WorldWideScience

Sample records for bpa

  1. BPA Facts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-03-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration is a federal nonprofit power marketing administration based in the Pacific Northwest . Although BPA is part of the U .S . Department of Energy, it is self-funding and covers its costs by selling its products and services . BPA markets wholesale electrical power from 31 federal hydro projects in the Columbia River Basin, one nonfederal nuclear plant and several small nonfederal power plants . The dams are operated by the U .S . Army Corps of Engineers and the Bureau of Reclamation . About 30 percent of the electric power used in the Northwest comes from BPA . BPA’s resources — primarily hydroelectric — make its power nearly carbon free . BPA also operates and maintains about three- fourths of the high-voltage transmission in its service territory . BPA’s service territory includes Idaho, Oregon, Washington, western Montana and small parts of eastern Montana, California, Nevada, Utah and Wyoming . BPA promotes energy efficiency, renewable resources and new technologies that improve its ability to deliver on its mission . BPA also funds regional efforts to protect and enhance fish and wildlife populations affected by hydropower development in the Columbia River Basin . BPA is committed to public service and seeks to make its decisions in a manner that provides opportunities for input from stakeholders . In its vision statement, BPA dedicates itself to providing high system reliability, low rates consistent with sound business principles, environmental stewardship and accountability

  2. BPA Statutes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1999-08-01

    This report contains the Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA's) authorizing statutes--the Bonneville Project Act, the Federal Columbia River Transmission System Act, the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act and other laws that contain provisions that define BPA's mission and affect the way it is carried out.

  3. BPA Statutes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-01-01

    This publication includes the Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) authorities. It combines the two previous booklets of BPA authorities` and adds: sections of certain Appropriation Acts affecting BPA; a list of all other Appropriation Acts affecting BPA; a list of the acts authorizing Federal hydroelectric dams in the Columbia River Basin; portions of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 that specifically apply to BPA; portions of the Federal Power Act to provide context for the Energy Policy Act. The laws are in their United States Code format, rather than in the Public Law format as passed. Thus, the citation for Bonneville Project Act section 2(f) is shown as 16 USC {section}832a(f). Most people are familiar with the Public Law citations, so they have been retained and appear in italics at the end of each paragraph. In addition, later amendments to earlier laws are reflected in the United States Code language. For example, the Preference Act`s definition of ``Pacific Northwest`` (16 USC {section}837(b)) reflects the Northwest Power Act`s amendment of that term. The laws are presented in the numerical order they appear in the United States Code, rather than in the order in which they became law. Therefore, the Energy Policy Act of 1992 is presented first. This booklet is not, nor is it intended to be, an official reporter. All citations should be made to the United States Code or some other officially recognized reporter.

  4. What is BPA?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1996-09-01

    This PR pamphlet explains what BPA (Bonneville Power Administration) is (a Federal agency with a Northwest focus). It plays a role in balancing river uses; power revenues pay BPA costs; renewable resource aspects are discussed; fish and wildlife protection are discussed; the BPA power grid is disucssed; and how BPA disposes of its power is discussed.

  5. BPA 406 Course Tutorial / tutorialrank

    OpenAIRE

    welcome1361

    2015-01-01

    BPA 406 Entire Course (UOP) For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialrank.com Tutorial Purchased: 3 Times, Rating: A+   BPA 406 Week 1 Public Leadership Paper BPA 406 Week 2 Effective Traits Paper BPA 406 Week 2 Leadership Versus Management Paper BPA 406 Week 2 Learning Team Assignment Leadership Versus Management Presentation BPA 406 Week 3 Environmental Influences Paper BPA 406 Week 3 Sources of Power Paper BPA 406 Week 4 Role of Conflict ...

  6. BPA 303 UOP Tutorial Course / Uoptutorial

    OpenAIRE

    ayub

    2015-01-01

    For More Course Tutorials Visit www.uoptutorial.com     BPA 303 Week 1 DQ 1 BPA 303 Week 1 DQ 2 BPA 303 Week 1 DQ 3 BPA 303 Week 1 DQ 4 BPA 303 Week 1 DQ 5 BPA 303 Week 1 Individual Assignment Theories BPA 303 Week 2 DQ 1 BPA 303 Week 2 DQ 2 BPA 303 Week 2 DQ 3 BPA 303 Week 2 DQ 4 BPA 303 Week 2 Individual Assignment Obstacles BPA 303 Week 2 Team Assignment Policy BPA 303 Week 3 DQ 1 BPA 303 Week 3 DQ 2 BPA 303 ...

  7. Environmental Effects of BPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Canesi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Research on bisphenol A (BPA as an environmental contaminant has now major regulatory implications toward the ecosystem health, and hence it is incumbent on scientists to do their research to the highest standards possible, in order that the most appropriate decisions are made to mitigate the impacts to aquatic wildlife. However, the contribution given so far appears rather fragmented. The present overview aims to collect available information on the effects of BPA on aquatic vertebrates and invertebrates to provide a general scenario and to suggest future developments toward more comprehensive approaches useful for aquatic species protection.

  8. Environmental Effects of BPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canesi, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Research on bisphenol A (BPA) as an environmental contaminant has now major regulatory implications toward the ecosystem health, and hence it is incumbent on scientists to do their research to the highest standards possible, in order that the most appropriate decisions are made to mitigate the impacts to aquatic wildlife. However, the contribution given so far appears rather fragmented. The present overview aims to collect available information on the effects of BPA on aquatic vertebrates and invertebrates to provide a general scenario and to suggest future developments toward more comprehensive approaches useful for aquatic species protection. PMID:26674307

  9. BPA Facts Pocket Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-04-01

    BPA will be an engine of the Northwest’s economic prosperity and environmental sustainability. BPA’s actions advance a Northwest power system that is a national leader in providing: • high reliability; • low rates consistent with sound business principles; • responsible environmental stewardship; and • accountability to the region. We deliver on these public responsibilities through a commercially successful business.

  10. Inflow forecasting at BPA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McManamon, A. [Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (United States)

    2007-07-01

    The Columbia River Power System operates with consideration for flood control, endangered species, navigation, irrigation, water supply, recreation, other fish and wildlife concerns and power production. The Bonneville Power Association (BPA) located in Portland, Oregon is responsible for 35-40 per cent of the power consumed within the region. This presentation discussed inflow power concerns at BPA. The presentation illustrated elevational relief of projects; annual and daily variability; the hydrologic cycle; national river service weather forecasting service (NRSWFS); components of NRSWFS; and hydrologic forecast locations. Project operations and inventory were included along with a comparison of the 71-year average unregulated flow with regulated flow at the Dalles. Consistency between short-term and long-term forecasts and long-term streamflow forecasts were also illustrated in graphical format. The presentation also discussed the issue of reducing model and parameter uncertainty; reducing initial conditions uncertainty; snow updating; and reducing meteorological uncertainty. tabs., figs.

  11. Sustainability at BPA 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-12-01

    THIS IS THE THIRD YEAR BPA has reported on sustainability program accomplishments. The report provides an opportunity to review progress made on sustainability initiatives, evaluate how far we have come and how much we can improve. The program has demonstrated maturation as the concepts of sustainability and resource conservation are communicated and understood. The sustainability program started as an employee-driven “grass roots” effort in 2010. Sustainability is becoming a consideration in how work is performed. The establishment of several policies supporting sustainability efforts proves the positive progress being made. In 2009, BPA became a founder and member of The Climate Registry, a nonprofit collaboration that sets standards to calculate, verify and report greenhouse gas emissions. This year, BPA completed and published our Greenhouse Gas inventory for the years of 2009, 2010 and 2011. The 2012 inventory is currently in the process of third-party verification and scheduled for public release in January 2014. These inventories provide a concrete measure of the progress we are making.

  12. Molecular Mechanisms of Action of BPA

    OpenAIRE

    Acconcia, Filippo; Pallottini, Valentina; Marino, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) exposure has been associated with serious endocrine-disrupting effects in humans and wildlife. Toxicological and epidemiological studies evidenced that BPA increases body mass index and disrupts normal cardiovascular physiology by interfering with endogenous hormones in rodents, nonhuman primates, and cell culture test systems. The BPA concentration derived from these experiments were used by government regulatory agencies to determine the safe exposure levels of BPA in huma...

  13. Bisphenol-A (BPA), BPA glucuronide, and BPA sulfate in mid-gestation umbilical cord serum in a Northern and Central California population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerona, Roy R.; Woodruff, Tracey J.; Dickenson, Carrie A.; Pan, Janet; Schwartz, Jackie M.; Sen, Saunak; Friesen, Matthew M.; Fujimoto, Victor Y.; Hunt, Patricia A.

    2013-01-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting chemical used in numerous consumer products, resulting in universal exposure in the United States. Prenatal exposure to BPA is associated with numerous reproductive and developmental effects in animals. However, little is known about human fetal exposure or metabolism of BPA during mid-gestation. In the present study, we present a new liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method to directly measure concentrations of BPA and two predominant metabolic conjugates – BPA glucuronide and BPA sulfate – in umbilical cord serum collected from elective 2nd trimester pregnancy terminations. We detected at least one form of BPA in all umbilical cord serum samples: BPA (GM 0.16; range BPA glucuronide (GM 0.14; range BPA sulfate (GM 0.32; range BPA ranged from less than 1/100th to over 400 times higher than levels of BPA in conjugated form. Although levels of BPA in conjugated form exceeded BPA levels in about 3/4 of the samples, BPA levels were higher in samples with Total BPA above the median. Our findings suggest universal fetal exposure to BPA in our study population, with some at relatively high levels, and we provide the first evidence of detectable BPA sulfate in mid-gestation fetuses. PMID:23941471

  14. Molecular Mechanisms of Action of BPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acconcia, Filippo; Pallottini, Valentina; Marino, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) exposure has been associated with serious endocrine-disrupting effects in humans and wildlife. Toxicological and epidemiological studies evidenced that BPA increases body mass index and disrupts normal cardiovascular physiology by interfering with endogenous hormones in rodents, nonhuman primates, and cell culture test systems. The BPA concentration derived from these experiments were used by government regulatory agencies to determine the safe exposure levels of BPA in humans. However, accumulating literature in vivo and in vitro indicate that at concentrations lower than that reported in toxicological studies, BPA could elicit a different endocrine-disrupting capacity. To further complicate this picture, BPA effects rely on several and diverse mechanisms that converge upon endocrine and reproductive systems. If all or just few of these mechanisms concur to the endocrine-disrupting potential of low doses of BPA is at present still unclear. Thus, taking into account that the incidence and/or prevalence of health problems associated with endocrine disruption have increased worldwide, the goal of the present review is to give an overview of the many mechanisms of BPA action in order to decipher whether different mechanisms are at the root of the effect of low dose of BPA on endocrine system. PMID:26740804

  15. Molecular Mechanisms of Action of BPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Acconcia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA exposure has been associated with serious endocrine-disrupting effects in humans and wildlife. Toxicological and epidemiological studies evidenced that BPA increases body mass index and disrupts normal cardiovascular physiology by interfering with endogenous hormones in rodents, nonhuman primates, and cell culture test systems. The BPA concentration derived from these experiments were used by government regulatory agencies to determine the safe exposure levels of BPA in humans. However, accumulating literature in vivo and in vitro indicate that at concentrations lower than that reported in toxicological studies, BPA could elicit a different endocrine-disrupting capacity. To further complicate this picture, BPA effects rely on several and diverse mechanisms that converge upon endocrine and reproductive systems. If all or just few of these mechanisms concur to the endocrine-disrupting potential of low doses of BPA is at present still unclear. Thus, taking into account that the incidence and/or prevalence of health problems associated with endocrine disruption have increased worldwide, the goal of the present review is to give an overview of the many mechanisms of BPA action in order to decipher whether different mechanisms are at the root of the effect of low dose of BPA on endocrine system.

  16. Neutron irradiation under continuous BPA injection for solving the problem of heterogeneous distribution of BPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the current BNCT procedure, the blood 10B levels at the completion of neutron irradiation decrease to 60% level of the start. It is highly probable that such a rapid decrease in the blood 10B levels is expanding the heterogeneity in the micro-distribution of BPA in tumors. Ono and Masunaga previously reported that the combination of BSH is one of solutions for the problem of heterogeneous micro-distribution of BPA. As a similar idea, it is possible to kill tumor cells efficiently by increasing inter-cellular BPA levels. Increase of the blood 10B levels with time becomes less steep by 50%, abruptly at around 30 minutes after the start of BPA. Based on this analysis, we injected BPA 500 mg/kg at the speed of 200 mg/kg/h for initial 2 hours, and decreased the speed to 100 mg/kg/h for remaining 1 hour, and neutron was irradiated during final 1 hour. This protocol was applied to 15 cases. The blood level at the completion of neutron irradiation remained at 96% level of the start on average. Similar stable 10B level condition was made in tumor bearing mice by ligaturing renal arteries. After neutron irradiation, tumor cells were examined on micronucleus appearance. Under normal condition, fraction of the cells without micronuclei decreased with neutron fluence in biphasic pattern. However, in mice without BPA excretion it showed nearly linear curve. This means BPA distributed homogeneously through the tumor. From these data, new BPA injection and neutron irradiation protocol is considered useful to overcome the difficulty of BPA. (author)

  17. BPA Prepares for the 21st Century.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1998-04-01

    This is a brief review of the state of the Bonneville Power Administration. It reviews BPA`s competitive status, fish and wildlife funding, cost structure of the federal system, subscription sales of electricity, emergency cost recovery, cost reduction measures, transmission access and operation, and the 1998 power rate case decision making process.

  18. Estrogenic chemicals often leach from BPA-free plastic products that are replacements for BPA-containing polycarbonate products

    OpenAIRE

    Bittner, George D; Yang, Chun Z.; Stoner, Matthew A

    2014-01-01

    Background Xenobiotic chemicals with estrogenic activity (EA), such as bisphenol A (BPA), have been reported to have potential adverse health effects in mammals, including humans, especially in fetal and infant stages. Concerns about safety have caused many manufacturers to use alternatives to polycarbonate (PC) resins to make hard and clear, reusable, plastic products that do not leach BPA. However, no study has focused on whether such BPA-free PC-replacement products, chosen for their perce...

  19. A round robin approach to the analysis of bisphenol a (BPA) in human blood samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Human exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) is ubiquitous, yet there are concerns about whether BPA can be measured in human blood. This Round Robin was designed to address this concern through three goals: 1) to identify collection materials, reagents and detection apparatuses that do not contribute BPA to serum; 2) to identify sensitive and precise methods to accurately measure unconjugated BPA (uBPA) and BPA-glucuronide (BPA-G), a metabolite, in serum; and 3) to evaluate whether inadvertent hydrolysis of BPA-G occurs during sample handling and processing. Methods Four laboratories participated in this Round Robin. Laboratories screened materials to identify BPA contamination in collection and analysis materials. Serum was spiked with concentrations of uBPA and/or BPA-G ranging from 0.09-19.5 (uBPA) and 0.5-32 (BPA-G) ng/mL. Additional samples were preserved unspiked as ‘environmental’ samples. Blinded samples were provided to laboratories that used LC/MSMS to simultaneously quantify uBPA and BPA-G. To determine whether inadvertent hydrolysis of BPA metabolites occurred, samples spiked with only BPA-G were analyzed for the presence of uBPA. Finally, three laboratories compared direct and indirect methods of quantifying BPA-G. Results We identified collection materials and reagents that did not introduce BPA contamination. In the blinded spiked sample analysis, all laboratories were able to distinguish low from high values of uBPA and BPA-G, for the whole spiked sample range and for those samples spiked with the three lowest concentrations (0.5-3.1 ng/ml). By completion of the Round Robin, three laboratories had verified methods for the analysis of uBPA and two verified for the analysis of BPA-G (verification determined by: 4 of 5 samples within 20% of spiked concentrations). In the analysis of BPA-G only spiked samples, all laboratories reported BPA-G was the majority of BPA detected (92.2 – 100%). Finally, laboratories were more likely to be verified

  20. NIEHS/FDA CLARITY-BPA research program update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heindel, Jerrold J; Newbold, Retha R; Bucher, John R; Camacho, Luísa; Delclos, K Barry; Lewis, Sherry M; Vanlandingham, Michelle; Churchwell, Mona I; Twaddle, Nathan C; McLellen, Michelle; Chidambaram, Mani; Bryant, Matthew; Woodling, Kellie; Gamboa da Costa, Gonçalo; Ferguson, Sherry A; Flaws, Jodi; Howard, Paul C; Walker, Nigel J; Zoeller, R Thomas; Fostel, Jennifer; Favaro, Carolyn; Schug, Thaddeus T

    2015-12-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical used in the production of numerous consumer products resulting in potential daily human exposure to this chemical. The FDA previously evaluated the body of BPA toxicology data and determined that BPA is safe at current exposure levels. Although consistent with the assessment of some other regulatory agencies around the world, this determination of BPA safety continues to be debated in scientific and popular publications, resulting in conflicting messages to the public. Thus, the National Toxicology Program (NTP), National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), and U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) developed a consortium-based research program to link more effectively a variety of hypothesis-based research investigations and guideline-compliant safety testing with BPA. This collaboration is known as the Consortium Linking Academic and Regulatory Insights on BPA Toxicity (CLARITY-BPA). This paper provides a detailed description of the conduct of the study and a midterm update on progress of the CLARITY-BPA research program. PMID:26232693

  1. Evaluation of the BPA Residential Weatherization Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirst, E.; Goeltz, R.; White, D.; Bronfman, B.; Lerman, D.; Keating, K.

    1985-06-01

    This report documents the activities and results of a comprehensive, quantitative evaluation of the BPA program. The evaluation focuses on the energy-saving effects of the program and on its economic costs and benefits. In addition, the evaluation addresses issues related to program operation: participants satisfaction with the program, differences between participants in 1982 and 1983, differences between participant and nonparticipants, and the retrofit measures recommended in the energy audits relative to those subsequently installed with BPA financing. Analysis of these issues required collection and organization of a large and complicated data base. These data include monthly or bimonthly electricity consumption records, for samples of 1982 and 1983 program participants and nonparticipants, from mid-1981 through mid-1984; daily temperature data for 32 weather stations near these households to adjust electricity consumption for changes in winter severity; energy audit reports and weatherization completion forms for program participants; information on household demographic characteristics, structure characteristics, heating fuels, recent conservation actions, and attitudes towards energy conservation from on-site and telephone surveys conducted in 1983; and updates on changes in important energy-related characteristics from a mail survey conducted in Summer 1984. These data were collected from households served by ten electric utilities that participated in the BPA interim program. All of these households have electric space heating equipment, almost all live in single-family homes, almost all own their homes, and all have lived in their present residence since mid-1981. Data are available for about 600 1982 participants, 600 1983 participants, 400 nonparticipants, and 70 households that received an audit only. 22 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. BPA/Lower Valley transmission project. Final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonneville Power Administration and Lower Valley Power and Light, Inc. propose to solve a voltage stability problem in the Jackson and Afton, Wyoming areas. Lower Valley buys electricity from BPA and then supplies it to the residences and businesses of the Jackson and Afton, Wyoming areas. BPA is considering five alternatives. For the Agency Proposed Action, BPA and Lower Valley would construct a new 115-kV line from BPA's Swan Valley Substation near Swan Valley in Bonneville County, Idaho about 58 km (36 miles) east to BPA's Teton Substation near Jackson in Teton County, Wyoming. The new line would be next to an existing 115-kV line. The Single-Circuit Line Alternative has all the components of the Agency Proposed Action except that the entire line would be supported by single-circuit wood pole H-frame structures. the Short Line Alternative has all the components of the Single-Circuit Line Alternative except it would only be half as long. BPA would also construct a new switching station near the existing right-of-way, west or north of Targhee Tap. Targhee Tap would then be removed. For the Static Var Compensation Alternative, BPA would install a Static Var Compensator (SVC) at Teton or Jackson Substation. An SVC is a group of electrical equipment placed at a substation to help control voltage on a transmission system. The No Action Alternative assumes that no new transmission line is built, and no other equipment is added to the transmission system

  3. The Potential Roles of Bisphenol A (BPA) Pathogenesis in Autoimmunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a monomer found in commonly used consumer plastic goods. Although much attention in recent years has been placed on BPA's impact as an endocrine disruptor, it also appears to activate many immune pathways involved in both autoimmune disease development and autoimmune reactivity provocation. The current scientific literature is void of research papers linking BPA directly to human or animal onset of autoimmunity. This paper explores the impact of BPA on immune reactivity and the potential roles these mechanisms may have on the development or provocation of autoimmune diseases. Potential mechanisms by which BPA may be a contributing risk factor to autoimmune disease development and progression include its impact on hyperprolactinemia, estrogenic immune signaling, cytochrome P450 enzyme disruption, immune signal transduction pathway alteration, cytokine polarization, aryl hydrocarbon activation of Th-17 receptors, molecular mimicry, macrophage activation, lipopolysaccharide activation, and immunoglobulin pathophysiology. In this paper a review of these known autoimmune triggering mechanisms will be correlated with BPA exposure, thereby suggesting that BPA has a role in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity. PMID:24804084

  4. Health risk of exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konieczna, Aleksandra; Rutkowska, Aleksandra; Rachoń, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) belongs to chemicals that are produced in large quantities worldwide. It is commonly used as monomer in polycarbonate synthesis, plasticizer in the production of epoxy resins, as well as an additive for the elimination of surfeit of hydrochloric acid during the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) production. BPA is not only used in the production of plastics intended to a direct contact with food, including plastic packaging and kitchenware, but also in inner coatings of cans and jar caps. There are various routes of human exposure to this substance such as oral, by inhalation and transdermal. The main sources of exposure to BPA include food packaging and dust, dental materials, healthcare equipment, thermal paper, toys and articles for children and infants. BPA is metabolized in the liver to form bisphenol A glucuronide and mostly in this form is excreted with urine. Due to its phenolic structure BPA has been shown to interact with estrogen receptors and to act as agonist or antagonist via estrogen receptor (ER) dependent signalling pathways. Therefore, BPA has been shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of several endocrine disorders including female and male infertility, precocious puberty, hormone dependent tumours such as breast and prostate cancer and several metabolic disorders including polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Because of the constant, daily exposure and its tendency to bio-accumulation, BPA seems to require special attention such as biomonitoring. This observation should include clinical tests of BPA concentration in the urine, which is not only one of the best methods of evaluation of the exposure to this compound, but also the dependence of the daily intake of BPA and the risk of some endocrine disorders. PMID:25813067

  5. Review of BPA funded sturgeon, resident fish and wildlife projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) held a public meeting on November 19--21, 1991, for the purpose of review, coordination, and consultation of the BPA-funded projects for sturgeon, resident fish, and wildlife in the Columbia River Basin (Basin). The comments received after the meeting were favorable and the participants agreed that the meeting was stimulating and productive. The information exchanged should lead to better coordination with other projects throughout the Basin. This document list the projects by title, the project leaders and BPA's project officers, and an abstract of each leader's presentation

  6. BPA uptake in rat tissues after partial hepatectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slatkin, D.N.; Nawrocky, M.M.; Coderre, J.A.; Fisher, C.D.; Joel, D.D.; Lombardo, D.T.; Micca, P.L.

    1996-12-31

    In boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), boron given as boronophenylalanine (BPA) accumulates transiently not only in tumors but also in normal tissues. Average boron concentrations in transplanted 9L gliosarcoma tumors of 20 rats were 2.5 to 3.7 times concentrations found in blood. Although boron levels in a variety of tissues were also higher than blood the concentrations were less than the lowest found in the tumor. Further note than although BPA is a structural analogue of phenylalanine (Phe), the pathway of BPA uptake into regenerating liver may not be linked to Phe uptake mechanisms.

  7. BPA and BSH accumulation in experimental tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, H. [Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States); Sedgwick, E.M. [Southampton General Hospital, Wessex Neuro-Center, Southampton (United Kingdom)

    2000-10-01

    The accumulation of boronated compounds into tumors is a critical component to the success of BNCT. To date, great variability has been demonstrated in the tumor:blood ratio achieved in samples both from different patients and within samples taken from the same patient. The factors that probably influence the level of uptake include the vascular perfusion within the tumor, the permeability of these vessels and the viability of the tumor cells themselves. These experiments were designed to measure these various factors in different experimental tumor models and to relate these measurements to the uptake of both BPA (Boronophenylalanine) and BSH (Sodiumborocaptate). They demonstrate that within different tumors there can be wide variations in the vascular parameters. In addition, the viability of the tumor cells may also be an important determinant of tumor uptake. (author)

  8. BPA and BSH accumulation in experimental tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accumulation of boronated compounds into tumors is a critical component to the success of BNCT. To date, great variability has been demonstrated in the tumor:blood ratio achieved in samples both from different patients and within samples taken from the same patient. The factors that probably influence the level of uptake include the vascular perfusion within the tumor, the permeability of these vessels and the viability of the tumor cells themselves. These experiments were designed to measure these various factors in different experimental tumor models and to relate these measurements to the uptake of both BPA (Boronophenylalanine) and BSH (Sodiumborocaptate). They demonstrate that within different tumors there can be wide variations in the vascular parameters. In addition, the viability of the tumor cells may also be an important determinant of tumor uptake. (author)

  9. From BPA to its analogues: Is it a safe journey?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Afia; Ahmad, Masood

    2016-09-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) is one of the most abundant synthetic chemicals in the world due to its uses in plastics. Its widespread exposure vis-a-vis low dose effects led to a reduction in its safety dose and imposition of ban on its use in infant feeding bottles. This restriction paved the way for the gradual market entry of its analogues. However, their structural similarity to BPA has put them under surveillance for endocrine disrupting potential. The application of these analogues is increasing and so are the studies reporting their toxicity. This review highlights the reasons which led to the ban of BPA and also reports the exposure and toxicological data available on its analogues. Hence, this compilation is expected to answer in a better way whether the replacement of BPA by these analogues is safer or more harmful? PMID:27262103

  10. Biodistribution of BPA in a thyroid undifferentiated carcinoma model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagrosa, M.A.; Viaggi, M.; Kreimann, E.; Garavaglia, R.; Farias, S.; Juvenal, G.J.; Pisarev, M.A. [Argentine Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2000-10-01

    BPA uptake was studied both in vitro and in vivo. A significant greater uptake by a thyroid undifferentiated human carcinoma cell line (ARO) was found when compared to normal bovine and human adenoma cells. When the ARO cells were transplanted into nude mice BPA uptake by the tumor was 4 times greater than normal thyroid and 8 times greater than blood. These results open the possibility of applying BNCT to the treatment of thyroid undifferentiated carcinoma. (author)

  11. {sup 123}I-BPA and {sup 123}I-BPA-fructose complex as a new radiopharmaceutical for the imaging of amino acid transport in tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, T. H.; Choi, C. W.; Woo, K. S.; Chung, W. S.; Lim, S. J.; Lee, S. J.; Hong, S. W.; Lim, S. M. [Korea Cancer Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-07-01

    Boronophenylalanine (BPA) as derivative of phenylalanine, was used to treatment for glioma and melanoma in BNCT. We labeled BPA with radioiodides for tumor imaging of amino acid transport with gamma camera. Because of limited solubility of BAP, I-BPA-Fructose(I-BPA was complexed with fructose) to increase solubility. I-BPA was labeled by chloramine T coated bead method. Serum stability of I-BPA analyzed by HPLC at 37 .deg. C. Cellular uptake of I-BPA and I-BPA-Fructose was compared in 9L glioma and B16 melanoma. To see biodistribution, I-BPA 9x10{sup 5}Bq(20 {mu}g/100 {mu}l) or I-BPA-Fructose 9x10{sup 5}Bq(20 {mu}g/fructose 55 {mu}g/100 {mu}l) was injected to B16 melanoma bearing C57 mice. In tumor bearing mice at 30 min, 1, 2, 24 hr after injection of tracers (n-4 per group). In 24hr, radiochemical purity of I-BPA in serum was retained above 90%. In cultured cells the maximum uptake was observed at 60min. In 9L glioma cells, %uptake of I-BPA and I-BPA-Fructose was 2.05, 2.6 at 60min. But in B16 melanoma, %uptake of I-BPA and I-BPA and-Fructose was 2.57, 6.62 at 60 min. In melanoma bearing mice, tumor/muscle ratio of I-BPA in 30 min, 1hr, 2hr, 24hr after injection was 1.48, 2.19, 2.28, 0.29 and %ID/g of tumor was 6.25, 5.17, 3.52, 0.29. Tumor/muscle ratio of I-BPA-Fructose was 1.51, 2.05, 2.1, 2.84 in 30 min, 1hr, 2hr, 24hr post-injection and %ID/g of tumor was 4.61, 3.65, 2.93, 0.71. The radioactivity was excreted mainly via hepatobiliary tract to the intestine. I-BPA was stable in serum upto 24hr. Uptake of I-BPA-Fructose was higher than I-BPA in melanoma cells. I-BPA-Fructose, is a promising tumor imaging radiopharmaceutical in some tumors.

  12. The Potential Roles of Bisphenol A (BPA Pathogenesis in Autoimmunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Datis Kharrazian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA is a monomer found in commonly used consumer plastic goods. Although much attention in recent years has been placed on BPA’s impact as an endocrine disruptor, it also appears to activate many immune pathways involved in both autoimmune disease development and autoimmune reactivity provocation. The current scientific literature is void of research papers linking BPA directly to human or animal onset of autoimmunity. This paper explores the impact of BPA on immune reactivity and the potential roles these mechanisms may have on the development or provocation of autoimmune diseases. Potential mechanisms by which BPA may be a contributing risk factor to autoimmune disease development and progression include its impact on hyperprolactinemia, estrogenic immune signaling, cytochrome P450 enzyme disruption, immune signal transduction pathway alteration, cytokine polarization, aryl hydrocarbon activation of Th-17 receptors, molecular mimicry, macrophage activation, lipopolysaccharide activation, and immunoglobulin pathophysiology. In this paper a review of these known autoimmune triggering mechanisms will be correlated with BPA exposure, thereby suggesting that BPA has a role in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity.

  13. Estrogenic chemicals often leach from BPA-free plastic products that are replacements for BPA-containing polycarbonate products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Xenobiotic chemicals with estrogenic activity (EA), such as bisphenol A (BPA), have been reported to have potential adverse health effects in mammals, including humans, especially in fetal and infant stages. Concerns about safety have caused many manufacturers to use alternatives to polycarbonate (PC) resins to make hard and clear, reusable, plastic products that do not leach BPA. However, no study has focused on whether such BPA-free PC-replacement products, chosen for their perceived higher safety, especially for babies, also release other chemicals that have EA. Methods We used two, well-established, mammalian cell-based, assays (MCF-7 and BG1Luc) to assess the EA of chemicals that leached into over 1000 saline or ethanol extracts of 50 unstressed or stressed (autoclaving, microwaving, and UV radiation) BPA-free PC-replacement products. An EA antagonist, ICI 182,780, was used to confirm that agonist activity in leachates was due to chemicals that activated the mammalian estrogen receptor. Results Many unstressed and stressed, PC-replacement-products made from acrylic, polystyrene, polyethersulfone, and Tritan™ resins leached chemicals with EA, including products made for use by babies. Exposure to various forms of UV radiation often increased the leaching of chemicals with EA. In contrast, some BPA-free PC-replacement products made from glycol-modified polyethylene terephthalate or cyclic olefin polymer or co-polymer resins did not release chemicals with detectable EA under any conditions tested. Conclusions This hazard assessment survey showed that many BPA-free PC- replacement products still leached chemicals having significant levels of EA, as did BPA-containing PC counterparts they were meant to replace. That is, BPA-free did not mean EA-free. However, this study also showed that some PC-replacement products did not leach chemicals having significant levels of EA. That is, EA-free PC-replacement products could be made in commercial quantities at

  14. Pubertal BPA exposure changes central ERα levels in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Cheng J; Fang, Qian Q; Tai, Fa D

    2015-09-01

    Despite many studies on the effects of perinatal Bisphenol A (BPA) exposure on the brain, its effects on brain estrogen receptor (ERα) expression during puberty remain unclear. Here, mice were injected subcutaneously with BPA (50μg/kg), estradiol (10μg 17β-E2/kg) or oil (0.05ml sesame oil) daily during puberty (postnatal days 23-30). Immunohistochemistry was used to examine changes in ERα immunoreactive neurons in different brain regions. Compared to control animals, pubertal exposure to BPA significantly increased ERα immunoreactive neurons in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST), arcuate hypothalamic nucleus (Arc), ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH) and medial amygdaloid nucleus (MeA) in females. E2 exposure during puberty also increased ERα immunoreactive neurons in the lateral septum (LS) of females. No effect was detected in males. These results indicate that the effects of estrogenic chemicals on ERα immunoreactive neurons are sex-dependent. PMID:26361328

  15. Measurement of optical purity of p-BPA-Tyrosine dipeptide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshino, K.; Sato, N.; Kitta, K.; Saitake, Y. [Shinshu Univ., Faculty of Science, Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan); Hiratsuka, J. [Kawasaki Medical School, Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan); Ichihashi, M. [Kobe Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-10-01

    Melanin biosynthesis is very active in melanoma cells, and tyrosine is one of the substrates of the melanin biosynthesis. Tyrosine is oxidized to dopa by tyrosinase at the beginning of melanin biosynthesis process. Therefore, p-boronophenylalanine (BPA)-tyrosine dipeptide is expected to be a substrate of melanin biosynthesis process, and the peptide will be incorporated in melanoma cells, and then tumor boron concentration lasts in their cells for long time. Since p-BPA tyrosine are amino acids, they have D, L isomers. Therefore, we have tried to synthesize four isomers (L-L, L-D, D-L, D-D) of p-BPA-Tyrosine dipeptide, and have measured their optical purity with HPLC. (author)

  16. Evidence that bisphenol A (BPA) can be accurately measured without contamination in human serum and urine, and that BPA causes numerous hazards from multiple routes of exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    vom Saal, Frederick S.; Welshons, Wade V.

    2016-01-01

    There is extensive evidence that bisphenol A (BPA) is related to a wide range of adverse health effects based on both human and experimental animal studies. However, a number of regulatory agencies have ignored all hazard findings. Reports of high levels of unconjugated (bioactive) serum BPA in dozens of human biomonitoring studies have also been rejected based on the prediction that the findings are due to assay contamination and that virtually all ingested BPA is rapidly converted to inactive metabolites. NIH and industry-sponsored round robin studies have demonstrated that serum BPA can be accurately assayed without contamination, while the FDA lab has acknowledged uncontrolled assay contamination. In reviewing the published BPA biomonitoring data, we find that assay contamination is, in fact, well controlled in most labs, and cannot be used as the basis for discounting evidence that significant and virtually continuous exposure to BPA must be occurring from multiple sources. PMID:25304273

  17. Bisphenol-A (BPA) Exposure Alters Endometrial Progesterone Receptor Expression in the Non-human Primate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldad, Tamir S.; Rahmani, Nora; Leranth, Csaba; Taylor, Hugh S.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of BPA on endometrial PR expression in non-human primates and human cells. BPA is a xenoestrogen endocrine disruptor. Both BPA exposure and diminished progesterone action have been associated with pregnancy loss, endometriosis and endometrial hyperplasia/cancer. DESIGN Controlled trial in primates. SETTING University Animals African green monkeys INTERVENTIONS After oophorectomy, BPA (50μg/kg/day), estradiol, both or vehicle control were administered. . Estradiol and BPA were used in Ishikawa cells. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES PR expression using IHC and qPCR. RESULTS PR expression was increased in estradiol treated primates compared to controls. Exposure to the combination of estradiol and BPA resulted in decreased PR expression compared to estradiol exposure alone (p<0.01). In Ishikawa cells treated with estradiol, PR expression increased 5.1 fold, however, when Ishikawa cells were simultaneously treated with estradiol and BPA, PR expression was decreased to 0.6 fold that of cells treated with estradiol alone (p<0.05). CONCLUSION BPA alone functions as a weak estrogen. However, when administered with estradiol, BPA diminishes estradiol induced PR expression. The estrogen-like effect of BPA reported in exposed humans may be mediated by PR blockade and a resultant decrease in the estrogen inhibition normally imparted by progesterone. Diminished PR expression may underlie previous reports linking BPA exposure to endometrial dysfunction in humans. PMID:21536273

  18. Removal of bisphenol A (BPA) from water by various nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel, Suna; Kabay, Nalan; Yüksel, Mithat

    2013-12-15

    The removal of an endocrine disrupting compound, bisphenol A (BPA), from model solutions by selected nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes was studied. The commercially available membranes NF 90, NF 270, XLE BWRO, BW 30 (Dow FilmTech), CE BWRO and AD SWRO (GE Osmonics) were used to compare their performances for BPA removal. The water permeability coefficients, rejection of BPA and permeate flux values were calculated for all membranes used. No significant changes in their BPA removal were observed for all tight polyamide based NF and RO membranes tested except for loose NF 270 membrane. The polyamide based membranes exhibited much better performance than cellulose acetate membrane for BPA removal. Almost a complete rejection (≥ 98%) for BPA was obtained with three polyamide based RO membranes (BW 30, XLE BWRO and AD SWRO). But cellulose acetate based CE BWRO membrane offered a low and variable (10-40%) rejection for BPA. PMID:23731784

  19. Removal of bisphenol A (BPA) from water by various nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel, Suna; Kabay, Nalan; Yüksel, Mithat

    2013-12-15

    The removal of an endocrine disrupting compound, bisphenol A (BPA), from model solutions by selected nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes was studied. The commercially available membranes NF 90, NF 270, XLE BWRO, BW 30 (Dow FilmTech), CE BWRO and AD SWRO (GE Osmonics) were used to compare their performances for BPA removal. The water permeability coefficients, rejection of BPA and permeate flux values were calculated for all membranes used. No significant changes in their BPA removal were observed for all tight polyamide based NF and RO membranes tested except for loose NF 270 membrane. The polyamide based membranes exhibited much better performance than cellulose acetate membrane for BPA removal. Almost a complete rejection (≥ 98%) for BPA was obtained with three polyamide based RO membranes (BW 30, XLE BWRO and AD SWRO). But cellulose acetate based CE BWRO membrane offered a low and variable (10-40%) rejection for BPA.

  20. Removal of BPA by enzyme polymerization using NF membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escalona, Ivonne; Grooth, de Joris; Font, Josep; Nijmeijer, Kitty

    2014-01-01

    The application of laccase and peroxidase from horseradish (HRP) to facilitate the removal of bisphenol A (BPA) from aqueous solutions was investigated. Effect of pH and the enzyme dose was evaluated in order to determine the optimum conditions for the enzyme performance. The results indicate that B

  1. Assessment of the Geothermal Potential Within the BPA Marketing Area.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W.; Allen, Eliot D.

    1980-07-01

    The potential of geothermal energy is estimated that can be used for direct heat applications and electrical power generation within the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) marketing area. The BPA marketing area includes three principal states of Oregon, Washington, and Idaho and portions of California, Montana, Wyoming, Nevada, and Utah bordering on these three states. This area covers approximately 384,000 square miles and has an estimated population of 6,760,000. The total electrical geothermal potential within this marketing area is 4077 MW/sub e/ from hydrothermal resources and 16,000 MW/sub e/ from igneous systems, whereas the total thermal (wellhead) potential is 16.15 x 10/sup 15/ Btu/y. Approximately 200 geothermal resource sites were initially identified within the BPA marketing area. This number was then reduced to about 100 sites thought to be the most promising for development by the year 2000. These 100 sites, due to load area overlap, were grouped into 53 composite sites; 21-3/4 within BPA preference customer areas and 31-1/4 within nonpreference customer areas. The geothermal resource potential was then estimated for high-temperature (> 302/sup 0/F = 150/sup 0/C), intermediate-temperature (194 to 302/sup 0/F = 90 to 150/sup 0/C), and low-temperature (< 194/sup 0/F = 90/sup 0/C) resources.

  2. Monoclonal antibody against boron carriers of BNCT. Part 2. Preparation and characterization of anti p-boronophenylalanine antibody (anti-BPA MAb)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three monoclonal antibodies against p-boronophenylalanine (anti-BPA MAb) were first prepared from the hybridoma by the modified reported method. The dissociation constants of anti-BPA MAbs against BPA and its related compounds were measured by using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). These anti-BPA MAbs had high binding affinity and specificity against BPA. (author)

  3. Enantioselective synthesis of L-(-)-4- boronophenylalanine (L-BPA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsel, Edward G.

    1992-01-01

    A method of making substantially pure L-BPA is disclosed. The method includes the steps of reacting 4-bromobenzaldehyde with ethylene glycol to form 4-bromobenzaldehyde ethylene glycol acetal, sequentially reacting 4-bromobenzaldehyde ethyleneglycol acetal with Mg to produce the Grignard reagent and thereafter reacting with tributyl borate and then converting to an acid environment to form 4-boronobenzaldehyde, reacting 4-boronobenzaldehyde with diethanol amine to form 4-boronobenzaldehyde diethanolamine ester, condensing the 4-boronobenzaldehyde diethanolamine ester with 2-phenyl-2-oxazolin-5-one to form an azlactone, reacting the azlactone with an alkali metal hydroxide to form z-.alpha.-benzoylamino-4-boronocinnamic acid, asymmetrically hydrogenating the z-.alpha.-benzoylamino-4-boronocinnamic acid in the presence of a catalyst of a cheltate complex of rhodium (I) with chiral bisphosphines to form L-(+)-N-benzoyl-4-boronophenylalanine, and thereafter acidifying the L-(+)-N-benzoyl-4-boronophenylalanine in an organic medium to produce L-BPA.

  4. THE ESTROGENIC ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICAL BISPHENOL A (BPA) AND OBESITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    vom Saal, Frederick S.; Nagel, Susan C.; Coe, Benjamin L.; Angle, Brittany M.; Taylor, Julia A.

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing experimental and epidemiological evidence that fetal programming of genetic systems is a contributing factor in the recent increase in adult obesity and other components of metabolic syndrome. In particular, there is evidence that epigenetic changes associated with the use of manmade chemicals may interact with other factors that influence fetal and postnatal growth in contributing to the current obesity epidemic. The focus of this review is on the developmental effects of estrogenic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), and more specifically on effects of exposure to the estrogenic EDC bisphenol A (BPA), on adipocytes and their function, and the ultimate impact on adult obesity; BPA exposure also results in impaired reproductive capacity. We discuss the interaction of EDCs with other factors that impact growth during fetal and neonatal life, such as placental blood flow and nutrient transport to fetuses, and how these influence fetal growth and abnormalities in homeostatic control systems required to maintain normal body weight throughout life. PMID:22249005

  5. Enantioselective synthesis of L-(-)-4- boronophenylalanine (L-BPA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsel, E.G.

    1992-10-20

    A method of making substantially pure L-BPA is disclosed. The method includes the steps of reacting 4-bromobenzaldehyde with ethylene glycol to form 4-bromobenzaldehyde ethylene glycol acetal, sequentially reacting 4-bromobenzaldehyde ethyleneglycol acetal with Mg to produce the Grignard reagent and thereafter reacting with tributyl borate and then converting to an acid environment to form 4-boronobenzaldehyde, reacting 4-boronobenzaldehyde with diethanol amine to form 4-boronobenzaldehyde diethanolamine ester, condensing the 4-boronobenzaldehyde diethanolamine ester with 2-phenyl-2-oxazolin-5-one to form an azlactone, reacting the azlactone with an alkali metal hydroxide to form z-[alpha]-benzoylamino-4boronocinnamic acid, asymmetrically hydrogenating the z-[alpha]-benzoylamino-4-boronocinnamic acid in the presence of a catalyst of a cheltate complex of rhodium (I) with chiral bisphosphines to form L-(+)-N-benzoyl-4-boronophenylalanine, and thereafter acidifying the L-(+)-N-benzoyl-4-boronophenylalanine in an organic medium to produce L-BPA. 3 figs.

  6. Extensive metabolism and route-dependent pharmacokinetics of bisphenol A (BPA) in neonatal mice following oral or subcutaneous administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orally administered bisphenol A (BPA) undergoes efficient first-pass metabolism to produce the inactive conjugates BPA-glucuronide (BPA-G) and BPA-sulfate (BPA-S). This study was conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of BPA, BPA-G and BPA-S in neonatal mice following the administration of a single oral or subcutaneous (SC) dose. This study consisted of 3 phases: (1) mass-balance phase in which effective dose delivery procedures for oral or SC administration of 3H-BPA to postnatal day three (PND3) mice were developed; (2) pharmacokinetic phase during which systemic exposure to total 3H-BPA-derived radioactivity in female PND3 mice was established; and (3) metabolite profiling phase in which 50 female PND3 pups received either a single oral or SC dose of 3H-BPA. Blood was collected from 5 pups/route/time-point at various times post-dosing, the blood plasma samples were pooled by group, and time-point and samples were profiled by HPLC with fraction collection. Fractions were analyzed for total radioactivity and data used to reconstruct radiochromatograms and to integrate individual peaks. The identity of the BPA, BPA-G, and BPA-S peaks was confirmed using authentic standards and LC–MS/MS analysis. The result of this study revealed that female PND3 mice have the capacity to metabolize BPA to BPA-G, BPA-S and other metabolites after both routes of administration. Systemic exposure to free BPA is route-dependent as the plasma concentrations were lower following oral administration compared to SC injection

  7. 你家奶瓶BPA FREE没有

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    O Day

    2010-01-01

    给宝宝选择奶瓶绝对是一门学问。不是人云亦云或别人推荐的就好。妈妈们要学会分辨哪种奶瓶最适合自己的宝宝。在奶瓶的选择中,要谨记,BPA Free很重要。

  8. Evaluation of the BPA Residential Weatherization Pilot Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirst, E.; Bronfman, B.; Goeltz, R.; Trimble, J.; Lerman, D.

    1983-06-01

    A detailed quantitative evaluation of the BPA Residential Weatherization Pilot Program is described. The program, which operated from 1980 through 1982, provided free home energy audits to more than 6000 electrically-heated homes in the service areas of 11 small public utilities in the Pacific Northwest. In addition, the program provided zero-interest loans for weatherization of almost 4000 of these audited homes. The total cost of the pilot program was almost $8 million ($2600 per audited and weatherized home).

  9. Draft environmental impact statement - BPA/Lower Valley transmission project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonneville Power Administration and Lower Valley Power and Light, Inc., propose to solve a voltage stability problem in the Jackson and Afton, Wyoming areas. For the Agency Proposed Action, BPA and Lower Valley would construct a new 115-kV line from BPA's Swan Valley Substation near Swan Valley in Bonneville County, Idaho about 58 km (36 miles) east to BPA's Teton Substation near Jackson in Teton County, Wyoming. The new line would be next to an existing 115-kV line. Most of the line would be supported by a mix of single-circuit wood pole H-frame structures would be used. The Single-Circuit Line Alternative has all the components of the Agency Proposed Action except that the entire line would be supported by single-circuit structures. The Short Line Alternative has all the components of the Single-Circuit Line Alternative except it would then be removed. For the Static Var Compensation Alternative, BPA would install a Static Var Compensator (SVC) at Teton or Jackson Substation. An SVC is a group of electrical equipment placed at a substation to help control voltage on a transmission system. The No Action Alternative assumes that no new transmission line is built, and no other equipment is added to the transmission system. The USFS (Targhee and Bridger-Teton National Forests) must select al alternative based on their needs and objectives, decide if the project complies with currently approved forest plans, decide if special use permits or easements are needed for construction, operation, and maintenance of project facilities, and decide if they would issue special use permits and letters of consent to grant easements for the project

  10. Boron neutron capture irradiation of the mice hepatocytes. Evaluation of the difference between BSH and BPA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Minoru; Masunaga, Shinichiro; Kinashi, Yuko; Ono, Koji [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst.

    1998-02-01

    We evaluated the difference in the response of the hepatocytes to thermal neutron radiation between BSH and BPA by the micronucleus (MN) assay. The compound biological effectiveness (CBE) factor was estimated. The CBE factor value for BSH was 2.48, and that for BPA was 6.19. The results is supposed to be attributed to the difference of intracellular localization between BSH and BPA. (author)

  11. Developmental programming: interaction between prenatal BPA exposure and postnatal adiposity on metabolic variables in female sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Moeller, Jacob; Sreedharan, Rohit; Singer, Kanakadurga; Lumeng, Carey; Ye, Wen; Pease, Anthony; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2016-02-01

    Among potential contributors for the increased incidence of metabolic diseases is the developmental exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals such as bisphenol A (BPA). BPA is an estrogenic chemical used in a variety of consumer products. Evidence points to interactions of BPA with the prevailing environment. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of prenatal exposure to BPA on postnatal metabolic outcomes, including insulin resistance, adipose tissue distribution, adipocyte morphometry, and expression of inflammatory markers in adipose tissue as well as to assess whether postnatal overfeeding would exacerbate these effects. Findings indicate that prenatal BPA exposure leads to insulin resistance in adulthood in the first breeder cohort (study 1), but not in the second cohort (study 2), which is suggestive of potential differences in genetic susceptibility. BPA exposure induced adipocyte hypertrophy in the visceral fat depot without an accompanying increase in visceral fat mass or increased CD68, a marker of macrophage infiltration, in the subcutaneous fat depot. Cohens effect size analysis found the ratio of visceral to subcutaneous fat depot in the prenatal BPA-treated overfed group to be higher compared with the control-overfed group. Altogether, these results suggest that exposure to BPA during fetal life at levels found in humans can program metabolic outcomes that lead to insulin resistance, a forerunner of type 2 diabetes, with postnatal obesity failing to manifest any interaction with prenatal BPA relative to insulin resistance and adipocyte hypertrophy. PMID:26646100

  12. Mineralization of bisphenol A (BPA) by anodic oxidation with boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murugananthan, M. [Satellite Venture Business Laboratory, Utsunomiya University, 7-1-2 Yoto, Utsunomiya, Tochigi 321-8585 (Japan)], E-mail: muruga.chem@gmail.com; Yoshihara, S. [Department of Energy and Environmental Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Utsunomiya University, 7-1-2 Yoto, Utsunomiya, Tochigi 321-8585 (Japan)], E-mail: sachioy@cc.utsunomiya-u.ac.jp; Rakuma, T.; Shirakashi, T. [Department of Energy and Environmental Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Utsunomiya University, 7-1-2 Yoto, Utsunomiya, Tochigi 321-8585 (Japan)

    2008-06-15

    Anodic oxidation of bisphenol A (BPA), a representative endocrine disrupting chemical, was carried out using boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode at galvanostatic mode. The electro-oxidation behavior of BPA at BDD electrode was investigated by means of cyclic voltammetric technique. The extent of degradation and mineralization of BPA were monitored by HPLC and total organic carbon (TOC) value, respectively. The results obtained, indicate that the BPA removal at BDD depends on the applied current density (I{sub appl}), initial concentration of BPA, pH of electrolyte and supporting medium. Galvanostatic electrolysis at BDD anode cause concomitant generation of hydroxyl radical that leads to the BPA destruction. The kinetics for the BPA degradation follows a pseudo-first order reaction with a higher rate constant 12.8 x 10{sup -5} s{sup -1} for higher I{sub appl} value 35.7 mA cm{sup -2}, indicating that the oxidation reaction is limited by I{sub appl} control. Complete mineralization of BPA was achieved regardless of the variables and accordingly the mineralization current efficiency was calculated from the TOC removal measurements. Considering global oxidation process, the effect of supporting electrolytes has been discussed in terms of the electro generated inorganic oxidants. The better performance of BDD anode was proved on a comparative study with Pt and glassy carbon under similar experimental conditions. A possible reaction mechanism for BPA degradation involving three main aromatic intermediates, identified by GC-MS analysis, was proposed.

  13. Mineralization of bisphenol A (BPA) by anodic oxidation with boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anodic oxidation of bisphenol A (BPA), a representative endocrine disrupting chemical, was carried out using boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode at galvanostatic mode. The electro-oxidation behavior of BPA at BDD electrode was investigated by means of cyclic voltammetric technique. The extent of degradation and mineralization of BPA were monitored by HPLC and total organic carbon (TOC) value, respectively. The results obtained, indicate that the BPA removal at BDD depends on the applied current density (Iappl), initial concentration of BPA, pH of electrolyte and supporting medium. Galvanostatic electrolysis at BDD anode cause concomitant generation of hydroxyl radical that leads to the BPA destruction. The kinetics for the BPA degradation follows a pseudo-first order reaction with a higher rate constant 12.8 x 10-5 s-1 for higher Iappl value 35.7 mA cm-2, indicating that the oxidation reaction is limited by Iappl control. Complete mineralization of BPA was achieved regardless of the variables and accordingly the mineralization current efficiency was calculated from the TOC removal measurements. Considering global oxidation process, the effect of supporting electrolytes has been discussed in terms of the electro generated inorganic oxidants. The better performance of BDD anode was proved on a comparative study with Pt and glassy carbon under similar experimental conditions. A possible reaction mechanism for BPA degradation involving three main aromatic intermediates, identified by GC-MS analysis, was proposed

  14. Exposure assessment of adult intake of bisphenol A (BPA) with emphasis on canned food dietary exposures

    OpenAIRE

    Lorber, Matthew; Schecter, Arnold; Paepke, Olaf; Shropshire, William; Christensen, Krista; Birnbaum, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high-volume, synthetic compound found in epoxy resins and plastics used in food packaging. Food is believed to be a major source of BPA intake. In this study, we measured the concentration of BPA in convenience samplings of foodstuffs purchased in Dallas, Texas. Sampling entailed collection of 204 samples of fresh, frozen, and canned foods in two rounds in 2010. BPA was positive in 73% of the canned food samples, while it was found in only 7% of non-canned foods at low ...

  15. Developmental exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) alters sexual differentiation in painted turtles (Chrysemys picta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandegian, Caitlin M.; Deem, Sharon L.; Bhandari, Ramji K.; Holliday, Casey M.; Nicks, Diane; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S.; Selcer, Kyle; Tillitt, Donald E.; vom Saal, Fredrick S.; Velez, Vanessa; Yang, Ying; Holliday, Dawn K.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental chemicals can disrupt endocrine signaling and adversely impact sexual differentiation in wildlife. Bisphenol A (BPA) is an estrogenic chemical commonly found in a variety of habitats. In this study, we used painted turtles (Chrysemys picta), which have temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), as an animal model for ontogenetic endocrine disruption by BPA. We hypothesized that BPA would override TSD and disrupt sexual development. We incubated farm-raised turtle eggs at the male-producing temperature (26 °C), randomly assigned individuals to treatment groups: control, vehicle control, 17β-estradiol (E2, 20 ng/g-egg) or 0.01, 1.0, 100 μg BPA/g-egg and harvested tissues at hatch. Typical female gonads were present in 89% of the E2-treated “males”, but in none of the control males (n = 35). Gonads of BPA-exposed turtles had varying amounts of ovarian-like cortical (OLC) tissue and disorganized testicular tubules in the medulla. Although the percentage of males with OLCs increased with BPA dose (BPA-low = 30%, BPA-medium = 33%, BPA-high = 39%), this difference was not significant (p = 0.85). In all three BPA treatments, SOX9 patterns revealed disorganized medullary testicular tubules and β-catenin expression in a thickened cortex. Liver vitellogenin, a female-specific liver protein commonly used as an exposure biomarker, was not induced by any of the treatments. Notably, these results suggest that developmental exposure to BPA disrupts sexual differentiation in painted turtles. Further examination is necessary to determine the underlying mechanisms of sex reversal in reptiles and how these translate to EDC exposure in wild populations.

  16. Bisphenol Analogues Other Than BPA: Environmental Occurrence, Human Exposure, and Toxicity-A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Da; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Tan, Hongli; Zheng, Zhengui; Feng, Yong-Lai; Wu, Yan; Widelka, Margaret

    2016-06-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the environmental occurrence, human exposure, and toxicity of bisphenol A (BPA). Following stringent regulations on the production and usage of BPA, several bisphenol analogues have been produced as a replacement for BPA in various applications. The present review outlines the current state of knowledge on the occurrence of bisphenol analogues (other than BPA) in the environment, consumer products and foodstuffs, human exposure and biomonitoring, and toxicity. Whereas BPA was still the major bisphenol analogue found in most environmental monitoring studies, BPF and BPS were also frequently detected. Elevated concentrations of BPAF, BPF, and BPS (i.e., similar to or greater than that of BPA) have been reported in the abiotic environment and human urine from some regions. Many analogues exhibit endocrine disrupting effects, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, dioxin-like effects, and neurotoxicity in laboratory studies. BPAF, BPB, BPF, and BPS have been shown to exhibit estrogenic and/or antiandrogenic activities similar to or even greater than that of BPA. Knowledge gaps and research needs have been identified, which include the elucidation of environmental occurrences, persistence, and fate of bisphenol analogues (other than BPA), sources and pathways for human exposure, effects on reproductive systems and the mammary gland, mechanisms of toxicity from coexposure to multiple analogues, metabolic pathways and products, and the impact of metabolic modification on toxicity. PMID:27143250

  17. Molecular analysis of the apoptotic effects of BPA in acute myeloid leukemia cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontempo, Paola; Mita, Luigi; Doto, Antonella; Miceli, Marco; Nebbioso, Angela; Lepore, Ilaria; Franci, GianLuigi; Menafra, Roberta; Carafa, Vincenzo; Conte, Mariarosaria; De Bellis, Floriana; Manzo, Fabio; Di Cerbo, Vincenzo; Benedetti, Rosaria; D'Amato, Loredana; Marino, Maria; Bolli, Alessandro; Del Pozzo, Giovanna; Diano, Nadia; Portaccio, Marianna; Mita, Gustavo D; Vietri, Maria Teresa; Cioffi, Michele; Nola, Ernesto; Dell'Aversana, Carmela; Sica, Vincenzo; Molinari, Anna Maria; Altucci, Lucia

    2009-01-01

    Background: BPA (bisphenol A or 2,2-bis(4-hydroxy-phenol)propane) is present in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins, which can be used in impact-resistant safety equipment and baby bottles, as protective coatings inside metal food containers, and as composites and sealants in dentistry. Recently, attention has focused on the estrogen-like and carcinogenic adverse effects of BPA. Thus, it is necessary to investigate the cytotoxicity and apoptosis-inducing activity of this compound. Methods: Cell cycle, apoptosis and differentiation analyses; western blots. Results: BPA is able to induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in three different acute myeloid leukemias. Although some granulocytic differentiation concomitantly occurred in NB4 cells upon BPA treatment, the major action was the induction of apoptosis. BPA mediated apoptosis was caspase dependent and occurred by activation of extrinsic and intrinsic cell death pathways modulating both FAS and TRAIL and by inducing BAD phosphorylation in NB4 cells. Finally, also non genomic actions such as the early decrease of both ERK and AKT phosphorylation were induced by BPA thus indicating that a complex intersection of regulations occur for the apoptotic action of BPA. Conclusion: BPA is able to induce apoptosis in leukemia cells via caspase activation and involvement of both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of apoptosis. PMID:19538739

  18. Molecular analysis of the apoptotic effects of BPA in acute myeloid leukemia cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del Pozzo Giovanna

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: BPA (bisphenol A or 2,2-bis(4-hydroxy-phenolpropane is present in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins, which can be used in impact-resistant safety equipment and baby bottles, as protective coatings inside metal food containers, and as composites and sealants in dentistry. Recently, attention has focused on the estrogen-like and carcinogenic adverse effects of BPA. Thus, it is necessary to investigate the cytotoxicity and apoptosis-inducing activity of this compound. Methods: Cell cycle, apoptosis and differentiation analyses; western blots. Results: BPA is able to induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in three different acute myeloid leukemias. Although some granulocytic differentiation concomitantly occurred in NB4 cells upon BPA treatment, the major action was the induction of apoptosis. BPA mediated apoptosis was caspase dependent and occurred by activation of extrinsic and intrinsic cell death pathways modulating both FAS and TRAIL and by inducing BAD phosphorylation in NB4 cells. Finally, also non genomic actions such as the early decrease of both ERK and AKT phosphorylation were induced by BPA thus indicating that a complex intersection of regulations occur for the apoptotic action of BPA. Conclusion: BPA is able to induce apoptosis in leukemia cells via caspase activation and involvement of both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of apoptosis.

  19. Exposure to the BPA-Substitute Bisphenol S Causes Unique Alterations of Germline Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yichang; Qiu, Zhiqun; Lee, Dong Yeon; Telesca, Donatello; Yang, Xia; Allard, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about the safety of Bisphenol A, a chemical found in plastics, receipts, food packaging and more, have led to its replacement with substitutes now found in a multitude of consumer products. However, several popular BPA-free alternatives, such as Bisphenol S, share a high degree of structural similarity with BPA, suggesting that these substitutes may disrupt similar developmental and reproductive pathways. We compared the effects of BPA and BPS on germline and reproductive functions using the genetic model system Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that, similarly to BPA, BPS caused severe reproductive defects including germline apoptosis and embryonic lethality. However, meiotic recombination, targeted gene expression, whole transcriptome and ontology analyses as well as ToxCast data mining all indicate that these effects are partly achieved via mechanisms distinct from BPAs. These findings therefore raise new concerns about the safety of BPA alternatives and the risk associated with human exposure to mixtures. PMID:27472198

  20. Exposure to the BPA-Substitute Bisphenol S Causes Unique Alterations of Germline Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yichang; Shu, Le; Qiu, Zhiqun; Lee, Dong Yeon; Settle, Sara J; Que Hee, Shane; Telesca, Donatello; Yang, Xia; Allard, Patrick

    2016-07-01

    Concerns about the safety of Bisphenol A, a chemical found in plastics, receipts, food packaging and more, have led to its replacement with substitutes now found in a multitude of consumer products. However, several popular BPA-free alternatives, such as Bisphenol S, share a high degree of structural similarity with BPA, suggesting that these substitutes may disrupt similar developmental and reproductive pathways. We compared the effects of BPA and BPS on germline and reproductive functions using the genetic model system Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that, similarly to BPA, BPS caused severe reproductive defects including germline apoptosis and embryonic lethality. However, meiotic recombination, targeted gene expression, whole transcriptome and ontology analyses as well as ToxCast data mining all indicate that these effects are partly achieved via mechanisms distinct from BPAs. These findings therefore raise new concerns about the safety of BPA alternatives and the risk associated with human exposure to mixtures. PMID:27472198

  1. Long-term BPA infusions. Evaluation in the rat brain tumor and rat spinal cord models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coderre, J.A.; Micca, P.L.; Nawrocky, M.M.; Joel, D.D. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Medical Department, Upton, NY (United States); Morris, G.M. [University of Oxford, Research Institute, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2000-10-01

    In the BPA-based dose escalation clinical trial, the observations of tumor recurrence in areas of extremely high calculated tumor doses suggest that the BPA distribution is non-uniform. Longer (6-hour) i.v. infusions of BPA are evaluated in the rat brain tumor and spinal cord models to address the questions of whether long-term infusions are more effective against the tumor and whether long-term infusions are detrimental in the central nervous system. In the rat spinal cord, the 50% effective doses (ED{sub 50}) for myeloparesis were not significantly different after a single i.p. injection of BPA-fructose or a 6 hour i.v. infusion. In the rat 9L gliosarcoma brain tumor model, BNCT following 2-hr or 6-hr infusions of BPA-F produced similar levels of long term survival. (author)

  2. Estrogens in the wrong place at the wrong time: fetal BPA exposure and mammary cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulose, Tessie; Speroni, Lucia; Sonnenschein, Carlos; Soto, Ana M

    2014-01-01

    Iatrogenic gestational exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) induced alterations of the genital tract and predisposed individuals to develop clear cell carcinoma of the vagina as well as breast cancer later in life. Gestational exposure of rodents to a related compound, the xenoestrogen bisphenol-A (BPA) increases the propensity to develop mammary cancer during adulthood, long after cessation of exposure. Exposure to BPA during gestation induces morphological alterations in both the stroma and the epithelium of the fetal mammary gland at 18 days of age. We postulate that the primary target of BPA is the fetal stroma, the only mammary tissue expressing estrogen receptors during fetal life. BPA would then alter the reciprocal stroma-epithelial interactions that mediate mammogenesis. In addition to this direct effect on the mammary gland, BPA is postulated to affect the hypothalamus and thus in turn affect the regulation of mammotropic hormones at puberty and beyond. PMID:25277313

  3. Exposure to the BPA-Substitute Bisphenol S Causes Unique Alterations of Germline Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yichang; Shu, Le; Qiu, Zhiqun; Lee, Dong Yeon; Settle, Sara J; Que Hee, Shane; Telesca, Donatello; Yang, Xia; Allard, Patrick

    2016-07-01

    Concerns about the safety of Bisphenol A, a chemical found in plastics, receipts, food packaging and more, have led to its replacement with substitutes now found in a multitude of consumer products. However, several popular BPA-free alternatives, such as Bisphenol S, share a high degree of structural similarity with BPA, suggesting that these substitutes may disrupt similar developmental and reproductive pathways. We compared the effects of BPA and BPS on germline and reproductive functions using the genetic model system Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that, similarly to BPA, BPS caused severe reproductive defects including germline apoptosis and embryonic lethality. However, meiotic recombination, targeted gene expression, whole transcriptome and ontology analyses as well as ToxCast data mining all indicate that these effects are partly achieved via mechanisms distinct from BPAs. These findings therefore raise new concerns about the safety of BPA alternatives and the risk associated with human exposure to mixtures.

  4. Long-term BPA infusions. Evaluation in the rat brain tumor and rat spinal cord models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the BPA-based dose escalation clinical trial, the observations of tumor recurrence in areas of extremely high calculated tumor doses suggest that the BPA distribution is non-uniform. Longer (6-hour) i.v. infusions of BPA are evaluated in the rat brain tumor and spinal cord models to address the questions of whether long-term infusions are more effective against the tumor and whether long-term infusions are detrimental in the central nervous system. In the rat spinal cord, the 50% effective doses (ED50) for myeloparesis were not significantly different after a single i.p. injection of BPA-fructose or a 6 hour i.v. infusion. In the rat 9L gliosarcoma brain tumor model, BNCT following 2-hr or 6-hr infusions of BPA-F produced similar levels of long term survival. (author)

  5. Impact of Low-Dose Oral Exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) on Juvenile and Adult Rat Exploratory and Anxiety Behavior: A CLARITY-BPA Consortium Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebuli, Meghan E; Camacho, Luísa; Adonay, Maria E; Reif, David M; Aylor, David L; Patisaul, Heather B

    2015-12-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high volume production chemical and has been identified as an endocrine disruptor, prompting concern that developmental exposure could impact brain development and behavior. Rodent and human studies suggest that early life BPA exposure may result in an anxious, hyperactive phenotype but results are conflicting and data from studies using multiple doses below the no-observed-adverse-effect level are limited. To address this, the present studies were conducted as part of the CLARITY-BPA (Consortium Linking Academic and Regulatory Insights on BPA Toxicity) program. The impact of perinatal BPA exposure (2.5, 25, or 2500 µg/kg body weight (bw)/day) on behaviors related to anxiety and exploratory activity was assessed in juvenile (prepubertal) and adult NCTR Sprague-Dawley rats of both sexes. Ethinyl estradiol (0.5 µg/kg bw/day) was used as a reference estrogen. Exposure spanned gestation and lactation with dams gavaged from gestational day 6 until birth and then the offspring gavaged directly through weaning (n = 12/sex/group). Behavioral assessments included open field, elevated plus maze, and zero maze. Anticipated sex differences in behavior were statistically identified or suggested in most cases. No consistent effects of BPA were observed for any endpoint, in either sex, at either age compared to vehicle controls; however, significant differences between BPA-exposed and ethinyl estradiol-exposed groups were identified for some endpoints. Limitations of this study are discussed and include suboptimal statistical power and low concordance across behavioral tasks. These data do not indicate BPA-related effects on anxiety or exploratory activity in these developmentally exposed rats. PMID:26209558

  6. BPA Directly Decreases GnRH Neuronal Activity via Noncanonical Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenke, Ulrike; Constantin, Stephanie; Wray, Susan

    2016-05-01

    Peripheral feedback of gonadal estrogen to the hypothalamus is critical for reproduction. Bisphenol A (BPA), an environmental pollutant with estrogenic actions, can disrupt this feedback and lead to infertility in both humans and animals. GnRH neurons are essential for reproduction, serving as an important link between brain, pituitary, and gonads. Because GnRH neurons express several receptors that bind estrogen, they are potential targets for endocrine disruptors. However, to date, direct effects of BPA on GnRH neurons have not been shown. This study investigated the effects of BPA on GnRH neuronal activity using an explant model in which large numbers of primary GnRH neurons are maintained and express many of the receptors found in vivo. Because oscillations in intracellular calcium have been shown to correlate with electrical activity in GnRH neurons, calcium imaging was used to assay the effects of BPA. Exposure to 50μM BPA significantly decreased GnRH calcium activity. Blockage of γ-aminobutyric acid ergic and glutamatergic input did not abrogate the inhibitory BPA effect, suggesting direct regulation of GnRH neurons by BPA. In addition to estrogen receptor-β, single-cell RT-PCR analysis confirmed that GnRH neurons express G protein-coupled receptor 30 (G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1) and estrogen-related receptor-γ, all potential targets for BPA. Perturbation studies of the signaling pathway revealed that the BPA-mediated inhibition of GnRH neuronal activity occurred independent of estrogen receptors, GPER, or estrogen-related receptor-γ, via a noncanonical pathway. These results provide the first evidence of a direct effect of BPA on GnRH neurons. PMID:26934298

  7. Assessing bisphenol A (BPA) exposure risk from long-term dietary intakes in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Yu; Shen, Yi-Pei; Chen, Szu-Chieh

    2016-02-01

    Dietary intake is the major bisphenol A (BPA) exposure route in humans, and is a cause of BPA-related adverse effects. The large-scale exposure risk of humans to BPA through dietary sources in Taiwan is less well studied. The aim of this study was to assess the average daily dose (ADD) and hazardous quotient (HQ) of BPA exposure risk from long-term dietary intake of BPA, as well as BPA concentrations in different age-sex groups in Taiwan. We reanalyzed the BPA concentrations of regular daily food sources (rice, poultry, livestock, seafood, protein, fruits, and vegetables) and used a national dietary survey to estimate the contribution of variance to ADDs and potential human health effect for different age-sex groups. This study found that the daily consumption of chicken, pork/beef, and seafood were estimated to be 33.77 (Male)/22.65 (Female), 91.70 (M)/66.35 (F), and 54.15 (M)/40.78 (F) g/day, respectively. The highest BPA ADD was found in the 6-9 years age group (95% CI=0.0006-0.0027 mg/kg-bw/day), whereas the lowest BPA ADD was in the ≥65 years age group (0.0002-0.0020 mg/kg-bw/day). Based on the latest EFSA guidelines (0.004 mg/kg-bw/day), the 97.5 percentile HQ of BPA intake in different age-sex groups in Taiwan posed no risks through dietary intake. However, a combination of multiple exposure routes and long-term exposure in specific populations may be of concern in the future. PMID:26580736

  8. Boron biodistribution after boronophenylalanine-fructose (BPA-F) infusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallio, M.; Kulvik, M.; Laakso, J.; Ruokonen, I.; Vaehaetalo, J.; Faerkkilae, M. [University of Helsinki (Finland); Rasilainen, M.; Jaerviluoma, E. [Helsinki University Central Hospital, Pharmacy, Helsinki (Finland)

    2000-10-01

    In vivo dynamic tissue boron concentration measurements are not available for BNCT in clinical settings. Whole blood boron concentrations and converting factors are currently used in stead to estimate the boron concentrations in the target tissues and the ensuing radiation doses. We studied with ICP-AES the boron concentrations in blood after 2 hour intravenous infusions of BPA-F in 8 patients (290 mg/kg). As BPA-F is water soluble we calculated respective doses per lean body weight (LBW) (360 - 471 mg/kg) - the peak plasma concentrations and area under plasma boron concentration time curve correlated with the mg/LBW dose, but not with dose per skin surface area (mg/m{sup 2}). The mean boron concentrations in plasma, whole blood and red cells at the infusion were 32.1 {+-} 3.3, 23.3 {+-} 2.4 and 9.5 {+-} 2.8, respectively. LBW doses should be considered to ensure more homogenous dosing and BNCT irradiation. (author)

  9. Crystal structure and spin state of Fe0.5Co0.5(NCS)2(bpa)2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Satoru; Morita, Takaki; Inoue, Katsuya

    2012-03-01

    Fe(NCS)2(bpa)2, Co(NCS)2(bpa)2, and Fe0.5Co0.5(NCS)2(bpa)2 were synthesized. X-ray structural analysis revealed that the structure was the same among the three complexes. Although the metal-ligand distance in the mixed crystals was shorter than the distance in Fe(NCS)2(bpa)2 and was similar to that in Co(NCS)2(bpa)2, the spin state remained temperature-independent FeII high-spin state in 57Fe Mössbauer spectra.

