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Sample records for boys aged 11-13

  1. Effects of Swimming Training on Stress Levels of the Students Aged 11-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köroglu, Mihraç; Yigiter, Korkmaz

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of the swimming training program on stress levels of the students ages 11-13. To this end, 60 students from Private Sahin School in the Sakarya city participated in the study voluntarily. 60 students were divided into two groups and each group was included 30 students. Stress Level Scale II…

  2. Dental health-related behaviour in Scottish schoolchildren aged 11, 13 and 15 from Edinburgh city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Currie, C; Schou, L; McQueen, D V

    1989-01-01

    parents and children to restrict sugar intake and to brush their teeth twice a day. The present investigation was undertaken, as part of a wider survey of health related behaviour in Scottish schoolchildren, to determine the frequency of tooth brushing and sweet consumption in relation to age, gender......The two most important individually-mediated factors for the control of dental decay and periodontal diseases are frequency of sugar consumption commonly in the form of sweets, and toothbrushing. Most dental health education efforts have therefore been concentrating on informing and motivating...... and social background. Data was collected from 4,890 children aged 11, 13 and 15 years from independent and state schools in Lothian. Subjects completed a questionnaire, anonymously, in class....

  3. Late sequelae of a non-optimal neonatal neurological condition in ERPs at the age of 11-13 years.

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    De Sonneville, L M; Visser, S L; Njiokiktjien, C

    1989-06-01

    In a longitudinal study a selective attention task was administered to 11-13-year-old children. During this task (employing a combined filter and selective-set paradigm), event-related brain potentials were recorded to study timing and morphology of early and late selection processes. Task performance was prospectively and retrospectively related to neurological optimality at birth and to flash-evoked potential correlates that were registered at the age of five. The results provided evidence that even after 13 years neonatal neurological suboptimality was reflected in task performance, both in reaction time and in electrophysiological data. Task load interacted with group classification according to optimality to the disadvantage of suboptimals. This implied that load demands differentiated between groups. The event-related brain potentials revealed the existence of a negative shift associated with memory load (search-related negativity) at Fz and Cz, and a positive deflection at Pz (P3b) associated with target detection. Cortical activity, expressed in terms of these deflections, appeared to be less pronounced for the suboptimal group.

  4. Screening for aneuploidies by maternal age, fetal nuchal translucency and maternal serum biochemistry at 11-13+6 gestational weeks

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    Karadžov-Orlić Nataša

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Aneuploidies are the major cause of perinatal death and early psychophysical disorders. Objective. In this study, we analyzed detection and false-positive rates of screening for aneuploidies in the first trimester by the combination of maternal age, fetal nuchal translucency (NT thickness and maternal serum free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (β-hCG, and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A at 11-13+6 weeks of gestation, using the appropriate software developed by the Fetal Medicine Foundation. Methods. Our screening study for aneuploidies analyzed 4172 singleton pregnancies from January 2006 to December 2010. The sensitivities and false-positive rates using the combined aneuploidies determination for the risk cut-off of 1:275 were evaluated. Results. In the trisomy 21 pregnancies, the fetal NT was higher than 95th centile, in 72.8%, serum free b-hCG concentration it was above the 95th centile in 55% and serum PAPP-A was below the 5th centile in 47% of the cases. In the trisomy 18 and 13, the fetal NT was above 95th centile in 66.6% and 44.4% of the cases, respectively. The serum free b-hCG concentration was above the 95th centile in 0 and 10%, but serum PAPP-A was below 5th centile in 80.9% and 88.8% of pregnancies. In the trisomy 21 pregnancies the median free beta-hCG was 2.3 MoM and the median PAPP-A was 0.45 MoM. Chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 169 fetuses: trisomy 21 (97, Turner syndrome (19, trisomy 18 (28, trisomy 13 (11 and others (14. Detection rate of combined screening for aneuploides were 86.0% with false positive rate of 5.3% (mean age 33±4.9 years, >35 years in 35% of pregnancies. Conclusion. Our study suggests that the strategy of first-trimester combined screening of biochemical values and ultrasonographic parameters at 12 gestational weeks identifies higher percentage of aneuploidies with a lower false-positive rate than a single parameter strategy.

  5. Reading for 11-13-Year-Old Students in the Digital Age: New Zealand Case Studies

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    Fletcher, Jo; Nicholas, Karen

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT In New Zealand schools, the focus continues to be on improving the reading achievement of all students situated across a range of socio-economic groups. This is particularly so for our young adolescent students, where research investigations have indicated some concerning trends which influence reading development for this age group. This…

  6. Dioxin Exposure and Age of Pubertal Onset among Russian Boys

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    Lee, Mary M.; Williams, Paige L.; Sergeyev, Oleg; Burns, Jane S.; Patterson, Donald G.; Turner, Wayman E.; Needham, Larry L.; Altshul, Larisa; Revich, Boris; Hauser, Russ

    2011-01-01

    Background: Animal data demonstrate associations of dioxin, furan, and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposures with altered male gonadal maturation. It is unclear whether these associations apply to human populations. Objectives: We investigated the association of dioxins, furans, PCBs, and corresponding toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentrations with pubertal onset among boys in a dioxin-contaminated region. Methods: Between 2003 and 2005, 499 boys 8–9 years of age were enrolled in a longitudinal study in Chapaevsk, Russia. Pubertal onset [stage 2 or higher for genitalia (G2+) or testicular volume (TV) > 3 mL] was assessed annually between ages 8 and 12 years. Serum levels at enrollment were analyzed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. We used Cox proportional hazards models to assess age at pubertal onset as a function of exposure adjusted for potential confounders. We conducted sensitivity analyses excluding boys with pubertal onset at enrollment. Results: The median (range) total serum TEQ concentration was 21 (4–175) pg/g lipid, approximately three times higher than values in European children. At enrollment, boys were generally healthy and normal weight (mean body mass index, 15.9 kg/m2), with 30% having entered puberty by G2+ and 14% by TV criteria. Higher dioxin TEQs were associated with later pubertal onset by TV (hazard ratio = 0.68, 95% confidence interval, 0.49–0.95 for the highest compared with the lowest quartile). Similar associations were observed for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and dioxin concentrations for TV but not G2+. Results were robust to sensitivity analyses. Conclusions: Findings support an association of higher peripubertal serum dioxin TEQs and concentrations with later male pubertal onset reflected in delayed testicular maturation. PMID:21527364

  7. Ex-Premature Infant Boys with Hypospadias are Similar in Size to Age-Matched, Ex-Premature Infant Boys Without Hypospadias

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    Hsieh, Michael H.; Alonzo, David G.; Gonzales, Edmond T.; Jones, Eric A.; Cisek, Lars J.; Roth, David R.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Studies have postulated that hypospadias, prematurity, and low birth weight are linked by defects in androgen signaling. To determine whether premature, hypospadiac boys are small and remain so, we compared their size at birth and at hypospadias repair to premature boys who underwent post-neonatal circumcision. METHODS We identified premature boys admitted to Texas Children's Hospital who underwent either hypospadias repair or circumcision after 4 months of age. Age, weight, and height at birth and surgery were recorded. RESULTS Fifty-four boys had hypospadias and 34 did not. For hypospadiac boys, the mean birth weight and age, height, and weight at surgery were lower than for boys without hypospadias. More importantly, length-for-age and weight-for-age percentiles were also lower for hypospadiac boys. When subset analysis was performed on boys younger than 2 years at surgery, however, there were no significant differences in height or weight between hypospadiac and nonhypospadiac boys. CONCLUSION Our series suggests that premature, hypospadiac boys are born smaller than age-matched, non-hypospadiac controls. However, there were no age-corrected size differences between hypospadiac and non-hypospadiac boys at surgery. This implies that hypospadiac boys exhibit postneonatal ‘rebound’ growth. Global growth deficits, if any, do not persist in hypospadiac boys. PMID:20833109

  8. Parent-Reported Differences between School-Aged Girls and Boys on the Autism Spectrum

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    Sutherland, Rebecca; Hodge, Antoinette; Bruck, Susan; Costley, Debra; Klieve, Helen

    2017-01-01

    More boys than girls are diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder; however, there are conflicting findings about whether they differ in their presentation. This study involved a survey of parents of school-aged children on the autism spectrum (171 parents of girls and 163 parents of boys) that was distributed via social media. The surveys provided…

  9. Mother's age effect on the boys' anthropometric properties in the Region of Tuzla (Bosnia and Herzegovina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadzihalilović, Jasminka; Hadziselimović, Rifat; Halilović, Amir H; Osmić, Munevera; Hamidović, Hajrija; Ahmić, Adisa; Jusupović, Fatima

    2004-12-01

    Our objective was to establish if mother's age affects the anthropometric properties their 11 and 16 years old sons, and if the boys' BMI is satisfactory. Cross-sections, questionnaires, and statistics were used for data processing BMI (kg/m2) was presented according to the scale Quetelet's index nutritional status. Twelve anthropometric properties were researched. It was established that mother's age affects anthropometric properties in adolescent boys. The younger mothers' boys come to puberty with significantly higher mean values for most anthropometric parameters. In the course of adolescent jump, older mothers' boys have significantly higher anthropometric measures in comparison to their age boys delivered by younger mothers. After the completion of their intensive growth and development anthropometric measures in both category boys are equal or insignificantly higher in younger mothers' sons. Mother's age affects their sons' anthropometric properties of growth and development, particularly in prepuberty and puberty. After puberty that effect is not significant. According to BMI, the boys coming from the researched region make the group of underfed children. That is probably the outcome of bad living conditions, irregular and insufficient diet, stress, etc. in the course of four year aggression on Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  10. Maternal thyroid function at 11-13 weeks of gestation.

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    Ashoor, Ghalia; Kametas, Nikos A; Akolekar, Ranjit; Guisado, Julia; Nicolaides, Kypros H

    2010-01-01

    To establish normal ranges of maternal serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4) and free triiodothyronine (FT3) at 11-13 weeks of gestation. Maternal serum concentrations of FT3, FT4, TSH, anti-thyroperoxidase (anti-TPO) and anti-thyroglobulin (anti-Tg) antibodies were measured at 11-13 weeks. Normal ranges were constructed from the data of singleton pregnancies with no anti-thyroid antibodies resulting in live births after 34 weeks of phenotypically normal neonates with birth weight above the 5th percentile. Adjustments were made for maternal characteristics found by multiple regression analysis to affect the levels of TSH, FT3 and FT4. 3,592 of the 4,318 pregnancies examined were antibody negative, and in this group serum TSH increased whereas FT3 and FT4 decreased with gestation, and all three were lower in black than in white women. Serum FT3 and FT4 decreased but TSH did not change significantly with maternal age; TSH and FT3 increased whereas FT4 decreased with body mass index; TSH decreased whereas FT3 and FT4 increased with serum free beta-hCG. In the antibody-positive group, compared to the negative group, median TSH was higher and median FT3 and FT4 were lower. The study established normal ranges for maternal thyroid function at 11-13 weeks. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Tor: Case Study of a Boy with Autism between the Age of Three and Eight

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    Wagner, C Reuterskiold; Nettelbladt, U.

    2005-01-01

    Longitudinal data are presented on a boy between the ages of three and eight. At age three he received a diagnosis of language impairment and at age six a diagnosis of high-functioning autism. Results are presented from extensive assessments at four points in time, including interviews with his mother and teachers. The results indicate that the…

  12. Gender differences in the sleep habits of 11-13 year olds.

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    Natal, César L; Lourenço, Tânia J; Silva, Luana A; Boscolo, Rita A; Silva, Andressa; Tufik, Sergio; Mello, Marco Túlio de

    2009-12-01

    Sleep plays an important role in the physical and emotional development of adolescents. The aim of this study was to examine gender differences in sleep habits in a sample of 11-13 year olds. The study was carried out in the city of Patos de Minas, Brazil. The study cohort was composed of 200 students (96 boys and 104 girls) attending (in the morning or in the afternoon) the 5th, 6th or 7th grades, with ages ranging from 11 to 13 years. A Sleep Questionnaire developed at the Federal University of São Paulo was used in order to evaluate student sleep habits and schedules, as well as the overall quality of sleep. For the period between Friday night and Sunday morning, girls displayed longer sleep duration than did boys. During the week, students attending only afternoon classes woke up later than did students attending only morning classes. In addition, morning-class students showed more adverse effects on sleep, including irregular sleep/wakefulness circadian rhythms, when compared with afternoon-class students. Sleep habits are affected by gender and school schedule.

  13. Motor Performance Age and Race Differences between Black and Caucasian Boys Six to Nine Years of Age.

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    DiNucci, James M.

    This study was undertaken to compare the motor performance age and race differences between black and caucasian boys ages six to nine. One hundred and twenty subjects were administered 25 test items which measured (a) muscular strength, (b) muscular endurance, (c) cardio-respiratory endurance, (d) speed, (e) power, (f) agility, (g) balance, and…

  14. The Relationship among Pubertal Stage, Age, and Drinking in Adolescent Boys and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faden, Vivian B.; Ruffin, Beverly; Newes-Adeyi, Gabriella; Chen, Chiung

    2010-01-01

    This study used data from the Third National Household and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to examine the association between pubertal status (Tanner staging for boys and girls and menarche for girls) and alcohol use in a nationally representative sample of youths ages 12 to 17. Logistic regression was used to model the relationship. In…

  15. Do sexual maturation stages affect flexibility in adolescent boys aged 14 years?

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    Kanbur, N O; Düzgün, I; Derman, O; Baltaci, G

    2005-03-01

    Pubertal changes constitute a background for development of motor abilities and flexibility as an important component of physical fitness. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the flexibility is actually related to sexual maturation stages in adolescent boys. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 69 healthy boys aged 14 years. Before testing, all participants performed a 3 min warm up and static stretch routine, emphasizing the lower body. The flexibility tests were performed in a counterbalanced design. Sit-and-reach test and goniometric measurement of hamstring flexibility was administered. The results of flexibility tests and body measures were analysed for cross-sectional comparison. Groups were formed according to Tanner's classification and consisted of boys in Stage II, III, IV, V, respectively. The results of sit and reach test scores and goniometric measurements did not correlate with age in months, height, weight and BMI; and furthermore they did not correlate with the sexual maturation stages (p>0.05). The sit and reach test scores were significantly correlated with goniometric measurements (right: r=0.653, p=0.00; left: r=0.638, p=0.00). The results suggest that sexual maturation stages in pubertal period would not be effective in determining the flexibility. Besides, sexual maturation is not a cause of decreased flexibility in adolescent boys aged 14 years.

  16. Spermaturia and serum hormone concentrations at the age of puberty in boys prenatally exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mol, Nanette M; Sørensen, Nicolina; Weihe, Pal

    2002-01-01

    To determine whether prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with possible hormone-disrupting effects is capable of affecting sexual differentiation in boys at the age of puberty.......To determine whether prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with possible hormone-disrupting effects is capable of affecting sexual differentiation in boys at the age of puberty....

  17. 18 CFR 11.13 - Energy gains calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (HWBEG) Model Description and Users Manual, which is available for the National Technical Information... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Energy gains calculations. 11.13 Section 11.13 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY...

  18. Executive Functions of Six-Year-Old Boys with Normal Birth Weight and Gestational Age

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    Phua, Desiree Yee-Ling; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne; Saw, Seang-Mei; Meaney, Michael J.; Qiu, Anqi

    2012-01-01

    Impaired fetal development, reflected by low birth weight or prematurity, predicts an increased risk for psychopathology, especially attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Such effects cut across the normal range of birth weight and gestation. Despite the strength of existing epidemiological data, cognitive pathways that link fetal development to mental health are largely unknown. In this study we examined the relation of birth weight (>2500 g) and gestational age (37–41 weeks) within the normal range with specific executive functions in 195 Singaporean six-year-old boys of Chinese ethnicity. Birth weight adjusted for gestational age was used as indicator of fetal growth while gestational age was indicative of fetal maturity. Linear regression revealed that increased fetal growth within the normal range is associated with an improved ability to learn rules during the intra/extra-dimensional shift task and to retain visual information for short period of time during the delayed matching to sample task. Moreover, faster and consistent reaction times during the stop-signal task were observed among boys born at term, but with higher gestational age. Hence, even among boys born at term with normal birth weight, variations in fetal growth and maturity showed distinct effects on specific executive functions. PMID:22558470

  19. An expansion of the peer-tutoring paradigm: cross-age peer tutoring of social skills among socially rejected boys.

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    Gumpel, T P; Frank, R

    1999-01-01

    We examined the effects of a cross-age peer-tutoring program on the social skills of 2 sixth-grade and 2 kindergarten socially rejected and isolated boys. Peer tutoring consisted of the older boys conducting social skills training with their younger tutees. The frequency of positive social interactions increased for all 4 boys, with maintenance of treatment gains following a 5-week interval.

  20. Smaller genitals at school age in boys whose mothers were exposed to non-persistent pesticides in early pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veje, Christine Wohlfahrt; Andersen, H R; Jensen, Tina Kold

    2012-01-01

    examinations including ultrasound of testicular volumes, puberty staging (Tanner), anthropometry, and blood sampling. Only a few of the boys had reached puberty (n = 3). Among prepubescent boys, testicular volume and penile length (age- and weight-adjusted) were reduced if mothers were exposed to pesticides...... showed signs of impaired reproductive function (reduced genital size and altered serum hormone concentrations) at three months of age. To assess the possible long-term effects of prenatal pesticide exposure, the boys were re-examined at 6-11 years. The 94 boys (59 exposed, 35 unexposed) underwent genital...... penile length (95% CI: -16.8; -1.1) compared with the unexposed. The testicular volume and penile length at school age could be tracked to measures from the same boys made at 3 months, e.g. those that had small testes at school age also had small testes at 3 months. Pituitary and testicular hormone serum...

  1. Balance deficits and ADHD symptoms in medication-naïve school-aged boys

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    Konicarova J

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Jana Konicarova,1 Petr Bob,1,2 Jiri Raboch11Center for Neuropsychiatric Research of Traumatic Stress, Department of Psychiatry and UHSL, 1st Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic; 2Central European Institute of Technology, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech RepublicBackground and objectives: Functional disturbances developed early in life include balance deficits which are linked to dysfunctions of higher levels of cognitive and motor integration. According to our knowledge, there are only a few studies suggesting that balance deficits are related to behavioral disturbances in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD.Methods: We tested the extent to which balance deficits were related to ADHD symptoms in 35 medication-naïve boys of school age (8–11 years and compared the results with a control group of 30 boys of the same age.Results: ADHD symptoms in medication-naïve boys had specific relationships to disturbances of postural and gait balance.Conclusion: To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence in the medical literature for a direct relationship between ADHD symptoms and balance deficits, that cannot be attributed to medication and the presence of any neurological disease.Keywords: ADHD, balance deficits, conduct problems, developmental disorders, inhibitory deficits, impulsivity

  2. Self-esteem accuracy and externalizing problems in preschool-aged boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Jaimi L; Biebl, Sara J W; Dilalla, Lisabeth F

    2011-01-01

    Although the existing literature addressing the relation between self-esteem and externalizing problems is inconsistent, it appears that accuracy of self-esteem ratings may be an important factor to consider. However, no studies to date have explored this with preschool-aged children. In this study, the authors investigated differences in externalizing problems between underraters, realistic raters, and overraters of self-esteem of 5-year-old boys in three domains: cognitive competence, physical competence, and peer acceptance. Compared to teacher ratings of competence, boys who overrated their cognitive competence and peer acceptance were more likely to be rated by teachers as exhibiting more externalizing problems the following year. Findings suggest that overconfidence may have important implications for the development of externalizing problems in young children.

  3. Methods of Strength Development in Boys of Primary School Age Using Active Games

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    С. І. Марченко

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The research objective is to analyze the effect of games on the dynamics of strength development in boys of the second-fourth grades. Research methods: theoretical analysis and collation of scientific and methodological literature, method of control testing, pedagogical experiment, methods of mathematical statistics. Research results. The paper addresses the feasibility of further scientific substantiation for the effect of the number of games, the number of repetitions, the intervals of rest and their interrelation on the change in the strength indicators for boys of primary school age. The study has revealed that strength development requires that the pupils of the second and the third grades perform four games, while the pupils of the fourth grade — five games. The number of repetitions for the pupils of the second grade is one and two, for the pupils of the third grade — two, and for the boys of the fourth grade — three, with 40-second intervals for rest. The most effective development manifests in the second and the fourth grades during 20 classes, and in the third grade —during 30 classes. After that, it is advisable to use other means. The game duration varies from two to five minutes. Conclusions. The results obtained during the experiment give reason to recommend that primary school teachers, coaches and parents use active games in physical education, sports training and individual motor activity of boys of primary school age. These games should aim at developing strength abilities, both purposefully and in complex with regard to the duration and pace (intensity of their performance.

  4. Simulation of the regularities of physical exercises learning process of boys aged 8 years old

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    O.V. Ivashchenko

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the peculiarities of the formation of motor skills in boys aged 8 years. Materials and methods: In study participated boys of eight years old (n=48. The study used factor experiment plans. The purpose of this experiment was to optimize the modes of education and to determine the peculiarities of the formation of motor skills in boys. Results: Discriminant analysis allowed: to determine the modes of exercise in the formation of motor skills; to answer the question as to how significantly different modes of work on the effectiveness of the formation of motor skills. Established: which of the variables most significantly affect the differentiation of classes; to which class the object belongs based on the values discriminant variables. The influence of the number of approaches, the number of repetitions in the approach and the interval of rest on the level of training for movements is revealed. Conclusions: To choose the most rational mode of exercising in the process of forming motor skills can be used the first discriminating function with an emphasis on the most informative variables.

  5. MOTOR ABILITIES OF YOUNGER-AGE SCHOOL BOYS OF DIFFERENT INTELLECTUAL LEVELS

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    Dejan Orlić

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with assessment of motor abilities on the sample of 164 subjects of boys from major cities of Vojvodina, divided in three groups according to their IQ. Assessment was carried out by the test battery of 7 motor tests: Obstacle course backwards, Hand tapping, Seated straddle stretch, Standing broad jump, 20m run, Sit-up, Bent-arm hang, as well as by Raven's progressive matrices in color for assessment of cognitive abilities. Subject of this paper are motor and cognitive abilities of boys at the age of 7-10. The purpose of research is to define differences in motor abilities of children at different intellectual levels. Significance of this research is primarily related to getting concrete data on engagement of cognitive abilities in performing motor tasks of different complexity. Research results of the above sample indicated that coordination seven to eight years old boys had statistical significant relations with cognitive abilities, hence motor tasks i.e. tasks of unusual structure to be carried out fast and correctly, which represented these abilities took effect on differences between groups, whereas repetitive strength, static strength and flexibility did not significantly affect the difference between groups.

  6. Peculiarities of Game Modes Effect on Dynamics of Speed Development in Boys of Primary School Age

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    С. І. Марченко

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Research objective: to experimentally verify the effectiveness of use of game modes systemized for development of speed abilities in boys of primary school age. Research methods: 1.Theoretical analysis and collation of scientific and methodological literature. 2. Method of control tests. 3. Pedagogical experiment. 4. Methods of mathematical statistics. Research results. Positive changes in the level of speed abilities development occurred both in the reference and test groups with better performance in the test groups. This effect resulted from the rational planning of game load. The study has established that to develop speed, the second-fourth grade boys are to engage in five games. The number of repetitions for the second-third graders is one, the rest intervals being 40 seconds, and the number of repetitions for the fourth grade boys is two, rest intervals being 30-40 seconds. The most effective development manifests during the 20-30 lessons. Favorable for speed development are games and relays performed with the highest speed from the start and at short distances from 10 to 30 m.

  7. Evaluation of Stages and Mean Age of Onset of Puberty in Boys of Yazd

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    M Golestan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Genetic and health factors along with ethnicity and geographic location are factors that affect the time of puberty onset. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the mean age of onset of puberty and its stages in boys of Yazd. Methods: This cross- sectional study with random clustering sampling method was conducted on 1018 healthy 9-16 years old male students of Yazd. All cases were examined and evaluated for onset and secondary characters of puberty with inspection of the genital region for pubic hair and scrotum and testicular size according to Tanner classification. Results: The mean age of G2 (onset of testicular growth and PH2 (onset of pubic hairs growth was 11.57±1.54 and 12.43±1.07 years. The mean age of G5 (final stage of testicular growth and PH5 (final stage of pubic hairs growth was 15.43±0.8 and 15.69±1.1 years. The mean BMI in the early stages of puberty (G2 was 16.32±2.02. Conclusion: The mean age of onset of puberty (G2 in boys of Yazd was 11.5 years that is similar to other researches in other countries.

  8. Fathers' and mothers' emotion talk with their girls and boys from toddlerhood to preschool age.

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    van der Pol, Lotte D; Groeneveld, Marleen G; van Berkel, Sheila R; Endendijk, Joyce J; Hallers-Haalboom, Elizabeth T; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Mesman, Judi

    2015-12-01

    Goals of the current study were to examine fathers' and mothers' emotion talk from toddlerhood to preschool age, and to test whether parents socialize emotions differently in girls and boys. In a sample of 317 families, we observed both parents' emotion talk and their use of gender labels, while discussing a picture book with drawings of children displaying 4 basic emotions (anger, fear, sadness, and happiness), with their first- and second-born children when the children were 4 and 2 years of age, respectively, and again 12 months later. Findings revealed that parents generally elaborated more on emotions with the second-born children when the children were 3 years of age than when they were 2 years old. With their firstborn children parents elaborated less on emotions when the children were 5 years old than when they were 4 years of age. Further, mothers elaborated more on emotions than fathers. Parents' use of gender labels for the children in the pictures showed that parents associated anger more with boys, whereas they associated sadness and happiness more with girls. These findings suggest that parents adjust their emotion socialization strategies to their child's level of emotion understanding, and that both parents convey stereotypical gender messages during parent-child discussion of emotions. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. New reference centiles for boys' height, weight and body mass index used voice break as the marker of biological age.

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    Mumm, Rebekka; Hermanussen, Michael; Scheffler, Christiane

    2016-10-01

    We aimed to develop the first references for body height, body weight and body mass index (BMI) for boys based on the individual developmental tempo with respect to their voice break status. We re-analysed data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS study) on body height, body weight and body mass index based on the voice break, or mutation, in 3956 boys aged 10-17 years. We used the LMS method to construct smoothed references centiles for the studied variables in premutational, mutational and postmutational boys. Body height, body weight and BMI differed significantly (p voice break. On average, boys were 5.9 cm taller, 5.8 kg heavier and had a 0.7 kg/m² higher BMI with every higher stage of voice break. Currently used growth references for chronological age in comparison with maturity-related references led to an average of 5.4% of boys being falsely classified as overweight. These newly developed growth references allowed convenient classifications of underweight and overweight or obese boys with respect to their voice break status. They should be added to currently used references centiles for the body mass index to avoid misclassifying boys' weight. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Age at voice break in Danish boys: effects of pre-pubertal body mass index and secular trend

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Anders; Magnusdottir, Steinunn; Scheike, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Voice break is a late, but characteristic event in male puberty. Assessment of age at voice break may be a relevant marker for epidemiological studies of male pubertal development. We investigated the timing of voice break and its association with explanatory variables [calendar year of admission...... in the boys choir and pre-pubertal body mass index (BMI)] by survival analysis techniques based on retrospective analyses of age at voice break in 463 Danish choir boys who were studied over a 10-year period. We found an overall median age at voice break of 14.0 [13.9-14.6] years, and a statistically...... significant downwards trend in age at voice break in the 10-year period (1994-2003) (log-rank test p = 0.0146). There was a statistically significant difference in age at voice break between boys in the different BMI quartiles in pre-puberty (p = 0.00822) with a tendency towards early voice break...

  11. Postural reactions of girls and boys aged 12–15 years evaluated using the Romberg test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Wilczyński

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : The complex system controlling human posture includes a gaze stabilisation system, which comprises the control of direction and visual acuity during head and body movements, and a posture stabilisation system, keeping the body in balance at rest and in movement. Aim of the research: To analyse the postural reaction of SOX and SOY using the Romberg test with eyes open (EO and closed (CE in girls and boys aged 12–15 years. Material and methods : The study included 503 students of Primary School No. 13 and School No. 4 in Starachowice. Postural reactions were tested on a Cosmogamma platform by Emildue R50300. Postural reactions were analysed, and mean sway X (MSX and mean sway Y (MSY were calculated. Results: Analysis of variance showed significant differences of MSX only between girls and boys (p < 0.036. MSX was significantly lower in girls in both tests with EO and CE. Although there was no apparent significant difference of MSX between the Romberg test with EO and CE, a slight progression was observed in the test with CE. Analysis of variance of MSY with a single classification showed a significant effect of study options (p < 0.048, a significant interaction of gender and options of the study (p < 0.048, and a significant interaction of age and options of the study (p < 0.026. Analysis of variance of MSY showed a significant progression of MSY in the test with CE. Conclusions : Our research showed that balance with CE does not worsen, so it can be assumed that children have limited skills of using vision to maintain balance because there is a lack of appropriate coordination between vision and motor abilities, which in children are in development.

  12. The development of the effect of peer monitoring on generosity differs among elementary school-age boys and girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruto eTakagishi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of peer monitoring on generosity in boys and girls aged 6 - 12 years. A total of 120 elementary school students played a one-shot dictator game (DG with and without peer monitoring by classmates. Children decided how to divide 10 chocolates between themselves and a classmate either in a condition in which their allocations were visible to their peers, or in private. While the effect of peer monitoring on the allocation amount in the DG was clearly present in boys, it was not observed in girls. Furthermore, the effect of peer monitoring in boys appeared at the age of 9 years. These results suggest that the motivation to draw peers’ attention plays a stronger role for older boys than for girls or younger boys. The potential roles of higher-order theory of mind, social roles, and emergence of secondary sex characteristics on the influence of peer monitoring on generosity shown by boys are discussed.

  13. Age at voice break in Danish boys: effects of pre-pubertal body mass index and secular trend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juul, Anders; Magnusdottir, Steinunn; Scheike, Thomas; Prytz, Sven; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2007-12-01

    Voice break is a late, but characteristic event in male puberty. Assessment of age at voice break may be a relevant marker for epidemiological studies of male pubertal development. We investigated the timing of voice break and its association with explanatory variables [calendar year of admission in the boys choir and pre-pubertal body mass index (BMI)] by survival analysis techniques based on retrospective analyses of age at voice break in 463 Danish choir boys who were studied over a 10-year period. We found an overall median age at voice break of 14.0 [13.9-14.6] years, and a statistically significant downwards trend in age at voice break in the 10-year period (1994-2003) (log-rank test p = 0.0146). There was a statistically significant difference in age at voice break between boys in the different BMI quartiles in pre-puberty (p = 0.00822) with a tendency towards early voice break with increasing BMI standard deviation scores. Thus boys in the heaviest quartile at 8 years of age had an increased risk of early voice break (RR of 1.74 [1.14-2.65]) approximately 6 years later, compared with boys in the thinnest quartile. The earlier voice break seen during the 10-year observation period could however not exclusively be explained by a general increase in BMI in that period. Our findings indicate that puberty, as assessed by age at voice break in boys, may be starting earlier in Denmark as it has been observed in the USA, and suggest a relationship between pre-pubertal BMI and the timing of puberty.

  14. Normative Two-Minute Walk Test Distances for Boys and Girls 3 to 17 Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohannon, Richard W; Wang, Ying-Chih; Bubela, Deborah; Gershon, Richard C

    2018-02-01

    To provide normative reference values for the 2-minute walk test (2MWT) for children and adolescents. A population-based sample of 2,631 boys and girls (3-17 years) contributed data to this 2011 study which was part of the NIH Toolbox for the Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral Function Norming Project. The 2MWT was performed over a 50 foot (15.2 meter) out-and-back course. Overall, the mean (standard deviation) distance walked by the participants was 186.2 (33.9) meters. As a general linear model demonstrated that gender (F = 11.0, p =.001) and age (F = 127.6, p <.001) affected 2MWT distance, separate norms are provided for each gender and age stratum (e.g., 3-year-old boys,16-year-old girls). Based on these findings and correlational and regression analysis, separate explanatory equations for 2MWT distance for boys and girls are provided. The separate equations for boys and girls include age, age squared, height, and body mass as variables that explain around 40% of the variance in 2MWT distance. The study presents norms for the 2MWT performed by American boys and girls. The norms can be used to determine the presence of limitations in walking endurance in this population.

  15. Neural correlates of language variability in preschool-aged boys with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naigles, Letitia R; Johnson, Ryan; Mastergeorge, Ann; Ozonoff, Sally; Rogers, Sally J; Amaral, David G; Nordahl, Christine Wu

    2017-06-01

    Children with autism vary widely in their language abilities, yet the neural correlates of this language variability remain unclear, especially early in development. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was used to examine diffusivity measures along the length of 18 major fiber tracts in 104 preschool-aged boys with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The boys were assigned to subgroups according to their level of language development (Low: no/low language, Middle: small vocabulary, High: large vocabulary and grammar), based on their raw scores on the expressive language (EL) and receptive language (RL) sections of the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL). Results indicate that the subgroups differed in fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), and radial diffusivity (RD) along the inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) in both hemispheres. Moreover, FA correlated significantly with Mullen EL and RL raw scores, but not ADOS severity score, along the left and right ILF. Subgroups also differed in MD (but not FA) along the left superior longitudinal fasiculus and left corticospinal tract, but these differences were not correlated with language scores. These findings suggest that white matter microstructure in the left and right ILF varies in relation to lexical development in young males with ASD. The findings also support the use of raw scores on language-relevant standardized tests for assessing early language-brain relationships. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Autism Res 2017, 10: 1107-1119. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Comparative characteristics of the state of the motor function of boys and girls aged 4-5 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Voropay

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available It was considered the reliability of differences in the state of motor function between boys and girls aged 4-5 years. The study was conducted on the basis of pre-school establishments of Kirovohrad involving girls (n = 212 and boys (n = 188 aged 4-5 years. It is used a set of indicators that characterize motor skills, physiological and functional capacity of children. Identified the absence of significant differences in most parameters, except flexibility, performance of boys and girls of 4 years old. In 5 years old children differences in motor function of the state of most of the indicators are significant differences, except high-speed performance abilities and functional capacity of the system. At the organization of the educational process in physical education should be differentiated pedagogical influence on sexual differences.

  17. Age-related differences in inhibitory control and memory updating in boys with Asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Elisabeth M; Gschaidbauer, Bianca; Kaufmann, Liane; Fink, Andreas; Schulter, Günter; Mittenecker, Erich; Papousek, Ilona

    2016-12-26

    Deficits in specific executive domains are highly prevalent in autism spectrum disorder; however, age-related improvements in executive functions (reflecting prefrontal maturational changes) have been reported even in individuals diagnosed with autism. The current study examined two components of cognitive flexibility (inhibition of prepotent responses and memory monitoring/updating) by using a random-motor-generation task (MPT) in a group of 23 boys with Asperger syndrome (AS) and 23 matched healthy controls. We found poorer inhibition and more repetitive responses in younger AS children solely, but comparable memory monitoring/updating skills across groups. Overall, our findings correspond well with previous studies and reveal that even in AS specific EFs may improve with age and, thus, call for a more differentiated view of executive (dys) function profiles in children diagnosed with AS. Tests such as the random-motor-generation task may help to disentangle more specific processes of executive deficits in autism spectrum disorder as compared to the more classical tests.

  18. Self-Esteem, Parent Identification and Sex Role Development in Preschool Age Boys and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flammer, Donald P.

    1971-01-01

    Self esteem was shown to be associated more closely to high sex role orientation for boys and low sex role adoption for girls; while father identification, for boys only, was related to moderate levels of sex role orientation and sex role preference. Bibliography. (Author)

  19. A comparison of age, cognitive, hormonal, symptomatic and mood correlates of Aggression towards Others in boys with ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsika, Vicki; Sharpley, Christopher F; Sweeney, John A; Andronicos, Nicholas M; Agnew, Linda L; Arnold, Wayne M

    2017-07-01

    Aggression is a major problem in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) but little is known about the possible contributors to this behaviour. To determine the relative strength of the relationships between developmental, cognitive, symptomatic, hormonal and mood factors and 'Aggression towards Others' in boys with ASD. Predictors of Aggression towards Others were investigated in a sample of 136 boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder (M age=11.3yr, SD=3.2yr, range=6yr to 17yr). Data were collected from the boys themselves and their parents (14 fathers, 122 mothers). Results indicated that age and Low Registration on the Sensory Profile were the only significant correlates of this form of aggression. Importantly, testosterone levels did not account for level of social aggression. These data suggest that these boys may have learnt more effective methods of dealing with their frustration as they grew older or benefitted from cognitive maturation, and that having a high neurological threshold may be a source of frustration for these boys. The relationship between Aggression towards Others and Low Registration is discussed and clinical implications of the findings explicated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Age at voice break in Danish boys: effects of pre-pubertal body mass index and secular trend

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Anders; Magnusdottir, Steinunn; Scheike, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Voice break is a late, but characteristic event in male puberty. Assessment of age at voice break may be a relevant marker for epidemiological studies of male pubertal development. We investigated the timing of voice break and its association with explanatory variables [calendar year of admission...... significant downwards trend in age at voice break in the 10-year period (1994-2003) (log-rank test p = 0.0146). There was a statistically significant difference in age at voice break between boys in the different BMI quartiles in pre-puberty (p = 0.00822) with a tendency towards early voice break...... however not exclusively be explained by a general increase in BMI in that period. Our findings indicate that puberty, as assessed by age at voice break in boys, may be starting earlier in Denmark as it has been observed in the USA, and suggest a relationship between pre-pubertal BMI and the timing...

  1. Evaluation of relations between body posture parameters with somatic features and motor abilities of boys aged 14 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Lizis

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [b]introduction[/b]. Body posture is an individual characteristic for everyone, it shows great differentiation – especially in people during their progressive development. As a result, the variability of the development and lack of physical activity impose body posture defects in children and youth. In the literature there is a great lack of measureable data on the relations between correct body posture with somatic features, especially motor features in children at the developing age. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relations between correct body posture parameters, measured with the photogrammetric method, with some of the somatic features and motor abilities of boys at the age of 14. [b]material and methods[/b]. The study included 133 boys aged 14 attending junior secondary schools in the Kraków area of Poland. Only boys with the correct body posture were examined. Posture was examined by the Moire method, through which six parameters were obtained in the sagittal plane, seven in the frontal plane, and one in the transverse plane. The somatic measurements included basic parameters, such as body weight and body height. The measurements of motor features included: marching balance test, speed movement test of the arms and their functional strength. To evaluate the relationships between correct body posture with the characteristics of somatic and motor abilities, the Spearman rank correlation was used. The lowest level of statistical significance was accepted at p ≤ 0,05. [b]results[/b]. No correlations were noted between some of the correct body posture features and the somatic features, and some of the motor abilities of the examined boys at the level of p ≤ 0.05 and p ≤ 0.01. [b]conclusions[/b]. The irregular correlation between the correct body posture and somatic and motor features probably results from the rather big development variability of the boys during puberty.

  2. Influence of Age, Maturity, and Body Size on the Spatiotemporal Determinants of Maximal Sprint Speed in Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Robert W; Oliver, Jon L; Hughes, Michael G; Lloyd, Rhodri S; Cronin, John B

    2017-04-01

    Meyers, RW, Oliver, JL, Hughes, MG, Lloyd, RS, and Cronin, JB. Influence of age, maturity, and body size on the spatiotemporal determinants of maximal sprint speed in boys. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 1009-1016, 2017-The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of age, maturity, and body size on the spatiotemporal determinants of maximal sprint speed in boys. Three-hundred and seventy-five boys (age: 13.0 ± 1.3 years) completed a 30-m sprint test, during which maximal speed, step length, step frequency, contact time, and flight time were recorded using an optical measurement system. Body mass, height, leg length, and a maturity offset represented somatic variables. Step frequency accounted for the highest proportion of variance in speed (∼58%) in the pre-peak height velocity (pre-PHV) group, whereas step length explained the majority of the variance in speed (∼54%) in the post-PHV group. In the pre-PHV group, mass was negatively related to speed, step length, step frequency, and contact time; however, measures of stature had a positive influence on speed and step length yet a negative influence on step frequency. Speed and step length were also negatively influence by mass in the post-PHV group, whereas leg length continued to positively influence step length. The results highlighted that pre-PHV boys may be deemed step frequency reliant, whereas those post-PHV boys may be marginally step length reliant. Furthermore, the negative influence of body mass, both pre-PHV and post-PHV, suggests that training to optimize sprint performance in youth should include methods such as plyometric and strength training, where a high neuromuscular focus and the development force production relative to body weight are key foci.

  3. Extended physical education in children aged 6-15 years was associated with improved academic achievement in boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cöster, M E; Fritz, J; Karlsson, C; Rosengren, B E; Karlsson, M K

    2018-02-16

    Physical activity (PA) has been associated with enhanced cognition, brain development and concentration. This study evaluated if increased physical education (PE) improved academic achievement. We recruited 304 children (55% boys) from a Swedish school in Skane county in 1998-2002 when they were 6-7 years of age and followed them through all nine mandatory school years. Their PE level was increased from 60 minutes to 200 minutes per week and their results were compared with 73,885 control children (51% boys) in the county who graduated in the same years and did the standard 60 minutes of PE per week. Their academic achievements were measured as their final grade scores and the proportion of students eligible for upper secondary school. The eligibility for further education increased in the intervention boys by 6.8 percentage points and the mean grade score by 12.1 points, while in the control group as a whole the eligibility rate decreased by 0.7 percentage points and the mean grade score increased by 1.7 points. No changes in eligibility rates or mean grade scores were seen in the intervention girls. Increasing weekly physical education over nine years was associated with improved academic achievement in boys. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Backstroke Technical Characterization of 11-13 Year-Old Swimmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Filipa Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the backstroke swimming technique of 11-13 year-old swimmers when performing at very high intensity. A sample of 114 swimmers was divided into four groups regarding maturational and gender effect, who performed 25- m backstroke swimming at 50-m pace. Using two underwater cameras the general biomechanical parameters (speed, stroke rate, stroke length and stroke index, the arm stroke phases and two indexes of arm coordination (Index of Coordination 1, which characterizes the continuity between propulsive phases of each arm and Index of Coordination 2 that evaluates the simultaneity between the beginning of the pull of one arm and of the recovery of the other arm were measured. Post- pubertal swimmers achieved higher values of speed (1.06 ± 0.14 and 1.18 ± 0.14 m·s-1 for pubertal and 1.13 ± 0.14 and 1.24 ± 0.12 m·s-1 for post-pubertal girl and boy swimmers, respectively, stroke length (1.64 ± 0.26 and 1.68 ± 0.25 m·cycle-1 for pubertal and 1.79 ± 0.22 and 1.75 ± 0.27 m·cycle-1 for post-pubertal girls and boys, respectively and stroke index. Regar-ding genders, male were faster than female swimmers. Boys also showed a higher stroke rate and stroke index than girls, who achieved higher results in the ratio between stroke length and arm span. As it was expected, no hand lag time was noticed in young swimmers. Although no differences were noticed between genders, the Index of Coordination 1 was in catch-up mode (-9.89 ± 3.16 and -10.16 ± 3.60 % for girls and -9.77 ± 2.93 and -10.39 ± 2.44 % for boys pubertal and post-pubertal, respectively and the Index of Coordination 2 was in superposition mode (1.86 ± 4.39 and 2.25 ± 2.25 % from girls and 1.72 ± 2.62 and 1.95 ± 2.95 % for boys, pubertal and post-pubertal, respectively.

  5. Biparietal diameter at 11-13 weeks' gestation in fetuses with open spina bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, A; Coates, A; Papageorghiou, A; Bhide, A; Thilaganathan, B

    2013-10-01

    To ascertain the reported association between reduced biparietal diameter (BPD) at 11-13 weeks' gestation and open spina bifida and to investigate its predictive value in a single-center study. This was a retrospective study of fetuses in which BPD was measured at 11-13 weeks' gestation, including 27 fetuses with isolated open spina bifida subsequently diagnosed at 16-24 weeks and 7775 unaffected controls. BPD values were converted into multiples of the expected median (MoM) after adjustment for crown-rump length and maternal characteristics. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to determine the maternal characteristics significantly associated with spina bifida. The performance of screening was determined by receiver-operating characteristics curve analysis. BPD values at 11-13 weeks' gestation were compared with those measured in the second trimester using Z-scores. BPD values at 11-13 weeks' gestation were below the 5(th) centile in 44.4% of cases of open spina bifida. In these fetuses, the median BPD MoM value was significantly smaller than that in the control group (0.930 vs 0.998 MoM; P spina bifida. The detection rate using BPD measurements in the first trimester was 55.6% with a false-positive rate of 11.6%. In fetuses with open spina bifida, the BPD Z-scores were significantly lower at 16-24 weeks compared to those recorded at 11-13 weeks (median, -1.71 (range, -3.98 to -0.20) vs -1.30 (-3.75 to 2.61); P = 0.006). Fetuses with open spina bifida have a smaller BPD in the first trimester. This observation may be useful in early screening. It is likely that a combination of maternal characteristics such as age and BMI, fetal BPD and maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein measured in the first trimester would provide a clinically useful screening test for open spina bifida. Copyright © 2013 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Generation Changes over the Period of 1986-2006 in the Physical Fitness of Boys Aged 7-19 from Eastern Poland at Particular Stages of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saczuk, Jerzy; Wasiluk, Agnieszka; Zalech, Miroslaw

    2012-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the size of secular trends in the physical fitness of boys from eastern Poland taking into consideration stages of education. Material and methods: The physical fitness results of boys aged 7-19 years living in eastern regions of Poland were analyzed: 3188 students were examined in 1986 while in 2006 the research included 10…

  7. Weight and body mass index (BMI): current data for Austrian boys and girls aged 4 to under 19 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Michael; Gleiss, Andreas; Häusler, Gabriele; Borkenstein, Martin; Kapelari, Klaus; Köstl, Gerhard; Lassi, Michael; Schemper, Michael; Schmitt, Klaus; Blümel, Peter

    2015-01-01

    BMI reference charts are widely used to diagnose overweight, obesity and underweight in children and adolescents. To provide up-to-date national reference values for Austria. A cross-sectional sample of over 14 500 children and adolescents (4-19 years) stratified by provinces according to age- and sex-specific population proportions was drawn via schooling institutions (kindergartens, schools and vocational colleges). The generalized additive models for location, scale and shape were used for a flexible estimation of percentile curves. Austrian boys and girls have higher average weight compared with previous prevalence data. BMI centiles matching BMI values at age 18 years, which are used for defining thinness, overweight and obesity in adults, were calculated. In Austria, using reference values as thresholds, ∼18% of boys and 12% of girls are overweight (with thresholds passing through BMI 25.00-29.99 kg/m(2) in adults) and 5% of boys and 3% of girls are obese (with thresholds passing through BMI ≥30.00 kg/m(2) in adults). Overweight and obesity are common in Austria and their prevalence is increasing (using the same IOTF reference for international comparison). Up-to-date national BMI reference values are provided to classify children and adolescents according to the proposed overweight and obesity thresholds.

  8. 6 CFR 11.13 - Referrals to the Department of Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Referrals to the Department of Justice. 11.13 Section 11.13 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CLAIMS § 11.13 Referrals to the Department of Justice. Referrals of debts to the Department of Justice for collection will...

  9. Preliminary evaluation of an after-school resistance training program for improving physical fitness in middle school-age boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faigenbaum, Avery D; McFarland, Jim E; Johnson, Larry; Kang, Jie; Bloom, Jason; Ratamess, Nicholas A; Hoffman, Jay R

    2007-04-01

    Most after-school physical activity programs for youth focus on aerobic games and activities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of an after-school resistance training program on improving the physical fitness of middle school-age boys. 22 boys (M = 13.9 yr., SD = .4 yr.) participated in a periodized, multiple-set, 9-wk. (2x/week) resistance training program. All subjects were pre- and post-tested on their 10-repetition maximum squat, 10-repetition maximum bench press, vertical jump, medicine ball toss, flexibility, and also percentage of body fat and the progressive aerobic cardiovascular endurance run (PACER). Statistical analysis indicated that subjects significantly improved performance on the squat (19%), bench press (15%), flexibility (10%), vertical jump (5%), medicine ball toss (12%), and the PACER (36%). Although this design minus a control group limits interpretation, this after-school resistance-training program can improve muscular fitness and cardiovascular fitness in boys and should be replicated with appropriate experimental controls.

  10. [Optimal concentrations of sevoflurane and propofol for laryngeal mask airway insertion in Chinese boys of different ages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Ye, Li-Sha; Gao, Ping; Zhang, Xu-Tong; Xu, Jian; Su, Er-Zhan; Lian, Qing-Quan

    2009-04-21

    To investigate the optimal concentrations of sevoflurane and propofol for laryngeal mask airway (LMA) insertion in Chinese boys of different ages. 200 boys with ASA status I weighting 7 - 53 kg undergoing inguinal operation were divided into 4 groups (n = 50) according to age: Group A (aged 7 m-1 yr), Group B (1 - 3 yrs), Group C (4 - 6 yrs), and Group D (7 - 11 yrs). No premedication was given. General anesthesia was induced with propofol intravenous infusion at target effect-site concentration by target controlled infusion (TCI) using children Marsh model (Subgroups As, Bs, Cs, and Ds, 25 cases for each subgroup) or sevoflurane inhalation combined with 50% N2O (Subgroups Ap, Bp, Cp, and Dp, 25 cases for each subgroup) the optimal concentration was predetermined according to the modification of Dixon's up-and-down method. The size of LMA was determined according to the boy's weight and reverse technique was used to place LMA. The insertion conditions were noted as satisfactory when the jaw was relaxed, lash reflex disappeared, no coughing, gagging, swallowing, and laryngospasm was seen, and limb movement was minimal. The levels of ED(50) of P(ET)-sevoflurane for LMA insertion in Subgroups As, Bs, Cs, and Ds were 2.96% (95% CI 2.58% - 3.44%), 2.62% (95% CI 2.31% - 2.90%), 2.16% (95% CI 1.97% - 2.33%), and 1.89% (95% CI 1.66% - 2.24%) respectively. The levels of ED(50) of target effect site concentration with propofol for LMA insertion in Subgroups Ap, Bp, Cp, and Dp were 4.74 microg/ml (95% CI 4.49 - 5.13 microg/ml), 4.33 microg/ml (95% CI 4.07 - 4.62 microg/ml), 4.10 microg/ml (95% CI 3.90 - 4.31 microg/ml), and 3.65 microg/ml (95% CI 3.24 - 3.98 microg/ml) respectively. The ED(50) level of P(ET)-sevoflurane or target effect site concentration with propofol for LMA insertion in Chinese boys decreases gradually along with the increase of age.

  11. HLA-B27 predicts a more extended disease with increasing age at onset in boys with juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntson, Lillemor; Damgård, Michael; Andersson-Gäre, Boel

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a heterogeneous condition with very few clinical and laboratory signs that can help predict the course and severity of the disease in the individual patient. The cell-surface antigen HLA-B27 is well known to be associated with spondyloarthropathies...... to a population-based study as possible. METHODS: We studied an incidence-based cohort of 305 patients collected prospectively in 3 Nordic countries (Sweden, Norway, Denmark). Clinical and serological data of the first 3 years of the disease were collected. RESULTS: HLA-B27 was found to be positive in 25.......5% of the patients, and we found a higher proportion of HLA-B27-positive boys with older age at disease onset (p=0.034). Regression analysis showed a correlation of 0.7 in the HLA-B27-positive boys, pointing to a higher risk of more joint involvement with older age at disease onset. By Fisher's exact test...

  12. Backstroke technical characterization of 11-13 year-old swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ana Filipa; Figueiredo, Pedro; Seifert, Ludovic; Soares, Susana; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo; Fernandes, Ricardo J

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the backstroke swimming technique of 11-13 year-old swimmers when performing at very high intensity. A sample of 114 swimmers was divided into four groups regarding maturational and gender effect, who performed 25- m backstroke swimming at 50-m pace. Using two underwater cameras the general biomechanical parameters (speed, stroke rate, stroke length and stroke index), the arm stroke phases and two indexes of arm coordination (Index of Coordination 1, which characterizes the continuity between propulsive phases of each arm and Index of Coordination 2 that evaluates the simultaneity between the beginning of the pull of one arm and of the recovery of the other arm) were measured. Post- pubertal swimmers achieved higher values of speed (1.06 ± 0.14 and 1.18 ± 0.14 m·s(-1) for pubertal and 1.13 ± 0.14 and 1.24 ± 0.12 m·s(-1) for post-pubertal girl and boy swimmers, respectively), stroke length (1.64 ± 0.26 and 1.68 ± 0.25 m·cycle(-1) for pubertal and 1.79 ± 0.22 and 1.75 ± 0.27 m·cycle(-1) for post-pubertal girls and boys, respectively) and stroke index. Regar-ding genders, male were faster than female swimmers. Boys also showed a higher stroke rate and stroke index than girls, who achieved higher results in the ratio between stroke length and arm span. As it was expected, no hand lag time was noticed in young swimmers. Although no differences were noticed between genders, the Index of Coordination 1 was in catch-up mode (-9.89 ± 3.16 and -10.16 ± 3.60 % for girls and -9.77 ± 2.93 and -10.39 ± 2.44 % for boys pubertal and post-pubertal, respectively) and the Index of Coordination 2 was in superposition mode (1.86 ± 4.39 and 2.25 ± 2.25 % from girls and 1.72 ± 2.62 and 1.95 ± 2.95 % for boys, pubertal and post-pubertal, respectively). Key PointsYoung swimmers adopt the catch-up arm coordina-tion when swimming backstroke.These swimmers present lower stroking parameters then those published for older and higher

  13. Age-related differences in lower-limb muscle cross-sectional area and torque production in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Sunita; Lott, Donovan J; Senesac, Claudia; Germain, Sean A; Vohra, Ravneet S; Sweeney, H Lee; Walter, Glenn A; Vandenborne, Krista

    2010-07-01

    To examine the relationship between lower-extremity muscle cross-sectional area, muscle strength, specific torque, and age in ambulatory boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) compared with controls. Observational cross-sectional study. University research setting. Volunteer sample of boys with DMD (n=22) and healthy control boys (n=10), ages 5 through 14 years. Not applicable. Maximal muscle cross-sectional area (CSA(max)) assessed by magnetic resonance imaging of quadriceps, plantarflexors (PFs) and dorsiflexors (DFs), peak isometric torque from dynamometry, and timed functional tests. The average CSA(max) of the triceps surae muscle group was approximately 60% higher in boys with DMD compared with controls (39.1+/-13.6 cm(2) vs 24.5+/-9.3 cm(2); P=.002), while the tibialis anterior muscle showed age-appropriate increases in CSA(max). The increase in quadriceps CSA(max) was also distinctly different in boys with DMD compared with controls. Specific torque (ie, peak torque/CSA(max)) was impaired in all 3 muscles groups, with the knee extensor (KE) and PF muscles showing 4-fold, and the DF muscles 2-fold, higher values in controls compared with boys with DMD. Large age-related gains in specific torque were observed in all 3 muscle groups of control subjects, which were absent in ambulatory boys with DMD. Correlations were observed between performance on functional tasks and quadriceps and PF torque production (r=-.45 to -.57, Pmuscle cross-sectional area and specific torque production in lower-extremity muscles showed distinctly different patterns in the KE, PF, and DF muscles of boys with DMD compared with controls. Copyright 2010 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Classification of 11-13 yrs girls’ motor fitness, considering level of physical exercises’ mastering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Ivashchenko

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the prospects of classification of 11-13 yrs girls’ motor fitness, considering level of physical exercises’ mastering. Material: in the research 11 yrs girls (n=51, 12 years (n=54 and 13 years girls (n=63 participated. Results: first function explains results’ variation by 76.7%, second - by 23.3%. It witnesses that it is possible to classify girls’ age distinctions, basing on motor fitness testing, considering level of physical exercises’ mastering. Structural coefficients of first canonic discriminant function points that substantial difference between 11 and 12-13 yrs girls is observed in levels of speed, dynamic and static power; in motor coordination and level of acrobatic exercises’ mastering. Conclusions: analysis of canonic discriminant function’s coefficients showed that system of children and adolescents’ physical education has hierarchic structure. In this system, training of motor abilities depends on formation of motor skills

  15. Experimental substantiation of methodic of 11-13 years old boxers’ coordination development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Qiang Liu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: experimental substantiation of methodic of junior boxers’ coordination training. Material: in the research 18 boxers of 11-13 year old age participated. In total, during 4 months 42 trainings were conducted. Total time of coordination load’s fulfillment at each training was 15-45 minutes. Results: dynamic of results in control tests was statistically confident in the tested parameters of movements. It proves effectiveness of usage the tasks with complex-coordination orientation, accented on impact on sensor-informational and motor systems of movements in junior boxers’ trainings. Conclusions: coordination training in boxing at initial stage shall include specialized varied means and methods, which would facilitate formation of motor condition and skills’ basis. Motor condition and skills are a reserve for further rising of coordination abilities’ level of junior sportsmen.

  16. Distance delivery of a spoken language intervention for school-aged and adolescent boys with fragile X syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDuffie, Andrea; Banasik, Amy; Bullard, Lauren; Nelson, Sarah; Feigles, Robyn Tempero; Hagerman, Randi; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2018-01-01

    A small randomized group design (N = 20) was used to examine a parent-implemented intervention designed to improve the spoken language skills of school-aged and adolescent boys with FXS, the leading cause of inherited intellectual disability. The intervention was implemented by speech-language pathologists who used distance video-teleconferencing to deliver the intervention. The intervention taught mothers to use a set of language facilitation strategies while interacting with their children in the context of shared story-telling. Treatment group mothers significantly improved their use of the targeted intervention strategies. Children in the treatment group increased the duration of engagement in the shared story-telling activity as well as use of utterances that maintained the topic of the story. Children also showed increases in lexical diversity, but not in grammatical complexity.

  17. Sex differences in goal orientation in adolescents aged 10-19: The older boys adopt work-avoidant goals twice as often as girls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, S.J.; Krabbendam, L.; Lee, N.C.; Boschloo, A.M.; de Groot, R.H.M.; Jolles, J.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated sex differences in goal orientation during adolescence. 910 adolescents aged 10-19. years read vignettes of students reflecting four goal orientations and indicated which student they resembled most. Boys and girls from two age-groups (10-14 versus 14-19. years old) were

  18. Building Self-Esteem in Boys of Elementary School Age from Alcoholic Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Cheryl L.

    Alcoholism is a growing problem in America today. Children are becoming addicted to chemicals at a much younger age. Those children who have alcoholic parents and/or grandparents are more susceptible to addiction because of hereditary factors. Children of alcoholic parents live amidst conflict and confusion. Because of this conflict and confusion,…

  19. A Spoken-Language Intervention for School-Aged Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDuffie, Andrea; Machalicek, Wendy; Bullard, Lauren; Nelson, Sarah; Mello, Melissa; Tempero-Feigles, Robyn; Castignetti, Nancy; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    Using a single case design, a parent-mediated spoken-language intervention was delivered to three mothers and their school-aged sons with fragile X syndrome, the leading inherited cause of intellectual disability. The intervention was embedded in the context of shared storytelling using wordless picture books and targeted three empirically derived…

  20. Circadian health differs between boys and girls as assessed by non-invasive tools in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraco, Gloria Maria; Martínez-Lozano, Nuria; Vales-Villamarín, Claudia; Del Carmen Blaya, María; Rios, Rafael; Madrid, Juan Antonio; Fardy, Paul; Garaulet, Marta

    2018-03-21

    Assessment of circadian health is confined to adults. However, understanding circadian status of school-aged children is necessary due to its health implications. The aim was to develop 1) a protocol to assess circadian function in school-aged children by combining the best non-invasive tools previously validated in adults; 2) a score to capture circadian function in children including food timing. This protocol will allow to explore gender differences and to compare the circadian function of school-aged children with adults from the same Mediterranean area. Healthy children (8-12 y) from 3 schools in a Mediterranean area of Spain were recruited (n = 248; 125 males and 123 females). Several non-invasive tools were used: a) 7-day-diaries of food timing and food intake, physical-activity and sleep, b) Munich-chronotype-self-reported-questionnaire; c) cortisol and melatonin saliva determinations; d) 7-day-rhythms of wrist temperature (T), activity (A), position (P) and the integrative variable TAP e) 7-day-light exposure. We have constructed the first school-aged children population for the assessment of circadian function (ONTIME-Jr) and a new circadian score has been developed. Among circadian-related measures, TAP was the most suitable and reliable to determine circadian system characteristics. Circadian function was better in girls than in boys [circadian score (AU) Mean ± SD (girls, 1216 ± 153 vs. 1159 ± 173 boys, P = 0.012)], and also in school-aged children than in adults from the same Mediterranean area (Circadian-Function-Index: children 0.47 ± 0.06 vs. adults 0.45 ± 0.06 P = 0.001). A new protocol, including TAP and food timing, demonstrated to be reliable in assessing circadian function in children. These non-invasive techniques provide the wherewithal for paediatricians to assess circadian function in clinical practice. Chronobiology and childhood obesity (ONTIME-Jr: Obesity, Nutrigenetics, Timing and Mediterranean, Junior). Clinical

  1. 47 CFR 11.13 - Emergency Action Notification (EAN) and Emergency Action Termination (EAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Emergency Action Termination (EAT). 11.13 Section 11.13 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... Action Termination (EAT). (a) The Emergency Action Notification (EAN) is the notice to all EAS... Emergency Action Termination (EAT) is the notice to all EAS Participants and to the general public that the...

