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Sample records for box model training

  1. Does box model training improve surgical dexterity and economy of movement during virtual reality laparoscopy? A randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clevin, Lotte; Grantcharov, Teodor P

    2008-01-01

    Laparoscopic box model trainers have been used in training curricula for a long time, however data on their impact on skills acquisition is still limited. Our aim was to validate a low cost box model trainer as a tool for the training of skills relevant to laparoscopic surgery. Randomised, controlled trial (Canadian Task Force Classification I). University Hospital. Sixteen gynaecologic residents with limited laparoscopic experience were randomised to a group that received a structured box model training curriculum, and a control group. Performance before and after the training was assessed in a virtual reality laparoscopic trainer (LapSim and was based on objective parameters, registered by the computer system (time, error, and economy of motion scores). Group A showed significantly greater improvement in all performance parameters compared with the control group: economy of movement (p=0.001), time (p=0.001) and tissue damage (p=0.036), confirming the positive impact of box-trainer curriculum on laparoscopic skills acquisition. Structured laparoscopic skill training on a low cost box model trainer improves performance as assessed using the VR system. Trainees who used the box model trainer showed significant improvement compared to the control group. Box model trainers are valid tools for laparoscopic skills training and should be implemented in the comprehensive training curricula in gynaecology.

  2. Does box model training improve surgical dexterity and economy of movement during virtual reality laparoscopy? A randomised trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clevin, L.; Grantcharov, T.P.

    2008-01-01

    . Performance before and after the training was assessed in a virtual reality laparoscopic trainer (LapSim and was based on objective parameters, registered by the computer system (time, error, and economy of motion scores). Group A showed significantly greater improvement in all performance parameters compared......OBJECTIVE: Laparoscopic box model trainers have been used in training curricula for a long time, however data on their impact on skills acquisition is still limited. Our aim was to validate a low cost box model trainer as a tool for the training of skills relevant to laparoscopic surgery. DESIGN......: Randomised, controlled trial (Canadian Task Force Classification I). SETTING: University Hospital. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Sixteen gynaecologic residents with limited laparoscopic experience were randomised to a group that received a structured box model training curriculum, and a control group...

  3. Arthroscopic skills assessment and use of box model for training in arthroscopic surgery using Sawbones – “FAST” workstation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goyal Saumitra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Arthroscopic skills training outside the operative room may decrease risks and errors by trainee surgeons. There is a need of simple objective method for evaluating proficiency and skill of arthroscopy trainees using simple bench model of arthroscopic simulator. The aim of this study is to correlate motor task performance to level of prior arthroscopic experience and establish benchmarks for training modules. Methods: Twenty orthopaedic surgeons performed a set of tasks to assess a arthroscopic triangulation, b navigation, c object handling and d meniscus trimming using SAWBONES “FAST” arthroscopy skills workstation. Time to completion and the errors were computed. The subjects were divided into four levels; “Novice”, “Beginner”, “Intermediate” and “Advanced” based on previous arthroscopy experience, for analyses of performance. Results: The task performance under transparent dome was not related to experience of the surgeon unlike opaque dome, highlighting the importance of hand-eye co-ordination required in arthroscopy. Median time to completion for each task improved as the level of experience increased and this was found to be statistically significant (p 85% of subjects across all the levels reported improvement in performance with sequential tasks. Conclusion: Use of the arthroscope requires visuo-spatial coordination which is a skill that develops with practice. This simple box model can reliably differentiate the arthroscopic skills based on experience and can be used to monitor progression of skills of trainees in institutions.

  4. Arthroscopic skills assessment and use of box model for training in arthroscopic surgery using Sawbones – “FAST” workstation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Saumitra; Radi, Mohamed Abdel; Ramadan, Islam Karam-allah; Said, Hatem Galal

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Arthroscopic skills training outside the operative room may decrease risks and errors by trainee surgeons. There is a need of simple objective method for evaluating proficiency and skill of arthroscopy trainees using simple bench model of arthroscopic simulator. The aim of this study is to correlate motor task performance to level of prior arthroscopic experience and establish benchmarks for training modules. Methods: Twenty orthopaedic surgeons performed a set of tasks to assess a) arthroscopic triangulation, b) navigation, c) object handling and d) meniscus trimming using SAWBONES “FAST” arthroscopy skills workstation. Time to completion and the errors were computed. The subjects were divided into four levels; “Novice”, “Beginner”, “Intermediate” and “Advanced” based on previous arthroscopy experience, for analyses of performance. Results: The task performance under transparent dome was not related to experience of the surgeon unlike opaque dome, highlighting the importance of hand-eye co-ordination required in arthroscopy. Median time to completion for each task improved as the level of experience increased and this was found to be statistically significant (p 85%) of subjects across all the levels reported improvement in performance with sequential tasks. Conclusion: Use of the arthroscope requires visuo-spatial coordination which is a skill that develops with practice. This simple box model can reliably differentiate the arthroscopic skills based on experience and can be used to monitor progression of skills of trainees in institutions. PMID:27801643

  5. Arthroscopic skills assessment and use of box model for training in arthroscopic surgery using Sawbones - "FAST" workstation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Saumitra; Radi, Mohamed Abdel; Ramadan, Islam Karam-Allah; Said, Hatem Galal

    2016-01-01

    Arthroscopic skills training outside the operative room may decrease risks and errors by trainee surgeons. There is a need of simple objective method for evaluating proficiency and skill of arthroscopy trainees using simple bench model of arthroscopic simulator. The aim of this study is to correlate motor task performance to level of prior arthroscopic experience and establish benchmarks for training modules. Twenty orthopaedic surgeons performed a set of tasks to assess a) arthroscopic triangulation, b) navigation, c) object handling and d) meniscus trimming using SAWBONES "FAST" arthroscopy skills workstation. Time to completion and the errors were computed. The subjects were divided into four levels; "Novice", "Beginner", "Intermediate" and "Advanced" based on previous arthroscopy experience, for analyses of performance. The task performance under transparent dome was not related to experience of the surgeon unlike opaque dome, highlighting the importance of hand-eye co-ordination required in arthroscopy. Median time to completion for each task improved as the level of experience increased and this was found to be statistically significant (p 85%) of subjects across all the levels reported improvement in performance with sequential tasks. Use of the arthroscope requires visuo-spatial coordination which is a skill that develops with practice. This simple box model can reliably differentiate the arthroscopic skills based on experience and can be used to monitor progression of skills of trainees in institutions. © The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2016.

  6. development of modelling characteristics of training activity in single combats (in terms of boxing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaskov A. V.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Approach of the systems of creation of model descriptions of sportsmen is presented. The integral estimations of different sides of preparedness are developed (technical, tactical, psychical, general and special physical. They allow in the structure of preparedness of boxers in number to characterize a level, determine strong and weak links. Studied and analysed more than ten precontest stages. The stages ended with successful appearance of boxers on the competitions of the Russian and international scale.

  7. Allowing New Opportunities in Advanced Laparoscopy Training Using a Full High-Definition Training Box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achurra, Pablo; Lagos, Antonia; Avila, Ruben; Tejos, Rodrigo; Buckel, Erwin; Alvarado, Juan; Boza, Camilo; Jarufe, Nicolas; Varas, Julian

    2017-02-01

    Simulated laparoscopy training is limited by its low-quality image. A high-definition (HD) laparoscopic training box was developed under the present necessity of simulating advanced surgery. To describe and test a new HD laparoscopic training box for advanced simulation training. We describe the features and image quality of the new training box. The simulator was tested and then evaluated by a group of 76 expert surgeons using a 4-item questionnaire. To assess the effectiveness of training using this simulation box, 15 general surgery residents were trained to perform a laparoscopic jejuno-jejunostomy in a validated simulation program. They were assessed with objective rating scales before and after the training program, and their results were compared with that of experts. The training box was assembled using high-density fiberglass shaped as an insufflated abdomen. It has an adapted full-HD camera with a LED-based illumination system. A manually self-regulated monopod attached to the camera enables training without assistance. Of the expert surgeons who answered the questionnaire, 91% said that the simulation box had a high-quality image and that it was very similar to real laparoscopy. All residents trained improved their rating scores significantly when comparing their initial versus final assessment ( P .2). This novel laparoscopic training box presents a high-resolution image and allows training different types of advanced laparoscopic procedures. The simulator box was positively assessed by experts and demonstrated to be effective for laparoscopy training in resident surgeons.

  8. Grey Box Modelling of Hydrological Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thordarson, Fannar Ørn

    The main topic of the thesis is grey box modelling of hydrologic systems, as well as formulation and assessment of their embedded uncertainties. Grey box model is a combination of a white box model, a physically-based model that is traditionally formulated using deterministic ordinary differential...... represent a stochastic state space model. In the grey box model the total noise is divided into a measurement noise and a process noise. The process noise is due to model approximations, undiscovered input and uncertainties in the input series. Estimates of the process noise can be used to highlight...... in the model, or formulation of process noise can be considered so that it meets the physical limits of the hydrological system and give an adequate description of the embedded uncertainty in model structure. The thesis consists of two parts: a summary report and a part which contains six scientific papers...

  9. Physical Modeling Modular Boxes: PHOXES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelineck, Steven; Serafin, Stefania

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a set of musical instruments, which are based on known physical modeling sound synthesis techniques. The instruments are modular, meaning that they can be combined in various ways. This makes it possible to experiment with physical interaction and sonic expl...

  10. [The influence of toothguide training box on shade matching veracity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ming-ming; Xu, Tong-kai; Liu, Feng; Shi, Xiao-rui; Feng, Hai-lan

    2009-08-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of toothguide training box(TTB) on shade matching veracity, and compare the differences of influence on shade matching veracity of tabs of shadeguide and on that of tabs out of shadeguide. 31 graduated students who had 1 to 5-year clinical experience without color blindness were trained by TTB once a week for 3 weeks. Elapsed time and scores from the training system were recorded each time. And everyone was tested by 29 tabs of Vita 3D-Master shadeguide and 7 tabs out of Vita 3D-Master shadeguide before the first training as the base line and tested again after the last training as the test after training. SPSS 10.0 software package was used for analysis. The variances of scores and elapsed time were analyzed by ANOVA, and the differences of veracity between tabs of shadeguide and that of tabs out of shadeguide by Wilcoxon signed ranks test. The scores of the tests were rising via training. There was significant difference (P0.01). TTB can improve the shade matching ability of prosthodontists, but has limited influence on the shade matching ability of tabs out of shadeguide.

  11. Grey-box modelling of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tornøe, Christoffer Wenzel; Jacobsen, Judith L; Pedersen, Oluf

    2004-01-01

    Grey-box pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modelling is presented as a promising way of modelling PK/PD systems. The concept behind grey-box modelling is based on combining physiological knowledge along with information from data in the estimation of model parameters. Grey-box modelling con...... in order to describe the complicated in vivo system of insulin and glucose following an IVGTT....

  12. Post-training vasopressin injections may facilitate or delay shuttle-box avoidance extinction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagan, J.J.; Bohus, B.; Wied, D. de

    1982-01-01

    After training to avoid footshock in a two-way shuttle box rats were injected with lysine vasopressin (LVP) and returned to the shuttle box 24 hr later for 10 extinction trials. Experiment 1 shows that when injected 30 min after training subsequent extinction responding varied as an inverted

  13. Modelling of Box Type Solar Cooker Performance in a Tropical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thermal performance model of box type solar cooker with loaded water is presented. The model was developed using the method of Funk to estimate cooking power in terms of climatic and design parameters for box type solar cooker in a tropical environment. Coefficients for each term used in the model were determined ...

  14. Mirror Box Training in Hemiplegic Stroke Patients Affects Body Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, Giorgia; Romano, Daniele; Maravita, Angelo

    2017-01-01

    The brain integrates multisensory inputs coming from the body (i.e., proprioception, tactile sensations) and the world that surrounds it (e.g., visual information). In this way, it is possible to build supra-modal and coherent mental representations of our own body, in order to process sensory events and to plan movements and actions in space. Post-stroke acquired motor deficits affect the ability to move body parts and to interact with objects. This may, in turn, impair the brain representation of the affected body part, resulting in a further increase of disability and motor impairment. To the aim of improving any putative derangements of body representation induced by the motor deficit, here we used the Mirror Box (MB). MB is a rehabilitative tool aimed at restoring several pathological conditions where body representation is affected, including post-stroke motor impairments. In this setting, observing the reflection of the intact limb in the mirror, while the affected one is hidden behind the mirror, can exert a positive influence upon different clinical conditions from chronic pain to motor deficits. Such results are thought to be mediated by a process of embodiment of the mirror reflection, which would be integrated into the representation of the affected limb. A group of 45 post-stroke patients was tested before and after performing a MB motor training in two conditions, one with the mirror between the hands and one without it, so that patients could see their impaired limb directly. A forearm bisection task, specifically designed to measure the metric representation of the body (i.e., size), was used as dependent variable. Results showed that, at baseline, the forearm bisection is shifted proximally, compatibly with a shrink of the metric representation of the affected arm towards the shoulder. However, following the MB session bisection scores shifted distally, compatibly with a partial correction of the metric representation of that arm. The effects

  15. Box photosynthesis modeling results for WRF/CMAQ LSM

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Box Photosynthesis model simulations for latent heat and ozone at 6 different FLUXNET sites. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Ran, L., J....

  16. Gray-box modelling approach for description of storage tunnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harremoës, Poul; Carstensen, Jacob

    1999-01-01

    The dynamics of a storage tunnel is examined using a model based on on-line measured data and a combination of simple deterministic and black-box stochastic elements. This approach, called gray-box modeling, is a new promising methodology for giving an on-line state description of sewer systems. ...... in a SCADA system because the most important information on the specific system is provided on-line...

  17. IEA Common Exercise 4: ARX, ARMAX and grey-box models for thermal performance characterization of the test box

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder; Andersen, Philip Hvidthøft Delff

    In this report results of applying time series models for assessing the thermal performance of the IEA Annex 58 test box based on data given in the Common Exercise 4 (CE4), which was measured in Almeria, Spain. Both ARX, ARMAX and grey-box models are applied. Finally, the same models are fitted...

  18. Software sensors based on the grey-box modelling approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, J.; Harremoës, P.; Strube, Rune

    1996-01-01

    -box model for the specific dynamics is identified. Similarly, an on-line software sensor for detecting the occurrence of backwater phenomena can be developed by comparing the dynamics of a flow measurement with a nearby level measurement. For treatment plants it is found that grey-box models applied to on......-line measurements. With respect to the development of software sensors, the grey-box models possess two important features. Firstly, the on-line measurements can be filtered according to the grey-box model in order to remove noise deriving from the measuring equipment and controlling devices. Secondly, the grey......-box models may contain terms which can be estimated on-line by use of the models and measurements. In this paper, it is demonstrated that many storage basins in sewer systems can be used as an on-line flow measurement provided that the basin is monitored on-line with a level transmitter and that a grey...

  19. Fault Diagnosis of Train Axle Box Bearing Based on Multifeature Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Failure of the train axle box bearing will cause great loss. Now, condition-based maintenance of train axle box bearing has been a research hotspot around the world. Vibration signals generated by train axle box bearing have nonlinear and nonstationary characteristics. The methods used in traditional bearing fault diagnosis do not work well with the train axle box. To solve this problem, an effective method of axle box bearing fault diagnosis based on multifeature parameters is presented in this paper. This method can be divided into three parts, namely, weak fault signal extraction, feature extraction, and fault recognition. In the first part, a db4 wavelet is employed for denoising the original signals from the vibration sensors. In the second part, five time-domain parameters, five IMF energy-torque features, and two amplitude-ratio features are extracted. The latter seven frequency domain features are calculated based on the empirical mode decomposition and envelope spectrum analysis. In the third part, a fault classifier based on BP neural network is designed for automatic fault pattern recognition. A series of tests are carried out to verify the proposed method, which show that the accuracy is above 90%.

  20. The Box Model and the Acoustic Sounder, a Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Otto; Lundtang Petersen, Erik

    1979-01-01

    Concentrations of SO2 in a large city during a subsidence situation are predicted as a function of time by means of a simple box model and the predictions are compared to actual SO2 concentration measurements. The agreement between model results and measurements is found to be excellent. The model...

  1. A Grey Box Model for the Hydraulics in a Creek

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsdottir, Harpa; Jacobsen, Judith L.; Madsen, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    The Saint-Venant equation of mass balance is used to derive a stochastics lumped model, describing the dynamics of a cross-sectional area in a river. The unknown parameters of the model are estimated by combining the physical equation with a set of data, a method known as grey box modelling...

  2. A comparison between skeleton and bounding box models for falling direction recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narupiyakul, Lalita; Srisrisawang, Nitikorn

    2017-12-01

    Falling is an injury that can lead to a serious medical condition in every range of the age of people. However, in the case of elderly, the risk of serious injury is much higher. Due to the fact that one way of preventing serious injury is to treat the fallen person as soon as possible, several works attempted to implement different algorithms to recognize the fall. Our work compares the performance of two models based on features extraction: (i) Body joint data (Skeleton Data) which are the joint's positions in 3 axes and (ii) Bounding box (Box-size Data) covering all body joints. Machine learning algorithms that were chosen are Decision Tree (DT), Naïve Bayes (NB), K-nearest neighbors (KNN), Linear discriminant analysis (LDA), Voting Classification (VC), and Gradient boosting (GB). The results illustrate that the models trained with Skeleton data are performed far better than those trained with Box-size data (with an average accuracy of 94-81% and 80-75%, respectively). KNN shows the best performance in both Body joint model and Bounding box model. In conclusion, KNN with Body joint model performs the best among the others.

  3. Simulation-based training for thoracoscopic lobectomy: a randomized controlled trial: virtual-reality versus black-box simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Katrine; Ringsted, Charlotte; Hansen, Henrik Jessen; Petersen, René Horsleben; Konge, Lars

    2014-06-01

    Video-assisted thoracic surgery is gradually replacing conventional open thoracotomy as the method of choice for the treatment of early-stage non-small cell lung cancers, and thoracic surgical trainees must learn and master this technique. Simulation-based training could help trainees overcome the first part of the learning curve, but no virtual-reality simulators for thoracoscopy are commercially available. This study aimed to investigate whether training on a laparoscopic simulator enables trainees to perform a thoracoscopic lobectomy. Twenty-eight surgical residents were randomized to either virtual-reality training on a nephrectomy module or traditional black-box simulator training. After a retention period they performed a thoracoscopic lobectomy on a porcine model and their performance was scored using a previously validated assessment tool. The groups did not differ in age or gender. All participants were able to complete the lobectomy. The performance of the black-box group was significantly faster during the test scenario than the virtual-reality group: 26.6 min (SD 6.7 min) versus 32.7 min (SD 7.5 min). No difference existed between the two groups when comparing bleeding and anatomical and non-anatomical errors. Simulation-based training and targeted instructions enabled the trainees to perform a simulated thoracoscopic lobectomy. Traditional black-box training was more effective than virtual-reality laparoscopy training. Thus, a dedicated simulator for thoracoscopy should be available before establishing systematic virtual-reality training programs for trainees in thoracic surgery.

  4. Effects of Quercetin Supplementation on Lipid and Protein Metabolism after Classic Boxing Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Nevzat

    2017-01-01

    The metabolic fitness (MF) is a component of athletes' physical conditioning. This study aims to investigate the effects of quercetin supplementation on Turkish Junior athletes' lipid and protein metabolism relating to MF after one month classic boxing training. Totally 20 voluntary junior male athletes were separated into two equal groups as the…

  5. A Box-Cox normal model for response times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein Entink, R H; van der Linden, W J; Fox, J-P

    2009-11-01

    The log-transform has been a convenient choice in response time modelling on test items. However, motivated by a dataset of the Medical College Admission Test where the lognormal model violated the normality assumption, the possibilities of the broader class of Box-Cox transformations for response time modelling are investigated. After an introduction and an outline of a broader framework for analysing responses and response times simultaneously, the performance of a Box-Cox normal model for describing response times is investigated using simulation studies and a real data example. A transformation-invariant implementation of the deviance information criterium (DIC) is developed that allows for comparing model fit between models with different transformation parameters. Showing an enhanced description of the shape of the response time distributions, its application in an educational measurement context is discussed at length.

  6. [Measuring residents' and specialists' laparoscopic technique with the MENTOR® training box].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakucs, Tímea; Lukovich, Péter; Dobó, Noémi; Benkő, Péter; Harsányi, László

    2013-04-01

    Operating room is not the ideal place to acquire laparoscopic skills since patients can be put at risk and it is also relatively expensive. Using training boxes seems to be a more appropriate way of teaching and learning the technique, but there is little data about measuring the technique of experienced specialists and comparing their results with residents. At the 1st Department of Surgery, Semmelweis University we tested 30 residents and 25 specialists in general surgery and urology on MENTOR® training box. Before training, all participants completed a questionnaire on professional experience, previous usage of training boxes, virtual simulators, and video games, and whether they played a musical instrument earlier. Subjects were asked to complete in a defined time limit 3 of the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery tasks (which is required for American surgical residents for surgical board examination), and 3 tasks decided by us. Linear regression analysis (ANOVA table) was used to evaluate the data. 16% of the specialists and 6.66% of the residents completed all tasks within time limit. Statistically significant correlation (p learning instrument handling. Nonetheless, residents acquire most of their laparoscopic surgical skills on patients in Hungary, yet. For this reason there is a need for organized training opportunities.

  7. Evaluation process radiological in ternopil region method of box models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І.В. Матвєєва

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available  Results of radionuclides Sr-90 flows analyses in the ecosystem of Kotsubinchiky village of Ternopolskaya oblast were analyzed. The block-scheme of ecosystem and its mathematical model using the box models method were made. It allowed us to evaluate the ways of dose’s loadings formation of internal irradiation for miscellaneous population groups – working people, retirees, children, and also to prognose the dynamic of these loadings during the years after the Chernobyl accident.

  8. Box & Jenkins Model Identification:A Comparison of Methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Augusta Soares Machado

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on a presentation of a comparison of a neuro-fuzzy back propagation network and Forecast automatic model Identification to identify automatically Box & Jenkins non seasonal models.Recently some combinations of neural networks and fuzzy logic technologies have being used to deal with uncertain and subjective problems. It is concluded on the basis of the obtained results that this type of approach is very powerful to be used.

  9. Learning basic laparoscopic skills: a randomized controlled study comparing box trainer, virtual reality simulator, and mental training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulla, Mubashir; Sharma, Davendra; Moghul, Masood; Kailani, Obeda; Dockery, Judith; Ayis, Salma; Grange, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to compare different methods of learning basic laparoscopic skills using box trainer (BT), virtual reality simulator (VRS) and mental training (MT); and (2) to determine the most effective method of learning laparoscopic skills. Randomized controlled trial. King's College, London. 41 medical students were included in the study. After randomization, they were divided into 5 groups. Group 1 was the control group without training; group 2 was box trained; group 3 was also box trained with an additional practice session; group 4 was VRS trained; and group 5 was solely mentally trained. The task was to cut out a circle marked on a stretchable material. All groups were assessed after 1 week on both BT and VRS. Four main parameters were assessed, namely time, precision, accuracy, and performance. Time: On BT assessment, the box-trained group with additional practice group 3 was the fastest, and the mental-trained group 5 was the slowest. On VRS assessment, the time difference between group 3 and the control group 1 was statistically significant. Precision: On BT assessment, the box-trained groups 2 and 3 scored high, and mental trained were low on precision. On VRS assessment, the VRS-trained group ranked at the top, and the MT group was at the bottom on precision. Accuracy: On BT assessment, the box-trained group 3 was best and the mental-trained group was last. On VRS assessment, the VRS-trained group 4 scored high closely followed by box-trained groups 2 and 3. Performance: On BT assessment, the box-trained group 3 ranked above all the other groups, and the mental-trained group ranked last. On VRS assessment, the VRS group 4 scored best, followed closely by box-trained groups 2 and 3. The skills learned on box training were reproducible on both VRS and BT. However, not all the skills learned on VRS were transferable to BT. Furthermore, VRS was found to be a reliable and the most convenient method of assessment. MT alone cannot

  10. [Evaluation on the application of mechanical toothguide training box to chromatics teaching of prosthodontics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Fengxue; Yin, Jiayue

    2011-12-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness on the application of mechanical toothguide training box (TTB) to chromatics teaching of prosthodontics. 12 preclinical undergraduate students were chosen to participate in the VITA 3D-Master shade-matching system simulant toothguide training process using Linearguide Training Box program of TTB. Toothguide Trainer program considered as a test was performed on the trained undergraduate students group, the postgraduate students group as well as the clinical prosthodontists group with under 5-year clinical experience. The test scores, elapsed time and the coincidence of chromatics single factor matching were recorded each time, the shade-matching efficiency was calculated. The data was analyzed with SPSS 13.0 software. The shade-matching efficiency of undergraduate students trained by TTB (64.03 +/- 18.82) was significantly higher than before (P < 0.05), higher than the postgraduate students group and the clinical prosthodontists group (P < 0.05). The coincidence of chromatics single factor matching of trained undergraduate students were 64.64% (lightness), 88.57% (chroma), 87.70% (hue). TTB is a effective tool for shade-mathing practice in chromatics teaching of prosthodontics. The trained undergraduate students are less sensitive in lightness-matching.

  11. Dairy Tool Box Talks: A Comprehensive Worker Training in Dairy Farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovai, Maristela; Carroll, Heidi; Foos, Rebecca; Erickson, Tracey; Garcia, Alvaro

    2016-01-01

    Today's dairies are growing rapidly, with increasing dependence on Latino immigrant workers. This requires new educational strategies for improving milk quality and introduction to state-of-the-art dairy farming practices. It also creates knowledge gaps pertaining to the health of animals and workers, mainly due to the lack of time and language barriers. Owners, managers, and herdsmen assign training duties to more experienced employees, which may not promote "best practices" and may perpetuate bad habits. A comprehensive and periodic training program administered by qualified personnel is currently needed and will enhance the sustainability of the dairy industry. Strategic management and employee satisfaction will be achieved through proper training in the employee's language, typically Spanish. The training needs to address not only current industry standards but also social and cultural differences. An innovative training course was developed following the same structure used by the engineering and construction industries, giving farm workers basic understanding of animal care and handling, cow comfort, and personal safety. The "Dairy Tool Box Talks" program was conducted over a 10-week period with nine sessions according to farm's various employee work shifts. Bulk milk bacterial counts and somatic cell counts were used to evaluate milk quality on the three dairy farms participating in the program. "Dairy Tool Box Talks" resulted in a general sense of employee satisfaction, significant learning outcomes, and enthusiasm about the topics covered. We conclude this article by highlighting the importance of educational programs aimed at improving overall cross-cultural training.

  12. Assessing household health expenditure with Box-Cox censoring models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaze, Jean-Paul

    2005-09-01

    In order to assess the combined presence of zero expenditures and a heavily skewed distribution of positive expenditures, the Box-Cox transformation with location parameter is used to define a set of models generalising the standard Tobit, Heckman selection and double-hurdle models. Extended flexibility with respect to previous specifications is introduced, notably regarding negative transformation parameters, which may prove necessary for medical expenditures, and corner-solution outcomes. An illustration is provided by the analysis of household health expenditure in Switzerland. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Comparison of postbuckling model and finite element model with compression strength of corrugated boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas J. Urbanik; Edmond P. Saliklis

    2002-01-01

    Conventional compression strength formulas for corrugated fiberboard boxes are limited to geometry and material that produce an elastic postbuckling failure. Inelastic postbuckling can occur in squatty boxes and trays, but a mechanistic rationale for unifying observed strength data is lacking. This study employs a finite element model, instead of actual experiments, to...

  14. Box-Cox Mixed Logit Model for Travel Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orro, Alfonso; Novales, Margarita; Benitez, Francisco G.

    2010-09-01

    To represent the behavior of travelers when they are deciding how they are going to get to their destination, discrete choice models, based on the random utility theory, have become one of the most widely used tools. The field in which these models were developed was halfway between econometrics and transport engineering, although the latter now constitutes one of their principal areas of application. In the transport field, they have mainly been applied to mode choice, but also to the selection of destination, route, and other important decisions such as the vehicle ownership. In usual practice, the most frequently employed discrete choice models implement a fixed coefficient utility function that is linear in the parameters. The principal aim of this paper is to present the viability of specifying utility functions with random coefficients that are nonlinear in the parameters, in applications of discrete choice models to transport. Nonlinear specifications in the parameters were present in discrete choice theory at its outset, although they have seldom been used in practice until recently. The specification of random coefficients, however, began with the probit and the hedonic models in the 1970s, and, after a period of apparent little practical interest, has burgeoned into a field of intense activity in recent years with the new generation of mixed logit models. In this communication, we present a Box-Cox mixed logit model, original of the authors. It includes the estimation of the Box-Cox exponents in addition to the parameters of the random coefficients distribution. Probability of choose an alternative is an integral that will be calculated by simulation. The estimation of the model is carried out by maximizing the simulated log-likelihood of a sample of observed individual choices between alternatives. The differences between the predictions yielded by models that are inconsistent with real behavior have been studied with simulation experiments.

  15. Dairy Tool Box Talks: a comprehensive worker training in dairy farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristela Rovai

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Today’s dairies are growing rapidly, with increasing dependence on Latino immigrant workers. This requires new educational strategies for improving milk quality and introduction to state-of-the-art dairy farming practices. It also creates knowledge gaps pertaining to the health of animals and workers, mainly due to lack of time and language barriers. Owners, managers and herdsmen assign training duties to more experienced employees, which may not promote ‘best practices’ and may perpetuate bad habits. A comprehensive and periodic training program administered by qualified personnel is currently needed and will enhance the sustainability of the dairy industry. Strategic management and employee satisfaction will be achieved through proper training in the employee’s language, typically Spanish. The training needs to address not only current industry standards but also social and cultural differences. An innovative training course was developed following the same structure used by the engineering and construction industries, giving farm workers basic understanding of animal care and handling, cow comfort and personal safety. The Dairy Tool Box Talks program was conducted over a ten week period with nine 30-minute sessions according to farm’s various employee work shifts. Bulk milk bacterial counts and somatic cell count were used to evaluate milk quality on the three dairy farms participating in the program.Dairy Tool Box Talks resulted in a general sense of employee satisfaction, significant learning outcomes, and enthusiasm about the topics covered. We conclude this article by highlighting the importance of educational programs aimed at improving overall cross-cultural training.

