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Sample records for bp deepwater horizon

  1. Water Sampling Data for BP Spill/Deepwater Horizon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (also referred to as the BP oil spill) began on 20 April 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico on the BP-operated Macondo Prospect. Following...

  2. Air Sampling Data for BP Spill/Deepwater Horizon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (also referred to as the BP oil spill) began on 20 April 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico on the BP-operated Macondo Prospect. Following...

  3. Waste Sampling Data for BP Spill/Deepwater Horizon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (also referred to as the BP oil spill) began on 20 April 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico on the BP-operated Macondo Prospect. Following...

  4. Air Monitoring Data for BP Spill/Deepwater Horizon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (also referred to as the BP oil spill) began on 20 April 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico on the BP-operated Macondo Prospect. Following...

  5. Surface Water Sampling Data for BP Spill/Deepwater Horizon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (also referred to as the BP oil spill) began on 20 April 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico on the BP-operated Macondo Prospect. Following...

  6. Sediment Sampling Data for BP Spill/Deepwater Horizon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (also referred to as the BP oil spill) began on 20 April 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico on the BP-operated Macondo Prospect. Following...

  7. Weathered Oil and Tar Sampling Data for BP Spill/Deepwater Horizon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (also referred to as the BP oil spill) began on 20 April 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico on the BP-operated Macondo Prospect. Following...

  8. Crisis strategies in BP's Deepwater Horizon response : An image repair and situational crisis communication study

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Mikael

    2017-01-01

    The BP Deepwater Horizon crisis in 2010 was one the largest catastrophes in the history of the oil industry. BP was sued over the disaster, and lost several billion dollars. This study examines the crisis response strategies and/or image repair strategies, which can be found in BP's press releases following the Deepwater Horizon crisis. In particular, the study looks closer at what established crisis communication strategies could be discerned in the material, and how they are used discursive...

  9. Disturbance and recovery of salt marsh arthropod communities following BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany D McCall

    Full Text Available Oil spills represent a major environmental threat to coastal wetlands, which provide a variety of critical ecosystem services to humanity. The U.S. Gulf of Mexico is a hub of oil and gas exploration activities that historically have impacted intertidal habitats such as salt marsh. Following the BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill, we sampled the terrestrial arthropod community and marine invertebrates found in stands of Spartina alterniflora, the most abundant plant in coastal salt marshes. Sampling occurred in 2010 as oil was washing ashore and a year later in 2011. In 2010, intertidal crabs and terrestrial arthropods (insects and spiders were suppressed by oil exposure even in seemingly unaffected stands of plants; however, Littoraria snails were unaffected. One year later, crab and arthropods had largely recovered. Our work is the first attempt that we know of assessing vulnerability of the salt marsh arthropod community to oil exposure, and it suggests that arthropods are both quite vulnerable to oil exposure and quite resilient, able to recover from exposure within a year if host plants remain healthy.

  10. Deepwater Horizon - Baseline Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2010, the Deepwater Horizon oil spill occurred in the Gulf of Mexico and the Natural Resources Damage Assessment (NRDA) was initiated to determine the extent of...

  11. Distribution and concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons associated with the BP/Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill, Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammarco, Paul W; Kolian, Steve R; Warby, Richard A F; Bouldin, Jennifer L; Subra, Wilma A; Porter, Scott A

    2013-08-15

    We examined the geographic extent of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in sediment, seawater, biota, and seafood during/after the BP/Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill (April 20-July 15, 2010; 28.736667°N, -88.386944°W). TPH, PAHs, and 12 compound classes were examined, particularly C1-benzo(a)anthracenes/chrysenes, C-2-/C-4-phenanthrenes/anthracenes, and C3-naphthalenes. Sediment TPH, PAHs, and all classes peaked near Pensacola, Florida, and Galveston, Texas. Seawater TPH peaked off Pensacola; all of the above classes peaked off the Mississippi River, Louisiana and Galveston. Biota TPH and PAHs peaked near the Mississippi River; C-3 napthalenes peaked near the spill site. Seafood TPH peaked near the spill site, with PAHs and all classes peaking near Pensacola. We recommend that oil concentrations continued to be monitored in these media well after the spill has ceased to assist in defining re-opening dates for fisheries; closures should be maintained until hydrocarbon levels are deemed within appropriate limits. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Intentional transparency : a rhetorical case study of BP's transparency policy throughout the Deepwater Horizon crisis in comparison to how Tesco dealt with the european horsmeat scandal

    OpenAIRE

    Gjelsvik, Ingrid Hansgård

    2014-01-01

    Masteroppgave i samfunnskommunikasjon – Universitetet i Agder 2014 In this thesis, I have studied how a major event such as a crisis changes the way a company promotes transparency in their corporate communication. To gain knowledge about this aspect of their communication I did a multicase study of two cases; BP and the Deepwater Horizon accident and Tesco and the horsemeat scandal. Methodically I did a categorization of press releases from three selected periods. One year before the ...

  13. State of the art satellite and airborne marine oil spill remote sensing: Application to the BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifer, Ira; Lehr, William J.; Simecek-Beatty, Debra; Bradley, Eliza; Clark, Roger N.; Dennison, Philip E.; Hu, Yongxiang; Matheson, Scott; Jones, Cathleen E; Holt, Benjamin; Reif, Molly; Roberts, Dar A.; Svejkovsky, Jan; Swayze, Gregg A.; Wozencraft, Jennifer M.

    2012-01-01

    The vast and persistent Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill challenged response capabilities, which required accurate, quantitative oil assessment at synoptic and operational scales. Although experienced observers are a spill response's mainstay, few trained observers and confounding factors including weather, oil emulsification, and scene illumination geometry present challenges. DWH spill and impact monitoring was aided by extensive airborne and spaceborne passive and active remote sensing.Oil slick thickness and oil-to-water emulsion ratios are key spill response parameters for containment/cleanup and were derived quantitatively for thick (> 0.1 mm) slicks from AVIRIS (Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer) data using a spectral library approach based on the shape and depth of near infrared spectral absorption features. MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) satellite, visible-spectrum broadband data of surface-slick modulation of sunglint reflection allowed extrapolation to the total slick. A multispectral expert system used a neural network approach to provide Rapid Response thickness class maps.Airborne and satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) provides synoptic data under all-sky conditions; however, SAR generally cannot discriminate thick (> 100 μm) oil slicks from thin sheens (to 0.1 μm). The UAVSAR's (Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle SAR) significantly greater signal-to-noise ratio and finer spatial resolution allowed successful pattern discrimination related to a combination of oil slick thickness, fractional surface coverage, and emulsification.In situ burning and smoke plumes were studied with AVIRIS and corroborated spaceborne CALIPSO (Cloud Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation) observations of combustion aerosols. CALIPSO and bathymetry lidar data documented shallow subsurface oil, although ancillary data were required for confirmation.Airborne hyperspectral, thermal infrared data have nighttime and

  14. Deepwater Horizon Accident Investigation Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-09-01

    On the evening of April 20, 2010, a well control event allowed hydrocarbons to escape from the Macondo well onto Transocean's Deepwater Horizon, resulting in explosions and fire on the rig. Eleven people lost their lives, and 17 others were injured. The fire, which was fed by hydrocarbons from the well, continued for 36 hours until the rig sank. Hydrocarbons continued to flow from the reservoir through the wellbore and the blowout preventer (BOP) for 87 days, causing a spill of national significance. BP Exploration and Production Inc. was the lease operator of Mississippi Canyon Block 252, which contains the Macondo well. BP formed an investigation team that was charged with gathering the facts surrounding the accident, analyzing available information to identify possible causes and making recommendations to enable prevention of similar accidents in the future. The BP investigation team began its work immediately in the aftermath of the accident, working independently from other BP spill response activities and organizations. The ability to gather information was limited by a scarcity of physical evidence and restricted access to potentially relevant witnesses. The team had access to partial real-time data from the rig, documents from various aspects of the Macondo well's development and construction, witness interviews and testimony from public hearings. The team used the information that was made available by other companies, including Transocean, Halliburton and Cameron. Over the course of the investigation, the team involved over 50 internal and external specialists from a variety of fields: safety, operations, subsea, drilling, well control, cementing, well flow dynamic modeling, BOP systems and process hazard analysis. This report presents an analysis of the events leading up to the accident, eight key findings related to the causal chain of events and recommendations to enable the prevention of a similar accident. The investigation team worked separately

  15. Deepwater Horizon Seafood Safety Oracle Database (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2010, the Deepwater Horizon oil spill occurred in the Gulf of Mexico. In response to this spill, the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated a data collection...

  16. High numbers of Vibrio vulnificus in tar balls collected from oiled areas of the north-central Gulf of Mexico following the 2010 BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Zhen; Bullard, Stephen; Arias, Covadonga

    2011-12-01

    The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill was the largest oil spill in USA history releasing approximately 4.9 million barrels of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. Soon after the spill started, tar balls and other forms of weathered oil appeared in large numbers on beaches in Mississippi and Alabama. In this study, we analyzed tar balls for total aerobic bacterial (TAB) counts and also for the presence of Vibrio vulnificus, a human pathogen known to be abundant in the Gulf Coast environment and capable of causing severe wound infections by contact with contaminated surfaces. Our results showed that TAB counts were significantly higher in tar balls than in sand and seawater collected at the same location. In addition, V. vulnificus numbers were 10× higher in tar balls than in sand and up to 100× higher than in seawater. Densities of V. vulnificus were higher than 10(5) colony forming units/g of tar ball in all samples analyzed. Our data suggest that tar balls can act as reservoirs for bacteria including human pathogens.

  17. BP « Deepwater Horizon » du Golfe du Mexique à l’Afrique : un tournant pour l’industrie pétrolière ? BPDeepwater Horizon” from the Gulf of Mexico to Africa : a turning point for the Oil Industry ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géraud Magrin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available L’explosion de la plateforme BP Deepwater Horizon du 20 avril 2010 constitue une des plus graves pollutions pétrolières de l’histoire. Sa localisation dans les eaux du premier consommateur mondial, et l’implication d’une des compagnies les plus avancées en matière de responsabilité sociale d’entreprise, sont révélatrices des enjeux actuels de la gestion environnementale des risques pétroliers. Alors que les gisements les plus accessibles sont exploités par des sociétés nationales, les compagnies internationales satisfont l’inextinguible demande en pétrole du système mondial en explorant des situations extrêmes, comme les eaux très profondes. Cela s’accompagne de risques croissants. La catastrophe de BP nous montre le danger de considérer un risque infime comme une absence de risque : l’exemption de planification d’urgence explique la longue durée et l’ampleur de la fuite. Elle rappelle aussi que les impacts du pétrole ne sont bien connus qu’à la surface et le long des côtes : or, cette fuite en eaux profondes causera des dommages écologiques graves dans les zones pélagiques. Cet événement changera les règles du jeu de la régulation environnementale pétrolière dans les zones sensibles. Nous donnons un aperçu des évolutions qu’il pourrait favoriser en Afrique, notamment en Mauritanie. Il reste à savoir si l’augmentation des coûts qui en résultera contribuera à accélérer la transition énergétique mondiale hors de la dépendance des hydrocarbures.On Thursday the 20th april 2010, the blowout of the Deepwater Horizon drilling platform operated by BP in the Gulf of Mexico starts what can be considered one of the major oil spills in the world history. Taking place in the national waters of the world’s first oil consumer and affecting one of the more advanced oil major in Corporate Social Responsibility, this accident may turn out to be a land mark for environmental management in the

  18. Deepwater Horizon Seafood Safety Response - Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Seafood Safety Response

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in 2010, there was concern about the risk to human health through consumption of contaminated seafood from the...

  19. Satellite and airborne oil spill remote sensing: State of the art and application to the BP DeepWater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifer, I.; Clark, R.; Jones, C.; Holt, B.; Svejkovsky, J.; Swayze, G.

    2011-01-01

    The vast, persistent, and unconstrained oil release from the DeepWater Horizon (DWH) challenged the spill response, which required accurate quantitative oil assessment at synoptic and operational scales. Experienced observers are the mainstay of oil spill response. Key limitations are weather, scene illumination geometry, and few trained observers, leading to potential observer bias. Aiding the response was extensive passive and active satellite and airborne remote sensing, including intelligent system augmentation, reviewed herein. Oil slick appearance strongly depends on many factors like emulsion composition and scene geometry, yielding false positives and great thickness uncertainty. Oil thicknesses and the oil to water ratios for thick slicks were derived quantitatively with a new spectral library approach based on the shape and depth of spectral features related to C-H vibration bands. The approach used near infrared, imaging spectroscopy data from the AVIRIS (Airborne Visual/InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer) instrument on the NASA ER-2 stratospheric airplane. Extrapolation to the total slick used MODIS satellite visual-spectrum broadband data, which observes sunglint reflection from surface slicks; i.e., indicates the presence of oil and/or surfactant slicks. Oil slick emissivity is less than seawater's allowing MODIS thermal infrared (TIR) nighttime identification; however, water temperature variations can cause false positives. Some strong emissivity features near 6.7 and 9.7 ??m could be analyzed as for the AVIRIS short wave infrared features, but require high spectral resolution data. TIR spectral trends can allow fresh/weathered oil discrimination. Satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (SSAR) provided synoptic data under all-sky conditions by observing oil dampening of capillary waves; however, SSAR typically cannot discriminate thick from thin oil slicks. Airborne UAVSAR's significantly greater signal-to-noise ratio and fine spatial resolution allowed

  20. 76 FR 78016 - Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill; Draft Phase I Early Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    ..., 2010, the mobile offshore drilling unit Deepwater Horizon, which was being used to drill a well for BP...), represents a preliminary step toward the restoration of injured natural resources. The Framework Agreement is... underway. As the first step in this accelerated process, the Trustees are first proposing eight projects as...

  1. Lagrangian Predictive Skill Assessment for the Deepwater Horizon Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipphardt, B. L.; Huntley, H. S.; Sulman, M.; Kirwan, A. D.

    2011-12-01

    The explosion and sinking of the Deepwater Horizon drilling platform produced enormous human, ecological, and economic impacts. At the same time this disaster provided an unprecedented amount of Lagrangian information on ocean processes, including a large number of surface and near-surface drifters deployed in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico as well as remotely sensed images of the surface oil slick. In addition several global and regional ocean model predictions were used to forecast the spill movements. These models generally exhibited large variations in the mesoscale flow near the Deepwater Horizon site, even though they all assimilated similar sets of ocean observations. This provides a unique opportunity to thoroughly assess model Lagrangian predictive skill. Here, the predictive skill of one model, a regional implementation of the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM), is evaluated using data from more than 80 drifter trajectories in the northern Gulf of Mexico. These trajectories are compared with maps of Lagrangian coherent structures, computed from near-surface model velocities, to determine whether the observations are consistent with the larger scale transport structure predicted by the model. We also discuss new metrics to assess model Lagrangian predictive skill of the plume movement.

  2. Minimal incorporation of Deepwater Horizon oil by estuarine filter feeders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, Brian; Anderson, Laurie C.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Oil from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill entered Louisiana bays in mid-2010. • Oil was used minimally (<1%) in diets of mussels and barnacles. • Also, oil did not enhance planktonic respiration rates. • Use of oil carbon was relatively small in these productive estuarine food webs. - Abstract: Natural abundance carbon isotope analyses are sensitive tracers for fates and use of oil in aquatic environments. Use of oil carbon in estuarine food webs should lead to isotope values approaching those of oil itself, −27‰ for stable carbon isotopes reflecting oil origins and −1000‰ for carbon-14 reflecting oil age. To test for transfer of oil from the 2010 Deepwater Horizon spill into estuarine food webs, filter-feeding barnacles (Balanus sp.) and marsh mussels (Geukensia demissa) were collected from Louisiana estuaries near the site of the oil spill. Carbon-14 analyses of these animals from open waters and oiled marshes showed that oil use was <1% and near detection limits estimated at 0.3% oil incorporation. Respiration studies showed no evidence for enhanced microbial activity in bay waters. Results are consistent with low dietary impacts of oil for filter feeders and little overall impact on respiration in the productive Louisiana estuarine systems

  3. British Petroleum's Deepwater Horizon Accident and the Thinking, Engaged Workforce - 13265

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigot, William L.

    2013-01-01

    On April 20, 2010, hydrocarbons escaped from the Macondo well into Transocean's Deepwater Horizon, resulting in fire and multiple explosions. 11 people on the rig died. The billion dollar Deepwater Horizon sank. 4.9 M gallons of product flowed from the well for 87 days creating an environmental nightmare for communities bordering on the Gulf of Mexico. BP established a $20 B reserve to pay for damages. Investigations and legal culpability continue to this day. In September 2010, the Institute for Nuclear Power Operators (INPO) issued Significant Operating Experience Report (SOER) 10-2, Engaged, Thinking Organizations. The industry had experienced 11 events, 9 in US commercial nuclear utilities, and 2 international, that had disturbing trends. The underlying causes highlighted by INPO were inadequate recognition of risk, weaknesses in application of significant operating experience, tolerance of equipment and personnel problems, and a significant drift in standards. While the noted INPO problems and the Deepwater Horizon event appear to have nothing in common, they do exhibit similarities in a drift away from expected behavior on the part of front line workers and their supervisors. At the same time, hidden hazards are accumulating in the environment leading to error intolerant conditions. Without a good understanding of this concept, many organizations tend to focus on the person who 'touched it last', while missing the deeper organizational factors that led that individual to think that what they were doing was correct. An understanding of this failure model is important in reconstruction of events and crafting effective corrective actions. It is much more important, however, for leaders in high hazard industries to recognize when they are approaching error intolerant conditions and take steps immediately to add safety margin. (authors)

  4. Shoreline oiling from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Zachary; Zengel, Scott; Baker, Mary; Steinhoff, Marla; Fricano, Gail; Rouhani, Shahrokh; Michel, Jacqueline

    2016-06-15

    We build on previous work to construct a comprehensive database of shoreline oiling exposure from the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill by compiling field and remotely-sensed datasets to support oil exposure and injury quantification. We compiled a spatial database of shoreline segments with attributes summarizing habitat, oiling category and timeline. We present new simplified oil exposure classes for both beaches and coastal wetland habitats derived from this database integrating both intensity and persistence of oiling on the shoreline over time. We document oiling along 2113km out of 9545km of surveyed shoreline, an increase of 19% from previously published estimates and representing the largest marine oil spill in history by length of shoreline oiled. These data may be used to generate maps and calculate summary statistics to assist in quantifying and understanding the scope, extent, and spatial distribution of shoreline oil exposure as a result of the DWH incident. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Methane Flux to the Atmosphere from the Deepwater Horizon Oil Leak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yvon-Lewis, S. A.; Hu, L.; Kessler, J. D.; Garcia Tigreros, F.; Chan, E. W.; Du, M.

    2010-12-01

    The unfortunate blowout at the BP Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil rig on April 20, which killed 11 people, was releasing oil and methane at an average rate of 58,000 barrels per day into the deep ocean, until it was recently capped resulting in a total of 4.9 million barrels released (National Incident Command Report, 2010). The methane component of the emission was estimated at 40-60%. As part of a NSF funded RAPID award, the sea-to-air flux of methane from the blowout at the Deepwater Horizon was measured on board the R/V Cape Hatteras from June 11-20 with substantial spatial and temporal resolution over the course of seven days in June 2010. Air and water concentrations were analyzed continuously from a flowing air line and a continuously flowing seawater equilibrator using cavity ring-down spectrometers (CRDS) and a gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The results indicate a low flux of methane to the atmosphere (0.024 μmol m^{-2} d^{-1}) with atmospheric and seawater equilibrium mixing ratios averaging 1.86 ppm and 2.85 ppm, respectively within the survey area. Most of the methane emitted from the wellhead was not emitted to the atmosphere. It dissolved into the water column at depth.

  6. Science in support of the Deepwater Horizon response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubchenco, Jane; McNutt, Marcia K.; Dreyfus, Gabrielle; Murawski, Steven A.; Kennedy, David M.; Anastas, Paul T.; Chu, Steven; Hunter, Tom

    2012-01-01

    This introduction to the Special Feature presents the context for science during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill response, summarizes how scientific knowledge was integrated across disciplines and statutory responsibilities, identifies areas where scientific information was accurate and where it was not, and considers lessons learned and recommendations for future research and response. Scientific information was integrated within and across federal and state agencies, with input from nongovernmental scientists, across a diverse portfolio of needs—stopping the flow of oil, estimating the amount of oil, capturing and recovering the oil, tracking and forecasting surface oil, protecting coastal and oceanic wildlife and habitat, managing fisheries, and protecting the safety of seafood. Disciplines involved included atmospheric, oceanographic, biogeochemical, ecological, health, biological, and chemical sciences, physics, geology, and mechanical and chemical engineering. Platforms ranged from satellites and planes to ships, buoys, gliders, and remotely operated vehicles to laboratories and computer simulations. The unprecedented response effort depended directly on intense and extensive scientific and engineering data, information, and advice. Many valuable lessons were learned that should be applied to future events.

  7. Deep impact : destruction and sinking of Deepwater Horizon a blow to offshore industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    In the weeks following the blowout in British Petroleum's (BP) Macondo well in the Gulf of Mexico on April 20, 2010, the implications for the industry spread quickly, impacting operations around the world. When the Deepwater Horizon exploded, killing 11 crew members, the immediate impact of the blowout resulted in at least 5,000 barrels per day of oil leaking out of the wellbore. This article discussed the impacts of the oil blowout from the well and the response from BP, rig owner Transocean Ltd., and Haliburton. As of mid-May, 2010, several attempts to plug the well were unsuccessful. Solutions that attempted to block the well from leaking were presented, including several low-tech solutions to attack the two main sources of oil which were the failed blowout preventer and the crumpled up riser resting on the sea floor. The article noted that as a last solution the well could be intersected with a relief well that could block the flow at depth. This option could take two or three months to reach the required depth. The article then discussed the costs of the oil spill to BP, fisheries, the tourism industry, and other hard-hit sectors. It was concluded that similar to the spill caused by the Exxon Valdez in Alaska 21 years ago, the Gulf disaster will affect the image of the industry for years to come. 5 figs.

  8. Deep impact : destruction and sinking of Deepwater Horizon a blow to offshore industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2010-06-15

    In the weeks following the blowout in British Petroleum's (BP) Macondo well in the Gulf of Mexico on April 20, 2010, the implications for the industry spread quickly, impacting operations around the world. When the Deepwater Horizon exploded, killing 11 crew members, the immediate impact of the blowout resulted in at least 5,000 barrels per day of oil leaking out of the wellbore. This article discussed the impacts of the oil blowout from the well and the response from BP, rig owner Transocean Ltd., and Haliburton. As of mid-May, 2010, several attempts to plug the well were unsuccessful. Solutions that attempted to block the well from leaking were presented, including several low-tech solutions to attack the two main sources of oil which were the failed blowout preventer and the crumpled up riser resting on the sea floor. The article noted that as a last solution the well could be intersected with a relief well that could block the flow at depth. This option could take two or three months to reach the required depth. The article then discussed the costs of the oil spill to BP, fisheries, the tourism industry, and other hard-hit sectors. It was concluded that similar to the spill caused by the Exxon Valdez in Alaska 21 years ago, the Gulf disaster will affect the image of the industry for years to come. 5 figs.

  9. Toxicity of weathered Deepwater Horizon oil to bay anchovy (Anchoa mitchilli) embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shaughnessy, Kathryn A; Forth, Heather; Takeshita, Ryan; Chesney, Edward J

    2018-02-01

    The BP-contracted Deepwater Horizon Macondo well blowout occurred on 20 April 2010 and lasted nearly three months. The well released millions of barrels of crude oil into the northern Gulf of Mexico, causing extensive impacts on pelagic, benthic, and estuarine fish species. The bay anchovy (Anchoa mitchilli) is an important zooplanktivore in the Gulf, serving as an ecological link between lower trophic levels and pelagic predatory fish species. Bay anchovy spawn from May through November in shallow inshore and estuarine waters throughout the Gulf. Because their buoyant embryos are a dominant part of the inshore ichthyoplankton throughout the summer, it is likely bay anchovy embryos encountered oil in coastal estuaries during the summer and fall of 2010. Bay anchovy embryos were exposed to a range of concentrations of two field-collected Deepwater Horizon oils as high-energy and low-energy water accommodated fractions (HEWAFs and LEWAFs, respectively) for 48h. The median lethal concentrations (LC 50 ) were lower in exposures with the more weathered oil (HEWAF, 1.48µg/L TPAH50; LEWAF, 1.58µg/L TPAH50) compared to the less weathered oil (HEWAF, 3.87µg/L TPAH50; LEWAF, 4.28µg/L TPAH50). To measure delayed mortality and life stage sensitivity between embryos and larvae, an additional 24h acute HEWAF exposure using the more weathered oil was run followed by a 24h grow-out period. Here the LC 50 was 9.71µg/L TPAH50 after the grow-out phase, suggesting a toxic effect of oil at the embryonic or hatching stage. We also found that exposures prepared with the more weathered Slick B oil produced lower LC 50 values compared to the exposures prepared with Slick A oil. Our results demonstrate that even relatively acute environmental exposure times can have a detrimental effect on bay anchovy embryos. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A review of seafood safety after the deepwater horizon blowout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohlke, Julia M; Doke, Dzigbodi; Tipre, Meghan; Leader, Mark; Fitzgerald, Timothy

    2011-08-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DH) blowout resulted in fisheries closings across the Gulf of Mexico. Federal agencies, in collaboration with impacted Gulf states, developed a protocol to determine when it is safe to reopen fisheries based on sensory and chemical analyses of seafood. All federal waters have been reopened, yet concerns have been raised regarding the robustness of the protocol to identify all potential harmful exposures and protect the most sensitive populations. We aimed to assess this protocol based on comparisons with previous oil spills, published testing results, and current knowledge regarding chemicals released during the DH oil spill. We performed a comprehensive review of relevant scientific journal articles and government documents concerning seafood contamination and oil spills and consulted with academic and government experts. Protocols to evaluate seafood safety before reopening fisheries have relied on risk assessment of health impacts from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposures, but metal contamination may also be a concern. Assumptions used to determine levels of concern (LOCs) after oil spills have not been consistent across risk assessments performed after oil spills. Chemical testing results after the DH oil spill suggest PAH levels are at or below levels reported after previous oil spills, and well below LOCs, even when more conservative parameters are used to estimate risk. We recommend use of a range of plausible risk parameters to set bounds around LOCs, comparisons of post-spill measurements with baseline levels, and the development and implementation of long-term monitoring strategies for metals as well as PAHs and dispersant components. In addition, the methods, results, and uncertainties associated with estimating seafood safety after oil spills should be communicated in a transparent and timely manner, and stakeholders should be actively involved in developing a long-term monitoring strategy.

  11. How bioavailable is highly weathered Deepwater Horizon oil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostic, J.; Ziolkowski, L. A.; Reddy, C. M.; Aeppli, C.; Swarthout, B.

    2016-02-01

    Oiled sand patties continue to be deposited on northern Gulf of Mexico beaches five years after the Deepwater Horizon (DwH) oil spill. It is known that during the first 18 months post-spill, sand patties from DwH were chemically transformed, both biotically and abiotically, from wellhead release to beach deposition. However, the chemically transformed oil, which appears to become more polar over time, is not well understood in regards to its biodegradation potential. Biodegradation exerts a large control on the fate of spilled oil, representing a major conduit for its removal from the environment. To assess the bioavailability of this weathered oil, sand patties were collected from intertidal and supratidal zones of beaches in Florida, Alabama, and Mississippi in July 2015. Microbial biomarkers of the viable community, phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA), were detected on all samples collected. The PLFA distributions (mostly saturated and branched structures) and abundances (2 - 9 x 1013 cells/g sand patty) were similar across sampling locations. The positive correlation between PLFA abundance and surface area to volume ratios of sand patties indicates that microbes are preferentially inhabiting outside surfaces of the patties. We will present data on the radiocarbon (14C) content of PLFA to assess carbon (C) sources assimilated by microbes. 14C of PLFA is a powerful tool for assessing C sources assimilated in this setting. Oil has no 14C (Δ14C= -1000‰) while modern organic matter has relatively abundant 14C (Δ14C= 0‰). Fingerprinting analysis of biomarker ratios using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography will be presented to ascertain if oil originated from DwH. The extent of the chemical transformation of the oil into more polar compounds will also be measured using thin layer chromatography. Results of this investigation aim to determine the bioavailability and ultimate fate of oiled sand patties that continue to wash ashore on Gulf of Mexico

  12. Marsh canopy structure changes and the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Elijah W.; Rangoonwala, Amina; Jones, Cathleen E.

    2016-01-01

    Marsh canopy structure was mapped yearly from 2009 to 2012 in the Barataria Bay, Louisiana coastal region that was impacted by the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill. Based on the previously demonstrated capability of NASA's UAVSAR polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR) image data to map Spartina alterniflora marsh canopy structure, structure maps combining the leaf area index (LAI) and leaf angle distribution (LAD, orientation) were constructed for yearly intervals that were directly relatable to the 2010 LAI-LAD classification. The yearly LAI-LAD and LAI difference maps were used to investigate causes for the previously revealed dramatic change in marsh structure from prespill (2009) to postspill (2010, spill cessation), and the occurrence of structure features that exhibited abnormal spatial and temporal patterns. Water level and salinity records showed that freshwater releases used to keep the oil offshore did not cause the rapid growth from 2009 to 2010 in marsh surrounding the inner Bay. Photointerpretation of optical image data determined that interior marsh patches exhibiting rapid change were caused by burns and burn recovery, and that the pattern of 2010 to 2011 LAI decreases in backshore marsh and extending along some tidal channels into the interior marsh were not associated with burns. Instead, the majority of 2010 to 2011 shoreline features aligned with vectors displaying the severity of 2010 shoreline oiling from the DWH spill. Although the association is not conclusive of a causal oil impact, the coexistent pattern is a significant discovery. PolSAR marsh structure mapping provided a unique perspective of marsh biophysical status that enhanced detection of change and monitoring of trends important to management effectiveness.

  13. Deep-sea benthic footprint of the deepwater horizon blowout.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A Montagna

    Full Text Available The Deepwater Horizon (DWH accident in the northern Gulf of Mexico occurred on April 20, 2010 at a water depth of 1525 meters, and a deep-sea plume was detected within one month. Oil contacted and persisted in parts of the bottom of the deep-sea in the Gulf of Mexico. As part of the response to the accident, monitoring cruises were deployed in fall 2010 to measure potential impacts on the two main soft-bottom benthic invertebrate groups: macrofauna and meiofauna. Sediment was collected using a multicorer so that samples for chemical, physical and biological analyses could be taken simultaneously and analyzed using multivariate methods. The footprint of the oil spill was identified by creating a new variable with principal components analysis where the first factor was indicative of the oil spill impacts and this new variable mapped in a geographic information system to identify the area of the oil spill footprint. The most severe relative reduction of faunal abundance and diversity extended to 3 km from the wellhead in all directions covering an area about 24 km(2. Moderate impacts were observed up to 17 km towards the southwest and 8.5 km towards the northeast of the wellhead, covering an area 148 km(2. Benthic effects were correlated to total petroleum hydrocarbon, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and barium concentrations, and distance to the wellhead; but not distance to hydrocarbon seeps. Thus, benthic effects are more likely due to the oil spill, and not natural hydrocarbon seepage. Recovery rates in the deep sea are likely to be slow, on the order of decades or longer.

  14. The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Coast Guard Cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusiecki, Jennifer; Alexander, Melannie; Schwartz, Erica G; Wang, Li; Weems, Laura; Barrett, John; Christenbury, Kate; Johndrow, David; Funk, Renée H; Engel, Lawrence S

    2018-03-01

    Long-term studies of oil spill responders are urgently needed as oil spills continue to occur. To this end, we established the prospective Deepwater Horizon (DWH) Oil Spill Coast Guard Cohort study. DWH oil spill responders (n=8696) and non-responders (n=44 823) who were members of the US Coast Guard (20 April-17 December 2010) were included. This cohort uses both prospective, objective health data from military medical encounters and cross-sectional survey data. Here, we describe the cohort, present adjusted prevalence ratios (PRs) estimating cross-sectional associations between crude oil exposure (none, low/medium, high) and acute physical symptoms, and present adjusted relative risks (RRs) based on longitudinal medical encounter data (2010-2012) for responders/non-responders and responders exposed/not exposed to crude oil. Responders and non-responders in this large cohort (n=53 519) have similar characteristics. Crude oil exposure was reported by >50% of responders. We found statistically significant associations for crude oil exposure with coughing (PR high =1.78), shortness of breath (PR high =2.30), wheezing (PR high =2.32), headaches (PR high =1.46), light-headedness/dizziness (PR high =1.96), skin rash/itching (PR high =1.87), diarrhoea (PR high =1.76), stomach pain (PR high =1.67), nausea/vomiting (PR high =1.48) and painful/burning urination (PR high =2.89) during deployment. Longitudinal analyses revealed that responders had elevated RRs for dermal conditions (RR=1.09), as did oil-exposed responders for chronic respiratory conditions (RR=1.32), asthma (RR=1.83) and dermal conditions (RR=1.21). We found positive associations between crude oil exposure and various acute physical symptoms among responders, as well as longer term health effects. This cohort is well positioned to evaluate both short-term and long-term effects of oil spill exposures using both self-reported and clinical health data. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless

  15. Deepwater Horizon - Estimating surface oil volume distribution in real time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, B.; Simecek-Beatty, D.; Leifer, I.

    2011-12-01

    Spill responders to the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill required both the relative spatial distribution and total oil volume of the surface oil. The former was needed on a daily basis to plan and direct local surface recovery and treatment operations. The latter was needed less frequently to provide information for strategic response planning. Unfortunately, the standard spill observation methods were inadequate for an oil spill this size, and new, experimental, methods, were not ready to meet the operational demands of near real-time results. Traditional surface oil estimation tools for large spills include satellite-based sensors to define the spatial extent (but not thickness) of the oil, complemented with trained observers in small aircraft, sometimes supplemented by active or passive remote sensing equipment, to determine surface percent coverage of the 'thick' part of the slick, where the vast majority of the surface oil exists. These tools were also applied to DWH in the early days of the spill but the shear size of the spill prevented synoptic information of the surface slick through the use small aircraft. Also, satellite images of the spill, while large in number, varied considerably in image quality, requiring skilled interpretation of them to identify oil and eliminate false positives. Qualified staff to perform this task were soon in short supply. However, large spills are often events that overcome organizational inertia to the use of new technology. Two prime examples in DWH were the application of hyper-spectral scans from a high-altitude aircraft and more traditional fixed-wing aircraft using multi-spectral scans processed by use of a neural network to determine, respectively, absolute or relative oil thickness. But, with new technology, come new challenges. The hyper-spectral instrument required special viewing conditions that were not present on a daily basis and analysis infrastructure to process the data that was not available at the command

  16. Absolute Thermal SST Measurements over the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, W. S.; Warden, R.; Kaptchen, P. F.; Finch, T.; Emery, W. J.

    2010-12-01

    Climate monitoring and natural disaster rapid assessment require baseline measurements that can be tracked over time to distinguish anthropogenic versus natural changes to the Earth system. Disasters like the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill require constant monitoring to assess the potential environmental and economic impacts. Absolute calibration and validation of Earth-observing sensors is needed to allow for comparison of temporally separated data sets and provide accurate information to policy makers. The Ball Experimental Sea Surface Temperature (BESST) radiometer was designed and built by Ball Aerospace to provide a well calibrated measure of sea surface temperature (SST) from an unmanned aerial system (UAS). Currently, emissive skin SST observed by satellite infrared radiometers is validated by shipborne instruments that are expensive to deploy and can only take a few data samples along the ship track to overlap within a single satellite pixel. Implementation on a UAS will allow BESST to map the full footprint of a satellite pixel and perform averaging to remove any local variability due to the difference in footprint size of the instruments. It also enables the capability to study this sub-pixel variability to determine if smaller scale effects need to be accounted for in models to improve forecasting of ocean events. In addition to satellite sensor validation, BESST can distinguish meter scale variations in SST which could be used to remotely monitor and assess thermal pollution in rivers and coastal areas as well as study diurnal and seasonal changes to bodies of water that impact the ocean ecosystem. BESST was recently deployed on a conventional Twin Otter airplane for measurements over the Gulf of Mexico to access the thermal properties of the ocean surface being affected by the oil spill. Results of these measurements will be presented along with ancillary sensor data used to eliminate false signals including UV and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR

  17. The 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill: the trauma signature of an ecological disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, James M; Walsh, Lauren; Garfin, Dana Rose; Wilson, Fiona E; Neria, Yuval

    2015-01-01

    The 2010 Deepwater Horizon “British Petroleum (BP)” oil spill was a mega-disaster characterized as the petroleum industry’s largest-volume marine oil spill in history. Following a “wellhead blowout” that destroyed the drilling platform, 4.9 million barrels of petroleum flowed into the Gulf of Mexico over 87 days and the spill expanded to cover 68,000 square miles of sea surface. However, despite the expansive scope of the event, systematic surveys of affected coastal populations found only modest effects on mental health and substance abuse. An established trauma signature (TSIG) methodology was used to examine the psychological consequences in relation to exposure to the unique constellation of hazards associated with the spill. A hazard profile, a matrix of psychological stressors, and a “trauma signature” summary for the affected Gulf Coast population--in terms of exposure to hazard, loss, and change--were created specifically for this human-generated ecological disaster. Psychological risk characteristics of this event included: human causation featuring corporate culpability, large spill volume, protracted duration, coastal contamination from petroleum products, severe ecological damage, disruption of Gulf Coast industries and tourism, and extensive media coverage. The multiple impact effect was notable due to prior exposure of the region to Hurricane Katrina. These stressors were counterbalanced by the relative absence of other prominent risks for distress and psychopathology. Coastal residents did not experience significant onshore spill-related mortality or severe injury, shortages of survival needs, disruption of vital services (health care, schools, utilities, communications, and transportation), loss of homes, population displacement, destruction of the built environment, or loss of social supports. Initial acute economic losses were partially offset by large-sum BP payments for cleanup and recovery of the coastal economy. Not only did Gulf

  18. Long-term autonomous resistivity monitoring of oil-contaminated sediments from the Deepwater Horizon spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heenan, J. W.; Slater, L. D.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Atekwana, E. A.; Ross, C.; Nolan, J. T.; Atekwana, E. A.; Werkema, D. D.; Fathepure, B.

    2012-12-01

    We conducted a long-term electrical resistivity survey at Grand Terre 1 (GT1) Island off the coast of Louisiana, a site contaminated with crude oil associated with the April 2010 BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Electrical resistivity has proven sensitivity to biogeochemical processes associated with the biodegradation of hydrocarbons in the subsurface. However, most of these studies have been in freshwater environments and for aged spills. The BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill therefore provided an unprecedented opportunity to capture the early time biogeophysical signals resulting from the physical, chemical and microbial transformation of crude oil in highly saline environments. We used a multi-channel resistivity system powered by solar panels to obtain continuous measurements twice a day on both a surface array and two shallow borehole arrays. This system operated for approximately 1.5 years and provided a unique long-term dataset of resistivity changes. Temperature and specific conductance values for the shallow groundwater were continuously logged. . Resistivity changes likely associated with biodegradation processes were then isolated from these environmental factors by modeling. In addition, groundwater was sampled for geochemical analyses from wells installed at the study site and soil samples were collected for microbial analyses at several locations, including both contaminated and uncontaminated locations. Microcosms were set up to determine the biodegradation potential of indigenous populations, and microbial diversity analysis was used to determine microbial community composition. Surface and borehole resistivity arrays revealed an initial resistive anomaly co-located with the known contamination. Pixel time series analysis of an inverted time sequence of resistivity sections highlighted differing responses between contaminated and uncontaminated locations. The contaminated locations exhibit persistent resistivity decreases over time, whereas areas

  19. a case study of Deepwater Horizon oil spill at the Gulf of Mexico ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On 20thApril, 2010, Deepwater Horizon oil spill occurred at the Gulf of Mexico, United States of America where large amount of oil spilled in to the water as a result of wellhead blowout from the rig. The spill marked as the largest oil spill ever in the USA and causes large impacts to the marine species and the surrounding ...

  20. Oil characterization and distribution in shoreline sediments of Pensacola Bay, Florida following the Deepwater Horizon spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrier islands of Northwest Florida were heavily oiled during the Deepwater Horizon spill, but less is known about the impacts to the shorelines of the associated estuaries. Shoreline sediment oiling was investigated at 18 sites within the Pensacola Bay, Florida system prior to...

  1. Metagenomics reveals sediment microbial community response to Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mason, Olivia U.; Scott, Nicole M.; Gonzalez, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill in the spring of 2010 resulted in an input of similar to 4.1 million barrels of oil to the Gulf of Mexico; >22% of this oil is unaccounted for, with unknown environmental consequences. Here we investigated the impact of oil deposition on microbial communities...

  2. New insights into microbial responses to oil spills from the Deepwater Horizon incident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, O.U.; Hazen, T.C.

    2011-06-15

    On April 20, 2010, a catastrophic eruption of methane caused the Deepwater Horizon exploratory drill rig drilling the Macondo Well in Mississippi Canyon Block 252 (MC252) to explode. The Deepwater Horizon oil spill was unprecendeted for several reasons: the volume of oil released; the spill duration; the well depth; the distance from the shore-line (77 km or about 50 miles); the type of oil (light crude); and the injection of dispersant directly at the wellhead. This study clearly demonstrated that there was a profound and significant response by certain members of the in situ microbial community in the deep-sea in the Gulf of Mexico. In particular putative hydrocarbon degrading Bacteria appeared to bloom in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, even though the temperature at these depths is never >5 C. As the plume aged the shifts in the microbial community on a temporal scale suggested that different, yet metabolically important members of the community were able to respond to a myriad of plume constituents, e.g. shifting from propane/ethane to alkanes and finally to methane. Thus, the biodegradation of hydrocarbons in the plume by Bacteria was a highly significant process in the natural attenuation of many compounds released during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

  3. Recurrent oil sheens at the deepwater horizon disaster site fingerprinted with synthetic hydrocarbon drilling fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeppli, Christoph; Reddy, Christopher M; Nelson, Robert K; Kellermann, Matthias Y; Valentine, David L

    2013-08-06

    We used alkenes commonly found in synthetic drilling-fluids to identify sources of oil sheens that were first observed in September 2012 close to the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) disaster site, more than two years after the Macondo well (MW) was sealed. While explorations of the sea floor by BP confirmed that the well was sound, they identified the likely source as leakage from an 80-ton cofferdam, abandoned during the operation to control the MW in May 2010. We acquired sheen samples and cofferdam oil and analyzed them using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography. This allowed for the identification of drilling-fluid C16- to C18-alkenes in sheen samples that were absent in cofferdam oil. Furthermore, the spatial pattern of evaporative losses of sheen oil alkanes indicated that oil surfaced closer to the DWH wreckage than the cofferdam site. Last, ratios of alkenes and oil hydrocarbons pointed to a common source of oil found in sheen samples and recovered from oil-covered DWH debris collected shortly after the explosion. These lines of evidence suggest that the observed sheens do not originate from the MW, cofferdam, or from natural seeps. Rather, the likely source is oil in tanks and pits on the DWH wreckage, representing a finite oil volume for leakage.

  4. TESTING THE GENERALIZATION EFFICIENCY OF OIL SLICK CLASSIFICATION ALGORITHM USING MULTIPLE SAR DATA FOR DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ozkan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Marine oil spills due to releases of crude oil from tankers, offshore platforms, drilling rigs and wells, etc. are seriously affecting the fragile marine and coastal ecosystem and cause political and environmental concern. A catastrophic explosion and subsequent fire in the Deepwater Horizon oil platform caused the platform to burn and sink, and oil leaked continuously between April 20th and July 15th of 2010, releasing about 780,000 m3 of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. Today, space-borne SAR sensors are extensively used for the detection of oil spills in the marine environment, as they are independent from sun light, not affected by cloudiness, and more cost-effective than air patrolling due to covering large areas. In this study, generalization extent of an object based classification algorithm was tested for oil spill detection using multiple SAR imagery data. Among many geometrical, physical and textural features, some more distinctive ones were selected to distinguish oil and look alike objects from each others. The tested classifier was constructed from a Multilayer Perception Artificial Neural Network trained by ABC, LM and BP optimization algorithms. The training data to train the classifier were constituted from SAR data consisting of oil spill originated from Lebanon in 2007. The classifier was then applied to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill data in the Gulf of Mexico on RADARSAT-2 and ALOS PALSAR images to demonstrate the generalization efficiency of oil slick classification algorithm.

  5. Assessing the damage caused by Deepwater Horizon: not just another Exxon Valdez.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrons, Robert K

    2013-06-15

    In light of the high stakes of the Deepwater Horizon civil trial and the important precedent-setting role that the case will have on the assessment of future marine disasters, the methodologies underpinning the calculations of damage on both sides will be subjected to considerable scrutiny. Despite the importance of the case, however, there seems to be a pronounced lack of convergence about it in the academic literature. Contributions from scientific journals frequently make comparisons to the Ixtoc I oil spill off the coast of Mexico in 1979; the legal literature, by stark contrast, seems to be much more focused on the Exxon Valdez spill that occurred off the shores of Alaska in 1989. This paper accordingly calls for a more thorough consideration of other analogs beyond the Exxon Valdez spill-most notably, the Ixtoc I incident-in arriving at an assessment of the damage caused by the Deepwater Horizon disaster. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Relative Condition Factors of Fish as Bioindicators One Year after the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Research Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 07-01-2010 to 30-1-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Relative Condition Factors of Fish as Bioindicators One...Condition index, relative condition factor, bioindicator , oil spill 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF...Condition Factors of Fish as Bioindicators One Year after the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Joshua Courtney,1 Taylor Klinkmann,2 Amy Courtney,1 Joseph

  7. Studies of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill With the UAVSAR Radar

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Cathleen E.; Minchew, Brent; Holt, Benjamin; Hensley, Scott

    2013-01-01

    On 22- 23 June 2010, the Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) L band radar imaged the Deepwater Horizon oil spill and the effects of oil that was transported within the Gulf of Mexico. We describe the campaign and discuss the unique contributions of the UAVSAR radar to the study of the detection, migration, and impact of oil from the spill. We present an overview of UAVSAR data analyses that support the original science goals of the campaign, namely, (1) algorithm d...

  8. Review of flow rate estimates of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNutt, Marcia K.; Camilli, Rich; Crone, Timothy J.; Guthrie, George D.; Hsieh, Paul A.; Ryerson, Thomas B.; Savas, Omer; Shaffer, Frank

    2012-01-01

    The unprecedented nature of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill required the application of research methods to estimate the rate at which oil was escaping from the well in the deep sea, its disposition after it entered the ocean, and total reservoir depletion. Here, we review what advances were made in scientific understanding of quantification of flow rates during deep sea oil well blowouts. We assess the degree to which a consensus was reached on the flow rate of the well by comparing in situ observations of the leaking well with a time-dependent flow rate model derived from pressure readings taken after the Macondo well was shut in for the well integrity test. Model simulations also proved valuable for predicting the effect of partial deployment of the blowout preventer rams on flow rate. Taken together, the scientific analyses support flow rates in the range of ~50,000–70,000 barrels/d, perhaps modestly decreasing over the duration of the oil spill, for a total release of ~5.0 million barrels of oil, not accounting for BP's collection effort. By quantifying the amount of oil at different locations (wellhead, ocean surface, and atmosphere), we conclude that just over 2 million barrels of oil (after accounting for containment) and all of the released methane remained in the deep sea. By better understanding the fate of the hydrocarbons, the total discharge can be partitioned into separate components that pose threats to deep sea vs. coastal ecosystems, allowing responders in future events to scale their actions accordingly.

  9. Lessons on corporate "sustainability" disclosure from Deepwater Horizon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Sanford

    2011-01-01

    The BP oil spill highlighted shortcomings of current financial and sustainability reporting standards and practice. "Integrated reporting" aims to combine financial and social/environmental information into a single annual corporate report. But without more stringent standards, integrated reports would neglect substantial risks and, as BP's sustainability reports demonstrate, create false impressions of good practice.To be of value, integration must: 1. Require timely disclosure of enforcement notices, orders and allegations issued by regulators. 2. Require disclosure of credible scientific reports and concerns indicative of potentially catastrophic risks of a company's products and activities, regardless of scientific uncertainty. 3. Require review and disclosures of a firm's safety culture. 4. Require disclosure of any facts or circumstances needed to ensure that the management's self-portrait of its sustainability strategies, goals and progress is not materially misleading.In conducting its misleading reporting, BP largely followed Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) guidelines. GRI is soliciting input, beginning in summer 2011, on how to revise those guidelines. Since GRI may prove a leading source for sustainability disclosure rules in integrating reporting, lessons learned from the BP experience must be applied to the next GRI revisions.

  10. Estimating incident ultraviolet radiation exposure in the northern Gulf of Mexico during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Kristin N; Lay, Claire R; Alloy, Matthew M; Gielazyn, Michel L; Morris, Jeffrey M; Forth, Heather P; Takeshita, Ryan; Travers, Constance L; Oris, James T; Roberts, Aaron P

    2018-02-23

    Millions of barrels of oil were released into the Gulf of Mexico following the 2010 explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are toxic components of crude oil, which may become more toxic in the presence of ultraviolet (UV) radiation, a phenomenon known as photo-induced toxicity. The Deepwater Horizon spill impacted offshore and estuarine sites, where biota may be co-exposed to UV and PAHs. Penetration of UV into the water column is affected by site-specific factors. Therefore, measurements and/or estimations of UV are necessary when one is assessing the risk to biota posed by photo-induced toxicity. We describe how estimates of incident UV were determined for the area impacted by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, using monitoring data from radiometers near the spill, in conjunction with reference spectra characterizing the composition of solar radiation. Furthermore, we provide UV attenuation coefficients for both near- and offshore sites in the Gulf of Mexico. These estimates are specific to the time and location of the spill, and fall within the range of intensities utilized during photo-induced toxicity tests performed in support of the Deepwater Horizon Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA). These data further validate the methodologies and findings of phototoxicity tests included in the Deepwater Horizon NRDA, while underscoring the importance of considering UV exposure when assessing possible risks following oil spills. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;9999:1-9. © 2018 SETAC. © 2018 SETAC.

  11. Exxon Valdez to Deepwater Horizon: comparable toxicity of both crude oils to fish early life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incardona, John P; Swarts, Tanya L; Edmunds, Richard C; Linbo, Tiffany L; Aquilina-Beck, Allisan; Sloan, Catherine A; Gardner, Luke D; Block, Barbara A; Scholz, Nathaniel L

    2013-10-15

    The 2010 Deepwater Horizon disaster in the Gulf of Mexico was the largest oil spill in United States history. Crude oils are highly toxic to developing fish embryos, and many pelagic fish species were spawning in the northern Gulf in the months before containment of the damaged Mississippi Canyon 252 (MC252) wellhead (April-July). The largest prior U.S. spill was the 1989 grounding of the Exxon Valdez that released 11 million gallons of Alaska North Slope crude oil (ANSCO) into Prince William Sound. Numerous studies in the aftermath of the Exxon Valdez spill defined a conventional crude oil injury phenotype in fish early life stages, mediated primarily by toxicity to the developing heart. To determine whether this type of injury extends to fishes exposed to crude oil from the Deepwater Horizon - MC252 incident, we used zebrafish to compare the embryotoxicity of ANSCO alongside unweathered and weathered MC252 oil. We also developed a standardized protocol for generating dispersed oil water-accommodated fractions containing microdroplets of crude oil in the size range of those detected in subsurface plumes in the Gulf. We show here that MC252 oil and ANSCO cause similar cardiotoxicity and photo-induced toxicity in zebrafish embryos. Morphological defects and patterns of cytochrome P450 induction were largely indistinguishable and generally correlated with polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC) composition of each oil type. Analyses of embryos exposed during different developmental windows provided additional insight into mechanisms of crude oil cardiotoxicity. These findings indicate that the impacts of MC252 crude oil on fish embryos and larvae are consistent with the canonical ANSCO cardiac injury phenotype. For those marine fish species that spawned in the northern Gulf of Mexico during and after the Deepwater Horizon incident, the established literature can therefore inform the assessment of natural resource injury in the form of potential year-class losses

  12. Growth rates and ages of deep-sea corals impacted by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prouty, Nancy G.; Fisher, Charles R.; Demopoulos, Amanda W. J.; Druffel, Ellen R. M.