  2. Prevalence of circumcision among men and boys aged 14 to 59 years in the United States, National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2005-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introcaso, Camille E; Xu, Fujie; Kilmarx, Peter H; Zaidi, Akbar; Markowitz, Lauri E

    2013-07-01

    In 2009, an estimated 3590 new heterosexually acquired HIV infections occurred in males in the United States. Three randomized controlled trials demonstrated that male circumcision decreased a man's risk for HIV acquisition through heterosexual sex. We describe circumcision prevalence in US males and determine circumcision prevalence among males potentially at increased risk for heterosexually acquired HIV infection. We estimated circumcision prevalence among men and boys aged 14 to 59 years using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2005-2010. We defined men and boys with 2 or more female partners in the last year as potentially at increased risk for heterosexually acquired HIV infection. Estimated circumcision prevalence was 80.5%. Prevalence varied significantly by year of birth, race/ethnicity, health insurance type, and family income. Circumcision prevalence among men and boys reporting 2 or more female partners in the last year was 80.4%, which corresponded to an estimated 3.5 million uncircumcised men and boys potentially at increased risk for heterosexually acquired HIV infection. Of these men and boys, 48.3% lacked health insurance. Circumcision prevalence in the United States differs by demographic group, and half of uncircumcised men and boys potentially at increased risk for heterosexually acquired HIV are uninsured. These data could inform recommendations and cost analyses concerning circumcision in the United States.

  3. A Spoken Language Intervention for School-Aged Boys with fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDuffie, Andrea; Machalicek, Wendy; Bullard, Lauren; Nelson, Sarah; Mello, Melissa; Tempero-Feigles, Robyn; Castignetti, Nancy; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    Using a single case design, a parent-mediated spoken language intervention was delivered to three mothers and their school-aged sons with fragile X syndrome, the leading inherited cause of intellectual disability. The intervention was embedded in the context of shared story-telling using wordless picture books and targeted three empirically-derived language support strategies. All sessions were implemented via distance video-teleconferencing. Parent education sessions were followed by 12 weekly clinician coaching and feedback sessions. Data was collected weekly during independent homework and clinician observation sessions. Relative to baseline, mothers increased their use of targeted strategies and dyads increased the frequency and duration of story-related talking. Generalized effects of the intervention on lexical diversity and grammatical complexity were observed. Implications for practice are discussed. PMID:27119214

  4. CORRELATION BETWEEN MOTOR DIMENSIONS AND NEUROTICISM OF BOYS 7 TO 11 YEARS OF AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Pori

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this investigation was to establish the correlation between selected motor dimensions and personal dimension of neuroticism of children between seven and eleven years of age. The subject sample consisted of 92 schoolboys, attending the first five grades of the elementary school Kette-Murn in Ljubljana. Motor abilities were measured with a battery of 20 motor tasks (flexibility, speed, balance, strength and co-ordination and neuroticism with the Big Five Questionnaire. The association between variables was analysed with correlation analysis. Personal dimension of neuroticism showed high correlation with the tests of coordination and speed in case of the children in lower classes and with the motor tests of flexibility in case of the children in higher classes of primary school.

  5. Kousseff syndrome caused by deletion of chromosome 22q11-13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Shawnia; Kovach, Margaret J; Smith, Randell E; Rimer, Lisa; Wesson, Melissa; Kimonis, Virginia E

    2002-11-01

    Kousseff syndrome was originally described by Boris Kousseff in 1984: Pediatrics 74:395-398 in three siblings whose main features were conotruncal heart defects, neural tube defects, and dysmorphic features. The proband is a white male who has spina bifida, shunted hydrocephalus, cleft palate, short stature, cognitive impairment, and the typical craniofacial features of velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS), including low-set and dysplastic ears, broad base of the nose, narrow alae nasi, and retrognathia. The family history is significant for a brother who died at 2 weeks of age with myelomeningocele, hydrocephalus, transposition of the great vessels, and unilateral renal agenesis, and a sister who died at 11 days of age with myelomeningocele, truncus arteriosus, hypocalcemia, and autopsy findings of absent thymus and parathyroid glands, consistent with DiGeorge anomaly. Given the clinical findings, family history, and recent knowledge that open neural tube defects can occur in VCFS/DiGeorge anomaly, FISH analysis for 22q11-13 deletion was performed on the proband. A deletion was detected in him and subsequently confirmed in his father. Molecular analysis on autopsy material confirmed the deletion in the proband's deceased brother. We suggest that individuals with neural tube defects associated with other anomalies such as congenital heart defects or cleft palate be evaluated for 22q deletions. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Contribution of method of conception on pregnancy outcome after the 11-13 weeks scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaveeva, Petya; Carbone, Ilma F; Syngelaki, Argyro; Akolekar, Ranjit; Nicolaides, Kypros H

    2011-01-01

    To examine the effect of method of conception on adverse pregnancy outcome after the 11-13 weeks scan. Prospective screening study for adverse obstetric outcomes in women with singleton pregnancies and live fetus with no obvious defects at 11(+0)-13(+6) weeks. The method of conception was recorded as spontaneous, in vitro fertilization (IVF) and assisted by ovulation induction (OI) drugs without IVF. Regression analysis was performed to examine the association between the method of conception and pregnancy outcome after adjustment for maternal characteristics. In the study population of 41,577 pregnancies, conception was spontaneous in 40,261 (96.9%), by IVF in 634 (1.5%) and by OI in 682 (1.6%). In the pregnancies conceived by assisted reproductive technology, compared to spontaneous conceptions, there was a higher risk of stillbirth, pre-eclampsia, gestational hypertension, gestational diabetes mellitus, delivery of small for gestational age neonates and caesarean section. However, multiple regression analysis showed that after taking into account maternal characteristics, the only significant contributions of IVF were for pre-eclampsia and elective caesarean section and the contributions of OI were for miscarriage, spontaneous early preterm delivery and small for gestational age. Conception by IVF and OI is associated with increased risk for adverse pregnancy outcome. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Girls' and boys' trajectories of appearance anxiety from age 10 to 15 years are associated with earlier maturation and appearance-related teasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Webb, Haley J; Farrell, Lara J; Waters, Allison M

    2018-02-01

    Adolescents' appearance-related concerns can provoke increasing emotional, social, and eating-related problems. The aims of this five-wave (2.5-year), multiple-informant longitudinal study were to (a) examine growth trajectories of appearance anxiety symptoms and appearance esteem, (b) identify whether trajectories differed by gender, and (c) examine several launching factors including parent-reported physical maturation, peer-rated physical appearance, body mass index, and appearance teasing by parents and peers. Participants were 387 adolescents (44% boys) aged 10 to 13 years at the first assessment. Steep growth in appearance anxiety symptoms was found for both girls and boys, but there was no average change in appearance esteem. Girls had more elevated appearance anxiety symptoms and lower appearance esteem than boys, girls' body mass index was associated with symptoms, and earlier physical maturation and teasing about appearance, alone and in combination, were associated with growth in appearance anxiety symptoms for girls and boys. Earlier maturing boys who were highly teased by parents, but even more so when teased by peers, were at utmost risk for elevated appearance anxiety symptoms and increasing symptoms over time. In contrast, all girls exhibited elevated or increasing appearance anxiety symptoms across time, with the exception of girls with the latest maturation who also reported little teasing about their appearance.

  8. Fruit and vegetable intake is associated with frequency of breakfast, lunch and evening meal: cross-sectional study of 11-, 13-, and 15-year-olds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedersen Trine

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Frequency of eating breakfast, lunch and evening meal as a determinant of fruit and vegetable intake among young people is little studied. We investigated whether irregular meal consumption was associated with fruit and vegetable intake among adolescents. We used separate analyses, and special emphasis was on the potentially modifying effect of sex and age. Methods Data were from the Danish contribution to the international collaborative Health Behavior in School-Aged Children Study (HBSC in 2002. We used a questionnaire-based, cross-sectional design to study schoolchildren aged 11, 13 and 15 years (n = 3913 selected from a random sample of schools in Denmark. Fruit intake and vegetable intake were measured by a food frequency questionnaire and analyses were conducted using multivariate logistic regression. Results Overall, statistically significant associations were found between irregular breakfast, lunch and evening meal consumption and low frequency of fruit intake and vegetable intake (breakfast: fruit OR = 1.42, vegetables OR = 1.48; lunch: fruit OR = 1.68, vegetables OR = 1.83; evening meal: vegetables OR = 1.70. No association was found for irregular evening meal consumption and low frequency of fruit intake. Analyses stratified by sex showed that the associations between irregular breakfast consumption and both fruit and vegetable intake remained statistically significant only among girls. When analyses were stratified by both sex and age, different patterns appeared. Overall, skipping meals seemed to be a less serious risk factor for low frequency of fruit and vegetable intake among younger participants compared with those who were older. This was especially evident for skipping breakfast. The same tendency was also seen for skipping lunch and evening meal, although the age pattern varied between boys and girls and between fruit and vegetable intake. Conclusion Our results showed that irregular breakfast, lunch and

  9. Fruit and vegetable intake is associated with frequency of breakfast, lunch and evening meal: cross-sectional study of 11-, 13-, and 15-year-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Trine Pagh; Meilstrup, Charlotte; Holstein, Bjørn E; Rasmussen, Mette

    2012-02-06

    Frequency of eating breakfast, lunch and evening meal as a determinant of fruit and vegetable intake among young people is little studied. We investigated whether irregular meal consumption was associated with fruit and vegetable intake among adolescents. We used separate analyses, and special emphasis was on the potentially modifying effect of sex and age. Data were from the Danish contribution to the international collaborative Health Behavior in School-Aged Children Study (HBSC) in 2002. We used a questionnaire-based, cross-sectional design to study schoolchildren aged 11, 13 and 15 years (n = 3913) selected from a random sample of schools in Denmark. Fruit intake and vegetable intake were measured by a food frequency questionnaire and analyses were conducted using multivariate logistic regression. Overall, statistically significant associations were found between irregular breakfast, lunch and evening meal consumption and low frequency of fruit intake and vegetable intake (breakfast: fruit OR = 1.42, vegetables OR = 1.48; lunch: fruit OR = 1.68, vegetables OR = 1.83; evening meal: vegetables OR = 1.70). No association was found for irregular evening meal consumption and low frequency of fruit intake. Analyses stratified by sex showed that the associations between irregular breakfast consumption and both fruit and vegetable intake remained statistically significant only among girls. When analyses were stratified by both sex and age, different patterns appeared. Overall, skipping meals seemed to be a less serious risk factor for low frequency of fruit and vegetable intake among younger participants compared with those who were older. This was especially evident for skipping breakfast. The same tendency was also seen for skipping lunch and evening meal, although the age pattern varied between boys and girls and between fruit and vegetable intake. Our results showed that irregular breakfast, lunch and evening meal consumption among adolescents was associated with a

  10. 41 CFR 301-11.13 - How does sharing a room with another person affect my per diem reimbursement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does sharing a room with another person affect my per diem reimbursement? 301-11.13 Section 301-11.13 Public Contracts and... TRAVEL EXPENSES 11-PER DIEM EXPENSES General Rules § 301-11.13 How does sharing a room with another...

  11. Inferential language use by school-aged boys with fragile X syndrome: Effects of a parent-implemented spoken language intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Sarah; McDuffie, Andrea; Banasik, Amy; Tempero Feigles, Robyn; Thurman, Angela John; Abbeduto, Leonard

    This study examined the impact of a distance-delivered parent-implemented narrative language intervention on the use of inferential language during shared storytelling by school-aged boys with fragile X syndrome, an inherited neurodevelopmental disorder. Nineteen school-aged boys with FXS and their biological mothers participated. Dyads were randomly assigned to an intervention or a treatment-as-usual comparison group. Transcripts from all pre- and post-intervention sessions were coded for child use of prompted and spontaneous inferential language coded into various categories. Children in the intervention group used more utterances that contained inferential language than the comparison group at post-intervention. Furthermore, children in the intervention group used more prompted inferential language than the comparison group at post-intervention, but there were no differences between the groups in their spontaneous use of inferential language. Additionally, children in the intervention group demonstrated increases from pre- to post-intervention in their use of most categories of inferential language. This study provides initial support for the utility of a parent-implemented language intervention for increasing the use of inferential language by school aged boys with FXS, but also suggests the need for additional treatment to encourage spontaneous use. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Dental health-related behaviour in Scottish schoolchildren aged 11, 13 and 15 from Edinburgh city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Currie, C; Schou, L; McQueen, D V

    1989-01-01

    The two most important individually-mediated factors for the control of dental decay and periodontal diseases are frequency of sugar consumption commonly in the form of sweets, and toothbrushing. Most dental health education efforts have therefore been concentrating on informing and motivating pa...

  13. Minutes of the Tank Waste Science Panel meeting, November 11--13, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachan, D.M.

    1992-04-01

    The sixth meeting of the Tank Waste Science Panel was held November 11--13, 1991, in Pasco and Richland, Washington. Participating scientists presented the results of recent work on various aspects of issues relating to the generation and release of gases from Tank 241-SY-101 and the presence of ferrocyanide in other tanks at Hanford. Results are discussed

  14. Predicting Depression and Anxiety from Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms in Elementary School-Age Girls and Boys with Conduct Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Déry, Michèle; Lapalme, Mélanie; Jagiellowicz, Jadzia; Poirier, Martine; Temcheff, Caroline; Toupin, Jean

    2017-02-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the three DSM-5 categories of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms (irritable mood, defiant behavior, vindictive behavior) and anxiety/depression in girls and boys with conduct problems (CP) while controlling for comorbid child psychopathology at baseline. Data were drawn from an ongoing longitudinal study of 6- to 9-year-old French-Canadian children (N = 276; 40.8 % girls) receiving special educational services for CP at school and followed for 2 years. Using linear regression analysis, the results showed that irritable mood symptoms predicted a higher level of depression and anxiety in girls and boys 2 years later, whereas the behavioral symptoms of ODD (e.g., defiant, vindictive symptoms) were linked to lower depression scores. The contribution of ODD symptoms to these predictions, while statistically significant, remained modest. The usefulness of ODD irritable symptoms as a marker for identifying girls and boys with CP who are more vulnerable to developing internalizing problems is discussed.

  15. Effects of exercise mode on the peak oxygen uptake and blood lactate response in boys aged 11-12 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Andrade Machado

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the effects of exercise mode (running x cycling on the indexesrelated to aerobic fitness (VO2peak and blood lactate response to exercise in children. Participated of this study 20 active boys apparently healthy (age = 11.48 + 0.41 yr.; body mass = 41.38 + 10.45 kg; stature = 147.45 + 6.56 cm, with sexual maturational level 1 and 2 (pubic hair, which performed two incremental tests, with stages of 3 minutes until voluntary exhaustion, in treadmill (TR and cycle ergometer (CE, to the determination of peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak and lactate threshold (LT. The VO2peak was determined through the higher value obtained at intervals of 15 seconds. The LT was determined as the exercise intensity where the first and sustained increase of blood lactate above rest level occurred. The VO2peak (45.16 + 5.98 x 42.93 + 7.51 ml/kg/min, maximal heart rate (196.5 + 6.98 x 187.3 + 9.27 bpm, VO2 at LL (31.82 + 10.09 x 25.19 + 7.36 ml/kg/min and HR at LL (150.5 + 17.75 x 131.3 + 12.98 bpm were significantly higher in TR than CE, respectively. Thus, similar to adults, boys of 11 to 12 years present higher aerobic indexes (submaximal and maximal in running than cycling, which can haveimportant implications for healthy professionals that utilize exercise for the healthy promotion, rehabilitation and experimental designs. RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar os efeitos do modo de exercício (corrida x ciclismo sobre os índices relacionados com a aptidão aeróbia (VO2pico e resposta de lactato ao exercício em crianças. Participaram doestudo 20 meninos, aparentemente saudáveis e ativos (idade = 11,48 + 0,41 anos; massa corporal = 41,38 + 10,45 kg; estatura = 147,45 + 6,56 cm, com níveis de maturação sexual 1 e 2 (pilosidade pubiana, que realizaram dois testes incrementais, com estágios de 3 minutos até a exaustão voluntária, em esteira rolante (ER e bicicleta ergométrica (BE, para a determinação do pico do

  16. Oral health and oral health behaviour among 11-13-year-olds in Bhopal, India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Petersen, Poul Erik; Bhambal, Ajay

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of dental caries, to describe the periodontal conditions, and to assess the level of attitude, knowledge and practice in relation to oral health and oral health behaviour among 11-13 year-old children in Bhopal, India. The data would aim to provide a baseline...... for planning and evaluation of oral health education programmes for children in the region. BASIC RESEARCH DESIGN AND OUTCOME MEASURES: A cross sectional study of 599 children 11-13 years was conducted. Random sampling procedures were used to obtain representative samples of children in rural (n = 181......) and urban areas (n = 277). In urban slum areas convenience sampling was applied (n = 141). The data were collected through clinical examinations by means of WHO standard method, and a sub-sample completed a self-administered questionnaire on oral health behaviour, knowledge, and attitude. RESULTS...

  17. Food sources of energy and nutrients in Finnish girls and boys 6–8 years of age – the PANIC study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aino-Maija Eloranta

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Data on food sources of nutrients are needed to improve strategies to enhance nutrient intake among girls and boys in Western countries. Objective: To identify major food sources of energy, energy nutrients, dietary fibre, and micronutrients, and to study gender differences in these food sources among children. Design: We assessed food consumption and nutrient intake using 4-day food records in a population sample of Finnish girls (n=213 and boys (n=217 aged 6–8 years from the Physical Activity and Nutrition in Children Study. We calculated the percentual contribution of 55 food groups for energy and nutrient intake using the population proportion method. Results: Low-fibre grain products, skimmed milk, and high-fibre bread provided almost 23% of total energy intake. Skimmed milk was the top source of protein (18% of total intake, vitamin D (32%, potassium (20%, calcium (39%, magnesium (17%, and zinc (16%. Vegetable oils (15% and high-fat vegetable oil–based spreads (14% were the top sources of polyunsaturated fat. High-fibre bread was the top source of fibre (27% and iron (12%. Non-root vegetables were the top source of folate (14% and vitamin C (22%. Sugar-sweetened beverages provided 21% of sucrose intake. Pork was a more important source of protein and sausage was a more important source of total fat and monounsaturated fat in boys than in girls. Vegetable oils provided a higher proportion of unsaturated fat and vitamin E among boys, whereas high-fat vegetable oil–based spreads provided a higher proportion of these nutrients among girls. Conclusion: Commonly recommended foods, such as skimmed milk, high-fibre grain products, vegetables, vegetable oil, and vegetable oil–based spreads, were important sources of several nutrients, whereas sugar-sweetened beverages provided the majority of sucrose intake among children. This knowledge can be used in improving health among children by dietary interventions, nutrition education

  18. Subarachnoid space diameter in chromosomally abnormal fetuses at 11-13 weeks' gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Carolina; Rouxinol-Dias, Ana Lidia; Loureiro, Teresa; Nicolaides, Kypros

    2018-01-16

    To examine the subarachnoid space diameters in chromosomally abnormal fetuses at 11-13 weeks' gestation. Stored three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound volumes of the fetal head at 11-13 weeks' gestation from 407 euploid and 88 chromosomally abnormal fetuses (trisomy 21, n = 40; trisomy 18, n = 19; trisomy 13, n = 7; triploidy, n = 14; Turner syndrome, n = 8) were analyzed. The subarachnoid space diameters, measured in the sagittal and transverse planes of the fetal head, in relation to biparietal diameter (BPD) in each group of aneuploidies was compared to that in euploid fetuses. A total of 20 head volumes were randomly selected and all the measurements were recorded by two different observers to examine the interobserver variability in measurements. In euploid fetuses, the anteroposterior, transverse and sagittal diameters of the subarachnoid space increased with BPD. The median of the observed to expected diameters for BPD were significantly increased in triploidy and trisomy 13 but were not significantly altered in trisomies 21 and 18 or Turner syndrome. In triploidy, the subarachnoid space diameters for BPD were above the 95th centile of euploid fetuses in 92.9% (13 of 14) cases. The intraclass reliability or agreement was excellent for all three subarachnoid space diameters. Most fetuses with triploidy at 11-13 weeks' gestation demonstrate increased subarachnoid space diameters.

  19. Inequality in Experiences of Physics Education: Secondary School Girls' and Boys' Perceptions of their Physics Education and Intentions to Continue with Physics After the Age of 16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujtaba, Tamjid; Reiss, Michael J.

    2013-07-01

    This paper explores the factors that are associated in England with 15-year-old students' intentions to study physics after the age of 16, when it is no longer compulsory. Survey responses were collated from 5,034 year 10 students as learners of physics during the academic year 2008-2009 from 137 England secondary schools. Our analysis uses individual items from the survey rather than constructs (aggregates of items) to explore what it is about physics teachers, physics lessons and physics itself that is most correlated with intended participation in physics after the age of 16. Our findings indicate that extrinsic material gain motivation in physics was the most important factor associated with intended participation. In addition, an item-level analysis helped to uncover issues around gender inequality in physics educational experiences which were masked by the use of construct-based analyses. Girls' perceptions of their physics teachers were similar to those of boys on many fronts. However, despite the encouragement individual students receive from their teachers being a key factor associated with aspirations to continue with physics, girls were statistically significantly less likely to receive such encouragement. We also found that girls had less positive experiences of their physics lessons and physics education than did boys.

  20. Indicators of physical and sexual development of adolescent boys, depending on the functional state of the thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. G. Kamalov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Republic of Dagestan is a region with medium and severe iodine deficiency, which is associated with the development of endemic goiter and subclinical hypothyroidism. Children with goiter with or without it with SG had the worst indicators of physical, psychological and sexual development, tended to chronic somatic pathology.Objective. To examine the connection between the elevated TSH level with indicators of physical and sexual health of boys.Material and methodThere were examined 297 adolescents aged 11-13 years (76 persons in the beginning of puberty and 14-17 years (221 people in the middle and the end of puberty. The anthropometric studies of height, weight were conducted, body mass index BMI was calculated, the degree of sexual development: R - pubic body hair, G-degree sexual development, testicular volume by Prader and the size of the penis, index of virilization, level tireotroponogo hormone (TSH were assessed.Results showed that physical development of boys already in the early stages of dysfunction of the thyroid gland tends to lag behind. This is more evident in the mid to completion of puberty (boys and adolescents 14-17 years of age, secondary sexual characteristics in boys 11-13 years more marked in those with a TSH level of 0.5 to 2.6 IU/l compared with peers with TSH levels from 4.2 to 10.0 IU/l In the subgroup of 14-17 year old boys and teenagers, there is a tendency to the phenomenon of "macroorchidism" beginning at the stage of subclinical hypothyroidism.

  1. 19 CFR 11.13 - False designations of origin and false descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. 11.13 Section 11.13 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND... gold or silver. (a) Articles which bear, or the containers which bear, false designations of origin, or.... 1405q, and shall be detained. (b) Articles made in whole or in part of gold or silver or alloys thereof...

  2. Salivary cortisol, alpha-amylase and immunoglobulin a responses to a morning session of basketball or volleyball training in boys aged 14-18 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzda-Zwiech, A; Konieczka, M; Hilt, A; Daszkowska, M; Grzegorczyk, J; Szczepańska, J

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates whether a single session of routine morning basketball or volleyball training affects saliva levels of cortisol, alpha-amylase (sAA) and secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) in boys aged 14–18 years. Twenty-nine boys who participate in basketball or volleyball training, recruited from the Marcin Gortat’s Athletic Championship School in Lodz, were enrolled in the study. The 90-minute routine exercise program included 15 minutes of warm-up followed by basketball or volleyball practice. Unstimulated saliva samples were collected prior to and immediately after the exercise, and were analysed using ELISA. One training session resulted in a significant increase of sAA concentration in all participants, as well as in the volleyball and basketball subgroups (p=0.00022; p=0.0029; p=0.0011; respectively). Post-exercise cortisol levels were significantly lower than pre-exercise levels (p=0.00002) throughout the group, as well as in the volleyball and basketball subgroups (p=0.0048; p=0.0019; p=0.0048; respectively). The exercise protocol did not significantly affect sIgA level, either in the whole examined group or the volleyball subgroup, however a weak significant increase of sIgA was observed in the basketball subgroup (p=0.046). The routine morning training session comprising a warm-up followed by basketball or volleyball practice seems to activate the sympatho-adrenal-medullary system, with a subsequent increase of alpha-amylase, but does not affect oral immunity in 14-18-year-old boys.

  3. Parental acceptability of HPV vaccination for boys and girls aged 9-13 years in China - A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zixin; Wang, Jingjing; Fang, Yuan; Gross, Danielle L; Wong, Martin C S; Wong, Eliza L Y; Lau, Joseph T F

    2018-05-03

    This study was to investigate parental acceptability of HPV vaccination for their sons and daughters aged 9-13 years under different cost scenarios, and factors associated with parental acceptability at market price. Participants were: (1) Chinese speaking parents aged 18-60 years with a Hong Kong ID card; (2) had a son or a daughter aged 9-13 years at the date of the survey; (3) the child had the right to abode in Hong Kong. Random telephone numbers were selected from up-to-date telephone directories of Hong Kong. A total of 300 eligible parents (boys' parents: 162; girls' parents: 138, response rate: 68.9% & 69%) provided verbal informed consent and completed the anonymous telephone interview during March to October 2016. Using parental acceptability of HPV vaccination at market price as the dependent variable, univariate and multiple logistic regression models were fitted. The prevalence of HPV vaccination was very low among boys and girls (0.6% vs. 2.2%, p = 0.242). Among those whose children had not taken up HPV vaccination, the prevalence of parental acceptability of HPV vaccination for the index son and daughter were: 14.9% and 27.4% (market price), and 51.6% and 63.0% (free vaccination). Adjusted for sociodemographic variables, attitudinal variables based on the Health Belief Model were associated with parental acceptability of HPV vaccination for their sons (perception that it was not worthy, perceived cue to action from mass media and perceived self-efficacy) and for their daughters (perceived susceptibility and perceived severity of HPV infection among females, perceived benefit of HPV vaccination and perceived self-efficacy). Coverage of HPV vaccination among children aged 9-13 years was very low. Instead of waiting for the free universal vaccination to become available, promotion of self-paid HPV vaccination targeting parents is urgently needed. Different strategies should be applied to boys' and girls' parents. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier

  4. Oral health and oral health behaviour among 11-13-year-olds in Bhopal, India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Petersen, Poul Erik; Bhambal, Ajay

    2003-01-01

    ) and urban areas (n = 277). In urban slum areas convenience sampling was applied (n = 141). The data were collected through clinical examinations by means of WHO standard method, and a sub-sample completed a self-administered questionnaire on oral health behaviour, knowledge, and attitude. RESULTS....... Mean number of sextants with CPI score 0 was 3.5 among children in urban areas and 0.6 for children in slum areas. Seventy-five per cent of the children reported toothbrushing once a day, 31% used a plastic toothbrush and the general level of knowledge on oral health was low. Intake of sugary food......OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of dental caries, to describe the periodontal conditions, and to assess the level of attitude, knowledge and practice in relation to oral health and oral health behaviour among 11-13 year-old children in Bhopal, India. The data would aim to provide a baseline...

  5. Empathy in boys with gender identity disorder: a comparison to externalizing clinical control boys and community control boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen-Anderson, Allison F H; Jenkins, Jennifer M; Bradley, Susan J; Zucker, Kenneth J

    2008-03-01

    The construct of empathy was examined in 20 boys with gender identity disorder (GID), 20 clinical control boys with externalizing disorders (ECC), 20 community control boys (NCB), and 20 community control girls (NCG). The mean age of the children was 6.86 years (range = 4-8 years). It was hypothesized that boys with GID would show similar levels of empathy to those shown by NC girls and higher levels of empathy than the NC and ECC boys. Three measures of empathy were administered: a maternal-report questionnaire, a self-report questionnaire, and an in vivo evaluation in which children's reactions to pain simulations to two adult actors (mother, experimenter) were coded for empathy levels. On the maternal report and in-vivo measures, the NC girls had significantly higher empathy levels than the NC boys, but not on the self-report measure. By maternal report, the NC girls were rated as significantly more empathic than were the GID boys, with a "large" effect size. There were no significant differences between the GID boys and the NC girls on the self-report and in-vivo measures and the effect size differences were "small." No significant differences were observed between the GID and NC boys; however, there were "medium" and "small" effect size differences with boys with GID showing more empathy on the in-vivo and self-report measures, respectively. On the maternal-report measure, the GID boys were rated as significantly more empathic than the ECC boys and there was a trend for the GID boys to show greater levels of empathy than the ECC boys on both the self-report and in-vivo measures. The effect size differences on all three empathy measures were "medium" to "large," with GID boys showing more empathy than ECC boys. Empathy as a dispositional characteristic in the genesis and perpetuation of GID in boys is discussed.

  6. Genetic Variation of Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Action Is Associated With Age at Testicular Growth in Boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch, Alexander S; Hagen, Casper P; Main, Katharina M

    2017-01-01

    through puberty and genotyped for FSHB c.-211G>T, FSHR c.-29A>G, and FSHR c.2039G>A. Main Outcome Measures: Clinical pubertal staging including orchidometry, anthropometry, and serum gonadotropin levels. Results: Although the cohorts differed markedly (e.g., body composition and genotype frequencies......), genetic variation affecting FSH production (FSHB c.-211G>T) was associated with age at pubertal onset, as assessed by testicular enlargement, in both cohorts. The effect appeared further modified by coexistence of genetic variation affecting FSH sensitivity (FSHR c.-29G>A): After correcting for body mass...

  7. A mixture model of ductus venosus pulsatility index in screening for aneuploidies at 11-13 weeks' gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiz, Nerea; Wright, David; Ferreira, Ana Fatima A; Syngelaki, Argyro; Nicolaides, Kypros H

    2012-01-01

    To assess the value of ductus venosus pulsatility index for veins (DV PIV) in screening for aneuploidies at 11-13 weeks' gestation. Fetal DV PIV was measured in singleton pregnancies undergoing first-trimester screening for aneuploidies. In euploid (n = 44,756) and aneuploid (202 cases of trisomy 21, 72 cases of trisomy 18 and 30 cases of trisomy 13) fetuses, DV PIV was best described by a mixture model of distributions. Performance of screening for aneuploidies by DV PIV alone and in combination with fetal nuchal translucency (NT) thickness and serum free β-hCG and PAPP-A was estimated. In euploid pregnancies there was a bimodal distribution of DV PIV with a dominant crown-rump length (CRL)-dependent part, accounting for around 97% of cases in Caucasians and around 93% in Afro-Caribbeans, and a smaller CRL-independent distribution. In aneuploidies the dominant part was the CRL-independent distribution, which accounted for around 85% cases of trisomies 21 and 18 and 70% of cases of trisomy 13. In screening for trisomy 21 by maternal age, NT and biochemistry at a risk cutoff of 1 in 100, the detection rate was 89.7% and false positive rate was 2.74%; with addition of DV PIV, the values were 93.5 and 1.63%, respectively. Measurement of DV PIV improves the performance of first-trimester combined test for aneuploidies. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Resting state electroencephalographic correlates with red cell long-chain fatty acids, memory performance and age in adolescent boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumich, Alexander; Matsudaira, Toshiko; Gow, Rachel V; Ibrahimovic, Almira; Ghebremeskel, Kebreab; Crawford, Michael; Taylor, Eric

    2009-12-01

    Abnormal fatty acid status has been implicated in the aetiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Delayed maturation in ADHD may result in raised frontal low frequency (theta) electroencephalographic activity (EEG) and a reduction in posterior high frequency (beta, alpha) activity. The current study used sequential linear regression to investigate the association between age, resting-state EEG and levels of long-chain polyunsaturated omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in red blood cells in 46 adolescent boys with ADHD symptoms. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels were positively associated with fast frequency activity: alpha during eyes-open and beta during eyes-closed conditions. Frontal theta activity during both eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions was inversely associated with age and positively associated with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) levels. Alpha activity correlated positively with performance on fluency for categories (semantic memory). Theta activity correlated inversely with performance on delayed (25 min) verbal memory (recall + recognition/2). No associations were observed between long-chain omega-6 and EEG measures. Results support differential associations for DHA and EPA with fast and slow EEG activity respectively. Results support EEG activity as an objective biomarker of neural function associated with long-chain omega-3 fatty acids in ADHD.

  9. A Comparison of Phonological Skill of Boys with Fragile X Syndrome and Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Joanne; Long, Steven H.; Malkin, Cheryl; Barnes, Elizabeth; Skinner, Martie; Hennon, Elizabeth A.; Anderson, Kathleen

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors compared the phonological accuracy and patterns of sound change of boys with fragile X syndrome, boys with Down syndrome, and typically developing mental-age-matched boys. Participants were 50 boys with fragile X syndrome, ages 3 to 14 years; 32 boys with Down syndrome, ages 4 to 13 years; and 33 typically developing…

  10. [Relationship between inertial features of the upper extremity and simple reaction time in boys and girls aged 17-18].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutnik, B I; Pankova, N B; Karganov, M Iu; Nash, D

    2014-01-01

    The latent period of visual sensor-motor reaction depends, in part, on the sensory and integrative processes in the brain, but is also influenced by the rate of the muscle contraction. There is no clear evidence in the literature whether the rotational inertia of segments of limbs has any direct effect on the reaction time. The aim of our study was to identify this relationship. The study involved 566 right handed students aged 16-17 of both genders beginning their post puberty period. Reaction time was measured during experimental adduction of the forearm and hand, using a special rotating handle and lever connected to a computer that recorded the reaction time (+/- 1 ms). Calculations of the rotational inertia were carried out using regression models by Zatsiorsky and other authors. Each gender group was divided into three subgroups: with high, medium and low values of rotational inertia. It was found that individuals with high values of rotational inertia of forearm and wrist demonstrated significantly longer reaction times. This pattern was apparent in both gender groups. Although males illustrated greater values of rotational inertia than females they demonstrated relatively shorter reaction times. This contradiction can be explained by greater muscle power of young men. We recommend taking into account the amount of rotational inertia of the responsive segment in all kinds of research which require measurement of reaction time.

  11. Is expanding HPV vaccination programs to include school-aged boys likely to be value-for-money: a cost-utility analysis in a country with an existing school-girl program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Amber L; Kvizhinadze, Giorgi; Wilson, Nick; Smith, Megan; Canfell, Karen; Blakely, Tony

    2014-06-26

    Similar to many developed countries, vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) is provided only to girls in New Zealand and coverage is relatively low (47% in school-aged girls for dose 3). Some jurisdictions have already extended HPV vaccination to school-aged boys. Thus, exploration of the cost-utility of adding boys' vaccination is relevant. We modeled the incremental health gain and costs for extending the current girls-only program to boys, intensifying the current girls-only program to achieve 73% coverage, and extension of the intensive program to boys. A Markov macro-simulation model, which accounted for herd immunity, was developed for an annual cohort of 12-year-olds in 2011 and included the future health states of: cervical cancer, pre-cancer (CIN I to III), genital warts, and three other HPV-related cancers. In each state, health sector costs, including additional health costs from extra life, and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) were accumulated. The model included New Zealand data on cancer incidence and survival, and other cause mortality (all by sex, age, ethnicity and deprivation). At an assumed local willingness-to-pay threshold of US$29,600, vaccination of 12-year-old boys to achieve the current coverage for girls would not be cost-effective, at US$61,400/QALY gained (95% UI $29,700 to $112,000; OECD purchasing power parities) compared to the current girls-only program, with an assumed vaccine cost of US$59 (NZ$113). This was dominated though by the intensified girls-only program; US$17,400/QALY gained (95% UI: dominant to $46,100). Adding boys to this intensified program was also not cost-effective; US$128,000/QALY gained, 95% UI: $61,900 to $247,000).Vaccination of boys was not found to be cost-effective, even for additional scenarios with very low vaccine or program administration costs - only when combined vaccine and administration costs were NZ$125 or lower per dose was vaccination of boys cost-effective. These results suggest that

  12. [Risk assessment for fetal trisomy 21 based on nuchal translucency measurement and biochemical screening at 11-13 weeks.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harðardóttir, H

    2001-05-01

    Screening for fetal aneuploidy during the first trimester using fetal nuchal translucency measurement and maternal serum free ss-hCG (ss-human chorionic gonadotropin) and PAPP-A (pregnancy associated plasma protein A) is commonly practised. An approach with a one stop clinic for assessment of risk for fetal anomalies, where pre-test counseling, blood test, ultrasound and post-test counseling is offered in one hour visit is described. Based on maternal age, biochemistry and fetal nuchal translucency measurement an estimated risk for fetal trisomies 13,18 and 21 is calculated. The main benefit of this approach in screening for fetal aneuploidy is the short turnaround time, with immediate results and a low screen positive rate. This approach leads to diagnosis of the majority (95%) of fetal aneuploidy cases. If screening is positive a diagnostic test is available with chorionic villous sampling or amniocentesis. In Iceland, fetal karyotyping is offered to women 35 years and older and performed during the second trimester, but by using this approach prenatal diagnosis can be moved to the first trimester and also offered to women of all ages. A screening approach with a series of steps from 10-15 weeks, including maternal blood test at 10 and again at 15 weeks, as well as an ultrasound and nuchal translucency measurement at 11-13 weeks, with integrated results at 15+ weeks has been proposed. This method offers even lower screen positive rate (1%) while detection rates of fetal aneuploides are high (>90%) but it requires four visits instead of one and the prolonged approach is likely to cause excess anxiety for the parents to be. If all women are to be offered prenatal sreening in the first trimester the structure of prenatal care in Iceland needs some modifications including scheduling the first prenatal visit at 8-10 weeks and teaching healthcare providers counseling regarding prenatal testing.

  13. Overnight Levels of Luteinizing Hormone, Follicle-Stimulating Hormone and Growth Hormone before and during Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Analogue Treatment in Short Boys Born Small for Gestational Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kaay, Danielle C. M.; de Jong, Frank H.; Rose, Susan R.; Odink, Roelof J. H.; Bakker-van Waarde, Willie M.; Sulkers, Eric J.; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C. S.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate if 3 months of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue (GnRHa) treatment results in sufficient suppression of pubertal luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) profile patterns in short pubertal small for gestational age (SGA) boys. To compare growth hormone

  14. Overnight levels of luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone and growth hormone before and during gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue treatment in short boys born small for gestational age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.C.M. van der Kaay (Danielle); F.H. de Jong (Frank); S.R. Rose (Susan); R.J.H. Odink (Roelof); W.M. Bakker-Van Waarde (Willie); E.J. Sulkers (Eric); A.C.S. Hokken-Koelega (Anita)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractAims: To evaluate if 3 months of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue (GnRHa) treatment results in sufficient suppression of pubertal luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) profile patterns in short pubertal small for gestational age (SGA) boys. To compare

  15. For Boys: Trouble "Down There"

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español For Boys: Trouble "Down There" KidsHealth / For Kids / For Boys: ... boy can get medical care. What if a Boy Is Too Embarrassed? Lots of boys don't ...

  16. Friendship in school-age boys with autism spectrum disorders: A meta-analytic summary and developmental, process-based model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, Jenna L; Gates, Jacquelyn A; Lerner, Matthew D

    2016-06-01

    Friendship-making is considered a well-established domain of deficit for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD; American Psychiatric Association, 2013), with this population sometimes described as incapable of making friends. However, the majority of children with ASD indicate a desire for friends, and many report having friends. To what degree, then, do youth with ASD succeed in achieving friendships with peers? If and when they do succeed, by what means do these friendships emerge relative to models of typically developing (TD) youths' friendships? To address these questions, we first meta-analyzed the descriptive friendship literature (peer-reported sociometrics, self-report, parent-report) among school-age boys with ASD. Using random effects models, we found that youth with ASD do make friends according to peers and parents (Hedges's g > 2.84). However, self-reported friendship quality (Hedges's g = -1.09) and parent- and peer-reported quantity (Hedges's g friendship in TD youth (Hartup & Stevens, 1997). We then present a model that synthesizes these domains through the construct of social information processing speed, and thereby present the first developmental, process-based model of friendship development among youth with ASD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. A Stereotype Threat Account of Boys' Academic Underachievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Bonny L.; Sutton, Robbie M.

    2013-01-01

    Three studies examined the role of stereotype threat in boys' academic underachievement. Study 1 (children aged 4-10, n = 238) showed that girls from age 4 years and boys from age 7 years believed, and thought adults believed, that boys are academically inferior to girls. Study 2 manipulated stereotype threat, informing children aged…

  18. The Participation of Girls and Boys from Ages 10 to 18 in Structured Sports and Extra-Curricular Activities in the Aspect of Social and Economic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitruk Agnieszka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The importance of socio-economic factors in differentiating the physical activities of children and teenagers keeps changing. That is why the goal of this research was to identify certain social variables amongst those listed most often which differentiate the level of targeted physical activity of urban children and youths from the Bialskie district. Material and methods. The research was conducted on 1.084 students between the ages of 10 and 18. Three age groups were chosen: 10 to 12, 13 to 15, and 16 to 18. Information about the attendance of respondents in Physical Education classes and structured extra-curricular sport activities, as well as preferred forms of physical activities were collected via a diagnostic survey. The same method was used in the assessment of the socio-economic status of the families of the respondents. The relations between attendance in extra-curricular sports activities and socio-economic factors was assessed by a multifactoral logistic regression model, and the statistical relevance of the differences was calculated by the Wald test. Results. Attendance in structured extra-curricular physical activity depended mostly on income per family member. In the case of type of work performed by parents, the attendance rate in both boys and girls was higher if the parents performed intellectual work. Parents' education and number of children in the family did not have a high influence on the attendance of respondents in structured extra-curricular sport activities. Conclusions. Increasing disproportions in societal prosperity can be an important factor limiting the attendance of the poorest group of children and youths in structured physical activities. The lack of influence on physical activity of such socio-economic variables as parents' education and the number of children in the family can be connected with the change of meaning of those factors in modern society (depreciation of the importance of higher

  19. Is expanding HPV vaccination programs to include school-aged boys likely to be value-for-money: a cost-utility analysis in a country with an existing school-girl program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Similar to many developed countries, vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) is provided only to girls in New Zealand and coverage is relatively low (47% in school-aged girls for dose 3). Some jurisdictions have already extended HPV vaccination to school-aged boys. Thus, exploration of the cost-utility of adding boys’ vaccination is relevant. We modeled the incremental health gain and costs for extending the current girls-only program to boys, intensifying the current girls-only program to achieve 73% coverage, and extension of the intensive program to boys. Methods A Markov macro-simulation model, which accounted for herd immunity, was developed for an annual cohort of 12-year-olds in 2011 and included the future health states of: cervical cancer, pre-cancer (CIN I to III), genital warts, and three other HPV-related cancers. In each state, health sector costs, including additional health costs from extra life, and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) were accumulated. The model included New Zealand data on cancer incidence and survival, and other cause mortality (all by sex, age, ethnicity and deprivation). Results At an assumed local willingness-to-pay threshold of US$29,600, vaccination of 12-year-old boys to achieve the current coverage for girls would not be cost-effective, at US$61,400/QALY gained (95% UI $29,700 to $112,000; OECD purchasing power parities) compared to the current girls-only program, with an assumed vaccine cost of US$59 (NZ$113). This was dominated though by the intensified girls-only program; US$17,400/QALY gained (95% UI: dominant to $46,100). Adding boys to this intensified program was also not cost-effective; US$128,000/QALY gained, 95% UI: $61,900 to $247,000). Vaccination of boys was not found to be cost-effective, even for additional scenarios with very low vaccine or program administration costs – only when combined vaccine and administration costs were NZ$125 or lower per dose was vaccination of boys cost

  20. Gender differences in the sleep habits of 11-13 year olds Diferenças nos hábitos de sono entre gêneros nos escolares de 11 a 13 anos de idade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César L. Natal

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Sleep plays an important role in the physical and emotional development of adolescents. The aim of this study was to examine gender differences in sleep habits in a sample of 11-13 year olds. METHOD: The study was carried out in the city of Patos de Minas, Brazil. The study cohort was composed of 200 students (96 boys and 104 girls attending (in the morning or in the afternoon the 5th, 6th or 7th grades, with ages ranging from 11 to 13 years. A Sleep Questionnaire developed at the Federal University of São Paulo was used in order to evaluate student sleep habits and schedules, as well as the overall quality of sleep. RESULTS: For the period between Friday night and Sunday morning, girls displayed longer sleep duration than did boys. During the week, students attending only afternoon classes woke up later than did students attending only morning classes. In addition, morning-class students showed more adverse effects on sleep, including irregular sleep/wakefulness circadian rhythms, when compared with afternoon-class students. CONCLUSION: Sleep habits are affected by gender and school schedule.OBJETIVO: O sono desempenha um papel fundamental no desenvolvimento físico e emocional de adolescentes. Este estudo teve o objetivo de analisar as diferenças entre gêneros nos hábitos de sono de escolares com idades entre 11 e 13. MÉTODO: Este estudo foi realizado na cidade de Patos de Minas-MG, Brasil. A amostra foi composta de 200 alunos (96 meninos e 104 meninas matriculados da 5ª a 7ª séries (ambos os turnos, manhã e tarde e com idade entre 11 e 13 anos. O Questionário de sono UNIFESP foi utilizado para avaliar a qualidade de sono, hábitos e horários de sono. RESULTADOS: As meninas demonstraram maior tempo de sono do que os meninos da sexta-feira à noite para o domingo de manhã. Os alunos que estudavam a tarde acordavam mais tarde que os alunos do turno matutino durante a semana; alunos do turno da manhã são mais afetados

  1. The Halitosis Parameter Change After Using Siwak (Salvadora Persica At 11-13 Year Old Students in Tapak Sunan Boarding School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arum Wijayanti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Siwak (Salvadora persica, an oral cleansing tool which came from ancient Arab has Islamic cultural values. Many researches concluded that siwak contains antibacterial agent which has function to kill bacteria causing oral malodor (halitosis. Objective: The purpose of this study was to analyze halitosis parameters change which consisted of Volatile Sulfur Compounds (VSC, Bleeding on Probing (BOP and tongue coating after using siwak at 11-13 year old students in Tapak Sunan Boarding School. Materials and methods: This study used experimental research method and 25 students in the age group of 11-13 year old became subjects of this study. Halitosis parameters measurements were taken before and after using 10 days siwak usage and through dental health education. OralChroma and organoleptic score were used to measure the VSC. Probing on six sites of gingival sulculs of each tooth was used to measured BOP. Classification of tounge coating was performed by observing the presence of white coating on the tongue surface. Statistical analysis was performed using Paired-t Test with p<0.05 as the level of significance. Results: Approximately 75% reduction of total VSC concentration was observed after siwak usage. Number of subjects with score 1 in organoleptic assessment for halitosis was also increased by 36%. Followed by reduction of BOP and tongue coating score by 57.7% and 26% respectively. Statistical analysis of those parameters showed significant differences before and after siwak usage. Conclusion: Siwak usage sucessfully decreased all halitosis parameters of the 11-13 years old students in Tapak Sunan Boarding School.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v17i2.45

  2. Intracranial translucency as a sonographic marker for detecting open spina bifida at 11-13+6weeks scan: Our experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teegala, Madhavi L; Vinayak, Dhamangaonkar G

    2017-01-01

    The fourth ventricle, seen as intracranial translucency (IT) at 11-13 +6 weeks, has been reported to be obliterated in cases of open spina bifida (OSB). Our aim was to assess its role in detecting OSB at 11-13 +6 weeks. This prospective study was conducted at foetal medicine unit from January 2014 to June 2015. All women who underwent both first and mid-trimester scan in our unit were included in the study. IT was categorized as normal, obliterated or not clear. Spine was examined during both scans. Totally, 341 cases were included in the study. IT was found to be obliterated in four cases and not clear in one case. There was demonstrable OSB at 11-13 +6 weeks in two cases, at 15-16 weeks in two cases and at 24 weeks in one case. In the remaining 336 cases with normal IT, spine was found to be normal at target scan. Mid-sagittal view of face that is routinely used to measure nuchal translucency (NT) can also be used to detect OSB. It is feasible to integrate IT into the routine 11-13 +6 weeks scan.

  3. Brain Activation and Deactivation during Location and Color Working Memory Tasks in 11-13-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuontela, Virve; Steenari, Maija-Riikka; Aronen, Eeva T.; Korvenoja, Antti; Aronen, Hannu J.; Carlson, Synnove

    2009-01-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and n-back tasks we investigated whether, in 11-13-year-old children, spatial (location) and nonspatial (color) information is differentially processed during visual attention (0-back) and working memory (WM) (2-back) tasks and whether such cognitive task performance, compared to a resting state,…

  4. FURTHER EVIDENCE FOR DOMINANT INHERITANCE AT THE CHROMOSOME-15Q11-13 LOCUS IN FAMILIAL ANGELMAN SYNDROME

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    CLAYTONSMITH, J; WEBB, T; ROBB, SA; DIJKSTRA, [No Value; WILLEMS, P; CHENG, XJ; PEMBREY, ME; MALCOLM, S

    1992-01-01

    Eleven patients with Angelman syndrome (AS) and their parents from 5 families have been studied with high resolution chromosome analysis and molecular probes from region 15q11-13 in an attempt to elucidate the mode of inheritance in familial AS. No deletions were detected. All families were

  5. South African Association of Physicists in Medicine and Biology: 27. Annual congress, 11-13 Mar 1987, BLoemfontein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The twenty-seventh annual congress of the South African Association of Physicists in Medicine and Biology was held from 11-13 March 1987, in Bloemfontein. Papers delivered at the conference covered subjects like medical physics, radiotherapy, computed tomography, scintigraphy, radiation doses and dosimetry and radioisotopes in diagnosis

  6. Supporting Boys as Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The challenges associated with boys and reading are focused on such factors as society's lack of focus on literacy skills, parents failings to inspire reading in boys, and internal motivational factors rather than looking at the environments created for reading in and out of school. In this column, several ideas for helping boys develop a…

  7. Cephalometric norms of Saudi boys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashashibi, I. A.; Shaikh, H. S.; Sarhan, O. A.

    1990-01-01

    The present study was conducted to establish cephalometric norms of Saudi boys based on the Steiners analysis, and to compare the results of the present study with similar studies conducted on other racial or ethnic groups. For this purpose, fifty-five healthy Saudi boys, with a mean age of 12.04 years, were selected from different schools of Riyadh. Female Saudis were not used for this study due to social restrictions with respect to the Kingdom's customs and traditions. Selection was made on the basis of normal occlusion, balanced and pleasing profile with no obvious facial asymmetry. None of the boys have undergone orthodontic treatment prior to this study. Lateral skull cephaiograms were taken and traced using a standardized technique. Each cephalogram was traced twice with a one week interval by the authors. All angular and linear measurements were calculated to the nearest 0.5 degree and 0.5 mm, respectively. Steiners method of cephalometric analysis was used to establish cephalometric norms. The result of the study demonstrated that the Saudi boys differed from other racial and ethnic groups in some skeletal and dental measurements. Generally, the Saudi boys revealed a more protrusive maxillary apical base and double dental protrusion. (author)

  8. Competing risks model in screening for preeclampsia by maternal factors and biomarkers at 11-13 weeks gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gorman, Neil; Wright, David; Syngelaki, Argyro; Akolekar, Ranjit; Wright, Alan; Poon, Leona C; Nicolaides, Kypros H

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia affects approximately 3% of all pregnancies and is a major cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and death. In the last decade, extensive research has been devoted to early screening for preeclampsia with the aim of reducing the prevalence of the disease through pharmacologic intervention in the high-risk group starting from the first trimester of pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to develop a model for preeclampsia based on maternal demographic characteristics and medical history (maternal factors) and biomarkers. The data for this study were derived from prospective screening for adverse obstetric outcomes in women who attended for their routine first hospital visit at 11-13 weeks gestation in 2 maternity hospitals in England. We screened 35,948 singleton pregnancies that included 1058 pregnancies (2.9%) that experienced preeclampsia. Bayes theorem was used to combine the a priori risk from maternal factors with various combinations of uterine artery pulsatility index, mean arterial pressure, serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A, and placental growth factor multiple of the median values. Five-fold cross validation was used to assess the performance of screening for preeclampsia that delivered at preeclampsia) and ≥37 weeks gestation (term-preeclampsia) by models that combined maternal factors with individual biomarkers and their combination with screening by maternal factors alone. In pregnancies that experienced preeclampsia, the values of uterine artery pulsatility index and mean arterial pressure were increased, and the values of serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A and placental growth factor were decreased. For all biomarkers, the deviation from normal was greater for early than late preeclampsia; therefore, the performance of screening was related inversely to the gestational age at which delivery became necessary for maternal and/or fetal indications. Combined screening by maternal factors, uterine artery pulsatility

  9. Development and Validation of the Social Information Processing Application: A Web-Based Measure of Social Information Processing Patterns in Elementary School-Age Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupersmidt, Janis B.; Stelter, Rebecca; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of an audio computer-assisted self-interviewing Web-based software application called the Social Information Processing Application (SIP-AP) that was designed to assess social information processing skills in boys in RD through 5th grades. This study included a racially and…

  10. Risk assessment for preeclampsia in nulliparous women at 11-13 weeks gestational age: prospective evaluation of two algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skråstad, R B; Hov, G G; Blaas, H-G K; Romundstad, P R; Salvesen, K Å

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate two algorithms for prediction of preeclampsia in a population of nulliparous women in Norway. Prospective screening study. National Centre for Fetal Medicine in Trondheim, Norway. Five hundred and forty-one nulliparous women. The women were examined between 11(+0) and 13(+6) weeks with interviews for maternal characteristics and measurements of mean arterial pressure, uterine artery pulsatility index, pregnancy-associated plasma protein A and placental growth factor. The First Trimester Screening Program version 2.8 by The Fetal Medicine Foundation (FMF) was compared with the Preeclampsia Predictor TM version 1 revision 2 by Perkin Elmer (PREDICTOR). Prediction of preeclampsia requiring delivery before 37 weeks, before 42 weeks and late preeclampsia (delivery after 34 weeks). The performance of the two algorithms was similar, but quite poor, for prediction of preeclampsia requiring delivery before 42 weeks with an area under the curve of 0.77 (0.67-0.87) and sensitivity 40% (95% CI 19.1-63.9) at a fixed 10% false positive rate for FMF and 0.74 (0.63-0.84) and sensitivity 30% (95% CI 11.9-54.3) at a fixed 10% false positive rate for PREDICTOR. The FMF algorithm for preeclampsia requiring delivery preeclampsia. The results indicate that the FMF algorithm is suitable for prediction of preterm preeclampsia. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  11. Positive Oct -3/4 and D2-40 Immunohistochemical Expression in Germ Cells and Suspected Histology Pattern of Intratubular Germ Cell Neoplasia in Boys with Cryptorchidism Vanish after the Age of 2 Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Jorgen; Clasen-Linde, Erik; Cortes, Dina

    2017-01-01

    of repeat biopsy with anti-stem cell factor (SCF) receptor.  Results  The prevalence of Oct-3/4 and D2-40-positive staining of germ cells in testicular biopsies were in age groups less than 6 months, 100% and 50%; 6-12 months, 60% and 17%; and 1-2 years, 12% and 4%. A 1 year, 1-month-old boy with Prader-Willi...... syndrome treated with growth hormone had ITGCN in both cryptorchid testes. In another three bilateral nonsyndromic cases, 8 months, 8 months and 1-year-old, a histological pattern in accordance with ITGCN was found. These three boys had a repeat biopsy from both testes performed at the age of 3 years, 4......, but no increased risk of malignancy.  Materials and Methods  Histology sections from 373 testicular biopsies from 289 boys aged 1 month to 2 years operated for cryptorchidism were incubated with primary antibodies including anti-placental-like-alkaline phosphatase, antiOct-3/4, anti-C-kit, anti-D2-40, and in case...

  12. Meče 11.-13. století z území Moravy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žákovský, P.; Hošek, Jiří; Sedláčková, L.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 1 (2013), s. 219-270 ISSN 0231-5823 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP405/12/2289 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : sword * Middle Ages * Moravia Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  13. Der südmährische Kirchenbau im 11.- 13. Jahrhundert. Ein Überblick

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházka, Rudolf

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 21, - (2005), s. 205-242 ISSN 1011-0062. [Die Kirche im mittelalterlichen Siedlungsraum. Archäologische Aspekte zu Standort, Architektur und Kirchenorganisation. Wien, 29.09.2004-02.10.2004] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80010507 Keywords : South Moravia * Middle Age * ecclesiastical architecture, archaeological research Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  14. Color associations to mood stories in first grade boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois-Bailetti, A M; Cerbus, G

    1977-12-01

    Choices of color crayons to portray mood stories were studied in a sample of first grade boys. The total sample (180) was divided into three treatment groups (60 subjects in each) who were told either the "Angry Boy" story, the "Happy Boy" story, or the "Sad Boy" story. Each subject selected one of six color crayons (red, yellow, green, blue, brown, or purple) to color the boy "to look" angry, happy, or sad. Racial, socioeconomic, and within-group differences were not significant, but significant differences were found between groups given angry and sad stories (x2 equal to 22.23, df equal to 5, p is less than .01). red was significantly associated with the angry boy when compared with the sad boy, while brown was significantly more often preferred for the sad boy than for the happy boy. By the age of first grade consequently the general preference for red by children is already significantly altered.

  15. The Psychoeducational Profile of Boys with Klinefelter Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovet, Joanne; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This article integrates the literature on intelligence and achievement outcomes in boys with Klinefelter syndrome (KS). It reports results of a study following 36 boys with KS and 33 sibling controls. Boys with KS demonstrated verbal cognitive deficits and significant underachievement in reading, spelling, and arithmetic, which increased with age.…

  16. Finiteness Marking in Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Audra M.; Rice, Mabel L.; Warren, Steven F.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The current study investigated finiteness marking (e.g., he walk "s", he walk "ed") in boys with fragile X syndrome (FXS); the boys were grouped based on receptive vocabulary (i.e., borderline, impaired). Method: Twenty-one boys with the full mutation of fragile X, between the ages of 8 and 16 years participated. The…

  17. Memory for Object Locations in Boys with and without ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reck, Sarah G.; Hund, Alycia M.; Landau, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether 7- to 12-year-old boys with ADHD, relative to non-ADHD age-mates, exhibit greater difficulty learning and remembering object locations. The second purpose was to examine the functional utility of mnemonic strategies, specifically speech-to-self, used by boys with and without ADHD. Method: Boys with and without ADHD…

  18. It’s harder for boys?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    LeRoux-Rutledge, Emily; A. Guerlain, Madeleine; B Andersen, Louise

    2015-01-01

    This study examines whether children in rural Zimbabwe have differing representations of their HIV/AIDS-affected peers based on the gender of those peers. A group of 128 children (58 boys, 70 girls) aged 10–14 participated in a draw-and-write exercise, in which they were asked to tell the story...... of either an HIV/AIDS-affected girl child, or an HIV/AIDS-affected boy child. Stories were inductively thematically coded, and then a post hoc statistical analysis was conducted to see if there were differences in the themes that emerged in stories about girls versus stories about boys. The results showed...... that boys were more often depicted as materially deprived, without adult and teacher support, and heavily burdened with household duties. Further research is needed to determine whether the perceptions of the children in this study point to a series of overlooked challenges facing HIV/AIDS-affected boys...