  16. The influence of trained peer tutoring on tutors' motivation and performance in a French boxing setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrain, Pascal; D'Arripe-Longueville, Fabienne; Gernigon, Christophe

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the potential motivational and behavioural benefits of two peer tutoring programmes for tutors in a sport setting. Differences between the sexes were also explored. Thirty two college-age males and females, all novices on a French boxing task, were assigned to a 2 x 2 [sex x training type: physical practice associated with trained peer tutoring (TPT) vs physical practice associated with untrained peer tutoring (UPT)] factorial design. All participants were given six French boxing lessons of 2 h each. The TPT programme included structured methods to prepare the participants to fulfil their role of tutors, whereas the UPT programme did not. The results demonstrated that the TPT programme resulted in higher scores for coaching skills. Furthermore, interaction effects revealed that the TPT programme yielded better offensive outcomes for males and better defensive outcomes for females. Although the UPT participants expressed higher self-efficacy, no differences emerged for intrinsic motivation and causal attributions. Finally, male tutors displayed higher self-efficacy and offensive outcomes than female tutors. The results are discussed in the light of previous findings in the educational and sport psychology literature.

  17. Learning Shade Differentiation Using Toothguide Trainer and Toothguide Training Box: A Longitudinal Study with Dental Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olms, Constanze; Jakstat, H

    2016-02-01

    The positive training effect achieved with the Toothguide Training Box (TTB) has been demonstrated in previous studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the training effect with the TTB at six and 12 months using standardized color tests. The study involved 101 dental students. The participants were divided into two study groups and one control group. Ten standard color samples were determined under uniform environmental conditions with VITA 3D-Master. The control group (N=30) took the color test after one week. Study group 1 (N=49) took the color test after six months and study group 2 (N=22) at 12 months for the first time by following the TTB curriculum. The control group achieved an average ΔEt1=0.85. In study group 1, the ΔEt2 was 2.29, and in study group 2, ΔEt3=2.25. The results after six and 12 months were highly significant compared to the control group (α=0.001). Dependence was determined only with regard to gender. In this study, the TTB quickly led to an improvement in tooth color differentiation among students. After six months, there was a decrease in the training effect. These results suggest that the TTB curriculum should be provided at the end of preclinical training.

  18. Box models for the evolution of atmospheric oxygen: an update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasting, J. F.

    1991-01-01

    A simple 3-box model of the atmosphere/ocean system is used to describe the various stages in the evolution of atmospheric oxygen. In Stage I, which probably lasted until redbeds began to form about 2.0 Ga ago, the Earth's surface environment was generally devoid of free O2, except possibly in localized regions of high productivity in the surface ocean. In Stage II, which may have lasted for less than 150 Ma, the atmosphere and surface ocean were oxidizing, while the deep ocean remained anoxic. In Stage III, which commenced with the disappearance of banded iron formations around 1.85 Ga ago and has lasted until the present, all three surface reservoirs contained appreciable amounts of free O2. Recent and not-so-recent controversies regarding the abundance of oxygen in the Archean atmosphere are identified and discussed. The rate of O2 increase during the Middle and Late Proterozoic is identified as another outstanding question.

  19. Augmented twin-nonlinear two-box behavioral models for multicarrier LTE power amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammi, Oualid

    2014-01-01

    A novel class of behavioral models is proposed for LTE-driven Doherty power amplifiers with strong memory effects. The proposed models, labeled augmented twin-nonlinear two-box models, are built by cascading a highly nonlinear memoryless function with a mildly nonlinear memory polynomial with cross terms. Experimental validation on gallium nitride based Doherty power amplifiers illustrates the accuracy enhancement and complexity reduction achieved by the proposed models. When strong memory effects are observed, the augmented twin-nonlinear two-box models can improve the normalized mean square error by up to 3 dB for the same number of coefficients when compared to state-of-the-art twin-nonlinear two-box models. Furthermore, the augmented twin-nonlinear two-box models lead to the same performance as previously reported twin-nonlinear two-box models while requiring up to 80% less coefficients.

  20. Augmented Twin-Nonlinear Two-Box Behavioral Models for Multicarrier LTE Power Amplifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oualid Hammi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel class of behavioral models is proposed for LTE-driven Doherty power amplifiers with strong memory effects. The proposed models, labeled augmented twin-nonlinear two-box models, are built by cascading a highly nonlinear memoryless function with a mildly nonlinear memory polynomial with cross terms. Experimental validation on gallium nitride based Doherty power amplifiers illustrates the accuracy enhancement and complexity reduction achieved by the proposed models. When strong memory effects are observed, the augmented twin-nonlinear two-box models can improve the normalized mean square error by up to 3 dB for the same number of coefficients when compared to state-of-the-art twin-nonlinear two-box models. Furthermore, the augmented twin-nonlinear two-box models lead to the same performance as previously reported twin-nonlinear two-box models while requiring up to 80% less coefficients.

  1. Efficient Parameterization for Grey-box Model Identification of Complex Physical Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, Mogens; Knudsen, Morten

    2006-01-01

    Grey box model identification preserves known physical structures in a model but with limits to the possible excitation, all parameters are rarely identifiable, and different parametrizations give significantly different model quality. Convenient methods to show which parameterizations are the be......Grey box model identification preserves known physical structures in a model but with limits to the possible excitation, all parameters are rarely identifiable, and different parametrizations give significantly different model quality. Convenient methods to show which parameterizations...

  2. A photochemical box model for urban air quality study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shengxin; Demerjian, Kenneth

    The photochemical box model (PBM) developed in the present study is based on the principle of mass conservation. It has a horizontal domain of the size of a typical city and a vertical dimension defined by the mixed-layer height. The concentration of any pollutant is determined by horizontal advection, vertical entrainment, source emissions and chemical reactions. A one-dimensional high resolution boundary layer model by Blackadar ( Preprints, Third Symp. on Atmospheric Turbulence, Diffusion, and Air Quality, Raleigh, Am. Met. Soc., pp. 443-447, 1976; Advances in Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Vol. 1, No. 1 (edited by Pfafflin J. and Ziegler E.), pp. 50-85. Gordon and Breach, New York, 1979) has been incorporated in the PBM and further developed to consider the effect of urban heat islands in the simulation of mixed layer height. The predicted mixed-layer heights compare very well with observations. The gas phase chemical kinetic mechanism used in the Regional Acid Deposition Model II (RADM2) and that of an earlier version of PBM have been used to calculate the contributions of chemical reactions to the changes of pollutant concentrations. Detailed analysis and comparisons of the two chemical mechanisms have been made. The simulated pollutant concentrations using both chemical mechanisms are in very good agreement with available observations for CO, NO, NO 2 and O 3. A radiative transfer model developed by Madronich ( J. geophys. Res.92, 9740-9752, 1987) has been incorporated in the PBM for the calculation of actinic flux and photolytic rate constants. Height-averaged and radiation-corrected photolytic rate constants are used for the photochemical reactions. Budget analyses conducted for CO, NO, NO 2 and O 3 have enhanced our understanding of the relative contributions of horizontal advection, vertical entrainment, source emissions and chemical reactions to the overall rate of change of their concentrations. Model predictions are not sensitive to the large

  3. Modelling photochemical pollutants in a deep urban street canyon: Application of a coupled two-box model approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jian; Cai, Xiao-Ming; Bloss, William James

    2016-10-01

    Air pollution associated with road transport is a major environmental issue in urban areas. Buildings in urban areas are the artificial obstacles to atmospheric flow and cause reduced ventilation for street canyons. For a deep street canyon, there is evidence of the formation of multiple segregated vortices, which generate flow regimes such that pollutants exhibit a significant contrast between these vortices. This results in poor air ventilation conditions at pedestrian level, thereby leading to elevated pollutant levels and potential breaches of air quality limits. The hypothesis of a well-mixed deep street canyon in the practical one-box model approach is shown to be inappropriate. This study implements a simplified simulation of the canyon volume: a coupled two-box model with a reduced chemical scheme to represent the key photochemical processes with timescales similar to and smaller than the turbulent mixing timescale. The two-box model captures the significant pollutant contrast between the lower and upper parts of a deep street canyon, particularly for NO2. Core important parameters (i.e. heterogeneity coefficient, exchange velocity and box height ratio) in the two-box model approach were investigated through sensitivity tests. The two-box model results identify the emission regimes and the meteorological conditions under which NO2 in the lower canyon (i.e. the region of interest for the assessment of human health effects) is in breach of air quality standards. Higher NO2 levels were observed for the cases with higher heterogeneity coefficients (the two boxes are more segregated), with lower exchange velocities (worse ventilation conditions), or with smaller box height ratios (reduced dilution possibly due to secondary smaller eddies in the lower canyon). The performance of a one-box model using the same chemical scheme is also evaluated against the two-box model. The one-box model was found to systematically underestimate NO2 levels compared with those in

  4. Opening Pandora's Box: The impact of open system modeling on interpretations of anoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotinski, Roberta M.; Kump, Lee R.; Najjar, Raymond G.

    2000-06-01

    The geologic record preserves evidence that vast regions of ancient oceans were once anoxic, with oxygen levels too low to sustain animal life. Because anoxic conditions have been postulated to foster deposition of petroleum source rocks and have been implicated as a kill mechanism in extinction events, the genesis of such anoxia has been an area of intense study. Most previous models of ocean oxygen cycling proposed, however, have either been qualitative or used closed-system approaches. We reexamine the question of anoxia in open-system box models in order to test the applicability of closed-system results over long timescales and find that open and closed-system modeling results may differ significantly on both short and long timescales. We also compare a scenario with basinwide diffuse upwelling (a three-box model) to a model with upwelling concentrated in the Southern Ocean (a four-box model). While a three-box modeling approach shows that only changes in high-latitude convective mixing rate and character of deepwater sources are likely to cause anoxia, four-box model experiments indicate that slowing of thermohaline circulation, a reduction in wind-driven upwelling, and changes in high-latitude export production may also cause dysoxia or anoxia in part of the deep ocean on long timescales. These results suggest that box models must capture the open-system and vertically stratified nature of the ocean to allow meaningful interpretations of long-lived episodes of anoxia.

  5. Numerical models and experiment of air flow in a simulation box for optical wireless communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latal Jan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the authors focused on real measurements of mechanical turbulence generated by ventilators in the simulation box for Optical Wireless Communications. The mechanical turbulences disturb the optical beam that propagates along the central axis of the simulation box. The aim of authors is to show the effect of mechanical turbulence on optical beams at different heights in the simulation box. In the Ansys Fluent, we created numerical models which were then compared with real measurements. Authors compared the real and numerical models according to statistical methods.

  6. Modelization of an experimental solar test box equipped with a water-flow based window

    OpenAIRE

    Padial Molina, Juan Francisco; Claros Marfíl, Luis; Lauret Aguirregabiria, Benito

    2013-01-01

    A study on a water- ow window installed in a test box is presented. This window is composed of two glass panes separated by a chamber through water ows. The ow of water comes from an isolated tank which contains heat water. In order to fully evaluate the water- ow window performance for different room and window sizes, locations and weather conditions, a mathematical model of the whole box is needed. The proposed model, in which conduction heat transfer mechanism ...

  7. Application of black-box models to HVAC systems for fault detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peitsman, H.C.; Bakker, V.E.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the application of black-box models for fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) in heating, ventilat-ing, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. In this study, mul-tiple-input/single-output (MISO) ARX models and artificial neural network (ANN) models are used. The ARX models are

  8. Thermodynamic modeling of small scale biomass gasifiers: Development and assessment of the ''Multi-Box'' approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakalis, Stergios; Patuzzi, Francesco; Baratieri, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Modeling can be a powerful tool for designing and optimizing gasification systems. Modeling applications for small scale/fixed bed biomass gasifiers have been interesting due to their increased commercial practices. Fixed bed gasifiers are characterized by a wide range of operational conditions and are multi-zoned processes. The reactants are distributed in different phases and the products from each zone influence the following process steps and thus the composition of the final products. The present study aims to improve the conventional 'Black-Box' thermodynamic modeling by means of developing multiple intermediate 'boxes' that calculate two phase (solid-vapor) equilibriums in small scale gasifiers. Therefore the model is named ''Multi-Box''. Experimental data from a small scale gasifier have been used for the validation of the model. The returned results are significantly closer with the actual case study measurements in comparison to single-stage thermodynamic modeling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A box model for representing estuarine physical processes in Earth system models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiang; Whitney, Michael M.; Bryan, Frank O.; Tseng, Yu-heng

    2017-04-01

    Appropriately treating riverine freshwater discharge into the oceans in Earth system models is a challenging problem. Commonly, the river runoff is discharged into the ocean models with zero salinity and arbitrarily distributed either horizontally or vertically over several grid cells. Those approaches entirely neglect estuarine physical processes that modify river inputs before they reach the open ocean. In order to realistically represent riverine freshwater inputs in Earth system models, a physically based Estuary Box Model (EBM) is developed to parameterize the mixing processes in estuaries. The EBM represents the estuary exchange circulation with a two-layer box structure. It takes as input the river volume flux from the land surface model and the subsurface salinity at the estuary mouth from the ocean model. It delivers the estuarine outflow salinity and net volume flux into and out of the estuary to the ocean model. An offline test of the EBM forced with observed conditions for the Columbia River system shows good agreement with observations of outflow salinity and high-resolution simulations of the exchange flow volume flux. To illustrate the practicality of use of the EBM in an Earth system model, the EBM is implemented for all coastal grid cells with river runoff in the Community Earth System Model (CESM). Compared to the standard version of CESM, which treats runoff as an augmentation to precipitation, the EBM increases sea surface salinity and reduces stratification near river mouths. The EBM also leads to significant regional and remote changes in CESM ocean surface salinities.

  10. A simple multistage closed-(box+reservoir model of chemical evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caimmi R.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple closed-box (CB models of chemical evolution are extended on two respects, namely (i simple closed-(box+reservoir (CBR models allowing gas outflow from the box into the reservoir (Hartwick 1976 or gas inflow into the box from the reservoir (Caimmi 2007 with rate proportional to the star formation rate, and (ii simple multistage closed-(box+reservoir (MCBR models allowing different stages of evolution characterized by different inflow or outflow rates. The theoretical differential oxygen abundance distribution (TDOD predicted by the model maintains close to a continuous broken straight line. An application is made where a fictitious sample is built up from two distinct samples of halo stars and taken as representative of the inner Galactic halo. The related empirical differential oxygen abundance distribution (EDOD is represented, to an acceptable extent, as a continuous broken line for two viable [O/H]-[Fe/H] empirical relations. The slopes and the intercepts of the regression lines are determined, and then used as input parameters to MCBR models. Within the errors (-+σ, regression line slopes correspond to a large inflow during the earlier stage of evolution and to low or moderate outflow during the subsequent stages. A possible inner halo - outer (metal-poor bulge connection is also briefly discussed. Quantitative results cannot be considered for applications to the inner Galactic halo, unless selection effects and disk contamination are removed from halo samples, and discrepancies between different oxygen abundance determination methods are explained.

  11. Coupled Particle Transport and Pattern Formation in a Nonlinear Leaky-Box Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barghouty, A. F.; El-Nemr, K. W.; Baird, J. K.

    2009-01-01

    Effects of particle-particle coupling on particle characteristics in nonlinear leaky-box type descriptions of the acceleration and transport of energetic particles in space plasmas are examined in the framework of a simple two-particle model based on the Fokker-Planck equation in momentum space. In this model, the two particles are assumed coupled via a common nonlinear source term. In analogy with a prototypical mathematical system of diffusion-driven instability, this work demonstrates that steady-state patterns with strong dependence on the magnetic turbulence but a rather weak one on the coupled particles attributes can emerge in solutions of a nonlinearly coupled leaky-box model. The insight gained from this simple model may be of wider use and significance to nonlinearly coupled leaky-box type descriptions in general.

  12. Theoretical Evaluation of the Sediment/Water Exchange Description in Generic Compartment Models (SimpleBox)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, P. B.; Fauser, P.; Carlsen, L.

    in the calculations, the one box model needs to be evaluated in relation to a more complete solution of the differential equations for diffusion. General guidelines that are based on the system parameters are set up in order to establish the importance of diffusion and deposition respectively. These define the range......It is shown how diffusion and deposition of solids drive the flux of substance between the water column and the sediment. The generic compartment models (Mackay type) use a one box model for the sediment in order to keep the calculations simple. However, when diffusion needs to be included...

  13. Collection/aggregation algorithms in Lagrangian cloud microphysical models: rigorous evaluation in box model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterstrasser, Simon; Hoffmann, Fabian; Lerch, Marion

    2017-04-01

    Recently, several Lagrangian microphysical models have been developed which use a large number of (computational) particles to represent a cloud. In particular, the collision process leading to coalescence of cloud droplets or aggregation of ice crystals is implemented differently in various models. Three existing implementations are reviewed and extended, and their performance is evaluated by a comparison with well-established analytical and bin model solutions. In this first step of rigorous evaluation, box model simulations, with collection/aggregation being the only process considered, have been performed for the three well-known kernels of Golovin, Long and Hall. Besides numerical parameters, like the time step and the number of simulation particles (SIPs) used, the details of how the initial SIP ensemble is created from a prescribed analytically defined size distribution is crucial for the performance of the algorithms. Using a constant weight technique, as done in previous studies, greatly underestimates the quality of the algorithms. Using better initialisation techniques considerably reduces the number of required SIPs to obtain realistic results. From the box model results, recommendations for the collection/aggregation implementation in higher dimensional model setups are derived. Suitable algorithms are equally relevant to treating the warm rain process and aggregation in cirrus.

  14. Preliminary analysis on hybrid Box-Jenkins - GARCH modeling in forecasting gold price

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaziz, Siti Roslindar; Azizan, Noor Azlinna; Ahmad, Maizah Hura; Zakaria, Roslinazairimah; Agrawal, Manju; Boland, John

    2015-02-01

    Gold has been regarded as a valuable precious metal and the most popular commodity as a healthy return investment. Hence, the analysis and prediction of gold price become very significant to investors. This study is a preliminary analysis on gold price and its volatility that focuses on the performance of hybrid Box-Jenkins models together with GARCH in analyzing and forecasting gold price. The Box-Cox formula is used as the data transformation method due to its potential best practice in normalizing data, stabilizing variance and reduces heteroscedasticity using 41-year daily gold price data series starting 2nd January 1973. Our study indicates that the proposed hybrid model ARIMA-GARCH with t-innovation can be a new potential approach in forecasting gold price. This finding proves the strength of GARCH in handling volatility in the gold price as well as overcomes the non-linear limitation in the Box-Jenkins modeling.

  15. Development of a laparoscopic training model using a smartphone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Takashi Oti

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to develop a model of training in video-surgery, of low cost and that uses a smartphone as an image-generating source. Methods: We developed a 38cm high, 40cm wide, 40cm long hexagonal-shaped training box, with a front opening of 12x8 cm for coupling the smartphone. The internal illumination is made with LED lamps and for the support of the smartphone, we used a selfie stick, fixed in the upper part of the box, that allows control of height, distance, angulation, and the coupling of devices with different formats. We selected 20 undergraduate students without previous training in video-surgery, who performed four exercises in the box, with assessment of the time and amount of errors in the execution of the tasks. Each student completed the training for three consecutive weeks. We collected the data in spreadsheets for later analysis. Results: Nineteen students completed the training program, with significant improvement in the times and in the number of errors. Conclusion: the developed model was feasible and promoted the acquisition of skills in this group of students. In addition, it presents low cost, is portable and uses common equipment, such as smartphones.

  16. Development of a laparoscopic training model using a smartphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oti, André Takashi; Galvão, Lucas Nascimento; Pessoa, Thyago Cezar Prado; Rocha, Camylla Rodrigues de Oliveira; Monteiro, Andrew Moraes; Fonteles, Mauro José Pantoja; Brito, Marcus Vinicius Henriques; Yasojima, Edson Yuzur

    2017-01-01

    to develop a model of training in video-surgery, of low cost and that uses a smartphone as an image-generating source. We developed a 38cm high, 40cm wide, 40cm long hexagonal-shaped training box, with a front opening of 12x8 cm for coupling the smartphone. The internal illumination is made with LED lamps and for the support of the smartphone, we used a selfie stick, fixed in the upper part of the box, that allows control of height, distance, angulation, and the coupling of devices with different formats. We selected 20 undergraduate students without previous training in video-surgery, who performed four exercises in the box, with assessment of the time and amount of errors in the execution of the tasks. Each student completed the training for three consecutive weeks. We collected the data in spreadsheets for later analysis. Nineteen students completed the training program, with significant improvement in the times and in the number of errors. the developed model was feasible and promoted the acquisition of skills in this group of students. In addition, it presents low cost, is portable and uses common equipment, such as smartphones.

  17. Inverse grey-box model-based control of a dielectric elastomer actuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Richard William; Sarban, Rahimullah

    2012-01-01

    of control scheme was dictated by the desire for transparency in both controller design and operation. The internal model control (IMC) approach was chosen. In this particular application, the inverse of the linearized form of the grey-box model is used to formulate the IMC controller. To ensure consistent...

  18. An assessment of Box-Jenkins models: Forcados monthly rainfall as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An autoregressive Box-Jenkins stochastic model of the twelfth order has been developed for the monthly rainfall data for Forcados along the coast of South Eastern Nigeria. The goodness of fit of the model was assessed by estimating the autocorrelations of the residuals of the historical data (from January 1931 to ...

  19. The NIMO Monte Carlo model for box-air-mass factor and radiance calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Timothy D.; Bodeker, Greg E.; Kreher, Karin; Schofield, Robyn; Liley, J. Ben; Scherer, Martin; McDonald, Adrian J.

    2012-06-01

    A new fully spherical multiple scattering Monte Carlo radiative transfer model named NIMO (NIWA Monte Carlo model) is presented. The ray tracing algorithm is described in detail along with the treatment of scattering and absorption, and the simulation of backward adjoint trajectories. The primary application of NIMO is the calculation of box-air-mass factors (box-AMFs), which are used to convert slant column densities (SCDs) of trace gases, derived from UV-visible multiple axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) measurements, into vertical column densities (VCDs). Box-AMFs are also employed as weighting functions for optimal estimation retrievals of vertical trace gas profiles from SCDs. Monte Carlo models are well suited to AMF calculations at high solar zenith angles (SZA) and at low viewing elevation angles where multiple scattering is important. Additionally, the object-oriented structure of NIMO makes it easily extensible to new applications by plugging in objects for new absorbing or scattering species. Box-AMFs and radiances, calculated for various wavelengths, SZAs, viewing elevation and azimuth angles and aerosol scenarios, are compared with results from nine other models using a set of exercises from a recent radiative transfer model intercomparison. NIMO results for these simulations are well within the range of variability of the other models.

  20. Manifold boundaries give "gray-box" approximations of complex models

    CERN Document Server

    Transtrum, Mark K

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a method of parameter reduction in complex models known as the Manifold Boundary Approximation Method (MBAM). This approach, based on a geometric interpretation of statistics, maps the model reduction problem to a geometric approximation problem. It operates iteratively, removing one parameter at a time, by approximating a high-dimension, but thin manifold by its boundary. Although the method makes no explicit assumption about the functional form of the model, it does require that the model manifold exhibit a hierarchy of boundaries, i.e., faces, edges, corners, hyper-corners, etc. We empirically show that a variety of model classes have this curious feature, making them amenable to MBAM. These model classes include models composed of elementary functions (e.g., rational functions, exponentials, and partition functions), a variety of dynamical system (e.g., chemical and biochemical kinetics, Linear Time Invariant (LTI) systems, and compartment models), network models (e.g., Bayesian networks, Marko...

  1. Selection of the optimal Box-Cox transformation parameter for modelling and forecasting age-specific fertility

    OpenAIRE

    Shang, Han Lin

    2015-01-01

    The Box-Cox transformation can sometimes yield noticeable improvements in model simplicity, variance homogeneity and precision of estimation, such as in modelling and forecasting age-specific fertility. Despite its importance, there have been few studies focusing on the optimal selection of Box-Cox transformation parameters in demographic forecasting. A simple method is proposed for selecting the optimal Box-Cox transformation parameter, along with an algorithm based on an in-sample forecast ...

  2. A case study of interior low-frequency noise from box-shaped bridge girders induced by running trains: Its mechanism, prediction and countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xun; Li, Xiaozhen; Hao, Hong; Wang, Dangxiong; Li, Yadong

    2016-04-01

    A side effect of high-speed railway and urban rail transit systems is the associated vibration and noise. Since the use of concrete viaducts is predominant in railway construction due to scarce land resources, low-frequency (20-200 Hz) structure-radiated noise from concrete bridges is a principal concern. Although it is the most commonly used bridge type, the mechanism of noise emission from box-shaped bridge girders when subjected to impact forces from moving trains, which sounds like beating a drum, has not been well studied. In this study, a field measurement was first made on a simply-supported box-shaped bridge to record the acceleration of the slabs and the associated sound pressures induced by running trains. These data indicated that a significant beat-wave noise occurred in the box-shaped cavity when the train speed was around 340 km/h, which arose from the interference between two sound waves of 75.0 Hz and 78.8 Hz. The noise leakage from the bridge expansion joint was serious and resulted in obvious noise pollution near the bridge once the beat-wave noise was generated in the cavity. The dominant frequency of the interior noise at 75.0 Hz was confirmed from the spectrum of the data and the modal analysis results, and originated from the peak vibration of the top slab due to resonance and the first-order vertical acoustic mode, which led to cavity resonance, amplifying the corresponding noise. The three-dimensional acoustic modes and local vibration modes of the slab were calculated by using the finite element method. A simplified vehicle-track-bridge coupling vibration model was then developed to calculate the wheel-rail interaction force in a frequency range of 20-200 Hz. Numerical simulations using the boundary element method confirmed the cavity resonance effect and the numerical results agreed well with the data. Based on the calibrated numerical model, three noise reduction measures, i.e., adding a horizontal baffle in the interior cavity, narrowing

  3. Technology of training loads registration in single combats (in terms of boxing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaskov A.V.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The worked out technology allows to plan and estimate skilled boxers' training load efficiently with getting more information. The work objective was to determine directed influence of several groups of exercises on some indices of skilled boxers' training activity. The found out peculiarities of exercises influence on boxers' competitive activity may be used while optimizing training process.

  4. Unlocking the black box: teaching mathematical modeling with popular culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofgren, Eric T

    2016-10-01

    Mathematical modeling is an important tool in biological research, allowing for the synthesis of results from many studies into an understanding of a system. Despite this, the need for extensive subject matter knowledge and complex mathematics often leaves modeling as an esoteric subspecialty. A 2-fold approach can be used to make modeling more approachable for students and those interested in obtaining a functional knowledge of modeling. The first is the use of a popular culture disease system-a zombie epidemic-to allow for exploration of the concepts of modeling using a flexible framework. The second is the use of available interactive and non-calculus-based tools to allow students to work with and implement models to cement their understanding. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. The Analysis of Organizational Diagnosis on Based Six Box Model in Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Rahimi; Siadat, Sayyed Ali; Reza, Hoveida; Arash, Shahin; Ali, Nasrabadi Hasan; Azizollah, Arbabisarjou

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The analysis of organizational diagnosis on based six box model at universities. Research method: Research method was descriptive-survey. Statistical population consisted of 1544 faculty members of universities which through random strafed sampling method 218 persons were chosen as the sample. Research Instrument were organizational…

  6. Comparative uncertainty analysis of copper loads in stormwater systems using GLUE and grey-box modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindblom, Erik Ulfson; Madsen, Henrik; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2007-01-01

    . With the proposed model and input data, the GLUE analysis show that the total sampled copper mass can be predicted within a range of +/- 50% of the median value ( 385 g), whereas the grey-box analysis showed a prediction uncertainty of less than +/- 30%. Future work will clarify the pros and cons of the two methods...

  7. Thermohaline circulation in the North Atlantic and its simulation with a box model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averyanova, E. A.; Polonsky, A. B.; Sannikov, V. F.

    2017-05-01

    Features of the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation response to periodic, stochastic, and instantaneous forcing are studied using a four-box model. The present-day circulation is shown to be characterized by a stable quasi-periodic oscillatory mode that manifests itself as the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. The thermohaline catastrophe is unlikely in the modern climate epoch.

  8. A Box-Cox normal model for response times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Entink, R.H.; Fox, J.P.; Linden, W.J. van der

    2009-01-01

    The log-transform has been a convenient choice in response time modelling on test items. However, motivated by a dataset of the Medical College Admission Test where the lognormal model violated the normality assumption, the possibilities of the broader class of Box–Cox transformations for response

  9. Estimation parameters and black box model of a brushless DC motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Becerra-Vargas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The modeling of a process or a plant is vital for the design of its control system, since it allows predicting its dynamic and behavior under different circumstances, inputs, disturbances and noise. The main objective of this work is to identify which model is best for a permanent magnet brushless DC specific motor. For this, the mathematical model of a DC motor brushless PW16D, manufactured by Golden Motor, is presented and compared with its black box model; both are derived from experimental data. These data, the average applied voltage and the angular velocity, are acquired by a data acquisition card and imported to the computer. The constants of the mathematical model are estimated by a curve fitting algorithm based on non-linear least squares and pattern search using computational tool. To estimate the mathematical model constants by non-linear least square and search pattern, a goodness of fit of 84.88% and 80.48% respectively was obtained. The goodness of fit obtained by the black box model was 87.72%. The mathematical model presented slightly lower goodness of fit, but allowed to analyze the behavior of variables of interest such as the power consumption and the torque applied to the motor. Because of this, it is concluded that the mathematical model obtained by experimental data of the brushless motor PW16D, is better than its black box model.