  10. Expression and DNA methylation changes in human breast epithelial cells after bisphenol A (BPA) exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Sandra V.; Huang, Yong; Snider, Kara E.; Zhou, Yan; Pogash, Thomas J.; Russo, Jose

    2012-01-01

    It has been suggested that xenoestrogens, a group of agents termed endocrine disruptors, may contribute to the development of hormone-dependent cancers such as breast and endometrial cancers. We previously demonstrated that the xenoestrogen bisphenol A (BPA) was able to induce transformation in vitro of human breast epithelial cells. The normal-like human breast epithelial cells MCF-10F form tubules in collagen (3-D cultures) although, after treatment with BPA (10-5M and 10-6M BPA), the cells produced less tubules (73% and 80%, respectively) and some spherical masses (27% and 20%, respectively). In the present work, expression and DNA methylation analyses were performed in these cells after being exposure to BPA. These cells showed an increased expression of BRCA1, BRCA2, BARD1, CtIP, RAD51, and BRCC3, all genes involved in DNA repair, and down-regulation of PDCD5 and BCL2L11 (BIM), both involved in apoptosis. Furthermore, DNA methylation analysis shown that BPA exposure induced hypermethylation of BCL2L11, PARD6G, FOXP1, and SFRS11, and hypomethylation of NUP98 and CtIP (RBBP8). Our results indicated that normal human breast epithelial cells exposed to BPA increased the expression of genes involved in DNA repair in order to overcome the DNA damage induced by this chemical. These results suggest that the breast tissue of women with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations could be more susceptible to be transformed by BPA. PMID:22576693

  11. Probabilistic modeling of school meals for potential bisphenol A (BPA) exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartle, Jennifer C; Fox, Mary A; Lawrence, Robert S

    2016-01-01

    Many endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), including bisphenol A (BPA), are approved for use in food packaging, with unbound BPA migrating into the foods it contacts. Children, with their developing organ systems, are especially susceptible to hormone disruption, prompting this research to model the potential dose of BPA from school-provided meals. Probabilistic exposure models for school meals were informed by mixed methods. Exposure scenarios were based on United States school nutrition guidelines and included meals with varying levels of exposure potential from canned and packaged food. BPA exposure potentials were modeled with a range of 0.00049 μg/kg-BW/day for a middle school student with a low exposure breakfast and plate waste to 1.19 μg/kg-BW/day for an elementary school student eating lunch with high exposure potential. The modeled BPA doses from school meals are below the current US EPA Oral Reference Dose (RfD) of 50 μg/kg-BW/day. Recent research shows BPA animal toxicity thresholds at 2 μg/kg-BW/day. The single meal doses modeled in this research are at the same order of magnitude as the low-dose toxicity thresholds, illustrating the potential for school meals to expose children to chronic toxic levels of BPA. PMID:26395857

  12. Toxicogenomic analysis of placenta samples from mice exposed to different doses of BPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Sabrina; Tassinari, Roberta; Maranghi, Francesca; Mantovani, Alberto

    2015-06-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), a widespread Endocrine Disrupter mainly used in food contact plastics, may induce adverse effects especially on susceptible lifestages, first of all pregnancy. The present study considered placental development as a potential target of BPA and investigated potential differences in the modes of action of two doses of BPA by a toxicogenomic approach. Pregnant CD-1 mice were administered with vehicle, 0.5 (BPA05) or 50 mg/kg (BPA50) body weight (bw)/die of BPA, from gestational day (GD) 1 to GD11. At GD12 dams were sacrificed and transcriptomic analysis was performed on placenta samples. Histological, histomorphometrical and immunohistochemical analyses were also performed to phenotypically anchor transcriptional changes associated with BPA exposure. The interpretation and description of the overall data are included in a manuscript under revision [1]. Here we describe the experimental design and the analysis performed on the gene expression data which are publicly available through the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database with accession number GSE63852. PMID:26484192

  13. Endocrine activity of alternatives to BPA found in thermal paper in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldinger, Daniela M; Demierre, Anne-Laure; Zoller, Otmar; Rupp, Heinz; Reinhard, Hans; Magnin, Roxane; Becker, Thomas W; Bourqui-Pittet, Martine

    2015-04-01

    Alternatives to bisphenol A (BPA) are more and more used in thermal paper receipts. To get an overview of the situation in Switzerland, 124 thermal paper receipts were collected and analyzed. Whereas BPA was detected in most samples (n=100), some alternatives, namely bisphenol S (BPS), Pergafast® 201 and D-8 have been found in 4, 11 and 9 samples respectively. As no or few data on their endocrine activity are available, these chemicals and bisphenol F (BPF) were tested in vitro using the H295R steroidogenesis assay. 17β-Estradiol production was induced by BPA and BPF, whereas free testosterone production was inhibited by BPA and BPS. Both non-bisphenol substances did not show significant effects. The binding affinity to 16 proteins and the toxicological potential (TP) were further calculated in silico using VirtualToxLab™. TP values lay between 0.269 and 0.476 and the main target was the estrogen receptor β (84.4 nM to 1.33 μM). A substitution of BPA by BPF and BPS should be thus considered with caution, since they exhibit almost a similar endocrine activity as BPA. D-8 and Pergafast® 201 could be alternatives to replace BPA, however further analyses are needed to better characterize their effects on the hormonal system.

  14. Toxicogenomic analysis of placenta samples from mice exposed to different doses of BPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Tait

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA, a widespread Endocrine Disrupter mainly used in food contact plastics, may induce adverse effects especially on susceptible lifestages, first of all pregnancy. The present study considered placental development as a potential target of BPA and investigated potential differences in the modes of action of two doses of BPA by a toxicogenomic approach. Pregnant CD-1 mice were administered with vehicle, 0.5 (BPA05 or 50 mg/kg (BPA50 body weight (bw/die of BPA, from gestational day (GD 1 to GD11. At GD12 dams were sacrificed and transcriptomic analysis was performed on placenta samples. Histological, histomorphometrical and immunohistochemical analyses were also performed to phenotypically anchor transcriptional changes associated with BPA exposure. The interpretation and description of the overall data are included in a manuscript under revision [1]. Here we describe the experimental design and the analysis performed on the gene expression data which are publicly available through the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO database with accession number GSE63852.

  15. Quantitative determination of free and total bisphenol A in human urine using labeled BPA glucuronide and isotope dilution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubwabo, Cariton; Kosarac, Ivana; Lalonde, Kaela; Foster, Warren G

    2014-07-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widely used industrial chemical in the manufacturing of polycarbonate plastic bottles, food and beverage can linings, thermal receipts, and dental sealants. Animal and human studies suggest that BPA may disrupt normal hormonal function and hence, potentially, have negative effects on the human health. While total BPA is frequently reported, it is recognized that free BPA is the biologically active form and is rarely reported in the literature. The objective of this study was to develop a sensitive and improved method for the measurement of free and total BPA in human urine. Use of a labeled conjugated BPA (bisphenol A-d6 β-D-glucuronide) allowed for the optimization of the enzymatic reaction and permitted an accurate determination of the conjugated BPA concentration in urine samples. In addition, a (13)C12-BPA internal standard was used to account for the analytical recoveries and performance of the isotope dilution method. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) combined with derivatization and analysis using a triple quadrupole GC-EI/MS/MS system achieved very low method detection limit of 0.027 ng/mL. BPA concentrations were measured in urine samples collected during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy in 36 Canadian women. Total maternal BPA concentrations in urine samples ranged from not detected to 9.40 ng/mL (median, 1.21 ng/mL), and free BPA concentrations ranged from not detected to 0.950 ng/mL (median, 0.185 ng/mL). Eighty-six percent of the women had detectable levels of conjugated BPA, whereas only 22 % had detectable levels of free BPA in their urine. BPA levels measured in this study agreed well with data reported internationally. PMID:24817354

  16. Holding thermal receipt paper and eating food after using hand sanitizer results in high serum bioactive and urine total levels of bisphenol A (BPA).

    OpenAIRE

    Hormann, Annette M; vom Saal, Frederick S.; Nagel, Susan C; Stahlhut, Richard W.; Carol L Moyer; Ellersieck, Mark R.; Welshons, Wade V.; Pierre-Louis Toutain; Taylor, Julia A.

    2014-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting environmental contaminant used in a wide variety of products, and BPA metabolites are found in almost everyone's urine, suggesting widespread exposure from multiple sources. Regulatory agencies estimate that virtually all BPA exposure is from food and beverage packaging. However, free BPA is applied to the outer layer of thermal receipt paper present in very high (∼20 mg BPA/g paper) quantities as a print developer. Not taken into account when cons...

  17. Review of BPA Funded Sturgeon, Resident Fish and Wildlife Projects for 1990/1991.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1990-12-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) held a public meeting on November 19--21, 1991, for the purpose of review, coordination, and consultation of the BPA-funded projects for sturgeon, resident fish, and wildlife in the Columbia River Basin (Basin). The comments received after the meeting were favorable and the participants agreed that the meeting was stimulating and productive. The information exchanged should lead to better coordination with other projects throughout the Basin. This document list the projects by title, the project leaders and BPA's project officers, and an abstract of each leader's presentation.

  18. The Application of BPA in Historical Biogeography Part Two:Secondary BPA%历史生物地理学中的BPA分析法Ⅱ :二级BPA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟凯巴依尔; 李枢强; 傅金钟

    2004-01-01

    BPA(brooks parsimony analysis)是历史生物地理学研究的重要分析方法之一,包括初级BPA和二级BPA.前者主要用于寻找共同格局,后者是对网状进化格局的解释.本文详细介绍了二级BPA的分析方法,并就BPA与其它历史生物地理学/支序学派的研究方法进行了区别.

  19. Superconducting magnetic energy storage for BPA transmission-line stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, J. D.; Barron, M. H.; Boenig, H. J.; Criscuolo, A. L.; Dean, J. W.; Schermer, R. I.

    1982-11-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) operates the electrical transmission system that joints the Pacific Northwest with southern California. A 30 MJ (8.4 kWh) Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) unit with a 10 MW converter is being installed at the Tacoma Substation to provide system damping for low frequency oscillations of 0.35 Hz. The integrated system status is described and reviewed. Components included in the system are the superconducting coil, seismically mounted in an epoxy fiberglass nonconducting dewar; a helium refrigerator; a heat rejection subsystem; a high pressure gas recovery subsystem; a liquid nitrogen trailer; the converter with power transformers and switchgear; and a computer system for remote microwave link operation of the SMES unit.

  20. BPA/PGE transmission support project: Final environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Mitigation Action Plan describes the mitigation measures identified in the BPA/PGE Transmission Support Project Environmental Assessment. These measures commit to actions that will reduce the environmental impacts that could occur by constructing, operating and maintaining the transmission line and related facilities. They have been developed in coordination with environmental specialists, design and construction engineers and maintenance personnel. The measures will be written into the construction specifications for the project, which is expected to be constructed by contract personnel. Unless noted in the plan, the construction inspector or the line foreman would be responsible for carrying out the mitigation; environmental staff would also monitor the area for mitigation effectiveness. The right-of-way would be cleared in 1997 or 1998, and construction would begin in the spring of 1998 and be completed later that fall

  1. Multifunctional data acquisition and analysis and optical sensors: a Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Dennis C.; Donnelly, Matt K.

    1995-04-01

    The authors present a design concept describing a multifunctional data acquisition and analysis architecture for advanced power system monitoring. The system is tailored to take advantage of the salient features of low energy sensors, particularly optical types. The discussion of the system concept and optical sensors is based on research at BPA and PNL and on progress made at existing BPA installations and other sites in the western power system.

  2. Multifunctional data acquisition and analysis and optical sensors - A BPA update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, D.C.; Donnelly, M.K.

    1995-12-31

    The authors present a design concept describing a multifunctional data acquisition and analysis architecture for advanced power system monitoring. The system is tailored to take advantage of the salient features of low energy sensors, particularly optical types. The discussion of the system concept and optical sensors is based on research at BPA and PNL and on progress made at existing BPA installations and other sites in the Western Power System.

  3. In utero and peripubertal exposure to phthalates and BPA in relation to female sexual maturation

    OpenAIRE

    Watkins, Deborah J.; Téllez-Rojo, Martha Maria; Ferguson, Kelly K.; Lee, Joyce M.; Solano-Gonzalez, Maritsa; Blank-Goldenberg, Clara; Peterson, Karen E.; Meeker, John D.

    2014-01-01

    The age of pubertal onset for girls has declined over past decades. Research suggests that endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may play a role but exposure at multiple stages of development has not been considered. We examined in utero and peripubertal exposure to bisphenol-A (BPA) and phthalates in relation to serum hormones and sexual maturation among females in a Mexico City birth cohort. We measured phthalate metabolite and BPA concentrations in urine collected from mothers during their...

  4. Bisphenol A (BPA) and its source in foods in Japanese markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajiki, J; Miyamoto, F; Fukata, H; Mori, C; Yonekubo, J; Hayakawa, K

    2007-01-01

    The determination of bisphenol A (BPA) and/or bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) in foods sold in Japanese markets and in water leached from six epoxy resin cans with similar diameters was carried out using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrochemical detection (LC/ECD), LC-mass spectrometric detection (LC/MS) and LC-tandem mass spectrometric detection (LC/MS/MS). BPA concentrations were 0-842 ng g(-1) for 48 canned foods, 0-14 ng g(-1) for 23 foods in plastic containers, and 0-1 ng g(-1) for 16 foods in paper containers. No BADGE was detected in three canned foods. There was no difference in leaching concentrations of BPA into glycine buffers at pHs 8 and 11, and water. The amounts of BPA leached into water from six epoxy resin cans held at 121 degrees C for 20 min were almost the same as the cans' contents and were much higher than the amounts leached from cans held at or below 80 degrees C for 60 min. The amount leached depended on the type of can, but not on the amount of BADGE leached from the cans. Considerably more BPA than BADGE leached to water from six cans. Two cans whose contents had high concentrations of BPA showed no BADGE leaching even at 121 degrees C, suggesting the different kinds of epoxy resin can linings from others. The results imply that the main source of human exposure to BPA is food from cans with linings that contain high percentages of BPA as an additive or an unforeseen contaminant. PMID:17164221

  5. Simultaneous adsorption of Cd²⁺ and BPA on amphoteric surfactant activated montmorillonite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chongmin; Wu, Pingxiao; Zhu, Yajie; Tran, Lytuong

    2016-02-01

    The study mainly investigated the simultaneous adsorption of bisphenol A (BPA) and Cd(2+) from aqueous solution on octadecane-betaine modified montmorillonite (BS-Mt). The characteristics of the obtained materials were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), Specific surface area (BET) and Scanning electron microscopy/Energy disperse spectroscopy (SEM/EDS), confirming that BS-18 was successfully introduced into Mt. Also, factors including initial solution pH, initial Cd(2+)/BPA concentration, contact time and adsorbent dosage on the adsorption processes were shown to be crucial for Cd(2+) adsorption, whereas had negligible effects on BPA adsorption. In this study, we found that pseudo-second-order model fitted well with the adsorption kinetic studies for both Cd(2+) and BPA with an equilibrium time of 24 h. The Cd(2+) and BPA adsorption isotherm could be well described by Freundlich model and Langmuir model, respectively. On the basis of kinetic models, the maximum adsorption capacity of Cd(2+) in aqueous solution was slightly enhanced after modification, indicating that Cd(2+) adsorption on BS-Mt was mainly attributed to direct electrostatic attraction and the chelate reaction, while the dramatic enhancement of maximum adsorption capacity for BPA was due to the hydrophobic interaction. PMID:26451652

  6. Bisphenol A (BPA) in food contact materials - new scientific opinion from EFSA regarding public health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćwiek-Ludwicka, Kazimiera

    2015-01-01

    The wide use of bisphenol A (BPA) as a monomer in plastics manufacture or epoxy resins intended for food contact materials (FCM) has triggered numerous concerns due to toxicological findings indicating possible endocrine disrupting properties. This article traces the evolution of the scientific opinions since 1986 when the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) for BPA and its specific migration limit (SML) from plastic FCM into food were proposed for the first time by the Scientific Committee for Food (SCF). Resent extensive scientific studies concerning refined data on toxicity and exposure to BPA from food and non-food sources (eg. dust, cosmetics, thermal paper), including the most vulnerable groups of population, allowed the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) to reduce the TDI of BPA from previously 50 µg/kg bw/day to now 4 µg/kg bw/day. EFSA's latest scientific opinion published in 2015 concludes that basing on the current estimations of total exposure to BPA from dietary and non-dietary sources for infants, children and adolescents is below the temporary TDI of 4 μg/kg bw/day. EFSA has also underlined that BPA poses no health risk at the estimated exposure levels of any population age group, including unborn children and the elderly. However, EFSA has indicated that some data on exposure and toxicological effects still require clarifications.

  7. Simultaneous adsorption of Cd²⁺ and BPA on amphoteric surfactant activated montmorillonite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chongmin; Wu, Pingxiao; Zhu, Yajie; Tran, Lytuong

    2016-02-01

    The study mainly investigated the simultaneous adsorption of bisphenol A (BPA) and Cd(2+) from aqueous solution on octadecane-betaine modified montmorillonite (BS-Mt). The characteristics of the obtained materials were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), Specific surface area (BET) and Scanning electron microscopy/Energy disperse spectroscopy (SEM/EDS), confirming that BS-18 was successfully introduced into Mt. Also, factors including initial solution pH, initial Cd(2+)/BPA concentration, contact time and adsorbent dosage on the adsorption processes were shown to be crucial for Cd(2+) adsorption, whereas had negligible effects on BPA adsorption. In this study, we found that pseudo-second-order model fitted well with the adsorption kinetic studies for both Cd(2+) and BPA with an equilibrium time of 24 h. The Cd(2+) and BPA adsorption isotherm could be well described by Freundlich model and Langmuir model, respectively. On the basis of kinetic models, the maximum adsorption capacity of Cd(2+) in aqueous solution was slightly enhanced after modification, indicating that Cd(2+) adsorption on BS-Mt was mainly attributed to direct electrostatic attraction and the chelate reaction, while the dramatic enhancement of maximum adsorption capacity for BPA was due to the hydrophobic interaction.

  8. Prediction and evaluation of route dependent dosimetry of BPA in rats at different life stages using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiaoxia, E-mail: Xiaoxia.Yang@fda.hhs.gov; Doerge, Daniel R.; Fisher, Jeffrey W.

    2013-07-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) has received considerable attention throughout the last decade due to its widespread use in consumer products. For the first time a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed in neonatal and adult rats to quantitatively evaluate age-dependent pharmacokinetics of BPA and its phase II metabolites. The PBPK model was calibrated in adult rats using studies on BPA metabolism and excretion in the liver and gastrointestinal tract, and pharmacokinetic data with BPA in adult rats. For immature rats the hepatic and gastrointestinal metabolism of BPA was inferred from studies on the maturation of phase II enzymes coupled with serum time course data in pups. The calibrated model predicted the measured serum concentrations of BPA and BPA conjugates after administration of 100 μg/kg of d6-BPA in adult rats (oral gavage and intravenous administration) and postnatal days 3, 10, and 21 pups (oral gavage). The observed age-dependent BPA serum concentrations were partially attributed to the immature metabolic capacity of pups. A comparison of the dosimetry of BPA across immature rats and monkeys suggests that dose adjustments would be necessary to extrapolate toxicity studies from neonatal rats to infant humans. - Highlights: • A PBPK model predicts the kinetics of bisphenol A (BPA) in young and adult rats. • BPA metabolism within enterocytes is required for fitting of oral BPA kinetic data. • BPA dosimetry in young rats is different than adult rats and young monkeys.

  9. Effects of developmental exposure to bisphenol A on spatial navigational learning and memory in rats: A CLARITY-BPA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sarah A; Javurek, Angela B; Painter, Michele S; Ellersieck, Mark R; Welsh, Thomas H; Camacho, Luísa; Lewis, Sherry M; Vanlandingham, Michelle M; Ferguson, Sherry A; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S

    2016-04-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a ubiquitous industrial chemical used in the production of a wide variety of items. Previous studies suggest BPA exposure may result in neuro-disruptive effects; however, data are inconsistent across animal and human studies. As part of the Consortium Linking Academic and Regulatory Insights on BPA Toxicity (CLARITY-BPA), we sought to determine whether female and male rats developmentally exposed to BPA demonstrated later spatial navigational learning and memory deficits. Pregnant NCTR Sprague-Dawley rats were orally dosed from gestational day 6 to parturition, and offspring were directly orally dosed until weaning (postnatal day 21). Treatment groups included a vehicle control, three BPA doses (2.5μg/kg body weight (bw)/day-[2.5], 25μg/kg bw/day-[25], and 2500μg/kg bw/day-[2500]) and a 0.5μg/kg/day ethinyl estradiol (EE)-reference estrogen dose. At adulthood, 1/sex/litter was tested for seven days in the Barnes maze. The 2500 BPA group sniffed more incorrect holes on day 7 than those in the control, 2.5 BPA, and EE groups. The 2500 BPA females were less likely than control females to locate the escape box in the allotted time (p value=0.04). Although 2.5 BPA females exhibited a prolonged latency, the effect did not reach significance (p value=0.06), whereas 2.5 BPA males showed improved latency compared to control males (p value=0.04), although the significance of this result is uncertain. No differences in serum testosterone concentration were detected in any male or female treatment groups. Current findings suggest developmental exposure of rats to BPA may disrupt aspects of spatial navigational learning and memory. PMID:26436835

  10. Developmental programming: Prenatal BPA treatment disrupts timing of LH surge and ovarian follicular wave dynamics in adult sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veiga-Lopez, A.; Beckett, E.M.; Abi Salloum, B. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Ye, W. [Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Padmanabhan, V., E-mail: vasantha@umich.edu [Department of Pediatrics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); The Reproductive Sciences Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Developmental exposure to BPA adversely affects reproductive function. In sheep, prenatal BPA treatment induces reproductive neuroendocrine defects, manifested as LH excess and dampened LH surge and perturbs early ovarian gene expression. In this study we hypothesized that prenatal BPA treatment will also disrupt ovarian follicular dynamics. Pregnant sheep were treated from days 30 to 90 of gestation with 3 different BPA doses (0.05, 0.5, or 5 mg/kg BW/day). All female offspring were estrus synchronized and transrectal ultrasonography was performed daily for 22 days to monitor ovarian follicular and corpora lutea dynamics. Blood samples were collected to assess preovulatory hormonal changes and luteal progesterone dynamics. Statistical analysis revealed that the time interval between the estradiol rise and the preovulatory LH surge was shortened in the BPA-treated females. None of the three BPA doses had an effect on corpora lutea, progestogenic cycles, and mean number or duration of ovulatory and non-ovulatory follicles. However, differences in follicular count trajectories were evident in all three follicular size classes (2–3 mm, 4–5 mm, and ≥ 6 mm) of prenatal BPA-treated animals compared to controls. Number of follicular waves tended also to be more variable in the prenatal BPA-treated groups ranging from 2 to 5 follicular waves per cycle, while this was restricted to 3 to 4 waves in control females. These changes in ovarian follicular dynamics coupled with defects in time interval between estradiol rise and preovulatory LH release are likely to lead to subfertility in prenatal BPA-treated females. - Highlights: • Prenatal BPA shortens interval between estradiol rise and preovulatory LH surge. • Prenatal BPA affects follicular count trajectory and follicular wave occurrence. • Prenatal BPA does not affect ovulatory rate and progesterone dynamics.

  11. Perinatal BPA Exposure Induces Hyperglycemia, Oxidative Stress and Decreased Adiponectin Production in Later Life of Male Rat Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunzhe Song

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The main object of the present study was to explore the effect of perinatal bisphenol A (BPA exposure on glucose metabolism in early and later life of male rat offspring, and to establish the potential mechanism of BPA-induced dysglycemia. Pregnant rats were treated with either vehicle or BPA by drinking water at concentrations of 1 and 10 µg/mL BPA from gestation day 6 through the end of lactation. We measured the levels of fasting serum glucose, insulin, adiponectin and parameters of oxidative stress on postnatal day (PND 50 and PND100 in male offspring, and adiponectin mRNA and protein expression in adipose tissue were also examined. Our results showed that perinatal exposure to 1 or 10 µg/mL BPA induced hyperglycemia with insulin resistance on PND100, but only 10 µg/mL BPA exposure had similar effects as early as PND50. In addition, increased oxidative stress and decreased adiponectin production were also observed in BPA exposed male offspring. Our findings indicated that perinatal exposure to BPA resulted in abnormal glucose metabolism in later life of male offspring, with an earlier and more exacerbated effect at higher doses. Down-regulated expression of adiponectin gene and increased oxidative stress induced by BPA may be associated with insulin resistance.

  12. Bisphenol A (BPA) Found in Humans and Water in Three Geographic Regions with Distinctly Different Levels of Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karalius, Vytas P.; Harbison, Justin E.; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; van Breemen, Richard B.; Li, Guannan; Huang, Ke; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon A.; Mora, Nallely; Dugas, Lara R.; Vail, Lane; Tuchman, Nancy C.; Forrester, Terrence; Luke, Amy

    2014-01-01

    The suspected endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA) is associated with the manufacture, distribution, and use of epoxy resins and polycarbonate plastics; thus, studies of this compound have focused primarily on urban areas in developed countries. This small study investigating urinary BPA of 109 people was conducted in the urban United States, urban Jamaica, and rural Ghana. Additionally, local drinking and surface water samples were collected and analyzed from areas near study participants. Levels of BPA in both urine and water were comparable among all three sites. Thus, future studies of BPA should consider expanding investigations to rural areas not typically associated with the compound. PMID:24453495

  13. The Genotoxic and Cytotoxic Effects of Bisphenol-A (BPA) in MCF-7 Cell Line and Amniocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghajanpour-Mir, Seyed Mohsen; Zabihi, Ebrahim; Akhavan-Niaki, Haleh; Keyhani, Elahe; Bagherizadeh, Iman; Biglari, Sajjad; Behjati, Farkhondeh

    2016-01-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) is an industrial xenoestrogen used widely in our living environment. Recently, several studies suggested that BPA has destructive effects on DNA and chromosomes in normal body cells via estrogen receptors (ER). Therefore, BPA could be considered as an important mediator in many diseases such as cancer. However, there are still many controversial issues which need clarification. In this study, we investigated the BPA-induced chromosomal damages in MCF-7 cell line, ER-positive and negative amniocyte cells. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity effects of BPA were also compared between these three cell groups. Expression of estrogen receptors was determined using immunocytochemistry technique. The cell cytotoxicity of BPA was measured by MTT assay. Classic cytogenetic technique was carried out for the investigation of chromosome damage. BPA, in addition to cytotoxicity, had remarkable genotoxicity at concentrations close to the traceable levels in tissues or biological fluids. Although some differences were observed in the amount of damages between ER-positive and negative fetal cells, interestingly, these differences were not significant. The present study showed that BPA could lead to chromosomal aberrations in both ER-dependent and independent pathways at some concentrations or in cell types yet not reported. Also, BPA could probably be considered as a facilitator for some predisposed cells to be cancerous by raising the chromosome instability levels. Finally, estrogen receptor seems to have a different role in cytotoxicity and genotoxicity effects. PMID:27386435

  14. Perinatal BPA Exposure Induces Hyperglycemia, Oxidative Stress and Decreased Adiponectin Production in Later Life of Male Rat Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shunzhe; Zhang, Ling; Zhang, Hongyuan; Wei, Wei; Jia, Lihong

    2014-01-01

    The main object of the present study was to explore the effect of perinatal bisphenol A (BPA) exposure on glucose metabolism in early and later life of male rat offspring, and to establish the potential mechanism of BPA-induced dysglycemia. Pregnant rats were treated with either vehicle or BPA by drinking water at concentrations of 1 and 10 µg/mL BPA from gestation day 6 through the end of lactation. We measured the levels of fasting serum glucose, insulin, adiponectin and parameters of oxidative stress on postnatal day (PND) 50 and PND100 in male offspring, and adiponectin mRNA and protein expression in adipose tissue were also examined. Our results showed that perinatal exposure to 1 or 10 µg/mL BPA induced hyperglycemia with insulin resistance on PND100, but only 10 µg/mL BPA exposure had similar effects as early as PND50. In addition, increased oxidative stress and decreased adiponectin production were also observed in BPA exposed male offspring. Our findings indicated that perinatal exposure to BPA resulted in abnormal glucose metabolism in later life of male offspring, with an earlier and more exacerbated effect at higher doses. Down-regulated expression of adiponectin gene and increased oxidative stress induced by BPA may be associated with insulin resistance. PMID:24705360

  15. Landowner’s Guide for Compatible Use of BPA Rights-of-Way

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-02-01

    Keeping transmission lines safe and reliable is a critical priority for the Bonneville Power Administration. The key element in achieving those objectives is BPA’s ability to construct, operate and maintain its transmission lines and rights-of-way — the area under and around the lines. You can help BPA keep these rights-of-way clear of trees, brush and structures that could affect the safety or reliability of the transmission system. Prior to planting, digging, or constructing within BPA’s rights-of-way, fill out BPA’s Land Use Application Form. The information you provide on the application helps BPA understand your proposed use and the potential impacts to public safety, and the safety of our crews. BPA also reviews the application to determine whether a proposed use of land is compatible with the construction, operation and maintenance of BPA transmission lines. Coordinating with BPA early in your planning process can keep you safe and avoid wasting time and money.

  16. Conjugated Bisphenol A (BPA) in maternal serum in relation to miscarriage risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathi, Ruth B.; Liebert, Cara A.; Brookfield, Kathleen F.; Taylor, Julia A.; Saal, Frederick S. vom; Fujimoto, Victor Y.; Baker, Valerie L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between maternal serum Bisphenol-A (BPA) concentration at the time of the missed period and miscarriage risk. Design Retrospective cohort of prospectively collected serum samples. Setting Academic fertility center. Patients Women presenting for early pregnancy monitoring with singleton pregnancies. Intervention Stored serum samples from 4-5 weeks gestation were analyzed for conjugated serum BPA concentrations. Main Outcomes Live birth, miscarriage, and chromosome content of miscarriage. Results Of the 115 included subjects, there were 47 live births and 68 clinical miscarriages (46 aneuploid and 22 euploid). Median conjugated BPA concentrations were higher in women with miscarriages than those with live births (0.101 vs 0.075 ng/ml). Women with the highest quartile of conjugated BPA had an increased relative risk of miscarriage (1.83, 95% CI 1.14-2.96) compared to women in the lowest quartile. We found a similar increase risk for both euploid and aneuploid miscarriages. Conclusions Maternal conjugated BPA was associated with higher risk of aneuploid and euploid miscarriage in this cohort. The impact of reducing individual exposures on future pregnancy outcomes deserves further study. PMID:24746738

  17. 双酚A(BPA)对小鼠睾丸发育的影响%Exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) affect the development of mouse testis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国梁; 张西锋; 冯艳敏; 张红英; 李兰

    2012-01-01

    双酚A (BPA)是一种人工合成的添加剂,主要用于聚碳酸酯塑料和环氧树脂的强化,所以含有BPA的工业产品在我们的生活中随处可见.同时,BPA作为一种环境类雌激素,又是一种对包括人类在内的哺乳动物内分泌系统的干扰物.本研究的目的就是探讨BPA对小鼠睾丸发育的危害作用,以及对精液品质的影响.结果表明:在小鼠睾丸发育的过程中,BPA能够导致睾丸发育不正常,具体表现在导致曲精细管的发育异常;BPA处理7周之后对小鼠睾丸产生不可逆转的损害,并且这种损害直接影响曲精细管的直径与小鼠睾丸的生精作用,并且导致小鼠精液中精子数量的下降.然而,BPA对于精细胞的Igf2r等印迹基因的DNA甲基化进程没有影响.此外,BPA连续处理7周后的小鼠的生长发育以及生育能力都受到严重影响.综上所述,BPA能够导致小鼠睾丸发育过程异常,导致小鼠精液中精子的数量的下降,但不影响Igf2r等印迹基因的DNA甲基化.%Bisphenol A (BPA), a high production volume chemical used in a wide variety of consumer products, is ubiquitous in our daily life. Meanwhile, it is a contaminant interfering with endocrine system of mammals including humans. The aim of this study is to explore the effect of BPA on the spermatogenesis and provide the evidence of BPA against semen quality. Our results have demonstrated that BPA could affect the development of testis by damaging the seminiferous tubule. BPA can lead to irreversible damage to testis and the decline of sperm in semen of mice. However, BPA has no effect on the methylation of imprinted gene Igf2r. We also confirm BPA having the influence of the male mouse after 7 weeks treatment. In conclusion, BPA accelerates declines the spermatogenesis and leads to abnormal testis development in mice without interference on DNA methylation of imprinted genes such as Igf2r.

  18. Preimplantation exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) affects embryo transport, preimplantation embryo development, and uterine receptivity in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shuo; Diao, Honglu; Smith, Mary Alice; Song, Xiao; Ye, Xiaoqin

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the effects of bisphenol A (BPA) on embryo and uterine factors in embryo implantation, timed pregnant C57BL6 females were treated subcutaneously with 0, 0.025, 0.5, 10, 40, and 100 mg/kg/day BPA from gestation days 0.5 to 3.5. In 100 mg/kg/day BPA-treated females, no implantation sites were detected on day 4.5 but retention of embryos in the oviduct and delayed embryo development were detected on day 3.5. When untreated healthy embryos were transferred to pseudopregnant females treated with 100 mg/kg/day BPA, no implantation sites were detected on day 4.5. In 40 mg/kg/day BPA-treated females, delayed implantation and increased perinatal lethality of their offspring were observed. Implantation seemed normal in the rest BPA-treated groups or the female offspring from 40 mg/kg/day BPA-treated group. These data demonstrate the adverse effects of high doses of BPA on processes critical for embryo implantation: embryo transport, preimplantation embryo development, and establishment of uterine receptivity. PMID:21907787

  19. BPA-induced DNA hypermethylation of the master mitochondrial gene PGC-1α contributes to cardiomyopathy in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ying; Xia, Wei; Yang, Jie; Zhu, Yingshuang; Chang, Huailong; Liu, Juan; Huo, Wenqian; Xu, Bing; Chen, Xi; Li, Yuanyuan; Xu, Shunqing

    2015-03-01

    Implication of environmental endocrine disruptors, such as bisphenol A (BPA), on the development of cardiopathy has been poorly investigated. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of long-term exposure to BPA at the reference dose on the myocardium of rats, and the underlying mechanisms. Male rats received corn oil or 50 μg/kg/day of BPA since delactation. At 24 and 48 weeks (wk), cardiac function and mitochondrial function were examined. The mRNA expression and the methylation status of PCG-1α, a major regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis in cardiac muscle, were also tested. At 48 wk, BPA-exposed rats displayed cardiomyopathy, characterized by myocardium hypertrophy, cardiomyocyte enlargement, and impairment of cardiac function. At 24 wk, significantly reduced ATP production, dissipated mitochondrial membrane potential (Ψm) and declined mitochondrial respiratory complex (MRC) activity in cardiomyocytes were observed in BPA-exposed rats compared with the control rats, indicating a decrease in mitochondrial function occurs before the development of cardiomyopathy. Additionally, BPA exposure decreased the expression of PGC-1α and induced hypermethylation of PGC-1 α in heart tissue in 24- and 48-week-old rats. The change in methylation of PGC-1α was observed more pronounced in BPA-exposed rats at 48 wk. Overall, long-term BPA exposure induces cardiomyopathy in male rats, and the underlying mechanism may involve the impairment of cardiac mitochondrial function and the disturbance of methylation of PGC-1α. PMID:25572651

  20. High Intake of Dietary Sugar Enhances Bisphenol A (BPA) Disruption and Reveals Ribosome-Mediated Pathways of Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Alan T.; Lemos, Bernardo

    2014-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an organic compound to which human populations are ubiquitously exposed. Epidemiological data suggest BPA exposure might be associated with higher rates of diabetes and reproductive anomalies. Health concerns also include transgenerational consequences, but these mechanisms are crudely defined. Similarly, little is known about synergistic interactions between BPA and other substances. Here we show that acute and chronic exposure to BPA causes genome-wide modulation of several functionally coherent genetic pathways in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. In particular, BPA exposure causes massive downregulation of testis-specific genes and upregulation of ribosome-associated genes widely expressed across tissues. In addition, it causes the modulation of transposable elements that are specific to the ribosomal DNA loci, suggesting that nucleolar stress might contribute to BPA toxicity. The upregulation of ribosome-associated genes and the impairment of testis-specific gene expression are significantly enhanced upon BPA exposure with a high-sugar diet. Our results suggest that BPA and dietary sugar might functionally interact, with consequences to regulatory programs in both reproductive and somatic tissues. PMID:24614930

  1. Biodistribution of BPA and BSH after single, repeated and simultaneous administrations for neutron-capture therapy of cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichikawa, H. [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Cooperative Research Center of Life Sciences, Kobe Gakuin University, 1-1-3 Minatojima, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-8586 (Japan)], E-mail: ichikawa@pharm.kobegakuin.ac.jp; Taniguchi, E. [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Cooperative Research Center of Life Sciences, Kobe Gakuin University, 1-1-3 Minatojima, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-8586 (Japan); Fujimoto, T. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hyogo Cancer Center, Akashi 673-0021 (Japan); Fukumori, Y. [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Cooperative Research Center of Life Sciences, Kobe Gakuin University, 1-1-3 Minatojima, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-8586 (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    The effect of administration mode of L-BPA and BSH on the biodistribution in the melanoma-bearing hamsters was investigated. In single intravenous (i.v.) administration, BSH (100 mg BSH/kg) showed no significant retention of {sup 10}B in all the tissues, including tumors, while long-term retention of {sup 10}B in the tumor, muscle and brain was observed with L-BPA (500 mg BPA/kg). The dose escalation of L-BPA and the simultaneous single administration of L-BPA and BSH were not so effective at increasing boron accumulation in tumor after bolus i.v. injection. The boron concentration in tumor was 41 {mu}g B/g after single bolus i.v. injection even at the dose of 1000 mg BPA/kg. In contrast, two sequential bolus i.v. injections of L-BPA with the dose of 500 mg BPA/kg each was found to be effective at increasing {sup 10}B accumulation in the tumor; the maximum {sup 10}B concentration in the tumor reached 52 {mu}g B/g at 3 h after the second i.v. injection.

  2. Review of BPA Funded Sturgeon, Resident Fish and Wildlife Projects, 1989/1990.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1990-12-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) held a public meeting on November 6-7, 1990, for the purpose of review, coordination, and consultation of the BPA-funded projects for sturgeon, resident fish, and wildlife in the Columbia River Basin (Basin). The comments received after the meeting were favorable and the participants agreed that the meeting was stimulating and productive. The information exchanged should lead to better coordination with other projects throughout the Basin. The following pages list the projects by title, the project leaders and BPA's project officers, and an abstract of each leaders presentation. These summaries are in some cases preliminary; they are subject to change and should not be quoted without consulting the project leader.

  3. BPA's Eighth Annual Energy Conservation Management Conference : Proceedings.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Energy Conservation Management Conference (8th : 1981); United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1981-01-01

    The five-year energy conservation program at Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is described at the conference. An overview of the program is presented. Topics covered in panel discussions include: how utilities can work effectively with weatherization contractors, homebuilders, energy auditors, and weatherization material suppliers; mechanisms for implementing conservation programs in the commercial sector; experiences gained in existing residential weatherization programs; and streamlining relationships between consumers, utilities, and BPA in providing services and getting feedback. The planning, programming, technical assistance, and engineering thrusts of BPA's conservation programs are discussed. Indoor air quality, renewable energy, and the regulator's role in relationships to energy conservation are discussed. Passive solar programs, DOE initiatives in solar and conservation for buildings, conservation potential in the commercial and industrial sectors, and current conservation research and development are also discussed. (MCW)

  4. BPA`s Pacific AC Intertie series capacitors: Experience, equipment and protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, G.E.; Goldsworthy, D.L. [Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Over BPA`s 40 years of series capacitor experience, equipment evolution has dramatically reduced the complexity of capacitor protection systems. BPA and other utilities in the Pacific Northwest recently installed 13 new metal oxide varistor (MOV) protected series capacitors. Nearly all the banks use a simplified design which eliminates the typical triggered gap bypass protection for the MOV. The decision to use a gapless design, the MOV energy sizing, and the protective bypass thresholds require extensive EMTP fault simulations. A large number of staged system fault tests were performed to evaluate the integrity of the banks.

  5. {sup 11}B-NMR spectroscopic study on the interaction of epinephrine and p-BPA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichihara, K.; Yoshino, K. [Shinshu Univ., Department of Chemistry, Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan)

    2000-10-01

    It is studied that p-BPA (p-bronophenylalanine) which formed complex with catechol functional group has interaction with epinephrine by {sup 11}B-NMR. Two {sup 11}B-NMR resonance signals were observed at pH 7.0. The signal at 29.6 ppm is assigned to p-BPA and at 10.8 ppm is assigned to that of complex. We can determine complex formation constants (logK') in various pH. (author)

  6. Low-dose BPA exposure alters the mesenchymal and epithelial transcriptomes of the mouse fetal mammary gland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perinaaz R Wadia

    Full Text Available Exposure of rodent fetuses to low doses of the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA causes subtle morphological changes in the prenatal mammary gland and results in pre-cancerous and cancerous lesions during adulthood. To examine whether the BPA-induced morphological alterations of the fetal mouse mammary glands are a associated with changes in mRNA expression reflecting estrogenic actions and/or b dependent on the estrogen receptor α (ERα, we compared the transcriptomal effects of BPA and the steroidal estrogen ethinylestradiol (EE2 on fetal mammary tissues of wild type and ERα knock-out mice. Mammary glands from fetuses of dams exposed to vehicle, 250 ng BPA/kg BW/d or 10 ng EE2/kg BW/d from embryonic day (E 8 were harvested at E19. Transcriptomal analyses on the ductal epithelium and periductal stroma revealed altered expression of genes involved in the focal adhesion and adipogenesis pathways in the BPA-exposed stroma while genes regulating the apoptosis pathway changed their expression in the BPA-exposed epithelium. These changes in gene expression correlated with previously reported histological changes in matrix organization, adipogenesis, and lumen formation resulting in enhanced maturation of the fat-pad and delayed lumen formation in the epithelium of BPA-exposed fetal mammary glands. Overall similarities in the transcriptomal effects of BPA and EE2 were more pronounced in the epithelium, than in the stroma. In addition, the effects of BPA and EE2 on the expression of various genes involved in mammary stromal-epithelial interactions were suppressed in the absence of ERα. These observations support a model whereby BPA and EE2 act directly on the stroma, which expresses ERα, ERβ and GPR30 in fetal mammary glands, and that the stroma, in turn, affects gene expression in the epithelium, where ERα and ERβ are below the level of detection at this stage of development.

  7. Low-Dose BPA Exposure Alters the Mesenchymal and Epithelial Transcriptomes of the Mouse Fetal Mammary Gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadia, Perinaaz R.; Cabaton, Nicolas J.; Borrero, Michael D.; Rubin, Beverly S.; Sonnenschein, Carlos; Shioda, Toshi; Soto, Ana M.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure of rodent fetuses to low doses of the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA) causes subtle morphological changes in the prenatal mammary gland and results in pre-cancerous and cancerous lesions during adulthood. To examine whether the BPA-induced morphological alterations of the fetal mouse mammary glands are a) associated with changes in mRNA expression reflecting estrogenic actions and/or b) dependent on the estrogen receptor α (ERα), we compared the transcriptomal effects of BPA and the steroidal estrogen ethinylestradiol (EE2) on fetal mammary tissues of wild type and ERα knock-out mice. Mammary glands from fetuses of dams exposed to vehicle, 250 ng BPA/kg BW/d or 10 ng EE2/kg BW/d from embryonic day (E) 8 were harvested at E19. Transcriptomal analyses on the ductal epithelium and periductal stroma revealed altered expression of genes involved in the focal adhesion and adipogenesis pathways in the BPA-exposed stroma while genes regulating the apoptosis pathway changed their expression in the BPA-exposed epithelium. These changes in gene expression correlated with previously reported histological changes in matrix organization, adipogenesis, and lumen formation resulting in enhanced maturation of the fat-pad and delayed lumen formation in the epithelium of BPA-exposed fetal mammary glands. Overall similarities in the transcriptomal effects of BPA and EE2 were more pronounced in the epithelium, than in the stroma. In addition, the effects of BPA and EE2 on the expression of various genes involved in mammary stromal-epithelial interactions were suppressed in the absence of ERα. These observations support a model whereby BPA and EE2 act directly on the stroma, which expresses ERα, ERβ and GPR30 in fetal mammary glands, and that the stroma, in turn, affects gene expression in the epithelium, where ERα and ERβ are below the level of detection at this stage of development. PMID:23704952

  8. Comparison of the effects of BPA and BPAF on oocyte spindle assembly and polar body release in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Kei; Nishio, Manami; Kobayashi, Norio; Hiradate, Yuuki; Hoshino, Yumi; Sato, Eimei; Tanemura, Kentaro

    2016-04-01

    Bisphenol AF (BPAF), a homolog of bisphenol A (BPA), is a widely used environmental chemical that has adverse effects on reproduction. The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of BPA and BPAF exposure on oocyte maturation in vitro. Oocytes were cultured in the presence of BPA or BPAF (2, 20, 50 or 100 μg/ml) for 18 h. At concentrations of 50 and 100 μg/ml, BPA and BPAF inhibited oocyte maturation, with BPAF treatment causing a sharp decrease in the number of oocytes reaching maturity. Oocytes were exposed to BPA or BPAF at 2 μg/ml and cultured for different durations (6, 9, 12, 15 or 18 h). Both BPAF and BPA caused a cell cycle delay under these conditions. Oocytes cultured in the presence of BPA or BPAF (50 μg/ml) for 21 h were tested for the localization of α-tubulin and MAD2 using immunofluorescence. High concentrations of BPAF induced cell cycle arrest through the activation of the spindle assembly checkpoint. After 12 h of culture in BPAF (50 μg/ml), oocytes were transferred to control medium for 9 h. Only 63.3% oocytes treated in this manner progressed to metaphase II (MII). Oocytes exposed to high doses of BPA experienced a cell cycle delay, but managed to progress to MII when the culture period was prolonged. In addition, MAD2 was localized in the cytoplasm of these oocytes. In conclusion, both BPAF and BPA exposure affected oocyte maturation, however BPAF and BPA have differential effects on SAC activity. PMID:25925194

  9. Phenol recovery by BPA tar hydrolysis in supercritical water; Chorinkaisuichu deno BPA tar no kasui bunkai ni yoru phenol no kaishu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adschiri, T. Shibata, R.; Arai, K. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-07-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) tar which is a heavy residue of petrochemical plant distillation is examined for efficient recovery in supercritical water. BPA is decomposed in supercritical water at 673K under 20-38MPa, when 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-propanol (HPP) and phenol are produced thanks to hydrolysis. HPP is further hydrolyzed for the production of phenol or 4-isopropylphenol. With an increase in supercritical water, the hydrolysis of HPP grows dominant, enabling a high yield of phenol. This is because an increase in water density results in an increase the dielectric constant, which stabilizes polar-activated intermediates for the acceleration of hydrolysis. Even in the actual processing of BPA tar, hydrolysis can procede while the formation of polymers is suppressed, and this reaction advances more efficiently when the water density is higher. The maximum phenol yield is 40wt% or higher against the raw material, equivalent to a phenol structure recovery rate of 60mol%. 12 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Exposure to BPA in Children—Media-Based and Biomonitoring-Based Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista L.Y. Christensen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA is used in numerous industrial and consumer product applications resulting in ubiquitous exposure. Children’s exposure is of particular concern because of evidence of developmental effects. Childhood exposure is estimated for different age groups in two ways. The “forward” approach uses information on BPA concentrations in food and other environmental media (air, water, etc. combined with average contact rates for each medium. The “backward” approach relies on urinary biomonitoring, extrapolating backward to the intake which would have led to the observed biomarker level. The forward analysis shows that BPA intakes are dominated by canned food consumption, and that intakes are higher for younger ages. Mean intake estimates ranged from ~125 ng/kg-day for 1 year-olds to ~73 ng/kg-day among 16–20 years olds. Biomonitoring-based intakes show the same trend of lower intakes for older children, with an estimate of 121 (median to 153 (mean ng/kg-day for 2–6 years, compared with 33 (median to 53–66 (mean ng/kg-day for 16–20 years. Infant intakes were estimated to range from ~46 to 137 ng/kg-day. Recognizing uncertainties and limitations, this analysis suggests that the “forward” and “backward” methods provide comparable results and identify canned foods as a potentially important source of BPA exposure for children.

  11. Color Shift Investigations for LED Secondary Optical Designs: Comparison between BPA-PC and PMMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guangjun; Yazdan Mehr, M.; van Driel, W. D.; Fan, Xuejun; Fan, Jiajie; Jansen, K. M. B.; Zhang, G. Q.

    2015-07-01

    Recently, color shift of LED-based lighting products has attracted much attention due to its increasing impact on the field application. However, significant research investigations on the color shift mechanisms are not publically available especially for important transmission materials used for secondary optical design. In this paper, broadly used such commercial materials (BPA-PC and PMMA) are experimentally investigated on the color shift effects during aging. Besides this, color shift mechanisms of degradation of transmittance are also studied. Results revealed: (1) Inconsistent degradation of wavelength-dependent transmittance induces the decrease of the blue/yellow light intensity ratio and thus gives rise to the color shift toward the yellow field, which is the color shift mechanism of BPA-PC; (2) Even for the non-aged BPA-PC, the transmittance varies with wavelength in the visible light field due to the chemistry of the material, which caused the change of intensify ratio of blue light to yellow light in the SPD, leading to color change in perception; (3) Oxidation plays a key role in the degradation of transmittance at around the peak wavelength of the blue light field, which is in correlation with the discoloration of thermally-aged BPA-PC materials. By contrast, for the PMMA specimen aged up to 3000 h, oxidation was neither occurred at 85 °C, nor with additional exposure to blue light, nor even with additional humidity of 85%RH.

  12. Biodistribution of p-borophenylalanine (BPA) in dogs with spontaneous undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (UTC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagrosa, M.A. E-mail: aledagrosa@fibertel.com.ar; Viaggi, M.; Rebagliati, R. Jimenez; Castillo, V.A.; Batistoni, D.; Cabrini, R.L.; Castiglia, S.; Juvenal, G.J.; Pisarev, M.A

    2004-11-01

    Human undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (UTC) is a very aggressive tumor which lacks an adequate treatment. The UTC human cell line ARO has a selective uptake of BPA in vitro and after transplanting into nude mice. Applications of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) to mice showed a 100% control of growth and a 50% histological cure of tumors with an initial volume of 50 mm{sup 3} or less. As a further step towards the potential application in humans we have performed the present studies. Four dogs with diagnosis of spontaneous UTC were studied. A BPA-fructose solution was infused during 60 min and dogs were submitted to thyroidectomy. Samples of blood and from different areas of the tumors (and in one dog from normal thyroid) were obtained and the boron was determined by ICP-OES. Selective BPA uptake by the tumor was found in all animals, the tumor/blood ratios ranged between 2.02 and 3.76, while the tumor/normal thyroid ratio was 6.78. Individual samples had tumor/blood ratios between 8.36 and 0.33. These ratios were related to the two histological patterns observed: homogeneous and heterogeneous tumors. We confirm the selective uptake of BPA by spontaneous UTC in dogs and plan to apply BNCT in the future.

  13. Low Probability Tail Event Analysis and Mitigation in BPA Control Area: Task 2 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Shuai; Makarov, Yuri V.; McKinstry, Craig A.; Brothers, Alan J.; Jin, Shuangshuang

    2009-09-18

    Task report detailing low probability tail event analysis and mitigation in BPA control area. Tail event refers to the situation in a power system when unfavorable forecast errors of load and wind are superposed onto fast load and wind ramps, or non-wind generators falling short of scheduled output, causing the imbalance between generation and load to become very significant.

  14. BPA-Induced Deregulation Of Epigenetic Patterns: Effects On Female Zebrafish Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangeli, Stefania; Maradonna, Francesca; Gioacchini, Giorgia; Cobellis, Gilda; Piccinetti, Chiara Carla; Dalla Valle, Luisa; Carnevali, Oliana

    2016-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the commonest Endocrine Disruptor Compounds worldwide. It interferes with vertebrate reproduction, possibly by inducing deregulation of epigenetic mechanisms. To determine its effects on female reproductive physiology and investigate whether changes in the expression levels of genes related to reproduction are caused by histone modifications, BPA concentrations consistent with environmental exposure were administered to zebrafish for three weeks. Effects on oocyte growth and maturation, autophagy and apoptosis processes, histone modifications, and DNA methylation were assessed by Real-Time PCR (qPCR), histology, and chromatin immunoprecipitation combined with qPCR analysis (ChIP-qPCR). The results showed that 5 μg/L BPA down-regulated oocyte maturation-promoting signals, likely through changes in the chromatin structure mediated by histone modifications, and promoted apoptosis in mature follicles. These data indicate that the negative effects of BPA on the female reproductive system may be due to its upstream ability to deregulate epigenetic mechanism. PMID:26911650

  15. Occurrence and efficacy of bisphenol A (BPA) treatment in selected municipal wastewater treatment plants, Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pookpoosa, Intira; Jindal, Ranjna; Morknoy, Daisy; Tantrakarnapa, Kraichat

    2015-01-01

    Investigations were carried out on the occurrence and fate of bisphenol A (BPA) in five wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Bangkok, namely, Rattanakosin, Chong Non Si, Din Daeng (DD), Nong Khaem and Thungkru (TK) during three sampling events between October 2013 and February 2014. Based on the results, the influent and effluent BPA concentrations ranged between 128.5 ng/L and 606.0 ng/L; and 38.7 ng/L and 270.5 ng/L, respectively. The effluent BPA concentrations of most of the five WWTPs were lower than the influent levels. TK had the highest removal efficiency in October 2013 (80.4%) and December 2013 (90.7%) and the second highest in February 2014 (69.2%). DD had the highest removal efficiency in February 2014 (91.8%). The treatment processes employed at TK and DD were vertical loop reactor activated sludge process and activated sludge with nutrients removal, respectively. Thus, these processes seem to be good for BPA degradation.

  16. Draft Environmental Impact Statement: BPA/Puget Power Northwest Washington Transmission Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPS) and Puget Sound Power ampersand Light (Puget Power) propose to upgrade the existing high-voltage transmission system in the Whatcom and Skagit County area between the towns of Custer and Sedro Woolley, including within the city of Bellingham starting in 1995. The upgrades of the interconnected 230,000 volt (230-kV) and 115-kV systems are needed to increase the reliability of the local transmission system and to increase the import capacity on a nearby US-Canada 500-kV intertie by about 850 megawatts (MW). The increase in north-south transfer capability would be shared by BPA and Puget Power (about 425 MW each). Other actions would include replacement of an existing BPA 230-kV single-circuit, wood-pole H-frame transmission line with a lattice-steel double-circuit line; an existing Puget Power 115-kV single wood-pole transmission line rebuild, two short 115-kV Puget Power lines added at BPA's Bellingham Substation; and improvements made at existing BPA and Puget Power substations

  17. Boron neutron capture therapy for undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma: preliminary results with the combined use of BPA and BOPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viaggi, M. E-mail: viaggi@cnea.gov.ar; Dagrosa, M.A.; Longhino, J.; Blaumann, H.; Calzetta, O.; Kahl, S.B.; Juvenal, G.J.; Pisarev, M.A

    2004-11-01

    We have shown the selective uptake of borophenylalanine (BPA) by undifferentiated human thyroid cancer (UTC) ARO cells both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, a 50% histologic cure of mice bearing the tumor was observed when the complete boron neutron capture therapy was applied. More recently we have analyzed the biodistribution of BOPP (tetrakis-carborane carboxylate ester of 2,4-bis-({alpha},{beta}-dihydroxyethyl)-deutero-porphyrin IX) and showed that when BOPP was injected 5 days before BPA, and the animals were sacrificed 60 min after the i.p. injection of BPA, a significant increase in boron uptake by the tumor was found (38-45 ppm with both compounds vs. 20 ppm with BPA alone). Five days post the i.p BOPP injection and 1 h after BPA the ratios were: tumor/blood 3.75; tumor/distal skin 2. Other important ratios were tumor/thyroid 6.65 and tumor/lung 3.8. The present studies were performed in mice transplanted with ARO cells and injected with BOPP and BPA. Only in mice treated with the neutron beam and injected with the boronated compounds we observed a 100% control of tumor growth. Two groups of mice received different total absorbed doses: 3.00 and 6.01 Gy, but no further improvement in the outcome was found compared to the previous results using BPA alone (4.3 Gy)

  18. "Stockpile" of Slight Transcriptomic Changes Determines the Indirect Genotoxicity of Low-Dose BPA in Thyroid Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Immacolata Porreca

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and experimental data highlighted the thyroid-disrupting activity of bisphenol A (BPA. Although pivotal to identify the mechanisms of toxicity, direct low-dose BPA effects on thyrocytes have not been assessed. Here, we report the results of microarray experiments revealing that the transcriptome reacts dynamically to low-dose BPA exposure, adapting the changes in gene expression to the exposure duration. The response involves many genes, enriching specific pathways and biological functions mainly cell death/proliferation or DNA repair. Their expression is only slightly altered but, since they enrich specific pathways, this results in major effects as shown here for transcripts involved in the DNA repair pathway. Indeed, even though no phenotypic changes are induced by the treatment, we show that the exposure to BPA impairs the cell response to further stressors. We experimentally verify that prolonged exposure to low doses of BPA results in a delayed response to UV-C-induced DNA damage, due to impairment of p21-Tp53 axis, with the BPA-treated cells more prone to cell death and DNA damage accumulation. The present findings shed light on a possible mechanism by which BPA, not able to directly cause genetic damage at environmental dose, may exert an indirect genotoxic activity.

  19. “Stockpile” of Slight Transcriptomic Changes Determines the Indirect Genotoxicity of Low-Dose BPA in Thyroid Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porreca, Immacolata; Ulloa Severino, Luisa; D’Angelo, Fulvio; Cuomo, Danila; Ceccarelli, Michele; Altucci, Lucia; Amendola, Elena; Nebbioso, Angela; Mallardo, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental data highlighted the thyroid-disrupting activity of bisphenol A (BPA). Although pivotal to identify the mechanisms of toxicity, direct low-dose BPA effects on thyrocytes have not been assessed. Here, we report the results of microarray experiments revealing that the transcriptome reacts dynamically to low-dose BPA exposure, adapting the changes in gene expression to the exposure duration. The response involves many genes, enriching specific pathways and biological functions mainly cell death/proliferation or DNA repair. Their expression is only slightly altered but, since they enrich specific pathways, this results in major effects as shown here for transcripts involved in the DNA repair pathway. Indeed, even though no phenotypic changes are induced by the treatment, we show that the exposure to BPA impairs the cell response to further stressors. We experimentally verify that prolonged exposure to low doses of BPA results in a delayed response to UV-C-induced DNA damage, due to impairment of p21-Tp53 axis, with the BPA-treated cells more prone to cell death and DNA damage accumulation. The present findings shed light on a possible mechanism by which BPA, not able to directly cause genetic damage at environmental dose, may exert an indirect genotoxic activity. PMID:26982218

  20. "Stockpile" of Slight Transcriptomic Changes Determines the Indirect Genotoxicity of Low-Dose BPA in Thyroid Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porreca, Immacolata; Ulloa Severino, Luisa; D'Angelo, Fulvio; Cuomo, Danila; Ceccarelli, Michele; Altucci, Lucia; Amendola, Elena; Nebbioso, Angela; Mallardo, Massimo; De Felice, Mario; Ambrosino, Concetta

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental data highlighted the thyroid-disrupting activity of bisphenol A (BPA). Although pivotal to identify the mechanisms of toxicity, direct low-dose BPA effects on thyrocytes have not been assessed. Here, we report the results of microarray experiments revealing that the transcriptome reacts dynamically to low-dose BPA exposure, adapting the changes in gene expression to the exposure duration. The response involves many genes, enriching specific pathways and biological functions mainly cell death/proliferation or DNA repair. Their expression is only slightly altered but, since they enrich specific pathways, this results in major effects as shown here for transcripts involved in the DNA repair pathway. Indeed, even though no phenotypic changes are induced by the treatment, we show that the exposure to BPA impairs the cell response to further stressors. We experimentally verify that prolonged exposure to low doses of BPA results in a delayed response to UV-C-induced DNA damage, due to impairment of p21-Tp53 axis, with the BPA-treated cells more prone to cell death and DNA damage accumulation. The present findings shed light on a possible mechanism by which BPA, not able to directly cause genetic damage at environmental dose, may exert an indirect genotoxic activity. PMID:26982218

  1. Determination of BPA using Au-Ni/tyrosinase modified biosensor%Au-Ni/酪氨酸酶修饰生物传感器检定BPA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卜扬; 姚天明; 柳悦; 黄杉生

    2013-01-01

    A bisphenol A (BPA) biosensor was fabricated by immobilizing tyrosinase using a NHS-EDC method on the surface of glassy carbon electrode(GCE) modified with composite material of Au-Ni and chitosan. Tyrosinase can be immobilized on the surface of the electrode by NHS-EDC method. The composite film can keep the bioactivity of tyrosinase, possess excellent inherent conductivity and enhance the electron transfer rate and showed good electrocatalytic activity for the electrooxidation of BPA. Various electrochemical methods such as cyclic voltammetry, ac impedance method, difference pulse voltammetry, etc were used to characterize the sensor. The biosensor showed good electrochemical response to BPA. Under the optimum, the response current of the modified electrode was proportional to BPA concentration in the range from 4.0×10-8~5.0×10-6 mol/L, and the detection limit of this method was 1.0 × 10-8 mol/L(S/N=3). The proposed method showed good electrochemical characteristics, stability and reproducibility.%将镍金材料结合壳聚糖修饰于玻碳电极表面形成复合膜,酪氨酸酶(Tyr)借助NHS-EDC联酶法修饰于复合膜上,制备了一种新型的酪氨酸酶修饰电极。以循环伏安法和电化学阻抗谱实验研究了修饰电极的电化学性能。由于复合材料良好的生物相容性和高电导特性,联酶法保持了酶活性和稳定性,该传感器对双酚A(BPA)具有良好的电化学响应。在最佳实验条件下,该传感器对双酚 A 的检测范围为:4.0×10-8~5.0×10-6 mol/L,检测限为1.0×10-8 mol/L(信噪比=3)。该传感器具有良好的性能,重现性,稳定性。

  2. Exposure assessment of adult intake of bisphenol A (BPA) with emphasis on canned food dietary exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorber, Matthew; Schecter, Arnold; Paepke, Olaf; Shropshire, William; Christensen, Krista; Birnbaum, Linda

    2015-04-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high-volume, synthetic compound found in epoxy resins and plastics used in food packaging. Food is believed to be a major source of BPA intake. In this study, we measured the concentration of BPA in convenience samplings of foodstuffs purchased in Dallas, Texas. Sampling entailed collection of 204 samples of fresh, frozen, and canned foods in two rounds in 2010. BPA was positive in 73% of the canned food samples, while it was found in only 7% of non-canned foods at low concentrations. The results of this food sampling program were used to calculate adult dietary intakes of BPA. A pathway approach combined food intakes, a "canned fraction" parameter which described what portion of total intake of that food came from canned products, and measured food concentrations. Dietary intakes were calculated as 12.6 ng/kg-day, of which 12.4 ng/kg-day was from canned foods. Canned vegetable intakes alone were 11.9 ng/kg-day. This dietary intake was compared to total intakes of BPA estimated from urine measurements of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Total adult central tendency intakes ranged from 30 to 70 ng/kg-day for NHANES cycles between 2005 and 2010. Three possibilities were explored to explain the difference between these two approaches for intake estimation. Not all foods which may have been canned, particularly canned beverages such as soft drinks, were sampled in our food sampling program. Second, non-food pathways of exposure may be important for adults, including thermal paper exposures, and dust and air exposures. Finally, our canned food concentrations may not be adequately representative of canned foods in the United States; they were found to be generally lower compared to canned food concentrations measured in six other worldwide food surveys including three in North America. Our finding that canned food concentrations greatly exceeded non-canned concentrations was consistent with other studies, and

  3. Exposure assessment of adult intake of bisphenol A (BPA) with emphasis on canned food dietary exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorber, Matthew; Schecter, Arnold; Paepke, Olaf; Shropshire, William; Christensen, Krista; Birnbaum, Linda

    2015-04-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high-volume, synthetic compound found in epoxy resins and plastics used in food packaging. Food is believed to be a major source of BPA intake. In this study, we measured the concentration of BPA in convenience samplings of foodstuffs purchased in Dallas, Texas. Sampling entailed collection of 204 samples of fresh, frozen, and canned foods in two rounds in 2010. BPA was positive in 73% of the canned food samples, while it was found in only 7% of non-canned foods at low concentrations. The results of this food sampling program were used to calculate adult dietary intakes of BPA. A pathway approach combined food intakes, a "canned fraction" parameter which described what portion of total intake of that food came from canned products, and measured food concentrations. Dietary intakes were calculated as 12.6 ng/kg-day, of which 12.4 ng/kg-day was from canned foods. Canned vegetable intakes alone were 11.9 ng/kg-day. This dietary intake was compared to total intakes of BPA estimated from urine measurements of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Total adult central tendency intakes ranged from 30 to 70 ng/kg-day for NHANES cycles between 2005 and 2010. Three possibilities were explored to explain the difference between these two approaches for intake estimation. Not all foods which may have been canned, particularly canned beverages such as soft drinks, were sampled in our food sampling program. Second, non-food pathways of exposure may be important for adults, including thermal paper exposures, and dust and air exposures. Finally, our canned food concentrations may not be adequately representative of canned foods in the United States; they were found to be generally lower compared to canned food concentrations measured in six other worldwide food surveys including three in North America. Our finding that canned food concentrations greatly exceeded non-canned concentrations was consistent with other studies, and

  4. Developmental programming: Prenatal BPA treatment disrupts timing of LH surge and ovarian follicular wave dynamics in adult sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga-Lopez, A; Beckett, EM; Abi Salloum, B; Ye, W; Padmanabhan, V

    2014-01-01

    Developmental exposure to BPA adversely affects reproductive function. In sheep, prenatal BPA treatment induces reproductive neuroendocrine defects, manifested as LH excess and dampened LH surge and perturbs early ovarian gene expression. In this study we hypothesized that prenatal BPA treatment will also disrupt ovarian follicular dynamics. Pregnant sheep were treated from days 30 to 90 of gestation with 3 different BPA doses (0.05, 0.5, or 5 mg/kg BW/day). All female offspring were estrus synchronized and transrectal ultrasonography was performed daily for 22 days to monitor ovarian follicular and corpora lutea dynamics. Blood samples were collected to assess hormonal preovulatory changes and luteal progesterone dynamics. Statistical analysis revealed that the time interval between the estradiol rise and the preovulatory LH surge was shortened in the BPA-treated females. None of the three BPA doses had an effect on corpora lutea, progestogenic cycles, and mean or duration of ovulatory and non-ovulatory follicles. However, differences in follicular count trajectories were evident in all three follicular size classes (2–3 mm, 4–5 mm, and ≥ 6 mm) of prenatal BPA-treated animals compared to controls. Number of follicular waves tended also to be more variable in the prenatal BPA-treated groups ranging from 2 to 5 follicular waves per cycle, while this was restricted to 3 to 4 waves in control females. These changes in ovarian follicular dynamics coupled with defects in time interval between estradiol rise and preovulatory LH release are likely to lead to subfertility in prenatal BPA-treated females. PMID:24923655

  5. First clinical results on the finnish study on BPA-mediated BNCT in glioblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kankaanranta, L. [Helsinki University Hospital, Dept. of Oncology, Helsinki (Finland); Seppaelae, T. [University of Helsinki, Department of Physics, Helsinki (Finland); Kallio, M. [Helsinki University Hospital, Dept. of Neurology, Helsinki (Finland)] [and others

    2000-10-01

    An open phase I dose-escalation boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) study on glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) was initiated at the BNCT facility FiR 1, Espoo, Finland, in May 1999. The aim of the study is to investigate the safety of boronophenylalanine (BPA)-mediated BNCT. Ten GBM patients were treated with a 2-field treatment plan using one fraction. BPA-F was used as the {sup 10}B carrier infused as a fructose solution 290 mg BPA/kg over 2-hours prior to irradiation with epithermal neutrons. Average doses to the normal brain, contrast enhancing tumour, and the target ranged from 3.0 to 5.6 Gy (W), from 35.1 to 66.7 Gy (W), and from 29.6 to 53.6 Gy (W), respectively. BNCT was associated with acceptable toxicity. The median follow-up is 9 months (range, 3 to 16 months) post diagnosis in July 2000. Seven of the 10 patients have recurrent or persistent GBM, and the median time to progression is 8 months. Only one patient has died, and the estimated 1-year overall survival is 86%. Five of the recurrent tumours were treated with external beam photon radiation therapy to the total dose of 30-40 Gy with few acute side-effects. These preliminary findings suggest that acute toxicity of BPA-mediated BNCT is acceptable when average brain doses of 5.6 Gy (W) or less are used. The followup time is too short to evaluate survival, but the estimated 1-year survival of 86% achieved with BNCT followed by conventional photon irradiation at the time of tumour progression is encouraging and emphasises the need of further investigation of BPA-mediated BNCT. (author)

  6. Bisphenol A (BPA) stimulates the interferon signaling and activates the inflammasome activity in myeloid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchanathan, Ravichandran; Liu, Hongzhu; Leung, Yuet-Kin; Ho, Shuk-mei; Choubey, Divaker

    2015-11-01

    Environmental factors contribute to the development of autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), which exhibits a strong female bias (female-to-male ratio 9:1). However, the molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Because a feedforward loop between the female sex hormone estrogen (E2) and type I interferon (IFN-α/β)-signaling induces the expression of certain p200-family proteins (such as murine p202 and human IFI16) that regulate innate immune responses and modify lupus susceptibility, we investigated whether treatment of myeloid cells with bisphenol A (BPA), an environmental estrogen, could regulate the p200-family proteins and activate innate immune responses. We found that treatment of murine bone marrow-derived cells (BMCs) and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells with BPA induced the expression of ERα and IFN-β, activated the IFN-signaling, and stimulated the expression of the p202 and IFI16 proteins. Further, the treatment increased levels of the NLRP3 inflammasome and stimulated its activity. Accordingly, BPA-treatment of BMCs from non lupus-prone C57BL/6 and the lupus-prone (NZB×NZW)F1 mice activated the type I IFN-signaling, induced the expression of p202, and activated an inflammasome activity. Our study demonstrates that BPA-induced signaling in the murine and human myeloid cells stimulates the type I IFN-signaling that results in an induction of the p202 and IFI16 innate immune sensors for the cytosolic DNA and activates an inflammasome activity. These observations provide novel molecular insights into the role of environmental BPA exposures in potentiating the development of certain autoimmune diseases such as SLE. PMID:26277401

  7. BPA/Puget Power Northwest Washington Transmission Project. Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonneville Power Administration and Puget Sound Power ampersand Light Company propose to upgrade the existing high-voltage transmission system in the Whatcom and Skagit County area between the towns of Custer and Sedro Woolley, including within the City of Bellingham, starting in 1995. The upgrades of the interconnected 230-kV and 115-kV systems are needed to increase the import capacity on a nearby U.S.-Canada 500-kV intertie by about 850 megawatts (MW). BPA and Puget Power would share the increase in north-south transfer capability. An existing BPA 230-kV single-circuit, wood-pole H-frame transmission line would be upgraded to a 230-kV lattice-steel double-circuit line. A Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for the project was issued in November 1993. New 1994 studies showed that other improvements to Puget Power's system, and the addition of local generation has lessened local reliability problems. Also in 1994, BPA reevaluated all existing projects with this goal in mind. BPA and Puget determined that benefits would still result from this project, and that additional transfer capacity and improved system integrity warrant the expenditures. Given the changes in need, BPA decided to issue a Supplemental DEIS, and provide a second public review-and-comment period. The proposed action is designated Option 1. Impacts would be low to moderate and localized. Effects on soils and water resources in sensitive areas would be low to moderate; there would be little increase in magnetic fields, noise levels would approximate existing levels; and land use and property value impacts would be low. Threatened and endangered species would not be adversely affected, and all proposed Sections in wetlands would be covered by Nationwide Permit. Visual and socioeconomic impacts would be low to moderate. No cultural resources listed on the National Register of Historic Places would be affected

  8. BPA and NP removal from municipal wastewater by tropical horizontal subsurface constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro-Vélez, A F; Madera-Parra, C A; Peña-Varón, M R; Lee, W Y; Bezares-Cruz, J C; Walker, W S; Cárdenas-Henao, H; Quesada-Calderón, S; García-Hernández, H; Lens, P N L

    2016-01-15

    It has been recognized that numerous synthetic compounds like Bisphenol A (BPA) and nonylphenols (NP) are present in effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) at levels of parts per billion (μg L(-1)) or even parts per trillion (ng L(-1)) with a high potential to cause endocrine disruption in the aquatic environment. Constructed wetlands (CW) are a cost-effective wastewater treatment alternative with promising performance to treat these afore mentioned compounds. This research was aimed to evaluate the efficacy of CW treatment of WWTP effluent for mitigating the effects endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). This research goal was accomplished by (1) quantifying the removal of BPA and NP in CWs; (2) isolating CW fungal strains and testing for laccase production; and (3) performing endocrine disruption (reproduction) bioassays using the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Three pilot scale horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (HSSF-CW) were operated for eight weeks: one planted with Phragmites australis; one planted with Heliconia psitacorum; and one unplanted. The Heliconia CW showed a removal efficiency of 73.3(± 19%) and 62.8(± 20.1%) for BPA and NP, respectively; while the Phragmites CW demonstrated a similar removal for BPA (70.2 ± 27%) and lower removal efficiency for NP 52.1(± 37.1%).The unplanted CW achieved 62.2 (± 33%) removal for BPA and 25.3(± 37%) removal for NP. Four of the eleven fungal strains isolated from the Heliconia-CW showed the capacity to produce laccase. Even though complete removal of EDCs was not achieved by the CWs, the bioassay confirmed a significant improvement (p < 0.05) in fly viability for all CWs, with Heliconia sp. being the most effective at mitigating adverse effects on first and second generational reproduction. This study showed that a CW planted with a native Heliconia sp. CW demonstrated a higher removal of endocrine disrupting compounds and better mitigation of reproductive disruption in the

  9. The status of Tsukuba BNCT trial: BPA-based boron neutron capture therapy combined with X-ray irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, T., E-mail: tetsu_tsukuba@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai 1-1-1, Tsukuba (Japan)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai 1-1-1, Tsukuba (Japan); Nakai, K. [Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai 1-1-1, Tsukuba (Japan); Nariai, T. [Department of Neurosurgery, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Yushima 1-5-45, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Kumada, H.; Okumura, T.; Mizumoto, M.; Tsuboi, K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai 1-1-1, Tsukuba (Japan); Zaboronok, A.; Ishikawa, E.; Aiyama, H.; Endo, K.; Takada, T.; Yoshida, F.; Shibata, Y.; Matsumura, A. [Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai 1-1-1, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    The phase II trial has been prepared to assess the effectiveness of BPA (250 mg/kg)-based NCT combined with X-ray irradiation and temozolomide (75 mg/m{sup 2}) for the treatment of newly diagnosed GBM. BPA uptake is determined by {sup 18}F-BPA-PET and/or {sup 11}C-MET-PET, and a tumor with the lesion to normal ratio of 2 or more is indicated for BNCT. The maximum normal brain point dose prescribed was limited to 13.0 Gy or less. Primary end point is overall survival.