    2016-01-01

    The impact of the April 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill on deep-sea coral communities in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) is still under investigation, as is the potential for these communities to recover. Impacts from the spill include observation of corals covered with flocculent material, with bare skeleton, excessive mucous production, sloughing tissue, and subsequent colonization of damaged areas by hydrozoans. Information on growth rates and life spans of deep-sea corals is important for understanding the vulnerability of these ecosystems to both natural and anthropogenic perturbations, as well as the likely duration of any observed adverse impacts. We report radiocarbon ages and radial and linear growth rates based on octocorals (Paramuricea spp. and Chrysogorgia sp.) collected in 2010 and 2011 from areas of the DWH impact. The oldest coral radiocarbon ages were measured on specimens collected 11 km to the SW of the oil spill from the Mississippi Canyon (MC) 344 site: 599 and 55 cal yr BP, suggesting continuous life spans of over 600 years for Paramuricea biscaya, the dominant coral species in the region. Calculated radial growth rates, between 0.34 μm yr−1 and 14.20 μm yr−1, are consistent with previously reported proteinaceous corals from the GoM. Anomalously low radiocarbon (Δ14C) values for soft tissue from some corals indicate that these corals were feeding on particulate organic carbon derived from an admixture of modern surface carbon and a low 14C carbon source. Results from this work indicate fossil carbon could contribute 5–10% to the coral soft tissue Δ14C signal within the area of the spill impact. The influence of a low 14C carbon source (e.g., petro-carbon) on the particulate organic carbon pool was observed at all sites within 30 km of the spill site, with the exception of MC118, which may have been outside of the dominant northeast-southwest zone of impact. The quantitatively assessed extreme longevity and slow growth rates documented

  13. Review of the OSHA-NIOSH Response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: Protecting the Health and Safety of Cleanup Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, David; Howard, John

    2012-07-18

    The fire and explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig resulted in an enormous oil spill that threatened large distances of coastline. The overall response was led by the United States Coast Guard and involved the oil company BP, federal agencies, and state and local governments of five states. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health focused extensive resources on ensuring that BP and its contractors provided safe working conditions for thousands of workers involved in the response. Federal personnel visited worksites daily, identifying hazards and means of abatement; assessed training programs to ensure that workers were adequately trained in languages they could understand; monitored chemical exposures and determined that the proper personal protective equipment was deployed; insisted on implementation of a heat mitigation program; rostered thousands of workers; and conducted extensive outreach in communities impacted by the spill. Advance planning, immediate deployment, and collaboration across agencies helped ensure that the response operations resulted in no worker fatalities, and relatively few injuries and illnesses. For future responses, improvements should be made in how safety and health information, as well as the process behind safety and health decisions, are communicated to the public. Michaels D, Howard J. Review of the OSHA-NIOSH Response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: Protecting the Health and Safety of Cleanup Workers. PLoS Currents Disasters. 2012 Jul 18.

  14. Mapping and Visualization of The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Using Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira Pichardo, E.

    2017-12-01

    Satellites are man-made objects hovering around the Earth's orbit and are essential for Earth observation, i.e. the monitoring and gathering of data about the Earth's vital systems. Environmental Satellites are used for atmospheric research, weather forecasting, and warning as well as monitoring extreme weather events. These satellites are categorized into Geosynchronous and Low Earth (Polar) orbiting satellites. Visualizing satellite data is critical to understand the Earth's systems and changes to our environment. The objective of this research is to examine satellite-based remotely sensed data that needs to be processed and rendered in the form of maps or other forms of visualization to understand and interpret the satellites' observations to monitor the status, changes and evolution of the mega-disaster Deepwater Horizon Spill that occurred on April 20, 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico. In this project, we will use an array of tools and programs such as Python, CSPP and Linux. Also, we will use data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA): Polar-Orbiting Satellites Terra Earth Observing System AM-1 (EOS AM-1), and Aqua EOS PM-1 to investigate the mega-disaster. Each of these satellites carry a variety of instruments, and we will use the data obtained from the remote sensor Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Ultimately, this study shows the importance of mapping and visualizing data such as satellite data (MODIS) to understand the extents of environmental impacts disasters such as the Deepwater Horizon Oil spill.

  15. Longer-Term Mental and Behavioral Health Effects of the Deepwater Horizon Gulf Oil Spill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonya Cross Hansel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Mental health issues are a significant concern after technological disasters such as the 2010 Gulf Oil Spill; however, there is limited knowledge about the long-term effects of oil spills. The study was part of a larger research effort to improve understanding of the mental and behavioral health effects of the Deepwater Horizon Gulf Oil Spill. Data were collected immediately following the spill and the same individuals were resampled again after the second anniversary (n = 314. The results show that mental health symptoms of depression, serious mental illness and posttraumatic stress have not statistically decreased, and anxiety symptoms were statistically equivalent to immediate symptoms. Results also showed that the greatest effect on anxiety is related to the extent of disruption to participants’ lives, work, family, and social engagement. This study supports lessons learned following the Exxon Valdez spill suggesting that mental health effects are long term and recovery is slow. Elevated symptoms indicate the continued need for mental health services, especially for individuals with high levels of disruption resulting in increased anxiety. Findings also suggest that the longer-term recovery trajectories following the Deepwater Horizon Gulf Oil Spill do not fall within traditional disaster recovery timelines.

  16. Petroleum hydrocarbon persistence following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill as a function of shoreline energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Meredith; Liu, Jiqing; Bacosa, Hernando; Rosenheim, Brad E; Liu, Zhanfei

    2017-02-15

    An important aspect of oil spill science is understanding how the compounds within spilled oil, especially toxic components, change with weathering. In this study we follow the evolution of petroleum hydrocarbons, including n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkylated PAHs, on a Louisiana beach and salt marsh for three years following the Deepwater Horizon spill. Relative to source oil, we report overall depletion of low molecular weight n-alkanes and PAHs in all locations with time. The magnitude of depletion, however, depends on the sampling location, whereby sites with highest wave energy have highest compound depletion. Oiled sediment from an enclosed bay shows high enrichment of high molecular weight PAHs relative to 17α(H),21β(H)-hopane, suggesting the contribution from sources other than the Deepwater Horizon spill, such as fossil fuel burning. This insight into hydrocarbon persistence as a function of hydrography and hydrocarbon source can inform policy and response for future spills. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Microbial transformation of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill – past, present, and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikole E. Kimes

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Deepwater Horizon blowout, which occurred on April 20, 2010, resulted in an unprecedented oil spill. Despite a complex effort to cap the well, oil and gas spewed from the site until July 15, 2010. Although a large proportion of the hydrocarbons was depleted via natural processes and human intervention, a substantial portion of the oil remained unaccounted for and impacted multiple ecosystems throughout the Gulf of Mexico. The depth, duration and magnitude of this spill were unique, raising many questions and concerns regarding the fate of the hydrocarbons released. One major question was whether or not microbial communities would be capable of metabolizing the hydrocarbons, and if so, by what mechanisms and to what extent? In this review, we summarize the microbial response to the oil spill as described by studies performed during the past four years, providing an overview of the different responses associated with the water column, surface waters, deep-sea sediments, and coastal sands/sediments. Collectively, these studies provide evidence that the microbial response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill was rapid and robust, displaying common attenuation mechanisms optimized for low molecular weight aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. In contrast, the lack of evidence for the attenuation of more recalcitrant hydrocarbon components suggests that future work should focus on both the environmental impact and metabolic fate of recalcitrant compounds, such as oxygenated oil components.

  18. Assessment of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill impact on Gulf coast microbial communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina eLamendella

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the major environmental concerns of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico was the ecological impact of the oil that reached shorelines of the Gulf Coast. Here we investigated the impact of the oil on the microbial composition in beach samples collected in June 2010 along a heavily impacted shoreline near Grand Isle, Louisiana. Successional changes in the microbial community structure due to the oil contamination were determined by deep sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Metatranscriptomics was used to determine expression of functional genes involved in hydrocarbon degradation processes. In addition, potential hydrocarbon-degrading Bacteria were obtained in culture. The 16S data revealed that highly contaminated samples had higher abundances of Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria sequences. Successional changes in these classes were observed over time, during which the oil was partially degraded. The metatranscriptome data revealed that PAH, n-alkane, and toluene degradation genes were expressed in the contaminated samples, with high homology to genes from Alteromonadales, Rhodobacterales, and Pseudomonales. Notably, Marinobacter (Gammaproteobacteria had the highest representation of expressed genes in the samples. A Marinobacter isolated from this beach was shown to have potential for transformation of hydrocarbons in incubation experiments with oil obtained from the Mississippi Canyon Block 252 (MC252 well; collected during the Deepwater Horizon spill. The combined data revealed a response of the beach microbial community to oil contaminants, including prevalence of Bacteria endowed with the functional capacity to degrade oil.

  19. Body mass change in flying homing pigeons externally exposed to Deepwater Horizon crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Cristina R; Moye, John K; Cacela, Dave; Dean, Karen M; Pritsos, Chris A

    2017-12-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill contaminated thousands of miles of habitat valuable to hundreds of species of migratory and resident birds of the Gulf of Mexico. Many birds died as a direct result of the oil spill; however, the indirect effects of oil exposure on the flight ability and body condition of birds are difficult to assess in situ. This study utilizes the homing pigeon as a surrogate species for migratory birds to investigate the effect of multiple external oil exposures on the flight performance and body mass change of birds over a series of repeated flights from 136.8km flight distance. Oiled pigeons took significantly longer to return home, lost more weight during flight, and were unable to recover their weight, resulting in reduction of body weight overtime. Based on our data, migratory birds that were oiled, even partially, by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill likely took longer to complete migration and were likely in poor body condition, increasing their risk of mortality and reproductive failure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Degradation of Deepwater Horizon oil buried in a Florida beach influenced by tidal pumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huettel, Markus; Overholt, Will A; Kostka, Joel E; Hagan, Christopher; Kaba, John; Wells, Wm Brian; Dudley, Stacia

    2018-01-01

    After Deepwater Horizon oil reached the Florida coast, oil was buried in Pensacola Beach (PB) sands to ~70cm depth, resulting in Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations up to ~2kg per meter of beach. This study followed the decomposition of the buried oil and the factors influencing its degradation. The abundance of bacteria in oiled sand increased by 2 orders of magnitude within one week after oil burial, while diversity decreased by ~50%. Half-lives of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons reached 25 and 22days, respectively. Aerobic microbial oil decomposition, promoted by tidal pumping, and human cleaning activities effectively removed oil from the beach. After one year, concentrations of GC-amenable hydrocarbons at PB were similar to those in the uncontaminated reference beach at St. George Island/FL, and microbial populations that disappeared after the oil contamination had reestablished. Yet, oxihydrocarbons can be found at PB to the present day. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Methane flux to the atmosphere from the Deepwater Horizon oil disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yvon-Lewis, Shari A.; Hu, Lei; Kessler, John

    2011-01-01

    The sea-to-air flux of methane from the blowout at the Deepwater Horizon was measured with substantial spatial and temporal resolution over the course of seven days in June 2010. Air and water concentrations were analyzed continuously from a flowing air line and a continuously flowing seawater equilibrator using cavity ring-down spectrometers (CRDS) and a gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The results indicate a low flux of methane to the atmosphere (0.024 μmol m-2 d-1) with atmospheric and seawater equilibrium mixing ratios averaging 1.86 ppm and 2.85 ppm, respectively within the survey area. The oil leak, which was estimated to contain 30.2% methane by weight, was not a significant source of methane to the atmosphere during this study. Most of the methane emitted from the wellhead was dissolved in the deep ocean.

  2. Microbial gene functions enriched in the Deepwater Horizon deep-sea oil plume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Z.; Deng, Y.; Nostrand, J.D. Van; He, Z.; Voordeckers, J.; Zhou, A.; Lee, Y.-J.; Mason, O.U.; Dubinsky, E.; Chavarria, K.; Tom, L.; Fortney, J.; Lamendella, R.; Jansson, J.K.; D?haeseleer, P.; Hazen, T.C.; Zhou, J.

    2011-06-15

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico is the deepest and largest offshore spill in U.S. history and its impacts on marine ecosystems are largely unknown. Here, we showed that the microbial community functional composition and structure were dramatically altered in a deep-sea oil plume resulting from the spill. A variety of metabolic genes involved in both aerobic and anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation were highly enriched in the plume compared to outside the plume, indicating a great potential for intrinsic bioremediation or natural attenuation in the deep-sea. Various other microbial functional genes relevant to carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur and iron cycling, metal resistance, and bacteriophage replication were also enriched in the plume. Together, these results suggest that the indigenous marine microbial communities could play a significant role in biodegradation of oil spills in deep-sea environments.

  3. Oil Characterization and Distribution in Florida Estuary Sediments Following the Deepwater Horizon Spill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mace G. Barron

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Barrier islands of Northwest Florida were heavily oiled during the Deepwater Horizon spill, but less is known about the impacts to the shorelines of the associated estuaries. Shoreline sediment oiling was investigated at 18 sites within the Pensacola Bay, Florida system prior to impact, during peak oiling, and post-wellhead capping. Only two locations closest to the Gulf of Mexico had elevated levels of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH and total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. These samples showed a clear weathered crude oil signature, pattern of depletion of C9 to C19 alkanes and C0 to C4 naphthalenes, and geochemical biomarker ratios in concordance with weathered Macondo crude oil. All other locations and sample times showed only trace petroleum contamination. The results of this study are consistent with available satellite imagery and visual shoreline survey data showing heavy shoreline oiling limited to sandy beaches near the entrance to Pensacola Bay and shorelines of Santa Rosa Island.

  4. Potential impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on large pelagic fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frias-Torres, Sarrah; Bostater, Charles R., Jr.

    2011-11-01

    Biogeographical analyses provide insights on how the Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacted large pelagic fishes. We georeferenced historical ichthyoplankton surveys and published literature to map the spawning and larval areas of bluefin tuna, swordfish, blue marlin and whale shark sightings in the Gulf of Mexico with daily satellite-derived images detecting surface oil. The oil spill covered critical areas used by large pelagic fishes. Surface oil was detected in 100% of the northernmost whale shark sightings, in 32.8 % of the bluefin tuna spawning area and 38 % of the blue marlin larval area. No surface oil was detected in the swordfish spawning and larval area. Our study likely underestimates the extend of the oil spill due to satellite sensors detecting only the upper euphotic zone and the use of dispersants altering crude oil density, but provides a previously unknown spatio-temporal analysis.

  5. Alternative response technology program for the Deepwater Horizon in the Gulf of Mexico - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortez, Michael J.; Rowe, Hunter G.

    2011-01-01

    The innovative approach utilized by the Alternative Response Technology (ART) Program for the MC252 Deepwater Horizon response in the Gulf of Mexico during 2010 was presented in this paper. The ART program is authorized by the Unified Area Command. This paper focuses on the spill response technologies that were implemented offshore, near shore and on-shore, and covers technologies related to booming, skimming, separation, sand cleaning, surveillance and detection. A process was designed and implemented for capturing ideas real time, which leveraged the public's ingenuity and entrepreneurial spirit. About 120,000 individual ideas were submitted by the public globally from more than 100 countries. About 40,000 of these ideas were related to addressing the spill response. There are about 100 new technologies related to spill response that were formally evaluated and/or field tested, and approximately 25 of those tested were successfully implemented across the spill response area.

  6. Alternative response technology program for the Deepwater Horizon in the Gulf of Mexico - an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortez, Michael J.; Rowe, Hunter G. [BP - Gulf Coast Restoration (United States)], email: michael.cortez@bp.com

    2011-07-01

    The innovative approach utilized by the Alternative Response Technology (ART) Program for the MC252 Deepwater Horizon response in the Gulf of Mexico during 2010 was presented in this paper. The ART program is authorized by the Unified Area Command. This paper focuses on the spill response technologies that were implemented offshore, near shore and on-shore, and covers technologies related to booming, skimming, separation, sand cleaning, surveillance and detection. A process was designed and implemented for capturing ideas real time, which leveraged the public's ingenuity and entrepreneurial spirit. About 120,000 individual ideas were submitted by the public globally from more than 100 countries. About 40,000 of these ideas were related to addressing the spill response. There are about 100 new technologies related to spill response that were formally evaluated and/or field tested, and approximately 25 of those tested were successfully implemented across the spill response area.

  7. Chemical fingerprinting of petroleum biomarkers in Deepwater Horizon oil spill samples collected from Alabama shoreline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulabagal, V; Yin, F; John, G F; Hayworth, J S; Clement, T P

    2013-05-15

    We compare the chromatographic signatures of petroleum biomarkers in Deepwater Horizon (DH) source oil, three other reference crude oils, DH emulsified mousse that arrived on Alabama's shoreline in June 2010, and seven tar balls collected from Alabama beaches from 2011 to 2012. Characteristic hopane and sterane fingerprints show that all the tar ball samples originated from DH oil. In addition, the diagnostic ratios of various hopanes indicate an excellent match. Quantitation data for C₃₀αβ-hopane concentration levels show that most of the weathering observed in DH-related tar balls found on Alabama's beaches is likely the result of natural evaporation and dissolution that occurred during transport across the Gulf of Mexico prior to beach deposition. Based on the physical and biomarker characterization data presented in this study we conclude that virtually all fragile, sticky, brownish tar balls currently found on Alabama shoreline originated from the DH oil spill. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Deepwater Horizon crude oil impacts the developing hearts of large predatory pelagic fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incardona, John P; Gardner, Luke D; Linbo, Tiffany L; Brown, Tanya L; Esbaugh, Andrew J; Mager, Edward M; Stieglitz, John D; French, Barbara L; Labenia, Jana S; Laetz, Cathy A; Tagal, Mark; Sloan, Catherine A; Elizur, Abigail; Benetti, Daniel D; Grosell, Martin; Block, Barbara A; Scholz, Nathaniel L

    2014-04-15

    The Deepwater Horizon disaster released more than 636 million L of crude oil into the northern Gulf of Mexico. The spill oiled upper surface water spawning habitats for many commercially and ecologically important pelagic fish species. Consequently, the developing spawn (embryos and larvae) of tunas, swordfish, and other large predators were potentially exposed to crude oil-derived polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Fish embryos are generally very sensitive to PAH-induced cardiotoxicity, and adverse changes in heart physiology and morphology can cause both acute and delayed mortality. Cardiac function is particularly important for fast-swimming pelagic predators with high aerobic demand. Offspring for these species develop rapidly at relatively high temperatures, and their vulnerability to crude oil toxicity is unknown. We assessed the impacts of field-collected Deepwater Horizon (MC252) oil samples on embryos of three pelagic fish: bluefin tuna, yellowfin tuna, and an amberjack. We show that environmentally realistic exposures (1-15 µg/L total PAH) cause specific dose-dependent defects in cardiac function in all three species, with circulatory disruption culminating in pericardial edema and other secondary malformations. Each species displayed an irregular atrial arrhythmia following oil exposure, indicating a highly conserved response to oil toxicity. A considerable portion of Gulf water samples collected during the spill had PAH concentrations exceeding toxicity thresholds observed here, indicating the potential for losses of pelagic fish larvae. Vulnerability assessments in other ocean habitats, including the Arctic, should focus on the developing heart of resident fish species as an exceptionally sensitive and consistent indicator of crude oil impacts.

  9. Crude Exploration: Portraying Industrial Disaster in Deepwater Horizon, a Film Directed By Peter Berg, 2016 Crude Exploration: Portraying Industrial Disaster in Deepwater Horizon, a Film Directed By Peter Berg, 2016 .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Shane; Gawley, Tim

    2017-08-01

    The 2016 film Deepwater Horizon offers a rare portrayal of industrial disaster. It is novel as there are few film-based treatments of this issue. The film enables the public to learn about the disaster, the lives lost, and the stories of survival, but it also provides the opportunity to examine how industrial disaster and, by extension, occupational health and safety may be publicly framed and understood. This article presents an analysis of Deepwater Horizon. Four primary industrial disaster frames are identified in the film: profit maximization, technology and technology failure, managerial conflict, and worker portrayals. Each frame offers advantages and limitations for enhancing public understandings of industrial disaster. Missing from the film is the regulatory environment of the oil drilling industry, whose omission serves to potentially reproduce messages that privilege individualistic, isolated, views of industrial disasters and prioritize immediate over distal causes.

  10. Deepwater Horizon - baseline fisheries surveys conducted in the Gulf of Mexico from 1987-04-16 to 2010-08-01 (NCEI Accession 0150631)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2010, the Deepwater Horizon oil spill occurred in the Gulf of Mexico and the Natural Resources Damage Assessment (NRDA) was initiated to determine the extent of...

  11. Historical oceanographic data and climatologies in support of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill event in the Gulf of Mexico (NODC Accession 0064867)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data products and in situ oceanographic data collected as part of the Deepwater Horizon Event in the Gulf of Mexico (May 2010). The climatological fields detailed...

  12. Petroleum dynamics in the sea and influence of subsea dispersant injection duringDeepwater Horizon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gros, Jonas; Socolofsky, Scott A; Dissanayake, Anusha L; Jun, Inok; Zhao, Lin; Boufadel, Michel C; Reddy, Christopher M; Arey, J Samuel

    2017-09-19

    During the Deepwater Horizon disaster, a substantial fraction of the 600,000-900,000 tons of released petroleum liquid and natural gas became entrapped below the sea surface, but the quantity entrapped and the sequestration mechanisms have remained unclear. We modeled the buoyant jet of petroleum liquid droplets, gas bubbles, and entrained seawater, using 279 simulated chemical components, for a representative day (June 8, 2010) of the period after the sunken platform's riser pipe was pared at the wellhead (June 4-July 15). The model predicts that 27% of the released mass of petroleum fluids dissolved into the sea during ascent from the pared wellhead (1,505 m depth) to the sea surface, thereby matching observed volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions to the atmosphere. Based on combined results from model simulation and water column measurements, 24% of released petroleum fluid mass became channeled into a stable deep-water intrusion at 900- to 1,300-m depth, as aqueously dissolved compounds (∼23%) and suspended petroleum liquid microdroplets (∼0.8%). Dispersant injection at the wellhead decreased the median initial diameters of simulated petroleum liquid droplets and gas bubbles by 3.2-fold and 3.4-fold, respectively, which increased dissolution of ascending petroleum fluids by 25%. Faster dissolution increased the simulated flows of water-soluble compounds into biologically sparse deep water by 55%, while decreasing the flows of several harmful compounds into biologically rich surface water. Dispersant injection also decreased the simulated emissions of VOCs to the atmosphere by 28%, including a 2,000-fold decrease in emissions of benzene, which lowered health risks for response workers.

  13. From frequent hurricanes to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in coastal Louisiana: the impact of regulatory change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So-Min Cheong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The issue of whether adaptations to past disasters can impede adaptation to new disasters of a different type or intensity will be analyzed by examining the transition from frequent hurricanes to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in coastal Louisiana. In particular, the effects of changed regulatory structures from the Stafford Act to the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill are investigated. The article describes how the federal, state, and local governments adjust. In addition, it illustrates the shifting focus on the environment with the activation of the Oil Pollution Act and the Clean Water Act. It wraps up with a discussion of the uncertainty that is pervasive in the case of the oil spill derived from changed regulations and the novelty of the disaster.

  14. Reprint of: Overview of avian toxicity studies for the Deepwater Horizon Natural Resource Damage Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursian, Steven J.; Alexander, C.R.; Cacela, Dave; Cunningham, Fred L.; Dean, Karen M.; Dorr, Brian S.; Ellis, Christine K.; Godard-Codding, Céline A.J.; Guglielmo, Christopher G.; Hanson-Dorr, Katie C.; Harr, Kendall E.; Healy, Katherine A.; Hooper, Michael J.; Horak, Katherine E.; Isanhart, John P.; Kennedy, Lisa V.; Link., Jane E.; Maggini, Ivan; Moye, John K.; Perez, Christina R.; Pritsos, Chris A.; Shriner, Susan A.; Trust, Kinberly A.; Tuttle, Peter L.

    2017-01-01

    The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 establishes liability for injuries to natural resources because of the release or threat of release of oil. Assessment of injury to natural resources resulting from an oil spill and development and implementation of a plan for the restoration, rehabilitation, replacement or acquisition of natural resources to compensate for those injuries is accomplished through the Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) process. The NRDA process began within a week of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, which occurred on April 20, 2010. During the spill, more than 8500 dead and impaired birds representing at least 93 avian species were collected. In addition, there were more than 3500 birds observed to be visibly oiled. While information in the literature at the time helped to identify some of the effects of oil on birds, it was not sufficient to fully characterize the nature and extent of the injuries to the thousands of live oiled birds, or to quantify those injuries in terms of effects on bird viability. As a result, the US Fish and Wildlife Service proposed various assessment activities to inform NRDA injury determination and quantification analyses associated with the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, including avian toxicity studies. The goal of these studies was to evaluate the effects of oral exposure to 1–20 ml of artificially weathered Mississippi Canyon 252 oil kg bw-1 day-1 from one to 28 days or one to five applications of oil to 20% of the bird's surface area. It was thought that these exposure levels would not result in immediate or short-term mortality but might result in physiological effects that ultimately could affect avian survival, reproduction and health. These studies included oral dosing studies, an external dosing study, metabolic and flight performance studies and field-based flight studies. Results of these studies indicated changes in hematologic endpoints including formation of Heinz bodies and changes in cell counts

  15. Salt Marsh Bacterial Communities before and after the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Annette Summers; Liu, Chang; Paterson, Audrey T; Anderson, Laurie C; Turner, R Eugene; Overton, Edward B

    2017-10-15

    Coastal salt marshes along the northern Gulf of Mexico shoreline received varied types and amounts of weathered oil residues after the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill. At the time, predicting how marsh bacterial communities would respond and/or recover to oiling and other environmental stressors was difficult because baseline information on community composition and dynamics was generally unavailable. Here, we evaluated marsh vegetation, physicochemistry, flooding frequency, hydrocarbon chemistry, and subtidal sediment bacterial communities from 16S rRNA gene surveys at 11 sites in southern Louisiana before the oil spill and resampled the same marshes three to four times over 38 months after the spill. Calculated hydrocarbon biomarker indices indicated that oil replaced native natural organic matter (NOM) originating from Spartina alterniflora and marine phytoplankton in the marshes between May 2010 and September 2010. At all the studied marshes, the major class- and order-level shifts among the phyla Proteobacteria , Firmicutes , Bacteroidetes , and Actinobacteria occurred within these first 4 months, but another community shift occurred at the time of peak oiling in 2011. Two years later, hydrocarbon levels decreased and bacterial communities became more diverse, being dominated by Alphaproteobacteria ( Rhizobiales ), Chloroflexi ( Dehalococcoidia ), and Planctomycetes Compositional changes through time could be explained by NOM source differences, perhaps due to vegetation changes, as well as marsh flooding and salinity excursions linked to freshwater diversions. These findings indicate that persistent hydrocarbon exposure alone did not explain long-term community shifts. IMPORTANCE Significant deterioration of coastal salt marshes in Louisiana has been linked to natural and anthropogenic stressors that can adversely affect how ecosystems function. Although microorganisms carry out and regulate most biogeochemical reactions, the diversity of bacterial

  16. Consumer Perceptions of Seafood Industries in the Wake of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Disaster

    OpenAIRE

    McKendree, Melissa G.S.; Ortega, David L.; Widmar, Nicole Olynk; Wang, H. Holly

    2013-01-01

    The impact of environmental disasters on consumers’ perceptions and preferences for specific food items has seldom been studied in the applied economics literature. Recent aquatic disasters, namely the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Disaster, have had profound impacts on fisheries serving US consumers and on agribusinesses within the aquaculture industry. This study explores consumer preferences using a nation-wide representative sample, and finds that twenty-nine p...

  17. Spatial and temporal variation of intertidal nematodes in the northern Gulf of Mexico after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannock, Pamela M; Sharma, Jyotsna; Bik, Holly M; Thomas, W Kelley; Halanych, Kenneth M

    2017-09-01

    Nematodes are an abundant and diverse interstitial component of sedimentary habitats that have been reported to serve as important bioindicators. Though the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) disaster occurred 60 km offshore in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) at a depth of 1525 m, oil rose to the surface and washed ashore, subjecting large segments of coastline in the northern GOM to contamination. Previous metabarcoding work shows intertidal nematode communities were negatively affected by the oil spill. Here we examine the subsequent recovery of nematode community structure at five sites along the Alabama coast over a two-year period. The latter part of the study (July 2011-July 2012) also included an examination of nematode vertical distribution in intertidal sediments. Results showed nematode composition within this region was more influenced by sample locality than time and depth. The five sampling sites were characterized by distinct nematode assemblages that varied by sampling dates. Nematode diversity decreased four months after the oil spill but increased after one year, returning to previous levels at all sites except Bayfront Park (BP). There was no significant difference among nematode assemblages in reference to vertical distribution. Although the composition of nematode assemblages changed, the feeding guilds they represented were not significantly different even though some variation was noted. Data from morphological observations integrated with metabarcoding data indicated similar spatial variation in nematode distribution patterns, indicating the potential of using these faster approaches to examine overall disturbance impact trends within communities. Heterogeneity of microhabitats in the intertidal zone indicates that future sampling and fine-scale studies of nematodes are needed to examine such anthropogenic effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Deepwater Horizon Natural Resource Damage Assessment: Next Steps for Restoration Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croll, B. A.; Reinhardt, J.; Redding, J.; Cowan, J.

    2016-02-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill impacted resources and habitats throughout the Gulf of Mexico ecosystem, including many for which restoration is not commonly conducted. Restoration planning for the natural resource damage assessment (NRDA) began shortly after the spill began and will continue into the future to identify and select projects that will compensate for injured resources and services. For some resources and habitats, there are existing plans and program initiatives that can be relied upon to inform project selection and implementation. However, for other resources where there is limited restoration experience; it will require novel application of restoration concepts. Therefore, an essential element of successful restoration will be employing an adaptive management approach to restoration decisions that both capitalizes on and catalyzes advancements in the state of the science. This presentation will explore the next steps for NRDA restoration planning and the challenges and opportunities for implementing a restoration program that best addresses the array of resources and habitats that were impacted by the spill.

  19. Microbial Community Analysis of a Coastal Salt Marsh Affected by the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beazley, Melanie J.; Martinez, Robert J.; Rajan, Suja; Powell, Jessica; Piceno, Yvette M.; Tom, Lauren M.; Andersen, Gary L.; Hazen, Terry C.; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Zhou, Jizhong; Mortazavi, Behzad; Sobecky, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    Coastal salt marshes are highly sensitive wetland ecosystems that can sustain long-term impacts from anthropogenic events such as oil spills. In this study, we examined the microbial communities of a Gulf of Mexico coastal salt marsh during and after the influx of petroleum hydrocarbons following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Total hydrocarbon concentrations in salt marsh sediments were highest in June and July 2010 and decreased in September 2010. Coupled PhyloChip and GeoChip microarray analyses demonstrated that the microbial community structure and function of the extant salt marsh hydrocarbon-degrading microbial populations changed significantly during the study. The relative richness and abundance of phyla containing previously described hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria (Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria) increased in hydrocarbon-contaminated sediments and then decreased once hydrocarbons were below detection. Firmicutes, however, continued to increase in relative richness and abundance after hydrocarbon concentrations were below detection. Functional genes involved in hydrocarbon degradation were enriched in hydrocarbon-contaminated sediments then declined significantly (pmarsh grass sediments compared to inlet sediments (lacking marsh grass) suggests that the marsh rhizosphere microbial communities could also be contributing to hydrocarbon degradation. The results of this study provide a comprehensive view of microbial community structural and functional dynamics within perturbed salt marsh ecosystems. PMID:22815990

  20. Impacts of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill on Salt Marsh Periwinkles (Littoraria irrorata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengel, Scott; Montague, Clay L; Pennings, Steven C; Powers, Sean P; Steinhoff, Marla; Fricano, Gail; Schlemme, Claire; Zhang, Mengni; Oehrig, Jacob; Nixon, Zachary; Rouhani, Shahrokh; Michel, Jacqueline

    2016-01-19

    Deepwater Horizon was the largest marine oil spill in U.S. waters, oiling large expanses of coastal wetland shorelines. We compared marsh periwinkle (Littoraria irrorata) density and shell length at salt marsh sites with heavy oiling to reference conditions ∼16 months after oiling. We also compared periwinkle density and size among oiled sites with and without shoreline cleanup treatments. Densities of periwinkles were reduced by 80-90% at the oiled marsh edge and by 50% in the oiled marsh interior (∼9 m inland) compared to reference, with greatest numerical losses of periwinkles in the marsh interior, where densities were naturally higher. Shoreline cleanup further reduced adult snail density as well as snail size. Based on the size of adult periwinkles observed coupled with age and growth information, population recovery is projected to take several years once oiling and habitat conditions in affected areas are suitable to support normal periwinkle life-history functions. Where heavily oiled marshes have experienced accelerated erosion as a result of the spill, these habitat impacts would represent additional losses of periwinkles. Losses of marsh periwinkles would likely affect other ecosystem processes and attributes, including organic matter and nutrient cycling, marsh-estuarine food chains, and multiple species that prey on periwinkles.

  1. Impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill evaluated using an end-to-end ecosystem model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainsworth, Cameron H; Paris, Claire B; Perlin, Natalie; Dornberger, Lindsey N; Patterson, William F; Chancellor, Emily; Murawski, Steve; Hollander, David; Daly, Kendra; Romero, Isabel C; Coleman, Felicia; Perryman, Holly

    2018-01-01

    We use a spatially explicit biogeochemical end-to-end ecosystem model, Atlantis, to simulate impacts from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill and subsequent recovery of fish guilds. Dose-response relationships with expected oil concentrations were utilized to estimate the impact on fish growth and mortality rates. We also examine the effects of fisheries closures and impacts on recruitment. We validate predictions of the model by comparing population trends and age structure before and after the oil spill with fisheries independent data. The model suggests that recruitment effects and fishery closures had little influence on biomass dynamics. However, at the assumed level of oil concentrations and toxicity, impacts on fish mortality and growth rates were large and commensurate with observations. Sensitivity analysis suggests the biomass of large reef fish decreased by 25% to 50% in areas most affected by the spill, and biomass of large demersal fish decreased even more, by 40% to 70%. Impacts on reef and demersal forage caused starvation mortality in predators and increased reliance on pelagic forage. Impacts on the food web translated effects of the spill far away from the oiled area. Effects on age structure suggest possible delayed impacts on fishery yields. Recovery of high-turnover populations generally is predicted to occur within 10 years, but some slower-growing populations may take 30+ years to fully recover.

  2. Tracing the incorporation of carbon into benthic foraminiferal calcite following the Deepwater Horizon event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwing, Patrick T; Chanton, Jeffrey P; Romero, Isabel C; Hollander, David J; Goddard, Ethan A; Brooks, Gregg R; Larson, Rebekka A

    2018-03-01

    Following the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) event in 2010, hydrocarbons were deposited on the continental slope in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico through marine oil snow sedimentation and flocculent accumulation (MOSSFA). The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that benthic foraminiferal δ 13 C would record this depositional event. From December 2010 to August 2014, a time-series of sediment cores was collected at two impacted sites and one control site in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Short-lived radioisotopes ( 210 Pb and 234 Th) were employed to establish the pre-DWH, DWH, and post-DWH intervals. Benthic foraminifera (Cibicidoides spp. and Uvigerina spp.) were isolated from these intervals for δ 13 C measurement. A modest (0.2-0.4‰), but persistent δ 13 C depletion in the DWH intervals of impacted sites was observed over a two-year period. This difference was significantly beyond the pre-DWH (background) variability and demonstrated that benthic foraminiferal calcite recorded the depositional event. The longevity of the depletion in the δ 13 C record suggested that benthic foraminifera may have recorded the change in organic matter caused by MOSSFA from 2010 to 2012. These findings have implications for assessing the subsurface spatial distribution of the DWH MOSSFA event. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Partial Photochemical Oxidation Was a Dominant Fate of Deepwater Horizon Surface Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Collin P; Sharpless, Charles M; Valentine, David L; French-McCay, Deborah P; Aeppli, Christoph; White, Helen K; Rodgers, Ryan P; Gosselin, Kelsey M; Nelson, Robert K; Reddy, Christopher M

    2018-02-20

    Following the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) blowout in 2010, oil floated on the Gulf of Mexico for over 100 days. In the aftermath of the blowout, substantial accumulation of partially oxidized surface oil was reported, but the pathways that formed these oxidized residues are poorly constrained. Here we provide five quantitative lines of evidence demonstrating that oxidation by sunlight largely accounts for the partially oxidized surface oil. First, residence time on the sunlit sea surface, where photochemical reactions occur, was the strongest predictor of partial oxidation. Second, two-thirds of the partial oxidation from 2010 to 2016 occurred in less than 10 days on the sunlit sea surface, prior to coastal deposition. Third, multiple diagnostic biodegradation indices, including octadecane to phytane, suggest that partial oxidation of oil on the sunlit sea surface was largely driven by an abiotic process. Fourth, in the laboratory, the dominant photochemical oxidation pathway of DWH oil was partial oxidation to oxygenated residues rather than complete oxidation to CO 2 . Fifth, estimates of partial photo-oxidation calculated with photochemical rate modeling overlap with observed oxidation. We suggest that photo-oxidation of surface oil has fundamental implications for the response approach, damage assessment, and ecosystem restoration in the aftermath of an oil spill, and that oil fate models for the DWH spill should be modified to accurately reflect the role of sunlight.

  4. Change and recovery of coastal mesozooplankton community structure during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carassou, L.; Hernandez, F. J.; Graham, W. M.

    2014-12-01

    The response of mesozooplankton community structure to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the northern Gulf of Mexico was investigated using data from a long-term plankton survey off the coast of Alabama (USA). Environmental conditions observed in the study area during the oil spill (2010) were compared to historical observations (2005-2009), to support the contention that variations observed in zooplankton assemblage structure may be attributed to the oil spill, as opposed to natural climatic or environmental variations. Zooplankton assemblage structure observed during the oil spill period (May-August) in 2010 was then compared to historical observations from the same period (2005-2009). Significant variations were detected in assemblage structure in May and June 2010, but these changes were no longer significant by July 2010. The density of ostracods, cladocerans and echinoderm larvae were responsible for most of the differences observed, but patterns differed depending on taxa and months. Many taxa had higher densities during the oil spill year, including calanoid and cyclopoid copepods, ostracods, bivalve larvae and cladocerans, among others. Although this result is somewhat surprising, it is possible that increased microbial activity related to the infusion of oil carbon may have stimulated secondary production through microbial-zooplankton trophic linkages. Overall, results suggest that, although changes in zooplankton community composition were observed during the oil spill, variations were weak and recovery was rapid.

  5. Impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on the salt marsh vegetation of Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Mark W; Willis, Jonathan M; Rouhani, Shahrokh; Steinhoff, Marla A; Baker, Mary C

    2016-09-01

    The coastal wetland vegetation component of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill Natural Resource Damage Assessment documented significant injury to the plant production and health of Louisiana salt marshes exposed to oiling. Specifically, marsh sites experiencing trace or greater vertical oiling of plant tissues displayed reductions in cover and peak standing crop relative to reference (no oiling), particularly in the marsh edge zone, for the majority of this four year study. Similarly, elevated chlorosis of plant tissue, as estimated by a vegetation health index, was detected for marsh sites with trace or greater vertical oiling in the first two years of the study. Key environmental factors, such as hydrologic regime, elevation, and soil characteristics, were generally similar across plant oiling classes (including reference), indicating that the observed injury to plant production and health was the result of plant oiling and not potential differences in environmental setting. Although fewer significant impacts to plant production and health were detected in the latter years of the study, this is due in part to decreased sample size occurring as a result of erosion (shoreline retreat) and resultant loss of plots, and should not be misconstrued as indicating full recovery of the ecosystem. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. The Effects of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill on Blue Crab Embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, K.; Taylor, C.

    2016-02-01

    Blue crabs (Callinectes Sapidus) are ubiquitous along the east coast; however, they play a particularly integral role in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), where, not only are they a keystone species, but they are also socioeconomically important. The survival of embryos is necessary to insure adequate recruitment into the next generation. Because the Deepwater Horizon oil spill occurred during the peak of the blue crab spawning season, the incident likely impacted blue crab embryos. This study was conducted in order to assess the effect of oil on embryonic growth and development. The eggs from seven different female crabs were collected from the GOM throughout the spawning season and exposed to an oil concentration of 500ppm (the approximate concentration of oil at the site of the DWH). We found that, while the overall mortality rate and the proportion hatched was not significantly different between embryos that were exposed to oil and those not exposed to oil, the proportion of prezoea in the experimental group was significantly greater. Prezoea are known to occur in suboptimal conditions such as low salinities, or bacterial and fungal infection, and have been documented to have reduced survival. Our results support these findings and indicate that oil concentrations of 500 ppm negatively impact the development of blue crab embryos. This study sheds light on a critical, but poorly investigated, phase of an important species' life cycle in addition to providing further insight into the effects of the DWH spill.

  7. Where the oil from surface and subsurface plumes deposited during/after Deepwater Horizon oil spill?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, B.

    2016-02-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DwH) oil spill released an estimated 4.9 million barrels (about 200 million gallons) of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico between April 20, 2010 and July 15, 2010. Though Valentine et al. has linked the elevated oil components in some sediments with the subsurface plume, the sites with fallout from the ocean surface plume has not been identified. This piece of information is critical not only for a comprehensive scientific understanding of the ecosystem response and fate of spill-related pollutants, but also for litigation purposes and future spill response and restoration planning. In this study we focus on testing the hypothesis that marine snow from the surface plume were deposited on the sea floor over a broad area. To do so, we use publicly available data generated as part of the ongoing Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) process to assess the spatial distribution of petroleum hydrocarbons in the water column and deep-ocean sediments of the Gulf of Mexico. Sensitive hydrocarbon markers are used to differentiate hydrocarbons from surface plume, deep subsurface plume, and in-situ burning. Preliminary results suggest the overlapping but different falling sites of these plumes and the sedimentation process was controlled by various biological, chemical, and physical factors.

  8. Extent and degree of shoreline oiling: Deepwater Horizon oil spill, Gulf of Mexico, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Jacqueline; Owens, Edward H; Zengel, Scott; Graham, Andrew; Nixon, Zachary; Allard, Teresa; Holton, William; Reimer, P Doug; Lamarche, Alain; White, Mark; Rutherford, Nicolle; Childs, Carl; Mauseth, Gary; Challenger, Greg; Taylor, Elliott

    2013-01-01

    The oil from the 2010 Deepwater Horizon spill in the Gulf of Mexico was documented by shoreline assessment teams as stranding on 1,773 km of shoreline. Beaches comprised 50.8%, marshes 44.9%, and other shoreline types 4.3% of the oiled shoreline. Shoreline cleanup activities were authorized on 660 km, or 73.3% of oiled beaches and up to 71 km, or 8.9% of oiled marshes and associated habitats. One year after the spill began, oil remained on 847 km; two years later, oil remained on 687 km, though at much lesser degrees of oiling. For example, shorelines characterized as heavily oiled went from a maximum of 360 km, to 22.4 km one year later, and to 6.4 km two years later. Shoreline cleanup has been conducted to meet habitat-specific cleanup endpoints and will continue until all oiled shoreline segments meet endpoints. The entire shoreline cleanup program has been managed under the Shoreline Cleanup Assessment Technique (SCAT) Program, which is a systematic, objective, and inclusive process to collect data on shoreline oiling conditions and support decision making on appropriate cleanup methods and endpoints. It was a particularly valuable and effective process during such a complex spill.

  9. Sampling protocol for post-landfall Deepwater Horizon oil release, Gulf of Mexico, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, F.D.; Skrobialowski, S.C.; Hart, J.S.

    2010-01-01

    The protocols and procedures described in this report are designed to be used by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) field teams for the collection of environmental data and samples in coastal areas affected by the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. This sampling protocol focuses specifically on sampling for water, sediments, benthic invertebrates, and microorganisms (ambient bacterial populations) after shoreline arrival of petroleum-associated product on beach, barrier island, and wetland environments of the Gulf of Mexico coastal states. Deployment to sampling sites, site setup, and sample collection in these environments necessitates modifications to standard USGS sampling procedures in order to address the regulatory, logistical, and legal requirements associated with samples collected in oil-impacted coastal areas. This document, therefore, has been written as an addendum to the USGS National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data (NFM) (http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/twri9A/), which provides the basis for training personnel in the use of standard USGS sampling protocols. The topics covered in this Gulf of Mexico oil-spill sampling protocol augment NFM protocols for field-deployment preparations, health and safety precautions, sampling and quality-assurance procedures, and decontamination requirements under potentially hazardous environmental conditions. Documentation procedures and maintenance of sample integrity by use of chain-of-custody procedures also are described in this protocol.

  10. Resolving biodegradation patterns of persistent saturated hydrocarbons in weathered oil samples from the Deepwater Horizon disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gros, Jonas; Reddy, Christopher M; Aeppli, Christoph; Nelson, Robert K; Carmichael, Catherine A; Arey, J Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Biodegradation plays a major role in the natural attenuation of oil spills. However, limited information is available about biodegradation of different saturated hydrocarbon classes in surface environments, despite that oils are composed mostly of saturates, due to the limited ability of conventional gas chromatography (GC) to resolve this compound group. We studied eight weathered oil samples collected from four Gulf of Mexico beaches 12-19 months after the Deepwater Horizon disaster. Using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC), we successfully separated, identified, and quantified several distinct saturates classes in these samples. We find that saturated hydrocarbons eluting after n-C22 dominate the GC-amenable fraction of these weathered samples. This compound group represented 8-10%, or 38-68 thousand metric tons, of the oil originally released from Macondo well. Saturates in the n-C22 to n-C29 elution range were found to be partly biodegraded, but to different relative extents, with ease of biodegradation decreasing in the following order: n-alkanes > methylalkanes and alkylcyclopentanes+alkylcyclohexanes > cyclic and acyclic isoprenoids. We developed a new quantitative index designed to characterize biodegradation of >n-C22 saturates. These results shed new light onto the environmental fate of these persistent, hydrophobic, and mostly overlooked compounds in the unresolved complex mixtures (UCM) of weathered oils.

  11. Natural gas and temperature structured a microbial community response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Molly C; Valentine, David L

    2012-12-11

    Microbial communities present in the Gulf of Mexico rapidly responded to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. In deep water plumes, these communities were initially dominated by members of Oceanospirillales, Colwellia, and Cycloclasticus. None of these groups were abundant in surface oil slick samples, and Colwellia was much more abundant in oil-degrading enrichment cultures incubated at 4 °C than at room temperature, suggesting that the colder temperatures at plume depth favored the development of these communities. These groups decreased in abundance after the well was capped in July, but the addition of hydrocarbons in laboratory incubations of deep waters from the Gulf of Mexico stimulated Colwellia's growth. Colwellia was the primary organism that incorporated (13)C from ethane and propane in stable isotope probing experiments, and given its abundance in environmental samples at the time that ethane and propane oxidation rates were high, it is likely that Colwellia was active in ethane and propane oxidation in situ. Colwellia also incorporated (13)C benzene, and Colwellia's abundance in crude oil enrichments without natural gas suggests that it has the ability to consume a wide range of hydrocarbon compounds or their degradation products. However, the fact that ethane and propane alone were capable of stimulating the growth of Colwellia, and to a lesser extent, Oceanospirillales, suggests that high natural gas content of this spill may have provided an advantage to these organisms.

  12. Rotating 2d point source plume models with application to Deepwater Horizon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabregat, A.; Deremble, B.; Wienders, N.; Stroman, A.; Poje, A.; Özgökmen, T. M.; Dewar, W. K.

    2017-11-01

    The 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DwH) accident in the Gulf of Mexico has renewed oceanographic interest in point source buoyant convection. The present paper applies modern numerical techniques to study this problem, focussing specifically on the DwH event. The gas/oil/seawater nature of the problem requires a 'multiphase' approach, which is relatively unfamiliar in physical oceanography, although applications are becoming more common. The model is cast in an Eulerian framework and includes feedbacks between the convection and the environment, unlike past oil/gas plume simulations that adopt a semi-passive, Lagrangian approach. Fully three dimensional (3d) simulations are too computationally demanding for practical multi-day use, so a two-dimensional (2d) radially symmetric model is developed from the equations and calibrated to the 3d results. Both the 2d and 3d solutions show the somewhat unexpected result that oil/bubble plumes modelled after the DwH event are strongly affected by rotation and exert a considerable dynamic feedback on the ambient. These effects are not typically included in classical oil/gas plume models.

  13. Impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill evaluated using an end-to-end ecosystem model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Claire B.; Perlin, Natalie; Dornberger, Lindsey N.; Patterson, William F.; Chancellor, Emily; Murawski, Steve; Hollander, David; Daly, Kendra; Romero, Isabel C.; Coleman, Felicia; Perryman, Holly

    2018-01-01

    We use a spatially explicit biogeochemical end-to-end ecosystem model, Atlantis, to simulate impacts from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill and subsequent recovery of fish guilds. Dose-response relationships with expected oil concentrations were utilized to estimate the impact on fish growth and mortality rates. We also examine the effects of fisheries closures and impacts on recruitment. We validate predictions of the model by comparing population trends and age structure before and after the oil spill with fisheries independent data. The model suggests that recruitment effects and fishery closures had little influence on biomass dynamics. However, at the assumed level of oil concentrations and toxicity, impacts on fish mortality and growth rates were large and commensurate with observations. Sensitivity analysis suggests the biomass of large reef fish decreased by 25% to 50% in areas most affected by the spill, and biomass of large demersal fish decreased even more, by 40% to 70%. Impacts on reef and demersal forage caused starvation mortality in predators and increased reliance on pelagic forage. Impacts on the food web translated effects of the spill far away from the oiled area. Effects on age structure suggest possible delayed impacts on fishery yields. Recovery of high-turnover populations generally is predicted to occur within 10 years, but some slower-growing populations may take 30+ years to fully recover. PMID:29370187

  14. Prolonged Financial Distress After the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Predicts Behavioral Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham-Howes, Stacy; Holmes, Katherine; Glenn Morris, J; Grattan, Lynn M

    2018-03-13

    The economic impact of disasters is well known; however, the link between financial loss and behavioral health problems is unknown. Participants included 198 adults of ages 21 to 82, living within 10 miles of the Gulf Coast during the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and were involved in the fishing, harvesting, seafood processing, or service/tourism industries. The functional impact of financial resource loss at 2.5 years post spill was measured using the 26-item Financial Life Events Checklist (FLEC). Individuals responded to financial distress by reducing social events and utility bills and changing food-shopping habits. The FLEC significantly predicted higher drug use (Drug Abuse Screening Test), alcohol use (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test), mood problems (Profile of Mood States), and depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory II) (p values ≤ 0.05) 4.5 years after the spill. This preliminary study supports the notion that the functional impact of financial loss has a long-term impact on behavioral health after an oil spill.

  15. The Deepwater Horizon oil spill and Gulf of Mexico shelf hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabalais, Nancy N.; Smith, Leslie M.; Turner, R. Eugene

    2018-01-01

    The oil/water/dispersant mixture from the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill was juxtaposed on the Louisiana continental shelf with the annual development of oxygen-depleted bottom waters. There was uncertainty whether the oil from the spill might worsen the extent or severity of the seasonal hypoxic area formation in 2010. The surface and bottom water hydrocarbons in May were elevated compared to in June and July, while the bottom-water dissolved oxygen concentrations were higher in May and June compared to in July. The degradation of oil in the water column or sediments was not known. The results of an empirical orthogonal functions (EOF) analysis of the progression of hypoxia development in May, June and July 2010, and an analysis of conditions in July compared to a 27-year background database, indicated no difference in oxygen concentrations for May, June or July 2010, with or without oil data included, nor any difference in July 2010 compared to other years. The analysis instead indicated that, in all years compared, the hypoxic area increased with higher river discharge, higher nitrate-N load, an easterly (westward) wind and reduced wind speed. Although the analyses did not demonstrate that the oil spill affected, or did not affect, the size of the 2010 hypoxic zone, there was evidence that the 2010 hypoxia season did not differ from the long-term record.