  10. Analysis of resusupention of Cs-137 in Fukushima with box model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yuta; Hatano, Yuko; Kita, Kazuyuki; Igarashi, Yasuhito; Kajino, Mizuo; Ishizuka, Masahide

    2017-04-01

    We use the atmospheric concentration of Cs-137 measured continuously at Namie, Fukushima and compare the observational results with a two-box model. Resuspension, deposition and the vertical diffusion are considered in the model. The values of five parameters in the model are estimated by the fitting of the data, such as the resuspension rate, the dry/wet deposition rate, and the exchange rate between the mixed layer and the higher atmosphere.

  11. The feasibility and effectiveness of high-intensity boxing training versus moderate-intensity brisk walking in adults with abdominal obesity: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Cheema, Birinder S.; Davies, Timothy B; Stewart, Matthew; Papalia, Shona; Atlantis, Evan

    2015-01-01

    Background High-intensity interval training (HIIT) performed on exercise cycle or treadmill is considered safe and often more beneficial for fat loss and cardiometabolic health than moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT). The aim of this pilot study was to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of a 12-week boxing training (HIIT) intervention compared with an equivalent dose of brisk walking (MICT) in obese adults. Methods Men and women with abdominal obesity and body mass index >25?...

  12. Pandora's Box: A new model for education in Asia | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-31

    Jan 31, 2011 ... Malik is leading a project to develop a model for distance education that can be used in various Asian countries, with support from Canada's International Development Research Centre (IDRC). Through its Pan Asia Networking (PAN) program initiative, a program on Distance and Open Resource Access ...

  13. A Grey-Box Model for Spray Drying Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Norbert; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Multi-stage spray drying is an important and widely used unit operation in the production of food powders. In this paper we develop and present a dynamic model of the complete drying process in a multi-stage spray dryer. The dryer is divided into three stages: The spray stage and two fluid bed...

  14. Faith Boxes: A Training Activity for Educators and Human Service Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Donald; Turner, Yolanda

    2011-01-01

    The issues of faith and religion are frequently avoided by instructors in training institutes for fear of inciting divisive conversations in the context of the classroom. Within secular training institutes, however, there is a growing momentum to incorporate an understanding of the spiritual aspects of individuals, families, and communities into…

  15. Solar Analysis Using Building Information Modelling with the Glass Box Method in Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riva Tomasowa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The utilisation of Building Information Modelling (BIM focuses more on the Schematic Design or Technical Design phase, while the Preliminary or the Conceptual design is pretty much skipped. This paper shows that a simple model could utilise BIM to gain rich information about solar radiation to give ideal orientation in Preliminary phase. On this case, a spot in Jakarta is analysed with Glass Box method to depict the ideal orientation that receive a minimum solar radiation in a year span.

  16. Modelling the Heat Consumption in District Heating Systems using a Grey-box approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg; Madsen, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    The heat consumption in a large geographical area is considered together with climate measurements on a single location in the area. The purpose is to identify a model linking the heat consumption to climate and calendar information. The process of building a model is split into a theoretical based...... identification of an overall model structure followed by data-based modelling, whereby the details of the model are identified. This approach is sometimes called grey-box modelling, but the specific approach used here does not require states to be specified. Overall, the paper demonstrates the power of the grey...

  17. [Construction and application of black-box model for glucoamylase production by Aspergillus niger].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lianwei; Lu, Hongzhong; Xia, Jianye; Chu, Ju; Zhuang, Yingping; Zhang, Siliang

    2015-07-01

    Carbon-limited continuous culture was used to study the relationship between the growth of Aspergillus niger and the production of glucoamylase. The result showed that when the specific growth rate was lower than 0.068 h(-1), the production of glucoamylase was growth-associated, when the specific growth rate was higher than 0.068 h(-1), the production of glucoamylase was not growth-associated. Based on the result of continuous culture, the Monod dynamics model of glucose consumption of A. niger was constructed, Combining Herbert-Pirt equation of glucose and oxygen consumption with Luedeking-Piret equation of enzyme production, the black-box model of Aspergillus niger for enzyme production was established. The exponential fed-batch culture was designed to control the specific growth rate at 0.05 h(-1) by using this model and the highest yield for glucoamylase production by A. niger reached 0.127 g glucoamylase/g glucose. The black-box model constructed in this study successfully described the glucoamylase production by A. niger and the result of the model fitted the measured value well. The black-box model could guide the design and optimization of glucoamylase production by A. niger.

  18. Optimal experiment design for identification of grey-box models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadegh, Payman; Melgaard, Henrik; Madsen, Henrik

    1994-01-01

    Optimal experiment design is investigated for stochastic dynamic systems where the prior partial information about the system is given as a probability distribution function in the system parameters. The concept of information is related to entropy reduction in the system through Lindley's measur...... estimation results in a considerable reduction of the experimental length. Besides, it is established that the physical knowledge of the system enables us to design experiments, with the goal of maximizing information about the physical parameters of interest.......Optimal experiment design is investigated for stochastic dynamic systems where the prior partial information about the system is given as a probability distribution function in the system parameters. The concept of information is related to entropy reduction in the system through Lindley's measure...... of average information, and the relationship between the choice of information related criteria and some estimators (MAP and MLE) is established. A continuous time physical model of the heat dynamics of a building is considered and the results show that performing an optimal experiment corresponding to a MAP...

  19. A Grey-Box Dynamic Model of Plate Heat Exchangers Used in an Urban Heating System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Qingwei Miao; Shijun You; Wandong Zheng; Xuejing Zheng; Huan Zhang; Yaran Wang

    2017-01-01

    .... In the grey-box method, a newly developed parameter identification method was established. The simulation results of two outlet temperatures by the grey-box and white-box method, respectively, are compared with the test data...

  20. A Two-Step Identification Approach for Twin-Box Models of RF Power Amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Jiang Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a two-step identification approach for twin-box model (Wiener or Hammerstein of RF power amplifier. The linear filter block and the static nonlinearity block are extracted, respectively, based on least-squares method, by iterative calculation. Simulations show that the method can get quite accurate parameters to model different nonlinear models with memory such as Wiener, Hammerstein, Wiener-Hammerstein (W-H, and memory polynomial models, hence, demonstrating its robustness. Furthermore, experimental results show excellent agreement between measured output and modeled output, where one carrier WCDMA signal is used as the excitation for a wideband RF amplifier.

  1. Particle-in-a-Box Model of Exciton Absorption and Electroabsorption in Conjugated Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Garm

    2001-01-01

    The recently proposed particle-in-a-box model of one-dimensional excitons in conjugated polymers is applied in calculations of optical absorption and electroabsorption spectra. It is demonstrated that for polymers of long conjugation length a superposition of single exciton resonances produces a ...... a line shape characterized by a square-root singularity in agreement with experimental spectra near the absorption edge. The effects of finite conjugation length on both absorption and electroabsorption spectra are analyzed.......The recently proposed particle-in-a-box model of one-dimensional excitons in conjugated polymers is applied in calculations of optical absorption and electroabsorption spectra. It is demonstrated that for polymers of long conjugation length a superposition of single exciton resonances produces...

  2. Maintenance training for laparoscopic suturing: the quest for the perfect timing and training model: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bruwaene, Siska; Schijven, Marlies P; Miserez, Marc

    2013-10-01

    Although excellent training programs exist for acquiring the challenging skill required in laparoscopic suturing, without subsequent reinforcement, performance is prone to decay. Therefore, maintenance training is proposed to ensure better skill retention. This study aimed to elucidate the ideal timing and frequency of maintenance training as well as the best model to be used for this training. After completing a proficiency-based laparoscopic suturing training, 39 medical students attended different maintenance programs represented by four groups: a control group without additional training (group 1), a massed training group with one supervised training session (150 min) after 2.5 months (group 2), and two distributed training groups with five monthly unsupervised training sessions of 30 min on a box trainer (group 3) or the LapMentor(®) (group 4). Retention testing, after 5 months, included suturing on a box trainer and on a cadaver porcine Nissen model. Performance scores (time and errors) were expressed in seconds. Afterward, time needed to regain proficiency was measured. On the box trainer, the median performance scores were 233 s (interquartile range [IQR] 27 s) for group 1, 180 s (IQR 55 s) for group 2, 169 s (IQR 26 s) for group 3, and 226 s (IQR 66 s) for group 4 (p = 0.03). No difference was seen between groups 2 and 3, both of which significantly outperformed groups 1 and 4. On the porcine Nissen model, no differences were detected between the groups (p = 0.53). Group 3 reached proficiency more quickly than the other groups. Maintenance training is a valuable and necessary addendum to proficiency-based training programs for laparoscopic suturing. A maintenance-training interval of 1 month with unsupervised training sessions on simple box trainers seems ideal. The LapMentor(®) did not show any benefit. Performance differences between groups did not translate to a clinically relevant model, indicating that transfer of training is not

  3. A Review of the Ginzburg-Syrovatskii's Galactic Cosmic-Ray Propagation Model and its Leaky-Box Limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barghouty, A. F.

    2012-01-01

    Phenomenological models of galactic cosmic-ray propagation are based on a diffusion equation known as the Ginzburg-Syrovatskii s equation, or variants (or limits) of this equation. Its one-dimensional limit in a homogeneous volume, known as the leaky-box limit or model, is sketched here. The justification, utility, limitations, and a typical numerical implementation of the leaky-box model are examined in some detail.

  4. The BOXES Methodology Black Box Dynamic Control

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, David W

    2012-01-01

    Robust control mechanisms customarily require knowledge of the system’s describing equations which may be of the high order differential type.  In order to produce these equations, mathematical models can often be derived and correlated with measured dynamic behavior.  There are two flaws in this approach one is the level of inexactness introduced by linearizations and the other when no model is apparent.  Several years ago a new genre of control systems came to light that are much less dependent on differential models such as fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms. Both of these soft computing solutions require quite considerable a priori system knowledge to create a control scheme and sometimes complicated training program before they can be implemented in a real world dynamic system. Michie and Chambers’ BOXES methodology created a black box system that was designed to control a mechanically unstable system with very little a priori system knowledge, linearization or approximation.  All the method need...

  5. A white-box model of S-shaped and double S-shaped single-species population growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lev V. Kalmykov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Complex systems may be mechanistically modelled by white-box modeling with using logical deterministic individual-based cellular automata. Mathematical models of complex systems are of three types: black-box (phenomenological, white-box (mechanistic, based on the first principles and grey-box (mixtures of phenomenological and mechanistic models. Most basic ecological models are of black-box type, including Malthusian, Verhulst, Lotka–Volterra models. In black-box models, the individual-based (mechanistic mechanisms of population dynamics remain hidden. Here we mechanistically model the S-shaped and double S-shaped population growth of vegetatively propagated rhizomatous lawn grasses. Using purely logical deterministic individual-based cellular automata we create a white-box model. From a general physical standpoint, the vegetative propagation of plants is an analogue of excitation propagation in excitable media. Using the Monte Carlo method, we investigate a role of different initial positioning of an individual in the habitat. We have investigated mechanisms of the single-species population growth limited by habitat size, intraspecific competition, regeneration time and fecundity of individuals in two types of boundary conditions and at two types of fecundity. Besides that, we have compared the S-shaped and J-shaped population growth. We consider this white-box modeling approach as a method of artificial intelligence which works as automatic hyper-logical inference from the first principles of the studied subject. This approach is perspective for direct mechanistic insights into nature of any complex systems.

  6. Mental models and user training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Zupanič

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the functions of the reference service is user training which means teaching users how to use the library and it's information sorces (nowadays mainly computerized systems. While the scientific understanding of teaching/learning process is shifting, changes also affect the methods of user training in libraries.Human-computer interaction (HCI is an interdisciplinary and a very active research area which studies how humans use computers - their mental and behavioral characteristics. The application of psychological theories to HCI are especially great on three areas: psychological (mental, conceptual models, individual differences, and error behavior.The mental models theory is powerful tool for understanding the ways in which users interact with an information system. Claims, based on this theory can affect the methods (conceptualization of user training and the overall design of information systems.

  7. The feasibility and effectiveness of high-intensity boxing training versus moderate-intensity brisk walking in adults with abdominal obesity: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheema, Birinder S; Davies, Timothy B; Stewart, Matthew; Papalia, Shona; Atlantis, Evan

    2015-01-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) performed on exercise cycle or treadmill is considered safe and often more beneficial for fat loss and cardiometabolic health than moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT). The aim of this pilot study was to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of a 12-week boxing training (HIIT) intervention compared with an equivalent dose of brisk walking (MICT) in obese adults. Men and women with abdominal obesity and body mass index >25 kg/m(2) were randomized to either a boxing group or a brisk walking (control) group for 12 weeks. Each group engaged in 4 training sessions per week, equated for total physical activity. Feasibility outcomes included recruitment rates, assessment of training intensities, adherence and adverse events. Effectiveness was assessed pre and post intervention via pertinent obesity-, cardiovascular-, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) outcomes. Nineteen individuals expressed an interest and 63% (n = 12) consented. Recruitment was slower than anticipated (1.3 participants/week). The boxing group trained at a significantly higher intensity each week versus the brisk walking group (p exercise with modifications to the exercise program. No other adverse events were noted. The boxing group attended more sessions (79% vs. 55%) and had a lower attrition rate (n = 0 vs. n = 2) than the walking group. Analysis of covariance revealed that the boxing group significantly improved body fat percentage (p = 0.047), systolic blood pressure (p = 0.026), augmentation index (AIx; p walking group did not improve any clinical outcomes, and experienced a worsening of Vitality (p = 0.043). Boxing training (HIIT) in adults with abdominal obesity is feasible and may elicit a better therapeutic effect on obesity, cardiovascular, and HRQoL outcomes than an equivalent dose of brisk walking (MICT). Robustly designed randomized controlled trials are required to confirm these findings and inform

  8. Neural and Neural Gray-Box Modeling for Entry Temperature Prediction in a Hot Strip Mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, José Angel; Torres-Alvarado, Miguel; Cavazos, Alberto; Leduc, Luis

    2011-10-01

    In hot strip mills, initial controller set points have to be calculated before the steel bar enters the mill. Calculations rely on the good knowledge of rolling variables. Measurements are available only after the bar has entered the mill, and therefore they have to be estimated. Estimation of process variables, particularly that of temperature, is of crucial importance for the bar front section to fulfill quality requirements, and the same must be performed in the shortest possible time to preserve heat. Currently, temperature estimation is performed by physical modeling; however, it is highly affected by measurement uncertainties, variations in the incoming bar conditions, and final product changes. In order to overcome these problems, artificial intelligence techniques such as artificial neural networks and fuzzy logic have been proposed. In this article, neural network-based systems, including neural-based Gray-Box models, are applied to estimate scale breaker entry temperature, given its importance, and their performance is compared to that of the physical model used in plant. Several neural systems and several neural-based Gray-Box models are designed and tested with real data. Taking advantage of the flexibility of neural networks for input incorporation, several factors which are believed to have influence on the process are also tested. The systems proposed in this study were proven to have better performance indexes and hence better prediction capabilities than the physical models currently used in plant.

  9. A class of Box-Cox transformation models for recurrent event data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liuquan; Tong, Xingwei; Zhou, Xian

    2011-04-01

    In this article, we propose a class of Box-Cox transformation models for recurrent event data, which includes the proportional means models as special cases. The new model offers great flexibility in formulating the effects of covariates on the mean functions of counting processes while leaving the stochastic structure completely unspecified. For the inference on the proposed models, we apply a profile pseudo-partial likelihood method to estimate the model parameters via estimating equation approaches and establish large sample properties of the estimators and examine its performance in moderate-sized samples through simulation studies. In addition, some graphical and numerical procedures are presented for model checking. An example of application on a set of multiple-infection data taken from a clinic study on chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is also illustrated.

  10. Box Model of Freshwater, Salinity and Nutrient in the Delta Mahakam, East Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marojahan Simanjuntak

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Box Model of Freshwater, Salinity and Nutrient in the Delta Mahakam, East Kalimantan. Research has been conducted in the southern part of the Mahakam Delta, East Kalimantan. Method of measuring temperature, salinity, light transmission and turbidity by using CTD model 603 SBE and current measurement and bathymetry by using ADCP model RDI. Measurement parameters on the nutrient chemistry are based of water samples taken using Nansen bottles from two depths. The purpose of this study to determine the mechanism of freshwater, salinity and nutrient transport from the land of the Mahakam River which interact with seawater by using box models. The results illustrate that the vertical distribution of salinity in the Mahakam Delta has obtained a high stratification, where the freshwater salinity 12.30 psu at the surface of a river flowing toward the sea, and seawater of high salinity 30.07 psu flowing in the direction river under the surface that are separated by a layer of mixture. Freshwater budget of the sea (VSurf obtained for 0,0306 x 109 m3 day-1, and the sea water salinity budget is going into the bottom layer system (VDeep.SOcn-d obtained for 20,727 x 109 psu day-1. While time dilution (Syst obtained for 0.245 day-1 or 5.87 hours. Nutrient budget in the surface layer obtained by the system is autotrophic while in layers near the bottom tend to be heterotrophic

  11. MEP and planetary climates: insights from a two-box climate model containing atmospheric dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jupp, Tim E; Cox, Peter M

    2010-05-12

    A two-box model for equator-to-pole planetary heat transport is extended to include simple atmospheric dynamics. The surface drag coefficient CD is treated as a free parameter and solutions are calculated analytically in terms of the dimensionless planetary parameters eta (atmospheric thickness), omega (rotation rate) and xi (advective capability). Solutions corresponding to maximum entropy production (MEP) are compared with solutions previously obtained from dynamically unconstrained two-box models. As long as the advective capability xi is sufficiently large, dynamically constrained MEP solutions are identical to dynamically unconstrained MEP solutions. Consequently, the addition of a dynamical constraint does not alter the previously obtained MEP results for Earth, Mars and Titan, and an analogous result is presented here for Venus. The rate of entropy production in an MEP state is shown to be independent of rotation rate if the advective capability xi is sufficiently large (as for the four examples in the solar system), or if the rotation rate omega is sufficiently small. The model indicates, however, that the dynamical constraint does influence the MEP state when xi is small, which might be the case for some extrasolar planets. Finally, results from the model developed here are compared with previous numerical simulations in which the effect of varying surface drag coefficient on entropy production was calculated.

  12. Stability of the interhemispheric thermohaline circulation in a coupled box model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Peter H.; Krasovskiy, Yuriy P.

    1999-07-01

    The coupled atmosphere-ocean box model of the interhemispheric thermohaline circulation (THC) formulated by Scott et al. [Scott, J.R., Marotzke, J., Stone, P.H., 1999. Interhemispheric THC in a coupled box model. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 29, 351-365.] is solved analytically, by introducing the approximation that the time variations of salinity in the ocean are much slower than the time variations in the temperature. The analytic solution shows that there is an unstable limit cycle near the bifurcation where the flow becomes unstable, as suggested by Scott et al.'s numerical solutions. The solution also leads to an analytic expression for the conditions under which the instability discovered by Scott et al. sets in, which is more general than that found by Scott et al. In particular, it includes the effect of coupling the THC to the atmospheric meridional transports of heat and moisture. It shows that the stability of THC is much more sensitive to the representation of the atmospheric heat transport, i.e., to how it depends on the meridional temperature gradient, than it is in hemispheric models. In particular, it shows that interhemispheric ocean models that use mixed boundary conditions, or couple the ocean to a diffusive representation of the atmospheric heat transport, are less susceptible to this kind of instability than when the ocean is coupled to a representation of the atmospheric meridional heat transport which is more sensitive to the meridional temperature gradient, as is implied by observations and theory.

  13. cluster-in-a-box: Statistical model of sub-millimeter emission from embedded protostellar clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Lars E.; Bergin, Edwin A.

    2016-10-01

    Cluster-in-a-box provides a statistical model of sub-millimeter emission from embedded protostellar clusters and consists of three modules grouped in two scripts. The first (cluster_distribution) generates the cluster based on the number of stars, input initial mass function, spatial distribution and age distribution. The second (cluster_emission) takes an input file of observations, determines the mass-intensity correlation and generates outflow emission for all low-mass Class 0 and I sources. The output is stored as a FITS image where the flux density is determined by the desired resolution, pixel scale and cluster distance.

  14. Identification of a nonlinear black-box model for a self-sensing polymer metal composite actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quang Truong, Dinh; Ahn, Kyoung Kwan; Nam, Doan Ngoc Chi; Yoon, Jong Il

    2010-08-01

    An ion polymer metal composite (IPMC) is an electro-active polymer that bends in response to a small applied electrical field as a result of the mobility of cations in the polymer network and vice versa. The aim of this paper is the identification of a novel accurate nonlinear black-box model (NBBM) for IPMC actuators with self-sensing behavior based on a recurrent multi-layer perceptron neural network (RMLPNN) and a self-adjustable learning mechanism (SALM). Firstly, an IPMC actuator is investigated. Driving voltage signals are applied to the IPMC in order to identify the IPMC characteristics. Secondly, the advanced NBBM for the IPMC is built with suitable inputs and output to estimate the IPMC tip displacement. Finally, the model parameters are optimized by the collected input/output training data. Modeling results show that the proposed self-sensing methodology based on the optimized NBBM model can well describe the bending behavior of the IPMC actuator corresponding to its applied power without using any measuring sensor.

  15. Translating clinical training into practice in complex mental health systems: Toward opening the 'Black Box' of implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blevins Dean

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Implementing clinical training in a complex health care system is challenging. This report describes two successive trainings programs in one Veterans Affairs healthcare network and the lessons we drew from their success and failures. The first training experience led us to appreciate the value of careful implementation planning while the second suggested that use of an external facilitator might be an especially effective implementation component. We also describe a third training intervention in which we expect to more rigorously test our hypothesis regarding the value of external facilitation. Results Our experiences appear to be consonant with the implementation model proposed by Fixsen. In this paper we offer a modified version of the Fixsen model with separate components related to training and implementation. Conclusion This report further reinforces what others have noted, namely that educational interventions intended to change clinical practice should employ a multilevel approach if patients are to truly benefit from new skills gained by clinicians. We utilize an implementation research model to illustrate how the aims of the second intervention were realized and sustained over the 12-month follow-up period, and to suggest directions for future implementation research. The present report attests to the validity of, and contributes to, the emerging literature on implementation research.

  16. A random effects meta-analysis model with Box-Cox transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Yusuke; Maruo, Kazushi; Partlett, Christopher; Riley, Richard D

    2017-07-19

    In a random effects meta-analysis model, true treatment effects for each study are routinely assumed to follow a normal distribution. However, normality is a restrictive assumption and the misspecification of the random effects distribution may result in a misleading estimate of overall mean for the treatment effect, an inappropriate quantification of heterogeneity across studies and a wrongly symmetric prediction interval. We focus on problems caused by an inappropriate normality assumption of the random effects distribution, and propose a novel random effects meta-analysis model where a Box-Cox transformation is applied to the observed treatment effect estimates. The proposed model aims to normalise an overall distribution of observed treatment effect estimates, which is sum of the within-study sampling distributions and the random effects distribution. When sampling distributions are approximately normal, non-normality in the overall distribution will be mainly due to the random effects distribution, especially when the between-study variation is large relative to the within-study variation. The Box-Cox transformation addresses this flexibly according to the observed departure from normality. We use a Bayesian approach for estimating parameters in the proposed model, and suggest summarising the meta-analysis results by an overall median, an interquartile range and a prediction interval. The model can be applied for any kind of variables once the treatment effect estimate is defined from the variable. A simulation study suggested that when the overall distribution of treatment effect estimates are skewed, the overall mean and conventional I 2 from the normal random effects model could be inappropriate summaries, and the proposed model helped reduce this issue. We illustrated the proposed model using two examples, which revealed some important differences on summary results, heterogeneity measures and prediction intervals from the normal random effects model. The

  17. An Integrated Competency-Based Training Model for theological training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James K. Mwangi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the relationship between theological training and practical ministry with the purpose of addressing the fundamental problems that hinder theological training from becoming relevant. There exists a general concern about the way theological schools are preparing men and women for church ministry, with the church leadership feeling like graduates are not up to the task of ministering despite the theological training. The research has established that there is a relationship between theological training and practice of ministry and that practical ministry can only be improved through enhancing theological training. Ultimately the article establishes the need for a competent training programme modelled after the New Testament Discipleship Model approach. This model integrates knowledge, being and practical training. The article tries to outline a model of training (i.e. the Integrated Competency-Based Training Model that will seek to address many of the inadequacies in the training of church ministers with the aim of making theological training translate into the practice of ministry.

  18. Internal Structural Design of the Common Research Model Wing Box for Aeroelastic Tailoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutte, Christine V.; Stanford, Bret K.; Wieseman, Carol D.

    2015-01-01

    This work explores the use of alternative internal structural designs within a full-scale wing box structure for aeroelastic tailoring, with a focus on curvilinear spars, ribs, and stringers. The baseline wing model is a fully-populated, cantilevered wing box structure of the Common Research Model (CRM). Metrics of interest include the wing weight, the onset of dynamic flutter, and the static aeroelastic stresses. Twelve parametric studies alter the number of internal structural members along with their location, orientation, and curvature. Additional evaluation metrics are considered to identify design trends that lead to lighter-weight, aeroelastically stable wing designs. The best designs of the individual studies are compared and discussed, with a focus on weight reduction and flutter resistance. The largest weight reductions were obtained by removing the inner spar, and performance was maintained by shifting stringers forward and/or using curvilinear ribs: 5.6% weight reduction, a 13.9% improvement in flutter speed, but a 3.0% increase in stress levels. Flutter resistance was also maintained using straight-rotated ribs although the design had a 4.2% lower flutter speed than the curved ribs of similar weight and stress levels were higher. For some configurations, the differences between curved and straight ribs were smaller, which provides motivation for future optimization-based studies to fully exploit the trade-offs.

  19. Box-Cox Transformation and Random Regression Models for Fecal egg Count Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Marcos Vinícius Gualberto Barbosa; Van Tassell, Curtis P; Sonstegard, Tad S; Cobuci, Jaime Araujo; Gasbarre, Louis C

    2011-01-01

    Accurate genetic evaluation of livestock is based on appropriate modeling of phenotypic measurements. In ruminants, fecal egg count (FEC) is commonly used to measure resistance to nematodes. FEC values are not normally distributed and logarithmic transformations have been used in an effort to achieve normality before analysis. However, the transformed data are often still not normally distributed, especially when data are extremely skewed. A series of repeated FEC measurements may provide information about the population dynamics of a group or individual. A total of 6375 FEC measures were obtained for 410 animals between 1992 and 2003 from the Beltsville Agricultural Research Center Angus herd. Original data were transformed using an extension of the Box-Cox transformation to approach normality and to estimate (co)variance components. We also proposed using random regression models (RRM) for genetic and non-genetic studies of FEC. Phenotypes were analyzed using RRM and restricted maximum likelihood. Within the different orders of Legendre polynomials used, those with more parameters (order 4) adjusted FEC data best. Results indicated that the transformation of FEC data utilizing the Box-Cox transformation family was effective in reducing the skewness and kurtosis, and dramatically increased estimates of heritability, and measurements of FEC obtained in the period between 12 and 26 weeks in a 26-week experimental challenge period are genetically correlated.

  20. BOX-COX transformation and random regression models for fecal egg count data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Vinicius Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate genetic evaluation of livestock is based on appropriate modeling of phenotypic measurements. In ruminants fecal egg count (FEC is commonly used to measure resistance to nematodes. FEC values are not normally distributed and logarithmic transformations have been used to achieve normality before analysis. However, the transformed data are often not normally distributed, especially when data are extremely skewed. A series of repeated FEC measurements may provide information about the population dynamics of a group or individual. A total of 6,375 FEC measures were obtained for 410 animals between 1992 and 2003 from the Beltsville Agricultural Research Center Angus herd. Original data were transformed using an extension of the Box-Cox transformation to approach normality and to estimate (covariance components. We also proposed using random regression models (RRM for genetic and non-genetic studies of FEC. Phenotypes were analyzed using RRM and restricted maximum likelihood. Within the different orders of Legendre polynomials used, those with more parameters (order 4 adjusted FEC data best. Results indicated that the transformation of FEC data utilizing the Box-Cox transformation family was effective in reducing the skewness and kurtosis, and dramatically increased estimates of heritability, and measurements of FEC obtained in the period between 12 and 26 weeks in a 26-week experimental challenge period are genetically correlated.

  1. Analysis of a genetically structured variance heterogeneity model using the Box-Cox transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ye; Christensen, Ole F; Sorensen, Daniel

    2011-02-01

    Over recent years, statistical support for the presence of genetic factors operating at the level of the environmental variance has come from fitting a genetically structured heterogeneous variance model to field or experimental data in various species. Misleading results may arise due to skewness of the marginal distribution of the data. To investigate how the scale of measurement affects inferences, the genetically structured heterogeneous variance model is extended to accommodate the family of Box-Cox transformations. Litter size data in rabbits and pigs that had previously been analysed in the untransformed scale were reanalysed in a scale equal to the mode of the marginal posterior distribution of the Box-Cox parameter. In the rabbit data, the statistical evidence for a genetic component at the level of the environmental variance is considerably weaker than that resulting from an analysis in the original metric. In the pig data, the statistical evidence is stronger, but the coefficient of correlation between additive genetic effects affecting mean and variance changes sign, compared to the results in the untransformed scale. The study confirms that inferences on variances can be strongly affected by the presence of asymmetry in the distribution of data. We recommend that to avoid one important source of spurious inferences, future work seeking support for a genetic component acting on environmental variation using a parametric approach based on normality assumptions confirms that these are met.