  10. BPA uptake does not correlate with LAT1 and Ki67 expressions in tumor samples (results of EORTC trial 11001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittig, Andrea, E-mail: wittig@med.uni-marburg.de [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Marburg, Philipps-University Marburg, Baldingerstrasse, 35043 Marburg (Germany); Sheu-Grabellus, Sien-Yi [Institute for Pathology and Neuropathology, University Hospital Essen, University Duisburg-Essen, Hufelandstrasse 55, 45122 Essen (Germany); Collette, Laurence [Statistics Department, European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC), Headquarters, Avenue Mounierlann 83/11, 1200 Brussels (Belgium); Moss, Raymond [HFR Unit, Institute for Energy, Joint Research Centre, European Commission, Westerduinweg 3, P.O. Box 2, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Brualla, Lorenzo; Sauerwein, Wolfgang [NCTeam, Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Essen, University Duisburg-Essen, Hufelandstrasse 55, 45122 Essen (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    The system L-amino acid transporter (LAT1) imports p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) mainly into proliferating cells. This study investigates in three tumor entities whether the proportion of tumor cells expressing LAT1 and/or Ki67 correlates with BPA uptake. Tumors were analyzed for {sup 10}B concentration with prompt gamma-ray spectroscopy and for Ki67 and LAT1 expressions with immunohistochemical methods. The proportion of LAT1-expressing cells was much higher (5-90%) than that of Ki67-expressing cells (0-20%) and cells expressing both Ki67 and LAT1 (0-5%). Neither LAT1 nor Ki67 expression predicted BPA uptake.

  11. Holding Thermal Receipt Paper and Eating Food after Using Hand Sanitizer Results in High Serum Bioactive and Urine Total Levels of Bisphenol A (BPA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormann, Annette M.; vom Saal, Frederick S.; Nagel, Susan C.; Stahlhut, Richard W.; Moyer, Carol L.; Ellersieck, Mark R.; Welshons, Wade V.; Toutain, Pierre-Louis; Taylor, Julia A.

    2014-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting environmental contaminant used in a wide variety of products, and BPA metabolites are found in almost everyone’s urine, suggesting widespread exposure from multiple sources. Regulatory agencies estimate that virtually all BPA exposure is from food and beverage packaging. However, free BPA is applied to the outer layer of thermal receipt paper present in very high (∼20 mg BPA/g paper) quantities as a print developer. Not taken into account when considering thermal paper as a source of BPA exposure is that some commonly used hand sanitizers, as well as other skin care products, contain mixtures of dermal penetration enhancing chemicals that can increase by up to 100 fold the dermal absorption of lipophilic compounds such as BPA. We found that when men and women held thermal receipt paper immediately after using a hand sanitizer with penetration enhancing chemicals, significant free BPA was transferred to their hands and then to French fries that were eaten, and the combination of dermal and oral BPA absorption led to a rapid and dramatic average maximum increase (Cmax) in unconjugated (bioactive) BPA of ∼7 ng/mL in serum and ∼20 µg total BPA/g creatinine in urine within 90 min. The default method used by regulatory agencies to test for hazards posed by chemicals is intra-gastric gavage. For BPA this approach results in less than 1% of the administered dose being bioavailable in blood. It also ignores dermal absorption as well as sublingual absorption in the mouth that both bypass first-pass liver metabolism. The elevated levels of BPA that we observed due to holding thermal paper after using a product containing dermal penetration enhancing chemicals have been related to an increased risk for a wide range of developmental abnormalities as well as diseases in adults. PMID:25337790

  12. Holding thermal receipt paper and eating food after using hand sanitizer results in high serum bioactive and urine total levels of bisphenol A (BPA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette M Hormann

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA is an endocrine disrupting environmental contaminant used in a wide variety of products, and BPA metabolites are found in almost everyone's urine, suggesting widespread exposure from multiple sources. Regulatory agencies estimate that virtually all BPA exposure is from food and beverage packaging. However, free BPA is applied to the outer layer of thermal receipt paper present in very high (∼20 mg BPA/g paper quantities as a print developer. Not taken into account when considering thermal paper as a source of BPA exposure is that some commonly used hand sanitizers, as well as other skin care products, contain mixtures of dermal penetration enhancing chemicals that can increase by up to 100 fold the dermal absorption of lipophilic compounds such as BPA. We found that when men and women held thermal receipt paper immediately after using a hand sanitizer with penetration enhancing chemicals, significant free BPA was transferred to their hands and then to French fries that were eaten, and the combination of dermal and oral BPA absorption led to a rapid and dramatic average maximum increase (Cmax in unconjugated (bioactive BPA of ∼7 ng/mL in serum and ∼20 µg total BPA/g creatinine in urine within 90 min. The default method used by regulatory agencies to test for hazards posed by chemicals is intra-gastric gavage. For BPA this approach results in less than 1% of the administered dose being bioavailable in blood. It also ignores dermal absorption as well as sublingual absorption in the mouth that both bypass first-pass liver metabolism. The elevated levels of BPA that we observed due to holding thermal paper after using a product containing dermal penetration enhancing chemicals have been related to an increased risk for a wide range of developmental abnormalities as well as diseases in adults.

  13. Holding thermal receipt paper and eating food after using hand sanitizer results in high serum bioactive and urine total levels of bisphenol A (BPA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormann, Annette M; Vom Saal, Frederick S; Nagel, Susan C; Stahlhut, Richard W; Moyer, Carol L; Ellersieck, Mark R; Welshons, Wade V; Toutain, Pierre-Louis; Taylor, Julia A

    2014-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting environmental contaminant used in a wide variety of products, and BPA metabolites are found in almost everyone's urine, suggesting widespread exposure from multiple sources. Regulatory agencies estimate that virtually all BPA exposure is from food and beverage packaging. However, free BPA is applied to the outer layer of thermal receipt paper present in very high (∼20 mg BPA/g paper) quantities as a print developer. Not taken into account when considering thermal paper as a source of BPA exposure is that some commonly used hand sanitizers, as well as other skin care products, contain mixtures of dermal penetration enhancing chemicals that can increase by up to 100 fold the dermal absorption of lipophilic compounds such as BPA. We found that when men and women held thermal receipt paper immediately after using a hand sanitizer with penetration enhancing chemicals, significant free BPA was transferred to their hands and then to French fries that were eaten, and the combination of dermal and oral BPA absorption led to a rapid and dramatic average maximum increase (Cmax) in unconjugated (bioactive) BPA of ∼7 ng/mL in serum and ∼20 µg total BPA/g creatinine in urine within 90 min. The default method used by regulatory agencies to test for hazards posed by chemicals is intra-gastric gavage. For BPA this approach results in less than 1% of the administered dose being bioavailable in blood. It also ignores dermal absorption as well as sublingual absorption in the mouth that both bypass first-pass liver metabolism. The elevated levels of BPA that we observed due to holding thermal paper after using a product containing dermal penetration enhancing chemicals have been related to an increased risk for a wide range of developmental abnormalities as well as diseases in adults. PMID:25337790

  14. Boron-10 distributions of borocaptate sodium (BSH) and p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) in the experimental brain tumor in the rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakaichi, Munekazu; Hori, Yuko; Hasegawa, Toshinari; Nakama, Sanenori [Department of Veterinary Surgery, Yamaguchi Univ., Yamaguchi (Japan); Takeuchi, Akira; Nakagawa, Yoshinobu

    1998-12-01

    Biodistributions of {sup 10}B delivered from BSH and BPA were studied in the tumor-bearing rats by the quantitative analysis of {sup 10}B and alpha autoradiography technique. BSH was shown to give tumor-specific distribution, but was rapidly eliminated from the tumor tissues. The peak level of boron concentration in the brain tumor was 28.79 ppm at 1 hour after the injection. On the other hand, BPA achieved higher boron concentration in the brain tumor with a peak level of 42.10 ppm at 4 hours after the injection. However, BPA did not seem to give tumor specific distribution and was shown to accumulate into normal brain and other surrounding organs. Therefore, BPA-basd BNCT for patients suffering from brain tumor should be conducted cautiously. (author)

  15. Boron biodistribution for BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model: Combined administration of BSH and BPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodium mercaptoundecahydro-closo-dodecaborate (BSH) is being investigated clinically for BNCT. We examined the biodistribution of BSH and BPA administered jointly in different proportions in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. The 3 assayed protocols were non-toxic, and showed preferential tumor boron uptake versus precancerous and normal tissue and therapeutic tumor boron concentration values (70–85 ppm). All 3 protocols warrant assessment in BNCT studies to contribute to the knowledge of (BSH+BPA)-BNCT radiobiology for head and neck cancer and optimize therapeutic efficacy. - Highlights: • We study the biodistribution of BPA+BSH for BNCT in experimental oral cancer. • The 3 BPA+BSH protocols assayed are potentially therapeutic. • Different proportions of B compounds with different CBE factors will affect response

  16. The Autotransporter BpaB Contributes to the Virulence of Burkholderia mallei in an Aerosol Model of Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Shawn M; Michel, Frank; Hogan, Robert J; Lafontaine, Eric R

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia mallei is a highly pathogenic bacterium that causes the zoonosis glanders. Previous studies indicated that the genome of the organism contains eight genes specifying autotransporter proteins, which are important virulence factors of Gram-negative bacteria. In the present study, we report the characterization of one of these autotransporters, BpaB. Database searches identified the bpaB gene in ten B. mallei isolates and the predicted proteins were 99-100% identical. Comparative sequence analyses indicate that the gene product is a trimeric autotransporter of 1,090 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 105-kDa. Consistent with this finding, we discovered that recombinant bacteria expressing bpaB produce a protein of ≥ 300-kDa on their surface that is reactive with a BpaB-specific monoclonal antibody. Analysis of sera from mice infected with B. mallei indicated that animals produce antibodies against BpaB during the course of disease, thus establishing production of the autotransporter in vivo. To gain insight on its role in virulence, we inactivated the bpaB gene of B. mallei strain ATCC 23344 and determined the median lethal dose of the mutant in a mouse model of aerosol infection. These experiments revealed that the bpaB mutation attenuates virulence 8-14 fold. Using a crystal violet-based assay, we also discovered that constitutive production of BpaB on the surface of B. mallei promotes biofilm formation. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a biofilm factor for this organism.

  17. The Autotransporter BpaB Contributes to the Virulence of Burkholderia mallei in an Aerosol Model of Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn M Zimmerman

    Full Text Available Burkholderia mallei is a highly pathogenic bacterium that causes the zoonosis glanders. Previous studies indicated that the genome of the organism contains eight genes specifying autotransporter proteins, which are important virulence factors of Gram-negative bacteria. In the present study, we report the characterization of one of these autotransporters, BpaB. Database searches identified the bpaB gene in ten B. mallei isolates and the predicted proteins were 99-100% identical. Comparative sequence analyses indicate that the gene product is a trimeric autotransporter of 1,090 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 105-kDa. Consistent with this finding, we discovered that recombinant bacteria expressing bpaB produce a protein of ≥ 300-kDa on their surface that is reactive with a BpaB-specific monoclonal antibody. Analysis of sera from mice infected with B. mallei indicated that animals produce antibodies against BpaB during the course of disease, thus establishing production of the autotransporter in vivo. To gain insight on its role in virulence, we inactivated the bpaB gene of B. mallei strain ATCC 23344 and determined the median lethal dose of the mutant in a mouse model of aerosol infection. These experiments revealed that the bpaB mutation attenuates virulence 8-14 fold. Using a crystal violet-based assay, we also discovered that constitutive production of BpaB on the surface of B. mallei promotes biofilm formation. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a biofilm factor for this organism.

  18. Electroenzymatic oxidation of bisphenol A (BPA) based on the hemoglobin (Hb) film in a membraneless electrochemical reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang Tiantian [College of Resources and Environment, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian, Shandong 271018 (China); Hou Juying [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian, Shandong 271018 (China); Ai Shiyun, E-mail: ashy@sdau.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian, Shandong 271018 (China); Qiu Yanyan; Ma Qiang; Han Ruixia [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian, Shandong 271018 (China)

    2010-09-15

    This paper presents a novel electroenzymatic method for the treatment of bisphenol A (BPA) in a membraneless electrochemical reactor. The electrochemical reactor was arranged with a stainless steel and an enzymatic film as anode and cathode, respectively. The enzymatic film was formed by immobilizing hemoglobin (Hb) on carbon fiber. In the membraneless electrochemical reactor, hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) was generated in situ in cathode and BPA was oxidated and removed by the combining Hb with H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The experimental conditions for electrogeneration of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and electroremoval of BPA were optimized. Experimental results showed that in supplied voltage 2.4 V, pH 5.0 and oxygen flow rate 25 mL/min, the electrogeneration of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and the electroenzymatic removal of BPA were highest. Under optimal operation conditions, the removal efficiency of BPA reached 50.7% in 120 min and then kept constant when further prolonging the period of reaction. Compared with electrochemical and biochemical methods, the removal of BPA through electroenzymatic method was comparatively favorable.

  19. Electroenzymatic oxidation of bisphenol A (BPA) based on the hemoglobin (Hb) film in a membraneless electrochemical reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a novel electroenzymatic method for the treatment of bisphenol A (BPA) in a membraneless electrochemical reactor. The electrochemical reactor was arranged with a stainless steel and an enzymatic film as anode and cathode, respectively. The enzymatic film was formed by immobilizing hemoglobin (Hb) on carbon fiber. In the membraneless electrochemical reactor, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was generated in situ in cathode and BPA was oxidated and removed by the combining Hb with H2O2. The experimental conditions for electrogeneration of H2O2 and electroremoval of BPA were optimized. Experimental results showed that in supplied voltage 2.4 V, pH 5.0 and oxygen flow rate 25 mL/min, the electrogeneration of H2O2 and the electroenzymatic removal of BPA were highest. Under optimal operation conditions, the removal efficiency of BPA reached 50.7% in 120 min and then kept constant when further prolonging the period of reaction. Compared with electrochemical and biochemical methods, the removal of BPA through electroenzymatic method was comparatively favorable.

  20. Is container type the biggest predictor of trace element and BPA leaching from drinking water bottles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowell, Candace; Kuiper, Nora; Preud'Homme, Hugues

    2016-07-01

    The knowledge-base of bottled water leachate is highly contradictory due to varying methodologies and limited multi-elemental and/or molecular analyses; understanding the range of contaminants and their pathways is required. This study determined the leaching potential and leaching kinetics of trace elements, using consistent comprehensive quantitative and semi-quantitative (79 elements total) analyses, and BPA, using isotopic dilution and MEPS pre-concentration with UHPLC-ESI-QTOF. Statistical methods were used to determine confounders and predictors of leaching and human health risk throughout 12days of UV exposure and after exposure to elevated temperature. Various types of water were used to assess the impact of water quality. Results suggest Sb leaching is primarily dependent upon water quality, not container type. Bottle type is a predictor of elemental leaching for Pb, Ba, Cr, Cu, Mn and Sr; BPA was detected in samples from polycarbonate containers. Health risks from the consumption of bottled water increase after UV exposure.

  1. DETERMINGING BPA UNDER UNCERTAINTY ENVIRONMENTS AND ITS APPLICATION IN DATA FUSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng Yong; Jiang Wen; Xu Xiaobin; Li Qi; Wang Dong

    2009-01-01

    Dempster-Shafer (DS) theory of evidence has been widely used in many data fusion application systems. However, how to determine basic probability assignment, which is the main and the first step in evidence theory, is still an open issue. In this paper, a new method to obtain Basic Probability Assignment (BPA) is proposed based on the similarity measure between generalized fuzzy numbers. In the proposed method, species model can be constructed by determination of the min, average and max value to construct a fuzzy number. Then, a new Radius Of Gravity (ROG) method to determine the similarity measure between generalized fuzzy numbers is used to calculate the BPA functions of each instance. Finally, the efficiency of the proposed method is illustrated by the classification of Iris data.

  2. A study on fabrication of polyester copolymers(IV): Physical properties of PET/BPA copolymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyun, E.J.; Lee, S.H. [Yeungnam University, Kyongsan (Korea); Gal, Y.S. [Kyungil Univeristy, Kyongsan (Korea); Jang, S.H. [Kumi College, Kumi (Korea); Choi, H.K. [Sangju National University, Sangju (Korea); Shin, B.Y.; Sur, G.S.; Kim, B.S. [Yeungnam University, Kyongsan (Korea)

    2001-03-01

    PET/BPA copolymer of terephthalic acid, bisphenol-A and ethylene glycol was melt-pressed and quenched in ice water. This copolymer film was drawn by capillary rheometer. Shrinkage, crystallinity, morphology, thermal, dynamic mechanical, and mechanical properties of these copolymer films were investigated. The PET/BPA copolymer film exhibited T{sub m} lower than that of PET film. The crystallinity and density of these drawn copolymer films increased with draw ratio and draw rate but decreased with draw temperature. The tensile strength and tensile modulus of the copolymer films increased with draw ratio but decreased with draw temperature. Shrinkage of the drawn copolymer film decreased with draw ratio and draw rate. (author). 32 refs., 17 figs.

  3. Might iodomethyl-α-tyrosine be a surrogate for BPA in BNCT?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A single-photon emission computed tomography [SPECT] imaging agent that is an analogue of a boron carrier for boron neutron-capture therapy [BNCT] of cerebral gliomas would be useful for assessing the kinetics of boron uptake in tumors and in the surrounding brain tissues noninvasively. BNCT is based on the interaction of thermalized neutrons with 10B nuclei in the targeted tumor. For BNCT of brain tumors, it is crucial that 10B concentrations in radiosensitive regions of the brain be minimal since malignant cells and vital brain tissues are often inter-mingled at the margins of the tumor. Currently, boronophenylalanine [BPA]-mediated BNCT is undergoing preliminary clinical study for postoperative radiotherapy of glioblastorna multiforme at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Investigators in Japan are developing 18F-fluoroboronophenylaianine [FBPA] as a positron 18F (T1/2 = 110 min), which is usually emission tomography [PET] surrogate for BPA. generated at a cyclotron dedicated to PET, is generally a minimally perturbing substitute for the 2-H on the aromatic ring because of its small size and the strong covalent bond it forms with carbon. However, SPECT has potential advantages over PET: (1) SPECT is clinically more widely available at lower cost; (2) most radioisotopes for the synthesis of SPECT agents can be purchased; (3) SPECT is less difficult to implement. It is thought that the quality of images derived from the two techniques would each be sufficiently informative for BNCT treatment planning purposes, provided that the SPECT and PET agents being considered were both pharmacokinetic surrogates for BPA. This study evaluated the use of 123I alpha methyltyrosine as a surrogate for BPA in BNCT

  4. Nuclear microprobe analysis of the selective boron uptake obtained with BPA in brain tumour tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegdén, M.; Kristiansson, P.; Ceberg, C.; Munck af Rosenschöld, P.; Auzelyte, V.; Elfman, M.; Malmqvist, K. G.; Nilsson, C.; Pallon, J.; Shariff, A.

    2004-06-01

    The tumour selective ability of the boron compound boronophenylalanine (BPA), today used in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy in Sweden, has been investigated with the Lund Nuclear Microprobe. The tumour to tissue ratio of the boron concentration, as well as the location of boron within the cells, is critical for the efficiency of the therapy. It is desirable that the boron is accumulated as close as possible to the cell nucleus, since the alpha particles produced in the 10B(n,α) 7Li reaction only have a range of about 10 microns, i.e. a cell diameter. The nuclear reaction 11B(p,α)2α, which has an especially high cross-section (300 mb) for 660 keV protons, has been used to analyse brain tissue from BPA-injected rats. Previous studies on other boron compounds have shown significant background problems when the alpha particles are detected in the backward direction. By a specially designed set-up, alpha particles in the forward and backward direction are detected simultaneously, and only the coincidences between the two directions are considered to be true boron events. In this way we could achieve excellent background suppression. The analysis shows that BPA indeed is tumour selective. Quantifications show a boron abundance of 150 ± 20 ng/cm 2 in normal tissue and 567 ± 70 ng/cm 2 in tumour tissue. If the rat is fed with L-dopa before the injection of BPA the uptake increases 3-4 times. The boron is homogeneously distributed in the cellular structure and no specific intracellular accumulation has been shown.

  5. Nuclear microprobe analysis of the selective boron uptake obtained with BPA in brain tumour tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegden, M. E-mail: marie.wegden@nuclear.lu.se; Kristiansson, P.; Ceberg, C.; Munck af Rosenschoeld, P.; Auzelyte, V.; Elfman, M.; Malmqvist, K.G.; Nilsson, C.; Pallon, J.; Shariff, A

    2004-06-01

    The tumour selective ability of the boron compound boronophenylalanine (BPA), today used in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy in Sweden, has been investigated with the Lund Nuclear Microprobe. The tumour to tissue ratio of the boron concentration, as well as the location of boron within the cells, is critical for the efficiency of the therapy. It is desirable that the boron is accumulated as close as possible to the cell nucleus, since the alpha particles produced in the {sup 10}B(n,{alpha}){sup 7}Li reaction only have a range of about 10 microns, i.e. a cell diameter. The nuclear reaction {sup 11}B(p,{alpha})2{alpha}, which has an especially high cross-section (300 mb) for 660 keV protons, has been used to analyse brain tissue from BPA-injected rats. Previous studies on other boron compounds have shown significant background problems when the alpha particles are detected in the backward direction. By a specially designed set-up, alpha particles in the forward and backward direction are detected simultaneously, and only the coincidences between the two directions are considered to be true boron events. In this way we could achieve excellent background suppression. The analysis shows that BPA indeed is tumour selective. Quantifications show a boron abundance of 150 {+-} 20 ng/cm{sup 2} in normal tissue and 567 {+-} 70 ng/cm{sup 2} in tumour tissue. If the rat is fed with L-dopa before the injection of BPA the uptake increases 3-4 times. The boron is homogeneously distributed in the cellular structure and no specific intracellular accumulation has been shown.

  6. Might iodomethyl-{alpha}-tyrosine be a surrogate for BPA in BNCT?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, Michiko; Micca, P.L.; Nawrocky, M.M.; Slatkin, D.N.

    1996-12-31

    A single-photon emission computed tomography [SPECT] imaging agent that is an analogue of a boron carrier for boron neutron-capture therapy [BNCT] of cerebral gliomas would be useful for assessing the kinetics of boron uptake in tumors and in the surrounding brain tissues noninvasively. BNCT is based on the interaction of thermalized neutrons with {sup 10}B nuclei in the targeted tumor. For BNCT of brain tumors, it is crucial that {sup 10}B concentrations in radiosensitive regions of the brain be minimal since malignant cells and vital brain tissues are often inter-mingled at the margins of the tumor. Currently, boronophenylalanine [BPA]-mediated BNCT is undergoing preliminary clinical study for postoperative radiotherapy of glioblastorna multiforme at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Investigators in Japan are developing {sup 18}F-fluoroboronophenylaianine [FBPA] as a positron {sup 18}F (T{sub 1/2} = 110 min), which is usually emission tomography [PET] surrogate for BPA. generated at a cyclotron dedicated to PET, is generally a minimally perturbing substitute for the 2-H on the aromatic ring because of its small size and the strong covalent bond it forms with carbon. However, SPECT has potential advantages over PET: (1) SPECT is clinically more widely available at lower cost; (2) most radioisotopes for the synthesis of SPECT agents can be purchased; (3) SPECT is less difficult to implement. It is thought that the quality of images derived from the two techniques would each be sufficiently informative for BNCT treatment planning purposes, provided that the SPECT and PET agents being considered were both pharmacokinetic surrogates for BPA. This study evaluated the use of {sup 123}I alpha methyltyrosine as a surrogate for BPA in BNCT.

  7. Estrogenic effects of several BPA analogs in the developing zebrafish brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel eCano-Nicolau

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Important set of studies have demonstrated the endocrine disrupting activity of Bisphenol A (BPA. The present work aimed at defining estrogenic-like activity of several BPA structural analogs, including BPS, BPF, BPAF, and BPAP, on 4-day or 7-day post-fertilization (dpf zebrafish larva as an in vivo model. We measured the induction level of the estrogen-sensitive marker cyp19a1b gene (Aromatase B, expressed in the brain, using three different in situ/in vivo strategies: 1 Quantification of cyp19a1b transcripts using RT-qPCR in wild type 7-dpf larva brains exposed to bisphenols ; 2 Detection and distribution of cyp19a1b transcripts using in situ hybridization on 7-dpf brain sections (hypothalamus; and 3 Quantification of the cyp19a1b promoter activity in live cyp19a1b-GFP transgenic zebrafish (EASZY assay at 4-dpf larval stage. These three different experimental approaches demonstrated that BPS, BPF or BPAF exposure, similarly to BPA, significantly activates the expression of the estrogenic marker in the brain of developing zebrafish. In vitro experiments using both reporter gene assay in a glial cell context and competitive ligand binding assays strongly suggested that up-regulation of cyp19a1b is largely mediated by the zebrafish estrogen nuclear receptor alpha (zfERα. Importantly, and in contrast to other tested bisphenol A analogs, the bisphenol AP (BPAP did not show estrogenic activity in our model.

  8. BPA/Puget Power Northwest Washington Transmission Project : Summary of the Supplemental Draft Environmental Statement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-04-01

    BPA and Puget Sound Power and Light (Puget Power) are proposing to upgrade the existing electric transmission power system in the Whatcom and Skagit County area of northwest Washington to increase the capacity of the US-Canada Intertie transmission system. The project would satisfy the need to provide more ability to store and return energy with Canada, would provide additional capacity on the Intertie for anticipated increases in power transactions, and would increase flexibility in operation of the US and Canadian hydroelectric system. It would protect Puget Power`s local system against thermal overloads, and improve local reliability. In November 1993, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), and Whatcom County (Washington) published a draft environmental impact statement (DEIS) for the proposed Northwest Washington Transmission Project. In order to present some shifts in need for the project and to permit additional review, BPA and Whatcom County have elected to issue a Supplemental Draft EIS. This Summary presents background material, explains project needs and purposes, and then focuses on alternatives and the possible effects.

  9. Estrogenic Effects of Several BPA Analogs in the Developing Zebrafish Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-Nicolau, Joel; Vaillant, Colette; Pellegrini, Elisabeth; Charlier, Thierry D; Kah, Olivier; Coumailleau, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Important set of studies have demonstrated the endocrine disrupting activity of Bisphenol A (BPA). The present work aimed at defining estrogenic-like activity of several BPA structural analogs, including BPS, BPF, BPAF, and BPAP, on 4- or 7-day post-fertilization (dpf) zebrafish larva as an in vivo model. We measured the induction level of the estrogen-sensitive marker cyp19a1b gene (Aromatase B), expressed in the brain, using three different in situ/in vivo strategies: (1) Quantification of cyp19a1b transcripts using RT-qPCR in wild type 7-dpf larva brains exposed to bisphenols; (2) Detection and distribution of cyp19a1b transcripts using in situ hybridization on 7-dpf brain sections (hypothalamus); and (3) Quantification of the cyp19a1b promoter activity in live cyp19a1b-GFP transgenic zebrafish (EASZY assay) at 4-dpf larval stage. These three different experimental approaches demonstrated that BPS, BPF, or BPAF exposure, similarly to BPA, significantly activates the expression of the estrogenic marker in the brain of developing zebrafish. In vitro experiments using both reporter gene assay in a glial cell context and competitive ligand binding assays strongly suggested that up-regulation of cyp19a1b is largely mediated by the zebrafish estrogen nuclear receptor alpha (zfERα). Importantly, and in contrast to other tested bisphenol A analogs, the bisphenol AP (BPAP) did not show estrogenic activity in our model. PMID:27047331

  10. Radiobiology of BNCT mediated by GB-10 and GB-10+BPA in experimental oral cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivillin, Veronica A.; Heber, Elisa M.; Itoiz, Maria E.; Nigg, David; Calzetta, Osvaldo; Blaumann, Herman; Longhino, Juan; Schwint, Amanda E. E-mail: schwint@cnea.gov.ar

    2004-11-01

    We previously reported biodistribution and pharmacokinetic data for GB-10 (Na{sub 2}{sup 10}B{sub 10}H{sub 10}) and the combined administration of GB-10 and boronophenylalanine (BPA) as boron delivery agents for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. The aim of the present study was to assess, for the first time, the response of hamster cheek pouch tumors, precancerous tissue and normal tissue to BNCT mediated by GB-10 and BNCT mediated by GB-10 and BPA administered jointly using the thermalized epithermal beam of the RA-6 Reactor at the Bariloche Atomic Center. GB-10 exerted 75.5% tumor control (partial+complete remission) with no damage to precancerous tissue around tumor or to normal tissue. Thus, GB-10 proved to be a therapeutically efficient boron agent in this model despite the fact that it is not taken up selectively by oral tumor tissue. GB-10 exerted a selective effect on tumor blood vessels leading to significant tumor control with a sparing effect on normal tissue. BNCT mediated by the combined administration of GB-10 and BPA resulted in a reduction in the dose to normal tissue and would thus allow for significant escalation of dose to tumor without exceeding normal tissue tolerance.

  11. Androgen and Progesterone Receptors Are Targets for Bisphenol A (BPA, 4-Methyl-2,4-bis-(P-HydroxyphenylPent-1-Ene--A Potent Metabolite of BPA, and 4-Tert-Octylphenol: A Computational Insight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Rehan

    Full Text Available Exposure to toxic industrial chemicals that have capacity to disrupt the endocrine system, also known as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs, has been increasingly associated with reproductive problems in human population. Bisphenol A (BPA; 4,4'-(propane-2,2-diyldiphenol and 4-tert-octylphenol (OP; 4-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutylphenol are among the most common environmental contaminants possessing endocrine disruption properties and are present in plastics, epoxy resins, detergents and other commercial products of common personal and industrial use. A metabolite of BPA, 4-Methyl-2,4-bis(4-hydroxyphenylpent-1-ene (MBP is about 1000 times more biologically active compared to BPA. Epidemiological, clinical, and experimental studies have shown association of BPA and OP with adverse effects on male and female reproductive system in human and animals. The endocrine disruption activity can occur through multiple pathways including binding to steroid receptors. Androgen receptor (AR and progesterone receptor (PR are critical for reproductive tract growth and function. Structural binding characterization of BPA, MBP, and OP with AR and PR using molecular docking simulation approaches revealed novel interactions of BPA with PR, and MBP and OP with AR and PR. For BPA, MBP, and OP, five AR interacting residues Leu-701, Leu-704, Asn-705, Met-742, and Phe-764 overlapped with those of native AR ligand testosterone, and four PR interacting residues Leu-715, Leu-718, Met-756, and Met-759 overlapped with those of PR co-complex ligand, norethindrone. For both the receptors the binding strength of MBP was maximum among the three compounds. Thus, these compounds have the potential to block or interfere in the binding of the endogenous native AR and PR ligands and, hence, resulting in dysfunction. The knowledge of the key interactions and the important amino-acid residues also allows better prediction of potential of xenobiotic molecules for disrupting AR- and PR

  12. The molecular mechanism of bisphenol A (BPA as an endocrine disruptor by interacting with nuclear receptors: insights from molecular dynamics (MD simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanlan Li

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA can interact with nuclear receptors and affect the normal function of nuclear receptors in very low doses, which causes BPA to be one of the most controversial endocrine disruptors. However, the detailed molecular mechanism about how BPA interferes the normal function of nuclear receptors is still undiscovered. Herein, molecular dynamics simulations were performed to explore the detailed interaction mechanism between BPA with three typical nuclear receptors, including hERα, hERRγ and hPPARγ. The simulation results and calculated binding free energies indicate that BPA can bind to these three nuclear receptors. The binding affinities of BPA were slightly lower than that of E2 to these three receptors. The simulation results proved that the binding process was mainly driven by direct hydrogen bond and hydrophobic interactions. In addition, structural analysis suggested that BPA could interact with these nuclear receptors by mimicking the action of natural hormone and keeping the nuclear receptors in active conformations. The present work provided the structural evidence to recognize BPA as an endocrine disruptor and would be important guidance for seeking safer substitutions of BPA.

  13. Photocatalytic degradation of Bisphenol A (BPA) using immobilized TiO{sub 2} and UV illumination in a horizontal circulating bed photocatalytic reactor (HCBPR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Rongchang; Ren Dianjun [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Key Laboratory of Yangtze Aquatic Environment, Ministry of Education of China, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Xia Siqing, E-mail: wang_rc2003@yahoo.com.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Key Laboratory of Yangtze Aquatic Environment, Ministry of Education of China, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhang Yalei; Zhao Jianfu [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Key Laboratory of Yangtze Aquatic Environment, Ministry of Education of China, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2009-09-30

    Photocatalytic degradation of Bisphenol A (BPA) in the presence of titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) and ultraviolet (UV) illumination was performed in a self-designed horizontal circulating bed photocatalytic reactor (HCBPR). TiO{sub 2} catalyst was immobilized on the surface of polyurethane foam (PF) cubes via microwave-assisted liquid phase deposition. The effects of initial BPA concentration, initial pH, TiO{sub 2} dosage and temperature on BPA photodegradation were investigated in order to obtain the optimum operational conditions. The results reveal that the BPA degradation efficiency can be effectively improved by increasing pH from 3.4 to 12.3 or decreasing the initial BPA concentration from 50 to 10 ppm. The optimum TiO{sub 2} carrier dosage (the ratio of the volume of PF carriers to the effective reaction volume of HCBPR) was about 1%. Besides, the effect of temperature on BPA photodegradation was found to be unremarkable in the range of 21.2-30.5 deg. C. Total organic carbon (TOC) was used to evaluate the mineralization of BPA during the photodegradation process. Under the optimum conditions, 95% removal of TOC and 97% removal of BPA can be achieved after 6 h of UV radiation, which demonstrates the high photodegradation efficiency of BPA in HCBPR.

  14. 历史生物地理学中的BPA分析法Ⅰ:初级BPA%The Application of BPA in Historical Biogeography Part One:Primary BPA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟凯巴依尔; 李枢强; 傅金钟

    2003-01-01

    BPA(brooks parsimony analysis)是历史生物地理学研究的重要分析方法之一,在过去的20年内得以发展和完善.除了用于生物地理分布格局的支序分析并解释其形成原因外,BPA也可用于寄生物与宿主、物种与区系以及协同进化等方面的研究.本文详细介绍了BPA的原理以及初级BPA的分析方法.

  15. BPA and NP removal from municipal wastewater by tropical horizontal subsurface constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro-Vélez, A F; Madera-Parra, C A; Peña-Varón, M R; Lee, W Y; Bezares-Cruz, J C; Walker, W S; Cárdenas-Henao, H; Quesada-Calderón, S; García-Hernández, H; Lens, P N L

    2016-01-15

    It has been recognized that numerous synthetic compounds like Bisphenol A (BPA) and nonylphenols (NP) are present in effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) at levels of parts per billion (μg L(-1)) or even parts per trillion (ng L(-1)) with a high potential to cause endocrine disruption in the aquatic environment. Constructed wetlands (CW) are a cost-effective wastewater treatment alternative with promising performance to treat these afore mentioned compounds. This research was aimed to evaluate the efficacy of CW treatment of WWTP effluent for mitigating the effects endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). This research goal was accomplished by (1) quantifying the removal of BPA and NP in CWs; (2) isolating CW fungal strains and testing for laccase production; and (3) performing endocrine disruption (reproduction) bioassays using the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Three pilot scale horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (HSSF-CW) were operated for eight weeks: one planted with Phragmites australis; one planted with Heliconia psitacorum; and one unplanted. The Heliconia CW showed a removal efficiency of 73.3(± 19%) and 62.8(± 20.1%) for BPA and NP, respectively; while the Phragmites CW demonstrated a similar removal for BPA (70.2 ± 27%) and lower removal efficiency for NP 52.1(± 37.1%).The unplanted CW achieved 62.2 (± 33%) removal for BPA and 25.3(± 37%) removal for NP. Four of the eleven fungal strains isolated from the Heliconia-CW showed the capacity to produce laccase. Even though complete removal of EDCs was not achieved by the CWs, the bioassay confirmed a significant improvement (p < 0.05) in fly viability for all CWs, with Heliconia sp. being the most effective at mitigating adverse effects on first and second generational reproduction. This study showed that a CW planted with a native Heliconia sp. CW demonstrated a higher removal of endocrine disrupting compounds and better mitigation of reproductive disruption in the

  16. The Industrial Chemical Bisphenol A (BPA) Interferes with Proliferative Activity and Development of Steroidogenic Capacity in Rat Leydig Cells1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanjappa, Manjunatha K.; Simon, Liz; Akingbemi, Benson T.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT The presence of bisphenol A (BPA) in consumer products has raised concerns about potential adverse effects on reproductive health. Testicular Leydig cells are the predominant source of the male sex steroid hormone testosterone, which supports the male phenotype. The present report describes the effects of developmental exposure of male rats to BPA by gavage of pregnant and lactating Long-Evans dams at 2.5 and 25 μg/kg body weight from Gestational Day 12 to Day 21 postpartum. This exposure paradigm stimulated Leydig cell division in the prepubertal period and increased Leydig cell numbers in the testes of adult male rats at 90 days. Observations from in vitro experiments confirmed that BPA acts directly as a mitogen in Leydig cells. However, BPA-induced proliferative activity in vivo is possibly mediated by several factors, such as 1) protein kinases (e.g., mitogen-activated protein kinases or MAPK), 2) growth factor receptors (e.g., insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor-beta and epidermal growth factor receptors), and 3) the Sertoli cell-secreted anti-Mullerian hormone (also called Mullerian inhibiting substance). On the other hand, BPA suppressed protein expression of the luteinizing hormone receptor (LHCGR) and the 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzyme (HSD17B3), thereby decreasing androgen secretion by Leydig cells. We interpret these findings to mean that the likely impact of deficits in androgen secretion on serum androgen levels following developmental exposure to BPA is alleviated by increased Leydig cell numbers. Nevertheless, the present results reinforce the view that BPA causes biological effects at environmentally relevant exposure levels and its presence in consumer products potentially has implication for public health. PMID:22302688

  17. Co-crystal and crystal: Supramolecular arrangement obtained from 4-aminosalicylic acid, bpa ligand and cobalt ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Humberto C.; Cunha, Ronaldo T.; Diniz, Renata; de Oliveira, Luiz Fernando C.

    2012-02-01

    In this study, the synthesis, spectroscopic properties (infrared and Raman) and crystal structures of two new compounds co-crystal and crystal named HASbpa (1) and [Co(bpa)(H2O)4]AS2ṡ4H2O (2) have been reported, where bpa is trans-1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethane, HAS is 4-aminosalicylic acid and AS- is aminosalicylate anion. The crystalline arrangement of the compound 1 exhibits a triclinic system with space group P1¯. The formation of a structure known as co-crystal, composed by building blocks in their neutral form; being the first work of this type involving the HAS and nitrogen ligand as bpa. For compound 2, a monoclinic system was observed with P21/c space group. The crystalline arrangement of the structure consisted of a covalent one-dimensional cationic [Co(bpa)(H2O)4]2+ chain, which interacts by hydrogen bonding, π-stacking and electrostatic interactions with aminosalicylate anions and water molecules that were trapped in the crystal. These interactions form supramolecular cavities denominated as pseudo honeycombs. For compound 1, the infrared spectrum revealed the presence of bands at 1643 and 1601 cm-1 assigned to the stretching mode of CO [ν(CO)] and CC/CN groups [ν(CC/CN)]. For the Raman spectrum, these same modes appear around 1644 and 1602 cm-1 related to HAS and bpa blocks, respectively. For compound 2, the largest displacement of the bands compared to free ligand suggested the formation of covalent bonds between bpa ligand and metallic site and loss of the proton in HAS molecule. In the infrared spectrum we can observe the presence of bands around 1635 and 1618 cm-1 attributed to the stretching ν(COO-) and ν(CC/CN), for the Raman spectrum these same modes appear around 1631 and 1619 cm-1 related to AS- and bpa ligand respectively.

  18. Staphylococcus aureus host cell invasion and virulence in sepsis is facilitated by the multiple repeats within FnBPA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M Edwards

    Full Text Available Entry of Staphylococcus aureus into the bloodstream can lead to metastatic abscess formation and infective endocarditis. Crucial to the development of both these conditions is the interaction of S. aureus with endothelial cells. In vivo and in vitro studies have shown that the staphylococcal invasin FnBPA triggers bacterial invasion of endothelial cells via a process that involves fibronectin (Fn bridging to alpha(5beta(1 integrins. The Fn-binding region of FnBPA usually contains 11 non-identical repeats (FnBRs with differing affinities for Fn, which facilitate the binding of multiple Fn molecules and may promote integrin clustering. We thus hypothesized that multiple repeats are necessary to trigger the invasion of endothelial cells by S. aureus. To test this we constructed variants of fnbA containing various combinations of FnBRs. In vitro assays revealed that endothelial cell invasion can be facilitated by a single high-affinity, but not low-affinity FnBR. Studies using a nisin-inducible system that controlled surface expression of FnBPA revealed that variants encoding fewer FnBRs required higher levels of surface expression to mediate invasion. High expression levels of FnBPA bearing a single low affinity FnBR bound Fn but did not invade, suggesting that FnBPA affinity for Fn is crucial for triggering internalization. In addition, multiple FnBRs increased the speed of internalization, as did higher expression levels of FnBPA, without altering the uptake mechanism. The relevance of these findings to pathogenesis was demonstrated using a murine sepsis model, which showed that multiple FnBRs were required for virulence. In conclusion, multiple FnBRs within FnBPA facilitate efficient Fn adhesion, trigger rapid bacterial uptake and are required for pathogenesis.

  19. Contribution of a submerged membrane bioreactor in the treatment of synthetic effluent contaminated by Bisphenol-A: Mechanism of BPA removal and membrane fouling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A submerged membrane bioreactor has been operated at the laboratory scale for the treatment of a synthetic effluent containing Bisphenol-A (BPA). COD, NH4–N, PO4–P and BPA were eliminated respectively, at 99%, 99%, 61% and 99%. The increase of volumetric loading rate from 0 to 21.6 g/m3/d did not affect the performance of the MBR system. However, the removal rate decreased rapidly when the BPA loading rate increased above 21.6 g/m3/d. The adsorption process of BPA on the biomass was very well described by Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms. Subsequently, biodegradation of BPA occurred and followed the first order kinetic reaction, with a constant rate of 1.13 ± 0.22 h−1. During treatment, membrane fouling was reversible in the first 84 h of filtration, and then became irreversible. The membrane fouling was mainly due to the accumulation of suspended solid and development of biofilm on the membrane surface. -- Highlights: •High BPA removal rates (up to 99%) were obtained in the MBR. •A limit of the toxicity of 21.6 g/m3/d of BPA was recorded for the MBR. •The first order kinetic model described very well the biodegradation process for BPA. •The kinetic rates (0.61–1.13 h−1) depend on BPA loading (0.10–0.50 mg/g TSS). •The initial organic loading (0.04 and 0.20 g COD g−1 TSS) did not affect the kinetic. -- High BPA removal rates (up to 99%) were obtained in the MBR, with a limit of the toxicity closed to 21.6 g/m3/d of BPA

  20. Exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) in Wistar rats reduces sperm quality with disruption of ERK signal pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Mao, Rui; Zhou, Qin; Ding, Ling; Tao, Jin; Ran, Mao-Mei; Gao, Er-Sheng; Yuan, Wei; Wang, Jin-Tao; Hou, Li-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an estrogenic environmental toxin widely used in the production of plastics and ubiquitous human exposure to this chemical has been proposed to be a potential risk to human health. Exposure to BPA can negatively impact sperm quality. However, the mechanism remains largely unknown. The objectives of this study were to assess the role of BPA on sperm quality and explore the possible mechanisms. The Wistar male rats (aged 28 days) were administered BPA by oral gavage for 28 days at dose of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day; meanwhile, the negative control with corn oil (0 mg/kg/day BPA) and positive control with E2 at the dose of 100 μg/kg/day. The sperm density, sperm activity and sperm survival rate were analyzed byCASA system, and the sperm abnormality rate was analyzed by improved Papanicolaou stained. The protein expression levels of Src/p-Src, ERK1/2, p-ERK1/2 and CREB/p-CREB were detected by Western bolt. The results showed that the body weight gain, testes weight, testis coefficient, sperm density, sperm activity, sperm survival rate and protein expression levels of p-ERK1, p-ERK2 and p-CREB decreased, but the sperm abnormality rate increased with increasing BPA concentrations. There were positive correlations between sperm density, sperm activity and sperm survival rate with protein expression levels of p-ERK1, p-ERK2 and p-CREB, and negative correlations between sperm abnormality rate with the protein expression levels of p-ERK1, p-ERK2 and p-CREB. Results from the structural equation model demonstrated that BPA retained a significant negative effect to p-ERK, whereas p-ERK retained a significant positive effect to sperm quality and acted as the mediate variable. This study provides a novel insight regarding the potential role of p-ERK1 and p-ERK2 protein kinase on reproductive toxicity of BPA. The adverse effects of BPA on adult male sperm quality may be through the induction of the disruption of ERK signal pathway. However, additional

  1. Bacterial proteasome activator bpa (rv3780 is a novel ring-shaped interactor of the mycobacterial proteasome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyrille L Delley

    Full Text Available The occurrence of the proteasome in bacteria is limited to the phylum of actinobacteria, where it is maintained in parallel to the usual bacterial compartmentalizing proteases. The role it plays in these organisms is still not fully understood, but in the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb the proteasome supports persistence in the host. In complex with the ring-shaped ATPase Mpa (called ARC in other actinobacteria, the proteasome can degrade proteins that have been post-translationally modified with the prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein Pup. Unlike for the eukaryotic proteasome core particle, no other bacterial proteasome interactors have been identified to date. Here we describe and characterize a novel bacterial proteasome activator of Mycobacterium tuberculosis we termed Bpa (Rv3780, using a combination of biochemical and biophysical methods. Bpa features a canonical C-terminal proteasome interaction motif referred to as the HbYX motif, and its orthologs are only found in those actinobacteria encoding the proteasomal subunits. Bpa can inhibit degradation of Pup-tagged substrates in vitro by competing with Mpa for association with the proteasome. Using negative-stain electron microscopy, we show that Bpa forms a ring-shaped homooligomer that can bind coaxially to the face of the proteasome cylinder. Interestingly, Bpa can stimulate the proteasomal degradation of the model substrate β-casein, which suggests it could play a role in the removal of non-native or damaged proteins.

  2. Bacterial proteasome activator bpa (rv3780) is a novel ring-shaped interactor of the mycobacterial proteasome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delley, Cyrille L; Laederach, Juerg; Ziemski, Michal; Bolten, Marcel; Boehringer, Daniel; Weber-Ban, Eilika

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of the proteasome in bacteria is limited to the phylum of actinobacteria, where it is maintained in parallel to the usual bacterial compartmentalizing proteases. The role it plays in these organisms is still not fully understood, but in the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) the proteasome supports persistence in the host. In complex with the ring-shaped ATPase Mpa (called ARC in other actinobacteria), the proteasome can degrade proteins that have been post-translationally modified with the prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein Pup. Unlike for the eukaryotic proteasome core particle, no other bacterial proteasome interactors have been identified to date. Here we describe and characterize a novel bacterial proteasome activator of Mycobacterium tuberculosis we termed Bpa (Rv3780), using a combination of biochemical and biophysical methods. Bpa features a canonical C-terminal proteasome interaction motif referred to as the HbYX motif, and its orthologs are only found in those actinobacteria encoding the proteasomal subunits. Bpa can inhibit degradation of Pup-tagged substrates in vitro by competing with Mpa for association with the proteasome. Using negative-stain electron microscopy, we show that Bpa forms a ring-shaped homooligomer that can bind coaxially to the face of the proteasome cylinder. Interestingly, Bpa can stimulate the proteasomal degradation of the model substrate β-casein, which suggests it could play a role in the removal of non-native or damaged proteins. PMID:25469515

  3. Photo-Fenton-like treatment of BPA: effect of UV light source and water matrix on toxicity and transformation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molkenthin, Merle; Olmez-Hanci, Tugba; Jekel, Martin R; Arslan-Alaton, Idil

    2013-09-15

    UV-A (near-UV), UV-C (short-UV) and visible-light assisted Fenton-like treatment of Bisphenol A (BPA) was investigated in pure water and raw freshwater samples spiked with BPA. Treatment performances were evaluated in terms of BPA degradation, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal and H2O2 consumption rates. Complete BPA degradation accompanied with significant DOC removal was achieved for all studied processes. Increasing the initial solution pH only exhibited a negative effect on treatment efficiencies when bicarbonate alkalinity was used for pH adjustment, whereas the raw freshwater matrix and irradiation type also influenced oxidation rates appreciably. Acute toxicity analysis employing Vibrio fischeri revealed that the inhibitory effect of BPA decreased significantly during the course of Photo-Fenton-like treatment. Several transformation products could be identified via HPLC and GC-MS analyses including hydroxylated phenolic compounds (hydroquinone; 2-methoxy, 1-4-benzenediol; 4-isopropenylphenol; 4'-hydroxy-acetophenone; 1-(4-cyclohexylphenyl) ethanone; 4-isopropylenecatechol; 4-4'-dihydroxybenzophenone; 4-ethyl,1,3-benzenediol), as well as the ring opening products hexanoic acid methyl ester, fumaric, succinic and oxalic acids. A reaction pathway featuring hydroxylation, dimerization and ring opening steps is proposed. PMID:23866146

  4. Proposed Revenues, Financial Strategy, and Program Costs for FY 1992 and 1993 : Technical Appendix, BPA Programs in Perspective.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1990-07-01

    Programs in Perspective is the Bonneville Power Administration's public involvement process (PIP) for engaging customers and other stakeholders in a regional dialog to set strategic direction and broad program plans for BPA effort. This planning leads into a biennial rate setting cycle and offers a more accessible and flexible opportunity for dialog on broad issues than is possible under the strict administrative procedures of ratemaking. The self-financed character of BPA has made this public process a necessary and valuable one to assure that those who pay BPA's rates have a clear understanding and a strong voice in the plans for use of the resulting revenues. During 1989, the previous PIP engaged the region in discussion of major strategic, issues focussing on major areas. In 1990, BPA seeks discussion of the directions and plans specifically for fiscal years 1992 and 1993. The steps taken for those years will lay the foundation for the years beyond. Thus, we have subtitled this year's process, Staying fit for the long run.'' We have consulted extensively with customers and others in the region in developing these plans. In dozens of program--specific meetings, BPA staff have talked and listened to what others think our plans ought to be. PIP now gives us a chance to review their sum total, along with projections for revenues and our overall financial position. 8 tabs., 8 figs.

  5. EVALUATION OF ORAL AND INTRAVENOUS ROUTE PHARMACOKINETICS, PLASMA PROTEIN BINDING AND UTERINE TISSUE DOSE METRICS OF BPA: A PHYSIOLOGICALLY BASED PHARMACOKINETIC APPROACH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a weakly estrogenic monomer used in the production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins, both of which are used in food contact applications. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model of BPA pharmacokinetics in rats and humans was developed t...

  6. Comparative study of the effect of BPA and its selected analogues on hemoglobin oxidation, morphological alterations and hemolytic changes in human erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maćczak, Aneta; Bukowska, Bożena; Michałowicz, Jaromir

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) has been shown to provoke many deleterious impacts on human health, and thus it is now successively substituted by BPA analogues, whose effects have been poorly investigated. Up to now, only one study has been realized to assess the effect of BPA on human erythrocytes, which showed its significant hemolytic and oxidative potential. Moreover, no study has been conducted to evaluate the effect of BPA analogues on red blood cells. The purpose of the present study was to compare the impact of BPA and its selected analogues such as bisphenol F (BPF), bisphenol S (BPS) and bisphenol AF (BPAF) on hemolytic and morphological changes and hemoglobin oxidation (methemoglobin formation) of human erythrocytes. The erythrocytes were incubated with different bisphenols concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 500μg/ml for 1, 4 and 24h. The compounds examined caused hemolysis in human erythrocytes with BPAF exhibiting the strongest effect. All bisphenols examined caused methemoglobin formation with BPA inducing the strongest oxidative potential. Flow cytometry analysis showed that all bisphenols (excluding BPS) induced significant changes in erythrocytes size. Changes in red blood cells shape were conducted using phase contrast microscopy. It was noticed that BPA and BPAF induced echinocytosis, BPF caused stomatocytosis, while BPS did not provoke significant changes in shape of red blood cells. Generally, the results showed that BPS, which is the main substituent of bisphenol A in polymers and thermal paper production, exhibited significantly lower disturbance of erythrocyte functions than BPA.

  7. Cu-PDC-bpa solid coordination frameworks (PDC=2,5-pyrindinedicarboxylate; bpa=1,2-DI(4-pyridil)ethane)): 2D and 3D structural flexibility producing a 3-c herringbone array next to ideal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llano-Tomé, Francisco, E-mail: francisco.llano@ehu.eus [Departamento de Mineralogía y Petrología, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU), Apdo 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Bazán, Begoña, E-mail: bego.bazan@ehu.eus [Departamento de Mineralogía y Petrología, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU), Apdo 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); BCMaterials Parque Tecnológico de Zamudio, Ibaizabal Bidea, Edificio 500–Planta 1, 48160 Derio (Spain); Urtiaga, Miren-Karmele, E-mail: karmele.urtiaga@ehu.eus [Departamento de Mineralogía y Petrología, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU), Apdo 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Barandika, Gotzone, E-mail: gotzone.barandika@ehu.eus [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU), Apdo 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Antonia Señarís-Rodríguez, M., E-mail: tonasr@udc.es [QUIMOLMAT, Centro de Investigaciones Científicas Avanzadas (CICA) and Departamento de Química Fundamental, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de A Coruña, 15071A Coruña (Spain); and others

    2015-10-15

    Combination of polycarboxylate anions and dipyridyl ligands is an effective strategy to produce solid coordination frameworks (SCF) which are crystalline materials based on connections between metal ions through organic ligands. In this context, this work is focused on two novel Cu{sup II}-based SCFs exhibiting PDC (2,5-pyridinedicarboxylate) and bpa (1,2-di(4-pyridyl)ethane), being the first structures reported in literature containing both ligands. Chemical formula are [Cu{sub 2}[(PDC){sub 2}(bpa)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]·3H{sub 2}O·DMF (1), and [Cu{sub 2}(PDC){sub 2}(bpa)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]·7H{sub 2}O (2), where DMF is dimethylformamide. Compounds 1 and 2 have been characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, differential thermal analysis (DTA) and dielectric measurements. The crystallographic analysis revealed that compounds 1 and 2 can be described as herringbone-type layers formed by helicoidal Cu-PDC-Cu chains connected through bpa ligands. Solvent molecules are crystallized between the layers, providing the inter-layer connections through hydrogen bonds. Differences between both compounds are attributable to the flexibility of bpa (in 2D) as well as to the 3D packing of the layers which is solvent dependent. This fact results in the fact that compound 2 is the most regular 3-c herringbone array reported so far. The structural dynamism of these networks is responsible for the crystalline to-amorphous to-crystalline (CAC) transformation from compound 1 to compound 2. Crystallochemical features for both compounds have also been studied and compared to similar 3-connected herringbone-arrays. - Graphical abstract: Cu-PDC-bpa 3-c herringbone arrays. - Highlights: • The most ideal herringbone array reported so far is a Cu-PDC-bpa SCF. • Conformational freedom of bpa results in 2D and 3D flexibility of the SCFs. • The flexibility of the SCFs is related to a phase transformation. • Dielectric

  8. Interaction between p-BPA and precursor of melanin prepared from Greene's hamster melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takase, M.; Yoshino, K.; Kamijo, M.; Niki, Y. [Shinshu Univ., Dept. of Chemistry, Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan); Kondoh, H.; Mishima, Y. [Mishima Inst. for Dermatological Research, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Hiratsuka, J. [Kawasaki Medical College, Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan)

    2000-10-01

    We report on the first observation of p-Boronophenylalanine (p-BPA) complex signal of {sup 11}B-NMR which appeared at 8 ppm from BF{sub 3}OEt{sub 2} in the mixed solution of BPA and SGF (small granule fraction) among subcellular fractions of Greene's hamster melanoma. SGF contains coated vesicles (CV). CV organelles in melanoma cells contain a large amount of melanin monomers. The complex signal appeared at 2 hours after the mixing and gradually increased. At 6 hours after mixing it began to decrease and became broad at 8 hours after the mixing. On the other hand, there was no such a peak in BPA-LGF system. LGF (large granule fraction) does not contain CV. (author)

  9. Non-linear model for the kinetics of 10B in blood after BPA-fructose complex infusion in BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the study was to create non-linear model for estimating the blood 10B time-concentration after p-boronophenylalanine fructose complex (BPA-F) infusion in patients undergoing boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The models were applied to data from 8 patients who were part of the phase I BNCT clinical trial at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). All patients received a two-hour infusion of BPA-F of 290 mg BPA/kg body weight, with the infusion speed adjusted to the body weight of each patient. Blood samples were collected during and after the infusion. The model development is based on averaged and interpolated data from data sets of these patients

  10. BPA Instream Habitat Projects Completed within Asotin Creek Watershed, 1999-2001 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Bradley J.

    2002-10-23

    The Asotin County Conservation District (ACCD) is the primary entity coordinating habitat projects on both private and public lands within the Asotin Creek watershed. The watershed covers approximately 325 square miles in the Blue Mountains of southeastern Washington in WRIA 35. According to WDFW's Priority WRIA's by At-Risk Stock Significance Map, it is the highest priority WRIA in southeastern WA. Summer steelhead, bull trout, and Snake River spring chinook salmon which are listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), are present in the watershed. WDFW manages it as a Wild Steelhead Reserve, because no hatchery fish have been released here since 1997. The ACCD has been working with landowners, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Washington State Conservation Commission (WCC), Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), U.S. Forest Service, Pomeroy Ranger District (USFS), Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), Department of Ecology (DOE), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) to address habitat projects in Asotin County. Local students, volunteers and Salmon Corps Members have been instrumental in the success of the Model Watershed Program on Asotin Creek. ACCD began coordinating habitat projects in 1995 with the help of BPA funding. Approximately two hundred seventy-six projects have been implemented as of 1999. The Washington State Legislature was successful in securing funding for endangered salmon and steelhead recovery throughout the State in 1998. While these issues were new to most of the State, southeastern Washington had been dealing with endangered fall and spring chinook salmon since 1994. The Asotin Creek In-Stream Habitat Project teamed BPA and Governor's Salmon Recovery Funding on four instream habitat projects in the Asotin Creek Watershed. These projects provide complex instream habitat for steelhead, bull trout and spring chinook in the stream

  11. Urinary BPA measurements in children and mothers from six European member states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Covaci, Adrian; Hond, Elly Den; Geens, Tinne;

    2015-01-01

    of all countries (95% CI) adjusted for urinary creatinine, age and gender were 2.04 (1.87-2.24) µg/L and 1.88 (1.71-2.07) µg/L for children (n=653) and mothers (n=639), respectively. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify significant environmental, geographical, personal or life style related...... (r=0.265, penvironmental/dietary factor that influences the biomarker level in each pair. Exposure of the general European population was well below the current health-based guidance values and no participant had BPA values higher than the health...

  12. Splenomegaly of C57BL/6 mouse by thermal neutron exposure after Borono phenylalanine (BPA) administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Samyol [Nambu University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    BNCT(Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) is a promising clinical method for a kind of tumors by killing cancer cells selectively at the cell level, its research is going on over the world, especially KURRI (Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute) in Japan and MIT (Massachusetts institute of Technology)in USA. For the research in Korea, a neutron irradiation facility was a BNCT facility at Hanaro to support the research of BNCT (basic medical, chemical, physical and biological technology). In the present research, we firstly tried to measure the biological information for the splenomegaly of C57BL/6 mouse by thermal neutron exposure after BPA (boronophenylalanine) admini-stration.

  13. Synthesis and evaluation of a novel liposome containing BPA-peptide conjugate for BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirakawa, Makoto [Department of Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, Faculty of Functional and Regulatory Medical Sciences, University of Tsukuba (Japan)], E-mail: m0720347@md.tsukuba.ac.jp; Yamamto, Tetsuya; Nakai, Kei [Department of Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, Faculty of Functional and Regulatory Medical Sciences, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Aburai, Kenichi [Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science (Japan); Kawatobi, Sho [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Toho University (Japan); Tsurubuchi, Takao; Yamamoto, Yohei [Department of Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, Faculty of Functional and Regulatory Medical Sciences, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Yokoyama, Yuusaku; Okuno, Hiroaki [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Toho University (Japan); Matsumura, Akira [Department of Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, Faculty of Functional and Regulatory Medical Sciences, University of Tsukuba (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    We aimed at securing sufficient concentrations of {sup 10}B in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) by developing a new drug delivery system. We have designed and developed a novel lipid analog and succeeded in using it to develop the new boron component liposome. It consisted of three different kinds of amino acid derivatives and two fatty acids, and could react directly with the peptide synthesized first on resin by Fmoc solid-phase synthesis. In this study, lipid analog conjugated with HIV-TAT peptide (domain of human immunodeficiency virus TAT protein) and boronophenylalanine (BPA) was synthesized and successfully incorporated into liposomes.

  14. Crystal structure and spin state of Fe{sub 0.5}Co{sub 0.5}(NCS){sub 2}(bpa){sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakashima, Satoru, E-mail: snaka@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Hiroshima University, Natural Science Center for Basic Research and Development (Japan); Morita, Takaki; Inoue, Katsuya [Hiroshima University, Graduate School of Science (Japan)

    2012-03-15

    Fe(NCS){sub 2}(bpa){sub 2}, Co(NCS){sub 2}(bpa){sub 2}, and Fe{sub 0.5}Co{sub 0.5}(NCS){sub 2}(bpa){sub 2} were synthesized. X-ray structural analysis revealed that the structure was the same among the three complexes. Although the metal-ligand distance in the mixed crystals was shorter than the distance in Fe(NCS){sub 2}(bpa){sub 2} and was similar to that in Co(NCS){sub 2}(bpa){sub 2}, the spin state remained temperature-independent Fe{sup II} high-spin state in {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectra.

