPA did not correlate with clinical maternal or fetal parameters or with other steroid or polypeptide CB hormones assessed. The presence of uBPA in all CB samples suggests placental transfer and fetal exposure. Similar uBPA levels in the control and cryptorchid groups make the participation of fetal exposure to uBPA in the physiopathology of undescended testes unlikely. However, the observed nanomolar uBPA concentrations support assessment of epidemiological relationships between CB uBPA and other human diseases.

  18. Short-Term Treatment with Bisphenol-A Leads to Metabolic Abnormalities in Adult Male Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Thiago M.; Alonso-Magdalena, Paloma; Vieira, Elaine; Amaral, Maria Esmeria C.; Cederroth, Christopher R.; Nef, Serge; Quesada, Ivan; Carneiro, Everardo M.; Nadal, Angel

    2012-01-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) is one of the most widespread endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) used as the base compound in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastics. Although evidence points to consider exposure to BPA as a risk factor for insulin resistance, its actions on whole body metabolism and on insulin-sensitive tissues are still unclear. The aim of the present work was to study the effects of low doses of BPA in insulin-sensitive peripheral tissues and whole body metabolism in adult mice. Adult mice were treated with subcutaneous injection of 100 µg/kg BPA or vehicle for 8 days. Whole body energy homeostasis was assessed with in vivo indirect calorimetry. Insulin signaling assays were conducted by western blot analysis. Mice treated with BPA were insulin resistant and had increased glucose-stimulated insulin release. BPA-treated mice had decreased food intake, lower body temperature and locomotor activity compared to control. In skeletal muscle, insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor β subunit was impaired in BPA-treated mice. This impairment was associated with a reduced insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation in the Thr308 residue. Both skeletal muscle and liver displayed an upregulation of IRS-1 protein by BPA. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway was also impaired in the skeletal muscle from BPA-treated mice. In the liver, BPA effects were of lesser intensity with decreased insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor β subunit. In conclusion, short-term treatment with low doses of BPA slows down whole body energy metabolism and disrupts insulin signaling in peripheral tissues. Thus, our findings support the notion that BPA can be considered a risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes. PMID:22470480

  19. Interaction between p-dihydroxyborylphenylalanine and adrenaline studied by a zone electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitaoka, Y.; Kobayashi, M. [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst

    2000-10-01

    In order to develop a new boron carrier, we studied the interaction between p-dihydroxyborylphenylalanine (p-BPA) and adrenaline (Adre.) by a zone electrophoresis, paper chromatography, and infrared-spectroscopy. It was found that the complex of p-BPA with Adre. was stable near neutral solutions and decomposed under acidic solutions. The chemical nature of the complex was compared with those of the complexes of p-BPA with organic acids. (author)

  20. Exposure to bisphenol A, but not phthalates, increases spontaneous diabetes type 1 development in NOD mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Bodin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM is an autoimmune destruction of insulin producing pancreatic beta-cells due to a genetic predisposition and can be triggered by environmental factors. We have previously shown that bisphenol A (BPA accelerates the spontaneous development of diabetes in non-obese diabetic (NOD mice. Here, we hypothesized that oral exposure to a mixture of the endocrine disruptors BPA and phthalates, relevant for human exposure, would accelerate diabetes development compared to BPA alone. NOD mice were exposed to BPA (1 mg/l, a mixture of phthalates (DEHP 1 mg/l, DBP 0.2 mg/l, BBP 10 mg/l and DiBP 20 mg/l or a combination of BPA and the phthalate mixture through drinking water from conception and throughout life. Previous observations that BPA exposure increased the prevalence of diabetes and insulitis and decreased the number of tissue resident macrophages in pancreas were confirmed, and extended by demonstrating that BPA exposure also impaired the phagocytic activity of peritoneal macrophages. None of these effects were observed after phthalate exposure alone. The phthalate exposure in combination with BPA seemed to dampen the BPA effects on macrophage number and function as well as diabetes development, but not insulitis development. Exposure to BPA alone or in combination with phthalates decreased cytokine release (TNFα, IL-6, IL-10, IFNγ, IL-4 from in vitro stimulated splenocytes and lymph node cells, indicating systemic changes in immune function. In conclusion, exposure to BPA, but not to phthalates or mixed exposure to BPA and phthalates, accelerated diabetes development in NOD mice, apparently in part via systemic immune alterations including decreased macrophage function.

  1. Comparison of blood pool and extracellular gadolinium chelate for functional MR evaluation of vascular thoracic outlet syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Ruth P., E-mail: ruthplim74@gmail.com [New York University School of Medicine, Bernard and Irene Schwartz Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, 660 1st Avenue, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Austin Health, Department of Radiology, Heidelberg, Victoria 3084 (Australia); The University of Melbourne, School of Medicine, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Bruno, Mary, E-mail: mary.bruno@nyumc.org [New York University School of Medicine, Bernard and Irene Schwartz Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, 660 1st Avenue, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Rosenkrantz, Andrew B., E-mail: Andrew.rosenkrantz@nyumc.org [New York University School of Medicine, Bernard and Irene Schwartz Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, 660 1st Avenue, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Kim, Danny C., E-mail: danny.kim@nyumc.org [New York University School of Medicine, Bernard and Irene Schwartz Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, 660 1st Avenue, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Mulholland, Thomas, E-mail: Thomas.mulholland@nyumc.org [New York University School of Medicine, Bernard and Irene Schwartz Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, 660 1st Avenue, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Kwon, Jane, E-mail: jane.kwon@nyumc.org [New York University School of Medicine, Bernard and Irene Schwartz Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, 660 1st Avenue, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Palfrey, Amy P., E-mail: amy.pastva10@stjohns.edu [St John' s University, Department of Psychology, 8000 Utopia Parkway, Jamaica-Queens, NY 11439 (United States); Ogedegbe, Olugbenga, E-mail: Olugbenga.Ogedegbe@nyumc.org [New York University School of Medicine, Clinical and Translational Science Institute, 227 E30th St, 8th Floor, New York, NY 10016 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Objective: To compare performance of single-injection blood pool agent (gadofosveset trisodium, BPA) against dual-injection extracellular contrast (gadopentetate dimeglumine, ECA) for MRA/MRV in assessment of suspected vascular TOS. Materials and methods: Thirty-one patients referred for vascular TOS evaluation were assessed with BPA (n = 18) or ECA (n = 13) MRA/MRV in arm abduction and adduction. Images were retrospectively assessed for: image quality (1 = non-diagnostic, 5 = excellent), vessel contrast (1 = same signal as muscle, 4 = much brighter than muscle) and vascular pathology by two independent readers, with a separate experienced reader providing reference assessment of vascular pathology. Results: Median image quality was diagnostic or better (score ≥3) for ECA and BPA at all time points, with BPA image quality superior at abduction late (BPA 4.5, ECA 4, p = 0.042) and ECA image quality superior at adduction-early (BPA 4.5; ECA 4.0, p = 0.018). High qualitative vessel contrast (mean score ≥3) was observed at all time points with both BPA and ECA, with superior BPA vessel contrast at abduction-late (BPA 3.97 ± 0.12; ECA 3.73 ± 0.26, p = 0.007) and ECA at adduction-early (BPA 3.42 ± 0.52; ECA 3.96 ± 0.14, p < 0.001). Readers readily identified arterial and venous pathology with BPA, similar to ECA examinations. Conclusion: Single-injection BPA MRA/MRV for TOS evaluation demonstrated diagnostic image quality and high vessel contrast, similar to dual-injection ECA imaging, enabling identification of fixed and functional arterial and venous pathology.

  2. Bisphenol A in Chronic Kidney Disease

    OpenAIRE

    González-Parra, Emilio; Herrero, Jose Antonio; Elewa, Usama; Bosch, Ricardo J.; Arduán, Alberto Ortiz; Egido, Jesus

    2013-01-01

    Phenols are uremic toxins of intestinal origin formed by bacteria during protein metabolism. Of these molecules, p-cresol is the most studied and has been associated with renal function impairment and vascular damage. Bisphenol A (BPA) is a molecule with structural similarity with phenols found in plastic food and beverage containers as well as in some dialyzers. BPA is considered an environmental toxicant based on animal and cell culture studies. Japanese authorities recently banned BPA use ...

  3. Assessment of bisphenol A released from reusable plastic, aluminium and stainless steel water bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, James E; Kendig, Eric L; Belcher, Scott M

    2011-10-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a ubiquitous high volume industrial chemical that is an estrogen and an environmental endocrine disrupting chemical. Bisphenol A is used extensively in the production of consumer goods, polycarbonate plastics, epoxy resins and coatings used to line metallic food and beverage cans. There is great concern regarding the possible harmful effects from exposures that result from BPA leaching into foods and beverages from packaging or storage containers. The objective of this study was to independently assess whether BPA contamination of water was occurring from different types of reusable drinking bottles marketed as alternatives to BPA-containing polycarbonate plastics. Using a sensitive and quantitative BPA-specific competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay we evaluated whether BPA migrated into water stored in polycarbonate or copolyester plastic bottles, and different lined or unlined metallic reusable water bottles. At room temperature the concentration of BPA migrating from polycarbonate bottles ranged from 0.2 to 0.3 mg L⁻¹. Under identical conditions BPA migration from aluminium bottles lined with epoxy-based resins was variable depending on manufacturer ranging from 0.08 to 1.9 mg L⁻¹. Boiling water significantly increased migration of BPA from the epoxy lined bottles. No detectable BPA contamination was observed in water stored in bottles made from Tritan™ copolyester plastic, uncoated stainless steel, or aluminium lined with EcoCare™. The results from this study demonstrate that when used according to manufacturers' recommendations reusable water bottles constructed from "BPA-free" alternative materials are suitable for consumption of beverages free of BPA contamination. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Bisphenol A sorption by organo-montmorillonite: implications for the removal of organic contaminants from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yuri; Sun, Zhiming; Ayoko, Godwin A; Frost, Ray L

    2014-07-01

    Remediation of bisphenol A (BPA) from aqueous solutions by adsorption using organoclays synthesized from montmorillonite (MMT) with different types of organic surfactant molecules was demonstrated. High adsorption capacities of the organoclays for the uptake of BPA were observed and these demonstrated their potential application as strong adsorbents for noxious organic water contaminants. The adsorption of BPA was significantly influenced by pH, with increased adsorption of BPA in acidic pH range. However, the organoclays intercalated with highly loaded surfactants and/or large surfactant molecules were less influenced by the pH of the environment and this was thought to be due to the shielding the negative charge from surfactant molecules and the development of more positive charge on the clay surface, which leads to the attraction of anionic BPA even at alkaline pH. The hydrophobic phase created by loaded surfactant molecules contributed to a partitioning phase, interacting with BPA molecules strongly through hydrophobic interaction. Pseudo-second order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm provided the best fit for the adsorption of BPA onto the organoclays. In addition, the adsorption process was spontaneous and exothermic with lower temperature facilitating the adsorption of BPA onto the organoclays. The described process provides a potential pathway for the removal of BPA from contaminated waters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Is bisphenol A an environmental obesogen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legeay, Samuel; Faure, Sébastien

    2017-12-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disruptor with an oestrogenic activity that is widely produced for the manufacture of polycarbonate plastic, epoxy resin, and thermal paper. Its ubiquitous presence in the environment contributes to broad and continuous human exposure, which has been associated with deleterious health effects. Despite numerous controversial discussions and a lack of consensus about BPA's safety, growing evidence indicates that BPA exposure positively correlates with an increased risk of developing obesity. An updated analysis of the epidemiological, in vivo, and in vitro studies indicates that BPA should be considered an obesogenic environmental compound. Precisely, BPA exposure during all life stages correlates with increased body weight and/or body mass index. Developmental periods that include prenatal, infancy, and childhood appear to be critical windows with increased sensitivity to BPA effects. Finally, blood analysis and in vitro data clearly demonstrate that BPA promotes adipogenesis, lipid and glucose dysregulation, and adipose tissue inflammation, thus contributing to the pathophysiology of obesity. Future prevention efforts should now be employed to avoid BPA exposure, and more research to determine in depth the critical time windows, doses, and impact of long-term exposure of BPA is warranted in order to clarify its risk assessment. © 2017 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  6. Human Bisphenol A Exposure and the “Diabesity Phenotype”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Alessandro; Battezzati, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), a known endocrine disruptor, is a food contaminant suspected of being a contributing factor to the present-day increase in obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. This issue is of increasing interest in the field of diabetes research and has become a matter of concern for regulatory agencies and food industries. Recently, the number of studies involving BPA has increased exponentially, but there are still many gaps in the knowledge of the relationship between actual BPA exposure and cardiometabolic risk and of the modalities of food intake exposure, all of which prevents sound judgments concerning the risks to human health. This review focuses on the association between human exposure to BPA and obesity, thyroid function, diabetes, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular diseases, and BPA content in food. Many cross-sectional studies support, sometimes contradictorily, an adverse effect of BPA exposure on obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. Few prospective studies support an adverse effect of BPA exposure on such pathologies. Moreover, no intervention studies have been conducted to evaluate the causality of such associations. This is mainly due to lack of an appropriate database of BPA content in foods, thus hindering any estimation of the usual dietary BPA intake. PMID:26858585

  7. Bisphenol A and Ovarian Reserve among Infertile Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To better understand possible effects of bisphenol A (BPA exposure on ovarian reserve in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, we measured creatinine adjusted urinary BPA (BPA_Cre concentrations and used regression models to evaluate the association between urinary BPA level and antral follicle count (AFC, antimullerian hormone (AMH, day-3 follicle stimulating hormone levels (FSH and inhibin B (INHB in 268 infertile women diagnosed with PCOS. BPA was detected in all women with a median concentration of 2.35 ng/mL (the 25th and 75th percentiles of 1.47 ng/mL and 3.95 ng/mL. A unit increase in BPA_Cre was associated with a significant decrease of 0.34 in AFC (β = −0.34, 95% CI = −0.60, −0.08; p = 0.01. Likewise, BPA was negatively associated with AMH and day-3 FSH levels, but neither of them reached statistical significance. No association was observed between BPA and INHB. Our results suggest that in women with PCOS, BPA may affect ovarian follicles and, therefore, reduce ovarian reserve.

  8. Exposure to bisphenol A in young adult mice does not alter ovulation but does alter the fertilization ability of oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore-Ambriz, Teresita Rocio; Acuña-Hernández, Deyanira Guadalupe; Ramos-Robles, Brenda; Sánchez-Gutiérrez, Manuel; Santacruz-Márquez, Ramsés; Sierra-Santoyo, Adolfo; Piña-Guzmán, Belem; Shibayama, Mineko; Hernández-Ochoa, Isabel

    2015-12-15

    Follicle growth culminates in ovulation, which allows for the expulsion of fertilizable oocytes and the formation of corpora lutea. Bisphenol A (BPA) is present in many consumer products, and it has been suggested that BPA impairs ovulation; however, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Therefore, this study first evaluated whether BPA alters ovulation by affecting folliculogenesis, the number of corpora lutea or eggs shed to the oviduct, ovarian gonadotropin responsiveness, hormone levels, and estrous cyclicity. Because it has been suggested (but not directly confirmed) that BPA exerts toxic effects on the fertilization ability of oocytes, a second aim was to evaluate whether BPA impacts the oocyte fertilization rate using an in vitro fertilization assay and mating. The possible effects on early zygote development were also examined. Young adult female C57BL/6J mice (39 days old) were orally dosed with corn oil (vehicle) or 50 μg/kgbw/day BPA for a period encompassing the first three reproductive cycles (12-15 days). BPA exposure did not alter any parameters related to ovulation. Moreover, BPA exposure reduced the percentage of fertilized oocytes after either in vitro fertilization or mating, but it did not alter the zygotic stages. The data indicate that exposure to the reference dose of BPA does not impact ovulation but that it does influence the oocyte quality in terms of its fertilization ability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Bisphenol A Exposure May Induce Hepatic Lipid Accumulation via Reprogramming the DNA Methylation Patterns of Genes Involved in Lipid Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Zhang-Hong; Pan, Jie-Xue; Jin, Lu-Yang; Xu, Hai-Yan; Yu, Tian-Tian; Ullah, Kamran; Rahman, Tanzil Ur; Ren, Jun; Cheng, Yi; Dong, Xin-Yan; Sheng, Jian-Zhong; Huang, He-Feng

    2016-08-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests a role of bisphenol A (BPA) in metabolic disorders. However, the underlying mechanism is still unclear. Using a mouse BPA exposure model, we investigated the effects of long-term BPA exposure on lipid metabolism and the underlying mechanisms. The male mice exposed to BPA (0.5 μg BPA /kg/day, a human relevant dose) for 10 months exhibited significant hepatic accumulation of triglycerides and cholesterol. The liver cells from the BPA-exposed mice showed significantly increased expression levels of the genes related to lipid synthesis. These liver cells showed decreased DNA methylation levels of Srebf1 and Srebf2, and increased expression levels of Srebf1 and Srebf2 that may upregulate the genes related to lipid synthesis. The expression levels of DNA methyltransferases were decreased in BPA-exposed mouse liver. Hepa1-6 cell line treated with BPA showed decreased expression levels of DNA methyltransferases and increased expression levels of genes involved in lipid synthesis. DNA methyltransferase knockdown in Hepa1-6 led to hypo-methylation and increased expression levels of genes involved in lipid synthesis. Our results suggest that long-term BPA exposure could induce hepatic lipid accumulation, which may be due to the epigenetic reprogramming of the genes involved in lipid metabolism, such as the alterations of DNA methylation patterns.

  10. Microplastics Reduce Short-Term Effects of Environmental Contaminants. Part I: Effects of Bisphenol A on Freshwater Zooplankton Are Lower in Presence of Polyamide Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehse, Saskia; Kloas, Werner; Zarfl, Christiane

    2018-02-06

    Abstract : Microplastics can have direct physical effects on organisms in freshwater systems, and are considered as vectors for absorbed environmental pollutants. It is still under discussion if microplastics are relevant pollutant vectors for uptake into aquatic organisms in comparison to further uptake pathways, e.g., via water or sediment particles. We analyzed how the presence of microplastics (polyamide particles, PA) modifies acute effects of the environmental pollutant bisphenol A (BPA) on freshwater zooplankton ( Daphnia magna ). Daphnids were exposed to PA particles and BPA alone, before combining them in the next step with one concentration of PA and varying concentrations of BPA. The PA particles themselves did not induce negative effects, while the effects of BPA alone followed a typical dose-dependent manner. Sorption of BPA to PA particles prior to exposure led to a reduction of BPA in the aqueous phase. The combination of BPA and PA led to decreased immobilization, although PA particles loaded with BPA were ingested by the daphnids. Calculations based on physiochemistry and equilibrium assumptions indicated lower BPA body burden of daphnids in the presence of PA particles. These results confirm model-based studies, and show that investigated microplastic concentrations are negligible for the overall pollutant uptake of daphnids with water as additional uptake pathway.

  11. Microplastics Reduce Short-Term Effects of Environmental Contaminants. Part I: Effects of Bisphenol A on Freshwater Zooplankton Are Lower in Presence of Polyamide Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia Rehse

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Microplastics can have direct physical effects on organisms in freshwater systems, and are considered as vectors for absorbed environmental pollutants. It is still under discussion if microplastics are relevant pollutant vectors for uptake into aquatic organisms in comparison to further uptake pathways, e.g., via water or sediment particles. We analyzed how the presence of microplastics (polyamide particles, PA modifies acute effects of the environmental pollutant bisphenol A (BPA on freshwater zooplankton (Daphnia magna. Daphnids were exposed to PA particles and BPA alone, before combining them in the next step with one concentration of PA and varying concentrations of BPA. The PA particles themselves did not induce negative effects, while the effects of BPA alone followed a typical dose-dependent manner. Sorption of BPA to PA particles prior to exposure led to a reduction of BPA in the aqueous phase. The combination of BPA and PA led to decreased immobilization, although PA particles loaded with BPA were ingested by the daphnids. Calculations based on physiochemistry and equilibrium assumptions indicated lower BPA body burden of daphnids in the presence of PA particles. These results confirm model-based studies, and show that investigated microplastic concentrations are negligible for the overall pollutant uptake of daphnids with water as additional uptake pathway.

  12. The Establishment of Bisphenol A Sensing System Utilizing Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Receptor and Electrochemical Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izumi Kubo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A sensing system of bisphenol A (BPA based on the electrochemical detection utilizing molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP as a receptor of BPA was investigated. MIP for BPA was polymerized thermally from 4-vinylpyridine as a functional monomer and ethylene dimethacrylate (EDMA as a cross-linker and served to prepare an MIP packed column. BPA in an aqueous solution was adsorbed to an MIP packed column and eluted by acetonitrile/phosphate buffer (60/40, v/v. From aqueous solution, BPA was adsorbed to the column and eluted completely in the eluent. The eluted BPA was electrochemically detected by cyclic voltammetry. Optimum pH and scan rate were 7.0 and 0.1 V/s in phosphate buffer. Electrochemical detection of BPA in acetonitrile/phosphate buffer was performed, and linear relationship between BPA and anodic peak current was observed at the range of 10–100 μM. In the eluent, anodic peak current of BPA was observed around 650 mV.

  13. Prenatal bisphenol a exposure and dysregulation of infant hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function: findings from the APrON cohort study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gerald F Giesbrecht; Maede Ejaredar; Jiaying Liu; Jenna Thomas; Nicole Letourneau; Tavis Campbell; Jonathan W Martin; Deborah Dewey

    2017-01-01

    Background Animal models show that prenatal bisphenol A (BPA) exposure leads to sexually dimorphic disruption of the neuroendocrine system in offspring, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA...

  14. Estimation of in vivo and in vitro exposure to bisphenol A as food contaminant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milić, Nataša; Četojević-Simin, Dragana; Milanović, Maja; Sudji, Jan; Milošević, Nataša; Ćurić, Nikola; Abenavoli, Ludovico; Medić-Stojanoska, Milica

    2015-09-01

    The goal of this cross-sectional study was to examine the occurrence of bisphenol A (BPA) in the morning spot urine taken from 145 female volunteers of various ages. Total urine BPA concentration was detected in 38.6% samples in the 0.92-70.96 μg/g Cr range. The majority of BPA + women belonged to the 25 + body mass index (BMI) group (54.5% were overweight and 43.4% were obese women). Occurrence of BPA in the urine samples was higher at 40 + ages. The maximum BPA concentration of 70.96 μg/g Cr was detected in the urine sample of an obese woman. It is known that BPA is highly toxic in vitro. In this study BPA impaired significantly the growth of all investigated cell lines, i.e. the EC50 values were reached at very low concentrations, in the range from 3.24 to 34.85 μg/mL. The obtained in vivo results suggest that a higher exposure to BPA could contribute to weight problems in women and the absence of the BPA in vitro selective toxicity studies indicates to its general toxic mode of action and raises awareness of the health risks associated with its ubiquitous presence in the environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Food intolerance at adulthood after perinatal exposure to the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Sandrine; Guzylack-Piriou, Laurence; Leveque, Mathilde; Braniste, Viorica; Lencina, Corinne; Naturel, Manon; Moussa, Lara; Sekkal, Soraya; Harkat, Cherryl; Gaultier, Eric; Theodorou, Vassilia; Houdeau, Eric

    2014-11-01

    The food contaminant bisphenol A (BPA) is pointed out as a risk factor in development of food allergy and food intolerance, two adverse food reactions increasing worldwide. We evaluated the consequences of perinatal exposure to low doses of BPA on immune-specific response to the food antigen ovalbumin (OVA) at adulthood. Perinatal exposure to BPA (0.5, 5, or 50 μg/kg/d) from 15th day of gravidity to pups weaning resulted in an increase of anti-OVA IgG titers at all BPA dosages in OVA-tolerized rats, and at 5 μg/kg/d in OVA-immunized rats compared to control rats treated with vehicle. In BPA-treated and OVA-tolerized rats, increased anti-OVA IgG titers were associated with higher IFNγ secretion by the spleen. This result is in accordance with the increase of activated CD4(+)CD44(high)CD62L(low) T lymphocytes observed in spleen of BPA-exposed rats compared to controls. Finally, when BPA-treated OVA-tolerized rats were orally challenged with OVA, colonic inflammation occurred, with neutrophil infiltration, increased IFNγ, and decreased TGFβ. We show that perinatal exposure to BPA altered oral tolerance and immunization to dietary antigens (OVA). In summary, the naive immune system of neonate is vulnerable to low doses of BPA that trigger food intolerance later in life. © FASEB.

  16. Unravelling bisphenol A pharmacokinetics using physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxia eYang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK models integrate both chemical- and system-specific information into a mathematical framework, offering a mechanistic approach to predict the internal dose metrics of a chemical and an ability to perform species and dose extrapolations. Bisphenol A (BPA, because of its ubiquitous presence in a variety of consumer products, has received a considerable amount of attention from the public and regulatory bodies. PBPK models using deuterated BPA were developed for immature and adult rats and non-human primates and for adult humans to understand better the dosimetry of BPA. The focus of the present paper is to provide a rationale for interpreting species- and age-related pharmacokinetics of BPA. Gastrointestinal tract metabolism was an important consideration to predict unconjugated BPA serum kinetic profiles in adult and immature rats and monkeys. Biliary excretion and enterohepatic recirculation of BPA conjugates accounted for the slowed systemic clearance of BPA conjugates in rats. For monkeys, renal reabsorption was proposed as a mechanism influencing systemic clearance of BPA conjugates. The quantitative understanding of the processes driving the pharmacokinetics of BPA across different species and life stages using a computational modeling approach provides more confidence in the interpretation of human biomonitoring data and the extrapolation of experimental animal findings to humans.

  17. Sample clean-up by sol-gel immunoaffinity chromatography for the determination of bisphenol A in food and urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichna-Markl, Margit

    2012-02-01

    Bisphenol A (2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane, BPA) is an industrial chemical mainly used as a monomer in the synthesis of polycarbonates and epoxy resins. BPA has been shown to elicit estrogenic effects via binding to the nuclear estrogen receptors α and β. Food is considered as the major source of BPA exposure for the general human population. When incorporated into the body, BPA is metabolised in the liver, mainly to BPA glucuronide, and excreted via the urine. The present paper presents analytical methods for the determination of BPA concentrations in foodstuffs and the determination of free and total (free plus conjugated) BPA in urine samples. The paper provides protocols for the preparation and operation of sol-gel immunoaffinity columns and their application to remove interfering matrix compounds and to enrich BPA. In addition, the paper points out major sources of systematic errors in BPA analysis and describes how they can be avoided. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Human Bisphenol A Exposure and the “Diabesity Phenotype”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Bertoli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA, a known endocrine disruptor, is a food contaminant suspected of being a contributing factor to the present-day increase in obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. This issue is of increasing interest in the field of diabetes research and has become a matter of concern for regulatory agencies and food industries. Recently, the number of studies involving BPA has increased exponentially, but there are still many gaps in the knowledge of the relationship between actual BPA exposure and cardiometabolic risk and of the modalities of food intake exposure, all of which prevents sound judgments concerning the risks to human health. This review focuses on the association between human exposure to BPA and obesity, thyroid function, diabetes, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular diseases, and BPA content in food. Many cross-sectional studies support, sometimes contradictorily, an adverse effect of BPA exposure on obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. Few prospective studies support an adverse effect of BPA exposure on such pathologies. Moreover, no intervention studies have been conducted to evaluate the causality of such associations. This is mainly due to lack of an appropriate database of BPA content in foods, thus hindering any estimation of the usual dietary BPA intake.

  19. A new strategy for determination of bisphenol A in the presence of Sudan I using a ZnO/CNTs/ionic liquid paste electrode in food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Maryam; Khalilzadeh, Mohammad A; Karimi-Maleh, Hassan

    2014-09-01

    The electrochemistry of bisphenol A (BPA) was studied by voltammetric methods at a surface of carbon paste electrode modified by a ZnO/CNTs nanocomposite and room-temperature ionic liquid of 1,3-dipropylimidazolium bromide. The ratio of ZnO/CNTs and ionic liquid (IL) on the surface of the electrode has to be controlled carefully because the charging currents. The anodic peaks of BPA and Sudan I in their mixture can be well separated. At pH 7.0 the two peaks are separated ca. 0.47 and 0.70 V, respectively; hence BPA can be determined in the presence of Sudan I and more than 8.7 times current excess of BPA. The peaks current of square wave voltammograms (SWV) of BPA and Sudan I increased linearly with their concentration in the ranges of 0.002-700 μmol L(-1)BPA and 0.2-800 μmol L(-1) Sudan I. The detection limits for BPA and Sudan I were 9.0 nmol L(-1) and 80 nmol L(-1), respectively. The modified electrode has been successfully applied for the assay of BPA in food samples. This study provides a simple and easy approach to selectively detect BPA in the presence of Sudan I. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Estrogen and bisphenol A affect male rat enamel formation and promote ameloblast proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedeon, Katia; Loiodice, Sophia; Marciano, Clémence; Vinel, Alexia; Canivenc Lavier, Marie-Chantal; Berdal, Ariane; Babajko, Sylvie

    2014-09-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widespread endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) strongly suspected to have adverse health effects. Numerous tissues and cells are affected by BPA, and we showed recently that BPA targets include ameloblasts and enamel. We therefore investigated the effects of BPA on ameloblasts and the possible involvement of the estrogen signaling pathway. Rats were exposed daily to low-dose BPA, and developed enamel hypomineralization similar to human molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH). BPA increased ameloblast proliferation in vivo and in vitro. The proliferation of the rat dental epithelial cell line HAT-7 was also increased by estrogen (E2). Ameloblasts express ERα but not ERβ both in vivo and in vitro. The ER antagonist ICI 182,780 was used to inactivate ERα and abolished the effects of E2 on cell proliferation and transcription, but only partially reduced the effects of BPA. In conclusion, we show, for the first time, that: 1) BPA has ER-dependent and ER-independent effects on ameloblast proliferation and gene transcription; 2) the estrogen signaling pathway is involved in tooth development and the enamel mineralization process; and 3) BPA impacts preferentially amelogenesis in male rats. These results are consistent with the steroid hormones having effect on ameloblasts, raising the issues of the hormonal influence on amelogenesis and possible differences in enamel quality between sexes.

  1. Bisphenol A Release: Survey of the Composition of Dental Composite Resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dursun, Elisabeth; Fron-Chabouis, Hélène; Attal, Jean-Pierre; Raskin, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disruptor with potential toxicity. Composite resins may not contain pure BPA, but its derivatives are widely used. Several studies found doses of BPA or its derivatives in saliva or urine of patients after composite resin placement. The aims of this study were to establish an exhaustive list of composite resins marketed in Europe and their composition, and to assess the extent of BPA derivatives used. A research on manufacturers' websites was performed to reference all composite resins marketed in Europe, then their composition was determined from both material safety data sheets and a standardized questionnaire sent to manufacturers. Manufacturers had to indicate whether their product contained the monomers listed, add other monomers if necessary, or indicate "not disclosed". 160 composite resins were identified from 31 manufacturers and 23 manufacturers (74.2%) responded to the survey. From the survey and websites, the composition of 130 composite resins (81.2%) was: 112 (86.2%) based on BPA derivatives, 97 (74.7%) on bis-GMA, 17 (13.1%) without monomer derived from BPA (UDMA, sometimes with TEGDMA) and 6 (4.6%) with UDMA (only); 1 (0.8%) did not contain a BPA derivative or UDMA or TEGDMA. Pure BPA was never reported. This work has established a list of 18 composite resins that contain no BPA derivative. Manufacturers should be required to report the exact composition of their products as it often remains unclear or incomplete.

  2. Stomatal and non-stomatal factors regulated the photosynthesis of soybean seedlings in the present of exogenous bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Liya; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2017-11-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an emerging environmental endocrine disruptor that has toxic effects on plants growth. Photosynthesis supplies the substances and energy required for plant growth, and regulated by stomatal and non-stomatal factors. Therefore, in this study, to reveal how BPA affects photosynthesis in soybean seedlings (Glycine max L.) from the perspective of stomatal and non-stomatal factors, the stomatal factors (stomatal conductance and behaviours) and non-stomatal factors (Hill reaction, apparent quantum efficiency, Rubisco activity, carboxylation efficiency, the maximum Rubisco carboxylation velocity, ribulose-1,5-bisphospate regeneration capacities mediated by maximum electron transport rates, and triose phosphate utilization rate) were investigated using a portable photosynthesis system. Moreover, the pollution of BPA in the environment was simulated. The results indicate that low-dose BPA enhanced net photosynthetic rate (Pn) primarily by promoting stomatal factors, resulting in increased relative growth rates and accelerated soybean seedling growth. High-dose BPA decreases the Pn by simultaneously inhibiting stomatal and non-stomatal factors, and this inhibition decreases the relative growth rates further reducing soybean seedling growth. Following the withdrawal of BPA, all of the indices were restored to varying degrees. In conclusion, low-dose BPA increased the Pn by promoting stomatal factors while high-dose BPA decreased the Pn by simultaneously inhibiting stomatal and non-stomatal factors. These findings provide a model (or, hypothesis) for the effects of BPA on plant photosynthesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Bisphenol A induces otolith malformations during vertebrate embryogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demeneix Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The plastic monomer and plasticizer bisphenol A (BPA, used for manufacturing polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins, is produced at over 2.5 million metric tons per year. Concerns have been raised that BPA acts as an endocrine disruptor on both developmental and reproductive processes and a large body of evidence suggests that BPA interferes with estrogen and thyroid hormone signaling. Here, we investigated BPA effects during embryonic development using the zebrafish and Xenopus models. Results We report that BPA exposure leads to severe malformations of the otic vesicle. In zebrafish and in Xenopus embryos, exposure to BPA during the first developmental day resulted in dose-dependent defects in otolith formation. Defects included aggregation, multiplication and occasionally failure to form otoliths. As no effects on otolith development were seen with exposure to micromolar concentrations of thyroid hormone, 17-ß-estradiol or of the estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780 we conclude that the effects of BPA are independent of estrogen receptors or thyroid-hormone receptors. Na+/K+ ATPases are crucial for otolith formation in zebrafish. Pharmacological inhibition of the major Na+/K+ ATPase with ouabain can rescue the BPA-induced otolith phenotype. Conclusions The data suggest that the spectrum of BPA action is wider than previously expected and argue for a systematic survey of the developmental effects of this endocrine disruptor.