  2. Grey-box Modeling for System Identification of Household Refrigerators: a Step Toward Smart Appliances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costanzo, Giuseppe Tommaso; Sossan, Fabrizio; Marinelli, Mattia

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the grey-box modeling of a vapor-compression refrigeration system for residential applications based on maximum likelihood estimation of parameters in stochastic differential equations. Models obtained are useful in the view of controlling refrigerators as flexible consumption...... units, which operation can be shifted within temperature and operational constraints. Even if the refrigerators are not intended to be used as smart loads, validated models are useful in predicting units consumption. This information can increase the optimality of the management of other flexible units......, such as heat pumps for space heating, in order to smooth the load factor during peak hours, enhance reliability and efficiency in power networks and reduce operational costs....

  3. The atmospheric chemistry box model CAABA/MECCA-3.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sander

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We present version 3.0 of the atmospheric chemistry box model CAABA/MECCA. In addition to a complete update of the rate coefficients to the most recent recommendations, a number of new features have been added: chemistry in multiple aerosol size bins; automatic multiple simulations reaching steady-state conditions; Monte-Carlo simulations with randomly varied rate coefficients within their experimental uncertainties; calculations along Lagrangian trajectories; mercury chemistry; more detailed isoprene chemistry; tagging of isotopically labeled species. Further changes have been implemented to make the code more user-friendly and to facilitate the analysis of the model results. Like earlier versions, CAABA/MECCA-3.0 is a community model published under the GNU General Public License.

  4. Grey Box Modelling of Flow in Sewer Systems with State Dependent Diffusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinholt, Anders; Thordarson, Fannar Örn; Møller, Jan Kloppenborg

    2011-01-01

    flow prediction limits, because the observation noise is proportionally scaled with the modelled output. Finally it is concluded that a state proportional diffusion term best and adequately describes the one-step flow prediction uncertainty, and a proper description of the system noise is important......Generating flow forecasts with uncertainty limits from rain gauge inputs in sewer systems require simple models with identifiable parameters that can adequately describe the stochastic phenomena of the system. In this paper, a simple grey-box model is proposed that is attractive for both....... It is shown that an additive diffusion noise term description leads to a violation of the physical constraints of the system, whereas a state dependent diffusion noise avoids this problem and should be favoured. It is also shown that a logarithmic transformation of the flow measurements secures positive lower...

  5. Virtual box

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stougaard, Malthe Kirkhoff

    2007-01-01

    . This paper reports on the design, implementation and initial evaluation of Virtual Box. Virtual Box attempts to create a physical and engaging context in order to support reciprocal interactions with expressive content. An implemented version of Virtual Box is evaluated in a location-aware environment...

  6. Marine Ecosystem Modeling Beyond the Box: Using GIS to Study Carbon Fluxes in a Coastal Ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijnbladh, Erik [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Figeholm (Sweden). Site Investigations Oskarshamn; Joensson, Bror Fredrik [Boston Univ., MA (United States). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Kumblad, Linda [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Systems Ecology

    2006-12-15

    Studies of carbon fluxes in marine ecosystems are often done by using box model approaches with basin size boxes, or highly resolved 3D models, and an emphasis on the pelagic component of the ecosystem. Those approaches work well in the ocean proper, but can give rise to considerable problems when applied to coastal systems, because of the scale of certain ecological niches and the fact that benthic organisms are the dominant functional group of the ecosystem. In addition, 3D models require an extensive modeling effort. In this project, an intermediate approach based on a high resolution (20x20 m) GIS data-grid has been developed for the coastal ecosystem in the Laxemar area (Baltic Sea, Sweden) based on a number of different site investigations. The model has been developed in the context of a safety assessment project for a proposed nuclear waste repository, in which the fate of hypothetically released radionuclides from the planned repository is estimated. The assessment project requires not only a good understanding of the ecosystem dynamics at the site, but also quantification of stocks and flows of matter in the system. The data-grid was then used to set up a carbon budget describing the spatial distribution of biomass, primary production, net ecosystem production and thus where carbon sinks and sources are located in the area. From these results, it was clear that there was a large variation in ecosystem characteristics within the basins and, on a larger scale, that the inner areas are net producing and the outer areas net respiring, even in shallow phyto benthic communities. Benthic processes had a similar or larger influence on carbon fluxes as advective processes in inner areas, whereas the opposite appears to be true in the outer basins. As many radionuclides are expected to follow the pathways of organic matter in the environment, these findings enhance our abilities to realistically describe and predict their fate in the ecosystem.

  7. Vertical structures induced by propeller moonlets: Comparison of hydrodynamical model and N-body box simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, H.; Seiß, M.; Salo, H.; Spahn, F.

    2014-04-01

    Small moonlets in Saturn's rings induce propeller called structures into the surrounding ring material. Images of Saturn's rings, taken by the Cassini spacecraft near Saturn's equinox in 2009, show shadows cast by these propellers [1], offering the opportunity to study their vertical structure. We compare results from an extended hydrodynamical propeller model with results from local N-body box simulations of propeller structures. In the hydrodynamical model, maximal propeller heights are determined from the gravitational scattering of the ring particles by the moonlet. Afterwards the disturbed balance of viscous heating and collisional cooling is considered as main mechanism of the propeller height relaxation [2]. For the N-body box simulations we use the code by Salo [3], which was also applied in the propeller simulations of [4] and [5]. We find that the exponential height relaxation predicted by the hydrodynamical modelling is confirmed by N-body simulations of non-self gravitating ring particles. By projecting the propeller height evolution of the hydrodynamical model into observations of the shadows cast by the Earhart propeller, we determine the exponential cooling constant of the height relaxation. With this cooling constant we estimate collision frequencies of about 6 collisions per particle per orbit in the propeller gap region or about 11 collisions per particle per orbit in the propeller wake region of the Earhart propeller. The N-body simulations lead to maximal propeller heights between 60 to 70 percent of the Hill radius of the corresponding moonlet. Moonlet sizes estimated by this relation are in fair agreement with size estimates from radial propeller scalings [5, 6] for propeller structures with observed shadows.

  8. Hierarchical linear model: thinking outside the traditional repeated-measures analysis-of-variance box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lininger, Monica; Spybrook, Jessaca; Cheatham, Christopher C

    2015-04-01

    Longitudinal designs are common in the field of athletic training. For example, in the Journal of Athletic Training from 2005 through 2010, authors of 52 of the 218 original research articles used longitudinal designs. In 50 of the 52 studies, a repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to analyze the data. A possible alternative to this approach is the hierarchical linear model, which has been readily accepted in other medical fields. In this short report, we demonstrate the use of the hierarchical linear model for analyzing data from a longitudinal study in athletic training. We discuss the relevant hypotheses, model assumptions, analysis procedures, and output from the HLM 7.0 software. We also examine the advantages and disadvantages of using the hierarchical linear model with repeated measures and repeated-measures analysis of variance for longitudinal data.

  9. A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Trainee-Directed Virtual Reality Simulation Training and Box Trainer on the Acquisition of Laparoscopic Suturing Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jennifer K Y; Cheung, Vincent Y T; Pun, Ting Chung; Tung, Wai Kit

    2017-09-27

    To compare the proficiency of novices in acquiring laparoscopic suturing skills following training in a virtual reality simulator or box trainer compared to no training. This was a RCT in a university-affiliated teaching hospital recruiting participants who had no laparoscopic suturing experience to have suturing skill training in the virtual reality simulator, box trainer, or no training as control. Trainees were allowed to terminate training when they perceived competence in the procedure. Suturing skills were tested in the box trainer and scored using a modified Global Operative Assessment of Laparoscopic Skills questionnaire by their own self-evaluation and two experienced gynaecological laparoscopists. Of the 36 participants recruited, 27 (75%) had no laparoscopic experience. Participants with no laparoscopic experience took longer to complete training than those with experience (median 90 minutes [interquartile range (IQR) 80-115] vs. 55 min [IQR 40-65], respectively; P = 0.044). There were no differences in successful completion of the task (7/12 [58.3%], 10/12 [83.3%], 7/12 [58.3%]; P = 0.325), median suturing time in seconds (628 [IQR 460-835], 611 [IQR 434-691], 609 [IQR 540-837]; P = 0.702), mean subjective (mean ± SD 9.8 ± 1.8, 10.4 ± 2.8, 9.3 ± 2.4; P = 0.710), and objective (7.2 ± 1.8, 8.2 ± 2.1, 7.6 ± 1.7; P = 0.426) modified Global Operative Assessment of Laparoscopic Skills score in the simulator, pelvic trainer, and control groups, respectively. The intraclass correlation coefficient of the two reviewers was 0.422 (95% CI 0.159-0.717). Trainees were unable to accurately assess themselves as to skill level in laparoscopic suturing. A longer training time is required for novices to master laparoscopic suturing using a simulator or box trainer. Copyright © 2017 Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Interpretable inference on the mixed effect model with the Box-Cox transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruo, K; Yamaguchi, Y; Noma, H; Gosho, M

    2017-07-10

    We derived results for inference on parameters of the marginal model of the mixed effect model with the Box-Cox transformation based on the asymptotic theory approach. We also provided a robust variance estimator of the maximum likelihood estimator of the parameters of this model in consideration of the model misspecifications. Using these results, we developed an inference procedure for the difference of the model median between treatment groups at the specified occasion in the context of mixed effects models for repeated measures analysis for randomized clinical trials, which provided interpretable estimates of the treatment effect. From simulation studies, it was shown that our proposed method controlled type I error of the statistical test for the model median difference in almost all the situations and had moderate or high performance for power compared with the existing methods. We illustrated our method with cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) data in an AIDS clinical trial, where the interpretability of the analysis results based on our proposed method is demonstrated. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Formulation and evaluation of an analytical model for composite box-beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Edward C.; Chopra, Inderjit

    1990-01-01

    A direct method for determining the effective elastic stiffnesses and deformation behavior of composite box-beam (BB) structures is developed analytically, validated, and demonstrated. The BB walls are modeled as orthotropic-ply laminated plates, so that the elastic properties vary both through the thickness and around the BB contour; deformation is described in terms of extension, bending, twisting, shearing, and torsion-related out-of-plane warping. Numerical results for several BB configurations are presented in tables and graphs and compared with experimental data and FEM computations (Stemple and Lee, 1989): good general agreement is obtained for cross-ply, antisymmetric, and symmetric layups, except for symmetric layups with ply orientation angles theta greater than 30 deg. Both out-of-plane warping and transverse shear coupling are found to have significant effects on BB elastic response.

  12. Dynamic finite element model updating of prestressed concrete continuous box-girder bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiankun; Zhang, Lingmi; Guo, Qintao; Zhang, Yufeng

    2009-09-01

    The dynamic finite element model (FEM) of a prestressed concrete continuous box-girder bridge, called the Tongyang Canal Bridge, is built and updated based on the results of ambient vibration testing (AVT) using a real-coded accelerating genetic algorithm (RAGA). The objective functions are defined based on natural frequency and modal assurance criterion (MAC) metrics to evaluate the updated FEM. Two objective functions are defined to fully account for the relative errors and standard deviations of the natural frequencies and MAC between the AVT results and the updated FEM predictions. The dynamically updated FEM of the bridge can better represent its structural dynamics and serve as a baseline in long-term health monitoring, condition assessment and damage identification over the service life of the bridge.

  13. Hydrodynamic modeling with grey-box method of a foil-like underwater vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin-yu; Li, Yi-ping; Wang, Ya-xing; Feng, Xi-sheng

    2017-12-01

    In this study, a dynamic modeling method for foil-like underwater vehicles is introduced and experimentally verified in different sea tests of the Hadal ARV. The dumping force of a foil-like underwater vehicle is sensitive to swing motion. Some foil-like underwater vehicles swing periodically when performing a free-fall dive task in experiments. Models using conventional modeling methods yield solutions with asymptotic stability, which cannot simulate the self-sustained swing motion. By improving the ridge regression optimization algorithm, a grey-box modeling method based on 378 viscous drag coefficients using the Taylor series expansion is proposed in this study. The method is optimized for over-fitting and convergence problems caused by large parameter matrices. Instead of the PMM test data, the unsteady computational fluid dynamics calculation results are used in modeling. The obtained model can better simulate the swing motion of the underwater vehicle. Simulation and experimental results show a good consistency in free-fall tests during sea trials, as well as a prediction of the dive speed in the swing state.

  14. Real-time process optimization based on grey-box neural models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Cubillos

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the feasibility of using grey-box neural models (GNM in Real Time Optimization (RTO. These models are based on a suitable combination of fundamental conservation laws and neural networks, being used in at least two different ways: to complement available phenomenological knowledge with empirical information, or to reduce dimensionality of complex rigorous physical models. We have observed that the benefits of using these simple adaptable models are counteracted by some difficulties associated with the solution of the optimization problem. Nonlinear Programming (NLP algorithms failed in finding the global optimum due to the fact that neural networks can introduce multimodal objective functions. One alternative considered to solve this problem was the use of some kind of evolutionary algorithms, like Genetic Algorithms (GA. Although these algorithms produced better results in terms of finding the appropriate region, they took long periods of time to reach the global optimum. It was found that a combination of genetic and nonlinear programming algorithms can be use to fast obtain the optimum solution. The proposed approach was applied to the Williams-Otto reactor, considering three different GNM models of increasing complexity. Results demonstrated that the use of GNM models and mixed GA/NLP optimization algorithms is a promissory approach for solving dynamic RTO problems.

  15. Model Training Guide. Firefighter I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagevig, William A.; Gallagher, Leigh S.

    This firefighter training guide for a 180-hour course was developed to assist training officers in planning training with emphasis on conformance to recommended National Fire Protection Association (NFPA 1001) standards. The material in the guide is referenced to current editions of the International Fire Service Training Association manuals and…

  16. Research on artistic gymnastics training guidance model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lin; Sun, Xianzhong

    2017-04-01

    Rhythmic gymnastics training guidance model, taking into consideration the features of artistic gymnastics training, is put forward to help gymnasts identify their deficiencies and unskilled technical movements and improve their training effects. The model is built on the foundation of both physical quality indicator model and artistic gymnastics training indicator model. Physical quality indicator model composed of bodily factor, flexibility-strength factor and speed-dexterity factor delivers an objective evaluation with reference to basic sport testing data. Training indicator model, based on physical fitness indicator, helps analyze the technical movements, through which the impact from each bodily factor on technical movements is revealed. AG training guidance model, in further combination with actual training data and in comparison with the data shown in the training indicator model, helps identify the problems in trainings, and thus improve the training effect. These three models when in combined use and in comparison with historical model data can check and verify the improvement in training effect over a certain period of time.

  17. Concepts and strategies on how to train and motivate teachers to implement a kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention to prevent obesity in early childhood. The ToyBox-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payr, A; Birnbaum, J; Wildgruber, A; Kreichauf, S; Androutsos, O; Lateva, M; De Decker, E; De Craemer, M; Iotova, V; Manios, Y; Koletzko, B

    2014-08-01

    The key person for the implementation of kindergarten-based behavioural interventions is the kindergarten teacher. When conducting intervention studies in kindergartens, training sessions are needed to train and motivate kindergarten teachers for programme implementation. This paper presents the systematic development of the teachers' trainings executed in the ToyBox-intervention - a kindergarten-based and family-involved obesity prevention programme for children aged 4-6. Based on concepts for the education of kindergarten teachers, on general strategies for successful programme implementation and on the ToyBox programme-specific requirements, the aims of the teachers' trainings were defined and an overall concept was deduced. Regarding the concept for the ToyBox teachers' training sessions, it is concluded that the training modules should focus on presenting information on the practical implementation of the intervention. Furthermore, these modules should also include self-efficacy enhancing components and should give kindergarten teachers opportunities to share experiences. Regarding the didactic methods applied in the ToyBox teachers' training sessions, constructivist learning approaches that facilitate active participation, reflective thinking and personal involvement were implemented. Emphasis was put not only on the content but especially on the didactic methods of teachers' trainings in order to enhance devotion to, and quality and sustainability of the ToyBox-intervention. © 2014 World Obesity.

  18. Automatic Black-Box Model Order Reduction using Radial Basis Functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephanson, M B; Lee, J F; White, D A

    2011-07-15

    Finite elements methods have long made use of model order reduction (MOR), particularly in the context of fast freqeucny sweeps. In this paper, we discuss a black-box MOR technique, applicable to a many solution methods and not restricted only to spectral responses. We also discuss automated methods for generating a reduced order model that meets a given error tolerance. Numerical examples demonstrate the effectiveness and wide applicability of the method. With the advent of improved computing hardware and numerous fast solution techniques, the field of computational electromagnetics are progressed rapidly in terms of the size and complexity of problems that can be solved. Numerous applications, however, require the solution of a problem for many different configurations, including optimization, parameter exploration, and uncertainly quantification, where the parameters that may be changed include frequency, material properties, geometric dimensions, etc. In such cases, thousands of solutions may be needed, so solve times of even a few minutes can be burdensome. Model order reduction (MOR) may alleviate this difficulty by creating a small model that can be evaluated quickly. Many MOR techniques have been applied to electromagnetic problems over the past few decades, particularly in the context of fast frequency sweeps. Recent works have extended these methods to allow more than one parameter and to allow the parameters to represent material and geometric properties. There are still limitations with these methods, however. First, they almost always assume that the finite element method is used to solve the problem, so that the system matrix is a known function of the parameters. Second, although some authors have presented adaptive methods (e.g., [2]), the order of the model is often determined before the MOR process begins, with little insight about what order is actually needed to reach the desired accuracy. Finally, it not clear how to efficiently extend most

  19. Bento Boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasio, Cindy

    2010-01-01

    Bento boxes are common objects in Japanese culture, designed to hold enough lunch for one person. They have individual compartments and sometimes multiple tiers for rice, vegetables, and other side dishes. They are made of materials ranging from wood, cloth, aluminum, or plastic. In general, the greater the number of foods, the better the box is…

  20. Evaluation of probabilistic flow predictions in sewer systems using grey box models and a skill score criterion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thordarson, Fannar Ørn; Breinholt, Anders; Møller, Jan Kloppenborg

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we show how the grey box methodology can be applied to find models that can describe the flow prediction uncertainty in a sewer system where rain data are used as input, and flow measurements are used for calibration and updating model states. Grey box models are composed of a drift...... term and a diffusion term, respectively accounting for the deterministic and stochastic part of the models. Furthermore, a distinction is made between the process noise and the observation noise. We compare five different model candidates’ predictive performances that solely differ with respect...... coverage of the prediction intervals, i.e. the bias between these coverages should ideally be zero. The sharpness is a measure of the distance between the lower and upper prediction limits, and skill score criterion makes it possible to pinpoint the preferred model by taking into account both reliability...

  1. Models for Train Passenger Forecasting of Java and Sumatra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartono

    2017-04-01

    People tend to take public transportation to avoid high traffic, especially in Java. In Jakarta, the number of railway passengers is over than the capacity of the train at peak time. This is an opportunity as well as a challenge. If it is managed well then the company can get high profit. Otherwise, it may lead to disaster. This article discusses models for the train passengers, hence, finding the reasonable models to make a prediction overtimes. The Box-Jenkins method is occupied to develop a basic model. Then, this model is compared to models obtained using exponential smoothing method and regression method. The result shows that Holt-Winters model is better to predict for one-month, three-month, and six-month ahead for the passenger in Java. In addition, SARIMA(1,1,0)(2,0,0) is more accurate for nine-month and twelve-month oversee. On the other hand, for Sumatra passenger forecasting, SARIMA(1,1,1)(0,0,2) gives a better approximation for one-month ahead, and ARIMA model is best for three-month ahead prediction. The rest, Trend Seasonal and Liner Model has the least of RMSE to forecast for six-month, nine-month, and twelve-month ahead.

  2. Language Teaching Models in Teacher Training Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Aslan, Alper

    2016-01-01

    Any language teacher who has gone through some kind of training program for the teaching of English should be familiar with various specific language teaching models that constitute the core of the training process. A language teaching model is a guide that helps the trainee to sequence the activities designed for the expectations and needs of learners in a lesson. This paper reviews the common language teaching models in teacher training programs (PPP, OHE, III, TTT, TBLT, ESA, ARC) and disc...

  3. Finite element model updating of a prestressed concrete box girder bridge using subproblem approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, G. W.; Omenzetter, P.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the implementation of an updating procedure for the finite element model (FEM) of a prestressed concrete continuous box-girder highway off-ramp bridge. Ambient vibration testing was conducted to excite the bridge, assisted by linear chirp sweepings induced by two small electrodynamic shakes deployed to enhance the excitation levels, since the bridge was closed to traffic. The data-driven stochastic subspace identification method was executed to recover the modal properties from measurement data. An initial FEM was developed and correlation between the experimental modal results and their analytical counterparts was studied. Modelling of the pier and abutment bearings was carefully adjusted to reflect the real operational conditions of the bridge. The subproblem approximation method was subsequently utilized to automatically update the FEM. For this purpose, the influences of bearing stiffness, and mass density and Young's modulus of materials were examined as uncertain parameters using sensitivity analysis. The updating objective function was defined based on a summation of squared values of relative errors of natural frequencies between the FEM and experimentation. All the identified modes were used as the target responses with the purpose of putting more constrains for the optimization process and decreasing the number of potentially feasible combinations for parameter changes. The updated FEM of the bridge was able to produce sufficient improvements in natural frequencies in most modes of interest, and can serve for a more precise dynamic response prediction or future investigation of the bridge health.

  4. Box modelling approach for evaluation of influence of ice transport of radionuclides for doses to man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iospje, M. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Oesteraes (Norway)

    2002-04-01

    Modelling of the ice transport of radionuclides, which is a unique pathway in the Arctic ocean and adjacent sea areas, is limited by necessity to describe complete processes of incorporation of radioactivity into ice and ice sediment. Freezing / melting processes and transport of 'clean' ice can be described with a good accuracy for relatively short time scale on the basis of the present level of modelling, but detailed description of the sediment entrainment into ice based on the Reynolds equations with attention to coagulation processes is limited by low concentration of particles (grease ice cannot be described) and time scale up to 5{sup .}10{sup -2} s (1{sup .}10{sup -9} y) what is not available for large time scale and ice masses. Adding the radioactivity incorporation into the ice with following description of transport and fate of radionuclides will lead to further increasing of the complexity of the modelling. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an alternative approach for purposes of radiological assessment on the basis of the box modelling to describe the incorporation of radioactivity into ice and ice sediment, transport of radioactivity by ice and incorporation of radioactivity into sea areas through melding processes. It is shown that the ice transport of radionuclides can be a significant factor for some scenarios and radionuclides. The influence of the ice transport increases with increasing K{sub d} values for radionuclides. It is necessary to note that the content and structure of the sediment load in ice vary within wide limits, and therefore, sensitivity and uncertainty analysis can improve the possibility to represent model results satisfactorily. (LN)

  5. The Eight-Step Training Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    The U.S. Army has adapted extremely well to repeated deployments in the last 10 years. All things come with tradeoffs though, and one relative...weakness that has resulted from a decade of frequent deployments is the lessened ability of the Army’s junior leaders to prepare for and conduct training... The Army needs to look at ways to train leaders to conduct training, and the eight-step training model is a proven and effective method to accomplish

  6. The Y-Box Binding Protein 1 Suppresses Alzheimer's Disease Progression in Two Animal Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N V Bobkova

    Full Text Available The Y-box binding protein 1 (YB-1 is a member of the family of DNA- and RNA binding proteins. It is involved in a wide variety of DNA/RNA-dependent events including cell proliferation and differentiation, stress response, and malignant cell transformation. Previously, YB-1 was detected in neurons of the neocortex and hippocampus, but its precise role in the brain remains undefined. Here we show that subchronic intranasal injections of recombinant YB-1, as well as its fragment YB-11-219, suppress impairment of spatial memory in olfactory bulbectomized (OBX mice with Alzheimer's type degeneration and improve learning in transgenic 5XFAD mice used as a model of cerebral amyloidosis. YB-1-treated OBX and 5XFAD mice showed a decreased level of brain β-amyloid. In OBX animals, an improved morphological state of neurons was revealed in the neocortex and hippocampus; in 5XFAD mice, a delay in amyloid plaque progression was observed. Intranasally administered YB-1 penetrated into the brain and could enter neurons. In vitro co-incubation of YB-1 with monomeric β-amyloid (1-42 inhibited formation of β-amyloid fibrils, as confirmed by electron microscopy. This suggests that YB-1 interaction with β-amyloid prevents formation of filaments that are responsible for neurotoxicity and neuronal death. Our data are the first evidence for a potential therapeutic benefit of YB-1 for treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

  7. Undulating periodization models for strength training & conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jiménez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodized strength training refers to varying the training program at regular time intervals in an attempt to bring about optimal resistance gains. The main aim of this paper was to present a short review of the diferent aspects of training periodization and its effects with performance. as well as the differential effect of alternate periodization models on other populations, and specially the need for further research regarding the effectiveness of the undulating model as compared with the linear model. A focussed literature review reveals that most studies that examined strength training periodization utilized young males as their subject population, and the research has mainly focused on differences between periodized and non-periodized programs. Furthermore, the periodization training programs are designed and developed according to two different models: the linear model and the non-linear model. The Linear Model is characterized by high initial training volume and low and intensity. The Non-Linear Model enables variation in intensity and volume within each 7-10 day cycle by rotating different protocols to train various components of the neuromuscular system. The results showed at the scientific literature encourage researchers and exercise professionals to include non-linear (undulating periodization models during resistance training.

  8. Undulating periodization models for strength training & conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jiménez

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Periodized strength training refers to varying the training program at regular time intervals in an attempt to bring about optimal resistance gains. The main aim of this paper was to present a short review of the diferent aspects of training periodization and its effects with performance. as well as the differential effect of alternate periodization models on other populations, and specially the need for further research regarding the effectiveness of the undulating model as compared with the linear model. A focussed literature review reveals that most studies that examined strength training periodization utilized young males as their subject population, and the research has mainly focused on differences between periodized and non-periodized programs. Furthermore, the periodization training programs are designed and developed according to two different models: the linear model and the non-linear model. The Linear Model is characterized by high initial training volume and low and intensity. The Non-Linear Model enables variation in intensity and volume within each 7-10 day cycle by rotating different protocols to train various components of the neuromuscular system. The results showed at the scientific literature encourage researchers and exercise professionals to include non-linear (undulating periodization models during resistance training.

  9. A multi-variable box model approach to the soft tissue carbon pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. de Boer

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The canonical question of which physical, chemical or biological mechanisms were responsible for oceanic uptake of atmospheric CO2 during the last glacial is yet unanswered. Insight from paleo-proxies has led to a multitude of hypotheses but none so far have been convincingly supported in three dimensional numerical modelling experiments. The processes that influence the CO2 uptake and export production are inter-related and too complex to solve conceptually while complex numerical models are time consuming and expensive to run which severely limits the combinations of mechanisms that can be explored. Instead, an intermediate inverse box model approach of the soft tissue pump is used here in which the whole parameter space is explored. The glacial circulation and biological production states are derived from these using proxies of glacial export production and the need to draw down CO2 into the ocean. We find that circulation patterns which explain glacial observations include reduced Antarctic Bottom Water formation and high latitude upwelling and mixing of deep water and to a lesser extent reduced equatorial upwelling. The proposed mechanism of CO2 uptake by an increase of eddies in the Southern Ocean, leading to a reduced residual circulation, is not supported. Regarding biological mechanisms, an increase in the nutrient utilization in either the equatorial regions or the northern polar latitudes can reduce atmospheric CO2 and satisfy proxies of glacial export production. Consistent with previous studies, CO2 is drawn down more easily through increased productivity in the Antarctic region than the sub-Antarctic, but that violates observations of lower export production there. The glacial states are more sensitive to changes in the circulation and less sensitive to changes in nutrient utilization rates than the interglacial states.

  10. Effects of intermittent aerobic training on passive avoidance test (shuttle box) and stress markers in the dorsal hippocampus of wistar rats exposed to administration of homocysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Somayeh; Dabidi Roshan, Valiollah; Pourasghar, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Elevated amino acid homocysteine (Hcy) levels and insufficient physical activity are the risk factors in Alzheimer disease (AD) development. The effect of intermittent aerobic training on memory retention test and Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels in the dorsal hippocampus of rats which were stimulated with Hcy is investigated. In order to determine the dose at which using Shuttle Box Test recognizes degenerative changes and/or memory impairment, 40 rats were injected by different dosages of Hcy to the dorsal hippocampus. It was observed that the required Hcy dose is 0.6 M. Then 44 rats were divided into four groups including training and control groups at 4 weeks of aerobic exercise in training and control groups at 8 weeks. To determine the effect of homocysteine on the memory impairment, Shuttle Box Test was used on treadmill (5 sessions/week, 12-18 m/min and 10-58.5 min). Hcy administration caused memory impairment and significant increase in TBARS. Significant decrease in TBARS level was noted after 8 weeks of aerobic exercise, but not after just 4 weeks of exercise compared with control group. In addition, performing 8 weeks of aerobic training led to significantly increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) level and the time of avoidance learning test. Hyperhomocysteinemia caused learning and memory deficits probably by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the present study showed that regular moderate intensity intermittent exercise may reverse this process and exercise is recommended as a strategy to improve symptoms of senile neurodegenerative disease . None.