  16. Biomarkers reveal sea turtles remained in oiled areas following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Zanden, Hannah B.; Bolten, Alan B.; Tucker, Anton D.; Hart, Kristen M.; Lamont, Margaret M.; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Reich, Kimberly J.; Addison, David S.; Mansfield, Katherine L.; Phillips, Katrina F.; Pajuelo, Mariela; Bjorndal, Karen A.

    2016-01-01

    Assessments of large-scale disasters, such as the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, are problematic because while measurements of post-disturbance conditions are common, measurements of pre-disturbance baselines are only rarely available. Without adequate observations of pre-disaster organismal and environmental conditions, it is impossible to assess the impact of such catastrophes on animal populations and ecological communities. Here, we use long-term biological tissue records to provide pre-disaster data for a vulnerable marine organism. Keratin samples from the carapace of loggerhead sea turtles record the foraging history for up to 18 years, allowing us to evaluate the effect of the oil spill on sea turtle foraging patterns. Samples were collected from 76 satellite-tracked adult loggerheads in 2011 and 2012, approximately one to two years after the spill. Of the 10 individuals that foraged in areas exposed to surface oil, none demonstrated significant changes in foraging patterns post spill. The observed long-term fidelity to foraging sites indicates that loggerheads in the northern Gulf of Mexico likely remained in established foraging sites, regardless of the introduction of oil and chemical dispersants. More research is needed to address potential long-term health consequences to turtles in this region. Mobile marine organisms present challenges for researchers to monitor effects of environmental disasters, both spatially and temporally. We demonstrate that biological tissues can reveal long-term histories of animal behavior and provide critical pre-disaster baselines following an anthropogenic disturbance or natural disaster.

  17. Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacts on sea turtles could span the Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, Nathan F; Abreu-Grobois, F Alberto; Iturbe-Darkistade, Iñaky; Putman, Emily M; Richards, Paul M; Verley, Philippe

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the extent that the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill potentially affected oceanic-stage sea turtles from populations across the Atlantic. Within an ocean-circulation model, particles were backtracked from the Gulf of Mexico spill site to determine the probability of young turtles arriving in this area from major nesting beaches. The abundance of turtles in the vicinity of the oil spill was derived by forward-tracking particles from focal beaches and integrating population size, oceanic-stage duration and stage-specific survival rates. Simulations indicated that 321 401 (66 199-397 864) green (Chelonia mydas), loggerhead (Caretta caretta) and Kemp's ridley (Lepidochelys kempii) turtles were likely within the spill site. These predictions compared favourably with estimates from in-water observations recently made available to the public (though our initial predictions for Kemp's ridley were substantially lower than in-water estimates, better agreement was obtained with modifications to mimic behaviour of young Kemp's ridley turtles in the northern Gulf). Simulations predicted 75.2% (71.9-76.3%) of turtles came from Mexico, 14.8% (11-18%) from Costa Rica, 5.9% (4.8-7.9%) from countries in northern South America, 3.4% (2.4-3.5%) from the United States and 1.6% (0.6-2.0%) from West African countries. Thus, the spill's impacts may extend far beyond the current focus on the northern Gulf of Mexico. © 2015 The Authors.

  18. Homing pigeons externally exposed to Deepwater Horizon crude oil change flight performance and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Cristina R; Moye, John K; Cacela, Dave; Dean, Karen M; Pritsos, Chris A

    2017-11-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill was the largest in U.S. history, contaminating thousands of miles of coastal habitat and affecting the lives of many avian species. The Gulf of Mexico is a critical bird migration route area and migrants that were oiled but did not suffer mortality as a direct result of the spill faced unpredictable fates. This study utilized homing pigeons as a surrogate species for migratory birds to investigate the effects a single low level external oiling event has on the flight performance and behavior of birds flying repeated 161 km flights. Data from GPS data loggers showed that lightly oiled pigeons changed their flight paths, increased their flight durations by 2.6 fold, increased their flight distances by 28 km and subsequently decreased their route efficiencies. Oiled birds also exhibited reduced rate of weight gain between flights. Our data suggest that contaminated birds surviving the oil spill may have experienced flight impairment and reduced refueling abilities, likely reducing overall migration speed. Our findings contribute new information on how oil spills affect avian species, as the effects of oil on the flight behavior of long distance free-flying birds have not been previously described. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Hematological indices of injury to lightly oiled birds from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Jesse A; Smith, Eric P; Schoch, Nina; Paruk, James D; Adams, Evan A; Evers, David C; Jodice, Patrick G R; Perkins, Christopher; Schulte, Shiloh; Hopkins, William A

    2018-02-01

    Avian mortality events are common following large-scale oil spills. However, the sublethal effects of oil on birds exposed to light external oiling are not clearly understood. We found that American oystercatchers (area of potential impact n = 42, reference n = 21), black skimmers (area of potential impact n = 121, reference n = 88), brown pelicans (area of potential impact n = 91, reference n = 48), and great egrets (area of potential impact n = 57, reference n = 47) captured between 20 June 2010 and 23 February 2011 following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill experienced oxidative injury to erythrocytes, had decreased volume of circulating erythrocytes, and showed evidence of a regenerative hematological response in the form of increased reticulocytes compared with reference populations. Erythrocytic inclusions consistent with Heinz bodies were present almost exclusively in birds from sites impacted with oil, a finding pathognomonic for oxidative injury to erythrocytes. Average packed cell volumes were 4 to 19% lower and average reticulocyte counts were 27 to 40% higher in birds with visible external oil than birds from reference sites. These findings provide evidence that small amounts of external oil exposure are associated with hemolytic anemia. Furthermore, we found that some birds captured from the area impacted by the spill but with no visible oiling also had erythrocytic inclusion bodies, increased reticulocytes, and reduced packed cell volumes when compared with birds from reference sites. Thus, birds suffered hematologic injury despite no visible oil at the time of capture. Together, these findings suggest that adverse effects of oil spills on birds may be more widespread than estimates based on avian mortality or severe visible oiling. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:451-461. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  20. Automatic Calculation of Oil Slick Area from Multiple SAR Acquisitions for Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmanoğlu, B.; Özkan, C.; Sunar, F.; Staples, G.

    2012-07-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill occurred in the Gulf of Mexico in April 2010 and became the largest accidental marine oil spill in history. Oil leaked continuously between April 20th and July 15th of 2010, releasing about 780, 000m3 of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. The oil spill caused extensive economical and ecological damage to the areas it reached, affecting the marine and wildlife habitats along with fishing and tourism industries. For oil spill mitigation efforts, it is important to determine the areal extent, and most recent position of the contaminated area. Satellitebased oil pollution monitoring systems are being used for monitoring and in hazard response efforts. Due to their high accuracy, frequent acquisitions, large area coverage and day-and-night operation Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) satellites are a major contributer of monitoring marine environments for oil spill detection. We developed a new algorithm for determining the extent of the oil spill from multiple SAR images, that are acquired with short temporal intervals using different sensors. Combining the multi-polarization data from Radarsat-2 (C-band), Envisat ASAR (C-band) and Alos-PALSAR (L-band) sensors, we calculate the extent of the oil spill with higher accuracy than what is possible from only one image. Short temporal interval between acquisitions (hours to days) allow us to eliminate artifacts and increase accuracy. Our algorithm works automatically without any human intervention to deliver products in a timely manner in time critical operations. Acquisitions using different SAR sensors are radiometrically calibrated and processed individually to obtain oil spill area extent. Furthermore the algorithm provides probability maps of the areas that are classified as oil slick. This probability information is then combined with other acquisitions to estimate the combined probability map for the spill.

  1. Metagenomics reveals sediment microbial community response to Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, Olivia U.; Scott, Nicole M.; Gonzalez, Antonio; Robbins-Pianka, Adam; Bælum, Jacob; Kimbrel, Jeffrey; Bouskill, Nicholas J.; Prestat, Emmanuel; Borglin, Sharon; Joyner, Dominique C.; Fortney, Julian L.; Jurelevicius, Diogo; Stringfellow, William T.; Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa; Hazen, Terry C.; Knight, Rob; Gilbert, Jack A.; Jansson, Janet K.

    2014-01-23

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill in the spring of 2010 resulted in an input of ~4.1 million barrels of oil to the Gulf of Mexico; >22% of this oil is unaccounted for, with unknown environmental consequences. Here we investigated the impact of oil deposition on microbial communities in surface sediments collected at 64 sites by targeted sequencing of 16S rRNA genes, shotgun metagenomic sequencing of 14 of these samples and mineralization experiments using 14C-labeled model substrates. The 16S rRNA gene data indicated that the most heavily oil-impacted sediments were enriched in an uncultured Gammaproteobacterium and a Colwellia species, both of which were highly similar to sequences in the DWH deep-sea hydrocarbon plume. The primary drivers in structuring the microbial community were nitrogen and hydrocarbons. Annotation of unassembled metagenomic data revealed the most abundant hydrocarbon degradation pathway encoded genes involved in degrading aliphatic and simple aromatics via butane monooxygenase. The activity of key hydrocarbon degradation pathways by sediment microbes was confirmed by determining the mineralization of 14C-labeled model substrates in the following order: propylene glycol, dodecane, toluene and phenanthrene. Further, analysis of metagenomic sequence data revealed an increase in abundance of genes involved in denitrification pathways in samples that exceeded the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)’s benchmarks for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) compared with those that did not. Importantly, these data demonstrate that the indigenous sediment microbiota contributed an important ecosystem service for remediation of oil in the Gulf. However, PAHs were more recalcitrant to degradation, and their persistence could have deleterious impacts on the sediment ecosystem.

  2. Chemical data quantify Deepwater Horizon hydrocarbon flow rate and environmental distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryerson, Thomas B; Camilli, Richard; Kessler, John D; Kujawinski, Elizabeth B; Reddy, Christopher M; Valentine, David L; Atlas, Elliot; Blake, Donald R; de Gouw, Joost; Meinardi, Simone; Parrish, David D; Peischl, Jeff; Seewald, Jeffrey S; Warneke, Carsten

    2012-12-11

    Detailed airborne, surface, and subsurface chemical measurements, primarily obtained in May and June 2010, are used to quantify initial hydrocarbon compositions along different transport pathways (i.e., in deep subsurface plumes, in the initial surface slick, and in the atmosphere) during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Atmospheric measurements are consistent with a limited area of surfacing oil, with implications for leaked hydrocarbon mass transport and oil drop size distributions. The chemical data further suggest relatively little variation in leaking hydrocarbon composition over time. Although readily soluble hydrocarbons made up ∼25% of the leaking mixture by mass, subsurface chemical data show these compounds made up ∼69% of the deep plume mass; only ∼31% of the deep plume mass was initially transported in the form of trapped oil droplets. Mass flows along individual transport pathways are also derived from atmospheric and subsurface chemical data. Subsurface hydrocarbon composition, dissolved oxygen, and dispersant data are used to assess release of hydrocarbons from the leaking well. We use the chemical measurements to estimate that (7.8 ± 1.9) × 10(6) kg of hydrocarbons leaked on June 10, 2010, directly accounting for roughly three-quarters of the total leaked mass on that day. The average environmental release rate of (10.1 ± 2.0) × 10(6) kg/d derived using atmospheric and subsurface chemical data agrees within uncertainties with the official average leak rate of (10.2 ± 1.0) × 10(6) kg/d derived using physical and optical methods.

  3. Microbial community analysis of an Alabama coastal salt marsh impacted by the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beazley, M. J.; Martinez, R.; Rajan, S.; Powell, J.; Piceno, Y.; Tom, L.; Andersen, G. L.; Hazen, T. C.; Van Nostrand, J. D.; Zhou, J.; Mortazavi, B.; Sobecky, P. A.

    2011-12-01

    Microbial community responses of an Alabama coastal salt marsh environment to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill were studied by 16S rRNA (PhyloChip) and functional gene (GeoChip) microarray-based analysis. Oil and tar balls associated with the oil spill arrived along the Alabama coast in June 2010. Marsh and inlet sediment samples collected in June, July, and September 2010 from a salt marsh ecosystem at Point Aux Pines Alabama were analyzed to determine if bacterial community structure changed as a result of oil perturbation. Sediment total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations ranged from below detection to 189 mg kg-1 and were randomly dispersed throughout the salt marsh sediments. Total DNA extracted from sediment and particulates were used for PhyloChip and GeoChip hybridization. A total of 4000 to 8000 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were detected in marsh and inlet samples. Distinctive changes in the number of detectable OTUs were observed between June, July, and September 2010. Surficial inlet sediments demonstrated a significant increase in the total number of OTUs between June and September that correlated with TPH concentrations. The most significant increases in bacterial abundance were observed in the phyla Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Gemmatimonadetes, Proteobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia. Bacterial richness in marsh sediments also correlated with TPH concentrations with significant changes primarily in Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, Nitrospirae, and Proteobacteria. GeoChip microarray analysis detected 5000 to 8300 functional genes in marsh and inlet samples. Surficial inlet sediments demonstrated distinctive increases in the number of detectable genes and gene signal intensities in July samples compared to June. Signal intensities increased (> 1.5-fold) in genes associated with petroleum degradation. Genes related to metal resistance, stress, and carbon cycling also demonstrated increases in oiled sediments. This study

  4. GOM Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: A Time Series Analysis of Variations in Spilled Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomo, C. M.; Yan, B.

    2013-12-01

    An estimated amount of 210 million gallons of crude oil was released into the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) from April 20th to July 15th 2010 during the Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion. The spill caused a tremendous financial, ecological, environmental and health impact and continues to affect the GOM today. Variations in hydrocarbons including alkanes, hopanes and poly-cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be analyzed to better understand the oil spill and assist in oil source identification. Twenty-one sediment samples*, two tar ball samples and one surface water oil sample were obtained from distinct locations in the GOM and within varying time frames from May to December 2010. Each sample was extracted through the ASE 200 solvent extractor, concentrated down under nitrogen gas, purified through an alumina column, concentrated down again with nitrogen gas and analyzed via GC X GC-TOF MS. Forty-one different hydrocarbons were quantified in each sample. Various hydrocarbon 'fingerprints,' such as parental :alkylate PAH ratios, high molecular weight PAHs: low molecular weight alkane ratios, and carbon preference index were calculated. The initial objective of this project was to identify the relative hydrocarbon contributions of petrogenic sources and combustion sources. Based on the calculated ratios, it is evident that the sediment core taken in October of 2010 was greatly affected by combustion sources. Following the first month of the spill, oil in the gulf was burned in attempts to contain the spill. Combustion related sources have quicker sedimentation rates, and hydrocarbons from a combustion source essentially move into deeper depths quicker than those from a petrogenic source, as was observed in analyses of the October 2010 sediment. *Of the twenty-one sediment samples prepared, nine were quantified for this project.

  5. Regime shift in sandy beach microbial communities following Deepwater Horizon oil spill remediation efforts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Summers Engel

    Full Text Available Sandy beaches support a wide variety of underappreciated biodiversity that is critical to coastal ecosystems. Prior to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, the diversity and function of supratidal beach sediment microbial communities along Gulf of Mexico coastlines were not well understood. As such, it was unclear if microbial community compositional changes would occur following exposure to beached oil, if indigenous communities could biodegrade oil, or how cleanup efforts, such as sand washing and sediment redistribution, would impact microbial ecosystem resiliency. Transects perpendicular to the shoreline were sampled from public beaches on Grand Isle, Louisiana, and Dauphin Island, Alabama, over one year. Prior to oil coming onshore, elevated levels of bacteria associated with fecal contamination were detected (e.g., Enterobacteriales and Campylobacterales. Over time, significant shifts within major phyla were identified (e.g., Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and fecal indicator groups were replaced by taxa affiliated with open-ocean and marine systems (e.g., Oceanospirillales, Rhodospirillales, and Rhodobacterales. These new bacterial groups included putative hydrocarbon degraders, similar to those identified near the oil plume offshore. Shifts in the microbial community composition strongly correlated to more poorly sorted sediment and grain size distributional changes. Natural oceanographic processes could not account for the disrupted sediment, especially from the backshore well above the maximum high-tide levels recorded at these sites. Sand washing and tilling occurred on both open beaches from August through at least December 2010, which were mechanisms that could replace fecal indicator groups with open-ocean groups. Consequently, remediation efforts meant to return beaches to pre-spill compositions caused a regime shift that may have added potential ecosystem function, like hydrocarbon degradation, to the sediment

  6. AUTOMATIC CALCULATION OF OIL SLICK AREA FROM MULTIPLE SAR ACQUISITIONS FOR DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Osmanoğlu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The Deepwater Horizon oil spill occurred in the Gulf of Mexico in April 2010 and became the largest accidental marine oil spill in history. Oil leaked continuously between April 20th and July 15th of 2010, releasing about 780, 000m3 of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. The oil spill caused extensive economical and ecological damage to the areas it reached, affecting the marine and wildlife habitats along with fishing and tourism industries. For oil spill mitigation efforts, it is important to determine the areal extent, and most recent position of the contaminated area. Satellitebased oil pollution monitoring systems are being used for monitoring and in hazard response efforts. Due to their high accuracy, frequent acquisitions, large area coverage and day-and-night operation Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR satellites are a major contributer of monitoring marine environments for oil spill detection. We developed a new algorithm for determining the extent of the oil spill from multiple SAR images, that are acquired with short temporal intervals using different sensors. Combining the multi-polarization data from Radarsat-2 (C-band, Envisat ASAR (C-band and Alos-PALSAR (L-band sensors, we calculate the extent of the oil spill with higher accuracy than what is possible from only one image. Short temporal interval between acquisitions (hours to days allow us to eliminate artifacts and increase accuracy. Our algorithm works automatically without any human intervention to deliver products in a timely manner in time critical operations. Acquisitions using different SAR sensors are radiometrically calibrated and processed individually to obtain oil spill area extent. Furthermore the algorithm provides probability maps of the areas that are classified as oil slick. This probability information is then combined with other acquisitions to estimate the combined probability map for the spill.

  7. Bacterial communities of surface and deep hydrocarbon-contaminated waters of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, T.; Nigro, L. M.; McKay, L.; Ziervogel, K.; Gutierrez, T.; Teske, A.

    2010-12-01

    We performed a 16S rRNA gene sequencing survey of bacterial communities within oil-contaminated surface water, deep hydrocarbon plume water, and deep water samples above and below the plume to determine spatial and temporal patterns of oil-degrading bacteria growing in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil leak. In addition, we are reporting 16S rRNA sequencing results from time series incubation, enrichment and cultivation experiments. Surface oil slick samples were collected 3 nautical miles from ground zero, (5/6/10, RV Pelican) and were added to uncontaminated surface water (collected within a 30 nautical mile radius of ground zero, 5/6/10 - 5/9/10, RV Pelican). This mixture was incubated for 20 days in a rolling bottle at 25°C. 16S rRNA clone libraries from marine snow-like microbial flocs that had formed during the incubation yielded a highly diverse bacterial community, predominately composed of the Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria, and a smaller number of Planktomycetes and other bacterial lineages. The most frequently recovered proteobacterial sequences were closely related to cultured species of the genus Cycloclasticus, specialists in aerobic oxidation of aromatic hydrocarbons. These time series incubation results will be compared to the microbial community structure of contaminated surface water, sampled on the same cruise with RV Pelican (5/6/10-5/9/10) and frozen immediately. Stable isotope probing (SIP) experiments with C13-labelled alkanes and polycyclic aromatic substrates and gulf water samples have yielded different enrichments. With naphthalene, predominantly Alteromonas-related clones and a smaller share of Cycloclasticus clones were recovered; phenanthrene yielded predominantly clones related to Cycloclasticus, and diverse other Gamma- and Alphaproteobacteria. Analyses of SIP experiments with hexadecane are in progress. The microbial community composition of the deep hydrocarbon plume was characterized using water column profile samples taken

  8. 75 FR 56526 - National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... knowledge of issues pertaining to the oil and gas industry. Information on the Commission can be found at... basis. The Designated Federal Officer is empowered to conduct the meeting in a fashion that will...

  9. 75 FR 65309 - National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ..., and environmental expertise, and their knowledge of issues pertaining to the oil and gas industry... industry and academic experts. The Commission will also have the opportunity to hear from representatives... meeting in a fashion that will facilitate the orderly conduct of business. Approximately one-half hour...

  10. Trace Atmospheric Gas Analyzer (TAGA) Dispersant Data for BP Spil/Deepwater Horizon - August 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Trace Atmospheric Gas Analyzer (TAGA) buses are self-contained mobile laboratories that conduct instant-result monitoring of air quality at particular locations....

  11. Tissue analysis of the oyster Crassostrea virginica after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roopnarine, D.; Roopnarine, P. D.; Anderson, L.; Chung, T.

    2013-12-01

    The Deepwater Horizon accident (DWH) of April 20th, 2010, in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) released crude oil into the ocean column for 4 months. An estimated 685,000 tons of crude oil was released, making DWH spill the largest accidental spill in maritime history. The immediate impacts of the spill were evident, including oil slicks, fouled beaches and fouled, often dead wildlife. Longer-term impacts are less understood, and reliance on studies of past spills, e.g. Exxon Valdez, may not be applicable given the substantially greater magnitude of DWH (Valdez spilled 37,000 tons) and different environmental settings (predominantly rocky shorelines vs. saltmarsh-dominated coastlines). Many molluscan species exhibit responses to oil spills or other hydrocarbon contamination. Bivalved molluscs are commonly used as bioindicator organisms in part because they concentrate both metals and organic contaminants in their soft tissues. We used the American oyster Crassostrea virginica to measure exposure to and impact of the spill as the abnormal transformation of soft-tissues, or metaplasia. Metaplasia is the reversible transformation of one cell type into another. Molluscan metaplasia has been associated with exposure to petroleum contamination. While oyster epithelium is normally stratified columnar and ciliated, experimental exposures often result in metaplasia of gill, digestive and renal tissues. The occurrence and frequency of metaplasia may also be an indication of the longevity of a spill's impact. For example, individuals of the mussel Mytilus trossulus in Prince William Sound continued to exhibit metaplasia of the digestive gland more than 5 years after the Exxon Valdez spill, with an occurrence directly related to concentrations of PAHs in the animals. We focused on the hypothesis that DWH spill exposure resulted in metaplasia of gill and digestive epithelial tissues, both during and after the spill. Those transformations are eventually reversible, although on an unknown

  12. RNA-Seq reveals complex genetic response to deepwater horizon oil release in Fundulus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia Tzintzuni I

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The release of oil resulting from the blowout of the Deepwater Horizon (DH drilling platform was one of the largest in history discharging more than 189 million gallons of oil and subject to widespread application of oil dispersants. This event impacted a wide range of ecological habitats with a complex mix of pollutants whose biological impact is still not yet fully understood. To better understand the effects on a vertebrate genome, we studied gene expression in the salt marsh minnow Fundulus grandis, which is local to the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico and is a sister species of the ecotoxicological model Fundulus heteroclitus. To assess genomic changes, we quantified mRNA expression using high throughput sequencing technologies (RNA-Seq in F. grandis populations in the marshes and estuaries impacted by DH oil release. This application of RNA-Seq to a non-model, wild, and ecologically significant organism is an important evaluation of the technology to quickly assess similar events in the future. Results Our de novo assembly of RNA-Seq data produced a large set of sequences which included many duplicates and fragments. In many cases several of these could be associated with a common reference sequence using blast to query a reference database. This reduced the set of significant genes to 1,070 down-regulated and 1,251 up-regulated genes. These genes indicate a broad and complex genomic response to DH oil exposure including the expected AHR-mediated response and CYP genes. In addition a response to hypoxic conditions and an immune response are also indicated. Several genes in the choriogenin family were down-regulated in the exposed group; a response that is consistent with AH exposure. These analyses are in agreement with oligonucleotide-based microarray analyses, and describe only a subset of significant genes with aberrant regulation in the exposed set. Conclusion RNA-Seq may be successfully applied to feral and

  13. Long Term Geoelectrical Monitoring of Deep-water Horizon Oil Spill in the Gulf Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heenan, J. W.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Slater, L. D.; Atekwana, E. A.; Ross, C.; Nolan, J. T.; Atekwana, E. A.

    2011-12-01

    In the aftermath of the catastrophic Deep-water Horizon (DWH) spill in the Gulf Coast, opportunities exist to study the evolution of fresh crude oil contamination in beach sediments and marshes. Grand Terre 1 Island, off the coast of Grand Isle in southern Louisiana, is an uninhabited barrier island, heavily impacted by the DWH spill, and ideal for undisturbed long term monitoring of crude oil degradation processes. A 10 channel Syscal-Pro resistivity / IP instrument (IRIS Instruments, France) is the heart of the fully autonomous geoelectrical monitoring system; the system, which is housed in a weatherproof container, relies solely on solar power, is controlled by an energy efficient PC and can be accessed remotely via web tools. The monitoring scheme involves collecting bi-daily resistivity measurements from surface and shallow boreholes, ranging from January 2011 to the present; environmental parameters, such as T, are continuously recorded at several depths. During regular field trips we perform larger scale geophysical surveys, and geochemical measurements (pH, DO, T, fluid C) to support the continuous geophysical monitoring. The contaminated layer on site is a visually distinctive layer of crude oil, isolated by cleaner sands above and below which is identified by a clear and obvious resistive anomaly in preliminary surveys. Early results show a decrease in average of the resistance values of each dataset over time. Further processing of the data yields a linearly shaped resistive anomaly, which coincides with the location of the oil layer. The changes in subsurface resistivity appear to be focused within this anomaly. Time filtering of the data by the time that they were collected, morning or evening, reveals a diurnal variation. While both time frames follow the same overall trend, the measurements in the morning are slightly more resistive than those in the evening. This indicates that there are environmental factors, such as temperature, that need to be

  14. Impacts of Deepwater Horizon Oil on Marsh Sediment Biogeochemistry in Barataria Bay, LA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, C. T.; Windham-Myers, L.; Waldrop, M. P.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Marvin-DiPasquale, M. C.; Orem, W. H.; Piazza, S.; Haw, M.; McFarland, J.; Varonka, M. S.

    2012-12-01

    Oil from the Deepwater Horizon spill came ashore on many salt marsh islands in Barataria Bay, LA in summer 2010, coating plants and settling on the sediment surface. In coordination with a plant community study of affected marshes, we investigated impacts of oiling on marsh sediment microbial biogeochemistry. Sediment samples (upmost 2 cm) were collected along transects perpendicular and parallel to the shore at three oiled and three non-oiled sites in both July and Oct. 2011. Samples from both collections were analyzed for sediment characteristics, total and methylmercury, and microbial membrane phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) which are a proxy for viable microbial cell numbers. Sediment DNA collected in Oct. 2011 was analyzed for bacterial, fungal, and archaeal community composition and abundance as well as various enzyme activities. Select Oct. 2011 samples were assayed to determine the rates of terminal electron accepting processes (oxygen demand, denitrification, iron reduction, sulfate reduction, methanogenesis). All sites had similar sediment characteristics. Impacts on sediment biogeochemistry were greatest at marsh edges, and reduced microbial abundance appeared to be more important than changes in microbial community structure. In July 2011, the mean PLFA concentration in oiled marsh edge sediments (0.15±0.03 μmol g-1; 95% CI; n=9) was substantially lower than for non-oiled sites (0.33±0.08 μmol g-1; n=9). Mean PLFA concentrations for interior marsh samples were more similar for oiled (0.30±0.08 μmol g-1; n=8) and non-oiled (0.37±0.04 μmol g-1; n=9) sites. This PLFA pattern was also observed in Oct. 2011 samples, and other measures of microbial abundance and activity showed similar trends. Cellulase, phosphatase, and chitinase mean activities were nearly twice as great in non-oiled versus oiled edge sites. Lower microbial activity in oiled sites was also inferred by somewhat lower denitrification and sulfate reduction potentials. Conversely, both

  15. Was the extreme and widespread marine oil-snow sedimentation and flocculent accumulation (MOSSFA) event during the Deepwater Horizon blow-out unique?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, S.M.; Hollander, D.J.; Murk, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    During the Deepwater Horizon blowout, thick layers of oiled material were deposited on the deep seafloor. This large scale benthic concentration of oil is suggested to have occurred via the process of Marine Oil Snow Sedimentation and Flocculent Accumulation (MOSSFA). This meta-analysis investigates

  16. Draft genome sequence of the marineRhodobacteraceaestrain O3.65, cultivated from oil-polluted seawater of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giebel, Helge-Ansgar; Klotz, Franziska; Voget, Sonja; Poehlein, Anja; Grosser, Katrin; Teske, Andreas; Brinkhoff, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    The marine alphaproteobacterium strain O3.65 was isolated from an enrichment culture of surface seawater contaminated with weathered oil (slicks) from the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill and belongs to the ubiquitous, diverse and ecological relevant Roseobacter group within the Rhodobacteraceae . Here, we present a preliminary set of physiological features of strain O3.65 and a description and annotation of its draft genome sequence. Based on our data we suggest potential ecological roles of the isolate in the degradation of crude oil within the network of the oil-enriched microbial community. The draft genome comprises 4,852,484 bp with 4,591 protein-coding genes and 63 RNA genes. Strain O3.65 utilizes pentoses, hexoses, disaccharides and amino acids as carbon and energy source and is able to grow on several hydroxylated and substituted aromatic compounds. Based on 16S rRNA gene comparison the closest described and validated strain is Phaeobacter inhibens DSM 17395, however, strain O3.65 is lacking several phenotypic and genomic characteristics specific for the genus Phaeobacter . Phylogenomic analyses based on the whole genome support extensive genetic exchange of strain O3.65 with members of the genus Ruegeria , potentially by using the secretion system type IV. Our physiological observations are consistent with the genomic and phylogenomic analyses and support that strain O3.65 is a novel species of a new genus within the Rhodobacteraceae .

  17. Characterization of epibenthic and demersal megafauna at Mississippi Canyon 252 shortly after the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Marla M; Benfield, Mark C

    2013-12-15

    The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill resulted in the release of a large quantity of oil and gas into the northern Gulf of Mexico from a bathypelagic source. Due to a lack of pre-spill quantitative data the baseline condition of the communities near the spill site is unknown. This makes it difficult to determine the impact of the spill on deepwater megafauna. Remotely operated vehicles were used to quantify megafauna at five study sites during August and September 2010:2000 m north, west, south, and east, and 500 m north of the Macondo well. Comparisons of animal abundances indicated that 2000 m-N and 2000 m-W had the greatest taxonomic richness and highest abundances while 2000 m-E had slightly lower values. In contrast 500 m-N and 2000 m-S had the lowest taxonomic richness and abundances. Our study also suggests that certain taxa were potentially more resistant or sensitive to the spill. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Overlap between Atlantic bluefin tuna spawning grounds and observed Deepwater Horizon surface oil in the northern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhling, B A; Roffer, M A; Lamkin, J T; Ingram, G W; Upton, M A; Gawlikowski, G; Muller-Karger, F; Habtes, S; Richards, W J

    2012-04-01

    The 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacted the northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM) during the spring spawning season of Atlantic bluefin tuna (BFT). Overlap between BFT spawning habitat and surface oil in the northern GOM was examined using satellite-derived estimates of oil coverage, and spawning habitat models. Results suggested that although eggs and larvae were likely impacted by oil-contaminated waters in the eastern GOM, high abundances of larvae were located elsewhere, especially in the western GOM. Overall, less than 10% of BFT spawning habitat was predicted to have been covered by surface oil, and less than 12% of larval BFT were predicted to have been located within contaminated waters in the northern GOM, on a weekly basis. Our results provide preliminary but important initial estimates of the effects of the spill on larval BFT mortality, as concern continues over the appropriate management responses to impacts of the spill. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Deepwater Horizon: Experience the Events That Led to This Accident, Follow the Investigation as They Uncover the Human Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannerman, T.

    2016-01-01

    With the Key themes of leadership, culture, reputation and risk, process safety and the human and organizational factors inside partnership and joint ventures, this session run by AKT immerses you into the situation on board the Deepwater Horizon drilling rig in the Gulf of Mexico on the day of the disaster 20 April 2010. The sequence of events are acted out and then we follow the investigation as they uncover negligence, poor regulation, inadequate maintenance, and catastrophic decision making and what the US authorities called “a reckless disregard for safety”. This session will show how this type of workshop event has been used in different organizations, and the actors run the session to show how the facts of the disaster can be used to enhance knowledge of managers and senior leaders of factors that can trigger a major event. (author)

  20. Macondo oil in northern Gulf of Mexico waters - Part 2: Dispersant-accelerated PAH dissolution in the Deepwater Horizon plume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driskell, William B; Payne, James R

    2018-03-11

    During the Deepwater Horizon blowout, unprecedented volumes of dispersant were applied both on the surface and at depth. Application at depth was intended to disperse the oil into smaller microdroplets that would increase biodegradation and also reduce the volumes buoyantly rising to the surface, thereby reducing surface exposures, recovery efforts, and potential stranding. In forensically examining 5300 offshore water samples for the Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) effort, profiles of deep-plume oil droplets (from filtered water samples) were compared with those also containing dispersant indicators to reveal a previously hypothesized but undocumented, accelerated dissolution of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the plume samples. We interpret these data in a fate-and-transport context and conclude that dispersant applications were functionally effective at depth. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Marine ecoregion and Deepwater Horizon oil spill affect recruitment and population structure of a salt marsh snail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennings, Steven C.; Zengel, Scott; Oehrig, Jacob; Alber, Merryl; Bishop, T. Dale; Deis, Donald R.; Devlin, Donna; Hughes, A. Randall; Hutchens, John J.; Kiehn, Whitney M.; McFarlin, Caroline R.; Montague, Clay L.; Powers, Sean P.; Proffitt, C. Edward; Rutherford, Nicolle; Stagg, Camille L.; Walters, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Marine species with planktonic larvae often have high spatial and temporal variation in recruitment that leads to subsequent variation in the ecology of benthic adults. Using a combination of published and unpublished data, we compared the population structure of the salt marsh snail, Littoraria irrorata, between the South Atlantic Bight and the Gulf Coast of the United States to infer geographic differences in recruitment and to test the hypothesis that the Deepwater Horizon oil spill led to widespread recruitment failure of L. irrorata in Louisiana in 2010. Size-frequency distributions in both ecoregions were bimodal, with troughs in the distributions consistent with a transition from sub-adults to adults at ~13 mm in shell length as reported in the literature; however, adult snails reached larger sizes in the Gulf Coast. The ratio of sub-adults to adults was 1.5–2 times greater in the South Atlantic Bight than the Gulf Coast, consistent with higher recruitment rates in the South Atlantic Bight. Higher recruitment rates in the South Atlantic Bight could contribute to higher snail densities and reduced adult growth in this region. The ratio of sub-adults to adults in Louisiana was lower in 2011 than in previous years, and began to recover in 2012–2014, consistent with widespread recruitment failure in 2010, when large expanses of spilled oil were present in coastal waters. Our results reveal an important difference in the ecology of a key salt marsh invertebrate between the two ecoregions, and also suggest that the Deepwater Horizon oil spill may have caused widespread recruitment failure in this species and perhaps others with similar planktonic larval stages.

  2. Rapid microbial respiration of oil from the Deepwater Horizon spill in offshore surface waters of the Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Bethanie R; Reddy, Christopher M; Carmichael, Catherine A; Longnecker, Krista; Van Mooy, Benjamin A S [Department of Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole (United States); Camilli, Richard, E-mail: bvanmooy@whoi.edu [Department of Applied Ocean Physics and Engineering, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole (United States)

    2011-07-15

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill was one of the largest oil spills in history, and the fate of this oil within the Gulf of Mexico ecosystem remains to be fully understood. The goal of this study-conducted in mid-June of 2010, approximately two months after the oil spill began-was to understand the key role that microbes would play in the degradation of the oil in the offshore oligotrophic surface waters near the Deepwater Horizon site. As the utilization of organic carbon by bacteria in the surface waters of the Gulf had been previously shown to be phosphorus limited, we hypothesized that bacteria would be unable to rapidly utilize the oil released from the Macondo well. Although phosphate was scarce throughout the sampling region and microbes exhibited enzymatic signs of phosphate stress within the oil slick, microbial respiration within the slick was enhanced by approximately a factor of five. An incubation experiment to determine hydrocarbon degradation rates confirmed that a large fraction of this enhanced respiration was supported by hydrocarbon degradation. Extrapolating our observations to the entire area of the slick suggests that microbes had the potential to degrade a large fraction of the oil as it arrived at the surface from the well. These observations decidedly refuted our hypothesis. However, a concomitant increase in microbial abundance or biomass was not observed in the slick, suggesting that microbial growth was nutrient limited; incubations amended with nutrients showed rapid increases in cell number and biomass, which supported this conclusion. Our study shows that the dynamic microbial community of the Gulf of Mexico supported remarkable rates of oil respiration, despite a dearth of dissolved nutrients.

  3. Rapid microbial respiration of oil from the Deepwater Horizon spill in offshore surface waters of the Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, Bethanie R; Reddy, Christopher M; Carmichael, Catherine A; Longnecker, Krista; Van Mooy, Benjamin A S; Camilli, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill was one of the largest oil spills in history, and the fate of this oil within the Gulf of Mexico ecosystem remains to be fully understood. The goal of this study-conducted in mid-June of 2010, approximately two months after the oil spill began-was to understand the key role that microbes would play in the degradation of the oil in the offshore oligotrophic surface waters near the Deepwater Horizon site. As the utilization of organic carbon by bacteria in the surface waters of the Gulf had been previously shown to be phosphorus limited, we hypothesized that bacteria would be unable to rapidly utilize the oil released from the Macondo well. Although phosphate was scarce throughout the sampling region and microbes exhibited enzymatic signs of phosphate stress within the oil slick, microbial respiration within the slick was enhanced by approximately a factor of five. An incubation experiment to determine hydrocarbon degradation rates confirmed that a large fraction of this enhanced respiration was supported by hydrocarbon degradation. Extrapolating our observations to the entire area of the slick suggests that microbes had the potential to degrade a large fraction of the oil as it arrived at the surface from the well. These observations decidedly refuted our hypothesis. However, a concomitant increase in microbial abundance or biomass was not observed in the slick, suggesting that microbial growth was nutrient limited; incubations amended with nutrients showed rapid increases in cell number and biomass, which supported this conclusion. Our study shows that the dynamic microbial community of the Gulf of Mexico supported remarkable rates of oil respiration, despite a dearth of dissolved nutrients.

  4. Biological and chemical data of oil-derived elements being assimilated by oysters due to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill collected in Alabama and Mississippi coastal waters (NODC Accession 0118498)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen in oyster shell, suspended particulate matter (SPM), and oil from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill....

  5. Collection of scribe databases compiled in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill incident in the Gulf of Mexico from 04/23/2010 to 11/08/2011 (NODC Accession 0086261)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Scribe Database Collection includes 14 databases containing data from the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) Oil Spill Event Response Phase. These databases are the work of...

  6. Physical and profile oceanographic data collected aboard the ENDEAVOR in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-17 to 2010-06-30 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084592)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical and profile oceanographic data were collected aboard the ENDEAVOR in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-17 to 2010-06-30 in response to the Deepwater Horizon...

  7. Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data collected from CTD casts aboard the American Diver in the Gulf of Mexico on 2010-08-04 in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill event (NODC Accession 0069088)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data were collected aboard the American Diver in the Gulf of Mexico on 2010-08-04 in response to the Deepwater Horizon...

  8. Near-realtime oceanographic profile data collected by XBT's aboard the Walton Smith from 20100607 to 20100610 as part of the GTSPP in response to the 20100420 Deepwater Horizon oil spill event (NODC Accession 0065727)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data products and in situ oceanographic data collected in response to the Deepwater Horizon Event in the Gulf of Mexico (May 2010). The Global Temperature and...

  9. Unknown oceanographic data collected aboard NOAA Ship THOMAS JEFFERSON in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-23 to 2010-05-28 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084596)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Unknown oceanographic data were collected aboard NOAA Ship THOMAS JEFFERSON in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-23 to 2010-05-28 in response to the Deepwater Horizon...

  10. Near-realtime oceanographic profile data collected by Gliders from 20100528 to 20100830 as part of the GTSPP in response to the 20100420 Deepwater Horizon oil spill event (NODC Accession 0065724)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data products and in situ oceanographic data collected in response to the Deepwater Horizon Event in the Gulf of Mexico (May 2010). The Global Temperature and...

  11. Near-realtime oceanographic profile data collected by Floats from 20100524 to 20101206 as part of the GTSPP in response to the 20100420 Deepwater Horizon oil spill event (NODC Accession 0065725)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data products and in situ oceanographic data collected in response to the Deepwater Horizon Event in the Gulf of Mexico (May 2010). The Global Temperature and...

  12. Using Ramped Pyrolysis - Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry to Evaluate Petroleum Hydrocarbons Following the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, M.; Rosenheim, B. E.; Bacosa, H. P.; Liu, J.; Liu, Z.

    2016-02-01

    In summer of 2010, the Deepwater Horizon oil spill polluted hundreds of miles of coastline along the Gulf of Mexico. A combination of human-mediated and natural weathering processes then altered the chemical composition (i.e. toxicity) of this spilled crude oil over time and space. One of the most important, yet challenging, aspects of oil spill science is to quantify these chemical changes in natural environments. In this study, we develop ramped pyrolysis - gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) to address this challenge. In this technique, 0.1mg of freeze-dried sample is pyrolyzed over a gradual temperature ramp (50-650°C). The eluded gas is cold-trapped over different thermal ranges (a.k.a. thermal slicing) and each range is individually analyzed via GC-MS, yielding quantifiable, compound-specific results. Py-GC-MS with thermal slicing has never been used for petroleum hydrocarbon analysis, but it has many advantages - it uses minimal sample, is time efficient and does not require sample preparation (minimizing compound loss and increasing the analytical window). During development of this method, we analyzed oiled sediments and tar collected on Grand Isle, Louisiana from 2010-2012. We quantified n-alkane (C10-C38), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and hopane content and confirmed these results with traditional solvent extraction, silica gel fractionation and mass spectrometry. Overall, we found rapid depletion of n-alkanes and PAHs (>90% depletion) in all samples within one year of Deepwater Horizon. After this, n-alkanes were almost 100% depleted by 2012, while PAH degradation continued to a maximum total degradation of 99% and 98% in sediment and tar, respectively. This not only describes the fate of petroleum compounds in salt marshes and beach deposits over time, but also complements previous radiocarbon studies of the same samples showing different rates of degradation in different micro-environments. In addition, the results presented

  13. Evaluating bacterial community structures in oil collected from the sea surface and sediment in the northern Gulf of Mexico after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Zhanfei; Liu, Jiqing

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial community structures were evaluated in oil samples using culture-independent pyrosequencing, including oil mousses collected on sea surface and salt marshes during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, and oil deposited in sediments adjacent to the wellhead 1 year after the spill. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that Erythrobacter, Rhodovulum, Stappia, and Thalassospira of Alphaproteobacteria were the prevailing groups in the oil mousses, which may relate to high temperatures and strong ...

  14. Detection of Salt Marsh Vegetation Stress and Recovery after the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in Barataria Bay, Gulf of Mexico Using AVIRIS Data

    OpenAIRE

    Khanna, Shruti; Santos, Maria J.; Ustin, Susan L.; Koltunov, Alexander; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Roberts, Dar A.

    2013-01-01

    The British Petroleum Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico was the biggest oil spill in US history. To assess the impact of the oil spill on the saltmarsh plant community, we examined Advanced Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data flown over Barataria Bay, Louisiana in September 2010 and August 2011. Oil contamination was mapped using oil absorption features in pixel spectra and used to examine impact of oil along the oiled shorelines. Results showed that vegetation...

  15. A three year study of metal levels in skin biopsies of whales in the Gulf of Mexico after the Deepwater Horizon oil crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, John Pierce; Wise, James T F; Wise, Catherine F; Wise, Sandra S; Gianios, Christy; Xie, Hong; Walter, Ron; Boswell, Mikki; Zhu, Cairong; Zheng, Tongzhang; Perkins, Christopher; Wise, John Pierce

    2018-02-01

    In response to the explosion of the Deepwater Horizon and the massive release of oil that followed, we conducted three annual research voyages to investigate how the oil spill would impact the marine offshore environment. Most investigations into the ecological and toxicological impacts of the Deepwater Horizon Oil crisis have mainly focused on the fate of the oil and dispersants, but few have considered the release of metals into the environment. From studies of previous oil spills, other marine oil industries, and analyses of oil compositions, it is evident that metals are frequently encountered. Several metals have been reported in the MC252 oil from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, including the nonessential metals aluminum, arsenic, chromium, nickel, and lead; genotoxic metals, such as these are able to damage DNA and can bioaccumulate in organisms resulting in persistent exposure. In the Gulf of Mexico, whales are the apex species; hence we collected skin biopsies from sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus), short-finned pilot whales (Globicephala macrorhynchus), and Bryde's whales (Balaenoptera edeni). The results from our three-year study of monitoring metal levels in whale skin show (1) genotoxic metals at concentrations higher than global averages previously reported and (2) patterns for MC252-relevant metal concentrations decreasing with time from the oil spill. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of behavioral parameters, hematological markers, liver and kidney functions in rodents exposed to Deepwater Horizon crude oil and Corexit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Sindhu; Bhattacharya, Dwipayan; Majrashi, Mohammed; Morgan, Marlee; Prabhakar Clement, T; Dhanasekaran, Muralikrishnan

    2018-02-20

    The 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill is the largest marine oil spill in US history. In the aftermath of the spill, the response efforts used a chemical dispersant, Corexit, to disperse the oil spill. The health impacts of crude oil and Corexit mixture to humans, mammals, fishes, and birds are mostly unknown. The purpose of this study is to investigate the in vivo effects of DWH oil, Corexit, and oil-Corexit mixture on the general behavior, hematological markers, and liver and kidney functions of rodents. C57 Bl6 mice were treated with DWH oil (80 mg/kg) and/or Corexit (95 mg/kg), and several hematological markers, lipid profile, liver and kidney functions were monitored. The results show that both DWH oil and Corexit altered the white blood cells and platelet counts. Moreover, they also impacted the lipid profile and induced toxic effects on the liver and kidney functions. The impacts were more pronounced when the mice were treated with a mixture of DWH-oil and Corexit. This study provides preliminary data to elucidate the potential toxicological effects of DWH oil, Corexit, and their mixtures on mammalian health. Residues from the DWH spill continue to remain trapped along various Gulf Coast beaches and therefore further studies are needed to fully understand their long-term impacts on coastal ecosystems. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Shifts in Symbiotic Endophyte Communities of a Foundational Salt Marsh Grass following Oil Exposure from the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demetra Kandalepas

    Full Text Available Symbiotic associations can be disrupted by disturbance or by changing environmental conditions. Endophytes are fungal and bacterial symbionts of plants that can affect performance. As in more widely known symbioses, acute or chronic stressor exposure might trigger disassociation of endophytes from host plants. We tested this hypothesis by examining the effects of oil exposure following the Deepwater Horizon (DWH oil spill on endophyte diversity and abundance in Spartina alterniflora - the foundational plant in northern Gulf coast salt marshes affected by the spill. We compared bacterial and fungal endophytes isolated from plants in reference areas to isolates from plants collected in areas with residual oil that has persisted for more than three years after the DWH spill. DNA sequence-based estimates showed that oil exposure shifted endophyte diversity and community structure. Plants from oiled areas exhibited near total loss of leaf fungal endophytes. Root fungal endophytes exhibited a more modest decline and little change was observed in endophytic bacterial diversity or abundance, though a shift towards hydrocarbon metabolizers was found in plants from oiled sites. These results show that plant-endophyte symbioses can be disrupted by stressor exposure, and indicate that symbiont community disassembly in marsh plants is an enduring outcome of the DWH spill.

  18. Sand patties provide evidence for the presence of Deepwater Horizon oil on the beaches of the West Florida Shelf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, L D; Basso, J; Pulster, E; Paul, J H

    2015-08-15

    The ecological consequences of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill are both long-term and pervasive. The distribution of toxicity and mutagenicity in the Gulf of Mexico suggests oil from the DWH spill could have contaminated the West Florida Shelf (WFS). We utilized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) analysis to determine presence and potential origin of oil contaminants in beach sand patty samples. PAH profiles from WFS beaches were statistically significantly similar to DWH contaminated samples from the Northeast Gulf of Mexico (Gulf Shores, AL; Ft. Pickens, FL). Dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (DOSS), a major component of Corexit 9500 dispersant was also detected in the sediments. DOSS concentrations ranged from 1.6 to 5.5ngg(-1) dry weight. Additionally, two samples from DWH oil contaminated beaches were acutely toxic and one WFS beach sediment sample was mutagenic. These observations provide support for the theory that DWH oil made its way onto beaches of the WFS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Photo-induced toxicity in early life stage fiddler crab (Uca longisignalis) following exposure to Deepwater Horizon oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damare, Leigh M; Bridges, Kristin N; Alloy, Matthew M; Curran, Thomas E; Soulen, Brianne K; Forth, Heather P; Lay, Claire R; Morris, Jeffrey M; Stoeckel, James A; Roberts, Aaron P

    2018-02-20

    The 2010 explosion of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil rig led to the release of millions of barrels of oil in the Gulf of Mexico. Oil in aquatic ecosystems exerts toxicity through multiple mechanisms, including photo-induced toxicity following co-exposure with UV radiation. The timing and location of the spill coincided with both fiddler crab reproduction and peak yearly UV intensities, putting early life stage fiddler crabs at risk of injury due to photo-induced toxicity. The present study assessed sensitivity of fiddler crab larvae to photo-induced toxicity during co-exposure to a range of environmentally relevant dilutions of high-energy water accommodated fractions of DWH oil, and either filters that allowed for variable UV penetration. Solar exposures (duration: 7-h per day) were conducted for two consecutive days, with a dark recovery period (duration: 17-h) in between. Survival was significantly decreased in treatments the presence of >10% UV and relatively low concentrations of oil. Results of the present study indicate fiddler crab larvae are sensitive to photo-induced toxicity in the presence of DWH oil. These results are of concern, as fiddler crabs play an important role as ecosystem engineers, modulating sediment biogeochemical processes via burrowing action. Furthermore, they occupy an important place in the food web in the Gulf of Mexico.

  20. Quantifying overlap between the Deepwater Horizon oil spill and predicted bluefin tuna spawning habitat in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazen, Elliott L.; Carlisle, Aaron B.; Wilson, Steven G.; Ganong, James E.; Castleton, Michael R.; Schallert, Robert J.; Stokesbury, Michael J. W.; Bograd, Steven J.; Block, Barbara A.

    2016-09-01

    Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) are distributed throughout the North Atlantic and are both economically valuable and heavily exploited. The fishery is currently managed as two spawning populations, with the GOM population being severely depleted for over 20 years. In April-August of 2010, the Deepwater Horizon oil spill released approximately 4 million barrels of oil into the GOM, with severe ecosystem and economic impacts. Acute oil exposure results in mortality of bluefin eggs and larvae, while chronic effects on spawning adults are less well understood. Here we used 16 years of electronic tagging data for 66 bluefin tuna to identify spawning events, to quantify habitat preferences, and to predict habitat use and oil exposure within Gulf of Mexico spawning grounds. More than 54,000 km2 (5%) of predicted spawning habitat within the US EEZ was oiled during the week of peak oil dispersal, with potentially lethal effects on eggs and larvae. Although the oil spill overlapped with a relatively small portion of predicted spawning habitat, the cumulative impact from oil, ocean warming and bycatch mortality on GOM spawning grounds may result in significant effects for a population that shows little evidence of rebuilding.

  1. Marsh Loss Due to Cumulative Impacts of Hurricane Isaac and the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in Louisiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Khanna

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Coastal ecosystems are greatly endangered due to anthropogenic development and climate change. Multiple disturbances may erode the ability of a system to recover from stress if there is little time between disturbance events. We evaluated the ability of the saltmarshes in Barataria Bay, Louisiana, USA, to recover from two successive disturbances, the DeepWater Horizon oil spill in 2010 and Hurricane Isaac in 2012. We measured recovery using vegetation indices and land cover change metrics. We found that after the hurricane, land loss along oiled shorelines was 17.8%, while along oil-free shorelines, it was 13.6% within the first 7 m. At a distance of 7–14 m, land loss from oiled regions was 11.6%, but only 6.3% in oil-free regions. We found no differences in vulnerability to land loss between narrow and wide shorelines; however, vegetation in narrow sites was significantly more stressed, potentially leading to future land loss. Treated oiled regions also lost more land due to the hurricane than untreated regions. These results suggest that ecosystem recovery after the two disturbances is compromised, as the observed high rates of land loss may prevent salt marsh from establishing in the same areas where it existed prior to the oil spill.