  15. BPA exposure during in vitro oocyte maturation results in dose-dependent alterations to embryo development rates, apoptosis rate, sex ratio and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Jacqueline; Mahboubi, Kiana; MacLusky, Neil; King, W Allan; Favetta, Laura A

    2016-01-01

    Alterations in the oocyte's environment can negatively affect embryo development. Oocyte quality, which can determine embryonic viability, is easily perturbed, thus factors affecting normal oocyte maturation are a concern. Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting chemical that elicits a variety of reproductive effects. BPA has previously been found to disrupt meiosis, however the embryonic effects in mammals are not well documented. Here, bovine oocytes were matured in vitro with and without BPA treatment. Resulting embryos exhibited decreased embryonic development rates, increased apoptosis, and a skewed sex ratio. Gene expression in blastocysts was not altered, whereas treatment with 15ng/mL BPA resulted in increased expression of several of the genes studies, however this increase was largely due to a vehicle effect. BPA exposure during oocyte maturation in vitro can therefore, in a dose-dependent way, decrease oocyte and embryo quality and developmental potential and affect gene expression of developmentally important transcripts. PMID:26686065

  16. Paternal BPA exposure in early life alters Igf2 epigenetic status in sperm and induces pancreatic impairment in rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Zhenxing; Xia, Wei; Chang, Huailong; Huo, Wenqian; Li, Yuanyuan; Xu, Shunqing

    2015-11-01

    Exposure to endocrine disruptors in utero appears to alter epigenetics in the male germ-line and subsequently promote adult-onset disease in subsequent generations. Fetal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), a highly prevalent endocrine disruptor in environment, has been shown to alter epigenetic modification and result in glucose intolerance in adulthood. However, whether fetal exposure to BPA can induce epigenetic modification and phenotypic changes in their subsequent offspring are still unclear. The present study was designed to investigate whether exposure to BPA in early life induced glucose intolerance in the offspring through male germ line, and the underlying epigenetic molecular basis. F0 pregnant SD rats were received corn oil or 40 μg/kg/day of BPA during gestation and lactation. F1 male rats were maintained to generate F2 offspring by mating with untreated female rats. Both the F1 rats after weaning and the F2 offspring were not received any other treatments. Our results showed that male F2 offspring in the BPA group exhibited glucose intolerance and β-cell dysfunction. Decreased expression of Igf2 and associated hypermethylation of Igf2 were observed in islets of male F2 offspring. In addition, similar effects were observed in female F2 animals, but the effects were more pronounced in males. Moreover, abnormal expression and methylation of Igf2 was observed in sperm of adult F1 male rats, indicating that epigenetic modification in germ cells can be partly progressed to the next generation. Overall, our study suggests that BPA exposure during early life can result in generational transmission of glucose intolerance and β-cell dysfunction in the offspring through male germ line, which is associated with hypermethylation of Igf2 in islets. The changes of epigenetics in germ cells may contribute to this generational transmission. PMID:26276081

  17. Migration of bisphenol A (BPA) from epoxy can coatings to jalapeño peppers and an acid food simulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munguia-Lopez, Elvia M; Peralta, Elizabeth; Gonzalez-Leon, Alberto; Vargas-Requena, Claudia; Soto-Valdez, Herlinda

    2002-12-01

    Effects of heat processing, storage time, and temperature on migration of bisphenol A (BPA) from an epoxy type can coating to an acid food simulant and jalapeño peppers were determined. Commercial jalapeño pepper cans (8 oz, dimensions 211 x 300) were stored at 25 degrees C for 40, 70, and 160 days. A solution of 3% acetic acid was canned in 211 x 300 cans from the same batch used for jalapeño peppers. Heat processing was applied to two-thirds of the cans, and the remaining cans were not heat processed. Cans were stored at 25 and 35 degrees C for 0, 40, 70, and 160 days. Results showed that there is a minimal effect of heat treatment. An effect of storage time on migration of BPA during the first 40 days at 25 degrees C was observed. An increase on migration of BPA was observed with storage time at 35 degrees C. The highest level of migration was 15.33 microg/kg of BPA at 160 days at 35 degrees C. A correction factor of approximately 0.4 was calculated for migration under simulating conditions of storage compared to the real ones. The highest level of BPA found in jalapeño peppers cans, surveyed from three supermarkets, was 5.59 +/- 2.43 microg/kg. Migration of BPA, performed according to the European and Mercosur conditions, was 65.45 +/- 5.29 microg/kg. All the migration values found in this study were below those legislation limits (3 mg/kg).

  18. Prenatal exposure to BPA alters the epigenome of the rat mammary gland and increases the propensity to neoplastic development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Dhimolea

    Full Text Available Exposure to environmental estrogens (xenoestrogens may play a causal role in the increased breast cancer incidence which has been observed in Europe and the US over the last 50 years. The xenoestrogen bisphenol A (BPA leaches from plastic food/beverage containers and dental materials. Fetal exposure to BPA induces preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions in the adult rat mammary gland. Previous results suggest that BPA acts through the estrogen receptors which are detected exclusively in the mesenchyme during the exposure period by directly altering gene expression, leading to alterations of the reciprocal interactions between mesenchyme and epithelium. This initiates a long sequence of altered morphogenetic events leading to neoplastic transformation. Additionally, BPA induces epigenetic changes in some tissues. To explore this mechanism in the mammary gland, Wistar-Furth rats were exposed subcutaneously via osmotic pumps to vehicle or 250 µg BPA/kg BW/day, a dose that induced ductal carcinomas in situ. Females exposed from gestational day 9 to postnatal day (PND 1 were sacrificed at PND4, PND21 and at first estrus after PND50. Genomic DNA (gDNA was isolated from the mammary tissue and immuno-precipitated using anti-5-methylcytosine antibodies. Detection and quantification of gDNA methylation status using the Nimblegen ChIP array revealed 7412 differentially methylated gDNA segments (out of 58207 segments, with the majority of changes occurring at PND21. Transcriptomal analysis revealed that the majority of gene expression differences between BPA- and vehicle-treated animals were observed later (PND50. BPA exposure resulted in higher levels of pro-activation histone H3K4 trimethylation at the transcriptional initiation site of the alpha-lactalbumin gene at PND4, concomitantly enhancing mRNA expression of this gene. These results show that fetal BPA exposure triggers changes in the postnatal and adult mammary gland epigenome and alters gene

  19. Boron biodistribution for BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model: Combined administration of BSH and BPA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.W. Nigg; William Bauer; Various Others

    2014-06-01

    Sodium mercaptoundecahydro-closo-dodecaborate (BSH) is being investigated clinically for BNCT. We examined the biodistribution of BSH and BPA administered jointly in different proportions in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. The 3 assayed protocols were non-toxic, and showed preferential tumor boron uptake versus precancerous and normal tissue and therapeutic tumor boron concentration values (70–85 ppm). All 3 protocols warrant assessment in BNCT studies to contribute to the knowledge of (BSH+BPA)-BNCT radiobiology for head and neck cancer and optimize therapeutic efficacy.

  20. Prenatal Exposure to BPA Alters the Epigenome of the Rat Mammary Gland and Increases the Propensity to Neoplastic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhimolea, Eugen; Wadia, Perinaaz R.; Murray, Tessa J.; Settles, Matthew L.; Treitman, Jo D.; Sonnenschein, Carlos; Shioda, Toshi; Soto, Ana M.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to environmental estrogens (xenoestrogens) may play a causal role in the increased breast cancer incidence which has been observed in Europe and the US over the last 50 years. The xenoestrogen bisphenol A (BPA) leaches from plastic food/beverage containers and dental materials. Fetal exposure to BPA induces preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions in the adult rat mammary gland. Previous results suggest that BPA acts through the estrogen receptors which are detected exclusively in the mesenchyme during the exposure period by directly altering gene expression, leading to alterations of the reciprocal interactions between mesenchyme and epithelium. This initiates a long sequence of altered morphogenetic events leading to neoplastic transformation. Additionally, BPA induces epigenetic changes in some tissues. To explore this mechanism in the mammary gland, Wistar-Furth rats were exposed subcutaneously via osmotic pumps to vehicle or 250 µg BPA/kg BW/day, a dose that induced ductal carcinomas in situ. Females exposed from gestational day 9 to postnatal day (PND) 1 were sacrificed at PND4, PND21 and at first estrus after PND50. Genomic DNA (gDNA) was isolated from the mammary tissue and immuno-precipitated using anti-5-methylcytosine antibodies. Detection and quantification of gDNA methylation status using the Nimblegen ChIP array revealed 7412 differentially methylated gDNA segments (out of 58207 segments), with the majority of changes occurring at PND21. Transcriptomal analysis revealed that the majority of gene expression differences between BPA- and vehicle-treated animals were observed later (PND50). BPA exposure resulted in higher levels of pro-activation histone H3K4 trimethylation at the transcriptional initiation site of the alpha-lactalbumin gene at PND4, concomitantly enhancing mRNA expression of this gene. These results show that fetal BPA exposure triggers changes in the postnatal and adult mammary gland epigenome and alters gene expression patterns

  1. Scientific Opinion on the risks to public health related to the presence of bisphenol A (BPA in foodstuffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This opinion describes the assessment of the risks to public health associated with bisphenol A (BPA exposure. Exposure was assessed for various groups of the human population in three different ways: (1 external (by diet, drinking water, inhalation, and dermal contact to cosmetics and thermal paper; (2 internal exposure to total BPA (absorbed dose of BPA, sum of conjugated and unconjugated BPA; and (3 aggregated (from diet, dust, cosmetics and thermal paper, expressed as oral human equivalent dose (HED referring to unconjugated BPA only. The estimated BPA dietary intake was highest in infants and toddlers (up to 0.875 µg/kg bw per day. Women of childbearing age had dietary exposures comparable to men of the same age (up to 0.388 µg/kg bw per day. The highest aggregated exposure of 1.449 µg/kg bw per day was estimated for adolescents. Biomonitoring data were in line with estimated internal exposure to total BPA from all sources. BPA toxicity was evaluated by a weight of evidence approach. “Likely” adverse effects in animals on kidney and mammary gland underwent benchmark dose (BMDL10 response modelling. A BMDL10 of 8 960 µg/kg bw per day was calculated for changes in the mean relative kidney weight in a two generation toxicity study in mice. No BMDL10 could be calculated for mammary gland effects. Using data on toxicokinetics, this BMDL10 was converted to an HED of 609 µg/kg bw per day. The CEF Panel applied a total uncertainty factor of 150 (for inter- and intra-species differences and uncertainty in mammary gland, reproductive, neurobehavioural, immune and metabolic system effects to establish a temporary Tolerable Daily Intake (t-TDI of 4 µg/kg bw per day. By comparing this t-TDI with the exposure estimates, the CEF Panel concluded that there is no health concern for any age group from dietary exposure and low health concern from aggregated exposure. The CEF Panel noted considerable uncertainty in the exposure estimates for non

  2. SIMS ion microscopy imaging of boronophenylalanine (BPA) and 13C15N-labeled phenylalanine in human glioblastoma cells: Relevance of subcellular scale observations to BPA-mediated boron neutron capture therapy of cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Subhash; Lorey, Daniel R., II

    2007-02-01

    p-Boronophenylalanine (BPA) is a clinically approved boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) agent currently being used in clinical trials of glioblastoma multiforme, melanoma and liver metastases. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) observations from the Cornell SIMS Laboratory provided support for using a 6 h infusion of BPA, instead of a 2 h infusion, for achieving higher levels of boron in brain tumor cells. These observations were clinically implemented in Phase II experimental trials of glioblastoma multiforme in Sweden. However, the mechanisms for higher BPA accumulation with longer infusions have remained unknown. In this work, by using 13C15N-labeled phenylalanine and T98G human glioblastoma cells, comparisons between the 10B-delivery of BPA and the accumulation of labeled phenylalanine after 2 and 6 h treatments were made with a Cameca IMS-3f SIMS ion microscope at 500 nm spatial resolution in fast frozen, freeze-fractured, freeze-dried cells. Due to the presence of the Na-K-ATPase in the plasma membrane of most mammalian cells, the cells maintain an approximately 10/1 ratio of K/Na in the intracellular milieu. Therefore, the quantitative imaging of these highly diffusible species in the identical cell in which the boron or labeled amino acid was imaged provides a rule-of-thumb criterion for validation of SIMS observations and the reliability of the cryogenic sampling. The labeled phenylalanine was detected at mass 28, as the 28(13C15N)- molecular ion. Correlative analysis with optical and confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that fractured freeze-dried glioblastoma cells contained well-preserved ultrastructural details with three discernible subcellular regions: a nucleus or multiple nuclei, a mitochondria-rich perinuclear cytoplasmic region and the remaining cytoplasm. SIMS analysis revealed that the overall cellular signals of both 10B from BPA and 28CN- from labeled phenylalanine increased approximately 1.6-fold between the 2 and 6 h exposures

  3. Adverse effects of bisphenol A (BPA) on the dopamine system in two distinct cell models and corpus striatum of the Sprague-Dawley rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicki, Brittney A; Hamada, Matt A; Robinson, Gina Y; Jones, Douglas C

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of bisphenol A (BPA) on the brain dopamine (DA) system utilizing both in vitro models (GH3 cells, a rat pituitary cell line, and SH-SY5Y cells, a human neuroblastoma cell line) and an animal model such as Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. First, cellular DA uptake was measured 2 or 8 h following BPA exposure (0.1-400 μM) in SH-SY5Y cells, where a significant increase in DA uptake was noted. BPA exerted no marked effect on dopamine active transporter levels in GH3 cells exposed for 8 or 24 h. However, SH-SY5Y cells displayed an increase in dopamine transporter (DAT) levels following 24 h of exposure to BPA. In contrast to DAT levels, BPA exposure produced no marked effect on DA D1 receptor levels in SH-SY5Y cells, yet a significant decrease in GH3 cells following both 8- and 24-h exposure periods was noted, suggesting that BPA exerts differential effects dependent upon cell type. BPA produced no significant effects on prolactin levels at 2 h, but a marked fall occurred at 24 h of exposure in GH3 cells. Finally, to examine the influence of dietary developmental exposure to BPA on brain DA levels in F1 offspring, SD rats were exposed to BPA (0.5-20 mg/kg) through maternal transfer and/or diet and striatal DA levels were measured on postnatal day (PND) 60 using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Data demonstrated that chronic exposure to BPA did not significantly alter striatal DA levels in the SD rat. PMID:27494678

  4. Sex specific impact of perinatal bisphenol A (BPA) exposure over a range of orally administered doses on rat hypothalamic sexual differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffrey, Katherine A.; Jones, Brian; Mabrey, Natalie; Weiss, Bernard; Swan, Shanna H.; Patisaul, Heather B.

    2013-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high volume production chemical used in polycarbonate plastics, epoxy resins, thermal paper receipts, and other household products. The neural effects of early life BPA exposure, particularly to low doses administered orally, remain unclear. Thus, to better characterize the dose range over which BPA alters sex specific neuroanatomy, we examined the impact of perinatal BPA exposure on two sexually dimorphic regions in the anterior hypothalamus, the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA) and the anterioventral periventricular (AVPV) nucleus. Both are sexually differentiated by estradiol and play a role in sex specific reproductive physiology and behavior. Long Evans rats were prenatally exposed to 10, 100, 1000, 10,000 mg/kg bw/day BPA through daily, noninvasive oral administration of dosed-cookies to the dams. Offspring were reared to adulthood. Their brains were collected and immunolabeled for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the AVPV and calbindin (CALB) in the SDN-POA. We observed decreased TH-ir cell numbers in the female AVPV across all exposure groups, an effect indicative of masculinization. In males, AVPV TH-ir cell numbers were significantly reduced in only the BPA 10 and BPA 10,000 groups. SDN-POA endpoints were unaltered in females but in males SDN-POA volume was significantly lower in all BPA exposure groups. CALB-ir was significantly lower in all but the BPA 1000 group. These effects are consistent with demasculinization. Collectively these data demonstrate that early life oral exposure to BPA at levels well below the current No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) of 50 mg/kg/day can alter sex specific hypothalamic morphology in the rat. PMID:23500335

  5. Is container type the biggest predictor of trace element and BPA leaching from drinking water bottles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowell, Candace; Kuiper, Nora; Preud'Homme, Hugues

    2016-07-01

    The knowledge-base of bottled water leachate is highly contradictory due to varying methodologies and limited multi-elemental and/or molecular analyses; understanding the range of contaminants and their pathways is required. This study determined the leaching potential and leaching kinetics of trace elements, using consistent comprehensive quantitative and semi-quantitative (79 elements total) analyses, and BPA, using isotopic dilution and MEPS pre-concentration with UHPLC-ESI-QTOF. Statistical methods were used to determine confounders and predictors of leaching and human health risk throughout 12days of UV exposure and after exposure to elevated temperature. Various types of water were used to assess the impact of water quality. Results suggest Sb leaching is primarily dependent upon water quality, not container type. Bottle type is a predictor of elemental leaching for Pb, Ba, Cr, Cu, Mn and Sr; BPA was detected in samples from polycarbonate containers. Health risks from the consumption of bottled water increase after UV exposure. PMID:26920269

  6. The Future Impact of Wind on BPA Power System Ancillary Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Lu, Shuai; McManus, Bart; Pease, John

    2008-06-30

    Wind power is growing in a very fast pace as an alternative generating resource. As the ratio of wind power over total system capacity increases, the impact of wind on various system aspects becomes significant. This paper presents a methodology to study the future impact of wind on BPA power system ancillary services including load following and regulation. Existing approaches for similar analysis include dispatch model simulation and standard deviation evaluation. The methodology proposed in this paper uses historical data and stochastic processes to simulate the load balancing processes in BPA power system. Then capacity, ramp rate and ramp duration characteristics are extracted from the simulation results, and load following and regulation requirements are calculated accordingly. It mimics the actual power system operations therefore the results can be more realistic yet the approach is convenient to perform. Further, the ramp rate and ramp duration data obtained from the analysis can be used to evaluate generator response or maneuverability and energy requirement, respectively, additional to the capacity requirement.

  7. The Future Impact of Wind on BPA Power System Load Following and Regulation Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Lu, Shuai; McManus, Bart; Pease, John

    2008-05-31

    Wind power is growing in a very fast pace as an alternative generating resource. As the ratio of wind power over total system capacity increases, the impact of wind on various system aspects becomes significant. This paper presents a methodology to study the future impact of wind on BPA power system load following and regulation requirements. Existing methodologies for similar analysis include dispatch model simulation and standard deviation evaluation on load and wind data. The methodology proposed in this paper uses historical data and stochastic processes to simulate the load balancing processes in the BPA power system. It mimics the actual power system operations therefore the results are close to reality yet the study based on this methodology is convenient to perform. The capacity, ramp rate and ramp duration characteristics are extracted from the simulation results. System load following and regulation capacity requirements are calculated accordingly. The ramp rate and ramp duration data obtained from the analysis can be used to evaluate generator response or maneuverability requirement and regulating units’ energy requirement, respectively.

  8. Mechanistic study of photo-oxidation of Bisphenol-A (BPA) with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and sodium persulfate (SPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Jyoti; Mishra, I M; Kumar, Vineet

    2016-01-15

    The removal of Bisphenol-A (BPA) from contaminated water using advanced oxidation methods such as UV-C assisted oxidation by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and sodium persulfate (SPS) has been reported by the authors earlier (Sharma et al., 2015a). In the present study, the authors report the removal of BPA from aqueous solution by the above two methods and its degradation mechanism. UV-C light (254 nm wavelength, 40 W power) was applied to BPA contaminated water at natural pH (pHN) under room temperature conditions. Experiments were carried out with the initial BPA concentration in the range of 0.04 mM-0.31 mM and the oxidant/BPA molar ratio in the range of 294:1-38:1 for UV-C/H2O2 and 31.5-4.06:1 for UV-C/SPS systems. The removal of BPA enhanced with decreasing BPA concentration. The total organic carbon also decreased with the UV-C irradiation time under optimum conditions ([H2O2]0 = 11.76 mM; [SPS]0 = 1.26 mM; temperature (29 ± 3 °C). Competition of BPA for reaction with HO or [Formula: see text] radicals at its higher concentrations results in a decrease in the removal of BPA. The intermediates with smaller and higher molecular weights than that of BPA were found in the treated water. Based on GC-MS and FTIR spectra of the reaction mixture, the formation of hydroxylated by-products testified the HO mediated oxidation pathway in the BPA degradation, while the formation of quinones and phenoxy phenols pointed to the [Formula: see text] dominating pathway through the formation of hydroxycyclohexadienyl (HCHD) and BPA phenoxyl radicals. The main route of BPA degradation is the hydroxylation followed by dehydration, coupling and ring opening reactions. PMID:26468603

  9. Cu-PDC-bpa solid coordination frameworks (PDC=2,5-pyrindinedicarboxylate; bpa=1,2-DI(4-pyridil)ethane)): 2D and 3D structural flexibility producing a 3-c herringbone array next to ideal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llano-Tomé, Francisco; Bazán, Begoña; Urtiaga, Miren-Karmele; Barandika, Gotzone; Antonia Señarís-Rodríguez, M.; Sánchez-Andújar, Manuel; Arriortua, María-Isabel

    2015-10-01

    Combination of polycarboxylate anions and dipyridyl ligands is an effective strategy to produce solid coordination frameworks (SCF) which are crystalline materials based on connections between metal ions through organic ligands. In this context, this work is focused on two novel CuII-based SCFs exhibiting PDC (2,5-pyridinedicarboxylate) and bpa (1,2-di(4-pyridyl)ethane), being the first structures reported in literature containing both ligands. Chemical formula are [Cu2[(PDC)2(bpa)(H2O)2]·3H2O·DMF (1), and [Cu2(PDC)2(bpa)(H2O)2]·7H2O (2), where DMF is dimethylformamide. Compounds 1 and 2 have been characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, differential thermal analysis (DTA) and dielectric measurements. The crystallographic analysis revealed that compounds 1 and 2 can be described as herringbone-type layers formed by helicoidal Cu-PDC-Cu chains connected through bpa ligands. Solvent molecules are crystallized between the layers, providing the inter-layer connections through hydrogen bonds. Differences between both compounds are attributable to the flexibility of bpa (in 2D) as well as to the 3D packing of the layers which is solvent dependent. This fact results in the fact that compound 2 is the most regular 3-c herringbone array reported so far. The structural dynamism of these networks is responsible for the crystalline to-amorphous to-crystalline (CAC) transformation from compound 1 to compound 2. Crystallochemical features for both compounds have also been studied and compared to similar 3-connected herringbone-arrays.

  10. Non-linear model for the kinetics of 10B in blood after BPA-fructose complex infusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryynänen, Päivi; Kangasmäki, Aki; Hiismäki, Pekka; Coderre, Jeffrey; Diaz, Aidnag Z.; Kallio, Merja; Laakso, Juha; Kulvik, Martti; Savolainen, Sauli

    2002-03-01

    A numerical model with a memory effect was created to describe the kinetics of 10B in blood after a single 4-dihydroxyborylphenylalanine-fructose complex (BPA-F) infusion in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The model formulation was based on the averaged data from 10 glioma patients from the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) BNCT-trials. These patients received a 2 h i.v. infusion of a BPA-fructose complex that delivered 290 mg BPA/kg body weight. The model was validated by fitting the original BNL patient data and new patient data from the Finnish BNCT-trials. The new 3-parameter non-linear model provided mean absolute differences between the measured and estimated 10B concentrations in blood that were less than 3.9% when used to simulate actual patient irradiations that comprised two irradiation fields separated by a break to reposition the patient. The flexibility of the model was successfully tested with two different infusion protocols. The patient data were modelled with a two-compartment model and a bi-exponential fit for comparison. The 3-parameter model is better than previously described models in predicting the time course of blood 10B concentration after cessation of intravenous infusion of BPA-fructose.

  11. Interaction of bisphenol A (BPA) and soy phytoestrogens on sexually dimorphic sociosexual behaviors in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Kimani D; Sullivan, Alana W; Cao, Jinyan; Sluzas, Emily; Rebuli, Meghan; Patisaul, Heather B

    2016-08-01

    Concerns have been raised regarding the potential for endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) to alter brain development and behavior. Developmental exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), a ubiquitous EDC, has been linked to altered sociosexual and mood-related behaviors in various animal models and children but effects are inconsistent across laboratories and animal models creating confusion about potential risk in humans. Exposure to endocrine active diets, such as soy, which is rich in phytoestrogens, may contribute to this variability. Here, we tested the individual and combined effects of low dose oral BPA and soy diet or the individual isoflavone genistein (GEN; administered as the aglycone genistin (GIN)) on rat sociosexual behaviors with the hypothesis that soy would obfuscate any BPA-related effects. Social and activity levels were unchanged by developmental exposure to BPA but soy diet had sex specific effects including suppressed novelty preference, and open field exploration in females. The data presented here reinforce that environmental factors, including anthropogenic chemical exposure and hormone active diets, can shape complex behaviors and even reverse expected sex differences. PMID:27373758

  12. Non-linear model for the kinetics of {sup 10}B in blood after BPA-fructose complex infusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryynaenen, Paeivi; Savolainen, Sauli [Department of Physical Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Department of Radiology, Helsinki (Finland)]. E-mail: sauli.savolainen@hus.fi; Kangasmaeki, Aki [Department of Radiology, Helsinki (Finland); Hiismaeki, Pekka [VTT Chemical Technology, Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Coderre, Jeffrey [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Diaz, Aidnag Z. [Cancer Center, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle WA (United States); Kallio, Merja; Kulvik, Martii [Department of Neurology, Helsinki (Finland); Laakso, Juha [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Helsinki (Finland)

    2002-03-07

    A numerical model with a memory effect was created to describe the kinetics of {sup 10}B in blood after a single 4-dihydroxyborylphenylalanine-fructose complex (BPA-F) infusion in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The model formulation was based on the averaged data from 10 glioma patients from the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) BNCT-trials. These patients received a 2 h i.v. infusion of a BPA-fructose complex that delivered 290 mg BPA/kg body weight. The model was validated by fitting the original BNL patient data and new patient data from the Finnish BNCT-trials. The new 3-parameter non-linear model provided mean absolute differences between the measured and estimated {sup 10}B concentrations in blood that were less than 3.9% when used to simulate actual patient irradiations that comprised two irradiation fields separated by a break to reposition the patient. The flexibility of the model was successfully tested with two different infusion protocols. The patient data were modelled with a two-compartment model and a bi-exponential fit for comparison. The 3-parameter model is better than previously described models in predicting the time course of blood {sup 10}B concentration after cessation of intravenous infusion of BPA-fructose. (author)

  13. 48 CFR 339.7001 - Request for approval to make an award to other than a GSA BPA holder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Request for approval to make an award to other than a GSA BPA holder. 339.7001 Section 339.7001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Use of General Services...

  14. Long-term effects of a binary mixture of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and bisphenol A (BPA) in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiter, Susanne; Baumann, Lisa; Farber, H;

    2012-01-01

    aimed at evaluating the long-term effects and toxicity-increasing behavior of PFOS in vivo using the zebrafish (Danio rerio). Fish were maintained in flow-through conditions and exposed to single and binary mixtures of PFOS and the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA) at nominal concentrations of 0...

  15. Long-term effects of a binary mixture of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and bisphenol A (BPA) in zebrafish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiter, Susanne; Holbech, Henrik; Skutlarek, D;

    2011-01-01

    bisphenol A (BPA) over two full generations of the zebrafish (Danio rerio). Survival, growth, reproductive success, vitellogenin (VTG) and histological alterations in thyroid, liver and gonads were examined. PFOS (300 μg/L) was found to induce lipid accumulation in liver of F1 generation fish. A parallel...

  16. Non-linear model for the kinetics of 10B in blood after BPA-fructose complex infusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A numerical model with a memory effect was created to describe the kinetics of 10B in blood after a single 4-dihydroxyborylphenylalanine-fructose complex (BPA-F) infusion in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The model formulation was based on the averaged data from 10 glioma patients from the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) BNCT-trials. These patients received a 2 h i.v. infusion of a BPA-fructose complex that delivered 290 mg BPA/kg body weight. The model was validated by fitting the original BNL patient data and new patient data from the Finnish BNCT-trials. The new 3-parameter non-linear model provided mean absolute differences between the measured and estimated 10B concentrations in blood that were less than 3.9% when used to simulate actual patient irradiations that comprised two irradiation fields separated by a break to reposition the patient. The flexibility of the model was successfully tested with two different infusion protocols. The patient data were modelled with a two-compartment model and a bi-exponential fit for comparison. The 3-parameter model is better than previously described models in predicting the time course of blood 10B concentration after cessation of intravenous infusion of BPA-fructose. (author)

  17. Biodistribution study with combined administration of BPA and BSH for BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We previously proved the therapeutic potential of the chemically non-selective boron compound decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) as a stand-alone boron carrier for BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model with no toxic effects in normal or precancerous tissue. Although GB-10 is not taken up selectively by oral tumor tissue, selective tumor lethality would result from selective aberrant tumor blood vessel damage. Furthermore, BNCT efficacy was enhanced when GB-10 and boronophenylalanine (BPA) were administered jointly. The fact that sodium mercaptoundecahydro-closo-dodecaborate (BSH) is being investigated clinically as a stand-alone boron agent for BNCT of brain tumors and in combination with BPA for recurrent head and neck malignancies makes it a particularly interesting boron compound to explore. Based on the working hypothesis that BSH would conceivably behave similarly to GB-10 in oral cancer, we previously performed biodistribution studies with BSH alone in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. The aim of the present study was to perform biodistribution studies of BSH + BPA administered jointly in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model as a starting point to contribute to the knowledge of (BSH+BPA)-BNCT radiobiology and optimize therapeutic efficacy. The right cheek pouch of Syrian hamsters was subjected to topical administration of a carcinogen twice a week for 12 weeks. Once the exophytic tumors, i.e. squamous cell carcinomas, had developed, the animals were used for biodistribution studies with BSH + BPA. Three administration protocols with different proportions of each of the compounds were assessed: 1. BSH, 50 mg 10B/kg, iv + BPA, 15.5 mg 10B/kg, ip; 2. BSH, 34.5 mg 10B/kg, iv + BPA, 31 mg 10B/kg, ip; 3. BSH, 20 mg 10B/kg, iv + BPA, 46.5 mg 10B/kg, ip. Groups of animals were euthanized 4 h after the administration of BSH and 3 h after the administration of BPA. Samples of blood, tumor, precancerous and normal pouch and other tissues with clinical

  18. Chronic High Dose Intraperitoneal Bisphenol A (BPA) Induces Substantial Histological and Gene Expression Alterations in Rat Penile Tissue Without Impairing Erectile Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovanecz, Istvan; Gelfand, Robert; Masouminia, Maryam; Gharib, Sahir; Segura, Denesse; Vernet, Dolores; Rajfer, Jacob; Li, De-Kun; Liao, Chun Yang; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Gonzalez-Cadavid, Nestor F.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Bisphenol A (BPA), released from plastics and dental sealants, is a suspected endocrine disruptor and reproductive toxicant. In occupationally exposed workers, BPA has been associated with erectile dysfunction (ED). Aims To determine whether long-term exposure to high doses of BPA in the rat affects serum levels of testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2), and induces corporal histopathology and resultant ED. Methods Young rats were injected intraperitoneal (IP) injection daily with BPA at 25 mg/kg/day or vehicle (n = 8/group). Erectile function was measured at 3 months by cavernosometry and electrical field stimulation (EFS). BPA was assayed in serum, urine, and penile tissue, and serum T and E2 were determined. Quantitative Masson trichrome, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling, Oil Red O, immunohistochemistry for calponin, α-smooth muscle actin, and Oct 4 were applied to penile tissue sections. Protein markers were assessed by Western blots and 2–D minigels, and RNA by DNA microarrays. Main Outcome Measures Erectile function, histological, and biochemical markers in corporal tissue. Results In the BPA-treated rats, total and free BPA levels were increased in the serum, urine, and penile tissue while serum T and E2 levels were reduced. In addition, the corpora cavernosa demonstrated a reduction in smooth muscle (SM) content, SM/collagen ratio, together with an increase in myofibroblasts, fat deposits, and apoptosis, but no significant change in collagen content or stem cells (nuclear/perinuclear Oct 4). In the penile shaft, BPA induced a downregulation of Nanog (stem cells), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nitrergic terminals), and vascular endothelial growth factor (angiogenesis), with genes related to SM tone and cytoskeleton upregulated 5- to 50-fold, accompanied by changes in the multiple protein profile. However, both cavernosometry and EFS were unaltered by BPA. Conclusions While rats treated chronically with a high IP

  19. Model conversion from BPA to PSCAD%BPA向PSCAD模型转换的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶华; 许津津; 邹文聪

    2013-01-01

    电力系统电磁暂态仿真是测试继电保护装置性能的重要手段,也是分析交直流混合输电系统可靠性的重要方法.目前国内对电网动态仿真大都是对机电暂态过程的仿真,故电网数据也按照机电暂态仿真软件数据格式存储,从而造成了电磁暂态仿真数据的匮乏.在详细分析了机电暂态仿真软件BPA与电磁暂态仿真软件PSCAD差别的基础上,介绍了一种BPA向PSCAD的自动模型转换的实现方法,为电力系统电磁暂态仿真提供可靠的数据支撑,并且通过算例在2种软件下的电气拓扑结构和动态特性的比较,验证该转换方法的有效性和准确性.%The electromagnetic transient simulation of electric power system is an important test means of relay protection performance,as well as a main reliability analysis method of AC/DC hybrid transmission system.The present power system transient simulation in China is mostly for the electromechanical transient process and the grid data are consequently stored in the data format of electromechanical transient simulation software,resulting in the shortage of simulative electromagnetic transient data.The difference between BPA(a kind of electromechanical transient simulation software) and PSCAD(a kind of electromagnetic transient simulation software) is analyzed in detail and an implementation method of model conversion from BPA to PSCAD is presented.BPA and PSCAD are applied respectively to cases and its electric topology and transient characteristics are compared between two kinds of software,which proves the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed conversion method.

  20. 2007-2008 Annual Progress Report for BPA Grant Exp Restore Walla Walla River Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, Bob [WWBWC (Walla Walla Basin Watershed Council)

    2009-07-10

    WWBWC and its partners have been working on a wide variety of conservation and aquifer recharge related activities including: monitoring groundwater and surface water conditions, creating a geospatial database for the Walla Walla River valley (project focal area), expanding aquifer recharge testing at the HBDIC site and conducting an extensive outreach/education program by which to share the information, ideas and potential solutions to our current water management issues in this basin. This report is an outline of those activities and is accompanied by individual program-component (attached as appendices) reports for the areas that BPA is assisting to fund these on-the-ground projects along with the innovative research and monitoring being done to further aquifer recharge as a water management tool for the Pacific Northwest.

  1. BPA/Puget Power Northwest Washington Transmission Project Final Environmental Impact Statement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-08-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and Puget Sound Power & Light Company (Puget Power) propose to upgrade the existing high-voltage transmission system in the Whatcom and Skagit counties area between the towns of Custer and Sedro Woolley, including some areas within the City of Bellingham, starting in 1995. A Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for the project was issued in November 1993, followed by a 45-day public comment period. Public response to the DEIS included the identification of several new transmission route alternatives in the Lake Whatcom area. BPA issued a Supplemental DEIS in April 1995 to provide a second public review-and-comment period. Rebuilding an existing 230-kV line to a double-circuit 230-kV transmission line was identified in the Supplemental DEIS as the Proposed Action. The Supplemental DEIS also examined in detail a North Shore Road alternative which was proposed by some members of the public. Public comments on the EIS were listed and responded to in the Supplemental DEIS. In May 1995, a second set of open houses and public meetings was held to review the Supplemental DEIS. Electromagnetic field (EMF) effects raised as an issue in the DEIS continued to be an issue of public concern in the meetings. The EIS has identified impacts that would generally be classified as low to moderate and localized. Effects on soils and water resources in sensitive areas (e.g., near Lake Whatcom) would be low to moderate; there would be little change in magnetic fields; noise levels would remain at existing levels; and land use and property value impacts would be minimal. Threatened and endangered species would not be adversely affected, and all proposed actions in wetlands would be covered by a Corps of Engineers Nationwide Permit. Visual and socioeconomic would be low to moderate. There would be no effect on cultural resources.

  2. Soy but not bisphenol A (BPA) or the phytoestrogen genistin alters developmental weight gain and food intake in pregnant rats and their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jinyan; Echelberger, Roger; Liu, Min; Sluzas, Emily; McCaffrey, Katherine; Buckley, Brian; Patisaul, Heather B

    2015-12-01

    Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are hypothesized to promote obesity and early puberty but their interactive effects with hormonally active diets are poorly understood. Here we assessed individual and combinatorial effects of soy diet or the isoflavone genistein (GEN; administered as the aglycone genistin GIN) with bisphenol A (BPA) on body weight, ingestive behavior and female puberal onset in Wistar rats. Soy-fed dams gained less weight during pregnancy and, although they consumed more than dams on a soy-free diet during lactation, did not become heavier. Their offspring (both sexes), however, became significantly heavier (more pronounced in males) pre-weaning. Soy also enhanced food intake and accelerated female pubertal onset in the offspring. Notably, pubertal onset was also advanced in females placed on soy diet at weaning. Males exposed to BPA plus soy diet, but not BPA alone, had lighter testes. BPA had no independent effects. PMID:26216788

  3. First-principles study for the adsorption of segments of BPA-PC on α-Al2O3(0001)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomqvist, Janne; Salo, Petri

    2011-10-01

    We have studied the adsorption of bisphenol-A-polycarbonate (BPA-PC) on the α-Al2O3(0001) surface using density functional theory (DFT) with van der Waals (vdW) corrections. The BPA-PC polymer can be divided into its chemical fragments, which are phenylene, carbonate, and isopropylidene groups. We have calculated the adsorption energy and geometry of the BPA-PC segments that consist of two to three adjacent groups of the polymer. Our DFT results show that the adsorption is dominated by the vdW interaction. It is also important to include the interaction of nearest-neighbor groups in order to provide a realistic environment for the adsorption of the polymer onto the surface. Our results also show that the BPA-PC molecule attaches to the alumina surface via the carbonate group located in the middle of the molecule chain.

  4. Sensitivity and selectivity determination of BPA in real water samples using PAMAM dendrimer and CoTe quantum dots modified glassy carbon electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin Huanshun; Zhou Yunlei [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Shandong Agricultural University, Daizong Street 61, Taian, 271018, Shangdong (China); Ai Shiyun, E-mail: ashy@sdau.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Shandong Agricultural University, Daizong Street 61, Taian, 271018, Shangdong (China); Chen Quanpeng; Zhu Xiangbin [College of Resources and Environment, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian, 271018, Shandong (China); Liu Xianggang [College of Chemistry and Material Science, Shandong Agricultural University, Daizong Street 61, Taian, 271018, Shangdong (China); Zhu Lusheng, E-mail: lushzhu@sdau.edu.cn [College of Resources and Environment, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian, 271018, Shandong (China)

    2010-02-15

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an environmental pollutant to disrupt endocrine system or cause cancer, thus the detection of BPA is very important. Herein, an amperometric sensor was fabricated based on immobilized CoTe quantum dots (CoTe QDs) and PAMAM dendrimer (PAMAM) onto glassy carbon electrode (GCE) surface. The cyclic voltammogram of BPA on the sensor exhibited a well-defined anodic peak at 0.490 V in 0.1 M pH 8.0 PBS. The determination conditions were optimized and the kinetic parameters were calculated. The linear range was 1.3 x 10{sup -8} to 9.89 x 10{sup -6} M with the correlation coefficient of 0.9999. The limit of detection was estimated to be 1 x 10{sup -9} M. The current reached the steady-state current within about 5 s. Furthermore, the fabricated sensor was successfully applied to determine BPA in real water samples.

  5. Effect of heat processing and storage time on migration of bisphenol A (BPA) and bisphenol A-diglycidyl ether (BADGE) to aqueous food simulant from Mexican can coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munguia-Lopez, E M; Soto-Valdez, H

    2001-08-01

    Effects of heat processing and storage time (up to 70 days) on migration of bisphenol A (BPA) and bisphenol A-diglycidyl ether (BADGE) from can coatings into an aqueous food simulant were determined. Distilled water was canned in two types of Mexican cans: for tuna and for jalapeño peppers. Results showed that there is an effect of heat treatment on migration of both compounds. Storage time did not show any effect in BPA migration from tuna cans. There was an effect of storage time on BPA migration from jalapeño pepper cans. Results for BADGE migration were affected by its susceptibility to hydrolyze in aqueous simulants. BADGE concentration decreased, or was not detected, during storage in both types of cans. Migration levels for BPA and BADGE were within 0.6-83.4 and Mercosur legislation limits. Other migrating compounds were detected, although no identification was performed.

  6. Use of fluorine-18-BPA PET images and image registration to enhance radiation treatment planning for boron neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Khurram

    The Monte-Carlo based simulation environment for radiation therapy (SERA) software is used to simulate the dose administered to a patient undergoing boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Point sampling of tumor tissue results in an estimate of a uniform boron concentration scaling factor of 3.5. Under conventional treatment protocols, this factor is used to scale the boron component of the dose linearly and homogenously within the tumor and target volumes. The average dose to the tumor cells by such a method could be improved by better methods of quantifying the in-vivo 10B biodistribution. A better method includes radiolabeling para-Boronophenylalanine (p-BPA) with 18F and imaging the pharmaceutical using positron emission tomography (PET). This biodistribution of 18F-BPA can then be used to better predict the average dose delivered to the tumor regions. This work uses registered 18F-BPA PET images to incorporate the in-vivo boron biodistribution within current treatment planning. The registered 18F-BPA PET images are then coupled in a new computer software, PET2MRI.m, to linearly scale the boron component of the dose. A qualititative and quantitative assessment of the dose contours is presented using the two approaches. Tumor volume, tumor axial extent, and target locations are compared between using MRI or PET images to define the tumor volume. In addition, peak-to-normal brain value at tumor axial center is determined for pre and post surgery patients using 18F-BPA PET images. The differences noted between the registered GBM tumor volumes (range: 34.04--136.36%), tumor axial extent (range: 20--150%), and the beam target location (1.27--4.29 cm) are significantly different. The peak-to-normal brain values are also determined at the tumor axial center using the 18F-BPA PET images. The peak-to-normal brain values using the last frame of the pre-surgery study for the GBM patients ranged from 2.05--3.4. For post surgery time weighted PET data, the peak

  7. Urinary BPA measurements in children and mothers from six European member states: Overall results and determinants of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covaci, Adrian; Den Hond, Elly; Geens, Tinne; Govarts, Eva; Koppen, Gudrun; Frederiksen, Hanne; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Mørck, Thit A; Gutleb, Arno C; Guignard, Cedric; Cocco, Emanuelle; Horvat, Milena; Heath, Ester; Kosjek, Tina; Mazej, Darja; Tratnik, Janja Snoj; Castaño, Argelia; Esteban, Marta; Cutanda, Francisco; Ramos, Juan José; Berglund, Marika; Larsson, Kristin; Jönsson, Bo A G; Biot, Pierre; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Joas, Reinhard; Joas, Anke; Bloemen, Louis; Sepai, Ovnair; Exley, Karen; Schoeters, Greet; Angerer, Jürgen; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Fiddicke, Ulrike; Aerts, Dominique; Koch, Holger M

    2015-08-01

    For the first time in Europe, both European-wide and country-specific levels of urinary Bisphenol A (BPA) were obtained through a harmonized protocol for participant recruitment, sampling and quality controlled biomarker analysis in the frame of the twin projects COPHES and DEMOCOPHES. 674 child-mother pairs were recruited through schools or population registers from six European member states (Belgium, Denmark, Luxembourg, Slovenia, Spain and Sweden). Children (5-12 y) and mothers donated a urine sample. Information on socio-demographic characteristics, life style, dietary habits, and educational level of the parents was provided by mothers. After exclusion of urine samples with creatinine values below 300 mg/L or above 3000 mg/L, 653 children and 639 mothers remained for which BPA was measured. The geometric mean (with 95% confidence intervals) and 90th percentile were calculated for BPA separately in children and in mothers and were named "European reference values". After adjustment for confounders (age and creatinine), average exposure values in each country were compared with the mean of the "European reference values" by means of a weighted analysis of variance. Overall geometric means of all countries (95% CI) adjusted for urinary creatinine, age and gender were 2.04 (1.87-2.24) µg/L and 1.88 (1.71-2.07) µg/L for children (n=653) and mothers (n=639), respectively. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify significant environmental, geographical, personal or life style related determinants. Consumption of canned food and social class (represented by the highest educational level of the family) were the most important predictors for the urinary levels of BPA in mothers and children. The individual BPA levels in children were significantly correlated with the levels in their mothers (r=0.265, p<0.001), which may suggest a possible common environmental/dietary factor that influences the biomarker level in each pair. Exposure of the general European

  8. In Utero Exposure to Diethylstilbestrol (DES) or Bisphenol-A (BPA) Increases EZH2 Expression in the Mammary Gland: An Epigenetic Mechanism Linking Endocrine Disruptors to Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Leo F.; Bromer, Jason G.; Zhou, Yuping; Aldad, Tamir S.

    2011-01-01

    Diethylstilbestrol (DES) and bisphenol-A (BPA) are estrogen-like endocrine-disrupting chemicals that induce persistent epigenetic changes in the developing uterus. However, DES exposure in utero is also associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in adult women. Similarly, fetal exposure to BPA induces neoplastic changes in mammary tissue of mice. We hypothesized that epigenetic alterations would precede the increased risk of breast neoplasia after in utero exposure to endocrine disruptors. Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2 (EZH2) is a histone methyltransferase that has been linked to breast cancer risk and epigenetic regulation of tumorigenesis. We examined the effect of BPA and DES on EZH2 expression and function in MCF-7 cells and in mammary glands of mice exposed in utero. DES and BPA treatment approximated human exposure. EZH2 functional activity was assessed by measuring histone H3 trimethylation. Treatment of MCF-7 cells with DES or BPA led to a 3- and 2-fold increase in EZH2 mRNA expression, respectively (p2-fold increase in EZH2 expression in adult mammary tissue compared with controls (p<0.05). EZH2 protein was elevated in mammary tissue of mice exposed to DES or BPA. Histone H3 trimethylation was increased in MCF-7 cells treated with BPA or DES. Similarly, mice exposed to BPA or DES in utero showed increased mammary histone H3 trimethylation. Developmental programming of EZH2 is a novel mechanism by which in utero exposure to endocrine disruptors leads to epigenetic regulation of the mammary gland. PMID:21761357

  9. A cancer research UK pharmacokinetic study of BPA-mannitol in patients with high grade glioma to optimise uptake parameters for clinical trials of BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation will describe a human pharmacokinetic study which is scheduled to begin recruitment in Summer 2006. The study has been ongoing for approximately 4 years to develop the necessary protocols, validate boron assays and to develop a new formulation of BPA. The study population will be patients with glioblastoma multiforme and the study focuses on the route of infusion (intra venous or intra carotid artery) and in each will assess the effect of administration of mannitol (as a blood-brain barrier disrupter). Mannitol will be administered as a bolus at the beginning of a two hour infusion of BPA. The BPA formulation (BPA - mannitol) is also new and avoids some of the problems of low solubility associated with BPA-fructose as well as the potential risk of fructose intolerance. The approach will include stereotactic biopsy which is necessary to confirm diagnosis. Tissue samples collected will include needle biopsy samples of tumour and brain around tumour for estimation of BPA transporter expression, together with microdialysis catheter collection of extra-cellular fluid and routine collection of blood and urine for BPA levels. Where possible, according to surgical plan and the route of entry, samples of cerebro-spinal will also be collected. These data will be used to develop a pharmacokinetic model following the general approach already established by others in the field. This paper presents initial pre-clinical studies on the BPA-mannitol formulation and some assay validation work together with suggestions for approaches to normalisation of the macroscopic boron assays using simultaneous measurement of Mg levels in tissue. (author)

  10. Tualang Honey Protects against BPA-Induced Morphological Abnormalities and Disruption of ERα, ERβ, and C3 mRNA and Protein Expressions in the Uterus of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Sarah Mohamad Zaid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA is an endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC that can disrupt the normal functions of the reproductive system. The objective of the study is to investigate the potential protective effects of Tualang honey against BPA-induced uterine toxicity in pubertal rats. The rats were administered with BPA by oral gavage over a period of six weeks. Uterine toxicity in BPA-exposed rats was determined by the degree of the morphological abnormalities, increased lipid peroxidation, and dysregulated expression and distribution of ERα, ERβ, and C3 as compared to the control rats. Concurrent treatment of rats with BPA and Tualang honey significantly improved the uterine morphological abnormalities, reduced lipid peroxidation, and normalized ERα, ERβ, and C3 expressions and distribution. There were no abnormal changes observed in rats treated with Tualang honey alone, comparable with the control rats. In conclusion, Tualang honey has potential roles in protecting the uterus from BPA-induced toxicity, possibly accounted for by its phytochemical properties.

  11. Developmental bisphenol A (BPA) exposure leads to sex-specific modification of hepatic gene expression and epigenome at birth that may exacerbate high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developmental bisphenol A (BPA) exposure increases adulthood hepatic steatosis with reduced mitochondrial function. To investigate the potential epigenetic mechanisms behind developmental BPA-induced hepatic steatosis, pregnant Sprague–Dawley rats were dosed with vehicle (oil) or BPA (100 μg/kg/day) from gestational day 6 until postnatal day (PND) 21. After weaning, offspring were either challenged with a high-fat (HF; 45% fat) or remained on a control (C) diet until PND110. From PND60 to 90, both BPA and HF diet increased the fat/lean ratio in males only, and the combination of BPA and HF diet appeared to cause the highest ratio. On PND110, Oil-HF, BPA-C, and BPA-HF males had higher hepatic lipid accumulation than Oil-C, with microvesicular steatosis being marked in the BPA-HF group. Furthermore, on PND1, BPA increased and modified hepatic triglyceride (TG) and free fatty acid (FFA) compositions in males only. In PND1 males, BPA increased hepatic expression of FFA uptake gene Fat/Cd36, and decreased the expression of TG synthesis- and β-oxidation-related genes (Dgat, Agpat6, Cebpα, Cebpβ, Pck1, Acox1, Cpt1a, Cybb). BPA altered DNA methylation and histone marks (H3Ac, H4Ac, H3Me2K4, H3Me3K36), and decreased the binding of several transcription factors (Pol II, C/EBPβ, SREBP1) within the male Cpt1a gene, the key β-oxidation enzyme. In PND1 females, BPA only increased the expression of genes involved in FFA uptake and TG synthesis (Lpl, Fasn, and Dgat). These data suggest that developmental BPA exposure alters and reprograms hepatic β-oxidation capacity in males, potentially through the epigenetic regulation of genes, and further alters the response to a HF diet. - Highlights: • Developmental BPA exposure exacerbates HF-diet induced steatosis in adult males. • Gestational BPA exposure increases hepatic lipid accumulation in neonatal males. • BPA decreases Cpt1a and other hepatic β-oxidation genes in neonatal males. • BPA alters neonatal male Cpt1a

  12. Developmental bisphenol A (BPA) exposure leads to sex-specific modification of hepatic gene expression and epigenome at birth that may exacerbate high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strakovsky, Rita S.; Wang, Huan; Engeseth, Nicki J. [Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign (United States); Flaws, Jodi A. [Department of Comparative Biosciences, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign (United States); Helferich, William G. [Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign (United States); Pan, Yuan-Xiang, E-mail: yxpan@illinois.edu [Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign (United States); Lezmi, Stéphane, E-mail: slezmi@illinois.edu [Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Developmental bisphenol A (BPA) exposure increases adulthood hepatic steatosis with reduced mitochondrial function. To investigate the potential epigenetic mechanisms behind developmental BPA-induced hepatic steatosis, pregnant Sprague–Dawley rats were dosed with vehicle (oil) or BPA (100 μg/kg/day) from gestational day 6 until postnatal day (PND) 21. After weaning, offspring were either challenged with a high-fat (HF; 45% fat) or remained on a control (C) diet until PND110. From PND60 to 90, both BPA and HF diet increased the fat/lean ratio in males only, and the combination of BPA and HF diet appeared to cause the highest ratio. On PND110, Oil-HF, BPA-C, and BPA-HF males had higher hepatic lipid accumulation than Oil-C, with microvesicular steatosis being marked in the BPA-HF group. Furthermore, on PND1, BPA increased and modified hepatic triglyceride (TG) and free fatty acid (FFA) compositions in males only. In PND1 males, BPA increased hepatic expression of FFA uptake gene Fat/Cd36, and decreased the expression of TG synthesis- and β-oxidation-related genes (Dgat, Agpat6, Cebpα, Cebpβ, Pck1, Acox1, Cpt1a, Cybb). BPA altered DNA methylation and histone marks (H3Ac, H4Ac, H3Me2K4, H3Me3K36), and decreased the binding of several transcription factors (Pol II, C/EBPβ, SREBP1) within the male Cpt1a gene, the key β-oxidation enzyme. In PND1 females, BPA only increased the expression of genes involved in FFA uptake and TG synthesis (Lpl, Fasn, and Dgat). These data suggest that developmental BPA exposure alters and reprograms hepatic β-oxidation capacity in males, potentially through the epigenetic regulation of genes, and further alters the response to a HF diet. - Highlights: • Developmental BPA exposure exacerbates HF-diet induced steatosis in adult males. • Gestational BPA exposure increases hepatic lipid accumulation in neonatal males. • BPA decreases Cpt1a and other hepatic β-oxidation genes in neonatal males. • BPA alters neonatal male Cpt1a

  13. 4-二羟基硼苯丙氨酸(BPA)及其多羟基衍生物BPA(OH)n(n=1,2,4)的电子结构的理论研究%Theoretical Studies on Electronic Structures of Cascade Polyol-attached p-Dihydroxyborylphenylalanine Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈保国; 张明瑜; 赵媛媛; 张坚; 孙家锺

    2006-01-01

    使用密度泛函方法对硼中子捕获疗法药物4-二羟基硼苯丙氨酸(BPA)及其多羟基衍生物BPA(OH)和BPA(OH)2, BPA(OH)4的电子结构进行了理论计算, 探讨了BPA药物作用的可能机制及其羟基衍生物具有良好水溶性的主要因素.研究结果表明, BPA的HOMO主要分布在苯环上, 而BPA(OH), BPA(OH)2和BPA(OH)4的HOMO主要位于多羟基基团与BPA母体的结合部位的C, N和O原子附近, 羟基衍生物的这种HOMO轨道特性、结构中极性基团数量的增多及分子极性的增大等可能是它们具有良好水溶性的主要因素.计算结果与实验结果一致.

  14. Modulation and SSR tests performed on the BPA 500 kV thyristor controlled series capacitor unit at Slatt substation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauer, J.F. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Mittelstadt, W.A. [Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (United States); Piwko, R.J. [General Electric Co., Schenectady, NY (United States); Damsky, B.L. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Eden, J.D. [Portland General Electric, OR (United States)

    1995-07-01

    Field experience is reported for a thyristor controlled series capacitor (TCSC) recently commissioned at BPA`s Slatt substation. Subsynchronous resonance tests show that TCSC interactions with shaft dynamics of PGE`s Boardman steam generator are well understood and are effectively avoided by normal TCSC valve firing logic. Modulation tests, performed with the Boardman plant off line, show that the TCSC can be a powerful and responsive actuator for swing damping. Security considerations did not permit lightly damped operation of the controlled plant. Close analysis indicates that the TCSC damping contribution, though small, was measurable. The best estimate is that damping for the McNary mode is 7.33% and 8.55%, for the TCSC damper loop open and closed respectively. TCSC testing and monitoring is facilitated by an advanced interactive measurement network representing BPA`s approach to the information requirements of major control systems.

  15. Modeling and optimization of tissue {sup 10}B concentration and dosimetry for arbitrary BPA-F infusion schedules in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiger, W.S. III; Newton, T.H. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Nuclear Reactor Laboratory, MA (United States); Palmer, M.R. [Harvard Medical School, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2000-10-01

    Separate compartmental models have been derived for the concentration of {sup 10}B resulting from BPA-F infusion in the central vascular space (i.e., blood or, more appropriately, plasma) and in glioblastoma multiforme and normal brain. By coupling the model for the temporal variation of {sup 10}B concentration in the central vascular space with that for tissue, the dynamic behavior of the {sup 10}B concentration and the resulting dosimetry in the relevant tissues and blood may be predicted for arbitrary infusion schedules. This coupled model may be used as a tool for identifying the optimal time for BNCT irradiation and optimal BPA-F infusion schedule (i.e., temporal targeting) in humans without the need for expensive and time-consuming pharmacokinetic studies for every infusion schedule considered. This model was used to analyze the concentration profiles resulting from a wide range of infusion schedules and their implications for dosimetry. (author)

  16. Modulation and SSR tests performed on the BPA 500 kV thyristor controlled series capacitor unit at Slatt substation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauer, J.F. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Mittelstadt, W.A. [Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (United States); Piwko, R.J. [General Electric Co., Schenectady, NY (United States); Damsky, B.L. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Eden, J.D. [Portland General Electric, OR (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Field experience is reported for a thyristor controlled series capacitor (TCSC) recently commissioned at BPA`s Slatt substation. Subsynchronous resonance tests show that TCSC interactions with shaft dynamics of PGE`s Boardman steam generator are well understood and are effectively avoided by normal TCSC valve firing logic. Modulation tests, performed with the Boardman plant off line, show that the TCSC can be a powerful and responsive actuator for swing damping. Security considerations did not permit lightly damped operation of the controlled plant. Close analysis indicates that the TCSC damping contribution, though small, was measurable. The best estimate is that damping for the McNary mode is 7.33% and 8.55%, for the TCSC damper loop open and closed respectively. TCSC testing and monitoring is facilitated by an advanced interactive measurement network representing BPA`s approach to the information requirements of major control systems.

  17. 从BPA到EMTDC的动态模型转换%Conversion of Dynamic Models from BPA to EMTDC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐昊; 贺仁睦; 周静姝; 张民

    2011-01-01

    电磁暂态分析对现代电力系统的作用已日益显著,而各个电网的数据大多是稳定分析格式的,构建从稳定数据到电磁暂态数据的转换平台显得尤为重要.本文首先介绍了从BPA到EMTDC的潮流转换原理,给出潮流转换不一致时的解决方法.在此基础上阐述了发电机模型转换方法,给出了励磁模型、PSS模型、调速器模型和原动机模型的对照关系.通过两区域四机系统仿真,验证了从BPA到EMTDC的动态模型转换的有效性.%At present, electromagnetic transient analysis plays an increasing significant role in modern power systems.Since the data of power grids are generally given in the form of stability analysis, it is particularly important to construct a platform to convert the data in the form of stability analysis to that in the form of electromagnetic transient analysis.This paper describes the principle of the power flow conversion from BPA to EMTDC, and provides the method to solve inconsistent results by the power flow conversion, based on which the approach of converting generator model in BPA to that in EMTDC has been illustrated,and the corresponding relations of excitation system, PSS,governor and prime mover between BPA and EMTDC have also been given.The effectiveness of the conversion of dynamic models from BPA to EMTDC has been validated by two-area four-machine system simulation.

  18. Pharmacokinetics of BPA in Gliomas with Ultrasound Induced Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption as Measured by Microdialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Feng-Yi; Lin, Yi-Li; Chou, Fong-In; Lin, Yu-Chuan; Hsueh Liu, Yen-Wan; Chang, Lun-Wei; Hsieh, Yu-Ling

    2014-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) can be transiently disrupted by focused ultrasound (FUS) in the presence of microbubbles for targeted drug delivery. Previous studies have illustrated the pharmacokinetics of drug delivery across the BBB after sonication using indirect visualization techniques. In this study, we investigated the in vivo extracellular kinetics of boronophenylalanine-fructose (BPA-f) in glioma-bearing rats with FUS-induced BBB disruption by microdialysis. After simultaneous intravenous administration of BPA and FUS exposure, the boron concentration in the treated brains was quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. With FUS, the mean peak concentration of BPA-f in the glioma dialysate was 3.6 times greater than without FUS, and the area under the concentration-time curve was 2.1 times greater. This study demonstrates that intracerebral microdialysis can be used to assess local BBB transport profiles of drugs in a sonicated site. Applying microdialysis to the study of metabolism and pharmacokinetics is useful for obtaining selective information within a specific brain site after FUS-induced BBB disruption. PMID:24936788

  19. Pharmacokinetics of BPA in gliomas with ultrasound induced blood-brain barrier disruption as measured by microdialysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Yi Yang

    Full Text Available The blood-brain barrier (BBB can be transiently disrupted by focused ultrasound (FUS in the presence of microbubbles for targeted drug delivery. Previous studies have illustrated the pharmacokinetics of drug delivery across the BBB after sonication using indirect visualization techniques. In this study, we investigated the in vivo extracellular kinetics of boronophenylalanine-fructose (BPA-f in glioma-bearing rats with FUS-induced BBB disruption by microdialysis. After simultaneous intravenous administration of BPA and FUS exposure, the boron concentration in the treated brains was quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. With FUS, the mean peak concentration of BPA-f in the glioma dialysate was 3.6 times greater than without FUS, and the area under the concentration-time curve was 2.1 times greater. This study demonstrates that intracerebral microdialysis can be used to assess local BBB transport profiles of drugs in a sonicated site. Applying microdialysis to the study of metabolism and pharmacokinetics is useful for obtaining selective information within a specific brain site after FUS-induced BBB disruption.

  20. Suitability of boron carriers for BNCT: Accumulation of boron in malignant and normal liver cells after treatment with BPA, BSH and BA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, F.I. [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: fichou@mx.nthu.edu.tw; Chung, H.P.; Liu, H.M. [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan (China); Chi, C.W. [Department of Medical Research and Education, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan (China); Institute of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taiwan (China); Lui, W.Y. [Department of Surgery, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan (China); Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taiwan (China)

    2009-07-15

    Hepatocellular carcinoma remains widely prevalent in tropical Africa and south-east Asia. At present, there are no effective treatments for hepatoma and its prognosis is extremely poor unless the tumor was diagnosed in an early stage and resected before metastasis. Therefore, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) may provide an alternative therapy for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. In this study, the intracellular concentrations of L-boronophenylalanine (BPA), sodium borocaptate (BSH) and boric acid (BA) were examined in human hepatoma HepG2 and liver Clone 9 cell cultures. With the use of 25 {mu}g B/mL media of BPA, BSH and BA, the intracellular uptake of boron in HepG2 and Clone 9 cells was compared. The suitability of BPA, BSH and BA were further evaluated on the basis of organ-specific boron distribution in normal rat tissues. BPA, BSH and BA were administered via intraperitoneal injection into rats with corresponding boron concentrations of 7, 25, and 25 mg/kg body weight, respectively. The accumulation rates of BPA, BSH and BA in HepG2 cells were higher than that of Clone 9 cells. Boron concentration in BPA, BSH and BA treated HepG2 cells were 1.8, 1.5, and 1.6-fold of Clone 9 cells at 4 h, respectively. In both HepG2 and Clone 9 cells, although the concentration of boron in BPA-treated cells exceeded that in BA-treated ones, however, cells treated with BPA had similar surviving fraction as those treated with BA after neutron irradiation. The accumulation ratios of boron in liver, pancreas and kidney to boron in blood were 0.83, 4.16 and 2.47, respectively, in BPA treated rats, and 0.75, 0.35 and 2.89, respectively, in BSH treated rats at 3 h after treatment. However, boron does not appear to accumulate specifically in soft tissues in BA treated rats. For in situ BNCT of hepatoma, normal organs with high boron concentration and adjacent to liver may be damaged in neutron irradiation. BPA showed high retention in pancreas and may not be a good drug for

  1. Positron emission tomography and [{sup 18}F]BPA: A perspective application to assess tumour extraction of boron in BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menichetti, L. [Department of PET and Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, C.N.R. Institute of Clinical Physiology, Pisa (Italy)], E-mail: luca.menichetti@ifc.cnr.it; Cionini, L. [Unit of Radiotherapy, AOUP-University Hospital, Pisa (Italy); Sauerwein, W.A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Duisburg-Essen, University Hospital Essen (Germany); Altieri, S. [University of Pavia, Department of Nuclear Physics, Pavia (Italy); Solin, O.; Minn, H. [Turku PET Centre, University of Turku (Finland); Salvadori, P.A. [Department of PET and Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, C.N.R. Institute of Clinical Physiology, Pisa (Italy)

    2009-07-15

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has become a key imaging tool in clinical practice and biomedical research to quantify and study biochemical processes in vivo. Physiologically active compounds are tagged with positron emitters (e.g. {sup 18}F, {sup 11}C, {sup 124}I) while maintaining their biological properties, and are administered intravenously in tracer amounts (10{sup -9}-10{sup -12} M quantities). The recent physical integration of PET and computed tomography (CT) in hybrid PET/CT scanners allows a combined anatomical and functional imaging: nowadays PET molecular imaging is emerging as powerful pharmacological tool in oncology, neurology and for treatment planning as guidance for radiation therapy. The in vivo pharmacokinetics of boron carrier for BNCT and the quantification of {sup 10}B in living tissue were performed by PET in the late nineties using compartmental models based on PET data. Nowadays PET and PET/CT have been used to address the issue of pharmacokinetic, metabolism and accumulation of BPA in target tissue. The added value of the use of L-[{sup 18}F]FBPA and PET/CT in BNCT is to provide key data on the tumour extraction of {sup 10}B-BPA versus normal tissue and to predict the efficacy of the treatment based on a single-study patient analysis. Due to the complexity of a binary treatment like BNCT, the role of PET/CT is currently to design new criteria for patient enrolment in treatment protocols: the L-[{sup 18}F]BPA/PET methodology could be considered as an important tool in newly designed clinical trials to better estimate the concentration ratio of BPA in the tumour as compared to neighbouring normal tissues. Based on these values for individual patients the decision could be made whether BNCT treatment could be advantageous due to a selective accumulation of BPA in an individual tumour. This approach, applicable in different tumour entities like melanoma, glioblastoma and head and neck malignancies, make this methodology as reliable

  2. {sup 124}I-BPA MicroPET images in C57BL/6 mouse bearing B16-F10 melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun Ki Jung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Tae Sup; Woo, Kwang Sun; Chun, Kwon Soo; Cheon, Gi Jeon [Korea Institute Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    Boron Neutron Capture therapy(BNCT) uses a thermal or epithermal neutron source to bombard {sup 10}B atoms inside a cancer tissue and this produces short range alpha particles via a nuclear reaction that are able to kill tumor cells effectively. Preclinical and clinical trials have been conducted in the USA, Europe and Japan using {sup 10}B containing compounds such as BPA or BSH. This success will mainly depend on a differential uptake of {sup 10}B-BPA between a tumor and normal tissue. According to Solo way et al. (1998), a tumor-to-normal tissue uptake ratio (T/N) of 3:1 is desirable. However, it is difficult to directly measure {sup 10}B levels at the time of BNCT. Many researchers used radioactive analogs of {sup 10}B ([{sup 18}F]-FBPA) as a probe to analyze its kinetics in vivo using PET. However, the production of {sup 18}F-BPA is more difficult than that of {sup 124}I-BPA and its half-life is too short. In an earlier study, we obtained different individual images of C57BL/6 mice bearing melanoma on the thigh by a small animal PET scanner(microPET) using {sup 124}I-BPA instead of {sup 18}F-BPA on 1, 3 and 24 hr after an {sup 124}I-BPA injection and calculated the boron contents by the radioactivity in the tumor and the blood. In this study, the aim of our study is to obtain an image of a C57BL/6 mouse bearing melanoma by a small animal PET according to the time( 2 and 24hr) after an injection of a radiolabeled boron compound in order to obtain the changeable images by the injection time in the same individual.