  19. Turn Your Boys into Readers!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allyn, Pam

    2011-01-01

    Girls outscore boys in reading proficiency levels; the gender gap is startling and concerning. The myth that boys won't read or that it's not "cool" for boys to love reading plays a big part in how these low levels come to be. Low expectations from teachers, and an assumption that boys prefer physical activity, mean that boys often don't find…

  20. Prediction of spontaneous preterm delivery from maternal factors, obstetric history and placental perfusion and function at 11-13 weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beta, Jarek; Akolekar, Ranjit; Ventura, Walter; Syngelaki, Argyro; Nicolaides, Kypros H

    2011-01-01

    To develop a model for prediction of spontaneous delivery before 34 weeks based on maternal factors, placental perfusion and function at 11-13 weeks' gestation. Two groups of studies: first, screening study of maternal characteristics, serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), free β-human chorionic gonadotrophin (β-hCG) and uterine artery pulsatility index (PI). Second, case-control studies of maternal serum or plasma concentration of placental growth factor (PlGF), placental protein 13 (PP13), a disintegrin and metalloprotease 12 (ADAM12), inhibin-A and activin-A. Regression analysis was used to develop a model for the prediction of spontaneous early delivery. Spontaneous early delivery occurred in 365 (1.1%) of the 34 025 pregnancies. A model based on maternal factors could detect 38.2% of the preterm deliveries in women with previous pregnancies at or beyond 16 weeks and 18.4% in those without, at a false positive rate (FPR) of 10%. In the preterm delivery group, compared with unaffected pregnancies there were no significant differences in the markers of placental perfusion or function, except for PAPP-A which was reduced. Patient-specific risk of preterm delivery is provided by maternal factors and obstetric history. Placental perfusion and function at 11-13 weeks are not altered in pregnancies resulting in spontaneous early delivery. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. EFFECTS OF A SHORT-TERM PLYOMETRIC AND RESISTANCE TRAINING PROGRAM ON FITNESS PERFORMANCE IN BOYS AGE 12 TO 15 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avery D. Faigenbaum

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a six week training period of combined plyometric and resistance training (PRT, n = 13 or resistance training alone (RT, n = 14 on fitness performance in boys (12-15 yr. The RT group performed static stretching exercises followed by resistance training whereas the PRT group performed plyometric exercises followed by the same resistance training program. The training duration per session for both groups was 90 min. At baseline and after training all participants were tested on the vertical jump, long jump, medicine ball toss, 9.1 m sprint, pro agility shuttle run and flexibility. The PRT group made significantly (p < 0.05 greater improvements than RT in long jump (10.8 cm vs. 2.2 cm, medicine ball toss (39.1 cm vs. 17.7 cm and pro agility shuttle run time (-0.23 sec vs. -0.02 sec following training. These findings suggest that the addition of plyometric training to a resistance training program may be more beneficial than resistance training and static stretching for enhancing selected measures of upper and lower body power in boys

  2. Bright boys the making of information technology

    CERN Document Server

    Green, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Everything has a beginning. None was more profound-and quite as unexpected-than Information Technology. Here for the first time is the untold story of how our new age came to be and the bright boys who made it happen. What began on the bare floor of an old laundry building eventually grew to rival in size the Manhattan Project. The unexpected consequence of that journey was huge---what we now know as Information Technology. For sixty years the bright boys have been totally anonymous while their achievements have become a way of life for all of us. "Bright Boys" brings them home. By 1950 they'd

  3. Current influences and approaches to promote future physical activity in 11-13 year olds: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, Angela; Murphy, Marie H; Gallagher, Alison M

    2015-12-21

    Many children and adolescents are failing to meet current physical activity (PA) guidelines and consequently not achieving the benefits associated with regular participation in PA, with girls consistently less active than boys. In order to design interventions to increase physical activity in adolescents it is important to understand their perceptions of and preferences for physical activity. One hundred eighty participants, mean (SD) age 12.1 (0.5) years, completed the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children (PAQ-C) and had height and weight measured. This information was used to select a subsample of participants (n64; mean (SD) age 12.3 (0.4) years; 39 females; 25 males; 25 % overweight/obese) to take part in focus group discussions. Participants were grouped based on PAQ-C responses into 'low-active' and 'highly-active' groups, so that those with similar existing levels of PA were in the same focus group. A semi-structured discussion guide was employed to explore the key influences on current PA participation and to actively seek ideas on how best to promote future PA in this population. In total, nine focus groups (mixed-gender) were conducted within the school setting. All focus groups were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. A number of themes emerged in relation to influences on current PA including friendship and peers, family and other people, the consequences of not taking part in PA, changing priorities, and cost and access to resources. With regards to the future provision of PA, participants favoured opportunities to try new activities, increased provision of school-based activities which can be undertaken with friends and activities which incorporated the use of technology and encouragement through rewards and incentives. Gender differences were apparent in relation to the types of activities participants preferred taking part in. Differences were also observed between 'low-active' and 'highly-active' groups in

  4. 'Bad boys'' Bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skårderud, Finn; Nygren, Pär; Edlund, Birgitta

    2005-01-01

    (n= 196) completed the Eating Disorders Inventory ? Child version (EDI-C). The childcare residents also completed an extended questionnaire, including questions regarding the use of anabolic?andro-genic steroids. Our main ?ndings were high scores on EDI-C symptom scales for boys in the childcare...... resident group; few differences between girls in the two samples; and a high frequency of having used anabolic?androgenic steroids among boys in care. Body-image problems among boys have hitherto been given little attention. The results call for increased efforts in describing and detecting patho...

  5. Psychological adjustment and family functioning of boys with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, C R; Lewandowski, L J

    1990-01-01

    This study examined parent reports of behavioral and family functioning for 59 boys with learning disabilities (LD) and 65 nondisabled boys (NLD) of ages 6 to 12 years. Parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale (FACES III). Boys with LD were reported as having significantly more behavior problems of both the Internalizing and Externalizing types than NLD boys. Individual scales yielded group differences indicating higher scores (more problems) for the group with LD on the Hyperactive, Schizoid or Anxious, Depressed, and Obsessive Compulsive scales, but no differences on the Aggressive or Social Withdrawal scales. Furthermore, families of boys with LD tended to score more frequently in the extreme (disturbed) range of family functioning. However, boys of families in the extreme range did not have more behavior problems than the boys of other families. The findings suggest that a greater than average proportion of boys with LD are at risk for developing psychological adjustment problems.

  6. Relationship between the climbing up and climbing down stairs domain scores on the FES-DMD, the score on the Vignos Scale, age and timed performance of functional activities in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Lilian A Y; Caromano, Fátima A; Assis, Silvana M B; Hukuda, Michele E; Voos, Mariana C; Carvalho, Eduardo V

    2014-01-01

    Knowing the potential for and limitations of information generated using different evaluation instruments favors the development of more accurate functional diagnoses and therapeutic decision-making. To investigate the relationship between the number of compensatory movements when climbing up and going down stairs, age, functional classification and time taken to perform a tested activity (TA) of going up and down stairs in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). A bank of movies featuring 30 boys with DMD performing functional activities was evaluated. Compensatory movements were assessed using the climbing up and going down stairs domain of the Functional Evaluation Scale for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (FES-DMD); age in years; functional classification using the Vignos Scale (VS), and TA using a timer. Statistical analyses were performed using the Spearman correlation test. There is a moderate relationship between the climbing up stairs domain of the FES-DMD and age (r=0.53, p=0.004) and strong relationships with VS (r=0.72, p=0.001) and TA for this task (r=0.83, pDMD-going down stairs with age (r=0.40, p=0.032), VS (r=0.65, p=0.002) and TA for this task (r=0.40, p=0.034). These findings indicate that the evaluation of compensatory movements used when climbing up stairs can provide more relevant information about the evolution of the disease, although the activity of going down stairs should be investigated, with the aim of enriching guidance and strengthening accident prevention. Data from the FES-DMD, age, VS and TA can be used in a complementary way to formulate functional diagnoses. Longitudinal studies and with broader age groups may supplement this information.

  7. Relationship between the climbing up and climbing down stairs domain scores on the FES-DMD, the score on the Vignos Scale, age and timed performance of functional activities in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian A. Y. Fernandes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Knowing the potential for and limitations of information generated using different evaluation instruments favors the development of more accurate functional diagnoses and therapeutic decision-making. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between the number of compensatory movements when climbing up and going down stairs, age, functional classification and time taken to perform a tested activity (TA of going up and down stairs in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD. METHOD: A bank of movies featuring 30 boys with DMD performing functional activities was evaluated. Compensatory movements were assessed using the climbing up and going down stairs domain of the Functional Evaluation Scale for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (FES-DMD; age in years; functional classification using the Vignos Scale (VS, and TA using a timer. Statistical analyses were performed using the Spearman correlation test. RESULTS: There is a moderate relationship between the climbing up stairs domain of the FES-DMD and age (r=0.53, p=0.004 and strong relationships with VS (r=0.72, p=0.001 and TA for this task (r=0.83, p<0.001. There were weak relationships between the going down stairs domain of the FES-DMD-going down stairs with age (r=0.40, p=0.032, VS (r=0.65, p=0.002 and TA for this task (r=0.40, p=0.034. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that the evaluation of compensatory movements used when climbing up stairs can provide more relevant information about the evolution of the disease, although the activity of going down stairs should be investigated, with the aim of enriching guidance and strengthening accident prevention. Data from the FES-DMD, age, VS and TA can be used in a complementary way to formulate functional diagnoses. Longitudinal studies and with broader age groups may supplement this information.

  8. Summary report of a workshop on research opportunities in plant biochemistry, December 11--13, 1992, Kona, Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    A DOE-sponsored workshop was held December 11--13, 1992 in Kona, Hawaii to discuss those aspects of fundamental research in plant biochemistry deemed essential to provide the basic information base necessary for exploiting plant biotechnology to meet future societal needs. Twenty nine scientists, with interests representing many of the various areas of plant biochemistry, participated. The workshop was intended to define in both broad and specific terms the current state of knowledge in the general area of metabolic biochemistry, and to identify those areas that afford unusual opportunity or that are relatively underdeveloped in comparison with other areas of plant biology. Participants provided critiques of the state of knowledge of the major areas of metabolic biochemistry in relation to a series of questions that are presented herein.

  9. Prenatal screening at 11-13+6 weeks in assisted reproductive technology singleton pregnancies and those conceived naturally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Meng; Shi, Hua; Zhang, Yu-guo; Ming, Lei

    2015-10-01

    To investigate whether assisted reproductive technology (ART) increases the risk of fetal chromosomal abnormalities. A total of 2034 singleton pregnant women were included in this retrospective study. They were divided into ART (574 fetuses) and control groups (1460 fetuses conceived naturally). All pregnant women received screening according to the Fetal Medicine Foundation, London 2004 Kypros H. Nicolaides guidelines at 11-13+6 weeks of gestation. Accordingly, women with value at risk of chromosomal abnormalities >1:250 underwent chorionic villus sampling or amniocentesis. Mean body mass index was 22.83 ± 3.27 versus 21.29 ± 2.81 kg/m(2) in the ART and control groups, respectively (P fetal chromosomal abnormalities. Additionally, fetus size in the ART group was bigger than that in the natural conception group. © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  10. Implant supported prosthesis in an edentulous boy with Hypohidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia - "A happy boy"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjørup, Hans; Nyhuus, Lone; Buhl, Jytte

    2009-01-01

    Implant supported prosthesis in an edentulous boy with Hypohidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia - "A happy boy". Authors; Gjoerup,H1; Nyhuus,L2; Buhl,J3. 1) Center for Oral Health in Rare Conditions, Aarhus University Hospital 2) Prosthodontic Department, the Dental School, Aarhus University 3) Department...... region. 3. At the age of 10 years a new set of dentures were made. This time the upper denture was made as an overdenture supported and retained by 4 implants and a Dolder bar. The surgical procedure included bone grafting from the anterior ramus mandibulae. The boy's subjective judgement of his oral...... health has been registered. The boy and his family experience great improvement in the functioning as well as the comfort of his prosthesis after insertion of implants. Conclusion The prosthesis for edentulous boys with HED demand several adjustments and revisions, partly due to growth of the jaws...

  11. Sexual abuse of boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Sharon M

    2005-01-01

    Sexual abuse in childhood can disable self-esteem, self-concept, relationships, and ability to trust. It can also leave psychological trauma that compromises a boy's confidence in adults. While some boys who willingly participate may adjust to sexual abuse, many others face complications, such as reduced quality of life, impaired social relationships, less than optimal daily functioning, and self-destructive behavior. These problems can respond to treatment if detected. In this paper, we examine the prevalence, characteristics, psychological consequences, treatment, and coping patterns of boys who have been sexually abused and their failure to disclose abuse unless asked during a therapeutic encounter. Nurses have a responsibility to detect the clues to sexual abuse, diagnose the psychological consequences, and advocate for protection and treatment. Computerized literature search of the Medline and PsychInfo literature and books on sexual abuse of boys. Psychological responses to abuse such as anxiety, denial, self-hypnosis, dissociation, and self-mutilation are common. Coping strategies may include being the angry avenger, the passive victim, rescuer, daredevil, or conformist. Sexual abuse may precipitate runaway behavior, chronic use of sick days, poor school or job performance, costly medical, emergency and or mental health visits. In worst cases, the boy may decide that life is not worth living and plan suicide. The nurse has a key role to play in screening, assessing, and treating sexual abuse children.

  12. Reading and Phonological Skills in Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klusek, Jessica; Hunt, Anna W.; Mirrett, Penny L.; Hatton, Deborah D.; Hooper, Stephen R.; Roberts, Jane E.; Bailey, Donald B.

    2015-01-01

    Although reading skills are critical for the success of individuals with intellectual disabilities, literacy has received little attention in fragile X syndrome (FXS). This study examined the literacy profile of FXS. Boys with FXS (n = 51; mean age 10.2 years) and mental age-matched boys with typical development (n = 35) participated in…

  13. Maternal fish oil supplementation during lactation is associated with reduced height at 13 years of age and higher blood pressure in boys only

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Lotte; Eriksen, S E; Hjorth, Mads Fiil

    2016-01-01

    followed-up 100 children with assessment of growth, blood pressure, diet by FFQ and physical activity by 7-d accelerometry at 13·5 (sd 0·4) years of age. Dried whole-blood fatty acid composition was analysed in a subgroup (n 49). At 13 years of age, whole-blood n-3 LCPUFA, diet, physical activity and body...

  14. Secular trends for age at spermarche among Chinese boys from 11 ethnic minorities, 1995-2010: a multiple cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yi; Ma, Jun; Li, Liu-Bai; Dong, Bin; Wang, Zhiqiang; Agardh, Anette

    2016-02-24

    We compared the differences in median age at spermarche among 11 ethnic minorities in 2010, estimated the trends regarding age at spermarche in different ethnic minorities from 1995 to 2010, and explored the association of spermarche with body mass index (BMI). We used four cross-sectional Chinese National Surveys on Students' Constitution and Health (CNSSCH, 1995, 2000, 2005 and 2010), and the total sample size was 40,113 children aged 11-18 years. The median age at spermarche of each ethnic minority was determined by using probit analysis. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of spermarche with BMI. In 2010, the ethnic minorities with earliest age at spermarche were Qiang (12.03 years), Zhuang (12.91 years) and Kirghiz (13.17 years); the three ethnic minorities with latest age at spermarche were Dong (14.73 years), Yao (14.60 years), and Naxi (14.36 years). From 1995 to 2010, age at spermarche showed a decline in almost each minority group except Yao and Dong. A higher BMI was associated with an increased likelihood of having reached spermarche after adjusting for age, regions or ethnic minorities. A large variation in age at spermarche was observed among different ethnic minorities. The age at spermarche showed a downward shift in almost each of the 11 ethnic minorities with different patterns over time, and the children with higher BMI are more likely to enter puberty early. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. New Toys for Boys

    OpenAIRE

    O'Brien, Paul

    2016-01-01

    In 'Out of Time: Reflections on the Programming Life', Ellen Ullman writes that a senior (male) engineer once asked her why she left full-time engineering for consulting. She replied that she found the engineering culture very 'teenage-boy puerile'. The engineer replied to the effect that such loss of talent was too bad.

  16. Serotonergic contribution to boys' behavioral regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélie Nantel-Vivier

    Full Text Available Animal and human adult studies reveal a contribution of serotonin to behavior regulation. Whether these findings apply to children is unclear. The present study investigated serotonergic functioning in boys with a history of behavior regulation difficulties through a double-blind, acute tryptophan supplementation procedure.Participants were 23 boys (age 10 years with a history of elevated physical aggression, recruited from a community sample. Eleven were given a chocolate milkshake supplemented with 500 mg tryptophan, and 12 received a chocolate milkshake without tryptophan. Boys engaged in a competitive reaction time game against a fictitious opponent, which assessed response to provocation, impulsivity, perspective taking, and sharing. Impulsivity was further assessed through a Go/No-Go paradigm. A computerized emotion recognition task and a staged instrumental help incident were also administered.Boys, regardless of group, responded similarly to high provocation by the fictitious opponent. However, boys in the tryptophan group adjusted their level of responding optimally as a function of the level of provocation, whereas boys in the control group significantly decreased their level of responding towards the end of the competition. Boys in the tryptophan group tended to show greater perspective taking, tended to better distinguish facial expressions of fear and happiness, and tended to provide greater instrumental help to the experimenter.The present study provides initial evidence for the feasibility of acute tryptophan supplementation in children and some effect of tryptophan supplementation on children's behaviors. Further studies are warranted to explore the potential impact of increased serotonergic functioning on boys' dominant and affiliative behaviors.

  17. Differences between girls and boys in emerging language skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Mårten; Marschik, Peter B; Tulviste, Tiia

    2012-01-01

    .08 to 2.06. The results showed that girls are slightly ahead of boys in early communicative gestures, in productive vocabulary, and in combining words. The difference increased with age. Boys were not found to be more variable than girls. Despite extensive variation in language skills between language...... communities, the difference between girls and boys remained. This suggests that the difference is caused by robust factors that do not change between language communities....

  18. Foot Structure in Boys with Down Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Puszczałowska-Lizis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Aim. Down syndrome (DS is associated with numerous developmental abnormalities, some of which cause dysfunctions of the posture and the locomotor system. The analysis of selected features of the foot structure in boys with DS versus their peers without developmental disorders is done. Materials and Methods. The podoscopic examination was performed on 30 boys with DS aged 14-15 years. A control group consisted of 30 age- and gender-matched peers without DS. Results. The feet of boys with DS are flatter compared to their healthy peers. The hallux valgus angle is not the most important feature differentiating the shape of the foot in the boys with DS and their healthy peers. In terms of the V toe setting, healthy boys had poorer results. Conclusions. Specialized therapeutic treatment in individuals with DS should involve exercises to increase the muscle strength around the foot joints, enhancing the stabilization in the joints and proprioception. Introducing orthotics and proper footwear is also important. It is also necessary to monitor the state of the foot in order to modify undertaken therapies.

  19. DNA methylation based testing of 418 patients suspected of having Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and tentative localization of the 15q11-13 imprinting center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horsthemke, B.; Dittrich, B.; Buiting, K. [Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Using a test based on parent-of-origin specific DNA methylation at the D15S63 (PW71) locus, we studied 358 patients (aged 1-33 years) for diagnostic confirmation of PWS and 60 infants (aged 0-12 months) with severe hypotonia of unknown origin. 57/358 patients were examined personally. 28/57 patients showed typical clinical signs of PWS and lacked the paternal PW71 band. 29-57 patients did not fulfill the diagnostic criteria for PWS and had a normal methylation pattern. This suggests that the test detects most if not all patients with typical PWS. 301/358 samples were sent to us from outside. The test confirmed the diagnosis in 105/301 patients. Most of the other 196 patients lacked neonatal hypotonia and hypogonadism. On the other hand, 27/60 hypotonic infants tested positive for PWS. These results indicate that PWS is often not recognized in infants and wrongly diagnosed in obese children and adults. We propose to perform the PW71 methylation test in every newborn with severe hypotonia of unknown origin to avoid unnecessary diagnostic procedures. In the course of diagnostic testing we and others have identified PWS and Angelman syndrome (AS) patients with apparently normal chromosomes of biparental inheritance, but abnormal DNA methylation and gene expression. The identification of microdeletions in some of these patients suggests the existence of an imprinting center within 30 kb proximal of SNRPN, which regulates the chromatin structure, DNA methylation and gene expression. We propose that the paternal copy of 15q11-13 has a euchromatoid structure, from which the PWS genes are transcribed, and that the maternal copy has a heterochromatoid structure from which the AS gene is transcribed. Depending on the parental origin of the mutation, both chromosomes of a patient have a heterochromatoid domain, which silences the PWS genes, or a euchromatoid domain, which silences the AS gene.

  20. Differences in physical fitness and gross motor coordination in boys aged 6-12 years specializing in one versus sampling more than one sport.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransen, J.; Pion, J.; Vandendriessche, J.; Vandorpe, B.; Vaeyens, R.; Lenoir, M.; Philippaerts, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    The Developmental Model of Sports Participation proposes two pathways towards expertise in sports between 6 and 12 years of age: early specialization and early diversification. This study investigated the effect of sampling various sports and of spending many or few hours in sports on fitness and

  1. Elevated VGKC-Complex Antibodies in a Boy with Fever-Induced Refractory Epileptic Encephalopathy in School-Age Children (FIRES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illingworth, Marjorie A.; Hanrahan, Donncha; Anderson, Claire E.; O'Kane, Kathryn; Anderson, Jennifer; Casey, Maureen; de Sousa, Carlos; Cross, J. Helen; Wright, Sukvhir; Dale, Russell C.; Vincent, Angela; Kurian, Manju A.

    2011-01-01

    Fever-induced refractory epileptic encephalopathy in school-age children (FIRES) is a clinically recognized epileptic encephalopathy of unknown aetiology. Presentation in previously healthy children is characterized by febrile status epilepticus. A pharmacoresistant epilepsy ensues, occurring in parallel with dramatic cognitive decline and…

  2. Reference values for placental growth factor (PlGF) concentration and uterine artery doppler pulsatility index (PI) at 11-13(+6) weeks of gestation in the Polish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosiński, Przemysław; Samaha, Robert Brawura Biskupski; Bomba-Opoń, Dorota A; Kozłowski, Szymon; Lipa, Michał; Kaczyński, Bartosz; Zbucka-Kretowska, Monika; Lawicki, Sławomir; Szmitkowski, Maciej; Wolczyński, Sławomir; Wielgoś, Mirosław

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the study was to determine placental growth factor (PIGF) concentration and uterine artery (UtA) Doppler pulsatility index (PI) at 11-13(+6) weeks of gestation in the Polish population. A prospective study was performed in pregnant women who underwent routine ultrasound scan at 11-13(+6) weeks of gestation. All participants completed a questionnaire about their medical history demographics and current pregnancy. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was calculated. Gestational age was confirmed by CRL and mean UtA PI was calculated. Blood samples were taken to measure beta HCG, PAPP-A and P/GF concentrations. Out of the 577 analyzed participants, 60 (10.4%) were found to have abnormal placentation disorders (20 -hypertensive disorders and 40-IUGR). The patients were subdivided into two groups, depending on pregnancy outcome: unaffected (n = 517) and affected (n = 60). The study did not confirm the anticipated correlation between maternal BMI and PIGF, but the concentration of PIGF was significantly increased in smokers. UtA PI values were not statistically significantly different depending on maternal age, BMI, method of conception, smoking or parity The study confirms that both, UtA PI and PIGF concentrations are CRL-dependent. Median MoM values for PIGF and UtA PI were obtained for each set of CRL measurements. Median PIGF MoM was decreased in pregnancies complicated by hypertensive disorders and IUGR as compared to the unaffected group. The established reference ranges for UtA PI and PIGF at 11-13(+6) weeks of gestation may be of clinical value in predicting placenta-associated diseases in early stages of pregnancy in the Polish population.

  3. Boys' Bodies in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Murray

    2012-01-01

    This paper is based on qualitative research data from a project investigating early childhood boys' constructions of masculinities in relation to sport, health and the body. The focus group data, with 33 boys, has been collected in each of the boys' first three years at school. It is part of the data that will be collected over eight years with…

  4. Are Girls Less Fit Than Boys?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raithel, Kathryn Simmons

    1987-01-01

    The 1985 National School Population Fitness Survey found that girls aged 6 to 17 generally scored lower than boys on all test items except flexibility. Possible reasons are physiological factors, lack of opportunity, and psychological barriers. Changes in the law affecting women's athletic programs are reviewed. (MT)

  5. Language in Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Yonata; Gottesman, Riki; Borochowitz, Zvi; Frydman, Moshe; Sagi, Michal

    2006-01-01

    The current paper reports of language production in 15 Hebrew-speaking boys, aged 9;0-13;0, with fully methylated, non-mosaic fragile X syndrome and no concomitant diagnosis of autism. Contrary to expectations, seven children were non-verbal. Language production in the verbal children was studied in free conversations and in context-bound speech.…

  6. Early Generalized Overgrowth in Boys With Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawarska, Katarzyna; Campbell, Daniel; Chen, Lisha; Shic, Frederick; Klin, Ami; Chang, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Context Multiple studies have reported an overgrowth in head circumference (HC) in the first year of life in autism. However, it is unclear whether this phenomenon is independent of overall body growth and whether it is associated with specific social or cognitive features. Objectives To examine the trajectory of early HC growth in autism compared with control groups; to assess whether HC growth in autism is independent of height and weight growth during infancy; and to examine HC growth from birth to 24 months in relationship to social, verbal, cognitive, and adaptive functioning levels. Design Retrospective study. Setting A specialized university-based clinic. Participants Boys diagnosed as having autistic disorder (n=64), pervasive developmental disorder–not otherwise specified (n=34), global developmental delay (n=13), and other developmental problems (n=18) and typically developing boys (n=55). Main Outcome Measures Age-related changes in HC, height, and weight between birth and age 24 months; measures of social, verbal, and cognitive functioning at age 2 years. Results Compared with typically developing controls, boys with autism were significantly longer by age 4.8 months, had a larger HC by age 9.5 months, and weighed more by age 11.4 months (P=.05 for all). None of the other clinical groups showed a similar overgrowth pattern. Boys with autism who were in the top 10% of overall physical size in infancy exhibited greater severity of social deficits (P=.009) and lower adaptive functioning (P=.03). Conclusions Boys with autism experienced accelerated HC growth in the first year of life. However, this phenomenon reflected a generalized process affecting other morphologic features, including height and weight. The study highlights the importance of studying factors that influence not only neuronal development but also skeletal growth in autism. PMID:21969460

  7. Why adolescent boys dream of becoming professional athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, D A; Gibbons, J L; Sebben, D J; Wiley, D C

    1999-06-01

    A review of studies which investigated drawings of the ideal man and the occupational aspirations of boys (ages 11-18 years) from several countries indicated that becoming a professional athlete was a popular but unrealistic aspiration for many adolescent boys. Boys who were athletes and nonathletes from diverse ethnic groups and nationalities dreamed of becoming professional athletes. In two additional studies in the United States of America, adolescents were asked why they thought boys most often selected professional athlete as a possible future occupation. Adolescents perceived professional athletes as rich, famous, and glorified. Enhancement of status and financial gain were ranked as more important than the desire to play sports.

  8. Aberrant Behaviors of Young Boys with Fragile X Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachiewicz, Ave M.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Caregivers of 55 boys with fragile X syndrome (ages 3-12) and 57 matched controls completed five behavioral questionnaires. Principal components analysis yielded 5 behavioral clusters: abnormal language, tactile defensiveness, poor self-control, poor eye contact/shyness, and hand flapping. Boys with fragile X were four times more likely to have…

  9. Effective Approaches to Motivate and Engage Reluctant Boys in Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senn, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to investigate the reasons why elementary-aged boys often lack motivation in literacy and to provide teachers with useful approaches to engage reluctant boys in reading and writing. Following a comprehensive search of multiple university data base search engines, the author critically evaluated 21 peer-reviewed…

  10. Testiculaire microlithiasis bij jongens [Testicular microlithiasis in boys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goede, J.; Pierik, F.H.; Hack, W.W.M.; Algra, P.R.

    2008-01-01

    In three boys aged 15, 9, and 10 years respectively scrotal ultrasound revealed testicular microlithiasis (TM). Two boys were free of symptoms and one suffered from testicular pain. TM is characterized by multiple echogenic foci within the seminiferous tubules with no acoustic shadowing. The

  11. The dynamics of indicators of physical qualities of boys aged 10-13 years under the influence of different types of tourism activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.I. Grinyova

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Compared to the development of physical qualities of young men engaged in hiking, biking and water sports tourism. Shows the development of the physical qualities of young men who do not engage in sports clubs. The study involved 18 children (age 10-13 years in each of the groups. Classes are held on standard programs tourist sports clubs, which provide for 216 hours per year (2 sessions per week with duration of 3 hours each. Determined that the long-term and systematic training tourism contribute to the level of physical fitness tourists. Found that different types of tourism have a different effect on the development of a variety of physical properties. Classes hiking more improves flexibility, agility and speed-strength, cycling speed, agility, and speed-strength, water tourism force.

  12. Unsuspected urological anomalies in asymptomatic cryptorchid boys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pappis, C.H.; Argianas, S.A.; Bousgas, D.; Athanasiades, E.

    1988-01-01

    In a period of 6 years 144 asymptomatic boys with cryptorchidism, of mean age 7 +- SD 3.5 years, underwent orchiopexy. None of these boys referred to a history of a known urological anomaly, urinary tract infection haematuria, palpable mass in the renal region, bladder extrophy, epispadias, hypospadias or anorectal malformation. On the third day after orchiopexy an intravenous pyelography was done in every boy following testicular protection against irradiation. Ultrasonic investigation was not available at that time. There were minor urological abnormalities in 36 (25%) boys and major ones in 8 (5.5%) boys. A major anomaly is defined as one resulting in significant loss of renal substance (one case of single kidney and three cases of unilateral renal hypoplasia), or requiring surgical correction for conservation of the renal substance (one case of ureterocele, two cases of pelviureteric stenosis and one case of vesicoureteric stenosis with ipsilateral hydronephrosis). The unsuspected major urological abnormalities are usually ipsilateral to the more undescended testis. They may be associated with a hernia and are more frequent in bilateral cryptorchidism. In conclusion we encourage the routine use of IVP, or ultrasonic investigation or dynamic renal scanning (99/sup mTc/-DTPA), if it is possible, in all patients undergoing orchiopexy for the detection of an unsuspected major renal anomaly.

  13. Proceedings of the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS) International Conference on Educational Technologies (5th, Sydney, Australia, December 11-13, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kommers, Piet, Ed.; Issa, Tomayess, Ed.; Isaias, Pedro, Ed.; Hol, Ana, Ed.

    2017-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers and posters of the 5th International Conference on Educational Technologies 2017 (ICEduTech 2017), which has been organised by the International Association for Development of the Information Society and co-organised by the Western Sydney University, held in Sydney, Australia, 11-13 December 2017. ICEduTech is…

  14. Evaluating Boy Scout Geology Education, A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintz, R. S.; Thomson, B.

    2008-12-01

    This study investigated geology knowledge acquisition by Boy Scouts through use of the Boy Scout Geology Merit Handbook. In this study, boys engaged in hands-on interactive learning following the requirements set forth in the Geology Merit Badge Handbook. The purposes of this study were to determine the amount of geology content knowledge engendered in adolescent males through the use of the Geology Merit Badge Handbook published by the Boy Scouts of America; to determine if single sex, activity oriented, free-choice learning programs can be effective in promoting knowledge development in young males; and to determine if boys participating in the Scouting program believed their participation helped them succeed in school. Members of a local Boy Scout Troop between the ages of 11 and 18 were invited to participate in a Geology Merit Badge program. Boys who did not already possess the badge were allowed to self-select participation. The boys' content knowledge of geology, rocks, and minerals was pre- and post-tested. Boys were interviewed about their school and Scouting experiences; whether they believed their Scouting experiences and work in Merit Badges contributed to their success in school. Contributing educational theories included single-sex education, informal education with free-choice learning, learning styles, hands-on activities, and the social cognitive theory concept of self-efficacy. Boys who completed this study seemed to possess a greater knowledge of geology than they obtained in school. If boys who complete the Boy Scout Geology Merit Badge receive additional geological training, their field experiences and knowledge acquired through this learning experience will be beneficial, and a basis for continued scaffolding of geologic knowledge.

  15. Angelman syndrome without detectable chromosome 15q11-13 anomaly: clinical study of familial and isolated cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, L. A.; Halley, D. J.; den Boer, A. T.; Hennekam, R. C.; Renier, W. O.; Brouwer, O. F.

    1998-01-01

    The clinical findings in 12 Angelman syndrome (AS) patients (4 sib pairs and 4 sporadic cases, aged 12-55 years) without a cytogenetic or molecular detectable defect at the AS locus were compared to those of 28 AS patients (aged 11-50 years) with a deletion, in order to determine whether the

  16. Direct Magnitude Estimation of Articulation Rate in Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajac, David J.; Harris, Adrianne A.; Roberts, Joanne E.; Martin, Gary E.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the perceived articulation rate of boys with fragile X syndrome (FXS) with that of chronologically age-matched (CA) boys and to determine segmental and/or prosodic factors that account for perceived rate. Method: Ten listeners used direct magnitude estimation procedures to judge the articulation rates of 7 boys with FXS only, 5…

  17. Screening for Fetal Spina Bifida Aperta by the Ultrasound and Intracranial Translucency Examinations at 11-13(+6) Weeks of Gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Liu, Ying; Li, Zhi-Hong; Yu, Ding

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the study is to evaluate the clinical significance of screening for fetal spina bifida aperta by ultrasound examination and intracranial translucency (IT) measurement at 11-13(+6) weeks of gestation. About 1,479 women at 11-13(+6) weeks of gestation in our hospital in 2012 were included as observation group, and 1,608 women at 11-13(+6) weeks of gestation without IT measurement in 2011 was included as controls. Detection rates of fetal spina bifida aperta in two groups were compared. The translucency thickness between the brain stem and choroid plexus and crown-rump length (CRL) in mid-sagittal view of the fetal face was measured, and translucency thickness and CRL in fetuses with spina bifida and healthy ones were compared. Detection rate of fetal spina bifida aperta in observation group was significantly higher than that in control group (six cases in observation group and one case in control group, p = 0.046). IT thickness was significantly lower in fetuses with spina bifida aperta (0.01 ± 1.25 mm) than that in healthy ones (1.73 ± 0.32 mm) (p spina bifida aperta (r = 0.001, p = 0.081). Ultrasound examination with IT measurement at 11-13(+6) weeks of gestation can be used to screen for fetal spina bifida aperta, and the reduction of IT thickness is an indicator of spina bifida aperta.

  18. Serving Boys through Readers' Advisory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Based on more than twenty years' experience working to get boys interested in reading, the author now offers his first readers' advisory volume. With an emphasis on nonfiction and the boy-friendly categories of genre fiction, the work offers a wealth of material including: (1) Suggestions for how to booktalk one-on-one as well as in large groups;…

  19. Disordered eating behaviors: what about boys?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominé, Françoise; Berchtold, André; Akré, Christina; Michaud, Pierre-André; Suris, Joan-Carles

    2009-02-01

    To determine the characteristics specific to boys with disordered eating behaviors (DEB) and the general context in which these DEB occur. Data were drawn from the SMASH02 database, a survey carried out among post-mandatory school students in Switzerland aged 16-20 years in 2002. Only males (N=3890) were included, and were classified into into one of four groups based on their level of concern about weight/food and on their eating behaviors, as follows: group 1: one concern without behavior (N=862); group 2: more than one concern without behavior (N=361); group 3: at least one behavior (N=798); and a control group (N=1869), according to previously validated items. Groups were compared for personal, family, school, experience of violence, and health-compromising behaviors variables on the bivariate level. All significant variables were included in a multinomial logistic regression using Stata 9 software. About one-half of the boys reported either a concern or unhealthy eating behavior. Compared with the control group, boys from the three groups were more likely to be students and to report a history of sexual abuse, delinquency, depression, and feeling fat. In addition, boys from group 3 were more likely to report a history of dieting, early puberty, peer teasing, having experienced violence, frequent inebriation, and being overweight. DEB concern adolescent males more frequently than thought and seem to be integrated in a general dysfunctional context, in which violence is predominant. Adolescent males also need to be screened for DEB. Moreover, prevention programs should target the increasing social and media pressure regarding boys ideal body shape and raise public consciousness about this phenomenon.

  20. Behavioral aggressiveness in boys with sexual precocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu Kulshreshtha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some boys with sexual precocity are known to have behavioral problems like increased physical and verbal aggression and school and social maladjustments. It is believed to be due to premature androgen exposure. However, it is not clear why only some develop this problem, difference in etiology could be one explanation. Aim: The aim of the study is to assess behavioral aggression in boys with sexual precocity due to different disorders. Materials and Methods: Seven children, ages three to seven years, were enrolled for this study. Two were diagnosed to have congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH, three had testotoxicosis, while two had central precocious puberty. Parents of children with precocious puberty underwent the (CASP questionnaire (children′s aggression scale-parent version. Results: Testosterone levels were high in all patients. Parents denied any history of physical or verbal aggression in the two boys with CAH. Their CASP rating was 0. In contrast, the CASP ratings in the two boys with testotoxicosis and the two with precocious puberty for five domains ranged from 3.1 - 24.2, 2.6 - 8.3,1-5.6,0 - 7.1, and 0 - 1, respectively. In the present study, increased aggression was seen among all the patients with testotoxicosis and both with precocious puberty. In contrast, there were no symptoms of either increased verbal or physical aggression in either of the two patients with CAH. Conclusions: The hormonal milieu in the boys with CAH versus those with sexual precocity due to other causes differed in terms of cortisol and androgen precursors. The androgen excess in CAH children was a consequence of cortisol deficiency. It is possible that cortisol sufficiency is required for androgen-mediated behavioral effects.

  1. Obesity and bullying: different effects for boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, L J; Wolke, D; Page, A S; Horwood, J P

    2006-02-01

    To investigate whether weight category (underweight, average weight, overweight, and obese) at age 7.5 predicts bullying involvement at 8.5 years. Models were tested separately for boys and girls to investigate gender differences in association patterns. Prospective cohort study in southwest England. Height and weight were measured in children at age 7.5 (n = 8210). BMI (kg/m2) was used to define underweight, average weight, overweight, and obese children, according to British age and gender specific growth reference data. Overt (n = 7083) and relational (n = 6932) bullying behaviour was assessed in children at age 8.5. After adjustment for parental social class, compared to average weight boys, obese boys were 1.66 (95% CI 1.04 to 2.66) times more likely to be overt bullies and 1.54 (1.12 to 2.13) times more likely to be overt victims. Obese girls were 1.53 (1.09 to 2.15) times more likely to be overt victims compared to average weight girls. Obesity is predictive of bullying involvement for both boys and girls. Preadolescent obese boys and girls are more likely to be victims of bullying because they deviate from appearance ideals. Other obese boys are likely to be bullies, presumably because of their physical dominance in the peer group.

  2. The effect of programmed exercise on body compositions and heart rate of 11-13 years-old male students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad H. Dashti

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Different forms of physical activities can play a very important role in improving health and physical fitness. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the programmed exercise on students’ body compositions and heart rate at rest.Materials and Method: Two groups each consisting of 15students, aged averagely 12.6 years were the subjects of this experimental study. The experimental group in each session took part in an exercise program consisting of 20 minutes of aerobic activity (running, 10 minutes of aerobic exercise, 30 minutes of local training and 5 minutes of free exercise. The experiment last for 24 sessions. Control group didn’t do any special practice. In both groups, weight, fat mass, fat percentage, lean body mass and heart rate were measured during rest period before and after the experiment. Results: Results showed that the fat percentage, weight, fat mass and heart rate had decreased after 8 weeks of programmed exercise in the experimental group unlike the control group. However, no significant difference was observed in lean body mass.Conclusion: The exercise program used in this study may help loosing weight and make the heart stronger

  3. Some boys' problems in education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian Helms

    2015-01-01

    The last two decades have seen an increasing political concern in the high dropout rates and low performance in education of boys compared to girls – at times in the form of a ‘moral panic’. This has also been the case in Denmark where ‘the boy problem’ in education now is placed high on the agenda...... of education policy. The purpose of this article is to examine this ‘boy problem’ in relation to the dual system of vocational education and training (VET) in Denmark. By considering the gender divisions and the value of the VET programmes on the labour market, it explores what kind of problems boys have...... to general education, but social and institutional processes of differentiation in the vocational schools place a significant group of students in a position where they have little chance of completing the programme. In the conclusion, some reflections are made on the effect of a recent reform of VET...

  4. Neonatal lesions of orbital frontal areas 11/13 in monkeys alter goal-directed behavior but spare fear conditioning and safety signal learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy M Kazama

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies in monkeys have demonstrated that damage to the lateral subfields of orbital frontal cortex (OFC areas 11/13 yields profound changes in flexible modulation of goal-directed behaviors and a lack in fear regulation. Yet, little consideration has been placed on its role in emotional and social development throughout life. The current study investigated the effects of neonatal lesions of the OFC on the flexible modulation of goal-directed behaviors and fear responses in monkeys. Infant monkeys received neonatal lesions of OFC areas 11/13 or sham-lesions during the first post-natal week. Modulation of goal-directed behaviors was measured with a devaluation task at 3-4 years and 6-7 years. Modulation of fear reactivity by safety signals was assessed with the AX+/BX- potentiated-startle paradigm at 6-7 years. Similar to adult-onset OFC lesions, selective neonatal lesions of OFC areas 11/13 yielded a failure to modulate behavioral responses guided by changes in reward value, but spared the ability to modulate fear responses in the presence of safety signals. These results suggest that these areas play a critical role in the development of behavioral adaptation during goal-directed behaviors, but not, or less so, in the development of the ability to process emotionally salient stimuli and to modulate emotional reactivity using environmental contexts, which could be supported by other OFC subfields, such as the most ventromedial subfields (i.e. areas 14/25. Given similar impaired decision-making abilities and spared modulation of fear followed both neonatal lesions of either OFC areas 11 and 13 or amygdala (Kazama et al., 2012; Kazama & Bachevalier, 2013, the present results suggest that interactions between these two neural structures play a critical role in the development of behavioral adaptation; an ability essential for the self-regulation of emotion and behavior that assures the maintenance of successful social relationships.

  5. Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop Summary Report: Proceedings from the Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop, Golden, Colorado, June 11-13, 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) held a Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop June 11-13, 2012, in Golden, Colorado, to discuss biogas and waste-to-energy technologies for fuel cell applications. The overall objective was to identify opportunities for coupling renewable biomethane with highly efficient fuel cells to produce electricity; heat; combined heat and power (CHP); or combined heat, hydrogen and power (CHHP) for stationary or motive applications. The workshop focused on biogas sourced from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), landfills, and industrial facilities that generate or process large amounts of organic waste, including large biofuel production facilities (biorefineries).

  6. "Boys Should Have the Courage to Ask a Girl Out": Gender Norms in Early Adolescent Romantic Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Meyer, Sara; Kågesten, Anna; Mmari, Kristin; McEachran, Juliet; Chilet-Rosell, Elisa; Kabiru, Caroline W; Maina, Beatrice; Jerves, Elena M; Currie, Candace; Michielsen, Kristien

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of the study is to explore how gender norms emerge in romantic relationships among early adolescents (EAs) living in five poor urban areas. Data were collected as part of the Global Early Adolescent Study. The current research analyzed data from interviews with 30 EAs (aged 11-13 years) living in five poor urban sites: Baltimore, Cuenca, Edinburgh, Ghent, and Nairobi. All interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed in English using Atlas.ti, focusing on how EAs experience and perceive gender norms in romantic relationships. Across the five sites, only a few respondents described having been in love, the majority of whom were boys. Findings indicate that stereotypical gender norms about romantic relationships prevail across these cultural settings, depicting boys as romantically/sexually active and dominant, and girls as innocent with less (romantic) agency. In spite of the similarities, Nairobi was unique in that respondents referred to how sexual behavior and violence can occur within EA relationships. In all countries, heterosexuality was perceived to be the norm. Nevertheless, there were examples of EAs accepting homosexuality and expressing supportive attitudes toward equality between the sexes. While EAs across five different cultural settings seem to endorse stereotypical gender norms in romantic relationships, a few stories also illustrate more gender-equal attitudes. As stereotypical gender norms have a demonstrated negative effect on adolescent sexual and reproductive health and well-being, additional research is needed to understand which factors-at the interpersonal and structural level-contribute to the construction of these norms among EAs. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Body dimensions, exercise capacity and physical activity level of adolescent Nandi boys in western Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Bøgh; Christensen, Dirk Lund; Nolan, T

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize untrained Nandi boys (mean age 16.6 years) from a town (n = 11) and from a rural area (n = 19) in western Kenya (altitude approximately 2000 m.a.s.l.) in regard to their body dimensions, oxygen uptake and physical activity level. The town boys had a mean...... that the body dimensions of adolescent Nandi town and village boys corresponds well with findings in Kenyan elite runners. They are very slender with relatively long legs. In addition, the VO(2 max) of the village boys was higher than that of the town boys, which is probably due to a higher physical activity...

  8. Boys with a simple delayed puberty reach their target height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cools, B L M; Rooman, R; Op De Beeck, L; Du Caju, M V L

    2008-01-01

    Final height in boys with delayed puberty is thought to be below target height. This conclusion, however, is based on studies that included patients with genetic short stature. We therefore studied final height in a group of 33 untreated boys with delayed puberty with a target height >-1.5 SDS. Standing height, sitting height, weight and arm span width were measured in each patient. Final height was predicted by the method of Greulich and Pyle using the tables of Bailey and Pinneau for retarded boys at their bone age (PAH1) and the tables of Bailey and Pinneau for average boys plus six months (PAH2). Mean final height (175.8 +/- 6.5 cm) was appropriate for the mean target height (174.7 +/- 4.5 cm). The prediction method of Bailey and Pinneau overestimated the final height by 1.4 cm and the modified prediction method slightly underestimated the final height (-0.15 cm). Boys with untreated delayed puberty reach a final height appropriate for their target height. Final height was best predicted by the method of Bailey and Pinneau using the tables for average boys at their bone age plus six months. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Physiological profiles of young boys training in ballet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekkarinen, H; Litmanen, H; Mahlamäki, S

    1989-01-01

    In order to evaluate physiological characteristics in young male ballet dancers, 27 boys (aged 9 to 16 years) who participated in a boys' dance course during the Kuopio Dance and Music Festival in June 1988 were studied. In general, the boys had started dancing at the age of 8.6 years and had been training for 4.1 years. They had, on average, three dancing sessions per week and the mean time spent on dancing was four hours per week. In the study, some anthropometric measurements were taken, the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) was measured by a cycle ergometer test and the explosive strength and the mechanical power of lower extremities were evaluated by a jumping test. The results indicate that boys who train in ballet are in general moderately lean, have relatively small body size and a high degree of flexibility. The younger boys especially have only moderate aerobic power, but both explosive strength and mechanical power in leg muscles are good in ballet trained boys. PMID:2630002

  10. Body Talk for Boys Growing Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Margaret L.

    This pamphlet, targeted to boys, discusses issues surrounding puberty. The introduction describes the reaction of parents' to their children's process of growing up, as well as the reaction of other boys and girls to the physical changes of puberty. Physical changes that happen during puberty for girls and boys are listed. Books for boys on…

  11. Discussion on Papers 11 - 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haws, E.; Matthews, M.E.; Wilson, E.M.; Charles-Jones, S.; Allen, R.F.; Young, R.M.; O'Connor, B.

    1992-01-01

    The discussion covered the following topics: the nature of boulder clay for foundations; navigation through the barrage; the construction of sluice caissons; government subsidies for construction costs; the effect of wave action on river banks; allowances for reflected energy in hydrodynamic models; water quality in impounded pools; sediment deposition. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the three papers under discussion. (UK)

  12. Discourse Skills of Boys with Fragile X Syndrome in Comparison to Boys with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Joanne; Martin, Gary E.; Moskowitz, Lauren; Harris, Adrianne A.; Foreman, Jamila; Nelson, Lauren

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study compared the conversational discourse skills of boys who have fragile X syndrome with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) with those of boys with Down syndrome and boys who are typically developing. Method: Participants were boys who have fragile X syndrome with (n = 26) and without (n = 28) ASD, boys with Down syndrome…

  13. Gender typicality in children's speech: A comparison of boys with and without gender identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, Benjamin; Crocker, Laura; Pierrehumbert, Janet B; Owen-Anderson, Allison; Zucker, Kenneth J

    2015-04-01

    This study examined whether boys with gender identity disorder (GID) produced less prototypically male speech than control boys without GID, a possibility that has been suggested by clinical observations. Two groups of listeners participated in tasks where they rated the gender typicality of single words (group 1) or sentences (group 2) produced by 15 5-13 year old boys with GID and 15 age-matched boys without GID. Detailed acoustic analyses of the stimuli were also conducted. Boys with GID were rated as less boy-like than boys without GID. In the experiment using sentence stimuli, these group differences were larger than in the experiment using single-word stimuli. Listeners' ratings were predicted by a variety of acoustic parameters, including ones that differ between the two groups and ones that are stereotypically associated with adult men's and women's speech. Future research should examine how these variants are acquired.

  14. Vulnerable girls and dangerous boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Ann-Karina Eske

    2017-01-01

    , and young people’s experiences of confinement. Drawing on Foucauldian power analytics and post-structuralist feminist theory on subjectivity, the study finds that the disciplining practices are gendered to promote working-class masculinity for boys and normative femininity and (hetero)sexuality for girls......, with minorizing effects on some boys and girls. The study provides unique insights from a gender-integrated context for confined young people and supplements scholarship on the gendered logics that underpin interventions operating within the penal–social work nexus....

  15. Using Discrete Trial Training to Identify Specific Learning Impairments in Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Scott S.; Hustyi, Kristin M.; Hammond, Jennifer L.; Hirt, Melissa; Reiss, Allan L.

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether "discrete trial training" (DTT) could be used to identify learning impairments in mathematical reasoning in boys with fragile X syndrome (FXS). Boys with FXS, aged 10-23 years, and age and IQ-matched controls, were trained to match fractions to pie-charts and pie-charts to decimals either on a computer or with a…

  16. Trends in overweight prevalence among 11-, 13- and 15-year-olds in 25 countries in Europe, Canada and USA from 2002 to 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahluwalia, Namanjeet; Dalmasso, Paola; Rasmussen, Mette

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to assess recent changes in the prevalence of overweight (including obesity) among 11-, 13- and 15-year-olds in 33 countries from 2002 to 2010. METHODS: Data from 25 countries from three consecutive survey cycles (2002, 2006 and 2010) that had at least 80...... prevalence did not change during 2002-2010. However, increasing overweight prevalence was noted in many Eastern European countries over this time period. Overweight prevalence remained high in several countries in Europe and North America. These patterns call for continued research in youth overweight...... and highlight the need to understand cross-national differences by examining macro-level indicators. Such research should feed into developing sound translations and practices to prevent and reduce overweight in youth....

  17. Does Gender Moderate Core Deficits in ASD? An Investigation into Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Girls and Boys with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrop, Clare; Gulsrud, Amanda; Kasari, Connie

    2015-01-01

    Due to the uneven gender ratio of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), girls are rarely studied independently from boys. Research focusing on restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) indicates that above the age of six girls have fewer and/or different RRBs than boys with ASD. In this study we investigated whether girls and boys with ASD…

  18. Sequence Learning with Stochastic Feedback in a Cross-Cultural Sample of Boys in the Autistic Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschel, Maren; Lange-Kuttner, Christiane; Averbeck, Bruno B.

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated sequence learning from stochastic feedback in boys with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and typically developed (TD) boys. We asked boys with ASD from Nigeria and the UK as well as age- and gender-matched controls (also males only) to deduce a sequence of four left and right button presses, LLRR, RRLL, LRLR, RLRL, LRRL and…

  19. Testicular biopsy in prepubertal boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faure, Alice; Bouty, Aurore; O'Brien, Mike

    2016-01-01

    for the preservation of fertility after gonadotoxic chemotherapy - even for prepubertal boys - are emerging. Cryopreservation of testicular tissue samples for the preservation of fertility - although still an experimental method at present - is appealing in this context. In our opinion, testicular biopsy...

  20. Velocidade de corrida associada ao consumo máximo de oxigênio em meninos de 10 a 15 anos Running speed associated with maximal oxygen uptake in boys aged 10 to 15 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Andrade Machado

    2002-02-01

    chronological age and biological maturation on the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max and the speed corresponding to the VO2max in Brazilian boys aged 10-15 years under no regular training program. Forty volunteers participated in this study. They were divided into groups by chronological age (GC1 - n = 20; 11.45 ± 0.63 years; 38.8 ± 8.6 kg; 143.6 ± 8.2 cm; and GC2 - n = 20; 14.1 ±0.6 years; 55.9 ± 14.2 kg; 163.3 ± 10.2 cm and by biological maturation (GB1 - n = 20; stages 1, 2, 3, and GB2 - n = 20; stages 4, 5. The VO2max was determined with a progressive and intermittent test in a treadmill, starting from a speed of 9 km/h and increasing 1 km/h each 3 minutes until volunteer exhaustion. The speed at VO2max (vVO2max was the lowest speed that elicited VO2max (peak value. The Va max was calculated in accordance with di Prampero (1986. There was a significant difference of VO2max (l/min, Va max (km/h and vVO2max (km/h between GC1 and GC2 (1.84 ± 0.41 / 2.81 ± 0.61; 11.8 ± 1.2 / 12.6 ± 1.2; 12.1 ± 1.2 / 12.9 ± 1.1, respectively; GB1 and GB2 (1.8 ± 0.37 / 2.87 ± 0.56; 12.1 ± 1.2 / 12.9 ± 1.1; 12.5 ± 1.1, respectively, but there was no significant difference of VO2max (ml.kg-1.min-1 between groups (GC1 and GC2; GB1 and GB2. The authors can conclude that the VO2max, Va max and vVO2max had their values increased probably by growth and development processes, and can also express a better economy of movement, even in individuals not involved in a regular training program.

  1. Distinct frontal lobe morphology in girls and boys with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirlikov, Benjamin; Shiels Rosch, Keri; Crocetti, Deana; Denckla, Martha B; Mahone, E Mark; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether frontal lobe cortical morphology differs for boys and girls with ADHD (ages 8-12 years) in comparison to typically developing (TD) peers. Participants included 226 children between the ages of 8-12 including 93 children with ADHD (29 girls) and 133 TD children (42 girls) for which 3T MPRAGE MRI scans were obtained. A fully automated frontal lobe atlas was used to generate functionally distinct frontal subdivisions, with surface area (SA) and cortical thickness (CT) assessed in each region. Analyses focused on overall diagnostic differences as well as examinations of the effect of diagnosis within boys and girls. Girls, but not boys, with ADHD showed overall reductions in total prefrontal cortex (PFC) SA. Localization revealed that girls showed widely distributed reductions in the bilateral dorsolateral PFC, left inferior lateral PFC, right medial PFC, right orbitofrontal cortex, and left anterior cingulate; and boys showed reduced SA only in the right anterior cingulate and left medial PFC. In contrast, boys, but not girls, with ADHD showed overall reductions in total premotor cortex (PMC) SA. Further localization revealed that in boys, premotor reductions were observed in bilateral lateral PMC regions; and in girls reductions were observed in bilateral supplementary motor complex. In line with diagnostic group differences, PMC and PFC SAs were inversely correlated with symptom severity in both girls and boys with ADHD. These results elucidate sex-based differences in cortical morphology of functional subdivisions of the frontal lobe and provide additional evidence of associations among SA and symptom severity in children with ADHD.

  2. Conduct disorder in girls and boys: The identification of distinct psychosocial profiles

    OpenAIRE

    O'Keefe, John J.; Carr, Alan; McQuaid, Paul

    1998-01-01

    In this study of 20 male and 20 female conduct disordered adolescents matched for age and sociodemographic variables, distinct psychosocial profiles were identified. Girls had fewer conduct problems overall because, compared with boys, they had fewer overt behaviour problems. Boys showed higher levels of cruelty, bullying, destructiveness, weapon carrying and initiating fights. Girls had similar levels of covert symptoms to boys but had a significantly higher ratio of covert to overt behaviou...

  3. Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources About Policymakers Media ASA Member Toolkit Risks Age Explore this page: Age Do anesthesia risks increase ... can you reduce anesthesia risks in older patients? Age Age may bring wisdom but it also brings ...

  4. Relationships Play Primary Role in Boys' Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert. Michael; Hawley. Richard

    2013-01-01

    There is a pantheon of literature and popular panic pointing toward the academic ascent of girls and the decline of boys. On the contrary, the reality is different: Boys are learning and succeeding in many places. Two studies find that the places where boys excel have several common characteristics, including teachers who relate to the boys…

  5. Achievement in Boys' Schools 2010-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Cathy; Berg, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    This report explores the achievement of school leavers from state and state-integrated boys' schools. The analysis from 2010 to 2012 shows school leavers from state boys' schools had higher qualifications than their male counterparts who attended state co-educational schools. The research was carried out for the Association of Boys' Schools of New…

  6. Takayasu's disease in a young black boy | Oguntona | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Takayasu's disease in a young black boy. ... Abstract. Takayusu's disease is a rare disease affecting women predominantly during the child- bearing age. It is a primary vasculitis condition ... The diagnosis of Takayasu's disease was confirmed by the rheumatology unit and appropriate literature search was done. Takayusu's ...

  7. Longterm Creative Therapy with a Borderline Psychotic Boy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhardt, Lenore

    1995-01-01

    This case study describes three years of art therapy with a boy (age seven at the start) with borderline psychotic disorder. Changing themes over course of therapy are discussed and examples of child's work are included. Therapy was terminated after child had worked out fears and assumed an identity in which he could relate to peers in a normal…

  8. Go/NoGo performance in boys with Tourette syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichele, Heike; Eichele, Tom; Hammar, Asa

    2010-01-01

    This study compared performance and performance monitoring in 19 boys with Tourette syndrome (TS) (12.64 years, +/- 2.05) and 19 age-matched controls (13.16 years, +/- 2.29) using a Go/NoGo task. The results indicated similar performance accuracy in the TS group and the control group. TS particip...

  9. Fathering and Mothering of Preschool Boys with Hyperactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keown, Louise

    2011-01-01

    This study examined links between paternal and maternal parenting factors and preschool hyperactivity in a community sample. Forty-one hyperactive and 38 comparison boys (aged 47-62 months) and their fathers and mothers were assessed on a range of interview, parent questionnaire, and observational measures of parenting and child behavior. Results…

  10. Cryopreservation of intact testicular tissue from boys with cryptorchidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, K; Thorup, Jørgen Mogens; Byskov, A G

    2006-01-01

    Boys with cryptorchidism often face fertility problems in adult life despite having orchiopexy performed at a very young age. During this operation, a biopsy of the testis is normally taken in order to evaluate their infertility potential and the presence of malignant cells. This study evaluated ...... the morphology and functional capacity of cryopreserved testes biopsies and their possible use in fertility preservation....

  11. Patterns of Language Preference Among Bilingual (Filipino-English) Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma, Heloise Marie L.; Morris, Robin D.

    2005-01-01

    The pattern of language preference in a simultaneous bilingual (Filipino-English) population was examined, including changes in the pattern of preference over time. Participants were 81 Filipino boys (Mean age=6 years, 2 months) recruited from two schools in the Philippines. A language preference checklist was completed by the parents of the…

  12. Effect of Table Tennis Trainings on Biomotor Capacities in Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, Murat

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate whether the biomotor capacities of boys doing table tennis trainings are affected. A total of 40 students, as randomly selected 20 test groups and 20 control groups at an age range of 10-12 participated in the research. Statistical analysis of data was performed using Statistic Package for Social Science…

  13. A qualitative study of preadolescent boys' and girls' body image: gendered ideals and sociocultural influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatangelo, Gemma L; Ricciardelli, Lina A

    2013-09-01

    This qualitative study examined preadolescent boys' and girls' body ideals, and peer and media factors that shape these ideals. Sixty-eight children aged 8-10 participated in semi-structured interviews: 19 boys and 17 girls in individual interviews and 16 boys and 16 girls in eight group interviews. Techniques from grounded theory were used to analyze the data. Findings demonstrated that fitness was an important element of boys' and girls' body ideals. For boys the emphasis was on sport, and this was promoted by their peer interactions and the sportsmen they admired. For girls the focus was on looking good, and this was reinforced by their peer conversations, and the actresses and singers they admired. Focus groups further highlighted how peers both reinforced media messages, yet also helped children critique media messages. Implications are discussed for prevention programs that need to be specifically tailored for boys and girls. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Serum AMH levels are lower in healthy boys who develop pubertal gynaecomastia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mieritz, Mikkel G.; Hagen, Casper P.; Almstrup, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    in boys with or without gynaecomastia. Method: 99 healthy Danish boys (aged 5.8-16.4 years) were followed in a prospective cohort over 8 years with semi-annual examinations (total examinations, n=951), including breast palpations and blood samples. Serum AMH concentrations were analysed by immunoassay...

  15. Sociocultural and Individual Influences on Muscle Gain and Weight Loss Strategies among Adolescent Boys and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardelli, Lina A.; McCabe, Marita P.