  11. Analysis of MADS-Box Gene Family Reveals Conservation in Floral Organ ABCDE Model of Moso Bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanchao Cheng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Mini chromosome maintenance 1, agamous, deficiens, and serum response factor (MADS-box genes are transcription factors which play fundamental roles in flower development and regulation of floral organ identity. However, till date, identification and functions of MADS-box genes remain largely unclear in Phyllostachys edulis. In view of this, we performed a whole-genome survey and identified 34 MADS-box genes in P. edulis, and based on phylogeny, they were classified as MIKCC, MIKC∗, Mα, and Mβ. The detailed analysis about gene structure and motifs, phylogenetic classification, comparison of gene divergence and duplication are provided. Interestingly, expression patterns for most genes were found similar to those of Arabidopsis and rice, indicating that the well-established ABCDE model can be applied to P. edulis. Moreover, we overexpressed PheMADS15, an AP1-like gene, in Arabidopsis, and found that the transgenic plants have early flowering phenotype, suggesting that PheMADS15 might be a regulator of flowering transition in P. edulis. Taken together, this study provides not only insightful comprehension but also useful information for understanding the functions of MADS-box genes in P. edulis.

  12. Language Learning Strategies and Its Training Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarizes and reviews the literature regarding language learning strategies and it's training model, pointing out the significance of language learning strategies to EFL learners and an applicable and effective language learning strategies training model, which is beneficial both to EFL learners and instructors, is badly needed.

  13. Comparison between Training Models to Teach Veterinary Medical Students Basic Laparoscopic Surgery Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Ohad; Michelotti, Kurt; Schmidt, Peggy; Lagman, Minette; Fahie, Maria; Griffon, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of two different laparoscopic training models in preparing veterinary students to perform basic laparoscopic skills. Sixteen first- and second-year veterinary students were randomly assigned to a box trainer (Group B) or tablet trainer (Group T). Training and assessment for both groups included two tasks, "peg transfer" and "pattern cutting," derived from the well-validated McGill University Inanimate System for Training and Evaluation of Laparoscopic Skills. Confidence levels were compared by evaluating pre- and post-training questionnaires. Performance of laparoscopic tasks was scored pre- and post-training using a rubric for precision and speed. Results revealed a significant improvement in student confidence for basic laparoscopic skills (pstudents to perform basic laparoscopic skills on a model.

  14. Gray-Box Approach for Thermal Modelling of Buildings for Applications in District Heating and Cooling Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saurav, Kumar; Chandan, Vikas

    2017-05-19

    District-heating-and-cooling (DHC) systems are a proven energy solution that has been deployed for many years in a growing number of urban areas worldwide. They comprise a variety of technologies that seek to develop synergies between the production and supply of heat, cooling, domestic hot water and electricity. Although the benefits of DHC systems are significant and have been widely acclaimed, yet the full potential of modern DHC systems remains largely untapped. There are several opportunities for development of energy efficient DHC systems, which will enable the effective exploitation of alternative renewable resources, waste heat recovery, etc., in order to increase the overall efficiency and facilitate the transition towards the next generation of DHC systems. This motivated the need for modelling these complex systems. Large-scale modelling of DHC-networks is challenging, as it has several components such as buildings, pipes, valves, heating source, etc., interacting with each other. In this paper, we focus on building modelling. In particular, we present a gray-box methodology for thermal modelling of buildings. Gray-box modelling is a hybrid of data driven and physics based models where, coefficients of the equations from physics based models are learned using data. This approach allows us to capture the dynamics of the buildings more effectively as compared to pure data driven approach. Additionally, this approach results in a simpler models as compared to pure physics based models. We first develop the individual components of the building such as temperature evolution, flow controller, etc. These individual models are then integrated in to the complete gray-box model for the building. The model is validated using data collected from one of the buildings at Lule{\\aa}, a city on the coast of northern Sweden.

  15. Modeling a novel hypothetical use of postal collection boxes as automated external defibrillator access points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Sanjana; Salerno, Jessica; Hajari, Hadi; Weiss, Lenny S; Salcido, David D

    2017-11-01

    Optimizing placement of Automated External Defibrillators (AED) can increase survival after an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Using postal collection boxes (PCB) as locations for AEDs could potentially enhance accessibility and streamline maintenance. In this study, we modeled the hypothetical effects of deploying AEDs at PCB locations. We hypothesized that PCB-AEDs would increase AED coverage overall and in residential areas, and reduce the distance from OHCA to an AED. AEDs in Pittsburgh, PA were identified by the University of Pittsburgh Resuscitation Logistics and Informatics Venture (n=747). PCB locations were obtained from the United States Postal Service (n=479). OHCA locations from 2009 to 2014 were obtained from the Pittsburgh site of the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium. AED coverage assuming a ¼ mile radius around each AED was estimated for known AEDs, PCB-AEDs (hypothetical AED locations), and known AEDs augmented by PCB-AEDs, both overall and for residential and non-residential zones. Linear distance from each OHCA to the nearest AED was calculated and compared between the sets. The set of known AEDs augmented with PCB-AEDs covered more of the city overall (55% vs 30%), as well as greater proportions of residential (62% vs 27%) and non-residential areas (45% vs 30%). The median distance from OHCA to AED was significantly shorter when known AEDs were augmented with PCB-AEDs (0.12mi vs 0.32mi; p=0.001). Augmenting existing publicly accessible AEDs with AEDs deployed at PCBs can increase AED spatial coverage in both residential and non-residential areas, and reduce the distance from AED to OHCA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Impact of aircraft exhaust on the atmosphere. Box model studies and 3-D mesoscale numerical case studies of seasonal differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petry, H.; Ebel, A.; Franzkowiak, V.; Hendricks, J.; Lippert, E.; Moellhoff, M. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geophysik und Meteorologie

    1997-12-31

    The impact of aircraft emissions released in the tropopause region on atmospheric trace gases as O{sub 3} or HNO{sub 3} is investigated by means of model studies. Special emphasis is drawn on seasonal effects. A box model is applied as well as a 3-D mesoscale chemistry transport model. These model studies show that the impact of aircraft emissions on ozone in the tropopause region is much stronger in summer than in late autumn with a difference of one order of magnitude. (author) 14 refs.

  17. Training model for cerebral aneurysm clipping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Tenjin, M.D., Ph.D.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Clipping of cerebral aneurysms is still an important skill in neurosurgery. We have made a training model for the clipping of cerebral aneurysms. The concepts for the model were 1: training model for beginners, 2: three dimensional manipulation using an operating microscope, 3: the aneurysm model is to be perfused by simulated blood causing premature rupture. The correct relationship between each tissue, and softness of the brain and vessels were characteristics of the model. The skull, brain, arteries, and veins were made using a 3D printer with data from DICOM. The brain and vessels were made from polyvinyl alcohol (PVA. One training course was held and this model was useful for training of cerebral aneurysm surgery for young neurosurgeons.

  18. Predictive habitat models derived from nest-box occupancy for the endangered Carolina northern flying squirrel in the southern Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, W. Mark; Evans, A.M.; Odom, Richard H.; Rodrigue, Jane L.; Kelly, C.A.; Abaid, Nicole; Diggins, Corinne A.; Newcomb, Doug

    2016-01-01

    In the southern Appalachians, artificial nest-boxes are used to survey for the endangered Carolina northern flying squirrel (CNFS; Glaucomys sabrinus coloratus), a disjunct subspecies associated with high elevation (>1385 m) forests. Using environmental parameters diagnostic of squirrel habitat, we created 35 a priori occupancy models in the program PRESENCE for boxes surveyed in western North Carolina, 1996-2011. Our best approximating model showed CNFS denning associated with sheltered landforms and montane conifers, primarily red spruce Picea rubens. As sheltering decreased, decreasing distance to conifers was important. Area with a high probability (>0.5) of occupancy was distributed over 18662 ha of habitat, mostly across 10 mountain ranges. Because nest-box surveys underrepresented areas >1750 m and CNFS forage in conifers, we combined areas of high occupancy with conifer GIS coverages to create an additional distribution model of likely habitat. Regionally, above 1385 m, we determined that 31795 ha could be occupied by CNFS. Known occupied patches ranged from

  19. A Better Model for Management Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobele, H. Kenneth; Buchanan, Peter J.

    1976-01-01

    Greater precision in appraising training needs, greater clarity in defining training objectives, and an emphasis on a practical, skills-oriented approach to management development can result from using Henry Mintzberg's model which describes managerial work in terms of 6 job characteristics and 10 interpersonal, informational, or decisional roles.…

  20. Combining physical and virtual contexts through augmented reality: design and evaluation of a prototype using a drug box as a marker for antibiotic training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nifakos, Sokratis; Tomson, Tanja; Zary, Nabil

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Antimicrobial resistance is a global health issue. Studies have shown that improved antibiotic prescription education among healthcare professionals reduces mistakes during the antibiotic prescription process. The aim of this study was to investigate novel educational approaches that through the use of Augmented Reality technology could make use of the real physical context and thereby enrich the educational process of antibiotics prescription. The objective is to investigate which type of information related to antibiotics could be used in an augmented reality application for antibiotics education. Methods. This study followed the Design-Based Research Methodology composed of the following main steps: problem analysis, investigation of information that should be visualized for the training session, and finally the involvement of the end users the development and evaluation processes of the prototype. Results. Two of the most important aspects in the antibiotic prescription process, to represent in an augmented reality application, are the antibiotic guidelines and the side effects. Moreover, this study showed how this information could be visualized from a mobile device using an Augmented Reality scanner and antibiotic drug boxes as markers. Discussion. In this study we investigated the usage of objects from a real physical context such as drug boxes and how they could be used as educational resources. The logical next steps are to examine how this approach of combining physical and virtual contexts through Augmented Reality applications could contribute to the improvement of competencies among healthcare professionals and its impact on the decrease of antibiotics resistance.

  1. Combining physical and virtual contexts through augmented reality: design and evaluation of a prototype using a drug box as a marker for antibiotic training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokratis Nifakos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Antimicrobial resistance is a global health issue. Studies have shown that improved antibiotic prescription education among healthcare professionals reduces mistakes during the antibiotic prescription process. The aim of this study was to investigate novel educational approaches that through the use of Augmented Reality technology could make use of the real physical context and thereby enrich the educational process of antibiotics prescription. The objective is to investigate which type of information related to antibiotics could be used in an augmented reality application for antibiotics education.Methods. This study followed the Design-Based Research Methodology composed of the following main steps: problem analysis, investigation of information that should be visualized for the training session, and finally the involvement of the end users the development and evaluation processes of the prototype.Results. Two of the most important aspects in the antibiotic prescription process, to represent in an augmented reality application, are the antibiotic guidelines and the side effects. Moreover, this study showed how this information could be visualized from a mobile device using an Augmented Reality scanner and antibiotic drug boxes as markers.Discussion. In this study we investigated the usage of objects from a real physical context such as drug boxes and how they could be used as educational resources. The logical next steps are to examine how this approach of combining physical and virtual contexts through Augmented Reality applications could contribute to the improvement of competencies among healthcare professionals and its impact on the decrease of antibiotics resistance.

  2. PT AND THE 8-STEP TRAINING MODEL: IMPLEMENTING TRAINING MANGEMENT EVERY DAY

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Darrell E Fawley III

    2012-01-01

    .... [...]applying this training model to the physical training process can lead to better, more efficient training and a crop of new leaders versed in how to properly plan, resource, and execute training.

  3. Model Identification Using Stochastic Differential Equation Grey-Box Models in Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duun-Henriksen, Anne Katrine; Schmidt, Signe; Røge, Rikke Meldgaard

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The acceptance of virtual preclinical testing of control algorithms is growing and thus also the need for robust and reliable models. Models based on ordinary differential equations (ODEs) can rarely be validated with standard statistical tools. Stochastic differential equations (SDEs......) offer the possibility of building models that can be validated statistically and that are capable of predicting not only a realistic trajectory, but also the uncertainty of the prediction. In an SDE, the prediction error is split into two noise terms. This separation ensures that the errors...... are estimated on clinical data from four T1DM patients. The optimal SDE-GB is determined from likelihood-ratio tests. Finally, parameter tracking is used to track the variation in the "time to peak of meal response" parameter. RESULTS: We found that the transformation of the ODE model into an SDE-GB resulted...

  4. Simple model for training in the laparoscopic vesicourethral running anastomosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadu, Andrei; Olsson, Lief Eric; Abbou, Claude Clement

    2003-09-01

    To create a simple model for training in the complex technique of laparoscopic vesicourethral anastomosis after radical prostatectomy. A model simulating the performance of a laparoscopic running urethrovesical anastomosis was fashioned using skin of a supermarket chicken set in a laparoscopic training box. A circular continuous anastomosis was performed, following exactly the technique we use in vivo for performing a vesicourethral anastomosis after laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. Details regarding the use of the right or the left needle holder, needle positioning, precise stitch position, and use of forehand or backhand stitch were strictly respected in order to reproduce the continuous stitch currently done in vivo in our department. The learning curve was analyzed in terms of the time necessary to perform the task and the quality of the anastomosis. The model was created and used by the junior authors during their year of fellowship in advanced laparoscopic urology. The authors had no previous experience with hands-on laparoscopic suturing but have assisted in a great number of laparoscopic radical prostatectomies. The time required for performing the anastomosis on the model declined from 75 minutes initially to 20 minutes after the trainees had performed 20 anastomoses each. After this training, it was possible to create a watertight running laparoscopic vesicourethral anastomosis in patients in a mean time of 40 minutes (range 30-55 minutes). This simple model allows the trainee in laparoscopic urology to acquire the skills necessary to perform a laparoscopic vesicourethral anastomosis, one of the most complex steps in laparoscopic radical prostatectomy, as well as to develop dexterity and facility in laparoscopic manipulation of needles, sutures, and fragile tissues.

  5. Modeling a particular class of multiple-input/multiple-output black boxes with stochastic integral equations and identifying the required parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyman, E. D.; Kerr, T. H.; Loh, N. K.

    1973-01-01

    A method is given for obtaining a mathematical model of a class of black boxes having multiple inputs and multiple outputs in terms of Ito stochastic integral equations. This method is applicable to the class of black boxes having ergodic correlation functions when there is zero applied input. The point of view adopted in this paper is phenomenological in that it is desired that calculations made using the mathematical model should be close to what is actually observed at the output of the black box. How close is defined in the problem statement.

  6. Simulation of atmospheric mercury depletion events (AMDEs during polar springtime using the MECCA box model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.-Q. Xie

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric mercury depletion events (AMDEs during polar springtime are closely correlated with bromine-catalyzed tropospheric ozone depletion events (ODEs. To study gas- and aqueous-phase reaction kinetics and speciation of mercury during AMDEs, we have included mercury chemistry into the box model MECCA (Module Efficiently Calculating the Chemistry of the Atmosphere, which enables dynamic simulation of bromine activation and ODEs.

    We found that the reaction of Hg with Br atoms dominates the loss of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM. To explain the experimentally observed synchronous depletion of GEM and O3, the reaction rate of Hg+BrO has to be much lower than that of Hg+Br. The synchronicity is best reproduced with rate coefficients at the lower limit of the literature values for both reactions, i.e. kHg+Br≈3×10−13 and kHg+BrO≤1×10−15 cm3 molecule−1 s−1, respectively.

    Throughout the simulated AMDEs, chem{BrHgOBr} was the most abundant reactive mercury species, both in the gas phase and in the aqueous phase. The aqueous-phase concentrations of BrHgOBr, HgBr2, and HgCl2 were several orders of magnitude larger than that of Hg(SO322−.

    Considering chlorine chemistry outside depletion events (i.e. without bromine activation, the concentration of total divalent mercury in sea-salt aerosol particles (mostly HgCl42− was much higher than in dilute aqueous droplets (mostly Hg(SO322−, and did not exhibit a diurnal cycle (no correlation with HO2 radicals.

  7. Material and Thickness Grading for Aeroelastic Tailoring of the Common Research Model Wing Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Bret K.; Jutte, Christine V.

    2014-01-01

    This work quantifies the potential aeroelastic benefits of tailoring a full-scale wing box structure using tailored thickness distributions, material distributions, or both simultaneously. These tailoring schemes are considered for the wing skins, the spars, and the ribs. Material grading utilizes a spatially-continuous blend of two metals: Al and Al+SiC. Thicknesses and material fraction variables are specified at the 4 corners of the wing box, and a bilinear interpolation is used to compute these parameters for the interior of the planform. Pareto fronts detailing the conflict between static aeroelastic stresses and dynamic flutter boundaries are computed with a genetic algorithm. In some cases, a true material grading is found to be superior to a single-material structure.

  8. Functional form and risk adjustment of hospital costs: Bayesian analysis of a Box-Cox random coefficients model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollenbeak, Christopher S

    2005-10-15

    While risk-adjusted outcomes are often used to compare the performance of hospitals and physicians, the most appropriate functional form for the risk adjustment process is not always obvious for continuous outcomes such as costs. Semi-log models are used most often to correct skewness in cost data, but there has been limited research to determine whether the log transformation is sufficient or whether another transformation is more appropriate. This study explores the most appropriate functional form for risk-adjusting the cost of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Data included patients undergoing CABG surgery at four hospitals in the midwest and were fit to a Box-Cox model with random coefficients (BCRC) using Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. Marginal likelihoods and Bayes factors were computed to perform model comparison of alternative model specifications. Rankings of hospital performance were created from the simulation output and the rankings produced by Bayesian estimates were compared to rankings produced by standard models fit using classical methods. Results suggest that, for these data, the most appropriate functional form is not logarithmic, but corresponds to a Box-Cox transformation of -1. Furthermore, Bayes factors overwhelmingly rejected the natural log transformation. However, the hospital ranking induced by the BCRC model was not different from the ranking produced by maximum likelihood estimates of either the linear or semi-log model. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Training Groups: A Basic Life Cycle Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadbourne, Joan

    1980-01-01

    Describes group training model that differs from the traditional T-group model in structure, leadership, and assumptions about learning. The life-cycle model is based on situational leadership, differential structures based on group maturity, and integration of conceptual and experiential learning. (Author)

  10. Model of historical education and teacher training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Daniel Mora Hernández

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In Mexico Model Historical Education is an educational proposal that is based on the interaction with primary sources and use of analytical concepts ("second order". Training model as part of the "representations" of student teachers of history and teaching -tradicionalistas- confronted with experiential activities. Follow the procedural learning teaching model. He concludes with the teaching work in real conditions ("situated learning", the drafting of a "receptional document" and the professional examination (reflexive teaching.This training model we have developed in the specialty of History of Bachelor of Secondary Education in Higher Normal School of Mexico since 2006, advising a hundred students.

  11. Thinking outside the boxes: Using current reading models to assess and treat developmental surface dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Caroline; Cupples, Linda

    2017-03-01

    Improving the reading performance of children with developmental surface dyslexia has proved challenging, with limited generalisation of reading skills typically reported after intervention. The aim of this study was to provide tailored, theoretically motivated intervention to two children with developmental surface dyslexia. Our objectives were to improve their reading performance, and to evaluate the utility of current reading models in therapeutic practice. Detailed reading and cognitive profiles for two male children with developmental surface dyslexia were compared to the results obtained by age-matched control groups. The specific area of single-word reading difficulty for each child was identified within the dual route model (DRM) of reading, following which a theoretically motivated intervention programme was devised. Both children showed significant improvements in single-word reading ability after training, with generalisation effects observed for untrained words. However, the assessment and intervention results also differed for each child, reinforcing the view that the causes and consequences of developmental dyslexia, even within subtypes, are not homogeneous. Overall, the results of the interventions corresponded more closely with the DRM than other current reading models, in that real word reading improved in the absence of enhanced nonword reading for both children.

  12. Developing a Successful Open Source Training Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda Lopez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Training programs for open source software provide a tangible, and sellable, product. A successful training program not only builds revenue, it also adds to the overall body of knowledge available for the open source project. By gathering best practices and taking advantage of the collective expertise within a community, it may be possible for a business to partner with an open source project to build a curriculum that promotes the project and supports the needs of the company's training customers. This article describes the initial approach used by Canonical, the commercial sponsor of the Ubuntu Linux operating system, to engage the community in the creation of its training offerings. We then discuss alternate curriculum creation models and some of the conditions that are necessary for successful collaboration between creators of existing documentation and commercial training providers.

  13. 'What Box?' : behavioral, neuro-imaging, and training studies on the development of creative cognition in adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleibeuker, Sietske Willemijn

    2016-01-01

    This thesis focused on the development of creative thinking across adolescence and into adulthood. To this end, a range of creativity tasks, both with and without an fMRI scanner, and before and after training paradigms has been used to ex¬amine both age- and experience-related effects on creative

  14. A multiscale finite element model validation method of composite cable-stayed bridge based on Probability Box theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Rumian; Zong, Zhouhong; Niu, Jie; Liu, Qiqi; Zheng, Peijuan

    2016-05-01

    Modeling and simulation are routinely implemented to predict the behavior of complex structures. These tools powerfully unite theoretical foundations, numerical models and experimental data which include associated uncertainties and errors. A new methodology for multi-scale finite element (FE) model validation is proposed in this paper. The method is based on two-step updating method, a novel approach to obtain coupling parameters in the gluing sub-regions of a multi-scale FE model, and upon Probability Box (P-box) theory that can provide a lower and upper bound for the purpose of quantifying and transmitting the uncertainty of structural parameters. The structural health monitoring data of Guanhe Bridge, a composite cable-stayed bridge with large span, and Monte Carlo simulation were used to verify the proposed method. The results show satisfactory accuracy, as the overlap ratio index of each modal frequency is over 89% without the average absolute value of relative errors, and the CDF of normal distribution has a good coincidence with measured frequencies of Guanhe Bridge. The validated multiscale FE model may be further used in structural damage prognosis and safety prognosis.

  15. Model of historical education and teacher training

    OpenAIRE

    Gerardo Daniel Mora Hernández; Rosa Ortiz Paz

    2017-01-01

    In Mexico Model Historical Education is an educational proposal that is based on the interaction with primary sources and use of analytical concepts ("second order"). Training model as part of the "representations" of student teachers of history and teaching -tradicionalistas- confronted with experiential activities. Follow the procedural learning teaching model. He concludes with the teaching work in real conditions ("situated learning"), the drafting of a "receptional document" and the prof...

  16. Operant-Box Sociology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimond, Stuart J.

    1971-01-01

    Sketches a model which considers society a teacher which instructs like an operant box..." The author contends that the family, the school, the play group, the adolescent gang, the office, the prison, the mental hospital, each reward, instruct and control the individual who learns by operant means what the institution teaches." (Author/AL)

  17. MAGNETICALLY LEVITATED TRAIN'S SUSPENSION MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Polyakov

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The implementation of the magnetically levitated train’s (MLT levitation force (LF occurs during the interaction between fields of superconducting train’s (STC and short-circuited track’s contours (STC, which are included in to levitation module (LU. Based on this, the purpose of this study is to obtain a correct description of such interaction. Methodology. At the present stage, the main and most universal tool for the analysis and synthesis of processes and systems is their mathematical and, in particular, computer modeling. At the same time, the radical advantages of this tool make even more important the precision of choosing a specific methodology for research conducting. This is particularly relevant in relation to such large and complex systems as MLT. For this reason, the work pays special attention to the reasoned choice of the selective features of the research paradigm. Findings. The analysis results of existing versions of LF implementation’s models show that each of them, along with the advantages, also has significant drawbacks. In this regard, one of the main results of the study should be the construction of this force implementation’s mathematical model, which preserves the advantages of the mentioned versions, but free from their shortcomings. The rationality of application, for the train’s LF researching, of an integrative holistic paradigm, which assimilates the advantages of the electric circuit's and magnetic field's theory’s, is reasonably justified in work. Originality. The scientific novelty of the research – in priority of such a paradigm’s and the corresponding version’s of the LF’s implementation’s model’s creating. Practical value. The main manifestation of the practical significance of the work is the possibility, in the case of using its results, to significantly increase the effectiveness of dynamic MLT research while reducing their resource costing.

  18. A Sustainable Model for Training Teachers to Use Pivotal Response Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhrheinrich, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    The increase in the rate of autism diagnoses has created a growing demand for teachers who are trained to use effective interventions. The train-the-trainer model, which involves training supervisors to train others, may be ideal for providing cost-effective training and ongoing support to teachers. Although research supports interventions, such…

  19. Engineering teacher training models and experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Tirados, R. M.

    2009-04-01

    Education Area, we renewed the programme, content and methodology, teaching the course under the name of "Initial Teacher Training Course within the framework of the European Higher Education Area". Continuous Training means learning throughout one's life as an Engineering teacher. They are actions designed to update and improve teaching staff, and are systematically offered on the current issues of: Teaching Strategies, training for research, training for personal development, classroom innovations, etc. They are activities aimed at conceptual change, changing the way of teaching and bringing teaching staff up-to-date. At the same time, the Institution is at the disposal of all teaching staff as a meeting point to discuss issues in common, attend conferences, department meetings, etc. In this Congress we present a justification of both training models and their design together with some results obtained on: training needs, participation, how it is developing and to what extent students are profiting from it.

  20. NewsPaperBox - Online News Space: a visual model for representing the social space of a website

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selçuk Artut

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available NewsPaperBox * propounds an alternative visual model utilizing the treemap algorithm to represent the collective use of a website that evolves in response to user interaction. While the technology currently exists to track various user behaviors such as number of clicks, duration of stay on a given web site, these statistics are not yet employed to influence the visual representation of that site's design in real time. In that sense, this project propounds an alternative modeling of a representational outlook of a website that is developed by collaborations and competitions of its global users. This paper proposes the experience of cyberspace as a generative process driven by its effective user participation.

  1. A Parent Training Model for Toilet Training Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, K.; Sorensen, R.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Azrin & Foxx pioneered an intensive toilet training protocol for individuals with intellectual disability living in a residential setting. Since the development of the Rapid Toilet Training (RTT) protocol, many have replicated the efficacy, most notably in educational and outpatient treatment settings, but often training over longer…

  2. Simulation of transport and chemical transformation of aircraft exhaust at the tropopause region: Box model studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petry, H.; Lippert, E.; Hendricks, J.; Ebel, A. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geophysik und Meteorologie

    1997-12-01

    Within the framework of the STRATFLUT project (Simulation of the transport and the chemical transformation of aircraft exhaust at the tropopause region) a chemistry mechanism for applications in the tropopause region was developed and continuously improved (CHEST/CHEST2). This mechanism has been applied in various sensitivity studies and to the evaluation of effective aircraft emission indices. In particular, an increase of ozone production due to airtraffic induced NO{sub x} emissions is found. This increase depends in a non-linear manner on the atmospheric background conditions into which the exhaust is released, on the altitude of release (absolute and relative to the tropopause), on the emission amount, on the daytime of release, on season and on aerosol loading. The effect of NO{sub x} released during one day by a fleet of 10 aircrafts into a box on ozone was found to vary between 0.05 ppbv and 2.3 ppbv (relative changes between approximately 0.02% and 6.57%) depending on the specific assumptions for the respective experiment. (orig.) 144 figs., 42 tabs., 497 refs.

  3. Inference of median difference based on the Box-Cox model in randomized clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruo, K; Isogawa, N; Gosho, M

    2015-05-10

    In randomized clinical trials, many medical and biological measurements are not normally distributed and are often skewed. The Box-Cox transformation is a powerful procedure for comparing two treatment groups for skewed continuous variables in terms of a statistical test. However, it is difficult to directly estimate and interpret the location difference between the two groups on the original scale of the measurement. We propose a helpful method that infers the difference of the treatment effect on the original scale in a more easily interpretable form. We also provide statistical analysis packages that consistently include an estimate of the treatment effect, covariance adjustments, standard errors, and statistical hypothesis tests. The simulation study that focuses on randomized parallel group clinical trials with two treatment groups indicates that the performance of the proposed method is equivalent to or better than that of the existing non-parametric approaches in terms of the type-I error rate and power. We illustrate our method with cluster of differentiation 4 data in an acquired immune deficiency syndrome clinical trial. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Adaptive model training system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickford, Randall L; Palnitkar, Rahul M; Lee, Vo

    2014-04-15

    An adaptive model training system and method for filtering asset operating data values acquired from a monitored asset for selectively choosing asset operating data values that meet at least one predefined criterion of good data quality while rejecting asset operating data values that fail to meet at least the one predefined criterion of good data quality; and recalibrating a previously trained or calibrated model having a learned scope of normal operation of the asset by utilizing the asset operating data values that meet at least the one predefined criterion of good data quality for adjusting the learned scope of normal operation of the asset for defining a recalibrated model having the adjusted learned scope of normal operation of the asset.

  5. Structure of the turbidity field in the Guadalquivir estuary: Analysis of observations and a box model approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez-Minguito, M.; Baquerizo, A.; de Swart, H. E.; Losada, M. A.

    2014-10-01

    A study is presented on the transport of suspended particulate matter (SPM) in the Guadalquivir estuary during low river flow conditions. Observations show that tidally induced SPM exceeds that associated with catchment-derived inputs. The main mechanisms that contribute to longitudinal transport are identified and quantified by analyzing the tidally averaged and depth-integrated SPM flux decomposition over time and space. The net transport is generally directed upstream, although differences in the direction between spring and neap tides are identified. The transport is largely controlled by the mean advection, the tidal pumping associated with the covariance between SPM concentration and current, and the tidal Stokes transport. The convergence of the transport associated to these mechanisms alone explains the presence of primary and secondary estuarine turbidity maxima. The tidal reflection at the upstream dam appears to play a significant role in their generation, as evidenced by the convergence zones of the M4 and M2 induced tidal pumping transports. The spatial structure of the transport motivates the development of a box model that describes the concentration of SPM and its exchange between different stretches along the estuary at subtidal time scales. The model is fed by the net SPM transport obtained from observations. Analysis of the morphodynamical state of the estuary using the box model indicates that erosion is dominant in the stretches close to the estuary mouth and that this sediment is transported upstream and deposited in the middle part of the estuary. This process is more influential during spring tides than during neap tides.