  3. Bisphenol A (BPA) Exposure In Utero Leads to Immunoregulatory Cytokine Dysregulation in the Mouse Mammary Gland: A Potential Mechanism Programming Breast Cancer Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Catha; Mamillapalli, Ramanaiah; Goetz, Laura G; Jorgenson, Elisa; Ilagan, Ysabel; Taylor, Hugh S

    2016-08-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) is a ubiquitous estrogen-like endocrine disrupting compound (EDC). BPA exposure in utero has been linked to breast cancer and abnormal mammary gland development in mice. The recent rise in incidence of human breast cancer and decreased age of first detection suggests a possible environmental etiology. We hypothesized that developmental programming of carcinogenesis may involve an aberrant immune response. Both innate and adaptive immunity play a role in tumor suppression through cytolytic CD8, NK, and Th1 T-cells. We hypothesized that BPA exposure in utero would lead to dysregulation of both innate and adaptive immunity in the mammary gland. CD1 mice were exposed to BPA in utero during gestation (days 9-21) via osmotic minipump. At 6 weeks, the female offspring were ovariectomized and estradiol was given at 8 weeks. RNA and protein were extracted from the posterior mammary glands, and the mRNA and protein levels were measured by PCR array, qRT-PCR, and western blot. In mouse mammary tissue, BPA exposure in utero significantly decreased the expression of members of the chemokine CXC family (Cxcl2, Cxcl4, Cxcl14, and Ccl20), interleukin 1 (Il1) gene family (Il1β and Il1rn), interleukin 2 gene family (Il7 receptor), and interferon gene family (interferon regulatory factor 9 (Irf9), as well as immune response gene 1 (Irg1). Additionally, BPA exposure in utero decreased Esr1 receptor gene expression and increased Esr2 receptor gene expression. In utero exposure of BPA resulted in significant changes to inflammatory modulators within mammary tissue. We suggest that dysregulation of inflammatory cytokines, both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory, leads to a microenvironment that may promote disordered cell growth through inhibition of the immune response that targets cancer cells. PMID:26911702

  4. ORAL BISPHENOL A (BPA) GIVEN TO RATS AT MODERATE DOSES IS ASSOCIATED WITH ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION, CAVERNOSAL LIPOFIBROSIS, AND ALTERATIONS OF GLOBAL GENE TRANSCRIPTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovanecz, I; Gelfand, R; Masouminia, M; Gharib, S; Segura, D; Vernet, D; Rajfer, J; Li, DK; Kannan, K; Gonzalez-Cadavid, NF

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Bisphenol A (BPA), a suspected reproductive biohazard and endocrine disruptor released from plastics is associated with erectile dysfunction (ED) in occupationally exposed workers. However, in rats, despite the induction of hypogonadism, apoptosis of the penile corporal smooth muscle, fat infiltration into the cavernosal tissue, and changes in global gene expression with the intraperitoneal administration of high dose BPA, ED was not observed. Aims We investigated whether BPA administered orally rather than intraperitoneally to rats for longer periods and lower doses will lead to ED. Main Outcomes Measures ED, histological, and biochemical markers in rat penile tissues. Methods 2.5-month old rats were given drinking water daily without and with BPA at 1 and 0.1 mg/kg/day. Two months later, erectile function was determined by cavernosometry (DIC) and electrical field stimulation (EFS) and serum levels of testosterone (T), estradiol (E2), and BPA were measured. Penile tissue sections were assayed by Masson (smooth muscle (SM)/collagen), Oil Red O (fat), TUNEL (apoptosis), immunohistochemistry for Oct 4 (stem cells), and α-SM actin/ calponin (SM and myofibroblasts), applying quantitative image analysis. Other markers were assayed by western blots. DNA microarrays/microRNA assays defined transcription profiles. Results Orally administered BPA did not affect body weight, but: 1) decreased serum T and E2; 2) reduced the EFS response and increased the DIC drop rate; 3) increased within the corporal tissue the presence of fat, myofibroblasts and apoptosis; 4) lowered the contents of SM and stem cells, but not nerve terminals; and 5) caused alterations of the transcriptional profiles for both mRNA and microRNAs within the penile shaft. Conclusions Long-term exposure of rats to oral BPA,caused a moderate corporal veno-occlusive dysfunction (CVOD), possibly due to alterations within the corporal tissue that pose gene transcriptional changes related to

  5. Bisphenol A (BPA) Exposure In Utero Leads to Immunoregulatory Cytokine Dysregulation in the Mouse Mammary Gland: A Potential Mechanism Programming Breast Cancer Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Catha; Mamillapalli, Ramanaiah; Goetz, Laura G; Jorgenson, Elisa; Ilagan, Ysabel; Taylor, Hugh S

    2016-08-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) is a ubiquitous estrogen-like endocrine disrupting compound (EDC). BPA exposure in utero has been linked to breast cancer and abnormal mammary gland development in mice. The recent rise in incidence of human breast cancer and decreased age of first detection suggests a possible environmental etiology. We hypothesized that developmental programming of carcinogenesis may involve an aberrant immune response. Both innate and adaptive immunity play a role in tumor suppression through cytolytic CD8, NK, and Th1 T-cells. We hypothesized that BPA exposure in utero would lead to dysregulation of both innate and adaptive immunity in the mammary gland. CD1 mice were exposed to BPA in utero during gestation (days 9-21) via osmotic minipump. At 6 weeks, the female offspring were ovariectomized and estradiol was given at 8 weeks. RNA and protein were extracted from the posterior mammary glands, and the mRNA and protein levels were measured by PCR array, qRT-PCR, and western blot. In mouse mammary tissue, BPA exposure in utero significantly decreased the expression of members of the chemokine CXC family (Cxcl2, Cxcl4, Cxcl14, and Ccl20), interleukin 1 (Il1) gene family (Il1β and Il1rn), interleukin 2 gene family (Il7 receptor), and interferon gene family (interferon regulatory factor 9 (Irf9), as well as immune response gene 1 (Irg1). Additionally, BPA exposure in utero decreased Esr1 receptor gene expression and increased Esr2 receptor gene expression. In utero exposure of BPA resulted in significant changes to inflammatory modulators within mammary tissue. We suggest that dysregulation of inflammatory cytokines, both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory, leads to a microenvironment that may promote disordered cell growth through inhibition of the immune response that targets cancer cells.

  6. Enhanced blood boron concentration estimation for BPA-F mediated BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortesniemi, M. E-mail: mika.kortesniemi@hus.fi; Seppaelae, T.; Auterinen, I.; Savolainen, S

    2004-11-01

    The blood boron concentration regulates directly the BNCT irradiation time in which the prescribed dose to the patient is delivered. Therefore a proper estimation of the blood boron concentration for the treatment field based on the measured blood samples before irradiation is required. The bi-exponential model fit using Levenberg-Marquardt method was implemented for this purpose to provide the blood boron concentration estimates directly to the treatment data flow during the BNCT procedure. The harmonic mean bi-exponential decay half-lives of the studied patient data (n=28) were 15{+-}8 and 320{+-}70 min for the faster and slower half-life. The model uncertainty (n=28) was reasonably low, 0.7{+-}0.1 {mu}g/g (about 5%). The implemented algorithm provides a robust method for temporal blood boron concentration estimation for BPA-F mediated BNCT. Utilization of the infusion data improves the reliability of the estimate. The overall data flow during the treatment fulfills the practical requirements concerning the BNCT procedure.

  7. The threates on the biodiversity of Bisotun Wildlife Refuge and Bisotun Protected Area (BPA & BWR in the west region of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAHDI REYAHI-KHORAM

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Reyahi-Khoram M, Rizvandy M, Reyahi-Khoram R. 2014. The threates on the biodiversity of Bisotun Wildlife Refuge and Bisotun Protected Area (BPA & BWR in the west region of Iran. Biodiversitas 15: 65-72. Nature is necessary for the preservation of species and biodiversity richness; as a result, it has been protected for thousands of years. Bisotun Protected Area and Bisotun Wildlife Refuge (BPA & BWR with about 95000 hectares is located in Kermanshah province in the west of Iran. The object of this study is to determine the physical properties and analyze the constraints that threaten the BPA & BWR. This research was conducted during the period from May, 2011 to November, 2012 in BPA & BWR. In this research, various animal and plant species were recognized through documentary analysis and also directs field observations. The obtained result indicates that major threates have occurred in biodiversity and ecosystem of BPA & BWR during 1980-2010. During these years, the study area has completely failed and lost some of its biological diversity. Limiting factors that affect wildlife population growth including destruction and conversion of habitats, unauthorized hunting and high frequency presence of animal and human, have influenced the restoration potential of wildlife, the habitats and other conservation areas.

  8. Expression of stress response HSP70 gene in Asian paddle crabs, Charybdis japonica, exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals, bisphenol A (BPA) and 4-nonylphenol (NP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kiyun; Kwak, Ihn-Sil

    2013-06-01

    The Asian paddle crab, Charybdis japonica, is a potential bio-indicator reflecting marine sediment toxicity as well as a commercially important species living along coastal areas in Korea. This study investigated its stress response by looking at the heat shock protein (HSP70) gene of C. japonica when the organism is exposed to bisphenol A (BPA) and 4-nonylphenol (NP). We characterized partial sequence of HSP70 as the stressresponse gene of C. japonica. The nucleotide sequence of C. japonica HSP70 is over 90% homologous with the corresponding gene of other crabs. Phylogenetic tree analysis revealed a close relationship between C. japonica HSP70 and HSP70 in other species of lobster and shrimps. HSP70 mRNA transcripts were detected in all the examined tissues of C. japonica, with the highest level in gills, the organ that most frequently came into contact with the external BPA or NP-laden water. As no reference data were available for C. japonica crab exposure, the BPA and NP 24-h LC50 values have not been previously determined. The expression of the C. japonica HSP70 gene to various BPA or NP concentrations during short and longer times was assessed. Gene expression was significantly induced in concentration- and time-dependent manners after BPA or NP exposures. These results support the postulation that crab C. japonica HSP70 could be a potential stress response molecular marker to monitor marine ecosystems.

  9. MicroPET image of radiolabeled boron compound {sup 124}I-BPA in C57BL/6 mouse bearing B16-F10 melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Ki-Jung; Kim, Woo-Jung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Mi-Sook; Chun, Kwon-Soo; Cheon, Gi-Jeong [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    Boron Neutron Capture therapy(BNCT) uses thermal or epithermal neutron source to bombard {sup 10}B atoms inside cancer tissue and this produces short-range alpha particles via a nuclear reaction that are able to kill tumor cells effectively. Preclinical and clinical trials have been conducted in the USA, Europe and Japan using {sup 10}B containing compounds such as BPA or BSH. This success will mainly depend on a differential uptake of {sup 10}B-BPA between tumor and normal tissue. According to Soloway et al. (1998), a tumor-to-normal tissue uptake ratio (T/N) of 3:1 is desirable. However, it is difficult to directly measure {sup 10}B levels at the time of BNCT. Many researchers used radioactive analogs of {sup 10}B ([{sup 18}F]-FBPA) as a probe to analyze its kinetics in vivo using PET. However, the production of {sup 18}FBPA is more difficult than that of {sup 124}I-BPA and its half life is too short. The aim of our study obtain to image C57BL/6 mice bearing melanoma on the thigh by a small animal PET scanner(microPET) using {sup 124}I-BPA instead of {sup 18}F-BPA and to calculate boron contents by the radioactivity in the tumor and the blood.

  10. Spiral Assembly of the 1D Chain Sheet of Fe(NCBH32(bpa2·(biphenyl (bpa = 1,2-bis(4-pyridylethane and its Stepwise Spin-Crossover Phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Hayami

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The assembled complex, Fe(NCBH32(bpa2, enclathrating biphenyl has been synthesized, the skeleton of which is a 1D chain. Several 1D chains gather together to form 1D chain sheet. The 1D chain sheet is stacked spirally to form novel spiral assembly. The average Fe-N distances were 2.020(2, 2.083(2, and 2.191(2 Å at 100, 175, and 298 K, respectively, reflecting spin-state change of the iron ion. The assembly showed a stepwise spin-crossover phenomenon.

  11. BPA 与 DIgSILENT 动态模型的比较与数据转换%Comparison and Data Conversion Between Dynamic Models of BPA and DIgSILENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董炜; 潘秋萍; 雷金勇; 谢欢; 辛焕海; 吴浩

    2016-01-01

    鉴于 DIgSILENT 中缺少大规模电力系统的暂态数据,难以进行暂态仿真分析,将 BPA 的暂态数据转换至 DIgSILENT 中是一种重要且有效的方法。详细比较了 BPA 和 DIgSILENT 两种商业软件中的机电暂态模型,实现发电机和负荷的模型匹配。利用 Frame 和 Block 的双层结构,在DIgSILENT 中搭建了同步机控制系统框架和模型,实现同步机控制系统的模型匹配。利用DIgSILENT 支持的 Python 语言编写暂态数据转换程序实现数据匹配。基于模型匹配和数据匹配实现大规模电力系统数据自动转换。IEEE 3机9节点系统和411机6613节点华东电网系统的仿真计算结果验证了数据转换的准确性和实用性。%Converting the transient data of BPA to DIgSILENT is an effective method for lack of dynamic data in DIgSIELNT. This paper compares the electromechanical dynamic models of the two commercial simulation software to realize model matching of synchronous generators and loads.Building the frame and models of synchronous generator controllers based on the double layer structure of Frame and Block in DIgSILENT,realizing the matching of synchronous generator controllers. Data matching is achieved by a Python language based program that converts transient data, which is supported by DIgSILENT.Furthermore,the large-scale data is automatically converted from BPA to DIgSILENT based on model matching and data matching.The effectiveness of data conversion is verified by simulation results of an IEEE 3-machine 9-bus benchmark system,and the 41 1-machine 6 613-bus East China power grid.

  12. Low Probability Tail Event Analysis and Mitigation in BPA Control Area: Task One Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Shuai; Makarov, Yuri V.

    2009-04-01

    This is a report for task one of the tail event analysis project for BPA. Tail event refers to the situation in a power system when unfavorable forecast errors of load and wind are superposed onto fast load and wind ramps, or non-wind generators falling short of scheduled output, the imbalance between generation and load becomes very significant. This type of events occurs infrequently and appears on the tails of the distribution of system power imbalance; therefore, is referred to as tail events. This report analyzes what happened during the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) reliability event on February 26, 2008, which was widely reported because of the involvement of wind generation. The objective is to identify sources of the problem, solutions to it and potential improvements that can be made to the system. Lessons learned from the analysis include the following: (1) Large mismatch between generation and load can be caused by load forecast error, wind forecast error and generation scheduling control error on traditional generators, or a combination of all of the above; (2) The capability of system balancing resources should be evaluated both in capacity (MW) and in ramp rate (MW/min), and be procured accordingly to meet both requirements. The resources need to be able to cover a range corresponding to the variability of load and wind in the system, additional to other uncertainties; (3) Unexpected ramps caused by load and wind can both become the cause leading to serious issues; (4) A look-ahead tool evaluating system balancing requirement during real-time operations and comparing that with available system resources should be very helpful to system operators in predicting the forthcoming of similar events and planning ahead; and (5) Demand response (only load reduction in ERCOT event) can effectively reduce load-generation mismatch and terminate frequency deviation in an emergency situation.

  13. 企业常用BPA-SCCP程序与国家短路电流计算标准的贴合度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林金娇; 刘观起; 邵龙; 胡婷

    2014-01-01

    简要介绍GB/T 15544-2011《三相交流系统短路电流计算》标准和企业常用短路电流计算方法.分析国标与BPA-SCCP程序贴合度,认为可通过设置BPA计算条件和修改元件参数的方法使BPA-SCCP程序与国标计算结果一致,并且通过算例加以验证;最后给出为贴合国家标准,企业使用BPA-SCCP程序的设置建议.

  14. Non-linear model for the kinetics of {sup 10}B in blood after BPA-fructose complex infusion in BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryynaenen, P.; Savolainen, S. [University of Helsinki (Finland). Department of Physics; Hiismaeki, P. [VTT Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    2000-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to create non-linear model for estimating the blood {sup 10}B time-concentration after p-boronophenylalanine fructose complex (BPA-F) infusion in patients undergoing boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The models were applied to data from 8 patients who were part of the phase I BNCT clinical trial at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). All patients received a two-hour infusion of BPA-F of 290 mg BPA/kg body weight, with the infusion speed adjusted to the body weight of each patient. Blood samples were collected during and after the infusion. The model development is based on averaged and interpolated data from data sets of these patients.

  15. Fate of phthalates and BPA in agricultural and non-agricultural soils of the Paris area (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Bich Chau; Teil, Marie-Jeanne; Blanchard, Martine; Alliot, Fabrice; Chevreuil, Marc

    2015-07-01

    This study (i) investigated the concentration levels of nine phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) in sludge samples originating from a French wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), (ii) studied the distribution of target compounds according to soil depth and calculated their half-lives, and (iii) compared the contamination level of the agricultural soil with those of soils with other land uses. The sludge contamination levels varied from a few hundred nanograms per gram dry weight (dw) for diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-iso-butyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), and butyl-benzyl phthalate (BBP) to a few micrograms per gram dw for diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DiNP), and di-iso-decyl phthalate (DiDP). After sludge application, an 8-fold increase for DEHP level and a 3-fold increase for BPA level occurred in the surface horizon of the soil. The mean distribution of phthalates according to the depth showed a positive gradient for the low molecular weight compounds and inversely, a negative gradient for the highest ones. The half-lives in the 0-20-cm soil horizon were 64 days for DEHP and 36 days for BPA. A predictive environmental concentration (PEC) of 0.3 μg g(-1) dw was estimated for DEHP, while the experimental value was 0.16 μg g(-1) dw, suggesting degradation processes in soil and/or formation of non-extractable residues. Comparisons of contamination levels for soils from different origins (urban, rural, agricultural, and forest) showed that the urban soil remained the most contaminated one, prior to the agricultural soil after treatment.

  16. Evaluation of BPA uptake in clear cell sarcoma (CCS) in vitro and development of an in vivo model of CCS for BNCT studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, T., E-mail: fujitaku@hp.pref.hyogo.jp [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hyogo Cancer Center, Akashi 673-0021 (Japan); Andoh, T. [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Cooperative Research Center of Life Sciences, Kobe Gakuin University, Kobe 650-8586 (Japan); Sudo, T. [Section of Translational Research, Hyogo Cancer Center, Akashi 673-0021 (Japan); Fujita, I.; Imabori, M. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hyogo Cancer Center, Akashi 673-0021 (Japan); Moritake, H. [Division of Pediatrics, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki 889-1692 (Japan); Sugimoto, T. [Department of Pediatrics, Saiseikai Shigaken Hospital, Ritto 520-3046 (Japan); Sakuma, Y. [Department of Pathology, Hyogo Cancer Center, Akashi 673-0021 (Japan); Takeuchi, T. [Department of Pathology, Kochi Medical School, Nangoku 783-8505 (Japan); Sonobe, H. [Department of Pathology, Chugoku Central Hospital, Fukuyama 720-0001 (Japan); Epstein, Alan L. [Department of Pathology, Keck School of Medicine,University of Southern California, Los Angeles,CA 90033 (United States); Akisue, T. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Kirihata, M. [Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai 599-8531 (Japan); Kurosaka, M. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Fukumori, Y.; Ichikawa, H. [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Cooperative Research Center of Life Sciences, Kobe Gakuin University, Kobe 650-8586 (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    Clear cell sarcoma (CCS), a rare malignant tumor with a predilection for young adults, is of poor prognosis. Recently however, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) with the use of p-borono-L-phenylalanine (BPA) for malignant melanoma has provided good results. CCS also produces melanin; therefore, the uptake of BPA is the key to the application of BNCT to CCS. We describe, for the first time, the high accumulation of boron in CCS and the CCS tumor-bearing animal model generated for BNCT studies.

  17. Surface aspects of discolouration in Bisphenol A Polycarbonate (BPA-PC), used as lens in LED-based products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdan Mehr, M.; van Driel, W. D.; Udono, H.; Zhang, G. Q.

    2014-11-01

    The surface-related reactions during discolouration of Bisphenol A Polycarbonate (BPA-PC), used as LED lens plates, under thermal stress are studied. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been used to monitor the changes in the surface chemistry of BPA-PC plates over a temperature range of 100-140 °C for a period up to 3000 h. Increasing time under thermal stress is associated with the discolouration, and increase in the yellowing index (YI) of PC plastic lens. The XPS results show that discolouration is associated with oxidation at the surface, finding a significant increase in the signal ratio O1s/C1s in the XPS spectra of degraded specimens. During thermal ageing, the Csbnd H concentration decreases and new oxide features Cdbnd O and Osbnd Cdbnd O form, with the latter being a support for oxidation at the surface being a major reaction during discolouration. Results also show that irradiation with blue light during thermal ageing accelerates the kinetics of discolouration and the increased O1s/C1s ratio in XPS spectra.

  18. Artificial neural networks to evaluate the boron concentration decreasing profile in Blood-BPA samples of BNCT patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Reiriz, Alejandro, E-mail: garciareiriz@gmail.com [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Biochemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, National University of Rosario, Rosario Institute of Chemistry (IQUIR-CONICET), Suipacha 531, Rosario S2002LRK (Argentina); Magallanes, Jorge [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, San Martin, B1650KNA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Zupan, Jure [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SLO-1000 Ljubljana, Eslovenia (Slovenia); Liberman, Sara [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, San Martin, B1650KNA, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-12-15

    For the prediction of decay concentration profiles of the p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) in blood during BNCT treatment, a method is suggested based on Kohonen neural networks. The results of a model trained with the concentration profiles from the literature are described. The prediction of the model was validated by the leave-one-out method. Its robustness shows that it is mostly independent on small variations. The ability to fit retrospective experimental data shows an uncertainty lower than the two compartment model used previously. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We predicted decaying concentration profiles of BPA in blood during BNCT therapy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Is suggested a method based on Kohonen neural networks. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results show that it is very robust and mostly independent of small variations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It has a better ability to fit retrospective experimental data. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The model could be progressively improved by adding new data to the training matrix.

  19. BPA-NaOH-H2O体系电离及沉淀溶解平衡的建模及应用%Modeling and application of ionization and precipitation dissolution equilibriumof the BPA-NaOH-H2O system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏其凡; 杨霞; 郑世清

    2011-01-01

    The ionization and precipitation dissolution equilibrium of the BPA-NaOH-H2O system is studied, which is firstly classified into four zones (I, II, III and IV) according to the precipitation of Na2BPA-6H2O(s), and a model of which is established, the distribution of each component can be simulated from the established model, which could provide a reference to the theoretical investigation of the concentration of each component in the BPA-NaOH-H2O system. A certain content of BPA (1.5 mol/1) of BPA-NaOH-H2O system is taken secondly as an example to verify the model, the results show pH of zone III seldom changed with the addition of NaOH, and solubility of BPA is maximum, that is, the zone is equal to a buffer. At last, the variable solubility of BPA in the sodium hydroxide solution are calculated based on the model, and the calculated results is compared with experimental data, which show the model is accurate and practical.%研究了BPA-NaOH-H2O体系中电离及沉淀溶解平衡,首先按照是否有Na2BPA·6H2O(s)沉淀生成,将其分为Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ和Ⅳ区,并据此建立了该体系的平衡模型,利用所建立的模型模拟了体系中各组分随加入NaOH量的变化分布情况,为研究该体系中各组分浓度的分布规律提供了理论依据.其次以特定BPA初始浓度(1.5 mol/L)的BPA-NaOH-H2O体系进行模型验证,表明pH值在Ⅲ区随NaOH加入量的增大基本不变,且BPA溶解度最大,即该区为缓冲区.最后模拟计算了BPA在不同浓度NaOH溶液中的溶解度,并与实验值进行了比较,结果表明在NaOH稀溶液中,该模型可靠、有实用性.

  20. E2与BPA联合前后对ERK信号通路的诱导%Inducement of ERK signaling pathway by E2 mixed with BPA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郎朗; 张光明

    2011-01-01

    In order to study the effect of E2 and BPA on ERK signaling pathway, MCF -7 breast cancer cells were used to test. Western blot methods were used. Ki67, ERK, and cMyc proteins were determinated. The results showed that E2 , BPA and the mixture could induce the proliferation of MCF- 7 cells, E2 and the mixture play the estrogenic activities by ERK signaling pathway, and activate the transcription factor c - Myc protein. The estrogenic activities of E2 mixed with BPA weaken than E2 single.%研究雌二醇(E2)与双酚A(BPA)联合作用于乳腺癌MCF-7细胞后,对细胞内ERK信号转导通路的影响.运用Western blot法进行实验.测定增殖相关蛋白Ki67,观察到E2与BPA单独及联合后都能够诱导细胞增殖,发挥雌激素活性.通过对ERK蛋白和活化形式p-ERK蛋白的测定,E2及与BPA联合后的雌激素活性发挥通过ERK信号通路,激活了转录因子c-Myc蛋白.E2与BPA联合后的雌激素活性较E2单独作用时减弱.

  1. Reliability and Factor Structure of the Autism Spectrum Disorders-Behavior Problems for Adults (ASD-BPA) with Intellectual Disabilities and Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Rivet, Tessa T.

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to establish the initial psychometric properties of the first scale specifically developed for behavior problems of adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID). The Autism Spectrum Disorders-Behavior Problems for Adults (ASD-BPA) consists of 20 items in which raters indicate if each item is…

  2. The threates on the biodiversity of Bisotun Wildlife Refuge and Bisotun Protected Area (BPA & BWR in the west region of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAHDI REYAHI-KHORAM

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nature is necessary for the preservation of species and biodiversity richness; as a result, it has been protected for thousands of years. Bisotun Protected Area and Bisotun Wildlife Refuge (BPA & BWR with about 95000 hectares is located in Kermanshah province in the west of Iran. The object of this study is to determine the physical properties and analyze the constraints that threaten the BPA & BWR. This research was conducted during the period from May, 2011 to November, 2012 in BPA & BWR. In this research, various animal and plant species were recognized through documentary analysis and also directs field observations. The obtained result indicates that major threates have occurred in biodiversity and ecosystem of BPA & BWR during 1980-2010. During these years, the study area has completely failed and lost some of its biological diversity. Limiting factors that affect wildlife population growth including destruction and conversion of habitats, unauthorized hunting and high frequency presence of animal and human, have influenced the restoration potential of wildlife, the habitats and other conservation areas.

  3. Amendment of the assured delivery provisions of BPA's Long-Term Intertie Access Policy and increased assured delivery: Access for non-scheduling utilities. Record of decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonneville Power Administration's BPA's preferred alternative for providing non-Federal Pacific Northwest-Pacific Southwest (PNW-PSW) Intertie access is to adopt the Capacity Ownership alternative combined with the Increased Assured Delivery--Access for Non-Scheduling Utilities alternative. BPA's decision to offer Capacity Ownership was documented in a March 1994 Non-Federal Capacity Ownership Record of Decision (ROD). This ROD documents BPA's decision to facilitate PNW-PSW Intertie access by proceeding with (1) bidirectional Increased Assured Delivery--Access for Non Scheduling Utilities; and (2) amending the Assured Delivery provisions of BPA's Long-Term Intertie Access Policy (LTIAP). Given that the various non-Federal PNW-PSW Intertie access alternatives in the NFP EIS all allowed for different types of contracts, little environmental impact difference among the alternatives was found. Rather, environmental impact was found to be associated with whether exchange contracts or firm power sales contracts would predominate. Such impacts and related environmental analysis are discussed further in section 3.0 of this ROD

  4. Investigation of the Effects of Subchronic Low Dose Oral Exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) and Ethinyl Estradiol (EE) on Estrogen Receptor Expression in the Juvenile and Adult Female Rat Hypothalamus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebuli, Meghan E.; Cao, Jinyan; Sluzas, Emily; Delclos, K. Barry; Camacho, Luísa; Lewis, Sherry M.; Vanlandingham, Michelle M.; Patisaul, Heather B.

    2014-01-01

    Concerns have been raised regarding the long-term impacts of early life exposure to the ubiquitous environmental contaminant bisphenol A (BPA) on brain organization. Because BPA has been reported to affect estrogen signaling, and steroid hormones play a critical role in brain sexual differentiation, there is also concern that BPA exposure could alter neural sex differences. Here, we examine the impact of subchronic exposure from gestation to adulthood to oral doses of BPA below the current no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of 5 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day on estrogen receptor (ESR) expression in sexually dimorphic brain regions of prepubertal and adult female rats. The dams were gavaged daily with vehicle (0.3% carboxymethylcellulose), 2.5, 25, 260, or 2700 μg BPA/kg bw/day, or 0.5 or 5.0 μg ethinyl estradiol (EE)/kg bw/day from gestational day 6 until labor began. Offspring were then gavaged directly from the day after birth until the day before scheduled sacrifice on postnatal days 21 or 90. Using in situ hybridization, one or more BPA doses produced significant decreases in Esr1 expression in the juvenile female rat anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) of the hypothalamus and significant decreases in Esr2 expression in the adult female rat AVPV and medial preoptic area (MPOA), relative to vehicle controls. BPA did not simply reproduce EE effects, indicating that BPA is not acting solely as an estrogen mimic. The possible consequences of long-term changes in hypothalamic ESR expression resulting from subchronic low dose BPA exposure on neuroendocrine effects are discussed and being addressed in ongoing, related work. PMID:24752507

  5. Study on the modiifcation of EP/PN curing system with BPA%BPA对EP/PN固化体系的改性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易强; 梁国正; 唐卿珂; 肖升高; 陈诚

    2016-01-01

    Epoxy(EP) and Phenolic Novolac(PN) as curing agent are the main materials of CCL. In this paper, the modiifcation of EP/PN system with BPA is investigated by research the difference between BPA/EP, PN/EP and BPA/PN/EP systems on the curing reaction kinetics, rheological behavior, crosslink density and morphology of impact fracture surface. The result shows that in PN/EP system, BPA can reduce the curing temperature apparent activation energy, slow down the reaction rate, reduce the crosslink density, improve the thermal melt viscosity and fracture toughness.%环氧树脂(EP)及其固化剂线型酚醛树脂(PN)是覆铜板的主要原材料。文章通过比较双酚A(BPA)/EP、PN/EP和BPA/PN/EP三种树脂体系的固化反应动力学、流变特性以及固化物交联密度和冲击断面形貌,研究了BPA对于PN/EP固化物的改性作用。研究表明,BPA可降低PN/EP体系固化温度和固化反应表观活化能,延缓反应速率,并提升热压合过程中的熔融黏度窗口,降低交联密度,提升固化物韧性。

  6. Sex Specific Estrogen Receptor beta (ERβ) mRNA Expression in the Rat Hypothalamus and Amygdala is Altered by Neonatal Bisphenol A (BPA) Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jinyan; Joyner, Linwood; Mickens, Jillian A.; Leyrer, Stephanie M; Patisaul, Heather B

    2014-01-01

    Perinatal life is a critical window for sexually dimorphic brain organization, and profoundly influenced by steroid hormones. Exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) may disrupt this process, resulting in compromised reproductive physiology and behavior. To test the hypothesis that neonatal BPA exposure can alter sex specific postnatal ERβ expression in brain regions fundamental to sociosexual behavior we mapped ERβ mRNA levels in the principal nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNSTp), paraventricular nucleus (PVN), anterior portion of the medial amygdaloid nucleus (MeA), super optic nucleus (SON), suprachiasmic nucleus (SCN) and lateral habenula (LHb) across postnatal days (PNDs) 0 to 19. Next, rat pups of both sexes were subcutaneously injected over the first three days of life with 10 μg estradiol benzoate (EB), 50 μg/kg BPA (LBPA), or 50 mg/kg BPA (HBPA) and ERβ levels quantified in each region of interest (ROI) on PNDs 4 and 10. EB exposure decreased ERβ signal in most female ROIs, and in the male PVN. In the BNSTp, ERβ expression decreased in LBPA males and HBPA females on PND 10, thereby reversing the sex difference in expression. In the PVN, ERβ mRNA levels were elevated in LBPA females, also resulting in a reversal of sexually dimorphic expression. In the MeA, BPA decreased ERβ expression on PND 4. Collectively, these data demonstrate that region and sex specific ERβ expression is vulnerable to neonatal BPA exposure in regions of the developing rat brain critical to sociosexual behavior. PMID:24352099

  7. BPA-Solicited Technical Review of "Echo Meadows Project Winter Artificial Recharge: Final Report for 2001 Baseline", Technical Report 2004.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, David

    2004-02-01

    The purpose of this report was to provide, at BPA's request, a technical review of interim products received for Project 2001-015-00 under contract 6925. BPA sometimes solicits technical reviews for Fish and Wildlife products or issues where outside expertise is required. External review of complex project deliverables assures BPA as a funding agency that the contractor is continuing with scientifically-credible experimental techniques envisioned in the original proposal. If the project's methodology proves feasible, there could be potential applications beyond the project area to similar situations in the Columbia Basin. The Experiment involves artificial flooding during high flow periods and a determination of the portion of the return flows that end up in the Umatilla River during low flow months and within acceptable water quality parameters (e.g., low temperature, few contaminants). Flooding could be a critical water source for aquatic organisms at times of the year when flows in the lower reaches of the Umatilla River are low and water is warmer than would be desired. The experiment was proposed to test whether 'this process, recharges the shallow aquifers of the old flood plain, for natural filtration through the alluvial soils as it returns to the Umatilla River, cleaner and cooler (about 50 degree Fahrenheit) five to six month later (about July and August) substantially cooling the river and [making it] more beneficial to anadromous [fish]'. A substantial amount of preliminary data had been collected and preliminary results were submitted in an interim report 'Echo Meadows Project Winter Artificial Recharge: Final Report for 2001 Baseline (December 2002)'. A substantial amount of addition funding was provided for the last cycle of flooding (Phases II) and final analyses of the full compliment of data collected over the life of the contract (Phase III). Third party scientific review may assist the contractor in producing a

  8. 电力系统计算分析软件包——中国版BPA%Power System Analysis Software Package——BPA in Chinese Copyright

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳; 毛晓明; 陈少华

    2008-01-01

    电力系统仿真软件是电力系统规划设计、试验研究、调度运行和教学培训等不可或缺的重要工具.中国版BPA(Bonneviklle Power Administration)模型齐全、功能强大、使用灵活、操作方便,特别适合大规模交直流系统的仿真计算.分别从数学模型、软件功能和输入输出3方面对BPA进行了介绍,并通过IEEE 7节点算例展示了其功能.

  9. 新显色剂4-BPA-TB测定钢铁中铋的含量%Determination of Trace Amounts of Bismuth in Iron and Steel with a New Color Reagent 4-BPA-TB

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶青; 刘睦清

    2000-01-01

    本文研究了华东师大新合成的显色剂4-BPA-TB(俗称三溴偶氮膦)与Bi3+的显色反应.在HClO4和乙醇介质中试剂与Bi3+生成蓝色的络合物,其最大吸收波长位于644nm.新显剂的最大吸收波长位于547nm,摩尔吸收系数4.4×104L.mol-1.cm-1.Bi3+的含量在5-40μg/25mL范围内符合比耳定律.用新显色剂测定了钢铁中的铋、结果令人满意.

  10. The hamster cheek pouch (HCP) as an experimental model of oral cancer for BNCT: biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of BPA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreimann, E.; Itoiz, M.E.; Dagrosa, A.; Garavaglia, R.; Farias, S.; Batistoni, D.; Schwint, A.E. [National Atomic Energy Commission (Argentina)

    2000-10-01

    We propose and validate the HCP model of oral cancer for BNCT studies. This model serves to explore new applications of the technique, study the biology of BNCT and assess Boron uptake in clinically relevant oral tissues. Tumors are induced by a process that mimics spontaneous malignant transformation instead of by the growth of implanted tumor cells. Syrian hamsters were submitted to tumor induction with a chemical carcinogenesis protocol and then used for biodistribution and pharmacokinetic studies of BPA. The data reveal selective uptake by tumor and, to a lesser degree, by precancerous tissue. Boron concentration in oral tissues and skin was higher than in blood, an issue of clinical relevance given that these tissues may be dose-limiting. Absolute and relative values of Boron concentration would be potentially therapeutic. Boron concentration exhibited a linear relationship with percentage of viable tissue in HCP tumors. The HCP model would provide a novel, contributory approach to BNCT research. (author)

  11. Confirmative laboratory tests and one example of forensic application of the probabilistic approach to the area of convergence in BPA

    CERN Document Server

    Camana, Francesco; Gravina, Nicola; Quintarelli, Marco

    2013-01-01

    One of the most important results in Bloodstain Pattern Analysis (BPA) is the determination of the area of convergence of blood-drop trajectories. This area is directly related to the point of origin of the projections and is often indicative of the point where the main action of a crime has occurred. One of us has recently proposed a method to statistically characterize this area by mean of a probabilistic approach based on the uncertainties of the angles of impact of the stains in the pattern. In our work we present some laboratory tests that confirm the validity of the method, returning good agreement between the empirical and the theoretical data. By comparing the results of different operators, we also show the robustness of the method, in that the results are independent of the analytical approach of the single experimenter. Finally, we describe an example of application to a real forensic case.

  12. The hamster cheek pouch (HCP) as an experimental model of oral cancer for BNCT: biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of BPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose and validate the HCP model of oral cancer for BNCT studies. This model serves to explore new applications of the technique, study the biology of BNCT and assess Boron uptake in clinically relevant oral tissues. Tumors are induced by a process that mimics spontaneous malignant transformation instead of by the growth of implanted tumor cells. Syrian hamsters were submitted to tumor induction with a chemical carcinogenesis protocol and then used for biodistribution and pharmacokinetic studies of BPA. The data reveal selective uptake by tumor and, to a lesser degree, by precancerous tissue. Boron concentration in oral tissues and skin was higher than in blood, an issue of clinical relevance given that these tissues may be dose-limiting. Absolute and relative values of Boron concentration would be potentially therapeutic. Boron concentration exhibited a linear relationship with percentage of viable tissue in HCP tumors. The HCP model would provide a novel, contributory approach to BNCT research. (author)

  13. Plastics Derived Endocrine Disruptors (BPA, DEHP and DBP) Induce Epigenetic Transgenerational Inheritance of Obesity, Reproductive Disease and Sperm Epimutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikkam, Mohan; Tracey, Rebecca; Guerrero-Bosagna, Carlos; Skinner, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental compounds are known to promote epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease in subsequent generations (F1–F3) following ancestral exposure during fetal gonadal sex determination. The current study was designed to determine if a mixture of plastic derived endocrine disruptor compounds bisphenol-A (BPA), bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) at two different doses promoted epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease and associated DNA methylation epimutations in sperm. Gestating F0 generation females were exposed to either the “plastics” or “lower dose plastics” mixture during embryonic days 8 to 14 of gonadal sex determination and the incidence of adult onset disease was evaluated in F1 and F3 generation rats. There were significant increases in the incidence of total disease/abnormalities in F1 and F3 generation male and female animals from plastics lineages. Pubertal abnormalities, testis disease, obesity, and ovarian disease (primary ovarian insufficiency and polycystic ovaries) were increased in the F3 generation animals. Kidney and prostate disease were only observed in the direct fetally exposed F1 generation plastic lineage animals. Analysis of the plastics lineage F3 generation sperm epigenome previously identified 197 differential DNA methylation regions (DMR) in gene promoters, termed epimutations. A number of these transgenerational DMR form a unique direct connection gene network and have previously been shown to correlate with the pathologies identified. Observations demonstrate that a mixture of plastic derived compounds, BPA and phthalates, can promote epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease. The sperm DMR provide potential epigenetic biomarkers for transgenerational disease and/or ancestral environmental exposures. PMID:23359474

  14. Plastics derived endocrine disruptors (BPA, DEHP and DBP induce epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of obesity, reproductive disease and sperm epimutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Manikkam

    Full Text Available Environmental compounds are known to promote epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease in subsequent generations (F1-F3 following ancestral exposure during fetal gonadal sex determination. The current study was designed to determine if a mixture of plastic derived endocrine disruptor compounds bisphenol-A (BPA, bis(2-ethylhexylphthalate (DEHP and dibutyl phthalate (DBP at two different doses promoted epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease and associated DNA methylation epimutations in sperm. Gestating F0 generation females were exposed to either the "plastics" or "lower dose plastics" mixture during embryonic days 8 to 14 of gonadal sex determination and the incidence of adult onset disease was evaluated in F1 and F3 generation rats. There were significant increases in the incidence of total disease/abnormalities in F1 and F3 generation male and female animals from plastics lineages. Pubertal abnormalities, testis disease, obesity, and ovarian disease (primary ovarian insufficiency and polycystic ovaries were increased in the F3 generation animals. Kidney and prostate disease were only observed in the direct fetally exposed F1 generation plastic lineage animals. Analysis of the plastics lineage F3 generation sperm epigenome previously identified 197 differential DNA methylation regions (DMR in gene promoters, termed epimutations. A number of these transgenerational DMR form a unique direct connection gene network and have previously been shown to correlate with the pathologies identified. Observations demonstrate that a mixture of plastic derived compounds, BPA and phthalates, can promote epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease. The sperm DMR provide potential epigenetic biomarkers for transgenerational disease and/or ancestral environmental exposures.

  15. Metabolic disruption in male mice due to fetal exposure to low but not high doses of bisphenol A (BPA): Evidence for effects on body weight, food intake, adipocytes, leptin, adiponectin, insulin and glucose regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angle, Brittany M.; Do, Rylee Phuong; Ponzi, Davide; Stahlhut, Richard W.; Drury, Bertram E.; Nagel, Susan C.; Welshons, Wade V.; Besch-Williford, Cynthia L; Palanza, Paola; Parmigiani, Stefano; vom Saal, Frederick S.; Taylor, Julia A.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) is implicated in many aspects of metabolic disease in humans and experimental animals. We fed pregnant CD-1 mice BPA at doses ranging from 5 to 50,000 μg/kg/day, spanning 10-fold below the reference dose to 10-fold above the currently predicted no adverse effect level (NOAEL). At BPA doses below the NOAEL that resulted in average unconjugated BPA between 2 and 200pg/ml in fetal serum (AUC0–24h),we observed significant effects in adult male offspring: an age-related change in food intake, an increase in body weight and liver weight, abdominal adipocyte mass, number and volume, and in serum leptin and insulin, but a decrease in serum adiponectin and in glucose tolerance. For most of these outcomes non-monotonic dose–response relationships were observed; the highest BPA dose did not produce a significant effect for any outcome. A 0.1-μg/kg/day dose of DES resulted in some but not all low-dose BPA outcomes. PMID:23892310

  16. 基于BPA程序的来宾电网潮流计算分析%The flow calculation analysis of Laibin Power Grid based on BPA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阳丽; 张明芬; 黄群

    2012-01-01

    The development history of the flow calculation is reviewed, and the function and characteristic of BPA are briefly summarized. Take as Laibin Power Grid for an example, the basic steps is stated that application of BPA program calculates 110kV power flow , the results of Laibin Power Grid power flow calculation are analyzed.%回顾潮流计算的发展历史,简要概述BPA的功能和特点,以来宾电网为例,说明了应用BPA程序进行110kV电网潮流计算的基本步骤,对来宾电网潮流计算的结果进行了分析。

  17. Test results and initial operating experience for the BPA 500 kV thyristor controlled series capacitor design, operation, and fault test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, S.J.; Mittelstadt, W.A.; Suhrbier, R.W. [Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (United States)

    1995-12-31

    A cooperative effort has resulted in the construction of the first 500 kV Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC). This device is installed on the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) transmission system in the northwestern United States. Project participants included BPA, the Electrical Power Research Institute (EPRI), General Electric Company (GE), and the Portland General Electric Company (PGE). The TCSC was commissioned in the fall of 1993, initiating an extended test and evaluation period. Evaluation tests included: harmonic performance, staged system faults, subsynchronous resonance (SSR) torsional mode damping, and system swing damping performance. Results of the system tests illustrate the TCSC`s ability to improve power system operation. Upon completion of the evaluation tests, the TCSC was placed into commercial operation in January 1995. This initiated a one year trial operational period to evaluate the long term operation of the device.

  18. Test results and initial operating experience for the BPA 500 kV thyristor controlled series capacitor-modulation, SSR and performance monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauer, J.F. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Mittelstad, W.A. [Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (United States); Piwko, R.J. Sr. [General Electric Co., Schenectady, NY (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Field experience is reported for a thyristor controlled series capacitor (TCSC) recently commissioned at BPA`s Slatt substation. Subsynchronous resonance tests show that TCSC interactions with shaft dynamics of PGE`s Boardman steam generator are well understood and are effectively avoided by normal TCSC valve firing logic. Modulation tests, performed with the Boardman plant off line, show that the TCSC can be a powerful and responsive actuator for swing damping. Security considerations did not permit lightly damped operation of the controlled plant. Close analysis indicates that the TCSC damping contribution, though small, was measurable. The best estimate is that damping for the McNary mode is 7.33% and 8.55%, for the TCSC damper loop open and closed respectively. TCSC testing and monitoring is facilitated by an advanced interactive measurement network representing BPA`s approach to the information requirements of major control systems.

  19. 胶质瘤细胞系摄取BPA的实验研究%Experimental study on BPA uptake of glioma cell lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨磊; 赵葵; 王潇; 隋丽; 孔福全; 郝小娟; 郑洁莹; 马南茹; 崔素珍; 刘权卫

    2012-01-01

    Objective: to evaluate the incorporation of BPA by glioma cell lines, and to observe its relationship with the temperature and the concentration of BPA. Methods; C6, U251 and rat astrocyte cells were incubated in a culture medium, in which ' B concentration was 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 μg/mL for 24 h. Boron concentration in the cells was measured induced couple plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). C6 cells were pre-incu-bated for 24 h with different boron concentrations in growth medium. Then the mediums were changed to boron-free ones, and boron content was assessed after 1, 2, 3 h. Results; The content of the 10B in cells was increasing with the increasing concentration of BPA, and the boron concentration ratios of glioma cells to astrocyte are 2. 2. The BPA efflux is slower at the lower temperature. Conclusion; BPA has a selectivity for glioma cells, and the results of the efflux assay confirm the temperature dependence of the BPA transport out of the cells.%目的:探讨BPA(2,2-双(4-羟基苯基)丙烷,Bisphenol A)浓度和温度对胶质瘤细胞系摄取和析出10B的影响.方法:将C6和U251两种胶质瘤细胞系,及大鼠正常脑胶质细胞培养在含不同浓度BPA(10B浓度分别为20、40、60、80、100 μg/mL)的培养基中24h后,采用感应耦合等离子体原子发射光谱(ICP-AES)法测定细胞内硼的含量;将C6细胞培养在含不同浓度BPA的培养基中培养24h后,更换为不含10B培养基,在不同温度条件(4、25、37℃)下继续培养,并分别于换液后的1、2、3h,用ICP-AES方法检测细胞内的硼含量.结果:细胞内硼浓度随培养基中BPA浓度的增加而增高,胶质瘤细胞内10B浓度约为正常胶质细胞的2.2倍;温度越高,细胞内硼析出速度越快.结论:BPA对胶质瘤细胞系具有一定亲和力;细胞对10B的析出速率具有温度依赖性.

  20. Annual Review of BPA-Funded Projects in Natural and Artificial Propagation of Salmonids, March 27-29, 1985, Holiday Inn Airport, Portland, Oregon.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1985-04-01

    The Fish and Wildlife Division of Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) hosted a meeting for contractors to present the results of fiscal year 1984 research conducted to implement the Northwest Power Planning Council's Fish and Wildlife Program. The meeting focused on those projects specifically related to natural and artificial propagation of salmonids. The presentations were held at the Holiday Inn Airport in Portland, Oregon, on March 27-29, 1985. This document contains abstracts of the presentations from that meeting. Section 1 contains abstracts on artificial propagation, fish health, and downstream migration, and Section 2 contains abstracts on natural propagation and habitat improvement. The abstracts are indexed by BPA Project Number and by Fish and Wildlife Program Measure. The registered attendees at the meeting are listed alphabetically in Appendix A and by affiliation in Appendix B.

  1. Evaluation of the toxic effects of brominated compounds (BDE-47, 99, 209, TBBPA) and bisphenol A (BPA) using a zebrafish liver cell line, ZFL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A homologous zebrafish thyroid hormone (TH) receptor (TR) reporter gene system was developed in a zebrafish liver cell-line (ZFL) to study the possible effects of chemicals on TR activities. • BPA was found to have antagonistic effects on T3 induced TR activity, BDE-47, BDE-99, and TBBPA did not show any interference of TR activity. • Down regulation of deiodinases and some sulfation enzymes or phase II enzymes by the tested chemicals indicated their impacts on TH eleiminations. • The up-regulation of tranthyretin by BDE-47 at 96 h long-term exposure gave a link to the CYP family for its role in producing a more toxic and oxidized form. - Abstract: The toxic effects of three polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners (BDE-47, -99, and -209), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and bisphenol A (BPA), were evaluated by determining their 24 h and 96 h median lethal concentrations using a zebrafish liver cell line, ZFL. It was found that BDE-47, BDE-99 and TBBPA showed comparative cytotoxicity within the range of 1.2–4.2 μM, and were more toxic than BPA (367.1 μM at 24 h and 357.6 μM at 96 h). However, BDE-209 induced only 15% lethality with exposures up to 25 μM. The molecular stresses of BDE-47, -99, TBBPA and BPA involved in thyroid hormone (TH) homeostasis and hepatic metabolism were also investigated. Using a reporter gene system to detect zebrafish thyroid hormone receptor β (zfTRβ) transcriptional activity, the median effective concentration of triiodothyronine (T3) was determined to be 9.2 × 10−11 M. BDE-47, BDE-99, TBBPA and BPA alone, however, did not exhibit zfTRβ agonistic activity. BPA displayed T3 (0.1 nM) induced zfTRβ antagonistic activity with a median inhibitory concentration of 19.3 μM. BDE-47, BDE-99 and TBBPA displayed no antagonistic effects of T3-induced zfTRβ activity. Target gene expressions were also examined under acute exposures. The significant inhibition of different types of deiodinases by all of the

  2. Biodistribution of the boron carriers boronophenylalanine (BPA) and/or decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in an experimental model of lung metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNCT was proposed for the treatment of diffuse, non-resectable tumors in the lung. We performed boron biodistribution studies with 5 administration protocols employing the boron carriers BPA and/or GB-10 in an experimental model of disseminated lung metastases in rats. All 5 protocols were non-toxic and showed preferential tumor boron uptake versus lung. Absolute tumor boron concentration values were therapeutically useful (25–76 ppm) for 3 protocols. Dosimetric calculations indicate that BNCT at RA-3 would be potentially therapeutic without exceeding radiotolerance in the lung. - Highlights: • We performed experimental boron biodistribution studies for lung metastases. • 3 protocols employing BPA and GB-10 would be therapeutically useful. • BNCT at RA-3 would be potentially therapeutic for experimental lung metastases

  3. Evaluation of the toxic effects of brominated compounds (BDE-47, 99, 209, TBBPA) and bisphenol A (BPA) using a zebrafish liver cell line, ZFL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jie; Chan, King Ming, E-mail: kingchan@cuhk.edu.hk

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • A homologous zebrafish thyroid hormone (TH) receptor (TR) reporter gene system was developed in a zebrafish liver cell-line (ZFL) to study the possible effects of chemicals on TR activities. • BPA was found to have antagonistic effects on T3 induced TR activity, BDE-47, BDE-99, and TBBPA did not show any interference of TR activity. • Down regulation of deiodinases and some sulfation enzymes or phase II enzymes by the tested chemicals indicated their impacts on TH eleiminations. • The up-regulation of tranthyretin by BDE-47 at 96 h long-term exposure gave a link to the CYP family for its role in producing a more toxic and oxidized form. - Abstract: The toxic effects of three polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners (BDE-47, -99, and -209), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and bisphenol A (BPA), were evaluated by determining their 24 h and 96 h median lethal concentrations using a zebrafish liver cell line, ZFL. It was found that BDE-47, BDE-99 and TBBPA showed comparative cytotoxicity within the range of 1.2–4.2 μM, and were more toxic than BPA (367.1 μM at 24 h and 357.6 μM at 96 h). However, BDE-209 induced only 15% lethality with exposures up to 25 μM. The molecular stresses of BDE-47, -99, TBBPA and BPA involved in thyroid hormone (TH) homeostasis and hepatic metabolism were also investigated. Using a reporter gene system to detect zebrafish thyroid hormone receptor β (zfTRβ) transcriptional activity, the median effective concentration of triiodothyronine (T3) was determined to be 9.2 × 10{sup −11} M. BDE-47, BDE-99, TBBPA and BPA alone, however, did not exhibit zfTRβ agonistic activity. BPA displayed T3 (0.1 nM) induced zfTRβ antagonistic activity with a median inhibitory concentration of 19.3 μM. BDE-47, BDE-99 and TBBPA displayed no antagonistic effects of T3-induced zfTRβ activity. Target gene expressions were also examined under acute exposures. The significant inhibition of different types of deiodinases by all of

  4. In vitro impact of bisphenols BPA, BPF, BPAF and 17β-estradiol (E2) on human monocyte-derived dendritic cell generation, maturation and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Švajger, Urban; Dolenc, Marija Sollner; Jeras, Matjaž

    2016-05-01

    Bisphenols (BPs) are widely spread pollutants that act as estrogen-like endocrine disruptors and are potentially affecting human health on a long run. We explored the effects of BPA, BPF and BPAF, on in vitro differentiation and maturation of MDDCs. Monocytes were treated with 17β-estradiol (E2) and each BP at the beginning of their differentiation into iMDDCs. We found that 10 and 50 μM of BPA and BPF, 10 and 30μM of BPAF and 10 and 50 nM of E2 did not affect cell viability. However, 50 μM of BPA and BPF, as well as 10 and 30 μM of BPAF, significantly decreased the endocytotic capacity of iMDDCs. Both, BPA (50 μM) and BPAF (30 μM) decreased the expression of CD1a and increased the amount of DC-SIGN molecules on iMDDCs. The E2 pre-treatment moderately decreased expression of CD80, CD86 and CD83 co-stimulatory molecules while increasing the numbers of HLA-DR on mMDDCs. Only BPAF significantly influenced the expression of CD80 and CD86 (both decreased), as well as CD83 and HLA-DR molecules (both increased) on mMDDCs. In addition, BPAF modulated DC maturation signaling pathways by lowering the phosphorylation of p65 NF-κB (nuclear factor-kappaB) and ERK (extracellular signal regulated kinase) 1/2 proteins. Consequently, the in vitro proliferation of allogeneic T cells, stimulated with differently pre-treated iMDDCs and mMDDCs, was significantly reduced only in case of BPAF. PMID:26945833

  5. Two organophosphorus flame retardants, resorcinol bis (diphenylphosphate)(PBDPP) and bisphenol A bis (diphenylphosphate) (BPA-BDPP) used as alternatives for BDE209 detected in dust

    OpenAIRE

    Brandsma, Sicco H.; Sellström, Ulla; de Wit, Cynthia A.; de Boer, Jacob; Leonards, Pim E.G.

    2013-01-01

    Resorcinol bis(diphenylphosphate) (RBDPP) and bisphenol A bis(diphenylphosphate) (BPA-BDPP) are two halogen-free organophosphorus flame retardant (PFRs) that are used as an alternative for the decabromodiphenyl ether (Deca-BDE) technical mixture in TV/flatscreen housing and other electronic consumer products.' In this study, dust samples were collected from various microenvironments in The Netherlands (houses, cars), Greece.(houses), and Sweden (apartments, cars, furniture stores, electronics...

  6. A cancer research UK pharmacokinetic study of BPA-mannitol in patients with high grade glioma to optimise uptake parameters for clinical trials of BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruickshank, G.S. [University of Birmingham and University Hospital Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom)], E-mail: garth.cruickshank@uhb.nhs.uk; Ngoga, D.; Detta, A.; Green, S.; James, N.D.; Wojnecki, C.; Doran, J.; Hardie, J.; Chester, M.; Graham, N.; Ghani, Z. [University of Birmingham and University Hospital Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Halbert, G.; Elliot, M.; Ford, S. [CR-UK Formulation Unit, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Braithwaite, R.; Sheehan, T.M.T. [Regional Laboratory for Toxicology, Sandwell and West Birmingham Hospitals Trust, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Vickerman, J.; Lockyer, N. [Surface Analysis Research Centre, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Steinfeldt, H.; Croswell, G. [CR-UK Drug Development Office, London (United Kingdom)] (and others)

    2009-07-15

    This paper describes results to-date from a human pharmacokinetic study which began recruitment in December 2007. Results are presented for a single patient recruited in December 2007. A second patient was recruited in July 2008 but detailed data are not available at the time of writing. The trial is an open-label, non-comparative, non-therapeutic study of BPA-mannitol in patients with high-grade glioma, who will be undergoing stereotactic brain biopsy as part of the diagnostic process before definitive treatment. The study investigates the route of infusion (intra-venous (IV) or intra-carotid artery) and in each case will assess the effect of administration of mannitol as a blood-brain barrier disrupter. All cohorts will receive a 2 h infusion of BPA-mannitol, and for some cohorts an additional mannitol bolus will be administered at the beginning of this infusion. Measurements are made by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) of {sup 10}B concentration in samples of blood, urine, extra-cellular fluid in normal brain (via a dialysis probe), brain tissue around tumour and tumour tissue. Additional analysis of the tumour tissue is performed using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The first patient was part of the cohort having intra-venous infusion without mannitol bolus. No serious clinical problems were experienced and the assay results can be compared with available patient data from other BNCT centres. In particular we note that the peak {sup 10}B concentration in blood was 28.1 mg/ml for a total BPA administration of 350 mg/kg which is very consistent with the previous experience with BPA-fructose reported by the Helsinki group.

  7. Regulatory and junctional proteins of the blood-testis barrier in human Sertoli cells are modified by monobutyl phthalate (MBP) and bisphenol A (BPA) exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, André Teves Aquino Gonçalves; Ribeiro, Mariana Antunes; Pinho, Cristiane Figueiredo; Peixoto, André Rebelo; Domeniconi, Raquel Fantin; Scarano, Wellerson R

    2016-08-01

    The blood-testis barrier (BTB) is responsible for providing a protected environment and coordinating the spermatogenesis. Endocrine disruptors (EDs) might lead to infertility, interfering in the BTB structure and modulation. This study aimed to correlate the actions of two EDs, monobutyl phthalate (MBP) and bisphenol A (BPA) in different periods of exposure, in a low toxicity dose to the human Sertoli cells (HSeC) and its effects on the proteins of the BTB and regulatory proteins involved in its modulation. HSeC cells were exposed to MBP (10μM) and BPA (20μM) for 6 and 48h. Western Blot assay indicated that MBP was able to reduce the expression of occludin, ZO-1, N-cadherin and Androgen Receptor (AR), while BPA leads to a reduction of occludin, ZO-1, β-catenin and AR. TGF-β2 and F-actin were not modified. Phalloidin and Hematoxylin and Eosin assay revealed phenotically disruption in Sertoli cells adhesion, without changes in F-actin expression or localization. Our data suggested both EDs present potential for disrupting the structure and maintenance of the human BTB by AR dependent pathway. PMID:26922907

  8. The results of a non-linear mathematical model for the kinetics of {sup 10}B after BPA-F infusion in BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryynaenen, P.; Savolainen, S. [Dept. of Physics, University of Helsinki (Finland); Hiismaeki, P. [VTT Chemical Technology, Technical Research Centre, Espoo (Finland); Kangasmaeki, A. [Dept. of Radiology, University Hospital, Helsinki (Finland)

    2001-07-01

    The aim of this study was to create a model for the kinetics of {sup 10}B in glioma patients after p-boronophenylalanine fructose complex (BPA-F) infusion in order to predict the {sup 10}B concentration in blood during the neutron irradiations in BNCT. The more specific aim was to create a flexible model that would work with variable infusion duration and variable amounts of infused BRA, by forehand carrying out only 1 to 2 kinetic studies per different trials. Previously used bi-exponential fitting and open compartmental model are capable, but, however, heavy kinetic studies are needed before they are reliable enough. A model probe with a memory effect based on phenomenological findings was created. The model development was based on the data from 10 glioblastoma multiforme patients from the Brookhaven National Laboratory BNCT trials. These patients received i.v. 290 mg BPA/kg body weight as a fructose complex during two hours. Blood samples were collected during and after the infusion. The accuracy of the model was verified with distinctive fitting of 10 new glioma patient data from the Finnish BNCT-trials. The {sup 10}B- concentration in whole blood samples was determined by ICP-AES method. In the study it is concluded that the constructed non-linear model is flexible and capable in describing the kinetics of {sup 10}B concentration in blood after a single infusion of BPA-F. (author)

  9. The results of a non-linear mathematical model for the kinetics of 10B after BPA-F infusion in BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to create a model for the kinetics of 10B in glioma patients after p-boronophenylalanine fructose complex (BPA-F) infusion in order to predict the 10B concentration in blood during the neutron irradiations in BNCT. The more specific aim was to create a flexible model that would work with variable infusion duration and variable amounts of infused BRA, by forehand carrying out only 1 to 2 kinetic studies per different trials. Previously used bi-exponential fitting and open compartmental model are capable, but, however, heavy kinetic studies are needed before they are reliable enough. A model probe with a memory effect based on phenomenological findings was created. The model development was based on the data from 10 glioblastoma multiforme patients from the Brookhaven National Laboratory BNCT trials. These patients received i.v. 290 mg BPA/kg body weight as a fructose complex during two hours. Blood samples were collected during and after the infusion. The accuracy of the model was verified with distinctive fitting of 10 new glioma patient data from the Finnish BNCT-trials. The 10B- concentration in whole blood samples was determined by ICP-AES method. In the study it is concluded that the constructed non-linear model is flexible and capable in describing the kinetics of 10B concentration in blood after a single infusion of BPA-F. (author)

  10. Effects of BPA and E2 on expression profiles of genes related to hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis of half-smooth tongue sole Cynoglossus semilaevis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Fengling; LI Zhaoxin; WANG Qingyin; ZHAI Yuxiu

    2013-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are increasingly viewed as persistent pollutants,similar to natural hormones in function.This paper describes the expression profiles of 7 genes (DMRT,VTG,GnRHR,FSHR,CYP17A,CYP19A,and CYP19B) involved in sex steroid synthesis and action as well as sexual development in adult male and female Cynoglossus semilaevis,after exposure to different concentrations of Bisphenol A (BPA) and 17β-estradiol (E2).Both BPA (1,10,50,125,and 250 mg/kg) and E2 (0.5,5,and 10 mg/kg) induced changes in target gene expression,although the estrogenic effects of E2 as a model estrogen were stronger.Among the 7 genes,VTG,CYP17A and CYP19 responded strongly to BPA or E2 exposure and can thus serve as reference biomarkers for estrogenic EDCs exposure in marine teleosts.These data will provide a window to establish a hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal model in C.semilaevis to better understand the effect pathways of EDCs.

  11. Effects of BPA and E2 on expression profiles of genes related to hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis of half-smooth tongue sole Cynoglossus semilaevis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengling; Li, Zhaoxin; Wang, Qingyin; Zhai, Yuxiu

    2013-05-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are increasingly viewed as persistent pollutants, similar to natural hormones in function. This paper describes the expression profiles of 7 genes ( DMRT, VTG GnRHR FSHR CYP17A CYP19A, and CYP19B) involved in sex steroid synthesis and action as well as sexual development in adult male and female Cynoglossus semilaevis, after exposure to different concentrations of Bisphenol A (BPA) and 17β-estradiol (E2). Both BPA (1, 10, 50, 125, and 250 mg/kg) and E2 (0.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg) induced changes in target gene expression, although the estrogenic effects of E2 as a model estrogen were stronger. Among the 7 genes, VTG CYP17A and CYP19 responded strongly to BPA or E2 exposure and can thus serve as reference biomarkers for estrogenic EDCs exposure in marine teleosts. These data will provide a window to establish a hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal model in C. semilaevis to better understand the effect pathways of EDCs.

  12. Design of Studies for Development of BPA Fish and Wildlife Mitigation Accounting Policy Phase II, Volume II, 1985-1988 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kneese, Allen V.

    1988-08-01

    The incremental costs of corrective measures to lessen the environmental impacts of the hydroelectric system are expected to increase and difficult questions to arise about the costs, effectiveness, and justification of alternative measures and their systemwide implications. The BPA anticipate this situation by launching a forward-looking research program aimed at providing methodological tools and data suitable for estimating the productivity and cost implications of mitigation alternatives in a timely manner with state-of-the-art accuracy. Resources for the Future (RFF) agreed at the request of the BPA to develop a research program which would provide an analytical system designed to assist the BPA Administrator and other interested and responsible parties in evaluating the ecological and economic aspects of alternative protection, enhancement, and mitigation measures. While this progression from an ecological understanding to cost-effectiveness analyses is straightforward in concept, the complexities of the Columbia River system make the development of analytical methods far from simple in practice. The Phase 2 final report outlines the technical issues involved in developing an analytical system and proposes a program of research to address these issues. The report is presented in the Summary Report (Volume 1), and the present volume which consists of three technical reports: Part I, Modeling the Salmon and Steelhead Fisheries of the Columbia River Basin; Part II, Models for Cost-Effectiveness Analysis; and Part III, Ocean Fisheries Harvest Management.

  13. Organic Toxicity in Activated Sludge in BPA Synthetic Wastewater Treatment System%双酚A废水处理系统中污泥的有机毒性特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐文璐; 杨娜; 胡园园; 陈秀荣; 艾奇峰; 王利鹏; 陈善佳; 黄华

    2013-01-01

    The activated sludge system treating bisphenol A ( BPA) synthetic wastewater was chosen for study. The sludge was acclimated with synthetic wastewater containing 2.5 mg/L BPA. The effluent COD, BPA content both in effluent and sludge, and sludge toxicity were investigated at BPA concentrations of 5 mg/L, 7. 5 mg/L, 20 mg/L and 40 mg/L. The results showed that no BPA and toxicity accumulation were observed in loosely bound EPS (accounting for 22. 27% of sludge dry weight) during the degradation of BPA. Furthermore, no residual BPA was observed in tightly bound EPS and intracellu-lar space of sludge while the toxicity steadily climbed. In conclusion, the organic toxicity in tightly bound EPS and intracellular space of sludge was caused by the accumulation of degradation products and toxicants secreted by BPA-induced microbial cell during BPA degradation.%以处理双酚A(BPA)模拟废水的活性污泥系统为研究对象,经BPA初始浓度为2.5mg/L的模拟废水驯化后,考察在不同BPA初始浓度(5、7.5、20和40 mg/L)下出水COD浓度及水相与泥相不同分区中BPA含量及毒性的变化趋势.结果表明,在降解BPA的过程中,污泥外层EPS区域(占泥相的22.27%)无BPA及毒性的显著积累;在驯化与运行过程中,污泥内层EPS和胞内区域无BPA残留,但毒性不断积累,分析认为是在活性污泥降解BPA的过程中,毒性降解产物或BPA诱导微生物细胞分泌的毒性物质滞留在该区域所致.

  14. 超滤去除水中内分泌干扰物(BPA)的效果和影响因素%Removal of EDCs(BPA)by Ultrafiltration and Impact Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琳; 董秉直; 高乃云

    2007-01-01

    采用终端超滤工艺去除饮用水中内分泌干扰物双酚 A(BPA),主要考察了BPA初始浓度、膜截留相对分子质量pH、离子ⅱ强度和有机物对BPA去除效果的影响.结果表明,超滤对饮用水中BPA具有良好的去除效果.当BPA的初始浓度在100~600μg/L范围内,截留相对分子质量2 000~10 000的超滤膜对BPA的去除率均在92.0%以上.溶液的pH值接近BPA的pKa(9.6~11.3)时,BPA去除率明显降低.离子强度对去除率的影响较小.溶液中的腐殖酸对超滤去除BPA的影响较小.试验证实,吸附是超滤去除疏水性BPA分子的主要机理.

  15. Experimental Studies of Boronophenylalanine ({sup 10}BPA) Biodistribution for the Individual Application of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) for Malignant Melanoma Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpano, Marina; Perona, Marina; Rodriguez, Carla [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); Nievas, Susana; Olivera, Maria; Santa Cruz, Gustavo A. [Department of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); Brandizzi, Daniel; Cabrini, Romulo [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); School of Dentistry, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Pisarev, Mario [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); National Research Council of Argentina, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Department of Human Biochemistry, School of Medicine, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Juvenal, Guillermo Juan [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); National Research Council of Argentina, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Dagrosa, Maria Alejandra, E-mail: dagrosa@cnea.gov.ar [Department of Radiobiology, National Atomic Energy Commission, San Martín (Argentina); National Research Council of Argentina, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: Patients with the same histopathologic diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma treated with identical protocols of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) have shown different clinical outcomes. The objective of the present studies was to evaluate the biodistribution of boronophenilalanina ({sup 10}BPA) for the potential application of BNCT for the treatment of melanoma on an individual basis. Methods and Materials: The boronophenilalanine (BPA) uptake was evaluated in 3 human melanoma cell lines: MEL-J, A375, and M8. NIH nude mice were implanted with 4 10{sup 6} MEL-J cells, and biodistribution studies of BPA (350 mg/kg intraperitoneally) were performed. Static infrared imaging using a specially modified infrared camera adapted to measure the body infrared radiance of small animals was used. Proliferation marker, Ki-67, and endothelial marker, CD31, were analyzed in tumor samples. Results: The in vitro studies demonstrated different patterns of BPA uptake for each analyzed cell line (P<.001 for MEL-J and A375 vs M8 cells). The in vivo studies showed a maximum average boron concentration of 25.9 ± 2.6 μg/g in tumor, with individual values ranging between 11.7 and 52.0 μg/g of {sup 10}B 2 hours after the injection of BPA. Tumor temperature always decreased as the tumors increased in size, with values ranging between 37°C and 23°C. A significant correlation between tumor temperature and tumor-to-blood boron concentration ratio was found (R{sup 2} = 0.7, rational function fit). The immunohistochemical studies revealed, in tumors with extensive areas of viability, a high number of positive cells for Ki-67, blood vessels of large diameter evidenced by the marker CD31, and a direct logistic correlation between proliferative status and boron concentration difference between tumor and blood (R{sup 2} = 0.81, logistic function fit). Conclusion: We propose that these methods could be suitable for designing new screening protocols applied before melanoma BNCT

  16. BPA电网模型自动导入DIgSILENT的研究和开发%Research and development of BPA grid model imported to DIgSILENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘庆; 张东英; 刘燕华; 许晓艳; 黄越辉

    2014-01-01

    为了实现将BPA的电网模型自动导入到DIgSILENT/PowerFactory中,提高在DIgSILENT中进行大电网建模的工作效率,分析了 BPA 和 DIgSILENT 中一次设备的数学模型,给出了这两种仿真软件在一次设备模型参数间的转换公式。研究了DIgSILENT提供的DGS接口和DPL编程语言的功能和技术特点,总结了BPA电网模型导入DIgSILENT的工作步骤。研究确定了VC6和DPL相结合的技术实现方案,设计了用于将BPA电网模型自动导入到DIgSILENT的工具软件的总体结构、功能和流程,开发实现了该工具软件。最后分别用3机9节点算例和北京电网等值系统对其测试,通过对比两个仿真软件的一次设备模型参数和潮流计算结果,验证该工具软件达到了设计的要求。%To-automatically-import-the-BPA-grid-model-to-DIgSILENT/PowerFactory-and-improve-the-efficiency-of-large-power-grid-modeling-in-DIgSILENT,-this-paper-analyzes-the-mathematical-model-of-the-primary-equipment-and-gives-the-conversion-formula-of-model-parameters-between-these-two-simulation-software,-studies-the-functions-and-technical-characteristics-of-DGS-interface-and-DPL-programming-language-provided-by-DIgSILENT,-summarizes-the-work-steps-for-the-BPA-grid-model-imported-to-DIgSILENT,-identifies-the-VC6-and-DPL-combining-technical-implementation-and-designs-the-overall-structure,-function-and-process-of-the-tool-software-which-is-used-to-import-BPA-grid-model-to-DIgSILENT,-then-develops-this-tool-software.-At-last,-this-paper-uses-3-machine-9-bus-system-and-the-equivalent-system-of-the-Beijing-grid-to-test-the-tool-software.-By-comparing-the-model-parameters-and-power-flow-calculation-results-of-the-primary-equipment-in-BPA-and-DIgSILENT,-this-tool-software-is-proved-to-meet-the-design-requirement.