    2003-01-01

    The study examined the role of body dissatisfaction, body image importance, sociocultural influences (media and parent and peer encouragement), self-esteem and negative affect on body change strategies to decrease weight and increase muscles in adolescent boys and girls. Surveys were administered to 587 boys and 598 girls aged between 11 and 15…

  16. Body Dissatisfaction and Characteristics of Disordered Eating among Black and White Early Adolescent Girls and Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jaehee; Forbes, Gordon B.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple measures of body dissatisfaction and behaviors associated with disordered eating were studied in 258 White girls, 223 White boys, 106 Black girls, and 82 Black boys. All participants were unpaid volunteers between the ages of 12 and 15 attending six middle schools in Delaware and Maryland. On two self-ideal figure drawing discrepancy…

  17. Long-term cultures of testicular biopsies from boys with cryptorchidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Hans-Peter Ejler; Thorup, Jørgen; Skovgaard, Lene Theil

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A long-term culture system of testicular biopsies from boys with undescended testes was established to evaluate the effect of gonadotrophins on germ cell survival and growth. METHODS: Biopsies from 25 boys with cryptorchidism, aged 1.1-9.9 years, were obtained at the time of surgery...

  18. The Construction of a Motor Fitness Test Battery for Boys in the Lower Elementary Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiNucci, James M.; Shore, John Roger

    In order to construct a scientifically designed evaluative instrument to assess the motor fitness of boys in the primary grades, 30 test items purported to measure muscular strength, muscular endurance, cardiovascular endurance, power, speed, agility, flexibility, and balance were administered to an incidental sample of 238 boys ages 6 to 9 years.…

  19. Adaptive Skills, Behavior Problems, and Parenting Stress in Mothers of Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarimski, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    The relationship of temperament, atypical behaviors, and adaptive behavior of young boys with Fragile X syndrome on mothers' parenting stress was analyzed. Twenty-six boys with Fragile X syndrome (30-88 months of age) participated. The overall development of the participants was significantly delayed with a specific profile of adaptive behaviors…

  20. The Role of Ego Development in Psychosocial Adjustment among Boys with Delayed Puberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindfors, Kaj; Elovainio, Marko; Wickman, Sanna; Vuorinen, Risto; Sinkkonen, Jari; Dunkel, Leo; Raappana, Aleksi

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the role of ego development, as measured with the Washington University sentence completion test, in the relationship between pubertal maturation and psychosocial adjustment (self-image and depression) in adolescent boys. The data consisted of 73 boys between 14 and 16 years of age. The results indicated that late maturing boys…

  1. Examination of effects of corticosteroids on skeletal muscles of boys with DMD using MRI and MRS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpan, Ishu; Willcocks, Rebecca J; Forbes, Sean C; Finkel, Richard S; Lott, Donovan J; Rooney, William D; Triplett, William T; Senesac, Claudia R; Daniels, Michael J; Byrne, Barry J; Finanger, Erika L; Russman, Barry S; Wang, Dah-Jyuu; Tennekoon, Gihan I; Walter, Glenn A; Sweeney, H L; Vandenborne, Krista

    2014-09-09

    To evaluate the effects of corticosteroids on the lower extremity muscles in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) using MRI and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Transverse relaxation time (T2) and fat fraction were measured by MRI/MRS in lower extremity muscles of 15 boys with DMD (age 5.0-6.9 years) taking corticosteroids and 15 corticosteroid-naive boys. Subsequently, fat fraction was measured in a subset of these boys at 1 year. Finally, MRI/MRS data were collected from 16 corticosteroid-naive boys with DMD (age 5-8.9 years) at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. Five boys were treated with corticosteroids after baseline and the remaining 11 served as corticosteroid-naive controls. Cross-sectional comparisons demonstrated lower muscle T2 and less intramuscular (IM) fat deposition in boys with DMD on corticosteroids, suggesting reduced inflammation/damage and fat infiltration with treatment. Boys on corticosteroids demonstrated less increase in IM fat infiltration at 1 year. Finally, T2 by MRI/MRS detected effects of corticosteroids on leg muscles as early as 3 months after drug initiation. These results demonstrate the ability of MRI/MRS to detect therapeutic effects of corticosteroids in reducing inflammatory processes in skeletal muscles of boys with DMD. Our work highlights the potential of MRI/MRS as a biomarker in evaluating therapeutic interventions in DMD. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.

  2. Interpersonal influences on late adolescent girls' and boys' disordered eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shomaker, Lauren B; Furman, Wyndol

    2009-04-01

    Perceived socio-cultural pressure to be thin has an important impact on disordered eating during early and middle adolescence, but less is known about late adolescence. Most prospective studies included only girls, and less is known about the influence on boys. This study investigated interpersonal influences on changes in late adolescent boys' and girls' symptoms of disordered eating over one year. Participants were a community sample of late adolescents 16-19 years of age (N=199; 49.75% girls), their mothers, and friends. Structural equation modeling revealed that interpersonal pressure to be thin and criticism about appearance predicted increases in disordered eating over time. Late adolescents', mothers' and friends' reports of pressure were associated with disordered eating at Time 1 and Time 2. Further, adolescents' perceptions and friends' reports of pressure to be thin predicted changes in disordered eating over time. Findings underscore the significance of interpersonal relationships for disordered eating during late adolescence in both girls and boys.

  3. Grammar in Boys With Idiopathic Autism Spectrum Disorder and Boys With Fragile X Syndrome Plus Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Audra

    2018-03-14

    Some boys with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and boys with fragile X syndrome and a codiagnosis of ASD (FXS+ASD) have impairments in expressive grammatical abilities. The current study compared grammatical performance in these 2 groups of school-age boys. Thirty-seven boys similar on mean length of utterance participated in the current study (FXS: n = 19, ASD: n = 18). Participants completed an ASD assessment, nonverbal IQ testing, and conversation language samples. Convergent validity of a sentence imitation task with a norm-referenced assessment of grammar was examined in addition to divergent validity of the measures with nonverbal IQ and vocabulary comprehension and production. The boys with ASD outperformed the boys with FXS+ASD on the norm-referenced assessment of "be," and effect sizes indicate that the boys with ASD had better performance on past tense probes on the sentence imitation task and "do" on the norm-referenced assessment. The two measures of grammar had good convergent validity except for copula and auxiliary "be" and "do." Grammatical performance was not correlated with nonverbal IQ, and trends indicate a relationship between vocabulary and grammar. Despite being similar on mean length of utterance, there were group differences on grammatical performance. The sentence imitation task had good convergent validity with a norm-referenced assessment of grammar for the third-person singular and past tense probes and therefore could be an inexpensive and valid tool to use clinically for these populations. Future research should continue to refine this task, particularly for the probes with high rates of unscorable responses (i.e., "be" and "do").

  4. The pool chlorine hypothesis and asthma among boys.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cotter, A

    2012-01-31

    Swimming pool sanitation has largely been concerned with the microbiological quality of pool water, which is normally treated using a number of chlorine products. Recent studies have pointed to the potential hazards of chlorine by-products to the respiratory epithelium, particularly in indoor, poorly ventilated, pools. The aim of our study was to elucidate whether chronic exposure to indoor chlorinated swimming pools was associated with an increased likelihood of the development of asthma in boys. METHODS: The subjects were boys aged between 6 and 12 years. Data was collected by means of parental responses to a standardized asthma questionnaire (ISAAC: International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood), supplemented with additional questions regarding frequency of attendance, number of years attendance, whether the child is a swimming team member. The questionnaire return rate was 71\\/% (n = 121). 23 boys were excluded on the basis that they had asthma before they started swimming (n = 97). There was a significant association between number of years a boy had been swimming and the likelihood of wheezing in the last 12 months (p = 0.009; OR = 1.351; 95% CI = 1.077-1.693) and diagnosed asthma (p = 0.046; OR = 1.299; 95% CI = 1.004-1.506). The greater the number the number of years a boy had been attending an indoor, chlorinated pool, the greater the likelihood of wheezing in the last 12 months or "had asthma". Age, parental smoking habits and being a swimming team member had no association with any of the asthma variables examined. Swimming pool attendance may be a risk factor in asthma in boys.

  5. Effectiveness of reducing the risk of eating-related problems using the German school-based intervention program, "Torera", for preadolescent boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, U; Schaefer, J-M; Wick, K; Brix, C; Bormann, B; Sowa, M; Schwartze, D; Strauss, B

    2014-08-01

    Representative surveys indicate that eating disorders are an increasing problem, especially among (pre)adolescents. We assessed the effects of a German school-based primary prevention program ("Torera") for seventh graders. Torera especially relates to pathological eating behavior in the realm of bulimia nervosa or binge eating disorder. The program is built upon two previously evaluated modules for sixth graders with a gender-specific adaption. The coeducational intervention involves nine manual-guided lessons touching a wide range of eating-related problems. Twenty-two Thuringian secondary schools (n = 256 boys and 277 girls, aged 11-13 years at baseline) participated in a trial with 2 control groups (untreated and pretreated) with pre-post assessment. Primary outcomes were conspicuous eating behavior and body self-esteem, measured by standardized questionnaires (SCOFF, EAT-26D, and FBeK). Girls and students at risk showed significant improvement with small (d = 0.35) to medium (d = 0.66) effect sizes on eating behavior, significantly mediated by body self-esteem. Boys only improved with respect to eating attitudes, revealing a small effect size (d = 0.35). With relatively low implementation costs (about 2.50 per student), Torera provides an efficient model for reducing risky eating behavior and strengthening body self-esteem without negative side effects. To improve the effectiveness of the intervention, further research efforts focusing on at-risk groups (secondary prevention) and structural actions for prevention (e.g., offering healthy school catering) are needed.

  6. Body Dissatisfaction Prospectively Predicts Depressive Mood and Low Self-Esteem in Adolescent Girls and Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Susan J.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Hannan, Peter J.; Eisenberg, Marla E.

    2006-01-01

    This research examined whether body dissatisfaction prospectively predicted depressive mood and low self-esteem in adolescent girls and boys 5 years later. Participants were early-adolescent girls (n = 440, Time 1 M age = 12.7 years) and boys (n = 366, Time 1 M age = 12.8 years) and midadolescent girls (n = 946, Time 1 M age = 15.8 years) and boys…

  7. Language comprehension in boys with fragile X syndrome and boys with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, J; Roberts, J; Vandergrift, N; Martin, G

    2007-04-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common known inherited cause of intellectual disability, yet very few studies have explored the language comprehension skills of children with FXS. We examined the receptive vocabulary, grammatical morphology and syntax skills of boys with FXS (who were additionally classified as having autism, autism spectrum, or no autism) and compared them to boys with Down syndrome (DS) and typically developing (TD) boys at similar non-verbal developmental levels. The Vocabulary, Grammatical Morphology, and Elaborated Phrases and Sentences subtests of the Test for Auditory Comprehension of Language - 3rd Edition (TACL-3) were administered annually up to three times to assess the language comprehension skills of 35 boys with FXS without autism, 24 boys with FXS with autism spectrum, 19 boys with FXS with autism, 45 boys with DS and 40 TD boys at similar non-verbal cognitive levels. After controlling for non-verbal cognition and maternal education levels, we found that the three groups of boys with FXS did not differ from each other but scored lower than the TD boys in language comprehension. The boys with DS scored lower in language comprehension than boys with FXS without autism and TD boys. For all of the groups, scores for receptive vocabulary, grammatical morphology and syntax did not differ. Boys with FXS and boys with DS differed in receptive language levels, demonstrating unique language profiles for each syndrome. Language comprehension appears to be an important area to target in assessment and intervention for both populations.

  8. Construction of a DNA library representing 15q11-13 by subtraction of two flow sorted marker chromosome-specific libraries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blennow, E.; Werelius, B.; Nordenskjoeld, M. [Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Constitutional extra {open_quotes}marker chromosomes{close_quotes} are found in {approx}0.5/1000 of newborns. Of these, 50% are inverted duplications of the pericentromeric region of chromosome 15, including two variants; (1) inv dup(15)(pter{yields}q11:q11{yields}pter) and (2) inv dup(15) (pter{yields}q12-13::q12-13{yields}pter). Variant (1) is found in phenotypically normal individuals, whereas variant (2) will produce a typical clinical picture including mental retardation, autism, hyperactivity and discrete dysmorphic features. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using single copy probes from the Prader-Willi region confirms these observations as well as chromosome painting using a flow-sorted marker chromosome-specific library from a variant (1) marker, hybridized to the chromosomes of a patient with a variant (2) marker chromosome. Followingly, a flow-sorted biotinylated variant (1) library was subtracted from a non-labeled variant (2) library using magnetic beads and subsequent amplification by degenerate oligonucleotide-primed PCR (DOP-PCR). The successful result was demonstrated by using the amplified material for chromosome painting on chromosome slides from variant (1) and variant (2) patients. We have constructed a library from 15q11-13. This region contains genes producing a specific abnormal phenotype when found in a tri- or tetrasomic state. The region also contains the genes responsible for the Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes when the paternal/maternal copy is missing, respectively. It is therefore a region where parental imprinting plays an important role. The isolated library may be used to isolate single copy clones which will allow further investigations of this region.

  9. DSM-IV post-traumatic stress disorder among World Trade Center responders 11-13 years after the disaster of 11 September 2001 (9/11).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromet, E J; Hobbs, M J; Clouston, S A P; Gonzalez, A; Kotov, R; Luft, B J

    2016-03-01

    Post-traumatic symptomatology is one of the signature effects of the pernicious exposures endured by responders to the World Trade Center (WTC) disaster of 11 September 2001 (9/11), but the long-term extent of diagnosed Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and its impact on quality of life are unknown. This study examines the extent of DSM-IV PTSD 11-13 years after the disaster in WTC responders, its symptom profiles and trajectories, and associations of active, remitted and partial PTSD with exposures, physical health and psychosocial well-being. Master's-level psychologists administered sections of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and the Range of Impaired Functioning Tool to 3231 responders monitored at the Stony Brook University World Trade Center Health Program. The PTSD Checklist (PCL) and current medical symptoms were obtained at each visit. In all, 9.7% had current, 7.9% remitted, and 5.9% partial WTC-PTSD. Among those with active PTSD, avoidance and hyperarousal symptoms were most commonly, and flashbacks least commonly, reported. Trajectories of symptom severity across monitoring visits showed a modestly increasing slope for active and decelerating slope for remitted PTSD. WTC exposures, especially death and human remains, were strongly associated with PTSD. After adjusting for exposure and critical risk factors, including hazardous drinking and co-morbid depression, PTSD was strongly associated with health and well-being, especially dissatisfaction with life. This is the first study to demonstrate the extent and correlates of long-term DSM-IV PTSD among responders. Although most proved resilient, there remains a sizable subgroup in need of continued treatment in the second decade after 9/11.

  10. Fluid area measurements in the posterior fossa at 11-13 weeks in normal fetuses and fetuses with open spina bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Katrin; Heling, Kai Sven; Chaoui, Rabih

    2015-01-01

    To measure the area of the intracranial translucency (IT) (syn: 4th ventricle) and the future cisterna magna (CM) in normal fetuses and to compare with fetuses with open spina bifida. In the midsagittal plane of the face of 220 fetuses between 11 and 13 weeks' gestation, the areas of the IT and CM were measured and the sum, defined as the posterior fossa fluid (PFF) area was calculated. Reference ranges were constructed in relation to the crown-rump length. The study group consisted of 21 fetuses with open spina bifida and showed in all cases a single pocket of fluid in the posterior fossa. Fetuses with no fluid in the fossa were excluded. This PFF-area was measured and compared with the reference range of the IT-area and the PFF-area of normal fetuses and Z-scores were calculated. In normal fetuses, a significant increase of the IT-, the CM- and the PFF-area was found as a sign of the expanding posterior fossa. The mean PFF-area increased from 8.55 to 29.72 mm(2) in the observation period. Fetuses with open spina bifida had reduced fluid in the posterior fossa with values ranging between 2.39 and 5.08 mm(2) and significantly lower Z-scores. Fetuses with open spina bifida have an abnormally small posterior fossa at 11-13 weeks' and in cases where the cerebrospinal fluid is still present, the fluid area in the midsagittal plane is reduced when compared to normal fetuses. Area fluid assessment can be an additional useful measurement in suspicious cases for open spina bifida in early gestation. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. The Preservation of Records, Knowledge and Memory (RK and M) Across Generations: Scoping the Issue. Workshop Proceedings Issy-les-Moulineaux, France, 11-13 October 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, Jantine; Gordon-Smith, Helen; Pescatore, Claudio; )

    2012-01-01

    The Preservation of Records, Knowledge and Memory Across Generations Workshop was held 11-13 October 2011 in Issy-les-Moulineaux, France, as part of the homonymous project under the aegis of the NEA Radioactive Waste Management Committee. There were 33 participants from 9 countries representing national governments, universities, waste management agencies, safety authorities, plus specialists in both the technical and social sciences. Three international organisations were also represented. The overarching goal of the workshop was to scope the field and gain insights that can guide the further development of the RK and M project. The workshop helped to further contextualize and delineate the field, to learn how different practitioners organise and conduct their work in light of different time scales and what they see as crucial issues throughout their efforts, and to investigate the interaction between RK and M and society. One the first day the key RK and M project documents and the results of questionnaires were presented and discussed. An overview of situations of records and memory loss was presented and views on regulatory implications on long-term record keeping were given. The contribution to be made by social sciences was presented. On the second day planning record preservation and knowledge management was discussed, including presentations on archaeology, markers, and a panel discussion on the film 'Into Eternity'. On the final day experience and thoughts the connection between memory and physical records were presented and discussed. In total 24 talks were delivered, each followed by time dedicated for Q and A, and 4 plenary discussions took place. This document provides a synthesis of all the workshop presentations and accounts of discussions that were held

  12. HPV vaccination acceptability in young boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Tisi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the comprehension and acceptance of HPV vaccination in parents of adolescent boys aged 11 to 15 years. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted by means of questionnaires sent directly to the homes of all families with young males aged between 11 and 15, residents of three municipalities of the Province of Brescia, Italy. The documentation also contained an informative leaflet summarizing the HPV-related disease characteristics, the burden of disease and the available strategies for prevention and treatment, illustrating the rationale of vaccination and describing the project and its phases. The questionnaire included questions on demographic data, acceptance and motivations for HPV vaccination. The collected data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. At the end of the study, parents who received the questionnaires were also offered the possibility of vaccinating their male sons for free. RESULTS: From a total of 1072 questionnaires sent, 161 where returned from the three selected municipalities (average response rate 15%; 97% of adolescent males involved in the study were Italian and 91% Catholic; 97% of parents declared themselves to be willing to vaccinate their sons: the principal motivation given (92% was prevention of the disease, cancerous or not, related to viral infection. Among the respondents not willing to vaccinate their sons, the motivation was lack of information about the vaccine and the disease. At the end of the study, around 71 boys were vaccinated. DISCUSSION: To our knowledge, this is the first survey in Italy exclusively conducted on parents of adolescent males about the acceptability and feasibility of vaccination against HPV: a very high percentage of respondents was favorable to accept the vaccination for their sons, the main motivation being the fact that parents considered protecting their sons from HPV-related diseases highly important. Of the 161 boys

  13. Puberty Onset among Boys in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Al Alwan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The ages of onset of pubertal characteristics are influenced by genetic, geographic, dietary and socioeconomic factors; however, due to lack of country-specific norms, clinicians in Saudi Arabia use Western estimates as standards of reference for local children. Aims The aim of the Riyadh Puberty Study was to provide data on pubertal development to determine the average age of onset of pubertal characteristics among Saudi boys. Methods Cross-sectional study among male school children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, in 2006, 542 schoolboys, aged 6 to 16 years old, from diverse socioeconomic levels were selected into the sample using a cluster sample design. Tanner stages were ascertained during physical examination by pediatric endocrine consultants, and also trained pediatric residents and fellows. Results The mean age (standard deviation at Tanner Stages 2, 3, 4, and 5 for pubic hair development of Saudi boys was 11.4 (1.6, 13.3 (1.3, 14.4 (1.0 and 15.1 (0.8 years old, respectively. For gonadal development, the mean age (standard deviation at stages 2, 3, 4, and 5 were 11.4 (1.5, 13.3 (1.2, 14.3 (1.1 and 15.0 (0.9 years old, respectively. Conclusion The ages of onset of pubertal characteristics, based on gonadal development, among Saudi boys are comparable to those reported in Western populations.

  14. Receptive Vocabulary in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Cross-Sectional Developmental Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDuffie, Andrea S.; Hagerman, Randi J.; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2013-01-01

    In light of evidence that receptive language may be a relative weakness for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), this study characterized receptive vocabulary profiles in boys with ASD using cross-sectional developmental trajectories relative to age, nonverbal cognition, and expressive vocabulary. Participants were 49 boys with ASD (4–11 years) and 80 typically developing boys (2–11 years). Receptive vocabulary, assessed with the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, was a weakness for boys with ASD relative to age and nonverbal cognition. Relative to expressive vocabulary, assessed with the Expressive Vocabulary Test, receptive vocabulary increased at a lower rate for boys with ASD. Vocabulary trajectories in ASD are distinguished from typical development; however, nonverbal cognition largely accounts for the patterns observed. PMID:23588510

  15. Receptive vocabulary in boys with autism spectrum disorder: cross-sectional developmental trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kover, Sara T; McDuffie, Andrea S; Hagerman, Randi J; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2013-11-01

    In light of evidence that receptive language may be a relative weakness for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), this study characterized receptive vocabulary profiles in boys with ASD using cross-sectional developmental trajectories relative to age, nonverbal cognition, and expressive vocabulary. Participants were 49 boys with ASD (4-11 years) and 80 typically developing boys (2-11 years). Receptive vocabulary, assessed with the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, was a weakness for boys with ASD relative to age and nonverbal cognition. Relative to expressive vocabulary, assessed with the Expressive Vocabulary Test, receptive vocabulary increased at a lower rate for boys with ASD. Vocabulary trajectories in ASD are distinguished from typical development; however, nonverbal cognition largely accounts for the patterns observed.

  16. Strength training and physical activity in boys: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinhardt, Udo; Witassek, Fabienne; Petrò, Renato; Fritz, Chris; Eiholzer, Urs

    2013-12-01

    In developed societies levels of daily physical activity (PA) among school-age children are decreasing. This implies risk factors for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Specific strategies to improve levels of PA are needed. In prepubertal boys there is evidence that strength training increases spontaneous PA outside of training. A total of 102 schoolchildren (age 10-14 years) in Switzerland were randomly assigned to physical education classes or to participate twice weekly at a guided strength training program for 19 weeks. Spontaneous PA energy expenditure (PAEE; 3axial accelerometry for 7 days), leg and arm strength, and body composition (dual energy radiograph absorptiometry) were measured at baseline, after 19 weeks of training intervention, and after 3 months of washout. There were no significant differences between the groups at baseline. In the intervention group, PAEE increased by 10% from baseline to end of training in boys (P = .02), but not in girls. Leg and arm strength were increased owing to training intervention in both boys and girls. All other variables were unchanged. Baseline PAEE was significantly negatively correlated with changes of PAEE. Targeted strength training significantly increases daily spontaneous PA behavior in boys. The less active children showed the greatest increase in spontaneous PAEE. Girls showed a similar increase in strength, but not in spontaneous PAEE. This may be explained by their earlier pubertal development. Strength training may be a promising strategy in schools to counteract decreasing levels of PA.

  17. Phonological awareness and reading in boys with fragile X syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlof, Suzanne M; Klusek, Jessica; Shinkareva, Svetlana V; Robinson, Marissa L; Roberts, Jane E

    2015-01-01

    Reading delays are well documented in children with fragile X syndrome (FXS), but few studies have examined linguistic precursors of reading in this population. This study examined the longitudinal development of phonological awareness and its relationship with basic reading in boys with FXS. Individual differences in genetic, social-behavioral and environmental factors were also investigated as predictors of phonological awareness. Participants included 54 boys with FXS and 53 typically developing (TD) mental age-matched peers who completed assessments of phonological awareness, nonverbal intelligence, and reading annually for up to 4 years. FMRP level and autism symptomatology were also measured within the FXS group. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine change in phonological awareness over time and its predictors. Linear regression was used to examine phonological awareness as a predictor of word reading. Boys with FXS exhibited slower growth than TD peers in phonological awareness only when nonverbal cognitive abilities were not controlled. The rate of change in phonological awareness decreased significantly after age 10 in boys with FXS. Phonological awareness accounted for 18% unique variance in basic reading ability after controlling for nonverbal cognition, with similar relationships across groups. Phonological awareness skills in the boys with FXS were commensurate with their nonverbal cognitive abilities, with similar relationships between phonological awareness and reading as observed in the TD mental age-matched peers. More research is needed to examine potential causal relationships between phonological awareness, other language skills, and reading abilities in individuals with FXS and other neurodevelopmental disorders. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  18. The Education of Playful Boys: Class Clowns in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Lynn A.

    2018-01-01

    This longitudinal study identified degrees of playfulness in 278 kindergarten-aged children, and followed them through their next three school years to determine how playfulness was viewed by the children themselves, their classmates, and teachers. Perceptions of the social competence, disruptiveness, and labeling as the class clown, were assessed from all perspectives in each of first through third grades. Hierarchical linear modeling was conducted to account for the nesting of the data (children within classrooms within schools) and for the lack of independence between the measures. A central finding confirmed extant literature in that gender differences were dominant, with playful boys regarded as distinct from their less playful counterparts, while no such discrepancies appeared for girls. Playful boys were increasingly negatively regarded as rebellious and intrusive and were labeled as the “class clown” by their teachers. These findings were in direct contrast with children's self-perceptions and those of their peers, who initially regarded more playful boys as appealing and engaging playmates. The data further revealed that the playful boys were stigmatized by their teachers, and this was communicated through verbal and non-verbal reprimands, and classmates assimilated this message and became increasingly denigrating of the playful quality in the boys. In stark contrast, girls' playfulness levels were not a consideration in ratings by teachers or peers at any grade, nor did their classroom behaviors show significant variation. These negative perceptions were likely transferred by teachers to peers and to the children themselves, whereupon they changed their positive perceptions to be increasingly negative by third grade. The results contribute to the literature by demonstrating that playfulness in boys (but not girls) is often associated with the “class clown” designation, and is viewed as an increasingly lethal characteristic in school classrooms

  19. Biparietal/transverse abdominal diameter ratio ≤ 1: potential marker for open spina bifida at 11-13-week scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, E G; Arthuis, C J; Haddad, G; Bertrand, P; Perrotin, F

    2015-03-01

    In the first trimester of pregnancy, a biparietal diameter (BPD) below the 5(th) percentile is a simple marker that enables the prenatal detection of half of all cases of open spina bifida. We hypothesized that relating the BPD measurement to the transverse abdominal diameter (TAD) might be another simple and effective screening method. In this study we assessed the performance of using the BPD/TAD ratio during the first trimester of pregnancy in screening for open spina bifida. A total of 20,551 first-trimester ultrasound scans (11-13 weeks' gestation), performed between 2000 and 2013, were analyzed retrospectively; there were 26 cases of open spina bifida and 17,665 unaffected pregnancies with a crown-rump length of 45-84 mm and a record of both BPD and TAD measurements. The mean (± SD) BPD/TAD ratio was 1.00 ± 0.06 for fetuses with spina bifida and 1.13 ± 0.06 for those without (P spina bifida cases, while a BPD/TAD ratio of ≤ 1.00 detected 69.2%. If we considered cases in which either BPD was ≤ 5(th) percentile or BPD/TAD ratio was ≤ 1, we identified 76.9% of cases. In the latter case, the false-positive rate was 5.1%, while that for using a combination of both BPD ≤ 5th percentile and BPD/TAD ratio ≤ 1 was 0.6%, with a sensitivity of 38.5%. The positive predictive value of using a combination of BPD ≤ 5th percentile and BPD/TAD ratio ≤ 1 for detecting spina bifida was 8.5%. Between 11 and 13 weeks' gestation, relating BPD to TAD improves considerably the diagnostic performance of using BPD measurement alone in screening for open spina bifida. Screening using this marker is simple and applicable to a large population. Copyright © 2014 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Body dissatisfaction prospectively predicts depressive mood and low self-esteem in adolescent girls and boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Susan J; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Hannan, Peter J; Eisenberg, Marla E

    2006-12-01

    This research examined whether body dissatisfaction prospectively predicted depressive mood and low self-esteem in adolescent girls and boys 5 years later. Participants were early-adolescent girls (n = 440, Time 1 M age = 12.7 years) and boys (n = 366, Time 1 M age = 12.8 years) and midadolescent girls (n = 946, Time 1 M age = 15.8 years) and boys (n = 764, Time 1 M age = 15.9 years). After controlling for Time 1 of the relevant dependent variable, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and body mass index, Time 1 body dissatisfaction was a unique predictor of Time 2 depressive mood and low self-esteem in early-adolescent girls (depressive mood: F = 4.80, p self-esteem: F = 9.64, p p self-esteem: F = 9.38, p low self-esteem in both girls and boys but in different phases of adolescence.

  1. The AMH genotype (rs10407022 T>G) is associated with circulating AMH levels in boys, but not in girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greiber, Iben Katinka; Hagen, Casper P; Busch, Alexander Siegfried

    2018-01-01

    and girls. DESIGN AND METHODS: This study is a combined longitudinal and cross-sectional study in healthy Danish boys and girls from the general population. We included 658 boys aged 5.8-19.8 years and 320 girls aged 5.6-16.5 years. The main outcome measures were genotyping ofAMHandAMHR2, pubertal staging...

  2. Is the assessment of bone age by the Greulich-Pyle method reliable at forensic age estimation for Turkish children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büken, Bora; Safak, Alp Alper; Yazici, Burhan; Büken, Erhan; Mayda, Atilla Senih

    2007-12-20

    Estimation of age is an important task for forensic experts especially in developing countries where birth records are often not well maintained. In this study, we investigated whether or not the Greulich-Pyle (G-P) method is sufficient at forensic age estimation for Turkish children. Plain radiographies of left hands and wrists of 492 (241 (49.0%) female, 251 (51.0%) male) healthy children between 11 and 18 years of age for girls and 11 and 19 years of age for boys were taken. Mean chronological ages (CA) were compared with mean skeletal ages according to G-P atlas for each gender and in the second step the differences those for each age group were determined. The children were Caucasian and had a low-middle socioeconomic status in this study population. The paired sample t test was used to indicate the difference between G-P (mean skeletal age according to G-P atlas) and CA (mean chronological age). In order to indicate the relation Pearson correlation coefficient was used. Modeling the relationship between G-P and CA linear regression was used. The analyses were done under SPSS 11.5. The G-P compared to their CA. The CA was 14.52+/-2.18 S.D. years, S.E.: 0.14 (median: 14.47, range: 11.07-18.92 years) whereas G-P was 15.06+/-2.31 S.D. years, S.E.: 0.15 (median: 15.00, range: 10-18 years) for girls. The difference between the two parameters was statistically significant (pE.: 0.15 (median: 15.09, S.E. range 11.13-19.94 years) and G-P was 15.41+/-2.92 S.D. years, S.E.: 0.18 (median: 15.60, range 9-19 years) for boys. The difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05). There was a high correlation (Pearson r=0.882, pgenders. According to age groups G-P was advanced (0.17-1.1 year) almost for all ages and differences were significant at 11, 12, 14, 16 ages for girls. G-P was delayed at 11-14 ages (0.01-0.58 year) but not significant except for 13 years and G-P were significantly advanced in 15-17 ages (0.88-0.98 years) but then delayed in 18-19 years of age (0

  3. A Study of Effectiveness of Group Forgiveness Therapy in Reducing Aggression among 11-13 Year Old Male Adolescents in City of Dezful

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Sanai Zaker

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study aimed to evaluate effectiveness of group forgiveness therapy in reducing aggression among 11 – 13 year old boys. Methods: This semi experimental study (pretest-posttest design with control group was conducted on 30 students who scored high on Aggression Questionnaire. The sample was selected through cluster sampling assignment and participants were randomly assigned into two experimental and control groups. The experimental group received forgiveness counseling via twelve group sessions of 1 hour duration each. During this period no intervention was given to the control group. Data was analyzed using Kolmogrov-Smironov, Levene F test, and t-test for independent and dependent groups. Results: Statistical analysis, using independent t test for between-group comparison, showed that compared to the control group, aggression both physical and verbal, anger, and hostility in the experimental group significantly decreased. Also result of dependent t test for within-group comparison showed that aggression and its dimensions were significantly decreased after implementing independent variable. Conclusion: The study findings revealed that group forgiveness therapy can significantly reduce aggression.

  4. Modified Maturity Offset Prediction Equations: Validation in Independent Longitudinal Samples of Boys and Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozieł, Sławomir M; Malina, Robert M

    2018-01-01

    Predicted maturity offset and age at peak height velocity are increasingly used with youth athletes, although validation studies of the equations indicated major limitations. The equations have since been modified and simplified. The objective of this study was to validate the new maturity offset prediction equations in independent longitudinal samples of boys and girls. Two new equations for boys with chronological age and sitting height and chronological age and stature as predictors, and one equation for girls with chronological age and stature as predictors were evaluated in serial data from the Wrocław Growth Study, 193 boys (aged 8-18 years) and 198 girls (aged 8-16 years). Observed age at peak height velocity for each youth was estimated with the Preece-Baines Model 1. The original prediction equations were included for comparison. Predicted age at peak height velocity was the difference between chronological age at prediction and maturity offset. Predicted ages at peak height velocity with the new equations approximated observed ages at peak height velocity in average maturing boys near the time of peak height velocity; a corresponding window for average maturing girls was not apparent. Compared with observed age at peak height velocity, predicted ages at peak height velocity with the new and original equations were consistently later in early maturing youth and earlier in late maturing youth of both sexes. Predicted ages at peak height velocity with the new equations had reduced variation compared with the original equations and especially observed ages at peak height velocity. Intra-individual variation in predicted ages at peak height velocity with all equations was considerable. The new equations are useful for average maturing boys close to the time of peak height velocity; there does not appear to be a clear window for average maturing girls. The new and original equations have major limitations with early and late maturing boys and girls.

  5. Boys' Music? School Context and Middle-School Boys' Musical Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennetts, Kathleen Scott

    2013-01-01

    This article focusses primarily on the findings relating to the musical participation of boys in one Melbourne school. As part of a project that investigated boys' attitudes and participation at fifty-one schools, several contextual features were identified that set "Balton Boys" High School' apart from other participating schools,…

  6. To Be a Boy, To Be a Reader: Engaging Teen and Preteen Boys in Active Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozo, William G.

    When it comes to reading, teen and preteen boys are the most difficult students. This book addresses the growing concern among middle and high school teachers about boys' lack of literacy growth and independent reading. The book makes the case that boys are in the greatest need of help with literacy instruction and stresses the importance of…

  7. Go/NoGo performance in boys with Tourette syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichele, Heike; Eichele, Tom; Hammar, Asa

    2010-01-01

    This study compared performance and performance monitoring in 19 boys with Tourette syndrome (TS) (12.64 years, +/- 2.05) and 19 age-matched controls (13.16 years, +/- 2.29) using a Go/NoGo task. The results indicated similar performance accuracy in the TS group and the control group. TS particip......This study compared performance and performance monitoring in 19 boys with Tourette syndrome (TS) (12.64 years, +/- 2.05) and 19 age-matched controls (13.16 years, +/- 2.29) using a Go/NoGo task. The results indicated similar performance accuracy in the TS group and the control group. TS...

  8. A longitudinal study of growth, sex steroids and IGF-1 in boys with physiological gynaecomastia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mieritz, Mikkel G.; Raket, Lars Lau; Hagen, Casper P.

    2015-01-01

    , pubertal development and the presence of gynaecomastia were evaluated at each visit. Results: 52 of 106 boys (49 developed gynaecomastia of which 10 (19 presented with intermittent gynaecomastia. Boys with physiological gynaecomastia reached peak height velocity at a significantly younger age than boys who......Context: Physiological gynaecomastia is common and affects a large proportion of otherwise healthy adolescent boys. It is thought to be caused by an imbalance between estrogen and testosterone, though this is rarely evident in analyses of serum. Objective: This study aimed to describe the frequency...... of physiological gynaecomastia, and to determine possible etiological factors (e.g. auxology and serum hormone levels) in a longitudinal set-up. Design, Settings and Participants: A prospective cohort study of 106 healthy Danish boys (5.8–16.4 years) participated in the longitudinal part of “the COPENHAGEN Puberty...

  9. Muscle ultrasound quantifies disease progression over time in infants and young boys with duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidman, Craig M; Malkus, Elizabeth C; Connolly, Anne M

    2015-09-01

    Quantitative muscle ultrasound (QUS) in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) shows increased echointensity as muscle is replaced with fat and fibrosis. Studies of quantitative ultrasound in infants/young boys with DMD over time have not been reported. We used calibrated muscle backscatter (cMB), a reproducible measure of ultrasound echointensity, to quantify muscle pathology in 5 young boys with DMD (ages 0.5-2.8 years) over 17-29 months. We compared the results with repeated assessments of function (n = 4) and with muscle ultrasound images from a cross-section of 6 male controls (0.6-3.1 years). cMB in boys with DMD increased (worsened) over time (P assessment of young boys with DMD. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The effect of music video clips on adolescent boys' body image, mood, and schema activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulgrew, Kate E; Volcevski-Kostas, Diana; Rendell, Peter G

    2014-01-01

    There is limited research that has examined experimentally the effects of muscular images on adolescent boys' body image, with no research specifically examining the effects of music television. The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of viewing muscular and attractive singers in music video clips on early, mid, and late adolescent boys' body image, mood, and schema activation. Participants were 180 boys in grade 7 (mean age = 12.73 years), grade 9 (mean age = 14.40 years) or grade 11 (mean age = 16.15 years) who completed pre- and post-test measures of mood and body satisfaction after viewing music videos containing male singers of muscular or average appearance. They also completed measures of schema activation and social comparison after viewing the clips. The results showed that the boys who viewed the muscular clips reported poorer upper body satisfaction, lower appearance satisfaction, lower happiness, and more depressive feelings compared to boys who viewed the clips depicting singers of average appearance. There was no evidence of increased appearance schema activation but the boys who viewed the muscular clips did report higher levels of social comparison to the singers. The results suggest that music video clips are a powerful form of media in conveying information about the male ideal body shape and that negative effects are found in boys as young as 12 years.

  11. Adolescent Boys' Friendships and Peer Group Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Judy Y.

    2005-01-01

    Adolescent boys perceive their male peer group culture--and their socialization toward masculine norms emphasized within this culture--as negatively influencing their abilities to develop close male friendships. Boys who manage to develop close, male friendships, however, draw strength from these relationships to resist the social pressures of…

  12. Boys and Girls: Join the Club

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Allesandro, Lou; Wool, Michael; McKenzie, Mary Alice

    2012-01-01

    Boys & Girls Clubs of America count 4,000 community-based clubs serving more than 4 million young people through membership and community outreach. They provide a safe place to spend time during non-school hours and the summer as an alternative to the streets or being home alone--a place to play, have fun and learn. Boys & Girls Clubs…

  13. Wagogo boys playing 'giraffe', c.1919

    OpenAIRE

    Westgate, Thomas Buchanan Reginald, fl 1899-1936, missionary

    2004-01-01

    110 x 155 mm. Showing a group of boys playing 'giraffe'. This consists of a pair of boys holding a third aloft, this last with his hands above his head in imitation of the neck of a giraffe (see 'Mission world', 1919, March, p.117).

  14. Adolescent Boys, Embodied Heteromasculinities and Sexual Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messerschmidt, James W.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper the author summarizes several life history case studies of adolescent boys who were identified at school as "wimps" and who eventually engaged in various forms of sexual violence. Such boys rarely are--if at all--discussed in the childhood, education and feminist literatures on sexual violence. The life stories reveal the…

  15. More Boys Wanted in Upstate New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Matt

    2010-01-01

    In spite of the popularity of TV shows like "American Idol" and "Glee," it can still be hard to convince boys that singing is cool. Therefore, choir directors who would like more boys to join their groups have their work cut out for them. Erin Belanger, music teacher at Stockbridge Valley central School in Munnsville, New York…

  16. Boy Talk: Critical Literacy and Masculinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Josephine Peyton

    2000-01-01

    Examines changes in four young adolescent boys' awareness of how masculinity constructs and is constructed by texts. Questions how critical literacy activities within homeschooling setting sustain or transform the boys' awareness of gendered identities and inequities in texts. Highlights impact of power relations within and among local and…

  17. Occupational Therapy for a Boy Patient with Herpes Simplex Encephalitis

    OpenAIRE

    豊森, 千史; 佐藤, 陽子

    1993-01-01

    A boy aged three years and two months had been affected with Herpes simplex encephalitis before five months and was referred to our occupational therapeutic division. He showed stranger reaction and separation anxiety. Additonally, he had some developmental disorders in the areas of self-care skills, cognition and communication proficiency. Besides these, he felt little interest in people or things, and had a short attention span. After treatment of occupational therapy for two years and ten ...

  18. Aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Hideo; Kodama, Kazunori; Yamada, Michiko

    1991-01-01

    The hypothesis that exposure to ionizing radiation accelerates the aging process has been actively investigated at ABCC-RERF since 1958, when longitudinal cohort studies of the Adult Health Study (AHS) and the Life Span Study (LSS) were initiated. In their 1975 overall review of aging studies related to the atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors, Finch and Beebe concluded that while most studies had shown no correlation between aging and radiation exposure, they had not involved the large numbers of subjects required to provide strong evidence for or against the hypothesis. Extending LSS mortality data up to 1978 did not alter the earlier conclusion that any observed life-shortening was associated primarily with cancer induction rather than with any nonspecific cause. The results of aging studies conducted during the intervening 15 years using data from the same populations are reviewed in the present paper. Using clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory techniques, a broad spectrum of aging parameters have been studied, such as postmortem morphological changes, tests of functional capacity, physical tests and measurements, laboratory tests, tissue changes, and morbidity. With respect to the aging process, the overall results have not been consistent and are generally thought to show no relation to radiation exposure. Although some preliminary results suggest a possible radiation-induced increase in atherosclerotic diseases and acceleration of aging in the T-cell-related immune system, further study is necessary to confirm these findings. In the future, applying the latest gerontological study techniques to data collected from subjects exposed 45 years ago to A-bomb radiation at relatively young ages will present a new body of data relevant to the study of late radiation effects. (author) 103 refs

  19. Prevalence, structure and correlates of anxiety-depression in boys with an autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsika, Vicki; Sharpley, Christopher F; Andronicos, Nicholas M; Agnew, Linda L

    2016-01-01

    Comorbidity of anxiety and depression predicts impaired treatment outcomes, poor quality of life and increased suicide risk. No study has reported on a combined measure of anxiety-depression in boys with an Autism Spectrum Disorder. To explore the prevalence, underlying factor structure and relationships between anxiety-depression, physiological stress and symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). 150 boys (aged 6-18 years; IQ M=94.9, range=73-132) with an ASD plus their parents (135 mothers, 15 fathers) completed scales about the boys' anxiety and depression, and the boys provided samples of their saliva in the morning and afternoon. Parents also completed the ASD Behaviour Checklist about the boys' ASD symptoms. The two sources of ratings were not significantly different for prevalence of anxiety-depression but the factor structures varied between the parents' and boys' responses, with a four-factor solution for the boys' ratings and a three-factor solution for the parents' ratings. There were also differences in the correlations between cortisol and anxiety-depression and between ASD symptoms and anxiety depression across the boys' and parents' data. Assessment of anxiety and depression comorbidity from parents and from children with an ASD themselves could provide a valuable adjunct datum when diagnosing ASD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Surface EMG to assess arm function in boys with DMD: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Mariska M H P; Harlaar, Jaap; de Groot, Imelda J M

    2015-04-01

    Preserving functional abilities of the upper extremities is a major concern in boys with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). To assess disease progression and treatments, good knowledge on arm function in boys with DMD is essential. Therefore, feasibility and validity of the use of surface electromyography (sEMG) to assess arm function in boys with DMD was examined. Five boys with DMD and 6 age-matched controls participated in this study. Single joint movements and ADL activities were examined while recording sEMG of main shoulder and elbow muscles. All boys with DMD and controls were able to perform the non standardized movements of the measurement protocol, however one boy with DMD was not able to perform all the standardized movements. Boys with DMD used significantly more of their maximal muscle capacity for all muscles to conduct movements compared to controls. The measurement protocol was feasible to assess arm function in boys with DMD. This tool was able to discriminate between DMD patients and controls. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of the Boy Scouts of America Personal Fitness Merit Badge on Cardio-Metabolic Risk, Health Related Fitness and Physical Activity in Adolescent Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Justin; Burns, Ryan D; Brusseau, Timothy A

    2017-01-01

    A growing number of adolescents are more sedentary and have fewer formal opportunities to participate in physical activity. With the mounting evidence that sedentary time has a negative impact on cardiometabolic profiles, health related fitness and physical activity, there is a pressing need to find an affordable adolescent physical activity intervention. One possible intervention that has been overlooked in the past is Boy Scouts of America. There are nearly 900,000 adolescent boys who participate in Boy Scouts in the United States. The purpose of this research study was to evaluate the effect of the Personal Fitness merit badge system on physical activity, health-related fitness, and cardio-metabolic blood profiles in Boy Scouts 11-17 years of age. Participants were fourteen (N = 14) Boy Scouts from the Great Salt Lake Council of the Boy Scouts of America who earned their Personal Fitness merit badge. Classes were held in the Spring of 2016 where boys received the information needed to obtain the merit badge and data were collected. Results from the related-samples Wilcoxon signed rank test showed that the median of differences between VO 2 peak pre-test and post-test scores were statistically significant ( p = 0.004). However, it also showed that the differences between the Pre-MetS (metabolic syndrome) and Post-MetS scores (p = 0.917), average steps taken per day ( p = 0.317), and BMI ( p = 0.419) were not statistically significant. In conclusion, the merit badge program had a positive impact on cardiovascular endurance, suggesting this program has potential to improve cardiovascular fitness and should be considered for boys participating in Boy Scouts.

  2. Growth status of homeless Nepali boys: do they differ from rural and urban controls?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panter-Brick, C; Todd, A; Baker, R

    1996-08-01

    The rapid increase in numbers of homeless children in cities of the developed and developing world is a matter of grave concern. A multi-disciplinary study was undertaken to examine the health and lifestyles of the homeless in Nepal in comparison to other local children. Few studies have quantified the health of street-children in the developing world using anthropometric indicators, and to our knowledge this is the first to systematically compare the homeless with appropriate controls from both rural and urban areas. Heights and weights were measured for 307 six to fourteen year-old boys (III homeless 62 squatter, 82 privileged school and 52 village boys). Height for age (HAz), weight for age (WAz) and weight for height (WHz) I-scores relative to reference data from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) were used as indicators of growth status. Stunting characterized all but the school-boys, but wasting was not observed. the homeless were less stunted than either poor squatter or village boys. On arrival on the streets, they were taller than village boys, and duration of homelessness had no effect on their growth status. Thus in terms of physical growth, and despite frequent health complaints, homeless boys in Nepal fare relatively better than control groups of poor urban and rural boys. Comparative studies which reveal some successful aspects of street-life show that urban homelessness may represent an appropriate response to circumstances of poverty.

  3. Body image and body change methods in adolescent boys. Role of parents, friends and the media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardelli, L A; McCabe, M P; Banfield, S

    2000-09-01

    This study examines sociocultural influences affecting both body image and body change methods in adolescent boys. Twenty boys in grade 7 (aged 12-13) and twenty boys in grade 9 (aged 14-15) were individually interviewed. The influence of parents, siblings, friends and the media on both body image and body change methods was evaluated. For approximately a third of the boys, parents, siblings, friends and the media were perceived to have at least some influence over boys' feelings about their bodies and body change methods. In particular, feedback from mothers and female friends were viewed as having a positive impact on boys' body image whereas feed-back from fathers and male friends was viewed as more important in influencing body change methods. The media was also viewed as contributing to boys' body satisfaction but it was seen to encourage greater exercise to alter body size and shape. The differences and similarities between the sociocultural messages received by males and females are discussed. The implication of these findings in fostering better health among adolescent males are explored.

  4. Girls' and boys' experience with teen sexting in early and late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ševčíková, Anna

    2016-08-01

    This study explored the extent to which sexting represents a problematic behavior in early and late adolescence. Using data from the EU Kids Online II project (17,016 participants aged 11-16 from 25 European countries, 49.7% boys), multilevel logistic regression analyses were conducted separately for four groups: younger girls, older girls, younger boys, and older boys. Irrespective of age and gender, sexting was associated with emotional problems and alcohol use. Its effect decreased in older adolescents, except for emotional difficulties, which remained relatively high in older boys. Vaginal sex was associated with sexting in both younger and older boys while, in girls, the association was observed only in the older group. Younger boys with higher self-efficacy were more likely to send sexts than those with lower self-efficacy. Although sexting is associated with psychological challenges and other types of risk behavior, sexting in some younger boys may not necessarily represent problematic behavior. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Adolescent Boys, Embodied Heteromasculinities and Sexual Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W. Messerschmidt

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author summarizes several life history case studies of adolescent boys who were identified at school as “wimps” and who eventually engaged in various forms of sexual violence. Such boys rarely are— if at all—discussed in the childhood, education and feminist literatures on sexual violence. The life stories reveal the interrelationship among inschool bullying, reflexivity, embodied structured action, and the social construction of heteromasculinities in the commission of sexual violence by subordinated boys. The author concludes by considering the implications the research has to the evolving discourses on social scientific conceptualizations of reflexive embodiment and heteromasculinities.

  6. The Stature of Boys Is Inversely Correlated to the Levels of Their Sertoli Cell Hormones: Do the Testes Restrain the Maturation of Boys?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffman, Ted; Bilkey, David K.; McLennan, Ian S.

    2011-01-01

    The testes of preadolescent boys appear to be dormant, as they produce only trace levels of testosterone [1]. However, they release supra-adult levels of Müllerian Inhibiting Substance (MIS, anti-Müllerian hormone) and lesser levels of inhibin B (InhB), for unknown reasons [2], [3]. Boys have a variable rate of maturation, which on average is slower than girls. The height of children relative to their parents is an index of their maturity [4], [5]. We report here that a boy's level of MIS and InhB is stable over time and negatively correlates with his height and his height relative to his parent's height. This suggests that boy's with high levels of MIS and InhB are short because they are immature, rather than because they are destined to be short men. The levels of MIS and InhB in the boys did not correlate with known hormonal modulators of growth, and were additive with age and the growth hormone/IGF1 axis as predictors of a boy's height. If MIS and InhB were causal regulators of maturity, then the inter-boy differences in the levels of these hormone produces variation in maturation equivalent to 18-months of development. MIS and InhB may thus account for most of the variation in the rate of male development. If boys lacked these hormones, then an average 5-year-old boy would be over 5 cm taller than age-matched girls, making boys almost as dimorphic as men, for height. This indicates that boys have a high growth potential that is initially suppressed by their testes. The concept of the childhood testes suppressing an adult male feature appears paradoxical. However, the growth of children requires intergenerational transfer of nutrients. Consequently, the MIS/InhB slowing of male growth may have been historically advantageous, as it would minimizes any sex bias in the maternal cost of early child rearing. PMID:21655101

  7. A possible role for reproductive hormones in newborn boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K M; Schmidt, I M; Skakkebaek, N E

    2000-01-01

    Healthy boys have a considerable production of reproductive hormones during the first postnatal months, the biological significance of which is poorly understood. We report on cases of male infants with hypogonadism (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, n = 1; panhypopituitarism, n = 2) who showed lack...... of penile growth and involution of the scrotum. In two boys, diagnoses were obtained in early infancy and hormonal measurements at 3-4 months of age showed serum testosterone levels below detection limits in both low inhibin B (37 and 199 pg/mL, respectively; normal range, 193-563 pg/mL) and low......RH. All cases required hormonal treatment with testosterone, administered as suppositories in daily doses between 1 and 5 mg, which reintroduced male genital development. Our observations suggest that normal phallic and scrotal development in humans is dependent on intact testosterone secretion during...

  8. Yoga Training Improves Metabolic Parameters in Obese Boys

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Dae Yun; Lee, SungRyul; Figueroa, Arturo; Kim, Hyoung Kyu; Baek, Yeong Ho; Kwak, Yi Sub; Kim, Nari; Choi, Tae Hoon; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Ko, Kyung Soo; Park, Byung Joo; Park, Song Young; Han, Jin

    2012-01-01

    Yoga has been known to have stimulatory or inhibitory effects on the metabolic parameters and to be uncomplicated therapy for obesity. The purpose of the present study was to test the effect of an 8-week of yoga-asana training on body composition, lipid profile, and insulin resistance (IR) in obese adolescent boys. Twenty volunteers with body mass index (BMI) greater than the 95th percentile were randomly assigned to yoga (age 14.7±0.5 years, n=10) and control groups (age 14.6±1.0 years, n=10...

  9. Sexuality in Adolescent Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder : Self-reported Behaviours and Attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Dewinter, Jeroen; Vermeiren, Robert; Vanwesenbeeck, Wilhelmina; Lobbestael, Jill; Van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs

    2015-01-01

    Differences in sexual functioning of adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are understudied. In the current study, self-reported sexual behaviours, interests and attitudes of 50 adolescent boys, aged 15–18, with at least average intelligence and diagnosed with ASD, were compared with a matched general population control group of 90 boys. Results demonstrated substantial similarity between the groups in terms of sexual behaviours. The only significant difference was that ...

  10. Intervention effects from a social marketing campaign to promote HPV vaccination in preteen boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, Joan R; Diehl, Sandra J; Crandell, Jamie L; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera

    2014-07-16

    Adoption of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in the US has been slow. In 2011, HPV vaccination of boys was recommended by CDC for routine use at ages 11-12. We conducted and evaluated a social marketing intervention with parents and providers to stimulate HPV vaccination among preteen boys. We targeted parents and providers of 9-13 year old boys in a 13 county NC region. The 3-month intervention included distribution of HPV vaccination posters and brochures to all county health departments plus 194 enrolled providers; two radio PSAs; and an online CME training. A Cox proportional hazards model was fit using NC immunization registry data to examine whether vaccination rates in 9-13 year old boys increased during the intervention period in targeted counties compared to control counties (n=15) with similar demographics. To compare with other adolescent vaccines, similar models were fit for HPV vaccination in girls and meningococcal and Tdap vaccination of boys in the same age range. Moderating effects of age, race, and Vaccines for Children (VFC) eligibility on the intervention were considered. The Cox model showed an intervention effect (β=0.29, HR=1.34, p=.0024), indicating that during the intervention the probability of vaccination increased by 34% in the intervention counties relative to the control counties. Comparisons with HPV vaccination in girls and Tdap and meningococcal vaccination in boys suggest a unique boost for HPV vaccination in boys during the intervention. Model covariates of age, race and VFC eligibility were all significantly associated with vaccination rates (pSocial marketing techniques can encourage parents and health care providers to vaccinate preteen boys against HPV. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Experiences of Learning, Friendship and Bullying of Boys with Autism in Mainstream and Special Settings: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Anna; Ogden, Jane; Winstone, Naomi

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to explore experiences of learning, friendships and bullying of boys with autism attending specialist and mainstream schools, and those of their parents. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 boys with autism, aged 11 to 17 years, and nine of their mothers. Thematic analysis identified four key themes relating to…

  12. Radioimmune methods application to determining the functional state of STH-IGF-1 in adolescent boys with diffuse nontoxic goiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turchina, S.Yi.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the character of production of somatotropic hormone (STH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 in adolescent boys with diffuse nontoxic goiter. Blood serum STH, IGF-1, thyrotropin, thyroxin, triiodothyronine, testosterone, and estradiole level were investigated in 131 boys aged 14-17 with DNG using radioimmune method.

  13. Callous unemotional traits, autism spectrum disorder symptoms and empathy in boys with oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijper, Jarla; de Wied, Minet; van Rijn, Sophie; van Goozen, Stephanie; Swaab, Hanna; Meeus, W.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined additive and interactive effects of callous unemotional (CU) traits and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) symptoms in relation to trait empathy, in boys with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) or conduct disorder (CD). Participants were 49 boys with ODD/CD, aged between 7-12

  14. "This Is Spiderman's Mask." "No, It's Green Goblin's": Shared Meanings during Boys' Pretend Play with Superhero and Generic Toys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Amy; Howe, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Preschool boys' pretense and coconstruction of shared meanings during two play sessions (superhero and generic toys) were investigated with 58 middle-class boys ("M" age = 54.95 mos.). The frequency of dyadic pretense and the coconstruction of shared meanings in the play were coded. The frequency of pretense did not vary across the two…

  15. Relationships of Aggression Subtypes and Peer Status among Aggressive Boys in General Education and Emotional/Behavioral Disorder (EBD) Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Useche, Ana Carolina; Sullivan, Amanda L.; Merk, Welmoet; Orobio de Castro, Bram

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the concurrent and longitudinal relationships between reactive and proactive aggression and children's peer status. Participants were 94 Dutch elementary school-aged boys in self-contained special education classrooms for students with emotional/behavioral disorders (EBD) and 47 boys with no disabilities in general education…

  16. At-Risk Boys' Social Self-Efficacy and Physical Activity Self-Efficacy in a Summer Sports Camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaoxia; Xiang, Ping; McBride, Ron E.; Liu, Jiling; Thornton, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined at-risk boys' social self-efficacy and physical activity self-efficacy within Bandura's self-efficacy framework. A total of 97 boys, aged between 10 and 13 years, attending a summer sports camp completed questionnaires assessing their social self-efficacy, physical activity self- efficacy, prosocial behaviors, and effort.…

  17. Little Boy replication: justification and construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malenfant, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    A reconstruction of the Little Boy weapon allowed experiments to evaluate yield, leakage measurements for comparison with calculations, and phenomenological measurements to evaluate various in-situ dosimeters. The reconstructed weapon was operated at sustained delayed critical at the Los Alamos Critical Assembly Facility. The present experiments provide a wealth of information to benchmark calculations and demonstrate that the 1965 measurements on the Ichiban assembly (a spherical mockup of Little Boy) were in error

  18. Are boys discriminated in Swedish high schools?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinnerich, Bjørn Tyrefors; Höglin, Erik; Johannesson, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    Girls typically have higher grades than boys in school and recent research suggests that part of this gender difference may be due to discrimination of boys in grading.Werigorously test this in a field experiment where a random sample of the same tests in the Swedish language is subject to blind ....... The point estimate of the discrimination effect is close to zero with a 95% confidence interval of±4.5% of the average non-blind grade....... and non-blind grading. The non-blind test score is on average 15% lower for boys than for girls. Blind grading lowers the average grades with 13%, indicating that personal ties and/or grade inflation are important in non-blind grading. But we find no evidence of discrimination against boys in grading......Girls typically have higher grades than boys in school and recent research suggests that part of this gender difference may be due to discrimination of boys in grading.Werigorously test this in a field experiment where a random sample of the same tests in the Swedish language is subject to blind...

  19. A Longitudinal Study of Growth, Sex Steroids, and IGF-1 in Boys With Physiological Gynecomastia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieritz, Mikkel G; Rakêt, Lars L; Hagen, Casper P; Nielsen, John E; Talman, Maj-Lis M; Petersen, Jørgen H; Sommer, Stefan H; Main, Katharina M; Jørgensen, Niels; Juul, Anders

    2015-10-01

    Physiological gynecomastia is common and affects a large proportion of otherwise healthy adolescent boys. It is thought to be caused by an imbalance between estrogen and testosterone, although this is rarely evident in analyses of serum. This study aimed to describe the frequency of physiological gynecomastia and to determine possible etiological factors (eg, auxology and serum hormone levels) in a longitudinal setup. A prospective cohort study of 106 healthy Danish boys (5.8-16.4 years) participated in the longitudinal part of the COPENHAGEN Puberty Study. The boys were examined every 6 months during an 8-year follow-up. Median number of examinations was 10 (2-15). Blood samples were analyzed for FSH, LH, testosterone, estradiol, SHBG, inhibin B, anti-Müllerian hormone, IGF-1, and IGF binding protein-3 by immunoassays. Auxological parameters, pubertal development, and the presence of gynecomastia were evaluated at each visit. Fifty-two of 106 boys (49%) developed gynecomastia, of which 10 (19%) presented with intermittent gynecomastia. Boys with physiological gynecomastia reached peak height velocity at a significantly younger age than boys who did not develop gynecomastia (13.5 versus 13.9 years, P = .027), and they had significantly higher serum levels of IGF-1 (P = .000), estradiol (P = .013), free testosterone (P Gynecomastia is frequent in pubertal boys. Increased IGF-1 levels and pubertal growth appear to be associated, whereas changes in estrogen to testosterone ratio seem negligible.