  4. Early developmental bisphenol-A exposure sex-independently impairs spatial memory by remodeling hippocampal dendritic architecture and synaptic transmission in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-Hua; Ding, Jin-Jun; Yang, Qian-Qian; Song, Hua-Zeng; Chen, Xiang-Tao; Xu, Yi; Xiao, Gui-Ran; Wang, Hui-Li

    2016-08-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA, 4, 4‧-isopropylidene-2-diphenol), a synthetic xenoestrogen that widely used in the production of polycarbonate plastics, has been reported to impair hippocampal development and function. Our previous study has shown that BPA exposure impairs Sprague-Dawley (SD) male hippocampal dendritic spine outgrowth. In this study, the sex-effect of chronic BPA exposure on spatial memory in SD male and female rats and the related synaptic mechanism were further investigated. We found that chronic BPA exposure impaired spatial memory in both SD male and female rats, suggesting a dysfunction of hippocampus without gender-specific effect. Further investigation indicated that BPA exposure causes significant impairment of dendrite and spine structure, manifested as decreased dendritic complexity, dendritic spine density and percentage of mushroom shaped spines in hippocampal CA1 and dentate gyrus (DG) neurons. Furthermore, a significant reduction in Arc expression was detected upon BPA exposure. Strikingly, BPA exposure significantly increased the mIPSC amplitude without altering the mEPSC amplitude or frequency, accompanied by increased GABAARβ2/3 on postsynaptic membrane in cultured CA1 neurons. In summary, our study indicated that Arc, together with the increased surface GABAARβ2/3, contributed to BPA induced spatial memory deficits, providing a novel molecular basis for BPA achieved brain impairment.

  5. Photocatalytic degradation of bisphenol A in the presence of Ce–ZnO: Evolution of kinetics, toxicity and photodegradation mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechambi, Olfa [Université de Tunis El Manar, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Laboratoire de Chimie des Matériaux et Catalyse, 2092, Tunis (Tunisia); Jlaiel, Lobna [Laboratoire de Bioprocédés Environnementaux, Centre de Biotechnologie de Sfax, B.P. 1177, 3018 Sfax (Tunisia); Najjar, Wahiba, E-mail: najjarwahiba2014@gmail.com [Université de Tunis El Manar, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Laboratoire de Chimie des Matériaux et Catalyse, 2092, Tunis (Tunisia); Sayadi, Sami [Laboratoire de Bioprocédés Environnementaux, Centre de Biotechnologie de Sfax, B.P. 1177, 3018 Sfax (Tunisia)

    2016-04-15

    Ce–ZnO (2 mol %) and undoped ZnO catalysts have been synthesized through hydrothermal method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Nitrogen physisorption at 77 K; Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV–Visible spectroscopy, Photoluminescence spectra (PL), and Raman spectroscopy. Ce-doping reduces the average crystallite size, increases the BET surface area, shifts the absorption edge, reduces the electron–hole recombination and consequently improves photodegradation efficiency of Bisphenol A (BPA) in the presence of UV irradiation and hydrogen peroxide. The photocatalytic optimum conditions were established by studying the influence of various operational parameters including catalyst concentration, initial BPA concentration, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration and initial pH. Under optimum conditions, Ce–ZnO (2%) achieved 100% BPA degradation and 61% BPA mineralization after 24 h of UV irradiation. BPA degradation reaction followed pseudo first-order kinetics according to the Langmuir–Hinshelwood model. Based on the identified intermediate products, the possible mechanism for BPA photodegradation is proposed. Toxicity under the optimum condition was also evaluated. - Graphical abstract: Proposed photocatalytic degradation pathway of BPA in the presence of Ce– ZnO (2%)/UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} system. - Highlights: • Influence of different parameters on the degradation and mineralization of BPA. • Identification of possible degradation products. • Toxicity tests conducted with Vibrio fischeri. • Simple and direct photodegradation mechanism of BPA is proposed.

  6. Associations between Bisphenol A Exposure and Reproductive Hormones among Female Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Maohua; Yuan, Wei; Yang, Fen; Liang, Hong; Zhou, Zhijun; Li, Runsheng; Gao, Ersheng; Li, De-Kun

    2015-10-22

    The associations between Bisphenol-A (BPA) exposure and reproductive hormone levels among women are unclear. A cross-sectional study was conducted among female workers from BPA-exposed and unexposed factories in China. Women's blood samples were collected for assay of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), 17β-Estradiol (E2), prolactin (PRL), and progesterone (PROG). Their urine samples were collected for BPA measurement. In the exposed group, time weighted average exposure to BPA for an 8-h shift (TWA8), a measure incorporating historic exposure level, was generated based on personal air sampling. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine linear associations between urine BPA concentration and reproductive hormones after controlling for potential confounders. A total of 106 exposed and 250 unexposed female workers were included in this study. A significant positive association between increased urine BPA concentration and higher PRL and PROG levels were observed. Similar associations were observed after the analysis was carried out separately among the exposed and unexposed workers. In addition, a positive association between urine BPA and E2 was observed among exposed workers with borderline significance, while a statistically significant inverse association between urine BPA and FSH was observed among unexposed group. The results suggest that BPA exposure may lead to alterations in female reproductive hormone levels.

  7. Rapid insulinotropic action of low doses of bisphenol-A on mouse and human islets of Langerhans: role of estrogen receptor β.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Soriano

    Full Text Available Bisphenol-A (BPA is a widespread endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC used as the base compound in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastics. It alters pancreatic β-cell function and can be considered a risk factor for type 2 diabetes in rodents. Here we used ERβ-/- mice to study whether ERβ is involved in the rapid regulation of K(ATP channel activity, calcium signals and insulin release elicited by environmentally relevant doses of BPA (1 nM. We also investigated these effects of BPA in β-cells and whole islets of Langerhans from humans. 1 nM BPA rapidly decreased K(ATP channel activity, increased glucose-induced [Ca(2+](i signals and insulin release in β-cells from WT mice but not in cells from ERβ-/- mice. The rapid reduction in the K(ATP channel activity and the insulinotropic effect was seen in human cells and islets. BPA actions were stronger in human islets compared to mouse islets when the same BPA concentration was used. Our findings suggest that BPA behaves as a strong estrogen via nuclear ERβ and indicate that results obtained with BPA in mouse β-cells may be extrapolated to humans. This supports that BPA should be considered as a risk factor for metabolic disorders in humans.

  8. Non-Federal Participation in AC Intertie : Final Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 1: Environmental Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-01-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is considering action in two areas: (1) non-Federal access to the AC Intertie, and, (2) BPA Intertie marketing. BPA`s preferred alternative for non-Federal access is the Capacity Ownership alternative combined with the Increased Assured Delivery -- Access for Non-Scheduling Utilities alternative; the preferred alternative for BPA Intertie marketing is the Federal Marketing and Joint Ventures alternative. BPA considered these two areas previously in its Intertie Development and Use EIS of April 1988. The EIS resulted in BPA decisions to participate in the construction of the Third AC Intertie, to allow non-Federal access to BPA`s share of the Pacific Northwest-Pacific Southwest (PNW-PSW) Intertie (AC and DC lines) pursuant to a Long-Term Intertie Access Policy (LTIAP), and to pursue BPA`s export marketing alternative. The decision on allowing direct financial non-Federal participation in the Third AC line was deferred to a later, separate process, examined here. Also, BPA`s export marketing objectives must now be examined in view of changed operations of Columbia River hydro facilities for improved fish survival.

  9. Bisphenol-A impairs insulin action and up-regulates inflammatory pathways in human subcutaneous adipocytes and 3T3-L1 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossella Valentino

    Full Text Available Current evidence indicates that chemical pollutants may interfere with the homeostatic control of nutrient metabolism, thereby contributing to the increased prevalence of metabolic disorders. Bisphenol-A (BPA is a lipophilic compound contained in plastic which is considered a candidate for impairing energy and glucose metabolism. We have investigated the impact of low doses of BPA on adipocyte metabolic functions. Human adipocytes derived from subcutaneous adipose tissue and differentiated 3T3-L1 cells were incubated with BPA, in order to evaluate the effect on glucose utilization, insulin sensitivity and cytokine secretion. Treatment with 1 nM BPA significantly inhibited insulin-stimulated glucose utilization, without grossly interfering with adipocyte differentiation. Accordingly, mRNA levels of the adipogenic markers PPARγ and GLUT4 were unchanged upon BPA exposure. BPA treatment also impaired insulin-activated receptor phosphorylation and signaling. Moreover, adipocyte incubation with BPA was accompanied by increased release of IL-6 and IFN-γ, as assessed by multiplex ELISA assays, and by activation of JNK, STAT3 and NFkB pathways. Treatment of the cells with the JNK inhibitor SP600125 almost fully reverted BPA effect on insulin signaling and glucose utilization. In conclusion, low doses of BPA interfere with inflammatory/insulin signaling pathways, leading to impairment of adipose cell function.

  10. Levels of bisphenol-A in thermal paper receipts from Belgium and estimation of human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geens, Tinne; Goeyens, Leo; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Neels, Hugo; Covaci, Adrian

    2012-10-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) is a commonly used color developer in thermal paper. In this application, BPA is present in its free, unbound form and can be readily released, making thermal paper a potential source for human exposure. In this study, BPA was determined in 44 thermal paper samples collected in Belgium. BPA was detected in all the samples; 73% of the samples had concentrations between 0.9% and 2.1% (between 9 and 21 mg BPA/g paper), while the remaining 27% of the samples had concentrations below 0.01% (0.1mg BPA/g paper). The BPA concentrations measured in thermal paper were comparable with those reported in other international studies. Since thermal paper is a feedstock for paper recycling processes, contamination of other "BPA-free" papers can occur. An estimation of human exposure through thermal paper results in a median intake of 445 ng BPA/day for the general population, which corresponds to an exposure of 6.4 ng/kg bw/day for a person of 70 kg. The exposure of those people who come occupationally in contact with thermal paper can be much higher. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Bisphenol A accumulation in eggs disrupts the endocrine regulation of growth in rainbow trout larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birceanu, Oana; Servos, Mark R.; Vijayan, Mathilakath M., E-mail: matt.vijayan@ucalgary.ca

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • BPA in eggs reduces growth and increases food conversion ratio in trout larvae. • BPA in eggs disrupts larval transcript abundance of genes involved in GH/IGF axis. • BPA in eggs disrupts thyroid hormone receptor mRNA levels. • BPA in eggs consistently suppressed IGF-1rb mRNA levels during early development. - Abstract: Bisphenol A (BPA), a monomer used in the production of plastics and epoxy resins, is ubiquitously present in the aquatic environment. BPA is considered a weak estrogen in fish, but the effects of this chemical on early developmental events are far from clear. We tested the hypothesis that BPA accumulation in eggs, mimicking maternal transfer, disrupts growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor (GH/IGF) axis function, leading to defects in larval growth in rainbow trout. Trout oocytes were exposed to 0 (control), 0.3, 3, and 30 μg ml{sup −1} BPA for 3 h, which led to an accumulation of around 0, 1, 4 and 40 ng BPA per egg, respectively. All treatment groups were fertilized with clean milt and reared in clean water for the rest of the experiment. The embryo BPA content declined over time in all groups and was completely eliminated by 42 days post-fertilization (dpf). Hatchlings from BPA accumulated eggs had higher water content and reduced total energy levels prior to first feed. There was an overall reduction in the specific growth rate and food conversion ratio in larvae reared from BPA-laden eggs. BPA accumulation disrupted the mRNA abundance of genes involved in GH/IGF axis function, including GH isoforms and their receptors, IGF-1 and -2 and IGF receptors, in a life stage-dependent manner. Also, there was a temporal disruption in the mRNA levels of thyroid hormone receptors in the larvae raised from BPA-laden eggs. Altogether, BPA accumulation in eggs, mimicking maternal transfer, affects larval growth and the mode of action involves disruption of genes involved in the GH/IGF and thyroid axes function in trout.

  12. Bisphenol A exposure enhances atherosclerosis in WHHL rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Fang

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA is an environmental endocrine disrupter. Excess exposure to BPA may increase susceptibility to many metabolic disorders, but it is unclear whether BPA exposure has any adverse effects on the development of atherosclerosis. To determine whether there are such effects, we investigated the response of Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL rabbits to 400-µg/kg BPA per day, administered orally by gavage, over the course of 12 weeks and compared aortic and coronary atherosclerosis in these rabbits to the vehicle group using histological and morphometric methods. In addition, serum BPA, cytokines levels and plasma lipids as well as pathologic changes in liver, adipose and heart were analyzed. Moreover, we treated human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells (HUVECs and rabbit aortic smooth muscle cells (SMCs with different doses of BPA to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in BPA action(s. BPA treatment did not change the plasma lipids and body weights of the WHHL rabbits; however, the gross atherosclerotic lesion area in the aortic arch was increased by 57% compared to the vehicle group. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses revealed marked increases in advanced lesions (37% accompanied by smooth muscle cells (60% but no significant changes in the numbers of macrophages. With regard to coronary atherosclerosis, incidents of coronary stenosis increased by 11% and smooth muscle cells increased by 73% compared to the vehicle group. Furthermore, BPA-treated WHHL rabbits showed increased adipose accumulation and hepatic and myocardial injuries accompanied by up-regulation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress and inflammatory and lipid metabolism markers in livers. Treatment with BPA also induced the expression of ER stress and inflammation related genes in cultured HUVECs. These results demonstrate for the first time that BPA exposure may increase susceptibility to atherosclerosis in WHHL rabbits.

  13. Bisphenol A Increases Mammary Cancer Risk in Two Distinct Mouse Models of Breast Cancer1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber Lozada, Kristen; Keri, Ruth A.

    2011-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an industrial plasticizer that leaches from food containers during normal usage, leading to human exposure. Early and chronic exposure to endocrine-disrupting environmental contaminants such as BPA elevates the potential for long-term health consequences. We examined the impact of BPA exposure on fetal programming of mammary tumor susceptibility as well as its growth promoting effects on transformed breast cancer cells in vivo. Fetal mice were exposed to 0, 25, or 250 μg/kg BPA by oral gavage of pregnant dams. Offspring were subsequently treated with the known mammary carcinogen, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA). While no significant differences in postnatal mammary development were observed, both low- and high-dose BPA cohorts had a statistically significant increase in susceptibility to DMBA-induced tumors compared to vehicle-treated controls. To determine if BPA also promotes established tumor growth, MCF-7 human breast cancer cells were subcutaneously injected into flanks of ovariectomized NCR nu/nu female mice treated with BPA, 17beta-estradiol, or placebo alone or combined with tamoxifen. Both estradiol- and BPA-treated cohorts formed tumors by 7 wk post-transplantation, while no tumors were detected in the placebo cohort. Tamoxifen reversed the effects of estradiol and BPA. We conclude that BPA may increase mammary tumorigenesis through at least two mechanisms: molecular alteration of fetal glands without associated morphological changes and direct promotion of estrogen-dependent tumor cell growth. Both results indicate that exposure to BPA during various biological states increases the risk of developing mammary cancer in mice. PMID:21636739

  14. Assessment of Bisphenol A Released from Reusable Plastic, Aluminium and Stainless Steel Water Bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, James E.; Kendig, Eric L.; Belcher, Scott M.

    2011-01-01

    Bisphenol A(BPA) is a ubiquitous high volume industrial chemical that is an estrogen and an environmental endocrine disrupting chemical. Bisphenol A is used extensively in the production of consumer goods, polycarbonate plastics, epoxy resins, coating used to line metallic food and beverage cans, and other products.There is great concern regarding the possible harmful effects from exposures that result from BPAleaching into foods and beverages from packaging or storage containers. The objective of this study was to independently assesswhether BPA contamination of water was occurring from different types of reusable drinking bottlesmarketed as alternatives to BPA-containing polycarbonate plastics. Using a sensitive and quantitative BPA-specific competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assaywe evaluated whether BPA migrated into water stored inpolycarbonateor copolyester plastic bottles, and different lined or unlined metallic reusable water bottles. At room temperature the concentration of BPA migrating from polycarbonate bottles ranged from 0.2–0.3 mg/L. Under identical conditions BPA migration from aluminium bottles lined with epoxy-based resins was variable depending on manufacturer ranging from 0.08 to 1.9 mg/L.Boiling water significantly increased migration of BPA from the epoxy lined bottles. No detectable BPA contamination was observed in water stored in bottles made from Tritan™ copolyester plastic, uncoated stainless steel, or aluminium lined with EcoCare™. The results from this study demonstrate that when used according to manufactures’ recommendations reusable water bottles constructed from “BPA-free” alternative materials are suitable for consumption of beverages free of BPA contamination. PMID:21741673

  15. Long-term oral exposure to bisphenol A induces glucose intolerance and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Min Kyong; Jeong, In-Kyong; Jung Oh, Tae; Ahn, Hwa Young; Kim, Hwan Hee; Park, Young Joo; Jang, Hak Chul; Park, Kyong Soo

    2015-07-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widely used endocrine disruptor. Recent epidemiologic results have suggested an association between exposure to BPA and cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and obesity. We investigated the in vivo effects of long-term oral exposure to BPA on insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. In the present study, 4- to 6-week-old male mice on a high-fat diet (HFD) were treated with 50 μg/kg body weight per day of BPA orally for 12 weeks. Long-term oral exposure to BPA along with an HFD for 12 weeks induced glucose intolerance in growing male mice. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests showed that the mice that received an HFD and BPA exhibited a significantly larger area under the curve than did those that received an HFD only (119.9±16.8 vs. 97.9±18.2 mM/min, P=0.027). Body weight, percentage of white adipose tissue, and percentage of body fat did not differ between the two groups of mice. However, treatment with BPA reduced Akt phosphorylation at position Thr308 and GSK3β phosphorylation at position Ser9 in skeletal muscle. BPA tended to decrease serum adiponectin levels and to increase serum interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor α, although these findings were not statistically significant. Treatment with BPA did not induce any detrimental changes in the islet area or morphology or the insulin content of β cells. In conclusion, long-term oral exposure to BPA induced glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in growing mice. Decreased Akt phosphorylation in skeletal muscle by way of altered serum adipocytokine levels might be one mechanism by which BPA induces glucose intolerance. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  16. Urinary bisphenol A and age at menarche among adolescent girls: evidence from NHANES 2003-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinn, Laura A; Ghazarian, Armen A; Joseph Su, L; Ellison, Gary L

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an environmental estrogen used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins used to make food and beverage packaging. Increasing evidence suggests that BPA mimics estrogens in the body and may be associated with putative markers of breast cancer risk. We analyzed the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2010 data to investigate the association of BPA with age at menarche in adolescent girls. We hypothesized that urinary BPA, as a surrogate biomarker for BPA exposure, is associated with earlier age at menarche, and that body mass index (BMI) may modulate this association. We conducted cross-sectional analyses of urinary BPA, BMI and age of menarche in a subsample of 987 adolescent girls aged 12-19, using pooled data from the 2003-2010 NHANES. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between urinary BPA and early onset of menarche, with adjustment for sampling design. We additionally assessed interaction of BPA with BMI. Adolescent girls with moderate BPA levels appeared to be less likely to have early onset of menarche than those with the lowest levels (OR=0.57; 95% CI=0.30, 1.08) after adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, parental education, country of birth, NHANES cycle, BMI and creatinine. BMI appeared to modify the BPA-menarche association. Although a non-significant trend suggests increasing urinary BPA may be associated with delayed menarche in adolescent girls, these results are based on cross-sectional data. Results should be clarified in carefully designed longitudinal cohort studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Early life bisphenol A exposure and neurobehavior at 8years of age: Identifying windows of heightened vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy, Shaina L; Papandonatos, George D; Calafat, Antonia M; Chen, Aimin; Yolton, Kimberly; Lanphear, Bruce P; Braun, Joseph M

    2017-10-01

    Early life BPA exposure could affect neurobehavior, but few studies have investigated whether there are developmental periods when the fetus or child is more vulnerable to these potential effects. We explored windows of vulnerability to BPA exposure in a multiethnic cohort of 228 mothers and their children from Cincinnati, Ohio. We measured urinary BPA concentrations at up to two prenatal and six postnatal time points from the 2nd trimester of pregnancy until the child was age 8years. At age 8years, we administered the Behavioral Assessment System for Children-2 (BASC-2), Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV. We estimated covariate-adjusted differences in composite scores from each instrument using a multiple informant model designed to identify heightened windows of vulnerability. Among all children, there was not strong evidence that the associations between BPA and neurobehavior varied by the timing of exposure (Visit x BPA p-values≥0.16). However, child sex modified the associations of repeated BPA measures with BASC-2 scores (Visit x Sex x BPA p-values=0.02-0.23). For example, each 10-fold increase in prenatal BPA was associated with more externalizing behaviors in girls (β=6.2, 95% CI: 0.8, 11.6), but not boys (β=-0.8, 95% CI: -5.0, 3.4). In contrast, a 10-fold increase in 8-year BPA was associated with more externalizing behaviors in boys (β=3.9, 95% CI: 0.6, 7.2), but not girls (β=0.3, 95% CI: -3.5, 4.1). We found that sex-dependent associations between BPA and child neurobehavior may depend on the timing of BPA exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Anti-androgenic effects of bisphenol-A on spatial memory and synaptic plasticity of the hippocampus in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zhaoqing; Zhu, Qingjie; Gu, Ting; Shen, Xiuying; Yang, Yang; Liang, Yufeng; Zhang, Zigui; Xu, Xiaohong

    2017-07-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) is a common environmental endocrine disruptor. Our recent studies found that exposure to BPA in both adolescent and adulthood sex-specifically impaired spatial memory in male mice. In this study, 11-week-old gonadectomied (GDX) male mice daily received subcutaneous injections of testosterone propionate (TP, 0.5mg/kg), TP and BPA (0.4 and 4mg/kg), or vehicle for 45days. The results of Morris water maze task showed that exposure to BPA did not affect the spatial memory of GDX mice but impaired that of sham (4mg/kg/day) and TP-treated GDX mice (0.4mg/kg/day). In addition, BPA reduced the level of testosterone (T) in the serum and brain of sham and TP-treated GDX mice. Exposure to BPA decreased the synaptic density and had an adverse effect on the synaptic interface of the hippocampus in sham and TP-treated GDX mice. The results of western blot analysis further showed that BPA (4mg/kg) reduced the levels of synaptic proteins (synapsin I and PSD-95) and NMDA receptor subunit NR2B in sham and TP-treated GDX mice. BPA decreased the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 but increased the phosphorylation of p38 in sham and TP-treated GDX mice. These results suggest that impairment of spatial memory and adverse effects on synaptic remodeling of hippocampal neurons in males after long-term BPA exposure is related to the anti-androgen effect of BPA. These effects of BPA may be associated with downregulated synaptic proteins and NMDA receptor through inhibiting ERKs and promoting the p38 pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Bisphenol A induces spermatocyte apoptosis in rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yingying; Cheng, Mengqian; Wu, Lang; Zhang, Guo; Wang, Zaizhao, E-mail: zzwang@nwsuaf.edu.cn

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Adult male G. rarus were exposed to 225 μg/L BPA for 7, 21 and 63 days. • BPA could induce spermatocyte apoptosis in rare minnow testis. • The mitochondrial apoptotic pathway participated in the germ cell apoptosis. • The spermatocyte apoptosis was likely initiated by BPA induced meiosis arrest. - Abstract: Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disruptor, and could induce germ cells apoptosis in the testis of mammals. But whether it could affect fish in the same mechanism has not’ been studied till now. In the present study, to investigate the influence of BPA on testis germ cells in fish, adult male rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus were exposed to 225 μg L{sup −1} (0.99 μM) BPA for 1, 3 and 9 weeks. Through TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis, we found that the amount of apoptotic spermatocytes significantly increased in a time dependent manner following BPA exposure. Western Blot results showed that the ratio of Bcl2/Bax, the important apoptosis regulators in intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, was significantly decreased. qPCR showed that mRNA expression of several genes in mitochondrial apoptotic pathway including bcl2, bax, casp9, cytc and mcl1b were significantly changed following BPA exposure. In addition, mRNA expression of meiosis regulation genes (kpna7 and wee2), and genes involved in both apoptosis and meiosis (birc5, ccna1, and gsa1a) were also affected by BPA. Taken together, the present study demonstrated that BPA could induce spermatocytes apoptosis in rare minnow testis, and the apoptosis was probably under regulation of intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Moreover, the spermatocyte apoptosis was likely initiated by BPA induced meiosis arrest.

  20. A characteristic back support structure in the bisphenol A-binding pocket in the human nuclear receptor ERRγ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Liu

    Full Text Available The endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA affects various genes and hormones even at merely physiological levels. We recently demonstrated that BPA binds strongly to human nuclear receptor estrogen-related receptor (ERR γ and that the phenol-A group of BPA is in a receptacle pocket with essential amino acid residues to provide structural support at the backside. This led BPA to bind to ERRγ in an induced-fit-type binding mode, for example, with a rotated motion of Val313 to support the Tyr326-binding site. A similar binding mechanism appears to occur at the binding site of the BPA phenol-B ring. X-ray crystal analysis of the ERRγ-ligand-binding domain/BPA complex suggested that the ERRγ receptor residues Leu342, Leu345, Asn346, and Ile349 function as intrinsic binding sites of the BPA phenol-B, whereas Leu265, Leu268, Ile310, Val313, Leu324, Tyr330, Lys430, Ala431, and His434 work as structural elements to assist these binding sites. In the present study, by evaluating the mutant receptors replaced by a series of amino acids, we demonstrated that a finely assembled structural network indeed exists around the two adjacent Leu342-Asn346 and Leu345-Ile349 ridges on the same α-helix 7 (H7, constructing a part of the binding pocket structure with back support residues for the BPA phenol-B ring. The results reveal that the double-layer binding sites, namely, the ordinary ligand binding sites and their back support residues, substantiate the strong binding of BPA to ERRγ. When ERRγ-Asn346 was replaced by the corresponding Gly and Tyr in ERRα and ERRβ, respectively, the binding affinity of BPA and even 4-hydroxytamxifen (4-OHT is much reduced. Asn346 was found to be one of the residues that make ERRγ to be exclusive to BPA.

  1. Bisphenol A triggers proliferation and migration of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma via GPER mediated upregulation of IL-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shisheng; Wang, Bin; Tang, Qinglai; Liu, Jiajia; Yang, Xinming

    2017-06-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) can be accumulated into the human body via food intake and inhalation. Numerous studies indicated that BPA can trigger the tumorigenesis and progression of cancer cells. Laryngeal cancer cells can be exposed to BPA directly via food digestion, while there were very limited data concerning the effect of BPA on the development of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC). Our present study revealed that nanomolar BPA can trigger the proliferation of LSCC cells. Bisphenol A also increased the in vitro migration and invasion of LSCC cells and upregulated the expression of matrix metallopeptidase 2. Among various chemokines tested, the expression of IL-6 was significantly increased in LSCC cells treated with BPA for 24 hours. Neutralization antibody of IL-6 or si-IL-6 can attenuate BPA-induced proliferation and migration of LSCC cells. Targeted inhibition of G protein-coupled estrogen receptor, while not estrogen receptor (ERα), abolished BPA-induced IL-6 expression, proliferation, and migration of LSCC cells. The increased IL-6 can further activate its downstream signal molecule STAT3, which was evidenced by the results of increased phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of STAT3, while si-IL-6 and si-GPER can both reverse BPA-induced activation of STAT3. Collectively, our present study revealed that BPA can trigger the progression of LSCC via GPER-mediated upregulation of IL-6. Therefore, more attention should be paid for the BPA exposure on the development of laryngeal cancer. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Multi- and Transgenerational Consequences of Bisphenol A on Sexually Dimorphic Cell Populations in Mouse Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsby, Jessica A; Wolstenholme, Jennifer T; Rissman, Emilie F

    2017-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine-disrupting compound used to manufacture plastics; it is present in linings of food cans, bottles, thermal receipts, and many other everyday items and is detectable in human urine and blood. Exposure to BPA during development can disrupt sexual differentiation of some brain regions. Moreover, BPA can have transgenerational effects on gene expression and behaviors. Here, we used a diet and breeding regimen that produces transgenerational effects on behaviors. C57BL/6J mice consumed control or BPA-containing diets during pregnancy. We examined vasopressin (AVP) and estrogen receptor α (ERα) immunoreactivity (ir) in sexually dimorphic brain regions from first-generation (F1) offspring and transgenerational effects of BPA in third-generation offspring. In all but one brain region examined, the expected sex differences were noted in both generations of control mice. In F1 mice, a diet by sex interaction was present for AVP-ir in the lateral septum and posterodorsal medial amygdala. In both regions, BPA exposure reduced immunoreactivity in male brains. An interaction between diet and sex for ERα-ir in the ventromedial hypothalamus was caused by reduced immunoreactivity in BPA-exposed females. Of interest, BPA had transgenerational effects on ERα-ir in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Our data show that BPA produces immunoreactive differences in ERα-ir generations after exposure to BPA. We speculate that actions of BPA in utero on ERα-ir in brain have long-term consequences for reproduction and social behavior. Copyright © 2017 by the Endocrine Society.

  3. Identification of DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs as a novel target of bisphenol A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Ito

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA forms the backbone of plastics and epoxy resins used to produce packaging for various foods and beverages. BPA is also an estrogenic disruptor, interacting with human estrogen receptors (ER and other related nuclear receptors. Nevertheless, the effects of BPA on human health remain unclear. The present study identified DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs as a novel BPA-binding protein. DNA-PKcs, in association with the Ku heterodimer (Ku70/80, is a critical enzyme involved in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks. Low levels of DNA-PK activity are previously reported to be associated with an increased risk of certain types of cancer. Although the Kd for the interaction between BPA and a drug-binding mutant of DNA-PKcs was comparatively low (137 nM, high doses of BPA were required before cellular effects were observed (100-300 μM. The results of an in vitro kinase assay showed that BPA inhibited DNA-PK kinase activity in a concentration-dependent manner. In M059K cells, BPA inhibited the phosphorylation of DNA-PKcs at Ser2056 and H2AX at Ser139 in response to ionizing radiation (IR-irradiation. BPA also disrupted DNA-PKcs binding to Ku70/80 and increased the radiosensitivity of M059K cells, but not M059J cells (which are DNA-PKcs-deficient. Taken together, these results provide new evidence of the effects of BPA on DNA repair in mammalian cells, which are mediated via inhibition of DNA-PK activity. This study may warrant the consideration of the possible carcinogenic effects of high doses of BPA, which are mediated through its action on DNA-PK.

  4. Bisphenol a promotes cell survival following oxidative DNA damage in mouse fibroblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie R Gassman

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA is a biologically active industrial chemical used in production of consumer products. BPA has become a target of intense public scrutiny following concerns about its association with human diseases such as obesity, diabetes, reproductive disorders, and cancer. Recent studies link BPA with the generation of reactive oxygen species, and base excision repair (BER is responsible for removing oxidatively induced DNA lesions. Yet, the relationship between BPA and BER has yet to be examined. Further, the ubiquitous nature of BPA allows continuous exposure of the human genome concurrent with the normal endogenous and exogenous insults to the genome, and this co-exposure may impact the DNA damage response and repair. To determine the effect of BPA exposure on base excision repair of oxidatively induced DNA damage, cells compromised in double-strand break repair were treated with BPA alone or co-exposed with either potassium bromate (KBrO3 or laser irradiation as oxidative damaging agents. In experiments with KBrO3, co-treatment with BPA partially reversed the KBrO3-induced cytotoxicity observed in these cells, and this was coincident with an increase in guanine base lesions in genomic DNA. The improvement in cell survival and the increase in oxidatively induced DNA base lesions were reminiscent of previous results with alkyl adenine DNA glycosylase-deficient cells, suggesting that BPA may prevent initiation of repair of oxidized base lesions. With laser irradiation-induced DNA damage, treatment with BPA suppressed DNA repair as revealed by several indicators. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that BPA can induce a suppression of oxidized base lesion DNA repair by the base excision repair pathway.

  5. Bisphenol A exposure during pregnancy disrupts glucose homeostasis in mothers and adult male offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Magdalena, Paloma; Vieira, Elaine; Soriano, Sergi; Menes, Lorena; Burks, Deborah; Quesada, Ivan; Nadal, Angel

    2010-09-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widespread endocrine-disrupting chemical used as the base compound in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastics. In humans, epidemiological evidence has associated BPA exposure in adults with higher risk of type 2 diabetes and heart disease. We examined the action of environmentally relevant doses of BPA on glucose metabolism in mice during pregnancy and the impact of BPA exposure on these females later in life. We also investigated the consequences of in utero exposure to BPA on metabolic parameters and pancreatic function in offspring. Pregnant mice were treated with either vehicle or BPA (10 or 100 microg/kg/day) during days 9-16 of gestation. Glucose metabolism experiments were performed on pregnant mice and their offspring. BPA exposure aggravated the insulin resistance produced during pregnancy and was associated with decreased glucose tolerance and increased plasma insulin, triglyceride, and leptin concentrations relative to controls. Insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation was reduced in skeletal muscle and liver of BPA-treated pregnant mice relative to controls. BPA exposure during gestation had long-term consequences for mothers: 4 months post-partum, treated females weighed more than untreated females and had higher plasma insulin, leptin, triglyceride, and glycerol levels and greater insulin resistance. At 6 months of age, male offspring exposed in utero had reduced glucose tolerance, increased insulin resistance, and altered blood parameters compared with offspring of untreated mothers. The islets of Langerhans from male offspring presented altered Ca2+ signaling and insulin secretion. BrdU (bromodeoxyuridine) incorporation into insulin-producing cells was reduced in the male progeny, yet beta-cell mass was unchanged. Our findings suggest that BPA may contribute to metabolic disorders relevant to glucose homeostasis and that BPA may be a risk factor for diabetes.