  6. Molecular envelope and atomic model of an anti-terminated glyQS T-box regulator in complex with tRNAGly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetnani, Bhaskar

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A T-box regulator or riboswitch actively monitors the levels of charged/uncharged tRNA and participates in amino acid homeostasis by regulating genes involved in their utilization or biosynthesis. It has an aptamer domain for cognate tRNA recognition and an expression platform to sense the charge state and modulate gene expression. These two conserved domains are connected by a variable linker that harbors additional secondary structural elements, such as Stem III. The structural basis for specific tRNA binding is known, but the structural basis for charge sensing and the role of other elements remains elusive. To gain new structural insights on the T-box mechanism, a molecular envelope was calculated from small angle X-ray scattering data for the Bacillus subtilis glyQS T-box riboswitch in complex with an uncharged tRNAGly. A structural model of an anti-terminated glyQS T-box in complex with its cognate tRNAGly was derived based on the molecular envelope. It shows the location and relative orientation of various secondary structural elements. The model was validated by comparing the envelopes of the wild-type complex and two variants. The structural model suggests that in addition to a possible regulatory role, Stem III could aid in preferential stabilization of the T-box anti-terminated state allowing read-through of regulated genes. PMID:28531275

  7. Spatial Reasoning Training Through Light Curves Of Model Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziffer, Julie; Nakroshis, Paul A.; Rudnick, Benjamin T.; Brautigam, Maxwell J.; Nelson, Tyler W.

    2015-11-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that spatial reasoning skills, long known to be crucial to math and science success, are teachable. Even short stints of training can improve spatial reasoning skills among students who lack them (Sorby et al., 2006). Teaching spatial reasoning is particularly valuable to women and minorities who, through societal pressure, often doubt their spatial reasoning skill (Hill et al., 2010). We have designed a hands on asteroid rotation lab that provides practice in spatial reasoning tasks while building the student’s understanding of photometry. For our tool, we mount a model asteroid, with any shape of our choosing, on a slowly rotating motor shaft, whose speed is controlled by the experimenter. To mimic an asteroid light curve, we place the model asteroid in a dark box, shine a movable light source upon our asteroid, and record the light reflected onto a moveable camera. Students may then observe changes in the light curve that result from varying a) the speed of rotation, b) the model asteroid’s orientation with respect to the motor axis, c) the model asteroid’s shape or albedo, and d) the phase angle. After practicing with our tool, students are asked to pair new objects to their corresponding light curves. To correctly pair objects to their light curves, students must imagine how light scattering off of a three dimensional rotating object is imaged on a ccd sensor plane, and then reduced to a series of points on a light curve plot. Through the use of our model asteroid, the student develops confidence in spatial reasoning skills.

  8. Box-modeling of the impacts of atmospheric nitrogen deposition and benthic remineralization on the nitrogen cycle of the eastern tropical South Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Su, B; M. Pahlow; Oschlies, A.

    2015-01-01

    Both atmospheric deposition and benthic remineralization influence the marine nitrogen cycle, and hence ultimately also marine primary production. The biological and biogeochemical relations of the eastern tropical South Pacific (ETSP) to nitrogen deposition, benthic denitrification and phosphate regeneration are analysed in a prognostic box model of the oxygen, nitrogen and phosphorus cycles in the ETSP. In the model, atmospheric nitrogen...

  9. Bayesian inference for multivariate meta-analysis Box-Cox transformation models for individual patient data with applications to evaluation of cholesterol-lowering drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungduk; Chen, Ming-Hui; Ibrahim, Joseph G; Shah, Arvind K; Lin, Jianxin

    2013-10-15

    In this paper, we propose a class of Box-Cox transformation regression models with multidimensional random effects for analyzing multivariate responses for individual patient data in meta-analysis. Our modeling formulation uses a multivariate normal response meta-analysis model with multivariate random effects, in which each response is allowed to have its own Box-Cox transformation. Prior distributions are specified for the Box-Cox transformation parameters as well as the regression coefficients in this complex model, and the deviance information criterion is used to select the best transformation model. Because the model is quite complex, we develop a novel Monte Carlo Markov chain sampling scheme to sample from the joint posterior of the parameters. This model is motivated by a very rich dataset comprising 26 clinical trials involving cholesterol-lowering drugs where the goal is to jointly model the three-dimensional response consisting of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides (TG) (LDL-C, HDL-C, TG). Because the joint distribution of (LDL-C, HDL-C, TG) is not multivariate normal and in fact quite skewed, a Box-Cox transformation is needed to achieve normality. In the clinical literature, these three variables are usually analyzed univariately; however, a multivariate approach would be more appropriate because these variables are correlated with each other. We carry out a detailed analysis of these data by using the proposed methodology. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Expectation Maximization Algorithm for Box-Cox Transformation Cure Rate Model and Assessment of Model Mis-specication under Weibull Lifetimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Suvra; Balakrishnan, N

    2017-05-16

    In this paper, we develop likelihood inference based on the expectation maximization (EM) algorithm for the Box- Cox transformation cure rate model assuming the lifetimes to follow a Weibull distribution. A simulation study is carried out to demonstrate the performance of the proposed estimation method. Through Monte Carlo simulations, we also study the effect of model mis-specification on the estimate of cure rate. Finally, we analyze a well-known data on melanoma with the model and the inferential method developed here.

  11. Modeling and optimization of trihalomethanes formation potential of surface water (a drinking water source) using Box-Behnken design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kunwar P; Rai, Premanjali; Pandey, Priyanka; Sinha, Sarita

    2012-01-01

    The present research aims to investigate the individual and interactive effects of chlorine dose/dissolved organic carbon ratio, pH, temperature, bromide concentration, and reaction time on trihalomethanes (THMs) formation in surface water (a drinking water source) during disinfection by chlorination in a prototype laboratory-scale simulation and to develop a model for the prediction and optimization of THMs levels in chlorinated water for their effective control. A five-factor Box-Behnken experimental design combined with response surface and optimization modeling was used for predicting the THMs levels in chlorinated water. The adequacy of the selected model and statistical significance of the regression coefficients, independent variables, and their interactions were tested by the analysis of variance and t test statistics. The THMs levels predicted by the model were very close to the experimental values (R(2) = 0.95). Optimization modeling predicted maximum (192 μg/l) TMHs formation (highest risk) level in water during chlorination was very close to the experimental value (186.8 ± 1.72 μg/l) determined in laboratory experiments. The pH of water followed by reaction time and temperature were the most significant factors that affect the THMs formation during chlorination. The developed model can be used to determine the optimum characteristics of raw water and chlorination conditions for maintaining the THMs levels within the safe limit.

  12. A Method for Systematic Improvement of Stochastic Grey-Box Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Rode; Madsen, Henrik; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2004-01-01

    A systematic framework for improving the quality of continuous time models of dynamic systems based on experimental data is presented. The framework is based on an interplay between stochastic differential equation modelling, statistical tests and nonparametric modelling and provides features...

  13. On looking into the Black Box: Prospects and Limits in the Search for Mental Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    in discussion of mental modelo is cue utilization. In order to predict future system states or explain the current state, two things nre neaded: 1...the knowledge gained during training will be called upon when unusual situations arise. One approach to enhancing this possibility is to provide...Transactions on Systems Man and Cybernetics, 1983, MC -13, 79-9-815. ’- . - 4. Bainbridge, L. Verbal reports as evidence of the process operator’s knowledge

  14. [A model for training in laryngeal exposure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotanda, Jun

    2005-07-01

    Laryngeal exposure, applying forward and upward force by laryngoscope after placement of the blade head at the vallecula, is most difficult for begginers to learn in tracheal intubation. It is not so easy to practice at home as the laryngoscope is shaped to lift the tongue upward only. Beginners must establish a proper image of moving the left hand for laryngeal exposure and must be trained in this technique prior to tracheal intubation of patients. Not only begginers but also veterans may struggle with intubating mannequins. The author made a simple model for training laryngeal exposure by Macintosh blade. It has two resembling parts of epiglottis with hyoepiglottic ligament and jaw. It is constructed so that the epiglottis-like part can be elevated only when force through the blade is applied in an correct direction upon it. In this model, beginner can move laryngoscope easily in many ways by his hand before achieving good laryngeal exposure.

  15. A clinical application of the training model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianotti, Patricia

    2010-03-01

    This article offers a perspective and a summary of Jack Danielian's (2010) Horneyan training model, highlighting the benefits of a meta-psychological approach for analysts in training and seasoned practitioners alike. To help illustrate the complexity of Karen Horney's views of character structure and character pathology, this article presents a model that reflects the dynamic tensions at play within individuals with narcissistic issues. It suggests that therapeutic listening can be tracked and that thematic material unfolds in a somewhat predictable, sequential, yet altogether systemic manner. Listening is not just art or intuition, nor is it merely interpretation of content based on a theoretical framework. It represents a way of holding the dialectic tension between conscious and unconscious, syntonic and dystonic. If we can better track these dynamic tensions, we can better anticipate and hopefully avoid clinical ruptures through the acting out of negative transference.

  16. Hydroxyl radicals in the tropical troposphere over the Suriname rainforest: comparison of measurements with the box model MECCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kubistin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available As a major source region of the hydroxyl radical OH, the Tropics largely control the oxidation capacity of the atmosphere on a global scale. However, emissions of hydrocarbons from the tropical rainforest that react rapidly with OH can potentially deplete the amount of OH and thereby reduce the oxidation capacity. The airborne GABRIEL field campaign in equatorial South America (Suriname in October 2005 investigated the influence of the tropical rainforest on the HOx budget (HOx = OH + HO2. The first observations of OH and HO2 over a tropical rainforest are compared to steady state concentrations calculated with the atmospheric chemistry box model MECCA. The important precursors and sinks for HOx chemistry, measured during the campaign, are used as constraining parameters for the simulation of OH and HO2. Significant underestimations of HOx are found by the model over land during the afternoon, with mean ratios of observation to model of 12.2 ± 3.5 and 4.1 ± 1.4 for OH and HO2, respectively. The discrepancy between measurements and simulation results is correlated to the abundance of isoprene. While for low isoprene mixing ratios (above ocean or at altitudes >3 km, observation and simulation agree fairly well, for mixing ratios >200 pptV (<3 km over the rainforest the model tends to underestimate the HOx observations as a function of isoprene.

    Box model simulations have been performed with the condensed chemical mechanism of MECCA and with the detailed isoprene reaction scheme of MCM, resulting in similar results for HOx concentrations. Simulations with constrained HO2 concentrations show that the conversion from HO2 to OH in the model is too low. However, by neglecting the isoprene chemistry in the model, observations and simulations agree much better. An OH source similar to the strength of the OH sink

  17. Scientific models red atoms, white lies and black boxes in a yellow book

    CERN Document Server

    Gerlee, Philip

    2016-01-01

    A zebrafish, the hull of a miniature ship, a mathematical equation and a food chain - what do these things have in common? They are examples of models used by scientists to isolate and study particular aspects of the world around us. This book begins by introducing the concept of a scientific model from an intuitive perspective, drawing parallels to mental models and artistic representations. It then recounts the history of modelling from the 16th century up until the present day. The iterative process of model building is described and discussed in the context of complex models with high predictive accuracy versus simpler models that provide more of a conceptual understanding. To illustrate the diversity of opinions within the scientific community, we also present the results of an interview study, in which ten scientists from different disciplines describe their views on modelling and how models feature in their work. Lastly, it includes a number of worked examples that span different modelling approaches a...

  18. A Training Model for Improving Journalists' Voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodero, Emma; Diaz-Rodriguez, Celia; Larrea, Olatz

    2017-06-06

    Voice education is a crucial aspect for professionals (journalists, teachers, politicians, actors, etc.) who use their voices as a working tool. The main concerns about such education are that, first, there is little awareness of the importance of voice education, and second there is little research devoted to it. The consequences of this lack of training are indeed visible in professionals who suffer voice pathologies or work with little effectiveness. This study seeks to overcome this deficiency by proposing a training model tested with a control group and a pilot study. Speech samples from a group of experimental participants-journalism students-were collected before and after a training course designed to improve their main vocal and prosodic features. These samples were contrasted with a control group without training. Results indicated significant differences in all tested voice elements (breathing, articulation, loudness, pitch, jitter, speech rate, pauses, and stress) except for shimmer and harmonics. The participants were able to enhance their main vocal and prosodic elements, and therefore their expressiveness maintaining optimal vocal hygiene. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Determination of sample size for higher volatile data using new framework of Box-Jenkins model with GARCH: A case study on gold price

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslindar Yaziz, Siti; Zakaria, Roslinazairimah; Hura Ahmad, Maizah

    2017-09-01

    The model of Box-Jenkins - GARCH has been shown to be a promising tool for forecasting higher volatile time series. In this study, the framework of determining the optimal sample size using Box-Jenkins model with GARCH is proposed for practical application in analysing and forecasting higher volatile data. The proposed framework is employed to daily world gold price series from year 1971 to 2013. The data is divided into 12 different sample sizes (from 30 to 10200). Each sample is tested using different combination of the hybrid Box-Jenkins - GARCH model. Our study shows that the optimal sample size to forecast gold price using the framework of the hybrid model is 1250 data of 5-year sample. Hence, the empirical results of model selection criteria and 1-step-ahead forecasting evaluations suggest that the latest 12.25% (5-year data) of 10200 data is sufficient enough to be employed in the model of Box-Jenkins - GARCH with similar forecasting performance as by using 41-year data.

  20. Simulating atmospheric composition over a South-East Asian tropical rainforest: performance of a chemistry box model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. M. Pugh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric composition and chemistry above tropical rainforests is currently not well established, particularly for south-east Asia. In order to examine our understanding of chemical processes in this region, the performance of a box model of atmospheric boundary layer chemistry is tested against measurements made at the top of the rainforest canopy near Danum Valley, Malaysian Borneo. Multi-variate optimisation against ambient concentration measurements was used to estimate average canopy-scale emissions for isoprene, total monoterpenes and nitric oxide. The excellent agreement between estimated values and measured fluxes of isoprene and total monoterpenes provides confidence in the overall modelling strategy, and suggests that this method may be applied where measured fluxes are not available, assuming that the local chemistry and mixing are adequately understood. The largest contributors to the optimisation cost function at the point of best-fit are OH (29%, NO (22% and total peroxy radicals (27%. Several factors affect the modelled VOC chemistry. In particular concentrations of methacrolein (MACR and methyl-vinyl ketone (MVK are substantially overestimated, and the hydroxyl radical (OH concentration is substantially underestimated; as has been seen before in tropical rainforest studies. It is shown that inclusion of dry deposition of MACR and MVK and wet deposition of species with high Henry's Law values substantially improves the fit of these oxidised species, whilst also substantially decreasing the OH sink. Increasing OH production arbitrarily, through a simple OH recycling mechanism , adversely affects the model fit for volatile organic compounds (VOCs. Given the constraints on isoprene flux provided by measurements, a substantial decrease in the rate of reaction of VOCs with OH is the only remaining option to explain the measurement/model discrepancy for OH. A reduction in the isoprene+OH rate constant of 50%, in conjunction with

  1. Simulating atmospheric composition over a South-East Asian tropical rainforest: performance of a chemistry box model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, T. A. M.; MacKenzie, A. R.; Hewitt, C. N.; Langford, B.; Edwards, P. M.; Furneaux, K. L.; Heard, D. E.; Hopkins, J. R.; Jones, C. E.; Karunaharan, A.; Lee, J.; Mills, G.; Misztal, P.; Moller, S.; Monks, P. S.; Whalley, L. K.

    2010-01-01

    Atmospheric composition and chemistry above tropical rainforests is currently not well established, particularly for south-east Asia. In order to examine our understanding of chemical processes in this region, the performance of a box model of atmospheric boundary layer chemistry is tested against measurements made at the top of the rainforest canopy near Danum Valley, Malaysian Borneo. Multi-variate optimisation against ambient concentration measurements was used to estimate average canopy-scale emissions for isoprene, total monoterpenes and nitric oxide. The excellent agreement between estimated values and measured fluxes of isoprene and total monoterpenes provides confidence in the overall modelling strategy, and suggests that this method may be applied where measured fluxes are not available, assuming that the local chemistry and mixing are adequately understood. The largest contributors to the optimisation cost function at the point of best-fit are OH (29%), NO (22%) and total peroxy radicals (27%). Several factors affect the modelled VOC chemistry. In particular concentrations of methacrolein (MACR) and methyl-vinyl ketone (MVK) are substantially overestimated, and the hydroxyl radical (OH) concentration is substantially underestimated; as has been seen before in tropical rainforest studies. It is shown that inclusion of dry deposition of MACR and MVK and wet deposition of species with high Henry's Law values substantially improves the fit of these oxidised species, whilst also substantially decreasing the OH sink. Increasing OH production arbitrarily, through a simple OH recycling mechanism , adversely affects the model fit for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Given the constraints on isoprene flux provided by measurements, a substantial decrease in the rate of reaction of VOCs with OH is the only remaining option to explain the measurement/model discrepancy for OH. A reduction in the isoprene+OH rate constant of 50%, in conjunction with increased

  2. Teacher Training Models for a New South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachelhoffer, P. M.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses social change and educational realities in South Africa, noting the relatively poor qualifications of black teachers. The paper also examines South African teacher training models and presents teacher training models suitable for developing countries. (SM)

  3. Smooth centile curves for skew and kurtotic data modelled using the Box-Cox power exponential distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Robert A; Stasinopoulos, D Mikis

    2004-10-15

    The Box-Cox power exponential (BCPE) distribution, developed in this paper, provides a model for a dependent variable Y exhibiting both skewness and kurtosis (leptokurtosis or platykurtosis). The distribution is defined by a power transformation Y(nu) having a shifted and scaled (truncated) standard power exponential distribution with parameter tau. The distribution has four parameters and is denoted BCPE (mu,sigma,nu,tau). The parameters, mu, sigma, nu and tau, may be interpreted as relating to location (median), scale (approximate coefficient of variation), skewness (transformation to symmetry) and kurtosis (power exponential parameter), respectively. Smooth centile curves are obtained by modelling each of the four parameters of the distribution as a smooth non-parametric function of an explanatory variable. A Fisher scoring algorithm is used to fit the non-parametric model by maximizing a penalized likelihood. The first and expected second and cross derivatives of the likelihood, with respect to mu, sigma, nu and tau, required for the algorithm, are provided. The centiles of the BCPE distribution are easy to calculate, so it is highly suited to centile estimation. This application of the BCPE distribution to smooth centile estimation provides a generalization of the LMS method of the centile estimation to data exhibiting kurtosis (as well as skewness) different from that of a normal distribution and is named here the LMSP method of centile estimation. The LMSP method of centile estimation is applied to modelling the body mass index of Dutch males against age. 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Model of the Ankyrin and SOCS Box Protein, ASB9, E3 Ligase Reveals a Mechanism for Dynamic Ubiquitin Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, Jamie M; Malmstrom, Robert D; Parnell, Jonathan; Ramirez-Sarmiento, Cesar; Reyes, Javiera; Amaro, Rommie E; Komives, Elizabeth A

    2016-08-02

    Cullin-RING E3 ligases (CRLs) are elongated and bowed protein complexes that transfer ubiquitin over 60 Å to proteins targeted for proteasome degradation. One such CRL contains the ankyrin repeat and SOCS box protein 9 (ASB9), which binds to and partially inhibits creatine kinase (CK). While current models for the ASB9-CK complex contain some known interface residues, the overall structure and precise interface of the ASB9-CK complex remains unknown. Through an integrative modeling approach, we report a third-generation model that reveals precisely the interface interactions and also fits the shape of the ASB9-CK complex as determined by small-angle X-ray scattering. We constructed an atomic model for the entire CK-targeting CRL to uncover dominant modes of motion that could permit ubiquitin transfer. Remarkably, only the correctly docked CK-containing E3 ligase and not incorrectly docked structures permitted close approach of ubiquitin to the CK substrate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cyclin-like F-box protein plays a role in growth and development of the three model species Medicago truncatula, Lotus japonicus, and Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boycheva I

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Irina Boycheva,1 Valya Vassileva,2 Miglena Revalska,1 Grigor Zehirov,2 Anelia Iantcheva1 1Department of Functional Genetics Legumes, 2AgroBioInstitute, Department of Plant Stress Molecular Biology, Institute of Plant Physiology and Genetics, Sofia, Bulgaria Abstract: In eukaryotes, F-box proteins are one of the main components of the SCF complex that belongs to the family of ubiquitin E3 ligases, which catalyze protein ubiquitination and maintain the balance between protein synthesis and degradation. In the present study, we clarified the role and function of the gene encoding cyclin-like F-box protein from Medicago truncatula using transgenic plants of the model species M. truncatula, Lotus japonicas, and Arabidopsis thaliana generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Morphological and transcriptional analyses combined with flow cytometry and histochemistry demonstrated the participation of this protein in many aspects of plant growth and development, including processes of indirect somatic embryogenesis and symbiotic nodulation. The cyclin-like F-box gene showed expression in all plant organs and tissues comprised of actively dividing cells. The observed variations in root and hypocotyl growth, leaf and silique development, ploidy levels, and leaf parameters in the obtained transgenic lines demonstrated the effects of this gene on organ development. Furthermore, knockdown of cyclin-like F-box led to accumulation of higher levels of the G2/M transition-specific gene cyclin B1:1 (CYCB1:1, suggesting its possible role in cell cycle control. Together, the collected data suggest a similar role of the cyclin-like F-box protein in the three model species, providing evidence for the functional conservation of the studied gene. Keywords: cyclin-like F-box, model legumes, Arabidopsis thaliana, plant growth, plant development, cell cycle

  6. A sustainable model for training teachers to use pivotal response training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhrheinrich, Jessica

    2015-08-01

    The increase in the rate of autism diagnoses has created a growing demand for teachers who are trained to use effective interventions. The train-the-trainer model, which involves training supervisors to train others, may be ideal for providing cost-effective training and ongoing support to teachers. Although research supports interventions, such as pivotal response training, as evidence-based, dissemination to school environments has been problematic. This study assessed the benefits of using the train-the-trainer model to disseminate pivotal response training to school settings. A multiple-baseline design was conducted across three training groups, each consisting of one school staff member (trainer), three special education teachers, and six students. Trainers conducted the teacher-training workshop with high adherence to training protocol and met mastery criteria in their ability to implement pivotal response training, assess implementation of pivotal response training, and provide feedback to teachers. Six of the nine teachers mastered all components of pivotal response training. The remaining three teachers implemented 89% of the pivotal response training components correctly. The majority of trainers and teachers maintained their abilities at follow-up. These results support the use of the train-the-trainer model as an effective method of disseminating evidence-based practices in school settings. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Modeling signal integrity in electro-optical systems: 'gray box' models and appropriate test and simulation tools can help designers predict the performance of electro-optic devices, including modulators and amplifiers. (Modeling for Equipment Design)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meyer, Jeff

    2002-01-01

    ... technique for modeling is known as "gray box" modeling, which is the process for deriving a model where something is known about the basic internal topology of the component but there are no detailed component values. In the case of optical modulators and modulator driver amplifiers, we have a basic understanding of the internal topology but no ...

  8. The relationships between internal and external training load models during basketball training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, Aaron T; Wen, Neal; Tucker, Patrick S; Dalbo, Vincent J

    2014-09-01

    The present investigation described and compared the internal and external training loads during basketball training. Eight semiprofessional male basketball players (mean ± SD, age: 26.3 ± 6.7 years; stature: 188.1 ± 6.2 cm; body mass: 92.0 ± 13.8 kg) were monitored across a 7-week period during the preparatory phase of the annual training plan. A total of 44 total sessions were monitored. Player session ratings of perceived exertion (sRPE), heart rate, and accelerometer data were collected across each training session. Internal training load was determined using the sRPE, training impulse (TRIMP), and summated-heart-rate-zones (SHRZ) training load models. External training load was calculated using an established accelerometer algorithm. Pearson product-moment correlations with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to determine the relationships between internal and external training load models. Significant moderate relationships were observed between external training load and the sRPE (r42 = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.23-0.69, p training load and the SHRZ model (r42 = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.38-0.77, p training load models, the magnitude of the correlations and low commonality suggest that internal training load models measure different constructs of the training process than the accelerometer training load model in basketball settings. Basketball coaching and conditioning professionals should not assume a linear dose-response between accelerometer and internal training load models during training and are recommended to combine internal and external approaches when monitoring training load in players.

  9. Evaluation of ''user-oriented'' and ''black-box'' traffic models for link provisioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Meent, R.; Mandjes, M.R.H.

    To offer users a sufficient performance level, network links should be properly provisioned. The required bandwidth capacity may be determined through the use of a model of the real network traffic. In this paper, we study the use of two classes of traffic models: (i) ‘user-oriented models’, which

  10. Black Box Model of Integrated Circuits for ESD Behavioral Simulation and Industrial Application Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Lafon

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to design electronic products for Electro Static Discharges constraints, the use of simulation is fundamental. This is the only solution to justify the design and to manage properly the margin during the development. In order to do so, models are required and especially for the integrated circuits (IC. A Pspice model had been developed and validated for ESD performance prediction of IC implemented inside an electronic product. Nevertheless, the practical implementation of these modeling techniques for IC induced some issues, especially under Pspice, being the targeted tool for our simulation. Divergences issues during time domain simulation were frequently observed and sometimes irresolvable with model previously proposed. We propose in this article new implementation techniques in Pspice. A practical example is used to demonstrate the capability of our model.

  11. NASA's Climate in a Box: Desktop Supercomputing for Open Scientific Model Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik, G. S.; Seablom, M. S.; Lee, T. J.; McConaughy, G. R.; Syed, R.; Oloso, A.; Kemp, E. M.; Greenseid, J.; Smith, R.

    2009-12-01

    NASA's High Performance Computing Portfolio in cooperation with its Modeling, Analysis, and Prediction program intends to make its climate and earth science models more accessible to a larger community. A key goal of this effort is to open the model development and validation process to the scientific community at large such that a natural selection process is enabled and results in a more efficient scientific process. One obstacle to others using NASA models is the complexity of the models and the difficulty in learning how to use them. This situation applies not only to scientists who regularly use these models but also non-typical users who may want to use the models such as scientists from different domains, policy makers, and teachers. Another obstacle to the use of these models is that access to high performance computing (HPC) accounts, from which the models are implemented, can be restrictive with long wait times in job queues and delays caused by an arduous process of obtaining an account, especially for foreign nationals. This project explores the utility of using desktop supercomputers in providing a complete ready-to-use toolkit of climate research products to investigators and on demand access to an HPC system. One objective of this work is to pre-package NASA and NOAA models so that new users will not have to spend significant time porting the models. In addition, the prepackaged toolkit will include tools, such as workflow, visualization, social networking web sites, and analysis tools, to assist users in running the models and analyzing the data. The system architecture to be developed will allow for automatic code updates for each user and an effective means with which to deal with data that are generated. We plan to investigate several desktop systems, but our work to date has focused on a Cray CX1. Currently, we are investigating the potential capabilities of several non-traditional development environments. While most NASA and NOAA models are

  12. [Application of the musculo-skeletal modelling software lhpFusionBox to a paleoanthropological problem: the Spyrou Neandertal moves!].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Tara; Semal, Patrick; Moiseev, Fedor; Louryan, Stéphane; Rooze, Marcel; Van Sint Jan, Serge

    2013-01-01

    LhpFusionBox is a program originally designed for biomechanical and clinical studies relating to the musculoskeletal system of anatomically modern humans (AMH). The program has recently been adapted for paleontological purposes and used to reconstruct and biomechanically analyse a fossil hominid. There is no complete Neandertal skeleton in the fossil record. The aim of the study was to reconstruct a complete three-dimensional (3D) model of a Neandertal using the relatively complete Spy II Neandertal and to conduct biomechanical feasibility studies on the knee and hamstring moment arms of the skeleton. Different Neandertal specimens were scaled to the size of Spy II to replace incomplete or missing bones. Biomechanical feasibility studies performed on the knee seem to show that Neandertal and AMHh gait is similar and Neandertals were shown to have larger moment arms in the hamstring muscles, which would have given them a mechanical advantage. The complete Neandertal was printed in 3D and used as the base to create the artistic model of "Spyrou" housed at l'Espace de l'Homme de Spy (EHoS) museum. © 2013 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  13. Flexible mixture modeling via the multivariate t distribution with the Box-Cox transformation: an alternative to the skew-t distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Kenneth; Gottardo, Raphael

    2012-01-01

    Cluster analysis is the automated search for groups of homogeneous observations in a data set. A popular modeling approach for clustering is based on finite normal mixture models, which assume that each cluster is modeled as a multivariate normal distribution. However, the normality assumption that each component is symmetric is often unrealistic. Furthermore, normal mixture models are not robust against outliers; they often require extra components for modeling outliers and/or give a poor representation of the data. To address these issues, we propose a new class of distributions, multivariate t distributions with the Box-Cox transformation, for mixture modeling. This class of distributions generalizes the normal distribution with the more heavy-tailed t distribution, and introduces skewness via the Box-Cox transformation. As a result, this provides a unified framework to simultaneously handle outlier identification and data transformation, two interrelated issues. We describe an Expectation-Maximization algorithm for parameter estimation along with transformation selection. We demonstrate the proposed methodology with three real data sets and simulation studies. Compared with a wealth of approaches including the skew-t mixture model, the proposed t mixture model with the Box-Cox transformation performs favorably in terms of accuracy in the assignment of observations, robustness against model misspecification, and selection of the number of components.