  2. Assessment of early life stage mahi-mahi windows of sensitivity during acute exposures to Deepwater Horizon crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mager, Edward M; Pasparakis, Christina; Schlenker, Lela S; Yao, Zongli; Bodinier, Charlotte; Stieglitz, John D; Hoenig, Ronald; Morris, Jeffrey M; Benetti, Daniel D; Grosell, Martin

    2017-07-01

    Windows of exposure to a weathered Deepwater Horizon oil sample (slick A) were examined for early life stage mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus) to determine whether there are developmental periods of enhanced sensitivity during the course of a standard 96-h bioassay. Survival was assessed at 96 h following oil exposures ranging from 2 h to 96 h and targeting 3 general periods of development, namely the prehatch phase, the period surrounding hatch, and the posthatch phase. In addition, 3 different oil preparations were used: high- and low-energy water accommodated fractions of oil and very thin surface slicks of oil (∼1 μm). The latter 2 were used to distinguish between effects due to direct contact with the slick itself and the water underlying the slick. Considering the data from all 3 exposure regimes, it was determined that the period near or including hatch was likely the most sensitive. Furthermore, toxicity was not enhanced by direct contact with slick oil. These findings are environmentally relevant given that the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons eliciting mortality from exposures during the sensitive periods of development were below or near concentrations measured during the active spill phase. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1887-1895. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  3. Impacts to Ecological Services: Buried Oil from the 2010 Deepwater Horizon Spill and Its Effect on Salt Marsh Denitrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, B. M.; White, J. R.; Delaune, R.

    2016-02-01

    In coastal Louisiana (LA), demands for ecosystem services are increasing while human activities continue to deteriorate coastal systems. On April 20, 2010, the largest offshore oil spill in United States history occurred in the Gulf of Mexico, known as the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill. Approximately 795 million L of crude oil were released, consequently oiling 1,773 km of Gulf Coast shoreline. Four years later, oil from the spill was found buried in the soil and seeping at the salt marsh surface in Bay Jimmy, LA. Previous studies found that immediately following oil exposure, wetland soils have suppressed microbial activity. This study seeks to understand effects of the long-term presence of oil on soil microbes and associated impacts to wetland soil denitrification. Bulk soil and intact soil cores were collected four years after the DWH spill from a heavily impacted salt marsh and a proximal site deemed unoiled in Barataria Bay, LA. Oil present in the soil subsurface increased dry weight bulk density, and decreased moisture content. Potential denitrification (acetylene block) in the top 10 cm of soil was 38% lower for oiled samples versus unoiled controls. Areal nitrate reduction rates were significantly lower in oiled samples in an intact core flux experiment under environmentally relevant nitrate conditions (2mg/L NO3-N), P-value ecosystem service of water quality improvement. Future studies should investigate impacts of oil being rebroadcasted onto marshes as land erodes in the study area.

  4. Community Recovery Following the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: Toward A Theory of Cultural Resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Hannah E; Mayer, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Culture plays an important role in communities' abilities to adapt to environmental change and crises. The emerging field of resilience thinking has made several efforts to better integrate social and cultural factors into the systems-level approach to understanding socialecological resilience. However, attempts to integrate culture into structural models often fail to account for the agentic processes that influence recovery at the individual and community levels, overshadowing the potential for agency and variation in community response. Using empirical data on the 2010 BP oil spill's impact on a small, natural resource-dependent community, we propose an alternative approach emphasizing culture's ability to operate as a resource that contributes to social, or community, resilience. We refer to this more explicit articulation of culture's role in resilience as cultural resilience . Our findings reveal that not all cultural resources that define resilience in reference to certain disasters provided successful mitigation, adaptation, or recovery from the BP spill.

  5. The deepwater horizon oil spill coast guard cohort study: A cross-sectional study of acute respiratory health symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Melannie; Engel, Lawrence S; Olaiya, Nathan; Wang, Li; Barrett, John; Weems, Laura; Schwartz, Erica G; Rusiecki, Jennifer A

    2018-04-01

    Over 8500 United States Coast Guard (USCG) personnel were deployed in response to the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill; however, human respiratory effects as a result of spill-related exposures are relatively unknown. USCG personnel who responded to the DWH oil spill were queried via survey on exposures to crude oil and oil dispersant, and acute respiratory symptoms experienced during deployment. Adjusted log binomial regressions were used to calculate prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), investigating the associations between oil spill exposures and respiratory symptoms. 4855 USCG personnel completed the survey. More than half (54.6%) and almost one-fourth (22.0%) of responders were exposed to crude oil and oil dispersants, respectively. Coughing was the most prevalent symptom (19.4%), followed by shortness of breath (5.5%), and wheezing (3.6%). Adjusted analyses showed an exposure-response relationship between increasing deployment duration and likelihood of coughing, shortness of breath, and wheezing in the pre-capping period. A similar pattern was observed in the post-capping period for coughing and wheezing. Adjusted analyses revealed increased PRs for coughing (PR=1.92), shortness of breath (PR=2.60), and wheezing (PR=2.68) for any oil exposure. Increasing frequency of inhalation of oil was associated with increased likelihood of all three respiratory symptoms. A similar pattern was observed for contact with oil dispersants for coughing and shortness of breath. The combination of both oil and oil dispersants presented associations that were much greater in magnitude than oil alone for coughing (PR=2.72), shortness of breath (PR=4.65), and wheezing (PR=5.06). Results from the present study suggested strong relationships between oil and oil dispersant exposures and acute respiratory symptoms among disaster responders. Future prospective studies will be needed to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Hydrocarbons in Deep-Sea Sediments following the 2010 Deepwater Horizon Blowout in the Northeast Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Isabel C; Schwing, Patrick T; Brooks, Gregg R; Larson, Rebekka A; Hastings, David W; Ellis, Greg; Goddard, Ethan A; Hollander, David J

    2015-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill released 4.9 million barrels of oil into the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) over 87 days. Sediment and water sampling efforts were concentrated SW of the DWH and in coastal areas. Here we present geochemistry data from sediment cores collected in the aftermath of the DWH event from 1000-1500 m water depth in the DeSoto Canyon, NE of the DWH wellhead. Cores were analyzed at high-resolution (at 2 mm and 5 mm intervals) in order to evaluate the concentration, composition and input of hydrocarbons to the seafloor. Specifically, we analyzed total organic carbon (TOC), aliphatic, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs), and biomarker (hopanes, steranes, diasteranes) compounds to elucidate possible sources and transport pathways for deposition of hydrocarbons. Results showed higher hydrocarbon concentrations during 2010-2011 compared to years prior to 2010. Hydrocarbon inputs in 2010-2011 were composed of a mixture of sources including terrestrial, planktonic, and weathered oil. Our results suggest that after the DWH event, both soluble and highly insoluble hydrocarbons were deposited at enhanced rates in the deep-sea. We proposed two distinct transport pathways of hydrocarbon deposition: 1) sinking of oil-particle aggregates (hydrocarbon-contaminated marine snow and/or suspended particulate material), and 2) advective transport and direct contact of the deep plume with the continental slope surface sediments between 1000-1200 m. Our findings underline the complexity of the depositional event observed in the aftermath of the DWH event in terms of multiple sources, variable concentrations, and spatial (depth-related) variability in the DeSoto Canyon, NE of the DWH wellhead.

  7. Development of a field testing protocol for identifying Deepwater Horizon oil spill residues trapped near Gulf of Mexico beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yuling

    2018-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) accident, one of the largest oil spills in U.S. history, contaminated several beaches located along the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) shoreline. The residues from the spill still continue to be deposited on some of these beaches. Methods to track and monitor the fate of these residues require approaches that can differentiate the DWH residues from other types of petroleum residues. This is because, historically, the crude oil released from sources such as natural seeps and anthropogenic discharges have also deposited other types of petroleum residues on GOM beaches. Therefore, identifying the origin of these residues is critical for developing effective management strategies for monitoring the long-term environmental impacts of the DWH oil spill. Advanced fingerprinting methods that are currently used for identifying the source of oil spill residues require detailed laboratory studies, which can be cost-prohibitive. Also, most agencies typically use untrained workers or volunteers to conduct shoreline monitoring surveys and these worker will not have access to advanced laboratory facilities. Furthermore, it is impractical to routinely fingerprint large volumes of samples that are collected after a major oil spill event, such as the DWH spill. In this study, we propose a simple field testing protocol that can identify DWH oil spill residues based on their unique physical characteristics. The robustness of the method is demonstrated by testing a variety of oil spill samples, and the results are verified by characterizing the samples using advanced chemical fingerprinting methods. The verification data show that the method yields results that are consistent with the results derived from advanced fingerprinting methods. The proposed protocol is a reliable, cost-effective, practical field approach for differentiating DWH residues from other types of petroleum residues. PMID:29329313

  8. Microbial activities and dissolved organic matter dynamics in oil-contaminated surface seawater from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill site.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Ziervogel

    Full Text Available The Deepwater Horizon oil spill triggered a complex cascade of microbial responses that reshaped the dynamics of heterotrophic carbon degradation and the turnover of dissolved organic carbon (DOC in oil contaminated waters. Our results from 21-day laboratory incubations in rotating glass bottles (roller bottles demonstrate that microbial dynamics and carbon flux in oil-contaminated surface water sampled near the spill site two weeks after the onset of the blowout were greatly affected by activities of microbes associated with macroscopic oil aggregates. Roller bottles with oil-amended water showed rapid formation of oil aggregates that were similar in size and appearance compared to oil aggregates observed in surface waters near the spill site. Oil aggregates that formed in roller bottles were densely colonized by heterotrophic bacteria, exhibiting high rates of enzymatic activity (lipase hydrolysis indicative of oil degradation. Ambient waters surrounding aggregates also showed enhanced microbial activities not directly associated with primary oil-degradation (β-glucosidase; peptidase, as well as a twofold increase in DOC. Concurrent changes in fluorescence properties of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM suggest an increase in oil-derived, aromatic hydrocarbons in the DOC pool. Thus our data indicate that oil aggregates mediate, by two distinct mechanisms, the transfer of hydrocarbons to the deep sea: a microbially-derived flux of oil-derived DOC from sinking oil aggregates into the ambient water column, and rapid sedimentation of the oil aggregates themselves, serving as vehicles for oily particulate matter as well as oil aggregate-associated microbial communities.

  9. Heavily Oiled Salt Marsh following the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill, Ecological Comparisons of Shoreline Cleanup Treatments and Recovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Zengel

    Full Text Available The Deepwater Horizon oil spill affected hundreds of kilometers of coastal wetland shorelines, including salt marshes with persistent heavy oiling that required intensive shoreline "cleanup" treatment. Oiled marsh treatment involves a delicate balance among: removing oil, speeding the degradation of remaining oil, protecting wildlife, fostering habitat recovery, and not causing further ecological damage with treatment. To examine the effectiveness and ecological effects of treatment during the emergency response, oiling characteristics and ecological parameters were compared over two years among heavily oiled test plots subject to: manual treatment, mechanical treatment, natural recovery (no treatment, oiled control, as well as adjacent reference conditions. An additional experiment compared areas with and without vegetation planting following treatment. Negative effects of persistent heavy oiling on marsh vegetation, intertidal invertebrates, and shoreline erosion were observed. In areas without treatment, oiling conditions and negative effects for most marsh parameters did not considerably improve over two years. Both manual and mechanical treatment were effective at improving oiling conditions and vegetation characteristics, beginning the recovery process, though recovery was not complete by two years. Mechanical treatment had additional negative effects of mixing oil into the marsh soils and further accelerating erosion. Manual treatment appeared to strike the right balance between improving oiling and habitat conditions while not causing additional detrimental effects. However, even with these improvements, marsh periwinkle snails showed minimal signs of recovery through two years, suggesting that some ecosystem components may lag vegetation recovery. Planting following treatment quickened vegetation recovery and reduced shoreline erosion. Faced with comparable marsh oiling in the future, we would recommend manual treatment followed by

  10. Challenges and successes in developing a data sharing culture in the Gulf of Mexico following the Deepwater Horizon disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showalter, L. M.

    2017-12-01

    The Gulf Research Program (GRP) was developed as part of legal settlements with the companies involved in the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) disaster. The Federal Government asked the National Academy of Sciences to establish a new program to fund and conduct activities to enhance offshore energy system safety and protect human health and the environment in the Gulf of Mexico and other regions along the U.S. outer continental shelf. An important part of the program is a commitment to open data and data sharing among the variety of disciplines it funds. The DWH disaster produced a major influx of funding for the Gulf region and various groups and organizations are collaborating to ensure that the science being conducted via these funding streams is not duplicative. A number of data focused sub groups have formed and are working to leverage existing efforts to strengthen data sharing and collaboration in the region. For its part, the GRP is developing a data program that encourages researchers to share data openly while providing avenues for acknowledgement of data sharing and research collaborations. A main problem with collaborative data sharing is often not the technologies available but instead the human component. The "traditional" path for scientific research has not generally involved making data widely or readily available in a short time frame. It takes a lot of effort to challenge this norm and change the way researchers view data sharing and its value for them and the world at large. The GRP data program aims to build a community of researchers that not only share their data but who also help show the value of this practice to the greater scientific community. To this end, the GRP will support a variety of education and training opportunities to help develop a base of researchers more informed on issues related to open data and data sharing and working to leverage the technology and expertise of others to develop a culture of data sharing in the Gulf of Mexico.

  11. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation potential of Gulf of Mexico coastal microbial communities after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony D. Kappell

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Deepwater Horizon (DWH blowout resulted in oil transport, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs to the Gulf of Mexico shoreline. The microbial communities of these shorelines are thought to be responsible for the intrinsic degradation of PAHs. To investigate the Gulf Coast beach microbial community response to hydrocarbon exposure, we examined the functional gene diversity, bacterial community composition, and PAH degradation capacity of a heavily oiled and non-oiled beach following the oil exposure. With a non-expression functional gene microarray targeting 539 gene families, we detected 28,748 coding sequences. Of these sequences, 10% were uniquely associated with the severely oil-contaminated beach and 6.0% with the non-oiled beach. There was little variation in the functional genes detected between the two beaches; however the relative abundance of functional genes involved in oil degradation pathways, including PAHs, were greater in the oiled beach. The microbial PAH degradation potentials of both beaches, were tested in mesocosms. Mesocosms were constructed in glass columns using sands with native microbial communities, circulated with artificial sea water and challenged with a mixture of PAHs. The low-molecular weight PAHs, fluorene and naphthalene, showed rapid depletion in all mesocosms while the high-molecular weight benzo[α]pyrene was not degraded by either microbial community. Both the heavily oiled and the non-impacted coastal communities showed little variation in their biodegradation ability for low molecular weight PAHs. Massively-parallel sequencing of 16S rRNA genes from mesocosm DNA showed that known PAH degraders and genera frequently associated with oil hydrocarbon degradation represented a major portion of the bacterial community. The observed similar response by microbial communities from beaches with a different recent history of oil exposure suggests that Gulf Coast beach communities are primed for PAH

  12. Heavily Oiled Salt Marsh following the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill, Ecological Comparisons of Shoreline Cleanup Treatments and Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengel, Scott; Bernik, Brittany M; Rutherford, Nicolle; Nixon, Zachary; Michel, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill affected hundreds of kilometers of coastal wetland shorelines, including salt marshes with persistent heavy oiling that required intensive shoreline "cleanup" treatment. Oiled marsh treatment involves a delicate balance among: removing oil, speeding the degradation of remaining oil, protecting wildlife, fostering habitat recovery, and not causing further ecological damage with treatment. To examine the effectiveness and ecological effects of treatment during the emergency response, oiling characteristics and ecological parameters were compared over two years among heavily oiled test plots subject to: manual treatment, mechanical treatment, natural recovery (no treatment, oiled control), as well as adjacent reference conditions. An additional experiment compared areas with and without vegetation planting following treatment. Negative effects of persistent heavy oiling on marsh vegetation, intertidal invertebrates, and shoreline erosion were observed. In areas without treatment, oiling conditions and negative effects for most marsh parameters did not considerably improve over two years. Both manual and mechanical treatment were effective at improving oiling conditions and vegetation characteristics, beginning the recovery process, though recovery was not complete by two years. Mechanical treatment had additional negative effects of mixing oil into the marsh soils and further accelerating erosion. Manual treatment appeared to strike the right balance between improving oiling and habitat conditions while not causing additional detrimental effects. However, even with these improvements, marsh periwinkle snails showed minimal signs of recovery through two years, suggesting that some ecosystem components may lag vegetation recovery. Planting following treatment quickened vegetation recovery and reduced shoreline erosion. Faced with comparable marsh oiling in the future, we would recommend manual treatment followed by planting. We caution

  13. Shoreline oiling effects and recovery of salt marsh macroinvertebrates from theDeepwater HorizonOil Spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deis, Donald R; Fleeger, John W; Bourgoin, Stefan M; Mendelssohn, Irving A; Lin, Qianxin; Hou, Aixin

    2017-01-01

    Salt marshes in northern Barataria Bay, Louisiana, USA were oiled, sometimes heavily, in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Previous studies indicate that fiddler crabs (in the genus Uca ) and the salt marsh periwinkle ( Littoraria irrorata) were negatively impacted in the short term by the spill. Here, we detail longer-term effects and recovery from moderate and heavy oiling over a 3-year span, beginning 30 months after the spill. Although neither fiddler crab burrow density nor diameter differed between oiled and reference sites when combined across all sampling events, these traits differed among some individual sampling periods consistent with a pattern of lingering oiling impacts. Periwinkle density, however, increased in all oiling categories and shell-length groups during our sampling period, and periwinkle densities were consistently highest at moderately oiled sites where Spartina alterniflora aboveground biomass was highest. Periwinkle shell length linearly increased from a mean of 16.5 to 19.2 mm over the study period at reference sites. In contrast, shell lengths at moderately oiled and heavily oiled sites increased through month 48 after the spill, but then decreased. This decrease was associated with a decline in the relative abundance of large adults (shell length 21-26 mm) at oiled sites which was likely caused by chronic hydrocarbon toxicity or oil-induced effects on habitat quality or food resources. Overall, the recovery of S. alterniflora facilitated the recovery of fiddler crabs and periwinkles. However, our long-term record not only indicates that variation in periwinkle mean shell length and length-frequency distributions are sensitive indicators of the health and recovery of the marsh, but agrees with synoptic studies of vegetation and infaunal communities that full recovery of heavily oiled sites will take longer than 66 months.

  14. Comprehensive framework for ecological assessment of the Migratory Bird Habitat Initiative following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J. Brian; Webb, Elisabeth B.; Kaminski, Richard M.; Barbour, Philip J.; Vilella, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico in April 2010, the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) established and funded the Migratory Bird Habitat Initiative (MBHI), with the goal of improving and increasing wetland habitats on private lands to benefit wintering and migrating waterbirds displaced from oil-impacted coastal wetlands. The NRCS and conservation partners provided financial and technical assistance to landowners and managers of sites enrolled in various conservation easement programs, and incorporated approximately 190,000 ha of wetlands and agricultural lands in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MAV) and Gulf Coast regions in the MBHI. In fall 2010, the NRCS worked with scientists and graduate students from three universities and various conservation agencies to design and implement landscape-scale evaluations of (1) the use of MBHI-managed wetlands and comparable non-MBHI wetlands by Charadriiformes(shorebirds), Anseriformes (waterfowl), and other waterbirds; and (2) the relative effectiveness of different MBHI practices for providing habitat and food resources for migrating, resident, and wintering waterbirds. In this paper, we describe the scientific framework designed to evaluate the MBHI in improving waterbird habitats on private lands in the MAV, the Gulf Coast Prairies in Louisiana and Texas, and Gulf coastal wetlands of Mississippi and Alabama. The results of our evaluation will enhance our understanding of the influence of MBHI, other Farm Bill Conservation Initiative managed lands (e.g., Wetland Reserve Program), and selected agricultural working lands (e.g., Oryza sativa L. [Rice] fields in southern Louisiana and Texas) on wintering and migrating waterbirds. A proactive approach that uses science to evaluate governmental conservation programs is relevant and can inform development of meaningful public policy that likely will be needed for effective delivery of future conservation programs and to justify

  15. Hydrocarbons in Deep-Sea Sediments following the 2010 Deepwater Horizon Blowout in the Northeast Gulf of Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel C Romero

    Full Text Available The Deepwater Horizon (DWH spill released 4.9 million barrels of oil into the Gulf of Mexico (GoM over 87 days. Sediment and water sampling efforts were concentrated SW of the DWH and in coastal areas. Here we present geochemistry data from sediment cores collected in the aftermath of the DWH event from 1000-1500 m water depth in the DeSoto Canyon, NE of the DWH wellhead. Cores were analyzed at high-resolution (at 2 mm and 5 mm intervals in order to evaluate the concentration, composition and input of hydrocarbons to the seafloor. Specifically, we analyzed total organic carbon (TOC, aliphatic, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs, and biomarker (hopanes, steranes, diasteranes compounds to elucidate possible sources and transport pathways for deposition of hydrocarbons. Results showed higher hydrocarbon concentrations during 2010-2011 compared to years prior to 2010. Hydrocarbon inputs in 2010-2011 were composed of a mixture of sources including terrestrial, planktonic, and weathered oil. Our results suggest that after the DWH event, both soluble and highly insoluble hydrocarbons were deposited at enhanced rates in the deep-sea. We proposed two distinct transport pathways of hydrocarbon deposition: 1 sinking of oil-particle aggregates (hydrocarbon-contaminated marine snow and/or suspended particulate material, and 2 advective transport and direct contact of the deep plume with the continental slope surface sediments between 1000-1200 m. Our findings underline the complexity of the depositional event observed in the aftermath of the DWH event in terms of multiple sources, variable concentrations, and spatial (depth-related variability in the DeSoto Canyon, NE of the DWH wellhead.

  16. A Survey of Deepwater Horizon (DWH Oil-Degrading Bacteria from the Eastern Oyster Biome and its Surrounding Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse eThomas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Deepwater Horizon (DWH accident led to the release of an estimated 794,936,474 liters of crude oil into the northern Gulf of Mexico over an 85 day period in 2010, resulting in the contamination of the Gulf of Mexico waters, sediments, permeable beach sands, coastal wetlands and marine life. This study examines the potential response of the Eastern oyster’s microbiome to hydrocarbon contamination and compares it with the bacterial community responses observed from the overlaying water column and the oyster bed sediments. For this purpose, microcosms seeded with DWH crude oil were established and inoculated separately with oyster tissue (OT, mantle fluid (MF, overlaying water column (WC and sediments (S collected from Apalachicola Bay, FL. Shifts in the microbial community structure in the amended microcosms was monitored over a 3-month period using automated ribosomal intergenic spacer region analysis (ARISA, which showed that the microbiome of the oyster tissue and mantle fluid were more similar to the sediment communities than those present in the overlaying water column. This pattern remained largely consistent, regardless of the concentration of crude oil or the enrichment period. Additionally, 72 oil-degrading bacteria were isolated from the microcosms containing OT, MF, WC and S and identified using 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA gene sequencing and compared by principal component analysis (PCA which clearly showed that the water column isolates were different to those identified from the sediment. Conversely, the oyster tissue and mantle fluid isolates clustered together; a strong indication that the oyster microbiome is uniquely structured relative to its surrounding environment. When selected isolates from the OT, MF, WC and S were assessed for their oil-degrading potential, we found that the DWH oil was biodegraded between 12%-42%, under the existing conditions.

  17. Single-cell genomics reveals features of a Colwellia species that was dominant during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia eMason

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available During the Deepwater Horizon (DWH oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico a deep-sea hydrocarbon plume developed resulting in a rapid succession of bacteria. Colwellia eventually supplanted Oceanospirillales, which dominated the plume early in the spill. These successional changes may have resulted, in part, from the changing composition and abundance of hydrocarbons over time. Colwellia abundance peaked when gaseous and simple aromatic hydrocarbons increased, yet the metabolic pathway used by Colwellia in hydrocarbon disposition is unknown. Here we used single-cell genomics to gain insights into the genome properties of a Colwellia enriched during the DWH deep-sea plume. A single amplified genome (SAG of a Colwellia cell isolated from a DWH plume, closely related (avg. 98% 16S rRNA gene similarity to other plume Colwellia, was sequenced and annotated. The SAG was similar to the sequenced isolate Colwellia psychrerythraea 34H (84% avg. nucleotide identity. Both had genes for denitrification, chemotaxis and motility, adaptations to cold environments, and a suite of nutrient acquisition genes. The Colwellia SAG may be capable of gaseous and aromatic hydrocarbon degradation, which contrasts with a DWH plume Oceanospirillales SAG genome which encoded non-gaseous n-alkane and cycloalkane degradation. The disparate hydrocarbon degradation pathways are consistent with hydrocarbons that were abundant at different times in the deep-sea plume; first, non-gaseous n-alkanes and cycloalkanes that could be degraded by Oceanospirillales, followed by gaseous, and simple aromatic hydrocarbons that may have been degraded by Colwellia. These insights into the genomic properties of a Colwellia species, which were supported by existing metagenomic sequence data from the plume and DWH contaminated sediments, help further our understanding of the successional changes in the dominant microbial players in the plume over the course of the DWH spill.

  18. Development of a field testing protocol for identifying Deepwater Horizon oil spill residues trapped near Gulf of Mexico beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yuling; Clement, T Prabhakar

    2018-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) accident, one of the largest oil spills in U.S. history, contaminated several beaches located along the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) shoreline. The residues from the spill still continue to be deposited on some of these beaches. Methods to track and monitor the fate of these residues require approaches that can differentiate the DWH residues from other types of petroleum residues. This is because, historically, the crude oil released from sources such as natural seeps and anthropogenic discharges have also deposited other types of petroleum residues on GOM beaches. Therefore, identifying the origin of these residues is critical for developing effective management strategies for monitoring the long-term environmental impacts of the DWH oil spill. Advanced fingerprinting methods that are currently used for identifying the source of oil spill residues require detailed laboratory studies, which can be cost-prohibitive. Also, most agencies typically use untrained workers or volunteers to conduct shoreline monitoring surveys and these worker will not have access to advanced laboratory facilities. Furthermore, it is impractical to routinely fingerprint large volumes of samples that are collected after a major oil spill event, such as the DWH spill. In this study, we propose a simple field testing protocol that can identify DWH oil spill residues based on their unique physical characteristics. The robustness of the method is demonstrated by testing a variety of oil spill samples, and the results are verified by characterizing the samples using advanced chemical fingerprinting methods. The verification data show that the method yields results that are consistent with the results derived from advanced fingerprinting methods. The proposed protocol is a reliable, cost-effective, practical field approach for differentiating DWH residues from other types of petroleum residues.

  19. Acute effects of non-weathered and weathered crude oil and dispersant associated with the Deepwater Horizon incident on the development of marine bivalve and echinoderm larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefansson, Emily S; Langdon, Chris J; Pargee, Suzanne M; Blunt, Susanna M; Gage, Susan J; Stubblefield, William A

    2016-08-01

    Acute toxicity tests (48-96-h duration) were conducted with larvae of 2 echinoderm species (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus and Dendraster excentricus) and 4 bivalve mollusk species (Crassostrea virginica, Crassostrea gigas, Mytilus galloprovincialis, and Mercenaria mercenaria). Developing larvae were exposed to water-accommodated fractions (WAFs) and chemically enhanced water-accommodated fractions (CEWAFs) of fresh and weathered oils collected from the Gulf of Mexico during the Deepwater Horizon incident. The WAFs (oils alone), CEWAFs (oils plus Corexit 9500A dispersant), and WAFs of Corexit alone were prepared using low-energy mixing. The WAFs of weathered oils had no effect on survival and development of echinoderm and bivalve larvae, whereas WAFs of fresh oils showed adverse effects on larval development. Similar toxicities were observed for weathered oil CEWAFs and WAFs prepared with Corexit alone for oyster (C. gigas and C. virginica) larvae, which were the most sensitive of the tested invertebrate species to Corexit. Mean 10% effective concentration values for total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and dipropylene glycol n-butyl ether (a marker for Corexit) in the present study were higher than all concentrations reported in nearshore field samples collected during and after the Deepwater Horizon incident. The results suggest that water-soluble fractions of weathered oils and Corexit dispersant associated with the Deepwater Horizon incident had limited, if any, acute impacts on nearshore larvae of eastern oysters and clams, as well as other organisms with similar sensitivities to those of test species in the present study; however, exposure to sediments and long-term effects were not evaluated. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2016-2028. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  20. Adapting to Life after Hurricane Katrina and the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: An Examination of Psychological Resilience and Depression on the Mississippi Gulf Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmon, Bret J; Lee, Joohee; Cochran, David M; Kar, Bandana; Rehner, Timothy A; Baker, Alvin M

    2017-01-02

    The purpose of this study was to examine relationships among depression, psychological resilience, and other sociodemographic factors of individuals who were highly exposed to Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in 2010. A spatially stratified random sample of 294 Mississippi Gulf Coast residents living in close proximity to the Gulf of Mexico were surveyed. Findings indicated that low education attainment, financial hardship, and disaster-related damages increased the likelihood of depression, whereas psychological resilience and having health insurance reduced the odds of depression. Implications for enhancing psychological resilience and increasing access to health insurance are discussed.

  1. Organic contaminants, trace and major elements, and nutrients in water and sediment sampled in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowell, Lisa H.; Ludtke, Amy S.; Mueller, David K.; Scott, Jonathon C.

    2011-01-01

    Beach water and sediment samples were collected along the Gulf of Mexico coast to assess differences in contaminant concentrations before and after landfall of Macondo-1 well oil released into the Gulf of Mexico from the sinking of the British Petroleum Corporation's Deepwater Horizon drilling platform. Samples were collected at 70 coastal sites on the Gulf of Mexico between May 7 and July 7, 2010, to document baseline, "pre-landfall" conditions. A subset of these sites was resampled during October 4 to 14, 2010, after oil had made landfall on the Gulf of Mexico coast ("post-landfall") to determine if actionable concentrations of oil were present along shorelines.

  2. Variations in organic carbon chemistry in the Gulf Coast and coastal marshes following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, J. M.; Orem, W. H.; Aiken, G.; Varonka, M. S.; Butler, K.; Kokaly, R. F.

    2011-12-01

    Record volumes of oil released from the Macondo well following the explosion of the Deepwater Horizon offshore oil-drilling platform in the Gulf of Mexico significantly impacted coastal marshes in Barataria Bay, Louisiana. Remote sensing and water sampling was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey to evaluate the extent of impact. Water samples were collected offshore from near the spill site July 5-10, 2010 to characterize molecular organic carbon chemistry on unfiltered samples and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) on filtered samples. Three field visits were conducted in July 7-10, August 12-14, and August 24-26, 2010, to collect samples from the soil-water interface in coastal marshes along lower Barataria Bay and the Bird's Foot Delta at the distal end of the Mississippi River Delta. Visible oil in the marsh was observed as thick coatings on vegetation and soil and as sheens at the water surface. Samples were extracted for hydrocarbons with dichloromethane, separated into aliphatic, aromatic and polar compound classes using standard column techniques, and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. A significant amount of oil was observed "dissolved" in the water column with a hydrocarbon distribution resembling that of the surface oil slick. While oils maintained many of the more volatile lower molecular weight components near the spill site, these were mostly gone in the onshore Barataria Bay samples, leaving mostly higher molecular weight components. Dissolved organic carbon was characterized using concentration, fluorescence index (FI), specific ultratviolet absorbance (SUVA) and excitation/emission fluorescence (EEM). Offshore samples had distinctive EEMs patterns, SUVA and FI. With few exceptions, marsh samples had EEMs patterns more similar to previously extracted organic matter from the Mississippi River than to the offshore oil. In spite of visible oil sheen in unfiltered water from contaminated shorelines and no visible sign of impact on

  3. Snow on the Seafloor? Methods to Detect Carbohydrates in Deep-sea Sediments Impacted by the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, S. A.; Freeman, K. H.

    2015-12-01

    A significant portion of the oil released from the Macondo well after the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DwH) explosion reached the seafloor (1,2). The transfer of buoyant hydrocarbons from the sea surface and subsurface plumes to depths >1500 m, however, is not well understood. A prominent role for sinking marine snow--small, composite particles composed largely of extracellular polymeric substances exuded by algae and bacteria--has been proposed. Snow particles, rich in carbohydrates, may have sorbed and physically entrained oil from the water column as they sank. Several lines of evidence support this scenario: abundant snow was observed 3-4 weeks after the oil spill (3); oil and dispersants can induce marine snow formation (4); and flocculent material covering deep-sea corals near the DwH site contained biomarkers consistent with Macondo oil (5). To investigate whether the chemically complex marine oil snow leaves a direct sedimentary record, we analyzed carbohydrates at high resolution (2 mm intervals) in sediment cores collected at 4 sites in the northern Gulf of Mexico in 2013 using a modified phenol-sulfuric acid spectrophotometric method. We detected a sharp subsurface peak in carbohydrate concentrations near the Macondo well; we interpret this peak as post-DwH marine snow. Coeval carbohydrate, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, and hopane profiles suggest a clear link between marine snow and Macondo oil components, as documented in a 3-year time-series at one site, and enable preliminary conclusions about the delivery and fate of marine snow components in sediments. We also characterized carbohydrates near the wellhead using fluorescent lectin-binding analyses developed for applications in cell biology. Particle morphologies include collapse structures suggestive of a water column origin. Finally, we explore the extent to which polysaccharide residues detected with selective lectins can be used to determine the provenance of marine snow (e.g., bacterial v. algal

  4. Horizons

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The JPL HORIZONS on-line solar system data and ephemeris computation service provides access to key solar system data and flexible production of highly accurate...

  5. δ(13)C and δ(15)N in deep-living fishes and shrimps after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana-Rizzo, Ester; Torres, Joseph J; Ross, Steve W; Romero, Isabel; Watson, Kathleen; Goddard, Ethan; Hollander, David

    2015-05-15

    The blowout of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) drill-rig produced a surface oil layer, dispersed micro-droplets throughout the water column, and sub-surface plumes. We measured stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes in mesopelagic fishes and shrimps in the vicinity of DWH collected prior to, six weeks after, and one year after the oil spill (2007, 2010 and 2011). In 2010, the year of the oil spill, a small but significant depletion of δ(13)C was found in two mesopelagic fishes (Gonostoma elongatum and Chauliodus sloani) and one shrimp (Systellaspis debilis); a significant δ(15)N enrichment was identified in the same shrimp and in three fish species (G. elongatum, Ceratoscopelus warmingii, and Lepidophanes guentheri). The δ(15)N change did not suggest a change of trophic level, but did indicate a change in diet. The data suggest that carbon from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill was incorporated into the mesopelagic food web of the Gulf of Mexico. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Co-exposure to sunlight enhances the toxicity of naturally weathered Deepwater Horizon oil to early lifestage red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) and speckled seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloy, Matthew; Garner, Thomas Ross; Bridges, Kristin; Mansfield, Charles; Carney, Michael; Forth, Heather; Krasnec, Michelle; Lay, Claire; Takeshita, Ryan; Morris, Jeffrey; Bonnot, Shane; Oris, James; Roberts, Aaron

    2017-03-01

    The 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill resulted in the accidental release of millions of barrels of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. Photo-induced toxicity following co-exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is 1 mechanism by which polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from oil spills may exert toxicity. Red drum and speckled seatrout are both important fishery resources in the Gulf of Mexico. They spawn near-shore and produce positively buoyant embryos that hatch into larvae in approximately 24 h. The goal of the present study was to determine whether exposure to UV as natural sunlight enhances the toxicity of crude oil to early lifestage red drum and speckled seatrout. Larval fish were exposed to several dilutions of high-energy water-accommodated fractions (HEWAFs) from 2 different oils collected in the field under chain of custody during the 2010 spill and 3 gradations of natural sunlight in a factorial design. Co-exposure to natural sunlight and oil significantly reduced larval survival compared with exposure to oil alone. Although both species were sensitive at PAH concentrations reported during the Deepwater Horizon spill, speckled seatrout demonstrated a greater sensitivity to photo-induced toxicity than red drum. These data demonstrate that even advanced weathering of slicks does not ameliorate the potential for photo-induced toxicity of oil to these species. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:780-785. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  7. Trace Atmospheric Gas Analyzer (TAGA) Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Data for BP Spill/Deepwater Horizon - May 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Trace Atmospheric Gas Analyzer (TAGA) buses are self-contained mobile laboratories that conduct instant-result monitoring of air quality at particular locations....

  8. Trace Atmospheric Gas Analyzer (TAGA) Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Data for BP Spill/Deepwater Horizon - June 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Trace Atmospheric Gas Analyzer (TAGA) buses are self-contained mobile laboratories that conduct instant-result monitoring of air quality at particular locations....

  9. Trace Atmospheric Gas Analyzer (TAGA) Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Data for BP Spill/Deepwater Horizon - August 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Trace Atmospheric Gas Analyzer (TAGA) buses are self-contained mobile laboratories that conduct instant-result monitoring of air quality at particular locations....

  10. Trace Atmospheric Gas Analyzer (TAGA) Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Data for BP Spill/Deepwater Horizon - July 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Trace Atmospheric Gas Analyzer (TAGA) buses are self-contained mobile laboratories that conduct instant-result monitoring of air quality at particular locations....

  11. State of the Art Satellite and Airborne Marine Oil Spill Remote Sensing: Application to the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    kelp beds, natural organics, pollen, plankton blooms, cloud shadows, jellyfish , algae, and guano washing off rocks have all been reported as oil by...susceptible to misidentification, as they appear similar to non-oil bio- logical slicks. In fact , the sea surface’s upper 1 mm is well described as a gelatinous...Airborne and spaceborne synthetic aperture radar Airborne SAR can map areas of interest at high spatial resolution (b10 m), with faster repeat times than

  12. Effects of Building a Sand Barrier Berm to Mitigate the Effects of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill on Louisiana Marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, Dawn; Flocks, James G.; Kindinger, Jack G.; Sallenger, A.H.; Twichell, David C.

    2010-01-01

    The State of Louisiana requested emergency authorization on May 11, 2010, to perform spill mitigation work on the Chandeleur Islands and on all the barrier islands from Grand Terre Island eastward to Sandy Point to enhance the capability of the islands to reduce the movement of oil from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill to the marshes. The proposed action-building a barrier berm (essentially an artificial island fronting the existing barriers and inlets) seaward of the existing barrier islands and inlets-'restores' the protective function of the islands but does not alter the islands themselves. Building a barrier berm to protect the mainland wetlands from oil is a new strategy and depends on the timeliness of construction to be successful. Prioritizing areas to be bermed, focusing on those areas that are most vulnerable and where construction can be completed most rapidly, may increase chances for success. For example, it may be easier and more efficient to berm the narrow inlets of the coastal section to the west of the Mississippi River Delta rather than the large expanses of open water to the east of the delta in the southern parts of the Breton National Wildlife Refuge (NWR). This document provides information about the potential available sand resources and effects of berm construction on the existing barrier islands. The proposed project originally involved removing sediment from a linear source approximately 1 mile (1.6 km) gulfward of the barrier islands and placing it just seaward of the islands in shallow water (~2-m depth where possible) to form a continuous berm rising approximately 6 feet (~2 m) above sea level (North American Vertical Datum of 1988-NAVD88) with an ~110-yd (~100-m) width at water level and a slope of 25:1 to the seafloor. Discussions within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and with others led to the determination that point-source locations, such as Hewes Point, the St. Bernard Shoals, and Ship Shoal, were more suitable 'borrow

  13. Chemical oceanographic data collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-21 to 2010-07-23 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084584)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical oceanographic data were collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-21 to 2010-07-23 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill...

  14. Chemical oceanographic data collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-18 to 2010-06-23 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084579)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical oceanographic data were collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-18 to 2010-06-23 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill...

  15. Chemical oceanographic data collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-28 to 2010-08-09 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084586)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical oceanographic data were collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-28 to 2010-08-09 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill...

  16. Unknown oceanographic data collected aboard NOAA Ship DELAWARE II in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-14 to 2010-07-24 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084595)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Unknown oceanographic data were collected aboard NOAA Ship DELAWARE II in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-14 to 2010-07-24 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil...

  17. Chemical oceanographic data collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-27 to 2010-09-01 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084588)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical oceanographic data were collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-27 to 2010-09-01 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill...

  18. Chemical oceanographic data collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-13 to 2010-08-23 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084587)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical oceanographic data were collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-13 to 2010-08-23 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill...

  19. Chemical oceanographic data collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-09 to 2010-06-16 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084578)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical oceanographic data were collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-09 to 2010-06-16 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill...

  20. Unknown oceanographic data collected aboard the Ridley Thomas in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-26 to 2010-06-29 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084612)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Unknown oceanographic data were collected aboard the Ridley Thomas in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-26 to 2010-06-29 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill...

  1. Chemical oceanographic data collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-01 to 2010-07-09 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084581)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical oceanographic data were collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-01 to 2010-07-09 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill...

  2. Oceanographic data collected aboard NOAA Ship PISCES in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-26 to 2010-07-29 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084594)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic data were collected aboard NOAA Ship PISCES in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-26 to 2010-07-29 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event on...

  3. Oceanographic data collected aboard NOAA Ship Pisces in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-15 to 2010-07-21 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084593)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic data were collected aboard NOAA Ship Pisces in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-15 to 2010-07-21 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event on...

  4. Chemical oceanographic data collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-05 to 2010-06-07 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084569)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical oceanographic data were collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-05 to 2010-06-07 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill...

  5. Chemical oceanographic data collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-25 to 2010-07-28 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084585)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical oceanographic data were collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-25 to 2010-07-28 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill...

  6. Chemical oceanographic data collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-24 to 2010-06-29 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084580)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical oceanographic data were collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-24 to 2010-06-29 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill...

  7. Chemical oceanographic data collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-07 to 2010-06-09 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084576)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical oceanographic data were collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-07 to 2010-06-09 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill...

  8. Chemical oceanographic data collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-14 to 2010-07-19 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084583)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical oceanographic data were collected aboard the RYAN CHOUEST in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-07-14 to 2010-07-19 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill...

  9. 75 FR 60800 - Discharge of Oil From Deepwater Horizon/Macondo Well, Gulf of Mexico; Intent To Conduct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... Pursuant to section 1006 of the Oil Pollution Act (``OPA''), 33 U.S.C. 2701 et seq., Federal and State...; the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (``NOAA''), on behalf of the U.S. Department of... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR [FWS-R9-FHC-2010-N212; 94400-1130-0000] Discharge of Oil From Deepwater...

  10. Application of enhanced gas chromatography/triple quadrupole mass spectrometry for monitoring petroleum weathering and forensic source fingerprinting in samples impacted by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Puspa L; Wong, Roberto L; Overton, Edward B

    2017-10-01

    Accurate characterization of petroleum hydrocarbons in complex and weathered oil residues is analytically challenging. This is primarily due to chemical compositional complexity of both the oil residues and environmental matrices, and the lack of instrumental selectivity due to co-elution of interferences with the target analytes. To overcome these analytical selectivity issues, we used an enhanced resolution gas chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry in Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM) mode (GC/MS/MS-MRM) to eliminate interferences within the ion chromatograms of target analytes found in environmental samples. This new GC/MS/MS-MRM method was developed and used for forensic fingerprinting of deep-water and marsh sediment samples containing oily residues from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. The results showed that the GC/MS/MS-MRM method increases selectivity, eliminates interferences, and provides more accurate quantitation and characterization of trace levels of alkyl-PAHs and biomarker compounds, from weathered oil residues in complex sample matrices. The higher selectivity of the new method, even at low detection limits, provides greater insights on isomer and homolog compositional patterns and the extent of oil weathering under various environmental conditions. The method also provides flat chromatographic baselines for accurate and unambiguous calculation of petroleum forensic biomarker compound ratios. Thus, this GC/MS/MS-MRM method can be a reliable analytical strategy for more accurate and selective trace level analyses in petroleum forensic studies, and for tacking continuous weathering of oil residues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Was the extreme and wide-spread marine oil-snow sedimentation and flocculent accumulation (MOSSFA) event during the Deepwater Horizon blow-out unique?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonk, Sophie M; Hollander, David J; Murk, AlberTinka J

    2015-11-15

    During the Deepwater Horizon blowout, thick layers of oiled material were deposited on the deep seafloor. This large scale benthic concentration of oil is suggested to have occurred via the process of Marine Oil Snow Sedimentation and Flocculent Accumulation (MOSSFA). This meta-analysis investigates whether MOSSFA occurred in other large oil spills and identifies the main drivers of oil sedimentation. MOSSFA was found to have occurred during the IXTOC I blowout and possibly during the Santa Barbara blowout. Unfortunately, benthic effects were not sufficiently studied for the 52 spills we reviewed. However, based on the current understanding of drivers involved, we conclude that MOSSFA and related benthic contamination may be widespread. We suggest to collect and analyze sediment cores at specific spill locations, as improved understanding of the MOSSFA process will allow better informed spill responses in the future, taking into account possible massive oil sedimentation and smothering of (deep) benthic ecosystems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The B P Deepwater Horizon disaster - why it shouldn't happen off Norway; Gulf of Mexico (GoM) oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoichevski, William

    2010-07-01

    As Europe holidayed and the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) filled with oil from the blown Macondo well, Norway's Petroleum Inspection Authority (PSA) worked full tilt to bolster drilling safety with lessons from the Deepwater Horizon disaster. Known for approving the high-pressure, high-temperature wells of the Norwegian Sea, the PSA said it was already practicing 'all but five' of 21 new offshore safety recommendations from the office of US Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar. Indeed, Salazar and the US President's press chief said out loud that America would look to the offshore safety model in Norway, where PSA inspectors horrified by Macondo were getting tougher on drilling and well design. Local oil spill planning was already on the right track. (Author)

  13. Experimental microcosm study of the effects of Deepwater Horizon MC-252 oil on the geochemistry and microbiology of Gulf Coast sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahoe, R. J.; Bej, A.; Raulerson, A.; Rentschler, E. K.

    2011-12-01

    Microcosm experiments were conducted to examine the impact of oil contamination on Gulf Coast sediment geochemistry and microbial population dynamics. Coastal sediment and seawater were collected from a salt marsh at Bayou la Batre, Alabama, which was not severely impacted by the BP Deepwater Horizon accident of April 2010. Sediment/seawater microcosms were set up in glass jars combusted for 5 hours at 450 degrees C. Non-sterile microcosms spiked with 500 ppm of MC-252 oil were sacrificed in duplicate at various time intervals over a 14 day period to establish a data time series. Sterile controls with and without oil and a non-sterile control without oil were sacrificed in duplicate at 14 days for comparison with the time-series experiments. Solid and aqueous phases were separated by centrifugation and prepared for analysis. Sediment mineralogy was determined using X-ray diffraction and acid-extractable sediment chemistry determined using EPA Method 3051A and ICP-OES analysis. The aqueous phase chemistry was analyzed by ICP-OES and ion chromatography. The mineralogy of the salt marsh sediment is predominantly quartz, but includes reactive phases such as clays (smectite, illite), feldspar, and iron oxide. Iron-bearing clays and iron oxides can serve as electron acceptors for the growth of Fe(III)-reducing bacteria. Microwave digestions of the microcosm substrate samples were performed in triplicate and show no significant variation in major element chemistry over the course of the two week experiment, suggesting that observed temporal trends in aqueous geochemistry may be due to ion exchange processes, rather than mineral dissolution reactions. Microcosm substrate trace element data which indicate possible differences with time are being analyzed for statistical significance. Analysis of aqueous solution geochemistry reveals several interesting temporal trends. Iron and manganese were released to solution after 2 days, suggesting the presence of facultative

  14. Concentrations of the genotoxic metals, chromium and nickel, in whales, tar balls, oil slicks, and released oil from the gulf of Mexico in the immediate aftermath of the deepwater horizon oil crisis: is genotoxic metal exposure part of the deepwater horizon legacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, John Pierce; Wise, James T F; Wise, Catherine F; Wise, Sandra S; Gianios, Christy; Xie, Hong; Thompson, W Douglas; Perkins, Christopher; Falank, Carolyne; Wise, John Pierce

    2014-01-01

    Concern regarding the Deepwater Horizon oil crisis has largely focused on oil and dispersants while the threat of genotoxic metals in the oil has gone largely overlooked. Genotoxic metals, such as chromium and nickel, damage DNA and bioaccumulate in organisms, resulting in persistent exposures. We found chromium and nickel concentrations ranged from 0.24 to 8.46 ppm in crude oil from the riser, oil from slicks on surface waters and tar balls from Gulf of Mexico beaches. We found nickel concentrations ranged from 1.7 to 94.6 ppm wet weight with a mean of 15.9 ± 3.5 ppm and chromium concentrations ranged from 2.0 to 73.6 ppm wet weight with a mean of 12.8 ± 2.6 ppm in tissue collected from Gulf of Mexico whales in the wake of the crisis. Mean tissue concentrations were significantly higher than those found in whales collected around the world prior to the spill. Given the capacity of these metals to damage DNA, their presence in the oil, and their elevated concentrations in whales, we suggest that metal exposure is an important understudied concern for the Deepwater Horizon oil disaster.

  15. Quality controlled water, sediment, tissue, and tar/oil chemistry analyses from the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill event in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-04 to 2011-06, sourced from NOAA's Query Manager data management system (NODC Accession 0108924)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This collection includes 4 data files (one each for water, sediment, tissue, and tar/oil analyses) containing data from the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) Oil Spill Event...

  16. Ocean current data measured by the Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) aboard the Discoverer Enterprise oil platform from May 23, 2010 to July 04, 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (NODC Accession 0083684)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean current data were collected by ADCP aboard the Discoverer Enterprise in the Gulf of Mexico in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill event on April 20,...

  17. Chemical and physical oceanographic data collected from numerous vessels in the Gulf of Mexico in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event and compiled for the Joint Analysis Group summary report: NOAA Technical Report NOS OR&R 27 (NODC Accession 0087872)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Deepwater Horizon Joint Analysis Group (JAG) for Surface and Sub-Surface Oceanography, Oil and Dispersant Data was a working group with membership from federal...

  18. Uptake of heavy metals and PAHs from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill by soft tissues and shells of the coastal oyster Crassostrea virginica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roopnarine, P. D.; Roopnarine, D.; Gillikin, D. P.; Anderson, L. C.; Ballester, M.; Goodwin, D. H.

    2011-12-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill, which dumped more than 600,000 tons of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) between April and August 2010 is the largest accidental spill in history. While immediate environmental impacts of the spill, such as direct and fatal fouling of wildlife and the physical contamination of coastal areas were easily observed, any long-term effects of the spill are still being determined. Here we examined the incorporation of spill components into the shells and soft tissues of the American oyster, Crassostrea virginica. Specifically, we searched for evidence that heavy metals or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are present in the carbonate shell (metals only) or various tissues of the oyster. Crassostrea virginica is a species of great economic significance, and is also an important basal primary consumer in the coastal GOM food web. Preliminary evidence presented in 2010 compared shells of specimens from the GOM collected in the 20th century, May 2010 prior to landfall of Deepwater oil on the Louisiana coast, and August 2010. Those results indicated that specimens collected in August 2010 had relatively higher concentrations of vanadium (V) and lead (Pb) in their shells compared to historical and May 2010 specimens. Those results have now been confirmed, and we show that specimens collected in August 2010, after exposure to the spill, have significantly higher concentrations of V, Pb and chromium (Cr) in their shells. Furthermore, examination of soft tissues shows that V, Pb and cobalt (Co) are present in significantly higher concentrations in gill and muscle tissues of August 2010 specimens. Analyses of PAH concentrations are currently being conducted on the soft tissues of specimens collected in May and August 2010, as well as specimens collected outside of spill-affected areas in the GOM. Ultimately, compilation of contaminant occurrences and concentrations coupled with food web models will allow us to predict the potential for

  19. Evaluating bacterial community structures in oil collected from the sea surface and sediment in the northern Gulf of Mexico after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhanfei; Liu, Jiqing

    2013-06-01

    Bacterial community structures were evaluated in oil samples using culture-independent pyrosequencing, including oil mousses collected on sea surface and salt marshes during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, and oil deposited in sediments adjacent to the wellhead 1 year after the spill. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that Erythrobacter, Rhodovulum, Stappia, and Thalassospira of Alphaproteobacteria were the prevailing groups in the oil mousses, which may relate to high temperatures and strong irradiance in surface Gulf waters. In the mousse collected from the leaves of Spartina alterniflora, Vibrio of Gammaproteobacteria represented 57% of the total operational taxonomic units, suggesting that this indigenous genus is particularly responsive to the oil contamination in salt marshes. The bacterial communities in oil-contaminated sediments were highly diversified. The relatively high abundance of the Methylococcus, Methylobacter, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Chlorofexi bacteria resembles those found in certain cold-seep sediments with gas hydrates. Bacterial communities in the overlying water of the oil-contaminated sediment were dominated by Ralstonia of Betaproteobacteria, which can degrade small aromatics, and Saccharophagus degradans of Gammaproteobacteria, a cellulose degrader, suggesting that overlying water was affected by the oil-contaminated sediments, possibly due to the dissolution of small aromatics and biosurfactants produced during biodegradation. Overall, these results provided key information needed to evaluate oil degradation in the region and develop future bioremediation strategies. © 2013 The Authors. Microbiology Open published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Fingerprinting Deepwater Horizon Oil in the northern Gulf of Mexico using biomarkers and Gas Chromatography-Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS/MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, P. L.; Overton, E. B.; Maiti, K.; Wong, R. L.