  20. Obstructive sleep apnea prevents the expected difference in craniofacial growth of boys and girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ligia Juliano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: It was to compare cephalometric measures of mouth-breather boys and girls and with the cephalometric pattern observed in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS patients. METHODS: Craniofacial measurements of lateral cephalometric radiographs obtained from 144 children aged 7-14 years were compared between boys and girls, and both were compared to cephalometric pattern of OSAS patients. RESULTS: Mouth-breather boys and girls had no gender differences regarding to craniofacial morphology while nose-breather boys and girls showed those expected differences. Nose-breather boys presented a more retruded mandible and proinclined upper incisor when compared to nose-breather girls, but mouth-breather boys and girls had no differences. The measure NS.GoGn was the only variable with an interaction with gender and breathing. CONCLUSIONS: There were no cephalometric difference in mouth breather-boys and girls related to normal growth, suggesting that oral breathing make the same craniofacial morphology and both have craniofacial morphology close to that of OSAS patients.

  1. Self-management and skills acquisition in boys with haemophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khair, Kate; Meerabeau, Liz; Gibson, Faith

    2015-10-01

    There is an increasing prevalence of children/young people with long-term conditions (LTC) in the UK due to improvements in health-care management and delivery. These children are often involved, from an early age, in their own care and management; yet, there are little data to support how or when they develop the necessary skills and knowledge to become competent at this care. This study aimed to understand self-management of haemophilia, from a child's perspective, in the 21st century in the UK where intensive prophylactic therapy is given from early childhood. A qualitative study using grounded theory to evaluate life-experiences of children and young people with haemophilia. Thirty boys aged 4-16 with severe haemophilia treated at a single paediatric haemophilia care centre were interviewed at home or in a focus group. Multimethod qualitative research including age-appropriate research tools (draw and write, photo-elicitation and interviews) to facilitate data collection from children. Boys develop self-management skills over time. They learn from health-care professionals, their parents and other family members with haemophilia. Self-management skills (bleed recognition, self-infusion, self and medicines management, pain and risk management and conceptualizing preventative therapy) are developed through experiential learning and individualized education, and not through formalized expert patient programmes. The boys in this study have benefited from early prophylactic factor replacement therapy. They develop skills in haemophilia and self-management at a relatively young age and are experts in their own haemophilia care. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Comparing depressive symptoms in teenage boys and girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Fallahi Khesht-Masjedi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Symptoms of depression vary between the males and females. Depressed men show behaviors such as irritability, restlessness, difficulty in concentrating, and instead of the usual behaviors. Sleep disturbance is a common symptom in depressed men. Men are less likely to go to doctors and unconsciously show other behaviors such as anger instead of the sadness. It seems that considering depression as “feminine” is a great injustice toward male patients whom their illness will not be diagnosed nor treated. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 191 depressed adolescents, 108 males and 83 females aged 13–19 years old. Data collected for 10 years from 2005 to 2015 and their depressive symptoms were evaluated by the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition. Results: Depressed girls felt sadness, guilt, punishment, worthlessness, low energy and fatigue, or more asthenia, whereas depressed boys have symptoms such as irritability, depression, suicidal thoughts, or desires to reduce their pleasure. The results of t-test showed that the difference between the total scores of boys and girls with depressive disorder (16.93 is significant at 0.001. F values for feeling sad (58.13, hatred of self (12.38, suicidal thoughts or desires (12.97, restlessness (17.35, and irritability (46. 41 were significant in the 0.001. Conclusion: Experiencing depression in boys and girls according to the role of gender was different. Gender can have an effective role in showing depression symptoms in adolescents.

  3. Mesenchymal hamartoma of the liver demonstrating peripheral calcification in a 12-year-old boy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, Michael A.; Giles, Henry W.

    2008-01-01

    Mesenchymal hamartoma of the liver is a rare benign hepatic tumor that typically presents in the first 2 years of life. Approximately 85% of affected children present before the age of 3 years and less than 5% present after the age of 5 years. Although spontaneous regression has been reported in this benign tumor, most mesenchymal hamartomas gradually increase in size and can reach enormous proportions. We present an atypical case of mesenchymal hamartoma in a 12-year-old boy. The boy's age and presence of calcifications on CT demonstrate a unique presentation of this rare entity. (orig.)

  4. Behavioral and emotional problems in high-functioning girls and boys with autism spectrum disorders: Parents? reports and adolescents? self-reports

    OpenAIRE

    Pisula, Ewa; Pud?o, Monika; S?owi?ska, Monika; Kawa, Rafa?; Strz?ska, Magdalena; Banasiak, Anna; Wola?czyk, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate sex differences in behavioral and emotional problems in high-functioning girls and boys with autism spectrum disorder. The results obtained by adolescents with autism spectrum disorder were compared with those of typically developing girls and boys. Correlations between parents? and adolescents? ratings were also analyzed. Participants were 35 girls and 35 boys with autism spectrum disorder, aged 11?18?years, matched for chronological age and full-...

  5. Sexual harassment and emotional and behavioural symptoms in adolescence: stronger associations among boys than girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Fröjd, Sari; Marttunen, Mauri

    2016-08-01

    To study the associations between subjection to sexual harassment and emotional (depression) and behavioural (delinquency) symptoms among 14-to-18-year-old adolescents, and gender differences within these associations. 90,953 boys and 91,746 girls aged 14-18 participated in the School Health Promotion Study (SHPS), a school-based survey designed to examine the health, health behaviours, and school experiences of teenagers. Experiences of sexual harassment were elicited with five questions addressing five separate forms of harassment. Depression was measured by the 13-item Beck Depression Inventory and delinquency with a modified version of the International Self-Report Delinquency Study (ISRD) instrument. Data were analysed using cross-tabulations with Chi-square statistics and logistic regression. All sexual harassment experiences studied were associated with both depression (adjusted odds ratios varied from 2.2 to 2.7 in girls and from 2.0 to 5.1 in boys) and delinquency (adjusted odds ratios 3.1-5.0 in girls and 1.7-6.9 in boys). Sexual name-calling had a stronger association with depression and with delinquency in girls (adjusted odds ratios, respectively, 2.4 and 4.2), than in boys (adjusted odds ratios, respectively, 2.0 and 1.7), but otherwise stronger associations with emotional and behavioural symptoms were seen in boys. Subjection to sexual harassment is associated with both emotional and behavioural symptoms in both girls and boys. The associations are mostly stronger for boys. Boys subjected to sexual harassment may feel particularly threatened regarding their masculinity, and there may be less support available for boys traumatised due to sexual harassment.

  6. PREDICTORS OF INFANT AND TODDLER BLACK BOYS' EARLY LEARNING: SEIZING OPPORTUNITIES AND MINIMIZING RISKS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iruka, Iheoma U

    2017-01-01

    Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) data set (U.S. Department of Education Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics, 2001), this study examined child, family, and community factors in the early years (infant and toddler years) to predict the cognitive and language outcomes for preschool-age Black boys in relation to Black girls and White boys. Findings indicate that Black children face many challenges, with Black boys experiencing less sensitive parenting as compared to their peers. We live in a highly complex, racialized environment. While there are universal indicators that predict children's preschool outcomes such as strong social positioning and positive parenting, there are, in addition, some indicators that are more beneficial for Black boys' early development, including a stable, less urban home environment with parents engaging in "tough love." © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  7. Serum levels of INSL3, AMH, Inhibin B and Testosterone during pubertal transition in healthy boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardt Johansen, Marie; Anand-Ivell, Ravinder; Mouritsen, Annette

    2014-01-01

    to luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone, inhibin B, and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) during puberty in healthy boys.MethodsTen boys were included from the longitudinal part of the COPENHAGEN Puberty Study. Pubertal evaluation, including testicular volume, was performed...... and blood samples drawn every 6 months for 5 years. Serum concentrations of testosterone were determined by a newly developed LC-MS/MS method, and serum concentrations of INSL3, AMH, inhibin B, FSH and LH, respectively, were determined by validated immunoassays.ResultsSerum INSL3 levels increased...... progressively with increasing age, pubertal onset and testicular volume. In six of ten boys, LH increased prior to the first observed increase in INSL3. In the remaining four boys, the increase in LH and INSL3 was observed at the same examination. The increases in serum concentrations of LH, testosterone...

  8. Sexual orientation disparities in eating disorder symptoms among adolescent boys and girls in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzo, Jerel P; Austin, S Bryn; Micali, Nadia

    2018-03-17

    Much of the research on sexual orientation disparities in eating disorder behaviors has been conducted in the USA, Canada, and Australia. Data on the associations of sexual orientation and eating disorder symptoms among adolescents in the UK are lacking. Participants were children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a youth cohort born 1991-1992 (n = 5048; 53% female; 12% sexual minority). Sexual orientation was assessed at 16 years. Eating disorder symptoms were assessed at 14 and 16 years. Multivariable regression models (adjusting for BMI, ethnicity, socioeconomic status) examined associations between sexual orientation and (1) odds of past-year purging and binge eating, and (2) mean differences in body dissatisfaction, pressure to increase muscularity (boys only), and Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire subscales. At age 14, gay and bisexual boys and mostly heterosexual girls reported greater body dissatisfaction than their same-gender heterosexual peers. All sexual minority boys and mostly heterosexual girls reported greater mean dysfunctional eating behaviors than their same-gender heterosexual peers. At age 16, gay and bisexual boys had 12.5 times the odds of heterosexual boys of binge eating; mostly heterosexual boys had over three times the odds of reporting binge eating. Sexual minority girls had over twice the odds of heterosexual girls of purging and binge eating. By mid-adolescence, sexual minority youth in the UK had elevated risk for eating disorder symptoms, suggesting the need for early prevention efforts.

  9. Relational Strategies to Engage Boys: The Need for Reflective Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    Some boys thrive in school; many do not. There is a growing consensus that many boys' scholastic performance is failing to keep up with the new knowledge economy. As troubling as this trend in boys' scholastic performance may be generally, school troubles are neither universal nor normative. The intriguing fact is that some boys in most schools…

  10. Successful Boys and Literacy: Are "Literate Boys" Challenging or Repackaging Hegemonic Masculinity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, Christine; Francis, Becky

    2011-01-01

    The National Assessment of Educational Progress statistics show that boys are underachieving in literacy compared to girls. Attempts to redress the problem in various Global North countries and particularly Australia and the United Kingdom have failed to make any impact. However, there are boys who are doing well in literacy. The aim of this…

  11. Examination for intratubular germ cell neoplasia at operation for undescended testis in boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, Dina; Thorup, Jørgen Mogens; Frisch, M

    1994-01-01

    A total of 843 consecutive boys (median age 12.7 years) who had undergone testicular biopsy at operation for undescended testis was followed into adulthood (median age 25.2 years) to examine for testicular germ cell neoplasia. Five cases of testicular germ cell neoplasia were identified, including...

  12. Pubertal Onset in Boys and Girls Is Influenced by Pubertal Timing of Both Parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Mouritsen, Annette; Hagen, Casper P

    2016-01-01

    children in a longitudinal cohort study. Information on parental timing of puberty (earlier, comparable to, or later compared to peers) and menarche age was retrieved from questionnaires. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 672 girls and 846 boys. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Age at onset of pubic hair (PH2+), breasts (B2...

  13. It's not just for boys

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Valerie

    2012-01-01

    Against an historical background of sexual inequality in the workplace engineering persists as a bastion of inequality in the 21st century. This research examines the perceptions of engineering of 86 students, who chose to study the new Level 2 Engineering Diploma at age 14. The students were based in the South West of Birmingham, close to the MG Rover Longbridge plant that closed in 2005. The results have been compared with the results of the EngineeringUK survey (EngineeringUK,2012) on perc...

  14. Little boy, the antichristchild : the beast in the Nuclear Age

    OpenAIRE

    Tafoya, Eddie

    1993-01-01

    El presente trabajo intenta demostrar cómo el "anticristo" de John Divine está hoy presente en la bomba atómica. La bomba no sólo ha atraido la atención de líderes y empresas mundiales quienes la cuestionan y se preguntan "¿Quién puede luchar contra ella?" sino que además ejerce un control totalitario sobre el planeta. Al igual que el "corazón" de John, la bomba en un principio devolvió la paz a un mundo caótico, hizo innumerables promesas y dijo numerosas blasfemias antes de asumir ...

  15. Coming of age in New York City: two homeless boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young-Bruehl, Elisabeth

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on two cases, both homeless young gay men living--trying to survive--in New York City. The young men's stories and their manner of being in psychotherapy are presented. One, Hispanic, had developed as an angry, aggressive, manipulative anti-authoritarian; the other, African American, was engaging, passive, exploitable, and full of rescue fantasies. The author raises questions about how humiliating childhood physical and sexual abuse and neglect can become woven into character formations of such opposite sorts. The paper concludes with reflections on the technical challenges of working with homeless youth of color in drop-in center circumstances, and some indication of how the therapeutic process had to be adapted to these young people and their situations.

  16. Epidemiology of Youth Boys' and Girls' Lacrosse Injuries in the 2015 to 2016 Seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y; Lincoln, Andrew E; Dodge, Thomas; Yeargin, Susan W; Covassin, Tracey M; Nittoli, Vincent C; Mensch, James; Roos, Karen G; Dompier, Thomas P; Caswell, Shane V

    2018-02-01

    Examinations of injury among younger populations of lacrosse players that are beginning their development is limited. This study describes the epidemiology of youth boys' and girls' lacrosse injuries during the 2015 to 2016 seasons. Surveillance data originated from a convenience sample of 10 leagues in five states with 1090 boy lacrosse players and 408 girl lacrosse players from the U9-U15 divisions. Athletic trainers reported injury and exposure data at games and practices. Time loss (TL) injuries were defined as resulting in ≥24 h of participation restriction time. Injury counts and rates per 1000 athlete games/practices were calculated. Injury rate ratios (IRR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) compared rates by sex and age division. Overall, 241 and 59 injuries were reported in boys' and girls' youth lacrosse, respectively, of which 17.0% and 18.6% were TL. Compared with girls, boys had a higher overall injury rate (12.7 vs 8.7/1000 athlete games/practices; IRR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1-1.9). U13/U15 boys had a higher TL injury rate than U9/U11 boys (2.6 vs 1.0/1000 athlete game/practices; IRR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.1-6.1). Most injuries were diagnosed as contusions (boys, 53.7%; girls, 47.2%) and resulted from stick contact (boys, 34.1%; girls, 30.6%) and ball contact (boys, 17.1%; girls, 25.0%). Among girls, ball contact contributed to 75.0% (n = 9) of all head/face injuries. Among the 14 concussions reported in boys, player contact was the most common injury mechanism (50.0%, n = 7), followed by stick contact (35.7%, n = 5). Boys' lacrosse has a higher injury incidence than girls' lacrosse, reflecting the contact nature of the boys' game. The high incidence of stick- and ball-related injuries suggests the need for youth-specific rules to better protect youth players.

  17. Adolescent boys with autism spectrum disorder growing up: follow-up of self-reported sexual experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewinter, J; Vermeiren, R; Vanwesenbeeck, I; Van Nieuwenhuizen, Ch

    2016-09-01

    Systematic research on sexual development in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) remains scant, notwithstanding the often-suggested relation between ASD, atypical, and even sexually offensive behaviours. This study compared follow-up data related to lifetime sexual experience (LTSE) in a homogeneous group of adolescent boys with ASD (n = 30), aged 16-20, with a matched group of boys in the general population (n = 60). Most boys in the ASD and control groups reported masturbation and having experienced an orgasm. The proportion of boys with ASD that had no partnered sexual experience was larger than in the control group. This difference was mostly explained by significantly fewer boys with ASD, compared with controls, who reported experience with kissing and petting; no significant differences emerged relating to more intimate partnered sexual experiences. The results suggest the existence of a subgroup of boys who have not (yet) entered the arena of partnered sexual experiences-a finding in line with research in adult samples. There were no differences relating to sexual abuse or coercion. Exploration of the partnered experiences revealed a variety of types of partners, mostly of comparable age. Several boys with ASD had not anticipated their sexual debut. Although they felt ready for it, some boys reported regret afterward. The hypothesised sexual developmental trajectories are subject to further research, but the sexual experience in this sample and the assumed developmental differences indicate the need for early, attuned, and comprehensive sexuality-related education and communication.

  18. Longitudinal studies of inhibin B levels in boys and young adults with Klinefelter syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, P; Andersson, A-M; Skakkebaek, N E

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the longitudinal changes of inhibin B in a group of patients with Klinefelter syndrome (KS; karyotype 47,XXY) progressing through puberty and to compare them to a group of age- and puberty-matched controls. Seven boys with nonmosaic KS (karyotype 47,XXY......) and 11 controls were followed with longitudinal serum inhibin B measurements every 3-12 months as they approached and entered puberty. None of the boys had significant bone age delay, and all entered puberty at the normal time and progressed through it at the expected time. In addition, 15 young adults...... with KS, aged 16.7-29.5 yr, were studied. We found normal levels of inhibin B in prepubertal boys with KS and controls. In patients with KS as well as controls, inhibin B increased progressively before clinical pubertal onset. However, during late puberty inhibin B levels decreased gradually to the low...

  19. Index of Suspicion Case Report 16 y/o Boy with X-Linked Adrenoleukodystrophy Presented as Degenerative CNS Disorder

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Phalen, James

    2004-01-01

    .... Cognitive testing at age 13 showed a full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ) of 80. On physical examination, the boy is of average height, but thin with a body mass index of 17.5 (5th percentile...

  20. Cryptorchidism in boys with imperforate anus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, Dina; Thorup, J M; Nielsen, Ole Henrik

    1995-01-01

    In a retrospective study of the case reports of 136 boys who were operated on for an imperforate anus and who survived at least 18 months, cryptorchidism was the most common associated anomaly, involving 26 cases (19%). The higher the level of the anorectal malformations, the higher was the incid......In a retrospective study of the case reports of 136 boys who were operated on for an imperforate anus and who survived at least 18 months, cryptorchidism was the most common associated anomaly, involving 26 cases (19%). The higher the level of the anorectal malformations, the higher...

  1. Quantitative electromyography in ambulatory boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Sumit; Lin, Jenny; Travers, Curtis; McCracken, Courtney; Shah, Durga

    2017-12-01

    This study's objective was to evaluate quantitative electromyography (QEMG) using multiple-motor-unit (multi-MUP) analysis in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Ambulatory DMD boys, aged 5-15 years, were evaluated with QEMG at 6-month intervals over 14 months. EMG was performed in the right biceps brachii (BB) and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles. Normative QEMG data were obtained from age-matched healthy boys. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were performed. Eighteen DMD subjects were enrolled, with a median age of 7 (interquartile range 7-10) years. Six-month evaluations were performed on 14 subjects. QEMG showed significantly abnormal mean MUP duration in BB and TA muscles, with no significant change over 6 months. QEMG is a sensitive electrophysiological marker of myopathy in DMD. Preliminary data do not reflect a significant change in MUP parameters over a 6-month interval; long-term follow-up QEMG studies are needed to understand its role as a biomarker for disease progression. Muscle Nerve 56: 1361-1364, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Elevated levels of beta-human chorionic gonadotropin and human placental lactogen between 11-13 week's gestation and subsequent pregnancy complications in Oman i women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolikowski, Andrzej; Al-Busaidi, Fikra; Al-Wahaibi, Adil

    2004-01-01

    The association between abnormal levels of maternal serum b-human chorionic gonadotrophin (b-HCG) and human placental lactogen (HPL) measured in early pregnancy and future poor pregnancy outcome is fairly well established. Little is known on how such prognostic information can be used to avoid future complications of pregnancy and improve their outcome. We undertook a prospective study, which was designed to assess the efficiency of maternal serum biochemical markers b-HCG and HPL for the detection of different pregnancy and labor complications. The blood samples were taken from pregnant patients who attended the antenatal clinic at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital in Muscat, Sultanate of Oman, from December 2001 to October 2002. These patients were selected randomly. A total of 200 Omani women, none diabetic, with singleton pregnancies between 11 and 13 weeks gestation were recruited into the study. Gestational age was calculated from the first day of the last menstrual period, unless ultrasonography showed a discrepancy of more than 14 days. Excluded from the study were pregnancies with fetal anomalies, multiple gestations and insulin dependent maternal diabetes. Biochemical analysis of both maternal serum markers was performed in the clinical biochemistry laboratory using an automated immunometric technique supplied by Beckman Coulter for b-HCG and manual radioimmunoassay utilizing a gamma radiation scintillation counter for HPL. Both assays underwent internal, trilevel quality controls. The selected patients were monitored for the following complications: pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH), gestational diabetes, polyhydramnios, antepartum hemorrhage, intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) (birth weight <10th per centile for gestation), low Apgar score (7 or less) and emergency cesarean section. 75 patients did not develop any pregnancy complications and delivered vaginally. This was our control group. 85 patients developed one of the above mentioned problems

  3. Childhood Sexual Violence Against Boys: A Study in 3 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Steven A.; Mercy, James A.; Buluma, Robert; Mwangi, Mary W.; Marcelin, Louis H.; Kheam, They; Lea, Veronica; Brookmeyer, Kathryn; Kress, Howard; Hillis, Susan D.

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Globally, little evidence exists on sexual violence against boys. We sought to produce the first internationally comparable estimates of the magnitude, characteristics, risk factors, and consequences of sexual violence against boys in 3 diverse countries. METHODS We conducted nationally representative, multistage cluster Violence Against Children Surveys in Haiti, Kenya, and Cambodia among males aged 13 to 24 years. Differences between countries for boys experiencing sexual violence (including sexual touching, attempted sex, and forced/coerced sex) before age 18 years were examined by using χ2 and logistic regression analyses. RESULTS In Haiti, Kenya, and Cambodia, respectively, 1459, 1456, and 1255 males completed surveys. The prevalence of experiencing any form of sexual violence ranged from 23.1% (95% confidence Interval [CI]: 20.0–26.2) in Haiti to 14.8% (95% CI: 12.0–17.7) in Kenya, and 5.6% (95% CI: 4.0–7.2) in Cambodia. The largest share of perpetrators in Haiti, Kenya, and Cambodia, respectively, were friends/neighbors (64.7%), romantic partners (37.2%), and relatives (37.0%). Most episodes occurred inside perpetrators’ or victims’ homes in Haiti (60.4%), contrasted with outside the home in Kenya (65.3%) and Cambodia (52.1%). The most common time period for violence in Haiti, Kenya, and Cambodia was the afternoon (55.0%), evening (41.3%), and morning (38.2%), respectively. Adverse health effects associated with violence were common, including increased odds of transactional sex, alcohol abuse, sexually transmitted infections, anxiety/depression, suicidal ideation/ attempts, and violent gender attitudes. CONCLUSIONS Differences were noted between countries in the prevalence, characteristics, and risk factors of sexual violence, yet associations with adverse health effects were pervasive. Prevention strategies tailored to individual locales are needed. PMID:27244799

  4. Do Motives to Undertake Physical Activity Relate to Physical Activity in Adolescent Boys and Girls?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslava Kopcakova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Low levels of physical activity (PA during adolescence contribute to obesity and poor health outcomes in adolescence, and these associations endure into adulthood. The aim of this study was to assess the associations between motives for PA and the level of PA among adolescent boys and girls. We obtained data regarding motives for PA and frequency of PA in 2010 via the Health Behavior in School-aged Children cross-sectional study in the Czech and Slovak Republics (n = 9018, mean age = 13.6, 49% boys. Respondents answered questions about their motives for PA and the frequency of their PA. Motives for PA were assessed using 13 items, which were structured in four groups. We explored the association between the motives for PA and sufficient PA using univariate and multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for age, and separately for boys and girls. “Good child” motives and Achievement motives were significantly associated with sufficient PA among both boys and girls. Health motives were associated with sufficient PA only among boys, and Social motives were associated with sufficient PA only among girls. Motives for PA were associated with the level of PA, and this association was partially gender dependent. These gender differences should be considered in interventions focusing on enhancement of PA.

  5. Implicit and Explicit Gender Beliefs in Spatial Ability: Stronger Stereotyping in Boys than Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Heyden, Karin M; van Atteveldt, Nienke M; Huizinga, Mariette; Jolles, Jelle

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences in spatial ability are a seriously debated topic, given the importance of spatial ability for success in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) and girls' underrepresentation in these domains. In the current study we investigated the presence of stereotypic gender beliefs on spatial ability (i.e., "spatial ability is for boys") in 10- and 12-year-old children. We used both an explicit measure (i.e., a self-report questionnaire) and an implicit measure (i.e., a child IAT). Results of the explicit measure showed that both sexes associated spatial ability with boys, with boys holding more male stereotyped attitudes than girls. On the implicit measure, boys associated spatial ability with boys, while girls were gender-neutral. In addition, we examined the effects of gender beliefs on spatial performance, by experimentally activating gender beliefs within a pretest-instruction-posttest design. We compared three types of instruction: boys are better, girls are better, and no sex differences. No effects of these gender belief instructions were found on children's spatial test performance (i.e., mental rotation and paper folding). The finding that children of this age already have stereotypic beliefs about the spatial capacities of their own sex is important, as these beliefs may influence children's choices for spatial leisure activities and educational tracks in the STEM domain.

  6. Perceived Stress Predicts Lower Physical Activity in African-American Boys, but not Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlumphy, Kellye C; Shaver, Erika R; Ajibewa, Tiwaloluwa A; Hasson, Rebecca E

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine cross-sectional relationships of psychological stress, stress coping, and minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in Amer- ican-American (AA) boys and girls. A community-based sample of 139 AA adolescents (mean age 14.7 years; SD = 1.8 years; 64.7% girls; 30% obese) from Washtenaw County, Michigan was included in this analysis. Psychological stress was assessed using the Daily Stress Inventory and the Perceived Stress Scale. Coping strategies were evaluated using the Schoolager's Coping Strategies questionnaire. Physical activity was measured objectively via accelerometry. Compared to boys, girls participated in approximately 13 fewer minutes of MVPA (p < .001) per day and reported significantly higher levels of daily stress (p = .03) and perceived stress (p < .001). In addition, girls reported using a greater number of coping strategies (p = .01) at a greater frequency (p = .04) compared to boys. However, perceived stress significantly predicted lower levels of MVPA (p = .03) in boys only. There are important gender differences in how AA girls perceive, experience, and cope with stress compared to AA boys. Although AA girls reported higher levels of stress and employed more coping strategies, perceived stress was associated with physical inactivity in AA boys, but not girls. Additional research is warranted to better understand the influence of stress on the choice to be physically active in AA youth.

  7. Posterior alpha oscillations reflect attentional problems in boys with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollebregt, Madelon A; Zumer, Johanna M; Ter Huurne, Niels; Buitelaar, Jan K; Jensen, Ole

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to characterize alpha modulations in children with ADHD in relation to their attentional performance. The posterior alpha activity (8-12Hz) was measured in 30 typically developing children and 30 children with ADHD aged 7-10years, using EEG while they performed a visuospatial covert attention task. We focused the analyses on typically developing boys (N=9) and boys with ADHD (N=17). Alpha activity in typically developing boys was similar to previous results of healthy adults: it decreased in the hemisphere contralateral to the attended hemifield, whereas it relatively increased in the other hemisphere. However, in boys with ADHD this hemispheric lateralization in the alpha band was not obvious (group contrast, p=.018). A robust relation with behavioral performance was lacking in both groups. The ability to modulate alpha oscillations in visual regions with the allocation of spatial attention was clearly present in typically developing boys, but not in boys with ADHD. These results open up the possibility to further study the underlying mechanisms of ADHD by examining how differences in the fronto-striatal network might explain different abilities in modulating the alpha band activity. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. DISCRIMINATIVE ANALYSIS OF MORPHOLOGIC AND MOTORIC PARAMETER TO JUDO AND KARATE SPORTIEST BOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulzim Ibri

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In sample from 160 boys from secondary schools of Prizren 16-17 age, separated in two groups were implicated 18 tests, from them 10 test for valuation morphologic characteristic and 8 test, for valuation motoric abilities. Group (A is component from 80 judo athletes’ boys and group (B from 80 karate athletes’ boys. Purpose of this investigation is to verify changes between judo and karate athletes’ boys in morphologic characteristic and motoric abilities. The problem of investigation was to investigate if there are changes between judo and karate athletes’ boys in morphologic characteristic that represent longitudinal dimensionality, body measure and adipose tissue, and in motoric abilities (used is eurofit battery tests. For global analysis of dimension to some changes and variable system (which contribute in changes between judo and karate athletes’ boys were implicated t-test for small independent sample and, canonic discriminative analysis. The results of this study show that judo and karate athletes significantly differ among themselves in motoric abilities, judo athletes are better in the tests: long jump from place (LOJU, squeeze palm (SQPA and support the knuckle (SUKN, while the karate athletes are better in the tests: taping for hands (TAHE, reach sitting down position (RSDP and run there-hire 10x5 meters (R10x5M, but these changes were not noticed and morphological variables.

  9. Heritage from the Wild Boy of Aveyron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Ian M. L.

    1993-01-01

    Recounts efforts made between 1801 and 1806 by French physician Itard to educate Victor, a boy found living in the wild in Aveyron. Explains how Itard's work with Victor, which met with limited success, led to the establishment of a school for educating clinical idiots. Describes procedures developed by Itard that are basic to the current…

  10. Boy George Helsingi-Tallinna geikruiisil

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Angel Café & Gayclub ja firmade Tallink ja Madrenalin Ltd korraldatavast geikruiisist Lovebot 2006 (30. apr.-1. mai), kus show-programmi peaesinejateks briti laulja Boy Gerry ja ameerika laulja Sherry Vine (Sherry Vine kontsert ka 29. apr. Tallinnas Angeli klubis)

  11. Giant bladder diverticulum in a boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Ozcakir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the bladder diverticula in children are seen commonly which is association with infravesical obstruction or neurogenic bladder function, the case of giant congenital bladder diverticula are rare. In this paper, an 11 years old boy with giant bladder diverticula presenting urinary infections is evaluated in terms of diagnosis and management by current literature.

  12. Cervical Synovial Sarcoma In a Young Boy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cervical Synovial Sarcoma. •. In a Young Boy. R. M. FISHER,. SUMMARY. Synovial sarcomas comprise about 8% of all tumours of somatic soft-tissues, and are the most common sar- comas of the 'hands and feet. Occasionally they may occur in the trunk, but they have rarely been reported in the neck. We present a case of ...

  13. Interpersonal Coping among Boys with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, Petra; Manhal, Simone; Roos, Thomas; Desman, Christiane

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors investigate self-reported coping with interpersonal stressors among boys with and without ADHD in two studies and provide initial evidence for effects of different subgroups of ADHD on coping in Study 2. Method: In Study 1, 20 Austrian adolescents with ADHD were compared to 20 healthy controls. In Study 2, 44 German children…

  14. "Mama's Boy; Preacher's Son": A Memoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlock, Reta Ugena

    2010-01-01

    "Mama's Boy; Preacher's Son" is Kevin Jennings's autobiographical account of growing up gay in the Southern United States. In his memoir, Jennings shares formative experiences relating to his impoverished childhood and his career as teacher and social activist. His rich description of the influence of family relationships on his personal…

  15. Brucellosis: unusual presentations in two adolescent boys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piampiano, P.; McLeary, M.; Young, L.W. [Dept. of Radiology, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Loma Linda University Children' s Hospital, Loma Linda, CA (United States); Janner, D. [Div. of Pediatric Infectious Disease, Loma Linda University Medical Center and Children' s Hospital, Loma Linda, CA (United States)

    2000-05-01

    Two boys presented with variable signs and symptoms of infectious disease that challenged diagnosis. One of the two patients had aortic valve vegetations and lower extremity aneurysms, and the other had calvarial osteomyelitis, epidural abscess, pleural effusions, and pulmonary nodules. Only after a battery of bacterial and fungal agglutination tests was the unsuspected diagnosis made in each of brucellosis from Brucella canis. (orig.)

  16. Brucellosis: unusual presentations in two adolescent boys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piampiano, P.; McLeary, M.; Young, L.W.; Janner, D.

    2000-01-01

    Two boys presented with variable signs and symptoms of infectious disease that challenged diagnosis. One of the two patients had aortic valve vegetations and lower extremity aneurysms, and the other had calvarial osteomyelitis, epidural abscess, pleural effusions, and pulmonary nodules. Only after a battery of bacterial and fungal agglutination tests was the unsuspected diagnosis made in each of brucellosis from Brucella canis. (orig.)

  17. Laparoscopic orchidopexy in boys with prune belly syndrome--outcome and technical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Joe; Mullassery, Dhanya; Craigie, Ross J; Manikandan, Ramaswamy; Kenny, Simon E

    2011-07-01

    Cryptorchidism is an ubiquitous feature in prune belly syndrome (PBS). Laparoscopic orchidopexy allows dissection of the spermatic cord with minimal morbidity. We discuss the technical difficulties and outcome of three boys with PBS who underwent two-stage laparoscopic Fowler-Stephens orchidopexy (F-SO). Three boys, ages 1, 2, and 4, underwent laparoscopic F-SO. All boys had viable testes that were found within 3 cm of the deep inguinal ring. The testicular vessels were either ligated bilaterally with 4/0 polyglactin or monopolar diathermy was used and the vessels divided. Bilateral second-stage F-SO was performed within 6 months in two boys and limited to one side in the third boy. One boy awaits the contralateral second stage. All three boys have adequately sized gonads. Based on our experience, the port incisions should be smaller than routine practice to prevent air leak in PBS. Although the intra-abdominal pressure of 12 mm Hg did not vary from our normal practice, a high flow rate is necessary after initial insufflation (6 L/min) to compensate for inevitable gas leaks because the abdominal wall is so thin. Risk of diathermy injury to the thin abdominal wall and the vessels is significant. Laparoscopy enables easy visualization of the ureter, testes, and testicular vessels and permits complete dissection of testicular vessels. It is easier to maintain integrity of spermatic vessels. Use of radially expanding trocars, small incisions, and high gas flow rates permit this procedure to be performed safely with good outcome and cosmetic results in this challenging group of boys.

  18. Expressive morphosyntax in boys with Fragile X syndrome with and without autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estigarribia, Bruno; Roberts, Joanne Erwick; Sideris, John; Price, Johanna

    2011-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common inherited cause of intellectual disability, and the most common single gene disorder associated with autism. Language impairments in this disorder are well documented, but the nature and extent of syntactic impairments are still unclear. To compare the performance of boys with FXS with and without autism spectrum disorder on measures of verb (VM) and noun (NM) morphosyntax with that of typically developing boys of similar non-verbal mental ages. Conversational samples were obtained from 33 boys with FXS with autism spectrum disorder (FXS-ASD), 35 boys with FXS and no ASD (FXS-O), and 46 typically developing boys (TD). Production of verbal and nominal morphosyntax was assessed separately in these two subdomains. A hierarchical linear model compared morphosyntactic scores in all groups after adjusting for non-verbal cognition, articulatory skill, and caregiver education. The model also tested interactions between group and morphosyntactic subdomain. Boys with FXS in both groups scored lower than the TD boys on both measures. The FXS-O and the FXS-ASD groups did not differ on either composite measure. All covariates were significantly related to morphosyntactic scores. Part of the morphosyntactic impairment in FXS may be attributable to cognitive, environmental, and speech factors. However, it is clear that boys with FXS perform at levels lower than expected from differences in these extra-linguistic factors alone, across both the verb and the noun domains. Clinical interventions should therefore seek to address specific syntactic targets. © 2010 Royal College of Speech & Language Therapists.

  19. Video game use in boys with autism spectrum disorder, ADHD, or typical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Micah O; Engelhardt, Christopher R

    2013-08-01

    The study objectives were to examine video game use in boys with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared with those with ADHD or typical development (TD) and to examine how specific symptoms and game features relate to problematic video game use across groups. Participants included parents of boys (aged 8-18) with ASD (n = 56), ADHD (n = 44), or TD (n = 41). Questionnaires assessed daily hours of video game use, in-room video game access, video game genres, problematic video game use, ASD symptoms, and ADHD symptoms. Boys with ASD spent more time than did boys with TD playing video games (2.1 vs 1.2 h/d). Both the ASD and ADHD groups had greater in-room video game access and greater problematic video game use than the TD group. Multivariate models showed that inattentive symptoms predicted problematic game use for both the ASD and ADHD groups; and preferences for role-playing games predicted problematic game use in the ASD group only. Boys with ASD spend much more time playing video games than do boys with TD, and boys with ASD and ADHD are at greater risk for problematic video game use than are boys with TD. Inattentive symptoms, in particular, were strongly associated with problematic video game use for both groups, and role-playing game preferences may be an additional risk factor for problematic video game use among children with ASD. These findings suggest a need for longitudinal research to better understand predictors and outcomes of video game use in children with ASD and ADHD.

  20. Expressive morphosyntax in boys with Fragile X syndrome with and without autism spectrum disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estigarribia, Bruno; Roberts, Joanne Erwick; Sideris, John; Price, Johanna

    2010-01-01

    Background Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common inherited cause of intellectual disability, and the most common single gene disorder associated with autism. Language impairments in this disorder are well documented, but the nature and extent of syntactic impairments are still unclear. Aims To compare the performance of boys with FXS with and without autism spectrum disorder on measures of verb (VM) and noun (NM) morphosyntax with that of typically developing boys of similar non-verbal mental ages. Methods & Procedures Conversational samples were obtained from 33 boys with FXS with autism spectrum disorder (FXS-ASD), 35 boys with FXS and no ASD (FXS-O), and 46 typically developing boys (TD). Production of verbal and nominal morphosyntax was assessed separately in these two subdomains. A hierarchical linear model compared morphosyntactic scores in all groups after adjusting for non-verbal cognition, articulatory skill, and caregiver education. The model also tested interactions between group and morphosyntactic subdomain. Outcomes & Results Boys with FXS in both groups scored lower than the TD boys on both measures. The FXS-O and the FXS-ASD groups did not differ on either composite measure. All covariates were significantly related to morphosyntactic scores. Conclusions & Implications Part of the morphosyntactic impairment in FXS may be attributable to cognitive, environmental, and speech factors. However, it is clear that boys with FXS perform at levels lower than expected from differences in these extra-linguistic factors alone, across both the verb and the noun domains. Clinical interventions should therefore seek to address specific syntactic targets. PMID:21401819

  1. Progressive deceleration in growth as an early sign of delayed puberty in boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Caju, M V; Op De Beeck, L; Sys, S U; Hagendorens, M M; Rooman, R P

    2000-01-01

    To describe the prepubertal growth pattern in boys with delayed puberty. Growth curves for height and height velocity covering the age range 4-14 years were constructed on the basis of retrospectively obtained data in 85 boys with delayed puberty, who attained a normal final height. Between the age of 4 and 14 years the height in this cohort progressively deviated from the normal reference. At the age of 4 years, the height SDS was already significantly lower (median -0.8; p < 0.001) and progressively diminished during childhood, resulting in a median height SDS of -1.1 at the age of 12 years (p < 0.001). The median final height of this cohort (-0.4) was not different from their target height (-0.2). The degree of deceleration in growth during childhood was not determined by birth weight or birth height and did not influence final height. The decline of the height velocity with age in this group of boys with delayed puberty was significantly smaller (p < 0.001) than predicted by the model of Rikken and Wit. Late-maturing boys often show a prepubertal deceleration in growth that starts at an early age but that does not affect final height. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

  2. Treatment of cryptorchidism with human chorionic gonadotropin or gonadotropin releasing hormone. A double-blind controlled study of 243 boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, P; Müller, J; Buhl, S

    1988-01-01

    We have conducted a modified double-blind study on the effect of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) and placebo on bilateral and unilateral maldescended testes. One hundred and fifty-five boys with bilateral and 88 boys with unilateral cryptorchidism fulfilled...... the inclusion criteria and completed the treatment protocol. The boys were between 1 and 13 years of age. hCG was administered as intramuscular injections twice weekly for 3 weeks. GnRH and placebo were given intranasally. hCG was superior to GnRH and placebo in the treatment of bilateral maldescended testes (p...... = 0.0009). Both testes descended in 25% of the boys following treatment with hCG, and improvement in the position of the testes was obtained in a further 25% of the cases. hCG administration resulted in complete testicular descent in 14% of boys with unilateral cryptorchidism compared with 3 and 0...

  3. Deletion in the uridine diphosphate glucuronyltransferase 2B17 gene is associated with delayed pubarche in healthy boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, Annette Korsholm; Busch, Alexander Siegfried; Aksglaede, Lise

    2018-01-01

    report, we found that homozygous deletion of UGT2B17 in boys was associated with lower urinary excretion of T. We hypothesized that boys with a lower glucuronidation capacity may have altered androgen action and excretion affecting pubarche, as this represents a T dependent event. Design, Participants...... orchidometry, anthropometry and serum reproductive hormone levels. RESULTS: 59 of the 668 boys (8.8%) presented with a homozygous deletion of UGT2B17 (del/del). These boys experienced pubarche at a mean age of 12.73 years (12.00-13.46) vs. 12.40 years (12.11-12.68) in boys heterozygous for deletion of UGT2B17...

  4. Assessment of Sexual Maturation among Boys in Special Schools of Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asieh Mosallanejad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to lack of detailed standards of sexual maturity in individuals with Intellectual, sensory and motor disability in Iran and the importance of timing of onset of puberty in these individuals, a study is necessary. By knowing the onset of puberty, physiologic and behavioral changes can be traced in these people, as well as the potential impact of the puberty on the underlying disease can be considered. The aim of the study was to investigate of sexual maturation among boys of special schools of Tehran. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study was performed on children and adolescents male students in special school in Tehran at 2013. A random, multistage sample 0f 895 boy students of special schools was taken from 25 special schools in five districts of Tehran city. In this study, symptoms and stages of puberty were identified. Pubertal stages were assessed by visual inspection and palpation based on the rating scales of Tanner. In addition, demographic data such as age, height, weight were collected. Then the data were analyzed and mean age of onset of puberty was determined. Results: The mean age of onset of puberty in boys (Genitalia stage 2 was 13.12 ± 1.84 years and sexual maturation was completed at 16.57 ± 1.34 years. The average height at the onset of puberty (Genitalia stage 2 was 151.1 ± 9.91 cm and the average weight was 48.47 ± 10.14kg. The mean BMI for puberty onset was 20.89 ± 5.43. Conclusion: In our study, the mean age of puberty onset in boys with disabilities was 13.12 ± 1.84 years. Compared to the data from healthy boys, our findings indicate that the mean age of pubertal onset in boys with disabilities in special school is higher than that of their healthy counterparts.

  5. PREFACE: Selected contributions from the 3rd Theory Meets Industry International Workshop, TMI2009 (Nagoya, Japan, 11-13 November 2009) Selected contributions from the 3rd Theory Meets Industry International Workshop, TMI2009 (Nagoya, Japan, 11-13 November 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Isao; Hafner, Jürgen; Wimmer, Erich; Asahi, Ryoji

    2010-09-01

    . Lectures and poster presentations were thus solicited from leading international academic and industrial researchers. The large audience that attended responded to the high quality of the talks with pertinent questions and lively discussions. The third workshop, TMI2009, was held over three days from 11-13 November, 2009, at the Nagoya International Center, Nagoya, Japan. Invited talks were given by 23 speakers from 9 countries from both the academic and industry sectors. The speakers were Ryoji Asahi (Toyota Central R&D Labs, Japan), Tomas Bucko (University of Vienna, Austria), Gábor Csányi (University of Cambridge, UK), Alessandro De Vita (King's College London, UK), Bernard Delley (Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland), Christophe Domain (EDF, France), George Fitzgerald (Accelrys, USA), Takeo Fujiwara (University of Tokyo, Japan), Jürgen Hafner (University of Vienna, Austria), Masaya Ishida (Sumitomo Chemicals, Japan), Werner Janse Van Rensburg (Sasol Technology, South Africa), Masanori Kohyama (AIST, Japan), Takao Kotani (Tottori University, Japan), Georg Kresse (University of Vienna, Austria), Katsuyuki Matsunaga (Kyoto University, Japan), Stefan Müller (University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Germany), Shin-ichiro Nakamura (Mitsubishi Chemicals, Japan), Fumiyasu Oba (Kyoto University, Japan), Tamio Oguchi (Hiroshima University, Japan), Pascal Raybaud (IFP, France), Isao Tanaka (Kyoto University/JFCC, Japan), Göran Wahnström (Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden), and Erich Wimmer (Materials Design Inc., USA). There were 40 poster presentations in total. The workshop was attended by approximately 120 participants with approximately 50 per cent from industry. The invited talks covered advances in ab initio solid-state calculations and their practical use in industry. Presentations outlining the progress made in treating large and complex systems, as well as more accurate and efficient calculation methods, were given from the theory side. Examples of the use of ab

  6. 29 CFR 11.13 - Public participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... effects primarily of local concern, agencies shall consider the use of clearinghouses, newspapers and other public media likely to generate local participation in the agency process as ways of supplementing... solicited from appropriate Federal, State and local agencies, Indian tribes, and other persons or...

  7. The electromyographic threshold in boys and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, Brynlynn; Dotan, Raffy; Millar, Jordan; Long, Devon; Tokuno, Craig; O'Brien, Thomas; Falk, Bareket

    2015-06-01

    Children have been shown to have higher lactate (LaTh) and ventilatory (VeTh) thresholds than adults, which might be explained by lower levels of type-II motor-unit (MU) recruitment. However, the electromyographic threshold (EMGTh), regarded as indicating the onset of accelerated type-II MU recruitment, has been investigated only in adults. To compare the relative exercise intensity at which the EMGTh occurs in boys versus men. Participants were 21 men (23.4 ± 4.1 years) and 23 boys (11.1 ± 1.1 years), with similar habitual physical activity and peak oxygen consumption (VO2pk) (49.7 ± 5.5 vs. 50.1 ± 7.4 ml kg(-1) min(-1), respectively). Ramped cycle ergometry was conducted to volitional exhaustion with surface EMG recorded from the right and left vastus lateralis muscles throughout the test (~10 min). The composite right-left EMG root mean square (EMGRMS) was then calculated per pedal revolution. The EMGTh was then determined as the exercise intensity at the point of least residual sum of squares for any two regression line divisions of the EMGRMS plot. EMGTh was detected in 20/21 of the men (95.2 %) and only in 18/23 of the boys (78.3 %). The boys' EMGTh was significantly higher than the men's (86.4 ± 9.6 vs. 79.7 ± 10.0 % of peak power output at exhaustion; p boys' higher EMGTh suggests delayed and hence lesser utilization of type-II MUs in progressive exercise, compared with men. The boys-men EMGTh differences were of similar magnitude as those shown for LaTh and VeTh, further suggesting a common underlying factor.

  8. Comparative Overview of Coordination Abilities Development in Primary School Boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С. В. Жицкий

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The research objective is to analyze coordination abilities development in primary school pupils. Research methods: theoretical analysis and collation of scientific and methodological literature, pedagogical testing of coordination abilities, methods of mathematical statistics. The total number of pupils involved in the experiment is 30 children of the first-third grades. Conclusions. Statistically significant changes in indicators of coordination abilities of boys are age-related, according to the results of the tests in “combination of movements of arms, body and legs”, “switching from one movement to another”, “vestibular stability 1 — option”, “static balance by Bondarevsky test”. Primary school age is susceptible to development of coordination abilities.

  9. Mediators of Psychological Well-being in Adolescent Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubans, David R; Smith, Jordan J; Morgan, Philip J; Beauchamp, Mark R; Miller, Andrew; Lonsdale, Chris; Parker, Philip; Dally, Kerry

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the effect of the Active Teen Leaders Avoiding Screen-time (ATLAS) intervention on psychological well-being in adolescent boys and to examine the potential mediating mechanisms that might explain this effect. ATLAS was evaluated using a cluster randomized controlled trial in 14 secondary schools located in low-income communities (N = 361 adolescent boys, mean age = 12.7 ± .5 years). The 20-week intervention was guided by self-determination theory and involved: professional development for teachers, provision of fitness equipment to schools, enhanced school sport sessions, researcher-led seminars, a smartphone application, and parental strategies for reducing screen time. Assessments were conducted at baseline and immediately post intervention (8 months). Psychological well-being was measured using the Flourishing Scale. Motivational regulations (intrinsic, identified, introjected, controlled, and amotivation) and basic psychological needs (autonomy, competence, and relatedness) in school sport, muscular fitness, resistance training skill competency, and recreational screen time were examined as potential mediating mechanisms of the intervention effect. The intervention effect on well-being was small but statistically significant. Within a multiple mediator model, changes in autonomy needs satisfaction, recreational screen time, and muscular fitness significantly mediated the effect of the intervention on psychological well-being. In addition to the physical health benefits, targeted physical activity programs for adolescent boys may have utility for mental health promotion through the mechanisms of increasing autonomy support and muscular fitness and reducing screen time. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Syntactic Complexity during Conversation of Boys with Fragile X Syndrome and Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Johanna R.; Roberts, Joanne E.; Hennon, Elizabeth A.; Berni, Mary C.; Anderson, Kathleen L.; Sideris, John

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study compared the syntax of boys who have fragile X syndrome (FXS) with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) with that of (a) boys who have Down syndrome (DS) and (b) typically developing (TD) boys. Method: Thirty-five boys with FXS only, 36 boys with FXS with ASD, 31 boys with DS, and 46 TD boys participated. Conversational…

  11. Serum Ferritin Is Inversely Correlated with Testosterone in Boys and Young Male Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Study in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Ching Chao

    Full Text Available The transition from childhood to teenaged years is associated with increased testosterone and a decreased iron status. It is not clear whether higher testosterone levels cause the decreased iron status, and to what extent, obesity-related inflammation influences the iron-testosterone relationship. The aim of the present study was to examine relationships of testosterone, iron status, and anti-/proinflammatory cytokines in relation to nutritional status in boys and young adolescent Taiwanese males.In total, 137 boys aged 7~13 yr were included. Parameters for obesity, the iron status, testosterone, and inflammatory markers were evaluated.Overweight and obese (ow/obese boys had higher mean serum testosterone, interleukin (IL-1β, and nitric oxide (NO levels compared to their normal-weight counterparts (all p<0.05. Mean serum ferritin was slightly higher in ow/obese boys compared to normal-weight boys, but this did not reach statistical significance. A multiple linear regression showed that serum ferritin (β = -0.7470, p = 0.003 was inversely correlated with testosterone, while serum IL-10 (β = 0.3475, p = 0.009 was positively associated with testosterone after adjusting for covariates. When normal-weight boys were separately assessed from ow/obesity boys, the association between testosterone and serum ferritin became stronger (β = -0.9628, p<0.0001, but the association between testosterone and IL-10 became non-significant (β = 0.1140, p = 0.4065 after adjusting for covariates. In ow/obese boys, only IL-10 was weakly associated with serum testosterone (β = 0.6444, p = 0.051 after adjusting for age.Testosterone and serum ferritin are intrinsically interrelated but this relationship is weaker in ow/obese boys after adjusting for age.

  12. Morphing Literacy: Boys Reshaping Their School-Based Literacy Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Heather A.; Stanford, Kathy

    2004-01-01

    Details about a two-year ethnographic case study research in middle school boys to understand school literacy are presented. The study revealed that boys resist many school-based practices by transforming the assigned literacy work.

  13. Girls Thrive Emotionally, Boys Falter After Move to Better Neighborhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by NIMH has found. Rates of depression and conduct disorder markedly increased in boys and decreased in girls. ... families who did not receive vouchers. Rates of conduct disorder among low poverty group boys were 6.4 ...

  14. Why Are Girls Less Physically Active than Boys? Findings from the LOOK Longitudinal Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan M Telford

    Full Text Available A gender-based disparity in physical activity (PA among youth, whereby girls are less active than boys is a persistent finding in the literature. A greater understanding of the mechanisms underlying this difference has potential to guide PA intervention strategies.Data were collected at age 8 and 12 years (276 boys, 279 girls from 29 schools as part of the LOOK study. Multilevel linear models were fitted separately for boys and girls to examine effects of individual, family and environmental level correlates on pedometer measured PA. Cardio-respiratory fitness (multi-stage run, percent fat (DEXA, eye-hand coordination (throw and catch test and perceived competence in physical education (questionnaire were used as individual level correlates. At the family level, parent's support and education (questionnaire were used. School attended and extracurricular sport participation were included as environmental level correlates.Girls were 19% less active than boys (9420 vs 11360 steps/day, p<0.001, 95%CI [1844, 2626]. Lower PA among girls was associated with weaker influences at the school and family levels and through lower participation in extracurricular sport. School attended explained some of the variation in boys PA (8.4% but not girls. Girls compared to boys had less favourable individual attributes associated with PA at age 8 years, including 18% lower cardio-respiratory fitness (3.5 vs 4.2, p<0.001, CI [0.5,0.9], 44% lower eye-hand coordination (11.0 vs 17.3, p<0.001, CI [5.1,9.0], higher percent body fat (28% vs 23%, p<0.001, CI [3.5,5.7] and 9% lower perceived competence in physical education (7.7 vs 8.4, p<0.001, CI [0.2,0.9]. Participation in extracurricular sport at either age 8 or 12 years was protective against declines in PA over time among boys but not girls.Girls PA was less favourably influenced by socio-ecological factors at the individual, family, school and environmental levels. These factors are potentially modifiable suggesting

  15. COMPARATIVE INDICATORS OF THE PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT OF BOYS IN REPUBLIC OF DAGESTAN IN THE VARIOUS ECO-GEOGRAPHICAL ZONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. G. Kamalov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Purpose. The examination of the comparative aspect of the physical parameters of the boys in the pre - and puberty in different ecological zones (EZ of the Republic of Dagestan (RD: mountain, foothills and plains of the taxiway.Materials and Methods. The study in 3 eco-geographic zones of the Republic of Dagestan in 2641 a boy aged 11 to 17 years. Inclusion criteria were: age of onset of puberty and the completion of 11-17 years, male gender and residence in the territory (extragenital diseases. We compared the following anthropometric indicators: height, weight, body mass index.Results and conclusions. The analysing of the physical parameters of development in different areas of extragenital diseases RD identifies the following pattern: the lowest height and weight were boys living in the foothills of the taxiway. Their peers living in highland and lowland extragenital diseases taxiway growth were similar and statistically significant differences were found statistically significant differences are particularly evident with 13-14 years in boys from foothills of RD, especially when compared with their peers plain COPIES. Thus, the overall physical development of boys RD closes to those boys Russia, although the tendency to reduce them was determined. Comparative physical development of boys in various extragenital diseases RD, the worst performance demonstrated teenagers from foothill extragenital diseases.

  16. Achondroplasia and enchondromatosis: report of three boys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Numakura, Chikahiko [Yamagata University School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Yamagata (Japan); Tokyo Metropolitan Kiyose Children' s Hospital, Endocrinology and Metabolism Unit, Tokyo (Japan); Kobayashi, Hironori [Shimane University School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Shimane (Japan); Hasegawa, Yukihiro [Tokyo Metropolitan Kiyose Children' s Hospital, Endocrinology and Metabolism Unit, Tokyo (Japan); Adachi, Masanori [Kanagawa Children' s Medical Center, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Clinical Research Institute, Kanagawa (Japan); Kim, Ok Hwa [Ajou University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea); Nishimura, Gen [Tokyo Metropolitan Kiyose Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan)

    2007-06-15

    We report on three boys suffering from achondroplasia concurrent with enchondromatosis-like metaphyseal changes. Two boys who were examined by molecular analysis harbored a mutation of FGFR3, which occurs in most achondroplastic individuals. Given the prevalence of achondroplasia and enchondromatosis, the metaphyseal changes in these patients are less likely to represent the coincidence of both disorders, but rather to result from a rare consequence of the FGFR3 mutation. Impaired FGFs/FGFR3 signaling pathway in achondroplasia inhibits chondrocytic proliferation, which accounts for most characteristics of achondroplasia. On the other hand, it causes conflicting biological consequences that can suppress or stimulate chondrocytic maturation. In a small subset of achondroplastic individuals, the suppression of chondrocytic maturation may outweigh the stimulation, which leads to cartilaginous overgrowth into the metaphysis, eventually causing the metaphyseal dysplasia found in the present patients. (orig.)

  17. Netduino home automation projects for lazy boys

    CERN Document Server

    Cavanagh, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Netduino Home Automation Projects for Lazy Boys is written in a practical and friendly style. Reading this book will be an experience full of fun and learning as well.This book is ideally suited for someone who is interested in home automation, has some experience in C#, and has used a Netduino before but wants to explore more advanced topics. However, the book starts from the very basics so it can be picked up even by novices.

  18. I Can Learn from You: Boys as Relational Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Michael; Hawley, Richard

    2014-01-01

    In "I Can Learn from You," Michael Reichert and Richard Hawley--the authors of "Reaching Boys, Teaching Boys"--set out to probe deeply into the relational dynamics that help boys succeed as learners. Drawing on interviews with students and teachers in thirty-five schools across six countries, they examine the particular ways…

  19. Boys' Friendships during Adolescence: Intimacy, Desire, and Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, Niobe

    2013-01-01

    Longitudinal, mixed method research on friendships, conducted over the past two decades with Black, Latino, Asian, and European American boys, reveals three themes: (1) the importance for boys of being able to share their secrets with their close friends; (2) the importance of close friendships for boys' mental health; and (3) the loss of but…

  20. Factors influencing peak expiratory flow in teenage boys | van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To establish PEF values for teenage boys in a Cape Town suburb and examine factors that possibly influence this measurement. Setting. A high school for boys in the southern suburbs of CapeTown. Methods. Measurements of PEF were taken for 124 boys. Subjects were approximately 16 years old and apparently healthy ...

  1. Coppersmith Self-Esteem Inventory Scores of Boys with Severe Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Frank H.; Johnson, Ardes

    1972-01-01

    Scores on the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory of 44 behaviorally disturbed boys ranging in age from 8 to 12 years were compared with the test's norms, with later retest scores, with teacher assigned self esteem ranks, and with peer group status as measured by sociometric procedures. (DB)

  2. Sexuality in Adolescent Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Self-Reported Behaviours and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewinter, Jeroen; Vermeiren, Robert; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; Lobbestael, Jill; Van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs

    2015-01-01

    Differences in sexual functioning of adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are understudied. In the current study, self-reported sexual behaviours, interests and attitudes of 50 adolescent boys, aged 15-18, with at least average intelligence and diagnosed with ASD, were compared with a matched general population control group…

  3. Sexuality in adolescent boys with autism spectrum disorder : Self-reported behaviours and attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewinter, J.; Vermeiren, R.; Vanwesenbeeck, I.; Lobbestael, J.; van Nieuwenhuizen, Ch.

    2015-01-01

    Differences in sexual functioning of adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are understudied. In the current study, self-reported sexual behaviours, interests and attitudes of 50 adolescent boys, aged 15–18, with at least average intelligence and diagnosed with ASD, were

  4. Sexuality in Adolescent Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Self-reported Behaviours and Attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewinter, J.; Vermeiren, R.; Vanwesenbeeck, I.; Lobbestael, J.; van Nieuwenhuizen, C.

    2015-01-01

    Differences in sexual functioning of adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are understudied. In the current study, self-reported sexual behaviours, interests and attitudes of 50 adolescent boys, aged 15–18, with at least average intelligence and diagnosed with ASD, were

  5. Sexuality in Adolescent Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder : Self-reported Behaviours and Attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewinter, Jeroen; Vermeiren, Robert; Vanwesenbeeck, Wilhelmina|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074723286; Lobbestael, Jill; Van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs

    2015-01-01

    Differences in sexual functioning of adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are understudied. In the current study, self-reported sexual behaviours, interests and attitudes of 50 adolescent boys, aged 15–18, with at least average intelligence and diagnosed with ASD, were

  6. Proxemics, Locus of Control, Anxiety, and Type of Movement in Emotionally Disturbed and Normal Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Philip C.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    To determine the interpersonal distancing requirements for emotionally disturbed and normal children and in order to investigate the relationship of locus of control and anxiety to interpersonal space, 20 emotionally disturbed and 20 normal boys (mean age 10 years) were randomly required to approach an object person and to let the object person…

  7. Maternal uniparental disomy for chromosome 14 in a boy with a normal karyotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hordijk, R; Scheffer, H; Leegte, B; Hofstra, RMW; Stolte-Dijkstra, [No Value

    1999-01-01

    Groningen, Ne report on a boy with a maternal uniparental disomy for chromosome 14 (UPD(14)). At 7 years of age he was referred to us by the paediatrician because of symptoms of Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). He showed short stature, obesity, mild developmental delay, cryptorchidism, and some mild

  8. The Role of Violent Video Game Content in Adolescent Development: Boys' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Cheryl K.; Kutner, Lawrence A.; Warner, Dorothy E.