  17. Experimental Studies of Boronophenylalanine (10BPA) Biodistribution for the Individual Application of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) for Malignant Melanoma Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Patients with the same histopathologic diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma treated with identical protocols of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) have shown different clinical outcomes. The objective of the present studies was to evaluate the biodistribution of boronophenilalanina (10BPA) for the potential application of BNCT for the treatment of melanoma on an individual basis. Methods and Materials: The boronophenilalanine (BPA) uptake was evaluated in 3 human melanoma cell lines: MEL-J, A375, and M8. NIH nude mice were implanted with 4 106 MEL-J cells, and biodistribution studies of BPA (350 mg/kg intraperitoneally) were performed. Static infrared imaging using a specially modified infrared camera adapted to measure the body infrared radiance of small animals was used. Proliferation marker, Ki-67, and endothelial marker, CD31, were analyzed in tumor samples. Results: The in vitro studies demonstrated different patterns of BPA uptake for each analyzed cell line (P<.001 for MEL-J and A375 vs M8 cells). The in vivo studies showed a maximum average boron concentration of 25.9 ± 2.6 μg/g in tumor, with individual values ranging between 11.7 and 52.0 μg/g of 10B 2 hours after the injection of BPA. Tumor temperature always decreased as the tumors increased in size, with values ranging between 37°C and 23°C. A significant correlation between tumor temperature and tumor-to-blood boron concentration ratio was found (R2 = 0.7, rational function fit). The immunohistochemical studies revealed, in tumors with extensive areas of viability, a high number of positive cells for Ki-67, blood vessels of large diameter evidenced by the marker CD31, and a direct logistic correlation between proliferative status and boron concentration difference between tumor and blood (R2 = 0.81, logistic function fit). Conclusion: We propose that these methods could be suitable for designing new screening protocols applied before melanoma BNCT treatment for each individual

  18. Disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis in zebrafish embryo-larvae following waterborne exposure to BDE-47, TBBPA and BPA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Winson K. [Biochemistry Program, School of Life Sciences, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Sha Tin, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Chan, King Ming, E-mail: kingchan@cuhk.edu.hk [Biochemistry Program, School of Life Sciences, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Sha Tin, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Environmental Science Program, School of Life Sciences, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Sha Tin, Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    2012-02-15

    We performed waterborne exposures of 2,2 Prime ,4,4 Prime -tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) or bisphenol A (BPA) on zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo-larvae and quantitatively measured the expression of genes belonging to the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis to assess for adverse thyroid function. For analysis on the effects of BDE-47, TBBPA and BPA on the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid genes, zebrafish embryo-larvae were acutely exposed to lethal concentrations of the chemical agents in order to determine the 96 h-LC50 (96 h lethal median concentration) and 96 h-EC50 (96 h effective median concentration) values. Further exposures at sub-lethal concentrations were then carried out and total RNA samples were extracted to quantify the mRNA expression levels of the genes of interest. In larvae, BDE-47 was found to have significantly induced many genes of interest, namely thyroglobulin, thyroid peroxidase, thyroid receptors {alpha} and {beta}, thyroid stimulating hormone, and transthyretin. TBBPA only significantly induced three genes of interest (thyroid receptor {alpha}, thyroid stimulating hormone, and transthyretin) while BPA only induced thyroid stimulating hormone. In embryos, BDE-47 significantly induced the sodium iodide symporter and thyroid stimulating hormone. TBBPA significantly induced thyroid receptor {alpha} and thyroid stimulating hormone, while BPA did not significantly induce any of the genes. Most genes were only induced at the 75% 96 h-LC50 or 96 h-EC50 value; however, thyroid peroxidase and thyroid stimulating hormone demonstrated upregulation in a level as little as the 10% 96 h-LC50 value. The present study provides a new set of data on zebrafish mRNA induction of hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid genes from exposure to BDE-47, TBBPA, or BPA. This information would serve useful for elucidating the toxicological mechanism of brominated flame retardants, assessing appropriate safety levels in the environment for

  19. Photoaffinity Labeling of Ras Converting Enzyme using Peptide Substrates that Incorporate Benzoylphenylalanine (Bpa) Residues: Improved Labeling and Structural Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyro, Kelly; Manandhar, Surya P.; Mullen, Daniel; Schmidt, Walter K.; Distefano, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    Rce1p catalyzes the proteolytic trimming of C-terminal tripeptides from isoprenylated proteins containing CAAX-box sequences. Because Rce1p processing is a necessary component in the Ras pathway of oncogenic signal transduction, Rce1p holds promise as a potential target for therapeutic intervention. However, its mechanism of proteolysis and active site have yet to be defined. Here, we describe synthetic peptide analogues that mimic the natural lipidated Rce1p substrate and incorporate photolabile groups for photoaffinity-labeling applications. These photoactive peptides are designed to crosslink to residues in or near the Rce1p active site. By incorporating the photoactive group via p-benzoyl-L-phenylalanine (Bpa) residues directly into the peptide substrate sequence, the labeling efficiency was substantially increased relative to a previously-synthesized compound. Incorporation of biotin on the N-terminus of the peptides permitted photolabeled Rce1p to be isolated via streptavidin affinity capture. Our findings further suggest that residues outside the CAAX-box sequence are in contact with Rce1p, which has implications for future inhibitor design. PMID:22079863

  20. BPA genetic monitoring - BPA Genetic Monitoring Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Initiated in 1989, this study monitors genetic changes associated with hatchery propagation in multiple Snake River sub-basins for Chinook salmon and steelhead. We...

  1. Kinetics study on photocatalytic degradation of bisphenol A (BPA) by UV/nano-TiO_2 suspended system%UV-TiO_2光催化氧化降解双酚A的动力学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾陈忠; 王焰新; 张彩香; 李梦娣

    2009-01-01

    采用自制光催化氧化反应器,研究了双酚A(BPA)在纳米TiO_2悬浆体系中的光催化氧化特性.结果表明:(1)UV-TiO_2对水中BPA有较强光催化氧化降解作用.在10 W低压汞灯照射下,当纳米TiO_2用量为1.0 g/L、pH为5.5、BPA初始质量浓度为10 mg/L、曝气量为4.0 mL/min、温度为室温、反应时间为120 min时,BPA去除率可达97.1%.当pH≥9.5时,120 min后BPA已经基本光催化氧化降解完全.(2)BPA的光催化氧化降解曲线均很好地符合一级反应动力学方程.其速率常数与纳米TiO_2用量、pH、BPA初始浓度、曝气量有关;促进·OH和电子-空穴对的生成是提高光催化氧化反应速率的重要途径.%Photocatalytic degradation of bisphenol A (BPA) in aqueous solution with UV as induced light by nano TiO_2 suspended system was studied in home-made batch photo-reactor. Effects of pH ,initial BPA concentration, TiO_2 dosage and aeration rate on photocatalytic process were investigated respectively. The results showed that the UV/TiO_2 photocatalytic presented perfect BPA degradation effectively,and the process of BPA photodegradation fol-lowed first-order kinetics. With the conditions of TiO_2 dosage= 1.0 mg/L,pH of 5.5,aeration rate of 4.0 mL/min,initial BPA concentration of 10 mg/L and irradiated by 10 W low-pressured mercury vapor discharge lamp,97.1% of BPA was degraded in 120 rain. And BPA was almost completely removed in 120 rain when phi>9.5. The photodeg-radation rate constant of BPA was strongly related to the above influence factors.

  2. 1H MRS of a boron neutron capture therapy 10B-carrier, L-p-boronophenylalanine-fructose complex, BPA-F: phantom studies at 1.5 and 3.0 T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkinen, S.; Kangasmäki, A.; Timonen, M.; Kankaanranta, L.; Häkkinen, A.-M.; Lundbom, N.; Vähätalo, J.; Savolainen, S.

    2003-04-01

    The quantification of a BNCT 10B-carrier, L-p-boronophenylalanine-fructose complex (BPA-F), was evaluated using 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) with phantoms at 1.5 and 3.0 T. For proper quantification, relaxation times T1 and T2 are needed. While T1 is relatively easy to determine, the determination of T2 of a coupled spin system of aromatic protons of BPA is not straightforward with standard MRS sequences. In addition, an uncoupled concentration reference for aromatic protons of BPA must be used with caution. In order to determine T2, the response of an aromatic proton spin system to the MRS sequence PRESS with various echo times was calculated and the product of the response curve with exponential decay was fitted to the measured intensities. Furthermore, the response curve can be used to correct the intensities, when an uncoupled resonance is used as a concentration reference. BPA was quantified using both phantom replacement and internal water referencing methods with accuracies of +/-5% and +/-15%. Our phantom results suggest that in vivo studies on BPA concentration determination will be feasible.

  3. {sup 1}H MRS of a boron neutron capture therapy {sup 10}B-carrier, L-p-boronophenylalanine-fructose complex, BPA-F: phantom studies at 1.5 and 3.0 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heikkinen, S [Department of Radiology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, PO Box 340, FIN-00029 HUS, Helsinki (Finland); Kangasmaeki, A [Department of Radiology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, PO Box 340, FIN-00029 HUS, Helsinki (Finland); Timonen, M [Department of Physical Sciences, University of Helsinki, PO Box 64, FIN-00014, Helsinki (Finland); Kankaanranta, L [Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, PO Box 180, FIN-00029 HUS Helsinki (Finland); Haekkinen, A-M [Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, PO Box 180, FIN-00029 HUS Helsinki (Finland); Lundbom, N [Department of Radiology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, PO Box 340, FIN-00029 HUS, Helsinki (Finland); Vaehaetalo, J [Laboratory of Radiochemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki, PO Box 55, FIN-00014, Helsinki (Finland); Savolainen, S [Department of Radiology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, PO Box 340, FIN-00029 HUS, Helsinki (Finland)

    2003-04-21

    The quantification of a BNCT {sup 10}B-carrier, L-p-boronophenylalanine-fructose complex (BPA-F), was evaluated using {sup 1}H magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H MRS) with phantoms at 1.5 and 3.0 T. For proper quantification, relaxation times T{sub 1} and T{sub 2} are needed. While T{sub 1} is relatively easy to determine, the determination of T{sub 2} of a coupled spin system of aromatic protons of BPA is not straightforward with standard MRS sequences. In addition, an uncoupled concentration reference for aromatic protons of BPA must be used with caution. In order to determine T{sub 2}, the response of an aromatic proton spin system to the MRS sequence PRESS with various echo times was calculated and the product of the response curve with exponential decay was fitted to the measured intensities. Furthermore, the response curve can be used to correct the intensities, when an uncoupled resonance is used as a concentration reference. BPA was quantified using both phantom replacement and internal water referencing methods with accuracies of {+-}5% and {+-}15%. Our phantom results suggest that in vivo studies on BPA concentration determination will be feasible.

  4. Novel homochiral holodirected three-dimensional lead(II) coordination polymer, [Pb 2(μ-bpa) 3(μ-NO 3) 2(NO 3) 2] n: Spectroscopic, thermal, fluorescence and structural studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslani, Alireza; Morsali, Ali; Zeller, Matthias

    2008-07-01

    A novel homochiral holodirected coordination polymer of lead(II) nitrate with the bridging ligand 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethane (bpa), [Pb 2(μ-bpa) 3(μ-NO 3) 2(NO 3) 2] n ( 1), has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, thermal analysis and single crystal X-ray diffraction. In 1, the lead(II) ions are doubly bridged by both bpa and nitrate ligands into a chiral infinite three-dimensional polymeric network. There are two different nine- and eight-coordinate geometries around the lead(II) ion in 1, in which the lead(II) ions have a less common holodirected geometry. Solid-state luminescent spectra of compound 1 indicate intense fluorescent emission at ca. 434 nm.

  5. PSAT和BPA在电力系统潮流计算中的对比研究%Comparison between PSAT and BPA in power system power flow calculation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷玉宝; 宋墩文; 李月乔; 杨学涛; 高崇

    2015-01-01

    Aiming at the problem of the current power system analysis program existing differences, from the point of view of power flow calculation,contrasts and studies the two commonly used software programs (PSAT & BPA) in china, analyzes different initial conditions, such as convergence error,the generator tap settings and load ratio,have different influence on the result of power flow. The analysis result shows that PSAT has certain advantage in modeling visualization and user-defined,is suitable for small-scale power system simulation and user-defined model research;But BPA has fast calculation speed and high calculation accuracy,is suitable for large-scale power system simulation.%针对当前电力系统分析程序存在差异的问题,从潮流计算角度,对比研究了国内目前使用较为普遍的2款潮流计算程序(PSAT和PSD-BPA),分析了收敛误差、发电机分接头、负荷比例等不同初值条件设置对其潮流计算结果的影响.分析结果表明:PSAT在建模、可视化和自定义方面具有一定优势,比较适合小规模电网仿真和自定义元件模型研究;而BPA的计算速度快,计算精度高,比较适合大规模电网仿真.

  6. Biodistribution of the compounds BSH and BPA used for BNCT in four different tumor entities in relation to blood and normal tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The success of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) relies on the selective delivery of a boronated compound to tumour cells. The compounds BSH and BPA are in use as experimental drugs in clinical trials, demonstrating some ability to target glioblastoma and melanoma. The aim of this study is to identify other tumor entities apart from melanoma and glioblastoma that may obtain benefit from BNCT using the 2 available drugs. The potential of applying both compounds subsequently to obtain a favourable absolute 10B concentration in the tumour and an optimised 10B-ratio between tumor, blood and healthy tissue was also evaluated. For the investigations different human tumours (glioblastoma (U87), melanoma (MV3), sarcoma (S3) and adenocarcinoma (PC-3) were transplanted subcutaneously at the right chest wall in nu/nu mice. Animals received either BSH (200 mg/kg) or BPA (700 mg/kg) or both compounds subsequently as intraperitoneal injection. The boron concentration in tissues was measured by prompt gamma ray spectroscopy. For all tissues evaluated but especially for tumor samples the measured values showed quite high standard deviations even under the very controlled experimental conditions applied in these experiments. Therefore, a considerable amount of analyses are necessary for a statistically reliable analysis. Preliminary results show significant differences in the accumulation of both compounds in the different tumour entities and in the different organs evaluated. After the application of BSH high boron concentrations have especially been found in the kidneys and liver, after application of BPA high concentrations were also found in the kidneys and the liver but also quite high values in the skin and the lung. The application of both drugs leads to higher absolute values that are however lower as expected assuming an additive increase of uptake

  7. 分光光度法测量生物组织中BPA含量%Determinate the BPA in Biological Samples by Spectrophotometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凤林; 罗志福; 邓新荣; 樊彩云; 刘子华; 吴猛

    2013-01-01

    建立了以3-甲氧基-甲亚胺-H为显色剂的二羟基硼酰苯丙氨酸(P-Boronophenylalanine,BPA)分光光度测量方法,并对该法在样品处理、试剂选择、条件测试等方面进行试验.研究BPA在正常小鼠体内的生物分布,以确定BPA的靶向性和有效性.

  8. Biodistribution of the boron carriers boronophenylalanine (BPA) and/or decahydrodecaborate (GB-10) for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in an experimental model of lung metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.W. Nigg; Various Others

    2014-06-01

    BNCT was proposed for the treatment of diffuse, non-resectable tumors in the lung. We performed boron biodistribution studies with 5 administration protocols employing the boron carriers BPA and/or GB-10 in an experimental model of disseminated lung metastases in rats. All 5 protocols were non-toxic and showed preferential tumor boron uptake versus lung. Absolute tumor boron concentration values were therapeutically useful (25–76 ppm) for 3 protocols. Dosimetric calculations indicate that BNCT at RA-3 would be potentially therapeutic without exceeding radiotolerance in the lung.

  9. BPA Riparian Fencing and Alternative Water Development Projects Completed within Asotin Creek Watershed, 2000 and 2001 Asotin Creek Fencing Final Report of Accomplishments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, B.J. (Bradley J.)

    2002-01-01

    The Asotin County Conservation District (ACCD) is the primary entity coordinating habitat projects on both private and public lands within the Asotin Creek watershed. The watershed covers approximately 325 square miles in the Blue Mountains of southeastern Washington in Water Resource Inventory Area (WRIA) 35. According to Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife's (WDFW) Priority WRIA's by ''At-Risk Stock Significance Map'', it is the highest priority WRIA in southeastern Washington. Summer steelhead, bull trout, and Snake River spring chinook salmon which are listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), are present in the watershed. WDFW manages it as a Wild Steelhead Reserve; no hatchery fish have been released here since 1997. The ACCD has been working with landowners, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Washington State Conservation Commission (WCC), Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), U.S. Forest Service, Pomeroy Ranger District (USFS), Nez Perce Tribe, Washington Department of Ecology (DOE), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) to address habitat projects in Asotin County. Local students, volunteers and Salmon Corps members from the Nez Perce Tribe have been instrumental in the success of the Model Watershed Program on Asotin Creek. ACCD began coordinating habitat projects in 1995 with the help of BPA funding. Approximately two hundred and seventy-six projects have been implemented as of 1999. The Washington State Legislature was successful in securing funding for endangered salmon and steelhead recovery throughout the State in 1998. While these issues were new to most of the State, the ACCD has been securing and administering funding for endangered salmonids since 1994. The ''Asotin Creek Riparian Planting 2000-053-00 and Asotin Creek Riparian Fencing 2000-054-00'' teamed BPA and the Governor

  10. Biodistribution of boron after intravenous 4-dihydroxyborylphenylalanine-fructose (BPA-F) infusion in meningioma and schwannoma patients: A feasibility study for boron neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulvik, Martti; Kallio, Merja; Laakso, Juha; Vähätalo, Jyrki; Hermans, Raine; Järviluoma, Eija; Paetau, Anders; Rasilainen, Merja; Ruokonen, Inkeri; Seppälä, Matti; Jääskeläinen, Juha

    2015-12-01

    We studied the uptake of boron after 100 mg/kg BPA infusion in three meningioma and five schwannoma patients as a pre-BNCT feasibility study. With average tumour-to-whole blood boron concentrations of 2.5, we discuss why BNCT could, and probably should, be developed to treat severe forms of the studied tumours. However, analysing 72 tumour and 250 blood samples yielded another finding: the plasma-to-whole blood boron concentrations varied with time, suggesting that the assumed constant boron ratio of 1:1 between normal brain tissue and whole blood deserves re-assessment. PMID:26298436

  11. BPA review of Washington Public Power Supply System, Projects 1 and 3 (WNP 1 and 3), construction schedule and financing assumptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains the following appendices: Data provided By Supply System Regarding Costs and Schedules; Basic Supply System Data and Assumptions; Detailed Modeling of Net Present Values; Origin and Detailed Description of the System Analysis Mode; Decision Analysis Model; Pro Forma Budget Expenditure Levels for Fiscal years 1984 through 1990; Financial Flexibility Analysis - Discretionary/Nondiscretionary Expenditure Levels; Detailed Analysis of BPA's Debt Structure Under the 13 Pro Forma Budget Scenarios for Fiscal Years 1984 through 1990; Wertheim and Co., Inc., August 30, 1984 Letter; Project Considerations and Licensing/Regulatory Issues, Supply System September 15, 1984 Letter; and Summary of Litigation Affecting WNP 1 and 3, and WNP 4 and 5

  12. 双酚A对大豆幼苗根系生长及体内含量的影响%Effects of BPA on Root Growth and BPA Content in Soybean Roots at Seedling Stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王湦曼; 王丽红; 周青

    2015-01-01

    双酚A(BPA)是一种代表性的环境内分泌干扰物,由于大规模的生产及广泛使用,其在环境中无处不在.与BPA对植物生长影响的研究工作相比,BPA的环境植物学作用机理,尤其是BPA影响植物生长的机理甚少报道.基于此,研究了BPA在大豆根系内含量的变化,以揭示BPA对大豆根系生长影响的直接作用机理.结果表明:在1.5mg·L-1BPA处理时大豆幼苗根系BPA含量为23.68 μg·g-1,根系各生长指标(根鲜干重、总长、表面积及体积)均有所增加.当浓度增加至6.0 mg· L-1 BPA处理时大豆幼苗根系BPA含量为9.87 μg·g-1,根鲜干重、根表面积及体积下降,随着BPA处理组浓度的增加,根系内BPA含量逐渐增加,并至96.0 mg·L-1达到1 044.88 μg·g-1,根系各生长指标受严重抑制.BPA胁迫解除后,大豆幼苗根系内BPA含量变化规律与胁迫期一致,并较胁迫期明显下降,各生长指标均有一定程度恢复,BPA剂量越低,恢复程度越高.

  13. 基于模糊数相似性的BPA生成方法%BPA Generation Method Based on the Similarity of Fuzzy Numbers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李云彬; 李辉; 王云飞

    2011-01-01

    D-S证据组合规则可以在没有先验信息的情况下进行融合,这一优点使得D-S证据理论在多传感器融合系统中应用非常广泛.但BPA函数是建立在基本事件的幂集之上的,无法通过简单的统计方法来获得,为了解决这一问题,提出一种适应性更好的基于模糊数相似性的BPA生成方法.通过数据分类的例证说明该方法具有有效性和适用性.%In the framework of evidence theory, information fusion relies on the use of combination rule allowing the belief functions for the different propositions to be combined. A crucial role in evidence theory is played by Dempster 's combination rule which has several interesting mathematical properties such as commutativity and associativity, and can be combined without prior information which make it widely used in many data fusion systems: However, how to construct basic probability assignment (BPA) is still an open issue. A new method to obtain BPA based on the similarity measure between fuzzy numbers is proposed. The efficiency and the applicability of the proposed method is illustrated by the illustration of Iris data classification.

  14. Microwave irradiation induced modifications on the interfaces in SAN/EVA/PVC and PVAc/BPA/PVP ternary polymer blends: Positron lifetime study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinesh, Meghala; Chikkakuntappa, Ranganathaiah

    2013-09-01

    Ternary polymer blends of poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile)/poly(ethylene-co-vinylacetate)/poly(vinyl chloride) (SAN/EVA/PVC) and poly(vinyl acetate)/bisphenol A/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVAc/BPA/PVP) with different compositions have been prepared by solvent casting method and characterized by positron lifetime spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry DSC. Phase modifications have been induced by irradiating the blends with microwave radiation. These changes have been monitored by measuring the free-volume content in the blends. The results clearly show improved interactions between the constituent polymers of the blends upon microwave irradiation. However, the free-volume data and DSC measurements are found to be inadequate to reveal the changes at the interfaces and the interfaces determine the final properties of the blend. For this we have used hydrodynamic interaction (αij) approach developed by us to measure strength of hydrodynamic interaction at the interfaces. These results show that microwave irradiation stabilizes the interfaces if the blend contains strong polar groups. SAN/EVA/PVC blend shows an increased effective hydrodynamic interaction from -3.18 to -4.85 at composition 50/35/15 upon microwave irradiation and PVAc/BPA/PVP blend shows an increased effective hydrodynamic interaction from -3.81 to -7.57 at composition 20/50/30 after irradiation.

  15. Microwave irradiation induced modifications on the interfaces in SAN/EVA/PVC and PVAc/BPA/PVP ternary polymer blends: Positron lifetime study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinesh, Meghala; Chikkakuntappa, Ranganathaiah, E-mail: crang1@rediffmail.com

    2013-09-01

    Ternary polymer blends of poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile)/poly(ethylene-co-vinylacetate)/poly(vinyl chloride) (SAN/EVA/PVC) and poly(vinyl acetate)/bisphenol A/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVAc/BPA/PVP) with different compositions have been prepared by solvent casting method and characterized by positron lifetime spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry DSC. Phase modifications have been induced by irradiating the blends with microwave radiation. These changes have been monitored by measuring the free-volume content in the blends. The results clearly show improved interactions between the constituent polymers of the blends upon microwave irradiation. However, the free-volume data and DSC measurements are found to be inadequate to reveal the changes at the interfaces and the interfaces determine the final properties of the blend. For this we have used hydrodynamic interaction (α{sub ij}) approach developed by us to measure strength of hydrodynamic interaction at the interfaces. These results show that microwave irradiation stabilizes the interfaces if the blend contains strong polar groups. SAN/EVA/PVC blend shows an increased effective hydrodynamic interaction from −3.18 to −4.85 at composition 50/35/15 upon microwave irradiation and PVAc/BPA/PVP blend shows an increased effective hydrodynamic interaction from −3.81 to −7.57 at composition 20/50/30 after irradiation.

  16. Analysis of organizational options for the uranium enrichment enterprise in relation to asset divesture. [BPA; TVA; SYNFUELS; CONRAIL; British TELECOM; COMSTAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrer, B.J.; Hattrup, M.P.; Dase, J.E.; Nicholls, A.K.

    1986-08-01

    This report presents a comparison of the characteristics of some prominent examples of independent government corporations and agencies with respect to the Department of Energy's (DOE) uranium enrichment enterprise. The six examples studied were: the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA); the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA); the Synthetic Fuels Corporation (SYNFUELS); the Consolidated Rail Corporation (CONRAIL); the British Telecommunications Corporation (British TELECOM); and the Communications Satellite Organization (COMSAT), in order of decreasing levels of government ownership and control. They range from BPA, which is organized as an agency within DOE, to COMSAT, which is privately owned and free from almost all regulations common to government agencies. Differences in the degree of government involvement in these corporations and in many other characteristics serve to illustrate that there are no accepted standards for defining the characteristics of government corporations. Thus, historical precedent indicates considerable flexibility would be available in the development of enabling legislation to reorganize the enrichment enterprise as a government corporation or independent government agency.

  17. Intramolecular electron transfer in mixed-valence complexes [(NH3)5Ru-L-Ru(NH3)5]5+ (L = N2, pyz, pym, 4,4'-bipy, bpa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizova, O. V.; Baranovskii, V. I.; Panin, A. I.; Ivanova, N. V.

    2002-02-01

    The dynamics of the intramolecular electron transfer from Ru(II) to Ru(III) in binuclear mixed-valence complexes [NH3)5Ru -L-Ru(NH3)5]5+ (L = N2, pyz, bipy, pym, bpa) is analyzed by the semiempirical CINDO + CI method.

  18. Estimates of Dietary Exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) from Light Metal Packaging using Food Consumption and Packaging usage Data: A Refined Deterministic Approach and a Fully Probabilistic (FACET) Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldring, P.K.T.; Castle, L.; O'Mahony, C.; Dixon, J.

    2013-01-01

    The FACET tool is a probabilistic model to estimate exposure to chemicals in foodstuffs, originating from flavours, additives and food contact materials. This paper demonstrates the use of the FACET tool to estimate exposure to BPA (bisphenol A) from light metal packaging. For exposure to migrants from food packaging, FACET uses industry-supplied data on the occurrence of substances in the packaging, their concentrations and construction of the packaging, which were combined with data from a market research organisation and food consumption data supplied by national database managers. To illustrate the principles, UK packaging data were used together with consumption data from the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) dietary survey for 19–64 year olds for a refined deterministic verification. The UK data were chosen mainly because the consumption surveys are detailed, data for UK packaging at a detailed level were available and, arguably, the UK population is composed of high consumers of packaged foodstuffs. Exposures were run for each food category that could give rise to BPA from light metal packaging. Consumer loyalty to a particular type of packaging, commonly referred to as packaging loyalty, was set. The BPA extraction levels used for the 15 types of coating chemistries that could release BPA were in the range of 0.00005–0.012 mg dm−2. The estimates of exposure to BPA using FACET for the total diet were 0.0098 (mean) and 0.0466 (97.5th percentile) mg/person/day, corresponding to 0.00013 (mean) and 0.00059 (97.5th percentile) mg kg−1 body weight day−1 for consumers of foods packed in light metal packaging. This is well below the current EFSA (and other recognised bodies) TDI of 0.05 mg kg−1 body weight day. These probabilistic estimates were compared with estimates using a refined deterministic approach drawing on the same input data. The results from FACET for the mean, 95th and 97.5th percentile exposures to BPA lay between the lowest

  19. 毒性有机物BPA与普通小球藻的相互影响特性研究%Research on Characteristic of Interrelationship Between Toxic Organic Compound BPA and Chlorella vulgaris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈善佳; 陈秀荣; 闫龙; 赵建国; 章斐; 江子建

    2014-01-01

    考察了不同浓度双酚A(BPA)对普通小球藻(Chlorella vulgaris)生长特性的影响,以及普通小球藻生长过程对BPA的去除效能.研究表明,低浓度BPA(0~20 mg·L-1)对普通小球藻生长具有促进作用,而高浓度BPA(20~50 mg·L-1)对普通小球藻生长具有抑制作用,且抑制效应与BPA浓度呈正相关关系.低剂量BPA( <20 mg·L-1)对叶绿素含量并无明显的影响,高剂量BPA(>20 mg·L-1)造成叶绿素含量降低.在BPA初始浓度2~50 mg·L-1的范围内,普通小球藻对其都有一定的去除效能,单位普通小球藻对BPA去除速率与其初始浓度呈正相关关系.BPA投加量为50 mg·L-1时,BPA去除速率最大,且最大速率出现于延滞期与对数期之间.

  20. Sustainability at BPA 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-12-01

    BPA’s Sustainability Action Plan is grounded in our commitment to environmental stewardship and Executive Order 13514 that calls on the federal agencies to “lead by example” by setting a 2020 greenhouse gas emissions target, increasing energy efficiency; reducing fleet petroleum consumption; conserving water; reducing waste; supporting sustainable communities; and leveraging federal purchasing power to promoting environmentally responsible products and technologies.

  1. Bisphenol A (BPA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Environmental Agents Acrylamide Environmental Agents Acrylamide Air Pollution Environmental Agents Air Pollution Allergens & Irritants Environmental Agents Allergens & Irritants Cigarette Smoke ...

  2. Discussion On The Application of "BPA Electricity System Analysis Program"%使用"BPA电力系统分析程序"的一点体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙小舟

    1999-01-01

    @@ 1 前言 "BPA电力系统分析程序"是由电力部电力科学研究院从美国BPA(Bonneville Power Administration)引进的具有国际先进水平的电力系统分析软件包.该软件包主要由潮流和暂稳程序构成,具有计算规模大、计算速度快、数值稳定性好、功能强等特点,已在我国电力系统规划、调度、生产运行及科研部门得到了广泛应用.现将笔者在使用该软件过程中遇到的一些问题及解决办法提出来供大家参考.

  3. Soy but not Bisphenol A (BPA) Induces Hallmarks of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) and Related Metabolic co-Morbidities in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patisaul, Heather B.; Mabrey, Natalie; Adewale, Heather B.; Sullivan, Alana W.

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most common female endocrine disorder with a prevalence as high as 8–15% depending on ethnicity and the diagnostic criteria employed. The basic pathophysiology and mode of inheritance remain unclear, but environmental factors such as diet, stress and chemical exposures are thought to be contributory. Developmental exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) have been hypothesized to exacerbate risk, in part because PCOS hallmarks and associated metabolic co-morbidities can be reliably induced in animal models by perinatal androgen exposure. Here we show that lifetime exposure to a soy diet, containing endocrine active phytoestrogens, but not developmental exposure (gestational day 6 – lactational day 40) to the endocrine disrupting monomer Bisphenol A (BPA), can induce key features of PCOS in the rat; results which support the hypothesis that hormonally active diets may contribute to risk when consumed throughout gestation and post-natal life. PMID:25242113

  4. BPA发泡点分析仪的测试理论和计算式%Test Principle and Calculation Method of BPA Foam Analyzer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王朱遗; 张庆华

    2015-01-01

    The BPA foam analyzer is an effective equipment to determine the foaming characteristics of the rubber compounds. The temperature and thermal diffusion coefficient of the compounds at each position were calculated using the thermal conductivity equation for unbounded thin sample. Then the activation energy of curing, equivalent vulcanization time and foaming time were obtained based on Arrhenius equation.%BPA发泡点分析仪是研究橡胶硫化发泡特性的仪器。BPA发泡点分析仪依据无界薄板热传导计算式表征硫化试样任一位置温度和热扩散系数;依据阿累尼乌斯公式,通过列表法和绘图法表征胶料的硫化活化能、等效硫化时间和发泡时间。

  5. CTMAB增强调控沉积物(生物膜)吸附BPA的作用%Enhanced-control of Cation Surfactant on BPA Adsorption to Sediments (Natural Surface Coatings)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琛; 刘建林; 高茜; 李鱼

    2011-01-01

    研究了经十二烷基苯磺酸钠(SDBS]、曲拉通(TX-100)和十六烷基三甲基溴化铵(CTMAB)改性前后的沉积物(生物膜)吸附双酚A(BPA)的能力,并分析了CTMAB在沉积物(生物膜)吸附BPA过程中的增强机理及表面吸附和分配作用在总吸附中的贡献.研究结果表明,三种表面活性剂对沉积物(生物膜)吸附BPA的促进作用大小依次为:CTMAB>TX-100>SDBS,经CTMAB改性的沉积物(生物膜)对水中BPA的去除率最高可达44.14%(56.95%).沉积物(生物膜)对BPA的吸附行为可利用吸附-分配复合模式描述(r均大于0.98).在BPA平衡浓度为0.01~0.81 mg/L范围内,随着CTMAB浓度的增大沉秘物(生物膜)吸附BPA的分配作用的贡献也呈增大趋势,与表观分配系数变化趋势一致,表面吸附贡献在总吸附过程中仍占主导地位(沉积物>87.38%;生物膜>66.32%).%Adsorption of bisphenol A (BPA) onto sediments (natural surface coatings), which were modified by soeum dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS), TX-100 and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTMAB), was investigated, and the enhanced-control of CTMAB on BPA adsorption and relative contributions of surface adsorption and partition of BPA were also analyzed. Results showed that surfactants had promoted BPA adsorption to sediments (natural surface coatings ) ranking as CTMAB, TX-100 and SDBS, and the removal efficiencies of BPA from adsorption solutions after modified by CTMAB was up to 44.14%(56.95%). The isotherms of BPA to sediments could be fitted with dual adsorption-partition model. The partition of BPA into sediments ( natural surface coatings) increased as the concentration of CTMAB increased within initial BPA levels of 0.01~0.481mg/L, in accordance with the trend of apparent sorption coefficients, but the adsorption still played a dominant role in the whole adsorption process, more than 87.38% for sediments and 66.32% for natural surface coatings.

  6. 双酚A暴露对成年小鼠焦虑行为的影响磁%Effects of BPA exposure on anxiety-like behavior in adult mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晓虹; 王喻; 董芳妮

    2014-01-01

    为研究双酚A(bisphenol-A,BPA)暴露可能对成年小鼠神经行为的影响,将成年小鼠暴露于BPA(0.04,0.4,4和40 mg/(kg· d)12周后,发现BPA(0.04~4 mg/(kg· d))可降低雄鼠血清和脑内的睾酮水平,但对雌鼠血清和脑内的雌二醇水平没有影响.旷场、明暗箱、镜子迷宫和高架十字迷宫等行为模型的检测结果显示,BPA暴露12周对小鼠的活动性和探究意愿没有显著影响,但明显增加雌鼠却减少雄鼠在高架十字迷宫中进入开放臂的次数和开放臂停留时间,表明成年期BPA暴露可加剧雄鼠而减轻雌鼠的焦虑情绪.这些结果提示,长期BPA暴露可性别特异性地影响成年小鼠的焦虑状态,脑内性激素水平的改变可能与此有关.%Bisphenol-A ( BPA) , an environmental endocrine disruptor, attracted attention because of its ad-verse effects on the brain and behavioral development.Previous evidence indicated that perinatal exposure to low levels of BPA affected anxiety-and depression-like behaviors in adult rodents.Because sex hormones played a critical role in neurobehavior in adulthood, it seemed possible that exposure to BPA would have wide-spread effects on these emotional behaviors in adulthood.In the present study, anxiety-and depression-like behaviors were tested after exposure the adult mice to BPA (0.04, 0.4, 4, 40 mg/(kg· d)) for 12 weeks by open field, elevated plus maze, light-dark transition task and mirrored maze.The results showed that, BPA reduced the number of open arm entries and the time spent in open arms in the elevated plus maze of males but increased those of females.These results suggested a BPA-induced enhancement of anxiety-like behavior in males and an anxiolytic effect of BPA in females.Furthermore, BPA (0.04~4 mg/(kg· d)) significantly decreased serum and brain levels of testosterone in males, but no significant influence was found in serum and brain levels of

  7. Bateria Psicológica para Avaliação da Atenção (BPA: desempenho de diferentes faixas etárias Batería Psicológica para Evaluación de la Atención (BPA: desempeño de distintos rangos etarios Psychological Battery for Attention Assessment (BPA: performance of different age groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Javier Marín Rueda

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi analisar o desempenho atencional em diferentes momentos da vida. Participaram 1.759 pessoas, de ambos os sexos, e com idades variando de 6 até 82 anos. O instrumento utilizado foi a Bateria Psicológica para Avaliação da Atenção (BPA, composta pelos testes de Atenção Concentrada, Atenção Dividida e Atenção Alternada. Os resultados estão de acordo com o apontado pela literatura ao relacionar a atenção com as diferentes etapas do desenvolvimento. Nesse sentido, observou-se que houve um aumento de desempenho até o início da vida adulta, com um leve decréscimo a partir dos 30 anos, que fica mais evidente a partir dos 50 anos. Ainda, a ANOVA permitiu identificar seis faixas etárias que se diferenciaram claramente. Por fim, identificou-se que o desempenho em atenção dividida é inferior aos outros tipos de atenção. Sugerem-se novos estudos que permitam identificar e diferenciar um maior número de idades.El objetivo del estudio fue analizar la capacidad de atención en diferentes momentos de la vida. Participaron 1.759 personas, de ambos sexos, y con edades de 6 hasta 82 años. El instrumento utilizado fue la Batería Psicológica para Evaluación de la Atención (BPA, compuesta por los testes de Atención Concentrada, Atención Dividida y Atención Alternada. Los resultados están de acuerdo con lo mencionado por la literatura al relacionar la atención con las distintas etapas del desarrollo. En ese sentido, se observó que hubo un aumento en el desempeño hasta el inicio de la vida adulta, con una pequeña disminución a partir de los 30 años, que se queda más evidente a partir de los 50 años. Además, el ANOVA permitió identificar seis rangos etarios que se diferencian claramente. Finalmente, se identificó que el desempeño en atención dividida es inferior a los otros tipos de atención. Se sugieren nuevos estudios que permitan identificar y diferenciar un mayor número de edades.This study

  8. Electronic and chemical structure of an organic light emitter embedded in an inorganic wide-bandgap semiconductor: Photoelectron spectroscopy of layered and composite structures of Ir(BPA) and ZnSe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimamay, Mariel [Institute of Materials Science, Darmstadt University of Technology, Alarich-Weiss-Strasse 2, D-64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Laboratoire de Chimie des Polymères Organiques, CNRS, Université de Bordeaux, UMR 5629-16 Avenue Pey-Berland, 33607 Pessac (France); Mayer, Thomas; Jaegermann, Wolfram [Institute of Materials Science, Darmstadt University of Technology, Alarich-Weiss-Strasse 2, D-64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Hadziioannou, Georges [Laboratoire de Chimie des Polymères Organiques, CNRS, Université de Bordeaux, UMR 5629-16 Avenue Pey-Berland, 33607 Pessac (France)

    2015-05-07

    Luminescent organic phases embedded in conductive inorganic matrices are proposed for hybrid organic-inorganic light-emitting diodes. In this configuration, the organic dye acts as the radiative recombination site for charge carriers injected into the inorganic matrix. Our investigation is aimed at finding a material combination where the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of the organic dye are situated in between the valence and conduction bands of the inorganic matrix in order to promote electron and hole transfer from the matrix to the dye. Bilayer and composite thin films of zinc selenide (ZnSe) and a red iridium complex (Ir(BPA)) organic light emitter were prepared in situ via UHV thermal evaporation technique. The electronic and atomic structures were studied applying X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopies. The measured energy band alignments for the ZnSe/Ir(BPA) bilayer and ZnSe+Ir(BPA) composite reveal that the HOMO and LUMO of the organic dye are positioned in the ZnSe bandgap. For the initial steps of ZnSe deposition on a dye film to form Ir(BPA)/ZnSe bilayers, zinc atoms intercalate into the dye film leaving behind an excess of selenium at the interface that partly reacts with dye molecules. Photoelectron spectroscopy of the composites shows the same species suggesting a similar mechanism. This mechanism leads to composite films with increased content of amorphous phases in the inorganic matrix, thereby affecting its conductivity, as well as to the presence of nonradiative recombination sites provided by the intercalated Zn atoms.

  9. Electronic and chemical structure of an organic light emitter embedded in an inorganic wide-bandgap semiconductor: Photoelectron spectroscopy of layered and composite structures of Ir(BPA) and ZnSe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimamay, Mariel; Mayer, Thomas; Hadziioannou, Georges; Jaegermann, Wolfram

    2015-05-01

    Luminescent organic phases embedded in conductive inorganic matrices are proposed for hybrid organic-inorganic light-emitting diodes. In this configuration, the organic dye acts as the radiative recombination site for charge carriers injected into the inorganic matrix. Our investigation is aimed at finding a material combination where the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of the organic dye are situated in between the valence and conduction bands of the inorganic matrix in order to promote electron and hole transfer from the matrix to the dye. Bilayer and composite thin films of zinc selenide (ZnSe) and a red iridium complex (Ir(BPA)) organic light emitter were prepared in situ via UHV thermal evaporation technique. The electronic and atomic structures were studied applying X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopies. The measured energy band alignments for the ZnSe/Ir(BPA) bilayer and ZnSe+Ir(BPA) composite reveal that the HOMO and LUMO of the organic dye are positioned in the ZnSe bandgap. For the initial steps of ZnSe deposition on a dye film to form Ir(BPA)/ZnSe bilayers, zinc atoms intercalate into the dye film leaving behind an excess of selenium at the interface that partly reacts with dye molecules. Photoelectron spectroscopy of the composites shows the same species suggesting a similar mechanism. This mechanism leads to composite films with increased content of amorphous phases in the inorganic matrix, thereby affecting its conductivity, as well as to the presence of nonradiative recombination sites provided by the intercalated Zn atoms.

  10. The potential of bacteriophage cocktail in eliminating Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus biofilms in terms of different extracellular matrices expressed by PIA, ciaA-D and FnBPA genes

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulamir, Ahmed Sahib; Jassim, Sabah A. A.; Hafidh, Rand R; Bakar, Fatimah Abu

    2015-01-01

    Background This study assessed novel approach of using highly lytic phages against methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) biofilms with and without biofilm extracellular matrix- disrupting chemical. Method The resultant phage-based control was assessed in relation to the type of biofilm extracellular matrix namely, polysaccharide intercellular adhesion (PIA) or proteinacious fibronectin-binding protein A (FnBPA). The biofilm...

  11. Effects of organic acids and initial solution pH on photocatalytic degradation of bisphenol A (BPA) in a photo-Fenton-like process using goethite (α-FeOOH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangshan; Wang, Qiao; Zhang, Wen; Li, Tian; Yuan, Yixing; Wang, Peng

    2016-08-01

    This work investigated the effects of organic acids and initial solution pH on the photodegradation of BPA in a photo-Fenton-like process using α-FeOOH as a catalyst. The results showed that the addition of different organic acids affected the formation of the ferric-carboxylate complexes and free radicals, which in turn varied the photodegradation efficacy. Compared with the other acids, oxalic acid (OA) was found to be the most effective in enhancing the photodegradation of BPA, which strongly depends on the OA concentration. Particularly, the addition of OA could significantly extend the working pH from an acidic to a neutral range for the photocatalytic process and thus the acidification pretreatment may not be needed. A high photocatalytic degradation of BPA occurred at pH 6.0, due to the formation of ferric-oxalate complexes and ˙OH radicals in the synergistic interactions of OA and α-FeOOH. This finding highlights that the oxalate-promoted photo-Fenton-like process using the α-FeOOH catalyst may be used for wastewater treatment without pH adjustment. PMID:27436621

  12. 基于BPA的短路电流计算模式研究%Research on calculation mode of short-circuit current based on BPA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶圣永; 程超; 唐权; 戴松灵; 朱国俊

    2015-01-01

    BPA short-circuit current calculation software is widely used in China, however, with the same source data its calculation result differs under different calculation conditions or with different methods and thus affects power grid planning and decision-making. With consideration of current calculation standards for short-circuit current, different assumptions for node operating voltage in different calculation methods are analyzed, the diferences of line charging power and load model construction with different calculation modes are analyzed, and the resulting differences of short circuit impedance and current calculation are discussed. Using improved New England 39 bus system and Sichuan power grid planning architecture in 2020 as examples, short-circuit current calculation results under different calculation conditions and with different methods based on BPA are compared to verify the variation of the theoretical analysis. Finally, some suggestions for the choice of short-circuit current standards are made.%BPA程序应用于计算短路电流时采取不同的计算方法、计算模式,将导致结果存在较大差异,影响电网规划决策.结合国内现行的短路电流计算标准,分析了在不同计算方法中对节点运行电压的不同假定,以及不同计算模式下线路充电功率和负荷模型构建的区别,讨论了由此引起的短路阻抗、短路电流计算差异.以新英格兰10机39节点改进测试系统和四川电网2020年规划网架进行三相短路电流仿真研究,分析比较基于BPA的不同计算方法、计算模式下短路电流值,提出了理论分析结果,建议了适合四川电网规划的短路电流计算模式.

  13. 基于BPA的电网暂态稳定性概率评估%Probabilistic Transient Stability Assessment of Power System Based on BPA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈浩; 张焰; 房鑫炎

    2007-01-01

    以研究电网暂态稳定性为目的,应用概率性方法进行分析计算,并以此来评估电网的暂态稳定情况,主要考虑了两个因素:电网故障的随机性和电力负荷变化的随机性,并在此基础上提出了用于评估电网暂态稳定性的概率指标,同时利用VC++灵活便捷的控制语言以及BPA(Bonneville Power Administration)软件计算暂态稳定的快速准确性,研究了适用于大型复杂电网暂态稳定性概率评估的接口技术,通过该接口技术希望能够大大地减少计算分析的时间.最后,通过对IEEE-9节点网络以及我国华东某地区2010年220kV规划电网进行分析计算,验证了所提方法的有效性同时证明了速度可以得到大大地减少.

  14. Process State Estimation Algorithm Based on State BPA Discount Factor%基于状态BPA折扣因子的过程状态估计算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周理; 刘琰

    2014-01-01

    为了提高过程控制系统中的状态估计精度,提出一种基于状态BPA(basic probability assignment)折扣因子的过程状态估计算法.首先,改进了状态BPA函数,引入元知识对证据信任度进行重新分配;然后为了设计重新分配的规则,定义了状态BPA折扣因子,该因子能够让证据距离达到最小;最后基于新提出的状态BPA折扣因子设计过程状态估计算法.对一个精密零件注射成型的过程监控进行仿真实验,结果表明:该算法可以有效消除测量不确定性对状态估计的影响,提高状态估计精度.

  15. 基于BPA与OPF的电网无功优化研究%Study on reactive power optimization based on BPA and OPF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔任慧; 张栩

    2012-01-01

    对电网主网无功优化中的补偿容量进行了研究,通过对无功优化的算法进行分析比较,最终决定运用遗传算法进行无功优化,并结合某省电网的主网的实际数据,使用BPA潮流计算程序以及OPF无功优化程序进行无功优化的计算,确定了补偿设备的补偿容量,对优化效益进行了分析。%This paper studied the reactive compensation capacity of reactive power optimization for the main network grid, and compared some algorithm of reactive power optimization, finally decided to use genetic algorithm to accomplish reactive power optimization. Got the actual data of the main network grid, the paper used power flow calculation software BPA and reactive power optimization procedures OPF to do the calculation of reactive power optimization. The compensation capacity of the compensation devices was determined, and optimization performance was analyzed.

  16. 基于BPA对配电网无功优化的研究%Study on Reactive Power Optimization of Distribution Networks in View of BPA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张磊; 任惠; 胡文平; 金超; 滕卫军

    2011-01-01

    对配电网无功优化中的补偿设备安装位置和补偿容量进行了研究,首先介绍了无功功率补偿的原则和方法,然后对配电网4种补偿方案进行了详细分析和对比,认为:对功率因数较低的变电站及线路应采用配电线路固定补偿方案.以河北南网某县级电网为算例,使用潮流计算软件BPA(Bonneville Power Administration)无功优化模块以及配电线路无功优化常用的"三分之二法则"进行无功优化的计算,确定了补偿设备的安装位置和补偿容量,对优化效益进行了分析.最后,给出了配电网无功优化的合理建议.

  17. Effects of BPA and NP on respiratory metabolism and antioxidant enzymes in Asian calm%双酚A和壬基酚对河蚬呼吸代谢和抗氧化酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾丽璇; 张悦君; 康园; 张秋云

    2014-01-01

    为了研究双酚A(Bisphenol A,BPA)和壬基酚(Nonylphenol,NP)对河蚬(Corbicula fluminea)呼吸代谢能力和抗氧化酶活性的影响,探讨BPA和NP对河蚬的毒性作用。以河蚬为受试生物,采用半静态染毒法,研究了BPA和NP对河蚬的单一毒性等级、联合毒性作用类型和对河蚬耗氧率、排氨率以及抗氧化酶系统中SOD、CAT活性的影响。结果显示:① BPA、NP对河蚬的半致死质量浓度(96 h-LC50)分别为6.34和1.09 mg·L-1,毒性顺序为NP>BPA,二者均为高毒物质;② BPA-NP对河蚬毒性作用类型为协同作用;③亚急性毒性指标耗氧率、排氨率以及超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)对BPA、NP及二者混合物均比较敏感,在本试验的质量浓度范围内(BPA:0.63、0.79、1.59、3.17 mg·L-1;NP:0.109、0.136、0.271、0.542 mg·L-1;BPA+NP:(0.0782+0.029)、(0.0978+0.0363)、(0.196+0.0725)、(0.391+0.145) mg·L-1),河蚬耗氧率、排氨率以及两种酶活性变化均呈现先下降后上升再下降的趋势,其中在BPA、NP和二者混合物的质量浓度较低时,河蚬的耗氧率和排氨率、SOD和CAT活性只有微小降低,随着质量浓度的升高,河蚬耗氧率和排氨率、两个酶活性相对均有所升高,而在质量浓度极高时其耗氧率和排氨率以及两个酶活性才又受到显著性或极显著性的抑制。实验结果显示河蚬耗氧率、排氨率和SOD、CAT活性对水体中酚类内分泌干扰物反应敏感,具有较好的一致性和规律性,耗氧率、排氨率和SOD、CAT活性与其他敏感性指标一起可以作为酚类内分泌干扰物污染的一项早期监测指标。%In the present study, the effect of BPA and NP on respiratory metabolism and antioxidant enzymes in Asian clam (Corbicula fluminea) including oxygen consumption rate (OCR), the ammonia excretory rate (AER), and the activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD) and

  18. 应用于EMS高级应用系统的BPA程序快速调用方法与接口设计%An interface applied on advanced application system in EMS for calling BPA transient calculation program quickly and effectively

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭文鑫; 余志文; 赵峰; 孙宏斌; 郭庆来

    2014-01-01

    There are several shortcomings, such as poor succession and low efficiency, when BPA transient calculation program is called by some advanced application systems in EMS through tradition interface. In order to solve these shortcomings, an interface designed for calling BPA transient calculation program quickly and effectively is proposed. Through setting unified BPA transient calculation program interface file interaction standard, the shortcoming of poor succession is solved. According to the features of the advanced application systems in EMS, a method to call the BPA transient calculation program quickly and effectively is designed to call the BPA interface more quickly and effectively. A test case is done in Guangdong Power Grid of China to call the BPA transient calculation program interface using the fine operational rules online automatic discovery system. The results show that the designed interface for calling BPA transient calculation program has good succession and high efficiency, can call the BPA transient calculation program more quickly and effectively.%针对电网EMS系统中各个高级应用模块在调用BPA暂态计算程序时出现的接口程序继承性差、接口程序调用效率低下的不足,提出了一种快速有效调用BPA暂态计算程序的接口设计方法。通过设定统一的BPA暂态计算程序接口调用模式和文件交互标准,解决了BPA暂态计算程序接口继承性差的问题。同时,根据EMS高级应用调用BPA暂态计算程序的特点,设计了一种快速调用BPA暂态计算程序的接口设计方法,实现了BPA暂态计算程序的快速调用。利用精细规则自动发现系统在广东省电网调用BPA暂态计算程序的算例测试表明:该接口程序能够提供继承性强的BPA暂态计算程序的接口程序,并且可以实现BPA暂态计算程序的快速调用。

  19. Spectroscopy, thermal and structural studies of new Zn II coordination polymer, [Zn 3(μ-bpa) 4.5(AcO) 3](ClO 4) 3·4.26H 2O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Maryam Ghoreishi; Morsali, Ali; Hunter, Allen D.; Zeller, Matthias

    2007-11-01

    Three Zn II coordination polymers with acetate and perchlorate anions, [Zn 3(μ-bpa) 4.5(AcO) 3](ClO 4) 3·4.26H 2O ( 1), [Zn 2(μ-bpe) 3(AcO) 2](ClO 4) 2 ( 2) and [Zn 2(bpe)(AcO) 4] ( 3), bpa = 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethane and bpe = 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethene, have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1H NMR, and 13C NMR spectroscopies, and the structure of compound 1 was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The thermal stabilities of compounds 1- 3 were studied by thermal gravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analyses (DTA). The structural studies of compound 1 show that the structure may be considered as a three-dimensional coordination polymer of zinc(II) with large voids filled with disordered water molecules. The stability of the porous networks after removal of the guest water molecules is confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction.

  20. BPA向PSS/E的数据转换及暂态稳定比较研究%Data Conversion and Transient Stability Analysis between BPA and PSS/E

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张松涛; 宁庆; 曹国云

    2013-01-01

    BPA and PSS/E are both electromechanical transient simulation softwares,which are similar in transient and steady models.Based on analysis and comparison of these models,this paper proposed a detailed method to change BPA data into PSS/E format and checked the accuracy through an AC-DC system simulation test.The result of simulation comparison shows that power flow and dynamic simulation result is barely the same,so the data conversion is successful.%BPA和PSS/E均为机电暂态仿真软件,两者潮流数据和暂态模型具有较好的相似性,在对BPA和PSS/E两种仿真软件的暂稳态数学模型分析和比较的基础上,提出了BPA向PSS/E数据转换的详细方法,并通过某交直流系统进行仿真测试,对潮流计算结果和稳定计算结果进行了对比分析,仿真结果表明两者潮流基本一致,暂态仿真结果相似,暂稳态过程基本吻合,表明BPA数据可以准确的转换为PSS/E数据,实现数据共享.

  1. Study on Power System Under-Voltage Load Shedding Based on BPA%基于BPA的电力系统低压减载的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    迟震奎; 崔伟清; 韩金铜

    2011-01-01

    As a third defense line of the power system, the UVLS under-voltage load shedding is an important strategy to maintain the stable and economical operation of the power system, and to guarantee the power supply quality. Therefore, according to the practical engineering requirements, on the basis of analyzing the software BPA and the information of research results acquired both at home and abroad, this paper presents a method to determine the volume of the UVLS for dispersed-type of UVLS. The voltage-variation of the reactive power of a power grid is determined by using the continuous power flow algorithm, and then the configuration is verified with the time -domain simulation analysis. Taking the data of the peak time in the south grid of Hebei province in the summer of 2007 as an example, this paper demonstrates that the current methods can serve as informative references for future projects.%低压减载作为电力系统的第三道防线,是维持电力系统安全稳定和经济运行,并保证电能质量的重要措施.依工程实际需求,在电力系统分析软件BPA的基础上,参考国内外现有研究成果,针对分散型低压减载方案,提出基于电压-无功灵敏度减负荷的方法确定低压减载量.采用连续潮流算法,确定薄弱区域的电压-无功灵敏度,最后通过时域仿真分析对所配置的方案进行校验.以河北南网2007年夏季高峰数据为例,验证了该方法具有很好的工程参考价值.

  2. Synthesis and Biodistribution of BPA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is based on the nuclear reaction that occurs when 10B is irradiated with low-energy thermal neutrons to yield high linear energy transfer α particles and recoiling

  3. Sustainability at BPA May 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-05-01

    BPA’s approach to sustainability is built on the agency’s foundation of environmental stewardship partnered with its commitment to operational excellence. Around the world today, sustainable business practices are driving innovation, opening opportunities for resource and cost efficiencies, as well as increasing employee engagement and productivity. Business jumped on the bandwagon early finding that sustainability can be an important component of their company’s competitive advantage. A 2010 survey by the United Nations Global Compact/Accenture of 766 CEOs from around the globe found that, despite the economic downturn, 93 percent of the CEOs surveyed see sustainability as critical to their company’s future success. Calling on the federal government to “lead by example,” President Barack Obama issued Executive Order 13514 in October 2009 to green the government by improving “environmental, energy and economic performance.”

  4. BPA Committed to Northwest Values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-09-01

    The Columbia River has been called the “crown jewel” of the Pacific Northwest. There is no question it is among the region’s greatest assets — supplying low-cost clean hydropower, making deserts bloom thanks to irrigation and providing navigation, recreation and a home for many species of fish and wildlife. The Bonneville Power Administration is proud to be a steward of this great resource. Our mission is to serve the people and environment of the Pacific Northwest. We sell wholesale power from Grand Coulee Dam and 30 other Northwest federal dams to Northwest utilities, including public utility districts, rural electric cooperatives and municipal utility departments, as well as investor-owned utilities. We operate three-fourths of the region’s high voltage transmission system that delivers that power. But, as a federal agency, we are not just a power marketer. We have public responsibilities that include, among many, promoting energy efficiency, facilitating development of renewable power, protecting fish and wildlife affected by hydro development, honoring treaty obligations to tribes and promoting a reliable energy future through collaboration and partnerships. This document describes our responsibilities to citizens in the Pacific Northwest.

  5. Desorption of Bisphenol A and Regeneration of BPA-spent Granular Activated Carbon%BPA的解吸特征与颗粒活性炭的再生研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周超

    2015-01-01

    应用超纯水对吸附有双酚A(BPA)的颗粒活性炭(GAC)进行解吸试验,并考察超声和有机溶剂对饱和GAC的再生效果.结果表明,单独超纯水解吸,拟二级解吸动力学模型可较好地描述水中BPA浓度随时间的变化规律,不同温度下的解吸速率常数kd2与温度的关系符合Arrhenius公式,活化能Ea为-56.47 kJ/mol;在20 kHz的超声作用下,BPA解吸速率明显提高,且随超声功率的增大而明显加快;拟二级解吸动力学模型也能较好地描述有机溶剂对BPA的解吸规律,乙腈对BPA的解吸效果明显好于甲醇和乙醇,400 min可使饱和炭中80.1%的BPA解吸;甲醇水溶液可有效解吸BPA,且解吸效果随甲醇含量的增大而提高,但当甲醇含量由75%上升到100%时,BPA解吸效果提高幅度有限;超声与甲醇溶液联用对GAC再生会产生协同作用,促进BPA解吸,且解吸速率随超声功率的增加而增大.

  6. Simultaneous photoprocess of hexavalent chromium and BPA in ferric-lactate system%高价铬及双酚A在铁-乳酸体系中的同时光处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁世敏; 谭俊; 封享华

    2010-01-01

    研究了Fe(Ⅲ).乳酸配合物体系同时对Cr(Ⅵ)的光还原及双酚A(BPA)的光氧化处理,考察了光源、初始pH值、Fe(Ⅲ)、乳酸盐、Cr(Ⅵ)及BPA初始浓度等因素对Cr(Ⅵ)及BPA光处理效率的影响.结果表明:光照条件下,铁-乳酸配合物能有效实现对六价铬及BPA的同时光处理.同一体系中,Cr(Ⅵ)的光还原快于BPA的光氧化,Fe(Ⅲ)初始浓度的增加町同时提高Cr(Ⅵ)的光还原效率和BPA的光氧化效率;Fe(Ⅲ)一乳酸盐配合物光解产生的Fe(Ⅱ)是Cr(Ⅵ)的主要还原剂,其次级光反应中产生的·OH是BPA的氧化剂.

  7. Effect of BPA on the Soluble Protein Content of Soybean Root%BPA对大豆幼苗根系可溶性蛋白含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜宇萍; 王丽红; 周青

    2012-01-01

    双酚A (Bisphenol A,BPA)是酚类化合物中具有代表性的环境污染物之一,在土壤中残留比较普遍.文献调研显示,BPA对动物的毒理学作用已有报道.相比之下,BPA对植物生长发育,以及生理生态影响的实验较少.因此,研究BPA对植物的影响具有重要理论价值和现实意义.在植物细胞中,蛋白质是其重要的结构与功能物质.现经证明,蛋白质代谢受旱涝、高(低)温等生长条件或污染、盐渍及紫外辐射逆境胁迫等多种因素影响.

  8. Effect of BBP, DBP, BPA and NP on Gonadal Development of Chicken Embryos%BBP、DBP、BPA、NP对鸡胚胎生殖腺发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周敏; 前田照夫; 朱玉芳; 崔勇华

    2010-01-01

    雌性荷尔蒙已烯雌酚(Diethylstilbestrol,DES)可以导致鸡受精卵雌性化,为了明确环境荷尔蒙疑似物邻苯二甲酸丁酯苯甲酯(Butyl benzyl phthalate,BBP)、邻苯二甲酸二丁酯(Dibutyl phthalate,DBP)、双酚A(Bisphenol A,BPA)、壬基酚(Nonyl Phenol,NP)是否和DES一样具有雌性荷尔蒙的作用,本研究以不同浓发的BBP、DBP、BPA、NP注射到鸡的受精卵内,观察生殖腺的发育及其受到的影响.结果 表明:BBP导致雌性雏鸡的生殖腺重量显著增加;DBP、BPA、NP对鸟类生殖腺的发育没有显著影响;BBP、DBP、BPA、NP没有出现与DES类似的雌化现象;不能引起雄性个体的雌性化.

  9. 一种基于BPA数据的静态安全最优校正分析方法%A Method of Static Security Analysis and Correction Based on BPA Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏维波; 冯彦维; 阳育德

    2014-01-01

    Static security correction is an important measure to ensure the safe and stable operation of power system and plays vital guiding role for drawing-up of operation modes and planning and construction of the system. This paper presents a preventive static security correction method which is based on BPA data format,combining the modern Interior Point Theory and Compensation Method to meet the requirements of the N-1 security rule. The results of testing it in the real power grid show that this method can filter out N-1 faults quickly and accurately and give the reasonable operation mode. Consequently,it can eliminate possible contingences which do not meet the N-1 rules and improve the system’s security and stability.%电力系统静态安全分析是保证系统安全稳定运行的重要措施,对电力系统运行方式的制定以及系统的规划建设具有重要的指导作用。提出了一种基于BPA格式数据,采用现代内点理论并结合补偿法进行校正计算,满足N-1安全准则的静态安全最优预防校正控制方法。通过在实际电网中进行测试表明,该方法可以快速准确地筛选出系统的N-1故障,给出合理的系统运行方式,消除不满足N-1安全准则的预想事故,提高电力系统的静态安全稳定性。

  10. 基于PSD-BPA的县级电网无功优化分析%Analysis on reactive power optimization of county power grid in view of PSD-BPA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张一新

    2014-01-01

    文章主要介绍了利用PSD-BPA潮流计算软件进行县级电网潮流计算的方法、步骤及进行县级电网潮流计算结果优化调整的一些具体措施;并以横县电网为例,介绍了县级电网无功优化结果对县级电网规划建设的重要作用。除此之外,文章还简单的介绍了进行县级电网潮流计算的方法、步骤和进行县级电网规划建设的原则、方法和步骤,以期能为有关部门进行县级电网的无功优化和规划建设提供一定的参考。%This paper main introduces the trend of the PSD-of BPA calculation software for the county-level power flow calculation method, the steps and county power flow calculation results to optimize the adjustment of some specific measures;and Hengxian grid, for example, describes the county power optimization results of the analysis to the important role of the planning and construction of county power. In addition, a brief introduction to county-level power flow calculation method steps and principles, methods and steps of the planning and construction of county power, in order for the relevant departments at the county level reactive power optimization and planning construction to provide some reference.

  11. Experimental study on BPA uptake of C6, BT-325 and SHG-44 glioma cell lines%胶质瘤细胞系摄取BPA实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹锐峰; 章翔; 陈伟; 江新标; 姬西团; 王西玲; 梁景文

    2003-01-01

    目的探讨孵育时间和细胞周期对胶质瘤细胞摄取BPA(p-boronophenylalanine)的影响,进一步阐明BPA的胶质瘤细胞选择性作用机制.方法将C6,BT-325,SHG-44胶质瘤细胞和原代大鼠星形胶质细胞培养在含BPA的培养液中,分别培养4 h、8 h、12 h、16 h、20 h和24 h后,采用感应耦合等离子体原子发射光谱(ICP-AES)法测定细胞内硼的含量.培养24 h后,流式细胞仪分选Go/G1和G2/M期的细胞,ICP-AES法分别测定细胞内硼的水平.结果三种胶质瘤细胞在每个检测时间点的细胞内硼含量均显著高于对照组胶质细胞(P<0.01).三种胶质瘤细胞G2/M期与Go/G1期相比硼含量均明显增高(P<0.05),而星形胶质细胞两期差异不明显.C6、SHG-44和BT-325与星形胶质细胞Go/G1期的硼浓度比分别为1.46、1.51和1.40,G2/M期的硼浓度比分别为3.65、3.96和3.76.结论有丝分裂的过程可以加强胶质瘤对BPA的吸收,这一过程可能与胶质瘤细胞对BPA的主动运输有关.主动运输可能是BPA对胶质瘤选择性作用的基础.

  12. 一种双酚A型环氧树脂固砂性能的室内研究%Indoors Laboratory Study on Chemical Sand Consolidation of A Kind of BPA Epoxy Resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚俊波; 向兴金; 舒福昌; 林科雄; 罗刚; 李玉光; 王珊

    2013-01-01

    针对油井在生产过程中的出砂问题,选取了一种双酚A型环氧树脂ER1用于化学固砂实验,研究了其化学式及主要反应机理,并在室内测试了ER1固砂体系的性能.结果表明,在60℃下选用40~80目干燥石英砂、固化剂GN加量为1.2%、ER1树脂加量为4.5%、偶联剂KH550加量为0.2%、固化时间为24 h的条件下,散砂固结体的抗压强度为12.3 MPa,空气渗透率为12.9 md,煤油渗透率为4.1 md.固结体样品能够抵抗地层水、泥质等的混入,有较好的耐酸碱等介质的能力,在大流量长时间水的冲刷下没有散砂被冲出.%In order to solve the problem of sand production which most oil wells face,ERl ,a BPA epoxy resin, has been chosen for chemical consolidation experiment,the chemical formula and main reaction mechanism of this resin has been studied. And the performance of ER1 consolidation systems are determined indoors. When the consolidation body for dry quartz sand of 40~80 mesh is obtained at 60 'C under the optimum consolidation conditions as follows;amount of consolidation agent GN of 1. 2%,amount of resin ER1 of 4. 5%,amount of coupling agent KH550 of 0. 2%,consolidation time of 24 h,its compressive strength,permeability to gas,permeability to kerosene is 12. 3 MPa,12. 9 md,4. 1 md,respectively. And the consolidation body sample can tolerate formation water and clay to some degree,and has a good resistance to acid and alkali. There is no friable sand washed out after large flow and long time water scouring.

  13. Prenatal Exposure to BPA and Offspring Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Alonso-Magdalena

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM are the most common metabolic disorders, with prevalence rates that are reaching epidemic proportions. Both are complex conditions affecting virtually all ages and with serious health consequences. The underlying cause of the problem is still puzzling, but both genetic and environmental factors including unhealthy diet, sedentary lifestyle, or the exposure to some environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs are thought to have a causal influence. In addition, the impact of early environment has recently emerged as an important factor responsible for the increased propensity to develop adult-onset metabolic disease. Suboptimal maternal nutrition during critical windows in fetal development is the most commonly studied factor affecting early programming of obesity and T2DM. In recent years, increasing experimental evidence shows that exposure to EDCs could also account for this phenomenon. In the present review, we will overview the most relevant findings that confirm the critical role of bisphenol-A, one of the most widespread EDCs, in the development of metabolic disorders.

  14. Prenatal Exposure to BPA and Offspring Outcomes: The Diabesogenic Behavior of BPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Magdalena, Paloma; Quesada, Iván; Nadal, Ángel

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are the most common metabolic disorders, with prevalence rates that are reaching epidemic proportions. Both are complex conditions affecting virtually all ages and with serious health consequences. The underlying cause of the problem is still puzzling, but both genetic and environmental factors including unhealthy diet, sedentary lifestyle, or the exposure to some environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are thought to have a causal influence. In addition, the impact of early environment has recently emerged as an important factor responsible for the increased propensity to develop adult-onset metabolic disease. Suboptimal maternal nutrition during critical windows in fetal development is the most commonly studied factor affecting early programming of obesity and T2DM. In recent years, increasing experimental evidence shows that exposure to EDCs could also account for this phenomenon. In the present review, we will overview the most relevant findings that confirm the critical role of bisphenol-A, one of the most widespread EDCs, in the development of metabolic disorders. PMID:26676280

  15. Effects of DEHP and BPA exposure in combination on cell activity in rat testis Leydig cells in vitro%邻苯二甲酸酯和双酚A联合暴露对大鼠睾丸间质细胞活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻道军; 段志文; 宋曼铜; 马明月; 张玉敏; 张岩野; 裴秀丛

    2015-01-01

    目的 研究环境内分泌污染物邻苯二甲酸二(2-乙基)己酯(DEHP)和双酚A(BPA)对原代大鼠睾丸间质细胞活性的影响.方法 采用酶消化与贴壁法相结合提取大鼠睾丸间质细胞,分别暴露于终浓度0(对照)、1、10、100、1 000 μmol/L的DEHP和(或)BPA溶液24 h.采用CCK8法检测细胞活性.结果 与对照组比较,100、1 000μmol/L的DEHP暴露组和10、100、1 000 μmol/L BPA暴露组及各浓度DEHP+BPA联合暴露组大鼠睾丸间质细胞的抑制率均较高,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);且随着DEHP和(或)BPA暴露浓度的升高,大鼠睾丸间质细胞的抑制率均呈上升趋势.与相同浓度DEHP+BPA联合暴露组比较,1、1 000 μmol/L的DEHP暴露组大鼠睾丸间质细胞的抑制率较低,1 000 μmol/L的BPA暴露组大鼠睾丸间质细胞的抑制率较高,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).1 μmol/L的DEHP与BPA联合暴露对细胞活性抑制表现为协同作用,1 000 μmol/L的DEHP与BPA联合暴露表现为拮抗作用,10和100 μmol/L的DEHP与BPA联合暴露对抑制细胞活性未表现出交互作用.结论 DEHP和BPA均能显著影响睾丸间质细胞活性,且以BPA作用更加明显;低剂量(1 μmol/L)的DEHP和BPA联合作用为协同效应,高剂量(1 000 μmol/L)的DEHP和BPA联合作用为拮抗效应.