    2016-02-01

    Petroleum biomarkers such as hopanes, steranes, and triaromatic steroids are more persistent than alkanes and aromatic compounds. Thus, they are often used to track spilled oil in the environments and as a proxy for weathering processes. The present study utilizes water samples, suspended and sinking particles, and seafloor sediments collected during 2011-2013 from various locations of the northern Gulf of Mexico with wide range of contaminated oil for Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil fingerprinting. The MC252 source oil along with the samples collected in this study were analyzed using a gas chromatography coupled with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS) in Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM) mode and the results were compared with results from commonly used GC/MS selective ion monitoring (SIM) method. The results indicate that the MRM method separates interfering ions from interfering compounds and can be a powerful analytical strategy for a reliable identification and determination of trace levels of biomarkers in complex matrices. Source indicators such as the MRM fragment ion chromatograms of the biomarkers and their diagnostic ratios in samples were compared with the MC252 source oil. The preliminary results show that the biomarkers were below detection limits in dissolved samples. However, in few particulate and seafloor sediment samples, primarily from the immediate vicinity of the Macondo wellhead, contained their patterns. The results also illustrate that these biomarker compounds have been weathered within 1-3 years following the oil spill, and their DWH oil signature in some of these samples reflects this weathering.

  1. Response of salt marshes to oiling from the Deepwater Horizon spill: Implications for plant growth, soil surface-erosion, and shoreline stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qianxin; Mendelssohn, Irving A; Graham, Sean A; Hou, Aixin; Fleeger, John W; Deis, Donald R

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the initial impacts and post spill recovery of salt marshes over a 3.5-year period along northern Barataria Bay, LA, USA exposed to varying degrees of Deepwater Horizon oiling to determine the effects on shoreline-stabilizing vegetation and soil processes. In moderately oiled marshes, surface soil total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations were ~70mgg(-1) nine months after the spill. Though initial impacts of moderate oiling were evident, Spartina alterniflora and Juncus roemerianus aboveground biomass and total live belowground biomass were equivalent to reference marshes within 24-30months post spill. In contrast, heavily oiled marsh plants did not fully recover from oiling with surface soil total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations that exceeded 500mgg(-1) nine months after oiling. Initially, heavy oiling resulted in near complete plant mortality, and subsequent recovery of live aboveground biomass was only 50% of reference marshes 42months after the spill. Heavy oiling also changed the vegetation structure of shoreline marshes from a mixed Spartina-Juncus community to predominantly Spartina; live Spartina aboveground biomass recovered within 2-3years, however, Juncus showed no recovery. In addition, live belowground biomass (0-12cm) in heavily oiled marshes was reduced by 76% three and a half years after the spill. Detrimental effects of heavy oiling on marsh plants also corresponded with significantly lower soil shear strength, lower sedimentation rates, and higher vertical soil-surface erosion rates, thus potentially affecting shoreline salt marsh stability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Biomarkers of Aryl-hydrocarbon Receptor Activity in Gulf Killifish (Fundulus grandis) From Northern Gulf of Mexico Marshes Following the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubansky, Benjamin; Rice, Charles D; Barrois, Lester F; Galvez, Fernando

    2017-07-01

    Following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, shorelines throughout the Barataria Basin of the northern Gulf of Mexico in Louisiana were heavily oiled for months with Macondo-252 oil, potentially impacting estuarine species. The Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis) has been identified as a sentinel species for the study of site-specific effects of crude oil contamination on biological function. In November and December 2010, 4-5 months after the Macondo well was plugged and new oil was no longer spilling into the Gulf waters, Gulf killifish were collected across the Barataria Basin from 14 sites with varying degrees of oiling. Fish collected from oiled sites exhibited biological indications of exposure to oil, including increase in cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) mRNA transcript and protein abundances in liver tissues. Immunohistochemistry revealed increases in gill, head kidney, and intestinal CYP1A protein at heavily oiled sites. Intestinal CYP1A protein was a sensitive indicator of exposure, indicating that intestinal tissue plays a key role in biotransformation of AHR ligands and that ingestion is a probable route of exposure, warranting additional consideration in future studies.

  3. Anomalously High Recruitment of the 2010 Gulf Menhaden (Brevoortia patronus) Year Class: Evidence of Indirect Effects from the Deepwater Horizon Blowout in the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Jeffrey W; Geiger, Harold J; Haney, J Christopher; Voss, Christine M; Vozzo, Maria L; Guillory, Vincent; Peterson, Charles H

    2017-07-01

    Gulf menhaden (Brevoortia patronus) exhibited unprecedented juvenile recruitment in 2010 during the year of the Deepwater Horizon well blowout, exceeding the prior 39-year mean by more than four standard deviations near the Mississippi River. Abundance of that cohort remained exceptionally high for two subsequent years as recruits moved into older age classes. Such changes in this dominant forage fish population can be most parsimoniously explained as consequences of release from predation. Contact with crude oil induced high mortality of piscivorous seabirds, bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), waders, and other fish-eating marsh birds, all of which are substantial consumers of Gulf menhaden. Diversions of fresh water from the Mississippi River to protect coastal marshes from oiling depressed salinities, impairing access to juvenile Gulf menhaden by aquatic predators that avoid low-salinity estuarine waters. These releases from predation led to an increase of Gulf menhaden biomass in 2011 to 2.4 million t, or more than twice the average biomass of 1.1 million t for the decade prior to 2010. Biomass increases of this magnitude in a major forage fish species suggest additional trophically linked effects at the population-, trophic-level and ecosystem scales, reflecting an heretofore little appreciated indirect effect that may be associated with major oil spills in highly productive marine waters.

  4. Application of a hydrodynamic and sediment transport model for guidance of response efforts related to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Northern Gulf of Mexico along the coast of Alabama and Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Nathaniel G.; Long, Joseph W.; Dalyander, P. Soupy; Thompson, David M.; Raabe, Ellen A.

    2013-01-01

    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists have provided a model-based assessment of transport and deposition of residual Deepwater Horizon oil along the shoreline within the northern Gulf of Mexico in the form of mixtures of sand and weathered oil, known as surface residual balls (SRBs). The results of this USGS research, in combination with results from other components of the overall study, will inform operational decisionmaking. The results will provide guidance for response activities and data collection needs during future oil spills. In May 2012 the U.S. Coast Guard, acting as the Deepwater Horizon Federal on-scene coordinator, chartered an operational science advisory team to provide a science-based review of data collected and to conduct additional directed studies and sampling. The goal was to characterize typical shoreline profiles and morphology in the northern Gulf of Mexico to identify likely sources of residual oil and to evaluate mechanisms whereby reoiling phenomena may be occurring (for example, burial and exhumation and alongshore transport). A steering committee cochaired by British Petroleum Corporation (BP) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is overseeing the project and includes State on-scene coordinators from four States (Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, and Mississippi), trustees of the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), and representatives from the U.S. Coast Guard. This report presents the results of hydrodynamic and sediment transport models and developed techniques for analyzing potential SRB movement and burial and exhumation along the coastline of Alabama and Florida. Results from these modeling efforts are being used to explain the complexity of reoiling in the nearshore environment and to broaden consideration of the different scenarios and difficulties that are being faced in identifying and removing residual oil. For instance, modeling results suggest that larger SRBs are not, under the most commonly

  5. Gulf of Mexico Air Quality: CALIPSO Support for Gulf of Mexico Air Quality Relating to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Myngoc T.; Lapointe, Stephen; Jennings, Brittney; Zoumplis, Angela

    2011-01-01

    On April 20, 2010, an oil platform belonging to BP exploded and leaked a huge volume of oil into the Gulf of Mexico. In an effort to control the spread of the oil, BP applied dispersants such as Corexit and conducted in-situ burnings of the oil. This catastrophe created a complex chain of events that affected not only the fragile water and land ecosystems, but the humans who breathe the air every day. Thousands of people were exposed to fumes associated with oil vapors from the spill, burning of the oil, and the toxic mixture of dispersants. While aiding in clean-up efforts, local fishermen were directly exposure to fumes when working on the Gulf. A notable amount of Gulf Coast residents were also exposed to the oil fumes as seasonal southeasterly winds blew vapors toward land. The Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) found in oil vapors include: benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, xylene, naphthalene, hydrogen sulfide and particulate matter (PM). Increases in water temperature and sunlight due to the summer season allow for these VOCs and PM to evaporate into the air more rapidly. Aside from the VOCs found in oil vapors, the dispersant being used to break up the oil is highly toxic and is thought to be even more toxic than the oil itself (EPA website, 2010). To protect human health, the environment, and to make informed policy decisions relevant to the spill, the EPA Region 6 has continuously monitored the affected areas carefully for levels of pollutants in the outdoor air that are associated with petroleum products and the burning of oil along the coast. In an effort to prevent, prepare for, and respond to future oil spills that occur in and around inland waters of the United States, the EPA has been working with local, state, and federal response partners. Air quality measurements were collected by the EPA at five active monitoring systems stationed along the coast.

  6. Impact of the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill on population size and genetic structure of horse flies in Louisiana marshes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husseneder, Claudia; Donaldson, Jennifer R; Foil, Lane D

    2016-01-12

    The greenhead horse fly, Tabanus nigrovittatus Macquart, is frequently found in coastal marshes of the Eastern United States. The greenhead horse fly larvae are top predators in the marsh and thus vulnerable to changes in the environment, and the adults potentially are attracted to polarized surfaces like oil. Therefore, horse fly populations could serve as bioindicators of marsh health and toxic effects of oil intrusion. In this study, we describe the impact of the April 2010 Deep Water Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico on tabanid population abundance and genetics as well as mating structure. Horse fly populations were sampled biweekly from oiled and unaffected locations immediately after the oil spill in June 2010 until October 2011. Horse fly abundance estimates showed severe crashes of tabanid populations in oiled areas. Microsatellite genotyping of six pristine and seven oiled populations at ten polymorphic loci detected genetic bottlenecks in six of the oiled populations in association with fewer breeding parents, reduced effective population size, lower number of family clusters and fewer migrants among populations. This is the first study assessing the impact of oil contamination at the level of a top arthropod predator of the invertebrate community in salt marshes.

  7. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in blood and blubber of common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) at three northern Gulf of Mexico sites following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmer, Jennifer E; Ylitalo, Gina M; Rowles, Teresa K; Mullin, Keith D; Wells, Randall S; Townsend, Forrest I; Pearce, Ronald W; Bolton, Jennie L; Zolman, Eric S; Balmer, Brian C; Schwacke, Lori H

    2018-04-15

    Common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), including those impacted by the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill, inhabit the coastal and estuarine waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM). In response to the spill, dolphin health assessments conducted in Barataria Bay, Louisiana - a site that experienced heavy and prolonged oiling - uncovered a high prevalence of health abnormalities and individuals in poor body condition. Although the health effects observed were suggestive of petroleum toxicity, a lack of pre-spill information regarding dolphin health raises the possibility that other environmental factors may have contributed to the adverse health of dolphins in this oil-impacted area. To assess how exposure to other environmental pollutants may affect the health of northern GoM dolphin populations impacted by the DWH oil spill, a suite of 69 persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including PCBs, PBDEs and organochlorine pesticides, was determined in blood and a subset of blubber samples collected during health assessments of 145 bottlenose dolphins at three GoM sites: two oil impacted sites - Barataria Bay, LA (BB), and Mississippi Sound, MS (MS) and an unimpacted reference site - Sarasota Bay, FL (SB). Overall, levels of POPs at all three sites appeared comparable or lower than concentrations previously reported for coastal bottlenose dolphin populations outside of the northern GoM. POP levels measured in BB dolphins were also comparable or lower than those measured at the unimpacted reference site (SB) within the northern GoM. Additionally, the relationship between blubber and blood contaminant levels in a smaller subset of BB and SB suggests that BB animals were not experiencing elevated blood-contaminant concentrations as a result of their poor body condition. Cumulatively, these results suggest that background levels of POPs measured are unlikely to produce the health abnormalities previously reported for BB dolphins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B

  8. Determination and Quantification of metals in the shells of Crassostrea virginica after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill utilizing Atomic Absorption Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roopnarine, D.; Patel, S.; Roopnarine, P.; Giarikos, D.; Anderson, L. C.

    2017-12-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil rig explosion on April 20, 2010 resulted in the release of 685,000 tons of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) over a period of three months. There were obvious immediate effects, but the long-term ramifications are still being studied. The primary constituent of crude oil is hydrocarbons with other organic compounds containing nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur. There are also a number of trace metals with the most abundant frequently being iron, nickel, copper and vanadium. These do not degrade like organic materials. However, the exact composition varies among the production sites. The oil from the DWH rig was classified as light crude which is moderately volatile. Natural oil seeps occur in the environment, but the DWH spill represented an acute impact. Trace amounts of heavy metals are a normal part of the composition of marine organisms, but can be toxic in high concentrations. Bivalved molluscs bioaccumulate heavy metals in their tissues and shells, and are therefore often useful as monitors of environmental pollution. We thus used the Eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica to determine the impact of the spill by measuring the concentrations of metals in the shells utilizing flame emission atomic absorption spectrometry. We focused on the hypothesis that DWH spill exposure resulted in an increase in metal uptake into the shells. Specimens spanned the years 2010 to 2014 and ranged from Grand Isle, LA to Apalachicola Bay, Fl. Vanadium had the greatest concentration in the shells, and along with copper, cadmium, zinc and iron displayed an upward trend of increase from 2010 to 2013, with a decline in 2014. However there was unexpected variability, as the specimens from Apalachicola Bay, Fl had higher levels of vanadium when compared to those from Grand Isle, LA. Ongoing work includes an increase of sample sizes from the same geographic localities and time period.

  9. Adrenal Gland and Lung Lesions in Gulf of Mexico Common Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus Found Dead following the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Venn-Watson

    Full Text Available A northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM cetacean unusual mortality event (UME involving primarily bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama began in February 2010 and continued into 2014. Overlapping in time and space with this UME was the Deepwater Horizon (DWH oil spill, which was proposed as a contributing cause of adrenal disease, lung disease, and poor health in live dolphins examined during 2011 in Barataria Bay, Louisiana. To assess potential contributing factors and causes of deaths for stranded UME dolphins from June 2010 through December 2012, lung and adrenal gland tissues were histologically evaluated from 46 fresh dead non-perinatal carcasses that stranded in Louisiana (including 22 from Barataria Bay, Mississippi, and Alabama. UME dolphins were tested for evidence of biotoxicosis, morbillivirus infection, and brucellosis. Results were compared to up to 106 fresh dead stranded dolphins from outside the UME area or prior to the DWH spill. UME dolphins were more likely to have primary bacterial pneumonia (22% compared to 2% in non-UME dolphins, P = .003 and thin adrenal cortices (33% compared to 7% in non-UME dolphins, P = .003. In 70% of UME dolphins with primary bacterial pneumonia, the condition either caused or contributed significantly to death. Brucellosis and morbillivirus infections were detected in 7% and 11% of UME dolphins, respectively, and biotoxin levels were low or below the detection limit, indicating that these were not primary causes of the current UME. The rare, life-threatening, and chronic adrenal gland and lung diseases identified in stranded UME dolphins are consistent with exposure to petroleum compounds as seen in other mammals. Exposure of dolphins to elevated petroleum compounds present in coastal GoM waters during and after the DWH oil spill is proposed as a cause of adrenal and lung disease and as a contributor to increased dolphin deaths.

  10. Decline in condition of gorgonian octocorals on mesophotic reefs in the northern Gulf of Mexico: before and after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etnoyer, Peter J.; Wickes, Leslie N.; Silva, Mauricio; Dubick, J. D.; Balthis, Len; Salgado, Enrique; MacDonald, Ian R.

    2016-03-01

    Hard-bottom `mesophotic' reefs along the `40-fathom' (73 m) shelf edge in the northern Gulf of Mexico were investigated for potential effects of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill from the Macondo well in April 2010. Alabama Alps Reef, Roughtongue Reef, and Yellowtail Reef were near the well, situated 60-88 m below floating oil discharged during the DWH spill for several weeks and subject to dispersant applications. In contrast, Coral Trees Reef and Madison Swanson South Reef were far from the DWH spill site and below the slick for less than a week or not at all, respectively. The reefs were surveyed by ROV in 2010, 2011, and 2014 and compared to similar surveys conducted one and two decades earlier. Large gorgonian octocorals were present at all sites in moderate abundance including Swiftia exserta, Hypnogorgia pendula, Thesea spp., and Placogorgia spp. The gorgonians were assessed for health and condition in a before-after-control-impact (BACI) research design using still images captured from ROV video transects. Injury was modeled as a categorical response to proximity and time using logistic regression. Condition of gorgonians at sites near Macondo well declined significantly post-spill. Before the spill, injury was observed for 4-9 % of large gorgonians. After the spill, injury was observed in 38-50 % of large gorgonians. Odds of injury for sites near Macondo were 10.8 times higher post-spill, but unchanged at far sites. The majority of marked injured colonies in 2011 declined further in condition by 2014. Marked healthy colonies generally remained healthy. Background stresses to corals, including fishing activity, fishing debris, and coral predation, were noted during surveys, but do not appear to account for the decline in condition at study sites near Macondo well.

  11. Detection of salt marsh vegetation stress and recovery after the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in Barataria Bay, Gulf of Mexico using AVIRIS data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Shruti; Santos, Maria J; Ustin, Susan L; Koltunov, Alexander; Kokaly, Raymond F; Roberts, Dar A

    2013-01-01

    The British Petroleum Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico was the biggest oil spill in US history. To assess the impact of the oil spill on the saltmarsh plant community, we examined Advanced Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data flown over Barataria Bay, Louisiana in September 2010 and August 2011. Oil contamination was mapped using oil absorption features in pixel spectra and used to examine impact of oil along the oiled shorelines. Results showed that vegetation stress was restricted to the tidal zone extending 14 m inland from the shoreline in September 2010. Four indexes of plant stress and three indexes of canopy water content all consistently showed that stress was highest in pixels next to the shoreline and decreased with increasing distance from the shoreline. Index values along the oiled shoreline were significantly lower than those along the oil-free shoreline. Regression of index values with respect to distance from oil showed that in 2011, index values were no longer correlated with proximity to oil suggesting that the marsh was on its way to recovery. Change detection between the two dates showed that areas denuded of vegetation after the oil impact experienced varying degrees of re-vegetation in the following year. This recovery was poorest in the first three pixels adjacent to the shoreline. This study illustrates the usefulness of high spatial resolution airborne imaging spectroscopy to map actual locations where oil from the spill reached the shore and then to assess its impacts on the plant community. We demonstrate that post-oiling trends in terms of plant health and mortality could be detected and monitored, including recovery of these saltmarsh meadows one year after the oil spill.

  12. Detection of salt marsh vegetation stress and recovery after the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in Barataria Bay, Gulf of Mexico using AVIRIS data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Khanna

    Full Text Available The British Petroleum Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico was the biggest oil spill in US history. To assess the impact of the oil spill on the saltmarsh plant community, we examined Advanced Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS data flown over Barataria Bay, Louisiana in September 2010 and August 2011. Oil contamination was mapped using oil absorption features in pixel spectra and used to examine impact of oil along the oiled shorelines. Results showed that vegetation stress was restricted to the tidal zone extending 14 m inland from the shoreline in September 2010. Four indexes of plant stress and three indexes of canopy water content all consistently showed that stress was highest in pixels next to the shoreline and decreased with increasing distance from the shoreline. Index values along the oiled shoreline were significantly lower than those along the oil-free shoreline. Regression of index values with respect to distance from oil showed that in 2011, index values were no longer correlated with proximity to oil suggesting that the marsh was on its way to recovery. Change detection between the two dates showed that areas denuded of vegetation after the oil impact experienced varying degrees of re-vegetation in the following year. This recovery was poorest in the first three pixels adjacent to the shoreline. This study illustrates the usefulness of high spatial resolution airborne imaging spectroscopy to map actual locations where oil from the spill reached the shore and then to assess its impacts on the plant community. We demonstrate that post-oiling trends in terms of plant health and mortality could be detected and monitored, including recovery of these saltmarsh meadows one year after the oil spill.

  13. Estimating upper bounds for occupancy and number of manatees in areas potentially affected by oil from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Julien; Edwards, Holly H; Bled, Florent; Fonnesbeck, Christopher J; Dupuis, Jérôme A; Gardner, Beth; Koslovsky, Stacie M; Aven, Allen M; Ward-Geiger, Leslie I; Carmichael, Ruth H; Fagan, Daniel E; Ross, Monica A; Reinert, Thomas R

    2014-01-01

    The explosion of the Deepwater Horizon drilling platform created the largest marine oil spill in U.S. history. As part of the Natural Resource Damage Assessment process, we applied an innovative modeling approach to obtain upper estimates for occupancy and for number of manatees in areas potentially affected by the oil spill. Our data consisted of aerial survey counts in waters of the Florida Panhandle, Alabama and Mississippi. Our method, which uses a Bayesian approach, allows for the propagation of uncertainty associated with estimates from empirical data and from the published literature. We illustrate that it is possible to derive estimates of occupancy rate and upper estimates of the number of manatees present at the time of sampling, even when no manatees were observed in our sampled plots during surveys. We estimated that fewer than 2.4% of potentially affected manatee habitat in our Florida study area may have been occupied by manatees. The upper estimate for the number of manatees present in potentially impacted areas (within our study area) was estimated with our model to be 74 (95%CI 46 to 107). This upper estimate for the number of manatees was conditioned on the upper 95%CI value of the occupancy rate. In other words, based on our estimates, it is highly probable that there were 107 or fewer manatees in our study area during the time of our surveys. Because our analyses apply to habitats considered likely manatee habitats, our inference is restricted to these sites and to the time frame of our surveys. Given that manatees may be hard to see during aerial surveys, it was important to account for imperfect detection. The approach that we described can be useful for determining the best allocation of resources for monitoring and conservation.

  14. Estimating upper bounds for occupancy and number of manatees in areas potentially affected by oil from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Martin

    Full Text Available The explosion of the Deepwater Horizon drilling platform created the largest marine oil spill in U.S. history. As part of the Natural Resource Damage Assessment process, we applied an innovative modeling approach to obtain upper estimates for occupancy and for number of manatees in areas potentially affected by the oil spill. Our data consisted of aerial survey counts in waters of the Florida Panhandle, Alabama and Mississippi. Our method, which uses a Bayesian approach, allows for the propagation of uncertainty associated with estimates from empirical data and from the published literature. We illustrate that it is possible to derive estimates of occupancy rate and upper estimates of the number of manatees present at the time of sampling, even when no manatees were observed in our sampled plots during surveys. We estimated that fewer than 2.4% of potentially affected manatee habitat in our Florida study area may have been occupied by manatees. The upper estimate for the number of manatees present in potentially impacted areas (within our study area was estimated with our model to be 74 (95%CI 46 to 107. This upper estimate for the number of manatees was conditioned on the upper 95%CI value of the occupancy rate. In other words, based on our estimates, it is highly probable that there were 107 or fewer manatees in our study area during the time of our surveys. Because our analyses apply to habitats considered likely manatee habitats, our inference is restricted to these sites and to the time frame of our surveys. Given that manatees may be hard to see during aerial surveys, it was important to account for imperfect detection. The approach that we described can be useful for determining the best allocation of resources for monitoring and conservation.

  15. Adrenal Gland and Lung Lesions in Gulf of Mexico Common Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) Found Dead following the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venn-Watson, Stephanie; Colegrove, Kathleen M; Litz, Jenny; Kinsel, Michael; Terio, Karen; Saliki, Jeremiah; Fire, Spencer; Carmichael, Ruth; Chevis, Connie; Hatchett, Wendy; Pitchford, Jonathan; Tumlin, Mandy; Field, Cara; Smith, Suzanne; Ewing, Ruth; Fauquier, Deborah; Lovewell, Gretchen; Whitehead, Heidi; Rotstein, David; McFee, Wayne; Fougeres, Erin; Rowles, Teri

    2015-01-01

    A northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM) cetacean unusual mortality event (UME) involving primarily bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama began in February 2010 and continued into 2014. Overlapping in time and space with this UME was the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill, which was proposed as a contributing cause of adrenal disease, lung disease, and poor health in live dolphins examined during 2011 in Barataria Bay, Louisiana. To assess potential contributing factors and causes of deaths for stranded UME dolphins from June 2010 through December 2012, lung and adrenal gland tissues were histologically evaluated from 46 fresh dead non-perinatal carcasses that stranded in Louisiana (including 22 from Barataria Bay), Mississippi, and Alabama. UME dolphins were tested for evidence of biotoxicosis, morbillivirus infection, and brucellosis. Results were compared to up to 106 fresh dead stranded dolphins from outside the UME area or prior to the DWH spill. UME dolphins were more likely to have primary bacterial pneumonia (22% compared to 2% in non-UME dolphins, P = .003) and thin adrenal cortices (33% compared to 7% in non-UME dolphins, P = .003). In 70% of UME dolphins with primary bacterial pneumonia, the condition either caused or contributed significantly to death. Brucellosis and morbillivirus infections were detected in 7% and 11% of UME dolphins, respectively, and biotoxin levels were low or below the detection limit, indicating that these were not primary causes of the current UME. The rare, life-threatening, and chronic adrenal gland and lung diseases identified in stranded UME dolphins are consistent with exposure to petroleum compounds as seen in other mammals. Exposure of dolphins to elevated petroleum compounds present in coastal GoM waters during and after the DWH oil spill is proposed as a cause of adrenal and lung disease and as a contributor to increased dolphin deaths.

  16. Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and the bacterial community response in gulf of Mexico beach sands impacted by the deepwater horizon oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostka, Joel E; Prakash, Om; Overholt, Will A; Green, Stefan J; Freyer, Gina; Canion, Andy; Delgardio, Jonathan; Norton, Nikita; Hazen, Terry C; Huettel, Markus

    2011-11-01

    A significant portion of oil from the recent Deepwater Horizon (DH) oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico was transported to the shoreline, where it may have severe ecological and economic consequences. The objectives of this study were (i) to identify and characterize predominant oil-degrading taxa that may be used as model hydrocarbon degraders or as microbial indicators of contamination and (ii) to characterize the in situ response of indigenous bacterial communities to oil contamination in beach ecosystems. This study was conducted at municipal Pensacola Beach, FL, where chemical analysis revealed weathered oil petroleum hydrocarbon (C₈ to C₄₀) concentrations ranging from 3.1 to 4,500 mg kg⁻¹ in beach sands. A total of 24 bacterial strains from 14 genera were isolated from oiled beach sands and confirmed as oil-degrading microorganisms. Isolated bacterial strains were primarily Gammaproteobacteria, including representatives of genera with known oil degraders (Alcanivorax, Marinobacter, Pseudomonas, and Acinetobacter). Sequence libraries generated from oiled sands revealed phylotypes that showed high sequence identity (up to 99%) to rRNA gene sequences from the oil-degrading bacterial isolates. The abundance of bacterial SSU rRNA gene sequences was ∼10-fold higher in oiled (0.44 × 10⁷ to 10.2 × 10⁷ copies g⁻¹) versus clean (0.024 × 10⁷ to 1.4 × 10⁷ copies g⁻¹) sand. Community analysis revealed a distinct response to oil contamination, and SSU rRNA gene abundance derived from the genus Alcanivorax showed the largest increase in relative abundance in contaminated samples. We conclude that oil contamination from the DH spill had a profound impact on the abundance and community composition of indigenous bacteria in Gulf beach sands, and our evidence points to members of the Gammaproteobacteria (Alcanivorax, Marinobacter) and Alphaproteobacteria (Rhodobacteraceae) as key players in oil degradation there.

  17. Metagenomic analysis and metabolite profiling of deep-sea sediments from the Gulf of Mexico following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikole Elizabeth Kimes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Marine subsurface environments, such as deep-sea sediments, house abundant and diverse microbial communities that are believed to influence large-scale geochemical processes. These processes include the biotransformation and mineralization of numerous petroleum constituents. Thus, microbial communities in the Gulf of Mexico are thought to be responsible for the intrinsic bioremediation of crude oil released by the Deepwater Horizon (DWH oil spill. While hydrocarbon contamination is known to enrich for aerobic, oil-degrading bacteria in deep-seawater habitats, relatively little is known about the response of communities in deep-sea sediments, where low oxygen levels may hinder such a response. Here, we examined the hypothesis that increased hydrocarbon exposure results in an altered sediment microbial community structure that reflects the prospects for oil biodegradation under the prevailing conditions. We explore this hypothesis using metagenomic analysis and metabolite profiling of deep-sea sediment samples following the DWH oil spill. The presence of aerobic microbial communities and associated functional genes was consistent among all samples, whereas, a greater number of Deltaproteobacteria and anaerobic functional genes were found in sediments closest to the DWH blowout site. Metabolite profiling also revealed a greater number of putative metabolites in sediments surrounding the blowout zone relative to a background site located 127 km away. The mass spectral analysis of the putative metabolites revealed that alkylsuccinates remained below detection levels, but a homologous series of benzylsuccinates (with carbon chain lengths from 5 to 10 could be detected. Our findings suggest that increased exposure to hydrocarbons enriches for Deltaproteobacteria, which are known to be capable of anaerobic hydrocarbon metabolism. We also provide evidence for an active microbial community metabolizing aromatic hydrocarbons in deep-sea sediments of the

  18. Spatial, temporal, and habitat-related variation in abundance of pelagic fishes in the Gulf of Mexico: potential implications of the deepwater horizon oil spill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay R Rooker

    Full Text Available Time-series data collected over a four-year period were used to characterize patterns of abundance for pelagic fishes in the northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM before (2007-2009 and after (2010 the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Four numerically dominant pelagic species (blackfin tuna, blue marlin, dolphinfish, and sailfish were included in our assessment, and larval density of each species was lower in 2010 than any of the three years prior to the oil spill, although larval abundance in 2010 was often statistically similar to other years surveyed. To assess potential overlap between suitable habitat of pelagic fish larvae and surface oil, generalized additive models (GAMs were developed to evaluate the influence of ocean conditions on the abundance of larvae from 2007-2009. Explanatory variables from GAMs were then linked to environmental data from 2010 to predict the probability of occurrence for each species. The spatial extent of surface oil overlapped with early life habitat of each species, possibly indicating that the availability of high quality habitat was affected by the DH oil spill. Shifts in the distribution of spawning adults is another factor known to influence the abundance of larvae, and the spatial occurrence of a model pelagic predator (blue marlin was characterized over the same four-year period using electronic tags. The spatial extent of oil coincided with areas used by adult blue marlin from 2007-2009, and the occurrence of blue marlin in areas impacted by the DH oil spill was lower in 2010 relative to pre-spill years.

  19. Long-term monitoring data to describe the fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Deepwater Horizon oil submerged off Alabama's beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Fang; John, Gerald F; Hayworth, Joel S; Clement, T Prabhakar

    2015-03-01

    The 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) catastrophe had considerable impact on the ∼ 50 km long sandy beach system located along the Alabama shoreline. We present a four-year dataset to characterize the temporal evolution of various polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their alkylated homologs trapped in the residual oil buried along the shoreline. Field samples analyzed include the first arrival oil collected from Perdido Bay, Alabama in June 2010, and multiple oil spill samples collected until August 2014. Our field data show that, as of August 2014, DWH oil is still trapped along Alabama's beaches as submerged oil, predominately in the form of surface residual oil balls (SRBs). Chemical characterization data show that various PAHs present in the spilled oil (MC252 crude) weathered by about 45% to 100% when the oil was floating over the open ocean system in the Gulf of Mexico. Light PAHs, such as naphthalenes, were fully depleted, whereas heavy PAHs, such as chrysenes, were only partially depleted by about 45%. However, the rate of PAH weathering appears to have decreased significantly once the oil was buried within the partially-closed SRB environment. Concentration levels of several heavy PAHs have almost remained constant over the past 4 years. Our data also show that evaporation was most likely the primary weathering mechanism for PAH removal when the oil was floating over the ocean, although photo-degradation and other physico-chemical processes could have contributed to some additional weathering. Chemical data presented in this study indicate that submerged oil containing various heavy PAHs (for example, parent and alkylated chrysenes) is likely to remain in the beach system for several years. It is also likely that the organisms living in these beach environments would have an increased risk of exposure to heavy PAHs trapped in the non-recoverable form of buried DWH oil spill residues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. High field electron paramagnetic resonance characterization of electronic and structural environments for paramagnetic metal ions and organic free radicals in Deepwater Horizon oil spill tar balls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Vasanth; van Tol, Johan; McKenna, Amy M; Rodgers, Ryan P; Marshall, Alan G; Dalal, Naresh S

    2015-02-17

    In the first use of high-field electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy to characterize paramagnetic metal-organic and free radical species from tar balls and weathered crude oil samples from the Gulf of Mexico (collected after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill) and an asphalt volcano sample collected off the coast of Santa Barbara, CA, we are able to identify for the first time the various paramagnetic species present in the native state of these samples and understand their molecular structures and bonding. The two tar ball and one asphalt volcano samples contain three distinct paramagnetic species: (i) an organic free radical, (ii) a [VO](2+) containing porphyrin, and (iii) a Mn(2+) containing complex. The organic free radical was found to have a disc-shaped or flat structure, based on its axially symmetric spectrum. The characteristic spectral features of the vanadyl species closely resemble those of pure vanadyl porphyrin; hence, its nuclear framework around the vanadyl ion must be similar to that of vanadyl octaethyl porphyrin (VOOEP). The Mn(2+) ion, essentially undetected by low-field EPR, yields a high-field EPR spectrum with well-resolved hyperfine features devoid of zero-field splitting, characteristic of tetrahedral or octahedral Mn-O bonding. Although the lower-field EPR signals from the organic free radicals in fossil fuel samples have been investigated over the last 5 decades, the observed signal was featureless. In contrast, high-field EPR (up to 240 GHz) reveals that the species is a disc-shaped hydrocarbon molecule in which the unpaired electron is extensively delocalized. We envisage that the measured g-value components will serve as a sensitive basis for electronic structure calculations. High-field electron nuclear double resonance experiments should provide an accurate picture of the spin density distribution for both the vanadyl-porphyrin and Mn(2+) complexes, as well as the organic free radical, and will be the focus of follow

  1. A multiple endpoint analysis of the effects of chronic exposure to sediment contaminated with Deepwater Horizon oil on juvenile Southern flounder and their associated microbiomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown-Peterson, Nancy J.; Krasnec, Michelle; Takeshita, Ryan; Ryan, Caitlin N.; Griffitt, Kimberly J.; Lay, Claire; Mayer, Gregory D.; Bayha, Keith M.; Hawkins, William E.; Lipton, Ian; Morris, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Juvenile southern flounder were exposed to sediment mixed with different amount of oil from the Deepwater Horizon spill. • The exposure was performed for 32 days, with growth and survival assessed throughout. • After the termination of the experiment, the survivors were examined at multiple endpoints, including histopathology and microbiome analysis. • The results indicated that the flounder were adversely affected at each endpoint examined. • Growth and survival were significantly reduced. • Histopathology found effects on gills and livers of exposed fish. • The microbiomes of the exposed fish were significantly altered by the exposure to sediment-associated oil in both gills and intestines. - Abstract: Exposure to oiled sediments can negatively impact the health of fish species. Here, we examine the effects of chronic exposure of juvenile southern flounder, Paralichthys lethostigma, to a sediment-oil mixture. Oil:sediment mixtures are persistent over time and can become bioavailable following sediment perturbation or resuspension. Juvenile flounder were exposed for 32 days under controlled laboratory conditions to five concentrations of naturally weathered Macondo MC252 oil mixed into uncontaminated, field-collected sediments. The percent composition of individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of the weathered oil did not change after mixing with the sediment. Spiked exposure sediments contained 0.04–395 mg/kg tPAH50 (sum of 50 individual PAH concentration measurements). Mortality increased with both exposure duration and concentration of sediment-associated PAHs, and flounder exposed to concentrations above 8 mg/kg tPAH50 showed significantly reduced growth over the course of the experiment. Evident histopathologic changes were observed in liver and gill tissues of fish exposed to more than 8 mg/kg tPAH50. All fish at these concentrations showed hepatic intravascular congestion, macrovesicular hepatic vacoulation

  2. Evolution of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Microbial Communities in the Aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Well Blowout in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, G.; Dubinsky, E. A.; Chakraborty, R.; Hollibaugh, J. T.; Hazen, T. C.

    2012-12-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill created large plumes of dispersed oil and gas that remained deep in the water column and stimulated growth of several deep-sea bacteria that can degrade hydrocarbons at cold temperatures. We tracked microbial community composition before, during and after the 83-day spill to determine relationships between microbial dynamics, and hydrocarbon and dissolved-oxygen concentrations. Dominant bacteria in plumes shifted drastically over time and were dependent on the concentration of hydrocarbons, and the relative quantities of insoluble and soluble oil fractions. Unmitigated flow from the wellhead early in the spill resulted in the highest concentrations of oil and relatively more n-alkanes suspended in the plume as small oil droplets. These conditions resulted in near complete dominance by alkane-degrading Oceanospirillales, Pseudomonas and Shewanella. Six-weeks into the spill overall hydrocarbon concentrations in the plume decreased and were almost entirely composed of BTEX after management actions reduced emissions into the water column. These conditions corresponded with the emergence of Colwellia, Pseudoalteromonas, Cycloclasticus and Halomonas that are capable of degrading aromatic compounds. After the well was contained dominant plume bacteria disappeared within two weeks after the spill and transitioned to an entirely different set of bacteria dominated by Flavobacteria, Methylophaga, Alteromonas and Rhodobacteraceae that were found in anomalous oxygen depressions throughout August and are prominent degraders of both high molecular weight organic matter as well as hydrocarbons. Bio-Sep beads amended with volatile hydrocarbons from MC-252 oil were used from August through September to create hydrocarbon-amended traps for attracting oil-degrading microbes in situ. Traps were placed at multiple depths on a drilling rig about 600-m from the original MC-252 oil spill site. Microbes were isolated on media using MC-252 oil as the sole

  3. A multiple endpoint analysis of the effects of chronic exposure to sediment contaminated with Deepwater Horizon oil on juvenile Southern flounder and their associated microbiomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown-Peterson, Nancy J., E-mail: nancy.brown-peterson@usm.edu [Department of Coastal Sciences, The University of Southern Mississippi, 703 East Beach Dr., Ocean Springs, MS 39564 (United States); Krasnec, Michelle, E-mail: MKrasnec@stratusconsulting.com [Abt Associates, 1881 Ninth Street, Suite 201, Boulder, Colorado 80302 (United States); Takeshita, Ryan, E-mail: RTakeshita@stratusconsulting.com [Abt Associates, 1881 Ninth Street, Suite 201, Boulder, Colorado 80302 (United States); Ryan, Caitlin N., E-mail: Caitlin.ryan@ttu.edu [The Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Griffitt, Kimberly J., E-mail: kim.griffitt@gmail.com [Department of Coastal Sciences, The University of Southern Mississippi, 703 East Beach Dr., Ocean Springs, MS 39564 (United States); Lay, Claire, E-mail: claymsc@stratusconsulting.com [Abt Associates, 1881 Ninth Street, Suite 201, Boulder, Colorado 80302 (United States); Mayer, Gregory D., E-mail: greg.mayer@ttu.edu [The Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Bayha, Keith M., E-mail: kmbayha@gmail.com [Department of Coastal Sciences, The University of Southern Mississippi, 703 East Beach Dr., Ocean Springs, MS 39564 (United States); Hawkins, William E., E-mail: william.hawkins@usm.edu [Department of Coastal Sciences, The University of Southern Mississippi, 703 East Beach Dr., Ocean Springs, MS 39564 (United States); Lipton, Ian, E-mail: ianlipton@stratusconsulting.com [Abt Associates, 1881 Ninth Street, Suite 201, Boulder, Colorado 80302 (United States); Morris, Jeffrey, E-mail: JMorrisMSCanyon252@stratusconsulting.com [Abt Associates, 1881 Ninth Street, Suite 201, Boulder, Colorado 80302 (United States); and others

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Juvenile southern flounder were exposed to sediment mixed with different amount of oil from the Deepwater Horizon spill. • The exposure was performed for 32 days, with growth and survival assessed throughout. • After the termination of the experiment, the survivors were examined at multiple endpoints, including histopathology and microbiome analysis. • The results indicated that the flounder were adversely affected at each endpoint examined. • Growth and survival were significantly reduced. • Histopathology found effects on gills and livers of exposed fish. • The microbiomes of the exposed fish were significantly altered by the exposure to sediment-associated oil in both gills and intestines. - Abstract: Exposure to oiled sediments can negatively impact the health of fish species. Here, we examine the effects of chronic exposure of juvenile southern flounder, Paralichthys lethostigma, to a sediment-oil mixture. Oil:sediment mixtures are persistent over time and can become bioavailable following sediment perturbation or resuspension. Juvenile flounder were exposed for 32 days under controlled laboratory conditions to five concentrations of naturally weathered Macondo MC252 oil mixed into uncontaminated, field-collected sediments. The percent composition of individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of the weathered oil did not change after mixing with the sediment. Spiked exposure sediments contained 0.04–395 mg/kg tPAH50 (sum of 50 individual PAH concentration measurements). Mortality increased with both exposure duration and concentration of sediment-associated PAHs, and flounder exposed to concentrations above 8 mg/kg tPAH50 showed significantly reduced growth over the course of the experiment. Evident histopathologic changes were observed in liver and gill tissues of fish exposed to more than 8 mg/kg tPAH50. All fish at these concentrations showed hepatic intravascular congestion, macrovesicular hepatic vacoulation

  4. CYP1A protein expression and catalytic activity in double-crested cormorants experimentally exposed to Deepwater Horizon Mississippi Canyon 252 oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Courtney R.; Hooper, Michael J.; Cacela, Dave; Smelker, Kim D.; Calvin, Caleshia S.; Dean, Karen M.; Bursian, Steve J.; Cunningham, Fred L.; Hanson-Dorr, Katie C.; Horak, Katherine E.; Isanhart, John P.; Link, Jane E.; Shriner, Susan A.; Godard-Codding, Céline A.J.

    2017-01-01

    Double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus, DCCO) were orally exposed to Deepwater Horizon Mississippi Canyon 252 (DWH) oil to investigate oil-induced toxicological impacts. Livers were collected for multiple analyses including cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) enzymatic activity and protein expression. CYP1A enzymatic activity was measured by alkoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (AROD) assays. Activities specific to the O-dealkylation of four resorufin ethers are reported: benzyloxyresorufin O-debenzylase (BROD), ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), methoxyresorufin O-demethylase (MROD), and pentoxyresorufin O-depentylase (PROD). CYP1A protein expression was measured by western blot analysis with a CYP1A1 mouse monoclonal antibody. In study 1, hepatic BROD, EROD, and PROD activities were significantly induced in DCCO orally exposed to 20 ml/kg body weight (bw) oil as a single dose or daily for 5 days. Western blot analysis revealed hepatic CYP1A protein induction in both treatment groups. In study 2 (5 ml/kg bw oil or 10 ml/kg bw oil, 21 day exposure), all four hepatic ARODs were significantly induced. Western blots showed an increase in hepatic CYP1A expression in both treatment groups with a significant induction in birds exposed to 10 ml/kg oil. Significant correlations were detected among all 4 AROD activities in both studies and between CYP1A protein expression and both MROD and PROD activities in study 2. EROD activity was highest for both treatment groups in both studies while BROD activity had the greatest fold-induction. While PROD activity values were consistently low, the fold-induction was high, usually 2nd highest to BROD activity. The observed induced AROD profiles detected in the present studies suggest both CYP1A4/1A5 DCCO isoforms are being induced after MC252 oil ingestion. A review of the literature on avian CYP1A AROD activity levels and protein expression after exposure to CYP1A inducers highlights the need for species-specific studies to

  5. Characterization and flux of marine oil snow settling toward the seafloor in the northern Gulf of Mexico during the Deepwater Horizon incident: Evidence for input from surface oil and impact on shallow shelf sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Scott A; German, Christopher R

    2017-11-03

    Sediment trap samples from the shelf edge area (400-450m water depth), 58km northeast of the failed Macondo well, were collected before, during and after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Detailed chemical analyses of particulates revealed that fluxes of spill-derived TPH (2356μg/m 2 /day), total PAH (5.4μg/m 2 /day), and hopane (0.89μg/m 2 /day) settling to the seafloor directly beneath the surface-plume were 19- to 44-times higher during the active spill than pre- and post-spill background values. The oil was variably biodegraded, evaporated and photo-oxidized indicating that it derived from the sinking of surface oil. The hopane-based oil flux that we calculate (10bbl/km 2 ) indicates that at least 76,000bbl of Macondo oil that reached the ocean surface subsequently sank over an area of approximately 7600km 2 . We explore how this flux of sunken surface oil contributed to the total volume of oil deposited on the seafloor following the Deepwater Horizon incident. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Organic contaminants, trace and major elements, and nutrients in water and sediment sampled in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowell, Lisa H.; Ludtke, Amy S.; Mueller, David K.; Scott, Jonathon C.

    2012-01-01

    Beach water and sediment samples were collected along the Gulf of Mexico coast to assess differences in contaminant concentrations before and after landfall of Macondo-1 well oil released into the Gulf of Mexico from the sinking of the British Petroleum Corporation's Deepwater Horizon drilling platform. Samples were collected at 70 coastal sites between May 7 and July 7, 2010, to document baseline, or "pre-landfall" conditions. A subset of 48 sites was resampled during October 4 to 14, 2010, after oil had made landfall on the Gulf of Mexico coast, called the "post-landfall" sampling period, to determine if actionable concentrations of oil were present along shorelines. Few organic contaminants were detected in water; their detection frequencies generally were low and similar in pre-landfall and post-landfall samples. Only one organic contaminant--toluene--had significantly higher concentrations in post-landfall than pre-landfall water samples. No water samples exceeded any human-health benchmarks, and only one post-landfall water sample exceeded an aquatic-life benchmark--the toxic-unit benchmark for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) mixtures. In sediment, concentrations of 3 parent PAHs and 17 alkylated PAH groups were significantly higher in post-landfall samples than pre-landfall samples. One pre-landfall sample from Texas exceeded the sediment toxic-unit benchmark for PAH mixtures; this site was not sampled during the post-landfall period. Empirical upper screening-value benchmarks for PAHs in sediment were exceeded at 37 percent of post-landfall samples and 22 percent of pre-landfall samples, but there was no significant difference in the proportion of samples exceeding benchmarks between paired pre-landfall and post-landfall samples. Seven sites had the largest concentration differences between post-landfall and pre-landfall samples for 15 alkylated PAHs. Five of these seven sites, located in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama, had diagnostic

  7. BP Spill Sampling and Monitoring Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset analyzes waste from the the British Petroleum Deepwater Horizon Rig Explosion Emergency Response, providing opportunity to query data sets by metadata...

  8. Historic Shipwrecks as Ecosystem Monitoring Platforms in the Wake of Deepwater Horizon? Results of the Gulf of Mexico Shipwreck Corrosion, Hydrocarbon Exposure, Microbiology, and Archaeology (GOM-SCHEMA) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damour, M.; Hamdan, L. J.; Salerno, J. L.; McGown, C.; Blackwell, C. A.; Church, R.; Warren, D.; Horrell, C.; Jordan, B.; Moore, J.

    2016-02-01

    Historic shipwrecks and other archaeological sites are protected by a well-established body of historic preservation laws intended to preserve these sensitive, non-renewable resources. While the cultural, historical, and archaeological value of historic shipwrecks is unequivocal, their function and value as ecosystem monitoring platforms following a major environmental disaster is becoming apparent. Shipwrecks have been found in previous studies to serve as artificial reefs and hotspots of biodiversity, essentially providing the basis for an intact ecosystem. This is especially true in the deepwater marine environment where natural hard-bottom is sparse. Micro- and macro-infaunal diversity on shipwrecks and their sensitivity to environmental change demonstrates the suitability of these platforms for monitoring ecosystem impact and recovery. After the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) and partners initiated a multidisciplinary study to examine spill effects on shipwrecks and their associated microbial communities. To assess these impacts and to perform comparative analyses, the team collected microbiological, geochemical, and archaeological data at wooden- and metal-hulled shipwrecks within and outside of the subsurface spill-impacted area. Microbial community biodiversity informs us of micro-scale changes while 3D laser and sonar data reveal macro-scale changes. A multidisciplinary approach informs us of the roles microorganisms have in shipwreck degradation and corrosion as well as their response to ecosystem impacts. Results of the study identified multiple lines of evidence that sites were impacted by exposure to spill-related contaminants. Future multidisciplinary studies at these sites, as part of a long-term monitoring program, should inform on ecosystem recovery.

  9. Assessment of Meaning in Adolescents Receiving Clinical Services in Mississippi Following the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: An Application of the Purpose in Life Test-Short Form (PIL-SF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulenberg, Stefan E; Smith, C Veronica; Drescher, Christopher F; Buchanan, Erin M

    2016-12-01

    This study's purpose was to assess perceived meaning in adolescents. Specifically, our goals were to examine the psychometric properties of the Purpose in Life test-Short Form (PIL-SF) and its ability to predict psychological outcomes in an adolescent sample. Aspects of well-being (self-efficacy, life satisfaction, and resilience) and psychological distress (posttraumatic stress, depression, anxiety, and general stress) were assessed in a sample of adolescents (N = 91; 58.2% female; mean age = 14.89) receiving clinical services following the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill. Meaning was positively associated with life satisfaction, self-efficacy, and resilience, and negatively associated with posttraumatic stress and depression. Meaning was not significantly related to anxiety or general stress. Females reported significantly more meaning than males, while no significant differences were noted by race/ethnicity. The PIL-SF is a useful measure with adolescents. Moreover, meaning is an important concept to consider with respect to disasters. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Chemical and histological comparisons between Brevoortia sp. (menhaden) collected in fall 2010 from Barataria Bay, LA and Delaware Bay, NJ following the DeepWater Horizon (DWH) oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentivegna, Carolyn S; Cooper, Keith R; Olson, Gregory; Pena, Edwin A; Millemann, Daniel R; Portier, Ralph J

    2015-12-01

    Body burdens of PAHs were compared to histological effects in menhaden (Family: Clupeidae, Genus: Brevoortia) collected in fall 2010 from Barataria Bay, LA (BBLA) and Delaware Bay, NJ (DBNJ). Barataria Bay was heavily oiled during the DeepWater Horizon (DWH) oil spill, while Delaware Bay although urbanized had no reported recent oil spills. GCMS analyses of pre-spill 2009, BBLA and DBNJ fish found predominantly C2/C3 phenanthrene (1.28-6.52 ng/mg). However, BBLA also contained five higher molecular weight PAHs (0.06-0.34 ng/mg DW). Fluorescent aromatic compound spectroscopy (FACS) of gastrointestinal (GI) tract tissue showed statistically higher levels of hydroxypyrene-like PAHs in DBNJ than BBLA fish. Histopathologic lesions were more prevalent in BBLA than DBNJ fish. The lesion prevalence (gill, trunk kidney, epidermis, stomach) in the BBLA menhaden were significantly higher and more severe than observed in the DBNJ menhaden. Reversible lesions included gill lamellar hyperplasia, adhesions, edema, and epidermal hyperplasia. The increased pigmented macrophage centers were indicative of activated macrophages responding to connective tissue damage or other antigens. The liver hepatic necrosis and renal tissue mineralization may well have undergone repair, but damage to the kidney nephrons and hepatic/biliary regions of the liver would be slower to resolve and apparently remained after elimination of PAHs. Therefore, a direct cause and effect between DWH oil spill and increased lesion prevalence in BBLA menhaden could not be established. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. BP Spill Monitoring Data April-September 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset provides all of the monitoring data from the the British Petroleum Deepwater Horizon Rig Explosion Emergency Response. The data were collected between...