    2008-01-01

    Numerous policies have been proposed at the local, state, and national level to restrict youth access to violent video and computer games. Although studies are cited to support policies, there is no published research on how children perceive the uses and influence of violent interactive games. The authors conduct focus groups with 42 boys ages 12…

  9. [A baby boy with cryptorchism, inguinal hernia and internal female genitalia: the persistent Mullerian duct syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halbertsma, F.J.; Otten, B.J.; Wijnen, R.M.H.; Feitz, W.F.J.

    2004-01-01

    During operation for a right inguinal hernia, a baby boy aged 3 months was discovered to have internal female genitalia. Biopsies were taken from the gonads and blood was sent for karyotyping. The biopsies showed normal testicular tissue and the karyotyping result was 46XY, so the diagnosis of

  10. Longitudinal studies of inhibin B levels in boys and young adults with Klinefelter syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, P; Andersson, A-M; Skakkebaek, N E

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the longitudinal changes of inhibin B in a group of patients with Klinefelter syndrome (KS; karyotype 47,XXY) progressing through puberty and to compare them to a group of age- and puberty-matched controls. Seven boys with nonmosaic KS (karyotype 47,XXY...

  11. Adolescent Boys' and Girls' Views of Fatherhood in the Context of the Changing Women's Position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakka, Despina; Deliyanni-Kouimtzi, Vassiliki

    2006-01-01

    The present study aims at exploring how Greek adolescents understand the notion of fatherhood. One hundred and ten pupils (64 boys and 46 girls), who attended four high schools of the area of Thessaloniki, Greece, participated in the study; they were aged from 14- to 16-years. A combination of quantitative and qualitative data were selected…

  12. The Relationship of Internal Locus of Control, Academic Achievement, and IQ in Emotionally Disturbed Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Samual J., Jr.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Results of a study involving 63 emotionally disturbed boys (10-15 years old) revealed that Ss with a higher degree of internal lows of control (LOC) made greater gains in academic achievement. Ss' chronological ages and IQ cores did not affect their degree of internal LOC. (Author/CL)

  13. Table Hockey: Attack or Linking? Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy with an Autistic Boy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, May

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores some issues that might arise when one considers having a table hockey game in the therapy room, and describes how an autistic boy, aged four-and-a-half when starting treatment, used that game. The unfolding process from withdrawal to separateness, intersubjectivity and playfulness is illustrated by the progress of two years of…

  14. Peripubertal Girls' Romantic and Platonic Involvement with Boys: Associations with Body Image and Depression Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compian, Laura; Gowen, L. Kris; Hayward, Chris

    2004-01-01

    This study explored the relationship of both romantic and platonic involvement with boys, as well as pubertal status, to body image and depression symptoms among an ethnically diverse sample of sixth-grade girls. Participants were 157 early adolescent girls (ages 10-13) who completed self-report measures designed to assess girls' level of…

  15. Onset and Progression of Disruptive Behavior Problems among Community Boys and Girls: A Prospective Longitudinal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Jaelyn R.; Nicholson, Jody S.; Borkowski, John G.; Whitman, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder are the most common forms of psychopathology seen among community youth. This study investigated prospective symptomatology of these disruptive behavior disorders from ages 5 though 14 in an at-risk community-based sample of 170 boys and girls born to…

  16. Muscular response to the first three months of deflazacort treatment in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L; Petersson, S J; Illum, N O

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients are often treated with glucocorticoids; yet their precise molecular action remains unknown. METHODS: We investigated muscle biopsies from nine boys with DMD (aged: 7,6±2,8 yrs.) collected before and after three months of deflazacort treatment...

  17. Cortisol responses to social evaluation in 10-to 15-year-old boys and girls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlmans, M.A.C.; Beijers, R.; Mack, S.; Pruessner, J.C.; Weerth, C. de

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated Cortisol responses and perceived stress of 10–15-year-olds to a computerized paradigm including elements of social evaluation, unpredictability, and uncontrollability. Both age and sex differences were examined. Participants were 52 children and adolescents (23 boys, mean

  18. "Bad Boys", Big Trouble: Subcultural Formation and Resistance in a Cambodian Village

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czymoniewicz-Klippel, Melina T.

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the experiences of adolescent males in Cambodia who, simultaneous to their maltreatment and marginalization within the family and community, have reduced opportunities to produce identities of sociomoral value through access to cultural capital. It draws on ethnographic data gathered from adolescents boys aged 9 to 16 in Siem…

  19. Early Adolescent Boys' Exposure to Internet Pornography: Relationships to Pubertal Timing, Sensation Seeking, and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyens, Ine; Vandenbosch, Laura; Eggermont, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that adolescents regularly use Internet pornography. This two-wave panel study aimed to test an integrative model in early adolescent boys (M[subscript age] = 14.10; N = 325) that (a) explains their exposure to Internet pornography by looking at relationships with pubertal timing and sensation seeking, and (b) explores…

  20. Pubertal onset in apparently healthy Indian boys and impact of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineet Surana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Primary - to determine the age of pubertal onset in Indian boys. Secondary - (a to assess the impact of obesity on pubertal timing, (b to assess the relationship between gonadotropins and puberty. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: General community-seven schools across New Delhi. Participants: Random sample of 1306 school boys, aged 6–17 years. Materials and Methods: Anthropometric measurement for weight and height and pubertal staging was performed for all subjects. Body mass index (BMI was calculated to define overweight/obesity. Serum luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle stimulating hormone, and serum testosterone were measured in every sixth subject. Main Outcome Measure: Age at pubertal onset-testicular volume ≥4 mL (gonadarche and pubic hair Stage II. Results: Median age of attaining gonadarche and pubarche was 10.41 years (95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.2–10.6 years and 13.60 (95% CI: 13.3–14.0 years, respectively. No significant difference in the age of attainment of gonadarche was observed in boys with normal or raised BMI, though pubarche occurred 8 months earlier in the latter group. Serum gonadotropins and testosterone increased with increasing stages of puberty but were unaffected by BMI. Serum LH level of 1.02 mIU/mL and testosterone level of >0.14 ng/mL showed the best prediction for pubertal onset. Conclusion: The study establishes a secular trend of the age of onset of puberty in Indian boys. Pubarche occurred earlier in overweight/obese boys. The cutoff levels of serum LH and testosterone for prediction of pubertal onset have been established.

  1. Differential Relationships of Anxiety and Autism Symptoms on Social Skills in Young Boys With Fragile X Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisinger, Debra L; Roberts, Jane E

    2017-09-01

    Social skills are critical for academic, social, and psychological success of children with both typical and atypical development. Boys with fragile X syndrome (FXS) are at high risk for social skill impairments, given intellectual impairments and secondary conditions. The present study examines the impact of adaptive behavior, autism symptoms, and anxiety symptoms to social skills at the composite and subdomain level in boys with FXS across age. This cross-sectional study included boys with FXS (3-14 years) contrasted to age-matched typical control boys. Results revealed that social skills are generally within developmental expectations, with adaptive behavior as the primary predictor. Anxiety and autism symptoms emerged as additive risk factors, particularly in the areas of responsibility and self-control.

  2. Depression and self-esteem in boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: associations with comorbid aggression and explanatory attributional mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treuting, J J; Hinshaw, S P

    2001-02-01

    It was tested whether boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), subgrouped by aggressive status, would show higher rates of depressive symptomatology and lower levels of self-esteem than would comparison boys and, in a subsample, explored attributional mechanisms that may be related to such internalizing features. Study 1 utilized 114 boys with ADHD (all prior recipients of stimulant medication) and 87 comparison boys, aged 7-12 years. Aggressive boys with ADHD reported more symptoms of depression than did nonaggressive boys with ADHD, who, in turn, reported more depression than did comparison boys. Effect sizes were moderate to large and did not vary with a depression rating scale uncontaminated by ADHD-related items. For self-esteem, the most pronounced effect was that aggressive boys with ADHD showed lower levels than did nonaggressive ADHD or comparison boys; effects were again moderate to large. Study 2 participants were a subsample of boys with ADHD from Study 1 (N = 27). We probed causal attributions in ADHD-related domains through responses to hypothetical vignettes, in which the protagonist's medication status (medicated, not medicated) was crossed with type of outcome (good, bad). Medication-related attributions were frequent. In describing the protagonist's success in relation to medication treatment, the sample showed significant associations between (a) medication-related attributions and (b) increased depressive symptomatology as well as decreased self-esteem. We discuss attributional processes that may help to explain the variation in internalizing symptoms among children with ADHD.

  3. Why Are Girls Less Physically Active than Boys? Findings from the LOOK Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telford, Rohan M; Telford, Richard D; Olive, Lisa S; Cochrane, Thomas; Davey, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    A gender-based disparity in physical activity (PA) among youth, whereby girls are less active than boys is a persistent finding in the literature. A greater understanding of the mechanisms underlying this difference has potential to guide PA intervention strategies. Data were collected at age 8 and 12 years (276 boys, 279 girls) from 29 schools as part of the LOOK study. Multilevel linear models were fitted separately for boys and girls to examine effects of individual, family and environmental level correlates on pedometer measured PA. Cardio-respiratory fitness (multi-stage run), percent fat (DEXA), eye-hand coordination (throw and catch test) and perceived competence in physical education (questionnaire) were used as individual level correlates. At the family level, parent's support and education (questionnaire) were used. School attended and extracurricular sport participation were included as environmental level correlates. Girls were 19% less active than boys (9420 vs 11360 steps/day, page 8 years, including 18% lower cardio-respiratory fitness (3.5 vs 4.2, peye-hand coordination (11.0 vs 17.3, page 8 or 12 years was protective against declines in PA over time among boys but not girls. Girls PA was less favourably influenced by socio-ecological factors at the individual, family, school and environmental levels. These factors are potentially modifiable suggesting the gap in PA between boys and girls can be reduced. Strategies aiming to increase PA should be multicomponent and take into consideration that pathways to increasing PA are likely to differ among boys and girls.

  4. Factors influencing the probability of a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder in girls versus boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvekot, Jorieke; van der Ende, Jan; Verhulst, Frank C; Slappendel, Geerte; van Daalen, Emma; Maras, Athanasios; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin

    2017-08-01

    In order to shed more light on why referred girls are less likely to be diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder than boys, this study examined whether behavioral characteristics influence the probability of an autism spectrum disorder diagnosis differently in girls versus boys derived from a multicenter sample of consecutively referred children aged 2.5-10 years. Based on information from the short version of the Developmental, Dimensional and Diagnostic Interview and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, 130 children (106 boys and 24 girls) received a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.) criteria and 101 children (61 boys and 40 girls) did not. Higher overall levels of parent-reported repetitive and restricted behavior symptoms were less predictive of an autism spectrum disorder diagnosis in girls than in boys (odds ratio interaction = 0.41, 95% confidence interval = 0.18-0.92, p = 0.03). In contrast, higher overall levels of parent-reported emotional and behavioral problems increased the probability of an autism spectrum disorder diagnosis more in girls than in boys (odds ratio interaction = 2.44, 95% confidence interval = 1.13-5.29, p = 0.02). No differences were found between girls and boys in the prediction of an autism spectrum disorder diagnosis by overall autistic impairment, sensory symptoms, and cognitive functioning. These findings provide insight into possible explanations for the assumed underidentification of autism spectrum disorder in girls in the clinic.

  5. Functional brain asymmetry, attentional modulation, and interhemispheric transfer in boys with Tourette syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plessen, Kerstin J; Lundervold, Arvid; Grüner, Renate

    2007-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that children with Tourette syndrome (TS) would exhibit aberrant brain lateralization compared to a healthy control (HC) group in an attention-modulation version of a verbal dichotic listening task using consonant-vowel syllables. The modulation of attention to focus...... by exploring the correlations between CC size and left ear score in the forced-left condition. Twenty boys with TS were compared with 20 age- and handedness-matched healthy boys. Results indicated similar performance in the TS and HC groups for lateralization of hemispheric function. TS subjects were also able...

  6. The Boy Problem: Many Boys Think School Is Stupid and Reading Stinks--Is There a Remedy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sax, Leonard

    2007-01-01

    The gender issue is relevant to classroom learning in more ways than one. Increasingly in the United States, young boys are saying that school is stupid and they do not like to read. This phenomenon cuts across all demographic groups: it affects affluent white boys in the suburbs no less than it affects black boys in low-income neighborhoods. In…

  7. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the North Sea from 2012-11-13 to 2012-11-15 (NCEI Accession 0157309)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157309 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from CEFAS ENDEAVOUR in the North Sea from 2012-11-13 to...

  8. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from G.O. SARS in the Norwegian Sea from 2008-11-13 to 2008-12-10 (NCEI Accession 0157353)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157353 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from G.O. SARS in the Norwegian Sea from 2008-11-13 to...

  9. Attachment and Parental Practices as Predictors of Behavioral Disorders in Boys and Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Adriana Neves Nunes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study’s objective was to investigate how two parental systems (attachment and parental practices interact to predict internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems in girls and boys. The Security Scale was administered to 289 children (mean age = 10.5 years, and 205 parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist and an instrument addressing parental practices. The results indicate that poor maternal attachment predicts aggression and delinquency in boys, while problems of this nature among girls are predicted by parental rejection and low behavioral control. Poor paternal attachment was the only predictor for social withdrawal and anxiety/depression in boys. A tendency of association between poor maternal attachment and social withdrawal was observed among girls, while low behavioral control and high psychological control predicted anxiety/depression. The results are discussed in terms of their contribution to understanding the complex relationship among gender, parental systems, and behavioral disorders.

  10. Cognitive profile in Duchenne muscular dystrophy boys without intellectual disability: The role of executive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battini, R; Chieffo, D; Bulgheroni, S; Piccini, G; Pecini, C; Lucibello, S; Lenzi, S; Moriconi, F; Pane, M; Astrea, G; Baranello, G; Alfieri, P; Vicari, S; Riva, D; Cioni, G; Mercuri, E

    2018-02-01

    The aim of our prospective observational study was to assess profiles of cognitive function and a possible impairment of executive functions in a cohort of boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy without intellectual and behavior disability. Forty Duchenne boys (range of age: 6 years to 11 years and 6 months) were assessed by Wechsler Intelligence scale and battery of tests including tasks assessing working memory and executive functions (inhibition and switching, problem solving and planning). In our cohort some aspects of cognitive function were often impaired. These included multitasking, problem solving, inhibition and working memory necessary to plan and direct goal oriented behavior. Our results support the suggestion that aspects of cognitive function could be impaired even in boys without intellectual disability and support the hypothesis that executive functions may play an important role in specific aspects of cognitive impairment in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Reducing injury risk from body checking in boys' youth ice hockey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Alison; Loud, Keith J; Brenner, Joel S; Demorest, Rebecca A; Halstead, Mark E; Kelly, Amanda K Weiss; Koutures, Chris G; LaBella, Cynthia R; LaBotz, Michele; Martin, Stephanie S; Moffatt, Kody

    2014-06-01

    Ice hockey is an increasingly popular sport that allows intentional collision in the form of body checking for males but not for females. There is a two- to threefold increased risk of all injury, severe injury, and concussion related to body checking at all levels of boys' youth ice hockey. The American Academy of Pediatrics reinforces the importance of stringent enforcement of rules to protect player safety as well as educational interventions to decrease unsafe tactics. To promote ice hockey as a lifelong recreational pursuit for boys, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends the expansion of nonchecking programs and the restriction of body checking to elite levels of boys' youth ice hockey, starting no earlier than 15 years of age.

  12. Implicit and Explicit Gender Beliefs in Spatial Ability: Stronger Stereotyping in Boys than Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Vander Heyden

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Sex differences in spatial ability are a seriously debated topic, given the importance of spatial ability for success in the fields of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM and girls’ underrepresentation in these domains. In the current study we investigated the presence of stereotypic gender beliefs on spatial ability (i.e., ‘spatial ability is for boys’ in 10- and 12-year-old children. We used both an explicit measure (i.e., a self-report questionnaire and an implicit measure (i.e., a child IAT. Results of the explicit measure showed that both sexes associated spatial ability with boys, with boys holding more male stereotyped attitudes than girls. On the implicit measure, boys associated spatial ability with boys, while girls were gender-neutral. In addition, we examined the effects of gender beliefs on spatial performance, by experimentally activating gender beliefs within a pretest – instruction – posttest design. We compared three types of instruction: boys are better, girls are better, and no sex differences. No effects of these gender belief instructions were found on children’s spatial test performance (i.e., mental rotation and paper folding. The finding that children of this age already have stereotypic beliefs about the spatial capacities of their own sex is important, as these beliefs may influence children’s choices for spatial leisure activities and educational tracks in the STEM domain.

  13. Implicit and Explicit Gender Beliefs in Spatial Ability: Stronger Stereotyping in Boys than Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Heyden, Karin M.; van Atteveldt, Nienke M.; Huizinga, Mariette; Jolles, Jelle

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences in spatial ability are a seriously debated topic, given the importance of spatial ability for success in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) and girls' underrepresentation in these domains. In the current study we investigated the presence of stereotypic gender beliefs on spatial ability (i.e., “spatial ability is for boys”) in 10- and 12-year-old children. We used both an explicit measure (i.e., a self-report questionnaire) and an implicit measure (i.e., a child IAT). Results of the explicit measure showed that both sexes associated spatial ability with boys, with boys holding more male stereotyped attitudes than girls. On the implicit measure, boys associated spatial ability with boys, while girls were gender-neutral. In addition, we examined the effects of gender beliefs on spatial performance, by experimentally activating gender beliefs within a pretest—instruction—posttest design. We compared three types of instruction: boys are better, girls are better, and no sex differences. No effects of these gender belief instructions were found on children's spatial test performance (i.e., mental rotation and paper folding). The finding that children of this age already have stereotypic beliefs about the spatial capacities of their own sex is important, as these beliefs may influence children's choices for spatial leisure activities and educational tracks in the STEM domain. PMID:27507956

  14. Emotion recognition pattern in adolescent boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspan, Nikoletta; Bozsik, Csilla; Gadoros, Julia; Nagy, Peter; Inantsy-Pap, Judit; Vida, Peter; Halasz, Jozsef

    2014-01-01

    Social and emotional deficits were recently considered as inherent features of individuals with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but only sporadic literature data exist on emotion recognition in adolescents with ADHD. The aim of the present study was to establish emotion recognition profile in adolescent boys with ADHD in comparison with control adolescents. Forty-four adolescent boys (13-16 years) participated in the study after informed consent; 22 boys had a clinical diagnosis of ADHD, while data were also assessed from 22 adolescent control boys matched for age and Raven IQ. Parent- and self-reported behavioral characteristics were assessed by the means of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. The recognition of six basic emotions was evaluated by the "Facial Expressions of Emotion-Stimuli and Tests." Compared to controls, adolescents with ADHD were more sensitive in the recognition of disgust and, worse in the recognition of fear and showed a tendency for impaired recognition of sadness. Hyperactivity measures showed an inverse correlation with fear recognition. Our data suggest that adolescent boys with ADHD have alterations in the recognition of specific emotions.

  15. HPA Axis Function Alters Development of Working Memory in Boys with FXS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Jessica F.; Hahn, Laura J.; Hooper, Stephen R.; Hatton, Deborah; Roberts, Jane E.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examines verbal working memory over time in boys with fragile X syndrome (FXS) compared to nonverbal mental-age (NVMA) matched, typically developing (TD) boys. Concomitantly, the relationship between cortisol—a physiological marker for stress—and verbal working memory performance over time is examined to understand the role of physiological mechanisms in cognitive development in FXS. Participants were assessed between one and three times over a 2-year time frame using two verbal working memory tests that differ in complexity: memory for words and auditory working memory with salivary cortisol collected at the beginning and end of each assessment. Multilevel modeling results indicate specific deficits over time on the memory for words task in boys with FXS compared to TD controls that is exacerbated by elevated baseline cortisol. Similar increasing rates of growth over time were observed for boys with FXS and TD controls on the more complex auditory working memory task, but only boys with FXS displayed an association of increased baseline cortisol and lower performance. This study highlights the benefit of investigations of how dynamic biological and cognitive factors interact and influence cognitive development over time. PMID:26760450

  16. Do correlates of HPV vaccine initiation differ between adolescent boys and girls?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilkey, Melissa B; Moss, Jennifer L; McRee, Annie-Laurie; Brewer, Noel T

    2012-09-07

    Guidelines now recommend that adolescents routinely receive human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. Because little is known about uptake among boys, we assessed HPV vaccine initiation in a population-based sample of adolescent boys and girls. We analyzed weighted data from 751 parents who reported on an 11- to 17-year-old son or daughter for the 2010 North Carolina Child Health Assessment and Monitoring Program survey. Stratified multivariate logistic regression analyses identified correlates of HPV vaccine initiation separately for boys and girls. Only 14% of sons had received one or more doses of HPV vaccine compared to 44% of daughters (pvaccine initiation correlated with age and having received meningococcal vaccine. Among sons, initiation of HPV vaccine was lower for those living in high income households (odds ratio [OR]=0.22, 95% CI, 0.09-0.53) and higher for those whose race was neither white nor black (OR=3.26, 95% CI, 1.06-10.04). When asked to give the main reason for not vaccinating their child against HPV, parents of unvaccinated sons were more likely than those of daughters to report not getting a provider's recommendation or not being aware that the vaccine was available for their child, but less likely to report concern about safety (pHPV vaccine. HPV vaccine correlates and concerns varied for parents of boys and girls. To improve very low levels of uptake among boys, providers should recommend HPV vaccine concomitant with other adolescent vaccines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Overdiagnosis of ADHD in boys: Stereotype impact on neuropsychological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresson, Megan; Meulemans, Thierry; Dardenne, Benoit; Geurten, Marie

    2018-02-12

    There is vigorous debate regarding the possibility that ADHD is overdiagnosed in boys. We investigated the impact of the gender stereotype depicting boys as inattentive and impulsive on neuropsychological assessment (observation of psychology students and child's cognitive performance). In experiment 1, after the stereotype was activated, psychology students rated a "boy," a "girl," or a "child" on a behavioral assessment scale. In experiment 2, 103 children (boys and girls) completed neuropsychological tasks under stereotype threat or neutral conditions. The gender stereotype led psychology students to assess a child's behaviors more negatively if they thought the child was a boy. Boys' performance on one cognitive score declined following stereotype threat. Regression path analyses suggested moderation by stigma consciousness. Additionally, there were mediating and suppressing (through stereotype endorsement) effects. Our results suggest that the gender stereotype might contribute to the overdiagnosis of ADHD in boys.

  18. Compositional analysis of muscle in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy using MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marden, Franklin A.; Siegel, Marilyn J.; Rubin, David A. [Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology at Washington University Medical Center, St. Louis (United States); Barnes-Jewish Hospital, Department of Radiology, St. Louis (United States); Connolly, Anne M. [St. Louis Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, St. Louis (United States); Barnes-Jewish Hospital, Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, 660 S. Euclid, Box 8111, St. Louis (United States)

    2005-03-01

    Boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) present by age 5 years with weakness and, untreated, stop walking unaided by age 10 or 11 years. We used magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to study age-related changes in the composition and distribution of diseased muscles. Eleven boys (mean 7.1{+-}1.6 years) with DMD underwent clinical and MR examinations. Quantitative muscle strength and timed functional testing was performed. Thigh muscles were scanned at three levels (hip, mid-thigh, and knee) using T1-weighted spin echo and short-tau inversion recovery (STIR) sequences. Outcome measures included intramuscular fatty infiltration, intermuscle fat deposition, edema, and muscle size. Ten boys completed the study. Older boys demonstrated more prominent fatty infiltration of muscles. Fatty infiltration occurred in a characteristic pattern with the gluteus and adductor magnus muscles most commonly involved and the gracilis most commonly spared. Similarly, patchy increases in free water content suggested a pattern of intramuscular edema or inflammation. Atrophy occurred in muscles heavily infiltrated with fat, and true hypertrophy selectively occurred in those that were spared. While fibrofatty changes have been described in DMD, this study further defines differential involvement and additionally suggests widespread edema or inflammation. Improved imaging techniques to quantify the degree and distribution of these changes may provide a basis for exploring mechanisms of action of medications and perhaps another means for selecting treatment regimens and monitoring their effects. (orig.)

  19. Compositional analysis of muscle in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy using MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marden, Franklin A.; Siegel, Marilyn J.; Rubin, David A.; Connolly, Anne M.

    2005-01-01

    Boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) present by age 5 years with weakness and, untreated, stop walking unaided by age 10 or 11 years. We used magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to study age-related changes in the composition and distribution of diseased muscles. Eleven boys (mean 7.1±1.6 years) with DMD underwent clinical and MR examinations. Quantitative muscle strength and timed functional testing was performed. Thigh muscles were scanned at three levels (hip, mid-thigh, and knee) using T1-weighted spin echo and short-tau inversion recovery (STIR) sequences. Outcome measures included intramuscular fatty infiltration, intermuscle fat deposition, edema, and muscle size. Ten boys completed the study. Older boys demonstrated more prominent fatty infiltration of muscles. Fatty infiltration occurred in a characteristic pattern with the gluteus and adductor magnus muscles most commonly involved and the gracilis most commonly spared. Similarly, patchy increases in free water content suggested a pattern of intramuscular edema or inflammation. Atrophy occurred in muscles heavily infiltrated with fat, and true hypertrophy selectively occurred in those that were spared. While fibrofatty changes have been described in DMD, this study further defines differential involvement and additionally suggests widespread edema or inflammation. Improved imaging techniques to quantify the degree and distribution of these changes may provide a basis for exploring mechanisms of action of medications and perhaps another means for selecting treatment regimens and monitoring their effects. (orig.)

  20. Features of the psycho-physiological status of boys in 9-10 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanenko V.A.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The problems of diagnosis of psycho-physiological status of boys in the prepubertal stage of their biological development is considered. The study involved 94 boys aged 9-10 years. They were assessed by parameters of physical development, the functional state of the nervous, cardio-respiratory, muscular and sensory systems and motor fitness, energy and properties of psychodynamics. It is shown that the failure of the approach to assess children's physical health on the grounds of their physical development. Children of this age are characterized by a lag in terms of static lung volume, and vice versa - ahead of age norms in the development of pulmonary ventilation function and resistance to hypoxia. Central hemodynamic parameters vary within age norms. From the observed dominance of neurodynamic mechanisms of excitation and response of advanced type. The established features of the psycho-physiological status, can be used as prognostic indicators in guiding children to sports activities.

  1. Low AMY1 Gene Copy Number Is Associated with Increased Body Mass Index in Prepubertal Boys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Loredana Marcovecchio

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies have identified more than 60 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with Body Mass Index (BMI. Additional genetic variants, such as copy number variations (CNV, have also been investigated in relation to BMI. Recently, the highly polymorphic CNV in the salivary amylase (AMY1 gene, encoding an enzyme implicated in the first step of starch digestion, has been associated with obesity in adults and children. We assessed the potential association between AMY1 copy number and a wide range of BMI in a population of Italian school-children.744 children (354 boys, 390 girls, mean age (±SD: 8.4±1.4years underwent anthropometric assessments (height, weight and collection of saliva samples for DNA extraction. AMY1 copies were evaluated by quantitative PCR.A significant increase of BMI z-score by decreasing AMY1 copy number was observed in boys (β: -0.117, p = 0.033, but not in girls. Similarly, waist circumference (β: -0.155, p = 0.003, adjusted for age was negatively influenced by AMY1 copy number in boys. Boys with 8 or more AMY1 copy numbers presented a significant lower BMI z-score (p = 0.04 and waist circumference (p = 0.01 when compared to boys with less than 8 copy numbers.In this pediatric-only, population-based study, a lower AMY1 copy number emerged to be associated with increased BMI in boys. These data confirm previous findings from adult studies and support a potential role of a higher copy number of the salivary AMY1 gene in protecting from excess weight gain.

  2. Recognition of Psychiatric Disorders, and Self-Perceived Problems. A Follow-up Study from Age 8 to Age 18

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sourander, Andre; Haavisto, Antti; Ronning, John A.; Multimaki, Petteri; Parkkola, Kai; Santalahti, Paivi; Nikolakaros, Georgios; Helenius, Hans; Moilanen, Irma; Tamminen, Tuula; Piha, Jorma; Kumpulainen, Kirsti; Almqvist, Fredrik

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the rate of, and factors associated with, recognition of psychiatric disorders and self-perceived problems among 18-year-old adolescent boys. Method: The study population consisted of 2347 Finnish boys born during 1981 attending military call-up (79.7% of the original sample). At age 8, the boys were evaluated by parental and…

  3. Biocultural Predictors of Motor Coordination Among Prepubertal Boys and Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Leonardo G O; Valente-Dos-Santos, João; Luz, Tatiana D D; Sousa-E-Silva, Paulo; Duarte, João P; Machado-Rodrigues, Aristides; Seabra, André; Santos, Rute; Cumming, Sean P; Coelho-E-Silva, Manuel J

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to predict motor coordination from a matrix of biocultural factors for 173 children (89 boys, 84 girls) aged 7-9 years who were assessed with the Körperkoordinationtest für Kinder test battery. Socioeconomic variables included built environment, area of residence, mother's educational level, and mother's physical activity level (using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire [short version]). The behavioral domain was marked by participation in organized sports and habitual physical activity measured by accelerometers ( ActiGraph GT1M). Indicators of biological development included somatic maturation and body mass index. Among males, the best logistic regression model to explain motor coordination (Nagelkerke R 2   = 50.8; χ 2  = 41.166; p motor coordination (Nagelkerke R 2   = 40.8; χ 2  = 29.933; p motor coordination proficiency may help promote physical activity during prepubertal years through familiar determinants.

  4. Intrafamily conflict in relation to boys' adjustment at school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingoldsby, E M; Shaw, D S; Garcia, M M

    2001-01-01

    Several theoretical models of child development have posited the spread of conflict within families; however, few researchers have studied this process in association with relationships children have with teachers and peers at school. The present study examined the direct, additive, and interactive contributions of interparental, parent-child, and sibling conflict in relation to teacher-child and child-peer conflict in a sample of 117 low-income boys from ages 3.5 to 6 years. Overall, the results suggest that while conflict in any one dyadic family relationship is only modestly associated with later conflictual relationships at school, risk for conflict in relationships with teachers and peers increases when multiple forms of early family conflict are experienced. Results are discussed in terms of the development of conflict across early relationships.

  5. Neutron dosimetry of the Little Boy device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pederson, R.A.; Plassmann, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    Neutron dose rates at several angular locations and at distances out to 0.5 mile have been measured during critical operation of the Little Boy replica. We used modified remmetes and thermoluminescent dosimetry techniques for the measurements. The present status of our analysis is presented including estimates of the neutron-dose-relaxation length in air and the variation of the neutron-to-gamma-ray dose ratio with distance from the replica. These results are preliminary and are subject to detector calibration measurements

  6. Sensational inventions by girls and boys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yeon Jung

    1999-05-01

    This book introduces the interesting and original inventions invented by girls and boys. These are the titles of the inventions : an antenna ruler, muscular strength machine with spring, items to remove sticky matter for advertisement, chair ladder for the disabled, useful control box for feeding bees, a portable carriage for dogs, a lid of ashtray, hot-air balloon using solar power, toy cannon for reports, hard badminton racket, tv cable and a distributor which are easy to install, device for car automatic parking, a cleanser for vegetables.

  7. Physical Activity in Boys With Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Is Lower and Less Demanding Compared to Healthy Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heutinck, Lotte; Kampen, Nadine van; Jansen, Merel; Groot, Imelda J M de

    2017-04-01

    This study describes the amount of physical activity and perception of physical activity in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) compared to healthy boys. A questionnaire described 6 domains of physical activity. Four Duchenne muscular dystrophy subgroups were made: early and late ambulatory, nonambulatory with relative good, or limited arm function. Eighty-four boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (15.0 ± 6.4 years) and 198 healthy boys (14.0 ± 4.3 years) participated. Daily activities were more passive for boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Physical activity was less and low demanding compared to healthy boys. It decreased with disease severity ( P Duchenne muscular dystrophy were having fun and making friends. Barriers were lack of sport facilities and insufficient health. This study helps to quantify poor engagement in physical activity by boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and demonstrates factors that contribute to it. Suggestions to stimulate physical activity are made.

  8. [Assessment of the dietary habits of short girls and boys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliga, Edyta

    2006-01-01

    The problem of body height deficiency, being the effect of undernutrition of children in developing countries, is widely described in the literature, whereas very little attention is devoted to the estimation of the nourishment of children and adolescents with a simple body height deficiency in developed countries. The purpose of the study was to estimate the nourishment of short-height girls and boys, with special regard to the realisation of the norms of daily demand for basic nutrients. The investigation included 60 subjects in two age groups: 10.5 and 13.5 years old. The body height of the investigated children was below 10 centile in relation to the development norms for a given age and gender. Estimations of nourishment were made with the use of an interview about the consumption in the last 24 hours. In 22% of the investigated, energy intake was found to be lower than 75% of the daily demand. The percentage of the realisation of the norm for mineral components amounted on average to: 38.6-56.7% for calcium; 49.2-77.4% for iron; 50.1-93.2% and 45.9-72.2% for zinc and copper, respectively. Hypovitaminosis was relatively much less marked in comparison with the deficiency of mineral components. A lower consumption of animal protein and vitamin C was noted among adolescents from rural areas. Among short girls and boys a frequent occurrence of deficiency of energy and mineral components (calcium, zinc, copper and iron) was found. The irregularly balanced diet could be the cause of a smaller body height in relation to peers among a considerable percentage of the investigated adolescents.

  9. Behavior of boys in kindergarten and the onset of substance use during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Màsse, L C; Tremblay, R E

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the usefulness of personality dimensions measured at ages 6 and 10 years in predicting early onset of cigarette smoking, alcohol abuse, and other drug use in boys. In addition, the stability of the prediction between the measurements at ages 6 and 10 years was investigated. Data from a large longitudinal study of boys were used to assess the relation between childhood personality and the onset of substance use from 10 to 15 years of age. Childhood personalities were assessed by teachers' ratings of behaviors. Self-reports of smoking cigarettes, getting drunk, and using other drugs provided the measurement of substance use. Discrete-time survival analysis was used for the statistical analyses. High novelty-seeking and low harm avoidance significantly predict early onset of substance use (eg, cigarettes, alcohol, and other drugs), but reward dependence was unrelated to any of the outcomes studied. The results also indicated that either set of predictors (ie, the personality dimensions measured at ages 6 and 10 years) could be used to predict onset of cigarette smoking, getting drunk, and other drug use, because the power of prediction was similar between the measurements at ages 6 and 10 years. High novelty-seeking and low harm avoidance lead to early onset of substance use in boys. The stability of the prediction between ages 6 and 10 years suggests that the kindergarten assessments may be used for preventive efforts at school entry instead of waiting until early adolescence.

  10. Successful aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillant, G E; Mukamal, K

    2001-06-01

    Until now, prospective studies of aging have begun with 50-60-year-olds, not adolescents. Premature death, childhood variables, and alcohol abuse have been often ignored, as has successful aging. The authors reviewed the existing literature on health in late life in order to highlight that, increasingly, successful aging is not an oxymoron. The present study followed two cohorts of adolescent boys (237 college students and 332 core-city youth) for 60 years or until death. Complete physical examinations were obtained every 5 years and psychosocial data every 2 years. Predictor variables assessed before age 50 included six variables reflecting uncontrollable factors: parental social class, family cohesion, major depression, ancestral longevity, childhood temperament, and physical health at age 50 and seven variables reflecting (at least some) personal control: alcohol abuse, smoking, marital stability, exercise, body mass index, coping mechanisms, and education. The six outcome variables chosen to assess successful aging at age 70-80 included four objectively assessed variables (physical health, death and disability before age 80, social supports, and mental health) and two self-rated variables (instrumental activities of daily living and life enjoyment). Multivariate analysis suggested that "good" and "bad" aging from age 70-80 could be predicted by variables assessed before age 50. More hopeful still, if the seven variables under some personal control were controlled, depression was the only uncontrollable predictor variable that affected the quality of subjective and objective aging. One may have greater personal control over one's biopsychosocial health after retirement than previously recognized.

  11. Salivary testosterone concentrations in pubertal ICSI boys compared with spontaneously conceived boys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belva, F.; Bonduelle, M.; Schiettecatte, J.; Tournaye, H.; Painter, R. C.; Devroey, P.; de Schepper, J.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To date, no data exist about Leydig cell function of pubertal boys born after ICSI. To evaluate a potential risk of gonadal dysfunction in children born from fathers with compromised fertility, testicular function was assessed by the measurement of salivary testosterone. METHODS: Morning

  12. Art, Boys, and the Boy Scout Movement: Lord Baden-Powell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, F. Graeme; Dancer, Andrea A.

    2007-01-01

    Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell (1857-1941), founder of the Boy Scout Movement in 1907, was a British military hero during the Boer War. Within an ethos and era of empire-building, athleticism, soldier-heroes and the pursuit of "manliness," Baden-Powell valued the arts and adapted his artistic skill to his wartime and Scouting activities. His…

  13. Language Comprehension in Boys with Fragile X Syndrome and Boys with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, J.; Roberts, J.; Vandergrift, N.; Martin, G.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common known inherited cause of intellectual disability, yet very few studies have explored the language comprehension skills of children with FXS. We examined the receptive vocabulary, grammatical morphology and syntax skills of boys with FXS (who were additionally classified as having autism,…

  14. Polymorphisms in JMJD1C are associated with pubertal onset in boys and reproductive function in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Nina; Busch, Alexander Siegfried; Bang, Anne Kirstine

    2017-01-01

    single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) nearby JMJD1C are associated with pubertal onset in boys and with male reproduction. 671 peri-pubertal boys, 1,027 young men, 315 fertile men, and 252 infertile men were genotyped for two JMJD1C SNPs (rs7910927 and rs10822184). rs7910927 and rs10822184 showed high...... linkage. Boys with the rs7910927 TT genotype entered puberty 3.6 months earlier than their peers (p = 2.5 × 10-2). In young men, the number of T alleles was associated with decreased levels of SHBG, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone, and testosterone x luteinizing hormone, as well...... on the age at pubertal onset in boys as well as levels of reproductive hormones and testis size in men, emphasizing the relationship between JMJD1C and reproductive functions....

  15. Callous unemotional traits, autism spectrum disorder symptoms and empathy in boys with oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijper, Jarla; de Wied, Minet; van Rijn, Sophie; van Goozen, Stephanie; Swaab, Hanna; Meeus, Wim

    2016-11-30

    This study examined additive and interactive effects of callous unemotional (CU) traits and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) symptoms in relation to trait empathy, in boys with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) or conduct disorder (CD). Participants were 49 boys with ODD/CD, aged between 7-12 years. Boys completed a questionnaire measure of empathic sadness and a broader questionnaire measure of affective and cognitive empathy. Parents and teachers reported on CU traits, and parents reported on ASD symptoms. In agreement with predictions, results reveal a negative association between CU traits and empathic sadness, particularly strong for ODD/CD boys with low levels of ASD symptoms. Results also reveal a negative association between ASD symptoms and cognitive empathy. Findings suggest that CU traits and ASD symptoms are associated with distinct empathy deficits with poor empathic sadness being more typical of CU traits than ASD symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of the Parent-Adolescent Relationship on Adolescent Boys' Body Image and Subjective Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Ofra; Shenaar-Golan, Vered

    2017-07-01

    Adolescent boys must cope with physical changes that hamper their ability to form a positive body image. Sociocultural messages influence the concepts of body image, personal appearance, and weight, encouraging men to develop lean and muscular bodies. The current study examined adolescent boys' body image and its relationship to their subjective well-being (SWB) and the effect of the parent-adolescent relationship on body image and SWB. Participating in the research were 107 adolescent boys in Israel, aged 13 to 18 years. Four questionnaires were utilized: demographic, body mass index, Body Investment Scale, and Personal Well-Being Index. The findings indicate a significant, medium positive correlation between SWB and body image. After controlling for the variable of parent-adolescent relationship, the correlation weakened, indicating that the parent-adolescent relationship has no effect on adolescent boys' SWB and body image. Body image was reported to be a predictor of SWB.

  17. Acute changes in substrate oxidation do not affect short-term food intake in healthy boys and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunschede, Sascha; El Khoury, Dalia; Antoine-Jonville, Sophie; Smith, Christopher; Thomas, Scott; Anderson, G Harvey

    2015-02-01

    The acute relationship between substrate oxidation as measured by respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and food intake (FI) has not been defined. The purpose of the study was to determine acute relationships between RER, modified by exercise and a glucose load, and FI and net energy balance (NEB) in physically active normal-weight boys and men. In a crossover design, 15 boys (aged 9-12 years) and 15 men (aged 20-30 years) were randomly assigned to 4 conditions: (i) water and rest, (ii) glucose-drink and rest, (iii) water and exercise, and (iv) glucose-drink and exercise. Indirect calorimetry was used to determine RER, energy expenditure, and carbohydrate and fat oxidation. Subjective appetite and blood glucose were also measured. RER was higher after glucose (0.91 ± 0.01) compared with water (0.87 ± 0.01) (p boys (0.88 ± 0.01) (p = 0.0002). FI (kcal·m(-2)) did not differ between boys and men. Glucose (582 ± 24 kcal·m(-2)) reduced FI compared with water (689 ± 25 kcal·m(-2)) (p boys and men, except in the control condition of resting with water. In conclusion, the short-term modification of substrate oxidation by glucose and/or exercise in normal weight and active boys and men did not affect FI and NEB.

  18. Blood Lead Levels and Delayed Onset of Puberty in a Longitudinal Study of Russian Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Paige L.; Sergeyev, Oleg; Lee, Mary M.; Korrick, Susan A.; Burns, Jane S.; Humblet, Olivier; DelPrato, Julie; Revich, Boris; Hauser, Russ

    2011-01-01

    Background World-wide trends towards earlier pubertal onset have raised concerns regarding the potential role of environmental exposures, including lead. Previous animal studies and studies in girls have revealed associations of lead with perturbations in pubertal onset. We evaluated the association of blood lead levels (BLLs) with pubertal onset in a longitudinal cohort of Russian boys. Methods 489 Russian boys were enrolled in 2003–2005 at ages 8–9 years and followed annually through May 2008. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the association of BLLs at enrollment with time to pubertal onset during follow-up based on testicular volume (TV) and pubertal staging, adjusting for birth characteristics, nutritional status, maternal exposures during pregnancy, height and BMI, and socioeconomic status. Results 481 boys had BLLs, with median=3 µg/dL and 28% ≥ 5 µg/dL. The percentage of pubertal boys increased with age, from 12% at age 8 to 83% at age 12 as defined by TV>3ml, from 22% to 90% as defined by genitalia stage 2 or higher, and from 4% to 40% as defined by pubic hair stage 2 or higher. After adjustment for potential confounders including BMI and height, boys with high BLLs (≥ 5 µg/dL) had a 24%–31% reduced risk of pubertal onset based on TV>3ml (Hazard Ratio (HR)= 0.73; 95% CI: 0.55, 0.97, p=0.03), genital staging (HR=0.76, 95% CI: 0.59, 0.98, p=0.04), and pubic hair staging (HR=0.69, 95% CI: 0.44, 1.07, p=0.10) as compared to those with lower lead levels. Pubertal onset occurred 6–8 months later on average for boys with high BLLs compared to those with BLLs < 5 µg/dL. Conclusions Higher blood lead was associated with later pubertal onset in this prospective study of peri-pubertal Russian boys. Given the large numbers of children with BLLs≥5 µg/dL worldwide, this shift has important public health implications and supports review of current lead policies. PMID:20368318

  19. Polymeric membrane neodymium(III)-selective electrode based on 11,13-diaza-4,7,12-trioxo-2(3),8(9)-dibenzoyl- cyclotetridecane-1,11-diene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra, Sulekh [Department of Chemistry, Zakir Husain College, University of Delhi, J.L.N. Marg, New Delhi, 110002 (India)], E-mail: schandra_00@yahoo.com; Singh, Dev Raj [Department of Chemistry, Zakir Husain College, University of Delhi, J.L.N. Marg, New Delhi, 110002 (India)

    2009-02-25

    We found that 11, 13-diaza-4, 7, 12-trioxo-2(3), 8(9)-dibenzoyl-cyclotetridecane-1, 11-diene (DATODBCT) can be used as an excellent ionophore in the construction of a novel neodymium(III) poly(vinylchloride) (PVC)-based membrane sensor. A membrane composition of 29% poly(vinylchloride), 59% dibutylphthalate (DBP), 9% DATODBCT and 3% sodiumtetrakis (p-chlorophenyl) borate (NaTpClPB), led to the optimum results. The Nd(III)-selectivity of the sensor, is relatively better as compared to a large number of lanthanide metal ions, such as lanthanum, gadolinium, samarium, dysprosium, praseodymium and ytterbium ions. The sensor response is Nernstian (with slope of 19.4 {+-} 0.3 mV per decade for the triply charged ion) over a wide concentration range (1.0 x 10{sup -8} to 1.0 x 10{sup -1} mol L{sup -1}) with a detection limit of 8.0 x 10{sup -7} mol L{sup -1}, a relatively fast response time, in the whole concentration range (<15 s), and a considerable life time at least for seven weeks in the pH range of 3.0-7.0.

  20. Polymeric membrane neodymium(III)-selective electrode based on 11,13-diaza-4,7,12-trioxo-2(3),8(9)-dibenzoyl- cyclotetridecane-1,11-diene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, Sulekh; Singh, Dev Raj

    2009-01-01

    We found that 11, 13-diaza-4, 7, 12-trioxo-2(3), 8(9)-dibenzoyl-cyclotetridecane-1, 11-diene (DATODBCT) can be used as an excellent ionophore in the construction of a novel neodymium(III) poly(vinylchloride) (PVC)-based membrane sensor. A membrane composition of 29% poly(vinylchloride), 59% dibutylphthalate (DBP), 9% DATODBCT and 3% sodiumtetrakis (p-chlorophenyl) borate (NaTpClPB), led to the optimum results. The Nd(III)-selectivity of the sensor, is relatively better as compared to a large number of lanthanide metal ions, such as lanthanum, gadolinium, samarium, dysprosium, praseodymium and ytterbium ions. The sensor response is Nernstian (with slope of 19.4 ± 0.3 mV per decade for the triply charged ion) over a wide concentration range (1.0 x 10 -8 to 1.0 x 10 -1 mol L -1 ) with a detection limit of 8.0 x 10 -7 mol L -1 , a relatively fast response time, in the whole concentration range (<15 s), and a considerable life time at least for seven weeks in the pH range of 3.0-7.0

  1. Prefrontal and occipital asymmetry and volume in boys with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaus, Tracey A; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Mock, Jeffrey; Dauterive, Rachel; Foundas, Anne L

    2012-12-01

    To examine prefrontal and occipital asymmetry (brain torque) in boys with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and controls. A secondary aim was to study age-related changes in gray and white matter volume. Several studies have found atypical early cortical development in ASD. Atypical brain torque, defined as a greater-than-normal left prefrontal and right occipital asymmetry, has been found in some studies of children and adults with ASD. This configuration may be an early neural marker of ASD risk. We studied 24 right-handed boys with ASD and 27 typically developing right-handed boys, 7 to 15 years old, obtaining neuropsychological profiles and measuring prefrontal and occipital volumes on magnetic resonance images. Most participants had the expected rightward prefrontal and leftward occipital asymmetry, with no group differences in direction or degree of asymmetry. We found a trend toward larger prefrontal volume in the ASD group than in the controls. The controls also had a trend toward differences in age associations, correlating with total and left prefrontal white matter volumes. Our findings suggest that atypical brain torque may not be a neural signature of ASD, although our sample was limited to high-functioning, right-handed boys. Our results provide support for aberrant cortical development in ASD, continuing into adolescence, with prefrontal regions being disproportionally affected.

  2. Beyond Boys' Bad Behavior: Paternal Incarceration and Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskins, Anna R

    2016-12-07

    A growing number of American school-aged children have incarcerated or formally incarcerated parents necessitating a more comprehensive understanding of the intergenerational effects of mass imprisonment. Using the Fragile Families Study, I assess whether having an incarcerated father impacts children's cognitive skill development into middle childhood. While previous studies have primarily found effects for boys' behavior problems, matching models and sensitivity analyses demonstrate that experiencing paternal incarceration by age 9 is associated with lower cognitive skills for both boys and girls and these negative effects hold net of a pre-paternal incarceration measure of child cognitive ability. Moreover, I estimate that paternal incarceration explains between 2 and 15 percent of the Black-White achievement gap at age 9. These findings represent new outcomes of importance and suggest that paternal incarceration may play an even larger role in the production of intergenerational inequalities for American children than previously documented.

  3. Determinants of muscle metaboreflex and involvement of baroreflex in boys and young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipla, Konstantina; Papadopoulos, Stavros; Zafeiridis, Andreas; Kyparos, Antonios; Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Vrabas, Ioannis S

    2013-04-01

    This study aimed to assess the arterial pressure (AP) determinants during the muscle metaboreflex in boys and men and to investigate the contribution of baroreflex and sympathovagal function to the metaboreflex-induced responses. Fourteen pre-adolescent boys and 13 men performed a protocol involving: baseline, isometric handgrip exercise, circulatory occlusion, and recovery. The same protocol was repeated without occlusion. During baseline, boys had lower beat-to-beat AP, higher heart rate (HR), and lower low/high frequency HR variability. During exercise, a parasympathetic withdrawal was evident in both groups. In adults, HR was the key contributor to the pressure response, with no changes in stroke volume, whereas in boys, the lower HR increase was counterbalanced by an increase in stroke volume, resulting in similar relative increases in AP in both groups. In recovery, boys exhibited a faster rate of HR-decay, rapid vagal reactivation, and greater decrease in TPR than men. An overshoot in baroreceptor sensitivity was observed in men. The isolated metaboreflex resulted in a similar AP elevation in both age groups (by ~15 mmHg), and attenuated spontaneous baroreceptor sensitivity. However, during the metaboreflex, pre-adolescent males exhibited a lower increase in peripheral resistance and a greater bradycardic response than adults, and a fast restoration of vagal activity to non-occlusion levels. During metaboreflex, boys were capable of eliciting a pressure response similar to the one elicited by men; however, the interplay of the mechanisms underlying the rise in AP differed between the two groups with the vagal contribution being greater in the younger participants.

  4. Genetic polymorphisms related to testosterone metabolism in intellectually gifted boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celec, Peter; Tretinárová, Denisa; Minárik, Gabriel; Ficek, Andrej; Szemes, Tomáš; Lakatošová, Silvia; Schmidtová, Eva; Turňa, Ján; Kádaši, Ľudevít; Ostatníková, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Prepubertal testosterone levels are lower in intellectually gifted boys. The aim of this pilot study was to analyze potential genetic factors related to testosterone metabolism in control and gifted boys. Intellectually gifted (IQ>130; n = 95) and control (n = 67) boys were genotyped. Polymorphisms of interests were chosen in genes including androgen and estrogen receptors, 5-alpha reductase, aromatase and sex hormone binding globulin. Significant differences between control and gifted boys in genotype distributions were found for ESR2 (rs928554) and SHBG (rs1799941). A significantly lower number of CAG repeats in the AR gene were found in gifted boys. Our results support the role of genetic factors related to testosterone metabolism in intellectual giftedness. Increased androgen signaling might explain previous results of lower testosterone levels in intellectually gifted boys and add to the understanding of variability in cognitive abilities.

  5. [Status of penis and testicular development and effects of overweight/obesity on them in boys in the Zhengzhou area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yao-Dong; Tan, Li-Na; Luo, Shu-Ying; Chen, Yong-Xing; Wei, Hai-Yan

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the current status of penis and testicular development in boys and the effects of overweight/obesity on their development in the Zhengzhou area of Henan Province. Height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, penis length and testicular volume were measured in 3 546 4 to 12-year-old boys. The penis length and testicular volume were compared between the overweight/obesity and normal weight groups. Before 9 years of age, the testicular volume was progressively smaller, and after 9 years old, it gradually increased. By the age of 11, it increased rapidly. The penis length increased gradually between 4 and 11 years of age, and after the age of 11 it increased rapidly. Phimosis was found in 144 cases (4.01%) and cryptorchidism was found in 18 cases (0.51%). A total of 639 (18.02%) boys were overweight or obese among 3 546 boys. At the ages of 6 and 7 years, the testicular volume in the overweight/obesity group was greater than in the normal control group (Ppenis length in the overweight/obesity group was significantly shorter than in the normal control group (Ppenis length at the ages of 7 and 8 years was negatively correlated with weight, waist circumference and hip circumference. By the age of 12 years, the penis length was positively correlated with the height. The development of penis and testicles in boys in the Zhengzhou area is in line with the level of sex development of Chinese boys. Overweight/obesity adversely affects the development of penis and testicles.

  6. Coding task performance in early adolescence: A large-scale controlled study into boy-girl differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne eDekker

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examined differences between boys and girls regarding efficiency of information processing in early adolescence. 306 healthy adolescents (50.3% boys in grade 7 and 9 (aged 13 and 15 respectively performed a coding task based on over-learned symbols. An age effect was revealed as subjects in grade 9 performed better than subjects in grade 7. Main effects for sex were found in the advantage of girls. The 25% best-performing students comprised twice as many girls as boys. The opposite pattern was found for the worst performing 25%. In addition, a main effect was found for educational track in favor of the highest track. No interaction effects were found. School grades did not explain additional variance in LDST performance. This indicates that cognitive performance is relatively independent from school performance. Student characteristics like age, sex and education level were more important for efficiency of information processing than school performance. The findings imply that after age 13, efficiency of information processing is still developing and that girls outperform boys in this respect. The findings provide new information on the mechanisms underlying boy-girl differences in scholastic performance.

  7. The History Boys on Contemporary Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Bregović

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Alan Bennett’s play The History Boys provides different perspectives of the educational system, which are reflected in different teaching techniques used by the fictional teachers. The play reflects the clash between two ways of producing legitimacy for education – the modern that relies on grand narratives, and the postmodern that relies on performativity and profitability. The issues raised by Bennett concern the changes in the educational system triggered by reforms introduced in the 1980s that were perceived as a gradual commodification of education. Changes in educational policy governed by neoliberal logic continue to have great impact on contemporary education with the introduction of the Bologna process. The only female teacher in Bennett’s play Mrs Lintott, offers a feminist critique of the system of education as well.Keywords: Alan Bennett, The History Boys, neoliberalism, education, commodificationSet during the rule of Margaret Thatcher in England, Alan Bennett’s play The History Boys reflects the changes in educational policy and strategies at that period (Jacobi, 76, and raises many issues about the nature of education and knowledge that remain important even today. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate two ways of producing legitimacy for knowledge that can be detected in Bennett’s work: the modern that relies on grand narratives and the postmodern that uses performativity as the crucial criterion of legitimacy. In the play, the clash of the two ways of producing legitimacy is represented as the clash of teaching methods employed by different teachers and is most evident in opposing ideas about knowledge espoused by the teacher of general studies Hector and the history teacher Irwin. New ways of producing legitimacy need to be analyzed in the context of the changes in social and political reality that started in the 1980s and continue to have great impact on contemporary education with the introduction of the

  8. Area-based socioeconomic factors and Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among teen boys in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Kevin A; Swiecki-Sikora, Allison L; Stroup, Antoinette M; Warner, Echo L; Kepka, Deanna

    2017-07-14

    This study is the first to examine associations between several area-based socioeconomic factors and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake among boys in the United States (U.S.). Data from the 2012-2013 National Immunization Survey-Teen restricted-use data were analyzed to examine associations of HPV vaccination initiation (receipt of ≥1 dose) and series completion (receipt of three doses) among boys aged 13-17 years (N = 19,518) with several individual-level and ZIP Code Tabulation Area (ZCTA) census measures. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of HPV vaccination initiation and series completion separately. In 2012-2013 approximately 27.9% (95% CI 26.6%-29.2%) of boys initiated and 10.38% (95% CI 9.48%-11.29%) completed the HPV vaccine series. Area-based poverty was not statistically significantly associated with HPV vaccination initiation. It was, however, associated with series completion, with boys living in high-poverty areas (≥20% of residents living below poverty) having higher odds of completing the series (AOR 1.22, 95% CI 1.01-1.48) than boys in low-poverty areas (0-4.99%). Interactions between race/ethnicity and ZIP code-level poverty indicated that Hispanic boys living in high-poverty areas had a statistically significantly higher odds of  HPV vaccine initiation (AOR 1.43, 95% CI 1.03-1.97) and series completion (AOR 1.56, 95% CI 1.05-2.32)  than Hispanic boys in  low-poverty areas. Non-Hispanic Black boys in high poverty areas had higher odds of initiation (AOR 2.23, 95% CI 1.33-3.75) and completion (AOR 2.61, 95% CI 1.06-6.44) than non-Hispanic Black boys in low-poverty areas. Rural/urban residence and population density were also significant factors, with boys from urban or densely populated areas having higher odds of initiation and completion compared to boys living in non-urban, less densely populated areas. Higher HPV vaccination coverage in urban areas and among racial/ethnic minorities in areas with

  9. Iatrogenic Cushing's Disease in a Boy after Misdiagnosis of Salt-Losing Virilizing Adrenal Hyperplasia: Impaired Metyrapone Response with Failure of Catch-Up Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendilaharzu, Hernan; And Others

    1973-01-01

    A boy misdiagnosed as having the sodium-losing form of virilizing adrenal hyperplasia was treated with large doses of glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids from the newborn period until he was more than 4 years of age. (Author)

  10. Volleyball and Basketball Enhanced Bone Mass in Prepubescent Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouch, Mohamed; Chaari, Hamada; Zribi, Anis; Bouajina, Elyès; Vico, Laurence; Alexandre, Christian; Zaouali, Monia; Ben Nasr, Hela; Masmoudi, Liwa; Tabka, Zouhair

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of volleyball and basketball practice on bone acquisition and to determine which of these 2 high-impact sports is more osteogenic in prepubertal period. We investigated 170 boys (aged 10-12 yr, Tanner stage I): 50 volleyball players (VB), 50 basketball players (BB), and 70 controls. Bone mineral content (BMC, g) and bone area (BA, cm(2)) were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at different sites. We found that, both VB and BB have a higher BMC at whole body and most weight-bearing and nonweight-bearing sites than controls, except the BMC in head which was lower in VB and BB than controls. Moreover, only VB exhibited greater BMC in right and left ultra-distal radius than controls. No significant differences were observed between the 3 groups in lumbar spine, femoral neck, and left third D radius BMC. Athletes also exhibited a higher BA in whole body, limbs, lumbar spine, and femoral region than controls. In addition, they have a similar BA in head and left third D radius with controls. The VB exhibited a greater BA in most radius region than controls and a greater femoral neck BA than BB. A significant positive correlation was reported between total lean mass and both BMC and BA in whole body, lumbar spine, total hip, and right whole radius among VB and BB. In summary, we suggest that volleyball and basketball have an osteogenic effect BMC and BA in loaded sites in prepubescent boys. The increased bone mass induced by both volleyball and basketball training in the stressed sites was associated to a decreased skull BMC. Moreover, volleyball practice produces a more sensitive mechanical stress in loaded bones than basketball. This effect seems translated by femoral neck expansion. Copyright © 2016 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Acute Sleep Restriction Reduces Insulin Sensitivity in Adolescent Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingenberg, Lars; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Holmbäck, Ulf; Visby, Trine; Jennum, Poul; Nikolic, Miki; Astrup, Arne; Sjödin, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Background: Short sleep duration has been linked to impaired glucose metabolism in many experimental studies. Moreover, studies have reported indications of an increased metabolic stress following sleep restriction. Objective: We aimed to investigate the effects of partial sleep deprivation on markers of glucose metabolism. Additionally, we aimed to investigate if short sleep duration induces a state of endocrine stress. Design: A randomized crossover design, with 2 experimental conditions: 3 consecutive nights of short sleep (SS, 4 h/night) and long sleep (LS, 9 h/night) duration. Subjects and Measurements: In 21 healthy, normal-weight male adolescents (mean ± SD age: 16.8 ± 1.3 y) we measured pre- and post-prandial glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and glucagon concentrations. Furthermore, we measured fasting cortisol, 24-h catecholamines, and sympathovagal balance. Results: Fasting insulin was 59% higher (P = 0.001) in the SS than the LS condition as was both fasting (24%, P sleep duration, whereas 24-h epinephrine was 24% lower (P = 0.013) in the SS condition. Neither daytime nor 24-h sympathovagal balance differed between sleep conditions. Short wave sleep was preserved in the SS condition. Conclusion: Short-term sleep restriction is associated with decreased insulin sensitivity in healthy normal-weight adolescent boys. There were no indications of endocrine stress beyond this. Citation: Klingenberg L; Chaput JP; Holmbäck U; Visby T; Jennum P; Nikolic M; Astrup A; Sjödin A. Acute Sleep Restriction Reduces Insulin Sensitivity in Adolescent Boys. SLEEP 2013;36(7):1085-1090. PMID:23814346

  12. Late urodynamic findings after treating traumatic rupture of the posterior urethra in boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otgün, Ibrahim; Karnak, Ibrahim; Senocak, Mehmet Emin; Tanyel, Feridun Cahit; Ciftci, Arbay Ozden; Büyükpamukçu, Nebil

    2006-02-01

    To investigate lower urinary tract (LUT) functions in a prospective study in boys treated for posterior urethral distraction (PUD), as posterior urethral stricture, erectile dysfunction and incontinence can occur after various treatments for this rare injury in children. Eleven boys were treated for PUD and resultant stricture between 1980 and 2000. Their age, the cause of trauma, extent of injury, previous treatment, and continence status were evaluated, and a urodynamic study conducted. Controls were 12 age-matched males who underwent similar cystometrography (CMG) and uroflowmetry. The mean (SD) age at injury was 8 (4) years and the cause was traffic accident in nine and crush injury in two boys. Seven boys had an isolated urethral rupture, two also had a bladder neck injury and two also had a perforated bladder. No gross neurological impairment developed after trauma. Voiding cysto-urethrograms after initial therapy showed vesico-ureteric reflux in five boys, but in only one at the time of the urodynamic studies. At the time of urodynamic study, the mean (SD) age of the patients was 15 (6) years; seven were fully continent, one had intermittent leakage, two were incontinent, and one had nocturnal enuresis. CMG-electromyography (EMG) showed a reduced maximum cystometric capacity in nine patients, reduced compliance in 10, stable detrusor in 11, synergic detrusor-sphincter activity in 11, and residual urine in one. The uroflowmetry-EMG study showed prolonged voiding time and flow time, decreased maximum flow urinary rate (Q(max)) and mean flow rate (Q(avg)). The shape of the flow curve showed an uninterrupted low-amplitude pattern. Comparing these patients with age-matched controls, CMG and uroflowmetry studies showed that the maximum cystometric bladder capacity, compliance, Q(max) and Q(avg) were all significantly lower in patients with PUD, while voiding time and flow time were significantly higher. The LUT deteriorates after treating PUD in boys. CMG and

  13. Trend in eating habits among Lithuanian school-aged children in context of social inequality: three cross-sectional surveys 2002, 2006 and 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaborskis Apolinaras

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intermittent monitoring of food intake at the population level is essential for the planning and evaluation of national dietary intervention programs. Social-economic changes in Lithuania have likely affected dietary habits, but only a limited number of temporal studies on food intake trends among young population groups have been published. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in eating habits among Lithuanian school-aged children from 2002 to 2010, and to explore the association of these changes with the respondents' reported socio-economic status (SES. Methods We used Lithuanian data from the cross-national Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC study collected in 2002, 2006 and 2010. Analyses were conducted on comparable questionnaire-based data from children aged 11, 13 and 15 (total n = 17,189 from a random sample of schools. A food frequency questionnaire was used to investigate frequencies of food consumption. Logistic regression was used to examine the affects of changing social variables on reported diet trends. Results In Lithuania, school-aged children have low intakes of fruits and vegetables. Only 21.1% of boys and 27.1% of girls reported daily fruit consumption. Similarly, 24.9% of boys and 29.6% of girls disclosed vegetable intake at least once daily. Comparing 2010 to 2002, the proportion of girls who consumed fruits daily increased from 24.2% to 31.0% (p Conclusions Based on the food consumption trends observed in Lithuania, increases in consumption of fruits and vegetables should be promoted, along with a reduction in the intake of less healthy choices, such as soft drinks and high-fat, high-sugar snack foods, by diminishing social inequalities in food consumption.