  6. Urinary, Circulating, and Tissue Biomonitoring Studies Indicate Widespread Exposure to Bisphenol A Estudos de biomonitoração do sistema urinário, circulatório e tecidos indicam grande exposição ao Bisfenol A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura N. Vandenberg

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA is one of the highest-volume chemicals produced worldwide, and human exposure to BPA is thought to be ubiquitous. Thus, there are concerns that the amount of BPA to which humans are exposed may cause adverse health effects. We examined many possibilities for why biomonitoring and toxicokinetic studies could come to seemingly conflicting conclusions. More than 80 published human biomonitoring studies that measured BPA concentrations in human tissues, urine, blood, and other fluids, along with two toxicokinetic studies of human BPA metabolism were examined. Unconjugated BPA was routinely detected in blood (in the nanograms per milliliter range, and conjugated BPA was routinely detected in the vast majority of urine samples (also in the nanograms per milliliter range. In stark contrast, toxicokinetic studies proposed that humans are not internally exposed to BPA. Available data from biomonitoring studies clearly indicate that the general population is exposed to BPA and is at risk from internal exposure to unconjugated BPA. The two toxicokinetic studies that suggested human BPA exposure is negligible have significant deficiencies, are directly contradicted by hypothesis-driven studies, and are therefore not reliable for risk assessment purposes.Bisfenol A (BPA é um dos produtos químicos mais produzido em todo o mundo, e a exposição humana a ele é considerada onipresente. Assim, há preocupações de que a quantidade de BPA para o qual os seres humanos estão expostos podem causar efeitos adversos à saúde. Nós examinamos muitas possibilidades sobre o porquê estudos de biomonitorização e toxicocinética podem chegar a conclusões aparentemente conflitantes. Mais de 80 estudos publicados de biomonitorização humana que mediram a concentração de BPA em tecidos humanos, urina, sangue e outros fluidos, juntamente com dois estudos de toxicocinética do metabolismo humano BPA foram examinados. BPA não conjugado foi detectado

  7. Effects of temperature on adsorption and oxidative degradation of bisphenol A in an acid-treated iron-amended granular activated carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study suggests a combined adsorption and Fenton oxidation using an acid treated Fe-amended granular activated carbon (Fe-GAC) for effective removal of bisphenol A in water. When the Fe-GAC adsorbs and is saturated with BPA in water, Fenton oxidation of BPA occurs in ...

  8. Exposure Hazard to Bisphenol A for Labor and Particle Size Distribution at Polycarbonate Molding Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yuchan; Chen, Jinluh; Yang, Weinduo; Ho, Tsunghan; Yen, Fusan

    2015-06-01

    This research provides an insight into exposure information and particle size distributions of Bisphenol A (BPA), a common environmental hormone, at polycarbonate (PC) molding plants in southern Taiwan. The inhalable dust sampler as IOM and the micro-orifice uniform deposition impactor (MOUDI) were used for samples collection to evaluate the level and particle size distribution of BPA in PC molding plants. All collected samples were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for BPA concentrations. BPA concentrations detected from the plant using optical grade PC material ranged from 32.28 to 44.97 μg/m(3), which were significantly higher than BPA concentrations (16.16 to 19.39 μg/m(3)) detected from the plant using food grade PC material. Under working environment, the particle size distribution showed a single mode distribution, with a MMAD of 0.84μm and a GSD of 1.97. Emission of BPA increased during heating process and most of BPA particles deposited in the nasal cavity (63.37%), following by alveolus (30.7%), and trachea-bronchus (5.93%). It is of importance that proper personal protection should be taken upon the BPA particulates released during the molding process at PC molding plants.

  9. In vivo effects of bisphenol A in laboratory rodent studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Catherine A.; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Farabollini, Francesca; Newbold, Retha R.; Rubin, Beverly S.; Talsness, Chris E.; Vandenbergh, John G.; Walser-Kuntz, Debby R.; vom Saal, Frederick S.

    2007-01-01

    Concern is mounting regarding the human health and environmental effects of bisphenol A (BPA), a high-production-volume chemical used in synthesis of plastics. We have reviewed the growing literature on effects of low doses of BPA, below 50 mg/(kg day), in laboratory exposures with mammalian model organisms. Many, but not all, effects of BPA are similar to effects seen in response to the model estrogens diethylstilbestrol and ethinylestradiol. For most effects, the potency of BPA is approximately 10–1000-fold less than that of diethylstilbestrol or ethinylestradiol. Based on our review of the literature, a consensus was reached regarding our level of confidence that particular outcomes occur in response to low dose BPA exposure. We are confident that adult exposure to BPA affects the male reproductive tract, and that long lasting, organizational effects in response to developmental exposure to BPA occur in the brain, the male reproductive system, and metabolic processes. We consider it likely, but requiring further confirmation, that adult exposure to BPA affects the brain, the female reproductive system, and the immune system, and that developmental effects occur in the female reproductive system.

  10. Molecularly imprinted layer-coated silica nanoparticles for selective solid-phase extraction of bisphenol A from chemical cleansing and cosmetics samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Rong; Zhao, Wenhui; Zhai, Meijuan; Wei, Fangdi; Cai, Zheng; Sheng, Na; Hu, Qin

    2010-01-25

    Highly selective molecularly imprinted layer-coated silica nanoparticles for bisphenol A (BPA) were synthesized by molecular imprinting technique with a sol-gel process on the supporter of silica nanoparticles. The BPA-imprinted silica nanoparticles were characterized by fourier transform infrared spectrometer, transmission electron microscope, dynamic adsorption and static adsorption tests. The equilibrium association constant, K(a), and the apparent maximum number of binding sites, Q(max), were estimated to be 1.25 x 10(5) mL micromol(-1) and 16.4 micromol g(-1), respectively. The BPA-imprinted silica nanoparticles solid-phase extraction (SPE) column had higher selectivity for BPA than the commercial C18-SPE column. The results of the study indicated that the prepared BPA-imprinted silica nanoparticles exhibited high adsorption capacity and selectivity, and offered a fast kinetics for the rebinding of BPA. The BPA-imprinted silica nanoparticles were successfully used in SPE to selectively enrich and determine BPA from shampoo, bath lotion and cosmetic cream samples. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Bisphenol A alternatives in thermal paper from the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and Norway. Screening and potential toxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Björnsdotter, Maria K.; Jonker, Willem; Legradi, Jessica; Kool, Jeroen; Ballesteros-Gómez, Ana

    2017-01-01

    Thermal paper contains potentially toxic additives, such as bisphenol A (BPA), as a common color developer. Because of its known endocrine disrupting effects, structural analogues to BPA, such as bisphenol S (BPS), D-8 and Pergafast 201, have been used as alternatives, but little is known about the

  12. Endocrine Activity of Bisphenol S (BPS) Using In Vitro Estrogenic/Anti-Androgenic Transcriptional Activation Assays and the In Vivo Uterotrophic Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is gradually being phased out of many consumer products and processes leading to potential increases in human and environmental exposures to relatively understudied replacement compounds, including Bisphenol S (BPS). Research from our lab has shown that BPA and...

  13. Facile Growth of Multi-twined Au Nanostructures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We describe a facile growth of chain-like Au nanostructures and their spontaneous transformation to multi-twined nanostructure using a mild reducing agent bisphenol A (BPA). The growth Au nanostructures involves the chemical reduction of HAuCl4 by BPA in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as ...

  14. Bisphenol-A: Epigenetic Reprogramming and Effects on Reproduction and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mileva, Guergana; Baker, Stephanie L.; Konkle, Anne T.M.; Bielajew, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic compound used in the production of many polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. It is one of the most widely produced chemicals in the world today and is found in most canned goods, plastics, and even household dust. Exposure to BPA is almost universal: most people have measurable amounts of BPA in both urine and serum. BPA is similar in structure to estradiol and can bind to multiple targets both inside and outside the nucleus, in effect acting as an endocrine disruptor. Research on BPA exposure has accelerated in the past decade with findings suggesting that perinatal exposure to BPA can negatively impact both male and female reproduction, create alterations in behavior, and act as a carcinogen. BPA can have both short term and long term effects with the latter typically occurring through epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation. This review will draw on both human and animal studies in an attempt to synthesize the literature and examine the effects of BPA exposure on reproduction, behavior, and carcinogenesis with a focus on the potential epigenetic mechanisms by which it acts. PMID:25054232

  15. Bisphenol A and its structural analogues in household waste paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivnenko, K; Pedersen, G A; Eriksson, E; Astrup, T F

    2015-10-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an industrial chemical produced in large volumes. Its main use is associated with polycarbonate plastic, epoxy resins and thermal paper. In contrast to other applications, thermal paper contains BPA in its un-reacted form as an additive, which is subjected to migration. Receiving a significant amount of attention from the scientific community and beyond, due to its controversial endocrine-disrupting effects, the industry is attempting to substitute BPA in variety of applications. Alternative phenolic compounds have been proposed for use in thermal paper; however, information to what extent BPA alternatives have been used in paper is sparse. The aim of the present work was to quantify BPA and its alternatives (bisphenol S (BPS), bisphenol E (BPE), bisphenol B (BPB), 4-cumylphenol (HPP) and bisphenol F (BPF)) in waste paper and board from Danish households, thermal paper receipts, non-carbon copy paper and conventional printer paper. BPA was found in all waste paper samples analysed, while BPS was identified in 73% of them. Only BPB was not identified in any of the samples. BPA and BPS were found in the majority of the receipts, which contained no measurable concentrations of the remaining alternatives. Although receipts showed the highest concentrations of BPA and BPS, office paper, flyers and corrugated boxes, together with receipts, represented the major flux of the two compounds in waste paper streams. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Structural bisphenol analogues differentially target steroidogenesis in murine MA-10 Leydig cells as well as the glucocorticoid receptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, Maarke J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/357301137; van den Berg, Martin|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/08660466X; Bovee, Toine F H; Piersma, Aldert H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/071276947; van Duursen, Majorie B|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/181957701

    2015-01-01

    Although much information on the endocrine activity of bisphenol A (BPA) is available, a proper human hazard assessment of analogues that are believed to have a less harmful toxicity profile is lacking. Here the possible effects of BPA, bisphenol F (BPF), bisphenol S (BPS), as well as the brominated

  17. Binding of bisphenol A, bisphenol AF, and bisphenol S on the androgen receptor: Coregulator recruitment and stimulation of potential interaction sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Lalith; Li, Yin; Coons, Laurel A; Houtman, Rene; van Beuningen, Rinie; Goodwin, Bonnie; Auerbach, Scott S; Teng, Christina T

    2017-10-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol AF (BPAF), and bisphenol S (BPS) are well known endocrine disruptors. Previous in vitro studies showed that these compounds antagonize androgen receptor (AR) transcriptional activity; however, the mechanisms of action are unclear. In the present study, we investigated interactions of coregulator peptides with BPA, BPAF, or BPS at the AR complexes using Micro Array for Real-time Coregulator Nuclear Receptor Interaction (MARCoNI) assays and assessed the binding of these compounds on AR by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The set of coregulator peptides that are recruited by BPA-bound AR, either positively/or negatively, are different from those recruited by the agonist R1881-bound AR. Therefore, the data indicates that BPA shows no similarities to R1881 and suggests that it may recruit other coregulators to the AR complex. BPAF-bound AR recruits about 70-80% of the same coregulator peptides as BPA-bound AR. Meanwhile, BPS-bound AR interacts with only few peptides compared to BPA or BPAF-bound AR. MD results show that multiple binding sites with varying binding affinities are available on AR for BPA, BPAF, and BPS, indicating the availability of modified binding surfaces on AR for coregulator interactions. These findings help explain some of the distinct AR-related toxicities observed with bisphenol chemicals and raise concern for the use of substitutes for BPA in commercial products. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. The extracts of pacific oyster ( Crassostrea gigas ) alleviate Ovarian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Bisphenol-A (BPA) is one of the widespread industrial compounds, which has adverse effects on animal and human health. The study was aimed to explore the effects of Crassostrea gigas extracts (CGE) in alleviating ovarian functional disorders of female rats with exposure to BPA and the underlying possible ...

  19. Placental transport and in vitro effects of Bisphenol A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Thit J; Sorda, Giuseppina; Bechi, Nicoletta

    2010-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), an estrogen-like chemical, leaches from consumer products potentially causing human exposure. To examine the effects of BPA exposure during pregnancy, we performed studies using the BeWo trophoblast cell line, placental explant cultures, placental perfusions and skin diffusion...

  20. Structural bisphenol analoques differentially target steroidogenesis in murine MA-10 Leydig cells as well as the glucocorticoid receptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, M.J.E.; Berg, van den M.; Bovee, T.F.H.; Piersma, A.H.; Duursen, van M.B.M.

    2015-01-01

    Although much information on the endocrine activity of bisphenol A (BPA) is available, a proper human hazard assessment of analogues that are believed to have a less harmful toxicity profile is lacking. Here the possible effects of BPA, bisphenol F (BPF), bisphenol S (BPS), as well as the brominated

  1. Modelling as a tool when interpreting biodegradation of micro pollutants in activated sludge systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Press-Kristensen, Kåre; Lindblom, Erik Ulfson; Henze, Mogens

    2007-01-01

    The aims of the present work were to improve the biodegradation of the endocrine disrupting micro pollutant, bisphenol A (BPA), used as model compound in an activated sludge system and to underline the importance of modelling the system. Previous results have shown that BPA mainly is degraded under...

  2. Occurrence and Partitioning of Bisphenol Analogues in Adults' Blood from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hangbiao; Zhu, Jing; Chen, Zhongjian; Hong, Yanjun; Cai, Zongwei

    2017-12-15

    The widespread human exposure and associated adverse health effects led to regulations on the usage of bisphenol A (BPA). Several bisphenol analogues (BPs) have been introduced as BPA alternatives in various applications. However, these BPs have been shown to exhibit similar or even stronger endocrine-disrupting activities compared with BPA. Currently, information on the human exposure to BPA alternatives remains limited. In this study, nine BPs were quantified in 81 pairs of plasma and red blood cell (RBC) samples from Chinese participants. In human plasma, the predominant BPs was BPA, bisphenol S (BPS), and bisphenol AF (BPAF), with the mean concentration of 0.40, 0.15, and 0.073 ng/mL, respectively. BPA (accounting for 63 % of total BPs) and BPS (18 %) were the major BPs in the RBC fraction. Mass fraction in plasma (Fp) were found highest for BPS (mean, 0.78), followed by BPAF (0.71) and BPA (0.67), indicating strong partitioning to the plasma fraction. However, bisphenol AP was more frequently detected in the RBC fraction. Estimated total daily intake (EDI) of BPA was in the range of 0.0048-0.75 μg/kg bw/day for the participants, and adults aged > 50 years had comparatively lower EDI. To our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the occurrence and partitioning of BP alternatives in paired human plasma and RBCs from Chinese general population.

  3. The estrogenic content of rodent diets, bedding, cages, and water bottles and its effect on bisphenol A studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thigpen, Julius E; Setchell, Kenneth D R; Kissling, Grace E; Locklear, Jacqueline; Caviness, Gordon F; Whiteside, Tanya; Belcher, Scott M; Brown, Nadine M; Collins, Bradley J; Lih, Fred B; Tomer, Kenneth B; Padilla-Banks, Elizabeth; Camacho, Luísa; Adsit, Floyd G; Grant, Mary

    2013-03-01

    The lowest observed adverse effect level for bisphenol A (BPA) in mice and rats is currently poorly defined due to inconsistent study designs and results in published studies. The objectives of the current study were to (1) compare the estrogenic content of rodent diets, bedding, cages, and water bottles to evaluate their impact on the estrogenic activity of BPA and (2) review the literature on BPA to determine the most frequently reported diets, beddings, cages, and water bottles used in animal studies. Our literature review indicated that low-dose BPA animal studies have inconsistent results and that factors contributing to this inconsistency are the uses of high-phytoestrogen diets and the different routes of exposure. In 44% (76 of 172) of all reports, rodents were exposed to BPA via the subcutaneous route. Our literature review further indicated that the type of diet, bedding, caging, and water bottles used in BPA studies were not always reported. Only 37% (64 of 172) of the reports described the diet used. In light of these findings, we recommend the use of a diet containing low levels of phytoestrogen (less than 20 μg/g diet) and metabolizable energy (approximately 3.1 kcal/g diet) and estrogen-free bedding, cages, and water bottles for studies evaluating the estrogenic activity of endocrine-disrupting compounds such as BPA. The oral route of BPA exposure should be used when results are to be extrapolated to humans.

  4. Simultaneous Determination of Bisphenol A and Bisphenol S in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Asimplified method based on ratio derivative ultraviolet spectrometry for simultaneous determination of bisphenolA(BPA) and bisphenol S (BPS) in environmental water is presented. The method provides a direct analysis of the samples without tedious sample preparation. In this method, the overlapping spectra of BPA and ...

  5. Developmental Bisphenol A Exposure Modulates Immune-Related Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joella Xu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA, used in polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins, has a widespread exposure to humans. BPA is of concern for developmental exposure resulting in immunomodulation and disease development due to its ability to cross the placental barrier and presence in breast milk. BPA can use various mechanisms to modulate the immune system and affect diseases, including agonistic and antagonistic effects on many receptors (e.g., estrogen receptors, epigenetic modifications, acting on cell signaling pathways and, likely, the gut microbiome. Immune cell populations and function from the innate and adaptive immune system are altered by developmental BPA exposure, including decreased T regulatory (Treg cells and upregulated pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Developmental BPA exposure can also contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus, allergy, asthma and mammary cancer disease by altering immune function. Multiple sclerosis and type 1 diabetes mellitus may also be exacerbated by BPA, although more research is needed. Additionally, BPA analogs, such as bisphenol S (BPS, have been increasing in use, and currently, little is known about their immune effects. Therefore, more studies should be conducted to determine if developmental exposure BPA and its analogs modulate immune responses and lead to immune-related diseases.

  6. Cs salt of tungstophosphoric acid-promoted zirconium titanium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ing, reinforced plastics and other industrial chemicals. BPA and BPF are ... wide to produce BPA in industry which show good catalytic functions. ..... Table 1. Surface properties of xCsTPA-ZTP composite. Surface area Average pore Pore volume. Catalyst. (BET, m2/g) size (nm). (cm3/g). CsTPA (wt%)a. ZTP. 102. 4.0. 0.55. 0.

  7. Are structural analogues to bisphenol A a safe alternative?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenmai, Anna Kjerstine; Dybdahl, Marianne; Pedersen, Gitte Alsing

    2013-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is often used in polycarbonate plastics, coatings of food and drink cans, and in thermal papers. Foods are thought to be a major human exposure route and human biomonitoring data suggest widespread exposure. BPA is suspected of contributing to effects such as increased birth...

  8. Effects of bisphenol A on male and couple reproductive health: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mínguez-Alarcón, Lidia; Hauser, Russ; Gaskins, Audrey J

    2016-09-15

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a ubiquitous environmental toxicant with endocrine-disrupting properties and is suspected to affect human reproduction. The objective of this review was to summarize the potential effects of male exposure to BPA on markers of testicular function and couple reproductive outcomes. Five epidemiologic studies on BPA and reproductive hormones all found significant associations with at least one reproductive hormone; however, no consistent relationships were observed across studies. Six epidemiologic studies evaluated the relation between BPA and semen parameters, and although the majority reported negative associations with various parameters, there were few consistent trends across studies. Finally, three epidemiologic studies examined BPA and couple reproductive outcomes, and only one found an association. Overall, the evidence supporting an association between BPA exposure and adverse male reproductive health outcomes in humans remains limited and inconclusive. Reasons for the discrepancies in results could include, but are not limited to, differences in study populations (e.g., fertile vs. subfertile men), BPA urinary concentrations (occupationally vs. nonoccupationally exposed), misclassification of BPA exposure (e.g., using one urine sample to characterize exposure vs. multiple samples), sample sizes, study design (e.g., cross-sectional vs. prospective), and residual confounding (e.g., due to diet and lifestyle factors). It is also possible that some of the statistically significant findings were due to chance alone. Clearly, further studies are needed to further clarify the role of this ubiquitous endocrine-disrupting chemical on male reproductive health. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Enforcement of the Danish Bisphenol A restriction on Food Contact Materials and Articles for infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Gitte Alsing; Foverskov, Annie; Petersen, Jens Højslev

    In Denmark a national restriction was implemented in 2010 banning the use of bisphenol A (BPA) in any Food Contact Materials intended for children in the age 0-3 years. The ban includes BPA in baby bottles, baby cups, food cans for infant formulas and lids for glass containers with baby food. To ...

  10. Immunohistochemical localization of basement membrane components during hair follicle morphogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westgate, G E; Shaw, D A; Harrap, G J

    1984-01-01

    Specific antisera were used to investigate the distributions of several basement membrane zone (BMZ) components, namely, bullous pemphigoid antigen (BPA), heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG), laminin, and type IV collagen, during the development of hair follicles in late embryo rats. BPA was not ...

  11. Concomitant degradation of bisphenol A during ultrasonication and Fenton oxidation and production of biofertilizer from wastewater sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, D P; Brar, S K; Tyagi, R D; Surampalli, R Y

    2011-09-01

    Degradation of bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disruptor, from wastewater sludge (WWS) has attracted great interest recently. In the present study, the effects of different pre-treatment methods, including ultrasonication (US), Fenton's oxidation (FO) and ferro-sonication (FS) was assessed in terms of increase in solubilization of WWS and simultaneous degradation of BPA. Among US, FO and FS pre-treatment, higher suspended solids (SS), volatile suspended solids (VSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and soluble organic carbon (SOC) solubilization (39.7%, 51.2%, 64.5% and 17.6%, respectively) was observed during a ferro-sonication pre-treatment process carried out for 180 min, resulting in higher degradation of BPA (82.7%). In addition, the effect of rheological parameters (viscosity and particle size) and zeta potential on the degradation of BPA in raw and different pre-treated sludges were also investigated. The results showed that a decrease in viscosity and particle size and an increase in zeta potential resulted in higher degradation of BPA. BPA degradation by laccases produced by Sinorhizobium meliloti in raw and pre-treated sludge was also determined. Higher activity of laccases (207.9 U L(-1)) was observed in ferro-sonicated pre-treated sludge (180 min ultrasonic time), resulting in higher removal of BPA (0.083 μg g(-1)), suggesting concomitant biological degradation of BPA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Bisphenol-A: Epigenetic Reprogramming and Effects on Reproduction and Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guergana Mileva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA is a synthetic compound used in the production of many polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. It is one of the most widely produced chemicals in the world today and is found in most canned goods, plastics, and even household dust. Exposure to BPA is almost universal: most people have measurable amounts of BPA in both urine and serum. BPA is similar in structure to estradiol and can bind to multiple targets both inside and outside the nucleus, in effect acting as an endocrine disruptor. Research on BPA exposure has accelerated in the past decade with findings suggesting that perinatal exposure to BPA can negatively impact both male and female reproduction, create alterations in behavior, and act as a carcinogen. BPA can have both short term and long term effects with the latter typically occurring through epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation. This review will draw on both human and animal studies in an attempt to synthesize the literature and examine the effects of BPA exposure on reproduction, behavior, and carcinogenesis with a focus on the potential epigenetic mechanisms by which it acts.

  13. The contribution of diet to total Bisphenol A body burden in humans: results of a 48 hour fasting study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human biomonitoring studies measuring BPA in urine have shown widespread exposure in the general population. Diet is thought to be a major route of exposure. We studied urinary BPA patterns in five individuals over a 48-hr period of fasting (bottled water only). Personal acti...

  14. Impact of bisphenol a on the cardiovascular system - epidemiological and experimental evidence and molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoqian; Wang, Hong-Sheng

    2014-08-15

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a ubiquitous plasticizing agent used in the manufacturing of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. There is well-documented and broad human exposure to BPA. The potential risk that BPA poses to the human health has attracted much attention from regulatory agencies and the general public, and has been extensively studied. An emerging and rapidly growing area in the study of BPA's toxicity is its impact on the cardiovascular (CV) system. Recent epidemiological studies have shown that higher urinary BPA concentration in humans is associated with various types of CV diseases, including angina, hypertension, heart attack and coronary and peripheral arterial disease. Experimental studies have demonstrated that acute BPA exposure promotes the development of arrhythmias in female rodent hearts. Chronic exposure to BPA has been shown to result in cardiac remodeling, atherosclerosis, and altered blood pressure in rodents. The underlying mechanisms may involve alteration of cardiac Ca2+ handling, ion channel inhibition/activation, oxidative stress, and genome/transcriptome modifications. In this review, we discuss these recent findings that point to the potential CV toxicity of BPA, and highlight the knowledge gaps in this growing research area.

  15. The Association between Exposure to Environmental Bisphenol A and Gonadotropic Hormone Levels among Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Hong; Xu, Wenping; Chen, Jianping

    2017-01-01

    -stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and total testosterone (T). Relative risk (RR) was obtained by log-binominal regression to explore the association between urinary BPA level and hormone levels. BPA was detected in 70.4% of urine samples, with a geometric mean of 0.50 μg/gCr. Men with detectable...

  16. Examining the biodegradation of endocrine disrupting bisphenol A and nonylphenol in WWTPs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Press-Kristensen, Kåre; Lindblom, Erik Ulfson; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2008-01-01

    99% of the dosed BPA and 90% of the dosed NP is removed by biodegradation at steady-state. Batch experiments showed that BPA biodegradation occur solely under aerobic conditions. The work is believed to add vital knowledge to our understanding of parameters and processes governing biodegradation...

  17. 4-Nonylphenol and bisphenol A in Swedish food and exposure in Swedish nursing women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gyllenhammar, I.; Glynn, A.; Darnerud, P.O.; Lignell, S.; Delft, R. van; Aune, M.

    2012-01-01

    4-Nonylphenol (NP) and bisphenol A (BPA) are phenolic substances used in high volumes by the industry. Studies on cells and in experimental animals have shown that both these compounds can be classified as estrogenic hormone disrupters. Information about the exposure of humans to NP and BPA is still

  18. How to Protect Yourself from Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... clothes in your washing machine. Staying safe from Bisphenol-A (BPA) If you can, switch from a plastic water bottle to a stainless steel water bottle that does not contain BPA. Do not microwave food in plastic containers. Use glass or ceramic containers ...

  19. Influence of Bisphenol A on Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provvisiero, Donatella Paola; Pivonello, Claudia; Muscogiuri, Giovanna; Negri, Mariarosaria; de Angelis, Cristina; Simeoli, Chiara; Pivonello, Rosario; Colao, Annamaria

    2016-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an organic synthetic compound employed to produce plastics and epoxy resins. It is used as a structural component in polycarbonate beverage bottles and as coating for metal surface in food containers and packaging. The adverse effects of BPA on human health are widely disputed. BPA has been recently associated with a wide variety of medical disorders and, in particular, it was identified as potential endocrine-disrupting compound with diabetogenic action. Most of the clinical observational studies in humans reveal a positive link between BPA exposure, evaluated by the measurement of urinary BPA levels, and the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. Clinical studies on humans and preclinical studies on in vivo, ex vivo, and in vitro models indicate that BPA, mostly at low doses, may have a role in increasing type 2 diabetes mellitus developmental risk, directly acting on pancreatic cells, in which BPA induces the impairment of insulin and glucagon secretion, triggers inhibition of cell growth and apoptosis, and acts on muscle, hepatic, and adipose cell function, triggering an insulin-resistant state. The current review summarizes the available evidences regarding the association between BPA and type 2 diabetes mellitus, focusing on both clinical and preclinical studies. PMID:27782064

  20. BISPHENOL A AND ITS POTENTIAL TOXIC EFFECTS ON LIVING ORGANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Šutiaková

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA, 2, 2,-bis (4-hydroxyphenyl propane, CAS No. 80-05-7, is an industrial chemical that is made by combining acetone and phenol. Food is acknowledged to be a main source of exposure to BPA as a consequence of BPA migration from food containers. Several studies have reported BPA migrations from can surface coatings or plastics into foods and food-simulating liquids at high temperatures, and with repeated use of plastic products. Evaluation of BPA confirmed a no-observable adverse effect level (NOAEL of 5 mg/kg/body weight/day and established a maximum total daily intake (TDI of 0.05 mg/kg body weight. A metabolism of BPA is characterized mainly by phase II conjugation reactions in the gastrointestinal tract and in the liver. The presence of BPA in the environment can cause serious health problems (endocrine disruptions, neurotoxic, genotoxic and other problems. However, there are controversial opinions about BPA. Based on current knowledge of literature the need for further experimental studies in addressing health of human and animal populations living in different ecosystems may be still useful.

  1. Risk Evaluation of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Gioiosa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We review here our studies on early exposure to low doses of the estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemical bisphenol A (BPA on behavior and metabolism in CD-1 mice. Mice were exposed in utero from gestation day (GD 11 to delivery (prenatal exposure or via maternal milk from birth to postnatal day 7 (postnatal exposure to 10 µg/kg body weight/d of BPA or no BPA (controls. Bisphenol A exposure resulted in long-term disruption of sexually dimorphic behaviors. Females exposed to BPA pre- and postnatally showed increased anxiety and behavioral profiles similar to control males. We also evaluated metabolic effects in prenatally exposed adult male offspring of dams fed (from GD 9 to 18 with BPA at doses ranging from 5 to 50 000 µg/kg/d. The males showed an age-related significant change in a number of metabolic indexes ranging from food intake to glucose regulation at BPA doses below the no observed adverse effect level (5000 µg/kg/d. Consistent with prior findings, low but not high BPA doses produced significant effects for many outcomes. These findings provide further evidence of the potential risks that developmental exposure to low doses of the endocrine disrupter BPA may pose to human health, with fetuses and infants being highly vulnerable.

  2. Levels of metabolites of organophosphate pesticides, phthalates, and bisphenol A in pooled urine specimens from pregnant women participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ye, X.; Pierik, F.H.; Angerer, J.; Meltzer, H.M.; Jaddoe, V.W.V.; Tiemeier, H.; Hoppin, J.A.; Longnecker, M.P.

    2009-01-01

    Concerns about reproductive and developmental health risks of exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides, phthalates, and bisphenol A (BPA) among the general population are increasing. Six dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolites, 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy), BPA, and fourteen phthalate

  3. Simultaneous Determination of Bisphenol A and Bisphenol S in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    2014-08-08

    Aug 8, 2014 ... A simplified method based on ratio derivative ultraviolet spectrometry for simultaneous determination of bisphenol A (BPA) and bisphenol S ... In this method, the overlapping spectra of BPA and BPS were well resolved using the first derivative (Δλ = ..... 14 S. Alt2nöz and S. Toptan, J. Food Compos. Anal.

  4. INHIBITION OF TESTICULAR STEROIDOGENESIS BY THE XENOESTROGEN BISPHENOL A IS ASSOCIATED WITH REDUCED PITUITARY LH SECRETION AND DECREASED STEROIDOGENIC ENZYME GENE EXPRESSION IN RAT LEYDIG CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure of humans to bisphenol A (BPA), a monomer in polycarbonate plastics and constituent of resins used in food packaging and denistry, is significant. In this report, exposure of rats to 2.4 ug/kg/day (a dose that approximates BPA levels in the environment) from postnatal da...

  5. Fetal growth and prenatal exposure to bisphenol A: The generation R study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijder, C.A.; Heederik, D.; Pierik, F.H.; Hofman, A.; Jaddoe, V.W.; Koch, H.M.; Longnecker, M.P.; Burdorf, A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) has been associated with adverse birth outcomes, but findings of previous studies have been inconsistent. Objective: We investigated the relation of prenatal BPA exposure with intrauterine growth and evaluated the effect of the number of

  6. Canby Area Service Project : Substation and Associated Transmission Line : Environmental Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-02-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides power to Surprise Valley Electrification Corporation (SVEC) in Modoc County, California. BPA uses PacificCorp's substation and transmission facilities between Alturas and Canby, California to transfer power to SVEC's Canby Substation. In the next year, SVEC expects increased industrial, agricultural, and residential electric loads on their 69-kV transmission system south of Canby. SVEC's substation can accommodate only about 10 percent of the expected additional electric load. BPA's proposed action is intended to meet SVEC's increasing electric load. BPA proposes to meet SVEC's increasing energy load by tapping into BPA's existing BPA Malin-Warner 230-kV transmission line, and building an 7.9-mile transmission line to a new BPA substation. BPA proposes to build the new substation next to the west side of SVEC's Canby Substation (Figure 1). This new substation will allow SVEC to move the additional power over their existing transmission or distribution lines. This report is the environmental assessment of the potential impact of the proposed project. The assessment determined that no environmental impact statement'' is not required.