  14. Robotic Assistance for Training Finger Movement Using a Hebbian Model: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Justin B; Chan, Vicky; Ingemanson, Morgan L; Cramer, Steven C; Wolbrecht, Eric T; Reinkensmeyer, David J

    2017-08-01

    Robots that physically assist movement are increasingly used in rehabilitation therapy after stroke, yet some studies suggest robotic assistance discourages effort and reduces motor learning. To determine the therapeutic effects of high and low levels of robotic assistance during finger training. We designed a protocol that varied the amount of robotic assistance while controlling the number, amplitude, and exerted effort of training movements. Participants (n = 30) with a chronic stroke and moderate hemiparesis (average Box and Blocks Test 32 ± 18 and upper extremity Fugl-Meyer score 46 ± 12) actively moved their index and middle fingers to targets to play a musical game similar to GuitarHero 3 h/wk for 3 weeks. The participants were randomized to receive high assistance (causing 82% success at hitting targets) or low assistance (55% success). Participants performed ~8000 movements during 9 training sessions. Both groups improved significantly at the 1-month follow-up on functional and impairment-based motor outcomes, on depression scores, and on self-efficacy of hand function, with no difference between groups in the primary endpoint (change in Box and Blocks). High assistance boosted motivation, as well as secondary motor outcomes (Fugl-Meyer and Lateral Pinch Strength)-particularly for individuals with more severe finger motor deficits. Individuals with impaired finger proprioception at baseline benefited less from the training. Robot-assisted training can promote key psychological outcomes known to modulate motor learning and retention. Furthermore, the therapeutic effectiveness of robotic assistance appears to derive at least in part from proprioceptive stimulation, consistent with a Hebbian plasticity model.

  15. Opening the Black Box: Using a Hydrological Model to Link Stakeholder Engagement with Groundwater Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Eden

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Stakeholder participation is a foundation of good water governance. Good groundwater governance typically involves the co-production of knowledge about the groundwater system. Models provide a vehicle for producing this knowledge, as well as a “boundary object” around which scientists and stakeholders can convene the co-production process. Through co-production, stakeholders and scientific experts can engage in exchanges that create system knowledge not otherwise achievable. The process involves one-way transfer of information, active two-way conversations, and integration of multiple kinds of knowledge into shared understanding. In the Upper Santa Cruz River basin in Arizona, USA, the University of Arizona Water Resources Research Center (WRRC convened a project aimed at providing scientific underpinnings for groundwater planning and management. This project, entitled Groundwater, Climate, and Stakeholder Engagement, serves as a case study employing the first two stages of knowledge co-production using a hydrological model. Through an iterative process that included two-way communication, stakeholders provided critical input to hydrologic modeling analyses. Acting as a bridging organization, the WRRC facilitated a co-production process, involving location-specific and transferability workshops, which resulted in new knowledge and capacity for applying the model to novel problems.

  16. Opening the Black Box of Clinical Collaboration in Integrated Care Models for Frail, Elderly Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Stampa, Matthieu; Vedel, Isabelle; Bergman, Howard; Novella, Jean-Luc; Lechowski, Laurent; Ankri, Joel; Lapointe, Liette

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to understand better the clinical collaboration process among primary care physicians (PCPs), case managers (CMs), and geriatricians in integrated models of care. Methods: We conducted a qualitative study with semistructured interviews. A purposive sample of 35 PCPs, 7 CMs, and 4 geriatricians was selected in…

  17. Developing grey-box model to diagnose asphaltene stability in crude oils: Application of refractive index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Zeinali Hasanvand

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Asphaltene precipitation can cause serious problems in petroleum industry while diagnosing the asphaltene stability conditions in crude oil system is still a challenge and has been subject of many investigations. To monitor and diagnose asphaltene stability, high performance intelligent approaches based bio-inspired science like artificial neural network which have been optimized by various optimization techniques have been carried out. The main purpose of the implemented optimization algorithms is to decide high accurate interconnected weights of proposed neural network model. The proposed intelligent approaches are examined by using extensive experimental data reported in open literature. Moreover, to highlight robustness and precision of the addressed approaches, two different regression models have been developed and results obtained from the aforementioned intelligent models and regression approaches are compared with the corresponding refractive index data measured in laboratory. Based on the results, hybrid of genetic algorithm and particle swarm optimization have high performance and average relative absolute deviation between the model outputs and the relevant experimental data was found to be less than 0.2%. Routs from this work indicate that implication of HGAPSO-ANN in monitoring refractive index can lead to more reliable estimation of addressed issue which can lead to design of more reliable phase behavior simulation and further plans of oil production.

  18. Opening the black box of energy modelling: Strategies and lessons learned

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfenninger, Stefan; Hirth, Lion; Schlecht, Ingmar

    2018-01-01

    are of particular importance. Here we provide a practical how-to guide based on the collective experience of members of the Open Energy Modelling Initiative (Openmod). We discuss key steps to consider when opening code and data, including determining intellectual property ownership, choosing a licence...

  19. Evaluation of a Lagrangian box model using field measurements from EASE (Eastern Atlantic Summer Experiment) 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, M. J.; Shallcross, D. E.; Law, K. S.; Wild, J. O. F.; Simmonds, P. G.; Spain, T. G.; Berrisford, P.; Methven, J.; Lewis, A. C.; McQuaid, J. B.; Pilling, M. J.; Bandy, B. J.; Penkett, S. A.; Pyle, J. A.

    The Cambridge Tropospheric Trajectory model of Chemistry and Transport (CiTTyCAT), a Lagrangian chemistry model, has been evaluated using atmospheric chemical measurements collected during the East Atlantic Summer Experiment 1996 (EASE '96). This field campaign was part of the UK Natural Environment Research Council's (NERC) Atmospheric Chemistry Studies in the Oceanic Environment (ACSOE) programme, conducted at Mace Head, Republic of Ireland, during July and August 1996. The model includes a description of gas-phase tropospheric chemistry, and simple parameterisations for surface deposition, mixing from the free troposphere and emissions. The model generally compares well with the measurements and is used to study the production and loss of O 3 under a variety of conditions. The mean difference between the hourly O 3 concentrations calculated by the model and those measured is 0.6 ppbv with a standard deviation of 8.7 ppbv. Three specific air-flow regimes were identified during the campaign - westerly, anticyclonic (easterly) and south westerly. The westerly flow is typical of background conditions for Mace Head. However, on some occasions there was evidence of long-range transport of pollutants from North America. In periods of anticyclonic flow, air parcels had collected emissions of NO x and VOCs immediately before arriving at Mace Head, leading to O 3 production. The level of calculated O 3 depends critically on the precise details of the trajectory, and hence on the emissions into the air parcel. In several periods of south westerly flow, low concentrations of O 3 were measured which were consistent with deposition and photochemical destruction inside the tropical marine boundary layer.

  20. Numerical Weather Prediction Models on Linux Boxes as tools in meteorological education in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyongyosi, A. Z.; Andre, K.; Salavec, P.; Horanyi, A.; Szepszo, G.; Mille, M.; Tasnadi, P.; Weidiger, T.

    2012-04-01

    Education of Meteorologist in Hungary - according to the Bologna Process - has three stages: BSc, MSc and PhD, and students graduating at each stage get the respective degree (BSc, MSc and PhD). The three year long base BSc course in Meteorology can be chosen by undergraduate students in the fields of Geosciences, Environmental Sciences and Physics. BasicsFundamentals in Mathematics (Calculus), Physics (General and Theoretical) Physics and Informatics are emphasized during their elementary education. The two year long MSc course - in which about 15 to 25 students are admitted each year - can be studied only at our the Eötvös Loránd uUniversity in the our country. Our aim is to give a basic education in all fields of Meteorology. Main topics are: Climatology, Atmospheric Physics, Atmospheric Chemistry, Dynamic and Synoptic Meteorology, Numerical Weather Prediction, modeling Modeling of surfaceSurface-atmosphere Iinteractions and Cclimate change. Education is performed in two branches: Climate Researcher and Forecaster. Education of Meteorologist in Hungary - according to the Bologna Process - has three stages: BSc, MSc and PhD, and students graduating at each stage get the respective degree. The three year long BSc course in Meteorology can be chosen by undergraduate students in the fields of Geosciences, Environmental Sciences and Physics. Fundamentals in Mathematics (Calculus), (General and Theoretical) Physics and Informatics are emphasized during their elementary education. The two year long MSc course - in which about 15 to 25 students are admitted each year - can be studied only at the Eötvös Loránd University in our country. Our aim is to give a basic education in all fields of Meteorology: Climatology, Atmospheric Physics, Atmospheric Chemistry, Dynamic and Synoptic Meteorology, Numerical Weather Prediction, Modeling of Surface-atmosphere Interactions and Climate change. Education is performed in two branches: Climate Researcher and Forecaster

  1. An overview of the Zhejiang Model of Teacher Training

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Dan-Dan; Gao, Yabing; Wang, Chao

    2012-01-01

    The quality of teacher training directly affects the quality of primary and secondary school teachers’ professional development and indirectly affects the quality of primary and secondary school education. With an interest in teacher development, this paper presents an overview of the Zhejiang model of teacher training, with specific reference to the training of Chinese language teachers. This paper analyses the guidance of government’s teacher training policy, the design of training programm...

  2. Identifying competencies of boxing coaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Tasiopoulos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to find out the management skills required by boxing coaches to administrate their clubs. For the purposes of this study a scale was constructed which was answered by 98 boxing coaches. Explanatory factor analysis revealed seven factors: Communication-public relations (5 items, event management (4 items, management techniques (4 items, new technologies (4 items, prevention-safety (2 items, sport (5 items and sports facilities (2 items. The Cronbach of the scale was 0.85. The five competencies that rated by the coaches were: Supervisors of the area of training, maintaining excellent communication with athletes, using new technologies (e-mail, internet, handling disciplinary matters, accidents, complaints and reports on some sporting games and promoted harmony among athletes. We concluded that boxing coaches understand that the competencies required for meeting their obligations, were related to sports, prevention, safety and communications-public relations.

  3. Discriminative training of self-structuring hidden control neural models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Helge Bjarup Dissing; Hartmann, Uwe; Hunnerup, Preben

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a new training algorithm for self-structuring hidden control neural (SHC) models. The SHC models were trained non-discriminatively for speech recognition applications. Better recognition performance can generally be achieved, if discriminative training is applied instead. Thus...

  4. Recursive black-box identification of nonlinear state-space ODE models

    OpenAIRE

    Brus, Linda

    2006-01-01

    Nonlinear system identification methods is a topic that has been gaining interest over the last years. One reason is the many application areas in controller design and system development. However, the problem of modeling nonlinear systems is complex and finding a general method that can be used for many different applications is difficult. This thesis treats recursive identification methods for identification of systems that can be described by nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The ...

  5. Weight Control of Sports Training Chaos Predicting Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yanping Tang; Guanghui Li

    2014-01-01

    As the sports training predicting model based on chaos local predicting method still has the low predicting accuracy and the slow function speed problems, this paper proposes a sports training chaos...

  6. Development of a Generic Didactic Model for Simulator Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Emmerik, M

    1997-01-01

    .... The development of such a model is motivated by the need to control training and instruction factors in research on simulator fidelity, the need to assess the benefit of training simulators, e.g...

  7. Analysis of a genetically structured variance heterogeneity model using the Box-Cox transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Ye; Christensen, Ole Fredslund; Sorensen, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    of the marginal distribution of the data. To investigate how the scale of measurement affects inferences, the genetically structured heterogeneous variance model is extended to accommodate the family of Box–Cox transformations. Litter size data in rabbits and pigs that had previously been analysed...... in the untransformed scale were reanalysed in a scale equal to the mode of the marginal posterior distribution of the Box–Cox parameter. In the rabbit data, the statistical evidence for a genetic component at the level of the environmental variance is considerably weaker than that resulting from an analysis...

  8. Surface O3 photochemistry over the South China Sea: Application of a near-explicit chemical mechanism box model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Guo, Hai; Zou, Shichun; Lyu, Xiaopu; Ling, Zhenhao; Cheng, Hairong; Zeren, Yangzong

    2017-11-22

    A systematic field measurement was conducted at an island site (Wanshan Island, WSI) over the South China Sea (SCS) in autumn 2013. It was observed that mixing ratios of O3 and its precursors (such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) and carbon monoxide (CO)) showed significant differences on non-episode days and episode days. Additional knowledge was gained when a photochemical box model incorporating the Master Chemical Mechanism (PBM-MCM) was applied to further investigate the differences/similarities of O3 photochemistry between non-episode and episode days, in terms of O3-precursor relationship, atmospheric photochemical reactivity and O3 production. The simulation results revealed that, from non-O3 episode days to episode days, 1) O3 production changed from both VOC and NOx-limited (transition regime) to VOC-limited; 2) OH radicals increased and photochemical reaction cycling processes accelerated; and 3) both O3 production and destruction rates increased significantly, resulting in an elevated net O3 production over the SCS. The findings indicate the complexity of O3 pollution over the SCS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Y-Box Binding Protein 1 Suppresses Alzheimer’s Disease Progression in Two Animal Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobkova, N. V.; Lyabin, D. N.; Medvinskaya, N. I.; Samokhin, A. N.; Nekrasov, P. V.; Nesterova, I. V.; Aleksandrova, I. Y.; Tatarnikova, O. G.; Bobylev, A. G.; Vikhlyantsev, I. M.; Kukharsky, M. S.; Ustyugov, A. A.; Polyakov, D. N.; Eliseeva, I. A.; Kretov, D. A.; Guryanov, S. G.; Ovchinnikov, L. P.

    2015-01-01

    The Y-box binding protein 1 (YB-1) is a member of the family of DNA- and RNA binding proteins. It is involved in a wide variety of DNA/RNA-dependent events including cell proliferation and differentiation, stress response, and malignant cell transformation. Previously, YB-1 was detected in neurons of the neocortex and hippocampus, but its precise role in the brain remains undefined. Here we show that subchronic intranasal injections of recombinant YB-1, as well as its fragment YB-11−219, suppress impairment of spatial memory in olfactory bulbectomized (OBX) mice with Alzheimer’s type degeneration and improve learning in transgenic 5XFAD mice used as a model of cerebral amyloidosis. YB-1-treated OBX and 5XFAD mice showed a decreased level of brain β-amyloid. In OBX animals, an improved morphological state of neurons was revealed in the neocortex and hippocampus; in 5XFAD mice, a delay in amyloid plaque progression was observed. Intranasally administered YB-1 penetrated into the brain and could enter neurons. In vitro co-incubation of YB-1 with monomeric β-amyloid (1–42) inhibited formation of β-amyloid fibrils, as confirmed by electron microscopy. This suggests that YB-1 interaction with β-amyloid prevents formation of filaments that are responsible for neurotoxicity and neuronal death. Our data are the first evidence for a potential therapeutic benefit of YB-1 for treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:26394155

  10. Response surface modeling of boron adsorption from aqueous solution by vermiculite using different adsorption agents: Box-Behnken experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirçivi, Pelin; Saygılı, Gülhayat Nasün

    2017-07-01

    In this study, a different method was applied for boron removal by using vermiculite as the adsorbent. Vermiculite, which was used in the experiments, was not modified with adsorption agents before boron adsorption using a separate process. Hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HDTMA) and Gallic acid (GA) were used as adsorption agents for vermiculite by maintaining the solid/liquid ratio at 12.5 g/L. HDTMA/GA concentration, contact time, pH, initial boron concentration, inert electrolyte and temperature effects on boron adsorption were analyzed. A three-factor, three-level Box-Behnken design model combined with response surface method (RSM) was employed to examine and optimize process variables for boron adsorption from aqueous solution by vermiculite using HDTMA and GA. Solution pH (2-12), temperature (25-60 °C) and initial boron concentration (50-8,000 mg/L) were chosen as independent variables and coded x1, x2 and x3 at three levels (-1, 0 and 1). Analysis of variance was used to test the significance of variables and their interactions with 95% confidence limit (α = 0.05). According to the regression coefficients, a second-order empirical equation was evaluated between the adsorption capacity (qi) and the coded variables tested (xi). Optimum values of the variables were also evaluated for maximum boron adsorption by vermiculite-HDTMA (HDTMA-Verm) and vermiculite-GA (GA-Verm).

  11. The effect of plasma actuator on the depreciation of the aerodynamic drag on box model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harinaldi, Budiarso, Julian, James; Rabbani M., N.

    2016-06-01

    Recent active control research advances have provided many benefits some of which in the field of transportation by land, sea as well as by air. Flow engineering by using active control has proven advantages in energy saving significantly. One of the active control equipment that is being developed, especially in the 21st century, is a plasma actuator, with the ability to modify the flow of fluid by the approach of ion particles makes these actuators a very powerful and promising tool. This actuator can be said to be better to the previously active control such as suction, blowing and synthetic jets because it is easier to control, more flexible because it has no moving parts, easy to be manufactured and installed, and consumes a small amount of energy with maximum capability. Plasma actuator itself is the composition of a material composed of copper and a dielectric sheet, where the copper sheets act as an electricity conductor and the dielectric sheet as electricity insulator. Products from the plasma actuators are ion wind which is the result of the suction of free air around the actuator to the plasma zone. This study investigates the ability of plasma actuators in lowering aerodynamic drag which is commonly formed in the models of vehicles by varying the shape of geometry models and the flow speed.

  12. Stochastic acceleration of cometary pickup ions - The classic leaky box model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, D. D.

    1989-01-01

    The acceleration of cometary pickup ions by magnetohydrodynamic waves at P/Giacobini-Zinner is examined in a model where acceleration predominantly occurs downstream of the bow shock throughout the cometosheath where intense magnetic turbulence exists. The mean free path for scattering by the magnetic fluctuations in this region is less than the characteristic dimension of the cometosheath so that pickup ions are rendered isotropic and energized by a modest amount in the process. This principal loss mechanism for the ions is spatial diffusion out of the acceleration region moderated by the self-same accelerating waves. This particular feature constrains the model in a way that the predicted ion spectrum is uniquely determined by the power spectrum of the magnetic turbulence. At both P/Giacobini-Zinner and P/Halley, the turbulence is non-Kolmogoroff with a spectral index of 2 resulting in an ion spectral behavior that is approximately an exponential in ion speed, consistent with a recent analysis of the Giacobini-Zinner data (see Richardson et al.).

  13. Training or search? evidence and an equilibrium model

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Nie

    2010-01-01

    Training programs are a major tool of labor market policies in OECD countries. I use a unique panel data set on the labor market experience of individual German workers between 2000 and 2002 to estimate a dynamic model of search and training, which allows me to quantify the impact of training programs and unemployment benefits on employment, unemployment, output, and the government expenditures. ; The model extends Ljungqvist and Sargent (JPE, 1998) by incorporating a training decision and a ...

  14. Moving the Watershed Ecosystem Approach Beyond the Black Box with Sensor Technologies and New Conceptual Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, S. W.; McGuire, K. J.; Ross, D. S.

    2015-12-01

    The small watershed ecosystem as a unit of experimental manipulation and analysis has been a hallmark of the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest for 60 years. Water and nutrient budgets of headwater catchments have been instrumental in advancing our understanding of the response of forested ecosystems to disturbances such as air pollution and land management. A limitation in the practice of this approach is that point-scale measurements are compiled to create catchment scale estimates of fluxes and stores, thus losing process information that could be gained from spatial patterns that depend on position along hydrologic or biogeochemical pathways. Beginning in 2007, high frequency measurements of water table fluctuation, made possible by inexpensive sensor technology, highlighted the previously underappreciated role of groundwater in these steep headwater catchments. Hydropedologic units (HPUs), identified by morphological differences in soil profiles, and reflecting distinct groundwater regimes, were defined and arranged along a generalized toposequence to describe a conceptual model which partitions spatial variation into predictable, repeatable landscape units. Stratification of point scale measurements of soil and water quality elucidates spatial patterns of variation and allows identification of hot spots, or zones of the catchment where certain processes prevail. Specific HPUs are associated with high rates of dissolved organic matter production, nitrification, denitrification and delivery of mineral weathering products to the surface. Moving beyond the small watershed, contrasting spatial patterns in surface water chemistry at the basin scale suggest differing prevalence of various HPUs among headwater catchments. Comparison of water quality patterns with HPU distribution allows identification of catchment properties responsible for regulation of water quality at the point to the catchment to the basin scales.

  15. From field data to numerical models: application of the Box-Model to infer the dynamics of PDC generated during the AD 79 eruption of Somma-Vesuvio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadini, Alessandro; Neri, Augusto; Cioni, Raffaello; Bevilacqua, Andrea; Esposti Ongaro, Tomaso; Gurioli, Lucia

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this work is to present a validation procedure for a physical and numerical model of Pyroclastic Density Currents (PDC) using feedbacks from well-known deposits emplaced by specific single eruptive units. The study is specifically focused on the PDCs generated during the overall famous AD 79 eruption of the Somma-Vesuvio volcano. To this purpose, values of the maximum runout, volumes and Total Grain Size Distributions have been estimated for two eruptive units (i.e. EU3pf and EU4; Cioni et al. 2000) of the AD 79 eruption. These units have been used to define the input volcanological parameters for testing the Box-Model of Dade and Huppert (1995), when reproducing one specific end-member of the complex spectrum of PDCs, that is the more dilute, turbulent part of the PDCs reconstructed in the Somma-Vesuvio record (stratified flows with concentration of solid particles in volume up to about 5%). The Box-Model is a kinematic approach, which calculates the flow density and velocity along time and the kinetic energy of the flow front. This can be compared with the potential energy needed to overcome topographic obstacles to estimate flow invasion across complex topographies. Validation of the model has been performed with respect to: i) the degree of overlapping between inundation areas given by the model and by field data; ii) the thickness of the deposit versus the thickness of the model output with distance; iii) the mass fractions of the different grain size classes with distance in the real deposit versus the model output. Several simulations have been performed considering i) polydisperse (with 10 grain size classes) and monodisperse (with the Mdφ values) systems; ii) a direct version (where the initial volume is released and the invasion area is computed) and an inverse version (where the initial collapsing volume is a function of an inundation area defined by the user); iii) axisymmetrical and asymmetrical collapses. Results allow to obtain first

  16. School in a Box in Low Resource Primary School in Mozambique: Practical Application of Zone of Proximal Development in Teacher Training with Mobile Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Linda; Seabra, N. Miguel

    2016-01-01

    The new Sustainable Development Goals call for quality education for all. This study aims to examine the role of mobile educational technology, through the School in a Box intervention, particularly in supporting teachers skills in achieving quality education, in the context of a public primary school in Mozambique. Quality education is examined…

  17. Modeling and Solving the Train Pathing Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusin Lee

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In a railroad system, train pathing is concerned with the assignment of trains to links and tracks, and train timetabling allocates time slots to trains. In this paper, we present an optimization heuristic to solve the train pathing and timetabling problem. This heuristic allows the dwell time of trains in a station or link to be dependent on the assigned tracks. It also allows the minimum clearance time between the trains to depend on their relative status. The heuristic generates a number of alternative paths for each train service in the initialization phase. Then it uses a neighborhood search approach to find good feasible combinations of these paths. A linear program is developed to evaluate the quality of each combination that is encountered. Numerical examples are provided.

  18. Conceptual Model of the Geometry and Physics of Water Flow in a Fractured Basalt Vadose Zone: Box Canyon Site, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faybishenko, Boris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Doughty, Christine [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Steiger, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Long, Jane C.S. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (US). Mackay School of Mines; Wood, Tom [Parsons Engineering, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Jacobsen, Janet [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lore, Jason [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Zawislanski, Peter T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1999-03-01

    A conceptual model of the geometry and physics of water flow in a fractured basalt vadose zone was developed based on the results of lithological studies and a series of ponded infiltration tests conducted at the Box Canyon site near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) in Idaho. The infiltration tests included one two-week test in 1996, three two-day tests in 1997, and one four-day test in 1997. For the various tests, initial infiltration rates ranged from 4.1 cm/day to 17.7 cm/day and then decreased with time, presumably due to mechanical or microbiological clogging of fractures and vesicularbasalt in the near-surface zone, as well as the effect of entrapped air. The subsurface moisture redistribution was monitored with tensiometers, neutron logging, time domain reflectrometry and ground penetrating radar. A conservative tracer, potassium bromide, was added to the pond water at a concentration of 3 g/L to monitor water flow with electrical resistivity probes and water sampling. Analysis of the data showed evidence of preferential flow rather than the propagation of a uniform wetting front. We propose a conceptual model describing the saturation-desaturation behavior of the basalt, in which rapid preferential flow through vertical column-bounding fractures occurs from the surface to the base of the basalt flow. After the rapid wetting of column-bounding fractures, a gradual wetting of other fractures and the basalt matrix occurs. Fractures that are saturated early in the tests may become desaturated thereafter, which we attribute to the redistribution of water between fractures and matrix. Lateral movement of water was also observed within a horizontal central fracture zone and rubble zone, which could have important implications for contaminant accumulation at contaminated sites.

  19. Declarative terrain modeling for military training games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smelik, R.M.; Tutenel, T.; Kraker, J.K.. de; Bidarra, R.

    2010-01-01

    Military training instructors increasingly often employ computer games to train soldiers in all sorts of skills and tactics. One of the difficulties instructors face when using games as a training tool is the creation of suitable content, including scenarios, entities, and corresponding terrain

  20. CONSTRUCTION OF MECHANICAL MODEL OF THE DIESEL-TRAIN DTKR-2 CAR AND ITS FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Y. Kuzyshyn

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose.The article is aimed to construct the mechanical model of the diesel train DTKr-2 of the Kryukivsk Railway Car Building Works based on the analysis of undercarriage construction. This model will be used in the study of dynamic properties of the vehicle. When constructing the model the design features and its loading methods should be displayed as much as possible. Methodology. When constructing the mechanical model of the diesel train DTKr-2 car, the pneumatic spring, which is the main element of the central spring suspension, was modeled using Kelvin-Voigt node. This node includes elastic and viscous element. Hydraulic shock absorbers that are used both in the central and axle-box spring suspension were modeled as a viscous element. During research, the rigidity of the pneumatic spring, which is associated with the change in its effective area under deformation, was assumed to be zero. Findings. This article analyzed the design of car undercarriage of the diesel train DTKr-2. The mathematical models of its main units were presented, namely, in the central spring suspension – the model of pneumatic spring. Taking into account the peculiarities of design of the diesel train DTKr-2 undercarriage it was developed its mechanical model, which will be used in the future when studying dynamic properties. Originality.For the first time for the diesel train DTKr-2 car it was developed its mechanical model taking into account the features of the interaction of individual elements of its design. It has been proposed as a pneumatic spring to use the Kelvin-Voigt node, which includes parallel arranged elastic and viscous elements. Practical value. On the basis of the proposed mechanical model, a system of ordinary differential equations of car undercarriage movement of the diesel train DTKr-2 (mathematical model will be compiled. This model is further planned to be used when studying dynamic interaction of the diesel train car undercarriage wheel

  1. A pedagogical model for integrative training in conservation and sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith Welch-Devine; Dean Hardy; J. Peter Brosius; Nik Heynen

    2014-01-01

    The benefits and challenges of interdisciplinary training are well documented, and several reviews have discussed the particular importance of interdisciplinary training for conservation scholars and practitioners. We discuss the progress within one university program to implement specific training models, elements, and tools designed to move beyond remaining barriers...

  2. A pedagogical model for integrative training in conservation and sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith Welch-Devine

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The benefits and challenges of interdisciplinary training are well documented, and several reviews have discussed the particular importance of interdisciplinary training for conservation scholars and practitioners. We discuss the progress within one university program to implement specific training models, elements, and tools designed to move beyond remaining barriers to graduate-level, interdisciplinary conservation education.

  3. A Model of the Antecedents of Training Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed Turab, Ghaneemah; Casimir, Gian

    2015-01-01

    Many organizations have invested heavily in training. However, only a small percentage of what is learnt from training is applied or transferred to the workplace. This study examines factors that influence training transfer. A conceptual model based on the Theory of Reasoned Action is hypothesized and tested. The sample consisted of 123 full-time…

  4. A Training Model for Women--An Androgynous Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Elizabeth B.; Humphreys, Luther Wade

    1977-01-01

    Both management and women workers are asking for a reexamination of traditional training and development practices. The existing training model that has worked so well for developing men into managers and leaders should be expanded to include women--an androgynous approach to training--with similarities, rather than differences in abilities…

  5. The Wintertime Fate of N2O5: Observations and Box Model Analysis for the 2015 WINTER Aircraft Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDuffie, E. E.; Fibiger, D. L.; Dubé, W.; Lopez-Hilfiker, F.; Thornton, J. A.; Shah, V.; Jaegle, L.; Guo, H.; Weber, R. J.; Campuzano-Jost, P.; Schroder, J. C.; Jimenez, J. L.; Brown, S. S.

    2016-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) is a regulated secondary pollutant that degrades regional air quality and impacts the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere. Anthropogenic NOx emissions and chemistry are an important regional O3 source during midlatitude summer, but may destroy O3 during winter. The majority of previous field studies have focused on understanding reactive NOx-O3 relationships under summertime conditions. However, outstanding scientific uncertainties remain regarding the influence of NOx on wintertime O3, in part because the relevant atmospheric chemistry occurs largely at night, and in part because it involves multiphase processes. The winter tropospheric O3 and NOx budgets depend critically on the efficiency of N2O5 uptake to aerosol and the subsequent branching of its reaction products between soluble nitrate (HNO3) and nitryl chloride (ClNO2). The fate of tropospheric N2O5 can lead to net O3 destruction through HNO3 production, or transport and regeneration from N2O5 and ClNO2, which serve as NOx reservoirs. The WINTER campaign has provided the first aircraft measurements to constrain these critically important processes during the winter season. The Wintertime Investigation of Transport, Emission, and Reactivity (WINTER) campaign conducted 13 research flights over the eastern US in February and March 2015. A wide variety of environments were sampled during 11 nighttime flights over continental and marine environments. Reactive nitrogen and ozone measurements were collected with a cavity ring down spectrometer, while HNO3 and ClNO2 were measured with chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Analysis of these data with a chemical box model provides quantitative determinations of the N2O5 aerosol reactive uptake coefficient and production yield of ClNO2. The analysis determines the range and variability in these quantities, and their relationship to air mass composition and meteorology.