  12. BP Spill Sampling Data April-September 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset provides all of the sampling data from the the British Petroleum Deepwater Horizon Rig Explosion Emergency Response. The data were collected between...

  13. Characterization of the Particulate Emissions from the BP ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opportunistic particle samples were gathered from the sail of a tethered aerostat during at-sea plume sampling of the purposely-burned surface oil during the BP Deepwater Horizon disaster in the Gulf of Mexico. Particles were analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), metals, and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs). Emission factors were calculated using previous sampling values of background-adjusted CO2 and particulate matter (PM)-bound C. The mean of five thermal-optical analyses indicated that the burned crude oil particulate matter was 93% carbon (w/w) with the predominance being refractory elemental carbon (82% w/w) on average. PAHs accounted for roughly 60 ug/g of the PM mass or 4.5 mg/kg oil burned, at least an order of magnitude less than earlier laboratory based studies. Microscopy indicates that the soot from the in situ oil burns is distinct from more common soot by its aggregate size, primary particle size, and nanostructure within the primary particles. The PCDD/PCDF concentration of the PM was 1.5 to 3.3 ng toxic equivalency (TEQ)/kg PM sampled, about 10-fold lower than from a previous dedicated gas/solid sample, indicating loss of small particle-bound and more volatile PCDD/PCDF congeners through the aerostat sail. This work presents an analysis of smoke particles opportunistically caught during the in situ surface oil burns during the 2010 BP Deepwater Horizon di

  14. Physical and profile oceanographic data collected aboard the WEATHERBIRD II in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-22 to 2010-05-27 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084597)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical and profile oceanographic data were collected aboard the WEATHERBIRD II in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-22 to 2010-05-27 in response to the Deepwater...

  15. Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data collected aboard the PELICAN in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-10 to 2010-07-21 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0069087)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected aboard the PELICAN in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-10 to 2010-07-21 in response to the Deepwater...

  16. Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data collected from CTD casts aboard the Arctic in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-09 to 2010-09-14 in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill event (NODC Accession 0068955)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data were collected aboard the Arctic in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-09 to 2010-09-14 in response to the Deepwater...

  17. Determination of the anionic surfactant di(ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinate in water samples collected from Gulf of Mexico coastal waters before and after landfall of oil from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, May to October, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, James L.; Kanagy, Leslie K.; Furlong, Edward T.; McCoy, Jeff W.; Kanagy, Chris J.

    2011-01-01

    On April 22, 2010, the explosion on and subsequent sinking of the Deepwater Horizon oil drilling platform resulted in the release of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. At least 4.4 million barrels had been released into the Gulf of Mexico through July 15, 2010, 10 to 29 percent of which was chemically dispersed, primarily using two dispersant formulations. Initially, the dispersant Corexit 9527 was used, and when existing stocks of that formulation were exhausted, Corexit 9500 was used. Over 1.8 million gallons of the two dispersants were applied in the first 3 months after the spill. This report presents the development of an analytical method to analyze one of the primary surfactant components of both Corexit formulations, di(ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinate (DOSS), the preliminary results, and the associated quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) from samples collected from various points on the Gulf Coast between Texas and Florida. Seventy water samples and 8 field QC samples were collected before the predicted landfall of oil (pre-landfall) on the Gulf Coast, and 51 water samples and 10 field QC samples after the oil made landfall (post-landfall). Samples were collected in Teflon(Registered) bottles and stored at -20(degrees)C until analysis. Extraction of whole-water samples used sorption onto a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) filter to isolate DOSS, with subsequent 50 percent methanol/water elution of the combined dissolved and particulate DOSS fractions. High-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) was used to identify and quantify DOSS by the isotope dilution method, using a custom-synthesized 13C4-DOSS labeled standard. Because of the ubiquitous presence of DOSS in laboratory reagent water, a chromatographic column was installed in the LC/MS/MS between the system pumps and the sample injector that separated this ambient background DOSS contamination from the sample DOSS, minimizing one source of blank contamination

  18. Physical and profile oceanographic data collected aboard NOAA Ship DELAWARE II in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-26 to 2010-07-08 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084591)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical and profile oceanographic data were collected aboard NOAA Ship DELAWARE II in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-06-26 to 2010-07-08 in response to the Deepwater...

  19. Physical and profile oceanographic data collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-29 to 2010-09-02 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084589)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical and profile oceanographic data were collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-29 to 2010-09-02 in response to the Deepwater...

  20. Physical and profile oceanographic data collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-02 to 2010-09-06 in response to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill event (NODC Accession 0084590)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical and profile oceanographic data were collected aboard the Brooks McCall in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-09-02 to 2010-09-06 in response to the Deepwater...

  1. BP Spill Sampling and Monitoring Data April-September 2010 - Data Download Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset analyzes waste from the the British Petroleum Deepwater Horizon Rig Explosion Emergency Response, providing opportunity to query data sets by metadata...

  2. Horizon holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Ivo; Solodukhin, Sergey N.

    2001-12-01

    A holographic correspondence between horizon data and space-time physics is investigated. We find similarities with the AdS-CFT correspondence, based on the observation that the optical metric near the horizon describes a Euclidean, asymptotically anti-de Sitter space. This picture emerges for a wide class of static space-times with a nondegenerate horizon, including Schwarzschild black holes as well as de Sitter space-time. We reveal an asymptotic conformal symmetry at the horizon. We compute the conformal weights and 2-point functions for a scalar perturbation and discuss possible connections with a conformal field theory located on the horizon. We then reconstruct the scalar field and the metric from the data given on the horizon. We show that the solution for the metric in the bulk is completely determined in terms of a specified metric on the horizon. From the general relativity point of view our solutions present a new class of space-time metrics with nonspherical horizons. The horizon entropy associated with these solutions is also discussed.

  3. Horizon measures

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Eugene

    2016-11-28

    In this paper we seek to answer the following question: where do contour lines and visible contour lines (silhouette) tend to occur in a 3D surface. Our study leads to two novel shape descriptors, the horizon measure and the visible horizon measure, which we apply to the visualization of 3D shapes including archeological artifacts. In addition to introducing the shape descriptors, we also provide a closed-form formula for the horizon measure based on classical spherical geometry. To compute the visible horizon measure, which depends on the exact computation of the surface visibility function, we instead of provide an image-based approach which can process a model with high complexity within a few minutes.

  4. Quaternary deepwater paleoceanography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, E A

    1990-08-24

    During the past decade, geochemical paleoceanographers have begun to explore the changes in the circulation of the deep ocean that occurred during the glacial-interglacial cycles of the earth's recent history. The deep ocean was significantly colder during the glacial maximum. The distributions of biologically utilized elements (such as carbon and phosphorus) were significantly different as well; higher concentrations of these elements occurred in the deep (>2500 meters depth) North Atlantic, and lower concentrations occurred in the upper (<2500 meters depth) waters of the North Atlantic and possibly in all of the major ocean basins. In contrast, relatively subtle changes have been observed in the radiocarbon ages of deep waters. Slow deepwater changes are statistically linked to variations in the earth's orbit, but rapid changes in deepwater circulation also have occurred. Deepwater chemistry and circulation changes may control the variability in atmospheric CO(2) levels that have been documented from studies of air bubbles in polar ice cores.

  5. How was the deep scattering layers (DSLs) influenced by the Deepwater Horizon Spill? - Evidences from 10-year NTL oil/gas ADCP backscattering data collected at the spill site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z.; DiMarco, S. F.; Socolofsky, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    There are suspicions that the 2010 DWH oil spill might have affected the biomass in the deep scattering layers (DSLs), at least during the period in which the spill was active and oil dispersants were used. The acoustic backscattering intensity (ABI) data from acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) have been shown to detect and monitor the spatial and temporal evolution of DSLs in many oceans. Since 2005 with the issue of a Notice of Lessees and Operators (NTL), namely, NTL No. 2005-G5, large amounts of continuous ADCP data have been collected by oil/gas companies in the Northern Gulf at more than 100 stations and made publically available via the National Data Buoyancy Center (NDBC) website. NTL ADCPs data have also been collected prior to, during and after the DWH spill at the spill site. The ADCP with station # 42872 was mounted on the DWH rig and collected ABI data from 2005 until the rig sank in April 2010. ADCPs with station # 42916 and 42868 were then moved into the spill region and collected ABI data during and after the spill. The deep scattering layers were well resolved by those 38 kHz with vertical range of 1000m. The SSL provides key food for many large sea-animals, including whales, dolphins, billfishes and giant tunas and therefore have important roles in the ecosystem of the deep Gulf. By carefully applying calibrations and corrections, the ABI data can be converted to biologically meaningful mean volume backscattering strength (MVBS) and areal backscattering strength (ABS). This is an effective and powerful way to study the pelagic communality dynamics in the deep scattering layers and to investigate greater details that were previously inaccessible. Utilizing the NTL data collected during the past 10 years around the DWH site, we investigate the spill influence on deep scattering layers by comparing the biomass pre- and post BP spill and comparing biomass variations in areas with and without oil contamination. Preliminary results have shown

  6. HORIZON SENSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry G. Stolarczyk

    2003-03-18

    With the aid of a DOE grant (No. DE-FC26-01NT41050), Stolar Research Corporation (Stolar) developed the Horizon Sensor (HS) to distinguish between the different layers of a coal seam. Mounted on mining machine cutter drums, HS units can detect or sense the horizon between the coal seam and the roof and floor rock, providing the opportunity to accurately mine the section of the seam most desired. HS also enables accurate cutting of minimum height if that is the operator's objective. Often when cutting is done out-of-seam, the head-positioning function facilitates a fixed mining height to minimize dilution. With this technology, miners can still be at a remote location, yet cut only the clean coal, resulting in a much more efficient overall process. The objectives of this project were to demonstrate the feasibility of horizon sensing on mining machines and demonstrate that Horizon Sensing can allow coal to be cut cleaner and more efficiently. Stolar's primary goal was to develop the Horizon Sensor (HS) into an enabling technology for full or partial automation or ''agile mining''. This technical innovation (R&D 100 Award Winner) is quickly demonstrating improvements in productivity and miner safety at several prominent coal mines in the United States. In addition, the HS system can enable the cutting of cleaner coal. Stolar has driven the HS program on the philosophy that cutting cleaner coal means burning cleaner coal. The sensor, located inches from the cutting bits, is based upon the physics principles of a Resonant Microstrip Patch Antenna (RMPA). When it is in proximity of the rock-coal interface, the RMPA impedance varies depending on the thickness of uncut coal. The impedance is measured by the computer-controlled electronics and then sent by radio waves to the mining machine. The worker at the machine can read the data via a Graphical User Interface, displaying a color-coded image of the coal being cut, and direct the machine

  7. Submesoscale Dispersion in the Vicinity of the Deepwater Horizon Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-02

    salinity units (PSU) calculated using the practical salinity scale ( PSS ) equations, has an estimated initial accuracy of 0.005 PSU and monthly drift of...Walker ND, Wiseman WJ, Jr, Rouse LJ, Jr, Babin A (2005) Effects of river discharge, wind stress , and slope eddies on circulation and satellite

  8. Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data collected from CTD casts aboard the HOS Davis in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-26 to 2010-09-03 in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill event (NODC Accession 0069070)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data were collected aboard the HOS Davis in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-26 to 2010-09-03 in response to the Deepwater...

  9. Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data collected from CTD casts aboard the JACK FITZ in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-10 to 2010-05-13 in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill event (NODC Accession 0069072)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data were collected aboard the JACK FITZ in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-10 to 2010-05-13 in response to the Deepwater...

  10. Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data collected from CTD casts aboard the JACK FITZ in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-22 to 2010-05-31 in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill event (NODC Accession 0069073)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data were collected aboard the JACK FITZ in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-05-22 to 2010-05-31 in response to the Deepwater...

  11. Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data collected from CTD casts aboard the HOS Davis in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-13 to 2010-08-22 in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill event (NODC Accession 0069069)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical and physical oceanographic profile data were collected aboard the HOS Davis in the Gulf of Mexico from 2010-08-13 to 2010-08-22 in response to the Deepwater...

  12. BP's emissions trading system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victor, David G.; House, Joshua C.

    2006-01-01

    Between 1998 and 2001, BP reduced its emissions of greenhouse gases by more than 10%. BP's success in cutting emissions is often equated with its use of an apparently market-based emissions trading program. However no independent study has ever examined the rules and operation of BP's system and the incentives acting on managers to reduce emissions. We use interviews with key managers and with traders in several critical business units to explore the bound of BP's success with emissions trading. No money actually changed hands when permits were traded, and the main effect of the program was to create awareness of money-saving emission controls rather than strong price incentives. We show that the trading system did not operate like a 'textbook' cap and trade scheme. Rather, the BP system operated much like a 'safety valve' trading system, where managers let the market function until the cost of doing so surpassed what the company was willing to tolerate

  13. Producing deep-water hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilenko, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    Several studies relate the history and progress made in offshore production from oil and gas fields in relation to reserves and the techniques for producing oil offshore. The intention herein is not to review these studies but rather to argue that the activities of prospecting and producing deep-water oil and gas call for a combination of technology and project management and, above all, of devotion and innovation. Without this sense of commitment motivating men and women in this industry, the human adventure of deep-water production would never have taken place

  14. Revisiting Vaidya Horizons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex B. Nielsen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we located and compared different types of horizons in the spherically symmetric Vaidya solution. The horizons we found were trapping horizons, which can be null, timelike, or spacelike, null surfaces with constant area change and also conformal Killing horizons. The conformal Killing horizons only exist for certain choices of the mass function. Under a conformal transformation, the conformal Killing horizons can be mapped into true Killing horizons. This allows conclusions drawn in the dynamical Vaidya spacetime to be related to known properties of static spacetimes. We found the conformal factor that performs this transformation and wrote the new metric in explicitly static coordinates. Using this construction we found that the tunneling argument for Hawking radiation does not umabiguously support Hawking radiation being associated with the trapping horizon. We also used this transformation to derive the form of the surface gravity for a class of physical observers in Vaidya spacetimes.

  15. 78 FR 42588 - Deepwater Port License Application: Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Port Ambrose Deepwater Port

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Deepwater Port License Application: Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Port Ambrose Deepwater Port AGENCY: Maritime Administration, Department of Transportation. ACTION: Notice of intent...

  16. Laser In-Situ Scattering and Transmissometer (LISST) and Conductivity Temperature Depth (CTD) measurements and supporting data collected in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill Incident from multiple vessels in the Gulf of Mexico from 21/04/2010 to 24/08/2010 (NODC Accession 0086284)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — At the request of the United States (U.S.) government and BP, research scientists and technicians from the Centre for Offshore Oil Gas and Energy Research (COOGER),...

  17. All eyes on the deepwater prize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepherd, Richard

    2000-01-01

    This article focuses on the impact of the opportunity of deepwater oil on the production growth ambitions of oil companies. Details are given of the trend towards the spending of less money, drilling fewer wells, and developing fewer new fields by the larger oil companies to obtain the best available profit. The greening of oil with the growing awareness of environmental concerns and fuel efficiency aspects is considered. The global potential for deepwater oil production, the threat to deepwater economics of market pressures, and the dominant position of large companies in deepwater activities are discussed. (UK)

  18. Ultra-Deepwater Production Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ken L. Smith; Marc E. Leveque

    2005-05-31

    The report herein is a summary of the work performed on three projects to demonstrate hydrocarbon drilling and production methods applicable to deep and ultra deepwater field developments in the Gulf of Mexico and other like applications around the world. This work advances technology that could lead to more economic development and exploitation of reserves in ultra-deep water or remote areas. The first project is Subsea Processing. Its scope includes a review of the ''state of the art'' in subsea components to enable primary production process functions such as first stage liquids and gas separation, flow boosting, chemical treatment, flow metering, etc. These components are then combined to allow for the elimination of costly surface production facilities at the well site. A number of studies were then performed on proposed field development projects to validate the economic potential of this technology. The second project involved the design and testing of a light weight production riser made of composite material. The proposed design was to meet an actual Gulf of Mexico deepwater development project. The various engineering and testing work is reviewed, including test results. The third project described in this report encompasses the development and testing of a close tolerance liner drilling system, a new technology aimed at reducing deepwater drilling costs. The design and prototype testing in a test well are described in detail.

  19. Examples of plasma horizons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanni, R.S.

    1975-01-01

    The concept of the plasma horizon, defined as the boundary of the region in which an infinitely thin plasma can be supported against Coulomb attraction by a magnetic field, shows that the argument of selective accretion does not rule out the existence of charged black holes embedded in a conducting plasma. A detailed account of the covariant definition of plasma horizon is given and some examples of plasma horizons are presented. 7 references

  20. Gribov's ambiguities and horizons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Vega, H.J.

    1979-01-01

    Gribov's ambiguities prevent a formulation of a gauge theory on the whole space of field configurations. We introduce the concept of horizon around some field A 0 as the nearest field to it exhibiting gauge ambiguities. The constrained equations determining the horizon are explicitly given. These concepts are applied to the gauge problems associated with collective coordinates. For a two-dimensional model, horizon solutions around one soliton are found for a whole family of gauges and its properties are analyzed. By varying the gauge condition we show that the ''optimal horizon,'' the one which surrounds the largest portion of functional space, lies at the threshold of soliton-antisoliton production

  1. Two Horizons of Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Mun Ling; Chik, Pakey Pui Man

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we aim to differentiate the internal and external horizons of "fusion." "Fusion" in the internal horizon relates to the structure and meaning of the object of learning as experienced by the learner. It clarifies the interrelationships among an object's critical features and aspects. It also illuminates the…

  2. VMware horizon view essentials

    CERN Document Server

    von Oven, Peter

    2014-01-01

    If you are a desktop administrator or an end user of a computing project team looking to speed up to the latest VMware Horizon View solution, then this book is perfect for you. It is your ideal companion to deploy a solution to centrally manage and virtualize your desktop estate using Horizon View 6.0.

  3. Ultra-Deepwater Production Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. L. Smith; M. E. Leveque

    2003-09-30

    This report includes technical progress made during the period October, 2002 through September, 2003. At the end of the second technical progress report, the ConocoPhillips opportunities to apply subsea processing in the Gulf of Mexico had been exhausted, and an alternative site was identified in Norway. This was a non-ConocoPhillips operated field, and the subsea processing was proposed as a phased development approach with 2-phase separation at the field, and then gas and liquids exported via pipeline to remote platform locations for processing. Although the unrisked economics were quite favorable, the risked economic evaluation compelled the operator to develop the field with the more conventional and proven Floating Production, Storage and Offloading (FPSO) option. Work on the subsea processing was suspended at this time. Discussions with DOE regarding two other step-change deepwater technologies ensued. One was an effort to develop a light-weight, high pressure composite production riser. A field demonstration of the design would then be performed by deploying a limited number of composite joints in a Gulf of Mexico deepwater development. The other was to begin the process of taking drilling with casing technology to the deepwater. This is called, ''close-tolerance liner drilling''. It was agreed that both technologies should be pursued, and the work began. During this reporting period, the initial production riser design had been completed and preliminary test sample components were being fabricated. Regarding the liner drilling, the sub-contractors were selected, the design basis was agreed and designs progressed towards meeting a projected first quarter, 2004 onshore test program.

  4. Ultra-Deepwater Production Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. L. Smith; M. E. Leveque

    2004-09-30

    This report includes technical progress made during the period October, 2003 through September, 2004. At the end of the last technical progress report, the subsea processing aspects of the work program had been dropped due to the lack of commercial opportunity within ConocoPhillips, and the program had been redirected towards two other promising deepwater technologies: the development and demonstration of a composite production riser, and the development and testing of a close-tolerance liner drilling system. This report focuses on these two technologies.

  5. Revisiting event horizon finders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Michael I; Pfeiffer, Harald P; Scheel, Mark A

    2009-01-01

    Event horizons are the defining physical features of black hole spacetimes, and are of considerable interest in studying black hole dynamics. Here, we reconsider three techniques to find event horizons in numerical spacetimes: integrating geodesics, integrating a surface, and integrating a level-set of surfaces over a volume. We implement the first two techniques and find that straightforward integration of geodesics backward in time is most robust. We find that the exponential rate of approach of a null surface towards the event horizon of a spinning black hole equals the surface gravity of the black hole. In head-on mergers we are able to track quasi-normal ringing of the merged black hole through seven oscillations, covering a dynamic range of about 10 5 . Both at late times (when the final black hole has settled down) and at early times (before the merger), the apparent horizon is found to be an excellent approximation of the event horizon. In the head-on binary black hole merger, only some of the future null generators of the horizon are found to start from past null infinity; the others approach the event horizons of the individual black holes at times far before merger.

  6. Deepwater development - the metocean challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, C.

    1998-01-01

    As the focus of the offshore industry moves increasingly towards deepwater, attention is concentrating more and more on life-cycle field development costs. Key elements are reducing development lead times, equipment standardisation and efficient use of scarce resources. An essential precursor is a clear definition of the metocean environment. Without it, engineering design may be unnecessarily conservative or inadequate. Either way the consequences will be expensive. It is the metocean challenge to help bring down costs, while maintaining adequate safety levels by providing the necessary answers, but most important of all, to do this in sufficient time to be in step with the engineering requirements at each stage of a planned development. (author)

  7. VMware Horizon Workspace essentials

    CERN Document Server

    von Oven, Peter; Lindberg, Joel

    2014-01-01

    This book uses a step-by-step approach to teach you how to design, deploy, and manage a Horizon Workspace based on real world experience. Written in an easy-to-follow style, this book explains the terminology in a clear and concise manner. Each feature is explained starting at a high level and then drilling down into the technical detail, using diagrams and screenshots.This book is perfect for IT administrators who want to deploy a solution to centrally manage access to corporate applications, data, and virtual desktops using Horizon Workspace. You need to have some experience in delivering BY

  8. Mastering VMware Horizon 6

    CERN Document Server

    Oven, Peter von

    2015-01-01

    If you are working as a desktop admin, part of a EUC team, an architect, or a consultant on a desktop virtualization project and you are looking to use VMware's Horizon solution, this book is for you. This book will demonstrate the new capabilities of Horizon 6. You should have experience in desktop management using Windows and Microsoft Office, and be familiar with Active Directory, SQL, Windows Remote Desktop Session Hosting, and VMware vSphere infrastructure (ESXi and vCenter Server) technology.

  9. Discrete Sampling Test Plan for the 200-BP-5 Operable Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeney, Mark D.

    2010-02-04

    The Discrete Groundwater Sampling Project is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on behalf of CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company. The project is focused on delivering groundwater samples from proscribed horizons within select groundwater wells residing in the 200-BP-5 Operable Unit (200-BP-5 OU) on the Hanford Site. This document provides the scope, schedule, methodology, and other details of the PNNL discrete sampling effort.

  10. Deepwater Ports in US waters as of August 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Deepwater Port Licensing Program is the application process designed to promote the construction of LNG and oil deepwater ports. This license system was...

  11. Optimal investment horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, I.; Jensen, M. H.; Johansen, A.

    2002-06-01

    In stochastic finance, one traditionally considers the return as a competitive measure of an asset, i.e., the profit generated by that asset after some fixed time span Δt, say one week or one year. This measures how well (or how bad) the asset performs over that given period of time. It has been established that the distribution of returns exhibits ``fat tails'' indicating that large returns occur more frequently than what is expected from standard Gaussian stochastic processes [1-3]. Instead of estimating this ``fat tail'' distribution of returns, we propose here an alternative approach, which is outlined by addressing the following question: What is the smallest time interval needed for an asset to cross a fixed return level of say 10%? For a particular asset, we refer to this time as the investment horizon and the corresponding distribution as the investment horizon distribution. This latter distribution complements that of returns and provides new and possibly crucial information for portfolio design and risk-management, as well as for pricing of more exotic options. By considering historical financial data, exemplified by the Dow Jones Industrial Average, we obtain a novel set of probability distributions for the investment horizons which can be used to estimate the optimal investment horizon for a stock or a future contract.

  12. Spacetimes containing slowly evolving horizons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavanagh, William; Booth, Ivan

    2006-01-01

    Slowly evolving horizons are trapping horizons that are ''almost'' isolated horizons. This paper reviews their definition and discusses several spacetimes containing such structures. These include certain Vaidya and Tolman-Bondi solutions as well as (perturbatively) tidally distorted black holes. Taking into account the mass scales and orders of magnitude that arise in these calculations, we conjecture that slowly evolving horizons are the norm rather than the exception in astrophysical processes that involve stellar-scale black holes

  13. Deep-water carbonate dissolution in the northern South China Sea during Marine Isotope Stage 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The production, transportation, deposition, and dissolution of carbonate profoundly form part of the global carbon cycle and affect the amount and distribution of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC and alkalinity (ALK, which drive atmospheric CO2 changes during glacial/interglacial cycles. These processes may provide significant clues for better understanding of the mechanisms that control the global climate system. In this study, we calculate and analyze the foraminiferal dissolution index (FDX and the fragmentation ratios of planktonic foraminifera for the 60–25 ka B.P. time-span, based on samples from Core 17924 and ODP Site 1144 in the northeastern South China Sea (SCS, so as to reconstruct the deep-water carbonate dissolution during Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS 3. Our analysis shows that the dissolution of carbonate increases gradually in Core 17924, whereas it remains stable at ODP Site 1144. This difference is caused by the deep-sea carbonate ion concentration ([CO32−] that affected the dissolution in Core 17924 where the depth of 3440 m is below the saturation horizon. However, the depth of ODP Site 1144 is 2037 m, which is above the lysocline where the water is always saturated with calcium carbonate; the dissolution is therefore less dependent of chemical changes of the seawater. The combined effect of the productivity and the deep-water chemical evolution may decrease deep-water [CO32−] and accelerate carbonate dissolution. The fall of the sea-level increased the input of DIC and ALK to the deep ocean and deepened the carbonate saturation depth, which caused an increase of the deep-water [CO32−]. The elevated [CO32−] partially neutralized the reduced [CO32−] contributed by remineralization of organic matter and slowdown of thermohaline. These consequently are the fundamental reasons for the difference in dissolution rate between these two sites.

  14. The deepwater Gulf of Mexico : promises delivered?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickering, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    A summary review of deepwater Gulf of Mexico (GOM) oil production was presented for the years 1989 to 1998. Trends and prospects in deepwater GOM production and leasing were assessed. Promises and forecasts made in the early 1990s were compared with what actually happened since then. Forecasts in the early 1990s promised deeper, faster and cheaper developments in the deepwater Gulf. Results of the comparison showed that the prognosticators were correct on all three counts. Regarding the future of the Gulf, one can be justified in being optimistic in so far as more experience, robust economics, more and cheaper rigs can be taken as reliable indicators of optimism. In contrast, there are certain negatives to consider, such as low commodity prices, budget constraints, lease expirations, technical challenges and increased competition. . 12 figs

  15. Gulf of Mexico deep-water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, G.L.

    1998-01-01

    The deepwater Gulf of Mexico, an emerging basin with 20 BBOE resource potential, was discussed. Technologies are advancing and development options are increasing within the Gulf of Mexico deepwater environment. Deepwater offers significant rate potentials leading to strong cash flows. The projected steep rate of resources captured in the next five years show that there is a short window of opportunity to establish a business position. The major production variables are development costs and cycle time. There is a definite market for Gulf of Mexico products because U.S. energy demand is expected to outstrip U.S. supply. Present infrastructure is capable of moving large volumes of gas into major U.S. markets, but with the large number of projects currently underway, especially in the United States, supply could exceed capacity. 1 tab., 16 figs

  16. Locating the Gribov horizon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Fei; Qin, Si-Xue; Roberts, Craig D.; Rodríguez-Quintero, Jose

    2018-02-01

    We explore whether a tree-level expression for the gluon two-point function, supposed to express effects of an horizon term introduced to eliminate the Gribov ambiguity, is consistent with the propagator obtained in simulations of lattice-regularised quantum chromodynamics (QCD). In doing so, we insist that the gluon two-point function obey constraints that ensure a minimal level of consistency with parton-like behaviour at ultraviolet momenta. In consequence, we are led to a position which supports a conjecture that the gluon mass and horizon scale are equivalent emergent massscales, each with a value of roughly 0.5 GeV; and wherefrom it appears plausible that the dynamical generation of a running gluon mass may alone be sufficient to remove the Gribov ambiguity.

  17. Locating the Gribov horizon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Qin, Si-Xue; Roberts, Craig D.; Rodríguez-Quintero, Jose

    2018-02-01

    We explore whether a tree-level expression for the gluon two-point function, supposed to express effects of an horizon term introduced to eliminate the Gribov ambiguity, is consistent with the propagator obtained in simulations of lattice-regularized quantum chromodynamics (QCD). In doing so, we insist that the gluon two-point function obey constraints that ensure a minimal level of consistency with parton-like behavior on the ultraviolet domain. In consequence, we are led to a position which supports a conjecture that the gluon mass and horizon scale are equivalent emergent mass-scales, each with a value of roughly 0.5 GeV; and wherefrom it appears plausible that the dynamical generation of a running gluon mass may alone be sufficient to remove the Gribov ambiguity.

  18. Horizon 2020 in sight

    CERN Document Server

    Joannah Caborn Wengler

    2012-01-01

    Every tenth member of the CERN personnel participates in an EU-funded project – a strong indication of CERN’s successful relations with the European Commission (EC), coordinated by the CERN EU projects office. The EC director in charge of preparing “Horizon 2020”, the new EU funding programme for research and innovation (2014-2020), will be giving a presentation at CERN on 8 May. He will reveal more about what the new programme has in store.   “It’s a very interesting time in the development of Horizon 2020, which is focusing the attention of all research communities in Europe,” explains Svetlomir Stavrev, head of the EU projects office. “After a long public consultation and drafting process, the Horizon 2020 proposal documents are now being reviewed by the European Parliament and Council.” CERN already participated in the consultation, making good use of the opportunity to contribute to the shaping of wh...

  19. Deepwater Gulf of Mexico more profitable than previously thought

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, M.J.K.; Hyde, S.T.

    1997-01-01

    Economic evaluations and recent experience show that the deepwater Gulf of Mexico (GOM) is much more profitable than previously thought. Four factors contributing to the changed viewpoint are: First, deepwater reservoirs have proved to have excellent productive capacity, distribution, and continuity when compared to correlative-age shelf deltaic sands. Second, improved technologies and lower perceived risks have lowered the cost of floating production systems (FPSs). Third, projects now get on-line quicker. Fourth, a collection of other important factors are: Reduced geologic risk and associated high success rates for deepwater GOM wells due primarily to improved seismic imaging and processing tools (3D, AVO, etc.); absence of any political risk in the deepwater GOM (common overseas, and very significant in some international areas); and positive impact of deepwater federal royalty relief. This article uses hypothetical reserve distributions and price forecasts to illustrate indicative economics of deepwater prospects. Economics of Shell Oil Co.'s three deepwater projects are also discussed

  20. Mechanical Characteristics of Some Deepwater Floater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhen-Zhe; Tarp-Johansen, Niels Jacob; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an initial study of the mechanical characteristics of some deepwater floater designs for offshore wind turbines. Three different concepts (NREL TLP, Dutch Trifloater, and Japanese SPAR) are summarized, based on data from the available studies. A 5 MW Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine...

  1. New Horizons at Pluto

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Artist's concept of the New Horizons spacecraft as it approaches Pluto and its largest moon, Charon, in July 2015. The craft's miniature cameras, radio science experiment, ultraviolet and infrared spectrometers and space plasma experiments will characterize the global geology and geomorphology of Pluto and Charon, map their surface compositions and temperatures, and examine Pluto's atmosphere in detail. The spacecraft's most prominent design feature is a nearly 7-foot (2.1-meter) dish antenna, through which it will communicate with Earth from as far as 4.7 billion miles (7.5 billion kilometers) away.

  2. Expanding Your Horizon 2015

    CERN Multimedia

    Kaltenhauser, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Expanding your horizons is a bi-annual “Science Day” for girls aged 11 to 14, held at the University of Geneva on 14 November. The girls had the opportunity to take part in hands-on workshops held by local professional women in the field of science, mathematics, engineering and technology. For the fourth time, CERN was part of this event, offering three workshops as well as a booth at the Discovery Fair, including Higgnite, an interactive visualization of the Higgs Field.

  3. VMware Horizon Mirage essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Von Oven, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a practical, step-by-step approach to teach you how to build a successful infrastructure.This book is perfect for desktop administrators who want to deploy a solution to centrally manage their endpoint images across their entire estate using VMware Horizon Mirage. You need to have some experience in desktop image management using Microsoft Windows operating systems and Windows applications, as well as be familiar with Active Directory, SQL, IIS, and general server infrastructure relating to supporting end users.

  4. Horizons of cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Silk, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Horizons of Cosmology: Exploring Worlds Seen and Unseen is the fourth title published in the Templeton Science and Religion Series, in which scientists from a wide range of fields distill their experience and knowledge into brief tours of their respective specialties. In this volume, highly esteemed astrophysicist Joseph Silk explores the vast mysteries and speculations of the field of cosmology in a way that balances an accessible style for the general reader and enough technical detail for advanced students and professionals. Indeed, while the p

  5. Stringy horizons II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giveon, Amit [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University,Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Itzhaki, Nissan [Physics Department, Tel-Aviv University,Ramat-Aviv, 69978 (Israel); Kutasov, David [EFI and Department of Physics, University of Chicago,5640 S. Ellis Av., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2016-10-28

    We show that the spectrum of normalizable states on a Euclidean SL(2, R)/U(1) black hole exhibits a duality between oscillator states and wound strings. This duality generalizes the identification between a normalizable mode of dilaton gravity on the cigar and a mode of the tachyon with winding number one around the Euclidean time circle, which plays an important role in the FZZ correspondence. It implies that normalizable states on a large Euclidean black hole have support at widely separated scales. In particular, localized states that are extended over the cap of the cigar (the Euclidian analog of the black hole atmosphere) have a component that is localized near the tip of the cigar (the analog of the stretched horizon). As a consequence of this duality, the states exhibit a transition as a function of radial excitation level. From the perspective of a low energy probe, low lying states are naturally thought of as oscillator states in the black hole atmosphere, while at large excitation level they are naturally described as wound strings. As the excitation level increases, the size of the states first decreases and then increases. This behavior is expected to be a general feature of black hole horizons in string theory.

  6. Near horizon structure of extremal vanishing horizon black holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sadeghian

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We study the near horizon structure of Extremal Vanishing Horizon (EVH black holes, extremal black holes with vanishing horizon area with a vanishing one-cycle on the horizon. We construct the most general near horizon EVH and near-EVH ansatz for the metric and other fields, like dilaton and gauge fields which may be present in the theory. We prove that (1 the near horizon EVH geometry for generic gravity theory in generic dimension has a three dimensional maximally symmetric subspace; (2 if the matter fields of the theory satisfy strong energy condition either this 3d part is AdS3, or the solution is a direct product of a locally 3d flat space and a d−3 dimensional part; (3 these results extend to the near horizon geometry of near-EVH black holes, for which the AdS3 part is replaced with BTZ geometry. We present some specific near horizon EVH geometries in 3, 4 and 5 dimensions for which there is a classification. We also briefly discuss implications of these generic results for generic (gauged supergravity theories and also for the thermodynamics of near-EVH black holes and the EVH/CFT proposal.

  7. Resolving Lifshitz Horizons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Sarah; Kachru, Shamit; Wang, Huajia; /Stanford U., ITP /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC

    2012-04-24

    Via the AdS/CFT correspondence, ground states of field theories at finite charge density are mapped to extremal black brane solutions. Studies of simple gravity + matter systems in this context have uncovered wide new classes of extremal geometries. The Lifshitz metrics characterizing field theories with non-trivial dynamical critical exponent z {ne} 1 emerge as one common endpoint in doped holographic toy models. However, the Lifshitz horizon exhibits mildly singular behaviour - while curvature invariants are finite, there are diverging tidal forces. Here we show that in some of the simplest contexts where Lifshitz metrics emerge, Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theories, generic corrections lead to a replacement of the Lifshitz metric, in the deep infrared, by a re-emergent AdS{sub 2} x R{sup 2} geometry. Thus, at least in these cases, the Lifshitz scaling characterizes the physics over a wide range of energy scales, but the mild singularity is cured by quantum or stringy effects.

  8. The interaction between deepwater channel systems and growing thrusts and folds, toe-thrust region of the deepwater Niger Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, B.; Lonergan, L.; Whittaker, A.

    2012-04-01

    Gravity-driven seaward-verging thrusts, landward-verging back-thrusts and associated folds often characterize the slope and deepwater settings of passive margins. These structures, found in the "toe-thrust" region of the system, exert a significant control on sediment gravity flows because they create and determine the location and configuration of sediment depocentres and transport systems. However, to fully understand the interaction between sediment gravity flows and seabed topography we need to evaluate and quantify the geomorphic response of sub-marine channels to faulting in an area where the degree of tectonic shortening can be well constrained. This study exploits 3D seismic data in the outer toe-thrust region of the deepwater Niger Delta to analyze the interaction between Plio-Pleistocene channel systems and actively growing folds and thrusts. We first mapped folds and thrusts from the seismic data and we used this data to reconstruct the history of fold growth. We then used the sea-bed seismic horizon to build a 50 m resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the sea floor in Arc-GIS. From the DEM, we extracted channel long profiles across growing structures for both the current channel thalwegs and for the associated channel cut-and-fill sequences identified from the seismic data. We measured channel geometry at regular intervals along the channel length to evaluate system response to tectonic perturbation, and we used this data to help us approximate the down-system distribution of bed shear stress, and hence incision capacity. Initial results show that changes in submarine channel longitudinal profiles are directly correlated to underlying seabed thrusts and folds. Channels gradients are typically linear to slightly concave, and have an average gradient of 0.90. Actively growing thrusts are associated with a local steepening in channel gradient (up to 200% change), which typically extends 0.5 to 2 km upstream of the fault. Within these "knickzones

  9. Dimensional Reduction Near the Horizon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba, Z.

    2008-11-01

    In the Euclidean formulation of functional integration we discuss a dimensional reduction of quantum field theory near the horizon in terms of Green functions. We show that a massless scalar quantum field in D dimensions can be approximated near the bifurcate Killing horizon by a massless two-dimensional conformal field.

  10. Arctic deepwater development drilling design considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokkinis, Theodore; Brinkmann, Carl R.; Ding, John; Fenz, Daniel M. [ExxonMobil Upstream Research Company, Houston, Texas (United States)], email: ted.kokkinis@exxonmobil.com, email: carl.r.brinkmann@exxonmobil.com, email: john.ding@exxonmobil.com, email: daniel.m.fenz@exxonmobil.com

    2010-07-01

    In the world, important amounts of oil and gas reserves are north of the Arctic Circle and a large part of it is located offshore in water depths over 100 meters. Accessing those deepwater areas presents important challenges due to the harsh environment and current methods are not viable, year round operations would be required to drill a large number of wells. The aim of this paper is to determine the design requirements for economic development of Arctic deepwater reservoirs and to highlight the new technologies needed to do so. This paper showed that overall system design should integrate a rapid disconnection capacity and a caisson shaped hull with a breaking cone at the waterline. In addition, developing the disconnection, ice management and re-supply systems were found to be the key technical challenges and the development of topsides drilling equipment and of a method of estimation of the ice loads were determined among the technology development required.

  11. Black strings ending on horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Nidal

    2012-12-01

    We construct an approximate static gravitational solution of the Einstein equations, with negative cosmological constant, describing a test black string stretching from the boundary of the Schwarzschild-AdS5 black brane toward the horizon. The construction builds on a derivative expansion method, assuming that the black brane metric changes slowly along the black string direction. We provide a solution up to second order in derivatives, and it implies, in particular, that the black string must shrink to zero size at the horizon of the black brane. In the near-horizon region of the black brane, where the two horizons intersect, we provide an exact solution of a cone that describes two intersecting horizons at different temperatures. Moreover, we show that this solution equally describes a thin and long black droplet.

  12. Deepwater Gulf of Mexico: high prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkland, G.

    2000-01-01

    The present and future role of the deepwater Gulf of Mexico to meeting natural gas requirements of the United States are reviewed.The steady increase in U.S. demand, outpacing U.S.supply for over 10 years and the increasing reliance by the USA on Canadian exports is demonstrated in conjunction with the '30 Tcf Challenge'. Regarding the Gulf of Mexico specifically, it is estimated that to meet expectations, production there needs to grow to 22 Bcfpd by 2020, especially the deepwater pools which have a potential of 80 to 140 Tcf over the next 50 years. These pools already produce as much oil as the shelf region, but only 25 per cent as much gas. To produce the expected 7 to 12 Bcfpd oil production must reach 4 million barrel of oil per day, which involves cycle time, new technologies and cost challenges. Much of the new technology needed is related to cutting costs and while good progress is being made, it is argued that further gains could occur if international technology were applied in the Gulf. The rate of success in exploration has also improved, with over one billion barrels of deepwater discoveries per year over the last four years. Cycle times have also improved, although the impact of cycle time in the deeper water regions is cause for some concern. The overall assessment is that to get the gas, one has to get the oil first, meaning that deepwater success is more dependent on oil prices than on gas prices. Nevertheless, the need for developing and applying new technologies remains paramount, including the application of existing foreign technologies that have proven successful elsewhere. It is equally important to demonstrate a high level of environmental stewardship, and to continue focusing on cycle time, including access to prospective acreage, a well-trained workforce, and reasonable regulatory and permitting requirements

  13. Confronting Space Debris: Strategies and Warnings from Comparable Examples Including Deepwater Horizon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    test, China launched a ballistic missile and hit the Fengyun-1C, a defunct Chinese weather satellite. This collision event generated a debris cloud...orbit will become overpopulated , and debris from the resulting conjunctions will likely start to interfere with the GEO belt. The graveyard orbit

  14. Distinct bacterial communities in surficial seafloor sediments following the 2010 Deepwater Horizon blowout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Yang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A major fraction of the petroleum hydrocarbons discharged during the 2010 Macondo oil spill became associated with and sank to the seafloor as marine snow flocs. This sedimentation pulse induced the development of distinct bacterial communities. Between May 2010 and July 2011, full-length 16S rRNA gene clone libraries demonstrated bacterial community succession in oil-polluted sediment samples near the wellhead area. Libraries from early May 2010, before the sedimentation event, served as the baseline control. Freshly deposited oil-derived marine snow was collected on the surface of sediment cores in September 2010, and was characterized by abundantly detected members of the marine Roseobacter cluster within the Alphaproteobacteria. Samples collected in mid-October 2010 closest to the wellhead contained members of the sulfate-reducing, anaerobic bacterial families Desulfobacteraceae and Desulfobulbaceae within the Deltaproteobacteria, suggesting that the oil-derived sedimentation pulse triggered bacterial oxygen consumption and created patchy anaerobic microniches that favored sulfate-reducing bacteria. Phylotypes of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading genus Cycloclasticus, previously found both in surface oil slicks and the deep hydrocarbon plume, were also found in oil-derived marine snow flocs sedimenting on the seafloor in September 2010, and in surficial sediments collected in October and November 2010, but not in any of the control samples. Due to the relative recalcitrance and stability of polycyclic aromatic compounds, Cycloclasticus represents the most persistent microbial marker of seafloor hydrocarbon deposition that we could identify in this dataset. The bacterial imprint of the DWH oil spill had diminished in late November 2010, when the bacterial communities in oil-impacted sediment samples collected near the Macondo wellhead began to resemble their pre-spill counterparts and spatial controls. Samples collected in summer of 2011 did not show a consistent bacterial community signature, suggesting that the bacterial community was no longer shaped by the DWH fallout of oil-derived marine snow, but instead by location-specific and seasonal factors.

  15. 78 FR 33431 - Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill; Notice of Intent To Prepare a Programmatic Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... approximately $71 million, through the Phase I Early Restoration Plan/Environmental Assessment (Phase I ERP) and Phase II Early Restoration Plan/ Environmental Review (Phase II ERP). These plans are available at: http... draft, a Phase I ERP in April 2012. In December 2012, after public review of a draft, the Trustees...

  16. Combined Effects of Deepwater Horizon Crude Oil and Environmental Stressors on Fundulus grandis Embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Maria L; Jones, Elizabeth R; Klinkhamer, Christopher; Mahapatra, Cecon T; Serafin, Jennifer; Bosker, Thijs; Perkins, Christopher; Griffitt, Robert J; De Guise, Sylvain; Sepúlveda, Maria S

    2018-04-16

    In this study, we examined how sensitivity to oil changes in combination with environmental stressors in Fundulus grandis embryos. We exposed embryos (< 24 hours post fertilization) to a range of High Energy Water Accommodated Fraction (HEWAF) concentrations (0-50 ppb total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) made from Macondo oil in conjunction with various environmental conditions (temperature: 20, 30°C; salinity: 3, 7, 30 practical salinity units (PSU); DO: 2, 6 mg/L). Endpoints included mortality, hatching rates, and expression of cytochrome p450 1a and 1c (cyp1a, cyp1c) in hatched larvae. There was 100% mortality for all fish under the 2 ppm dissolved oxygen (DO) regimes. For the 6 mg/L DO treatments, mortality and mean lethal time were generally higher in the 30°C treatments versus the 20°C treatments. Oil increased mortality in fish exposed to the highest concentration in the 20-3-6 (°C-PSU-mg/L), 25-7-6, and 30-30-6 conditions. Hatching was driven by environmental conditions, with oil exposure only having a significant impact on hatching in the 25-7-6 and 30-30-6 groups at the highest HEWAF exposure. Expression of cyp1a was upregulated in most treatment groups versus the controls, with cyp1c expression exhibiting a similar pattern. These data suggest interactive effects among temperature, salinity, and PAHs, highlighting a need to further assess the effects of oil exposure under various environmental conditions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Metabolic and spatio-taxonomic response of uncultivated seafloor bacteria following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handley, K. M.; Piceno, Y. M.; Hu, P.; Tom, L. M.; Mason, O. U.; Andersen, G. L.; Jansson, J. K.; Gilbert, J. A.

    2017-08-04

    The release of 700 million liters of oil into the Gulf of Mexico over a few months in 2010 produced dramatic changes in the microbial ecology of the water and sediment. Here, we reconstructed the genomes of 57 widespread uncultivated bacteria from post-spill deep-sea sediments, and recovered their gene expression pattern across the seafloor. These genomes comprised a common collection of bacteria that were enriched in heavily affected sediments around the wellhead. Although rare in distal sediments, some members were still detectable at sites up to 60 km away. Many of these genomes exhibited phylogenetic clustering indicative of common trait selection by the environment, and within half we identified 264 genes associated with hydrocarbon degradation. Alkane degradation ability was near ubiquitous among candidate hydrocarbon degraders, whereas just three harbored elaborate gene inventories for the degradation of alkanes and aromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Differential gene expression profiles revealed a spill-promoted microbial sulfur cycle alongside gene upregulation associated with PAH degradation. Gene expression associated with alkane degradation was widespread, although active alkane degrader identities changed along the pollution gradient. Analyses suggest that a broad metabolic capacity to respond to oil inputs exists across a large array of usually rare indigenous deep-sea bacteria.

  18. Faraway, so close: the stakes of Deepwater horizon oil spill seen from France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pioch, S.; Hay, H.; Levrel, H.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the NRDA (Natural Resource Damage Assessment) that was devised by the American National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) in 1996 to deal with the issue of compensating environmental damage. NRDA provides a clear framework for the different sides (victims, responsible persons...) involved in redressing environmental damage. The key element of this procedure is to impose remedial actions to be taken for recovering the initial state of the environment rather than to pay direct financial compensation. The European directive on the environmental accountability has been inspired by NRDA. (A.C.)

  19. Learning from Engineering Failures: A Case Study of the Deepwater Horizon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Mary Annette; Hunt, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Natural catastrophes and engineering failures provide timely, motivating, and conceptually rich backdrops for learning. Engineering educators have long embraced case studies of engineering failures as a sound pedagogical strategy for meeting several learning standards, such as "design within realistic constraints", and teaching failure…

  20. Ecological impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill: implications for immunotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summary of major Federal and multi-stake holder research efforts in response to the DWH spill, including laboratory oil dispersant testing, estimation of oil release rates and oil fate calculations, subsea monitoring, and post-spill assessments. Impacts from shoreline oiling, wil...

  1. 78 FR 26319 - Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill; Proposal of Future Early Restoration Projects and Environmental Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration [Docket No.: 130501428-3428... selected and implemented in accordance with the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA), the Framework Agreement... Service, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and Bureau of Land Management; National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  2. 77 FR 66626 - Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill; Draft Early Restoration Plan and Environmental Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-06

    ... of availability; request for comments. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA... Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), on behalf of the U.S. Department of Commerce; U.S. Department of... action is the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (33 U.S.C. 2701 et seq.), the implementing Natural Resource...

  3. 78 FR 8184 - DEEPWATER HORIZON Oil Spill; Final Phase II Early Restoration Plan and Environmental Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ...: Notice of availability of final report. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA... Management; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), on behalf of the U.S. Department of... ( [email protected] ). Authorities The authorities of this action are the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (33 U...

  4. 77 FR 23741 - DEEPWATER HORIZON Oil Spill; Final Phase I Early Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... accordance with the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA), the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), the... Wildlife Service, and Bureau of Land Management; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), on... of this action are the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (33 U.S.C. 2701 et seq.), the implementing Natural...

  5. Social Pharmacology: Expanding horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Rituparna; Alloza, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    In the current modern and global society, social changes are in constant evolution due to scientific progress (technology, culture, customs, and hygiene) and produce the freedom in individuals to take decisions by themselves or with their doctors toward drug consumption. In the arena of marketed drug products which includes society, individual, administration, and pharmaceutical industry, the young discipline emerged is social pharmacology or sociopharmacology. This science arises from clinical pharmacology, and deals with different parameters, which are important in creating knowledge on marketed drugs. However, the scope of “social pharmacology” is not covered by the so-called “Phase IV” alone, but it is the science that handles the postmarketing knowledge of drugs. The social pharmacology studies the “life cycle” of any marketed pharmaceutical product in the social terrain, and evaluates the effects of the real environment under circumstances totally different in the drug development process. Therefore, there are far-reaching horizons, plural, and shared predictions among health professionals and other, for beneficial use of a drug, toward maximizing the benefits of therapy, while minimizing negative social consequences. PMID:24987168

  6. Three theorems on near horizon extremal vanishing horizon geometries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sadeghian

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available EVH black holes are Extremal black holes with Vanishing Horizon area, where vanishing of horizon area is a result of having a vanishing one-cycle on the horizon. We prove three theorems regarding near horizon geometry of EVH black hole solutions to generic Einstein gravity theories in diverse dimensions. These generic gravity theories are Einstein–Maxwell-dilaton-Λ theories, and gauged or ungauged supergravity theories with U(1 Maxwell fields. Our three theorems are: (1 The near horizon geometry of any EVH black hole has a three dimensional maximally symmetric subspace. (2 If the energy momentum tensor of the theory satisfies strong energy condition either this 3d part is an AdS3, or the solution is a direct product of a locally 3d flat space and a d−3 dimensional part. (3 These results extend to the near horizon geometry of near-EVH black holes, for which the AdS3 part is replaced with BTZ geometry.

  7. New horizons in osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliviero, F; Ramonda, R; Punzi, L

    2010-09-17

    Osteoarthritis (OA), also known as degenerative joint disease, is the most frequent chronic musculoskeletal disease and the leading cause of disability in elderly persons. There are currently at least 27 million persons afflicted with OA in the United States, and the annual cost to society in medical care and wage loss is expected to reach nearly $100 billion dollars by 2020, with consequent increased spending on its diagnosis and treatment, side effect prevention, and loss of productivity. Despite this enormous burden, many aspects of OA are still unknown, with implications not only in terms of diagnosis and assessment but also with regard to therapy. Awareness of this state of affairs has attracted many researchers to this field, making OA one of the most actively studied sectors of rheumatology. Although some clinicians are unaware of recent advances, there is a large body of publications indicating that much has been achieved. Major progress has been made in formulating better definitions of risk factors, in particular in indicating the responsibility of biomechanical and genetic factors, and, with regard to pathogenesis, underlining the role of subchondral bone, cytokines and proteinases. Assessment of OA activity and its progression has been improved with the advent of biomarkers and new imaging procedures, in particular sonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), but also of better clinical instruments, including more reliable patient questionnaires. Information from ongoing studies may improve the to some extent incomplete definition of OA phenotypes. Finally, promising new horizons have been opened up even with regard to the treatment of OA, which is still for the most part unsatisfactory except for surgical replacement therapy. Numerous new substances have been formulated and the findings of trials studying their effects are encouraging, although much has yet to be done.