  16. 食品罐头内涂层中的BPA,BADGE、NOGE、BFDGE及其衍生物的检测技术研究进展%The Development of Detection Technology of BPA, BADGE, NOGE, BFDGE and its Derivative in the Coating of Food Cannings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左莹; 禄春强; 沈霞; 秦紫明

    2012-01-01

    Reviewed the development of detection technology of BPA, BADGE, NOGE, BFDGE and its derivative in the coating of food cannings, including HPLC, LC-MS, Polarography, Spectrophotometry and Kinetic Luminesence, Flow Injection Chemiluminescence, MECC and its pre-treatment methods. Contrasted and evaluated the different methods.%综述了食品罐头内涂层中的有害物质BPA,BADGE,NOGE,BFDGETdc其衍生物的检测技术,其中包括液相色谱法、液质联用法、气质联用法、极谱法、分光光度法和动力学光度法、流动注射化学发光法、毛细管胶柬电动力学色谱法以及样品的前处理方法,并对不同的方法进行的对比和评价。

  17. Bisimilarity is not finitely based over BPA with interrupt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aceto, Luca; Fokkink, Wan; Ingolfsdottir, Anna;

    2005-01-01

    This paper shows that bisimulation equivalence does not afford a finite equational axiomatization over the language obtained by enriching Bergstra and Klop's Basic Process Algebra with the interrupt operator. Moreover, it is shown that the collection of closed equations over this language is also...

  18. Design of the BPA superconducting 30 MJ energy storage coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, E.; Alcorn, J.; Chen, W.; Hsu, Y.-H.; Purcell, J.; Schermer, R.

    1981-01-01

    The design of a superconducting magnetic energy storage coil is presented. The purpose of this coil is to stabilize low frequency power oscillations in long high voltage ac power lines. The practical application for this specific coil will be the installation in the Pacific intertie between Washington State and Los Angeles, California. The guiding principles of the design are performance, fabrication economy and reliability.

  19. Fe/AC非均相Fenton体系降解BPA%Degradation of BPA by heterogeneous Fenton-like action using active carbon-Fe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周丹; 王春晖; 赵永红

    2014-01-01

    采用常规浸渍法制备和超声浸渍法制备活性炭载铁催化剂,作为非均相Fenton反应的催化剂.采用电镜扫描和能谱分析对催化剂的形貌特性进行分析,以双酚A为目标降解物,考察催化剂的降解性能.结果表明,超声浸渍法制备的催化剂,活性组分含量高,在载体表面负载均匀,催化剂性能稳定.催化剂用量为2 g/L,H2O2浓度为0.06 mol/L,pH值为6的条件下,催化降解BPA的效率达90%.

  20. 1998 BPA habitat projects completed within the Asotin Creek Watershed, WA; Ridge-Top to Ridge-Top Habitat Projects; 1998 BPA Completion Report - November 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Asotin Creek Model Watershed Program (ACMWP) is the primary entity coordinating habitat projects on both private and public lands within the Asotin Creek watershed. The Asotin Creek watershed covers approximately 325 square miles in the Blue Mountains of southeastern Washington. Snake River spring chinook salmon, summer steelhead and bull trout, which are listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), are present in the watershed. The ACMWP began coordinating habitat projects in 1995. Approximately two hundred forty-six projects have been implemented through the ACMWP as of 1998. Fifty-nine of these projects were funded in part through Bonneville Power Administration's 1998 Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. These projects used a variety of methods to enhance and protect watershed conditions. In-stream work for fish habitat included construction of hard structures (e.g. vortex rock weirs), meander reconstruction, placement of large woody debris (LWD) and whole trees and improvements to off-channel rearing habitat; one hundred thirty-nine pools were created with these structures. Three miles of stream benefited from riparian improvements such as fencing, vegetative plantings, and noxious weed control. Two alternative water developments were completed, providing off-stream-watering sources for livestock. 20,500 ft of upland terrace construction, seven sediment basin construction, one hundred eighty-seven acres of grass seeding, eight hundred fifty acres of direct seeding and eighteen sediment basin cleanouts were implemented to reduce sediment production and delivery to streams in the watershed

  1. 1999 BPA habitat projects completed within the Asotin Creek Watershed, WA; Ridge-Top to Ridge-Top Habitat Projects; 1999 BPA Completion Report - January 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Asotin Creek Model Watershed Program (ACMWP) is the primary entity coordinating habitat projects on both private and public lands within the Asotin Creek watershed. The Asotin Creek watershed covers approximately 325 square miles in the Blue Mountains of southeastern Washington in WRIA 35. According to WDFW's Priority WRIA's by At-Risk Stock Significance Map, it is the highest priority in southeastern WA. Snake River spring chinook salmon, summer steelhead and bull trout, which are listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), are present in the watershed. The ACMWP began coordinating habitat projects in 1995. Approximately two hundred seventy-six projects have been implemented through the ACMWP as of 1999. Twenty of these projects were funded in part through Bonneville Power Administration's 1999 Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. These projects used a variety of methods to enhance and protect watershed conditions. In-stream work for fish habitat included construction of hard structures (e.g. vortex rock weirs), meander reconstruction, placement of large woody debris (LWD) and whole trees and improvements to off-channel rearing habitat; thirty-eight were created with these structures. Three miles of stream benefited from riparian improvements such as vegetative plantings (17,000 trees and shrubs) and noxious weed control. Two sediment basin constructions, 67 acres of grass seeding, and seven hundred forty-five acres of minimum till were implemented to reduce sediment production and delivery to streams in the watershed

  2. Concepts of Refinement and Simulation in BPA and B-Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štefan Hudák

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with theoretical fundamentals of integration of basic process algebra and B-Method. We concentrate on the concept ofrefinement of B-machines and show its relationship to simulation in basic process algebra. The theory is illustrated by a small example.

  3. The 30 MJ superconducting magnetic energy storage for BPA transmission line stabilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, J. D.

    1982-12-01

    The stability of the Western U.S. Power System is affected by the relative weakness of the electric transmission system connecting the Pacific Northwest and southern California. A 30 MJ (8.4 kWh) superconnecting magnetic energy storage unit with a 10 MW converter to provide system damping for low frequency oscillations is being installed to provide system damping for low frequency oscillations. The seismic mounting of the 30 MJ coil to the dewar lid is complete. Computer operation of the heat rejection trailer, high pressure gas recovery trailer, and converter is accomplished. The converter was operated with an inductive load with energy discharge through the protective dump circuit. Partial computer operation of the refrigerator was performed. The nonconducting dewar was built and tested.

  4. A treatment planning comparison of BPA- or BSH-based BNCT of malignant gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capala, J.; Coderre, J.A.; Chanana, A.D.

    1996-12-31

    Accurate delivery of the prescribed dose during clinical BNCT requires knowledge (or reasonably valid assumptions) about the boron concentrations in tumor and normal tissues. For conversion of physical dose (Gy) into photon-equivalent dose (Gy-Eq), relative biological effectiveness (RBE) and/or compound-adjusted biological effectiveness (CBE) factors are required for each tissue. The BNCT treatment planning software requires input of the following values: the boron concentration in blood and tumor, RBEs in brain, tumor and skin for the high-LET beam components, the CBE factors for brain, tumor, and skin, and the RBE for the gamma component.

  5. Uptake of the BPA into glioblastoma multiforme correlates with tumor cellularity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel, D.D.; Chanana, A.D.; Coderre, J.A. [and others

    1996-12-31

    Fourteen patients scheduled to undergo craniotomy for glioblastoma multiforme were infused with p-boronophenylalanine fructose intravenously for 2 hours prior to surgery. Tissues removed during the procedure and blood obtained at its conclusion were analyzed for boron by direct current plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy. The results are presented herein.

  6. Additive effect of BPA and Gd-DTPA for application in accelerator-based neutron source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, F; Yamamoto, T; Nakai, K; Zaboronok, A; Matsumura, A

    2015-12-01

    Because of its fast metabolism gadolinium as a commercial drug was not considered to be suitable for neutron capture therapy. We studied additive effect of gadolinium and boron co-administration using colony forming assay. As a result, the survival of tumor cells with additional 5 ppm of Gd-DTPA decreased to 1/10 compared to the cells with boron only. Using gadolinium to increase the effect of BNCT instead of additional X-ray irradiation might be beneficial, as such combination complies with the short-time irradiation regimen at the accelerator-based neutron source. PMID:26242560

  7. The 30-MJ superconducting magnetic energy storage for BPA transmission-line stabilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermer, R. I.

    The development of a 30 MJ (8.4 kWh) superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) unit with a 10 MW converter which can provide system damping for low frequency oscillations is described. The coil is complete and all major components of the electrical and cryogenic systems were received and are tested. Computer control hardware is in place and software development is proceeding. Support system components and dewar lid are fabricated and foundation design is complete.

  8. Radiological Assessment for the Removal of Legacy BPA Power Lines that Cross the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millsap, William J.; Brush, Daniel J.

    2013-11-13

    This paper discusses some radiological field monitoring and assessment methods used to assess the components of an old electrical power transmission line that ran across the Hanford Site between the production reactors area (100 Area) and the chemical processing area (200 Area). This task was complicated by the presence of radon daughters -- both beta and alpha emitters -- residing on the surfaces, particularly on the surfaces of weathered metals and metals that had been electrically-charged. In many cases, these activities were high compared to the DOE Surface Contamination Guidelines, which were used as guides for the assessment. These methods included the use of the Toulmin model of argument, represented using Toulmin diagrams, to represent the combined force of several strands of evidences, rather than a single measurement of activity, to demonstrate beyond a reasonable doubt that no or very little Hanford activity was present and mixed with the natural activity. A number of forms of evidence were used: the overall chance of Hanford contamination; measurements of removable activity, beta and alpha; 1-minute scaler counts of total surface activity, beta and alpha, using "background makers"; the beta activity to alpha activity ratios; measured contamination on nearby components; NaI gamma spectral measurements to compare uncontaminated and potentially-contaminated spectra, as well as measurements for the sentinel radionuclides, Am- 241 and Cs-137 on conducting wire; comparative statistical analyses; and in-situ measurements of alpha spectra on conducting wire showing that the alpha activity was natural Po-210, as well as to compare uncontaminated and potentially-contaminated spectra.

  9. Good Agricultural Practices program (Bpa):Laboratory linking services with the farmers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This program contributes to improve the quality of food and other products through: the environment and biodiversity protection, the soil and water pollution care and the rational use of agrochemical products.

  10. BPA/Lower Valley transmission project. Final environmental impact statement. Appendix F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonneville Power Administration is investigating the feasibility of constructing an additional transmission line, which for the most part will be adjacent to the existing transmission line. This would require the construction or acquisition of additional access roads, used for routine and emergency maintenance and construction activities. A survey was conducted to map any occurrences of threatened, endangered and sensitivity plant species and weed species along the Swan Valley-Teton Line. This report contains Appendix F

  11. Low Probability Tail Event Analysis and Mitigation in the BPA Control Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Shuai; Brothers, Alan J.; McKinstry, Craig A.; Jin, Shuangshuang; Makarov, Yuri V.

    2010-10-31

    This report investigated the uncertainties with the operations of the power system and their contributions to tail events, especially under high penetration of wind. A Bayesian network model is established to quantify the impact of these uncertainties on system imbalance. The framework is presented for a decision support tool, which can help system operators better estimate the need for balancing reserves and prepare for tail events.

  12. Radiological Assessment for the Removal of Legacy BPA Power Lines that Cross the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses some radiological field monitoring and assessment methods used to assess the components of an old electrical power transmission line that ran across the Hanford Site between the production reactors area (100 Area) and the chemical processing area (200 Area). This task was complicated by the presence of radon daughters -- both beta and alpha emitters -- residing on the surfaces, particularly on the surfaces of weathered metals and metals that had been electrically-charged. In many cases, these activities were high compared to the DOE Surface Contamination Guidelines, which were used as guides for the assessment. These methods included the use of the Toulmin model of argument, represented using Toulmin diagrams, to represent the combined force of several strands of evidences, rather than a single measurement of activity, to demonstrate beyond a reasonable doubt that no or very little Hanford activity was present and mixed with the natural activity. A number of forms of evidence were used: the overall chance of Hanford contamination; measurements of removable activity, beta and alpha; 1-minute scaler counts of total surface activity, beta and alpha, using 'background makers'; the beta activity to alpha activity ratios; measured contamination on nearby components; NaI gamma spectral measurements to compare uncontaminated and potentially-contaminated spectra, as well as measurements for the sentinel radionuclides, Am- 241 and Cs-137 on conducting wire; comparative statistical analyses; and in-situ measurements of alpha spectra on conducting wire showing that the alpha activity was natural Po-210, as well as to compare uncontaminated and potentially-contaminated spectra

  13. 双酚A(BPA)暴露对WHHL家兔糖类和脂类代谢的影响%The Effects of Bisphenol A (BPA) Exposure on the Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in WHHL Rabbit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方超; 宁博; 范江霖; 董四君

    2015-01-01

    为利用和人类更为接近的动物模型来研究在高脂血症条件下,BPA暴露是否能促进脂类和糖类代谢异常,并探索潜在的毒性效应机制,选取渡边可遗传高脂血症家兔(WHHL)模型,通过灌胃的方式将其暴露于400 μg·kg-1体重的BPA溶液长达12周.在持续暴露第8周,检测了在空腹状态下,家兔血浆中葡萄糖、胰岛素和脂肪含量的变化,并根据所得结果进行了静脉注射胰岛素耐受试验(IVTT).在暴露第12周,同样对空腹状态下,家兔血浆中的葡萄糖,胰岛素和脂肪含量进行了检测,并测量了血压和心率.然后,将所有的家兔进行解剖,通过苏木精-伊红(HE)及糖原(PAS)染色分别对心脏和肝脏部位的脂肪及糖原蓄积情况进行了病理学切片分析.同时,检测了肝脏中与脂类和糖类代谢相关基因在mRNA水平上的表达变化.结果显示,BPA暴露8周后促使WHHL家兔发生了胰岛素抵抗现象,导致第12周血糖及胰岛素含量升高,同时也促进了高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(L)L-C)及游离脂肪酸(NEFA)含量的上升.BPA暴露第12周,暴露组WHHL家兔的冠状动脉粥样硬化损伤程度未发生明显增加,但心肌细胞发生了肿胀,胞质中出现了脂肪的蓄积,同时伴随着心律失常.肝脏重量发生增加,肝细胞中同时出现了脂肪和糖原的蓄积现象,相关基因的表达发生了显著上调.研究结果表明,BPA持续暴露可促进WHHL家兔发生脂类和糖类代谢异常,其毒性效应机制可能和胰岛素抵抗及相关基因的异常表达有关.

  14. Suggestions about BPA data treatment%关于BPA数据整理的一些建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾元明; 杨君; 王阅峰

    2005-01-01

    电力系统模型和参数的准确性对电力系统分析的结果有很大的影响,涉及潮流计算、稳定计算、电压控制、无功管理、故障后的GOV潮流、AGC潮流和调度员潮流的准确性,从而也将进一步影响到方式和运行人员的决策.

  15. Surface analysis of BPA-polycarbonate/ poly(butylene terephthalate) blends by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrell, Michael C.; Chera, John J.

    1988-10-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is used to measure the surface composition of polycarbonate/ poly(butylene terephthalate) blends. The blend surface is enriched in PC compared to the bulk, with the surface PC/PBT ratio equal to about 1.6 times to bulk formation. For blends containing an impact modifier as a third component, the XPS spectra of the molded surface indicates that no impact modifier is present within the XPS sampling depth. A spectral simulation scheme improves the accuracy of the computed PC/PBT ratio over conventional data reduction schemes involving curve fitting.

  16. The Bisphenol A analogue Bisphenol S binds to K-Ras4B--implications for 'BPA-free' plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöpel, Miriam; Herrmann, Christian; Scherkenbeck, Jürgen; Stoll, Raphael

    2016-02-01

    K-Ras4B is a small GTPase that belongs to the Ras superfamily of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins. GTPases function as molecular switches in cells and are key players in intracellular signalling. Ras has been identified as an oncogene and is mutated in more than 20% of human cancers. Here, we report that Bisphenol S binds into a binding pocket of K-Ras4B previously identified for various low molecular weight compounds. Our results advocate for more comprehensive safety studies on the toxicity of Bisphenol S, as it is frequently used for Bisphenol A-free food containers. PMID:26867649

  17. Fuzzy Rulebase and Bpa Extracting Method for Distinguishing between Internal Fault and Inrush of 3-Phase Power Transformer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Tae; Lee, Seung Jae; Kang, Sang Hee; Choi, Myeon Song [Myongji University (Korea); Yoon, Sang Hyun; Lee, Tae Sung [Procom System (Korea)

    2001-07-01

    The four fuzzy criteria to distinguish the internal fault from the inrush for the power transformer protection have been identified. They are based on the wave shape, terminal voltage, fundamental and second harmonic component of differential current. A systematic way to determine the associated fuzzy membership function is also proposed. (author). 9 refs., 9 figs.

  18. 基于知识库的BPA二次开发%Secondary Development of BPA Programming Based on Knowledge Base

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鹏飞; 周志勇; 张航; 周挺辉; 严正

    2014-01-01

    对于现代电力系统,采用N-2原则进行电力系统稳定分析的难度不断地在加大,采用人工方式进行预想事故预演,即费时费力又容易产生遗漏.研究N-2安全稳定计算分析软件与现有BPA软件无缝衔接,引入知识库系统,识别电网中最为严重的事故以及可能存在的薄弱环节.在保证了仿真覆盖范围的前提下,大大地减少了仿真案例的数目,缩减了系统的仿真时间,实现了对电网的快速仿真.

  19. Test on Nourishing Effects of BPA Biological Organic Fertilizer%BPA生物有机肥肥效试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵年来

    2001-01-01

    BPA生物有机肥,经试验取得很好的效果,其非常适合东丽区大面积和不同作物上施用,对改良土壤结构和改善生态环境起到良好的作用,无污染无公害,增产增效.

  20. Excitation System Modeling and Simulation Based on BPA%基于BPA的励磁系统建模

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫鹏; 徐珂; 周前; 张俊芳

    2013-01-01

    励磁系统在源网协调运行中正发挥着越来越重要的作用,建立准确可靠的励磁系统模型是研究电网稳定性的基础,是稳定性结论真实可靠的必要保证,是制定合理的电网运行策略的重要条件.为了在BPA中研究发电机的稳定性,通过空载试验等现场实测的方法,获取发电机励磁系统的动态特性和模型特征.在励磁系统数学模型的基础上,通过建模仿真以及参数辨识的方法,建立了BPA可以调用的励磁系统模型,整定模型参数.通过BPA搭建了单机无穷大仿真模型,验证了模型的正确性.验证结果表明:整定模型与实际励磁系统具有相同的动态特性,为电力系统稳定性研究工作提供了真实可信的模型.

  1. Dosimetry and stability studies of the boron neutron capture therapy agent F-BPA-Fr using PET and MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyke, Jonathan Paul

    The treatment of deep seated brain tumors such as glioblastoma Multiforme has been unsuccessful for many patients. Surgical debulking, chemotherapy and standard radiotherapy have met with limited success. Boron neutron capture therapy offers a binary mode brachytherapy based on the following capture reaction that may provide an innovative alternative to standard forms of treatment:10B + n /to/ 11B /to 7Li + 4He + 2.31 MeVBoron is chemically attached to a tumor binding compound creating a non-toxic neutron absorber. A dose of epithermal neutrons provides the catalyst to produce the lithium and alpha particles which destroy any tissue within a length of one cell diameter from the boron compound. This dissertation uses 19F-MRI and 18F-PET to provide answers to the localization and biodistribution questions that arise in such a treatment modality. Practical patient dosimetry and actual treatment planning using the PET data is also examined. Finally, theoretical work done in the areas of compartmental modelling dealing with pharmacokinetic uptake of the PET radiotracer and dose analysis in microdosimetry is also presented.

  2. Water Quality Trends in the Entiat River Subbasin: Final Annual Report to BPA and NOAA Fisheries, 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodsmith, Richard; Bookter, Andy

    2008-03-11

    The Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Project (ISEMP) program monitors the status and trend of water quality elements that may affect restoration project effectiveness in the Entiat subbasin. As part of this effort, the PNW Research Station (PNW) measures, analyzes and interprets temporal trends in natural stream water pH, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance and temperature. The Entiat River is currently on the Clean Water Act 303(d) list for pH exceedence, and there is insufficient information to determine the spatial and temporal extent or potential causes of this exceedence. In the late spring 2007, PNW deployed data-logging, multiparameter probes at four locations in the Entiat subbasin to measure water quality parameters, focusing on pH. Data collection was seasonally interrupted by river ice in early December. Daily average pH did not exceed the water quality standard of 8.5 at any of the measurements sites. However, instantaneous values did exceed this standard near the mouth of the Entiat River during late summer-fall period. This suggested that in the lowest portion of the river peaks in pH may be occurring because of photosynthesis caused by high rates of periphyton productivity in response to increased sunlight, temperature, and possible nutrient enrichment. Conversely, dissolved oxygen reached annual low levels during this same late summer-fall period, in part because of increased water temperatures and increased biochemical oxygen demand.

  3. BPA/Lower Valley transmission project. Final environmental impact statement. Appendices A, B, D, E, G-N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonneville Power Administration is investigating the feasibility of constructing an additional transmission line, which for the most part will be adjacent to the existing transmission line. This would require the construction or acquisition of additional access roads, used for routine and emergency maintenance and construction activities. A survey was conducted to map any occurrences of threatened, endangered and sensitivity plant species and weed species along the Swan Valley-Teton Line. This report contains Appendices A, B, D, E, G--N

  4. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance measurement of p-boronophenylalanine (BPA): A therapeutic agent for boron neutron capture therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Zuo, C. S.; Prasad, P V; Busse, Paul; L. Tang; Zamenhof, R. G.

    1999-01-01

    Noninvasive in vivo quantitation of boron is necessary for obtaining pharmacokinetic data on candidate boronated delivery agents developed for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Such data, in turn, would facilitate the optimization of the temporal sequence of boronated drug infusion and neutron irradiation. Current approaches to obtaining such pharmacokinetic data include: positron emission tomography employing F-18 labeled boronated delivery agents (e.g., p-boronophenylalanine), ex vivo n...

  5. The Bisphenol A analogue Bisphenol S binds to K-Ras4B--implications for 'BPA-free' plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöpel, Miriam; Herrmann, Christian; Scherkenbeck, Jürgen; Stoll, Raphael

    2016-02-01

    K-Ras4B is a small GTPase that belongs to the Ras superfamily of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins. GTPases function as molecular switches in cells and are key players in intracellular signalling. Ras has been identified as an oncogene and is mutated in more than 20% of human cancers. Here, we report that Bisphenol S binds into a binding pocket of K-Ras4B previously identified for various low molecular weight compounds. Our results advocate for more comprehensive safety studies on the toxicity of Bisphenol S, as it is frequently used for Bisphenol A-free food containers.

  6. Annual Review of BPA-Funded Anadromous Fish Projects, March 18-20, 1986, Holiday Inn Airport, Portland, Oregon.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1986-02-01

    This report contains descriptions of projects specifically related to anadromous salmonids. They include projects in the following categories: (1) fish and wildlife projects in western Montana; (2) fish health and physiology; (3) habitat enhancement and passage improvement - Oregon I; (4) passage improvement and natural propagation - Washington; (5) habitat enhancement and passage improvements - Oregon II; (6) future hydroelectric assessments; (7) habitat enhancement and passage improvement - Idaho; (8) downstream migration: flows and monitoring; (9) downstream migration: reservoir impacts; and (10) habitat evaluation and monitoring. (ACR)

  7. Determination of boron by ICP-AES in normal and malignant cells incubated 'in vitro' with fructose 10BPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the development and optimization of methodology for total boron concentration in cell cultures coming from fixation and accumulation of this element by normal and malignant cells. On account of sample mass and low volume resulting from dilution, generally about 1 mL, a procedure for automatic injection of micro volumes was designed, developed and optimized. Iron interference was carefully studied. Linear calibration curves were obtained for 50 to 2500 ng B/mL range. Determination limits were 10 and 20 ng B/mL for B 249.772 nm and 249.677 nm, respectively. Repeatability, expressed as relative standard deviation was better than 5% for a 100 ng B/mL. Recovery of analyte added to real samples ranged between 95 and 103%. The method was applied to studies on F-98 cells (rat glioma) and normal glia in BNCT project frame. (author)

  8. Biomonitoring of human exposures to chlorinated derivatives and structural analogs of bisphenol A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andra, Syam S; Charisiadis, Pantelis; Arora, Manish; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Makris, Konstantinos C

    2015-01-01

    The high reactivity of bisphenol A (BPA) with disinfectant chlorine is evident in the instantaneous formation of chlorinated BPA derivatives (ClxBPA) in various environmental media that show increased estrogen-activity when compared with that of BPA. The documented health risks associated with BPA e

  9. Biomonitoring of human exposures to chlorinated derivatives and structural analogs of bisphenol A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andra, Syam S.; Charisiadis, Pantelis; Arora, Manish; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Makris, Konstantinos C.

    2015-01-01

    The high reactivity of bisphenol A (BPA) with disinfectant chlorine is evident in the instantaneous formation of chlorinated BPA derivatives (Cl(x)BPA) in various environmental media that show increased estrogen-activity when compared with that of BPA. The documented health risks associated with BPA

  10. Bisphenol A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Environmental Health, Chemistry, and Toxicology More Resources Bisphenol A (BPA) en español Bisphenol A (BPA) is used to make lightweight, hard plastics. What is bisphenol A? Bisphenol A, also called BPA, is a ...

  11. Pharmacokinetic modeling: Prediction and evaluation of route dependent dosimetry of bisphenol A in monkeys with extrapolation to humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed for bisphenol A (BPA) in adult rhesus monkeys using intravenous (iv) and oral bolus doses of 100 μg d6-BPA/kg (). This calibrated PBPK adult monkey model for BPA was then evaluated against published monkey kinetic studies with BPA. Using two versions of the adult monkey model based on monkey BPA kinetic data from and , the aglycone BPA pharmacokinetics were simulated for human oral ingestion of 5 mg d16-BPA per person (Völkel et al., 2002). Völkel et al. were unable to detect the aglycone BPA in plasma, but were able to detect BPA metabolites. These human model predictions of the aglycone BPA in plasma were then compared to previously published PBPK model predictions obtained by simulating the Völkel et al. kinetic study. Our BPA human model, using two parameter sets reflecting two adult monkey studies, both predicted lower aglycone levels in human serum than the previous human BPA PBPK model predictions. BPA was metabolized at all ages of monkey (PND 5 to adult) by the gut wall and liver. However, the hepatic metabolism of BPA and systemic clearance of its phase II metabolites appear to be slower in younger monkeys than adults. The use of the current non-human primate BPA model parameters provides more confidence in predicting the aglycone BPA in serum levels in humans after oral ingestion of BPA. -- Highlights: ► A bisphenol A (BPA) PBPK model for the infant and adult monkey was constructed. The hepatic metabolic rate of BPA increased with age of the monkey. ► The systemic clearance rate of metabolites increased with age of the monkey. ► Gut wall metabolism of orally administered BPA was substantial across all ages of monkeys. ► Aglycone BPA plasma concentrations were predicted in humans orally given oral doses of deuterated BPA.

  12. Are environmental levels of bisphenol a associated with reproductive function in fertile men?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendiola, Jaime; Jørgensen, Niels; Andersson, Anna-Maria;

    2010-01-01

    Rodent and in vitro studies have demonstrated the estrogenicity of bisphenol A (BPA). However, few studies have examined the relationship between human exposure to BPA and male reproductive function.......Rodent and in vitro studies have demonstrated the estrogenicity of bisphenol A (BPA). However, few studies have examined the relationship between human exposure to BPA and male reproductive function....

  13. Biosensor immunoassays for the detection of bisphenol A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchesini, G.R.; Meulenberg, E.; Haasnoot, W.; Irth, H.

    2005-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a xenoestrogen found in the environment, in consequence, for the biosensor detection of BPA we raised antibodies (polyclonal (PAbs) and monoclonal (MAbs)) against a structural analogue of BPA, 4,4 bis-(4-hydroxyphenyl) valeric acid (BVA). The kinetics of the MAb¿BPA interaction

  14. 48 CFR 13.303-3 - Preparation of BPAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... made under the BPA. (3) Purchase limitation. A statement that specifies the dollar limitation for each individual purchase under the BPA (see 13.303-5(b)). (4) Individuals authorized to purchase under the BPA. A statement that a list of individuals authorized to purchase under the BPA, identified either by title...

  15. 48 CFR 13.303-6 - Review procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Review procedures. (a) The contracting officer placing orders under a BPA, or the designated representative of the contracting officer, shall review a sufficient random sample of the BPA files at least... into the BPA shall— (1) Ensure that each BPA is reviewed at least annually and, if necessary,...

  16. 75 FR 78694 - Proposed Residential Exchange Program Settlement Agreement Proceeding (REP-12); Public Hearing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-16

    ... governed by Sec. 1010 of BPA's Rules of Procedure Governing Rate Hearings, 51 FR 7611 (1986) (BPA Hearing... (BPA), Department of Energy (DOE). ACTION: Notice of Residential Exchange Program Settlement Agreement Proceeding (REP-12). SUMMARY: BPA is conducting the 2012 Residential Exchange Program Settlement...

  17. The Genomic and Morphological Effects of Bisphenol A on Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frejd, Derek; Dunaway, Kiera; Hill, Jennifer; Van Maanen, Jesse; Carlson, Clayton

    2016-01-01

    The environmental toxin bisphenol A (BPA) is a known mammalian hormone disrupter but its effects on plants have not been well established. The effect of BPA on gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana was determined using microarray analysis and quantitative gene PCR. Many hormone responsive genes showed changes in expression after BPA treatment. BPA disrupted flowering by a mechanism that may involve disruption of auxin signaling. The results presented here indicate that BPA is a plant hormone disrupter. PMID:27631104

  18. A study on DS/AHP decision-making method based on improved BPA%基于BPA改进的DS/AHP决策方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾子超

    2014-01-01

    首先阐述了证据理论和DS/AHP方法的基本知识,在此基础上对DS/AHP方法计算做了改进,采用了互补判断知识矩阵和新的BPA合成方案,增加了推断信息的准确性,减小了时间复杂度.最后通过一个实例,说明该方法的具体操作过程.

  19. BPA接枝聚乙二醇化壳聚糖的合成与表征%Synthesis and characterization of BPA-mPEG-chitosan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈文; 杨玉青; 魏洪源; 罗顺忠

    2014-01-01

    硼中子俘获疗法(Boron Neutron Capture Therapy,BNCT)是当前治疗脑胶质瘤等恶性肿瘤的唯一有效方法,而对恶性肿瘤有高特异性的含硼药物的制备是硼中子捕获治疗研究中的一个重点.用已知BNCT药物BPA接枝mPEG-壳聚糖,进一步提高BPA的水溶性及肿瘤对硼药物的摄取率,以期达到BNCT药物的要求.目标产物通过红外,核磁表征表明聚乙二醇和BPA都成功的链接到壳聚糖上,所制得的产物有望成为潜在的BNCT药物.

  20. Design of the BPA Bidirectional Interface for the Optimization System%用于优化软件的BPA双向数据接口设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凌; 刘铸峰; 王德付; 刘鹏飞; 王亚龙; 祝靖

    2014-01-01

    电力系统运行规划工作借助PSD-BPA软件分析计算电网运行情况,为了解决潮流数据文本中手工修改数据卡的不便之处和BPA存在的信息孤岛问题,提出一种通过表格映射建立BPA双向数据的接口方法,该方法依据BPA软件与其他电力系统软件之间的数据模型特点,结合数据库技术实现接口.基于所提的方法,在优化软件上搭建了BPA双向数据接口,实现了优化软件可读取和生成BPA文件.对某电网丰大运行方式进行无功优化计算并生成BPA数据格式的优化结果,用BPA进行校验并通过,表明了数据接口以及优化软件有较好的有效性和鲁棒性.

  1. Research for Software Testing Method based on BPA Algorithm%基于BPA算法的软件测试方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王绍婷; 伦立军

    2014-01-01

    白盒测试中包括的测试方法有代码检查法、静态结构分析法、静态质量度量法、逻辑覆盖法、基路径测试法等等,而这其中,最为普遍运用测试的方法是基路径测试法.该法是在程序控制流图的基础上,分析控制结构的圈复杂度,导出一个基本可执行路径的集合,从而设计并产生测试用例的方法,其拥有着最强壮的覆盖标准.本文从实际出发,理论结合实践,深入研究基路径测试的概念、定义、理论,并设计出一个新的基路径算法BPA算法获取基路径,同时给出一个案例研究证明该算法的有效性.

  2. Study on Composite Load Model Simulation for BPA and PSS/E%BPA与PSS/E综合负荷模型的仿真研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨茹; 李红军; 王电钢; 扬天波; 章志刚

    2009-01-01

    重点讨论了BPA与PSS/E综合负荷模型异同.并以IEEE 9节点系统为例,进行了两种软件的综合负荷模型仿真对比计算.仿真结果验证了两种软件综合负荷模型对应关系的正确性.

  3. A Method of Getting BPA for D-S Evidence Reasoning%一种D-S证据推理的BPA获取方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路艳丽; 雷英杰; 李兆渊

    2007-01-01

    针对多传感器数据融合中D-S证据推理方法的基本概率赋值获取存在主观性的问题,结合粗糙集理论,通过定义规则强度和决策扩充规则,提出一种基于决策表的证据获取和基本概率赋值客观确定方法,并以具体算例验证了方法的正确性和有效性.

  4. 水轮机微机调速器PSD-BPA模型及应用%PSD-BPA Model of Governor of Water Turbine Microcomputer and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐广文

    2014-01-01

    为给电力系统暂态稳定分析提供适用于水轮机微机调速器的PSD-BPA模型,依照水轮机微机调速器的典型结构,选用4.15版PSD-BPA暂态稳定程序提供的调节系统模型4(GM卡)和电液伺服系统模型(GA卡)分别代表其2个组成部分——微机调节器和机械液压系统,给出了2个模型中参数的意义及其获取方法,并利用某水轮机微机调速器参数进行了仿真,不同幅值频率阶跃扰动下的调速器响应均与实际一致,表明所构成的水轮机微机调速器模型环节考虑周全,参数与实际相应且易于获取,能够准确仿真电力系统暂态过程中实际调速器的工作.

  5. Development and Application of BPA Software for Data Management and Application%BPA数据管理及应用软件开发与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦兰杰; 吴思缘; 潘国超; 杨有慧

    2014-01-01

    随着电网规模的日益扩大和新型输变电技术的发展,电网设备参数管理及计算用数据越来越多、数据量也不断增大,对电网基础计算数据进行规范化管理成为必然.为保证数据的准确性和可靠性、提高数据的处理速度,需要形成统一的计算分析基础,根据电力系统分析计算要求,建立了电网数据库与PSD-BPA电力系统分析软件的接口,能够规范的管理和维护大量电网数据,形成统一的数据计算分析基础.该软件通过修改Access数据文件来对BPA数据文件进行修改,保证了数据准确性的同时也提高了数据的共享性和处理效率.

  6. Data Conversion of BPA to PSASP Based on PSO_GA%基于PSO_GA算法BPA到PSASP数据转换

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶青; 朱永强; 李红贤

    2015-01-01

    现存电力系统各商业软件的数据格式不统一,造成了大量异构数据源的存在,仿真软件间的数据交互困难.为解决该问题,提出基于PSO_GA算法电力系统仿真软件BPA到PSASP数据转换的方法,通过分析BPA、PSASP仿真软件中元件模型、控制模型的差异性,建立对应模型间的转换关系以及智能优化算法(PSO_GA)的目标函数及相关约束.利用PSO_GA混合优化算法修正目标转换软件中各模型的参数值,以实现电力系统仿真软件BPA到PSASP数据转换.通过IEEE 43节点的系统算例对BPA向PSASP数据转换过程进行了验证,证明了该方法对电力系统仿真软件数据转换的有效性,并能提高数据转换的准确度和算法的运行速度.

  7. BPA与SIMPOW应用于电力系统仿真研究%Applying BPA and SIMPOW to the Simulation of Power System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀钊

    2007-01-01

    电力系统数字仿真对电网规划设计与运行分析有着非常重要的作用,文中对中国电力科学研究院的BPA与ABB公司的SIMPOW两个电力系统数字仿真软件进行了仿真功能、数学模型的对比分析,通过算例,验证两个程序在潮流计算和暂态稳定计算结果的一致性,并对SIMPOW软件的自定义建模功能进行了实例分析.

  8. ET-14OPTIMISATION OF BORONOPHENYLALANINE (BPA) DELIVERY AND LAT1 EXPRESSION FOR THE CLINICAL APPLICATION OF BORON NEUTRON CAPTURE THERAPY (BNCT) IN GLIOBLASTOMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruickshank, Garth; Detta, Allah; Green, Stuart; Lockyer, Nick; Ngoga, Desire; Ghani, Zahir; Phoenix, Ben

    2014-01-01

    BNCT is a biologically targeted radiotherapy where preferential boron uptake interacts with a neutron beam in cancerous cells causing irreparable alpha DNA damage. This requires the delivery of at least 30 parts per million (ppm) of 10B into tumour tissue and 30ppm boron) indicates potential BNCT targeting after surgery. Tumour boron uptake is governed by LAT-1 behaviour rather than BBB penetration and explains previous variable clinical results, whilst supporting the LAT1 determined selection of patients for BNCT

  9. 基于BPA的“电力工程基础”课程教学方法%Teaching Electric Engineering Fundament Course Based on BPA Software

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宝珍; 张尧

    2013-01-01

    本文基于电力系统分析软件BPA对“电力工程基础”课程的教学方法展开讨论.笔者对教学中存在的问题进行分析,根据教学实践总结了教学脉络和教学重点.本文提出了改进措施:一方面对课堂教学环节进行改进,另一方面把基于BPA软件的工程课题引入到教学过程.笔者以海南电网的发电机等值化简为例,把理论与课题结合起来学习.

  10. Estimating damping effectiveness of BPA`s thyristor controlled series capacitor by applying time and frequency domain methods to measured response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trudnowski, D.J.; Donnelly, M.K.; Hauer, J.F. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Recently, a 500-kV thyristor controlled series capacitor (TCSC) was installed in the Bonneville Power Administration system in the northwestern US. Extensive field testing has included modulation experiments to determine the effect of the TCSC on low-frequency oscillations. This paper discusses modulation procedures, analysis methods, and results for estimating the damping effectiveness of the TCSC. Modulation methods include driving the TCSC with step and random noise, and analysis techniques include time (Prony analysis) and frequency-domain identification. Results indicate that: (1) the TCSC can have significant impact on system dynamics; and (2) under a very small feedback gain, the TCSC provides measurable added damping.

  11. Synthesis, Characterization, and Cross-Linking Strategy of a Quercetin-Based Epoxidized Monomer as a Naturally-Derived Replacement for BPA in Epoxy Resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristufek, Samantha L; Yang, Guozhen; Link, Lauren A; Rohde, Brian J; Robertson, Megan L; Wooley, Karen L

    2016-08-23

    The natural polyphenolic compound quercetin was functionalized and cross-linked to afford a robust epoxy network. Quercetin was selectively methylated and functionalized with glycidyl ether moieties using a microwave-assisted reaction on a gram scale to afford the desired monomer (Q). This quercetin-derived monomer was treated with nadic methyl anhydride (NMA) to obtain a cross-linked network (Q-NMA). The thermal and mechanical properties of this naturally derived network were compared to those of a conventional diglycidyl ether bisphenol A-derived counterpart (DGEBA-NMA). Q-NMA had similar thermal properties [i.e., glass transition (Tg ) and decomposition (Td ) temperatures] and comparable mechanical properties (i.e., Young's Modulus, storage modulus) to that of DGEBA-NMA. However, it had a lower tensile strength and higher flexural modulus at elevated temperatures. The application of naturally derived, sustainable compounds for the replacement of commercially available petrochemical-based epoxies is of great interest to reduce the environmental impact of these materials. Q-NMA is an attractive candidate for the replacement of bisphenol A-based epoxies in various specialty engineering applications. PMID:27415143

  12. 移动运营商基于BPA分析的网络工作策略及应用%Network Strategy and Application Based On BPA Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高可; 刘点金

    2006-01-01

    本文针对移动通信运营商的网络工作,创新地从资本运营的角度,对基站子系统的盈利能力进行深入分析,提出了移动通信网络工作新的策略并加以灵活运用,挖掘了基站盈利能力,提高了网络生产效率.本文最后给出了策略运用的案例和收到的良好效果.

  13. Estimating damping effectiveness of BPA`s thyristor controlled series capacitor by applying time and frequency domain methods to measured response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trudnowski, D.J.; Donnelly, M.K.; Hauer, J.F.

    1995-07-01

    Recently, a 500-kV thyristor controlled series capacitor (TCSC) was installed in the Bonneville Power Administration system in the northwestern United States. Extensive field testing has included modulation experiments to determine the effect of the TCSC on low- frequency procedures, analysis methods, and results for estimating the damping effectiveness of the TCSC. Modulation methods include driving the TCSC with step and random noise, and analysis techniques include time (Prony analysis) and frequency-domain identification. Results indicate that: (1) the TCSC can have significant impact on system dynamics; and (2) under a very small feedback gain, the TCSC provides measurable added damping.

  14. Optimization of the application of BNCT to undifferentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possible increase in BNCT efficacy for undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (UTC) using BPA plus BOPP and nicotinamide (NA) as a radiosensitizer on the BNCT reaction was analyzed. In these studies nude mice were transplanted with the ARO cells and after 14 days they were treated as follows: 1) Control; 2) NCT (neutrons alone); 3) NCT plus NA (100 mg/kg bw/day for 3 days); 4) BPA (350 mg/kg bw) + neutrons; 5) BPA+ NA+ neutrons; 6) BPA+BOPP (60 mg/kg bw) + neutrons. The flux of hyperthermal neutrons was 2.8 108 during 85 min. Neutrons alone or with NA caused some tumor growth delay, while in the BPA, BPA+NA and BPA+BOPP groups a 100% halt of tumor growth was observed. When the initial tumor volume was 50 mm3 or less a complete cure was found in BPA+NA (2/2); BPA (1/4); BPA+BOPP (7/7). After 90 days of complete regression, recurrence of tumor was observed in 2/2 BPA/NA (2/2) and BPA+BOPP (1/7). Caspase 3 activity was increased in BPA+NA (p<0.05 vs controls). BPA plus NA increased tumor apoptosis but only the combination of BPA+BOPP increased significantly BNCT efficiency. (author)

  15. Electrochemical detection of Bisphenol A with high sensitivity and selectivity using recombinant protein-immobilized graphene electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwang Su; Jang, Ji-ryang; Choe, Woo-Seok; Yoo, Pil J

    2015-09-15

    A novel Bisphenol A (4,4'-isopropylidenediphenol, BPA) sensor was developed harnessing an electrochemical platform comprising a layer-by-layer assembled reduced graphene oxide (rGO) electrode and a designer probe specifically recognizing BPA. The BPA detection probe, a recombinant protein (LacI-BPA), was constructed by fusing a disulfide-constrained high affinity BPA binding peptide (CKSLENSYC) to the C-terminus of Lac repressor (LacI). Following expression and purification, the LacI-BPA was heat-denatured on-purpose to facilitate its direct adhesion on the rGO electrode surface via pi-stacking interaction. When the performance of the fabricated BPA sensor (LacI-BPA/rGO) was assessed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), it showed a wide linear dynamic range of BPA detection spanning from 100 fM to 10nM. Moreover, our BPA sensor exhibited negligible cross reactivity to BPA analogs such as Bisphenol S (BPS) and Bisphenol F (BPF) and almost complete spike recovery of BPA from plastic extracts containing various potential interferents. With these merits, the BPA sensor developed in the present study is expected to find practical application in selective and sensitive detection of BPA from diverse sample solutions.

  16. Biomonitoring of human exposures to chlorinated derivatives and structural analogs of bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andra, Syam S; Charisiadis, Pantelis; Arora, Manish; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Makris, Konstantinos C

    2015-12-01

    The high reactivity of bisphenol A (BPA) with disinfectant chlorine is evident in the instantaneous formation of chlorinated BPA derivatives (ClxBPA) in various environmental media that show increased estrogen-activity when compared with that of BPA. The documented health risks associated with BPA exposures have led to the gradual market entry of BPA structural analogs, such as bisphenol S (BPS), bisphenol F (BPF), bisphenol B (BPB), etc. A suite of exposure sources to ClxBPA and BPA analogs in the domestic environment is anticipated to drive the nature and range of halogenated BPA derivatives that can form when residual BPA comes in contact with disinfectant in tap water and/or consumer products. The primary objective of this review was to survey all available studies reporting biomonitoring protocols of ClxBPA and structural BPA analogs (BPS, BPF, BPB, etc.) in human matrices. Focus was paid on describing the analytical methodologies practiced for the analysis of ClxBPA and BPA analogs using hyphenated chromatography and mass spectrometry techniques, because current methodologies for human matrices are complex. During the last decade, an increasing number of ecotoxicological, cell-culture and animal-based and human studies dealing with ClxBPA exposure sources and routes of exposure, metabolism and toxicity have been published. Up to date findings indicated the association of ClxBPA with metabolic conditions, such as obesity, lipid accumulation, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, particularly in in-vitro and in-vivo studies. We critically discuss the limitations, research needs and future opportunities linked with the inclusion of ClxBPA and BPA analogs into exposure assessment protocols of relevant epidemiological studies.

  17. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of [Cu2(bpa)2(phen)2(H2O)]2·H2O%[Cu2(bpa)2(phen)2(H2O)]2·H2O的合成和晶体结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琼馨; 孟凡瑾; 孙选举; 朱海亮

    2003-01-01

    利用线形的芳香二羧酸与邻菲啉铜盐在水热的条件下合成一种新型的分子块化合物,这种分子块通过位于钝角位置的邻菲啉配体的芳香π-π识别作用自组装成第一例由菱形分子块的自组装形成二维多聚轮烷,这种二维的层状结构通过邻菲啉配体的芳香π-π堆积作用形成具有独特拓扑结构的三维网络结构.

  18. 77 FR 41953 - Representative Edward J. Markey; Filing of Food Additive Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-17

    ... this petition, FDA is actively assessing the safety of BPA (see 75 FR 17145, April 5, 2010; see also... Bisphenol A (BPA)-based epoxy resins as coatings in packaging for infant formula because these uses...

  19. 76 FR 41791 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ..., Final EIS, BPA, 00, Big Eddy-Knight Transmission Project, Proposal to Construct, Operate, and Maintain a 27-28 mile long 500-Kilovolt Transmission Line using a Combination of Existing BPA and New...

  20. 78 FR 76605 - Combined Notice of Filings #1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    .... Description: Idaho Power Company submits BPA Conditional Firm Service Agreement to be effective 7/1/2016...: Idaho Power Company submits BPA Conditional Firm Service. Docket Numbers: ER14-590-000. Applicants:...

  1. 75 FR 11164 - Integration of Variable Energy Resources; Notice Extending Comment Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... Power Administration (BPA) filed a motion requesting an extension of at least fourteen days.\\2\\ \\1\\ Integration of Variable Energy Resources, 130 FERC ] 61,053 (2010). \\2\\ BPA indicates, however, that...

  2. 76 FR 76962 - Combined Notice of Filings #2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ...-000. Applicants: Puget Sound Energy, Inc. Description: BPA NITSA Refund Report Compliance Filing to be.... Docket Numbers: ER11-4518-000. Applicants: Puget Sound Energy, Inc. Description: BPA NOA 527...

  3. Are environmental levels of bisphenol a associated with reproductive function in fertile men?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendiola, Jaime; Jørgensen, Niels; Andersson, Anna-Maria;

    2010-01-01

    Rodent and in vitro studies have demonstrated the estrogenicity of bisphenol A (BPA). However, few studies have examined the relationship between human exposure to BPA and male reproductive function....

  4. Bisphenol A in Urine of Chinese Young Adults: Concentrations and Sources of Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chongjing; Liu, Liyan; Ma, Wanli; Zhu, Ningzheng; Jiang, Ling; Ren, Nanqi; Li, Yi-Fan; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2016-02-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting environmental chemical. Urinary concentrations of BPA were measured in samples collected nationwide from Chinese young adults. The geometric mean urinary concentration of BPA in Chinese young adults was 2.23 ng/mL. The estimated daily exposure dose for BPA was 64.8 ng/kg bw/day. Contributions of various BPA sources to exposure in Chinese young adults were estimated. Dietary intake was the primary exposure pathway. The contribution of dietary intake, indoor dust, paper products and personal care products to BPA intake was 72.5 %, 0.74 %, 0.98 %, 0.22 % of the total exposure dose, respectively. This is the first study on the occurrence of BPA in young adults from most provinces and autonomous regions of China. The results can be used to establish a database for BPA exposure assessment for Chinese general population. PMID:26679324

  5. Bisphenol A in Urine of Chinese Young Adults: Concentrations and Sources of Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chongjing; Liu, Liyan; Ma, Wanli; Zhu, Ningzheng; Jiang, Ling; Ren, Nanqi; Li, Yi-Fan; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2016-02-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting environmental chemical. Urinary concentrations of BPA were measured in samples collected nationwide from Chinese young adults. The geometric mean urinary concentration of BPA in Chinese young adults was 2.23 ng/mL. The estimated daily exposure dose for BPA was 64.8 ng/kg bw/day. Contributions of various BPA sources to exposure in Chinese young adults were estimated. Dietary intake was the primary exposure pathway. The contribution of dietary intake, indoor dust, paper products and personal care products to BPA intake was 72.5 %, 0.74 %, 0.98 %, 0.22 % of the total exposure dose, respectively. This is the first study on the occurrence of BPA in young adults from most provinces and autonomous regions of China. The results can be used to establish a database for BPA exposure assessment for Chinese general population.

  6. Bisphenol A Inhibits Follicle Growth and Induces Atresia in Cultured Mouse Antral Follicles Independently of the Genomic Estrogenic Pathway1

    OpenAIRE

    Peretz, Jackye; Craig, Zelieann R.; Flaws, Jodi A.

    2012-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an estrogenic chemical used to manufacture many commonly used plastic and epoxy resin-based products. BPA ubiquitously binds to estrogen receptors throughout the body, including estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) in the ovary. Few studies have investigated the effects of BPA on ovarian antral follicles. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that BPA alters cell cycle regulators and induces atresia in antral follicles via the genomic estrogenic pathway, inhibiting follicle growth. To...

  7. Effects of early prepubertal exposure to bisphenol A on the onset of puberty, ovarian weights, and estrous cycle in female mice

    OpenAIRE

    Nah, Won Heum; Park, Mi Jung; Gye, Myung Chan

    2011-01-01

    Objective Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical used extensively to manufacture plastics and epoxy resin liners for food and beverage cans. BPA, with properties similar to estrogen, has endocrine-disrupting effects. In the present study, we examined the effects of early prepubertal BPA exposure on the onset of puberty and reproductive parameters such as estrous cycle and reproductive organ weights in female mice. Methods Female mice were injected subcutaneously at postnatal day (PND) 8 with BPA (0....

  8. Bisphenol A at Low Nanomolar Doses Confers Chemoresistance in Estrogen Receptor-α–Positive and –Negative Breast Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    LaPensee, Elizabeth W.; Traci R Tuttle; Fox, Sejal R; Ben-Jonathan, Nira

    2008-01-01

    Background Resistance to chemotherapy is a major problem facing breast cancer patients, and identifying potential contributors to chemoresistance is a critical area of research. Bisphenol A (BPA) has long been suspected to promote carcinogenesis, but the high doses of BPA used in many studies generated conflicting results. In addition, the mechanism by which BPA exerts its biological actions is unclear. Although estrogen has been shown to antagonize anticancer drugs, the role of BPA in chemor...

  9. Occurrence of bisphenol A in wastewater and wastewater sludge of CUQ treatment plant

    OpenAIRE

    Dipti Prakash Mohapatra; Satinder Kaur Brar; Rajeshwar Dayal Tyagi; Surampalli, Rao Y.

    2011-01-01

    The identification and quantification of bisphenol A (BPA) in wastewater (WW) and wastewater sludge (WWS) is of major interest to assess the endocrine activity of treated effluent discharged into the environment. BPA is manufactured in high quantities fro its use in adhesives, powder paints, thermal paper and paper coatings among others. Due to the daily use of these products, high concentration of BPA was observed in WW and WWS. BPA was measured in samples from Urban Community of Quebec wast...

  10. Impact of Gestational Bisphenol A on Oxidative Stress and Free Fatty Acids: Human Association and Interspecies Animal Testing Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Pennathur, Subramaniam; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Patisaul, Heather B.; Dolinoy, Dana C.; Zeng, Lixia; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high production volume chemical and an endocrine disruptor. Developmental exposures to BPA have been linked to adult metabolic pathologies, but the pathways through which these disruptions occur remain unknown. This is a comprehensive interspecies association vs causal study to evaluate risks posed by prenatal BPA exposure and to facilitate discovery of biomarkers of relevance to BPA toxicity. Samples from human pregnancies during the first trimester and at term, as wel...

  11. Bisphenol S and F: A Systematic Review and Comparison of the Hormonal Activity of Bisphenol A Substitutes

    OpenAIRE

    Rochester, Johanna R.; Bolden, Ashley L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Increasing concern over bisphenol A (BPA) as an endocrine-disrupting chemical and its possible effects on human health have prompted the removal of BPA from consumer products, often labeled “BPA-free.” Some of the chemical replacements, however, are also bisphenols and may have similar physiological effects in organisms. Bisphenol S (BPS) and bisphenol F (BPF) are two such BPA substitutes. Objectives This review was carried out to evaluate the physiological effects and endocrine ac...

  12. Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A impacts midbrain dopamine neurons and hippocampal spine synapses in non-human primates

    OpenAIRE

    Elsworth, John D; Jentsch, J. David; VandeVoort, Catherine A; Roth, Robert H; Redmond, D. Eugene; Leranth, Csaba

    2013-01-01

    Prevalent use of bisphenol-A (BPA) in the manufacture of resins, plastics and paper products has led to frequent exposure of most people to this endocrine disruptor. Some rodent studies have suggested that BPA can exert detrimental effects on brain development. However as rodent models cannot be relied on to predict consequences of human exposure to BPA during development, it is important to investigate the effects of BPA on non-human primate brain development. Previous research suggests that...

  13. Dynamic experiments with high bisphenol-A concentrations modelled with an ASM model extended to include a separate XOC degrading microorganism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindblom, Erik Ulfson; Press-Kristensen, Kåre; Vanrolleghem, P.A.;

    2009-01-01

    with the endocrine disrupting XOC bisphenol-A (BPA) in an activated sludge process with real wastewater were used to hypothesize an ASM-based process model including aerobic growth of a specific BPA-degrading microorganism and sorption of BPA to sludge. A parameter estimation method was developed, which...

  14. Allometric scaling for predicting human clearance of bisphenol A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collet, Séverine H., E-mail: s.collet@envt.fr; Picard-Hagen, Nicole, E-mail: n.hagen-picard@envt.fr; Lacroix, Marlène Z., E-mail: m.lacroix@envt.fr; Puel, Sylvie, E-mail: s.puel@envt.fr; Viguié, Catherine, E-mail: c.viguie@envt.fr; Bousquet-Melou, Alain, E-mail: a.bousquet-Melou@envt.fr; Toutain, Pierre-Louis, E-mail: pltoutain@wanadoo.fr; Gayrard, Véronique, E-mail: v.gayrard@envt.fr

    2015-05-01

    The investigation of interspecies differences in bisphenol A (BPA) pharmacokinetics (PK) may be useful for translating findings from animal studies to humans, identifying major processes involved in BPA clearance mechanisms, and predicting BPA PK parameters in man. For the first time, a large range of species in terms of body weight, from 0.02 kg (mice) to 495 kg (horses) was used to predict BPA clearance in man by an allometric approach. BPA PK was evaluated after intravenous administration of BPA in horses, sheep, pigs, dogs, rats and mice. A non-compartmental analysis was used to estimate plasma clearance and steady state volume of distribution and predict BPA PK parameters in humans from allometric scaling. In all the species investigated, BPA plasma clearance was high and of the same order of magnitude as their respective hepatic blood flow. By an allometric scaling, the human clearance was estimated to be 1.79 L/min (equivalent to 25.6 mL/kg.min) with a 95% prediction interval of 0.36 to 8.83 L/min. Our results support the hypothesis that there are highly efficient and hepatic mechanisms of BPA clearance in man. - Highlights: • Allometric scaling was used to predict BPA pharmacokinetic parameters in humans. • In all species, BPA plasma clearance approached hepatic blood flow. • Human BPA clearance was estimated to be 1.79 L/min.

  15. Synthesis and biological evaluation of both enantiomers of p-boronophenylalaninol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumanishi, A.; Ozaki, N.; Tanimori, S.; Tsuda, T.; Kirihata, M. [Osaka Prefecture Univ., Graduate School of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Sakai, Osaka (Japan); Takagaki, M.; Ono, K. [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst

    2000-10-01

    The both enantiomers of p-borono-phenylalaninol (BPA-ol) were synthesized from racemic p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) ethyl ester by a hybrid process involving enzymatic resolution using {alpha}-chymotrypsin. The relationships between absolute configuration and biological properties of BPA-ol were evaluated using C6 gliosarcoma cells. Clear differences of biological activities between the both enantiomers were not found. (author)

  16. Bisphenol A in Relation to Behavior and Learning of School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Soon-Beom; Hong, Yun-Chul; Kim, Jae-Won; Park, Eun-Jin; Shin, Min-Sup; Kim, Boong-Nyun; Yoo, Hee-Jeong; Cho, In-Hee; Bhang, Soo-Young; Cho, Soo-Churl

    2013-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) has been shown to affect brain and behavior in rodents and nonhuman primates, but there are few studies focusing on its relationship to human neurobehavior. We aimed to investigate the relationship between environmental exposure to BPA and childhood neurobehavior. Methods: Urinary BPA concentrations and behavioral and learning…

  17. 77 FR 58984 - Availability of the Bonneville Purchasing Instructions (BPI) and Bonneville Financial Assistance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-25

    ... Financial Assistance Instructions (BFAI) AGENCY: Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), DOE. ACTION: Notice... contain the policy and establish the procedures that BPA uses in the solicitation, award, and... at the following Internet address: http://www.bpa.gov/corporate/business/bpi . Copies of...

  18. Modeling the interaction of binary mixtures of estradiol and bisphenol A or its analogues in an in vitro estrogen mediated transcriptional activation assay (T47D-KBluc).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a ubiquitous monomer used to manufacture polycarbonate plastics. BPA is used in composites and sealants in dentistry, for epoxy resins used as protective liners in metallic cans, and as additives in various plastics. Approximately 1.7 billion pounds of BPA ...

  19. 76 FR 15970 - Central Ferry to Lower Monumental 500-kilovolt Transmission Line Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... AGENCY: Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Department of Energy (DOE). ACTION: Notice of Availability..., and Walla Walla counties, Washington. BPA has decided to implement the Combination A Alternative... single- circuit transmission line from BPA's new Central Ferry Substation near the Port of Central...

  20. 78 FR 63177 - Order on Voluntary Remand and Clarifying Policy on Filing of Reactive Power Service Rate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... Generation Sources Service (reactive power) to the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville or BPA) is a....'' \\5\\ The Commission stated that ``Chehalis has been providing reactive power to BPA pursuant to an... interconnection agreement between Chehalis and BPA was required to be filed prior to May 2005, even though it...

  1. 78 FR 25954 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ... pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for... Springfield Hatchery. Because the BPA action is substantially the same as the actions addressed by the... Hatchery Master Plan, NMFS proposes to adopt the BPA environmental assessment to comply with the...

  2. 77 FR 43819 - Memorandum of Agreement With the Kalispel Tribe on Columbia Basin Fish Accords

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    ... Accords AGENCY: Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Department of Energy (DOE). ACTION: Notice of...: This notice announces the availability of the BPA's ROD for entering into an Memorandum of Agreement... Oreille and the Pend Oreille River in Pend Orielle County, Washington and Bonner Counties, Idaho. BPA...

  3. Modeling the interaction of binary mixtures of estradiol and bisphenol A or its analogues in an in vitro estrogen mediated transcriptional activation assay (T47D-KBIuc).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a ubiquitous monomer used to manufacture polycarbonate plastics. BPA is used in composites and sealants in dentistry, for epoxy resins used as protective liners in metallic cans, and as additives in various plastics. Approximately 1.7 billion pounds of BPA ar...

  4. 75 FR 15430 - Chief Joseph Hatchery Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ... Bonneville Power Administration Chief Joseph Hatchery Program AGENCY: Bonneville Power Administration (BPA... announces the availability of the ROD to implement the proposed action identified in BPA's Chief Joseph Hatchery Program Environmental Impact Statement (DOE/EIS-0384, November 2009). BPA has decided to fund...

  5. 76 FR 63290 - Availability of the Bonneville Purchasing Instructions (BPI) and Bonneville Financial Assistance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... Financial Assistance Instructions (BFAI) AGENCY: Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), DOE. ACTION: Notice... contain the policy and establish the procedures that BPA uses in the solicitation, award, and... at the following Internet address: http://www.bpa.gov/corporate/business/bpi . Copies of...

  6. 77 FR 45346 - Mid-Columbia Coho Restoration Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ... (BPA), Department of Energy (DOE). ACTION: Notice of availability of Record of Decision (ROD). SUMMARY... describes BPA's decision to fund the final phases of this program in order to honor commitments outlined in... ROD and EIS may be obtained by calling BPA's toll-free document request line, 1-800-622-4519. The...

  7. 76 FR 58491 - Combined Notice of Filings #2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ...: Puget Sound Energy, Inc. Description: Puget Sound Energy, Inc. submits tariff filing per 35.12: BPA... per 35.12: BPA Network Integratn TX Service Agreemt for Orcas, Original Serv Agreemt No 526 to be.... Description: Puget Sound Energy, Inc. submits tariff filing per 35.12: BPA Network Operating Agreement...

  8. 78 FR 18967 - Walla Walla Basin Spring Chinook Hatchery Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... Administration (BPA), Department of Energy (DOE). ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare an Environmental Impact... Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), BPA intends to prepare an EIS on its decision whether to fund the Confederated... spring Chinook population. With this Notice of Intent, BPA is initiating the public scoping process...

  9. 75 FR 66750 - Albany-Eugene Transmission Line Rebuild Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... Administration (BPA), Department of Energy (DOE). ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). SUMMARY: In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), BPA intends to... compromises BPA's ability to maintain reliable electric service and poses a safety risk to the public...

  10. 78 FR 28805 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for... Springfield Hatchery. Because the BPA action is substantially the same as the actions addressed by the... Hatchery Master Plan, NMFS proposes to adopt the BPA environmental assessment to comply with the...

  11. 78 FR 57372 - Availability of the Bonneville Purchasing Instructions (BPI) and Bonneville Financial Assistance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... Financial Assistance Instructions (BFAI) AGENCY: Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), DOE. ACTION: Notice... contain the policy and establish the procedures that BPA uses in the solicitation, award, and... at the following Internet address: http://www.bpa.gov/corporate/business/bpi . Copies of...

  12. 48 CFR 13.303-4 - Clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... (a) The contracting officer shall insert in each BPA the clauses prescribed elsewhere in this part that are required for or applicable to the particular BPA. (b) Unless a clause prescription specifies..., the amount to be compared to that threshold is that of any particular order under the BPA....

  13. 76 FR 59394 - Big Eddy-Knight Transmission Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... (BPA), Department of Energy (DOE). ACTION: Notice of Availability of Record of Decision (ROD). SUMMARY... Transmission Project will accommodate long-term firm transmission requests that BPA has received by increasing BPA's 500-kV transmission capability to move power from the east side of the Cascade Mountains...

  14. Human and Rat ABC Transporter Efflux of Bisphenol A and Bisphenol A Glucuronide: Interspecies Comparison and Implications for Pharmacokinetic Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Significant interspecies differences exist between human and rodent with respect to absorption, distribution, and excretion of bisphenol A (BPA) and its primary metabolite, BPA-glucuronide (BPA-G). ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) transporter enzymes play important roles in these physi...

  15. Ending a decade of deception: a valiant failure, a not-so-valiant failure, and a success story

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brooks, D.R.; Dowling, A.P.G.; Veller, van M.G.P.; Hoberg, E.P.

    2004-01-01

    Prior studies involving two methods, Brooks Parsimony Analysis (BPA) and TreeMap, have found BPA to be the more reliable method. Recent criticisms leveled at these studies argue that the tests were unfairly created and biased in favor of BPA. The authors of a recent critique offered new exemplars to

  16. Interaction of bisphenol A with dissolved organic matter in extractive and adsorptive removal processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fei-Die; Choo, Kwang-Ho; Chang, Hyun-Shik; Lee, Byunghwan

    2012-05-01

    The fate of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in natural and engineered systems is complicated due to their interactions with various water constituents. This study investigated the interaction of bisphenol A (BPA) with dissolved organic matter (DOM) and colloids present in surface water and secondary effluent as well as its adsorptive removal by powdered activated carbons. The solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) method followed by thermal desorption and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was utilized for determining the distribution of BPA molecules in water. The BPA removal by SPME decreased with the increased DOM content, where the formation of BPA-DOM complexes in an aqueous matrix was responsible for the reduced extraction of BPA. Colloidal particles in water samples sorbed BPA leading to the marked reduction of liquid phase BPA. BPA-DOM complexes had a negative impact on the adsorptive removal of BPA by powered activated carbons. The complex formation was characterized based on Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, along with the calculation of molecular interactions between BPA and functional groups in DOM. It was found that the hydrogen bonding between DOM and BPA would be preferred over aromatic interactions. A pseudo-equilibrium molecular coordination model for the complexation between a BPA molecule and a hydroxyl group of the DOM was developed, which enabled estimation of the maximum sorption site and complex formation constant as well as prediction of organic complexes at various DOM levels. PMID:22330311

  17. Bonneville Power Administration 1998 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1998-01-01

    This is the 1998 annual report to the President by the Administrator and Chief Executive Officer of the Bonneville Power Administration. The topics of the report include financial highlights, letter to the President, review of 1998, financial data, management`s discussion and analysis, performance measures, financial statements, BPA executives, BPA offices, BPA profile.

  18. Network wind power over the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewson, E W; Baker, R W; Barber, D A; Peterson, B

    1978-09-01

    Since 1975 the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has been sponsoring wind power research at Oregon State University. A feasibility study that initially concentrated on the wind power potential in the Columbia River Gorge has expanded to the BPA service area which covers Washington, Oregon, Idaho, western Montana and northern Nevada. Previous BPA reports have documented the progress of this research.

  19. 75 FR 78690 - Fiscal Year (FY) 2012-2013 Proposed Transmission Rate Adjustments Public Hearing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-16

    ... forecasting, generation inputs pricing, segmentation, revenue forecasts, load forecasts, risk analysis and... August 1995, the BPA Administrator issued a ROD (Business Plan ROD) that adopted the Market-Driven... BPA to: (1) Recover costs through rates; ] (2) competitively market BPA's products and services;...