  7. Canby Area Service Project substation and associated transmission line. Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides power to Surprise Valley Electrification Corporation (SVEC) in Modoc County, California. BPA uses PacificCorp`s substation and transmission facilities between Alturas and Canby, California to transfer power to SVEC`s Canby Substation. In the next year, SVEC expects increased industrial, agricultural, and residential electric loads on their 69-kV transmission system south of Canby. SVEC`s substation can accommodate only about 10 percent of the expected additional electric load. BPA`s proposed action is intended to meet SVEC`s increasing electric load. BPA proposes to meet SVEC`s increasing energy load by tapping into BPA`s existing BPA Malin-Warner 230-kV transmission line, and building an 7.9-mile transmission line to a new BPA substation. BPA proposes to build the new substation next to the west side of SVEC`s Canby Substation (Figure 1). This new substation will allow SVEC to move the additional power over their existing transmission or distribution lines. This report is the environmental assessment of the potential impact of the proposed project. The assessment determined that no ``environmental impact statement`` is not required.

  8. The Estrogenic Content of Rodent Diets, Bedding, Cages, and Water Bottles and Its Effect on Bisphenol A Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thigpen, Julius E; Setchell, Kenneth DR; Kissling, Grace E; Locklear, Jacqueline; Caviness, Gordon F; Whiteside, Tanya; Belcher, Scott M; Brown, Nadine M; Collins, Bradley J; Lih, Fred B; Tomer, Kenneth B; Padilla-Banks, Elizabeth; Camacho, Luísa; Adsit, Floyd G; Grant, Mary

    2013-01-01

    The lowest observed adverse effect level for bisphenol A (BPA) in mice and rats is currently poorly defined due to inconsistent study designs and results in published studies. The objectives of the current study were to (1) compare the estrogenic content of rodent diets, bedding, cages, and water bottles to evaluate their impact on the estrogenic activity of BPA and (2) review the literature on BPA to determine the most frequently reported diets, beddings, cages, and water bottles used in animal studies. Our literature review indicated that low-dose BPA animal studies have inconsistent results and that factors contributing to this inconsistency are the uses of high-phytoestrogen diets and the different routes of exposure. In 44% (76 of 172) of all reports, rodents were exposed to BPA via the subcutaneous route. Our literature review further indicated that the type of diet, bedding, caging, and water bottles used in BPA studies were not always reported. Only 37% (64 of 172) of the reports described the diet used. In light of these findings, we recommend the use of a diet containing low levels of phytoestrogen (less than 20 µg/g diet) and metabolizable energy (approximately 3.1 kcal/g diet) and estrogen-free bedding, cages, and water bottles for studies evaluating the estrogenic activity of endocrine-disrupting compounds such as BPA. The oral route of BPA exposure should be used when results are to be extrapolated to humans. PMID:23562095

  9. Molecularly imprinted layer-coated silica nanoparticles for selective solid-phase extraction of bisphenol A from chemical cleansing and cosmetics samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Rong; Zhao Wenhui; Zhai Meijuan; Wei Fangdi; Cai Zheng; Sheng Na [School of Pharmacy, Nanjing Medical University, Hanzhong Road 140, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210029 (China); Hu Qin, E-mail: huqin@njmu.edu.cn [School of Pharmacy, Nanjing Medical University, Hanzhong Road 140, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210029 (China)

    2010-01-25

    Highly selective molecularly imprinted layer-coated silica nanoparticles for bisphenol A (BPA) were synthesized by molecular imprinting technique with a sol-gel process on the supporter of silica nanoparticles. The BPA-imprinted silica nanoparticles were characterized by fourier transform infrared spectrometer, transmission electron microscope, dynamic adsorption and static adsorption tests. The equilibrium association constant, K{sub a}, and the apparent maximum number of binding sites, Q{sub max}, were estimated to be 1.25 x 10{sup 5} mL {mu}mol{sup -1} and 16.4 {mu}mol g{sup -1}, respectively. The BPA-imprinted silica nanoparticles solid-phase extraction (SPE) column had higher selectivity for BPA than the commercial C18-SPE column. The results of the study indicated that the prepared BPA-imprinted silica nanoparticles exhibited high adsorption capacity and selectivity, and offered a fast kinetics for the rebinding of BPA. The BPA-imprinted silica nanoparticles were successfully used in SPE to selectively enrich and determine BPA from shampoo, bath lotion and cosmetic cream samples.

  10. Histopathological Effects on Testis of Adult Male Carp, Cyprinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the estrogenic effect of Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disruptor on the histological features in carp testis. Methods: Adult male fish, koi carp, Cyprinus carpio carpio, were exposed to three graded concentrations of BPA (10, 100 and 1000 µg/L) for a period of 21 days. A single dose of 17-β estradiol.

  11. Reproducibility of urinary bisphenol A concentrations measured during pregnancy in the Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jusko, T.A.; Shaw, P.A.; Snijder, C.A.; Pierik, F.H.; Koch, H.M.; Hauser, R.; Jaddoe, V.W.V.; Burdorf, A.; Hofman, A.; Tiemeier, H.; Longnecker, M.P.

    2014-01-01

    The potential human health effects of bisphenol A (BPA) exposure are a public health concern. In order to design adequately powered epidemiological studies to address potential health effects, data on the reproducibility of BPA concentration in seri al urine specimens taken during pregnancy are

  12. Ubiquity of bisphenol A in the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu Pingqing, E-mail: pqfu@pop.lowtem.hokudai.ac.j [Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0819 (Japan); Kawamura, Kimitaka, E-mail: kawamura@lowtem.hokudai.ac.j [Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0819 (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a suspected endocrine disruptor in the environment. However, little is known about its distribution and transport in the atmosphere. Here, the concentrations of BPA in the atmospheric aerosols from urban, rural, marine, and the polar regions were measured using solvent extraction/derivatization and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry technique. The concentrations of BPA (1-17,400 pg m{sup -3}) ranged over 4 orders of magnitude in the world with a declining trend from the continent (except for the Antarctica) to remote sites. A positive correlation was found between BPA and 1,3,5-triphenylbenzene, a tracer for plastic burning, in urban regions, indicating that the open burning of plastics in domestic waste should be a significant emission source of atmospheric BPA. Our results suggest that the ubiquity of BPA in the atmosphere may raise a requirement for the evaluation of health effects of BPA in order to control its emission sources, for example, from plastic burning. - This study gives first insight into the sources and global distributions of bisphenol A (BPA) in the atmosphere.

  13. Electrochemical bisphenol A sensor based on N-doped graphene sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan Haixia; Li Yan; Wu Dan; Ma Hongmin; Mao Kexia; Fan Dawei [Key Laboratory of Chemical Sensing and Analysis in Universities of Shandong, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Du Bin, E-mail: bindu0720@gmail.com [Key Laboratory of Chemical Sensing and Analysis in Universities of Shandong, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Li He, E-mail: lihecd@gmail.com [Key Laboratory of Chemical Sensing and Analysis in Universities of Shandong, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Wei Qin, E-mail: sdjndxwq@163.com [Key Laboratory of Chemical Sensing and Analysis in Universities of Shandong, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China)

    2012-01-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N-doped graphene sheets have catalytic activity towards the BPA oxidation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The biosensor based on N-doped graphene sheets and chitosan. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This method was proposed for determination of BPA utilizing N-doped graphene sheets. - Abstract: Bisphenol A (BPA), which could disrupt endocrine system and cause cancer, has been considered as an endocrine disruptor. Therefore, it is very important and necessary to develop a sensitive and selective method for detection of BPA. Herein, nitrogen-doped graphene sheets (N-GS) and chitosan (CS) were used to prepare electrochemical BPA sensor. Compared with graphene, N-GS has favorable electron transfer ability and electrocatalytic property, which could enhance the response signal towards BPA. CS also exhibits excellent film forming ability and improves the electrochemical behavior of N-GS modified electrode. The sensor exhibits a sensitive response to BPA in the range of 1.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8}-1.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} mol L{sup -1} with a low detection limit of 5.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9} mol L{sup -1} under the optimal conditions. Finally, this proposed sensor was successfully employed to determine BPA in water samples with satisfactory results.

  14. Estrogen receptor-dependent effects of bisphenol a

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bulzomi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA, commonly used as building block of polycarbonate plastics, significantly affects human and animal health interfering with the action of natural hormones. Within BPA disrupting effects, a mitogenic activity and, consequently, an increased incidence of neoplastic transformations has been reported in exposed organisms. Among the several mechanisms proposed for the mitogenic BPA effects, its ability to bind to estrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ deserves particular attention. Aim of this work is to investigate ERα- and ERβ-dependent mechanisms underlying BPA proliferative effect. Binding assay confirms that BPA binds to both ERs. Cell vitality assay and Western blot analysis of protein involved in cell proliferation demonstrate that BPA acts as a double side disruptor of estrogenic effects. In fact in the presence of ERα, BPA mimics E2, increasing cell proliferation. On the contrary, in the presence of ERβ, BPA acts as an E2 antagonist preventing the hormone-induced cancer cells apoptosis. These two divergent aspects could act synergistically in the exposed organisms leading to the disruption of the balance between proliferation and apoptosis typical of E2 effects.

  15. Histopathological Effects on Testis of Adult Male Carp, Cyprinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the estrogenic effect of Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disruptor on the histological features in carp testis. Methods: Adult male fish, koi carp, Cyprinus carpio carpio, were exposed to three graded concentrations of BPA (10, 100 and 1000 μg/L) for a period of 21 days. A single dose of 17-β estradiol (1 ...

  16. Effect of Bisphenol A on the Levels of Vitellogenin and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the potential role of bisphenol A (BPA) in inducing endocrine disruption in fish. Methods: Adult male koi carps, Cyprinus carpio carpio (n = 60, mean body weight = 125 ± 12.288 g and mean length = 24 ± 1.392 cm) were exposed to three graded concentrations of BPA (10, 100 and 1000 μg/L) for a ...

  17. 75 FR 39241 - Hooper Springs Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... Bonneville Power Administration Hooper Springs Project AGENCY: Bonneville Power Administration (BPA... Hooper Springs Project). The new BPA substation would be called Hooper Springs Substation and would be... 115-kV Lane Creek Substation, east of the City of Wayan, Idaho. The proposed project would address...

  18. In vitro evidence for endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC)'s ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    glucuronidation. Materials and Methods: In vitro HLMs incubation system was used to investigate the inhibition potential of BPA towards ... Results: Concentration-dependent inhibition of BPA towards AZT glucuronidation was observed. Both Dixon and .... gypenosides on seven human cytochrome P450 enzymes in vitro.

  19. An Evidence Theoretic Approach to Design of Reliable Low-Cost UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-28

    Rascal UAV at Virginia Tech) . . . . . . . . . . . 21 14 CDF Plot for Pitch Control PoF – Monte Carlo Method . . . . . . . . . . . 22 15 Graphical...30 19 AND Gate System BPA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 20 System BPA for NSL’s Rascal UAV...Uncertainty Sensitivity Analysis for the Rascal UAV’s Pitch Control Subsystem 41 24 Sample DSV Shift

  20. Impact of Backbone Rigidity on the Photomechanical Response of Glassy, Azobenzene-Functionalized Polyimides (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-13

    azoBPA- diamine ). The azobenzene -functionalized linear polymers exhibit glass transition temperatures (Tg) ranging from 276 to 307 °C and maintain...polymerization of five dianhydride monomers with a newly synthesized diamine (azoBPA- diamine ). The azobenzene -functionalized linear polymers exhibit... diamine monomer and used it to prepare five, amorphous azobenzene -functionalized linear polyimides through polymer- ization with structurally

  1. Bisphenol A Inhibits Cell Proliferation and Reduces the Motile Potential of Murine LM8 Osteosarcoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidani, Teruki; Yasuda, Rie; Miyawaki, Joji; Oshima, Yusuke; Miura, Hiromasa; Masuno, Hiroshi

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of bisphenol A (BPA) on the proliferation and motility potential of murine LM8 osteosarcoma cells. LM8 cells were treated for 3 days with or without 80 μM BPA. The effect of BPA on cell proliferation was determined by DNA measurement in the cultures and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation study. Ethanol-fixed cells were stained with hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) to visualize cell morphology. Cell motility was assayed using inserts with uncoated membranes in invasion chambers. Expression of cell division cycle 42 (CDC42) was determined by immunofluorescence staining and western blotting. BPA reduced the DNA content of cultures and the number of BrdU-positive cells. BPA induced a change in morphology from cuboidal with multiple filopodia on the cell surface to spindle-shaped with a smooth cell surface. BPA-treated cells expressed less CDC42 and were less motile than untreated cells. BPA inhibited DNA replication and cell proliferation. BPA inhibited filopodia formation and motile potential by inhibiting CDC42 expression in LM8 cells. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  2. Study of experiment on leaching of bisphenol A from infant books to artificial saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajiki, Junko; Yanagibori, Ryoko; Kobayashi, Yaeko

    2010-05-01

    To assess the risk of bisphenol A (BPA) exposure when infants suck or chew infant books, the concentration of BPA leaching from infant books published by Japanese makers to artificial saliva was measured. The concentration of BPA leaching from 10 infant books to 15 ml artificial saliva or water was measured at 37 degrees C for 20 hrs. BPA concentration was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD) with solid-phase extraction. BPA was leached from all books when pieces of them were dipped both into saliva and water for 20 hrs. The highest concentration of BPA leaching from one out of 10 books was 43.4 ng/ml (for 2 hrs) in saliva, which was estimated to be approximately 0.052 mg/kg body weight/day for infants aged 6-10 months. As BPA has endocrine-disrupting effects and poses higher risks in infants than in adults, it is desired to reduce BPA use in the printing of infant books from the viewpoint of child health.

  3. Business Plan : Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Volume 2, Appendices.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-02-01

    This document contains the appendices for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Business Plan: Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Included are: BPA products and services; Rate design; Methodology and assumptions for numerical analysis; Retail utility operations; Comments and responses to the draft business plan EIS.

  4. Removal of bisphenol A by adsorption mechanism using PES-SiO2 composite membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad, Mimi Suliza; Salim, Mohd Razman; Lau, Woei Jye; Hadibarata, Tony; Yusop, Zulkifli

    2016-08-01

    Polyethersulphone (PES) membranes blended with silicon dioxide (SiO2) nanoparticles were prepared via a dry-jet wet spinning technique for the removal of bisphenol A (BPA) by adsorption mechanism. The morphology of SiO2 nanoparticles was analysed using a transmission electron microscopy and particle size distribution was also analysed. The prepared membranes were characterized by several techniques including field emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and water contact angle. The adsorption mechanism of membrane towards BPA was evaluated by batch experiments and kinetic model. The influence of natural organic matter (NOM) in feed water on membrane BPA removal was also studied by filtration experiments. Results showed that BPA adsorption capacity as high as 53 µg/g could be achieved by the PES membrane incorporated with 2 wt% SiO2 in which the adsorption mechanism was in accordance with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The intraparticles diffusion model suggested that the rate limiting factor of membrane adsorption mechanism is governed by the diffusion of BPA into the membrane pores. The presence of 10 ppm NOM has reported to negatively reduce BPA removal by 24%, as it tended to compete with BPA for membrane adsorption. This work has demonstrated that PES-SiO2 membrane has the potential to eliminate trace amount of BPA from water source containing NOM.

  5. Low-dose effects of bisphenol A on mammary gland development in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egebjerg, Karen Mandrup; Boberg, Julie; Isling, Louise Krag

    2016-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely used in food contact materials, toys, and other products. Several studies have indicated that effects observed at doses near human exposure levels may not be observed at higher doses. Many studies have shown effects on mammary glands at low doses of BPA, however, because...

  6. Gestational and Lactational Exposure to Ethinyl Estradiol, but not Bisphenol A, Decreases Androgen-Dependent Reproductive Organ Weights and Epididymal Sperm Abundance in the Male Long Evans Hooded Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many chemicals released into the environment are capable of disrupting normal sex steroid balance, including the oral contraceptive ethinyl estradiol (EE) and the plastic monomer bisphenol A (BPA). EE and BPA are reported to impair reproductive organ development in laboratory ani...

  7. Bisphenol A Alters β-hCG and MIF Release by Human Placenta: An In Vitro Study to Understand the Role of Endometrial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mannelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A proper fetomaternal immune-endocrine cross-talk in pregnancy is fundamental for reproductive success. This might be unbalanced by exposure to environmental chemicals, such as bisphenol A (BPA. As fetoplacental contamination with BPA originates from the maternal compartment, this study investigated the role of the endometrium in BPA effects on the placenta. To this end, in vitro decidualized stromal cells were exposed to BPA 1 nM, and their conditioned medium (diluted 1 : 2 was used on chorionic villous explants from human placenta. Parallel cultures of placental explants were directly exposed to 0.5 nM BPA while, control cultures were exposed to the vehicle (EtOH 0.1%. After 24–48 h, culture medium from BPA-treated and control cultures was assayed for concentration of hormone human Chorionic Gonadotropin (β-hCG and cytokine Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF. The results showed that direct exposure to BPA stimulated the release of both MIF and β-hCG. These effects were abolished/diminished in placental cultures exposed to endometrial cell-conditioned medium. GM-MS analysis revealed that endometrial cells retain BPA, thus reducing the availability of this chemical for the placenta. The data obtained highlight the importance of in vitro models including the maternal component in reproducing the effects of environmental chemicals on human fetus/placenta.

  8. Boronophenylalanine uptake in C6 glioma model is dramatically increased by L-DOPA preloading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capuani, S. [CNR-INFM SOFT, Department of Physics, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, Rome (Italy); Enrico Fermi Center, Compendio Viminale, Rome (Italy)], E-mail: silvia.capuani@roma1.infn.it; Gili, T. [CNR-INFM SOFT, Department of Physics, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, Rome (Italy); Enrico Fermi Center, Compendio Viminale, Rome (Italy); Bozzali, M. [Neuroimaging Laboratory, Santa Lucia Foundation, Via Ardeatina 306, Rome (Italy); Russo, S. [Victor Horsley Department of Neurosurgery, National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Queen Square, London (United Kingdom); Porcari, P. [CNR-INFM SOFT, Department of Physics, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, Rome (Italy); Cametti, C. [CNR-INFM SOFT, Department of Physics, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, Rome (Italy); Department of Physics, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, Rome (Italy); Muolo, M. [Department of Biological Science, University ' Rome III' , Viale G. Marconi 446, Rome (Italy); D' Amore, E. [Serv. Qual./Sicurezza Sperim. Anim., Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy); Maraviglia, B. [Enrico Fermi Center, Compendio Viminale, Rome (Italy); Neuroimaging Laboratory, Santa Lucia Foundation, Via Ardeatina 306, Rome (Italy); Lazzarino, G. [Laboratory of Biochemistry, Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Catania, Viale A. Doria 6, Catania (Italy); Pastore, F.S. [Department of Neuroscience, Institute of Neurosurgery, University ' Tor Vergata' , Via Montpellier 1, Rome (Italy)

    2009-07-15

    One of the main limitations for BNCT effectiveness is the insufficient intake of {sup 10}B nuclei within tumour cells. This work was aimed at investigating the use of L-DOPA as enhancer for boronophenylalanine (BPA) uptake in the C6 glioma model. The investigation was first performed in vitro, and then extended in vivo to the animal model. BPA accumulation in C6 glioma cells was assessed, using radiowave dielectric spectroscopy (RDS), with and without L-DOPA preloading. C6 glioma cells were also implanted in the brain of 25 rats, randomly assigned to two experimental branches: (1) intra-carotid BPA infusion; (2) intra-carotid BPA infusion after pre-treatment with L-DOPA, administrated 24 h before BPA infusion. All animals were sacrificed, and assessment of BPA concentrations in tumour tissue, normal brain, and blood samples was performed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). L-DOPA preloading induced a massive increase of BPA concentration either in vitro on C6 glioma cells or in vivo in the animal model tumour. Moreover, no significant difference was found in the normal brain and blood samples between the two animal groups. This study suggests the potential use of L-DOPA as enhancer for BPA accumulation in malignant gliomas eligible for BNCT.

  9. 76 FR 44535 - Testing of Bisphenol A

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... manufacturing facilities and such processing facilities as foundries, WWTPs, paper and plastics recycling... manufacturing and petroleum refineries of BPA. Plastics material and resin manufacturers (NAICS code 325211), e.g., manufacturers and processors of BPA-based polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. Foundries...

  10. Influence of Bisphenol A on the transport and deposition behaviors of bacteria in quartz sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dan; He, Lei; Sun, Ruonan; Tong, Meiping; Kim, Hyunjung

    2017-09-15

    The influence of Bisphenol A (BPA) on the transport and deposition behaviors of bacteria in quartz sand was examined in both NaCl (10 and 25 mM) and CaCl 2 solutions (1.2 and 5 mM) by comparing the breakthrough curves and retained profiles of cell with BPA in suspensions versus those without BPA. Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis were employed as model cells in the present study. The extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek interaction energy calculation revealed that the presence of BPA in cell suspensions led to a lower repulsive interaction between the cells and the quartz sand. This suggests that, theoretically, increased cell deposition on quartz sand would be expected in the presence of BPA. However, under all examined solution conditions, the presence of BPA in cell suspensions increased transport and decreased deposition of bacteria in porous media regardless of cell type, ionic strength, ion valence, the presence or absence of extracellular polymeric substances. We found that competition by BPA through hydrophobicity for deposition sites on the quartz sand surfaces was the sole contributor to the enhanced transport and decreased deposition of bacteria in the presence of BPA. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. 75 FR 15430 - Chief Joseph Hatchery Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ... Bonneville Power Administration Chief Joseph Hatchery Program AGENCY: Bonneville Power Administration (BPA... Hatchery Program Environmental Impact Statement (DOE/EIS-0384, November 2009). BPA has decided to fund the construction, operation, and maintenance of the Chief Joseph Hatchery and associated facilities in Okanogan...

  12. Buying and Caring for Baby Bottles and Nipples

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will not break if dropped. If you choose plastic, it is best to buy new bottles. Reused or hand-me-down bottles may contain bisphenol-A (BPA). The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has banned the use of BPA in baby bottles due ...

  13. Degradation of bisphenol A in water by the heterogeneous photo-Fenton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chuanrui; Xu, Zhencheng; Guo, Qingwei; Zhuo, Qiongfang

    2014-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a kind of a controversial endocrine disruptor, and is ubiquitous in environment. The degradation of BPA with the heterogeneous photo-Fenton system was demonstrated in this study. The Fe-Y molecular sieve catalyst was prepared with the ion exchange method, and it was characterized by X-ray radiation diffraction (XRD). The effects ofpH, initial concentration of H2O2, initial BPA concentration, and irradiation intensity on the degradation of BPA were investigated. The service life and iron solubility of catalyst were also tested. XRD test shows that the major phase of the Fe-Y catalyst was Fe2O3. The method of heterogeneous photo-Fenton with Fe-Y catalyst was superior to photolysis, photo-oxidation with only hydrogen, heterogeneous Fenton, and homogeneous photo-Fenton approaches. pH value had no obvious effects on BPA degradation over the range of 2.2-7.2. The initial concentration of H2O2 had an optimal value of 20 x 10(-4) mol/L. The decrease in initial concentration of BPA was favourable for degradation. The intensity of ultraviolet irradiation has no obvious effect on the BPA removal. The stability tests indicated that the Fe-Y catalyst can be reused and iron solubility concentration ranged from NA to 0.0062 mg/L. Based on the results, the heterogeneous photo-Fenton treatment is the available method for the degradation of BPA.

  14. 78 FR 41840 - Indirect Food Additives: Adhesives and Components of Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... resins may be safely used as the food-contact surfaces of articles intended for use in producing... emerging science around BPA, and encouraged us to expand the scope of its review beyond just infants, small... of current or future presence of BPA in infant formula packaging as a result of environmental...

  15. Influence of Bisphenol A on Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Paola Provvisiero

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA is an organic synthetic compound employed to produce plastics and epoxy resins. It is used as a structural component in polycarbonate beverage bottles and as coating for metal surface in food containers and packaging. The adverse effects of BPA on human health are widely disputed. BPA has been recently associated with a wide variety of medical disorders and, in particular, it was identified as potential endocrine-disrupting compound with diabetogenic action. Most of the clinical observational studies in humans reveal a positive link between BPA exposure, evaluated by the measurement of urinary BPA levels, and the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. Clinical studies on humans and preclinical studies on in vivo, ex vivo, and in vitro models indicate that BPA, mostly at low doses, may have a role in increasing type 2 diabetes mellitus developmental risk, directly acting on pancreatic cells, in which BPA induces the impairment of insulin and glucagon secretion, triggers inhibition of cell growth and apoptosis, and acts on muscle, hepatic, and adipose cell function, triggering an insulin-resistant state. The current review summarizes the available evidences regarding the association between BPA and type 2 diabetes mellitus, focusing on both clinical and preclinical studies.

  16. Quantitative Analysis of Bisphenol A Leached from Household Plastics by Solid-Phase Microextraction and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bettie Obi; Burke, Fernanda M.; Harrison, Rebecca; Burdette, Samantha

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of trace levels of bisphenol A (BPA) leached out of household plastics using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is reported here. BPA is an endocrine-disrupting compound used in the industrial manufacture of polycarbonate plastic bottles and epoxy resin can liners. This experiment…

  17. Low concentrations of bisphenol a suppress thyroid hormone receptor transcription through a nongenomic mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, Zhi-Guo [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China); Tang, Yuan [Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, Third Military Medical University, 30 Yanzheng Street, Chongqing 400038 (China); Liu, Yu-Xiang [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China); Yuan, Ye; Zhao, Bao-Quan [Beijing Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 27 Taiping Road, Beijing 100850 (China); Chao, Xi-Juan [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China); Zhu, Ben-Zhan, E-mail: bzhu@rcees.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2012-02-15

    Bisphenol (BPA) is one of the highest-volume chemicals produced worldwide, and human exposure to BPA is thought to be ubiquitous. Various rodent and in vitro studies have shown that thyroid hormone (TH) function can be impaired by BPA. However, it is still unknown if low concentrations of BPA can suppress the thyroid hormone receptor (TR) transcription. The present study aims to investigate the possible suppressing effects of low concentrations of BPA on TR transcription and the involved mechanism(s) in CV-1 cells derived from cercopithecus aethiops monkey kidneys. Using gene reporter assays, BPA at concentrations as low as 10{sup −9} M suppresses TR or steroid receptor coactivator-1(SRC-1)-enhanced TR transcription, but not reducing TR/SRC-1 interaction in mammalian two-hybrid and glutathione S-transferase pull-down studies. It has been further shown that both nuclear receptor co-repressor (N-CoR) and silencing mediator for retinoid and thyroid hormone receptors (SMRT) are recruited to the TR-β1 by BPA in the presence of physiologic concentrations of T3 or T4. However, the overexpression of β3 integrin or c-Src significantly reduces BPA-induced recruitment of N-CoR/SMRT to TR or suppression of TR transcription. Furthermore, BPA inhibits the T3/T4-mediated interassociation of the β3 integrin/c-Src/MAPK/TR-β1 pathways by the co-immunoprecipitation. These results indicate that low concentrations of BPA suppress the TR transcription by disrupting physiologic concentrations of T3/T4-mediated β3 integrin/c-Src/MAPK/TR-β1 pathways, followed by recruiting N-CoR/SMRT to TR-β1, providing a novel insight regarding the TH disruption effects of low concentration BPA. -- Highlights: ► Environmentally relevant concentrations of BPA suppress TR transcription. ► BPA recruits the N-CoR/SMRT to TR under the physiologic concentrations of T3/T4. ► BPA disrupts T3/T4-mediated β3 integrin/c-Src/MAPK/TR-β1 pathways.

  18. The effects of in utero bisphenol A exposure on reproductive capacity in several generations of mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziv-Gal, Ayelet, E-mail: zivgal1@illinois.edu; Wang, Wei, E-mail: weiwang2@illinois.edu; Zhou, Changqing, E-mail: czhou27@illinois.edu; Flaws, Jodi A., E-mail: jflaws@illinois.edu

    2015-05-01

    In utero bisphenol A (BPA) exposure affects reproductive function in the first generation (F1) of mice; however, not many studies have examined the reproductive effects of BPA exposure on subsequent generations. In this study, pregnant mice (F0) were orally dosed with vehicle, BPA (0.5, 20, and 50 μg/kg/day) or diethylstilbestrol (DES; 0.05 μg/kg/day) daily from gestation day 11 until birth. F1 females were used to generate the F2 generation, and F2 females were used to generate the F3 generation. Breeding studies at the ages of 3, 6, and 9 months were conducted to evaluate reproductive capacity over time. Further, studies were conducted to evaluate pubertal onset, litter size, and percentage of dead pups; and to calculate pregnancy rate, and mating, fertility, and gestational indices. The results indicate that BPA exposure (0.5 and 50 μg/kg/day) significantly delayed the age at vaginal opening in the F3 generation compared to vehicle control. Both DES (0.05 μg/kg/day) and BPA (50 μg/kg/day) significantly delayed the age at first estrus in the F3 generation compared to vehicle control. BPA exposure reduced gestational index in the F1 and F2 generations compared to control. Further, BPA exposure (0.5 μg/kg/day) compromised the fertility index in the F3 generation compared to control. Finally, in utero BPA exposure reduced the ability of female mice to maintain pregnancies as they aged. Collectively, these data suggest that BPA exposure affects reproductive function in female mice and that some effects may be transgenerational in nature. - Highlights: • In utero BPA delayed vaginal opening in the F3 generation compared to control. • In utero BPA delayed estrus in the F3 generation compared to control. • In utero BPA reduced the ability of F1 and F2 female mice to maintain pregnancies. • In utero BPA compromised the ability of F3 female mice to become pregnant. • Some effects of in utero BPA may be transgenerational in nature.

  19. Randomized Intervention Trial to Decrease Bisphenol A Urine Concentrations in Women: Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagobian, Todd; Smouse, Allison; Streeter, Mikaela; Wurst, Chloe; Schaffner, Andrew; Phelan, Suzanne

    2017-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that women have higher concentrations of the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA), but an intervention to reduce BPA is lacking in women. To test the hypothesis that an intervention to reduce BPA would decrease urinary BPA concentrations over 3 weeks, 24 women (mean ± standard deviation [SD]; 22.1 ± 2.8 kg/m2 body mass index, 20.9 ± 1.5 years) were randomly assigned to an intervention or control. The intervention included weekly face-to-face meetings to reduce BPA exposures from food, cosmetics, and other packaged products. Women were provided with BPA-free cosmetics, hygiene, glass food/water containers, and daily self-monitored major sources of BPA. Fasting urine BPA and creatinine concentrations, and weight were assessed at study entry and after 3 weeks. A significant (p = 0.04) treatment × time interaction effect was observed on creatinine-adjusted BPA concentrations. From study entry to 3 weeks, women in the intervention significantly decreased geometric mean creatinine-adjusted urinary BPA by -0.71 ng/m, whereas women in the control significantly increased urinary BPA by 0.32 ng/mL (p = 0.04). Additionally, from study entry to 3 weeks, women in the intervention significantly lost weight -0.28 ± 0.44 kg, whereas women in the control significantly gained weight +1.65 ± 0.74 kg (p = 0.03). Changes in creatinine-adjusted BPA concentrations and weight were not significantly related (p = 0.67). In this pilot study, a 3-week intervention decreased urinary BPA concentrations in women. Future clinical trials are needed to confirm these results and to examine whether a similar BPA intervention positively impacts risk markers in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease and diabetes.