  8. Electrodynamics of the event horizon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punsly, B.; Coroniti, F.V.

    1989-01-01

    This paper is an investigation of the electrodynamics of the event horizon of a Kerr black hole. It is demonstrated that the event horizon behaves quite generally as an asymptotic vacuum infinity for axisymmetric, charge-neutral, accreting electromagnetic sources. This is in contrast with the general notion that the event horizon can be treated as an imperfect conductive membrane with a surface impedance of 4π/c. The conductive-membrane model has been incorporated into the more sophisticated membrane paradigm of Thorne, Price, and Macdonald by supplementing the model with the full equations of general relativity. In certain situations (in particular those of astrophysical interest), the conductive-membrane interpretation forms the appropriate set of pictures and images in the membrane paradigm. In this paper we reevaluate the specific gedanken experiments that were originally used to motivate the paradigm. We find that great care must be exercised if the detailed interaction of a black hole's external gravitational field with a magnetized plasma is modeled by the electrodynamics of the conductive horizon membrane. For ingoing flows of plasma or electromagnetic waves (when the hole is passively accepting information), the interpretation of the horizon as a vacuum infinity is equivalent to an imperfect conductor with a surface impedance of 4π/c (the impedance of the vacuum). In situations when an imperfect conductor should radiate information (such as a Faraday wheel) the event horizon cannot, since it is an infinity. The event horizon does not behave quite generally as an imperfect conductor, but has electrodynamic properties unique to itself

  9. Deepwater drilling; Jakten paa de store dyp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Recent technological development has made it possible to drill for oil and gas at the impressive depth of 3000 metres. An increasing part of the world's oil and gas discoveries are made in deep or ultra deep waters. Ultra deep waters are those exceeding 1500 metres. Since drilling at more than 500 metres started at the end of the 1970s, 32 discoveries of about 500 million barrels of extractable oil or gas have been made. These finds amount to almost 60 thousand millions barrels of oil equivalents. Most of the effort has been made in the coasts between Brazil, West Africa and the Gulf of Mexico. Deepwater projects have been a field of priority for Norwegian oil companies in their search for international commissions. It is frequently time-consuming, expensive and technologically challenging to drill at great depths. The article describes the Atlantis concept, which may reduce the complexities and costs of deepwater activities. This involves making an artificial sea bottom, which in the form of an air-filled buoy is anchored at a depth of 200 - 300 metres. Production wells or exploration wells and risers are extended from the real bottom to the artificial one.

  10. Moving Horizon Estimation and Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    successful and applied methodology beyond PID-control for control of industrial processes. The main contribution of this thesis is introduction and definition of the extended linear quadratic optimal control problem for solution of numerical problems arising in moving horizon estimation and control...... problems. Chapter 1 motivates moving horizon estimation and control as a paradigm for control of industrial processes. It introduces the extended linear quadratic control problem and discusses its central role in moving horizon estimation and control. Introduction, application and efficient solution....... It provides an algorithm for computation of the maximal output admissible set for linear model predictive control. Appendix D provides results concerning linear regression. Appendix E discuss prediction error methods for identification of linear models tailored for model predictive control....

  11. DEEPWATER AND NEARSHORE FOOD WEB CHARACTERIZATIONS IN LAKE SUPERIOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to the difficulty associated with sampling deep aquatic systems, food web relationships among deepwater fauna are often poorly known. We are characterizing nearshore versus offshore habitats in the Great Lakes and investigating food web linkages among profundal, pelagic, and ...

  12. Risk Analysis Methods for Deepwater Port Oil Transfer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-06-01

    This report deals with the risk analysis methodology for oil spills from the oil transfer systems in deepwater ports. Failure mode and effect analysis in combination with fault tree analysis are identified as the methods best suited for the assessmen...

  13. Beyond legitimacy : A case study in BP’s “Green Lashing”

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matejek, S.; Goessling, T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the issue of legitimacy and, in particular the processes of building, losing, and repairing environmental legitimacy in the context of the Deepwater Horizon case. Following the Deepwater Horizon catastrophe in 2010, BP plc. was accused of having set new records in the degree of

  14. New Horizons Mission to Pluto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Luis G.

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the trajectory that will take the New Horizons Mission to Pluto. Included are photographs of the spacecraft, the launch vehicle, the assembled vehicle as it is being moved to the launch pad and the launch. Also shown are diagrams of the assembled parts with identifying part names.

  15. Wave Height and Horizon Dip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Werf, Siebren; Shokaryev, Igor

    2015-01-01

    A mariner who takes the height of the sun or a star to find his position at sea, must correct his observation for horizon dip. Throughout history, dip values have been tabulated based on the idealized assumption of a perfectly flat sea. Literature on wave height correction for dip is scarce,

  16. Deepwater Nitrogen Fixation: Who's Doing it, Where, and Why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, J. P.; Weber, S.; Vogts, A.; Voss, M.; Saxton, M.; Joye, S. B.

    2016-02-01

    Nitrogen availability frequently limits marine primary production and N2-fixation plays an important role in supporting biological production in surface waters of many oligotrophic regions. Although subsurface waters typically contain high concentrations of nitrate and other nutrients, measurements from a variety of oceanic settings show measurable, and at times high rates of N2-fixation in deep, dark waters below the mixed layer. We have explored the distribution of N2-fixation throughout the water column of the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) during a series of cruises beginning shortly after the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill in 2010 and continuing at roughly annual intervals. These cruises allowed us to sample oligotrophic waters across a range of depths, and to explore the connections between the C and N cycles mediated by release of oil and gas (petrocarbon) from natural seeps as well as anthropogenic sources (e.g., the DWH). We used stable isotope abundances (15N and 13C) in particles and zooplankton in combination with experimental measurements of N2-fixation and CH4 assimilation to assess the contribution of oil- and gas-derived C to the pelagic food web, and the impact of CH4 releases on the pelagic C and N cycles. Our isotopic measurements document the movement of petrocarbon into the pelagic food web, and our experiments revealed that high rates of N2-fixation were widespread in deep water immediately after the DWH incident, and restricted to the vicinity of natural seeps in subsequent years. Unfortunately, these approaches provided no insight into the organisms actually responsible for N2-fixation and CH4-assimilation. We used nano-scale Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (nanoSIMS) to image the organisms responsible for these processes, and molecular approaches to explore the diversity of methanotrophs and diazotrophs present in the system. The ability to resolve isotopic distributions on the scale of individual cells is a critical part of bridging the gap between

  17. Sombric horizon: five decades without evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Antonio de Almeida

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The sombric horizon is a diagnostic subsurface horizon defined in the soil classification system of the United States (Soil Taxonomy and FAO (WRB, used to classify the soil at different categorical levels. The sombric horizon has a soil color darker than the overlying surface(s horizon(s, and must show illuvial humus accumulation features, though they are not associated with aluminum (Al, as in the spodic horizon, nor associated with sodium (Na, as in the natric horizon. There are also criteria to distinguish it from buried A horizons. However, since the first references and proposed concept of the sombric horizon in African soils made by Sys and co-workers in the 1960s, and adopted by the Soil Taxonomy edition of 1975, few modifications have been made to its definition. Moreover, the pedogenic process involved in illuvial humus accumulation in these horizons remains inadequately clarified, making the distinction between the sombric and spodic or buried A horizon difficult and unclear. This review reports the historical evolution of the sombric horizon concept, its definition and inconsistencies under different soil classification systems, and the current hypothesis, together with its fragilities, proposed to explain the soil illuvial humus accumulation. Although it is recognized that further research is necessary, alternative criteria are proposed for the definition of the sombric horizon in the Brazilian System of Soil Classification.

  18. Pricing Liquidity Risk with Heterogeneous Investment Horizons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beber, Alessandro; Driessen, Joost; Neuberger, A.; Tuijp, P

    We develop an asset pricing model with stochastic transaction costs and investors with heterogeneous horizons. Depending on their horizon, investors hold different sets of assets in equilibrium. This generates segmentation and spillover effects for expected returns, where the liquidity (risk)

  19. Entropy of black holes with multiple horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yun; Ma, Meng-Sen; Zhao, Ren

    2018-05-01

    We examine the entropy of black holes in de Sitter space and black holes surrounded by quintessence. These black holes have multiple horizons, including at least the black hole event horizon and a horizon outside it (cosmological horizon for de Sitter black holes and "quintessence horizon" for the black holes surrounded by quintessence). Based on the consideration that the two horizons are not independent each other, we conjecture that the total entropy of these black holes should not be simply the sum of entropies of the two horizons, but should have an extra term coming from the correlations between the two horizons. Different from our previous works, in this paper we consider the cosmological constant as the variable and employ an effective method to derive the explicit form of the entropy. We also try to discuss the thermodynamic stabilities of these black holes according to the entropy and the effective temperature.

  20. Hawking radiation from quasilocal dynamical horizons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-06

    Jan 6, 2016 ... Abstract. In completely local settings, we establish that a dynamically evolving spherically symmetric black hole horizon can be assigned a Hawking temperature and with the emission of flux, radius of the horizon shrinks.

  1. Cosmological and black hole apparent horizons

    CERN Document Server

    Faraoni, Valerio

    2015-01-01

    This book overviews the extensive literature on apparent cosmological and black hole horizons. In theoretical gravity, dynamical situations such as gravitational collapse, black hole evaporation, and black holes interacting with non-trivial environments, as well as the attempts to model gravitational waves occurring in highly dynamical astrophysical processes, require that the concept of event horizon be generalized. Inequivalent notions of horizon abound in the technical literature and are discussed in this manuscript. The book begins with a quick review of basic material in the first one and a half chapters, establishing a unified notation. Chapter 2 reminds the reader of the basic tools used in the analysis of horizons and reviews the various definitions of horizons appearing in the literature. Cosmological horizons are the playground in which one should take baby steps in understanding horizon physics. Chapter 3 analyzes cosmological horizons, their proposed thermodynamics, and several coordinate systems....

  2. Response of deep-water corals to oil and chemical dispersant exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLeo, Danielle M.; Ruiz-Ramos, Dannise V.; Baums, Iliana B.; Cordes, Erik E.

    2016-07-01

    Cold-water corals serve as important foundation species by building complex habitat within deep-sea benthic communities. Little is known about the stress response of these foundation species yet they are increasingly exposed to anthropogenic disturbance as human industrial presence expands further into the deep sea. A recent prominent example is the Deepwater Horizon oil-spill disaster and ensuing clean-up efforts that employed chemical dispersants. This study examined the effects of bulk oil-water mixtures, water-accommodated oil fractions, the dispersant Corexit 9500A®, and the combination of hydrocarbons and dispersants on three species of corals living near the spill site in the Gulf of Mexico between 500 and 1100 m depths: Paramuricea type B3, Callogorgia delta and Leiopathes glaberrima. Following short-term toxicological assays (0-96 h), all three coral species examined showed more severe health declines in response to dispersant alone (2.3-3.4 fold) and the oil-dispersant mixtures (1.1-4.4 fold) than in the oil-only treatments. Higher concentrations of dispersant alone and the oil-dispersant mixtures resulted in more severe health declines. C. delta exhibited somewhat less severe health declines than the other two species in response to oil and oil/dispersant mixture treatments, likely related to its increased abundance near natural hydrocarbon seeps. These experiments provide direct evidence for the toxicity of both oil and dispersant on deep-water corals, which should be taken into consideration in the development of strategies for intervention in future oil spills.

  3. New Horizons in Cationic Photopolymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Sangermano

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we report some recent advances and new horizons in UV-induced cationic photopolymerization. In particular, after a brief introduction on the discovery and affirmation of the cationic photopolymerization process, new efforts in the synthesis of cationic photoinitiators are reported. Subsequently, an interesting and absolutely new application is reported, related to the combination of Radical-Induced Cationic Photopolymerization with Frontal Polymerization, achieving the cross-linking of epoxy composites.

  4. Horizon universality and anomalous conductivities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gürsoy, Umut [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University,3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Tarrío, Javier [Departament de Física Fonamental and Institut de Ciències del Cosmos,Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, ES-08028, Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-10-08

    We show that the value of chiral conductivities associated with anomalous transport is universal in a general class of strongly coupled quantum field theories that admit a gravitational holographic dual in the large N limit. Our result only applies to theories in the presence of external gauge fields with no dynamical gluon fields. On the gravity side the result follows from near horizon universality of the fluctuation equations, similar to the holographic calculation of the shear viscosity.

  5. Strategies for restoration of deep-water coral ecosystems based on a global survey of oil and gas regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, E. E.; Jones, D.; Levin, L. A.

    2016-02-01

    The oil and gas industry is one of the most active agents of the global industrialization of the deep sea. The wide array of impacts following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill highlighted the need for a systematic review of existing regulations both in US waters and internationally. Within different exclusive economic zones, there are a wide variety of regulations regarding the survey of deep-water areas prior to leasing and the acceptable set-back distances from vulnerable marine ecosystems once they are discovered. There are also varying mitigation strategies for accidental release of oil and gas, including active monitoring systems, temporary closings of oil and gas production, and marine protected areas. The majority of these regulations are based on previous studies of typical impacts from oil and gas drilling, rather than accidental releases. However, the probability of an accident from standard operations increases significantly with depth. The Oil & Gas working group of the Deep Ocean Stewardship Initiative is an international partnership of scientists, managers, non-governmental organizations, and industry professionals whose goal is to review existing regulations for the oil & gas industry and produce a best practices document to advise both developed and developing nations on their regulatory structure as energy development moves into deeper waters.

  6. On black hole horizon fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuchin, K.L.

    1999-01-01

    A study of the high angular momentum particles 'atmosphere' near the Schwarzschild black hole horizon suggested that strong gravitational interactions occur at invariant distance of the order of 3 √M [2]. We present a generalization of this result to the Kerr-Newman black hole case. It is shown that the larger charge and angular momentum black hole bears, the larger invariant distance at which strong gravitational interactions occur becomes. This invariant distance is of order 3 √((r + 2 )/((r + - r - ))). This implies that the Planckian structure of the Hawking radiation of extreme black holes is completely broken

  7. Variable horizon in a peridynamic medium.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silling, Stewart Andrew; Littlewood, David John; Seleson, Pablo

    2014-10-01

    A notion of material homogeneity is proposed for peridynamic bodies with vari- able horizon but constant bulk properties. A relation is derived that scales the force state according to the position-dependent horizon while keeping the bulk properties un- changed. Using this scaling relation, if the horizon depends on position, artifacts called ghost forces may arise in a body under homogeneous deformation. These artifacts de- pend on the second derivative of horizon and can be reduced by use of a modified equilibrium equation using a new quantity called the partial stress . Bodies with piece- wise constant horizon can be modeled without ghost forces by using a technique called a splice between the regions. As a limiting case of zero horizon, both partial stress and splice techniques can be used to achieve local-nonlocal coupling. Computational examples, including dynamic fracture in a one-dimensional model with local-nonlocal coupling, illustrate the methods.

  8. Smooth horizons and quantum ripples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovnev, Alexey

    2015-01-01

    Black holes are unique objects which allow for meaningful theoretical studies of strong gravity and even quantum gravity effects. An infalling and a distant observer would have very different views on the structure of the world. However, a careful analysis has shown that it entails no genuine contradictions for physics, and the paradigm of observer complementarity has been coined. Recently this picture was put into doubt. In particular, it was argued that in old black holes a firewall must form in order to protect the basic principles of quantum mechanics. This AMPS paradox has already been discussed in a vast number of papers with different attitudes and conclusions. Here we want to argue that a possible source of confusion is the neglect of quantum gravity effects. Contrary to widespread perception, it does not necessarily mean that effective field theory is inapplicable in rather smooth neighbourhoods of large black hole horizons. The real offender might be an attempt to consistently use it over the huge distances from the near-horizon zone of old black holes to the early radiation. We give simple estimates to support this viewpoint and show how the Page time and (somewhat more speculative) scrambling time do appear. (orig.)

  9. Cartan invariants and event horizon detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, D.; Chavy-Waddy, P. C.; Coley, A. A.; Forget, A.; Gregoris, D.; MacCallum, M. A. H.; McNutt, D. D.

    2018-04-01

    We show that it is possible to locate the event horizon of a black hole (in arbitrary dimensions) by the zeros of certain Cartan invariants. This approach accounts for the recent results on the detection of stationary horizons using scalar polynomial curvature invariants, and improves upon them since the proposed method is computationally less expensive. As an application, we produce Cartan invariants that locate the event horizons for various exact four-dimensional and five-dimensional stationary, asymptotically flat (or (anti) de Sitter), black hole solutions and compare the Cartan invariants with the corresponding scalar curvature invariants that detect the event horizon.

  10. Simulation ofDeepwater Horizonoil plume reveals substrate specialization within a complex community of hydrocarbon degraders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ping; Dubinsky, Eric A; Probst, Alexander J; Wang, Jian; Sieber, Christian M K; Tom, Lauren M; Gardinali, Piero R; Banfield, Jillian F; Atlas, Ronald M; Andersen, Gary L

    2017-07-11

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) accident released an estimated 4.1 million barrels of oil and 10 10 mol of natural gas into the Gulf of Mexico, forming deep-sea plumes of dispersed oil droplets and dissolved gases that were largely degraded by bacteria. During the course of this 3-mo disaster a series of different bacterial taxa were enriched in succession within deep plumes, but the metabolic capabilities of the different populations that controlled degradation rates of crude oil components are poorly understood. We experimentally reproduced dispersed plumes of fine oil droplets in Gulf of Mexico seawater and successfully replicated the enrichment and succession of the principal oil-degrading bacteria observed during the DWH event. We recovered near-complete genomes, whose phylogeny matched those of the principal biodegrading taxa observed in the field, including the DWH Oceanospirillales (now identified as a Bermanella species), multiple species of Colwellia , Cycloclasticus , and other members of Gammaproteobacteria, Flavobacteria, and Rhodobacteria. Metabolic pathway analysis, combined with hydrocarbon compositional analysis and species abundance data, revealed substrate specialization that explained the successional pattern of oil-degrading bacteria. The fastest-growing bacteria used short-chain alkanes. The analyses also uncovered potential cooperative and competitive relationships, even among close relatives. We conclude that patterns of microbial succession following deep ocean hydrocarbon blowouts are predictable and primarily driven by the availability of liquid petroleum hydrocarbons rather than natural gases.

  11. Based on BP Neural Network Stock Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangwei; Ma, Xin

    2012-01-01

    The stock market has a high profit and high risk features, on the stock market analysis and prediction research has been paid attention to by people. Stock price trend is a complex nonlinear function, so the price has certain predictability. This article mainly with improved BP neural network (BPNN) to set up the stock market prediction model, and…

  12. 76 FR 77990 - Ultra-Deepwater Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    ... be made to include all who wish to speak. Public comment will follow the three minute rule. Minutes..., Welcome, Introductions, Opening Remarks, Overview of the Section 999 Research Portfolio (Ultra-Deepwater and NETL Complementary Research). 1 p.m.-4:45 p.m.: Overview of Draft 2012 Annual Plan. 4:45 p.m.-5 p...

  13. Deepwater extended well testing in the Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cribbs, M.E. Jr.; Voss, J.D.; DeCarlo, L.J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines deepwater Gulf of Mexico well testing and the need for extended well testing from the oil company's perspective. Well test objectives together with possible facility arrangements are examined as they integrate with the DeepStar project's modular field development facility arrangement

  14. GB 388 -- An independent's approach to deepwater development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blincow, R.M.; Whittenburg, L.A.; Pickard, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    As the oil industry moves toward greater water depths in search of viable investment opportunities, cost effective, fast track development schemes must be cultivated to overcome the economic obstacles inherent to deepwater field development. While every deepwater development is different and each presents its own unique problems, the dilemma of justifying the costs, minimizing the lead time to first revenue and minimizing the associated risk are common to all projects. The Garden Banks 388 project has successfully utilized the project management concepts, and methodologies presented in this paper to develop a relatively low cost, low risk, fast track approach to deepwater development in the Gulf of Mexico. This paper describes the production system concept, management style and philosophy which have been employed to develop Garden Banks 388. The paper also discusses why the Floating Production System is considered the best alternative for this particular application. Many of the ideas and strategies used in this project can be applied to any project, whether it be deepwater or more conventional types of projects

  15. Optical geometry across the horizon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonsson, Rickard

    2006-01-01

    In a recent paper (Jonsson and Westman 2006 Class. Quantum Grav. 23 61), a generalization of optical geometry, assuming a non-shearing reference congruence, is discussed. Here we illustrate that this formalism can be applied to (a finite four-volume) of any spherically symmetric spacetime. In particular we apply the formalism, using a non-static reference congruence, to do optical geometry across the horizon of a static black hole. While the resulting geometry in principle is time dependent, we can choose the reference congruence in such a manner that an embedding of the geometry always looks the same. Relative to the embedded geometry the reference points are then moving. We discuss the motion of photons, inertial forces and gyroscope precession in this framework

  16. Hawking radiation from quasilocal dynamical horizons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    asymptotic observers perceive a thermal state and assign a physical temperature to the black hole. ... We construct positive frequency field modes on both sides of the horizon by considering the Kodama vec- tor field but the outgoing modes exhibit logarithmic singularities on the horizon under some approximation. However ...

  17. Competition, Time Horizon and Corporate Social Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafland, J.J.; Smid, H.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: This paper develops and tests a conceptual framework on the relationships between competition, time horizon and corporate social performance (CSP). We hypothesize that more intense competition discourages CSP by lowering the time horizon of companies. We test the hypothesis on a sample of

  18. The NMC Horizon Report: 2015 Museum Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L.; Adams Becker, S.; Estrada, V.; Freeman, A.

    2015-01-01

    The internationally recognized series of "Horizon Reports" is part of the New Media Consortium's Horizon Project, a comprehensive research venture established in 2002 that identifies and describes emerging technologies likely to have a large impact over the coming years on a variety of sectors around the globe. This "2015 Horizon…

  19. The Horizon Report: 2010 Museum Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L.; Witchey, H.; Smith, R.; Levine, A.; Haywood, K.

    2010-01-01

    The internationally recognized series of "Horizon Reports" is part of the New Media Consortium's Horizon Project, a comprehensive research venture established in 2002 that identifies and describes emerging technologies likely to have a large impact over the coming five years on a variety of sectors around the globe. This volume, the "2010 Horizon…

  20. Home and Online Management and Evaluation of Blood Pressure (HOME BP) digital intervention for self-management of uncontrolled, essential hypertension: a protocol for the randomised controlled HOME BP trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band, Rebecca; Morton, Katherine; Stuart, Beth; Raftery, James; Bradbury, Katherine; Yao, Guiqing Lily; Zhu, Shihua; Little, Paul; Yardley, Lucy; McManus, Richard J

    2016-11-07

    Self-management of hypertension, including self-monitoring and antihypertensive medication titration, lowers blood pressure (BP) at 1 year compared to usual care. The aim of the current trial is to assess the effectiveness of the Home and Online Management and Evaluation of Blood Pressure (HOME BP) intervention for the self-management of hypertension in primary care. The HOME BP trial will be a randomised controlled trial comparing BP self-management-consisting of the HOME BP online digital intervention with self-monitoring, lifestyle advice and antihypertensive drug titration-with usual care for people with uncontrolled essential hypertension. Eligible patients will be recruited from primary care and randomised to usual care or to self-management using HOME BP. The primary outcome will be the difference in mean systolic BP (mm Hg) at 12-month follow-up between the intervention and control groups adjusting for baseline BP and covariates. Secondary outcomes (also adjusted for baseline and covariates where appropriate) will be differences in mean BP at 6 months and diastolic BP at 12 months; patient enablement; quality of life, and economic analyses including all key resources associated with the intervention and related services, adopting a broad societal perspective to include NHS, social care and patient costs, considered within trial and modelled with a lifetime horizon. Medication beliefs, adherence and changes; self-efficacy; perceived side effects and lifestyle changes will be measured for process analyses. Qualitative analyses will explore patient and healthcare professional experiences of HOME BP to gain insights into the factors affecting acceptability, feasibility and adherence. This study has received NHS ethical approval (REC reference 15/SC/0082). The findings from HOME BP will be disseminated widely through peer-reviewed publications, scientific conferences and workshops. If successful, HOME BP will be directly applicable to UK primary care

  1. AcEST: BP911840 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000009_G07 495 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000009_G07. BP911840 - Show BP91184...is mRNA. clone: YMU001_000009_G07. Accession BP911840 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage - Contig I...protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP91184...earch programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP911840|Adiantum capillu

  2. AcEST: BP918406 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000113_B06 468 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000113_B06. BP918406 - Show BP918406...is mRNA. clone: YMU001_000113_B06. Accession BP918406 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage - Contig I...programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP918406|Adiantum capillus-vene...ams, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP918406|Adiantum capillus-veneris m

  3. AcEST: BP919841 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000129_G06 496 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000129_G06. BP919841 - Show BP91984...is mRNA. clone: YMU001_000129_G06. Accession BP919841 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage - Contig I...ase search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP919841|Adiantum ca...e search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP919841|Adiantum capi

  4. AcEST: BP920186 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000134_A11 504 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000134_A11. BP920186 - Show BP92018...is mRNA. clone: YMU001_000134_A11. Accession BP920186 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage - Contig I...ew generation of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP92018...atabase search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP920186|Adiantu

  5. 75 FR 36773 - Pipeline Safety: Updating Facility Response Plans in Light of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... to ensure the safe, reliable, and environmentally sound operation of the Nation's pipeline transportation system. Pursuant to authority delegated under the Oil Pollution Act of 1990, 33 U.S.C. 1321, and...

  6. Changes in Marsh Vegetation, Stability and Dissolved Organic Carbon in Barataria Bay Marshes Following the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, J. M.; Aiken, G.; Kokaly, R. F.; Heckman, D.; Butler, K.; Mills, C. T.; Hoefen, T. M.; Piazza, S.

    2010-12-01

    Coastal wetlands in Southern Louisiana were contaminated by the release of record volumes of oil between April and July 2010. Barataria Bay was extensively impacted, resulting in the oiling and dieback of marsh grasses along a discontinuous margin up to 30m into the marshes. Shoreline stability and biogeochemistry have been monitored over three site visits between between July 10 and August 25, 2010. Initial observations in early July were that grasses, dominantly shape Spartina alterniflora and shape Juncus roemerianus, were bent over under the weight of a thick oil coating. The bent-over grasses were broken off along some reaches, leaving a stubbled shoreline more susceptible to erosion. Repeated site visits in mid and late August found visible erosion along some of the effected shorelines. Water samples were collected from the shoreline marsh remnants and from visibly unaffected marshes to characterize dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total dissolved nitrogen (TDN). In spite of visible oil sheens in unfiltered water from contaminated shorelines and no visible sign of impact on vegetation in the “control” sites with no visible oil on vegetation, DOC concentrations were similar in impacted and visibly unimpacted sites in Barataria Bay. Subsequent samples in mid- and late-August had increased DOC concentrations relative to previous sample events regardless of whether the site was visibly impacted. There was a general increase in specific UV absorbance (SUVA), an index of aromaticity, with increasing DOC concentrations, either due to seasonal effects or continued dissolution of petroleum compounds. Further chemical characterization using fluorescence and gas chromatography will be used to confirm the presence of petroleum compounds. The ratio of DOC to TDN also increased over time, which may have implications for vegetation regrowth and plant community structure, including the shift of grass species dominating effected marshes. These initial findings suggest that while some shorelines have overtly visible impacts from the oil slick that reached Barataria Bay, there are also less visible indications that there may be a more comprehensive biogeochemical effect from the oil incursion throughout Barataria Bay.

  7. Transport of Blue Crab Larvae in the Northern Gulf of Mexico During the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-11

    estuarine-dependent species in the west- ern Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico (GOM), where it supports profitable commercial and recreational fish - eries... freshwater discharges from 112 rivers or runoff points are also applied, and open boundary condi- tions are provided by the large-scale Intra...Hastings A, Harrison S (1994) Metapopulation dynamics and genetics. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 25:167-188 )>- Hedgecock D, Barber PH , Edmands S

  8. Effects of COREXIT (registered trademark) EC9500A on Bacteria from a Beach Oiled by the Deepwater Horizon Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    bacterioplankton and microbially labile organic carbon along the salinity gradient of the Potomac River. Estuar Coast 29:40–53 Hamdan LJ, Gillevet PM...black band disease. Dis Aquat Org 87: 79–90 Salter I, Zubkov MV, Warwick PE, Burkill PH (2009) Marine bacterioplankton can increase evaporation and gas

  9. 78 FR 73555 - Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill; Draft Programmatic and Phase III Early Restoration Plan and Draft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... comments. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA) and the National Environmental... Bureau of Land Management; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), on behalf of the U.S.../deepwaterhorizon . Authority The authority of this action is the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (33 U.S.C. 2701 et seq...

  10. 75 FR 32273 - Safety Zone; DEEPWATER HORIZON at Mississippi Canyon 252 Outer Continental Shelf MODU in the Gulf...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... of large commercial shipping vessels, fishing vessels, cruise ships, tugs with tows and the... governments and would either preempt State law or impose a substantial direct cost of compliance on them. We... standards would be inconsistent with applicable law or otherwise impractical. Voluntary consensus standards...

  11. 75 FR 26091 - Safety Zone; Riser for DEEPWATER HORIZON at Mississippi Canyon 252 Outer Continental Shelf MODU...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ..., fishing vessels, cruise ships, tugs with tows and the occasional recreational vessel. Results from a... has a substantial direct effect on State or local governments and would either preempt State law or... explanation of why using these standards would be inconsistent with applicable law or otherwise impractical...

  12. Horizon quantum mechanics of rotating black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casadio, Roberto [Universita di Bologna, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Bologna (Italy); I.N.F.N., Sezione di Bologna, I.S. FLAG, Bologna (Italy); Giugno, Andrea [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Arnold Sommerfeld Center, Munich (Germany); Giusti, Andrea [Universita di Bologna, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Bologna (Italy); I.N.F.N., Sezione di Bologna, I.S. FLAG, Bologna (Italy); Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Arnold Sommerfeld Center, Munich (Germany); Micu, Octavian [Institute of Space Science, Bucharest, P.O. Box MG-23, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)

    2017-05-15

    The horizon quantum mechanics is an approach that was previously introduced in order to analyze the gravitational radius of spherically symmetric systems and compute the probability that a given quantum state is a black hole. In this work, we first extend the formalism to general space-times with asymptotic (ADM) mass and angular momentum. We then apply the extended horizon quantum mechanics to a harmonic model of rotating corpuscular black holes. We find that simple configurations of this model naturally suppress the appearance of the inner horizon and seem to disfavor extremal (macroscopic) geometries. (orig.)

  13. Implementing VMware Horizon View 5.2

    CERN Document Server

    Ventresco, Jason

    2013-01-01

    A step-by-step tutorial covering all components of the View Horizon suite in detail, to ensure that you can utilize all features of the platform, and discover all of the possible ways that it can be used within your own environment.If you are a newcomer in system administration, and you wish to implement a small to midsized Horizon View environment, then this book is for you. It will also benefit individuals who wish to administrate and manage Horizon View more efficiently or are studying for the VCP5-DT.

  14. Dynamical symmetry enhancement near IIA horizons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gran, University; Gutowski, J.; Kayani, University; Papadopoulos, G.

    2015-01-01

    We show that smooth type IIA Killing horizons with compact spatial sections preserve an even number of supersymmetries, and that the symmetry algebra of horizons with non-trivial fluxes includes an sl(2,ℝ) subalgebra. This confirms the conjecture of http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP11(2013)104 for type IIA horizons. As an intermediate step in the proof, we also demonstrate new Lichnerowicz type theorems for spin bundle connections whose holonomy is contained in a general linear group.

  15. AcEST: BP919751 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000128_G01 537 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000128_G01. BP919751 - Show BP9197...is mRNA. clone: YMU001_000128_G01. Accession BP919751 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage - Contig I... new generation of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP9197...N=TP53BP1 PE=1 SV=2 Length = 1972 Score = 33.9 bits (76), Expect = 0.51 Identitie...se search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP919751|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone:

  16. 3D AUV Microseismic Implementation for Deepwater Seabed Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, R.; Taylor, M. W.; Gravely, J. G.

    2005-05-01

    Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) technology, developed commercially over the past 5 years, allows for the geophysical investigation of the seabed on the deepwater continental slope at resolutions, data densities and timelines not previously attainable. High-resolution geophysical systems normally employed on deepwater survey AUVs consist of multibeam bathymetry, side scan sonar and subbottom profiler. Inertial navigation allows positioning accuracies on the order of plus or minus 3 meters in depths up to 2,000 meters. C & C Technologies, Inc. owns and operates the C-Surveyor I AUV, which has collected more than 40,000 km of geohazard survey data on the continental slopes of the Gulf of Mexico, Mediterranean Sea, Brazil and West Africa. The oil and gas industry routinely engineers deepwater platform-mooring systems and other bottom founded subsea systems for exploration and production developments. Resolute subbottom imaging of the foundation zone in order to identify the near-seafloor geologic conditions at these deepwater development sites is critical in order to maintain system integrity. The paper describes the methodology and post-processing techniques used to create a high-resolution (2-8 kHz) 3D seismic cube from subbottom profiler data collected from an AUV system. Data examples of the multibeam bathymetry, side scan sonar and 2D seismic profiles will be provided to complement the results of the 3D seismic cube processing. Examples of inlines, crosslines, arbitrary lines, seafloor amplitude extraction and time slices are presented for the 4-meter binned data set. Advantages, disadvantages and suggested improvements for the survey acquisition technique and post processing are discussed.

  17. 77 FR 53191 - Ultra-Deepwater Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    ... follow the three minute rule. Minutes: The minutes of this meeting will be available for public review.... Registration. 8:00 a.m.-12:00 p.m. Call to Order, Welcome, Introductions, Opening Remarks, Overview of the Oil and Gas Ultra-Deepwater Research Portfolio. 1:00 p.m.-4:45 p.m. Overview of Draft 2013 Annual Plan. 4...

  18. Deep-water northern Gulf of Mexico hydrocarbon plays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, R.H.; Cooke, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    The geologic setting in the deep-water (depths greater than 1,500 feet) Gulf of Mexico is very favorable for the existence of large, commercial hydrocarbon accumulations. These areas have active salt tectonics that create abundant traps, underlying mature Mesozoic source rocks that can be observed expelling oil and gas to the ocean surface, and good quality reservoirs provided by turbidite sand deposits. Despite the limited amount of drilling in the deep-water Gulf of Mexico, 11 deep-water accumulations have been discovered which, when developed, will rank in the top 100 largest fields in the Gulf of Mexico. Proved field discoveries (those with announced development plans) have added over 1 billion barrels of oil equivalent to Gulf of Mexico reserves, and unproved field discoveries may add to additional billion barrels of oil equivalent. The Minerals Management Service, United States Department of the Interior, has completed a gulf-wide review of over 1,086 oil and gas fields and placed every pay sand in each field into a hydrocarbon play (plays are defined by chronostratigraphy, lithostratigraph, structure, and production). Seven productive hydrocarbon plays were identified in the deep-water northern Gulf of Mexico. Regional maps illustrate the productive limits of each play. In addition, field data, dry holes, and wells with sub-economic pay were added to define the facies and structural limits for each play. Areas for exploration potential are identified for each hydrocarbon play. A type field for each play is chosen to demonstrate the play's characteristics

  19. Deep Water Horizon (HB1006, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monitor and measure the biological, chemical, and physical environment in the area of the oil spill from the deep water horizon oil rig in the Gulf of Mexico. A wide...

  20. New horizons exploring jupiter, pluto, and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Hamilton, John

    2017-01-01

    Simple text and "out-of-this-world" photography introduce readers to NASA's New Horizons space probe, and its mission to explore Jupiter, Pluto, and the mysterious objects of the Kuiper Belt. Important details include planning and construction of New Horizons, its launch from Earth, flybys of Jupiter and Pluto, and its continuing mission beyond our solar system. Aligned to Common Core Standards and correlated to state standards. A&D Xtreme is an imprint of Abdo Publishing, a division of ABDO.

  1. VMware Horizon View 6 desktop virtualization cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Ventresco, Jason

    2014-01-01

    If you want a more detailed explanation concerning the implementation of several different core features of VMware Horizon View, this is the book for you. Whether you are new to VMware Horizon View or an existing user, this book will provide you with the knowledge you need to successfully deploy several core features and get introduced to the latest features of version 6.0 as well.

  2. Hawking radiation from quasilocal dynamical horizons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The space–time is said to con- tain a black hole if M is not contained in J−(I +). The black hole region is denoted by. B = M − J−(I +) and the event horizon is the boundary of B [2]. The definition of event horizon thus requires that we are able to construct the future null infinity I + and hence, the entire future of the space–time ...

  3. Visual sensitivity of deepwater fishes in Lake Superior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly A Harrington

    Full Text Available The predator-prey interactions in the offshore food web of Lake Superior have been well documented, but the sensory systems mediating these interactions remain unknown. The deepwater sculpin, (Myoxocephalus thompsoni, siscowet (Salvelinus namaycush siscowet, and kiyi (Coregonus kiyi inhabit low light level environments. To investigate the potential role of vision in predator-prey interactions, electroretinography was used to determine visual sensitivity for each species. Spectral sensitivity curves revealed peak sensitivity at 525 nm for each species which closely corresponds to the prevalent downwelling light spectrum at depth. To determine if sufficient light was available to mediate predator-prey interactions, visual sensitivity was correlated with the intensity of downwelling light in Lake Superior to construct visual depth profiles for each species. Sufficient daytime irradiance exists for visual interactions to approximately 325 m for siscowet and kiyi and 355 m for the deepwater sculpin during summer months. Under full moon conditions, sufficient irradiance exists to elicit ERG response to light available at approximately 30 m for the siscowet and kiyi and 45 m for the deepwater sculpin. Visual interactions are therefore possible at the depths and times when these organisms overlap in the water column indicating that vision may play a far greater role at depth in deep freshwater lakes than had been previously documented.

  4. Horizons of hermeneutics: Intercultural hermeneutics in a globalizing world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. de Mul (Jos)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractStarting from the often-used metaphor of the "horizon of experience" this article discusses three different types of intercultural hermeneutics, which respectively conceive hermeneutic interpretation as a widening of horizons, a fusion of horizons, and a dissemination of horizons. It is

  5. CtBP1 overexpression in keratinocytes perturbs skin homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hui; Li, Fulun; Li, Hong; Deng, Yu; Liu, Jing; Wang, Donna; Han, Gangwen; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Zhang, Qinghong

    2014-05-01

    Carboxyl-terminal-binding protein-1 (CtBP1) is a transcriptional corepressor with multiple in vitro targets, but its in vivo functions are largely unknown. We generated keratinocyte-specific CtBP1 transgenic mice with a keratin-5 promoter (K5.CtBP1) to probe the pathological roles of CtBP1. At transgene expression levels comparable to endogenous CtBP1 in acute skin wounds, the K5.CtBP1 epidermis displayed hyperproliferation, loss of E-cadherin, and failed terminal differentiation. Known CtBP1 target genes associated with these processes, e.g., p21, Brca1, and E-cadherin, were downregulated in K5.CtBP1 skin. Surprisingly, K5.CtBP1 pups also exhibited a hair loss phenotype. We found that expression of the Distal-less 3 (Dlx3), a critical regulator of hair follicle differentiation and cycling, was decreased in K5.CtBP1 mice. Molecular studies revealed that CtBP1 directly suppressed Dlx3 transcription. Consistently, K5.CtBP1 mice displayed abnormal hair follicles with decreased expression of Dlx3 downstream targets Gata3, Hoxc13, and hair keratins. In summary, this CtBP1 transgenic model provides in vivo evidence for certain CtBP1 functions predicted from in vitro studies, reveals--to our knowledge--previously unreported functions and transcriptional activities of CtBP1 in the context of epithelial-mesenchymal interplay, and suggests that CtBP1 has a pathogenic role in hair follicle morphogenesis and differentiation.

  6. AcEST: BP911846 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000009_H02 62 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000009_H02. BP911846 - Show BP91184... mRNA. clone: YMU001_000009_H02. Accession BP911846 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage - Contig ID

  7. AcEST: BP919848 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000129_H02 84 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000129_H02. BP919848 - Show BP91984... mRNA. clone: YMU001_000129_H02. Accession BP919848 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage - Contig ID

  8. Deep-water Reservoir Modelling Using a volume-based approach on Full-Offset Seismic Data: Etim Field, Offshore Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nwaeri, E.; Zimbrick, G.; Proett, B.

    2002-01-01

    Reservoir characterization of deep-water deposits is a challenging task. Major issues to address include: (1) prediction of sand distribution away from well control, (2) definition of reservoir geometry and size, and (3) spatial placement of sand bodies in the geologic model. In a typical deep-water setting, lithostratigraphic correlation using well logs has been found to be unreliable. Seismic correlation is critical, but complications from mixed-impedance reservoir, and variations in frequency/phase content of available full stack data can arise.We describe a reservoir description workflow that utilizes both volume-and map-based conditioning tools, in the absence of AVO products. A good density of interpreted horizons was used to provide stratigraphic control on the volume interpretation techniques. Map pattern analysis of horizon slices helped focus environment of deposition (EOD) interpretations on key areas of reservoir development.A seismic wedge model helped develop an interpretation strategy and assess seismic data quality. Results showed that seed detection of trough-peak pairs gave a reasonable prediction of reservoir distribution at Etim.Seismic attributes were used to calibrate and predict net sand thickness. The predictions were integrated with EOD maps and well control to provide final net sand maps. Extracted geobodies from the sculpted seismic data were used to place sands in their proper position in the geologic model.The resulting geologic model preserves spatial positioning of the seismically derived reservoir elements and provides better definition of reservoir connectivity. This workflow is appropriate for fields where multi-volume (AVO) seismic data are unavailable and 3-D positioning of reservoir elements is required

  9. 75 FR 51374 - Regulated Navigation Areas, Safety Zones, Security Zones; Deepwater Ports in Boston Captain of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-20

    ...] RIN 1625-AA00, RIN 1625-AA11 Regulated Navigation Areas, Safety Zones, Security Zones; Deepwater Ports... Coast Guard is establishing regulated navigation areas (RNAs) and safety and security zones around the... ``Regulated Navigation Areas, Safety Zones, Security Zones; Deepwater Ports in Boston Captain of the Port Zone...

  10. 78 FR 49603 - Gulf Gateway Deepwater Port Decommissioning and License Termination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration [USCG-2003-14294] Gulf Gateway Deepwater Port... Approval of the Gulf Gateway Deepwater Port Decommissioning and License Termination. SUMMARY: The Maritime Administration (MARAD) announces its final clearance and authorization of the decommissioning of the Gulf Gateway...

  11. 76 FR 4417 - Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... Maritime Administration Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License... prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) as part of the environmental review of the Liberty... governing their licensing, and the receipt of the current application for the proposed Liberty Deepwater...

  12. AcEST: BP920006 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000131_H08 454 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000131_H08. BP92000...6 CL749Contig1 Show BP920006 Clone id YMU001_000131_H08 Library YMU01 Length 454 Definition Adiantum cap...illus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000131_H08. Accession BP920006 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage...rch programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP920006|Adiantum capillus-...n of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP920006|Adiantum capillus-ve

  13. AcEST: BP920008 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000131_H10 566 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000131_H10. BP920008 - Show BP92000...is mRNA. clone: YMU001_000131_H10. Accession BP920008 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage - Contig I...n database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP920008|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA,...Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP920008|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: YMU001_000131_H10. (566 lett

  14. AcEST: BP920004 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000131_H06 151 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000131_H06. BP920004 - Show BP92000...is mRNA. clone: YMU001_000131_H06. Accession BP920004 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage - Contig I...ds Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP920004|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: YMU0...AST: a new generation of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP920004|

  15. AcEST: BP920000 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000131_G10 490 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000131_G10. BP920000 - Show BP92000...is mRNA. clone: YMU001_000131_G10. Accession BP920000 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage - Contig I...eneration of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP92000...eration of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP920000|Adiantum capil

  16. AcEST: BP920002 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000131_G12 513 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000131_G12. BP92000...2 CL642Contig1 Show BP920002 Clone id YMU001_000131_G12 Library YMU01 Length 513 Definition Adiantum cap...illus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000131_G12. Accession BP920002 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage...on of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP92000...new generation of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP920002|Adiantu

  17. AcEST: BP918489 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000114_B02 201 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000114_B02. BP918489 - Show BP9184...is mRNA. clone: YMU001_000114_B02. Accession BP918489 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage - Contig I...pped BLAST and PSI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP9184...otein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP918489|Adiantum capillus-veneris m

  18. AcEST: BP918402 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000113_B01 496 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000113_B01. BP9184...02 CL402Contig1 Show BP918402 Clone id YMU001_000113_B01 Library YMU01 Length 496 Definition Adiantum cap...illus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000113_B01. Accession BP918402 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage...T: a new generation of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP9184...ST: a new generation of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP918402|A

  19. AcEST: BP918412 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000113_B12 606 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000113_B12. BP918412 - Show BP9184...is mRNA. clone: YMU001_000113_B12. Accession BP918412 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage - Contig I...eneration of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP9184...earch programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP918412|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: YMU0

  20. AcEST: BP913184 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000027_D12 485 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000027_D12. BP913184... CL748Contig1 Show BP913184 Clone id YMU001_000027_D12 Library YMU01 Length 485 Definition Adiantum cap...illus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000027_D12. Accession BP913184 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage...ein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP913184|Ad...h programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP913184|Adiantum capillus-ve

  1. AcEST: BP918421 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000113_C09 541 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000113_C09. BP9184...21 CL2140Contig1 Show BP918421 Clone id YMU001_000113_C09 Library YMU01 Length 541 Definition Adiantum ca...pillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000113_C09. Accession BP918421 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stag...I-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP9184...n of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP918421|Adiantum capillus-ve

  2. AcEST: BP915184 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000067_E05 573 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000067_E05. BP915184 - Show BP915184...is mRNA. clone: YMU001_000067_E05. Accession BP915184 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage - Contig I...ein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP915184|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRN...earch programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP915184|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: YMU0

  3. AcEST: BP918451 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000113_F06 261 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000113_F06. BP918451 - Show BP9184...is mRNA. clone: YMU001_000113_F06. Accession BP918451 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage - Contig I...ch programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP918451|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: YMU001_...tabase search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP918451|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clo

  4. AcEST: BP918444 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000113_E11 570 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000113_E11. BP918444 - Show BP9184...is mRNA. clone: YMU001_000113_E11. Accession BP918444 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage - Contig I...tion of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP918444|Adiantum capillus...base search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP918444|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone

  5. AcEST: BP918475 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000113_H07 490 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000113_H07. BP918475 - Show BP9184...is mRNA. clone: YMU001_000113_H07. Accession BP918475 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage - Contig I...of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP918475|Adiantum capillus-vene...ew generation of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP9184

  6. AcEST: BP918435 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000113_E01 558 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000113_E01. BP918435 - Show BP9184...is mRNA. clone: YMU001_000113_E01. Accession BP918435 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage - Contig I...h programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP918435|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: YMU001_0... BLAST and PSI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP9184

  7. AcEST: BP911848 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000009_H04 372 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000009_H04. BP911848 - Show BP91184...is mRNA. clone: YMU001_000009_H04. Accession BP911848 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage - Contig I...protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP911848|Adiantum capillus-veneris...n of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP911848|Adiantum capillus-ve

  8. AcEST: BP918425 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000113_D02 396 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000113_D02. BP9184...25 CL2176Contig1 Show BP918425 Clone id YMU001_000113_D02 Library YMU01 Length 396 Definition Adiantum ca...pillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000113_D02. Accession BP918425 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stag...T: a new generation of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP918425|Ad...ic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP918425|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone

  9. AcEST: BP918468 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000113_G12 202 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000113_G12. BP918468 - Show BP9184...is mRNA. clone: YMU001_000113_G12. Accession BP918468 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage - Contig I...T: a new generation of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP918468|Ad...tion of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP918468|Adiantum capillus

  10. AcEST: BP918411 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000113_B11 488 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000113_B11. BP9184...11 CL3724Contig1 Show BP918411 Clone id YMU001_000113_B11 Library YMU01 Length 488 Definition Adiantum ca...pillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000113_B11. Accession BP918411 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stag...rch programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP918411|Adiantum capillus-...), Gapped BLAST and PSI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP9184

  11. AcEST: BP918431 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000113_D08 339 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000113_D08. BP9184...31 CL1749Contig1 Show BP918431 Clone id YMU001_000113_D08 Library YMU01 Length 339 Definition Adiantum ca...pillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000113_D08. Accession BP918431 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stag...on of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP918431|Adiantum capillus-v...eneration of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP9184

  12. AcEST: BP918449 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000113_F04 232 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000113_F04. BP918449 - Show BP9184...is mRNA. clone: YMU001_000113_F04. Accession BP918449 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage - Contig I...eneration of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP918449|Adiantum cap...s. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP918449|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: YMU001_000113_F04. (232 letters) Dat

  13. AcEST: BP918459 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000113_G02 467 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000113_G02. BP918459 - Show BP9184...is mRNA. clone: YMU001_000113_G02. Accession BP918459 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage - Contig I...base search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP918459|Adiantum c..., Gapped BLAST and PSI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP9184

  14. AcEST: BP911842 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000009_G09 574 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000009_G09. BP91184...2 CL578Contig1 Show BP911842 Clone id YMU001_000009_G09 Library YMU01 Length 574 Definition Adiantum cap...illus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000009_G09. Accession BP911842 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage...AST: a new generation of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP911842|...: a new generation of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP91184

  15. AcEST: BP918184 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000110_E05 469 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000110_E05. BP918184... CL72Contig1 Show BP918184 Clone id YMU001_000110_E05 Library YMU01 Length 469 Definition Adiantum capi...llus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000110_E05. Accession BP918184 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage ...ic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP918184|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone... search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP918184|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: YM

  16. AcEST: BP911843 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000009_G10 434 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000009_G10. BP911843 - Show BP91184...is mRNA. clone: YMU001_000009_G10. Accession BP911843 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage - Contig I...SI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP91184...earch programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP911843|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: YMU0

  17. AcEST: BP911847 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000009_H03 495 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000009_H03. BP911847 - Show BP91184...is mRNA. clone: YMU001_000009_H03. Accession BP911847 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage - Contig I...otein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP911847|...protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP911847|Adiantum capillus-veneris...ogen synthase kinase-3 beta OS=Homo sa... 80 7e-15 sp|P51136|GSK3_DICDI Glycogen synthase kinase-3 OS=Dictyo

  18. AcEST: BP917184 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000097_D02 514 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000097_D02. BP917184 - Show BP917184...is mRNA. clone: YMU001_000097_D02. Accession BP917184 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage - Contig I...of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP917184...e search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP917184|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: Y

  19. AcEST: BP918416 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000113_C04 557 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000113_C04. BP918416 - Show BP9184...is mRNA. clone: YMU001_000113_C04. Accession BP918416 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage - Contig I...ms, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP918416|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: YMU001_000113_C0...PSI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP9184

  20. AcEST: BP918458 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000113_G01 479 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000113_G01. BP9184...58 CL2714Contig1 Show BP918458 Clone id YMU001_000113_G01 Library YMU01 Length 479 Definition Adiantum ca...pillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000113_G01. Accession BP918458 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stag... database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP918458|Adian...on of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP918458|Adiantum capillus-v

  1. AcEST: BP919184 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000122_B11 566 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000122_B11. BP919184 - Show BP919184...is mRNA. clone: YMU001_000122_B11. Accession BP919184 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage - Contig I...eic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP919184|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: YMU001_000122_B11. (566 ...ation of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP919184|Adiantum capillu