  20. Allometric scaling for predicting human clearance of bisphenol A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigation of interspecies differences in bisphenol A (BPA) pharmacokinetics (PK) may be useful for translating findings from animal studies to humans, identifying major processes involved in BPA clearance mechanisms, and predicting BPA PK parameters in man. For the first time, a large range of species in terms of body weight, from 0.02 kg (mice) to 495 kg (horses) was used to predict BPA clearance in man by an allometric approach. BPA PK was evaluated after intravenous administration of BPA in horses, sheep, pigs, dogs, rats and mice. A non-compartmental analysis was used to estimate plasma clearance and steady state volume of distribution and predict BPA PK parameters in humans from allometric scaling. In all the species investigated, BPA plasma clearance was high and of the same order of magnitude as their respective hepatic blood flow. By an allometric scaling, the human clearance was estimated to be 1.79 L/min (equivalent to 25.6 mL/kg.min) with a 95% prediction interval of 0.36 to 8.83 L/min. Our results support the hypothesis that there are highly efficient and hepatic mechanisms of BPA clearance in man. - Highlights: • Allometric scaling was used to predict BPA pharmacokinetic parameters in humans. • In all species, BPA plasma clearance approached hepatic blood flow. • Human BPA clearance was estimated to be 1.79 L/min

  1. Highly Efficient Preparation of Bisphenol A Glucuronide%双酚A葡萄糖醛酸苷的高效制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨刚; 朱亮亮; 吕侠; 吴大畅; 夏杨柳; 马骁驰; 辛毅; 侯洁

    2014-01-01

    Bisphenol A( BPA) , an industrial chemical, has been present in many hard plastic bottles, metal-based food and beverage cans. Many governments are trying to reduce the human exposure to BPA because it is really a readily accessible toxin for human. BPA can be extensively metabolized to bisphenol A-β-O-glucu-ronide(BPA-G) by UDP-glucuronosyltransferases(UGTs), thus the biological activities of BPA-G should be studied intensively. However, the studies on BPA-G are very limited due to the difficulty for preparation of BPA-G. In this work, the BPA-G was prepared using BPA as the starting material and rat liver microsomes ( RLM) as the enzyme source. A series of orthogonal experiments was designed and performed to determine the optimal reaction conditions for BPA glucuronidation in RLM. After incubation under the optimal reaction conditions, the conversion of BPA was higher than 98%. A unique solid-phase extraction column ( SPE ) packed with C18 WAX was used to enrich and purify the product BPA-G with high yield. Finally, the product was identified by both ESI-MS and NMR techniques.%采用鼠肝微粒体(RLM)生物转化法,利用正交实验在体外实现了双酚A(BPA)向双酚A葡萄糖醛酸苷( BPA-G)的高效转化,同时借助新型色谱分离材料C18 WAX及固相萃取技术实现了BPA-G的高效富集与纯化,并对产物进行了结构表征。

  2. Sex differences in the adult HPA axis and affective behaviors are altered by perinatal exposure to a low dose of bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fang; Zhou, Libin; Bai, Yinyang; Zhou, Rong; Chen, Ling

    2014-07-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), an estrogen-mimicking endocrine disrupter, when administered perinatally can affect affective behaviors in adult rodents, however the underlying mechanisms remain largely unclear. Postnatal day (PND) 80 vehicle-injected control female rats showed more obvious depression- and anxiety-like behaviors than males, indicative of sexually dimorphic affective behaviors. When female breeders were subcutaneously injected with BPA (2µg/kg) from gestation day 10 to lactation day 7, sex difference of affective behaviors was impaired in their offspring (PND80 BPA-rats), as results that female BPA-rats showed a visible "antianxiety-like" behavior, and male BPA-rats increased depression-like behavior compared to vehicle-injected controls. Notably, basal levels of serum corticosterone and adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), and corticotropin-releasing hormone mRNA were increased in male BPA-rats, but not in female BPA-rats, in comparison with vehicle-injected controls. Following mild-stressor the elevation of corticosterone or ACTH levels was higher in male BPA-rats, whereas it was lower in female BPA-rats than vehicle-injected controls. In comparison with vehicle-injected controls, the level of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mRNA in hippocampus or hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus was increased in female BPA-rats, while decreased in male BPA-rats. In addition, the levels of hippocampal mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) mRNA, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and phospho-cAMP response element binding protein (p-CREB) were increased in female BPA-rats, but were decreased in male BPA-rats. Furthermore, the testosterone level was reduced in male BPA-rats. The results indicate that the perinatal exposure to BPA through altering the GR and MR expression disrupts the GR-mediated feedback of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and MR-induced nNOS-CREB signaling, which alters sex difference in affective behaviors. PMID:24857958

  3. Process evaluation of the Bonneville Power Administration Residential Weatherization Pilot Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerman, D.I.; Bronfman, B.H.; Tonn, B.

    1983-10-01

    An evaluation of the BPA Residential Weatherization Pilot Program is described. Data for this report were gathered at the eleven public utilities participating in the program, at the BPA area and district offices serving these utilities, and at BPA headquarters. This process evaluation of the Pilot Program documents the history of the program, outlines the implementation strategies adopted by the Pilot utilities, describes the role of the BPA area and district offices in the program, and indicates what was learned by BPA and the utilities in the period the program operated.

  4. Final Draft Strategic Marketing Plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-02-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has developed a marketing plan to define how BPA can be viable and competitive in the future, a result important to BPA`s customers and constituents. The Marketing Plan represents the preferred customer outcomes, marketplace achievements, and competitive advantage required to accomplish the Vision and the Strategic Business Objectives of the agency. The Marketing Plan contributes to successful implementation of BPA`s Strategic Business Objectives (SBOs) by providing common guidance to organizations and activities throughout the agency responsible for (1) planning, constructing, operating, and maintaining the Federal Columbia River Power System; (2) conducting business with BPA`s customers; and (3) providing required internal support services.

  5. Low-Dose Bisphenol-A Impairs Adipogenesis and Generates Dysfunctional 3T3-L1 Adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariemma, Fabiana; D'Esposito, Vittoria; Liguoro, Domenico; Oriente, Francesco; Cabaro, Serena; Liotti, Antonietta; Cimmino, Ilaria; Longo, Michele; Beguinot, Francesco; Formisano, Pietro; Valentino, Rossella

    2016-01-01

    Environmental endocrine disruptors (EDCs), including bisphenol-A (BPA), have been recently involved in obesity and diabetes by dysregulating adipose tissue function. Our aim was to examine whether prolonged exposure to low doses of BPA could affect adipogenesis and adipocyte metabolic functions. Therefore, 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes were cultured for three weeks with BPA 1 nM to mimic human environmental exposure. We evaluated BPA effect on cell proliferation, differentiation, gene expression and adipocyte metabolic function. BPA significantly increased pre-adipocyte proliferation (pdevelopment, may cause adipocyte metabolic dysfunction and inflammation, thereby increasing the risk of developing obesity-related diseases. PMID:26942597

  6. Xenoestrogens: the emerging story of bisphenol a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Jonathan, N; Steinmetz, R

    1998-04-01

    Xenoestrogens are chemicals with diverse structure that mimic estrogen. Bisphenol A (BPA), a monomer of polycarbonate and epoxy resins, has been detected in canned food and human saliva. BPA stimulates cell proliferation and induces expression of estrogen-responsive genes in vitro, albeit with a relatively low potency. In vivo, BPA increases prolactin release and stimulates uterine, vaginal and mammary growth and differentiation. BPA shares similarities in structure, metabolism and action with diethylstilbestrol (DES), a known human teratogen and carcinogen. This review considers the hypothesis that BPA is converted in vivo to hydroxylated metabolite(s) with enhanced estrogenicity and genotoxicity. PMID:18406253

  7. Phytodegradation potential of bisphenolA from aqueous solution by Azolla Filiculoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazouli, Mohammad Ali; Mahdavi, Yousef; Bazrafshan, Edris; Balarak, Davoud

    2014-01-01

    Many organic hazardous pollutants such as bisphenolA (BPA) which are toxic and not easily biodegradable can concerns for environmental pollution worldwide. The objective of this study was to examine whether Azolla Filiculoides is able to remove BPA from aqueous solutions. In this study, the Azolla with different biomass (0.3, 0.6, 0.9, 1.2 g) has been cultured in solution that was contained 5, 10, 25 and 50 ppm BPA. Samples were collected every 2 days from all of containers. The analytical determination of BPA was performed by using of DR4000 uv-visible at λmax = 276 nm. The results indicated that Azolla has high ability to remove BPA from aqueous solutions. The BPA removal was 60-90%. The removal efficiency is increasing with decreasing of BPA concentration and increasing of biomass amount and vice versa. The removal efficiency was more than 90% when BPA concentration was 5 ppm and amount of biomass was 0.9gr. It is concluded that Azolla able remove BPA by Phytodegradation from the aqueous solutions. Since conventional methods of BPA removal need to high cost and energy, phytoremediation by Azolla as a natural treatment system can decrease those issues and it can be a useful and beneficial method to removal of BPA. PMID:24693863

  8. The Effects of Bisphenol A Exposure at Different Developmental Time Points in an Androgen-Sensitive Neuromuscular System in Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Bryan A; Wagner, Lydia S; Watson, Neil V

    2016-08-01

    The industrial plasticizer bisphenol A (BPA) is a ubiquitous endocrine disruptor to which the general human population is routinely exposed. Although BPA is well known as an estrogenic mimic, there have been some suggestions that this compound may also alter activity at the androgen receptor. To determine whether BPA does have antiandrogenic properties, we evaluated BPA effects in the spinal nucleus of the bulbocavernosus and dorsolateral nucleus, sexually dimorphic groups of motor neurons in the lumbar spinal cord that are critically dependent on androgens for survival and maintenance, as well as the monomorphic retrodorsolateral nucleus. In experiment 1, we administered varying concentrations of BPA to juvenile rats pre- and postnatally and examined both the number and size of motor neurons in adulthood. In experiment 2, different doses of BPA were given to adult rats for 28 days, after which the soma size of motor neurons were measured. Although no effect of BPA on neural survival or soma size was noted after perinatal BPA exposure, BPA exposure did result in a decrease in soma size in all motor neuron pools after chronic exposure in adulthood. These findings are discussed with regard to putative antiandrogenic effects of BPA; we argue that BPA is not antiandrogenic but is acting through nonandrogen receptor-dependent mechanisms. PMID:27022676

  9. An endocrine disruptor, bisphenol A, affects development in the protochordate Ciona intestinalis: Hatching rates and swimming behavior alter in a dose-dependent manner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely used industrially to produce polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. Numerous studies document the harmful effects caused by low-dose BPA exposure especially on nervous systems and behavior in experimental animals such as mice and rats. Here, we exposed embryos of a model chordate, Ciona intestinalis, to seawater containing BPA to evaluate adverse effects on embryonic development and on the swimming behavior of subsequent larvae. Ciona is ideal because its larva develops rapidly and has few cells. The rate of larval hatching decreased in a dose-dependent manner with exposures to BPA above 3 μM; swimming behavior was also affected in larvae emerging from embryos exposed to 1 μM BPA. Adverse effects were most severe on fertilized eggs exposed to BPA within 7 h post-fertilization. Ciona shares twelve nuclear receptors with mammals, and BPA is proposed to disturb the physiological functions of one or more of these. - Highlights: ► Embryos of Ciona intestinalis were exposed to BPA to evaluate its developmental effects. ► The rate of larval hatching decreased in a dose-dependent manner. ► Swimming behavior was affected in larvae that emerge from embryos exposed to 1 μM BPA. ► Our findings will support a new strategy to analyze the developmental effects induced by BPA. - Exposure of fertilized Ciona embryos to BPA decreased their hatch rate in a dose-dependent manner and led to abnormal larval swimming behavior.

  10. Modulation of cytokine expression in human macrophages by endocrine-disrupting chemical Bisphenol-A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Effects of BPA on the cytokines expression of human macrophages were investigated. • BPA increased pro-inflammation cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 production. • BPA decreased anti-inflammation IL-10 and TGF-β production. • ERα/β/ERK/NF-κB signaling involved in BPA-mediated cytokines expression. - Abstract: Exposure to environmental endocrine-disrupting chemical Bisphenol-A (BPA) is often associated with dysregulated immune homeostasis, but the mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, the effects of BPA on the cytokines responses of human macrophages were investigated. Treatment with BPA increased pro-inflammation cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) production, but decreased anti-inflammation cytokines interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) production in THP1 macrophages, as well as in primary human macrophages. BPA effected cytokines expression through estrogen receptor α/β (ERα/β)-dependent mechanism with the evidence of ERα/β antagonist reversed the expression of cytokines. We also identified that activation of extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK)/nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signal cascade marked the effects of BPA on cytokines expression. Our results indicated that BPA effected inflammatory responses of macrophages via modulating of cytokines expression, and provided a new insight into the link between exposure to BPA and human health

  11. Effect of bisphenol A on P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux and ultrastructure of the sea urchin embryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Effects of BPA on embryonic development of Paracentrotus lividus were determined. • Transport assay, intracellular BPA measurements and gene expression surveys were made. • Multidrug efflux transporter P-gp/ABCB1 is involved in BPA elimination. • Endocrine disruption is inferred by orphan steroid hormone receptor (shr2) upregulation. • BPA delayed mitosis, inducing aberrant karyokinesis and dysfunctional microfilaments. - Abstract: Usage of bisphenol A (BPA) in production of polycarbonate plastics has resulted in global distribution of BPA in the environment. These high concentrations cause numerous negative effects to the aquatic biota, among which the most known is the induction of endocrine disruption. The focus of this research was to determine the effects of two experimentally determined concentrations of BPA (100 nM and 4 μM) on cellular detoxification mechanisms during the embryonic development (2-cell, pluteus) of the rocky sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus), primarily the potential involvement of multidrug efflux transport in the BPA intercellular efflux. The results of transport assay, measurements of the intracellular BPA and gene expression surveys, for the first time indicate the importance of P-glycoprotein (P-gp/ABCB1) in defense against BPA. Cytotoxic effects of BPA, validated by the immunohistochemistry (IHC) and the transmission electron microscopy (TEM), induced the aberrant karyokinesis, and consequently, the impairment of embryo development through the first cell division and retardation

  12. Effect of bisphenol A on P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux and ultrastructure of the sea urchin embryo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bošnjak, Ivana [Laboratory for Biology and Microbial Genetics, Department of Biochemical Engineering, Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology, Pierottijeva 6, Zagreb (Croatia); Borra, Marco [Molecular Biology Service, Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale 80121, Napoli (Italy); Iamunno, Franco; Benvenuto, Giovanna [Electron Microscopy Service, Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale 80121, Napoli (Italy); Ujević, Ivana [Laboratory of Plankton and Shellfish Toxicity, Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Setaliste Ivana Mestrovica 63, 21000 Split (Croatia); Bušelić, Ivana [Laboratory for Aquaculture, Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Setaliste Ivana Mestrovica 63, 21000 Split (Croatia); Roje-Busatto, Romana [Laboratory of Plankton and Shellfish Toxicity, Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Setaliste Ivana Mestrovica 63, 21000 Split (Croatia); Mladineo, Ivona, E-mail: mladineo@izor.hr [Laboratory for Aquaculture, Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Setaliste Ivana Mestrovica 63, 21000 Split (Croatia); Assemble Marine Laboratory, Stazione Zoological Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, Naples (Italy)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Effects of BPA on embryonic development of Paracentrotus lividus were determined. • Transport assay, intracellular BPA measurements and gene expression surveys were made. • Multidrug efflux transporter P-gp/ABCB1 is involved in BPA elimination. • Endocrine disruption is inferred by orphan steroid hormone receptor (shr2) upregulation. • BPA delayed mitosis, inducing aberrant karyokinesis and dysfunctional microfilaments. - Abstract: Usage of bisphenol A (BPA) in production of polycarbonate plastics has resulted in global distribution of BPA in the environment. These high concentrations cause numerous negative effects to the aquatic biota, among which the most known is the induction of endocrine disruption. The focus of this research was to determine the effects of two experimentally determined concentrations of BPA (100 nM and 4 μM) on cellular detoxification mechanisms during the embryonic development (2-cell, pluteus) of the rocky sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus), primarily the potential involvement of multidrug efflux transport in the BPA intercellular efflux. The results of transport assay, measurements of the intracellular BPA and gene expression surveys, for the first time indicate the importance of P-glycoprotein (P-gp/ABCB1) in defense against BPA. Cytotoxic effects of BPA, validated by the immunohistochemistry (IHC) and the transmission electron microscopy (TEM), induced the aberrant karyokinesis, and consequently, the impairment of embryo development through the first cell division and retardation.

  13. Impact of gestational bisphenol A on oxidative stress and free fatty acids: Human association and interspecies animal testing studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Pennathur, Subramaniam; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Patisaul, Heather B; Dolinoy, Dana C; Zeng, Lixia; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2015-03-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high production volume chemical and an endocrine disruptor. Developmental exposures to BPA have been linked to adult metabolic pathologies, but the pathways through which these disruptions occur remain unknown. This is a comprehensive interspecies association vs causal study to evaluate risks posed by prenatal BPA exposure and to facilitate discovery of biomarkers of relevance to BPA toxicity. Samples from human pregnancies during the first trimester and at term, as well as fetal and/or adult samples from prenatally BPA-treated sheep, rats, and mice, were collected to assess the impact of BPA on free fatty acid and oxidative stress dynamics. Mothers exposed to higher BPA during early to midpregnancy and their matching term cord samples displayed increased 3-nitrotyrosine (NY), a marker of nitrosative stress. Maternal samples had increased palmitic acid, which was positively correlated with NY. Sheep fetuses and adult sheep and rats prenatally exposed to a human-relevant exposure dose of BPA showed increased systemic nitrosative stress. The strongest effect of BPA on circulating free fatty acids was observed in adult mice in the absence of increased oxidative stress. This is the first multispecies study that combines human association and animal causal studies assessing the risk posed by prenatal BPA exposure to metabolic health. This study provides evidence of the induction of nitrosative stress by prenatal BPA in both the mother and fetus at time of birth and is thus supportive of the use of maternal NY as a biomarker for offspring health. PMID:25603046

  14. Maternal Transfer of Bisphenol A During Nursing Causes Sperm Impairment in Male Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalb, Ana Cristina; Kalb, Ana Luiza; Cardoso, Tainã Figueiredo; Fernandes, Cristina Gevehr; Corcini, Carine Dahl; Varela Junior, Antonio Sergio; Martínez, Pablo Elías

    2016-05-01

    The health effects of environmental chemicals on animals and humans are of growing concern. Human epidemiological and animal study data indicate that reproductive disorders and diseases begin early during prenatal and postnatal development. An increase of human male reproductive disturbance in the past several decades was associated to chemicals called endocrine disruptors (ED). Bisphenol A (BPA) is a ubiquitous organic environmental contaminant with ED activity. This study verified the effect of BPA exposure via breast milk during the lactation (early postnatal) period in male mice. Dams were exposed to oral BPA (300, 900, and 3000 µg/kg/BW/day) during the breastfeeding period (21 days). BPA at all concentrations significantly impaired sperm parameters in adult mice (8 months old), but mitochondrial functionality was more affected at BPA 3000. The acrosome membrane parameter was affected by BPA concentrations from 900 to 3000, and DNA integrity showed pronounced impairment at BPA 900 and 3000. BPA 3000 treatment also induced testicular degeneration and complete aplasia in some seminiferous tubules. Testicular oxidative damage was observed, and the total antioxidant capacity was impaired in BPA 900 and 3000 treatment groups. Taken together, the present study demonstrated long-term adverse effects of BPA in male mice, including reduced sperm quality, antioxidant capacity, and changes in testicular tissue. Our results clearly demonstrate the danger of BPA transferred via lactation on sperm quality registered even after a long time-elapsed from exposure to this harmful chemical. PMID:26250451

  15. Modulation of cytokine expression in human macrophages by endocrine-disrupting chemical Bisphenol-A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yanzhen; Mei, Chenfang [State Key Laboratory of Applied Microbiology Southern China, Guangzhou 510070 (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Microbial Culture Collection and Application, Guangdong Institute of Microbiology, Guangzhou 510070 (China); Liu, Hao [Affiliated Cancer Hospital and Cancer Research Institute, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 510095 (China); Wang, Hongsheng [Department of Microbial and Biochemical Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Zeng, Guoqu; Lin, Jianhui [State Key Laboratory of Applied Microbiology Southern China, Guangzhou 510070 (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Microbial Culture Collection and Application, Guangdong Institute of Microbiology, Guangzhou 510070 (China); Xu, Meiying, E-mail: xumy@gdim.cn [State Key Laboratory of Applied Microbiology Southern China, Guangzhou 510070 (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Microbial Culture Collection and Application, Guangdong Institute of Microbiology, Guangzhou 510070 (China)

    2014-09-05

    Highlights: • Effects of BPA on the cytokines expression of human macrophages were investigated. • BPA increased pro-inflammation cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 production. • BPA decreased anti-inflammation IL-10 and TGF-β production. • ERα/β/ERK/NF-κB signaling involved in BPA-mediated cytokines expression. - Abstract: Exposure to environmental endocrine-disrupting chemical Bisphenol-A (BPA) is often associated with dysregulated immune homeostasis, but the mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, the effects of BPA on the cytokines responses of human macrophages were investigated. Treatment with BPA increased pro-inflammation cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) production, but decreased anti-inflammation cytokines interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) production in THP1 macrophages, as well as in primary human macrophages. BPA effected cytokines expression through estrogen receptor α/β (ERα/β)-dependent mechanism with the evidence of ERα/β antagonist reversed the expression of cytokines. We also identified that activation of extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK)/nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signal cascade marked the effects of BPA on cytokines expression. Our results indicated that BPA effected inflammatory responses of macrophages via modulating of cytokines expression, and provided a new insight into the link between exposure to BPA and human health.

  16. Estrogen-related receptor γ is an in vivo receptor of bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohmé, Marie; Prud'homme, Sophie M; Boulahtouf, Abdel; Samarut, Eric; Brunet, Frédéric; Bernard, Laure; Bourguet, William; Gibert, Yann; Balaguer, Patrick; Laudet, Vincent

    2014-07-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disruptor that displays estrogenic activity. Several reports suggest that BPA may have estrogen receptor-independent effects. In zebrafish, 50 μM BPA exposure induces otic vesicle abnormalities, including otolith aggregation. The purpose of this study was to test if BPA action was mediated in vivo during zebrafish development by the orphan nuclear estrogen related receptor (ERR) γ. Combining pharmacological and functional approaches, we demonstrate that the zebrafish ERRγ mediates BPA-induced malformations in otoliths. Using different bisphenol derivatives, we show that different compounds can induce a similar otolith phenotype than BPA and that the binding affinity of these derivatives to the zebrafish ERRγ correlates with their ability to induce otolith malformations. Morpholino knockdown of ERRγ function suppresses the BPA effect on otoliths whereas overexpression of ERRγ led to a BPA-like otolith phenotype. Moreover, a subphenotypical dose of BPA (1 μM) combined with ERRγ overexpression led to a full-dose (50 μM) BPA otolith phenotype. We therefore conclude that ERRγ mediates the otic vesicle phenotype generated by BPA. Our results suggest that the range of pathways perturbed by this compound and its potential harmful effect are larger than expected.-Tohmé, M., Prud'homme, S. M., Boulahtouf, A., Samarut, E., Brunet, F., Bernard, L., Bourguet, W., Gibert, Y., Balaguer, P., Laudet, V. Estrogen-related receptor γ is an in vivo receptor of bisphenol A. PMID:24744145

  17. Bullous pemphigoid antigen localization suggests an intracellular association with hemidesmosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westgate, G E; Weaver, A C; Couchman, J R

    1985-01-01

    Autoantibodies to a normal component of stratified squamous epithelia, the bullous pemphigoid antigen (BPA), are synthesized in patients with the disease bullous pemphigoid. We have used these sera to study the distribution of BPA in vivo and in vitro. At low magnification, indirect...... immunofluorescent staining for BPA is linear at the basement membrane zone (BMZ) of skin and many other epithelial tissues. At higher magnification however, we observed a punctate staining pattern for BPA which was regular in appearance and suggested localization of BPA to discrete structures at the BMZ. Subsequent...... immunoelectron microscopy using both peroxidase and colloidal gold labeling techniques with patients' sera or IgG, revealed that BPA is associated with hemidesmosomes--putative adhesion structures at the BMZ, based on their similarity in ultrastructure to desmosomes. More specifically BPA was immunolocalized...

  18. Placental transport and in vitro effects of Bisphenol A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Thit J; Sorda, Giuseppina; Bechi, Nicoletta;

    2010-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), an estrogen-like chemical, leaches from consumer products potentially causing human exposure. To examine the effects of BPA exposure during pregnancy, we performed studies using the BeWo trophoblast cell line, placental explant cultures, placental perfusions and skin diffusion...... models, all of human origin. Results showed BPA cytotoxicity in BeWo cells with an apparent EC50 at 100-125muM. BPA exposure significantly increased beta-hCG secretion and caspase-3 expression in placental explants at an environmentally relevant concentration of 1nM. In the transport studies, a rapid...... transfer of BPA was observed across the term placentae and the BeWo cell monolayer. Further, transdermal transport of BPA was observed. These results indicate that fetal BPA exposure through placental exchange occurs with potential adverse implications for placental and fetal development. This battery...

  19. Photodegradation of bisphenol A in simulated lake water containing algae, humic acid and ferric ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The photodegradation of bisphenol A (BPA), a suspected endocrine disruptor (ED), in simulated lake water containing algae, humic acid and Fe3+ ions was investigated. Algae, humic acid and Fe3+ ions enhanced the photodegradation of BPA. Photodegradation efficiency of BPA was 36% after 4 h irradiation in the presence of 6.5 x 109 cells L-1 raw Chlorella vulgaris, 4 mg L-1 humic acid and 20 μmol L-1 Fe3+. The photodegradation efficiency of BPA was higher in the presence of algae treated with ultrasonic than that without ultrasonic. The photodegradation efficiency of BPA in the water only containing algae treated with ultrasonic was 37% after 4 h irradiation. The algae treated with heating can also enhance the photodegradation of BPA. This work helps environmental scientists to understand the photochemical behavior of BPA in lake water. - Algae, humic acid and ferric ions can induce the photodegradation of bisphenol A in an aqueous environment

  20. Wildlife Mitigation Program. Record of Decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has decided to adopt a set of Descriptions (goals, strategies, and procedural requirements) that apply to future BPA-funded wildlife mitigation projects. Various. sources-including Indian tribes, state agencies, property owners, private conservation groups, or other Federal agencies-propose wildlife mitigation projects to the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) for BPA funding. Following independent scientific and public reviews, Council then selects projects to recommend for BPA funding. BPA adopts this set of prescriptions to standardize the planning and implementation of individual wildlife mitigation projects. This decision is based on consideration of potential environmental impacts evaluated in BPA's Wildlife Mitigation Program Final Environmental Impact Statement (DOE/EIS-0246) published March, 20, 1997, and filed with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) the week of March 24, 1997 (EPA Notice of Availability Published April 4, 1997, 62 FR 65, 16154). BPA will distribute this Record of Decision to all known interested and affected persons, groups, tribes, and agencies

  1. Bisphenol A in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio González-Parra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenols are uremic toxins of intestinal origin formed by bacteria during protein metabolism. Of these molecules, p-cresol is the most studied and has been associated with renal function impairment and vascular damage. Bisphenol A (BPA is a molecule with structural similarity with phenols found in plastic food and beverage containers as well as in some dialyzers. BPA is considered an environmental toxicant based on animal and cell culture studies. Japanese authorities recently banned BPA use in baby bottles based on observational association studies in newborns. BPA is excreted in urine and uremic patients present higher serum levels, but there is insufficient evidence to set cut-off levels or to link BPA to any harmful effect in CKD. However, the renal elimination and potential exposure during dialysis warrant the monitoring of BPA exposure and the design of observational studies in which the potential health risks of BPA for end-stage renal disease patients are evaluated.

  2. Boron neutron capture therapy of glioblastoma multiforme using the p- boronophenylalanine-fructose complex and epithermal neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amino acid analogue p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) is under investigation as a neutron capture agent for BNCT of glioblastoma multiforme. A series of patients undergoing surgical removal of tumor received BPA orally as the free amino acid. Favorable tumor/blood boron concentration ratios were obtained but the absolute amount of boron in the tumor would have been insufficient for BNCT. BPA can be solubilized at neutral pH by complexation with fructose (BPA-F). Studies with rats suggest that intraperitoneal injection of BPA-F complex produces a much higher tumor boron concentration to rat intracerebral 9L gliosarcoma that were possible with oral BPA. Higher boron concentrations have allowed higher tumor radiation doses to be delivered while maintaining the dose to the normal brain vascular endothelium below the threshold of tolerance. The experience to date of the administration of BPA-F to one patient is provided in this report

  3. Microarray analysis of differentially expressed gene responses to bisphenol A in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yong-Sheng; Jin, Xiao-Fen; Fu, Xiao-Yan; Zhao, Wei; Han, Hong-Juan; Zhu, Bo; Liu, Man-; Yao, Quan-Hong

    2014-08-01

    Environmental levels of bisphenol A (BPA) are a global concern because the compound can cause damage to reproductive organs, the thyroid gland, and brain tissues at developmental stages. Plants are important in removing BPA from the atmosphere, soil, and water. However, knowledge on the mechanism by which plants respond to this compound is limited. To determine the response mechanism of plants to BPA, we used a microarray system to analyze the gene expression patterns of Arabidopsis thaliana after irrigation with 3.0 mM BPA. We identified 651 genes that were differentially expressed upregulated and 470 genes that were downregulated by BPA. These genes may specifically contribute to BPA uptake, transformation, conjugation, and compartmentation in plants. The potential function of upregulated genes in plant defense against BPA was also determined. PMID:25056792

  4. Concurrent determination of bisphenol A pharmacokinetics in maternal and fetal rhesus monkeys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, Tucker A. [Division of Neurotoxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Twaddle, Nathan C. [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Roegge, Cindy S. [Division of Neurotoxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Callicott, Ralph J. [U.S. Food and Drug Administration and Priority One Services Corp, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Fisher, Jeffrey W. [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Doerge, Daniel R., E-mail: daniel.doerge@fda.hhs.gov [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an important industrial chemical used as the monomer for polycarbonate plastic and in epoxy resins for food can liners. Worldwide biomonitoring studies consistently find a high prevalence of BPA conjugates in urine (> 90%) in amounts consistent with aggregate exposure at levels below 1 μg/kg bw/d. The current study used LC/MS/MS to measure concurrently the pharmacokinetics of aglycone (active) and conjugated (inactive) deuterated BPA (d6) in maternal and fetal rhesus monkey serum, amniotic fluid, and placenta following intravenous injection in the dam (100 μg/kg bw). Internal exposures of the fetus to aglycone d6-BPA (serum AUC) were attenuated by maternal, placental, and fetal Phase II metabolism to less than half that in the dam. Levels of aglycone and conjugated d6-BPA measured in whole placenta were consistent with a role in metabolic detoxification. The monotonic elimination of aglycone d6-BPA from the fetal compartment accompanied by persistent conjugate levels provides further evidence arguing against the hypothesis that BPA conjugates are selectively deconjugated by either the placenta or fetus. These results also provide benchmarks to guide the interpretation of human cord blood, amniotic fluid, and placenta sampling and measurement strategies as a basis for estimating fetal exposures to BPA. This study in a non-human primate model provides additional pharmacokinetic data for use in PBPK modeling of perinatal exposures to BPA from food contact, medical devices, and other environmental sources. - Highlights: ► Maternal, placental, and fetal Phase II metabolism attenuate fetal exposure to BPA. ► Serum AUC for aglycone BPA in fetal monkeys is less than half of that in the dam. ► BPA profiles in monkey fetus rule out selective deconjugation and accumulation. ► BPA levels in monkey placenta are similar to other metabolically active tissues. ► Some published human cord blood data for BPA are inconsistent with these measurements.

  5. In vitro study on the agonistic and antagonistic activities of bisphenol-S and other bisphenol-A congeners and derivatives via nuclear receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisphenols are a group of chemicals structurally similar to bisphenol-A (BPA) in current use as the primary raw material in the production of polycarbonate and epoxy resins. Some bisphenols are intended to replace BPA in several industrial applications. This is the case of bisphenol-S (BPS), which has an excellent stability at high temperature and resistance to sunlight. Studies on the endocrine properties of BPS have focused on its interaction with human estrogen receptor alpha (hERα), but information on its interaction with other nuclear receptors is scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate interactions of BPS, BPF, BPA and its halogenated derivatives, tetrachlorobisphenol A (TCBPA), and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), with human estrogen receptors (hERα and hERβ), androgen receptor (hAR), and pregnane X receptor (hPXR), using a panel of in vitro bioassays based on competitive binding to nuclear receptors (NRs), reporter gene expression, and cell proliferation assessment. BPS, BPF, and BPA efficiently activated both ERs, while TCBPA behaved as weak hERα agonist. Unlike BPF and BPA, BPS was more active in the hERβ versus hERα assay. BPF and BPA were full hAR antagonists (BPA > BPF), whereas BPA and BPS were weak hAR agonists. Only BPA, TCBPA, and TBBPA, were hPXR agonists (TCBPA > TBBPA > BPA). These findings provide evidence that BPA congeners and derivatives disrupt multiple NRs and may therefore interfere with the endocrine system. Hence, further research is needed to evaluate the potential endocrine-disrupting activity of putative BPA substitutes. - Highlights: • We investigated the agonist/antagonist activities of BPS, BPF, BPA, TCBPA and TBBPA. • The direct interaction of these compounds with hERα, hERβ, hAR and hPXR was studied. • BPA congeners and derivatives were found to disrupt multiple NRs. • Further evaluation of their role as endocrine-disrupting chemicals is needed

  6. In vitro study on the agonistic and antagonistic activities of bisphenol-S and other bisphenol-A congeners and derivatives via nuclear receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina-Molina, José-Manuel, E-mail: molinajm@ugr.es [Laboratory of Medical Investigations, San Cecilio University Hospital, University of Granada, Cíber en Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Granada E-18071 (Spain); Amaya, Esperanza [Laboratory of Medical Investigations, San Cecilio University Hospital, University of Granada, Cíber en Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Granada E-18071 (Spain); Grimaldi, Marina [INSERM, U896, Montpellier F-34298 (France); Université de Montpellier I, Montpellier F-34298 (France); Sáenz, José-María; Real, Macarena; Fernández, Mariana F. [Laboratory of Medical Investigations, San Cecilio University Hospital, University of Granada, Cíber en Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Granada E-18071 (Spain); Balaguer, Patrick [INSERM, U896, Montpellier F-34298 (France); Université de Montpellier I, Montpellier F-34298 (France); Olea, Nicolás [Laboratory of Medical Investigations, San Cecilio University Hospital, University of Granada, Cíber en Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Granada E-18071 (Spain)

    2013-10-01

    Bisphenols are a group of chemicals structurally similar to bisphenol-A (BPA) in current use as the primary raw material in the production of polycarbonate and epoxy resins. Some bisphenols are intended to replace BPA in several industrial applications. This is the case of bisphenol-S (BPS), which has an excellent stability at high temperature and resistance to sunlight. Studies on the endocrine properties of BPS have focused on its interaction with human estrogen receptor alpha (hERα), but information on its interaction with other nuclear receptors is scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate interactions of BPS, BPF, BPA and its halogenated derivatives, tetrachlorobisphenol A (TCBPA), and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), with human estrogen receptors (hERα and hERβ), androgen receptor (hAR), and pregnane X receptor (hPXR), using a panel of in vitro bioassays based on competitive binding to nuclear receptors (NRs), reporter gene expression, and cell proliferation assessment. BPS, BPF, and BPA efficiently activated both ERs, while TCBPA behaved as weak hERα agonist. Unlike BPF and BPA, BPS was more active in the hERβ versus hERα assay. BPF and BPA were full hAR antagonists (BPA > BPF), whereas BPA and BPS were weak hAR agonists. Only BPA, TCBPA, and TBBPA, were hPXR agonists (TCBPA > TBBPA > BPA). These findings provide evidence that BPA congeners and derivatives disrupt multiple NRs and may therefore interfere with the endocrine system. Hence, further research is needed to evaluate the potential endocrine-disrupting activity of putative BPA substitutes. - Highlights: • We investigated the agonist/antagonist activities of BPS, BPF, BPA, TCBPA and TBBPA. • The direct interaction of these compounds with hERα, hERβ, hAR and hPXR was studied. • BPA congeners and derivatives were found to disrupt multiple NRs. • Further evaluation of their role as endocrine-disrupting chemicals is needed.

  7. Concurrent determination of bisphenol A pharmacokinetics in maternal and fetal rhesus monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an important industrial chemical used as the monomer for polycarbonate plastic and in epoxy resins for food can liners. Worldwide biomonitoring studies consistently find a high prevalence of BPA conjugates in urine (> 90%) in amounts consistent with aggregate exposure at levels below 1 μg/kg bw/d. The current study used LC/MS/MS to measure concurrently the pharmacokinetics of aglycone (active) and conjugated (inactive) deuterated BPA (d6) in maternal and fetal rhesus monkey serum, amniotic fluid, and placenta following intravenous injection in the dam (100 μg/kg bw). Internal exposures of the fetus to aglycone d6-BPA (serum AUC) were attenuated by maternal, placental, and fetal Phase II metabolism to less than half that in the dam. Levels of aglycone and conjugated d6-BPA measured in whole placenta were consistent with a role in metabolic detoxification. The monotonic elimination of aglycone d6-BPA from the fetal compartment accompanied by persistent conjugate levels provides further evidence arguing against the hypothesis that BPA conjugates are selectively deconjugated by either the placenta or fetus. These results also provide benchmarks to guide the interpretation of human cord blood, amniotic fluid, and placenta sampling and measurement strategies as a basis for estimating fetal exposures to BPA. This study in a non-human primate model provides additional pharmacokinetic data for use in PBPK modeling of perinatal exposures to BPA from food contact, medical devices, and other environmental sources. - Highlights: ► Maternal, placental, and fetal Phase II metabolism attenuate fetal exposure to BPA. ► Serum AUC for aglycone BPA in fetal monkeys is less than half of that in the dam. ► BPA profiles in monkey fetus rule out selective deconjugation and accumulation. ► BPA levels in monkey placenta are similar to other metabolically active tissues. ► Some published human cord blood data for BPA are inconsistent with these measurements

  8. Exposure to bisphenol-A during pregnancy partially mimics the effects of a high-fat diet altering glucose homeostasis and gene expression in adult male mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta García-Arevalo

    Full Text Available Bisphenol-A (BPA is one of the most widespread EDCs used as a base compound in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastics. The aim of our research has been to study how the exposure to BPA during pregnancy affects weight, glucose homeostasis, pancreatic β-cell function and gene expression in the major peripheral organs that control energy flux: white adipose tissue (WAT, the liver and skeletal muscle, in male offspring 17 and 28 weeks old. Pregnant mice were treated with a subcutaneous injection of 10 µg/kg/day of BPA or a vehicle from day 9 to 16 of pregnancy. One month old offspring were divided into four different groups: vehicle treated mice that ate a normal chow diet (Control group; BPA treated mice that also ate a normal chow diet (BPA; vehicle treated animals that had a high fat diet (HFD and BPA treated animals that were fed HFD (HFD-BPA. The BPA group started to gain weight at 18 weeks old and caught up to the HFD group before week 28. The BPA group as well as the HFD and HFD-BPA ones presented fasting hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance and high levels of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA in plasma compared with the Control one. Glucose stimulated insulin release was disrupted, particularly in the HFD-BPA group. In WAT, the mRNA expression of the genes involved in fatty acid metabolism, Srebpc1, Pparα and Cpt1β was decreased by BPA to the same extent as with the HFD treatment. BPA treatment upregulated Pparγ and Prkaa1 genes in the liver; yet it diminished the expression of Cd36. Hepatic triglyceride levels were increased in all groups compared to control. In conclusion, male offspring from BPA-treated mothers presented symptoms of diabesity. This term refers to a form of diabetes which typically develops in later life and is associated with obesity.

  9. PROCESS STUDY ON DEPHENOLIZATION OF BPA-PHENOL ADDUCT BY SOLID DECOMPOSITION REACTION%双酚A-苯酚加合物固相分解反应脱酚的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宗章; 张敏华; 李传兆; 钱胜华; 谈遒

    1999-01-01

    The process condition of dephenolization of bisphenol A-phenol adduct is studied,by using the solid decomposition reaction on the basis of thermodynamic property of bisphenol A-phenol and the kinetics of solid decomposition reaction.The process condition is proposed with high quality bisphenol A product.A new method of dephenolization in the production of bisphenol A is developed.

  10. PSD-BPA与PSS/E暂态稳定数学模型比较%Comparison of Mathematical Models for Transient Stability between PSD-BPA and PSS/E

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩松; 徐政; 吴小辰; 金小明

    2010-01-01

    对中国电力科学研究院引进并再开发的PSD-BPA程序与Siemens PTI公司开发的PSS/E程序的暂态稳定教学模型进行了分析比较.通过对一个3机9节点交流系统算例和南方电网交直流系统算例的仿真计算,比较了两个程序的潮流和暂态稳定计算结果.分析和计算表明,两个程序的计算结果比较接近.

  11. Electricity: Public power, TVA, BPA, and competition. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Energy and Power of the Committee on Commerce, House of Representatives, One Hundred Fifth Congress, First session

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This is the 17th hearing of the Subcommittee on Energy and Power as it looks toward a competitive electricity market. This hearing looks at the role of public power in this mix. Public power and cooperatives supply approximately 25% of the American consumers. Bonneville Power Authority and the Tennessee Valley Authority are the largest two public power systems, and they present unique problems as one looks at the question of competition in the electric market. They both have large debt services which need to be dealt with, preferably without transferrance to the country as a whole. The committee hears testimony from 15 witnesses in this hearing, to gain a perspective on the question of public power and competition.

  12. A Comparison of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities with and without ASD on Parallel Measures of Challenging Behaviour: The Behavior Problems Inventory-01 (BPI-01) and Autism Spectrum Disorders-Behavior Problems for Intellectually Disabled Adults (ASD-BPA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojahn, Johannes; Wilkins, Jonathan; Matson, Johnny L.; Boisjoli, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    Challenging behaviour may not be part of the diagnostic criteria for Autistic Disorder but they are frequently exhibited by children and adults with this condition. Levels of challenging behaviours are highest in individuals with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and co-occurring intellectual disability (ID). The sample for this study consisted of…

  13. 基于BPA和PSASP程序的短路电流计算比对%A Comparison Between BPA and PSASP Software Programs for Calculating Short-circuit Currents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚淑玲; 田华

    2011-01-01

    Bonneville power administration(BPA) and power system analysis software package(PSASP) are two commonly used software programs for calculating short-circuit currents in China(the usage rate is higher than 80%).However,their calculation results are greatly different from the same source data,a fact that is affecting the decision-making of grid dispatching.By referring to current domestic short-circuit current calculation standards,it has been found that the main cause of the difference in calculation results of short-circuit currents between the two software packages under the power flow and network conditions is the lack of unified standards.Another important cause is inappropriate handling of the load model.Conclusions drawn from the analysis are valuable for standardizing short-circuit current calculation for inter-connected grids.%BPA和PSASP程序是目前国内使用较为普遍的2种短路电流计算程序(使用率在80%以上),使用这2种程序的计算结果存在较大差异,已影响到电网的决策。结合国内现行的短路电流计算标准,分析研究了基于潮流和基于网络条件下短路电流计算结果存在差异的原因。研究发现,造成计算结果差异的主要原因是缺乏统一的标准,另一个重要原因是计算中对负荷模型处理不当。研究结论可为制定统一规范的互联电网短路电流计算标准提供依据。

  14. Defect and Improvement of Hydro-turbine Model in PSD-BPA%PSD-BPA暂态程序内水轮机模型的缺陷及改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐广文

    2014-01-01

    为提高电力系统暂态稳定分析的可靠性,针对PSD-BPA暂态稳定程序中水轮机模型(TW卡)的输出无法吻合实测结果的问题,将该模型按照水轮机的传递系数结构图展开,经过比较分析,指出该水轮机模型中等于1的水轮机力矩对导叶开度的传递系数是其仿真结果偏离实际的原因所在,提出采用实测的水轮机力矩对导叶开度的传递函数代替该传递系数构成改进的水轮机模型,该模型仿真结果与实测结果吻合,仿真精度较TW卡显著提升,能够为电力系统暂态稳定分析提供更加贴近实际的机组仿真响应.

  15. Data conversion analysis of power flow data between BPA and PSS/E in power system%电力系统BPA与PSS/E潮流数据转换研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    国建宝; 李兴源; 李宽; 王峰

    2015-01-01

    中国电力科学研究院引进开发的BPA仿真程序及德国西门子公司开发的PSS/E电力仿真程序,在电力系统数字仿真中得到了广泛应用.PSS/E仿真程序以其强大的仿真计算功能得到国内许多研究机构青睐,完成BPA程序到PSS/E程序数据的转换具有实际工程意义.本文采用Fortran语言编写转换程序,并以IEEE300节点纯交流输电系统、IEEE四机两区域交直流并联模型以及南网2013丰大系统模型作为实际仿真算例.仿真结果表明,本文提出的转换思路能有效完成BPA到PSS/E潮流数据的转换.

  16. 基于PSD-BPA的县级电网无功优化分析%Analysis of Reactive Power Optimization in County Power Grid Base on PSD-BPA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晖

    2015-01-01

    本文主要以县级电网为例,介绍了利用PSD-BPA潮流计算软件进行电网无功优化分析的方法及进行电网潮流计算结果优化调整的一些具体措施,并就无功优化结果对电网规划建设的作用进行了一定的总结.除此之外,本文还简单介绍了一些关于县级电网无功规划的相关知识和进行县级电网规划建设的原则、方法和步骤,以期能为有关部门进行县级电网的规划建设和无功优化提供一定的参考.

  17. A Multi-model Soft Sensor Method of BPA Based on LDA and FCM%一种基于LDA和FCM的BPA多模型软测量方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈金凤; 杨慧中; 邓玉俊

    2010-01-01

    模糊C_均值聚类(FCM)算法是数据预处理中常用的一种方法,但用这种方法进行数据聚类,各类别边界信息间往往存在干扰,模型精度不能得到很好改善.本文采用一种改进的线性判别分析(LDA)方法,用于扩大样本类别间的距离,使聚类更为精确.将FCM算法与改进的LDA算法结合提取样本特征,然后通过多模型融入到SVM算法中.通过对双酚A软测量建模的仿真研究表明该方法具有较好的效果.

  18. Simulation Research on Transient Stability of Power System based on BPA%基于BPA的电力系统暂态稳定时域仿真研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    山霞

    2010-01-01

    应用电力系统稳定分析BPA软件,对典型的4机11节点系统进行时域仿真计算.通过在不同故障切除时间下发电机的转子摇摆曲线,判别电力系统的稳定状态,从而可以在系统受扰失稳前采取有效的措施,提高系统暂态稳定性,避免稳定事故的发生.

  19. 基于中间数据库的PSS/E与BPA数据转换的研究%Study on PSS/E and BPA Data Transform Based on Intermediate Database

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张跃; 王钤; 潘险险; 杨汾艳; 林俐

    2013-01-01

    针对现有电力系统仿真软件PSS/E与BPA间存在的数据异构,不利于软件间数据共享和对比分析计算的问题,分析了基于中间数据库的异构数据源的转换方法,给出模式转换和数据转换实现过程;根据此方法将潮流数据和动态数据从源数据库中读出,通过PowerWorld中间数据库写入目的数据库,完成PSS/E与BPA异构数据的转换.以标准IEEE9节点系统为例进行数据转换和仿真对比分析,仿真结果显示PSS/E和BPA的潮流计算和暂态稳定性计算结果基本相同,证明数据转换是正确的.可见,基于该方法实现PSS/E与BPA的数据转换是可行的.

  20. Study on BPA Modeling and Simulating for Primary Frequency Regulation of Nuclear Power Unit%核电机组一次调频BPA建模仿真研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文立斌

    2016-01-01

    针对核电机组原动机及其调速系统参与电网一次调频仿真研究不足问题,建立了基于电网仿真通用软件BPA的调速系统、执行机构和原动机模型,并介绍了模型参数的测试、计算或校验方法等,同时,对发电机模型中的发电机动能进行了测试和计算.对所建立模型和获得的模型参数进行频率阶跃仿真,并与现场试验结果进行比较分析,结果表明模型及其参数测试方法是正确的.所建立的模型及其参数能准确反映核电机组在功率闭环控制方式下一次调频的动作特性,满足电网稳定计算要求.

  1. Simulation research on stability of AC/DC power system based on BPA%基于BPA的交直流系统稳定性仿真研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏黎; 吴广宁; 蒋伟; 黄震; 任志超; 雍小清

    2009-01-01

    随着我国电力系统的发展,直流输电的大力建设,交直流混合系统的稳定性问题正在逐渐凸现其研究的重要性.在交直流系统中,当交流系统或直流线路发生故障时,对整个混合系统的影响正是迫切需要加以研究的问题.为此通过BPA电力系统分析软件建立了一个交直流混合输电系统模型,在不同的交、直流故障下进行了系统的暂态稳定仿真.通过对仿真结果的分析,得出了直流输电线路不同故障对系统稳定性的严重程度.通过仿真结果表明直流闭锁时快速切机是保持系统稳定的有效方法,以及切机数值大小对系统频率的关系.

  2. AN ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECTS OF GESTATIONAL AND LACTATIONAL EXPOSURE TO ETHINYL ESTRADIOL (EE) AND BISPHENOL A (BPA) ON REPRODUCTIVE MORPHOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR IN FEMALE AND MALE LONG EVANS HOODED RAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthropogenic estrogens are pervasive in the environment. Although the effects of these 'xenoestrogens' are controversial in humans, some fish species are adversely affected in contaminated ecosystems. The current project focuses on the effects of developmental exposure to two ...

  3. AN ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECTS OF GESTATIONAL AND LACTATIONAL EXPOSURE TO ETHINYL ESTRADIOL (EE) AND BISPHENOL A (BPA) ON REPRODUCTIVE MORPHOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR IN THE FEMALE LONG EVANS HOODED RAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthropogenic estrogens are pervasive in the environment. The effects of these 'xenoestrogens' are controversial in humans, although there is a clear indication that some fish species are adversely affected in contaminated ecosystems. The current project focuses on the effects ...

  4. INFLUENCIA DE LA ETAPA DE CURADO A BAJA TEMPERATURA EN EL COMPORTAMIENTO A FRACTURA EN MODO II DE COMPOSITES VINILESTER-BPA Y SU DURABILIDAD EN CONDICIONES EXTREMAS DE TEMPERATURA

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Bolinches, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    [EN] The research represented by this thesis deals with bisphenol-A epoxy vinyl ester resin (VEBA) composite materials reinforced with E-fiberglass fabric of medium weight (450 g/m2) and quasi-orthotropic 0-90°/±45° configuration. The increasing use of vinyl ester resin is due to the advantageous combination of their physical, chemical and mechanical characteristics, which makes it economic and competitive in certain technological applications traditionally reserved for epoxy resins. The...

  5. Human Excretion of Bisphenol A: Blood, Urine, and Sweat (BUS Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Genuis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Bisphenol A (BPA is an ubiquitous chemical contaminant that has recently been associated with adverse effects on human health. There is incomplete understanding of BPA toxicokinetics, and there are no established interventions to eliminate this compound from the human body. Using 20 study participants, this study was designed to assess the relative concentration of BPA in three body fluids—blood, urine, and sweat—and to determine whether induced sweating may be a therapeutic intervention with potential to facilitate elimination of this compound. Methods. Blood, urine, and sweat were collected from 20 individuals (10 healthy participants and 10 participants with assorted health problems and analyzed for various environmental toxicants including BPA. Results. BPA was found to differing degrees in each of blood, urine, and sweat. In 16 of 20 participants, BPA was identified in sweat, even in some individuals with no BPA detected in their serum or urine samples. Conclusions. Biomonitoring of BPA through blood and/or urine testing may underestimate the total body burden of this potential toxicant. Sweat analysis should be considered as an additional method for monitoring bioaccumulation of BPA in humans. Induced sweating appears to be a potential method for elimination of BPA.

  6. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of the Permeation of Bisphenol A and Pore Formation in a Lipid Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Chen, Junlang; Zhou, Guoquan; Wang, Yu; Xu, Can; Wang, Xiaogang

    2016-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is particularly considered as one of the most suspicious endocrine disruptors. Exposure to BPA may bring about possible human toxicities, such as cancerous tumors, birth defects and neoteny. One of the key issues to understand its toxicities is how BPA enters cells. In this paper, we perform molecular dynamics simulations to explore the interactions between BPA and a phospholipid membrane (dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, DPPC bilayer). The simulation results show that BPA can easily enter the membrane from the aqueous phase. With the increasing concentrations of BPA in the membrane, BPA tends to aggregate and form into cluster. Meanwhile, several DPPC lipids are pulled out from each leaflet and adsorbed on the cluster surface, leading to pore formation. Detailed observations indicate that the lipid extraction results mainly from the dispersion interactions between BPA cluster and lipid tails, as well as weak electrostatic attractions between lipid headgroups and the two hydroxyl groups on BPA. The lipid extraction and pore formation may cause cell membrane damage and are of great importance to uncover BPA's cytotoxicity. PMID:27629233

  7. Influence of Genista Tinctoria L or Methylparaben on Subchronic Toxicity of Bisphenol A in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniela-Saveta POPA; Pompei BOLFA; Bela KISS; Laurian VLASE; Ramona PĂLTINEAN; Anca POP; Cornel CTOI; Gianina CRIAN; Felicia LOGHIN

    2014-01-01

    ObjectiveTo evaluate the influence of an extract ofGenista tinctoria L. herba (GT) or methylparaben (MP) on histopathological changes and2 biomarkers of oxidative stress in rats subchronicly exposed to bisphenol A (BPA). MethodsAdult female Wistar rats were orally exposed for 90 d to BPA (50 mg/kg), BPA+GT (35 mg isoflavones/kg) or BPA+MP (250 mg/kg). Plasma and tissue samples weretaken from liver, kidney, thyroid, uterus, ovary, and mammary gland after 30, 60, and 90 d of exposure respectively. Lipid peroxidation andin vivo hydroxyl radical production were evaluated byhistological analysis along withmalondialdehyde and 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic aciddetection. ResultsTheseverity of histopathological changes in liver and kidneyswas lower afterGT treatmentthan afterBPA or BPA+MPtreatment. A minimal thyroid receptor antagonist effect was only observedafter BPA+MPtreatment.Theabnormal folliculogenesis increased in a time-dependent manner,and the number of corpus luteum decreased.No significant histological alterationswere foundin the uterus.The mammary gland displayed specific estrogen stimulation changes at all periods. Both MP and GT revealed antioxidant properties reducing lipid peroxidation and BPA-inducedhydroxyl radical generation. ConclusionGTL. extract ameliorates the toxic effects of BPA andisprovedto haveantioxidant potential and antitoxic effect. MP has antioxidant properties, but has either no effect or exacerbates the BPA-induced histopathological changes.

  8. “Orange alert”: A fluorescent detector for bisphenol A in water environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We report a BODIPY-based turn-on fluorescent bisphenol A sensor. • We tested the superior selectivity toward BPA against several bisphenol analogs and phenol. • We demonstrated the stability and robustness of this probe for analyzing BPA in real, complex water samples. - Abstract: Due to the prevalent use of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins in packaging materials and paints for ships, there has been a widespread global contamination of environmental water sources with bisphenol A (BPA). BPA, an endocrine disruptor, has been found to cause tremendous health problems. Therefore, there is an urgent need for detecting BPA in a convenient and sensitive manner to ensure water safety. Herein, we develop a fluorescent turn-on BPA probe, named Bisphenol Orange (BPO), which could conveniently detect BPA in a wide variety of real water samples including sea water, drain water and drinking water. BPO shows superior selectivity toward BPA and up to 70-fold increase in fluorescence emission at 580 nm when mixed with BPA in water. Mechanistic studies suggest a plausible water-dependent formation of hydrophobic BPA clusters which favorably trap and restrict the rotation of BPO and recover its inherent fluorescence

  9. Gene expression profiling analysis of bisphenol A-induced perturbation in biological processes in ER-negative HEK293 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Rong; Gu, Liang; Li, Min; Jiang, Cizhong; Cao, Tongcheng; Zhang, Xiaobai

    2014-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an environmental endocrine disruptor which has been detected in human bodies. Many studies have implied that BPA exposure is harmful to human health. Previous studies mainly focused on BPA effects on estrogen receptor (ER)-positive cells. Genome-wide impacts of BPA on gene expression in ER-negative cells is unclear. In this study, we performed RNA-seq to characterize BPA-induced cellular and molecular impacts on ER-negative HEK293 cells. The microscopic observation showed that low-dose BPA exposure did not affect cell viability and morphology. Gene expression profiling analysis identified a list of differentially expressed genes in response to BPA exposure in HEK293 cells. These genes were involved in variable important biological processes including ion transport, cysteine metabolic process, apoptosis, DNA damage repair, etc. Notably, BPA up-regulated the expression of ERCC5 encoding a DNA endonuclease for nucleotide-excision repair. Further electrochemical experiment showed that BPA induced significant DNA damage in ER-positive MCF-7 cells but not in ER-negative HEK293 cells. Collectively, our study revealed that ER-negative HEK293 cells employed mechanisms in response to BPA exposure different from ER-positive cells.

  10. Urinary Concentrations of Bisphenol A and Three Other Bisphenols in Convenience Samples of U.S. Adults during 2000-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiaoyun; Wong, Lee-Yang; Kramer, Josh; Zhou, Xiaoliu; Jia, Tao; Calafat, Antonia M

    2015-10-01

    Because of regulatory actions and public concerns, the use of bisphenol A (BPA) may decrease, while the use of BPA alternatives may increase. Although BPA alternatives are considered safer than BPA, their effects on health are still largely unknown. For risk assessment, understanding exposure to these chemicals is necessary. We measured the urinary concentrations of BPA and three bisphenol analogs, bisphenol S (BPS), bisphenol F (BPF), and bisphenol AF (BPAF), in 616 archived samples collected from convenience samplings of U.S. adults at eight time points between 2000 and 2014. We detected BPA at the highest frequency and geometric mean (GM) concentrations (74-99%, 0.36-2.07 μg/L), followed by BPF (42-88%, 0.15-0.54 μg/L) and BPS (19-74%, < 0.1-0.25 μg/L); BPAF was rarely detected (<3% of all samples). Although concentrations of BPF were generally lower than for other bisphenols, the 95th percentile concentration of BPF was often comparable or higher than that of BPA. We did not observe obvious exposure trends for BPF. However, the significant changes in GM concentrations of BPA and BPS suggest that exposures may be declining (BPA) or on the rise (BPS). Nationally representative data will be useful to confirm these findings and to allow monitoring future exposure trends to BPA and some of its bisphenol alternatives.

  11. Photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics, and chlorophyll content of soybean seedlings under combined stress of bisphenol A and cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Huiqing; Wang, Lihong; Wang, Qingqing; Jiao, Liya; Hua, Weiqi; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2014-11-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is ubiquitous in the environment because of its continual application in plastics and the epoxy resin industry. Cadmium (Cd) is a highly toxic heavy metal element mainly used in smelting, electroplating, and plastic and dye manufacturing. Pollution as a result of BPA and Cd exists simultaneously in many agricultural regions. However, little information is available regarding the combined effects of BPA and Cd on plants. The combined effects of BPA and Cd on the photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence, and chlorophyll content of soybean seedlings were investigated using noninvasive technology. Combined treatment with 1.5 mg/L BPA and 0.2 mg/L Cd synergistically improved the net photosynthetic rate (Pn ), initial fluorescence (F0 ), maximal photochemical efficiency (Fv /Fm ), effective quantum yield of photosystem II (ΦPSII ), photosynthetic electron transport rate (ETR), and chlorophyll content. Combined treatment with 1.5 mg/L BPA and 3.0 mg/L Cd increased the F0 and decreased the Pn , Fv /Fm , ΦPSII , and ETR, whereas BPA and Cd exhibited an antagonistic effect. Furthermore, combined treatment with 17.2/50.0 mg/L BPA and 3.0/10.0 mg/L Cd synergistically decreased the Pn , Fv /Fm , ΦPSII , ETR, and chlorophyll content, although it increased the F0 . Finally, the effects of BPA and Cd on photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence, and chlorophyll content ceased when BPA stress was stopped.

  12. Bisphenol A causes reproductive toxicity, decreases dnmt1 transcription, and reduces global DNA methylation in breeding zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing, L V; Viana, J; Dempster, E L; Trznadel, M; Trunkfield, L A; Uren Webster, T M; van Aerle, R; Paull, G C; Wilson, R J; Mill, J; Santos, E M

    2016-07-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a commercially important high production chemical widely used in epoxy resins and polycarbonate plastics, and is ubiquitous in the environment. Previous studies demonstrated that BPA activates estrogenic signaling pathways associated with adverse effects on reproduction in vertebrates and that exposure can induce epigenetic changes. We aimed to investigate the reproductive effects of BPA in a fish model and to document its mechanisms of toxicity. We exposed breeding groups of zebrafish (Danio rerio) to 0.01, 0.1, and 1 mg/L BPA for 15 d. We observed a significant increase in egg production, together with a reduced rate of fertilization in fish exposed to 1 mg/L BPA, associated with significant alterations in the transcription of genes involved in reproductive function and epigenetic processes in both liver and gonad tissue at concentrations representing hotspots of environmental contamination (0.1 mg/L) and above. Of note, we observed reduced expression of DNA methyltransferase 1 (dnmt1) at environmentally relevant concentrations of BPA, along with a significant reduction in global DNA methylation, in testes and ovaries following exposure to 1 mg/L BPA. Our findings demonstrate that BPA disrupts reproductive processes in zebrafish, likely via estrogenic mechanisms, and that environmentally relevant concentrations of BPA are associated with altered transcription of key enzymes involved in DNA methylation maintenance. These findings provide evidence of the mechanisms of action of BPA in a model vertebrate and advocate for its reduction in the environment. PMID:27120497

  13. Epigenetic regulation of non-lymphoid cells by Bisphenol-A, a model endocrine disrupter: Potential Implications for Immunoregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deena eKhan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC abound in the environment since many compounds are released from chemical, agricultural, pharmaceutical and consumer product industries. Many of the EDCs such as Bisphenol A (BPA have estrogenic activity or interfere with endogenous sex hormones. Experimental studies have reported a positive correlation of BPA with reproductive toxicity, altered growth and immune dysregulation. Although the precise relevance of these studies to the environmental levels is unclear, nevertheless, their potential health implications remain a concern. One possible mechanism by which BPA can alter genes is by regulating epigenetics, including microRNA, alteration of methylation and histone acetylation. There is now wealth of information on BPA effects on non-lymphoid cells and by comparison, paucity of data on effects of BPA on the immune system. In this mini review, we will highlight BPA regulation of estrogen receptor-mediated immune cell functions and in different inflammatory conditions. In addition, BPA-mediated epigenetic regulation of non-lymphoid cells is emphasized. We recognize that most of these studies are on non-lymphoid cells, and given that BPA also affects the immune system, it is plausible that BPA could have similar epigenetic regulation in immune cells. It is hoped that this review will stimulate studies in this area to ascertain whether or not BPA epigenetically regulates the cells of the immune system.

  14. “Orange alert”: A fluorescent detector for bisphenol A in water environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Liyun [Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, 117543 Singapore (Singapore); Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Er, Jun Cheng [Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, 117543 Singapore (Singapore); Graduate School for Integrative Sciences and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Centre for Life Sciences, #05-01, 28 Medical Drive, 117456 Singapore (Singapore); Xu, Wang; Qin, Xian [Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, 117543 Singapore (Singapore); Samanta, Animesh; Jana, Santanu [Singapore Bioimaging Consortium, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A-STAR), 138667 Singapore (Singapore); Lee, Chi-Lik Ken [Centre for Biomedical and Life Sciences, Singapore Polytechnic, 139651 Singapore (Singapore); Chang, Young-Tae, E-mail: chmcyt@nus.edu.sg [Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, 117543 Singapore (Singapore); Graduate School for Integrative Sciences and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Centre for Life Sciences, #05-01, 28 Medical Drive, 117456 Singapore (Singapore); Singapore Bioimaging Consortium, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A-STAR), 138667 Singapore (Singapore)

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We report a BODIPY-based turn-on fluorescent bisphenol A sensor. • We tested the superior selectivity toward BPA against several bisphenol analogs and phenol. • We demonstrated the stability and robustness of this probe for analyzing BPA in real, complex water samples. - Abstract: Due to the prevalent use of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins in packaging materials and paints for ships, there has been a widespread global contamination of environmental water sources with bisphenol A (BPA). BPA, an endocrine disruptor, has been found to cause tremendous health problems. Therefore, there is an urgent need for detecting BPA in a convenient and sensitive manner to ensure water safety. Herein, we develop a fluorescent turn-on BPA probe, named Bisphenol Orange (BPO), which could conveniently detect BPA in a wide variety of real water samples including sea water, drain water and drinking water. BPO shows superior selectivity toward BPA and up to 70-fold increase in fluorescence emission at 580 nm when mixed with BPA in water. Mechanistic studies suggest a plausible water-dependent formation of hydrophobic BPA clusters which favorably trap and restrict the rotation of BPO and recover its inherent fluorescence.

  15. Gene expression profiling analysis of bisphenol A-induced perturbation in biological processes in ER-negative HEK293 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Yin

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA is an environmental endocrine disruptor which has been detected in human bodies. Many studies have implied that BPA exposure is harmful to human health. Previous studies mainly focused on BPA effects on estrogen receptor (ER-positive cells. Genome-wide impacts of BPA on gene expression in ER-negative cells is unclear. In this study, we performed RNA-seq to characterize BPA-induced cellular and molecular impacts on ER-negative HEK293 cells. The microscopic observation showed that low-dose BPA exposure did not affect cell viability and morphology. Gene expression profiling analysis identified a list of differentially expressed genes in response to BPA exposure in HEK293 cells. These genes were involved in variable important biological processes including ion transport, cysteine metabolic process, apoptosis, DNA damage repair, etc. Notably, BPA up-regulated the expression of ERCC5 encoding a DNA endonuclease for nucleotide-excision repair. Further electrochemical experiment showed that BPA induced significant DNA damage in ER-positive MCF-7 cells but not in ER-negative HEK293 cells. Collectively, our study revealed that ER-negative HEK293 cells employed mechanisms in response to BPA exposure different from ER-positive cells.

  16. Temperature determines toxicity: Bisphenol A reduces thermal tolerance in fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a ubiquitous pollutant around the globe, but whether environmental concentrations have toxic effects remains controversial. BPA interferes with a number of nuclear receptor pathways, including several that mediate animal responses to environmental input. Because thermal acclimation is regulated by these pathways in fish, we hypothesized that the toxicity of BPA would change with ambient temperature. We exposed zebrafish (Danio rerio) to ecologically relevant and artificially high concentrations of BPA at two acclimation temperatures, and tested physiological responses at two test temperatures that corresponded to acclimation temperatures. We found ecologically relevant concentrations of BPA (20 μg l−1) impair swimming performance, heart rate, muscle and cardiac SERCA activity and gene expression. We show many of these responses are temperature-specific and non-monotonic. Our results suggest that BPA pollution can compound the effects of climate change, and that its effects are more dynamic than toxicological assessments currently account for. - Highlights: • Whether environmental levels of BPA have toxic effects on local ecology remains controversial. • We show that ecological concentrations of BPA impair physiological performance in fish. • We also show that the toxic effects of BPA are temperature-specific and non-monotonic with dose. • BPA pollution will likely compound the effects of climate change, and vice-versa. • The toxic effects of BPA appear to be more dynamic than toxicological assessments account for. - BPA pollution is likely to compound the effects of climate change, and climate change may worsen the effects of BPA exposure. Its effects are likely to be more dynamic than toxicological assessments currently account for

  17. Effects of bisphenol A on key enzymes in cellular respiration of soybean seedling roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Lijun; Wang, Lihong; Wang, Qingqing; Wang, Shengman; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2015-10-01

    The environmental endocrine disrupter bisphenol A (BPA) is ubiquitous in the environment, with potential toxic effects on plants. Previous studies have found a significant effect of BPA on levels of mineral nutrients in plant roots, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. To determine how BPA influences root mineral nutrients, the effects of BPA (1.5 mg L(-1) , 3.0 mg L(-1) , 6.0 mg L(-1) , 12.0 mg L(-1) , 24.0 mg L(-1) , 48.0 mg L(-1) , and 96.0 mg L(-1) ) on activities of critical respiratory enzymes (hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, and cytochrome c oxidase) were investigated in soybean seedling roots. After BPA exposure for 7 d, the low concentrations of BPA increased the activities of critical respiratory enzymes in roots, whereas opposite effects were observed in roots exposed to high concentrations of BPA, and the inhibitory effect was greater for higher BPA concentrations. In addition, evident morphological anomalies and decreases in root lengths and volumes were induced by high concentrations of BPA. Following withdrawal of BPA exposure after 7 d, the activities of respiratory enzymes and visible signs of toxicity recovered, and the extent of recovery depended on the type of enzyme and the BPA concentration. Furthermore, correlation analysis showed that the disturbance by BPA to activities of respiratory enzymes, which led to interference in the energy metabolism in roots, might be an effect mechanism of BPA on mineral element accumulation in plant roots.

  18. Alpha-amino alcohol of para-boronophenylalanine, BPAol, as a potential boron carrier for BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    α amino alcohol of boronophenylalanine BPAol in which -COOH group is replaced with hydrophilic group of -OH of p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) has been synthesized and its BNCT effect on experimental tumor models have been investigated. Tumor cell killing effect of BPAol on C6 gliosarcoma cells was very high 4.4 times as that of BPA, since it was actively accumulated into tumor cells in 4-5 times as that of BPA. Carboxylic group of BPA might not play as an essential role in uptake of BPA into tumor cells. BPAol-based BNCT strongly inhibited the tumor growth of Green's melanotic melanoma hamsters even under therapeutic dose of BPA-based BNCT. These preliminary findings strongly warrant further extensive pre-clinical study for BPAol as a boron carrier for BNCT. (author)

  19. Fotodegradación heterogénea de bisfenol A en agua con dióxido de titanio Heterogeneous photodegradation of bisphenol A in water with titanium dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa F. Gómez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA is a monomer used in epoxy resin and polycarbonate manufacture. This molecule is considered as an endocrine disruptor that causes different diseases. The human exposition to this non biodegrable substance is increasing in the time; in particular, water is contaminated by industrial remainder flow. In this article heterogeneous photo degradation of a solution of BPA in water solution using a catalytic photo reactor with UV light and titanium dioxide (TiO2 was evaluated. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used to analyze the photo degradation of BPA solutions. The influence of titanium dioxide amount, BPA concentration, reaction temperature and the catalyst state like suspension and immobilized were also determinated. The highest elimination of BPA was 83.2%, in 240 min, beginning with 0.05 mM of BPA and 100 mg/L of TiO2 in suspension.

  20. Process evaluation of the Bonneville Power Administration Interim Residential Weatherization Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerman, D.I.; Bronfman, B.H.

    1984-08-01

    A process evaluation of the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Interim Residential Weatherization Program was conducted between December of 1983 and March of 1984. For this evaluation seven of the utility participants were visited, as were the four BPA area offices serving those utilities. Interviews were also conducted with key staff members at BPA headquarters in Portland. This report describes the Interim Program and the elements of the BPA organizational structure involved in management of the program. It deals also with the implementation process at the seven utilities involved in the evaluation; perceptions of the key actors as to the strengths and weaknesses of the program; the adequacy of the BPA reimbursement for utility administrative expenses; and finally lessons for the Long-Term Program, the BPA residential program which followed the Interim Program in October 1983.