  14. Genome-wide search for QTLs for apolipoprotein A-I level in elderly Swedish DZ twins: evidence of female-specific locus on 15q11-13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Patrik K E; Boman, Marcus; de Faire, Ulf; Perola, Markus; Peltonen, Leena; Pedersen, Nancy L

    2008-09-01

    The effect of genetic variants underlying atherosclerosis is thought to be mediated through intermediate phenotypes such as serum cholesterol levels. Localization of quantitative trait loci influencing levels of serum lipids and (apo)lipoproteins may aid in the search for determinants of susceptibility to atherosclerotic diseases. Since apolipoprotein A-I is the primary protein constituent of high-density lipoprotein, it is considered to be critical for the antiatherogenic effect of high-density lipoproteins. We describe here an effort to map loci influencing apolipoprotein A-I levels. Measurements of apolipoprotein A-I levels and genome scans with more than 1000 microsatellite markers were successfully performed in both members of 501 pairs of fraternal twins from Sweden. Variance component linkage analysis was undertaken to map quantitative trait loci. In the total study sample, two loci showed comparable suggestive evidence of linkage, 6p21-12 (LOD=2.4) and 12q23 (LOD=2.4). Sex-limited analyses revealed significant female-specific linkage at marker D15S156 on 15q11-13 (LOD=4.1). The loci on 12q and 15q in the present study confirm previously reported loci for apolipoprotein A-I, while the peak on chromosome 6p lends further support to a locus influencing several phenotypes related to atherosclerosis. Intriguingly, the presence of genes belonging to the phospholipase A2 superfamily under three out of four observed linkage peaks would lend some support to the view that this group of genes might collectively represent candidates as apolipoprotein A-I level regulators.

  15. History of Depression and Frontostriatal Connectivity during Reward Processing in Late Adolescent Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Judith K.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Olino, Thomas M.; Musselman, Samuel C.; Kurapati, Nikhil T.; Forbes, Erika E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Given that depression in men is associated with risk for seriously adverse consequences, evaluating how putative neural mechanisms of depression—such as reward-related frontostriatal connectivity—may be altered in late adolescent boys with a history of depression is an important research aim. Adolescents and adults with depression have been demonstrated to show blunted striatal response and heightened medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) activation to winning reward. Function in reward circuits appears to be best understood as coordination of regions within frontostriatal circuitry, and alterations to this circuitry could occur in those with a history of depression. Method The current study evaluated functional connectivity between the nucleus accumbens and mPFC in a sample of 166 ethnically-diverse boys with and without a history of depression. Participants completed an fMRI monetary reward paradigm at age 20. Lifetime history of depression and other psychiatric illnesses was measured prospectively and longitudinally, using structured clinical interviews at 7 time points from ages 8 to 20. Results Boys with a history of depression showed heightened positive connectivity between the nucleus accumbens and the mPFC relative to boys with no psychiatric history when winning rewards relative to losing rewards. This altered frontostriatal connectivity pattern was also associated with greater number of depressive episodes in the boys’ lifetime. Conclusions History of depression in late adolescent boys may be associated with altered coordination between the nucleus accumbens and mPFC when winning reward. This coordination could reflect over-signaling of the mPFC to dampen typical VS response or enhance weak VS response. PMID:25915469

  16. Correlations between gene expression and mercury levels in blood of boys with and without autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamova, Boryana; Green, Peter G; Tian, Yingfang; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Pessah, Isaac N; Hansen, Robin; Yang, Xiaowei; Teng, Jennifer; Gregg, Jeffrey P; Ashwood, Paul; Van de Water, Judy; Sharp, Frank R

    2011-01-01

    Gene expression in blood was correlated with mercury levels in blood of 2- to 5-year-old boys with autism (AU) compared to age-matched typically developing (TD) control boys. This was done to address the possibility that the two groups might metabolize toxicants, such as mercury, differently. RNA was isolated from blood and gene expression assessed on whole genome Affymetrix Human U133 expression microarrays. Mercury levels were measured using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was performed and partial correlations between gene expression and mercury levels were calculated, after correcting for age and batch effects. To reduce false positives, only genes shared by the ANCOVA models were analyzed. Of the 26 genes that correlated with mercury levels in both AU and TD boys, 11 were significantly different between the groups (P(Diagnosis*Mercury) ≤ 0.05). The expression of a large number of genes (n = 316) correlated with mercury levels in TD but not in AU boys (P ≤ 0.05), the most represented biological functions being cell death and cell morphology. Expression of 189 genes correlated with mercury levels in AU but not in TD boys (P ≤ 0.05), the most represented biological functions being cell morphology, amino acid metabolism, and antigen presentation. These data and those in our companion study on correlation of gene expression and lead levels show that AU and TD children display different correlations between transcript levels and low levels of mercury and lead. These findings might suggest different genetic transcriptional programs associated with mercury in AU compared to TD children.

  17. The changing sexual attitudes of boys in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew-starowicz, Z

    1990-12-01

    Until relatively recently, boys in Poland, especially in rural areas, were encouraged to have sex before marriage, while girls were expected to remain virgin until their wedding day or at least until they were engaged to be married. Many boys therefore had sex with girls they did not intend to marry, and abstained from sex with the women they hoped to have as wives. That arrangement was accepted by both boys' parents and boys' prospective wives. Women's emancipation, migration, and changing gender roles during the 1970s, however, affected sexual attitudes and behaviors. Girls grew more sexually active and the importance of virginity decreased. Tensions between the sexes subsequently increased as folk and romantic models were replaced by the partnership model and greater adherence to Catholic sexual ethics. The increased tension is readily seen via the growing number of boys with sexual problems. Approximately 90% of boys masturbate, generally without guilt. Almost 50% of 17 year old boys in Poland have had intimate sexual contact. It is common for boys' first act of sexual intercourse to occur after consuming alcohol and generally without the use of contraception. During first sexual contacts and throughout their premarital period, 40% of boys practice coitus interruptus and 38% use no method of contraception at all. An inability among the majority of boys to find willing sex partners after their first sexual intercourse causes them by necessity to not continue having sex immediately after initiation and also to engage in sex with other boys and men. The author notes that alcohol consumption among boys prior to having sex may be their way of overcoming the fear of women, and that some boys expect their female partners to be maternal. Contraception is not widely used because methods are not well known or rejected often for religious reasons. Many young people get married as a result of unplanned premarital pregnancy. Perceiving no common threat from HIV/AIDS due to

  18. Child abuse, disruptive behavior disorders, depression, and salivary cortisol levels among institutionalized and community-residing boys in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohrt, Brandon A; Hruschka, Daniel J; Kohrt, Holbrook E; Carrion, Victor G; Waldman, Irwin D; Worthman, Carol M

    2015-03-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity is related to childhood disruptive behavior disorders and to exposure to abuse and neglect. This study explores the relationship of diurnal salivary cortisol levels with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and caregiver attitudes toward physical punishment among boys in Mongolia. Salivary cortisol was collected in the home or institution 4 times daily for 4 days from 46 boys, aged 4-10 years, in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. Caregivers rated child disruptive behavior symptoms, attitudes toward physical punishment, and community violence exposures. Mixed effects models were used to estimate the association of psychopathology and caregiver attitudes with salivary cortisol levels. Boys meeting criteria for ODD displayed consistently lower diurnal salivary cortisol levels compared to boys without ODD diagnoses. Controlling for ODD diagnosis, boys with depression showed higher cortisol levels throughout the day. No other diagnosis was associated with cortisol levels. Psychiatric diagnosis accounted for 17% of between individual variations in cortisol levels unexplained by the covariates. In a separate model, caregivers' beliefs regarding physical punishment accounted for 11% of between individual differences: boys with caregivers who stated physical punishment was necessary for discipline displayed hypocortisolism. Institutionalization did not associate with cortisol levels. Salivary cortisol data from a non-Western naturalistic setting support an association of reduced basal HPA activity with disruptive behavior disorders and caregiver attitudes toward discipline. These findings suggest HPA functioning may be a reflection of or mediate disruptive behavior disorders in children across ethnic and cultural settings. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Gender-Differentiated Parenting Revisited: Meta-Analysis Reveals Very Few Differences in Parental Control of Boys and Girls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce J Endendijk

    Full Text Available Although various theories describe mechanisms leading to differential parenting of boys and girls, there is no consensus about the extent to which parents do treat their sons and daughters differently. The last meta-analyses on the subject were conducted more than fifteen years ago, and changes in gender-specific child rearing in the past decade are quite plausible. In the current set of meta-analyses, based on 126 observational studies (15,034 families, we examined mothers' and fathers' differential use of autonomy-supportive and controlling strategies with boys and girls, and the role of moderators related to the decade in which the study was conducted, the observational context, and sample characteristics. Databases of Web of Science, ERIC, PsychInfo, Online Contents, Picarta, and Proquest were searched for studies examining differences in observed parental control of boys and girls between the ages of 0 and 18 years. Few differences were found in parents' use of control with boys and girls. Parents were slightly more controlling with boys than with girls, but the effect size was negligible (d = 0.08. The effect was larger, but still small, in normative groups and in samples with younger children. No overall effect for gender-differentiated autonomy-supportive strategies was found (d = 0.03. A significant effect of time emerged: studies published in the 1970s and 1980s reported more autonomy-supportive strategies with boys than toward girls, but from 1990 onwards parents showed somewhat more autonomy-supportive strategies with girls than toward boys. Taking into account parents' gender stereotypes might uncover subgroups of families where gender-differentiated control is salient, but based on our systematic review of the currently available large data base we conclude that in general the differences between parenting of boys versus girls are minimal.

  20. An exploration of the value of social interaction in a boys' group for adolescents with muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkyn, H; Coveney, J

    2013-01-01

      Engagement in peer-based social activities is a normal and important aspect of adolescence. Adolescent boys with muscular dystrophy typically lack opportunities for participation in peer-based recreation and socialization activities. 'MD Mafia' is a group which aims to reduce social isolation and offer social and recreational opportunities for adolescent boys with muscular dystrophy. This research is a qualitative exploration of the value of 'MD Mafia' and seeks to answer the question: "what does the experience of participating in 'MD Mafia', a group for adolescent boys with muscular dystrophy, mean to the boys and their parents?".   This research sought the views of the boys who participate in MD Mafia and their parents. The sample included seven boys and four mothers. Data collection methods included creative group activities, specifically chosen to match the participants' age, interests and skills, and online data collection. The theoretical perspective of symbolic interactionism guided the theoretical analysis of the data.   Analysis of the data provided a description of the meaning and value of 'MD Mafia' from the participants' perspective. MD Mafia has a strong collective identity, which reflects ideals of masculinity and common interests. The group provides much valued opportunity for socialization in a safe and familiar environment, but parents also felt that MD Mafia could offer greater opportunities for skill development by increasing the challenge level of the activities and social environment. The theoretical analysis provides insight into the value of social interactions between participants in a group which has had positive implications for the boys as individuals and for MD Mafia as a group.   The research supports a group model of service delivery for boys with muscular dystrophy and has implications for the development of the group into the future. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Gender-Differentiated Parenting Revisited: Meta-Analysis Reveals Very Few Differences in Parental Control of Boys and Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endendijk, Joyce J; Groeneveld, Marleen G; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Mesman, Judi

    2016-01-01

    Although various theories describe mechanisms leading to differential parenting of boys and girls, there is no consensus about the extent to which parents do treat their sons and daughters differently. The last meta-analyses on the subject were conducted more than fifteen years ago, and changes in gender-specific child rearing in the past decade are quite plausible. In the current set of meta-analyses, based on 126 observational studies (15,034 families), we examined mothers' and fathers' differential use of autonomy-supportive and controlling strategies with boys and girls, and the role of moderators related to the decade in which the study was conducted, the observational context, and sample characteristics. Databases of Web of Science, ERIC, PsychInfo, Online Contents, Picarta, and Proquest were searched for studies examining differences in observed parental control of boys and girls between the ages of 0 and 18 years. Few differences were found in parents' use of control with boys and girls. Parents were slightly more controlling with boys than with girls, but the effect size was negligible (d = 0.08). The effect was larger, but still small, in normative groups and in samples with younger children. No overall effect for gender-differentiated autonomy-supportive strategies was found (d = 0.03). A significant effect of time emerged: studies published in the 1970s and 1980s reported more autonomy-supportive strategies with boys than toward girls, but from 1990 onwards parents showed somewhat more autonomy-supportive strategies with girls than toward boys. Taking into account parents' gender stereotypes might uncover subgroups of families where gender-differentiated control is salient, but based on our systematic review of the currently available large data base we conclude that in general the differences between parenting of boys versus girls are minimal.

  2. Gender-Differentiated Parenting Revisited: Meta-Analysis Reveals Very Few Differences in Parental Control of Boys and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endendijk, Joyce J.; Groeneveld, Marleen G.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Mesman, Judi

    2016-01-01

    Although various theories describe mechanisms leading to differential parenting of boys and girls, there is no consensus about the extent to which parents do treat their sons and daughters differently. The last meta-analyses on the subject were conducted more than fifteen years ago, and changes in gender-specific child rearing in the past decade are quite plausible. In the current set of meta-analyses, based on 126 observational studies (15,034 families), we examined mothers’ and fathers’ differential use of autonomy-supportive and controlling strategies with boys and girls, and the role of moderators related to the decade in which the study was conducted, the observational context, and sample characteristics. Databases of Web of Science, ERIC, PsychInfo, Online Contents, Picarta, and Proquest were searched for studies examining differences in observed parental control of boys and girls between the ages of 0 and 18 years. Few differences were found in parents’ use of control with boys and girls. Parents were slightly more controlling with boys than with girls, but the effect size was negligible (d = 0.08). The effect was larger, but still small, in normative groups and in samples with younger children. No overall effect for gender-differentiated autonomy-supportive strategies was found (d = 0.03). A significant effect of time emerged: studies published in the 1970s and 1980s reported more autonomy-supportive strategies with boys than toward girls, but from 1990 onwards parents showed somewhat more autonomy-supportive strategies with girls than toward boys. Taking into account parents’ gender stereotypes might uncover subgroups of families where gender-differentiated control is salient, but based on our systematic review of the currently available large data base we conclude that in general the differences between parenting of boys versus girls are minimal. PMID:27416099

  3. A Comparison of Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage Following Maximal Eccentric Contractions in Men and Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deli, Chariklia K; Fatouros, Ioannis G; Paschalis, Vassilis; Georgakouli, Kalliopi; Zalavras, Athanasios; Avloniti, Alexandra; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z

    2017-08-01

    Research regarding exercise-induced muscle-damage mainly focuses on adults. The present study examined exercise-induced muscle-damage responses in adults compared with children. Eleven healthy boys (10-12 y) and 15 healthy men (18-45 y) performed 5 sets of 15 maximal eccentric contractions of the knee extensors. Range of motion (ROM), delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) during squat and walking, and peak isometric, concentric and eccentric torque were assessed before, post, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hr postexercise. Creatine kinase (CK) activity was assessed before and 72 hr postexercise. Eccentric exercise resulted in DOMS during squat that persisted for up to 96h in men, and 48 hr in boys (p < .05), and DOMS during walking that persisted for up to 72 hr in men, and 48 hr in boys (p < .01). The ROM was lower in both age groups 48 hr postexercise (p < .001). Isometric (p < .001), concentric (p < .01) and eccentric (p < .01) force decreased post, and up to 48 hr postexercise in men. Except for a reduction in isometric force immediately after exercise, no other changes occurred in boys' isokinetic force. CK activity increased in men at 72 hr postexercise compared with pre exercise levels (p = .05). Our data provide further confirmation that children are less susceptible to exercise-induced muscle damage compared with adults.

  4. Reduced intrasubject variability with reinforcement in boys, but not girls, with ADHD: Associations with prefrontal anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosch, Keri S; Dirlikov, Benjamin; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2015-09-01

    This study examined the impact of motivational contingencies (reinforcement and punishment) on go/no-go (GNG) task performance in girls and boys with ADHD relative to typically developing (TD) children and associations with prefrontal anatomy. Children ages 8-12 with ADHD (n=107, 36 girls) and TD controls (n=95, 34 girls) completed a standard and a motivational GNG task and associations with prefrontal cortex (PFC) surface area were examined. Intrasubject variability (ISV) was lower during the motivational compared to the standard GNG among TD girls and boys, and boys with ADHD, but not among girls with ADHD. A greater reduction in ISV was associated with greater PFC surface area among children with ADHD. This novel demonstration of improvement in ISV with motivational contingencies for boys, but not girls, with ADHD and associations with PFC anatomy informs our understanding of sex differences and motivational factors contributing to ISV in children with ADHD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of Motor Skills in Boys and Girls First Grade Student in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Nazi

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the motor skills differences between girls and boys (aged 7 in Tehran in 2004. Materials & Methods: This research was analytical descriptive The subjects were 120 children includes 60 girls and 60 boys. those were selected by simple random sampling at the first grade of primary School. Each subject was individually assessed by Lincoln Oseretsky motor developmental scale. Results: The findings of this research after data analysis by spss soft ware and sample t Test indicated that: There is not any significant differences between total score of motor skills, total balance score, static and dynamic balance with open eyes, bilateral motor coordination, upper limbs coordination, upper and lower limbs coordination, velocity and dexterity of hand movements in boys and girls (P>0/005. The only Significant differences between boys and girls motor skills is eye hand coordination (P<0/03. Conclusion: The findings of this research is used to better planning and defining the theraputic and educational programs in the field of motor development.

  6. Impact of exposure to idealised male images on adolescent boys' body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Paul; Paxton, Susan J

    2004-09-01

    Research examining the impact on adolescent boys of exposure to muscular, athletic, idealised male images has been limited. This research had two aims (i) to investigate the mean effect on state body satisfaction and mood of exposure to idealised male images in adolescent boys, and, (ii) to identify individual attributes that predicted change in state body satisfaction, depression and anxiety following image exposure. One hundred and six boys (mean age=15.6 years) completed a self-report questionnaire on body image attitudes and psychological status. One week later, participants were divided into two groups, one that viewed idealised male images (experimental condition) while the other viewed non-figure advertising images (control condition). Three body satisfaction Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), and a depression and anxiety VAS were completed immediately prior to and following image exposure. In the experimental compared to control condition, there were no significant changes on Want Toned Body, Want to Change Body Shape, Depression and Anxiety VAS following image exposure. However, there was a significant improvement in Like Body Shape VAS. In the experimental group, high internalisation of the muscular, athletic ideal predicted more negative response to viewing images on the body image and Depression VAS. Prior body dissatisfaction significantly predicted negative response to Body Shape Liking and Anxiety VAS. While on average, adolescent boys in this research were not negatively affected by exposure to idealised male images, reaction to exposure is dependent on individual attributes.

  7. PDE5 inhibition alleviates functional muscle ischemia in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael D.; Rader, Florian; Tang, Xiu; Tavyev, Jane; Nelson, Stanley F.; Miceli, M. Carrie; Elashoff, Robert M.; Sweeney, H. Lee

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibition can alleviate exercise-induced skeletal muscle ischemia in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Methods: In 10 boys with DMD and 10 healthy age-matched male controls, we assessed exercise-induced attenuation of reflex sympathetic vasoconstriction, i.e., functional sympatholysis, a protective mechanism that matches oxygen delivery to metabolic demand. Reflex vasoconstriction was induced by simulated orthostatic stress, measured as the decrease in forearm muscle oxygenation with near-infrared spectroscopy, and performed when the forearm muscles were rested or lightly exercised with rhythmic handgrip exercise. Then, the patients underwent an open-label, dose-escalation, crossover trial with single oral doses of tadalafil or sildenafil. Results: The major new findings are 2-fold: first, sympatholysis is impaired in boys with DMD—producing functional muscle ischemia—despite contemporary background therapy with corticosteroids alone or in combination with cardioprotective medication. Second, PDE5 inhibition with standard clinical doses of either tadalafil or sildenafil alleviates this ischemia in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, PDE5 inhibition also normalizes the exercise-induced increase in skeletal muscle blood flow (measured by Doppler ultrasound), which is markedly blunted in boys with DMD. Conclusions: These data provide in-human proof of concept for PDE5 inhibition as a putative new therapeutic strategy for DMD. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class IV evidence that in patients with DMD, PDE5 inhibition restores functional sympatholysis. PMID:24808022

  8. Epididymal anomalies in boys with undescended testis or hydrocele: Significance of testicular location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun-Ouck; Na, Seong Woong; Yu, Ho Song; Kwon, Dongdeuk

    2015-10-24

    Epididymal anomalies and patent processus vaginalis are frequently found in boys with cryptorchidism or hydrocele. We conducted this study to evaluate the association between epididymal anomalies and testicular location or patent processus vaginalis in boys with undescended testis or hydrocele. Children undergoing surgery with undescended testis (group A, 136 boys and 162 testes) or communicating hydrocele (group B, 93 boys and 96 testes) were included. Testicular locations and epididymal anomalies were investigated prospectively. An anomalous epididymis was defined as anomalies of epididymal fusion that consisted of loss of continuity between the testis, the epididymis, and the long looping epididymis. The epididymis was considered normal when a normal, firm attachment between the testis, the caput, and the cauda epididymis was present. The mean ages of groups A and B were 24.6 ± 19.7 (range, 8-52 months) and 31.4 ± 20.6 months (range, 10-59 months). The incidence of epididymal anomalies was significantly higher in group A than that in group B (65.4 % vs. 13.5 %, P hydrocele, and that these anomalies were more frequent when undescended testis was at a higher level. These results suggest that testicular location is associated with epididymal anomalies rather than patent processus vaginalis.

  9. Family mealtimes and eating psychopathology: the role of anxiety and depression among adolescent girls and boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Hannah J; Haycraft, Emma; Meyer, Caroline

    2014-04-01

    Characteristics of family mealtimes are associated with disordered eating behaviours. However, little is known about the relationships between characteristics of family mealtimes and disordered eating attitudes, or how symptoms of anxiety or depression may contribute to these relationships. This study therefore aimed to examine differences between adolescent girls and boys in the relationship between family mealtime characteristics and eating psychopathology, and to explore the influence of anxiety and depression on this relationship. Adolescents (N=535; 286 girls and 249 boys) aged 14-18years completed self-report measures of family mealtime characteristics, eating psychopathology, anxiety and depression. Reports of more frequent family mealtimes, a more positive mealtime atmosphere and a high level of priority placed on mealtimes were all associated with significantly lower levels of eating-disordered attitudes among girls only. For boys, all four mealtime measures (higher mealtime frequency, more positive mealtime atmosphere, greater priority of mealtimes and higher levels of mealtime structure) were associated with lower levels of depression. Among girls, several of the family mealtime and eating psychopathology relationships were partially or fully mediated by either anxiety or depression. While these findings require longitudinal replication, family mealtimes are likely to be important in promoting psychological well-being among both girls and boys. Families should be encouraged to think beyond the frequency of mealtimes and to foster a positive mealtime environment which may help to promote adolescent psychological wellbeing, and might even protect young females against the development of eating psychopathology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Testicular Growth During Puberty in Boys With and Without a History of Congenital Cryptorchidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadov, Sergey; Koskenniemi, Jaakko J; Virtanen, Helena E

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: The pattern of testicular growth during puberty may provide important information about early testicular damage and reproductive potential in adulthood. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate pubertal testicular growth in boys with congenital cryptorchidism and controls. DESIGN: Longitudinal case......-control study. SETTING: Andrological Research Center, University of Turku. PARTICIPANTS: Altogether, 119 boys participated: 51 cases with a history of congenital cryptorchidism and 65 controls fulfilled the inclusion criteria. INTERVENTION: None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Testicular volume by an orchidometer (m......L) and ultrasound (mL), testicular length by a ruler (mm), and onset of pubertal testicular growth (y). Longitudinal testicular growth was analyzed with a nonlinear mixed-effect model. RESULTS: The mean age of the onset of pubertal testicular growth (age at the attainment of >3 mL by orchidometer) was 11.7 and 11...

  11. Androgen Receptor CAG Repeat Length Is Associated With Body Fat and Serum SHBG in Boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, Annette; Hagen, Casper P; Sørensen, Kaspar

    2013-01-01

    Background: Longer androgen receptor gene CAG trinucleotide repeats, AR (CAG)n, have been associated with reduced sensitivity of the androgen receptor (AR) in vitro as well as in humans. Furthermore, short AR (CAG)n have been associated with premature adrenarche. Objective: The aim of the study...... was to evaluate associations between the AR (CAG)n polymorphism and development of pubic hair, levels of androgens, and body fat content in healthy boys. Methods: A longitudinal study of 78 healthy boys (age 6.2-12.4 years at inclusion) from the COPENHAGEN Puberty Study was conducted with clinical examinations...... accumulation and serum SHBG concentrations indicate that this genetic polymorphism may influence the androgen-dependent fine-tuning of metabolic and reproductive factors at a young age....

  12. Failing Boys! Beyond Crisis, Moral Panic and Limiting Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    For some time now, school boards, Ministries of Education, and the popular media have been expressing concerns about failing boys and how best to meet their needs, framing these concerns in terms of a crisis in which boys are the "new disadvantaged". This perspective does not provide an accurate representation of the problem and, in fact, detracts…

  13. Crafts, Boys, Ernest Thompson Seton, and the Woodcraft Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, F. Graeme; Dancer, Andrea A.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines early influences on art education for boys (Chalmers & Dancer, 2007) in areas traditionally labeled as crafts. Under review is the work of Ernest Thompson Seton, artist, naturalist, storyteller, author, philosopher, crusader for and supporter of indigenous American Indian ways of knowing, and a co-founder of the Boy Scouts of…

  14. Morphometric Brain Abnormalities in Boys with Conduct Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Thomas; Vloet, Timo D.; Marx, Ivo; Konrad, Kerstin; Fink, Gereon R.; Herpertz, Sabine C.; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate

    2008-01-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) is associated with antisocial personality behavior that violates the basic rights of others. Results, on examining the structural brain aberrations in boys' CD, show that boys with CD and cormobid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder showed abnormalities in frontolimbic areas that could contribute to antisocial…

  15. Trauma and Boys, Birth to 3: What's Different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golding, Paul; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.

    2016-01-01

    This article considers infant and toddler boys' unique susceptibilities to caregiving inadequacies that might lead to trauma in their development. It does so by examining the results of research, which point to three areas where boys are likely to have particular difficulties--their slower developmental timetable, their different relationship with…

  16. Is Anxiety in Young Boys the New Normal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogel, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    As a psychologist of 35 years, Wendy Mogel discusses what she has discovered to be the new trend behind anxiety in young boys. Through hours of probing and pondering, neither hyperparenting nor early trauma (what one might think were logical causes of a young boy's anxiety) is the key to understanding this new trend. She explains that many…

  17. An Interview with Alex Sanchez, Author of "Rainbow Boys."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emert, Toby

    2002-01-01

    Presents an interview with Alex Sanchez. Notes that his book "Rainbow Boys" has been called the "best gay youth book of the year." Notes that "Rainbow Boys" chronicles the lives of three high school seniors who struggle to manage their issues about sexual identity and coming out to themselves, to each other, and to the world. (SG)

  18. Depression and Social Adjustment in Siblings of Boys with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Nora

    1993-01-01

    Twenty-two siblings of autistic boys and 34 other siblings were compared on measures of depression, social adjustment, and family responsibilities. Results showed that siblings of autistic boys scored significantly higher on depression than the comparison group, but not on problems of social adjustment. There were no significant gender…

  19. Body Image Among Adolescent Girls and Boys: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Diane Carlson

    2004-01-01

    This longitudinal study of adolescent girls and boys examined the contributions of social (peer appearance context), psychological (internalized appearance ideals and appearance social comparison), and biological (body mass) factors to the development of body dissatisfaction. Students (165 girls and 139 boys) completed questionnaires when they…

  20. Utilisation of Reproductive Health Services by Adolescent Boys in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Ghana, few studies have investigated the reproductive health needs of adolescent boys. The aim of this study was to find out sources of reproductive health information for boys and the reasons for their low/non use of public health services. Qualitative methods were used, including focus group discussions, ...

  1. A Big Boy : Tema lugu ja selle loojad / Raigo Kollom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kollom, Raigo, 1936-

    2010-01-01

    Hinnatud ratsahobuste A Big Boy ja A Pikachu de Muze'i Eestisse ostmise loost Belgia hobusekasvataja Joris de Brabanderi kasvandusest ning A Big Boy põlvnemisest ja saavutusest kuni müügini Athina Onassis-Mirandale 2009. aastal

  2. Laryngeal schwannoma in an 8-year-old boy with inspiratory dyspnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rognone, Elisa; Rossi, Andrea; Conte, Massimo; Nozza, Paolo; Tarantino, Vincenzo; Fibbi, Antonio; Saetti, Roberto; Cutrone, Cesare; Tortori-Donati, Paolo

    2007-10-01

    Schwannomas of the larynx are rare lesions in the pediatric age group. In this article, we report on the neuroimaging features of a schwannoma arising from the left aryepiglottic fold in an 8-year-old boy with a 6-month history of inspiratory dyspnea. Neuroimaging showed a well-defined, avoid mass originating from the left aryepiglottic fold. The lesion was removed endoscopically. Complete removal of laryngeal schwannomas is curative, and adjuvant treatment is not required.

  3. Pulmonary Aspergillosis in a Previously Healthy 13-Year-Old Boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan H. Rayment

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD is a rare, polygenic primary immunodeficiency. In this case report, we describe a previously healthy 13-year-old boy who presented with multifocal pulmonary aspergillosis and was subsequently diagnosed with an autosomal recessive form of chronic granulomatous disease. CGD has a variable natural history and age of presentation and should be considered when investigating a patient with recurrent or severe infections with catalase-positive organisms.

  4. Do Boys Benefit from Male Teachers in Elementary School? Evidence from Administrative Panel Data

    OpenAIRE

    Puhani, Patrick A.

    2017-01-01

    With girls having overtaken boys in many education indicators, the 'feminization' of elementary school teaching is causing debates about disadvantages for male students. Using administrative panel data on the universe of students, teachers and schools for a German state, I exploit within school and within teacher variation to determine teacher characteristics' effects on students' tracking outcomes. Germany tracks students at age 10 into more or less academic school types. I find hardly any e...

  5. Genderspecific conflict strategies of 9-12 years old girls and boys, and gender role orientation.

    OpenAIRE

    Biskup, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    In the present study the relationship of genderspecific conflict strategies, gender role orientation and social integration of children was studied. Qualitative interviews, essays on gender role orientation, and socio-metric data of 112 Berlin girls and boys of primary school age were evaluated. Theoretical basis for this study were social constructionist ideas and gender schema theory. In both theories cognitive concepts and social competence are the products of interaction between social...

  6. Evaluation of 451 Danish Boys With Delayed Puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawaetz, Jacob Gerner; P. Hagen, Casper; Mieritz, Mikkel Grunnet

    2015-01-01

    Context: Few data exist on the diagnostic criteria, and on the effects of puberty induction, in boyswith constitutional delay in growth and puberty (CDGP). Objective: To develop puberty nomograms based on Danish boys with normal pubertal development.To evaluate the different diagnostic criteria...... and the effect of oral testosterone undecanoate(TU) in boys with CDGP. Design: A cross-sectional and longitudinal study of Danish boys with normal pubertal development(COPENHAGEN puberty study). A retrospective observational study of 451 boys evaluated fordelayed puberty between 1990 and 2013. Setting: Tertiary...... referral center for pediatric endocrinology. Participants: One hundred and sixty-four (36%) boys evaluated for CDGP were excluded due tomissing data, reclassification, or associated comorbidities, yielding 287 (64%) eligible for analysis. Main Outcome Measures: The number of patients with CDGP classified...

  7. HPV Vaccination of Boys in Primary Care Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Mandy A.; Dunne, Eileen F.; Markowitz, Lauri E.; O’Leary, Sean T.; Crane, Lori A.; Hurley, Laura P.; Stokley, Shannon; Babbel, Christine I.; Brtnikova, Michaela; Beaty, Brenda L.; Kempe, Allison

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE In October 2011, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended the quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV4) for the routine immunization schedule for 11- to 12-year-old boys. Before October 2011, HPV4 was permissively recommended for boys. We conducted a study in 2010 to provide data that could guide efforts to implement routine HPV4 immunization in boys. Our objectives were to describe primary care physicians’: 1) knowledge and attitudes about human papillomavirus (HPV)-related disease and HPV4, 2) recommendation and administration practices regarding HPV vaccine in boys compared to girls, 3) perceived barriers to HPV4 administration in boys, and 4) personal and practice characteristics associated with recommending HPV4 to boys. METHODS We conducted a mail and Internet survey in a nationally representative sample of pediatricians and family medicine physicians from July 2010 to September 2010. RESULTS The response rate was 72% (609 of 842). Most physicians thought that the routine use of HPV4 in boys was justified. Although it was permissively recommended, 33% recommended HPV4 to 11- to 12-year-old boys and recommended it more strongly to older male adolescents. The most common barriers to HPV4 administration were related to vaccine financing. Physicians who reported recommending HPV4 for 11- to 12-year-old boys were more likely to be from urban locations, perceive that HPV4 is efficacious, perceive that HPV-related disease is severe, and routinely discuss sexual health with 11- to 12-year-olds. CONCLUSIONS Although most physicians support HPV4 for boys, physician education and evidence-based tools are needed to improve implementation of a vaccination program for males in primary care settings. PMID:24011749

  8. Contextual amplification or attenuation of the impact of pubertal timing on Mexican-origin boys' mental health symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Rebecca M B; Deardorff, Julianna; Liu, Yu; Gonzales, Nancy A

    2013-12-01

    To examine the role of neighborhood contextual variation in the putative association between pubertal timing and internalizing and externalizing symptoms among Mexican-origin boys. In a sample of seventh-grade Mexican-origin boys (N = 353; x¯age=12.8years) we assessed a range of secondary sexual characteristics, internalizing, and externalizing symptoms. Reports on all secondary sexual characteristics were collapsed and age-standardized to represent total pubertal timing. We also distinguished between the timing of physical changes driven by adrenal versus gonadal maturation. Boys' residential addresses were geocoded and American Community Survey data were used to describe neighborhoods along two dimensions: ethnic concentration and socioeconomic disadvantage. Three years later (in 10th grade) we re-assessed internalizing and externalizing symptoms. We examined the moderating influence of neighborhood ethnic concentration and neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage on the prospective associations between puberty timing (total, gonadal, adrenal) and internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Earlier total pubertal timing predicted increases in externalizing symptoms, but only when Mexican-origin boys lived in neighborhoods low on ethnic concentration. Total timing results for externalizing symptoms were replicated for adrenal timing. Furthermore, early adrenal timing predicted increases in internalizing symptoms, but again, only when boys lived in neighborhoods low on ethnic concentration. No effects were observed for gonadal timing specifically. Early pubertal timing, especially advanced physical changes initiated and regulated by adrenal maturation, have important implications for Mexican-origin boys' internalizing and externalizing symptoms, but these implications depend on neighborhood characteristics. Ethnically concentrated neighborhoods are protective for early-maturing Mexican-origin boys. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine

  9. Percentage extremity fat, but not percentage trunk fat, is lower in adolescent boys with anorexia nervosa than in healthy adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Madhusmita; Katzman, Debra K; Cord, Jennalee; Manning, Stephanie J; Mickley, Diane; Herzog, David B; Miller, Karen K; Klibanski, Anne

    2008-12-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a condition of severe undernutrition associated with altered regional fat distribution in females. Although primarily a disease of females, AN is increasingly being recognized in males and is associated with hypogonadism. Testosterone is a major regulator of body composition in males, and testosterone administration in adults decreases visceral fat. However, the effect of low testosterone and other hormonal alterations on body composition in boys with AN is not known. We hypothesized that testosterone deficiency in boys with AN is associated with higher trunk fat, as opposed to extremity fat, compared with control subjects. We assessed body composition using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and measured fasting testosterone, estradiol, insulin- like growth factor-1, leptin, and active ghrelin concentrations in 15 boys with AN and in 15 control subjects of comparable maturity aged 12-19 y. Fat and lean mass in AN boys was 69% and 86% of that in control subjects. Percentage extremity fat and extremity lean mass were lower in boys with AN (P = 0.003 and 0.0008); however, percentage trunk fat and the trunk to extremity fat ratio were higher after weight was adjusted for (P = 0.005 and 0.003). Testosterone concentrations were lower in boys with AN, and, on regression modeling, positively predicted percentage extremity lean mass and inversely predicted percentage trunk fat and trunk to extremity fat ratio. Other independent predictors of regional body composition were bone age and weight. In adolescent boys with AN, higher percentage trunk fat, higher trunk to extremity fat ratio, lower percentage extremity fat, and lower extremity lean mass (adjusted for weight) are related to the hypogonadal state.

  10. [Infant boy with propionic acidemia: anesthetic implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Ródenas, L; Hernández-Palazón, J; Burguillos-López, S; Sánchez-Ortega, J L; Castaño-Collado, I; García-Ferreira, J

    2005-01-01

    A 12-month-old boy diagnosed with propionic acidemia underwent gastrostomy. The patient's general state was good and he was alert, but with reduced muscular tone (unstable when seated with support, floppy head) and with dystonic movements in all extremities. An electroencephalogram showed slightly slowed brain activity. The patient was being treated with a low protein diet, phenobarbital, L-carnitine, L-isoleucine, and biotin. Surgery was carried out in satisfactory conditions with general anesthesia without opioids combined with infiltration of the surgical wound with local anesthetic. Recovery from anesthesia was rapid and free of complications. Propionic acidemia is caused by mitochondrial propionyl coenzyme carboxylase deficiency. Most patients have episodes of severe metabolic ketoacidosis as a result of excessive protein intake, delayed development, vomiting, gastroesophageal reflux, lethargy, hypotonia, and convulsions. The anesthetic approach involves avoiding triggers of metabolic acidosis (such as fasting, dehydration, hypoxemia, and hypotension) and preventing airway complications. Agents that metabolize propionic acid (such as succinylcholine, benzylisoquinoline neuromuscular blocking agents, and propofol) are not used, as they can exacerbate acidemia. We also believe that using local or regional anesthesia in combination with general anesthesia without opiates is safe and effective for controlling pain during surgery and postoperative recovery, as that combination avoids respiratory depression in these patients, who are highly sensitive to opiates.

  11. Serum insulin-like factor 3 levels during puberty in healthy boys and boys with Klinefelter syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wikström, Anne M; Bay, Katrine; Hero, Matti

    2006-01-01

    Levels of the Leydig cell-specific hormone insulin-like factor 3 (INSL3) are incompletely characterized in boys during pubertal development.......Levels of the Leydig cell-specific hormone insulin-like factor 3 (INSL3) are incompletely characterized in boys during pubertal development....

  12. Physical Activity in Boys With Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Is Lower and Less Demanding Compared to Healthy Boys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heutinck, L.B.; Kampen, N. van; Jansen, M.; Groot, I.J.M. de

    2017-01-01

    This study describes the amount of physical activity and perception of physical activity in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) compared to healthy boys. A questionnaire described 6 domains of physical activity. Four Duchenne muscular dystrophy subgroups were made: early and late ambulatory,

  13. Ageing and digital games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Sara Mosberg

    Digital games are still to a great degree considered a medium mainly for young boys. However, available statistics on Western media use show that this is far from the case. Increasingly, people of all ages and genders play digital games, also older adults in their early 60s and beyond. The aim of...

  14. Bathymetric influence on dissolved methane in hydrothermal plumes revealed by concentration and stable carbon isotope measurements at newly discovered venting sites on the Central Indian Ridge (11-13°S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Ok-Rye; Son, Seung Kyu; Baker, Edward T.; Son, Juwon; Kim, Mi Jin; Barcelona, Michael J.; Kim, Moonkoo

    2014-09-01

    Methane is a useful tracer for studying hydrothermal discharge, especially where the source fluids are of low temperature and lack metal precipitates. However, the dual origins of deep-sea methane, both chemical and biological, complicate the interpretation of methane observations. Here, we use both the concentration and stable carbon isotopic composition (δ13C) of dissolved methane to trace hydrothermal plumes and identify the source and behavior of methane at two sites of newly discovered hydrothermal activity on the Central Indian Ridge (11-13°S). At both sites, methane and optical anomalies between 2500 and 3500 m at all stations indicate active hydrothermal discharge. We compared methane concentrations and δ13C at three stations, two (CTIR110136 and CTIR110208) with the most prominent anomalies at each site, and a third (CTIR110140) with near-background methane values. At stations CTIR110136 and CTIR110208, the concentration and δ13C of methane in distinct plumes ranged from 3.3 to 42.3 nmol kg-1 and -30.0 to -15.4‰, respectively, compared to deep-water values of 0.5 to 1.2 nmol kg-1 and -35.1 to -28.9‰ at the station with a near-background distal plume (CTIR110140). δ13C was highest in the center of the plumes at CTIR110136 (-15.4‰) and CTIR110208 (-17.8‰). From the plume values we estimate that the δ13C of methane in the hydrothermal fluids at these stations was approximately -19‰ and thus the methane was most likely derived from magmatic outgassing or the chemical synthesis of inorganic matter. We used the relationship between δ13C and methane concentration to examine the behavior of methane at the plume stations. In the CTIR110208 plume, simple physical mixing was likely the major process controlling the methane profile. In the CTIR110136 plume we interpret a more complicated relationship as resulting from microbial oxidation as well as physical mixing. We argue that this difference in methane behavior between the two areas stems from a

  15. Hyperconnectivity of the Right Posterior Temporo-parietal Junction Predicts Social Difficulties in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Hsiang-Yun; Lin, Hsiang-Yuan; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Tseng, Wen-Yih Isaac

    2015-08-01

    The posterior right temporo-parietal junction (pRTPJ) is a key brain region representing other's mental status. Despite reports of atypical activation at pRTPJ during mentalizing in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), the intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) of the pRTPJ remains under-investigated. We examined whether boys with ASD show altered resting-state iFC of the pRTPJ, and whether atypical iFC of the pRTPJ is associated with social deficits in ASD in a sample of 40 boys with high-functioning ASD (aged 9-17 years, mean age, 12.38 ± 2.17; mean IQ, 105.60 ± 16.06) and 42 typically developing (TD) boys (aged 9-17 years, mean age, 11.64 ± 2.71; mean IQ, 111.29 ± 13.45). Both groups received resting-state fMRI assessment after imaging data quality control for in-scanner head motion and spatial coverage. Seed-based approach was used to investigate iFC of the pRTPJ. TD and ASD boys demonstrated a resting-state pRTPJ iFC pattern comparable to the known spatial involvement of the default-mode network. Boys with ASD showed pRTPJ hyperconnectivity relative to TD boys in the right ventral occipito-temporal cortex. This atypically increased iFC in the ASD group was positively correlated with social deficits assessed by the Chinese version of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised and the Social Responsive Scale. Our findings provide empirical support for functional "dysconnectivity," that is, atypical functional integration among brain regions, as an integral component of the atypical neurobiology of ASD. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The growth of boys in the Stuttgart Carlschule, 1771-93.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komlos, J; Tanner, J M; Davies, P S; Cole, T

    1992-01-01

    Height measurements taken in a mixed longitudinal manner on 1084 German-born boys aged 7 to 21+ at the Carlschule Academy in Stuttgart during the period 1771-93 have been examined. The boys can be divided into upper (aristocrat), middle and lower (artisan, servant) classes, nearly all housed and fed in this boarding school. Preece-Baines curves have been fitted to a subsample of 155 boys whose measurements cover at least the period 12-16 years at a density of two or three per year. In addition, the whole data, totalling 11,040 observations, have been examined as if purely cross-sectional; and the height-at-entry measurement for each of 670 students has been examined. The results of the longitudinal subsample and the cross-sectional analyses agree reasonably well. Social class differences existed both in tempo of growth as signified by age at peak height velocity, and in adult height. The longitudinal analysis gives adult differences of about 2 cm between upper and middle classes and a further 2 cm between middle and lower, even amongst these boys all resident in the same, very privileged, school. Tempo differences between upper and middle class were minor, amounting to only 0.3 year, but lower-class boys had their maximum growth increment about a year later than the others. Amongst middle classes a secular trend of about 2 cm averaged over all ages was found between those born before 1770 and those born later. This mainly represents a trend in tempo rather than in adult height. The heights of these boys are compared with those of contemporary Austrian upper and lower classes, English upper and lower classes, American Army cadets, and American slaves. The increase in German middle-class heights during the 18th century indicates that this group was improving its nutritional status and well-being, at a time when the heights of the remainder of the population were constant or declining. This is evidence in favour of the view that at the beginning of economic

  17. Sex Differences in Language Across Early Childhood: Family Socioeconomic Status does not Impact Boys and Girls Equally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbu, Stéphanie; Nardy, Aurélie; Chevrot, Jean-Pierre; Guellaï, Bahia; Glas, Ludivine; Juhel, Jacques; Lemasson, Alban

    2015-01-01

    Child sex and family socioeconomic status (SES) have been repeatedly identified as a source of inter-individual variation in language development; yet their interactions have rarely been explored. While sex differences are the focus of a renewed interest concerning emerging language skills, data remain scarce and are not consistent across preschool years. The questions of whether family SES impacts boys and girls equally, as well as of the consistency of these differences throughout early childhood, remain open. We evaluated consistency of sex differences across SES and age by focusing on how children (N = 262), from 2;6 to 6;4 years old, from two contrasting social backgrounds, acquire a frequent phonological alternation in French - the liaison. By using a picture naming task eliciting the production of obligatory liaisons, we found evidence of sex differences over the preschool years in low-SES children, but not between high-SES boys and girls whose performances were very similar. Low-SES boys' performances were the poorest whereas low-SES girls' performances were intermediate, that is, lower than those of high-SES children of both sexes but higher than those of low-SES boys. Although all children's mastery of obligatory liaisons progressed with age, our findings showed a significant impeding effect of low-SES, especially for boys.

  18. Diurnal and seasonal cortisol, testosterone, and DHEA rhythms in boys and girls during puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matchock, Robert L; Dorn, Lorah D; Susman, Elizabeth J

    2007-01-01

    Diurnal and seasonal rhythms of cortisol, testosterone, and DHEA were examined, as little is known about the relationship between these rhythmicities and pubertal development. Salivary samples were obtained from 60 boys and 60 girls at approximately 07:45, 08:00, 08:30, 12:00, 16:50, and 21:00 h. The participants' ages ranged from 8-14 yrs, and each participant was tested three times at six-month intervals. The study was conducted at a General Clinical Research Center (GCRC) and at the homes of the participants. All hormones showed diurnal fluctuations. The acrophase (peak time) of cortisol occurred earlier than for testosterone or DHEA and showed a seasonal effect, with the acrophase occurring earlier in spring than in summer. The cortisol acrophase also occurred later in the day for boys than for girls during later puberty. Seasonal effects were found only for cortisol with higher concentrations in the spring and summer. Cortisol concentrations were relatively stable across pubertal maturation, but significantly lower concentrations were observed at pubertal stage 3 compared to the other stages. Morning cortisol levels were also higher in boys at pubertal stage 2. Testosterone concentrations were higher in boys at pubertal stages 3 and 4, and DHEA was lower at pubertal stage 1 than 3 and 4 for both boys and girls. For the total sample, there was a positive correlation between DHEA and testosterone during early puberty (stages 1-3) but not later puberty (stages 4-5). Awakening secretory activity correlated with daytime secretory activity for testosterone and DHEA, but not for cortisol. These data provide novel chronobiological information on cortisol, testosterone, and DHEA as it relates to sexual maturation and encourage further study on both normal and abnormal endocrine rhythms.

  19. Direct benefit of vaccinating boys along with girls against oncogenic human papillomavirus: bayesian evidence synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaards, Johannes A; Wallinga, Jacco; Brakenhoff, Ruud H; Meijer, Chris J L M; Berkhof, Johannes

    2015-05-12

    To assess the reduction in the vaccine preventable burden of cancer in men if boys are vaccinated along with girls against oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV). Bayesian evidence synthesis approach used to evaluate the impact of vaccination against HPV types 16 and 18 on the burden of anal, penile, and oropharyngeal carcinomas among heterosexual men and men who have sex with men. The reduced transmission of vaccine-type HPV from vaccination of girls was assumed to lower the risk of HPV associated cancer in all men but not to affect the excess risk of HPV associated cancers among men who have sex with men. General population in the Netherlands. Inclusion of boys aged 12 into HPV vaccination programmes. Quality adjusted life years (QALYs) and numbers needed to vaccinate. Before HPV vaccination, 14.9 (95% credible interval 12.2 to 18.1) QALYs per thousand men were lost to vaccine preventable cancers associated with HPV in the Netherlands. This burden would be reduced by 37% (28% to 48%) if the vaccine uptake among girls remains at the current level of 60%. To prevent one additional case of cancer among men, 795 boys (660 to 987) would need to be vaccinated; with tumour specific numbers for anal, penile, and oropharyngeal cancer of 2162, 3486, and 1975, respectively. The burden of HPV related cancer in men would be reduced by 66% (53% to 805) if vaccine uptake among girls increases to 90%. In that case, 1735 boys (1240 to 2900) would need to be vaccinated to prevent an additional case; with tumour specific numbers for anal, penile, and oropharyngeal cancer of 2593, 29107, and 6484, respectively. Men will benefit indirectly from vaccination of girls but remain at risk of cancers associated with HPV. The incremental benefit of vaccinating boys when vaccine uptake among girls is high is driven by the prevention of anal carcinomas, which underscores the relevance of HPV prevention efforts for men who have sex with men. © Bogaards et al 2015.

  20. Parental and Peer Factors Associated with Body Image Discrepancy among Fifth-Grade Boys and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentzel, Kathryn; Elliott, Marc N.; Dittus, Patricia J.; Kanouse, David E.; Wallander, Jan L.; Pasch, Keryn E.; Franzini, Luisa; Taylor, Wendell C.; Qureshi, Tariq; Franklin, Frank A.; Schuster, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Many young adolescents are dissatisfied with their body due to a discrepancy between their ideal and actual body size, which can lead to weight cycling, eating disorders, depression, and obesity. The current study examined the associations of parental and peer factors with fifth-graders’ body image discrepancy, physical self-worth as a mediator between parental and peer factors and body image discrepancy, and how these associations vary by child’s sex. Body image discrepancy was defined as the difference between young adolescents’ self-perceived body size and the size they believe a person their age should be. Data for this study came from Healthy Passages, which surveyed 5,147 fifth graders (51 % females; 34 % African American, 35 % Latino, 24 % White, and 6 % other) and their primary caregivers from the United States. Path analyses were conducted separately for boys and girls. The findings for boys suggest father nurturance and getting along with peers are related negatively to body image discrepancy; however, for girls, fear of negative evaluation by peers is related positively to body image discrepancy. For both boys and girls, getting along with peers and fear of negative evaluation by peers are related directly to physical self-worth. In addition, mother nurturance is related positively to physical self-worth for girls, and father nurturance is related positively to physical self-worth for boys. In turn, physical self-worth, for both boys and girls, is related negatively to body image discrepancy. The findings highlight the potential of parental and peer factors to reduce fifth graders’ body image discrepancy. PMID:23334988

  1. The Relationship of Repetitive Behavior and Sensory Behavior to Parenting Stress in Mothers of Boys with Autism and Mothers of Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Lolita Lisa

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between repetitive behaviors and sensory behavior to the parenting stress of mothers of boys with fragile X syndrome and mothers of boys with autism. Participants consisted of two groups: 51 mothers with boys diagnosed with fragile X syndrome (M = 71.3, SD = 56.5) and 30 mothers with boys diagnosed with…

  2. 'We do not know': a qualitative study exploring boys perceptions of menstruation in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Linda; Sivakami, Muthusamy; Thakur, Harshad; Kakade, Narendra; Beauman, Ashley; Alexander, Kelly T; van Eijke, Anna Maria; Laserson, Kayla F; Thakkar, Mamita B; Phillips-Howard, Penelope A

    2017-12-08

    In low-middle income countries and other areas of poverty, menstrual hygiene management (MHM) can be problematic for women and girls. Issues include lack of knowledge about menstruation and MHM, and stigma around menstruation, also access to affordable and absorbent materials; privacy to change; adequate washing, cleaning and drying facilities; as well as appropriate and accessible disposal facilities. In order to effect change and tackle these issues, particularly in patriarchal societies, males may need to become advocates for MHM alongside women. However, little is known about their knowledge and attitudes towards menstruation, which may need addressing before they can assist in acting as advocates for change. The present study was undertaken to explore knowledge and attitudes about menstruation among adolescent boys across India, in order to gauge their potential to support their 'sisters'. The study was undertaken across three states in India, chosen a priori to represent the cultural and socio-economic diversity. Qualitative data using focus group discussions with 85 boys aged 13-17 years, from 8 schools, was gathered. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. The results were organised into three main themes, reflecting the key research questions: boys' knowledge of menstruation, source of knowledge, and attitudes towards menstruation and menstruating girls. Knowledge comprised three aspects; biological function which were generally poorly understood; cultural rites which were recognized by all; and girls' behaviour and demeanour, which were noted to be withdrawn. Some boys learnt about puberty and menstruation as part of the curriculum but had concerns this was not in-depth, or was missed out altogether. Most gathered knowledge from informal sources, from overhearing conversations or observing cultural rituals. Few boys openly displayed a negative attitude, although a minority voiced the idea that menstruation is a 'disease'. Boys were mostly sympathetic

  3. Differential sclerostin and parathyroid hormone response to exercise in boys and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, B; Haddad, F; Klentrou, P; Ward, W; Kish, K; Mezil, Y; Radom-Aizik, S

    2016-03-01

    Physical exercise benefits bone structure and mineralization, especially in children. Immediately following high-impact exercise, PTH increased and returned to resting values within 24 h in both groups, while sclerostin increased in men but not in boys. The underlying mechanisms and implication of this age-related differential response are unclear. Circulating sclerostin, a negative regulator of bone, decreases during puberty and increases in adulthood. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is inversely related to sclerostin. In mice, sclerostin decreases following 24 h of mechanical stimulation. Its response to exercise in humans and, especially in children, in whom high-impact physical exercise benefits bone structure and mineralization is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute response of sclerostin to a single exercise session of high mechanical loading and the corresponding changes in PTH in boys and men. Twelve boys (10.2 ± 0.4 years old) and 17 young men (22.7 ± 0.8 years old) underwent a protocol of plyometric exercises (total 144 jumps). Blood samples were collected pre-, 5 min, 1 h, and 24 h post-exercise. Boys had significantly higher resting values of sclerostin compared with men (150 ± 37 vs. 111 ± 34 pg/ml, respectively, p = 0.006). Following exercise, sclerostin markedly increased in men but this response was attenuated in boys (at 5 min: 51 ± 38 vs. 14 ± 21%, respectively, p = 0.005). PTH levels were similar in boys and men at rest and throughout the 24-h study period, increasing significantly (p boys and men, the sclerostin response was greater in men. The combined increases in PTH and sclerostin immediately post-exercise appear contrary to the accepted osteogenic effect of exercise. The underlying mechanisms and full implication of the differential response between children and adults need to be further examined.

  4. Dermatoglyphic characteristics of digito-palmar complex in autistic boys in Serbia

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    Stošljević Miodrag

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Aim. Dermatoglyphics is a science that examines dermal patterns on volar side of both palms and soles. Since dermatoglyphs are unique for each person, by examining them a number of parameters can be determined. These parameters could help to diagnose and treat examined individulas. The aim of this study was to determine possible differences of the dermathoglyphic characteristics of digito-palmar complex (DPC comparing the autistic boys with the healthy examinees. Methods. This study was conducted on a group of 182 boys with infantile autism, aged from 5 to 15 (average age 7.2 years while the control group consisted of 182 healthy men from 30 to 50 years (average age 38.7 years. Within the digital scope of DPC we examined tree types of dermatoglyphic patterns on fingertips (arch, loop and whrol, as well as dermal ridge count on each finger separately (FRC - finger ridge count and total dermal ridge count on all the ten fingers (TRC - total ridge count. Within the palmar DPC area we measured the angles between the triradius (atd, dat, adt, atb, btc, ctd, as well as dermal ridge count (RC - ridge count between the triradius a-b, b-c and c-d. Results. The autistic boys had a significantely higher count of arches (9.17% on fingertips of both hands when compared to the control group of examinees (4.34%, and the lower count of loops (28.40% compared with the control group (32.42%. A higher count of arches was especially expressed on the fourth and fifth finger of both hands. Beside this characteristic, the autistic boys had a lower TRC and ab-RC as well as a wider atd angle. Conclusion. Dermatoglyphic analysis could help in diagnosing autism but only as an additional method, never as a dominant diagnostic procedure.