  20. 4-Nonylphenol and bisphenol A in Swedish food and exposure in Swedish nursing women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyllenhammar, Irina; Glynn, Anders; Darnerud, Per Ola; Lignell, Sanna; van Delft, Rob; Aune, Marie

    2012-08-01

    4-Nonylphenol (NP) and bisphenol A (BPA) are phenolic substances used in high volumes by the industry. Studies on cells and in experimental animals have shown that both these compounds can be classified as estrogenic hormone disrupters. Information about the exposure of humans to NP and BPA is still scarce, especially regarding levels in human blood. The first aim of this study was to investigate possible sources of NP and BPA exposure from food, by analyzing the levels of NP and BPA from a Swedish food market basket, based on the Swedish per capita food consumption. A second aim was to investigate blood serum levels of NP and BPA, as well as NP-ethoxylates, among young women in Sweden (n=100). Moreover, associations between food consumption and blood NP and BPA levels were studied. In food, NP was to some extent found at levels above limit of quantification (LOQ 20 ng/g fresh weight) in fruits, cereal products, vegetables, and potatoes. BPA levels above LOQ (2 ng/g fresh weight) were found in fish, meats, potatoes, and dairy products. The estimated mean intakes per capita were (medium bound) 27 μg NP/day and 3.9 μg BPA/day, showing that food is a source of BPA and NP in the general Swedish population. In blood serum, free NP above limit of detection (LOD 0.5 ng/g) was detected in 46% of the study participants while detectable levels of total NP (LOD 0.8 ng/g) were observed in 43%. The corresponding percentages for BPA were 25% and 22%, respectively. The results indicate that there is a continuous source of exposure to NP and BPA that is high enough for free NP and BPA to be detected in some consumers. Among the participants with quantifiable levels of free and total NP (n=38), 85% (median, range: 38-112%) of the NP was present as free NP. For BPA 76% (49-109%) was detected as free BPA (n=15). All women had levels of ethoxylates of NP below LOD (0.1-0.7 ng/g). A significantly higher total consumption of fruits and vegetables was reported in questionnaires by

  1. Bisphenol A at a low concentration boosts mouse spermatogonial cell proliferation by inducing the G protein-coupled receptor 30 expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, Zhi-Guo [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Huang, Wei [Department of Chemical Biology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100091 (China); Liu, Yu-Xiang [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Zhu, Ben-Zhan, E-mail: bzhu@rcees.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the most prevalent chemicals in daily-use materials, therefore, human exposure to BPA is ubiquitous. We found that low concentrations of BPA stimulate the spermatogonial GC-1 cells proliferation by G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30)-mediated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-extracellular regulated kinase (ERK)-c-Fos pathway. However, through the same pathway GPR30 expression has been shown to be induced by EGF, an EGFR ligand. Thus, we want to know if low concentrations of BPA are able to induce the GPR30 expression and the possible mechanism(s) in GC-1 cells. By transient transfection with expression plasmids, 10{sup −9} M BPA significantly transactivates the Gpr30-5′-flanking region through activating the GPR30, cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG), estrogen receptor-α (ER-α), and EFGR-ERK pathways. Furthermore, an activator protein-1 (AP-1) site located within this region is found to be responsible for the transactivation of BPA. Expectedly, through the same pathways, BPA significantly induces the gene and protein expression of GPR30. c-Fos is further observed to be strongly recruited to the AP-1 site in a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay and its dysfunction on the AP-1 site markedly suppresses the expression of GPR30, p-ERK1/2, p-Ser118-ER-α and cell proliferation by BPA. Our results demonstrate that a low-concentration BPA induces GPR30 expression through the GPR30-EFGR-ERK-c-Fos, ER-α, and PKG pathways, presumably boosting the cells proliferation via a regulatory loop. The present study provides a novel insight into the potential role of GPR30 in the initiation and progression of male germ cell cancer induced by environmentally relevant BPA. - Highlights: ► Low concentrations of BPA activate the PKG and GPR30-EFGR-ERK-ER-α pathways. ► Low concentrations of BPA activate the AP-1 site of Gpr30-5′-flanking region. ► Low concentrations of BPA induce the expression of GPR30 gene and protein. ► Low

  2. Gestational urinary bisphenol A and maternal and newborn thyroid hormone concentrations: The HOME Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, Megan E., E-mail: megan_romano@brown.edu [Department of Epidemiology, Brown University School of Public Health, Providence, RI (United States); Webster, Glenys M. [Child and Family Research Institute, BC Children' s and Women' s Hospital and Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Vuong, Ann M. [Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Thomas Zoeller, R. [Department of Biology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Chen, Aimin [Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Hoofnagle, Andrew N. [Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Calafat, Antonia M. [Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Karagas, Margaret R. [Children' s Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research Center and Department of Community and Family Medicine, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, NH (United States); Yolton, Kimberly [Division of General and Community Pediatrics, Department of Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Lanphear, Bruce P. [Child and Family Research Institute, BC Children' s and Women' s Hospital and Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Braun, Joseph M. [Department of Epidemiology, Brown University School of Public Health, Providence, RI (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disruptor used in consumer products, may perturb thyroid function. Prenatal BPA exposure may have sex-specific effects on thyroid hormones (THs). Our objectives were to investigate whether maternal urinary BPA concentrations during pregnancy were associated with THs in maternal or cord serum, and whether these associations differed by newborn sex or maternal iodine status. We measured urinary BPA concentrations at 16 and 26 weeks gestation among pregnant women in the HOME Study (2003–2006, Cincinnati, Ohio). Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free and total thyroxine (T{sub 4}) and triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}) were measured in maternal serum at 16 weeks (n=181) and cord serum at delivery (n=249). Associations between BPA concentrations and maternal or cord serum TH levels were estimated by multivariable linear regression. Mean maternal urinary BPA was not associated with cord THs in all newborns, but a 10-fold increase in mean BPA was associated with lower cord TSH in girls (percent change=−36.0%; 95% confidence interval (CI): −58.4, −1.7%), but not boys (7.8%; 95% CI: −28.5, 62.7%; p-for-effect modification=0.09). We observed no significant associations between 16-week BPA and THs in maternal or cord serum, but 26-week maternal BPA was inversely associated with TSH in girls (−42.9%; 95% CI: −59.9, −18.5%), but not boys (7.6%; 95% CI: −17.3, 40.2%; p-for-effect modification=0.005) at birth. The inverse BPA–TSH relation among girls was stronger, but less precise, among iodine deficient versus sufficient mothers. Prenatal BPA exposure may reduce TSH among newborn girls, particularly when exposure occurs later in gestation. - Highlights: • Examined associations of BPA with thyroid hormones in pregnant women and newborns. • Assessed effect modification of BPA–thyroid hormone associations by newborn sex. • Greater BPA related to decreased thyroid stimulating hormone in girls' cord serum. • Results may

  3. Drinking water contaminants from epoxy resin-coated pipes: A field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasärkkä, Johanna; Pernica, Marek; Kuta, Jan; Lašňák, Jonáš; Šimek, Zdenĕk; Bláha, Luděk

    2016-10-15

    Rehabilitation of aged drinking water pipes is an extensive renovation and increasingly topical in many European cities. Spray-on-lining of drinking water pipes is an alternative cost-effective rehabilitation technology in which the insides of pipes are relined with organic polymer. A commonly used polymer is epoxy resin consisting of monomer bisphenol A (BPA). Leaching of BPA from epoxy lining to drinking water has been a concern among public and authorities. Currently epoxy lining is not recommended in some countries. BPA leaching has been demonstrated in laboratory studies but the behavior and ageing process of epoxy lining in situ is not well known. In this study 6 locations with different age epoxy linings of drinking water pipes done using two distinct technologies were studied. While bisphenol F, 4-n-nonylphenol, and 4-t-octylphenol were rarely found and in trace concentrations, BPA was detected in majority of samples. Pipes lined with the older technology (LSE) leached more BPA than those with more recent technology (DonPro): maxima in cold water were 0.25 μg/L and 10 ng/L, respectively. Incubation of water in pipes 8-10 h prior to sampling increased BPA concentration in cold water 1.1-43-fold. Hot water temperature caused even more BPA leaching - at maximum 23.5 μg/L. The influence of ageing of epoxy lining on BPA leaching on could be shown in case of LSE technology: locations with 8-9 years old lining leached 4-20-fold more BPA compared to a location with 2-year-old lining. Analysis of metals showed that epoxy lining can reduce especially iron concentration in water. No significant burden to water could be shown by the analyzed 72 volatile organic compounds, including epichlorhydrin, precursor used in epoxy resin. Estrogenicity was detected in water samples with the highest BPA loads. Comparable responses of two yeast bioreporters (estrogen receptor α and BPA-targeted) indicated that bisphenol-like compounds were the main cause of estrogenicity

  4. Effects of pre- and neonatal exposure to bisphenol A on murine brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tando, So; Itoh, Kyoko; Yaoi, Takeshi; Ikeda, Jun; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Fushiki, Shinji

    2007-07-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), known as an environmental endocrine disrupter, is widely used in industry and dentistry. We investigated the effects of fetal and neonatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) on the brain development of mice. The density of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunoreactive (IR) neurons in substantia nigra was significantly decreased in BPA-exposed female mice (3 microg/g powder food), but not in the male mice, as compared with that of the control mice. The densities of calbindin D-28 K-, calretinin- and parvalbumin-IR neurons in the cerebral cortex were not different between BPA-exposed and the control mice. The present study indicates that chronic exposure of BPA during prenatal and neonatal periods causes a decrease of TH-positive neurons in substantia nigra only in female mice brain.

  5. BISPHENOL A INTERFERES WITH SYNAPTIC REMODELING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajszan, Tibor; Leranth, Csaba

    2010-01-01

    The potential adverse effects of Bisphenol A (BPA), a synthetic xenoestrogen, have long been debated. Although standard toxicology tests have revealed no harmful effects, recent research highlighted what was missed so far: BPA-induced alterations in the nervous system. Since 2004, our laboratory has been investigating one of the central effects of BPA, which is interference with gonadal steroid-induced synaptogenesis and the resulting loss of spine synapses. We have shown in both rats and nonhuman primates that BPA completely negates the ~70–100% increase in the number of hippocampal and prefrontal spine synapses induced by both estrogens and androgens. Synaptic loss of this magnitude may have significant consequences, potentially causing cognitive decline, depression, and schizophrenia, to mention those that our laboratory has shown to be associated with synaptic loss. Finally, we discuss why children may particularly be vulnerable to BPA, which represents future direction of research in our laboratory. PMID:20609373

  6. A Review of the Carcinogenic Potential of Bisphenol A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seachrist, Darcie D; Bonk, Kristen W.; Ho, Shuk-Mei; Prins, Gail S.; Soto, Ana M.; Keri, Ruth A.

    2015-01-01

    The estrogenic properties of bisphenol A (BPA), a ubiquitous synthetic monomer that can leach into the food and water supply, have prompted considerable research into exposure-associated health risks in humans. Endocrine-disrupting properties of BPA suggest it may impact developmental plasticity during early life, predisposing individuals to disease at doses below the oral reference dose (RfD) established by the Environmental Protection Agency in 1982. Herein, we review the current in vivo literature evaluating the carcinogenic properties of BPA. We conclude that there is substantial evidence from rodent studies indicating that early-life BPA exposures below the RfD lead to increased susceptibility to mammary and prostate cancer. Based on the definitions of “carcinogen” put forth by the International Agency for Research on Cancer and the National Toxicology Program, we propose that BPA may be reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen in the breast and prostate due to its tumor promoting properties. PMID:26493093

  7. Rapid and efficient degradation of bisphenol A by chloroperoxidase from Caldariomyces fumago: product analysis and ecotoxicity evaluation of the degraded solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaobo; Li, Haiyun; Jiang, Yucheng; Hu, Mancheng; Li, Shuni; Zhai, Quanguo

    2016-09-01

    To degrade enzymatically bisphenol A (BPA) that causes serious environmental concerns and is difficult to be degraded by chemical or physical methods. BPA (150 mg l(-1)) was completely degraded by chloroperoxidase (CPO)/H2O2 within 7 min at room temperature, atmospheric pressure with the enzyme at 6 μg CPO ml(-1). The degradation products were identified by HPLC-MS, which suggested involvement of multiple steps. Enzymatic treatment followed by existing bioremediation technologies (activated sludge) enhanced removal of COD from 9 to 54 %. Using an ecotoxicity evaluation with Chlorella pyrenoidosa, the degradation products had a lower toxicity than BPA. BPA can be degraded rapidly and efficiently under mild conditions with chloroperoxidase at 6 μg ml(-1). The degradation products had a lower toxicity than BPA.

  8. Non-Federal Participation Capacity Ownership : Administrator`s Final Record of Decision.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-03-01

    In a September 1988 Record of Decision (ROD), Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) explained its decision to proceed with the Third Alternating Current (Third AC) Intertie addition construction project using its own funding. At that time, BPA`s decision on non-Federal ownership access to the added capacity was deferred to a separate non-Federal participation policy development process. BPA`s preferred alternative for providing non-Federal Intertie access is to adopt Capacity Ownership for 725 MW. Capacity Ownership allows non-Federal PNW scheduling utilities to purchase contract rights to use protions of BPA`s share of AC Intertie capacity for the life of the Intertie facilities. This ROD documents BPA`s decision to proceed with Capacity Ownership for non-Federal parties.

  9. 1995 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, Technical Appendix: Volume 1.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (WhiteBook), is published annually by BPA, and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to the 1981 regional power sales contracts. Specifically, BPA uses the, information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. Aside from these purposes, the White Book is used for input to BPA`s resource planning process. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC).

  10. Alteration Effect of Exendin-4 on Oxidative Stress and Metabolic Disorders Induced by Bisphenol A in Adult Male Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahangarpour

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Exendin-4 is a similar peptide to GLP-1 and can interfere with various receptors of GLP-1. Bisphenol A (BPA, as an endocrine disruptor chemical, is used in a wide range of plastic products. Objectives The aim of this study was to clarify several exendin-4 aspects in treatment of metabolic disorders. Methods In in vivo condition, the BPA (100 µg/kg and exendin-4 (4 nmol/kg/d were administered for 20 days in four different groups, and blood glucose, insulin, lipid profile, adipocyte hormones and oxidative stress markers were examined. Results The results indicate that co-administration of exendin-4 and BPA modified hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia induced by BPA. Bisphenol A reduced antioxidant level, whereas exendin-4 improved these effects. Conclusions The findings of these studies suggest that the use of exendin-4 is useful in hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and metabolic disorders, induced by BPA.

  11. 1996 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1996-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to the 1981 regional power sales contracts. Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. Aside from these purposes, the White Book is used for input to BPA`s resource planning process. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). 11 figs., 12 tabs.

  12. Relationship between p-boronophenylalanine and polymerization of melanin monomers in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamijyo, M.; Yoshino, Kazuo [Shinshu Univ., Faculty of Science, Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan); Kondo, H.; Kadota, M.; Mishima, Y.

    1998-12-01

    p-boronophenylalanine (p-BPA) is now employed in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) for cancer. However, it has been confirmed that {sup 10}B content accumulated in melanomas decreases with time. It is suggested that p-BPA has suppressive ability for the formation of the melanin polymer substrate which would stabilize the p-BPA taken in. To make clear the mechanism for this, the present authors investigated chemical reactions taking place in the DOPA chrome solution added with p-BPA using {sup 11}B-NMR method. It was concluded that p-BPA when complexed with dihydroxy derivatives of melanin precursors (L-DOPA, DHICA) reacts with dissolved oxygen to give boric acid and tyrosine. Effects of the pH and the concentration of DOPA chrome on the reaction were also studied. (S. Ohno)

  13. Klickitat Cogeneration Project : Final Environmental Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Klickitat Energy Partners

    1994-09-01

    To meet BPA`s contractual obligation to supply electrical power to its customers, BPA proposes to acquire power generated by Klickitat Cogeneration Project. BPA has prepared an environmental assessment evaluating the proposed project. Based on the EA analysis, BPA`s proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 for the following reasons: (1)it will not have a significant impact land use, upland vegetation, wetlands, water quality, geology, soils, public health and safety, visual quality, historical and cultural resources, recreation and socioeconomics, and (2) impacts to fisheries, wildlife resources, air quality, and noise will be temporary, minor, or sufficiently offset by mitigation. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI (Finding of No Significant Impact).

  14. Bonneville - Hood River Vegetation Management Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1998-08-01

    To maintain the reliability of its electrical system, BPA, in cooperation with the U.S. Forest Service, needs to expand the range of vegetation management options used to clear unwanted vegetation on about 20 miles of BPA transmission line right-of-way between Bonneville Dam and Hood River; Oregon, within the Columbia Gorge National Scenic Area (NSA). We propose to continue controlling undesirable vegetation using a program of Integrated Vegetation Management (IVM) which includes manual, biological and chemical treatment methods. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1257) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI.

  15. Bisphenol A exposure accelerated the aging process in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ling; Wang, Shunchang; Wang, Yun; He, Mei; Liu, Dahai

    2015-06-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a well-known environmental estrogenic disruptor that causes adverse effects. Recent studies have found that chronic exposure to BPA is associated with a high incidence of several age-related diseases. Aging is characterized by progressive function decline, which affects quality of life. However, the effects of BPA on the aging process are largely unknown. In the present study, by using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a model, we investigated the influence of BPA exposure on the aging process. The decrease in body length, fecundity, and population size and the increased egg laying defection suggested that BPA exposure resulted in fitness loss and reproduction aging in this animal. Lifetime exposure of worms to BPA shortened the lifespan in a dose-dependant manner. Moreover, prolonged BPA exposure resulted in age-related behavior degeneration and the accumulation of lipofuscin and lipid peroxide products. The expression of mitochondria-specific HSP-6 and endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-related HSP-70 exhibited hormetic decrease. The expression of ER-related HSP-4 decreased significantly while HSP-16.2 showed a dose-dependent increase. The decreased expression of GCS-1 and GST-4 implicated the reduced antioxidant ability under BPA exposure, and the increase in SOD-3 expression might be caused by elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Finally, BPA exposure increased the generation of hydrogen peroxide-related ROS and superoxide anions. Our results suggest that BPA exposure resulted in an accelerated aging process in C. elegans mediated by the induction of oxidative stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A novel method for the quantitative determination of free and conjugated bisphenol A in human maternal and umbilical cord blood serum using a two-step solid phase extraction and gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosarac, Ivana; Kubwabo, Cariton; Lalonde, Kaela; Foster, Warren

    2012-06-01

    Bisphenol A is widely used as a monomer in the manufacture of polycarbonates and epoxy resins, as an antioxidant in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics and as an inhibitor of end polymerisation in PVC. Several different methods have been used to quantify total BPA in biological specimens. However, quantification of both free and conjugated BPA continues to present challenges. Moreover, there is limited data concerning fetal exposure. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop a new method for the analysis of both free and conjugated BPA in human maternal and umbilical cord blood serum. For the analysis of free BPA, the method consisted of a liquid-liquid extraction followed by a two-step solid-phase extraction sample cleanup on Florisil and Oasis HLB sorbents, derivatization of the extract using N-methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (MSTFA) and analysis by gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (GC/EI-MS/MS). To determine the amount of conjugated BPA in serum samples, bisphenol A-d6 β-glucuronide (4-[1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-methylethyl-d6]phenyl β-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid) was added to each sample prior to enzymatic deconjugation. The MDL and LOQ for BPA were 0.026 ng/mL and 0.087 ng/mL, respectively. The observed recoveries ranged between 65% and 88%. The new method was applied to the determination of paired human maternal and umbilical cord blood serum samples. The results demonstrated that total BPA concentrations in human maternal serum at mid-pregnancy and at delivery ranged from serum BPA concentrations were in the range of human serum reported internationally. Only 2 mid-pregnancy serum samples out of 12 contained quantifiable amounts of conjugated BPA, indicating that BPA-glucuronide is not abundant in either human maternal or umbilical cord blood serum. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Levels of bisphenol-A in different paper products in Guangzhou, China, and assessment of human exposure via dermal contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ruifang; Zeng, Biyan; Liu, Xiaosu; Chen, Chao; Zhuang, Qinwei; Wang, Yongjun; Hu, Mingli; Lv, Yanshan; Li, Junnan; Zhou, Yuanxiu; Lin, Zhi Yuan William

    2015-03-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical widely used both in plastics production as a food and beverage container and in thermal papers as a color developer. Dietary consumption is the main route of human exposure to BPA, but dermal absorption through handling different papers might be underestimated or ignored. In this study, BPA in different paper products, including different types of papers, receipts and Chinese currencies, were investigated. BPA was detected in receipts (n = 87) and Chinese currencies (n = 46) with concentrations of 0.17-2.675 × 10(4) μg per g paper and 0.09-288.55 μg per g paper, respectively. Except for parchment papers (n = 3), copy papers (n = 3) and food contact papers (n = 3), BPA was measured in all of the other paper products, with levels of 0.01-6.67 μg per g paper. BPA transferred from thermal papers to common papers increased with the increasing contact pressure. Compared with that in water, the migration speed of BPA was doubled in the synthetic sweat. Washing hands could reduce BPA dermal exposure, and washing hands with lotion was the most efficient way. However, about 19-47% of BPA was still found on hands after different washing methods. Dermal absorption via handling of receipts and papers was estimated to be 36.45 ng per day for the general population and 1.54 × 10(-3) to 248.73 μg per day for a cashier. These values are below the maximum doses recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the European Food Safety Authority. However, due to its uncertain adverse effects on human beings, long-term BPA exposure through dermal absorption should be paid more attention, particularly for some occupational populations.

  18. A study of the influence on diabetes of free and conjugated bisphenol A concentrations in urine: Development of a simple microextraction procedure using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor-Belda, Marta; Bastida, David; Campillo, Natalia; Pérez-Cárceles, María D; Motas, Miguel; Viñas, Pilar

    2016-09-10

    The association between bisphenol A (BPA) exposure and adult health status is examined by measuring the urinary BPA concentration using a miniaturized technique based on dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) in combination with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Both the free bioactive and the glucuronide conjugated forms of BPA were measured, the glucuronide form usually being predominant. The main analogs of BPA, including bisphenol Z (BPZ), bisphenol F (BPF) and biphenol (BP) were also determined. Several parameters affecting enzymatic hydrolysis, derivatization by in-situ acetylation and the DLLME stages were carefully optimized by means of multivariate designs. DLLME parameters were 2mL urine, 1mL acetone and 100μL chloroform, and hydrolysis was performed using β-glucuronidase and sulfatase at pH 5. No matrix effect was observed and quantification was carried out by aqueous calibration with a surrogate standard. Detection limits were in the range 0.01-0.04ngmL(-1). The intraday and interday precisions were lower than 11% in terms of relative standard deviation. Satisfactory values for all compounds were obtained in recovery studies (92-117%) at two concentration levels. Other bisphenols (BPF, BPZ and BP) were not detected in the urine samples, while BPA was the only bisphenol detected in the free form (creatinine adjusted) at concentration levels ranging from the detection limit to 15.9ngg(-1), and total BPA was detected at concentrations ranging from 0.46 to 24.5ngg(-1) levels. A comparison of the BPA content for both groups of patients revealed that slightly higher mean values were obtained for both free BPA and total BPA for diabetic patients, than for non-diabetic patients. However, a statistical comparison of the contents of BPA revealed that there were no significant differences. The procedure was validated using a certified reference material. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Maternal bisphenol a exposure impacts the fetal heart transcriptome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyan C Chapalamadugu

    Full Text Available Conditions during fetal development influence health and disease in adulthood, especially during critical windows of organogenesis. Fetal exposure to the endocrine disrupting chemical, bisphenol A (BPA affects the development of multiple organ systems in rodents and monkeys. However, effects of BPA exposure on cardiac development have not been assessed. With evidence that maternal BPA is transplacentally delivered to the developing fetus, it becomes imperative to examine the physiological consequences of gestational exposure during primate development. Herein, we evaluate the effects of daily, oral BPA exposure of pregnant rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta on the fetal heart transcriptome. Pregnant monkeys were given daily oral doses (400 µg/kg body weight of BPA during early (50-100 ± 2 days post conception, dpc or late (100 ± 2 dpc--term, gestation. At the end of treatment, fetal heart tissues were collected and chamber specific transcriptome expression was assessed using genome-wide microarray. Quantitative real-time PCR was conducted on select genes and ventricular tissue glycogen content was quantified. Our results show that BPA exposure alters transcription of genes that are recognized for their role in cardiac pathophysiologies. Importantly, myosin heavy chain, cardiac isoform alpha (Myh6 was down-regulated in the left ventricle, and 'A Disintegrin and Metalloprotease 12', long isoform (Adam12-l was up-regulated in both ventricles, and the right atrium of the heart in BPA exposed fetuses. BPA induced alteration of these genes supports the hypothesis that exposure to BPA during fetal development may impact cardiovascular fitness. Our results intensify concerns about the role of BPA in the genesis of human metabolic and cardiovascular diseases.

  20. Editor's Highlight: Transcriptome Profiling Reveals Bisphenol A Alternatives Activate Estrogen Receptor Alpha in Human Breast Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesnage, Robin; Phedonos, Alexia; Arno, Matthew; Balu, Sucharitha; Corton, J Christopher; Antoniou, Michael N

    2017-08-01

    Plasticizers with estrogenic activity, such as bisphenol A (BPA), have potential adverse health effects in humans. Due to mounting evidence of these health effects, BPA is being phased out and replaced by other bisphenol variants in "BPA-free" products. We have compared estrogenic activity of BPA with 6 bisphenol analogues [bisphenol S (BPS); bisphenol F (BPF); bisphenol AP (BPAP); bisphenol AF (BPAF); bisphenol Z (BPZ); bisphenol B (BPB)] in 3 human breast cancer cell lines. Estrogenicity was assessed (10-11-10-4 M) by cell growth in an estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated cell proliferation assay, and by the induction of estrogen response element-mediated transcription in a luciferase assay. BPAF was the most potent bisphenol, followed by BPB > BPZ ∼ BPA > BPF ∼ BPAP > BPS. The addition of ICI 182,780 antagonized the activation of ERs. Data mining of ToxCast high-throughput screening assays confirm our results but also show divergence in the sensitivities of the assays. Gene expression profiles were determined in MCF-7 cells by microarray analysis. The comparison of transcriptome profile alterations resulting from BPA alternatives with an ERα gene expression biomarker further indicates that all BPA alternatives act as ERα agonists in MCF-7 cells. These results were confirmed by Illumina-based RNA sequencing. In conclusion, BPA alternatives are not necessarily less estrogenic than BPA in human breast cancer cells. BPAF, BPB, and BPZ were more estrogenic than BPA. These findings point to the importance of better understanding the risk of adverse effects from exposure to BPA alternatives, including hormone-dependent breast cancer. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology.

  1. Sex-Specific Modulation of Fetal Adipogenesis by Gestational Bisphenol A and Bisphenol S Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Yong; Gingrich, Jeremy D; Steibel, Juan P; Veiga-Lopez, Almudena

    2017-11-01

    The endocrine-disrupting chemical bisphenol A (BPA) increases adipose tissue mass in vivo and promotes adipogenesis in vitro; however, mechanisms explaining BPA's obesogenic effect remain unknown. We investigated the effects of gestational BPA and its analog, bisphenol S (BPS), exposure on the adipogenic differentiation ability of fetal preadipocytes and the role of endoplasmic reticulum stress in regulating this process. Pregnant sheep (n = 7 to 8 per group) mated to the same male were exposed to BPA or BPS from days 30 to 100 of gestation; pregnancies were terminated 20 days later. Adipose tissue was harvested and fetal preadipocytes isolated. Adipose tissue gene expression, adipocyte size, preadipocyte gene expression, adipogenic differentiation, and dynamic expression of genes involved in adipogenesis and endoplasmic reticulum stress were assessed. Gestational BPA enhanced adipogenic differentiation in female, but not male, preadipocytes. The unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway was upregulated in BPA-exposed female preadipocytes supportive of a higher endoplasmic reticulum stress. Increased expression of estradiol receptor 1 and glucocorticoid receptor in female preadipocytes suggests that this may be a potential cause behind the sex-specific effects observed upon BPA exposure. Gestational BPS affected adipogenic terminal differentiation gene expression in male preadipocytes, but not adipogenic differentiation potential. We demonstrate that gestational BPA exposure can modulate the differentiation ability of fetal preadipocytes. UPR upregulation in gestationally BPA-exposed female preadipocytes may contribute to the increased preadipocyte's adipogenic ability. The marked sex-specific effect of BPA highlights higher susceptibility of females to bisphenol A and potentially, a higher risk to develop obesity in adulthood. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  2. Sex and dose-dependent effects of developmental exposure to bisphenol A on anxiety and spatial learning in deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus bairdii) offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jašarević, Eldin; Williams, Scott A; Vandas, Gregory M; Ellersieck, Mark R; Liao, Chunyang; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Roberts, R Michael; Geary, David C; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S

    2013-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widely produced, endocrine disrupting compound that is pervasive in the environment. Data suggest that developmental exposure to BPA during sexual differentiation of the brain leads to later behavioral consequences in offspring. Outbred deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus bairdii) are an excellent animal model for such studies as they exhibit well-defined sex- and steroid-dependent behaviors. Here, dams during gestation and lactation were fed with a phytoestrogen-free control diet, the same diet supplemented with either ethinyl estradiol (0.1 ppb), or one of the three doses of BPA (50 mg, 5 mg, 50 μg/kg feed weight). After weaning, the pups were maintained on control diet until they reached sexual maturity and then assessed for both spatial learning capabilities and anxiety-like and exploratory behaviors. Relative to controls, males exposed to the two upper but not the lowest dose of BPA demonstrated similar impairments in spatial learning, increased anxiety and reduced exploratory behaviors as ethinyl estradiol-exposed males, while females exposed to ethinyl estradiol, but not to BPA, consistently exhibited masculinized spatial abilities. We also determined whether dams maintained chronically on the upper dose of BPA contained environmentally relevant concentrations of BPA in their blood. While serum concentrations of unconjugated BPA in controls were below the minimum level of detection, those from dams on the BPA diet were comparable (5.48±2.07 ng/ml) to concentrations that have been observed in humans. Together, these studies demonstrate that developmental exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of BPA can disrupt adult behaviors in a dose- and sex-dependent manner. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Aptamer-functionalized nanoporous gold film for high-performance direct electrochemical detection of bisphenol A in human serum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Ye, E-mail: zhuye@sdu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Zhou, Chuqing; Yan, Xupeng; Yan, Yan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Wang, Qiang, E-mail: qiangwang@tjut.edu.cn [Institute of New Energy Materials & Low-Carbon Technologies, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China)

    2015-07-09

    Highlights: • NPGF exhibits excellent catalytic activity towards the redox reaction of BPA. • The perfect combination of NPGF with aptamer ensures high sensitivity and selectivity. • The detection limit is determined to be 0.056 ± 0.004 nM BPA. • The detection limit is 15-fold lower than gold nanoparticle-based sensor. • The sensor was successfully applied to detect BPA in human serum samples. - Abstract: In the present work, a highly sensitive and selective biosensor based on aptamer-functionalized nanoporous gold film (NPGF) was successfully developed for direct electrochemical detection of bisphenol A (BPA). NPGF was prepared by dealloying Ag from Au/Ag alloy leaf in concentrated nitric acid. The obtained NPGF was attached onto glassy carbon electrode and then was functionalized with BPA-specific aptamer via the formation of Au−S bond. The fabrication of the sensor was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. NPGF exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the redox reaction of BPA, which ensured high sensitivity of the sensor. The aptamer-captured BPA showed a pair of redox peaks around 0.35/0.28 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). The experimental parameters in terms of aptamer concentration, reaction time, pH, and temperature were optimized. The calibration plot showed a linear range from 0.1 nM to 100 nM BPA with a remarkable detection limit of 0.056 ± 0.004 nM BPA. Particularly, the successful application of the developed sensor for the detection of BPA in human serum samples suggests its promising potential for clinical diagnosis.

  4. Distribution of bisphenol A and tetrabromobisphenol A in quail eggs, embryos and laying birds and studies on reproduction variables in adults following in ovo exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halldin, K.; Berg, C.; Brandt, I.; Brunstroem, B. [Department of Environmental Toxicology, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala Univ. (Sweden); Bergman, Aa. [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2001-12-01

    In this study, uptake and distribution of BPA and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) in embryos and laying quail were examined as well as variables related to reproduction in adult quail following administration of the compounds into the yolk of embryonated eggs. The uptake of radiolabelled BPA, TBBPA and the reference compound diethylstilboestrol (DES) was studied in the embryos using ss-spectrometry. Autoradiography was employed to examine distribution in egg and embryo after yolk sac injection of BPA or TBBPA and in laying birds, following intravenous and oral administration. Following embryonic exposure to BPA or TBBPA, sexually mature male birds were examined for reproductive behaviour and testis morphology, and females were examined for egg laying and oviduct morphology. Neither BPA (200 {mu}g/g egg) nor TBBPA (15 {mu}g/g egg) caused any significant oestrogen-like effects on the variables studied, although effects on the female oviducts after BPA exposure were indicated. Embryonic exposure to DES is known to cause profound effects on male sexual behaviour and female oviduct morphology at doses 3-5 orders of magnitude lower than the BPA and TBBPA doses used in the present study. The proportions of BPA and TBBPA taken up by the embryos after yolk sac injection were similar to the proportion of DES taken up. Differences in bioavailability, therefore do not account for any major part of the potency differences between DES and the two bisphenol A compounds. The concentration of radioactivity in the embryo, as revealed by autoradiography, was low compared with that in the yolk at all stages studied (days 6, 10 and 15). Pronounced labelling of the bile and the allantoic fluid was observed, however, indicating that both compounds were readily metabolised and excreted. Radiolabelled BPA and TBBPA administered to laying quail were largely excreted via the bile and 9 days after oral dosing, only small amounts of the labelled compound remained within the body. Maternal

  5. Studies on the potential protective effect of cinnamon against bisphenol A- and octylphenol-induced oxidative stress in male albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf M. Morgan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the numerous chemicals discharged into the surrounding environment, bisphenol A (BPA and octylphenol (OP have been shown to increase oxidative stress in body by disturbing the prooxidant/antioxidant balance of cells. Cinnamon aqueous extract (CAE is a natural product rich in polyphenolic compounds that have antioxidant activity. This study was designed to investigate the protective efficacy of CAE against oxidative disorders induced by BPA and OP in male albino rats. Animals were divided into 6 groups (10 rats each and treated orally, 3 times weekly for 50 days. Group 1: control vehicle (olive oil; group 2 (25 mg BPA/kg b.wt./day; group 3 (25 mg OP/kg b.wt./day; group 4 (200 mg CAE/kg b.wt./day; group 5 (CAE 2 h before BPA administration; and group 6 (CAE 2 h before OP administration. BPA- and OP-exposed groups showed insignificant elevation in the final body weight; weight gains and significant reduction only in the relative kidneys weight. Also, BPA and OP exposure resulted in significant increase in serum urea, creatinine and kidney, brain, testicular malondialdehyde (MDA levels. Significant reduction in tissues reduced glutathione (GSH contents; catalase (CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD activities were also recorded in BPA and OP exposed animals compared to the control vehicle group. Pretreatment with CAE 2 h either before BPA or OP administration ameliorated the BPA- and OP-induced body weight; weight gains and relative organs weight changes and biochemical adverse effects. CAE pretreatment also protected against the recorded pathological changes in kidney, brain and testis. In conclusion, CAE could ameliorate the oxidative toxic effects of BPA and OP indicating its protective antioxidant effect.