  2. AcEST: BP918441 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000113_E08 487 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000113_E08. BP9184...41 CL3521Contig1 Show BP918441 Clone id YMU001_000113_E08 Library YMU01 Length 487 Definition Adiantum ca...pillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000113_E08. Accession BP918441 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stag...database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP918441|Adiant...f protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP918441|Adiantum capillus-vener

  3. AcEST: BP919406 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000124_G04 562 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000124_G04. BP919406 - Show BP919406...is mRNA. clone: YMU001_000124_G04. Accession BP919406 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage - Contig I...ion of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP919406|Adiantum capillus-...ucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP919406|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, c

  4. AcEST: BP914061 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000039_D09 599 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000039_D09. BP91406...1 CL1730Contig1 Show BP914061 Clone id YMU001_000039_D09 Library YMU01 Length 599 Definition Adiantum ca...pillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000039_D09. Accession BP914061 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stag... a new generation of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP914061|Adia...database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP914061|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, c

  5. AcEST: BP914068 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000039_E04 420 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000039_E04. BP914068 - Show BP91406...is mRNA. clone: YMU001_000039_E04. Accession BP914068 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage - Contig I...PSI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP91406...se search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP914068|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone:

  6. AcEST: BP913406 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000029_H06 570 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000029_H06. BP913406 - Show BP913406...is mRNA. clone: YMU001_000029_H06. Accession BP913406 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage - Contig I...arch programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP913406|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: YMU00...eration of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP913406|Adiantum capil...LDVTRGLVNGARGVVVAFES--GKHG---------------LPH 406 Query: 387 VRFACNRAEIVIGPDRQTVESGGMQVARRIQVPLILAWALSVHKCQGM

  7. AcEST: BP915406 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000071_B11 433 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000071_B11. BP915406 - Show BP915406...is mRNA. clone: YMU001_000071_B11. Accession BP915406 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage - Contig I...Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP915406|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: Y...leic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP915406|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: YMU001_000071_B11. (433

  8. AcEST: BP914064 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000039_D12 560 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000039_D12. BP91406...4 CL532Contig1 Show BP914064 Clone id YMU001_000039_D12 Library YMU01 Length 560 Definition Adiantum cap...illus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000039_D12. Accession BP914064 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage...f protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP914064|Adiantum capillus-vener...: a new generation of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP914064|Adi

  9. AcEST: BP912406 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000018_F09 348 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000018_F09. BP912406... CL1894Contig1 Show BP912406 Clone id YMU001_000018_F09 Library YMU01 Length 348 Definition Adiantum ca...pillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000018_F09. Accession BP912406 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stag...in database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP912406|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA...n of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP912406

  10. AcEST: BP916406 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000087_D01 556 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000087_D01. BP916406... CL1913Contig1 Show BP916406 Clone id YMU001_000087_D01 Library YMU01 Length 556 Definition Adiantum ca...pillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000087_D01. Accession BP916406 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stag...ration of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP916406|Adiantum capill...database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP916406|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, c

  11. AcEST: BP917406 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000100_D10 492 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000100_D10. BP917406... CL2033Contig1 Show BP917406 Clone id YMU001_000100_D10 Library YMU01 Length 492 Definition Adiantum ca...pillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000100_D10. Accession BP917406 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stag...of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP917406...Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP917406|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA,

  12. AcEST: BP914406 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000058_E09 562 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000058_E09. BP914406... CL513Contig1 Show BP914406 Clone id YMU001_000058_E09 Library YMU01 Length 562 Definition Adiantum cap...illus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000058_E09. Accession BP914406 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage...tion of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP914406|Adiantum capillus...PSI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP914406

  13. AcEST: BP911984 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000011_F07 566 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000011_F07. BP911984... CL2332Contig1 Show BP911984 Clone id YMU001_000011_F07 Library YMU01 Length 566 Definition Adiantum ca...pillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000011_F07. Accession BP911984 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stag...tein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP911984|Adiantum capillus-veneris mR...I-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP911984

  14. AcEST: BP919843 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000129_G09 473 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000129_G09. BP91984...3 CL2697Contig1 Show BP919843 Clone id YMU001_000129_G09 Library YMU01 Length 473 Definition Adiantum ca...pillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000129_G09. Accession BP919843 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stag...ein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP919843|Ad...rotein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP919843|Adiantum capillus-veneris

  15. AcEST: BP919847 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000129_H01 512 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000129_H01. BP919847 - Show BP91984...is mRNA. clone: YMU001_000129_H01. Accession BP919847 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage - Contig I... new generation of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP91984...earch programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP919847|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: YMU0

  16. AcEST: BP919842 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000129_G07 567 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000129_G07. BP919842 - Show BP91984...is mRNA. clone: YMU001_000129_G07. Accession BP919842 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage - Contig I...otein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP919842|Adiantum capillus-veneris m...c Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP919842|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: YMU001_000129_G07. (567 le

  17. AcEST: BP919840 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000129_G05 476 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000129_G05. BP919840 - Show BP91984...is mRNA. clone: YMU001_000129_G05. Accession BP919840 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage - Contig I...Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP919840|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: YMU001_...es. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP919840|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: YMU001_0

  18. AcEST: BP919849 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000129_H04 454 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000129_H04. BP919849 - Show BP91984...is mRNA. clone: YMU001_000129_H04. Accession BP919849 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage - Contig I...s. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP919849|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: YMU001_00...rograms, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP919849|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: YMU001_0001

  19. AcEST: BP919845 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000129_G11 376 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000129_G11. BP919845 - Show BP91984...is mRNA. clone: YMU001_000129_G11. Accession BP919845 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage - Contig I...ms, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP919845|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: YMU001_000129_G1...tion of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP919845|Adiantum capillus

  20. AcEST: BP920183 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000134_A07 427 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000134_A07. BP920183 - Show BP92018...is mRNA. clone: YMU001_000134_A07. Accession BP920183 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage - Contig I...LAST: a new generation of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP920183...programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP920183|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: YMU001_000

  1. AcEST: BP920180 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000134_A04 428 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000134_A04. BP920180 - Show BP92018...is mRNA. clone: YMU001_000134_A04. Accession BP920180 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage - Contig I... a new generation of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP920180|Adia... Gapped BLAST and PSI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP92018

  2. AcEST: BP920184 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000134_A08 470 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000134_A08. BP920184 - Show BP92018...is mRNA. clone: YMU001_000134_A08. Accession BP920184 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage - Contig I...ograms, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP920184|Adiantum capillus-veneri...ration of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP920184|Adiantum capill

  3. AcEST: BP912018 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000012_B01 519 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000012_B01. BP912018 - Show BP912018...is mRNA. clone: YMU001_000012_B01. Accession BP912018 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage - Contig I... new generation of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP912018.... 25:3389-3402. Query= BP912018|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: YMU001_000012_B01. (519 letters) Data

  4. AcEST: BP920187 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000134_A12 506 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000134_A12. BP920187 - Show BP92018...is mRNA. clone: YMU001_000134_A12. Accession BP920187 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage - Contig I...programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP920187|Adiantum capillus-vene...ograms, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP920187|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: YMU001_00013

  5. AcEST: BP913467 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000030_E10 288 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000030_E10. BP913467 - Show BP913467...is mRNA. clone: YMU001_000030_E10. Accession BP913467 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage - Contig I... database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP913467|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, ...of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP913467|Adiantum capillus-vene

  6. AcEST: BP919791 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000129_C01 537 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000129_C01. BP9197...91 CL2749Contig1 Show BP919791 Clone id YMU001_000129_C01 Library YMU01 Length 537 Definition Adiantum ca...pillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000129_C01. Accession BP919791 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stag...Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP919791|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: YMU001_000129_C01. (...ams, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP919791|Adiantum capillus-veneris m

  7. AcEST: BP919765 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000128_H07 531 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000128_H07. BP919765 - Show BP9197...is mRNA. clone: YMU001_000128_H07. Accession BP919765 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage - Contig I... Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP919765|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: YMU001_000128_H07. (516 letters) ...base search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP919765|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone

  8. AcEST: BP919795 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000129_C05 446 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000129_C05. BP919795 - Show BP9197...is mRNA. clone: YMU001_000129_C05. Accession BP919795 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage - Contig I...Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP919795|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: YMU001_000129_C05. (446 lett...LAST: a new generation of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP9197

  9. AcEST: BP919705 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000128_C01 300 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000128_C01. BP919705 - Show BP9197...is mRNA. clone: YMU001_000128_C01. Accession BP919705 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage - Contig I...ation of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP919705|Adiantum capillu..., Positives = 31/61 (50%) Frame = +3 Query: 18 YSLVVVVGAQKLSYFLNFAQSLIPHQSVAFFLGS*YWKIPQGVHLQSLCLKLLQPPLMII 197...es. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP919705|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: YMU001_000128_C01. (300 letters) Da

  10. AcEST: BP919748 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000128_F10 483 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000128_F10. BP919748 - Show BP9197...is mRNA. clone: YMU001_000128_F10. Accession BP919748 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage - Contig I...c Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP919748|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone:...ams, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP919748|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: YMU001_000128_F

  11. AcEST: BP919757 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000128_G07 557 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000128_G07. BP919757 - Show BP9197...is mRNA. clone: YMU001_000128_G07. Accession BP919757 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage - Contig I...rams, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP919757|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: YMU001_000128_...n database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP919757|Adia

  12. AcEST: BP918197 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000110_F07 474 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000110_F07. BP918197... CL3144Contig1 Show BP918197 Clone id YMU001_000110_F07 Library YMU01 Length 474 Definition Adiantum ca...pillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000110_F07. Accession BP918197 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stag...: a new generation of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP918197...25:3389-3402. Query= BP918197|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: YMU001_000110_F07. (474 letters) Databa

  13. AcEST: BP916197 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000084_D10 446 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000084_D10. BP916197... CL1434Contig1 Show BP916197 Clone id YMU001_000084_D10 Library YMU01 Length 446 Definition Adiantum ca...pillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000084_D10. Accession BP916197 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stag...ds Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP916197|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: YMU0...grams, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP916197|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: YMU001_000084

  14. AcEST: BP919704 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000128_B12 260 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000128_B12. BP9197...04 CL1786Contig1 Show BP919704 Clone id YMU001_000128_B12 Library YMU01 Length 260 Definition Adiantum ca...pillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000128_B12. Accession BP919704 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stag...rograms, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP919704|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: YMU001_0001...n database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP919704|Adia

  15. AcEST: BP912197 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000016_C05 570 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000016_C05. BP912197 - Show BP912197...is mRNA. clone: YMU001_000016_C05. Accession BP912197 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage - Contig I...tabase search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP912197|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clo...grams, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP912197|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: YMU001_000016...+T+SL G IAA ++S KG T Sbjct: 197 SDTWVAEYRKWMDKVGHGMPYHFGHRTISLPKVPPVVEHAPAGLIAALS

  16. AcEST: BP919724 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000128_D08 331 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000128_D08. BP919724 - Show BP9197...is mRNA. clone: YMU001_000128_D08. Accession BP919724 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage - Contig I...s Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP919724|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: YMU001_000128_D08. (331 letters)...neration of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP919724|Adiantum capi

  17. AcEST: BP919725 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000128_D09 385 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000128_D09. BP919725 - Show BP9197...is mRNA. clone: YMU001_000128_D09. Accession BP919725 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage - Contig I...e search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP919725|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: Y...P A GR+ YA S++ Sbjct: 2 SGASNDGYGQYPPQQP--GDHQQQPPYPDQAYDNAAPVAPGHAADHGRKKKRQYAASAFD 59 Query: 197 ATQGGHVKQ...search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP919725|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: YMU

  18. AcEST: BP919707 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000128_C03 461 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000128_C03. BP919707 - Show BP9197...is mRNA. clone: YMU001_000128_C03. Accession BP919707 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage - Contig I...grams, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP919707|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: YMU001_000128...ST: a new generation of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP9197

  19. AcEST: BP919700 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000128_B06 521 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000128_B06. BP919700 - Show BP9197...is mRNA. clone: YMU001_000128_B06. Accession BP919700 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage - Contig I...h programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP919700|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: YMU001_0...ped BLAST and PSI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP9197

  20. AcEST: BP919708 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000128_C04 482 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000128_C04. BP9197...08 CL642Contig1 Show BP919708 Clone id YMU001_000128_C04 Library YMU01 Length 482 Definition Adiantum cap...illus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000128_C04. Accession BP919708 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage...ograms, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP919708|Adiantum capillus-veneri...ds Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP919708|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: YMU001_000128_C04. (482 letters

  1. AcEST: BP919749 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000128_F11 461 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000128_F11. BP9197...49 CL155Contig1 Show BP919749 Clone id YMU001_000128_F11 Library YMU01 Length 461 Definition Adiantum cap...illus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000128_F11. Accession BP919749 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage... programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP919749|Adiantum capillus-ven... programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP919749|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: YMU001_00

  2. AcEST: BP919730 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000128_E03 520 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000128_E03. BP919730 - Show BP9197...is mRNA. clone: YMU001_000128_E03. Accession BP919730 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage - Contig I... a new generation of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP9197...nd PSI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP9197

  3. AcEST: BP919729 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000128_E02 423 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000128_E02. BP9197...29 CL3847Contig1 Show BP919729 Clone id YMU001_000128_E02 Library YMU01 Length 423 Definition Adiantum ca...pillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000128_E02. Accession BP919729 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stag.... 25:3389-3402. Query= BP919729|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: YMU001_000...Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP919729|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: YMU001_

  4. AcEST: BP919794 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000129_C04 349 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000129_C04. BP9197...94 CL2626Contig1 Show BP919794 Clone id YMU001_000129_C04 Library YMU01 Length 349 Definition Adiantum ca...pillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000129_C04. Accession BP919794 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stag... programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP919794|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: YMU001_00...n of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP9197

  5. AcEST: BP919775 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000129_A08 507 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000129_A08. BP919775 - Show BP9197...is mRNA. clone: YMU001_000129_A08. Accession BP919775 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage - Contig I...h programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP919775|Adiantum capillus-ve... database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP919775|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA,

  6. AcEST: BP914197 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000056_B07 509 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000056_B07. BP914197... CL4229Contig1 Show BP914197 Clone id YMU001_000056_B07 Library YMU01 Length 509 Definition Adiantum ca...pillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000056_B07. Accession BP914197 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stag...T: a new generation of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP914197...ase search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP914197|Adiantum ca

  7. AcEST: BP919721 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000128_D05 520 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000128_D05. BP919721 - Show BP9197...is mRNA. clone: YMU001_000128_D05. Accession BP919721 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage - Contig I...eneration of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP9197...h programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP919721|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: YMU001_0

  8. AcEST: BP919770 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000129_A01 565 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000129_A01. BP919770 - Show BP9197...is mRNA. clone: YMU001_000129_A01. Accession BP919770 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage - Contig I...ucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP919770|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: YMU001_000129_A01. (5...in database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP919770|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA

  9. AcEST: BP919774 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000129_A06 275 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000129_A06. BP9197...74 CL74Contig1 Show BP919774 Clone id YMU001_000129_A06 Library YMU01 Length 275 Definition Adiantum capi...llus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000129_A06. Accession BP919774 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage ...tein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP919774|Adiantum capillus-veneris mR...rotein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP919774|Adiantum capillus-veneris

  10. Deepwater Program: Exploration and Research of Northern Gulf of Mexico Deepwater Natural and Artificial Hard Bottom Habitats with Emphasis on Coral Communities: Reefs, Rigs and Wrecks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Russell Geosciences Complex, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 Phone: 225.578-2964 FAX: 225-578-2520 E-mail: hrober3@lsu.edu CO-PI Dan Warren, Robert Church...786, Viosca Knoll Area. Prepared by C & C Technologies, Inc. for Geoscience Earth & Marine Services, Inc. on behalf of Mariner Energy. Report...Deepwater OCS Activity, Interactions between the Fishing and Petroleum Industries in Deepwaters of the Gulf of Mexico. A Final Report for the U.S

  11. Quantum-corrected geometry of horizon vicinity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, I.Y. [Department of Applied Mathematics, Philander Smith College, Little Rock, AR (United States)

    2017-12-15

    We study the deformation of the horizon-vicinity geometry caused by quantum gravitational effects. Departure from the semi-classical picture is noted, and the fact that the matter part of the action comes at a higher order in Newton's constant than does the Einstein-Hilbert term is crucial for the departure. The analysis leads to a Firewall-type energy measured by an infalling observer for which quantum generation of the cosmological constant is critical. The analysis seems to suggest that the Firewall should be a part of such deformation and that the information be stored both in the horizon-vicinity and asymptotic boundary region. We also examine the behavior near the cosmological horizon. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Horizon thermodynamics in fourth-order gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Sen Ma

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of horizon thermodynamics, the field equations of Einstein gravity and some other second-order gravities can be rewritten as the thermodynamic identity: dE=TdS−PdV. However, in order to construct the horizon thermodynamics in higher-order gravity, we have to simplify the field equations firstly. In this paper, we study the fourth-order gravity and convert it to second-order gravity via a so-called “Legendre transformation” at the cost of introducing two other fields besides the metric field. With this simplified theory, we implement the conventional procedure in the construction of the horizon thermodynamics in 3 and 4 dimensional spacetime. We find that the field equations in the fourth-order gravity can also be written as the thermodynamic identity. Moreover, we can use this approach to derive the same black hole mass as that by other methods.

  13. On Long Memory Origins and Forecast Horizons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vera-Valdés, J. Eduardo

    Most long memory forecasting studies assume that the memory is generated by the fractional difference operator. We argue that the most cited theoretical arguments for the presence of long memory do not imply the fractional difference operator, and assess the performance of the autoregressive...... for, among others, Climate Econometrics and Financial Econometrics models dealing with long memory series at different forecast horizons. We show in an example that while a short memory autoregressive moving average (ARMA) model gives the best performance when forecasting the Realized Variance...... fractionally integrated moving average (ARFIMA) model when forecasting series with long memory generated by nonfractional processes. We find that high-order autoregressive (AR) models produce similar or superior forecast performance than ARFIMA models at short horizons. Nonetheless, as the forecast horizon...

  14. Perception vs. reality in deep-water exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanmugam, G. [Mobil Exploration & Producing Technical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The common perception in exploration is that deep-water sands are predominantly a product of low- and high-density turbidity currents, and that submarine-fan models with channel/levee and lobe elements are the norm. The reality, however, is that deep-water systems are extremely complex and variable in terms of depositional processes and sand-body geometries. For example, the Bourna Sequence, composed of T{sub a}, T{sub b}, T{sub c}, T{sub d}, and T{sub e} divisions, is believed to be the product of a turbidity current. However, recent core and outcrop studies show that the complete and partial Bouma sequences also can be explained by processes other than turbidity currents, such as sandy debris flows (i.e., {open_quotes}T{sub a}{close_quotes}) and bottom-current reworking (i.e., {open_quotes}T{sub b}, T{sub c} and T{sub d}{close_quotes}). Massive sands are interpreted routinely as high-density turbidites, but the reality is that the term {open_quotes}high-density turbidity current{close_quotes} commonly refers to sandy debris flow in terms of flow theology and sediment-support mechanism. Deep-water sequences in the North Sea, Norwegian Sea, Offshore Gabon, Offshore Nigeria, Gulf of Mexico, and the Ouachita Mountains are generally considered to be turbidite-rich submarine fans. However, the reality is that these sequences are composed predominantly of sandy slumps and debris flows, not turbidites. Fan models are attractive to explorationists because of their predictable sheet-like geometries; however, these simplistic conceptual models are obsolete because they defy reality. Although the turbidite paradigm is alive and well for now in the minds of many sedimentologists and sequence stratigraphers, the turbidites themselves that form the foundation for fan models are becoming an endangered facies!

  15. Perception vs. reality in deep-water exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanmugam, G. (Mobil Exploration Producing Technical Center, Dallas, TX (United States))

    1996-01-01

    The common perception in exploration is that deep-water sands are predominantly a product of low- and high-density turbidity currents, and that submarine-fan models with channel/levee and lobe elements are the norm. The reality, however, is that deep-water systems are extremely complex and variable in terms of depositional processes and sand-body geometries. For example, the Bourna Sequence, composed of T[sub a], T[sub b], T[sub c], T[sub d], and T[sub e] divisions, is believed to be the product of a turbidity current. However, recent core and outcrop studies show that the complete and partial Bouma sequences also can be explained by processes other than turbidity currents, such as sandy debris flows (i.e., [open quotes]T[sub a][close quotes]) and bottom-current reworking (i.e., [open quotes]T[sub b], T[sub c] and T[sub d][close quotes]). Massive sands are interpreted routinely as high-density turbidites, but the reality is that the term [open quotes]high-density turbidity current[close quotes] commonly refers to sandy debris flow in terms of flow theology and sediment-support mechanism. Deep-water sequences in the North Sea, Norwegian Sea, Offshore Gabon, Offshore Nigeria, Gulf of Mexico, and the Ouachita Mountains are generally considered to be turbidite-rich submarine fans. However, the reality is that these sequences are composed predominantly of sandy slumps and debris flows, not turbidites. Fan models are attractive to explorationists because of their predictable sheet-like geometries; however, these simplistic conceptual models are obsolete because they defy reality. Although the turbidite paradigm is alive and well for now in the minds of many sedimentologists and sequence stratigraphers, the turbidites themselves that form the foundation for fan models are becoming an endangered facies

  16. Continued feeding on Diporeia by deepwater sculpin in Lake Huron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Patricia A.; Roseman, Edward F.; Keeler, Kevin M.; O'Brien, Timothy P.; Bowser, Dustin

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring changes in diets of fish is essential to understanding how food web dynamics respond to changes in native prey abundances. In the Great Lakes, Diporeia, a benthic macroinvertebrate and primary food of native benthivores, declined following the introduction of invasive Dreissena mussels and these changes were reflected in fish diets. We examined the diets of deepwater sculpin Myoxocephalus thompsonii collected in bottom trawls during 2010–2014 in the main basin of Lake Huron, and compared these results to an earlier diet study (2003–2005) to assess if their diets have continued to change after a prolonged period of Dreissena mussel invasion and declined Diporeia densities. Diporeia, Mysis, Bythotrephes, and Chironomidae were consumed regularly and other diet items included ostracods, copepods, sphaerid clams, and fish eggs. The prey-specific index of relative importance calculated for each prey group indicated that Mysis importance increased at shallow (≤55 m) and mid (64–73 m) depths, while Diporeia importance increased offshore (≥82 m). The average number of Diporeia consumed per fish increased by 10.0% and Mysis decreased by 7.5%, while the frequency of occurrence of Diporeia and Mysis remained comparable between time periods. The weight of adult deepwater sculpin (80 mm and 100 mm TL bins) increased between time periods; however, the change in weight was only significant for the 80 mm TL group (p importance of Diporeia in the Great Lakes, the examination of deepwater sculpin diets provides unique insight into the trophic dynamics of the benthic community in Lake Huron.

  17. Noncommutative FRW Apparent Horizon and Hawking Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhallouf, H.; Mebarki, N.; Aissaoui, H.

    2017-11-01

    In the context of noncommutative (NCG) gauge gravity, and using a cosmic time power law formula for the scale factor, a Friedman-Robertson-Walker (FRW) like metric is obtained. Within the fermions tunneling effect approach and depending on the various intervals of the power parameter, expressions of the apparent horizon are also derived. It is shown that in some regions of the parameter space, a pure NCG trapped horizon does exist leading to new interpretation of the role played by the noncommutativity of the space-time.

  18. North Rim of Endeavour Crater on Horizon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] A northern portion of the rim of Endeavour Crater is visible on the horizon of this image taken by the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity on March 7, 2009, during the 1,820st Martian day, or sol, of the rover's mission on Mars. That portion of Endeavour's rim is about 20 kilometers (12 miles) away from Opportunity's position west of the crater when the image was taken. The width of the image covers approximately one degree of the horizon.

  19. East Rim of Endeavour Crater on Horizon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] A high point on the distant eastern rim of Endeavour Crater is visible on the horizon in this image taken by the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity on March 8, 2009, during the 1,821st Martian day, or sol, of the rover's mission on Mars. That portion of Endeavour's rim is about 34 kilometers (21 miles) away from Opportunity's position west of the crater when the image was taken. The width of the image covers approximately one degree of the horizon.

  20. Hair-brane ideas on the horizon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinec, Emil J.; Niehoff, Ben E.

    2015-01-01

    We continue an examination of the microstate geometries program begun in arXiv:1409.6017, focussing on the role of branes that wrap the cycles which degenerate when a throat in the geometry deepens and a horizon forms. An associated quiver quantum mechanical model of minimally wrapped branes exhibits a non-negligible fraction of the gravitational entropy, which scales correctly as a function of the charges. The results suggest a picture of AdS 3 /CFT 2 duality wherein the long string that accounts for BTZ black hole entropy in the CFT description, can also be seen to inhabit the horizon of BPS black holes on the gravity side.

  1. Expanding your horizons in science and mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Through the presentation of its Expanding Your Horizons in Science and Mathematics career education conferences for secondary school young women, the Math/Science Network continues its efforts to remove the educational, psychological, and cultural barriers which prevent women from entering math-and science-based careers. The Expanding Your Horizons conferences were presented on 77 college, university and high school campuses across the United States. This year, these unique one day conferences reached 15,500 students, 3,000 parents and educators, and involved 3,000 career women who volunteered their services as conference planners, workshop leaders, speakers, and role models.

  2. Classification of Near-Horizon Geometries of Extremal Black Holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunduri, Hari K; Lucietti, James

    2013-01-01

    Any spacetime containing a degenerate Killing horizon, such as an extremal black hole, possesses a well-defined notion of a near-horizon geometry. We review such near-horizon geometry solutions in a variety of dimensions and theories in a unified manner. We discuss various general results including horizon topology and near-horizon symmetry enhancement. We also discuss the status of the classification of near-horizon geometries in theories ranging from vacuum gravity to Einstein-Maxwell theory and supergravity theories. Finally, we discuss applications to the classification of extremal black holes and various related topics. Several new results are presented and open problems are highlighted throughout.

  3. Large-scale deposition of weathered oil in the Gulf of Mexico following a deep-water oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Isabel C; Toro-Farmer, Gerardo; Diercks, Arne-R; Schwing, Patrick; Muller-Karger, Frank; Murawski, Steven; Hollander, David J

    2017-09-01

    The blowout of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) drilling rig in 2010 released an unprecedented amount of oil at depth (1,500 m) into the Gulf of Mexico (GoM). Sedimentary geochemical data from an extensive area (∼194,000 km 2 ) was used to characterize the amount, chemical signature, distribution, and extent of the DWH oil deposited on the seafloor in 2010-2011 from coastal to deep-sea areas in the GoM. The analysis of numerous hydrocarbon compounds (N = 158) and sediment cores (N = 2,613) suggests that, 1.9 ± 0.9 × 10 4 metric tons of hydrocarbons (>C9 saturated and aromatic fractions) were deposited in 56% of the studied area, containing 21± 10% (up to 47%) of the total amount of oil discharged and not recovered from the DWH spill. Examination of the spatial trends and chemical diagnostic ratios indicate large deposition of weathered DWH oil in coastal and deep-sea areas and negligible deposition on the continental shelf (behaving as a transition zone in the northern GoM). The large-scale analysis of deposited hydrocarbons following the DWH spill helps understanding the possible long-term fate of the released oil in 2010, including sedimentary transformation processes, redistribution of deposited hydrocarbons, and persistence in the environment as recycled petrocarbon. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Event horizons in the Polarizable Vacuum Model

    CERN Document Server

    Desiato, J T

    2003-01-01

    The Polarizable Vacuum (PV) Model representation of General Relativity (GR) is used to show that an in-falling particle of matter will reach the central mass object in a finite amount of proper time, as measured along the world line of the particle, when using the PV Metric. It is shown that the in-falling particle passes through an event horizon, analogous to that found in the Schwarzschild solution of GR. Once it passes through this horizon, any light signal emitted outward by the in-falling particle will be moving slower than the in-falling particle, due to the reduced speed of light in this region. Therefore the signal can never escape this horizon. However, the light emitted by a stationary object below the horizon is exponentially red-shifted and can escape along the null geodesics, as was originally predicted by the PV Model. A static, non-rotating charge distribution is added to the central mass and the PV equivalent to the Reissner-Nordstrom metric is derived. It is illustrated that the dipole moment...

  5. The NMC Horizon Report: 2013 Museum Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L.; Adams Becker, S.; Freeman, A.

    2013-01-01

    The "NMC Horizon Report: 2013 Museum Edition," is a co-production with the Marcus Institute for Digital Education in the Arts (MIDEA), and examines six emerging technologies for their potential impact on and use in education and interpretation within the museum environment: BYOD (Bring Your Own Device), crowdsourcing, electronic…

  6. Agriculture’s Ethical Horizon, book review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roughly 6.5 billion people inhabit the earth, but over 1 billion people regularly go hungry. This food shortfall poses an ethical dilemma for agriculture, and Agriculture's Ethical Horizon grapples with this dilemma. It argues that agricultural productivity has been the quintessential value of agr...

  7. Studying the cosmological apparent horizon with quasistatic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    dimensional Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker (FLRW) Universe. After demonstrating a no-go theorem, we put forward the quasistatic coordinates for the FLRW Universe. Then, the quasistatic coordinates are utilized to study the unified first law and the scalar-type perturbations on the cosmological apparent horizon.

  8. Moving Horizon Estimation on a Chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-26

    D.Q. Mayne . Constrained state estimation for nonlinear discrete-time systems: Stability and moving horizon approximations. Automatic Control, IEEE...factor of fixed-point design [11] Christopher V Rao, James B Rawlings, and David Q Mayne . Constrained state estimation for nonlinear discrete-time

  9. Falling through the black hole horizon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brustein, Ram; Medved, A.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    We consider the fate of a small classical object, a “stick”, as it falls through the horizon of a large black hole (BH). Classically, the equivalence principle dictates that the stick is affected by small tidal forces, and Hawking’s quantum-mechanical model of BH evaporation makes essentially the same prediction. If, on the other hand, the BH horizon is surrounded by a “firewall”, the stick will be consumed as it falls through. We have recently extended Hawking’s model by taking into account the quantum fluctuations of the geometry and the classical back-reaction of the emitted particles. Here, we calculate the strain exerted on the falling stick for our model. The strain depends on the near-horizon state of the Hawking pairs. We find that, after the Page time when the state of the pairs deviates significantly from maximal entanglement (as required by unitarity), the induced strain in our semiclassical model is still parametrically small. This is because the number of the disentangled pairs is parametrically smaller than the BH entropy. A firewall does, however, appear if the number of disentangled pairs near the horizon is of order of the BH entropy, as implicitly assumed in previous discussions in the literature.

  10. Expanding Your Horizons Conference in Geneva

    CERN Multimedia

    Chromek-Burckhart, Doris

    2011-01-01

    CERN and its experiments participated in Expanding Your Horizons (EYH) in Science and Mathematics conference in Geneva on 12th November. EYH nurture girls' interest in science and math courses to encourage them to consider careers in science, technology, engineering, and math.

  11. Sighting Horizons of Teaching in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Ronald; Guzmán-Valenzuela, Carolina

    2017-01-01

    This conceptual paper tackles the matter of teaching in higher education and proposes a concept of "horizons of teaching." It firstly offers an overview of the considerable empirical literature around teaching--especially conceptions of teaching, approaches to teaching and teaching practices--and goes on to pose some philosophical and…

  12. Face recognition based on improved BP neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Gaili

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the recognition rate of face recognition, face recognition algorithm based on histogram equalization, PCA and BP neural network is proposed. First, the face image is preprocessed by histogram equalization. Then, the classical PCA algorithm is used to extract the features of the histogram equalization image, and extract the principal component of the image. And then train the BP neural network using the trained training samples. This improved BP neural network weight adjustment method is used to train the network because the conventional BP algorithm has the disadvantages of slow convergence, easy to fall into local minima and training process. Finally, the BP neural network with the test sample input is trained to classify and identify the face images, and the recognition rate is obtained. Through the use of ORL database face image simulation experiment, the analysis results show that the improved BP neural network face recognition method can effectively improve the recognition rate of face recognition.

  13. Prediction of Deepwater FPSO responses using different numerical analysis methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Matthew; Osman, Montasir; Ng, Cheng Yee

    2018-03-01

    The limitations of existing wave basins present a significant challenge when modelling offshore deepwater systems, particularly due to the basin's relatively shallow depth. Numerical simulation thus becomes valuable in predicting its behaviour during operation at sea. The coupled dynamic analysis is preferred over the traditional quasi-static method, as the former enables the inclusion of damping and added mass properties of the complete mooring line system, which becomes increasingly prominent at greater water depths. This paper investigates the motions and mooring line tensions of a turret moored Floating Production Storage Offloading (FPSO) platform using three numerical models, i.e. a dynamic system, quasi-static system and linear spring system subjected to unidirectional random wave condition. Analysis is carried out using a commercial software AQWA. The first two numerical models utilise a complete system of the same setup and configuration, while the linear spring system substitutes the mooring lines with equivalent linear springs and attempts to match the total mooring line restoring forces with that of the coupled dynamic analysis. The study demonstrates the significance of coupled dynamic analysis on the responses of an FPSO in deepwater. The numerical model of the FPSO is validated against the results of a published work.

  14. Structure of diagnostics horizons and humus classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanella A

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The classification of the main humus forms is generally based on the morpho-genetic characters of the A and OH diagnostic horizons. This is the case in the new European key of classification presented in Freiburg on September 2004 (Eurosoil Congress. Among the morpho-genetic characters, the soil structure covers a very important role. In this work, the structure of the diagnostic A and OH horizons has been analysed in terms of aggregation force, diameter and composition of the soil lumps (peds. In order to study the aggregation force, two disaggregating tools have been conceived and used. The diameter of the lumps has been measured by sieving the soil samples with standardised webs. Observing the samples thanks to a binocular magnifying 10X and 50X, the organic or/and mineral composition of the soil aggregates has been determined, data being investigated with ANOVA and Factorial Analysis. The article examines the argument from two points of view: crashing tools for estimating the soil structure (part 1 and the dimensions of the peds given in European key of humus forms classification (part 2. The categories of soil peds diameter and composition seem to be linked to the main humus forms. For instance, aggregates having a diamater larger than 1 mm and well amalgamate organo-mineral composition are more present in the A horizons of the Mull forms than in which of the other forms; contrary to the OH horizon of the Moder or Mor, the OH horizon of the Amphi forms shows an important percent of small organic lumps. Some propositions have been given in order to improve the European key of humus forms classification.

  15. AcEST: BP918439 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000113_E06 535 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000113_E06. BP9184...39 CL1216Contig1 Show BP918439 Clone id YMU001_000113_E06 Library YMU01 Length 535 Definition Adiantum ca...pillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000113_E06. Accession BP918439 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stag...n database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP918439|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA,...A Trafficking protein particle complex subunit 5 OS=Plasmodium falciparum PE=3 SV=1 Length = 184 Score = 81.

  16. AcEST: BP918438 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000113_E05 620 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000113_E05. BP918438 - Show BP9184...is mRNA. clone: YMU001_000113_E05. Accession BP918438 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage - Contig I... Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP918438|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: YMU001_000113_E05. (620 letters) ...jct: 125 MMNSGISPDKYTFPFGLSACAKSRAKGNGIQIHGLIVKMGYAKDLFVQNSLVHFYAECGE 184 Query: ...LVKGLEPDEFSVTTALTACAQVGALAQGK 238 Query: 184 QHFENMINHGIVPTVEHV-NCLSELLSRSGCLKEAEKILQSMPASGDVAGWVSLLTACKA 8

  17. AcEST: BP918404 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000113_B04 576 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000113_B04. BP9184...04 CL3745Contig1 Show BP918404 Clone id YMU001_000113_B04 Library YMU01 Length 576 Definition Adiantum ca...pillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000113_B04. Accession BP918404 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stag...on of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP918404|Adiantum capillus-v...(39%), Gaps = 4/151 (2%) Frame = +2 Query: 5 QQDRSTIQQPHKASHSQRLKQKN*TLKNFLKVCETDLMTLPIAAGTYIRKSSLCFQPSYN 184

  18. AcEST: BP921843 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000154_G09 483 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000154_G09. BP921843 - Show BP92184...is mRNA. clone: YMU001_000154_G09. Accession BP921843 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage - Contig I.... 25:3389-3402. Query= BP921843|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: YMU001_000...RLDEAEQLALKGGKK---QIQKLETRIRELEFELEGEQKRNTESVKGLRK 1843 Query: 190 REAELSDLKASQDELVDSIVSCRQCMDKLRMEAVSYKR 30...3 E + +L +E +++ + +DKL+++ SYKR Sbjct: 1844 YERRVKELTYQSEEDRKNVLRLQDLVDKLQVKVKSYKR 1881 >sp|P13541|MYH3_MOUSE

  19. AcEST: BP918456 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000113_F11 456 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000113_F11. BP9184...56 CL2911Contig1 Show BP918456 Clone id YMU001_000113_F11 Library YMU01 Length 456 Definition Adiantum ca...pillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000113_F11. Accession BP918456 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stag...base search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP918456|Adiantum c...2 +EI+ ++DSDPRAAYFRQA+ G+YIRMA Sbjct: 2184 NEISREIDSDPRAAYFRQAEYGMYIRMA 2211 TrEMBL (release 39.9) Link to B

  20. AcEST: BP918499 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000114_C01 514 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000114_C01. BP9184...99 CL2926Contig1 Show BP918499 Clone id YMU001_000114_C01 Library YMU01 Length 514 Definition Adiantum ca...pillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000114_C01. Accession BP918499 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stag...BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 2...es. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP918499|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: YMU001_0

  1. AcEST: BP918436 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000113_E02 514 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000113_E02. BP918436 - Show BP9184...is mRNA. clone: YMU001_000113_E02. Accession BP918436 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage - Contig I...f protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP9184... + Sbjct: 1782 EVLPIKIKLDYKPKRVDYNLLRQGKTIELMNFFHFEGSEMVLRHVTLRGINGWARLFDTL 1841 ... EQY +D R+L+G+++GA Sbjct: 1842 NDIWTPDVKANQLADFLSGLGPIRSLVNVGAGLADLVLLPIEQYHKD-GRVLRGVQRGAA 1900 Query: 147

  2. AcEST: BP912612 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000020_H07 512 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000020_H07. BP912612 - Show BP912612... Clone id YMU001_000020_H07 Library YMU01 Length 512 Definition Adiantum capillus-vener...is mRNA. clone: YMU001_000020_H07. Accession BP912612 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage - Contig I...se search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP912612|Adiantum cap...illus-veneris mRNA, clone: YMU001_000020_H07. (512 letters) Database: uniprot_sprot.fasta 412,525 sequences;

  3. AcEST: BP912712 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000022_A07 476 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000022_A07. BP912712 - Show BP912712...is mRNA. clone: YMU001_000022_A07. Accession BP912712 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage - Contig I...cleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP912712|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, cl...one: YMU001_000022_A07. (476 letters) Database: uniprot_sprot.fasta 412,525 sequences; 148,809,765 total let...8%), Positives = 39/69 (56%), Gaps = 4/69 (5%) Frame = +3 Query: 123 TSRRKSNHDQY--LPNYKVGTVHLLLGVKDQHLVSKIDI

  4. AcEST: BP912126 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000015_D08 484 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000015_D08. BP912126 CL412...4Contig1 Show BP912126 Clone id YMU001_000015_D08 Library YMU01 Length 484 Definition Adiantum ca...pillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000015_D08. Accession BP912126 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage - Contig ID CL412...-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. ...25:3389-3402. Query= BP912126|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: YMU001_000015_D08. (484 letters) Databa

  5. AcEST: BP912212 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000016_D11 457 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000016_D11. BP912212... CL1085Contig1 Show BP912212 Clone id YMU001_000016_D11 Library YMU01 Length 457 Definition Adiantum ca...pillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000016_D11. Accession BP912212 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stag...f protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP912212...|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: YMU001_000016_D11. (457 letters) Database: uniprot_sprot.fasta 412

  6. AcEST: BP912312 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000017_F01 489 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000017_F01. BP912312... CL1779Contig1 Show BP912312 Clone id YMU001_000017_F01 Library YMU01 Length 489 Definition Adiantum ca...pillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000017_F01. Accession BP912312 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stag...on of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP912312...|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: YMU001_000017_F01. (489 letters) Database: uniprot_sprot.fasta 412

  7. AcEST: BP912128 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000015_D10 477 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000015_D10. BP91212...8 CL2328Contig1 Show BP912128 Clone id YMU001_000015_D10 Library YMU01 Length 477 Definition Adiantum ca...pillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000015_D10. Accession BP912128 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stag... protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP91212...8|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: YMU001_000015_D10. (461 letters) Database: uniprot_sprot.fasta 412

  8. AcEST: BP912012 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000012_A06 542 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000012_A06. BP912012... CL2421Contig1 Show BP912012 Clone id YMU001_000012_A06 Library YMU01 Length 542 Definition Adiantum ca...pillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000012_A06. Accession BP912012 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stag...rams, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP912012|Adiantum capillus-veneris ...mRNA, clone: YMU001_000012_A06. (542 letters) Database: uniprot_sprot.fasta 412,525 sequences; 148,809,765 t

  9. AcEST: BP912123 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000015_D05 496 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000015_D05. BP91212...3 CL498Contig1 Show BP912123 Clone id YMU001_000015_D05 Library YMU01 Length 496 Definition Adiantum cap...illus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000015_D05. Accession BP912123 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage...n of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP91212...3|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: YMU001_000015_D05. (478 letters) Database: uniprot_sprot.fasta 412

  10. AcEST: BP912912 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000024_C05 413 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000024_C05. BP912912... CL1433Contig1 Show BP912912 Clone id YMU001_000024_C05 Library YMU01 Length 413 Definition Adiantum ca...pillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000024_C05. Accession BP912912 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stag... of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP912912|Adiantum capillus-ven...eris mRNA, clone: YMU001_000024_C05. (413 letters) Database: uniprot_sprot.fasta 412

  11. AcEST: BP919734 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000128_E07 512 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000128_E07. BP919734 - Show BP9197...is mRNA. clone: YMU001_000128_E07. Accession BP919734 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage - Contig I...ion of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP9197...N+ +QP+E+HIP+LLQ+ IDYNL GM ++L+ +KFR+ K+ N + Sbjct: 141 QSGAIMNKFYQPHEAHIPYLLQLFIDYNLYGMNLINLAAVKFRKARRKS---NTLHATGS 197...SSSSPSSSSTTTTTSPSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSS 199 Query: 197 LRHNISIRLPIANRAS 244 + S +PI + S

  12. AcEST: BP919745 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000128_F07 520 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000128_F07. BP9197...45 CL4239Contig1 Show BP919745 Clone id YMU001_000128_F07 Library YMU01 Length 520 Definition Adiantum ca...pillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000128_F07. Accession BP919745 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stag.... 25:3389-3402. Query= BP919745|Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA, clone: YMU001_000128_F07. (520 letters) Data...NSLETYVYNMKNTINDKDKLAVXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXENQSAEKEDYDEKL 340 ARNSLETYVYNM+N INDKDKLA +NQSAEKEDY+EKL Sbjct: 197

  13. AcEST: BP919728 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000128_E01 528 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000128_E01. BP919728 - Show BP9197...is mRNA. clone: YMU001_000128_E01. Accession BP919728 Tissue type prothallium Developmental stage - Contig I... generation of protein database search programs, Nucleic Acids Res. 25:3389-3402. Query= BP9197...YQDAHMQEGFLPRIYLTGDKLFEAGRCWEDISDAISAARIFIYIAGWSV 197 F+QRR C V LYQDAH+ F+P+I L G...376 FTQRRRCHVKLYQDAHMQEGFLPRIYLTGDKLFEAGRCWEDISDAISAARIFIYIAGWSV 197 F+QR+ C V LYQ AH+ + F+P+I L G K +E RCWE

  14. What happens at the horizon(s) of an extreme black hole?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Keiju; Reall, Harvey S; Tanahashi, Norihiro

    2013-01-01

    A massless scalar field exhibits an instability at the event horizon of an extreme black hole. We study numerically the nonlinear evolution of this instability for spherically symmetric perturbations of an extreme Reissner–Nordstrom (RN) black hole. We find that generically the endpoint of the instability is a non-extreme RN solution. However, there exist fine-tuned initial perturbations for which the instability never decays. In this case, the perturbed spacetime describes a time-dependent extreme black hole. Such solutions settle down to extreme RN outside, but not on, the event horizon. The event horizon remains smooth but certain observers who cross it at late time experience large gradients there. Our results indicate that these dynamical extreme black holes admit a C 1 extension across an inner (Cauchy) horizon. (paper)

  15. An experiment with forced oxygenation of the deepwater of the anoxic By Fjord, Western Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stigebrandt, Anders; Liljebladh, Bengt; De Brabandere, Loreto

    2015-01-01

    inorganic nitrogen component. The amount of phosphate in the water column decreased by a factor of 5 due to the increase in flushing and reduction in the leakage of phosphate from the sediments when the sediment surface became oxidized. Oxygenation of the sediments did not increase the leakage of toxic...... metals and organic pollutants. The bacterial community was the first to show changes after the oxygenation, with aerobic bacteria also thriving in the deepwater. The earlier azoic deepwater bottom sediments were colonized by animals. No structural difference between the phytoplankton communities...... in the By Fjord and the adjacent Havsten Fjord, with oxygenated deepwater, could be detected during the experiment....

  16. Evaluation of fungal- and photo-degradation as potential treatments for the removal of sunscreens BP3 and BP1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Badia-Fabregat, Marina; Olivares, Alba; Piña, Benjamin; Blánquez, Paqui; Vicent, Teresa; Caminal, Gloria; Díaz-Cruz, M. Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Photodecomposition might be regarded as one of the most important abiotic factors affecting the fate of UV absorbing compounds in the environment and photocatalysis has been suggested as an effective method to degrade organic pollutants. However, UV filters transformation appears to be a complex process, barely addressed to date. The white rot fungus Trametes versicolor is considered as a promising alternative to conventional aerobic bacterial degradation, as it is able to metabolise a wide range of xenobiotics. This study focused on both degradation processes of two widely used UV filters, benzophenone-3 (BP3) and benzophenone-1 (BP1). Fungal treatment resulted in the degradation of more than 99% for both sunscreens in less than 24 h, whereas photodegradation was very inefficient, especially for BP3, which remained unaltered upon 24 h of simulated sunlight irradiation. Analysis of metabolic compounds generated showed BP1 as a minor by-product of BP3 degradation by T. versicolor while the main intermediate metabolites were glycoconjugate derivatives. BP1 and BP3 showed a weak, but significant estrogenic activity (EC50 values of 0.058 mg/L and 12.5 mg/L, respectively) when tested by recombinant yeast assay (RYA), being BP1 200-folds more estrogenic than BP3. Estrogenic activity was eliminated during T. versicolor degradation of both compounds, showing that none of the resulting metabolites possessed significant estrogenic activity at the concentrations produced. These results demonstrate the suitability of this method to degrade both sunscreen agents and to eliminate estrogenic activity. - Highlights: ► Fungus T. versicolor is able to degrade totally BP3 and BP1 in few hours in a fluidised bed bioreactor. ► BP3 is not degraded under simulated sunlight. ► Glycoconjugates have been identified as the main intermediate metabolites. ► Decrease in endocrine activity was found in both photodegradation and biodegradation.

  17. Evaluation of fungal- and photo-degradation as potential treatments for the removal of sunscreens BP3 and BP1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gago-Ferrero, Pablo, E-mail: pablo.gago@idaea.csic.es [Departament de Quimica Ambiental, IDAEA-CSIC, C/ Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Badia-Fabregat, Marina, E-mail: marina.badia@uab.cat [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Escola d' Enginyeria, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Olivares, Alba, E-mail: esalba.olivares@idaea.csic.es [Departament de Quimica Ambiental, IDAEA-CSIC, C/ Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Pina, Benjamin, E-mail: benjami.pina@idaea.csic.es [Departament de Quimica Ambiental, IDAEA-CSIC, C/ Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Blanquez, Paqui, E-mail: paqui.blanquez@uab.cat [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Escola d' Enginyeria, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Vicent, Teresa, E-mail: teresa.vicent@uab.cat [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Escola d' Enginyeria, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Caminal, Gloria, E-mail: gloria.caminal@uab.cat [Unitat de Biocatalisi Aplicada associada al IQAC (CSIC-UAB). Escola d' Enginyeria, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Diaz-Cruz, M. Silvia, E-mail: silvia.diaz@idaea.csic.es [Departament de Quimica Ambiental, IDAEA-CSIC, C/ Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); and others

    2012-06-15

    Photodecomposition might be regarded as one of the most important abiotic factors affecting the fate of UV absorbing compounds in the environment and photocatalysis has been suggested as an effective method to degrade organic pollutants. However, UV filters transformation appears to be a complex process, barely addressed to date. The white rot fungus Trametes versicolor is considered as a promising alternative to conventional aerobic bacterial degradation, as it is able to metabolise a wide range of xenobiotics. This study focused on both degradation processes of two widely used UV filters, benzophenone-3 (BP3) and benzophenone-1 (BP1). Fungal treatment resulted in the degradation of more than 99% for both sunscreens in less than 24 h, whereas photodegradation was very inefficient, especially for BP3, which remained unaltered upon 24 h of simulated sunlight irradiation. Analysis of metabolic compounds generated showed BP1 as a minor by-product of BP3 degradation by T. versicolor while the main intermediate metabolites were glycoconjugate derivatives. BP1 and BP3 showed a weak, but significant estrogenic activity (EC50 values of 0.058 mg/L and 12.5 mg/L, respectively) when tested by recombinant yeast assay (RYA), being BP1 200-folds more estrogenic than BP3. Estrogenic activity was eliminated during T. versicolor degradation of both compounds, showing that none of the resulting metabolites possessed significant estrogenic activity at the concentrations produced. These results demonstrate the suitability of this method to degrade both sunscreen agents and to eliminate estrogenic activity. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fungus T. versicolor is able to degrade totally BP3 and BP1 in few hours in a fluidised bed bioreactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BP3 is not degraded under simulated sunlight. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Glycoconjugates have been identified as the main intermediate metabolites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decrease in endocrine activity

  18. Hydrological classification of orthic A horizons in Weatherley, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Orthic A horizons carry little interpretive, especially hydrological, value. This paper aims to elucidate the hydrological interpretation of orthic A horizons. Measured water contents in the orthic A horizons of 28 profiles in the Weatherley catchment of South Africa were used to classify the topsoils into wetness classes. The very ...

  19. What happens to the horizon when a black hole radiates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    York, J.W. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The paper concerns a detailed study of the changes the horizon undergoes when a black hole emits energy. Horizons; evaporating metric; quantum ergosphere; proper acceleration and local temperature of the apparent horizon; Raychadhuri equation, surface gravity and mass; black holes and white holes; high temperature extrapolation; and low temperature limit; are all discussed. (U.K.)

  20. Seismic Evaluation of Hydrocarbon Saturation in Deep-Water Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Batzle

    2006-04-30

    During this last period of the ''Seismic Evaluation of Hydrocarbon Saturation in Deep-Water Reservoirs'' project (Grant/Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT15342), we finalized integration of rock physics, well log analysis, seismic processing, and forward modeling techniques. Most of the last quarter was spent combining the results from the principal investigators and come to some final conclusions about the project. Also much of the effort was directed towards technology transfer through the Direct Hydrocarbon Indicators mini-symposium at UH and through publications. As a result we have: (1) Tested a new method to directly invert reservoir properties, water saturation, Sw, and porosity from seismic AVO attributes; (2) Constrained the seismic response based on fluid and rock property correlations; (3) Reprocessed seismic data from Ursa field; (4) Compared thin layer property distributions and averaging on AVO response; (5) Related pressures and sorting effects on porosity and their influence on DHI's; (6) Examined and compared gas saturation effects for deep and shallow reservoirs; (7) Performed forward modeling using geobodies from deepwater outcrops; (8) Documented velocities for deepwater sediments; (9) Continued incorporating outcrop descriptive models in seismic forward models; (10) Held an open DHI symposium to present the final results of the project; (11) Relations between Sw, porosity, and AVO attributes; (12) Models of Complex, Layered Reservoirs; and (14) Technology transfer Several factors can contribute to limit our ability to extract accurate hydrocarbon saturations in deep water environments. Rock and fluid properties are one factor, since, for example, hydrocarbon properties will be considerably different with great depths (high pressure) when compared to shallow properties. Significant over pressure, on the other hand will make the rocks behave as if they were shallower. In addition to the physical properties, the scale and