  5. Dermatoglyphic characteristics of digito-palmar complex in autistic boys in serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stosljević, Miodrag; Adamović, Milosav

    2013-04-01

    Dermatoglyphics is a science that ex amines dermal patterns on volar side of both palms and soles. Since dermatoglyphs are unique for each person, by examining them a number of parameters can be determined. These parameters could help to diagnose and treat exam ined individulas. The aim of this study was to determine possible differences of the dermathoglyphic characteristics of digito-palmar complex (DPC) comparing the autistic boys with the healthy examinees. This study was conducted on a group of 182 boys with infantile autism, aged from 5 to 15 (average age 7.2 years) while the control group consisted of 182 healthy men from 30 to 50 years (average age 38.7 years). Within the digital scope of DPC we examined tree types of dermatoglyphic patterns on finger tips (arch, loop and whrol), as well as dermal ridge count on each finger separately (FRC - finger ridge count) and total dermal ridge count on all the ten fingers (TRC - total ridge count). Within the palmar DPC area we measured the an gles between the triradius (atd, dat, adt, atb, btc, ctd), as well as dermal ridge count (RC - ridge count) between the trira dius a-b, b-c and c-d. The autistic boys had a sig nificantely higher count of arches (9.17%) on fingertips of both hands when compared to the control group of exami nees (4.34%), and the lower count of loops (28.40%) com pared with the control group (32.42%). A higher count of arches was especially expressed on the fourth and fifth fin ger of both hands. Beside this characteristic, the autistic boys had a lower TRC and ab-RC as well as a wider atd an gle. Dermatoglyphic analysis could help in di agnosing autism but only as an additional method, never as a dominant diagnostic procedure.

  6. Boys' and young men's perspectives on violence in Northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Marni; Likindikoki, Samuel; Kaaya, Sylvia

    2013-01-01

    The challenge of violence for youth in low-income countries includes a range of experiences from witnessing, to experiencing, to participating in violence. Although boys and young men are often the perpetrators of such violence, they may also be its victims. Yet little evidence exists from the voiced experiences of boys themselves on perceptions and interpretations of the violence around them. Given the numerous negative health implications of violence for boys, for the girls and other boys with whom they interact, and for the health of their future partners and families, we conducted an in-depth study in rural and urban Tanzania with adolescent boys on the masculinity norms shaping their transitions through puberty that might be contributing to high-risk behaviours, including engagement in violence. The findings identified underlying societal gendered norms influencing the enactment of violence, and recommendations from the boys on how to diminish the violence around them. Additional research is needed with boys on the social norms and structural factors influencing their engagement in violence.

  7. Determination of diferences in runs between boys and girls aged 5.5 Určení rozdílu v běhu mezi chlapci a dívkami ve věku 5,5 roku

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    Damir Karpljuk

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to determine whether there are distinctions in runs among five and a half year old boys and girls. The research is based on studying 80 girls and 64 boys from seven kindergartens in Slovenia. The following five measurement methods have been used in our research: a 10-meter run, a 150-meter run, a 10-meter run with a flying start, 4-times 5-meter run, and a 300-meter run. The results of the t-test indicate a statistically characteristic difference among boys and girls in 300 m run test results only, that is, a method used for measuring aerobic endurance. Other motor skills results have shown that there are no statistically characteristic differences among boys and girls. It is important that sport activities for boys and girls are organized for both groups of children equally. Especially girls must take part in a variety of running exercises in order to increase their aerobic endurance. They should be encouraged to take part in a variety of games which require activating the energy component of movement. Based on the results of this research we can say that physical education (PE of preschool children should be planned regardless of sex and the PE program should be the same for both boys and girls. Cílem tohoto výzkumu je určit, zda existují odlišnosti v běhu chlapců a dívek ve věku 5,5 roku. Výzkum je založen na studii 80 dívek a 64 chlapců v sedmi mateřských školách ve Slovinsku. Bylo použito těchto pěti měřicích metod: běh na 10 metrů, běh na 150 metrů, běh na 10 metrů s letmým startem, běh 4 × 5 metrů, běh na 300 metrů. Výsledky t-testu vykázaly statisticky významný rozdíl mezi chlapci a dívkami jen v běhu na 300 metrů, což je metoda používaná pro měření aerobní vytrvalosti. Výsledky ostatních pohybových aktivit vykazují, že mezi chlapci a dívkami není žádný statisticky významný rozdíl. Je důležité, aby sportovní aktivity byly organizovány rovnom

  8. Hypertension in a young boy: an energy drink effect

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    Usman Asma

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Use of energy drinks has significantly increased in recent times. Besides athletes, teenagers and students are among the most common consumers. However, popularity is also increasing among the younger and older age groups. Most of the users believe that they are a good source of instant energy and are unaware of its high Caffeine content resulting in harmful effects on health. Case presentation We report the case of a young boy who presented with palpitations and high blood pressure as a result of energy drinks usage. He had been consuming a “Sting” energy drink on regular basis while studying for long hours during his O’ level Exams. His medical examination revealed Sinus tachycardia and high blood pressure. Rest of the examination and lab workup was within normal limits. His pulse and blood pressure returned to normal range after discontinuing Sting usage. Conclusion Several studies have reported numerous health hazards including cardiac effects associated with energy drinks. Warning labeling should be done on these drinks regulating the content of Caffeine and its harmful effects on health.

  9. Aggressive-antisocial boys develop into physically strong young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isen, Joshua D; McGue, Matthew K; Iacono, William G

    2015-04-01

    Young men with superior upper-body strength typically show a greater proclivity for physical aggression than their weaker male counterparts. The traditional interpretation of this phenomenon is that young men calibrate their attitudes and behaviors to their physical formidability. Physical strength is thus viewed as a causal antecedent of aggressive behavior. The present study is the first to examine this phenomenon within a developmental framework. We capitalized on the fact that physical strength is a male secondary sex characteristic. In two longitudinal cohorts of children, we estimated adolescent change in upper-body strength using the slope parameter from a latent growth model. We found that males' antisocial tendencies temporally precede their physical formidability. Boys, but not girls, with greater antisocial tendencies in childhood attained larger increases in physical strength between the ages of 11 and 17. These results support sexual selection theory, indicating an adaptive congruence between male-typical behavioral dispositions and subsequent physical masculinization during puberty. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Moved to Tears: Technical Considerations and Dilemmas Encountered in Working with a 13-Year-Old Boy with Acquired Quadriplegia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Caroline

    2005-01-01

    This paper is about therapeutic work with David, a 13-year-old boy who, at the age of 5, was the victim of a hit-and-run road traffic accident resulting in quadriplegia. The circumstances leading to the accident and its sequelae reveal a particularly complex picture, which combines early emotional deprivation and trauma. Although cognitively…

  11. A Comparative Study of the Self-Esteem of Adolescent Boys with and without Learning Disabilities in an Inclusive School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntshangase, Sibusiso; Mdikana, Andile; Cronk, Candice

    2008-01-01

    Participants in this study were twenty-nine adolescent boys (n = 29) between the ages of sixteen and eighteen years, who were attending an inclusive private school in the affluent suburb of Johannesburg. Fourteen participants had never been diagnosed with learning difficulties and had attended mainstream schools throughout their school careers.…

  12. Nutritional status and food consumption in 10-11 year old Dutch boys (Dutch Nutrition Surveillance System)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppel, G.van.; Schneijder, P.; Löwik, M.R.H.; Schrijver, J.; Kok, F.J.

    1991-01-01

    As part of the Dutch Nutrition Surveillance System, cardiovascular risk factors and food consumption (24 h recall) as well as haematological, Fe and vitamin status (A, B6, C) were assessed in 126 Dutch boys aged 10-11 years (response 71%). Body mass index (BMI) and the sum of four skinfolds were

  13. Infant Boy with Microcephaly Gastroesophageal Refl ux and Nephrotic Syndrome (Galloway-Mowat Syndrome): A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaki, Majid; Rafeey, Mandana

    2012-01-01

    In this case report, we present the first diagnosed case of Galloway-Mowat syndrome in Iran. A 7 month old infant boy withmicrocephaly that had prominently stunted head growth afterbirth, gastroesophageal reflux, multiple craniofascial characters,hypothyroidism and nephrotic syndrome diagnosed at 5 monthsof age associated with rapid decline in renal function and heavyproteinuria in 2 months .

  14. Prevalence of the human papillomavirus (HPV) expression of the inner prepuce in asymptomatic boys and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinglmair, Gerald; Pichler, Renate; Zelger, Bettina; Dogan, Hasan Serkan; Becker, Tanja; Esterbauer, Johannes; Riccabona, Markus; Loidl, Wolfgang; Horninger, Wolfgang; Oswald, Josef

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the prevalence of high-risk (HR) and low-risk (LR) human papillomavirus (HPV) in prepuces of boys and men without any HPV related lesions. Between 2009 and 2011, a total collective of 250 boys and men were investigated in this prospective study. The samples were subdivided into 3 groups regarding their age, consisting of 125 (50%) children (0-10 years), 38 (15.2%) adolescents (11-20 years) and 87 (34.8%) adults (>20 years). In situ hybridization (ISH) was performed to detect HR and LR virus types within the epithelium, followed by microscopic interpretation and determination between episomal and integrative signal pattern. Our results revealed high levels of HPV concentration (HR and LR) in all age groups: HR versus LR positivity was seen in 45.5 versus 35% (children), 60.6 versus 63.6% (adolescents) and 58.3 versus 48.6% (adults). The topmost rate of HR (59.8%)- and LR (50.6%)-positive probes was found in the group with high estimated sexual activity (>14 years). Concerning the high prevalence of male HPV infection even in children, indicating non-sexual transmission pathways, inclusion of boys in the vaccination program seems to be required reducing their burden of HPV related disease.

  15. Impact of vaccinating boys and men against HPV in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbasha, Elamin H; Dasbach, Erik J

    2010-10-04

    We assessed the public health impact and value of vaccinating boys and men with the quadrivalent HPV vaccine in the United States. We used mathematical population models, accounting for both the direct and indirect protective effects of vaccination. Inputs for the models were obtained from public data sources, published literature, and analyses of clinical trial data. Compared with a program of vaccinating girls and women only, including boys and men 9-26 years of age would further decrease the cumulative mean number of genital wart cases, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2/3 cases, cancer cases, and cancer deaths by 5,146,000, 708,000, 116,000, and 40,000, respectively, within 100 years. The mean cost-effectiveness ratio (2008 US $) of this strategy was $25,700 (range: 13,600-48,800) per QALY gained if vaccination protects against all HPV 6/11/16/18-associated diseases, and $69,000 (range: 37,700-152,300)/QALY if it only protects against diseases currently in the vaccine indication. Vaccinating boys and men age 9-26 against all HPV 6/11/16/18-associated diseases provides substantial public health benefits and is cost-effective at commonly cited thresholds. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Social Function in Boys with Cleft Lip and Palate: Relationship to Ventral Frontal Cortex Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boes, Aaron D.; Murko, Vesna; Wood, Jessica L.; Langbehn, Douglas R.; Canady, John; Richman, Lynn; Nopoulos, Peg

    2007-01-01

    Isolated clefts of the lip and/or palate (ICLP) are developmental craniofacial abnormalities that have consistently been linked to increased social inhibition or shyness. Two explanations have been proposed: 1) psychosocial factors related to differences in facial appearance may lead to low self-concept and subsequent shyness, or 2) abnormal development of brain structures involved in social function, such as the ventral frontal cortex (VFC), may underlie the difference. To investigate these two possibilities this study was designed to evaluate measures of social function in relation to measures of self-concept and VFC morphology. Subjects included 30 boys (age 7-12) with ICLP and a comparison group of 43 boys without cleft in the same age category. Social function and self-concept were assessed using questionnaires with standardized scoring filled out by subjects and one of their parents. The cortical volume and surface area of the VFC, composed of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and straight gyrus (SG), were evaluated using structural magnetic resonance imaging. The ICLP subjects had significantly impaired social function relative to the comparison group. No difference in self-concept was identified. VFC morphology revealed significant differences between groups, particularly decreased volume and surface area in the left SG of the ICLP group. Moreover, abnormal VFC measures were correlated with social dysfunction but measures of self-concept were not. These results are consistent with the possibility that aberrant VFC development may partially underlie social dysfunction in boys with ICLP. PMID:17537526

  17. Prevalence of risk factors for stuttering among boys: analytical cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Moço Canhetti Oliveira

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE:There have been few studies on the risk factors for subgroups of stuttering. The aim of this study was to characterize the risk factors for developmental familial stuttering among boys who stutter and who do not stutter, such as disfluency types, associated quality and communication factors, emotional and physical stress, familial attitudes and personal reactions.DESIGN AND SETTING:Analytical cross-sectional study with a control group, performed at the Fluency Studies Laboratory of the Department of Speech and Hearing Disorders of a public university.METHODS: The parents of 40 age-matched stuttering and non-stuttering boys took part in this study. The participants were divided into two groups: stuttering children (SC and non-stuttering children (NSC, with ages between 6 years 0 months and 11 years 11 months. Initially, all of the participants underwent a fluency assessment and then data were gathered using the Protocol for the Risk of Developmental Stuttering.RESULTS:There were no differences in the physical stress distribution factors and personal reactions between the groups. Inappropriate familial attitudes were presented by 95% of the SC and 30% of the NSC. Four risk factors analyzed were not shown by the NSC, namely stuttering-like disfluency, quality factors, physical stress and emotional stresses.CONCLUSIONS:The findings suggest that the presence of stuttering-like disfluency, associated quality and communication factors, emotional stress and inappropriate family attitudes are important risk factors for familial developmental stuttering among boys.

  18. Nonobstructive posterior urethral widening (spinning top urethra) in boys with bladder instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxton, H M; Borzyskowski, M; Robinson, L B

    1992-01-01

    Seven boys between the ages of 5 and 10 years with symptoms of urinary frequency and urgency and daytime wetting were studied with urodynamics and were shown to have bladder instability and a dilated posterior urethra. In two the dilatation occurred predominantly during bladder filling. Unstable contractions caused filling of the posterior urethra, and leakage was prevented by voluntary contraction of the distal urethral sphincter; with voiding, the urethra showed a more normal appearance. In the remaining five, there were similar changes during filling, but dilatation persisted during voiding. In six the measured urine flow rate was normal, and none showed any evidence of anatomic obstruction. The mechanism of urethral distention appears to be similar to that previously shown in girls with spinning top urethra: Unstable contractions resisted by voluntary sphincter contraction cause posterior urethral dilatation. Boys with dilated posterior urethras who have urinary frequency and urgency and daytime wetting and normal urine flow rates should be assumed to have bladder instability.

  19. Physical activity and body image among men and boys: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett-Gunter, Rebecca; McEwan, Desmond; Kamarhie, Aria

    2017-09-01

    Three meta-analytic reviews have concluded that physical activity is positively related to body image. Historically, research regarding physical activity and body image has been disproportionately focused on female samples. For example, the most recent meta-analysis (2009) extracted 56 effect sizes for women and only 12 for men. The current paper provides an update to the literature regarding the relationship between physical activity and body image among men and boys across 84 individual effect sizes. The analysis also provides insight regarding moderator variables including participant age, and physical activity type and intensity. Overall, physical activity was positively related to body image among men and boys with various moderator variables warranting further investigation. Pragmatic implications are discussed as well as the limitations within existing research and need for additional research to further understand moderator and mediator variables. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The effects of sports participation on the development of left ventricular mass in adolescent boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente-Dos-Santos, João; Coelho-E-Silva, Manuel J; Castanheira, Joaquim; Machado-Rodrigues, Aristides M; Cyrino, Edilson S; Sherar, Lauren B; Esliger, Dale W; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; Malina, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    To examine the contribution of body size, biological maturation, and nonelite sports participation to longitudinal changes of left ventricular mass (LVM) in healthy boys. One hundred and ten boys (11.0-14.5 years at baseline) were assessed biannually for 2 years. Stature, body mass, and four skinfolds were measured. Lean body mass (LBM) was estimated. Biological maturation was assessed as years from age at peak height velocity (APHV). Sports participation was assessed by questionnaire. LVM was obtained from M-mode echocardiograms using two-dimensional images. To account for the repeated measures within individual nature of longitudinal data, multilevel random effects regression analyses were used in the analysis. LVM increased on average 42 ± 18 g from 11 to 15 years (P sports participation were not associated with greater LVM. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Boys' and girls' involvement in science learning and their self-efficacy in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Zuway-R; Lin, Huann-shyang

    2013-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated the significant differences in students' self-efficacy and their involvement in learning science. Nine hundred and twenty-two elementary school fifth graders, 499 junior high school eighth graders, and 1455 senior or vocational high school eleventh graders completed the students' questionnaire. Analyses of variance (ANOVAs) and independent t-tests compared the significant similarities and differences across school levels and genders. The initial findings were as follows: A sharp decline in boys' and girls' self-efficacy scores from elementary to secondary school levels; boys have significantly higher self-efficacy scores than girls at vocational and senior high school levels; students with more involvement in science learning presented significantly higher self-efficacy scores than those with less involvement. The significant discrepancies in terms of gender and age in students' self-efficacy and involvement in learning science need to be addressed. Implications and limitations are provided.

  2. Functional brain asymmetry, attentional modulation, and interhemispheric transfer in boys with Tourette syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plessen, Kerstin J; Lundervold, Arvid; Grüner, Renate

    2007-01-01

    on the right ear stimulus in the dichotic listening situation is thought to involve the same prefrontal attentional and executive functions that are involved in the suppression of tics, whereas, performance when focusing attention on the left ear stimulus additionally involves a callosal transfer...... by exploring the correlations between CC size and left ear score in the forced-left condition. Twenty boys with TS were compared with 20 age- and handedness-matched healthy boys. Results indicated similar performance in the TS and HC groups for lateralization of hemispheric function. TS subjects were also able...... to shift attention normally when instructed to focus on the right ear stimulus. When instructed to focus attention on the left ear stimulus, however, performance deteriorated in the TS group. Correlations with CC area further supported the hypothesized presence of deviant callosal functioning in the TS...

  3. CDKL5 variant in a boy with infantile epileptic encephalopathy: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Virginia Chun-Nei; Kwong, Anna Ka-Yee

    2015-04-01

    A Chinese boy presented at 18 months with intractable epilepsy, developmental delay and autistic features. He had multiple seizure types, including absence, myoclonic seizures, limb spasm and tonic seizures. His seizures were finally controlled at 3 years of age with clonazepam and a short course of chloral hydrate incidentally given for his insomnia. Subsequently, he had improvement in his communication skills. A novel hemizygous missense variant (c.1649G>A; p.R550Q) in exon 12 of CDKL5 gene was detected for him, his asymptomatic mother and elder sister. His phenotype is less severe than other male cases. We recommend screening CDKL5 for boys with pharmarco-resistant epilepsy and a trial of benzodiazepines for Infantile Epileptic Encephalopathy (IEE). Copyright © 2014 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Shorter anogenital distance correlates with the severity of hypospadias in pre-pubertal boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singal, Arbinder K; Jain, Viral G; Gazali, Zarine; Shekhawat, Prem

    2016-07-01

    Do pre-pubertal boys with hypospadias have a shorter anogenital distance (AGD) than boys with normal genitalia? AGD is significantly shorter in boys with hypospadias and decreases with the severity of hypospadias. Animal studies have shown that androgen disruption and exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals during a critical time period in early gestation, termed the male programming window (MPW), result in hypospadias and reduced AGD; and the severity of hypospadias correlates with the reduction in AGD. However, this correlation has not been established in humans. A prospective descriptive study involving measurement of AGD in pre-pubertal boys (n = 458) presenting to our pediatric urology clinic with hypospadias and normal genitalia was performed over a period of 3 years. AGD was measured in pre-pubertal boys from 5 months to 14 years of age presenting to our clinic with hypospadias (n = 180: four were excluded) and compared with randomly selected boys with normal genitalia (controls, n = 274). Three variants of AGD, from the midpoint of the anus to base of the scrotum (AGD-AS), to the anterior base of penis (AGD-1) and to the posterior base of penis (AGD-2), were measured and assessed for correlation with the severity of hypospadias. Severity of hypospadias was classified as anterior, middle and posterior according to the meatal location. No significant difference in weight (P = 0.123), age (P = 0.162) or height (P = 0.591) between the two groups was observed. Only AGD-AS was significantly shorter in boys with hypospadias compared with controls (mean ± SD: 40.6 ± 9.7 mm versus 45.6 ± 9.4 mm, P hypospadias with all the three AGD measures. Analysis of variance between anterior, middle and posterior subgroups showed a significant reduction in mean AGD-AS (P = 0.003) and AGD-2 (P = 0.008). No data were collected pertaining to in utero exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) or cigarette smoke, or current diet and environmental exposure to EDCs, which

  5. Kearns-Sayre's syndrome developing in a boy who survived Pearson's syndrome caused by mitochondrial DNA deletion

    OpenAIRE

    Simonsz, Huib; Bärlocher, K.E.; Rötig, A.

    1992-01-01

    textabstractDocumenta Ophthalmologica 1992, Volume 82, Issue 1-2, pp 73-79 Kearns-Sayre's syndrome developing in a boy who survived Pearson's syndrome caused by mitochondrial DNA deletion Dr H. J. Simonsz, K. Bärlocher, A. Rötig … show all 3 hide » Download PDF (2,322 KB) Abstract A 7-year-old boy presented with bilateral ptosis and atypical retinitis pigmentosa. Before age two, he had had an Fe-refractory anemia, with neutropenia and thrombopenia. Just prior to the ophthalmic examination, th...

  6. The relation of germ cells per tubule in testes, serum inhibin B and FSH in cryptorchid boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, D; Thorup, Jørgen Mogens; Hogdall, E

    2007-01-01

    and FSH measurements with testicular biopsy parameters in bilateral cryptorchid boys. Included were 25 boys with bilateral cryptorchidism, median 2.5 years (9 months to 5.5 years) at surgery for bilateral cryptorchidism with simultaneous testicular biopsies, and blood sample for inhibin B and FSH....... The number of spermatogonia and gonocytes was measured in 100 tubular transverse sections, the S/T and the mean-S/T of the patient was found, and expressed as percent of lowest normal value. Inhibin B and FSH were measured and related to age-specific values. Forty percent (10/25) of the patients had very low...

  7. Daily Physical Activity and Physical Fitness in 11-to 15-year-old Trained and Untrained Turkish Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güvenç, Alpay; Açikada, Caner; Aslan, Alper; Özer, Kamil

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess levels and patterns of physical activity (PA) in relation to age and regular sport activity, and to examine its relationship to physical fitness in trained and untrained boys. One hundred forty-seven 11-to 15- year-old boys (73 trained and 74 untrained) participated in this study. Trained boys, comprised of 26 soccer, 25 handball and 22 volleyball players, had been training regularly for at least one year. The intensity, duration and frequency of PA were assessed from four complete days of heart rate monitoring with 15-seconds sampling intervals. Aerobic fitness was assessed by determining peakVO2 with a portable breath-by-breath gas analyzer (Cosmed K4b2) and the running speeds at fixed lactate concentrations during an incremental running test. Anaerobic fitness was evalu-ated with the Wingate Anaerobic Test. Skinfold thicknesses from eight sites and Tanner stages of pubic hair were also obtained. Based on 15-s heart rate data, instead of continuous activity, multiple short bouts of moderate and vigorous PA, lasting up to one minute, were characteristic of daily PA patterns of both trained and untrained boys. PA levels of trained boys were higher than untrained boys (p fitness in the untrained group (p fitness indices (p > 0.05). No relationship was observed between PA variables and anaerobic fitness in either group (p> 0.05). It seems that such relationships may somewhat depend on the fitness level of the subjects. Key points PA levels of trained boys were higher than untrained boys and the levels of PA decreased with age and maturation in both groups. Based on the 15-s HR data, instead of continuous activity, multiple short bouts of moderate and vigorous PA, lasting up to one minute, were characteristic of daily PA patterns of both trained and untrained boys. Daily PA variables were related to aerobic fitness in the untrained group and these relationships were somewhat better with vigorous PA (>70% HRR), whereas in the

  8. Results of preputial reconstruction in 77 boys with distal hypospadias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijn, A. J.; Dik, P.; de Jong, T. P.

    2001-01-01

    There is growing interest in preputial reconstruction combined with hypospadias repair. We retrospectively analyzed its results for future developments and patient information. We evaluated 77 boys who underwent distal hypospadias repair combined with preputial reconstruction to determine

  9. Testicular microlithiasis in two boys with a chromosomal abnormality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goede, J.; Hack, W.W.M.; Pierik, F.H.

    2012-01-01

    A nine and 13-year-old boy, previously diagnosed with 18q syndrome and an 11q deletion, respectively were diagnosed with testicular microlithiasis (TM). Both cases demonstrate that TM occurs in patients with various chromosomal abnormalities.

  10. Comparison of Writing and Drawing Performance of Dyslexic Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Gordon; Watson, Mary

    1980-01-01

    Ten dyslexic boys and 10 matched controls were asked to draw a person and write a composition. The two groups are compared on time spent on tasks, number of words written, and proportions of spelling and grammatical errors. (SJL)

  11. The mental health of men and boys: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peate, Ian

    This article provides insight and understanding into important issues of which nurses need to be aware when caring for men and boys with regard to their mental health. Inequalities in health care are discussed, and suggestions made concerning how all nurses can help redress these inequalities. The mental health of men and boys concerns all nurses; not just those working in mental health settings. The article focuses on a recent review published by the Men's Health Forum (Wilkins, 2010), and considers a number of gender-specific mental health issues that affect the health and wellbeing of men and boys. The role of the nurse is to protect and promote the health of people in their care and this article makes clear that this extends to and includes the mental health of men and boys. Labelling people and categorizing them into homogenous groups is not often helpful or strategically wise; this article does not wish to categorize, but merely attempts to explain.

  12. In utero exposure to alcohol and puberty in boys: a pregnancy cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håkonsen, Linn Berger; Brath-Lund, Mette Louise; Hounsgaard, Marie Louise; Olsen, Jørn; Ernst, Andreas; Thulstrup, Ane Marie; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst

    2014-06-10

    Epidemiological studies have raised concerns about the reproductive consequences of in utero exposure to alcohol. Maternal lifestyle factors have been associated with altered pubertal development, but the impact of prenatal alcohol exposure on male puberty is unknown. Thus, the objective was to explore whether prenatal alcohol exposure alters pubertal development in boys. Follow-up of a Danish pregnancy cohort. Sons (N=2522) of women who were enrolled in a Danish pregnancy cohort between 1984 and 1987. Indicators of pubertal development, assessed by age at first nocturnal emission, voice break, acne and regular shaving. We found a tendency towards a later age at first nocturnal emission and voice break following in utero exposure to binge drinking. Boys exposed to ≥5 binge drinking episodes during pregnancy experienced their first nocturnal emission 7.3 months (95% CI -2.8 to 17.4) later and voice break 4.9 months (95% CI -0.6 to 10.4) later than the unexposed boys. Results for average weekly alcohol consumption were in the same direction, but differences were smaller and not statistically significant. We found no strong support for the hypothesis that in utero exposure to weekly alcohol consumption is a risk factor for altered pubertal development, but a tendency towards delayed pubertal development among boys exposed to binge drinking during fetal life was observed. Longitudinal studies, with data collected as children go through puberty, are needed to explore this further. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Relationships between bullying victimization psychological distress and breakfast skipping among boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Willmore, Jacqueline

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to further explore the association between bullying victimization and breakfast skipping in children and adolescents. Compared to the previous study, we have used a larger and representative sample of middle and high school students, examined the effect of gender, different forms (physical, verbal, theft/vandalism and cyber) and severity of bullying on breakfast eating behaviour. Data from students (2286 boys and 2859 girls) aged 11 to 19 years (mean ± SD age: 14.6 ± 1.9 years) from the 2013 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS) were analysed using self-reports of being bullied, diet, psychological distress, demographics, socio-economic status, weight status, and substance use. Results revealed greater odds of breakfast skipping in girl victims of physical, verbal, and cyber bullying, and in boy victims of verbal and cyber bullying. There was a dose-response relationship between experience of both school and cyber bullying victimization and breakfast skipping behaviour for both genders. Mediation analysis indicated that psychological distress fully mediated the relationship between both verbal and physical bullying victimization and breakfast skipping in girls, and partially mediated the relationship between verbal bullying victimization and breakfast skipping in boys. Psychological distress also partially mediated the link between cyber bullying victimization and breakfast skipping in both boys and girls. These results corroborate previous findings on the association between bullying victimization and breakfast skipping in children and adolescents. The strong and consistent associations with different forms of bullying victimization, the dose-response relationship, and the mediating role of psychological distress suggest a causal relationship. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Genome-Wide Associations Related to Hepatic Histology in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Hispanic Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattacheril, Julia; Lavine, Joel E; Chalasani, Naga P; Guo, Xiuqing; Kwon, Soonil; Schwimmer, Jeffrey; Molleston, Jean P; Loomba, Rohit; Brunt, Elizabeth M; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Goodarzi, Mark O; Taylor, Kent D; Yates, Katherine P; Tonascia, James; Rotter, Jerome I

    2017-11-01

    To identify genetic loci associated with features of histologic severity of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in a cohort of Hispanic boys. There were 234 eligible Hispanic boys age 2-17 years with clinical, laboratory, and histologic data enrolled in the Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis Clinical Research Network included in the analysis of 624 297 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). After the elimination of 4 outliers and 22 boys with cryptic relatedness, association analyses were performed on 208 DNA samples with corresponding liver histology. Logistic regression analyses were carried out for qualitative traits and linear regression analyses were applied for quantitative traits. The median age and body mass index z-score were 12.0 years (IQR, 11.0-14.0) and 2.4 (IQR, 2.1-2.6), respectively. The nonalcoholic fatty liver disease activity score (scores 1-4 vs 5-8) was associated with SNP rs11166927 on chromosome 8 in the TRAPPC9 region (P = 8.7 -07 ). Fibrosis stage was associated with SNP rs6128907 on chromosome 20, near actin related protein 5 homolog (p = 9.9 -07 ). In comparing our results in Hispanic boys with those of previously reported SNPs in adult nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, 2 of 26 susceptibility loci were associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease activity score and 2 were associated with fibrosis stage. In this discovery genome-wide association study, we found significant novel gene effects on histologic traits associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease activity score and fibrosis that are distinct from those previously recognized by adult nonalcoholic fatty liver disease genome-wide association studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia Activity Predicts Internalizing and Externalizing Behaviors in Non-referred Boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Atypical respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA, a biomarker of emotion dysregulation, is associated with both externalizing and internalizing behaviors. In addition, social adversity and gender may moderate this association. In this study, we investigated if RSA (both resting RSA and RSA reactivity in an emotion regulation task predicts externalizing and/or internalizing behaviors and the extent to which social adversity moderates this relationship. Two hundred and fifty-three children (at Time 1, mean age = 9.05, SD = 0.60, 48% boys and their caregivers from the community participated in this study. Resting RSA and RSA reactivity were assessed, and caregivers reported children’s externalizing and internalizing behaviors at both Time 1 and Time 2 (1 year later. We found that lower resting RSA (but not RSA reactivity at Time 1 was associated with increased externalizing and internalizing behaviors at Time 2 in boys, even after controlling for the effects of Time 1 behavioral problems and Time 2 age. Moreover, there was a significant interaction effect between Time 1 resting RSA and social adversity such that lower resting RSA predicted higher externalizing and internalizing behaviors in boys only under conditions of high social adversity. Follow-up analyses revealed that these predictive effects were stronger for externalizing behavior than for internalizing behavior. No significant effects were found for girls. Our findings provide further evidence that low resting RSA may be a transdiagnostic biomarker of emotion dysregulation and a predisposing risk factor for both types of behavior problems, in particular for boys who grow up in adverse environments. We conclude that biosocial interaction effects and gender differences should be considered when examining the etiological mechanisms of child psychopathology.

  16. Cold agglutinins in haemophiliac boys infected with HIV.

    OpenAIRE

    Bolton-Maggs, P H; Rogan, P D; Duguid, J K; Mutton, K J; Ball, L M

    1991-01-01

    Eleven haemophiliac boys infected with HIV were screened for irregular red cell antibodies and were compared with nine haemophiliac boys who did not have antibodies to HIV. Seven (64%) of the children who had antibodies to HIV also had cold agglutinins, mostly of anti-I specificity, compared with one (11%) of those who did not have antibodies to HIV. The children with antibodies to HIV and cold agglutinins had a significantly increased mean IgM concentration. The presence of cold agglutinins ...

  17. [A boy with a cough and shoulder pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kompier, Charlotte J A; Roelants, Roosje; van de Griendt, Erik-Jonas

    2013-01-01

    A 15-year-old boy reported to the Accident and Emergency Department with excessive coughing, shortness of breath and pain in the area of his left shoulder blade. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was cultured from his sputum. The boy was otherwise healthy, and had no immune deficiency or underlying anatomic abnormality. He probably contracted the MRSA infection at the international school he attends.

  18. Early progressive encephalopathy in boys and MECP2 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankirawatana, P; Leonard, H; Ellaway, C; Scurlock, J; Mansour, A; Makris, C M; Dure, L S; Friez, M; Lane, J; Kiraly-Borri, C; Fabian, V; Davis, M; Jackson, J; Christodoulou, J; Kaufmann, W E; Ravine, D; Percy, A K

    2006-07-11

    MECP2 mutations mainly occur in females with Rett syndrome. Mutations have been described in 11 boys with progressive encephalopathy: seven of nine with affected sisters and two de novo. The authors report four de novo occurrences: three pathogenic and one potentially pathogenic. Common features include failure to thrive, respiratory insufficiency, microcephaly, and abnormal motor control. MECP2 mutations should be assessed in boys with progressive encephalopathy and one or more of respiratory insufficiency, abnormal movements or tone, and intractable seizures.

  19. Relational aggression among boys: blind spots and hidden dramas

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksen, Ingunn Marie; Lyng, Selma Therese

    2016-01-01

    Although boys too are involved in relational aggression, their experiences are overshadowed by the focus on relational aggression among girls. This paradox mirrors the empirical puzzle that forms the starting point for this article: while teachers saw relational aggression as a ‘girl problem’, we found a vast undercurrent of relational aggression among boys. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork and interviews with staff and students in Norwegian schools, we ask how boys’ relational aggression ca...

  20. Cognitive and Neurobehavioral Profile in Boys With Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banihani, Rudaina; Smile, Sharon; Yoon, Grace; Dupuis, Annie; Mosleh, Maureen; Snider, Andrea; McAdam, Laura

    2015-10-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a progressive neuromuscular condition that has a high rate of cognitive and learning disabilities as well as neurobehavioral disorders, some of which have been associated with disruption of dystrophin isoforms. Retrospective cohort of 59 boys investigated the cognitive and neurobehavioral profile of boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Full-scale IQ of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Overweight in Boys With ADHD Is Related to Candidate Genes and Not to Deficits in Cognitive Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanć, Tomasz; Dmitrzak-Węglarz, Monika; Borkowska, Aneta; Wolańczyk, Tomasz; Pytlińska, Natalia; Rybakowski, Filip; Słopień, Radosław; Słopień, Agnieszka

    2016-11-03

    The aim of the study was to assess the relationship of overweight, the polymorphisms of selected candidate genes, and deficits in the executive functions among children with ADHD. We examined 109 boys with ADHD aged between 7 and 17 years. The study indicated variants of 14 polymorphisms in eight candidate genes. We applied seven neuropsychological tests to evaluate the executive functions. Overweight was diagnosed on the basis of the guidelines of the International Obesity Task Force. Analyses revealed significant association between DRD4 rs1800955, SNAP25 rs363039 and rs363043, 5HTR2A rs17288723, and overweight in boys with ADHD. There were no significant differences in the level of neuropsychological test results between patients with overweight and without overweight. Overweight in boys with ADHD is associated with polymorphisms in three candidate genes: DRD4, SNAP25, and 5HTR2A, but not through conditioning deficits in cognitive functions. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. The art of camouflage: Gender differences in the social behaviors of girls and boys with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Michelle; Harwood, Robin; Kasari, Connie

    2017-08-01

    This study examined the extent to which gender-related social behaviors help girls with autism spectrum disorder to seemingly mask their symptoms. Using concurrent mixed methods, we examined the social behaviors of 96 elementary school children during recess (autism spectrum disorder = 24 girls and 24 boys, typically developing = 24 girls and 24 boys). Children with autism spectrum disorder had average intelligence (IQ ⩾ 70), a confirmed diagnosis, and were educated in the general education classroom. Typically developing children were matched by sex, age, and city of residence to children with autism spectrum disorder. The results indicate that the female social landscape supports the camouflage hypothesis; girls with autism spectrum disorder used compensatory behaviors, such as staying in close proximately to peers and weaving in and out of activities, which appeared to mask their social challenges. Comparatively, the male landscape made it easier to detect the social challenges of boys with autism spectrum disorder. Typically developing boys tended to play organized games; boys with autism spectrum disorder tended to play alone. The results highlight a male bias in our perception of autism spectrum disorder. If practitioners look for social isolation on the playground when identifying children with social challenges, then our findings suggest that girls with autism spectrum disorder will continue to be left unidentified.

  3. THE BULLYING PHENOMENON: DIFFERENCES BETWEEN BOYS AND GIRLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The bullying phenomenon is characterized by aggression always unequal power and involves violence. This study aimed to identify the types of bullying (physical, verbal, psychological, material, virtual or sexual more prevalent in this population and compare bullying among adolescent males and females. We used a questionnaire prepared by the researcher. Participants were 309 students, 142 males and 167 females, from 6th to 8th grade from two schools, one state and one municipal. These results show 27% of participants were involved in episodes of bullying and that the most prevalent type of bullying was verbal, being appointed for 92% of girls and 84% boys; followed by psychological, indicated by 70% of girls and 53% boys. Physical bullying, had 46% of female and 44% male reports, the material was mentioned by 27% of girls and 16% boys. On sexual bullying type was greatest difference between the sexes, suffered by 38% of girls and 16% boys. Only 13% of girls and 12% boys, mentioned suffer the virtual bullying. Corroborating research area, in this study the highest percentage of victims were female and different from the literature girls reported being verbally abused more for boys than for girls.

  4. 3D Multi-segment foot kinematics in children: A developmental study in typically developing boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, Kevin; Staes, Filip; Peerlinck, Kathelijne; Van Geet, Christel; Hermans, Cedric; Matricali, Giovanni Arnoldo; Lobet, Sebastien

    2017-02-01

    The relationship between age and 3D rotations objectivized with multisegment foot models has not been quantified until now. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate the relationship between age and multi-segment foot kinematics in a cross-sectional database. Barefoot multi-segment foot kinematics of thirty two typically developing boys, aged 6-20 years, were captured with the Rizzoli Multi-segment Foot Model. One-dimensional statistical parametric mapping linear regression was used to examine the relationship between age and 3D inter-segment rotations of the dominant leg during the full gait cycle. Age was significantly correlated with sagittal plane kinematics of the midfoot and the calcaneus-metatarsus inter-segment angle (pplane kinematics of the calcaneus-metatarsus angle (pfoot models, however, the current study highlights that this is of particular relevance for foot models which incorporate a separate midfoot segment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. TheAMHgenotype (rs10407022 T>G) is associated with circulating AMH levels in boys, but not in girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiber, Iben Katinka; Hagen, Casper P; Busch, Alexander Siegfried; Mieritz, Mikkel Grunnet; Aksglæde, Lise; Main, Katharina; Almstrup, Kristian; Juul, Anders

    2018-02-01

    Fetal anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is responsible for normal male sexual differentiation, and circulating AMH is used as a marker of testicular tissue in newborns with disorders of sex development. Little is known about the mechanism of action in postnatal life. A recent genome wide association study (GWAS) reported genetic variation of AMH affecting AMH levels in young men. This study investigated the effect of genetic variation of AMH and AMH type II receptor (AMHR2) ( AMH rs10407022 T>G and AMHR2 rs11170547 C>T) on circulating reproductive hormone levels and pubertal onset in boys and girls. This study is a combined longitudinal and cross-sectional study in healthy Danish boys and girls from the general population. We included 658 boys aged 5.8-19.8 years and 320 girls aged 5.6-16.5 years. The main outcome measures were genotyping of AMH and AMHR2 , pubertal staging and serum levels of reproductive hormones. AMH rs10407022T>G was associated with higher serum levels of AMH in prepubertal boys (TT: 575 pmol/L vs TG: 633 pmol/L vs GG: 837 pmol/L, P  = 0.002) and adolescents (TT: 44 pmol/L vs TG: 58 pmol/L vs GG: 79 pmol/L, P  boys carrying the genetic variation also had lower levels of LH (TT: 3.0 IU/L vs TG: 2.8 IU/L vs GG: 1.8 IU/L, P  = 0.012). Hormone levels in girls and pubertal onset in either sex did not seem to be profoundly affected by the genotypes. Our findings support recent GWAS results in young adults and expand our understanding of genetic variation affecting AMH levels even in boys prior to the pubertal decline of circulating AMH. © 2018 The authors.

  6. Developmental links between disobedient behavior and social classroom relationships in boys with psychiatric disorders in special education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeman, L D; van Lier, P A C; Wubbels, T; Verhulst, F C; van der Ende, J; Maras, A; Hopman, J A B; Tick, N T

    2015-05-01

    In mainstream education, positive relationships with teachers and peers have been found to positively influence children's behavioral development. However, high levels of classroom behavior problems may hinder the formation of such positive relationships. Therefore, findings from mainstream education cannot be generalized to special education. The present study investigated the developmental links between disobedience and positive as well as negative relationships with teachers and peers among boys in restrictive special educational settings. At three assessment waves across one school year, teacher-reports of teacher-child closeness and conflict, and peer-reports of peer acceptance, rejection and disobedience were collected among 340 boys (mean age = 10.1 years, SD = 1.58, range = 5-13) with psychiatric disorders receiving special education. Autoregressive cross-lagged models were fitted to explore the nature of these developmental links. The impact of boys' age was examined using multiple group analyses. Findings supported the importance of teacher-child conflict, but not closeness, and positive and negative peer relationships for the development of boys' disobedience, with a stronger effect of negative than positive relationships. However, teacher-child and peer relationships were not longitudinally related and the effect of boys' age was minimal. This study extends prior research by suggesting that, despite differences in educational setting and severity of behavior problems between children in mainstream and special education, reducing negative classroom interactional patterns is most important in preventing the development of problematic classroom behavior in boys with severe social-emotional and behavioral difficulties.

  7. "We don't need no education": Video game preferences, video game motivations, and aggressiveness among adolescent boys of different educational ability levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nije Bijvank, Marije; Konijn, Elly A; Bushman, Brad J

    2012-02-01

    This research focuses on low educational ability as a risk factor for aggression and violent game play. We propose that boys of lower educational ability are more attracted to violent video games than other boys are, and that they are also higher in trait aggressiveness and sensation seeking. Participants were Dutch boys in public schools (N = 830, age-range 11-17). In the Netherlands, standardized tests are used to place students into lower, medium, and higher educational ability groups. Results showed that boys in the lower educational ability group preferred to play violent, stand-alone games, identified more with video game characters, and perceived video games to be more realistic than other boys did. Lower levels of education were also related to higher levels of aggressiveness and sensation seeking. Higher educational ability boys preferred social, multiplayer games. Within a risk and resilience model, boys with lower educational ability are at greater risk for aggression. Copyright © 2011 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. All rights reserved.

  8. Aquatic therapy for boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD): an external pilot randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hind, Daniel; Parkin, James; Whitworth, Victoria; Rex, Saleema; Young, Tracey; Hampson, Lisa; Sheehan, Jennie; Maguire, Chin; Cantrill, Hannah; Scott, Elaine; Epps, Heather; Main, Marion; Geary, Michelle; McMurchie, Heather; Pallant, Lindsey; Woods, Daniel; Freeman, Jennifer; Lee, Ellen; Eagle, Michelle; Willis, Tracey; Muntoni, Francesco; Baxter, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Standard treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) includes regular physiotherapy. There are no data to show whether adding aquatic therapy (AT) to land-based exercises helps maintain motor function. We assessed the feasibility of recruiting and collecting data from boys with DMD in a parallel-group pilot randomised trial (primary objective), also assessing how intervention and trial procedures work. Ambulant boys with DMD aged 7-16 years established on steroids, with North Star Ambulatory Assessment (NSAA) score ≥8, who were able to complete a 10-m walk test without aids or assistance, were randomly allocated (1:1) to 6 months of either optimised land-based exercises 4 to 6 days/week, defined by local community physiotherapists, or the same 4 days/week plus AT 2 days/week. Those unable to commit to a programme, with >20% variation between NSAA scores 4 weeks apart, or contraindications to AT were excluded. The main outcome measures included feasibility of recruiting 40 participants in 6 months from six UK centres, clinical outcomes including NSAA, independent assessment of treatment optimisation, participant/therapist views on acceptability of intervention and research protocols, value of information (VoI) analysis and cost-impact analysis. Over 6 months, 348 boys were screened: most lived too far from centres or were enrolled in other trials; 12 (30% of the targets) were randomised to AT ( n  = 8) or control ( n  = 4). The mean change in NSAA at 6 months was -5.5 (SD 7.8) in the control arm and -2.8 (SD 4.1) in the AT arm. Harms included fatigue in two boys, pain in one. Physiotherapists and parents valued AT but believed it should be delivered in community settings. Randomisation was unattractive to families, who had already decided that AT was useful and who often preferred to enrol in drug studies. The AT prescription was considered to be optimised for three boys, with other boys given programmes that were too extensive and

  9. Boys with precocious or early puberty: incidence of pathological brain magnetic resonance imaging findings and factors related to newly developed brain lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keun Hee Choi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available PurposeBrain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI findings and factors predictive of pathological brain lesions in boys with precocious puberty (PP or early puberty (EP were investigated.MethodsSixty-one boys with PP or EP who had brain MRI performed were included. PP was classified into the central or peripheral type. Brain MRI findings were categorized into group I (pathological brain lesion known to cause puberty; newly diagnosed [group Ia] or previously diagnosed [group Ib]; group II (brain lesion possibly related to puberty; and group III (incidental or normal findings. Medical history, height, weight, hormone test results, and bone age were reviewed.ResultsBrain lesions in groups I and II were detected in 17 of 23 boys (74% with central PP, 9 of 30 boys (30% with EP, and 7 of 8 boys (88% with peripheral PP. All brain lesions in boys with peripheral PP were germ cell tumors (GCT, and 3 lesions developed later during follow-up. Group I showed earlier pubertal onset (P<0.01 and greater bone age advancement (P<0.05 than group III. Group III had lower birth weight and fewer neurological symptoms than "Ia and II" (all P<0.05.ConclusionEarlier onset of puberty, greater bone age advancement, and/or neurological symptoms suggested a greater chance of pathological brain lesions in boys with central PP or EP. All boys with peripheral PP, even those with normal initial MRI findings, should be evaluated for the emergence of GCT during follow-up.

  10. The differences in testicular volumes in boys 8-36 months old with undescended, retractile and hydrocele testis--usefulness of scrotal screening ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrzejewski, G; Wozniak, M M; Madej, T; Kryza, R; Zielonka-Lamparska, E; Wieczorek, A P

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the study was quantitative and qualitative assessments of scrotal abnormalities diagnosed in boys 8 to 36 months old during ultrasound screening and estimation if these abnormalities influence testes volume. High frequency scrotal ultrasound was performed in 1448 patients aged 8-36 months as additional exam during screening ultrasound program for children including cervical and abdominal ultrasound. The mean age of examined boys was 17 months. For further analysis the children were divided in 5 age groups. The abnormalities in scrotal ultrasound were found in 20.1% of boys. Undescended, cryptorchid testes were found in 4.8% of patients, mobile testicle in 7.6% and hydrocele in 2.8%. The volume of undescended testes was statistically lower than volume of the descended testes in 3 youngest groups of boys (p=0.003-0.011). The volume of mobile testicles did not increase with age, while in patients with hydrocele the testicular volume decreased with age. Scrotal screening ultrasound performed in boys up to 3 years old may deliver information about the number and type of existing pathologies as well as their influence on the testicular volume. The volume of the pathological testes was lower than the volume of the normal ones. Improper growth of testes may potentially have important clinical implication for the function of testes in the future. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A European perspective on testicular tissue cryopreservation for fertility preservation in prepubertal and adolescent boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picton, Helen M; Wyns, Christine; Anderson, Richard A; Goossens, Ellen; Jahnukainen, Kirsi; Kliesch, Sabine; Mitchell, Rod T; Pennings, G; Rives, Natalie; Tournaye, Herman; van Pelt, Ans M M; Eichenlaub-Ritter, Ursula; Schlatt, Stefan

    2015-11-01

    respondents, half of the centres were actively offering testis tissue cryobanking as a means of safeguarding the future fertility of boys and adolescents as more than 260 young patients (age range less than 1 year old to 16 years of age), had already undergone testicular tissue retrieval and storage for fertility preservation. The remaining centres were considering the implementation of a tissue-based fertility preservation programme for boys undergoing oncological treatments. The data collected were limited by the scope of the questionnaire, the geographical range of the survey area, and the small number of respondents. The clinical and research questions identified and the ethical and legal issues raised are highly relevant to the multi-disciplinary teams developing treatment strategies to preserve the fertility of prepubertal and adolescent boys who have a high risk of fertility loss due to ablative interventions, trauma or genetic pre-disposition. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Genetic and environmental influences on girls' and boys' gender-typed and gender-neutral values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knafo, Ariel; Spinath, Frank M

    2011-05-01

    In this first investigation of genetic and environmental influences on children's values, 271 German twin pairs (50.2% boys) reported their values at ages 7-11 years using the Portrait Values Questionnaire (Schwartz & Rubel, 2005). We distinguished between gender-neutral (conservation vs. openness to change) and gender-typed (self-transcendence vs. self-enhancement) values. Boys differed from girls in the importance given to gender-typed benevolence, achievement, and power values. Gender-neutral values showed moderate (.34) and gender-typed values showed higher (.49) heritability, with nonshared environment and error accounting for the remaining variance. For both sexes, substantial genetic effects accounted for the importance children gave to their respective gender-stereotypical end of the self-transcendence versus self-enhancement dimension. However, dramatic sex differences emerged in the gender-atypical end of the distribution. For girls, low self-transcendence (high gender-atypical values) showed a large (.76) group heritability. For boys, gender-atypical values (high self-transcendence) showed no heritability and a modest (.10) shared environment effect. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Living alongside more affluent neighbors predicts greater involvement in antisocial behavior among low-income boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odgers, Candice L; Donley, Sachiko; Caspi, Avshalom; Bates, Christopher J; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2015-10-01

    The creation of economically mixed communities has been proposed as one way to improve the life outcomes of children growing up in poverty. However, whether low-income children benefit from living alongside more affluent neighbors is unknown. Prospectively gathered data on over 1,600 children from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study living in urban environments is used to test whether living alongside more affluent neighbors (measured via high-resolution geo-spatial indices) predicts low-income children's antisocial behavior (reported by mothers and teachers at the ages of 5, 7, 10, and 12). Results indicated that low-income boys (but not girls) surrounded by more affluent neighbors had higher levels of antisocial behavior than their peers embedded in concentrated poverty. The negative effect of growing up alongside more affluent neighbors on low-income boys' antisocial behavior held across childhood and after controlling for key neighborhood and family-level factors. Findings suggest that efforts to create more economically mixed communities for children, if not properly supported, may have iatrogenic effects on boys' antisocial behavior. © 2015 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  14. Little Leaguer's shoulder (proximal humeral epiphysiolysis): MRI findings in four boys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obembe, Olufolajimi O.; Gaskin, Cree M.; Anderson, Mark W. [UVA Health Sciences Center, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 800170, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Taffoni, Matthew J. [Piedmont Radiological Associates, Salisbury, NC (United States)

    2007-09-15

    Shoulder pain is a common problem among adolescent athletes. A possible cause of such pain that can be diagnosed on MRI is a stress injury to the proximal humerus known as Little Leaguer's shoulder (proximal humeral epiphysiolysis). Our objective was to describe the MRI appearance of Little Leaguer's shoulder. Four patients (all boys; age range 11-15 years; median 13 years) with clinical, plain radiographic, and MR imaging findings of Little Leaguer's shoulder were studied retrospectively. MRI demonstrated focal physeal widening in all four boys with extension of physeal signal intensity into the metaphysis on T1-weighted and gradient echo coronal and sagittal sequences. T2-weighted sequences were of limited use in demonstrating the physeal widening, which is critical to the diagnosis. Abnormal high T2-signal intensity was seen in the metaphysis adjacent to the focal physeal widening in all the boys. Focal extension of normal physeal T1-weighted and gradient echo signal intensity into the adjacent metaphysis is a sign of stress injury in the proximal humeral physis (Little Leaguer's shoulder). Children should suspend the offending sport to allow healing. (orig.)

  15. Little Leaguer's shoulder (proximal humeral epiphysiolysis): MRI findings in four boys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obembe, Olufolajimi O.; Gaskin, Cree M.; Anderson, Mark W.; Taffoni, Matthew J.

    2007-01-01

    Shoulder pain is a common problem among adolescent athletes. A possible cause of such pain that can be diagnosed on MRI is a stress injury to the proximal humerus known as Little Leaguer's shoulder (proximal humeral epiphysiolysis). Our objective was to describe the MRI appearance of Little Leaguer's shoulder. Four patients (all boys; age range 11-15 years; median 13 years) with clinical, plain radiographic, and MR imaging findings of Little Leaguer's shoulder were studied retrospectively. MRI demonstrated focal physeal widening in all four boys with extension of physeal signal intensity into the metaphysis on T1-weighted and gradient echo coronal and sagittal sequences. T2-weighted sequences were of limited use in demonstrating the physeal widening, which is critical to the diagnosis. Abnormal high T2-signal intensity was seen in the metaphysis adjacent to the focal physeal widening in all the boys. Focal extension of normal physeal T1-weighted and gradient echo signal intensity into the adjacent metaphysis is a sign of stress injury in the proximal humeral physis (Little Leaguer's shoulder). Children should suspend the offending sport to allow healing. (orig.)

  16. PUBLIC POLICY, CHILD DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH AND BOYS AT RISK: CHALLENGING, ENDURING AND NECESSARY PARTNERSHIP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckinney, Marvin; Fitzgerald, Hiram E; Winn, Donna-Marie; Babcock, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Research findings documenting the issues and challenges of boys prebirth through age 5 years have barely penetrated the arena of public policy making nor has it permeated the public agenda of politicians, government, or other funding stakeholders. The purpose of this article is to articulate pathways for researchers to enter into the policy-making process. We review critical issues related to implementing the process of public policy. We argue that the policy process needs to be informed by more dynamic theoretical models of human development, and that researchers and clinicians need to be exposed more deeply to the processes required to inform and subsequently change public policy. We contend that most quantitative research on boys at risk occurs at the micro- and the mesosystem level rather than at the exo- and the macrosystem levels where structural societal policies embedded in economic and racial inequities contribute to risk. Researchers, clinicians, and policy makers need to create collaborative partnerships designed to develop, advocate, and implement more evidence-based policies designed to enhance the quality of life for boys at risk. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  17. Disordered Eating among Preadolescent Boys and Girls: The Relationship with Child and Maternal Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo P. P. Machado

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: (i To analyze the eating behaviors and body satisfaction of boys and girls and to examine their mothers’ perceptions of these two domains; and (ii to evaluate eating problem predictors using child body mass index (BMI, self-esteem, and body satisfaction as well as maternal BMI, eating problems, and satisfaction with their child’s body. The participants included 111 children (54.1% girls aged between 9 and 12 years old and their mothers. Assessment measures included the Child Eating Attitude Test, the Self-Perception Profile for Children, the Eating Disorders Questionnaire, and the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Child and maternal measures also included BMI and Collins Figure Drawings. Results: (i No association between child and maternal BMI for either sex was found; (ii no difference was found between boys and girls with regard to eating behavior; (iii most children revealed a preference for an ideal body image over their actual body image; (iv most mothers preferred thinner bodies for their children; (v greater BMI was related to higher body dissatisfaction; and (vi child BMI and dissatisfaction with body image predicted eating disturbances in boys, whereas self-esteem, maternal BMI, and eating behavior predicted them in girls. Discussion: Maternal eating problems and BMI were related to female eating problems only.

  18. A conservative approach to testicular rupture in adolescent boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubillos, Jimena; Reda, Edward F; Gitlin, Jordan; Zelkovic, Paul; Palmer, Lane S

    2010-10-01

    Management for blunt trauma with breach of the renal capsule or bladder (extraperitoneal) has largely become nonsurgical since a conservative approach proved to be effective and safe. Currently the recommendation for managing testicular rupture is surgical exploration and débridement or orchiectomy. We report outcomes in boys diagnosed with testicular rupture and treated without surgical intervention. In the last year we conservatively treated 7 consecutive boys with delayed presentation of testicular rupture after blunt scrotal trauma. Patients were treated with scrotal support, antibiotics to prevent abscess, rest, analgesics and serial ultrasound. We report clinical information and outcomes. The 7 boys were 11 to 14 years old and presented 1 to 5 days after injury. Trauma was to the left testis in 3 cases and to the right testis in 4. Patients presented with mild to moderate pain and similar scrotal swelling. Ultrasound findings consistently revealed hematocele and increased echogenicity. Blood flow was present in the injured portion of the testes in 3 cases and to the remainder of the affected testicle in 6 of the 7 boys. In the remaining boy an adequate waveform was not seen in either testicle, which the radiologist thought was secondary to prepubertal status. Other findings included scrotal edema, irregular contour and seminiferous tubule extrusion. Followup was greater than 6 months in all cases. Five boys were seen at the office and the 2 remaining had telephone followup. In all cases hematocele resolved, testicular size stabilized without atrophy and echogenicity normalized in the 5 patients with followup ultrasound. One patient required surgical repair of hydrocele 4 months after trauma but no other patient needed surgical exploration. No abscess or infection developed. A conservative approach in a select group of adolescent boys with testicular rupture can result in resolution of the fracture and maintenance of testicular architectural integrity

  19. [Memory characteristic in boys with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder comorbid learning disability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhaomin; Wang, Na; Qian, Qiujin; Yang, Li; Qian, Ying; Liu, Lu; Liu, Yuxin; Cheng, Jia; Sun, Li; Cao, Qingjiu; Wang, Yufeng

    2014-06-10

    To explore the memory characteristic in boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) plus learning disability (LD). A total of 97 ADHD boys with comorbid LD (ADHD+LD), 97 ADHD boys without comorbid LD (ADHD-LD) and 97 healthy controls (based on the criteria of DSM-IV) were recruited from the outpatient clinic of Peking University Sixth Hospital from December 2003 to September 2012. Individuals across three groups were matched by ages, intelligence quotient (IQ) and ADHD subtypes. The Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS) was used to access the characteristics of several memory domains. ADHD +LD group performed the worst and control group the best in memory quotient (MQ) (90 ± 15 vs 98 ± 14 & 104 ± 14) and long-term memory domain ((36.0 ± 10.2) vs (42.1 ± 7.8) & (45.6 ± 6.7) score, all P 0.05). In most subscales of WMS, ADHD+LD group scored significantly lower than both ADHD-LD and control group in current information and orientation, mental control (1→100) , mental control (100→1) and associate learning subscales ( (8.8 ± 3.1) vs (10.0 ± 3.0) & (9.9 ± 2.3) score, (8.7 ± 4.1) vs (10.0 ± 3.9) & (11.1 ± 3.6) score, (10.7 ± 3.9) vs (12.9 ± 2.8) & (13.7 ± 2.2) score, (9.8 ± 3.1) vs (10.8 ± 2.6) & (11.1 ± 2.1) score, all P 0.05). Boys with ADHD comorbid LD show deficits in overall memory function and long-term memory while short-term memory is partially damaged. Impairment in immediate memory is not detected.

  20. Reading Comprehension in Boys with ADHD: The Mediating Roles of Working Memory and Orthographic Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Lauren M; Rapport, Mark D; Raiker, Joseph S; Orban, Sarah A; Eckrich, Samuel J

    2017-02-01

    Reading comprehension difficulties in children with ADHD are well established; however, limited information exists concerning the cognitive mechanisms that contribute to these difficulties and the extent to which they interact with one another. The current study examines two broad cognitive processes known to be involved in children's reading comprehension abilities-(a) working memory (i.e., central executive processes [CE], phonological short-term memory [PH STM], and visuospatial short-term memory [VS STM]) and (b) orthographic conversion (i.e., conversion of visually presented text to a phonological code)-to elucidate their unique and interactive contribution to ADHD-related reading comprehension differences. Thirty-one boys with ADHD-combined type and 30 typically developing (TD) boys aged 8 to 12 years (M = 9.64, SD = 1.22) were administered multiple counterbalanced tasks assessing WM and orthographic conversion processes. Relative to TD boys, boys with ADHD exhibited significant deficits in PH STM (d = -0.70), VS STM (d = -0.92), CE (d = -1.58), and orthographic conversion (d = -0.93). Bias-corrected, bootstrapped mediation analyses revealed that CE and orthographic conversion processes modeled separately mediated ADHD-related reading comprehension differences partially, whereas PH STM and VS STM did not. CE and orthographic conversion modeled jointly mediated ADHD-related reading comprehension differences fully wherein orthographic conversion's large magnitude influence on reading comprehension occurred indirectly through CE's impact on the orthographic system. The findings suggest that adaptive cognitive interventions designed to improve reading-related outcomes in children with ADHD may benefit by including modules that train CE and orthographic conversion processes independently and interactively.