  6. Developmental programming: Impact of prenatal exposure to bisphenol-A and methoxychlor on steroid feedbacks in sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abi Salloum, Bachir; Steckler, Teresa L.; Herkimer, Carol; Lee, James S. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Padmanabhan, Vasantha, E-mail: vasantha@umich.edu [Department of Pediatrics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); The Reproductive Sciences Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA), a polymer used in plastics manufacturing, and methoxychlor (MXC), a pesticide, are endocrine disrupting compounds with estrogenic and anti-androgenic properties. Prenatal BPA or MXC treatment induces reproductive defects in sheep with BPA causing prepubertal luteinizing hormone (LH) hypersecretion and dampening of periovulatory LH surges and MXC lengthening follicular phase and delaying the LH surge. In this study, we addressed the underlying neuroendocrine defects by testing the following hypotheses: 1) prenatal BPA, but not MXC reduces sensitivity to estradiol and progesterone negative feedback, 2) prenatal BPA, but not MXC increases pituitary responsiveness to gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), and 3) prenatal BPA dampens LH surge response to estradiol positive feedback challenge while prenatal MXC delays the timing of the LH surge. Pregnant sheep were treated with either 1) 5 mg/kg/day BPA (produces approximately twice the level found in human circulation, n = 8), 2) 5 mg/kg/day MXC (the lowest observed effect level stated in the EPA National Toxicology Program's Report; n = 6), or 3) vehicle (cotton seed oil: C: n = 6) from days 30 to 90 of gestation. Female offspring of these ewes were ovariectomized at 21 months of age and tested for progesterone negative, estradiol negative, estradiol positive feedback sensitivities and pituitary responsiveness to GnRH. Results revealed that sensitivity to all 3 feedbacks as well as pituitary responsiveness to GnRH were not altered by either of the prenatal treatments. These findings suggest that the postpubertal reproductive defects seen in these animals may have stemmed from ovarian defects and the steroidal signals emanating from them. - Highlights: ► Prenatal BPA/MXC does not affect reproductive neuroendocrine steroid feedbacks. ► Prenatal BPA or MXC treatment failed to alter pituitary sensitivity to GnRH. ► LH excess in BPA-treated sheep may be due to reduced ovarian feedback signals.

  7. Performance of nitrogen-doped graphene aerogel particle electrodes for electro-catalytic oxidation of simulated Bisphenol A wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhuang [Environmental Research Academy, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Labortory of Environmental Remediation and Functional Material, Suzhou Research Academy of North China Electric Power University, Suzhou, Jiangsu, 215026 (China); Zhang, Yimei, E-mail: yimei.zhang1@gmail.com [Environmental Research Academy, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Labortory of Environmental Remediation and Functional Material, Suzhou Research Academy of North China Electric Power University, Suzhou, Jiangsu, 215026 (China); Zhou, Lincheng; Zhu, Hao; Wan, Fei; Wang, Yue [Labortory of Environmental Remediation and Functional Material, Suzhou Research Academy of North China Electric Power University, Suzhou, Jiangsu, 215026 (China); Zhang, Dandan [Environmental Research Academy, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • The new three-dimensional electrode system with the nitrogen-doped graphene aerogels particle electrodes is developed. • The optimal technique parameters were explored. • Simulated BPA waste waters are effectively degraded. • Degradation pathway and intermediates are proposed. • Three-dimensional electrode system shows good and stable removal performance. - Abstract: The treatment of effluent containing Bisphenol A (BPA) was investigated experimentally using nitrogen-doped graphene aerogel (NGAs) as particle electrodes in a three-dimensional electrode reactor for the electrochemical treatment was studied. The effects of the cell voltage, pH, the ratio of NGAs mass to solution volume and repeated times on the removal efficiency were investigated. Compared with commercial carbon particle electrodes, the NGAs exhibited stronger activity to remove BPA simulated wastewater. For 15 mg L{sup −1} of BPA solution, the degradation rate of BPA exceeded 90% after treatment for only 30 min under the optimum conditions. The COD{sub Cr} removal rate of BPA was 85%. Moreover, in the process of reused 50 times, the degradation rate of BPA can be kept in more than 85%. The COD{sub Cr} removal rate was stable at about 73%. The intermediate products of electrochemical degradation of BPA were identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry liquid chromatography (LC–MS), and a probable BPA degradation pathway was proposed. It was considered that ·OH radicals by water electrolysis could constantly attack the aromatic ring to form various intermediates such as hydroxylated-BPA, isopropylphenol, hydroquinone, phenol and butantetraol, maleic acid, oxalic acid. These compounds were eventually mineralized by electrolysis into CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O.

  8. Energy efficiency and pulmonary artery flow after balloon pulmonary angioplasty for inoperable, chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension: Analysis by phase-contrast MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Michinobu; Yamasaki, Yuzo; Abe, Kohtaro; Hosokawa, Kazuya; Kawanami, Satoshi; Kamitani, Takeshi; Yamanouchi, Torahiko; Yabuuchi, Hidetake; Fukushima, Kenji; Honda, Hiroshi

    2017-02-01

    The aims of this study were to propose a new quantitative method for pulmonary artery (PA) flow energetics using phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI), and to investigate how balloon pulmonary angioplasty (BPA) impacts energetics in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). PC-MRI at 3-Teslar and with a flow sensitive gradient echo was used to examine energetics prior to and following BPA for 24 CTEPH patients. Stroke volume (m; ml) and mean velocity (V; mm/s) for the main pulmonary artery (PA), right PA, and left PA were calculated from a time-flow curve derived from PC-MRI. Based on the Bernoulli principle, PA energy was identified as 1/2mV 2 (μj/kg), and energy loss was defined as the following equation "energy loss=main PA energy-(rt. PA energy+lt. PA energy)". Right PA energy was significantly greater post-BPA than pre-BPA (61±55 vs. 32±40μj/kg). There was no difference in main PA and left PA energies. Energy loss was significantly decreased post-BPA (18±97μj/kg) than pre-BPA (79±125μj/kg). An optimal cutoff of left PA energy of 45μj/kg pre-BPA can be used to predict patients with mPAP≥30mmHg after BPA, with an area under the curve of 0.91, 78% sensitivity, and 92% specificity. Analysis of PA energetics using phase-contrast MRI demonstrates that BPA improves energy loss in CTEPH. In addition, BPA responses can be predicted by PA energy status pre-treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Correlation between antibodies to bisphenol A, its target enzyme protein disulfide isomerase and antibodies to neuron‐specific antigens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojdani, Aristo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Evidence continues to increase linking autoimmunity and other complex diseases to the chemicals commonly found in our environment. Bisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic monomer used widely in many forms, from food containers to toys, medical products and many others. The potential for BPA to participate as a triggering agent for autoimmune diseases is likely due to its known immunological influences. The goal of this research was to determine if immune reactivity to BPA has any correlation with neurological antibodies. BPA binds to a target enzyme called protein disulfide isomerase (PDI). Myelin basic protein (MBP) and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) are neuronal antigens that are target sites for neuroinflammation and neuroautoimmunity. We determined the co‐occurrence of anti‐MBP and anti‐MOG antibodies with antibodies made against BPA bound to human serum albumin in 100 healthy human subjects. Correlation between BPA to PDI, BPA to MOG, BPA to MBP, PDI to MBP and PDI to MOG were all highly statistically significant (P < 0.0001). The outcome of our study suggests that immune reactivity to BPA‐human serum albumin and PDI has a high degree of statistical significance with substantial correlation with both MBP and MOG antibody levels. This suggests that BPA may be a trigger for the production of antibodies against PDI, MBP and MOG. Immune reactivity to BPA bound to human tissue proteins may be a contributing factor to neurological autoimmune disorders. Further research is needed to determine the exact relationship of these antibodies with neuroautoimmunities. Copyright © 2016 The Authors Journal of Applied Toxicology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:27610592

  10. Developmental exposure to bisphenol A modulates innate but not adaptive immune responses to influenza A virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirban Roy

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA is used in numerous products, such as plastic bottles and food containers, from which it frequently leaches out and is consumed by humans. There is a growing public concern that BPA exposure may pose a significant threat to human health. Moreover, due to the widespread and constant nature of BPA exposure, not only adults but fetuses and neonates are also exposed to BPA. There is mounting evidence that developmental exposures to chemicals from our environment, including BPA, contribute to diseases late in life; yet, studies of how early life exposures specifically alter the immune system are limited. Herein we report an examination of how maternal exposure to a low, environmentally relevant dose of BPA affects the immune response to infection with influenza A virus. We exposed female mice during pregnancy and through lactation to the oral reference dose for BPA listed by the US Environmental Protection Agency, and comprehensively examined immune parameters directly linked to disease outcomes in adult offspring following infection with influenza A virus. We found that developmental exposure to BPA did not compromise disease-specific adaptive immunity against virus infection, or reduce the host's ability to clear the virus from the infected lung. However, maternal exposure to BPA transiently reduced the extent of infection-associated pulmonary inflammation and anti-viral gene expression in lung tissue. From these observations, we conclude that maternal exposure to BPA slightly modulates innate immunity in adult offspring, but does not impair the anti-viral adaptive immune response, which is critical for virus clearance and survival following influenza virus infection.

  11. Acute Toxicity, Teratogenic, and Estrogenic Effects of Bisphenol A and Its Alternative Replacements Bisphenol S, Bisphenol F, and Bisphenol AF in Zebrafish Embryo-Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreman, John; Lee, Okhyun; Trznadel, Maciej; David, Arthur; Kudoh, Tetsuhiro; Tyler, Charles R

    2017-10-25

    Bisphenol A (BPA), a chemical incorporated into plastics and resins, has estrogenic activity and is associated with adverse health effects in humans and wildlife. Similarly structured BPA analogues are widely used but far less is known about their potential toxicity or estrogenic activity in vivo. We undertook the first comprehensive analysis on the toxicity and teratogenic effects of the bisphenols BPA, BPS, BPF, and BPAF in zebrafish embryo-larvae and an assessment on their estrogenic mechanisms in an estrogen-responsive transgenic fish Tg(ERE:Gal4ff)(UAS:GFP). The rank order for toxicity was BPAF > BPA > BPF > BPS. Developmental deformities for larval exposures included cardiac edema, spinal malformation, and craniofacial deformities and there were distinct differences in the effects and potencies between the different bisphenol chemicals. These effects, however, occurred only at concentrations between 1.0 and 200 mg/L which exceed those in most environments. All bisphenol compounds induced estrogenic responses in Tg(ERE:Gal4ff)(UAS:GFP) zebrafish that were inhibited by coexposure with ICI 182 780, demonstrating an estrogen receptor dependent mechanism. Target tissues included the heart, liver, somite muscle, fins, and corpuscles of Stannius. The rank order for estrogenicity was BPAF > BPA = BPF > BPS. Bioconcentration factors were 4.5, 17.8, 5.3, and 0.067 for exposure concentrations of 1.0, 1.0, 0.10, and 50 mg/L for BPA, BPF, BPAF, and BPS, respectively. We thus show that these BPA alternatives induce similar toxic and estrogenic effects to BPA and that BPAF is more potent than BPA, further highlighting health concerns regarding the use of BPA alternatives.

  12. Differential effects of bisphenol A and diethylstilbestrol on human, rat and mouse fetal leydig cell function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry N'Tumba-Byn

    Full Text Available Endocrine disruptors (ED have been incriminated in the current increase of male reproductive alterations. Bisphenol A (BPA is a widely used weak estrogenic environmental ED and it is debated whether BPA concentrations within the average internal exposure are toxic. In the present study we investigated the effects of 10(-12 to 10(-5 M BPA concentrations on fetal Leydig cell function, as fetal life is a critical period of sensitivity to ED effects on male reproductive function. To this aim, fetal testes from human at 6.5-10.5 gestational weeks (GW or from rat and mouse at a comparable critical period of development (14.5 days post-coitum (dpc for rat and 12.5 dpc for mouse were explanted and cultured using our validated organotypic culture system in the presence or absence of BPA for 1-3 days. BPA concentrations as low as 10(-8 M reduced testosterone secretion by human testes from day 1 of culture onwards, but not by mouse and rat testes where concentrations equal to 10(-5 M BPA were required. Similarly, 10(-8 M BPA reduced INSL3 mRNA levels only in human cultured testes. On the contrary, 10(-5 and 10(-6 M diethylstilbestrol (DES, a classical estrogenic compound, affected testosterone secretion only in rat and mouse testis cultures, but not in human testis cultures. Lastly, contrarily to the DES effect, the negative effect of BPA on testosterone produced by the mouse fetal testis was maintained after invalidation of estrogen receptor α (ERα. In conclusion, these results evidenced i a deleterious effect of BPA on fetal Leydig cells function in human for concentrations from 10(-8 M upwards, ii species-specific differences raising concerns about extrapolation of data from rodent studies to human risk assessment, iii a specific signaling pathway for BPA which differs from the DES one and which does not involve ERα.

  13. The effect of the aquatic contaminants bisphenol-A and PCB-95 on the zebrafish lateral line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Lauren; Sheth, Meghal; Young, Alexander; Kruger, Matthew; Wayman, Gary A; Coffin, Allison B

    2015-01-01

    Environmental toxicants such as bisphenol-A (BPA) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are prevalent in our water supply, soil, and many food products and can profoundly affect the central nervous system. Both BPA and PCBs can disrupt endocrine signaling, which is important for auditory development and function, but the effect of these toxicants on the auditory periphery is not understood. In this study we investigated the effect of PCB-95 and BPA on lateral line development, function, and regeneration in larval zebrafish. The lateral line is a system of mechanosensory hair cells on the exterior of the fish that are homologous to the hair cells located in the mammalian inner ear. We found that PCB-95 had no effect on lateral line development or hair cell survival. BPA also did not affect lateral line development, but instead had a significant effect on both hair cell survival and regeneration. BPA-induced hair cell loss is both dose- and time-dependent, with concentrations of 1 μM or higher killing lateral line hair cells during a 24h exposure period. Pharmacologic manipulation experiments suggest that BPA kills hair cells via activation of oxidative stress pathways, similar to prior reports of BPA toxicity in other tissues. We also observed that hair cells killed with neomycin, a known ototoxin, failed to regenerate normally when BPA was present, suggesting that BPA in aquatic environments could impede innate regenerative responses in fishes. Collectively, these data demonstrate that BPA can have detrimental effects on sensory systems, both in aquatic life and perhaps in terrestrial organisms, including humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Effects of Postnatal Exposure to Low-Dose Bisphenol-A on Activity-Dependent Plasticity in the Mouse Sensory Cortex

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    Emily Anna Kelly

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol-A (BPA is a monomer used in the production of polycarbonate plastics, epoxies and resins and is present in many common household objects ranging from water bottles, can linings, baby bottles, and dental resins. BPA exposure has been linked to numerous negative health effects throughout the body, although the mechanisms of BPA action on the developing brain are still poorly understood. In this study, we sought to investigate whether low dose BPA exposure during a developmental phase when brain connectivity is being organized can cause long-term deleterious effects on brain function and plasticity that outlast the BPA exposure. Lactating dams were orally exposed to 25 g/kg/day of BPA (one half the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s 50 g/kg/day rodent dose reference or vehicle alone from postnatal day (P5 to P21. Pups exposed to BPA in their mother’s milk exhibited deficits in activity-dependent plasticity in the visual cortex during the visual critical period (P28. To determine the possible mechanisms underlying BPA action, we used immunohistochemistry to examine histological markers known to impact cortical maturity and developmental plasticity and quantified cortical dendritic spine density, morphology and dynamics. While we saw no changes in parvalbumin neuron density, myelin basic protein expression or microglial density in BPA-exposed animals, these mice showed increases in spine density on apical dendrites in cortical layer 5 neurons but no significant alternations in morphological parameters. Taken together our results suggest that exposure to very low levels of BPA during a critical period of brain development can have profound consequences for the normal wiring of sensory circuits and their plasticity later in life.

  15. Studies on the potential protective effect of cinnamon against bisphenol A- and octylphenol-induced oxidative stress in male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Ashraf M; El-Ballal, Salah S; El-Bialy, Badre E; El-Borai, Nermeen B

    2014-01-01

    Among the numerous chemicals discharged into the surrounding environment, bisphenol A (BPA) and octylphenol (OP) have been shown to increase oxidative stress in body by disturbing the prooxidant/antioxidant balance of cells. Cinnamon aqueous extract (CAE) is a natural product rich in polyphenolic compounds that have antioxidant activity. This study was designed to investigate the protective efficacy of CAE against oxidative disorders induced by BPA and OP in male albino rats. Animals were divided into 6 groups (10 rats each) and treated orally, 3 times weekly for 50 days. Group 1: control vehicle (olive oil); group 2 (25 mg BPA/kg b.wt./day); group 3 (25 mg OP/kg b.wt./day); group 4 (200 mg CAE/kg b.wt./day); group 5 (CAE 2 h before BPA administration); and group 6 (CAE 2 h before OP administration). BPA- and OP-exposed groups showed insignificant elevation in the final body weight; weight gains and significant reduction only in the relative kidneys weight. Also, BPA and OP exposure resulted in significant increase in serum urea, creatinine and kidney, brain, testicular malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Significant reduction in tissues reduced glutathione (GSH) contents; catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were also recorded in BPA and OP exposed animals compared to the control vehicle group. Pretreatment with CAE 2 h either before BPA or OP administration ameliorated the BPA- and OP-induced body weight; weight gains and relative organs weight changes and biochemical adverse effects. CAE pretreatment also protected against the recorded pathological changes in kidney, brain and testis. In conclusion, CAE could ameliorate the oxidative toxic effects of BPA and OP indicating its protective antioxidant effect.

  16. Metabolic response to chronic bisphenol A exposure in C57bl/6n mice

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    Bhavini B. Patel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fetal/neonatal exposure to the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA has induced obesity and increased glucose intolerance. We hypothesized that chronic BPA exposure would worsen the obesity and glucose intolerance induced by a high fat diet (HFD. The drinking water of C57bl/6n dams was treated with vehicle (VEH or BPA (25 ng/ml from gestation day 11.5 to postnatal day 21. Another group was treated with oral diethylstilbestrol (DES, 1 μg/kg/day during gestation. Progeny were treated with VEH (VEH and DES groups or BPA (2.5 ng/ml in the drinking water and fed either a control diet (CD or HFD from weaning until euthanasia at 4 months of age. CD-fed mice were similar in size; however HFD-BPA males and HFD-DES mice were smaller than HFD-VEH mice. No CD-fed mice were glucose intolerant. All HFD-fed mice were glucose intolerant. Cholesterol and triglyceride were increased in HFD-VEH mice and HFD-BPA males. Total fat weight and adipocyte area were similar in HFD-VEH and HFD-BPA mice and reduced in HFD-DES mice. HFD-BPA females increased perirenal and reduced gonadal fat weights. Reduced leptin and increased IL-6 in CD-BPA and CD-DES mice were not found in their HFD-cohorts. Adiponectin levels were similar. Thus, although chronic BPA exposure did not increase body size or increase glucose intolerance, it induced an adipokine imbalance in CD-fed mice and sex-specifically altered the lipid response and adipose deposition when fed the HFD.

  17. Gender differences in the associations between urinary bisphenol A and body composition among American children: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003–2006

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    Ji Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: As an endocrine disruptor, bisphenol A (BPA exposure has been implicated as a potential risk factor in childhood obesity, which is defined using percentiles of body mass index for age. We aimed to examine the associations between BPA exposure, reflected by urinary BPA concentration, and body composition in American children. Methods: Data of 1860 children aged 8–19 years who participated in the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES were analyzed in this study. Urinary BPA concentration (ng/mL was used to indicate BPA status in the body. Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Multivariate linear regression models were fitted using survey procedures to investigate the associations between urinary BPA level and body composition separately for boys and girls. Results: After adjusting for demographic and lifestyle covariates, higher quartiled and log-transformed urinary BPA levels were significantly associated with elevated lean body mass index (LBMI z-scores in boys (p < 0.05, and significantly associated with elevated fat mass index (FMI z-scores in girls (p < 0.05. Lower urinary BPA concentration was associated with lower percentage of trunk fat in girls (compared to 1st quartile, 2nd-quartile: β = 2.85, 95% CI, 0.92–4.78; 3rd-quartile: β = 2.57, 95% CI, 0.28–4.85; 4th-quartile: β = 2.79, 95% CI, 0.44–5.14; all p < 0.05. Such patterns were not observed in boys. Conclusions: Higher BPA levels may be associated with elevated LBM in boys, but not in girls, while higher BPA levels may be associated with elevated FM in girls, but not in boys.

  18. Bisphenol a in baby food products in glass jars with metal lids from Canadian markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xu-Liang; Corriveau, Jeannette; Popovic, Svetlana; Clement, Genevieve; Beraldin, Franca; Dufresne, Guy

    2009-06-24

    A method based on solid phase extraction and derivatization with acetic anhydride followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was validated for the determination of bisphenol A (BPA) in baby foods. The average method detection limit (MDL) was 0.18 ng/g for a 5 g sample. Method repeatability was demonstrated with the replicate analyses of various different types of baby foods; relative standard deviations (RSD) ranged from 1.2 to 16.1% with an average of 8.7%. Extraction recoveries ranged from 93.5 to 102.5% for different types of baby foods spiked at levels of 1-8 ng/g. This method was used to analyze 122 baby food products of 7 brands in glass jars with metal lids for BPA. The presence of BPA could not be confirmed and quantified for 23 of the 122 products due to interference from sample matrices. For the other 99 products, 15% had BPA levels of less than the average MDL, about 70% had BPA levels of less than 1 ng/g, and the average BPA levels in all 99 products was 1.1 ng/g. The average BPA level in the baby food products from brand E (3.9 ng/g) is higher than the average BPA levels in the products from the other brands (0.54-1.1 ng/g). The highest level of BPA, 7.2 ng/g, was found in two products from brand E as well. The average BPA level in the fruit products from all brands (0.60 ng/g) is lower than those in the mixed-dish products (1.1 ng/g) and the vegetable products (1.2 ng/g).

  19. Bisphenol A impairs hepatic glucose sensing in C57BL/6 male mice.

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    Leigh Perreault

    Full Text Available AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Glucose sensing (eg. glucokinase activity becomes impaired in the development of type 2 diabetes, the etiology of which is unclear. Estrogen can stimulate glucokinase activity, whereas the pervasive environmental pollutant bisphenol A (BPA can inhibit estrogen action, hence we aimed to determine the effect of BPA on glucokinase activity directly. METHODS: To evaluate a potential acute effect on hepatic glucokinase activity, BPA in water (n = 5 vs. water alone (n = 5 was administered at the EPA's purported "safe dose" (50 µg/kg by gavage to lean 6-month old male C57BL/6 mice. Two hours later, animals were euthanized and hepatic glucokinase activity measured over glucose levels from 1-20 mmol/l in liver homogenate. To determine the effect of chronic BPA exposure on hepatic glucokinase activity, lean 6-month old male C57BL/6 mice were provided with water (n = 15 or water with 1.75 mM BPA (∼50 µg/kg/day; n = 14 for 2 weeks. Following the 2-week exposure, animals were euthanized and glucokinase activity measured as above. RESULTS: Hepatic glucokinase activity was signficantly suppressed after 2 hours in animals given an oral BPA bolus compared to those who received only water (p = 0.002-0.029 at glucose 5-20 mmol/l; overall treatment effect p<0.001. Exposure to BPA over 2 weeks also suppressed hepatic glucokinase activity in exposed vs. unexposed mice (overall treatment effect, p = 0.003. In both experiments, the Hill coefficient was higher and Vmax lower in mice treated with BPA. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Both acute and chronic exposure to BPA significantly impair hepatic glucokinase activity and function. These findings identify a potential mechanism for how BPA may increase risk for diabetes.

  20. Use of Bisphenol A-containing baby bottles in Cameroon and Nigeria and possible risk management and mitigation measures: community as milestone for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouokam, Guy Bertrand; Ajaezi, Godwin Chukwuebuka; Mantovani, Alberto; Orisakwe, Orish Ebere; Frazzoli, Chiara

    2014-05-15

    The plasticizer Bisphenol A (BPA) is banned in baby bottles in many industrialized countries due to safety concerns. We provide a pilot view on the potential BPA exposure of bottle-fed children in sub-Saharan Africa through an enquiry on availability, accessibility and affordability of plastic baby bottles, usage pattern, and risk perception. An observational survey was conducted in a randomized group of vending sites (34 pharmacies; 87 shops and markets), in three cities (Yaoundé, Foumbot, Bafoussam) in Cameroon (two regions), and in two cities (Lagos, Port Harcourt) in Nigeria (two states). Interviews in vending sites and group discussions were conducted with 248 mothers. Cameroon and Nigeria showed a largely comparable situation. Plastic baby bottles are largely imported from industrialized countries, where a label indicates the presence/absence of BPA. In pharmacies most plastic baby bottles are labeled as BPA-free, whereas most bottles sold in shops are not BPA-free. BPA-containing bottles are more accessible and affordable, due to sale in common shops and lower costs. The meaning of the label BPA-free is unknown to both vendors and customers: the BPA issue is also largely unknown to policy makers and media and no regulation exists on food contact materials. The wide availability of BPA-containing baby bottles, lack of information and usage patterns (e.g. temperature and duration of heating) suggest a likely widespread exposure of African infants. Possible usage recommendations to mitigate exposure are indicated. Risk communication to policy makers, sellers and citizens is paramount to raise awareness and to oppose possible dumping from countries where BPA-containing materials are banned. Our pilot study points out relevant global health issues such as the capacity building of African communities on informed choices and usage of baby products, and the exploitation of international knowledge by African scientists and risk managers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B

  1. Single and Competitive Adsorption of 17α-Ethinylestradiol and Bisphenol A with Estrone, β-Estradiol, and Estriol onto Sediment

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    Yu Li

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The competitive adsorption of bisphenol A (BPA and17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2 with different endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs, such as estrone (E1, β-estradiol (E2, and estriol (E3 was investigated in the water-sediment system. The primary and interaction effects of coexisted EDCs on the adsorption of BPA and EE2 were studied in binary and multiple systems. The adsorption selectivity of sediment at different initial concentrations of EDCs was also considered, based on the distribution coefficient (β. In binary systems, coexisted EDCs exhibited a positive effect on the adsorption of BPA, while E3 showed a negative effect on the adsorption of EE2. In ternary systems, the interaction of E1*E3 and E2*BPA showed a synergistic effect on the sorption of BPA and EE2, respectively. In quaternary systems, the interaction of E1*E2*E3 showed a synergistic effect on the adsorption of both BPA and EE2. In the quinary system, coexisted EDCs all showed an antagonistic effect on the adsorption of BPA and EE2, which indicated that the coexisted EDCs competed for adsorption with BPA and EE2. EDCs in the E2-EE2-BPA system presented a superior selectivity of sediment with β values of 43.48–87.86. The order of sediment selectivity (E1 > EE2 > E2 > E3 > BPA in binary systems was in agreement with EDCs’ adsorption capacity, which suggested that the adsorption was dominated by partition adsorption.

  2. Urinary bisphenol A and obesity in adults: results from the Canadian Health Measures Survey

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    Minh T. Do

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exposure to bisphenol A (BPA has been shown to affect lipid metabolism and promote weight gain in animal studies. Recent epidemiological studies also support a link between BPA and obesity in human populations, although many were limited to a single adiposity measure or have not considered potential confounding by dietary factors. The purpose of this study is to examine associations between urinary BPA and adiposity measures in a nationally representative sample of Canadian adults. Methods: We performed analyses using biomonitoring and directly measured anthropometric data from 4733 adults aged 18 to 79 years in the Canadian Health Measures Survey (2007–2011. We used multinomial and binary logistic regression models to estimate associations of urinary BPA with body mass index (BMI categories (overweight vs. under/normal weight; obesity vs. under/normal weight and elevated waist circumference (males: ≥ 102 cm; females: ≥ 88 cm, respectively, while controlling for potential confounders. Linear regression analyses were also performed to assess associations between urinary BPA and continuous BMI and waist circumference measures. Results: Urinary BPA was positively associated with BMI-defined obesity, with an odds ratio of 1.54 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.002–2.37 in the highest (vs. lowest BPA quartile (test for trend, p = .041. Urinary BPA was not associated with elevated waist circumference defined using standard cut-offs. Additionally, each natural-log unit increase in urinary BPA concentration was associated with a 0.33 kg/m2 (95% CI: 0.10–0.57 increase in BMI and a 1.00 cm (95% CI: 0.34–1.65 increase in waist circumference. Conclusion: Our study contributes to the growing body of evidence that BPA is positively associated with obesity. Prospective studies with repeated measures are needed to address temporality and improve exposure classification.

  3. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for liver metastasis in an experimental model: dose–response at five-week follow-up based on retrospective dose assessment in individual rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emiliano C. C. Pozzi; Veronica A. Trivilin; Lucas L. Colombo; Andrea Monti Hughes; Silvia I. Thorp; Jorge E. Cardoso; Marcel A. Garabalino; Ana J. Molinari; Elisa M. Heber; Paula Curotto; Marcelo Miller; Maria E. Itoiz; Romina F. Aromando; David W. Nigg; Amanda E. Schwint

    2013-11-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) was proposed for untreatable colorectal liver metastases. Employing an experimental model of liver metastases in rats, we recently demonstrated that BNCT mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA-BNCT) at 13 Gy prescribed to tumor is therapeutically useful at 3-week follow-up. The aim of the present study was to evaluate dose–response at 5-week follow-up, based on retrospective dose assessment in individual rats. BDIX rats were inoculated with syngeneic colon cancer cells DHD/K12/TRb. Tumor-bearing animals were divided into three groups: BPA-BNCT (n = 19), Beam only (n = 8) and Sham (n = 7) (matched manipulation, no treatment). For each rat, neutron flux was measured in situ and boron content was measured in a pre-irradiation blood sample for retrospective individual dose assessment. For statistical analysis (ANOVA), individual data for the BPA-BNCT group were pooled according to absorbed tumor dose, BPA-BNCT I: 4.5–8.9 Gy and BPA-BNCT II: 9.2–16 Gy. At 5 weeks post-irradiation, the tumor surface area post-treatment/pre-treatment ratio was 12.2 +/- 6.6 for Sham, 7.8 +/- 4.1 for Beam only, 4.4 +/- 5.6 for BPA-BNCT I and 0.45 +/- 0.20 for BPA-BNCT II; tumor nodule weight was 750 +/- 480 mg for Sham, 960 +/- 620 mg for Beam only, 380 +/- 720 mg for BPA-BNCT I and 7.3 +/- 5.9 mg for BPA-BNCT II. The BPA-BNCT II group exhibited statistically significant tumor control with no contributory liver toxicity. Potential threshold doses for tumor response and significant tumor control were established at 6.1 and 9.2 Gy, respectively.

  4. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for liver metastasis in an experimental model: dose–response at five-week follow-up based on retrospective dose assessment in individual rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzi, Emiliano C C; Trivillin, Verónica A; Colombo, Lucas L; Monti Hughes, Andrea; Thorp, Silvia I; Cardoso, Jorge E; Garabalino, Marcela A; Molinari, Ana J; Heber, Elisa M; Curotto, Paula; Miller, Marcelo; Itoiz, Maria E; Aromando, Romina F; Nigg, David W; Schwint, Amanda E

    2013-11-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) was proposed for untreatable colorectal liver metastases. Employing an experimental model of liver metastases in rats, we recently demonstrated that BNCT mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA-BNCT) at 13 Gy prescribed to tumor is therapeutically useful at 3-week follow-up. The aim of the present study was to evaluate dose–response at 5-week follow-up, based on retrospective dose assessment in individual rats. BDIX rats were inoculated with syngeneic colon cancer cells DHD/K12/TRb. Tumor-bearing animals were divided into three groups: BPA-BNCT (n = 19), Beam only (n = 8) and Sham (n = 7) (matched manipulation, no treatment). For each rat, neutron flux was measured in situ and boron content was measured in a pre-irradiation blood sample for retrospective individual dose assessment. For statistical analysis (ANOVA), individual data for the BPA-BNCT group were pooled according to absorbed tumor dose, BPA-BNCT I: 4.5–8.9 Gy and BPA-BNCT II: 9.2–16 Gy. At 5 weeks post-irradiation, the tumor surface area post-treatment/pre-treatment ratio was 12.2 ± 6.6 for Sham, 7.8 ± 4.1 for Beam only, 4.4 ± 5.6 for BPA-BNCT I and 0.45 ± 0.20 for BPA-BNCT II; tumor nodule weight was 750 ± 480 mg for Sham, 960 ± 620 mg for Beam only, 380 ± 720 mg for BPA-BNCT I and 7.3 ± 5.9 mg for BPA-BNCT II. The BPA-BNCT II group exhibited statistically significant tumor control with no contributory liver toxicity. Potential threshold doses for tumor response and significant tumor control were established at 6.1 and 9.2 Gy, respectively.

  5. [Autism spectrum disorders and bisphenol A: Is serotonin the lacking link in the chain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrouilhe, D; Dejean, C

    2017-08-01

    The etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is believed to be multifactorial and to involve genetic and environmental components. Environmental chemical exposures are increasingly understood to be important in causing neurotoxicity in fetuses and newborns. Recent data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the United States suggest a substantial increase in ASD prevalence, only partly explicable by factors such as diagnostic substitution. Bisphenol A (BPA) is an ubiquitous xenoestrogen widely employed in a variety of consumer products including plastic and metal food and beverage containers, dental sealants and fillings, medical equipment and thermal receipts. Therefore, most people are exposed almost continuously to BPA in industrialized countries. Sources of BPA exposure are predominantly diet, but also through inhalation or dermal absorption. BPA can be measured in many human fluids and tissues including saliva, serum, urine, amniotic fluid, follicular fluid, placental tissue and breast milk. There is concern that BPA exposure may influence human brain development and may contribute to the increasing prevalence of neurodevelopmental and behavioural problems. Epigenetic mechanisms are suggested by a mouse study that demonstrated that BPA exposure during gestation had long lasting, transgenerational effects on social recognition. Previous epidemiological studies suggested a relationship between maternal BPA exposure and ASD. A recent study of 46 children with ASD and 52 controls found for the first time a direct association between children with ASD and BPA exposure and demonstrated that BPA is not metabolized well in children with ASD. The metabolomic analyses showed a correlation between ASD and essential amino acid metabolism pathways. Essential amino acids are precursors of neurotransmitters, for example tryptophan for serotonin. Fetal and prenatal BPA exposure was suggested to perturb the serotonergic system in rat and mice models. On

  6. Bisphenol A down-regulates rate-limiting Cyp11a1 to acutely inhibit steroidogenesis in cultured mouse antral follicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peretz, Jackye, E-mail: peretz@illinois.edu [2001 South Lincoln Ave, 3211 VMBSB, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States); Flaws, Jodi A., E-mail: jflaws@illinois.edu [2001 South Lincoln Ave, 3223 VMBSB, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61802 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is the backbone of polycarbonate plastic products and the epoxy resin lining of aluminum cans. Previous studies have shown that exposure to BPA decreases sex steroid hormone production in mouse antral follicles. The current study tests the hypothesis that BPA first decreases the expression levels of the steroidogenic enzyme cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (Cyp11a1) and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) in mouse antral follicles, leading to a decrease in sex steroid hormone production in vitro. Further, the current study tests the hypothesis that these effects are acute and reversible after removal of BPA. Exposure to BPA (10 μg/mL and 100 μg/mL) significantly decreased expression of Cyp11a1 and StAR beginning at 18 h and 72 h, respectively, compared to controls. Exposure to BPA (10 μg/mL and 100 μg/mL) significantly decreased progesterone levels beginning at 24 h and decreased androstenedione, testosterone, and estradiol levels at 72 h and 96 h compared to controls. Further, after removing BPA from the culture media at 20 h, expression of Cyp11a1 and progesterone levels were restored to control levels by 48 h and 72 h, respectively. Additionally, expression of StAR and levels of androstenedione, testosterone, and estradiol never decreased compared to controls. These data suggest that BPA acutely decreases expression of Cyp11a1 as early as 18 h and this reduction in Cyp11a1 may lead to a decrease in progesterone production by 24 h, followed by a decrease in androstenedione, testosterone, and estradiol production and expression of StAR at 72 h. Therefore, BPA exposure likely targets Cyp11a1 and steroidogenesis, but these effects are reversible with removal of BPA exposure. - Highlights: • BPA may target Cyp11a1 to inhibit steroidogenesis in antral follicles. • BPA may decrease the expression of Cyp11a1 prior to inhibiting steroidogenesis. • The adverse effects of BPA on steroidogenesis in antral follicles are reversible.

  7. Effects of Bisphenol A Metabolite 4-Methyl-2,4-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)pent-1-ene on Lung Function and Type 2 Pulmonary Alveolar Epithelial Cell Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shing-Hwa; Su, Chin-Chuan; Lee, Kuan-I; Chen, Ya-Wen

    2016-12-16

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is recognized as a major pollutant worldwide. 4-Methyl-2,4-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)pent-1-ene (MBP) is a major active metabolite of BPA. The epidemiological and animal studies have reported that BPA is harmful to lung function. The role of MBP in lung dysfunction after BPA exposure still remains unclear. This study investigated whether MBP would induce lung alveolar cell damage and evaluated the role of MBP in the BPA exposure-induced lung dysfunction. An in vitro type 2 alveolar epithelial cell (L2) model and an ex vivo isolated reperfused rat lung model were used to determine the effects of BPA or MBP on cell growth and lung function. MBP, but not BPA, dose-dependently increased the mean artery pressure (Pa), pulmonary capillary pressure (Pc), pulmonary capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc), and wet/dry weight ratio in isolated reperfused rat lungs. MBP significantly reduced cell viability and induced caspases-3/7 cleavage and apoptosis and increased AMP-activated protein kinas (AMPK) phosphorylation and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-related molecules expression in L2 cells, which could be reversed by AMPK-siRNA transfection. These findings demonstrated for the first time that MBP exposure induced type 2 alveolar cell apoptosis and lung dysfunction through an AMPK-regulated ER stress signaling pathway.

  8. Bisphenol A, Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and Vinclozolin Affect ex-vivo Uterine Contraction in Rats via Uterotonin (Prostaglandin F2α, Acetylcholine and Oxytocin) Related Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, Naguib; Giribabu, Nelli; Feng, Angeline Oh Mei; Myint, Kyaimon

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA), dichrolodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and vinclozolin were found able to induce abnormal uterine contraction. The mechanisms involved remains unclear. We hypothesized that the effect of these compounds were mediated via the uterotonin pathways. Therefore, in this study, effects of BPA, vinclozolin and DDT-only and in combination with uterotonins (PGF-2α, acetylcholine and oxytocin) on the force and pattern of uterine contraction were observed. Uteri were harvested from intact adult female rats 24 hours after a single injection (1 mg/kg/b.w) of estrogen to synchronize their oestrous cycle. The uterine horns were subjected for ex-vivo contraction studies in an organ bath connected to Powerlab data acquisition system. Different doses of BPA, vinclozolin and DDT were added into the bathing solution and changes in the pattern and strength of uterine contraction were recorded. Further, increasing doses of uterotonins were concomitantly administered with these compounds and changes in the force and pattern of contraction were observed. In the absence of uterotonins, uterine contractile force decreased with increasing doses of BPA and DDT. However, vinclozolin induced sharp increase in the contractile forces which then gradually decrease. Administration of BPA, DDT and vinclozolin alone reduced the force of uterine contraction following stimulation of contraction by uterotonins. However, BPA, vinclozolin or DDT effects were relieved upon co-administration with uterotonins at increasing doses. The antagonizing effect of uterotonins on BPA, vinclozolin and DDT actions could explain the mechanism underlying the adverse effect of these compounds on uterine contraction.

  9. Bisphenol A and estrogen induce proliferation of human thyroid tumor cells via an estrogen-receptor-dependent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, YongHong; Wei, Feng; Zhang, Jing; Hao, Lanxiang; Jiang, Jie; Dang, Liansheng; Mei, Dan; Fan, ShanShan; Yu, Yajin; Jiang, Ling

    2017-11-01

    To determine the relationship between papillary thyroid carcinoma and environmental exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) or 17-β estrogen (E2) by assessing the effects of these compounds on estrogen receptor expression and AKT/mTOR signaling. The effects of low levels of BPA (1mM-10nM) and 17β-estradiol (E2, 0.1mM-1nM) on ER expression and cellular proliferation were determined in human thyroid papillary cancer BHP10-3 cells. Protein and mRNA levels of estrogen nuclear receptors (ERα/ERβ) and membrane receptors (GPR30) were determined by immunofluorescence assay, Western blotting, and RT-PCR, respectively, and proliferation was assessed by CCK-8 assay. The proliferative effects of BPA and E2 were both concentration- and time-dependent. Expression of ERα/ERβ and GPR30 were enhanced by BPA and E2. BPA and E2 could quickly phosphorylate AKT/mTOR. Moreover, ICI suppressed ERα expression and activated GPR30 as did G-1. G-15 reversed the effects of E2 on GPR30 and AKT/mTOR, but did not alter the effect of BPA. BPA influences thyroid cancer proliferation by regulating expression of ERs and GPR30, a mechanism that differs from E2. In addition, ICI and G-15 may have the potential to be used as anti-thyroid cancer agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Murine neocortical histogenesis is perturbed by prenatal exposure to low doses of Bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Keiko; Itoh, Kyoko; Yaoi, Takeshi; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Sugimoto, Tohru; Fushiki, Shinji

    2006-11-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) has been shown to disrupt thyroid hormone function. We therefore studied whether prenatal exposure to low-doses of BPA affects the morphology and the expression of some genes related to brain development in the murine fetal neocortex. Pregnant mice were injected subcutaneously with 20 microg/kg of BPA daily from embryonic day 0 (E0). Control animals received vehicle alone. For evaluating cell proliferation, neuronal differentiation and migration, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was injected intraperitoneally into pregnant mice with various regimens and the brains were processed for immunohistochemistry. The total RNA was extracted from the embryonic telencephalon at various embryonic stages. The BrdU-labeled cells examined 1 hour after BrdU injection showed no differences between the BPA-treated and control groups (n = 10, each), which indicated that the proliferation of precursor cells was not affected. The BrdU-labeled cells, analysed 2 days after BrdU injection, were decreased in the ventricular zone of BPA-treated mice at E14.5 and E16.5, whereas they were increased in the cortical plate at E14.5 as compared with those in control mice (n = 10, each). Furthermore, the expression of Math3, Ngn2, Hes1, LICAM, and THRalpha was significantly upregulated at E14.5 in the BPA-treated group. These results suggested that BPA might disrupt normal neocortical development by accelerating neuronal differentiation/migration. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Bisphenol A, an endocrine-disrupting chemical, and brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Kyoko; Yaoi, Takeshi; Fushiki, Shinji

    2012-08-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine-disrupting chemical, widely used in various industries and the field of dentistry. The consequent increase in BPA exposure among humans has led us to some concerns regarding the potential deleterious effects on reproduction and brain development. The emphasis of this review is on the effects of prenatal and lactational exposure to low doses of BPA on brain development in mice. We demonstrated that prenatal exposure to BPA affected fetal murine neocortical development by accelerating neuronal differentiation/migration during the early embryonic stage, which was associated with up- and down-regulation of the genes critical for brain development, including the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors. In the adult mice brains, both abnormal neocortical architecture and abnormal corticothalamic projections persisted in the group exposed to the BPA. Functionally, BPA exposure disturbed murine behavior, accompanied with a disrupted neurotransmitter system, including monoamines, in the postnatal development period and in adult mice. We also demonstrated that epigenetic alterations in promoter-associated CpG islands might underlie some of the effects on brain development after exposure to BPA. © 2012 Japanese Society of Neuropathology.

  12. The investigation of different pollutants and operation processes on sludge toxicity in sequencing batch bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiurong; Zhao, Jianguo; Bao, Linlin; Wang, Lu; Zhang, Yuying

    2016-08-01

    The influence of different target pollutants and operation modes in sequencing batch bioreactors (SBRs) on sludge toxicity was compared in this study. Sludge toxicity was characterized by the inhibiting luminosity through using luminescent bacterium Photobacterium phosphoreum (P. phosphoreum) during either gradual acclimation or impaction processes with synthetic wastewater containing high-strength bisphenol A (BPA) or N, N-dimethylformamide (DMF). When the activated sludge was first acclimated with either 120 mg/L DMF or 20 mg/L BPA, and then respectively increased to 200 mg/L DMF and 40 mg/L BPA it was defined as gradual acclimation process, whereas when the activated sludge was, respectively, injected with 200 mg/L DMF and 40 mg/L BPA directly it was defined as impaction process. Results showed that the toxicity of the impacted sludge was greater than that of the gradual acclimated sludge, especially in the initial stage before 10 d. Activated sludge treating BPA synthetic wastewater exhibited higher toxicity due to the more inhibition of BPA to sludge activity compared to that of DMF. The proteomics analysis indicated that the stress responses of activated sludge to DMF and BPA stimulation were both significant. In turn, the secretions from two kinds of sludge under stress conditions contributed to sludge toxicity.

  13. Effect of sterilization and storage conditions on the migration of bisphenol A from tinplate cans of the Lebanese market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noureddine El Moussawi, Sara; Karam, Reine; Cladière, Mathieu; Chébib, Hanna; Ouaini, Rosette; Camel, Valérie

    2017-10-23

    The use of bisphenol A (BPA) in lacquer coating of food cans has been restricted by different authorities in many countries, such as in Europe. However, such regulation does not exist in many other countries including Lebanon. Due to the lack of data on the quality of Lebanese can production, this study investigates the migration of BPA from two types of tinplate cans manufactured in Lebanon, before and after sterilization. Cans were analyzed under different storage conditions (time and temperature) and filled with an aqueous simulant. The determination of BPA was carried out using UPLC with fluorescence detection, and further confirmed by MS detection. After sterilization BPA levels drastically increased from an average of 0.15 to 109 µg/kg, giving a BPA migration around 10.5 µg/dm(2) for both types of cans. Storage temperature and time had no significant influence on BPA levels in sterilized cans (p-value > 0.05); however, these factors significantly affected BPA levels in non-sterilized cans.

  14. Damaging Effects of Bisphenol A on the Kidney and the Protection by Melatonin: Emerging Evidences from In Vivo and In Vitro Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anongporn Kobroob

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of bisphenol A (BPA contamination on the kidney and the possible protection by melatonin in experimental rats and isolated mitochondrial models. Rats exposed to BPA (50, 100, and 150 mg/kg, i.p. for 5 weeks demonstrated renal damages as evident by increased serum urea and creatinine and decreased creatinine clearance, together with the presence of proteinuria and glomerular injuries in a dose-dependent manner. These changes were associated with increased lipid peroxidation and decreased antioxidant glutathione and superoxide dismutase. Mitochondrial dysfunction was also evident as indicated by increased reactive oxygen species production, decreased membrane potential change, and mitochondrial swelling. Coadministration of melatonin resulted in the reversal of all the changes caused by BPA. Studies using isolated mitochondria showed that BPA incubation produced dose-dependent impairment in mitochondrial function. Preincubation with melatonin was able to sustain mitochondrial function and architecture and decreases oxidative stress upon exposure to BPA. The findings indicated that BPA is capable of acting directly on the kidney mitochondria, causing mitochondrial oxidative stress, dysfunction, and subsequently, leading to whole organ damage. Emerging evidence further suggests the protective benefits of melatonin against BPA nephrotoxicity, which may be mediated, in part, by its ability to diminish oxidative stress and maintain redox equilibrium within the mitochondria.

  15. Prenatal exposure to bisphenol-A is associated with Toll-like receptor-induced cytokine suppression in neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Sui-Ling; Tsai, Ming-Han; Lai, Shen-Hao; Yao, Tsung-Chieh; Hua, Man-Chin; Yeh, Kuo-Wei; Chiang, Chi-Hsin; Huang, Shih-Yin; Huang, Jing-Long

    2016-03-01

    Despite widespread human exposure to biphenol A (BPA), limited studies exist on the association of BPA with adverse health outcomes in young children. This study aims to investigate the effect of prenatal exposure to BPA on toll-like receptor-induced cytokine responses in neonates and its association with infectious diseases later in life. Cord bloods were collected from 275 full-term neonates. Production of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 were evaluated after stimulating mononuclear cells with toll-like receptor ligands (TLR1-4 and 7-8). Serum BPA concentrations were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Bacteria from nasopharyngeal specimens were identified with multiplex PCR and culture method. Result showed significant association between cord BPA concentration and TLR3- and TLR4-stimulated TNF-α response (P = 0.001) and that of TLR78-stimulated IL-6 response (P = 0.03). Clinical analysis did not show prenatal BPA exposure to be correlated with infection or bacterial colonization during the first year of life. This is the first cohort study that indicated prenatal BPA exposure to play a part in TLR-related innate immune response of neonatal infants. However, despite an altered immune homeostasis, result did not show such exposure to be associated with increased risk of infection during early infancy.

  16. Exposure to bisphenol A and the development of asthma: A systematic review of cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ming-Yu; Ni, Hong; Zhao, De-Sheng; Wen, Li-Ying; Li, Ke-Sheng; Yang, Hui-Hui; Wang, Shu-Si; Zhang, Heng; Su, Hong

    2016-10-01

    There is conflicting evidence about the association between bisphenol A (BPA) exposure and childhood asthma risk. We aimed to review the epidemiological literature on the relationship between prenatal or postnatal exposure to BPA and the risk of childhood asthma/wheeze. The PubMed database was systematically searched, and additional studies were found by searching reference lists of relevant articles. Six studies fulfilled the eligibility criteria. Three studies found that prenatal BPA exposure is associated with an increased risk of childhood wheeze, while another study reported a reduced risk of wheeze. Regarding the postnatal BPA exposure, three studies demonstrated an increased risk of childhood asthma/wheeze. The mean prenatal BPA was associated with the risk of childhood wheeze/asthma. Besides, the influence of BPA exposure during the second trimester of pregnancy on the prevalence of childhood wheeze was marked. Further studies are urgently needed to explore the underlying mechanism about adverse effect of BPA exposure on childhood wheeze/asthma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Bisphenol A Induces Apoptosis in Liver Cells through Induction of ROS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansoumane Kourouma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress mechanisms are involved in hepatotoxicity. The liver is reported to be affected by bisphenol A (BPA in animals studies and has been also reported to possess hepatic toxicity. This study aimed to examine association between liver health status and the effects of BPA on the antioxidant defense systems and liver biomarkers. BPA (0, 2, 10, and 50 mg/kg body weight was mixed in corn oil and intraperitoneally administered every forty-eight hours for 30 days in dose-dependent manner. There was no significant difference between the body weight and weight of rat liver in BPA-treated groups and control groups. The study results show that the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 increased after exposure to BPA. However, the antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX were significantly (P<0.001, P<0.05, and P<0.001, resp. decreased at 50 mg/kg dosage. Liver markers activities such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase (GOT, and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT were significantly increased, while γ-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT activity was decreased. BPA exposure increased activity of liver biomarkers indicating liver hyperactivity. Analysis of the liver section provided essential evidence of liver apoptosis. Moreover, BPA may lead to induced toxic response of liver oxidative system.

  18. The Plasticizer Bisphenol A Perturbs the Hepatic Epigenome: A Systems Level Analysis of the miRNome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Ludivine; da Silveira, Willian A.; Hazard, E. Starr; Simpson, Jonathan; Falcinelli, Silvia; Carnevali, Oliana; Hardiman, Gary

    2017-01-01

    Ubiquitous exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disruptor (ED), has raised concerns for both human and ecosystem health. Epigenetic factors, including microRNAs (miRNAs), are key regulators of gene expression during cancer. The effect of BPA exposure on the zebrafish epigenome remains poorly characterized. Zebrafish represents an excellent model to study cancer as the organism develops a disease that resembles human cancer. Using zebrafish as a systems toxicology model, we hypothesized that chronic BPA-exposure impacts the miRNome in adult zebrafish and establishes an epigenome more susceptible to cancer development. After a 3 week exposure to 100 nM BPA, RNA from the liver was extracted to perform high throughput mRNA and miRNA sequencing. Differential expression (DE) analyses comparing BPA-exposed to control specimens were performed using established bioinformatics pipelines. In the BPA-exposed liver, 6188 mRNAs and 15 miRNAs were differently expressed (q ≤ 0.1). By analyzing human orthologs of the DE zebrafish genes, signatures associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondrial dysfunction and cell cycle were uncovered. Chronic exposure to BPA has a significant impact on the liver miRNome and transcriptome in adult zebrafish with the potential to cause adverse health outcomes including cancer. PMID:29027980

  19. Bisphenol A in Edible Part of Seafood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repossi, Adele; Farabegoli, Federica; Zironi, Elisa; Pagliuca, Giampiero

    2016-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a man-made compound, mainly used as a monomer to produce polycarbonate (PC), epoxy resins, non-polymer additives to other plastics, which have many food related applications, such as food storage containers, tableware and internal coating of cans, as well as non-food applications such as electronic equipment, construction materials and medical devices. BPA exposure can occur when the residual monomer migrates into packaged food and beverages. Moreover, due to the ubiquitous presence of this compound, the general population can be exposed to environmental sources such as water, air and soil. Many studies have investigated the potential health hazards associated with BPA, which can elicit toxic and cancerogenic effects on humans. According to the European Food Safety Authority opinion, diet is considered to be the main source of exposure, especially canned food; moreover, among non-canned food, meat and fish products have the highest levels of BPA contamination. This review focuses on BPA contamination in seafood, analysing worldwide literature (from January 2010 to October 2015) on BPA contamination of edible parts. The authors try to identify differences between canned and non-canned seafood in literature, and gaps in the state of art. The data evaluated underline that all concentrations for both canned and non-canned seafood were below the specific migration limit set by the European Community Directive for BPA in food. Moreover, the canned seafood is more contaminated than the non-canned one. PMID:27800447

  20. The Effect of Bisphenol A on Puberty: A Critical Review of the Medical Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Alberto; Cofini, Marta; Lucchetti, Laura; Cipolla, Clelia; Penta, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Many scientific studies have revealed a trend towards an earlier onset of puberty and have disclosed an increasing number of children that display precocious puberty. As an explanation, some authors have considered the global socio-economic improvement across different populations, and other authors have considered the action of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Among these, bisphenol A (BPA), an aromatic compound largely used worldwide as a precursor of some plastics and chemical additives, is well known for its molecular oestrogen-like and obesogenic actions. We reviewed the medical literature of the previous 20 years that examined associations between BPA exposure and the age of puberty in humans, considering only those referring to clinical or epidemiological data. Of 19 studies, only 7 showed a correlation between BPA and puberty. In particular, the possible disruptive role of BPA on puberty may be seen in those with central precocious puberty or isolated premature breast development aged 2 months to 4 years old, even if the mechanism is undefined. Some studies also found a close relationship between urinary BPA, body weight, and early puberty, which can be explained by the obesogenic effect of BPA itself. The currently available data do not allow establishment of a clear role for BPA in pubertal development because of the conflicting results among all clinical and epidemiological studies examined. Further research is needed to fully understand the potential role of exposure to EDCs and their adverse endocrine health outcomes. PMID:28891963

  1. Rapid and sensitive detection of bisphenol a from serum matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaogang; Cheng, Cheng; Terry, Paul; Chen, Jiangang; Cui, Haochen; Wu, Jayne

    2017-05-15

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting compound that may have adverse developmental, reproductive, neurological, and immune system effects. Low-level exposure to BPA is ubiquitous in human populations due to its widespread use in consumer products. Therefore, highly sensitive methods are needed to quantify BPA in various matrices including water, serum, and food products. In this study, we developed a simple, rapid, highly sensitive and specific sensor based on an aptamer probe and AC electrokinetics capacitive sensing method that successfully detected BPA at femto molar (fM) levels, which is an improvement over prior work by a factor of 10. We were able to detect BPA spiked in human serum as well as in maternal and cord blood within 30s. The sensor is responsive to BPA down to femto molar levels, but not to structurally similar compounds including bisphenol F (BPF) or bisphenol S (BPS) even at much higher concentration. Further development of this platform may prove useful in monitoring exposure to BPA and other small molecules in various matrices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Bisphenol A and Three Other Bisphenol Analogues in Canned Fish Products from the Canadian Market 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xu-Liang; Popovic, Svetlana

    2015-07-01

    A sensitive and selective gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for simultaneous analysis of bisphenol A (BPA) and three other bisphenols, bisphenol B (BPB), bisphenol E (BPE), and bisphenol F (BPF). This method was used to analyze samples of 52 canned fish products to follow up a previous study conducted 5 years ago to investigate any changes in BPA levels since then and levels of other bisphenols due to possible changes in can coating formulations. BPB and BPE were not detected in any of the 52 canned fish products, and BPF was detected in only four products at low levels from 1.8 to 5.7 ng/g, indicating that BPA is likely still the dominant bisphenol used in current can coating formulations. BPA was detected in all 52 canned fish products, but at much lower levels compared with a previous study; levels ranged from 0.96 to 265 ng/g (average, 28 ng/g). The few products with high BPA levels (>100 ng/g) are exclusively from a new brand that has become available on the market only recently. Further analysis of canned fish products is planned in the future to capture any changes in BPA levels in these products and to update the exposure assessment of BPA due to consumption of canned fish products.

  3. Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-Year Plan, 1990--1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-08-01

    In 1988 Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) began work on this Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-Year Plan to develop a levelized program that would assure high system reliability. During the Programs in Perspective (PIP) meetings in the later summer and fall of 1988, many of the concerns to be addressed in an Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement Plan were identified. Following these PIP meetings BPA established internal work groups. During the winter and spring of 1989, these work groups developed technical background and issue papers on topics that ranged from substation maintenance to environmental protection. In addition, a customer forum group was established and met on several occasions to review work on the plan, to offer ideas and points of view, and to assure that BPA understood customer concerns. Based on recommendations from the work group reports and customer input, BPA's O M Management Team developed the draft Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-Year Plan that was released for public comment during the spring of 1990. During the public review period, BPA received a number of written comments from customers and the interested public. In addition, special meetings were held with interested customers. This final Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-year Plan reflects BPA's response to customers and interested public on each topic discussed in the 10-Year Plan. The plan is a distillation of BPA's strategies to achieve a levelized program over 10 years.

  4. Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-Year Plan, 1990 -1999.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1990-08-01

    In 1988 Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) began work on this Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-Year Plan to develop a levelized program that would assure high system reliability. During the Programs in Perspective (PIP) meetings in the late summer and fall of 1988, many of the concerns to be addressed in an Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement Plan were identified. Following these PIP meetings BPA established internal work groups. During the winter and spring of 1989, these work groups developed technical background and issue papers on topics that ranged from substation maintenance to environmental protection. In addition, a customer forum group was established and met on several occasions to review work on the plan, to offer ideas and points of view, and to assure that BPA understood customer concerns. Based on recommendations from the work group reports and customer input, BPA's O M Management Team developed the draft Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-Year Plan that was released for public comment during the spring of 1990. During the public review period, BPA received a number of written comments from customers and the interested public. In addition, special meetings were held with interested customers. This final Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-Year Plan reflects BPA's response to customers and interested public on each topic discussed in the 10-Year Plan. The plan is a distillation of BPA's strategies to achieve a levelized program over 10 years.

  5. High prevalence of severe coronary artery disease in elderly patients with non-operable chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension referred for balloon pulmonary angioplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roik, Marek; Wretowski, Dominik; Kostrubiec, Maciej; Dzikowska-Diduch, Olga; Łabyk, Andrzej; Irzyk, Katarzyna; Lichodziejewska, Barbara; Wyzgał, Anna; Jankowski, Krzysztof; Pruszczyk, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Balloon pulmonary angioplasty (BPA) is a new emerging catheter-based alternative treatment option for patients with inoperable chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). To show that all elderly CTEPH patients referred for BPA are at higher risk of obstructive coronary artery disease and that, in daily practice, they should undergo invasive coronary angiography. Eleven patients at the age of at least 65 years (6 males, 5 females, 77.2 ±5.9 years) with confirmed non-operable type II or type III CTEPH, considered for BPA, underwent elective coronary angiography. Severe obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) was diagnosed when stenosis of left main coronary artery ≥ 50% or stenosis of ≥ 70% of epicardial arteries was angiographically confirmed. We also screened for CAD consecutive age- and sex-matched 114 PE survivors (52 males, 62 females, 74.8 ±7.2 years) with excluded CTEPH. Severe CAD was more frequent in elderly patients with non-operable type II or type III CTEPH candidates for BPA than in elderly acute PE survivors with excluded CTEPH (54.5% vs. 16.7%, p elderly CTEPH patients referred for BPA were at higher risk of CAD (OR = 5.9, 95% CI: 1.64-21.46, p = 0.007) when compared to elderly survivors after acute PE with excluded CTEPH. All elderly CTEPH patients referred for BPA are at higher risk of severe CAD and should routinely undergo invasive coronary angiography before BPA.

  6. The Effect of Bisphenol A on Puberty: A Critical Review of the Medical Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Alberto; Cofini, Marta; Rigante, Donato; Lucchetti, Laura; Cipolla, Clelia; Penta, Laura; Esposito, Susanna

    2017-09-10

    Many scientific studies have revealed a trend towards an earlier onset of puberty and have disclosed an increasing number of children that display precocious puberty. As an explanation, some authors have considered the global socio-economic improvement across different populations, and other authors have considered the action of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Among these, bisphenol A (BPA), an aromatic compound largely used worldwide as a precursor of some plastics and chemical additives, is well known for its molecular oestrogen-like and obesogenic actions. We reviewed the medical literature of the previous 20 years that examined associations between BPA exposure and the age of puberty in humans, considering only those referring to clinical or epidemiological data. Of 19 studies, only 7 showed a correlation between BPA and puberty. In particular, the possible disruptive role of BPA on puberty may be seen in those with central precocious puberty or isolated premature breast development aged 2 months to 4 years old, even if the mechanism is undefined. Some studies also found a close relationship between urinary BPA, body weight, and early puberty, which can be explained by the obesogenic effect of BPA itself. The currently available data do not allow establishment of a clear role for BPA in pubertal development because of the conflicting results among all clinical and epidemiological studies examined. Further research is needed to fully understand the potential role of exposure to EDCs and their adverse endocrine health outcomes.

  7. Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A and risk of allergic diseases in early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Aifen; Chang, Huailong; Huo, Wenqian; Zhang, Bin; Hu, Jie; Xia, Wei; Chen, Zhong; Xiong, Chao; Zhang, Yaqi; Wang, Youjie; Xu, Shunqing; Li, Yuanyuan

    2017-06-01

    Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) affects immune system and promotes allergy and asthma in mice, but findings in human studies are limited. We investigated whether prenatal exposure to BPA is associated with increased risk of allergic diseases in infants. We measured BPA concentrations in maternal urine samples collected at delivery from 412 women in Wuhan, China. The occurrence of allergic diseases including eczema and wheeze were assessed at age 6 mo through questionnaires. We used logistic regression to evaluate the association between urinary BPA levels and the risk of allergic diseases. Mothers of infants with allergic diseases had significantly higher urinary BPA levels than those of infants without allergic diseases (median: 2.35 vs. 4.55 µg/l, P = 0.03). Increased risk of infant allergic diseases was associated with creatinine-adjusted maternal urinary BPA concentrations. And this association was limited to females (odds ratio (OR) = 1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10-1.79) rather than males. After stratification by maternal age, the association was only significant in infants of mothers who were younger than 25 y old (OR = 1.90; 95% CI: 1.09-3.29). Prenatal exposure to BPA may potentially increase the risk of allergic diseases at very early life in female infants.

  8. Beta Palmitate Improves Bone Length and Quality during Catch-Up Growth in Young Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meytal Bar-Maisels

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Palmitic acid (PA is the most abundant saturated fatty acid in human milk, where it is heavily concentrated in the sn-2-position (termed beta palmitate, BPA and as such is conserved in all women, regardless of their diet or ethnicity, indicating its physiological and metabolic importance. We hypothesized that BPA improves the efficiency of nutrition-induced catch up growth as compared to sn-1,3 PA, which is present in vegetable oil. Pre-pubertal male rats were subjected to a 17 days food restriction followed by re-feeding for nine days with 1,3 PA or BPA-containing diets. We measured bone length, epiphyseal growth plate height (EGP, histology, bone quality (micro-CT and 3-point bending assay, and gene expression (Affymetrix. The BPA-containing diet improved most growth parameters: humeri length and EGP height were greater in the BPA-fed animals. Further analysis of the EGP revealed that the hypertrophic zone was significantly higher in the BPA group. In addition, Affymetrix analysis revealed that the diet affected the expression of several genes in the liver and EGP. Despite the very subtle difference between the diets and the short re-feeding period, we found a small but significant improvement in most growth parameters in the BPA-fed rats. This pre-clinical study may have important implications, especially for children with growth disorders and children with special nutritional needs.

  9. Degradation and formation of bisphenol A in polycarbonate used in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Mariko

    2004-03-01

    To study long-term degradation of polycarbonate (PC) and the formation and the release of bisphenol A (BPA) in vivo and in vitro, PC brackets placed in the oral cavity for 18-40 months as well as bracket, denture plate, and temporary crown placed in water at 37 degrees C for 34 months were examined for the changes of BPA content and molecular weight in PC using high performance liquid chromatography and size exclusion chromatography. BPA release in vitro was also monitored. The BPA content and molecular weight for the brackets in vivo showed a tendency to increase from 38-60 microg/g to 324-697 microg/g and to decrease from 49 x 10(3) - 54 x 10(3) to 43 x 10(3) - 45 x 10(3) during 18-40 months, respectively. The content and total release of BPA in vitro after 34 months were 472 and 37.4 microg/g for bracket, 130 and 2.2 microg/g for denture plate, and 50 and 2.8 microg/g for temporary crown, respectively. BPA appeared to be released more in saliva than that expected from the in vitro data. Additives contained in the PC materials were suggested to influence the formation of BPA.

  10. Exposure to bisphenol A and gender differences: from rodents to humans evidences and hypothesis about the health effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Caporossi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA interacts with the endocrine system and seems to produce different effects in relation to gender. The objective of the study was to clarify the possible health effects of exposure to BPA in relation to gender. A literature search was performed using three different search engines: Medline, PubMed and Scopus. Data on both animals and humans showed that BPA acts as a xenoestrogen and interacts with the androgens’ metabolism, producing different outcomes: uterotropic effects, decreasing sperm production, stimulation of prolactin release. Gender difference plays a key role in understanding the real toxic effects, the BPA serum concentrations were, all the time, higher in male subjects, possibly due to the difference in androgen-related enzyme activity levels, compared with the healthly female subjects, to equal levels of exposure; while higher BPA levels in women have been associated with a variety of conditions including obesity, endometrial hyperplasia, recurrent miscarriages, and polycystic ovarian syndrome. The data collected are sufficiently robust to raise concerns about the potentially deleterious impact of BPA on humans, even with some methodological limitations; the different impact of BPA in men and in women is documented and of a certain interest. In toxicology it is necessary to assess effects in relation to gender differences, in order to set up prevention plans in the work environment targeting the specific risk.

  11. Bisphenol A and food safety: Lessons from developed to developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baluka, Sylvia Angubua; Rumbeiha, Wilson K

    2016-06-01

    Modern lifestyles and changes in the socio-economic characteristics of households have stimulated current developments in food technology, processing and packaging. Chemicals such as bisphenol A (BPA) are known to migrate from food packaging into the food, resulting in human exposure to these chemicals. Similarly, BPA can migrate from baby feeding bottles into milk. BPA has been associated with adverse effects attributed to its estrogenic properties in various animal models. This review analyzed peer-reviewed publications in the English literature on human BPA exposure and regulations in developing countries compared to developed countries. BPA has been reduced or eliminated from food packaging and contact materials such as baby bottles in developed countries either voluntarily or by legislation. The meager data from developing countries shows that human BPA exposure in developing countries is similar to that in developed countries. With minor exceptions, BPA restriction, voluntary or legal, is virtually absent in developing countries of Africa, SE Asia, and South and Central America. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Bisphenol A in Edible Part of Seafood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repossi, Adele; Farabegoli, Federica; Gazzotti, Teresa; Zironi, Elisa; Pagliuca, Giampiero

    2016-04-19

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a man-made compound, mainly used as a monomer to produce polycarbonate (PC), epoxy resins, non-polymer additives to other plastics, which have many food related applications, such as food storage containers, tableware and internal coating of cans, as well as non-food applications such as electronic equipment, construction materials and medical devices. BPA exposure can occur when the residual monomer migrates into packaged food and beverages. Moreover, due to the ubiquitous presence of this compound, the general population can be exposed to environmental sources such as water, air and soil. Many studies have investigated the potential health hazards associated with BPA, which can elicit toxic and cancerogenic effects on humans. According to the European Food Safety Authority opinion, diet is considered to be the main source of exposure, especially canned food; moreover, among non-canned food, meat and fish products have the highest levels of BPA contamination. This review focuses on BPA contamination in seafood, analysing worldwide literature (from January 2010 to October 2015) on BPA contamination of edible parts. The authors try to identify differences between canned and non-canned seafood in literature, and gaps in the state of art. The data evaluated underline that all concentrations for both canned and non-canned seafood were below the specific migration limit set by the European Community Directive for BPA in food. Moreover, the canned seafood is more contaminated than the non-canned one.

  13. Early life exposure to bisphenol A investigated in mouse models of airway allergy, food allergy and oral tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygaard, Unni Cecilie; Vinje, Nina Eriksen; Samuelsen, Mari; Andreassen, Monica; Groeng, Else-Carin; Bølling, Anette Kocbach; Becher, Rune; Lovik, Martinus; Bodin, Johanna

    2015-09-01

    The impact of early life exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) through drinking water was investigated in mouse models of respiratory allergy, food allergy and oral tolerance. Balb/c mice were exposed to BPA (0, 10 or 100 μg/ml), and the offspring were intranasally exposed to the allergen ovalbumin (OVA). C3H/HeJ offspring were sensitized with the food allergen lupin by intragastric gavage, after exposure to BPA (0, 1, 10 or 100 μg/ml). In separate offspring, oral tolerance was induced by gavage of 5 mg lupin one week before entering the protocol for the food allergy induction. In the airway allergy model, BPA (100 μg/ml) caused increased eosinophil numbers in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and a trend of increased OVA-specific IgE levels. In the food allergy and tolerance models, BPA did not alter the clinical anaphylaxis or antibody responses, but induced alterations in splenocyte cytokines and decreased mouse mast cell protease (MMCP)-1 serum levels. In conclusion, early life exposure to BPA through drinking water modestly augmented allergic responses in a mouse model of airway allergy only at high doses, and not in mouse models for food allergy and tolerance. Thus, our data do not support that BPA promotes allergy development at exposure levels relevant for humans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera supercritical CO2 extract derived withanolides mitigates Bisphenol A induced mitochondrial toxicity in HepG2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyakumar Vidyashankar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA safety aspects on human health are debated extensively for long time. In the present study, we have studied the toxicity induced by BPA at no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL using HepG2 cells. We report that BPA at 100 nM induced cytotoxicity to HepG2 cells as determined by MTT assay at 0–72 h. The toxicity was result of reduced oxygen consumption and reduced mitochondrial membrane potential associated with decreased ATP production. The BPA treatment resulted in increase of malondialdehyde (MDA content with decreased glutathione and other antioxidant enzymes. BPA derived toxicity is a concern to human health and alternative non-toxic natural products/derivatives or adjuvants that serve as antidote will be relevant. In this context, Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera a widely used herb to treat arthritis, rheumatism and to improve longevity for time immemorial is investigated for its antidote effect. Ashwagandha supercritical CO2 extract derived Withanolides (ADW at 100 μg/ml protect HepG2 cells from BPA induced toxicity by suppressing mitochondrial damage and increased ATP production. Further, cellular MDA content was significantly suppressed with increased non-enzymic and antioxidant enzyme activities. These findings derived from the present study suggest the beneficial effect of ADW in mitigating BPA induced mitochondrial toxicity in HepG2 cells.

  15. Environmental applications of inorganic-organic clays for recalcitrant organic pollutants removal: Bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathnayake, Suramya I; Xi, Yunfei; Frost, Ray L; Ayoko, Godwin A

    2016-05-15

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) adsorption onto inorganic-organic clays (IOCs) was investigated. For this purpose, IOCs synthesised using octadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (ODTMA, organic modifier) and hydroxy aluminium (Al13, inorganic modifier) were used. Three intercalation methods were employed with varying ODTMA concentration in the synthesis of IOCs. Molecular interactions of clay surfaces with ODTMA and Al13 and their arrangements within the interlayers were determined using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Surface area and porous structure of IOCs were determined by applying Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) method to N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms. Surface area decreased upon ODTMA intercalation while it increased with Al13 pillaring. As a result, BET specific surface area of IOCs was considerably higher than those of organoclays. Initial concentration of BPA, contact time and adsorbent dose significantly affected BPA adsorption into IOCs. Pseudo-second order kinetics model is the best fit for BPA adsorption into IOCs. Both Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms were applicable for BPA adsorption (R(2)>0.91) for IOCs. Langmuir maximum adsorption capacity for IOCs was as high as 109.89mgg(-1) and it was closely related to the loaded ODTMA amount into the clay. Hydrophobic interactions between long alkyl chains of ODTMA and BPA are responsible for BPA adsorption into IOCs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The effect of temperature on bisphenol: an elution from dental resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atabek, Didem; Aydintug, Itir; Alaçam, Alev; Berkkan, Aysel

    2014-09-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) elution from baby bottles into content has been of great public interest and debate in recent year. Uncontrolled BPA elution due to temperature increase may create a risk factor for human health. However, dental resins that are used in pediatric dentistry also have BPA derivatives. The aim of this study is to evaluate BPA elution from dental resins and to determine the effect of temperature increase on this elution. Four dental resins containing BPA derivatives (Filtek Z250, Filtek Supreme XT, Fissurit FX, and Admira) and a control group (BPA free G-aenial) were used in this study. Each specimen was stored in 2 ml of 75% ethanol-water solution at 37°C. Water at a temperature of 59°C ± 1°C (preferred temperature of hot drinks) was added to the study samples at certain time intervals (1, 6, 24 hours and 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 days). The methanol samples were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Data was analyzed using multivariate and repeated measures analysis of variance (p Resin-based dental materials can act as a source of BPA (within safety margins), especially when they react with hot water.

  17. Different effects of bisphenol-A on memory behavior and synaptic modification in intact and estrogen-deprived female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaohong; Gu, Ting; Shen, Qiaoqiao

    2015-03-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) has the capability of interfering with the effects of estrogens on modulating brain function. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of BPA on memory and synaptic modification in the hippocampus of female mice under different levels of cycling estrogen. BPA exposure (40, 400 μg/kg/day) for 8 weeks did not affect spatial memory and passive avoidance task of gonadally intact mice but improved ovariectomy (Ovx)-induced memory impairment, whereas co-exposure of BPA with estradiol benzoate (EB) diminished the rescue effect of EB on memory behavior of Ovx mice. The results of morphometric measurement showed that BPA positively modified the synaptic interface structure and increased the synaptic density of CA1 pyramidal cell in the hippocampus of Ovx females, but inhibited the enhancement of EB on synaptic modification and synaptogenesis of Ovx mice. Furthermore, BPA up-regulated synaptic proteins synapsin I and PSD-95 and NMDA receptor NR2B but inhibited EB-induced increase in PSD-95 and NR2B in the hippocampus of Ovx mice. These results suggest that BPA interfered with normal hormonal regulation in synaptic plasticity and memory of female mice as a potent estrogen mimetic and as a disruptor of estrogen under various concentrations of cycling estrogen. © 2014 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  18. Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program Annual Implementation Work Plan for Fiscal Year 1987-1988.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Northwest Power Planning Council (U.S.); Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority

    1987-10-01

    The Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (Program) was developed by the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) in accordance with Public Law 96-501, the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act (Act). The purpose of the Program is to guide Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) in carrying out our responsibility to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife of the Columbia River Basin. The Act explicitly gave BPA the authority and responsibility to use the BPA fund for these ends, to the extent that fish and wildlife were affected by the development and operation of hydroelectric generation in the Columbia River Basin. This document presents BPA's plans for Program implementation during Fiscal Year (FY) 1988. BPA's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program Work Plan (Work Plan) reflects the primary goals of the Program's Action Plan: to provide a solid, timely, and focused basis for budgeting and planning. Additionally, BPA's Work Plan provides a means to judge progress and the success of Program implementation. This Work Plan has been organized and written to meet the specific needs of the Council's Action Plan, as described in Action Items 10.1-10.3. It includes schedules with key milestones for FY 1988 through FY 1990. The Work Plan is organized to address the Action Items assigned to BPA in Section 1400 of the 1987 Program.

  19. A review on bisphenol A occurrences, health effects and treatment process via membrane technology for drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad, Mimi Suliza; Salim, Mohd Razman; Lau, Woei Jye; Yusop, Zulkifli

    2016-06-01

    Massive utilization of bisphenol A (BPA) in the industrial production of polycarbonate plastics has led to the occurrence of this compound (at μg/L to ng/L level) in the water treatment plant. Nowadays, the presence of BPA in drinking water sources is a major concern among society because BPA is one of the endocrine disruption compounds (EDCs) that can cause hazard to human health even at extremely low concentration level. Parallel to these issues, membrane technology has emerged as the most feasible treatment process to eliminate this recalcitrant contaminant via physical separation mechanism. This paper reviews the occurrences and effects of BPA toward living organisms as well as the application of membrane technology for their removal in water treatment plant. The potential applications of using polymeric membranes for BPA removal are also discussed. Literature revealed that modifying membrane surface using blending approach is the simple yet effective method to improve membrane properties with respect to BPA removal without compromising water permeability. The regeneration process helps in maintaining the performances of membrane at desired level. The application of large-scale membrane process in treatment plant shows the feasibility of the technology for removing BPA and possible future prospect in water treatment process.

  20. Bisphenol A regulates the estrogen receptor alpha signaling in developing hippocampus of male rats through estrogen receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-Bin; He, Ye; Song, Chen; Ke, Xin; Fan, Shi-Jun; Peng, Wei-Jie; Tan, Ruei; Kawata, Mitsuhiro; Matsuda, Ken-Ichi; Pan, Bing-Xing; Kato, Nobumasa

    2014-12-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), one of the most common environmental endocrine disruptors, has been recognized to have wide adverse effects on the brain development and behavior. These adversities are related to its ability to bind estrogen receptor (ER) with subsequent alteration of its expression in the target areas. However, very little is known about whether BPA exposure also affects ER phosphorylation and its translocation to nucleus during postnatal development, two critical steps for its function. Here, we found that during development from postnatal day 7 (P7) to P21, the alpha subtype of ER (ERα) in the hippocampus of male rats experienced remarkable alterations in terms of its expression, phosphorylation and translocation to nucleus. Exposure to low level of BPA had bidirectional, development-dependent effects on the expression of ERα mRNA and protein, but decreased ERα phosphorylation and impaired its translocation to nucleus throughout the period investigated. Treatment with low dose of ICI 182,780 (ICI), an ER antagonist to block the binding of ER with BPA, reversed the altered ERα following BPA exposure, highlighting critical involvement of ER. Moreover, ICI treatment rescued the hippocampus-dependent behavioral deficits in the adult rats experiencing early-life BPA exposure. Overall, our results indicate that BPA interferes with the ERα signaling in the developing hippocampus in an ER-dependent manner, which may underlie its adverse behavioral and cognitive outcomes in adult animals. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Photodegradation of bisphenol A in simulated lake water containing algae, humic acid and ferric ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng Zhang' e [School of Resources and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079 (China)]. E-mail: zhepeng@126.com; Wu Feng [School of Resources and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079 (China)]. E-mail: fengwu@whu.edu.cn; Deng Nansheng [School of Resources and Environmental Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079 (China)]. E-mail: nsdengwhu@163.com

    2006-12-15

    The photodegradation of bisphenol A (BPA), a suspected endocrine disruptor (ED), in simulated lake water containing algae, humic acid and Fe{sup 3+} ions was investigated. Algae, humic acid and Fe{sup 3+} ions enhanced the photodegradation of BPA. Photodegradation efficiency of BPA was 36% after 4 h irradiation in the presence of 6.5 x 10{sup 9} cells L{sup -1} raw Chlorella vulgaris, 4 mg L{sup -1} humic acid and 20 {mu}mol L{sup -1} Fe{sup 3+}. The photodegradation efficiency of BPA was higher in the presence of algae treated with ultrasonic than that without ultrasonic. The photodegradation efficiency of BPA in the water only containing algae treated with ultrasonic was 37% after 4 h irradiation. The algae treated with heating can also enhance the photodegradation of BPA. This work helps environmental scientists to understand the photochemical behavior of BPA in lake water. - Algae, humic acid and ferric ions can induce the photodegradation of bisphenol A in an aqueous environment.

  2. Bisphenol A induces a rapid activation of Erk1/2 through GPR30 in human breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, S. [Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566 (Japan); Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen (China); Terasaka, S. [Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566 (Japan); Kiyama, R., E-mail: kiyama.r@aist.go.j [Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566 (Japan)

    2011-01-15

    Bisphenol A (BPA) has been considered as an endocrine disruptor due to its ability to interact with estrogen receptors (ERs). While G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30) is a novel estrogen receptor, its role in BPA-induced activation of Erk1/2 remains unknown. Human breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and SKBR3, were used as experimental models to discriminate between ERs-dependent, putative ERs-independent and/or GPR30-associated effects. BPA induced a rapid activation of Erk1/2 in both ER{alpha}/{beta}-positive and negative breast cancer cells, and this effect was not blocked with an ER antagonist, ICI 182,780. A small interfering RNA assay revealed that the expression of GPR30 was necessary for BPA-induced activation of Erk1/2 and transcriptional regulation of c-fos. In addition, BPA regulates the expression of c-fos likely through an AP1-mediated pathway. As a conclusion, GPR30 plays an important role in the BPA-induced activation of Erk1/2 in a manner distinguishable from that in ER{alpha}-mediated signaling. - We showed here that the mechanism by which BPA induces the activation of Erk1/2 is distinguishable from the mechanism of ER{alpha}-mediated signaling in human breast cancer cells.

  3. Perinatal exposure to bisphenol-A impairs spatial memory through upregulation of neurexin1 and neuroligin3 expression in male mouse brain.

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    Dhiraj Kumar

    Full Text Available Bisphenol-A (BPA, a well known endocrine disruptor, impairs learning and memory in rodents. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of BPA induced impairment in learning and memory is not well known. As synaptic plasticity is the cellular basis of memory, the present study investigated the effect of perinatal exposure to BPA on the expression of synaptic proteins neurexin1 (Nrxn1 and neuroligin3 (Nlgn3, dendritic spine density and spatial memory in postnatal male mice. The pregnant mice were orally administered BPA (50 µg/kgbw/d from gestation day (GD 7 to postnatal day (PND 21 and sesame oil was used as a vehicle control. In Morris water maze (MWM test, BPA extended the escape latency time to locate the hidden platform in 8 weeks male mice. RT-PCR and Immunoblotting results showed significant upregulation of Nrxn1 and Nlgn3 expression in both cerebral cortex and hippocampus of 3 and 8 weeks male mice. This was further substantiated by in-situ hybridization and immunofluorescence techniques. BPA also significantly increased the density of dendritic spines in both regions, as analyzed by rapid Golgi staining. Thus our data suggest that perinatal exposure to BPA impairs spatial memory through upregulation of expression of synaptic proteins Nrxn1 and Nlgn3 and increased dendritic spine density in cerebral cortex and hippocampus of postnatal male mice.

  4. Bisphenol A in edible part of seafood

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    Adele Repossi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA is a man-made compound, mainly used as a monomer to produce polycarbonate (PC, epoxy resins, non-polymer additives to other plastics, which have many food related applications, such as food storage containers, tableware and internal coating of cans, as well as non-food applications such as electronic equipment, construction materials and medical devices. BPA exposure can occur when the residual monomer migrates into packaged food and beverages. Moreover, due to the ubiquitous presence of this compound, the general population can be exposed to environmental sources such as water, air and soil. Many studies have investigated the potential health hazards associated with BPA, which can elicit toxic and cancerogenic effects on humans. According to the European Food Safety Authority opinion, diet is considered to be the main source of exposure, especially canned food; moreover, among non-canned food, meat and fish products have the highest levels of BPA contamination. This review focuses on BPA contamination in seafood, analysing worldwide literature (from January 2010 to October 2015 on BPA contamination of edible parts. The authors try to identify differences between canned and non-canned seafood in literature, and gaps in the state of art. The data evaluated underline that all concentrations for both canned and non-canned seafood were below the specific migration limit set by the European Community Directive for BPA in food. Moreover, the canned seafood is more contaminated than the non-canned one.

  5. Bisphenol A Effects on Mammalian Oogenesis and Epigenetic Integrity of Oocytes: A Case Study Exploring Risks of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals

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    Ursula Eichenlaub-Ritter

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA, originally developed as a synthetic oestrogen, is nowadays extensively used in the production of polymeric plastics. Under harsh conditions, these plastics may release BPA, which then can leach into the environment. Detectable concentrations of BPA have been measured in most analysed samples of human serum, plasma, or urine, as well as in follicular fluid, foetal serum, and amniotic fluid. Here we summarize the evidence about adverse BPA effects on the genetic and epigenetic integrity of mammalian oocytes. We conclude that increasing evidence supports the notion that low BPA concentrations adversely affect the epigenome of mammalian female germ cells, with functional consequences on gene expression, chromosome dynamics in meiosis, and oocyte development. Specific time windows, during which profound chromatin remodelling occurs and maternal imprints are established or protected, appear particularly vulnerable to epigenetic deregulation by BPA. Transgenerational effects have been also observed in the offspring of BPA-treated rodents, although the epigenetic mechanisms of inheritance still need to be clarified. The relevance of these findings for human health protection still needs to be fully assessed, but they warrant further investigation in both experimental models and humans.

  6. Bisphenol A: Understanding the Controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Cynthia Marie

    2016-01-01

    Healthy People 2020 lists Bisphenol A (BPA) as a potential endocrine disruptor for which exposure should be reduced. The Healthy People 2020 Environmental Health Objectives focus on addressing environmental factors that negatively affect individuals' health even though the health effects of some toxic substances are not yet fully understood. An American Association of Occupational Health Nurses (AAOHN) position statement outlined the role occupational health nurses play in creating healthy and productive workplaces by promoting worker health. BPA is implicated in a variety of health outcomes such as breast and prostate cancer, menstrual irregularities, genital abnormalities in male babies, infertility in men and women, early puberty in girls, and metabolic disorders such as diabetes and obesity. The overall health issues attributed to BPA exposure are complex and controversial. Concerns regarding environmental health are growing as individuals become more dependent on plastics. Numerous health concerns have been directly connected to daily exposures to products manufactured with BPA. Government agencies support the use of BPA as a safe consumer product with the exception of BPA use in baby bottles and sippy cups, which has been banned in the United States and several other countries. Many agencies (e.g., Federal Drug Administration [FDA], World Health Organization [WHO], U.S. Department of Health & Human Services [U.S. DHHS], and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]) have expressed "some concern" about BPA based on research, and stated further research is warranted. © 2016 The Author(s).

  7. The role of phytoplankton composition, biomass and cell volume in accumulation and transfer of endocrine disrupting compounds in the Southern Baltic Sea (The Gulf of Gdansk).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staniszewska, Marta; Nehring, Iga; Zgrundo, Aleksandra

    2015-12-01

    Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) like bisphenol A (BPA), 4-tert-octylphenol (OP) and 4-nonylphenol (NP) are introduced to the trophic webs through among others phytoplankton. This paper describes BPA, OP and NP concentrations in phytoplankton in the Gulf of Gdansk (Southern Baltic Sea) in the years 2011-2012. The assays of BPA, OP and NP in samples were performed using HPLC with fluorescence detection. The concentrations of BPA, the most commonly used of the three compounds, were over ten times higher than OP and NP concentrations. The concentrations of the studied EDCs in phytoplankton from the Gulf of Gdansk depended on anthropogenic factors and on phytoplankton properties (species composition, biomass, volume). An increase in phytoplankton biomass did not always result in an increase of BPA, OP and NP concentrations. However, the load of the studied EDCs accumulated in phytoplankton biomass increase with a rise of biomass. An increase in BPA, OP and NP concentrations was effected by biomass growth and the proportions ofciliates, dinoflagellates, diatoms and green algae. A strong positive correlation between OP and NP concentrations and negative correlation between BPA concentrations and biomass of organisms with cells measuring <1000 μm(3) in volume results from the differing properties of these compounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Rapid and sensitive analysis of phthalate metabolites, bisphenol A, and endogenous steroid hormones in human urine by mixed-mode solid-phase extraction, dansylation, and ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, He-xing; Wang, Bin; Zhou, Ying; Jiang, Qing-wu

    2013-05-01

    Steroid hormone levels in human urine are convenient and sensitive indicators for the impact of phthalates and/or bisphenol A (BPA) exposure on the human steroid hormone endocrine system. In this study, a rapid and sensitive method for determination of 14 phthalate metabolites, BPA, and ten endogenous steroid hormones in urine was developed and validated on the basis of ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. The optimized mixed-mode solid phase-extraction separated the weakly acidic or neutral BPA and steroid hormones from acidic phthalate metabolites in urine: the former were determined in positive ion mode with a methanol/water mobile phase containing 10 mM ammonium formate; the latter were determined in negative ion mode with a acetonitrile/water mobile phase containing 0.1 % acetic acid, which significantly alleviated matrix effects for the analysis of BPA and steroid hormones. Dansylation of estrogens and BPA realized simultaneous and sensitive analysis of the endogenous steroid hormones and BPA in a single chromatographic run. The limits of detection were less than 0.84 ng/mL for phthalate metabolites and less than 0.22 ng/mL for endogenous steroid hormones and BPA. This proposed method had satisfactory precision and accuracy, and was successfully applied to the analyses of human urine samples. This method could be valuable when investigating the associations among endocrine-disrupting chemicals, endogenous steroid hormones, and relevant adverse outcomes in epidemiological studies.

  9. Short-term exposure to bisphenol A affects water and salt intakes differently in male and ovariectomised female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuñez, Paula; Arguelles, Juan; Perillan, Carmen

    2018-01-01

    Thirst and sodium appetite are motivational states that lead to the search for and ingestion of water and sodium, thus contributing to maintenance of hydromineral balance. Oestrogens affect fluid intake and sodium preference. Bisphenol A (BPA) is an environmental endocrine-disrupting substance with oestrogenic activity. Whether there are sex differences in the ingestive effects of BPA is unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to determine the effect of short-term treatment of low doses of BPA on thirst and sodium appetite in adult male and ovariectomised Wistar rats. Rats were subcutaneously injected with either vehicle or 10, 50, 100, or 500 μg/kg/day BPA for a week. Two-bottle tests (water and 2.7% NaCl solution) were conducted in the animals' home cages with and without 24 h water deprivation. BPA reduced water and 2.7% NaCl intakes in a sex-dependent-manner. Fluid intakes displayed inverted U-shaped dose-response curves, with different dose dependencies in spontaneously drinker rats than after 24 h water deprivation dehydration. Future studies on the role of BPA in sex-dependent body fluid homeostasis should elucidate the effects of BPA on the neuroendocrine controls of thirst and salt appetite. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Bisphenol-A and Female Infertility: A Possible Role of Gene-Environment Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaona Huo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bisphenol-A (BPA is widely used and ubiquitous in the environment. Animal studies indicate that BPA affects reproduction, however, the gene-environment interaction mechanism(s involved in this association remains unclear. We performed a literature review to summarize the evidence on this topic. Methods: A comprehensive search was conducted in PubMed using as keywords BPA, gene, infertility and female reproduction. Full-text articles in both human and animals published in English prior to December 2014 were selected. Results: Evidence shows that BPA can interfere with endocrine function of hypothalamic-pituitary axis, such as by changing gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRH secretion in hypothalamus and promoting pituitary proliferation. Such actions affect puberty, ovulation and may even result in infertility. Ovary, uterus and other reproductive organs are also targets of BPA. BPA exposure impairs the structure and functions of female reproductive system in different times of life cycle and may contribute to infertility. Both epidemiological and experimental evidences demonstrate that BPA affects reproduction-related gene expression and epigenetic modification that are closely associated with infertility. The detrimental effects on reproduction may be lifelong and transgenerational. Conclusions: Evidence on gene-environment interactions, especially from human studies, is still limited. Further research on this topic is warranted.

  11. Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) supercritical CO2 extract derived withanolides mitigates Bisphenol A induced mitochondrial toxicity in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidyashankar, Satyakumar; Thiyagarajan, O S; Varma, R Sandeep; Kumar, L M Sharath; Babu, Uddagiri Venkanna; Patki, Pralhad Sadashiv

    2014-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) safety aspects on human health are debated extensively for long time. In the present study, we have studied the toxicity induced by BPA at no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) using HepG2 cells. We report that BPA at 100 nM induced cytotoxicity to HepG2 cells as determined by MTT assay at 0-72 h. The toxicity was result of reduced oxygen consumption and reduced mitochondrial membrane potential associated with decreased ATP production. The BPA treatment resulted in increase of malondialdehyde (MDA) content with decreased glutathione and other antioxidant enzymes. BPA derived toxicity is a concern to human health and alternative non-toxic natural products/derivatives or adjuvants that serve as antidote will be relevant. In this context, Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) a widely used herb to treat arthritis, rheumatism and to improve longevity for time immemorial is investigated for its antidote effect. Ashwagandha supercritical CO2 extract derived Withanolides (ADW) at 100 μg/ml protect HepG2 cells from BPA induced toxicity by suppressing mitochondrial damage and increased ATP production. Further, cellular MDA content was significantly suppressed with increased non-enzymic and antioxidant enzyme activities. These findings derived from the present study suggest the beneficial effect of ADW in mitigating BPA induced mitochondrial toxicity in HepG2 cells.

  12. Further limiting bisphenol a in food uses could provide health and economic benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trasande, Leonardo

    2014-02-01

    There is mounting evidence that bisphenol A (BPA), a chemical used in the production of polycarbonate plastics and the linings of aluminum cans, may have adverse health consequences. The Food and Drug Administration has banned BPA from baby bottles and sippy cups but has deferred further action on other food uses-that is, uses in metal-based food and beverage containers. This article quantifies the potential social costs of childhood obesity and adult coronary heart disease attributable to BPA exposure in the United States in 2008 and models the potential health and economic benefits associated with replacing BPA in all food uses. BPA exposure was estimated to be associated with 12,404 cases of childhood obesity and 33,863 cases of newly incident coronary heart disease, with estimated social costs of $2.98 billion in 2008. Removing BPA from food uses might prevent 6,236 cases of childhood obesity and 22,350 cases of newly incident coronary heart disease per year, with potential annual economic benefits of $1.74 billion (sensitivity analysis: $889 million-$13.8 billion per year). Although more data are needed, these potentially large health and economic benefits could outweigh the costs of using a safer substitute for BPA.

  13. Removal of the emerging contaminant bisphenol A by an ureasil-PEO hybrid membrane: experimental study and molecular dynamic simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Lilian K; Moura, André L A; Barbosa, Valdir; Parreira, Renato L T; Banegas, Rodrigo S; Caramori, Giovanni F; Ciuffi, Katia J; Molina, Eduardo F

    2017-08-01

    This work reports the use of a cross-linked ureasil-PEO hybrid matrix (designated PEO800) as an efficient adsorbent to retain the emerging contaminant bisphenol A (BPA) from an aqueous medium. The in-deep experimental and theoretical results provide information about the interactions between PEO800 and BPA. The in situ UV-vis spectroscopy data and the pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, Elovich, and Morris-Webber intraparticle diffusion models allowed us to propose a three-step mechanism for the adsorption of BPA onto PEO800. The results indicate that the pseudo-first-order kinetic model effectively describes the adsorption of BPA onto PEO800. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirmed the interaction of PEO800 with BPA, showing an alteration in the chemical environment of the polymer ether oxygen atoms present in the hybrid matrix. The molecular dynamic simulation provides further evidence that the BPA molecules interact preferentially with PEO. The amount of desorbed BPA depended on the pH and solvent used in the assays. This work provides new opportunities for using the hydrophilic ureasil-PEO matrix which has demonstrated its abilities in being a fast and easy alternative to successfully removing organic contaminants from aqueous mediums and therefore having potential applications in water remediation. Graphical abstract.

  14. Bisphenol A as epigenetic modulator: setting the stage for carcinogenesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Luciana L; Couto, Renata; Oliveira, Paulo J

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the most widely produced chemicals worldwide and is often used in the production of food and beverage containers. As a result of BPA contact with food, drink and toiletries, its ingestion and absorption by humans has been growing. The industrialization and modern lifestyles brought a constant exposure to several health-disturbing compounds and ushered a new era of chronic diseases. The endocrine disruptor potential of BPA is well known, but the research around its epigenotoxic effects raised further concerns whether chronic exposure to BPA can contribute to chronic human illness, including cancer in hormone-sensitive organs. Focusing on computerized databases, we reviewed original and review articles which elucidate and link some of the information already available about BPA and related epigenetic alterations. A number of studies indicate that short-term administration of low or high-doses of BPA may be associated with an increased risk of epigenetic modifications, increasing the risk for carcinogenesis. However, it is clear that more studies considering real daily exposures are essential to define a real tolerable daily intake and to tighten up manufactory regulations. In this review, we highlight some evidences suggesting a relationship between BPA exposure, genotoxic activity and epigenetic modifications, which may prime for carcinogenesis. © 2015 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  15. Urinary Bisphenol A and Hypertension in a Multiethnic Sample of US Adults

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    Anoop Shankar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Bisphenol A (BPA is a common chemical used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins, with >93% of US adults having detectable BPA levels in urine. Recent animal studies have suggested that BPA exposure may have a role in several mechanisms involved in the development of hypertension, including weight gain, insulin resistance, thyroid dysfunction, endothelial dysfunction, and oxidative stress. However, no previous human study has examined the association between markers of BPA exposure and hypertension. Methods. We examined urinary BPA levels in 1380 subjects from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey 2003-2004. Main outcome-of-interest was hypertension, defined as blood pressure-reducing medication use and/or blood pressures >140/90 mm of Hg (n=580. Results. We observed a positive association between increasing levels of urinary BPA and hypertension independent of confounding factors such as age, gender, race/ethnicity, smoking, body mass index (BMI, diabetes mellitus and total serum cholesterol levels. Compared to tertile 1 (referent, the multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval of hypertension associated with tertile 3 was 1.50 (1.12−2.00; P-trend = 0.007. The association was consistently present in subgroup analyses by race/ethnicity, smoking status, BMI, and diabetes mellitus. Conclusions. Urinary BPA levels are associated with hypertension, independent of traditional risk factors.

  16. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for liver metastasis: therapeutic efficacy in an experimental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzi, Emiliano C C; Cardoso, Jorge E; Colombo, Lucas L; Thorp, Silvia; Monti Hughes, Andrea; Molinari, Ana J; Garabalino, Marcela A; Heber, Elisa M; Miller, Marcelo; Itoiz, Maria E; Aromando, Romina F; Nigg, David W; Quintana, Jorge; Trivillin, Verónica A; Schwint, Amanda E

    2012-08-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) was proposed for untreatable colorectal liver metastases. The present study evaluates tumor control and potential radiotoxicity of BNCT in an experimental model of liver metastasis. BDIX rats were inoculated with syngeneic colon cancer cells DHD/K12/TRb. Tumor-bearing animals were divided into three groups: BPA-BNCT, boronophenylalanine (BPA) + neutron irradiation; Beam only, neutron irradiation; Sham, matched manipulation. The total absorbed dose administered with BPA-BNCT was 13 ± 3 Gy in tumor and 9 ± 2 Gy in healthy liver. Three weeks post-treatment, the tumor surface area post-treatment/pre-treatment ratio was 0.46 ± 0.20 for BPA-BNCT, 2.7 ± 1.8 for Beam only and 4.5 ± 3.1 for Sham. The pre-treatment tumor nodule mass of 48 ± 19 mg fell significantly to 19 ± 16 mg for BPA-BNCT, but rose significantly to 140 ± 106 mg for Beam only and to 346 ± 302 mg for Sham. For both end points, the differences between the BPA-BNCT group and each of the other groups were statistically significant (ANOVA). No clinical, macroscopic or histological normal liver radiotoxicity was observed. It is concluded that BPA-BNCT induced a significant remission of experimental colorectal tumor nodules in liver with no contributory liver toxicity.

  17. High butter-fat diet and bisphenol A additively impair male rat spermatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarapore, Pheruza; Hennessy, Max; Song, Dan; Ying, Jun; Ouyang, Bin; Govindarajah, Vinothini; Leung, Yuet-Kin; Ho, Shuk-Mei

    2017-03-01

    Exposure to xenoestrogens is a probable cause of male infertility in humans. Consumption of high-fat diets and exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) is pervasive in America. Here, we test the hypothesis that gestational exposure to high dietary fats and/or BP