  6. Dynamics of the Cogwheel Instructional Design Model: Integrating a Central Training Center with Subordinate Training Branches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Kyu

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses an effort to improve training performance in a large corporate conglomerate in South Korea. In particular, focus is placed on a new instructional design (ID) model named the Cogwheel ID model. The cogwheel metaphor is used to illustrate the integrated processes within complex training organizations, including organizational,…

  7. A box model study on photochemical interactions between VOCs and reactive halogen species in the marine boundary layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Toyota

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A new chemical scheme is developed for the multiphase photochemical box model SEAMAC (size-SEgregated Aerosol model for Marine Air Chemistry to investigate photochemical interactions between volatile organic compounds (VOCs and reactive halogen species in the marine boundary layer (MBL. Based primarily on critically evaluated kinetic and photochemical rate parameters as well as a protocol for chemical mechanism development, the new scheme has achieved a near-explicit description of oxidative degradation of up to C3-hydrocarbons (CH4, C2H6, C3H8, C2H4, C3H6, and C2H2 initiated by reactions with OH radicals, Cl- and Br-atoms, and O3. Rate constants and product yields for reactions involving halogen species are taken from the literature where available, but the majority of them need to be estimated. In particular, addition reactions of halogen atoms with alkenes will result in forming halogenated organic intermediates, whose photochemical loss rates are carefully evaluated in the present work. Model calculations with the new chemical scheme reveal that the oceanic emissions of acetaldehyde (CH3CHO and alkenes (especially C3H6 are important factors for regulating reactive halogen chemistry in the MBL by promoting the conversion of Br atoms into HBr or more stable brominated intermediates in the organic form. The latter include brominated hydroperoxides, bromoacetaldehyde, and bromoacetone, which sequester bromine from a reactive inorganic pool. The total mixing ratio of brominated organic species thus produced is likely to reach 10-20% or more of that of inorganic gaseous bromine species over wide regions over the ocean. The reaction between Br atoms and C2H2 is shown to be unimportant for determining the degree of bromine activation in the remote MBL. These results imply that reactive halogen chemistry can mediate a link between the oceanic emissions of VOCs and the behaviors of compounds that are sensitive to halogen chemistry such as dimethyl

  8. Numerical Electromagnetic Models of Cube-Shaped Boxes - An Initial Investigation for Near-Field Prediction of HF Shipboard Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    Caracas, 1011 Venezuela 12. Escuela Superior de Guerra Naval 2 Director Comandancia de la Armada Av. Vollmer San Benardino Caracas, 1011 Venezuela 13. Lt...Tell1 USEPA ORP P.O. Box 18416 Las Vegas , NV 89114 74 44. James Tertocha C-15 Tenbytowne Apts Delran, NJ 08075 45. Maj. IDF Katzir Joel 2 NPGS SMC 2421

  9. Inhibition of high-mobility group box 1 as therapeutic option in autoimmune disease : lessons from animal models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaper, Fleur; Heeringa, Peter; Bijl, Marc; Westra, Johanna

    Purpose of review High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a molecule that has gained much attention in the last couple of years as an important player in innate immune responses and modulating factor in several (auto) immune diseases. Furthermore, advancements have been made in identifying the diverse

  10. Modeling of physical fitness of young karatyst on the pre basic training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galimskyi V.A.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : to develop a program of physical fitness for the correction of the pre basic training on the basis of model performance. Material: 57 young karate sportsmen of 9-11 years old took part in the research. Results : the level of general and special physical preparedness of young karate 9-11 years old was determined. Classes in the control group occurred in the existing program for yous sports school Muay Thai (Thailand boxing. For the experimental group has developed a program of selective development of general and special physical qualities of model-based training sessions. Special program contains 6 direction: 1. Development of static and dynamic balance; 2. Development of vestibular stability (precision movements after rotation; 3. Development rate movements; 4. The development of the capacity for rapid restructuring movements; 5. Development capabilities to differentiate power and spatial parameters of movement; 6. Development of the ability to perform jumping movements of rotation. Development of special physical qualities continued to work to improve engineering complex shock motions on the place and with movement. Conclusions : the use of selective development of special physical qualities based models of training sessions has a significant performance advantage over the control group.

  11. The feasibility and effectiveness of high-intensity boxing training versus moderate-intensity brisk walking in adults with abdominal obesity: a pilot study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cheema, Birinder S; Davies, Timothy B; Stewart, Matthew; Papalia, Shona; Atlantis, Evan

    2015-01-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) performed on exercise cycle or treadmill is considered safe and often more beneficial for fat loss and cardiometabolic health than moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT...

  12. Excised Abdominoplasty Material as a Systematic Plastic Surgical Training Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Erol Demirseren

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Achieving a level of technical skill and confidence in surgical operations is the main goal of plastic surgical training. Operating rooms were accepted as the practical teaching venues of the traditional apprenticeship model. However, increased patient population, time, and ethical and legal considerations made preoperation room practical work a must for plastic surgical training. There are several plastic surgical teaching models and simulators which are very useful in preoperation room practical training and the evaluation of plastic surgery residents. The full thickness skin with its vascular network excised in abdominoplasty procedures is an easily obtainable real human tissue which could be used as a training model in plastic surgery.

  13. 3D Printed Pediatric Temporal Bone: A Novel Training Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longfield, Evan A; Brickman, Todd M; Jeyakumar, Anita

    2015-06-01

    Temporal bone dissection is a fundamental element of otologic training. Cadaveric temporal bones (CTB) are the gold standard surgical training model; however, many institutions do not have ready access to them and their cost can be significant: $300 to $500. Furthermore, pediatric cadaveric temporal bones are not readily available. Our objective is to develop a pediatric temporal bone model. Temporal bone model. Tertiary Children's Hospital. Pediatric patient model. We describe the novel use of a 3D printer for the generation of a plaster training model from a pediatric high- resolution CT temporal bone scan of a normal pediatric temporal bone. Three models were produced and were evaluated. The models utilized multiple colors (white for bone, yellow for the facial nerve) and were of high quality. Two models were drilled as a proof of concept and found to be an acceptable facsimile of the patient's anatomy, rendering all necessary surgical landmarks accurately. The only negative comments pertaining to the 3D printed temporal bone as a training model were the lack of variation in hardness between cortical and cancellous bone, noting a tactile variation from cadaveric temporal bones. Our novel pediatric 3D temporal bone training model is a viable, low-cost training option for previously inaccessible pediatric temporal bone training. Our hope is that, as 3D printers become commonplace, these models could be rapidly reproduced, allowing for trainees to print models of patients before performing surgery on the living patient.

  14. The Apprenticeship Model for Surgical Training Is Inferior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubowitz, James H; Provencher, Matthew T; Brand, Jefferson C; Rossi, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    While the apprenticeship model for surgical training is a long-standing gold standard worldwide, proficiency-based progression (PBP) training proves significantly superior. The combination of a metrics tool describing procedural steps and errors with a simulator model or cadaveric training, results in a measurement tool that not only judges but serves to improve surgeon skill. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Training tactical decision making using cognitive models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, K. van den; Doesburg, W.A. van

    2005-01-01

    Simulation-based tactical training can be made more effective by using cognitive software agents to play key roles (e.g. team mates, adversaries). For successful use in training, agents should show tactically representative behavior that support trainees in achieving the learning objectives. For a

  16. Cognitive model supported tactical training simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doesburg, W.A. van; Bosch, K. van den

    2005-01-01

    Simulation-based tactical training can be made more effective by using cognitive software agents to play key roles (e.g. team mate, adversaries, instructor). Due to the dynamic and complex nature of military tactics, it is hard to create agents that behave realistically and support the training

  17. Uncertainty estimation of a complex water quality model: The influence of Box-Cox transformation on Bayesian approaches and comparison with a non-Bayesian method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freni, Gabriele; Mannina, Giorgio

    In urban drainage modelling, uncertainty analysis is of undoubted necessity. However, uncertainty analysis in urban water-quality modelling is still in its infancy and only few studies have been carried out. Therefore, several methodological aspects still need to be experienced and clarified especially regarding water quality modelling. The use of the Bayesian approach for uncertainty analysis has been stimulated by its rigorous theoretical framework and by the possibility of evaluating the impact of new knowledge on the modelling predictions. Nevertheless, the Bayesian approach relies on some restrictive hypotheses that are not present in less formal methods like the Generalised Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE). One crucial point in the application of Bayesian method is the formulation of a likelihood function that is conditioned by the hypotheses made regarding model residuals. Statistical transformations, such as the use of Box-Cox equation, are generally used to ensure the homoscedasticity of residuals. However, this practice may affect the reliability of the analysis leading to a wrong uncertainty estimation. The present paper aims to explore the influence of the Box-Cox equation for environmental water quality models. To this end, five cases were considered one of which was the “real” residuals distributions (i.e. drawn from available data). The analysis was applied to the Nocella experimental catchment (Italy) which is an agricultural and semi-urbanised basin where two sewer systems, two wastewater treatment plants and a river reach were monitored during both dry and wet weather periods. The results show that the uncertainty estimation is greatly affected by residual transformation and a wrong assumption may also affect the evaluation of model uncertainty. The use of less formal methods always provide an overestimation of modelling uncertainty with respect to Bayesian method but such effect is reduced if a wrong assumption is made regarding the

  18. Ex-vivo training model for laparoendoscopic single-site surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kommu Sashi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS has recently been applied successfully in the performance of a host of surgical procedures. Preliminary consensus from the experts is that this mode of surgery is technically challenging and requires expertise. The transition from trainee to practicing surgeon, especially in complex procedures with challenging learning curves, takes time and mentor-guided nurturing. However, the trainee needs to use platforms of training to gain the skills that are deemed necessary for undertaking the live human case. Objective: This article aims to demonstrate a step-by-step means of how to acquire the necessary instrumentation and build a training model for practicing steeplechase exercises in LESS for urological surgeons and trainees. The tool built as a result of this could set the platform for performance of basic and advanced skills uptake using conventional, bent and articulated instruments. A preliminary construct validity of the platform was conducted. Materials and Methods: A box model was fitted with an R-Port™ and camera. Articulated and conventional instruments were used to demonstrate basic exercises (e.g. glove pattern cutting, loop stacking and suturing and advanced exercises (e.g. pyeloplasty. The validation included medical students (M, final year laparoscopic fellows (F and experienced consultant laparoscopic surgeons (C with at least 50 LESS cases experience in total, were tested on eight basic skill tasks (S including manipulation of the flexible cystoscope (S1, hand eye coordination (S2, cutting with flexible scissors (S3, grasping with flexible needle holders (S4, two-handed maneuvers (S5, object translocation (S6, cross hand suturing with flexible instruments (S7 and conduction of an ex-vivo pyeloplasty. Results: The successful application of the box model was demonstrated by trainee based exercises. The cost of the kit with circulated materials was less than £150 (Pounds Sterling

  19. Southwest University's No-Fee Teacher-Training Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shijian; Yang, Shuhan; Li, Linyuan

    2013-01-01

    The training model for Southwest University's no-fee teacher education program has taken shape over several years. Based on a review of the documentation and interviews with administrators and no-fee preservice students from different specialties, this article analyzes Southwest University's no-fee teacher-training model in terms of three main…

  20. An animal model to train Lichtenstein inguinal hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, J; Presch, I; Pommergaard, H C

    2013-01-01

    pigs, and a total of 55 surgeons have been educated to perform Lichtenstein's hernia repair in these animals. CONCLUSIONS: This new experimental surgical model for training Lichtenstein's hernia repair mimics the human inguinal anatomy enough to make it suitable as a training model. The operation...

  1. Relative effectiveness of assertive training, modelling and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the Relative Effectiveness of Assertive Training (AT), modelling (M) and a combination of Assertive Training and Modelling (AT & M) techniques in improving the social skills of primary school isolates and consequently reduce their isolate behaviour. The study is a quasi experimental research that ...

  2. Finite Elements Contact Modelling of Planetary Gear Trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyanov, Svetlin; Dobrev, Vasko; Dobreva, Antoaneta

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents the application aspects of computer technologies concerning the process of creating theoretical contact models of planetary gear trains using Abaqus/Explicit. The necessary assumptions, constrains and specific features of these gear drives are discussed in details. The models created are appropriate and useful tools for computer simulation research of the dynamic behaviour of planetary gear trains.

  3. Training mode's influences on the relationships between training-load models during basketball conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, Aaron T; Wen, Neal; Tucker, Patrick S; Borges, Nattai R; Dalbo, Vincent J

    2014-09-01

    To compare perceptual and physiological training-load responses during various basketball training modes. Eight semiprofessional male basketball players (age 26.3 ± 6.7 y, height 188.1 ± 6.2 cm, body mass 92.0 ± 13.8 kg) were monitored across a 10-wk period in the preparatory phase of their training plan. Player session ratings of perceived exertion (sRPE) and heart-rate (HR) responses were gathered across base, specific, and tactical/game-play training modes. Pearson correlations were used to determine the relationships between the sRPE model and 2 HR-based models: the training impulse (TRIMP) and summated HR zones (SHRZ). One-way ANOVAs were used to compare training loads between training modes for each model. Stronger relationships between perceptual and physiological models were evident during base (sRPE-TRIMP r = .53, P intermittent, multidirectional drills. The practical benefits and sensitivity of the sRPE model support its use across different basketball training modes.

  4. Increasing the realism of a laparoscopic box trainer: a simple, inexpensive method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Louise; Kassab, Eva; Arora, Sonal; Kneebone, Roger

    2010-01-01

    Simulation-based training in medical education is increasing. Realism is an integral element of creating an engaging, effective training environment. Although physical trainers offer a low-cost alternative to expensive virtual reality (VR) simulators, many lack in realism. The aim of this research was to enhance the realism of a laparoscopic box trainer by using a simple, inexpensive method. Digital images of the abdominal cavity were captured from a VR simulator. The images were printed onto a laminated card that lined the bottom and sides of the box-trainer cavity. The standard black neoprene material that encloses the abdominal cavity was replaced with a skin-colored silicon model. The realism of the modified box trainer was assessed by surgeons, using quantitative and qualitative methodologies. Results suggest that the modified box trainer was more realistic than a standard box trainer alone. Incorporating this technique in the training of laparoscopic skills is an inexpensive means of emulating surgical reality that may enhance the engagement of the learner in simulation.

  5. Training Load Indices, Perceived Tolerance, and Enjoyment Among Different Models of Resistance Training in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, Jenny A; Haff, G Gregory; Tufano, James J; Newton, Robert U

    2017-11-01

    Conlon, JA, Haff, GG, Tufano, JJ, and Newton, RU. Training load indices, perceived tolerance, and enjoyment among different models of resistance training in older adults. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2017-The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between volume load (VL), training monotony, and strain, and perceived tolerance and enjoyment, across periodized and nonperiodized (NP) resistance training (RT) in older adults. Forty-one healthy, untrained apparently healthy older adults (woman = 21, man = 20; 70.9 ± 5.1 years; 166.3 ± 8.2 cm; 72.9 ± 13.4 kg) were randomly stratified into a NP, block periodized (BP), or daily undulating periodized (DUP) group and completed a 22-week RT intervention at a frequency of 3 d·wk. All training was executed on RT machines and training volume was equalized between training groups based on total repetitions. Despite statistical differences in VL, training monotony, and strain between NP, BP, and DUP RT, perceived tolerance and enjoyment were similar across training models. Therefore, no meaningful relationships between training load indices (VL, monotony, and strain) and perceived tolerance and enjoyment were evident. Based on these results, periodization strategies do not appear to impact perceived tolerance or enjoyment of RT among the elderly, yet are recommended for better management of training load, potentially reducing the risk of illness and injury and promoting long-term adherence. Above all, practitioners should promote a friendly, supportive, and motivating training environment to increase program adherence and consequent training adaptations.

  6. An effective box trap for capturing lynx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay A. Kolbe; John R. Squires; Thomas W. Parker

    2003-01-01

    We designed a box trap for capturing lynx (Lynx lynx) that is lightweight, safe, effective, and less expensive than many commercial models. It can be constructed in approximately 3-4 hours from readily available materials. We used this trap to capture 40 lynx 89 times (96% of lynx entering traps) and observed no trapping related injuries. We compare our box...

  7. Making the most out of a hydrological model data set: Sensitivity analyses to open the model black-box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgonovo, E.; Lu, X.; Plischke, E.; Rakovec, O.; Hill, M. C.

    2017-09-01

    In this work, we investigate methods for gaining greater insight from hydrological model runs conducted for uncertainty quantification and model differentiation. We frame the sensitivity analysis questions in terms of the main purposes of sensitivity analysis: parameter prioritization, trend identification, and interaction quantification. For parameter prioritization, we consider variance-based sensitivity measures, sensitivity indices based on the L1-norm, the Kuiper metric, and the sensitivity indices of the DELSA methods. For trend identification, we investigate insights derived from graphing the one-way ANOVA sensitivity functions, the recently introduced CUSUNORO plots, and derivative scatterplots. For interaction quantification, we consider information delivered by variance-based sensitivity indices. We rely on the so-called given-data principle, in which results from a set of model runs are used to perform a defined set of analyses. One avoids using specific designs for each insight, thus controlling the computational burden. The methodology is applied to a hydrological model of a river in Belgium simulated using the well-established Framework for Understanding Structural Errors (FUSE) on five alternative configurations. The findings show that the integration of the chosen methods provides insights unavailable in most other analyses.

  8. Shaping 3-D boxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenholt, Rasmus; Madsen, Claus B.

    2011-01-01

    Enabling users to shape 3-D boxes in immersive virtual environments is a non-trivial problem. In this paper, a new family of techniques for creating rectangular boxes of arbitrary position, orientation, and size is presented and evaluated. These new techniques are based solely on position data......F) docking experiment against an existing technique, which requires the user to perform the rotation and scaling of the box explicitly. The precision of the users' box construction is evaluated by a novel error metric measuring the difference between two boxes. The results of the experiment strongly indicate...... that for precision docking of 9 DoF boxes, some of the proposed techniques are significantly better than ones with explicit rotation and scaling. Another interesting result is that the number of DoF simultaneously controlled by the user significantly influences the precision of the docking....

  9. Virtual Laparoscopic Training System Based on VCH Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jiangzhou; Xu, Lang; He, Longjun; Guan, Songluan; Ming, Xing; Liu, Qian

    2017-04-01

    Laparoscopy has been widely used to perform abdominal surgeries, as it is advantageous in that the patients experience lower post-surgical trauma, shorter convalescence, and less pain as compared to traditional surgery. Laparoscopic surgeries require precision; therefore, it is imperative to train surgeons to reduce the risk of operation. Laparoscopic simulators offer a highly realistic surgical environment by using virtual reality technology, and it can improve the training efficiency of laparoscopic surgery. This paper presents a virtual Laparoscopic surgery system. The proposed system utilizes the Visible Chinese Human (VCH) to construct the virtual models and simulates real-time deformation with both improved special mass-spring model and morph target animation. Meanwhile, an external device that integrates two five-degrees-of-freedom (5-DOF) manipulators was designed and made to interact with the virtual system. In addition, the proposed system provides a modular tool based on Unity3D to define the functions and features of instruments and organs, which could help users to build surgical training scenarios quickly. The proposed virtual laparoscopic training system offers two kinds of training mode, skills training and surgery training. In the skills training mode, the surgeons are mainly trained for basic operations, such as laparoscopic camera, needle, grasp, electric coagulation, and suturing. In the surgery-training mode, the surgeons can practice cholecystectomy and removal of hepatic cysts by guided or non-guided teaching.

  10. Aplication of artificial neural network model in aviation specialist training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Висиль Миколайович Казак

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the application of artificial neural network (ANN model in aviation specialist training. The ANN model is based on the dependence of residual knowledge of subjects of study on their individual abilities. The residual knowledge is the skills acquired by the subject before he is going for an occupation.  The presented ANN model gives the possibility to predict the level of professional training of the specialists with high accuracy

  11. Preliminary development of the Active Colonoscopy Training Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available JungHun Choi1, Kale Ravindra1, Randolph Robert1, David Drozek21Mechanical Engineering, Ohio University, Athens, OH, USA; 2College of Osteopathic Medicine, Ohio University, Athens, OH, USAAbstract: Formal colonoscopy training requires a significant amount of time and effort. In particular, it requires actual patients for a realistic learning experience. The quality of colonoscopy training varies, and includes didactic courses and procedures proctored by skilled surgeons. A colonoscopy training model is occasionally used as part of the training method, but the effects are minute due to both the simple and tedious training procedures. To enhance the educational effect of the colonoscopy training model, the Active Colonoscopy Training Model (ACTM has been developed. ACTM is an interactive colonoscopy training device which can create the environment of a real colonoscopy procedure as closely as possible. It comprises a configurable rubber colon, a human torso, sensors, a display, and the control part. The ACTM provides audio and visual interaction to the trainee by monitoring important factors, such as forces caused by the distal tip and the shaft of the colonoscope and the pressure to open up the lumen and the localization of the distal tip. On the computer screen, the trainee can easily monitor the status of the colonoscopy, which includes the localization of the distal tip, maximum forces, pressure inside the colon, and surgery time. The forces between the rubber colon and the constraints inside the ACTM are measured and the real time display shows the results to the trainee. The pressure sensors will check the pressure at different parts of the colon. The real-time localized distal tip gives the colonoscopy trainee easier and more confident operation without introducing an additional device in the colonoscope. With the current need for colonoscopists and physicians, the ACTM can play an essential role resolving the problems of the current

  12. Box-Cox symmetric distributions and applications to nutritional data

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrari, Silvia L. P.; Fumes, Giovana

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the Box-Cox symmetric class of distributions, which is useful for modeling positively skewed, possibly heavy-tailed, data. The new class of distributions includes the Box-Cox t, Box-Cox Cole-Gree, Box-Cox power exponential distributions, and the class of the log-symmetric distributions as special cases. It provides easy parameter interpretation, which makes it convenient for regression modeling purposes. Additionally, it provides enough flexibility to handle outliers. The usefuln...

  13. DIRECT KICKS IN BOXING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izet Kahrović

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Hit directly, giving any impact maximum muscle strength is skill, and it is neces- sary to the exercise and learning to make it perfect. Training begins with oral statement, so that students get to know with the techni- que that works. After oral exposure, it is necessary to create a good notion on technology that is adopted. The best way for the creation of good notion is a good demonstration. In direct training kicks in the box, you need patience and gradualness and there- fore uses a large number of additional exercises. In their work with beginners, in the first class, individual elements of technology, and also direct blow, it is necessary to separate the parts and run them on multiple commands, to later come to the confluence in one command. Direct wounds, with left and right hand, can be run from the towns, on the head and body, from the movement, to step forward, step back and step aside, the remedy to the left and right side. Left direct is taking out from a running protrusion hands, but kick, which is a pro- duct of the system, ankle-knee-pelvis and shoulder forward horizontaly. Set at the time of stripes, body weight over the left leg. Right direct from the place, starting ekscentrical reflecsive impuls of a extensor muscle in ankle, knee and joint of a hip.This kind of a sud- den movement is running simultaneously with the rotation of the body around vertical (longitudinal axis, with the transfer body weight on the left leg. Further movement to the hand which serves as a lever, which is transmitted through the power stroke

  14. Further Evaluation of a Brief, Intensive Teacher-Training Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, Dorothea C.; Tetreault, Allison; Hovanetz, Alyson; Strobel, Margaret; Garro, Joanie

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to further evaluate the outcomes of a model program that was designed to train current teachers of children with autism. Nine certified special education teachers participating in an intensive 5-day summer training program were taught a relatively large number of specific skills in two areas (preference assessment and…

  15. Effectiveness of LifeRAFT Undergraduate Helping Skills Training Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Elizabeth L.; Davidson, Kenzie; Davidson, Spencer M.

    2017-01-01

    LifeRAFT, a helping skills training model for undergraduate paraprofessionals, addresses training needs for applied psychology skills for undergraduate psychology majors. LifeRAFT draws from three empirically supported psychotherapy treatments to introduce counselling theory and encourage helping skill progression. Trainees learn practical helping…

  16. Characteristics of Effective Training: Developing a Model To Motivate Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Dena; Ezell, Patsy

    2003-01-01

    The Parenting and Consumer Education project identified effective models for training welfare-to-work facilitators. Premises were the importance of process, learner responsibility, and improvement of social networks. Effective training was learner focused, inspiring, and motivating; demonstrated productive behaviors and effective life skills; and…

  17. Maintenance routing for train units: the scenario model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Maróti (Gábor); L.G. Kroon

    2004-01-01

    textabstractTrain units need regular preventive maintenance. Given the train units that require maintenance in the forthcoming 1--3 days, the rolling stock schedule must be adjusted so that these urgent units reach the maintenance facility in time. We present an integer programming model for this

  18. Stochastic modelling of train delays and delay propagation in stations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, J.

    2006-01-01

    A trade-off exists between efficiently utilizing the capacity of railway networks and improving the reliability and punctuality of train operations. This dissertation presents a new analytical probability model based on blocking time theory which estimates the knock-on delays of trains caused by

  19. CONDUCTING AND ANALYZING THE RESULTS OF THE EXPERIMENTAL BOX TEST OF RETAINING WALL MODELS WITHOUT PILES AND ON THE PILE FOUNDATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Lisnevskyi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Taking into consideration that the bearing capacity of the foundation may be insufficient, in the study it is assumed that pile foundation can be used to reduce the impact of the construction of new retaining structures on roads and railways near the existing buildings or in areas of dense urban development and ensure the stability of the foundation. To reduce the volume of excavation it is necessary to choose the economic structure of the retaining wall. To do this, one should explore stress-strain state (SSS of the retaining walls, to develop methods to improve their strength and stability, as well as to choose the most appropriate method of their analysis. Methodology. In the design of retaining walls foundation mat and piles are considered as independent elements. Since the combined effect of the retaining wall, piles and foundation mat as well as the effect of soil or rock foundation on the structure are considered not fully, so there are some limitations in the existing design techniques. To achieve the purpose the box tests of retaining walls models without piles and with piles for studying their interaction with the surrounding soil massif were conducted. Findings. Laboratory simulation of complex systems «surrounding soil – retaining wall – pile» was carried out and on the basis of the box test results were analyzed strains and its main parameters of the stress-strain state. Analysis of the results showed that the structure of a retaining wall with piles is steady and stable. Originality. So far, in Ukraine has not been carried out similar experimental box tests with models of retaining walls in such combinations. In the article has been presented unique photos and test results, as well as their analysis. Practical value. Using the methodology of experimental tests of the retaining wall models with piles and without them gives a wider opportunity to study stress-strain state of such structures.

  20. A local leaky-box model for the local stellar surface density-gas surface density-gas phase metallicity relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guangtun Ben; Barrera-Ballesteros, Jorge K.; Heckman, Timothy M.; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Sánchez, Sebastian F.; Yan, Renbin; Brinkmann, Jonathan

    2017-07-01

    We revisit the relation between the stellar surface density, the gas surface density and the gas-phase metallicity of typical disc galaxies in the local Universe with the SDSS-IV/MaNGA survey, using the star formation rate surface density as an indicator for the gas surface density. We show that these three local parameters form a tight relationship, confirming previous works (e.g. by the PINGS and CALIFA surveys), but with a larger sample. We present a new local leaky-box model, assuming star-formation history and chemical evolution is localized except for outflowing materials. We derive closed-form solutions for the evolution of stellar surface density, gas surface density and gas-phase metallicity, and show that these parameters form a tight relation independent of initial gas density and time. We show that, with canonical values of model parameters, this predicted relation match the observed one well. In addition, we briefly describe a pathway to improving the current semi-analytic models of galaxy formation by incorporating the local leaky-box model in the cosmological context, which can potentially explain simultaneously multiple properties of Milky Way-type disc galaxies, such as the size growth and the global stellar mass-gas metallicity relation.

  1. Alternative Models for Individualized Armor Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    small steps, and adaptive training may be feasible. Peer tutoring or proctoring and demonstrations of various kinds will be useful but lectures and...media will constrain methods. Peer tutoring or proctoring and dfmonstral ions of various kinds will be useful, but * otures :.,1, printed materials are

  2. Modeling cultural behavior for military virtual training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerbusch, P.; Schram, J.; Bosch, K. van den

    2011-01-01

    Soldiers on mission in areas with unfamiliar cultures must be able to take into account the norms of the local culture when assessing a situation, and must be able to adapt their behavior accordingly. Innovative technologies provide opportunity to train the required skills in an interactive and

  3. Addressing Development Vision 2025: Appropriate Training Models ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Appropriately trained Human Resources for Health (HRH) are key inputs in the realisation of high quality livelihood, the first attribute of Tanzania‟s Development Vision 2025. Within this attribute elements related to HRH include: access to quality primary health care for all, reduction in infant and maternal mortality rates by ...

  4. Math in the Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeYoung, Mary J.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how to make an origami paper box and explores the algebra, geometry, and other mathematics that unfolds. A set of origami steps that transforms the paper into an open box can hold mathematical surprises for both students and teachers. An origami lesson can engage students in an open-ended exploration of the relationship…

  5. ALUMINUM BOX BUNDLING PRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iosif DUMITRESCU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In municipal solid waste, aluminum is the main nonferrous metal, approximately 80- 85% of the total nonferrous metals. The income per ton gained from aluminum recuperation is 20 times higher than from glass, steel boxes or paper recuperation. The object of this paper is the design of a 300 kN press for aluminum box bundling.

  6. Discriminative training of CRF models with probably submodular constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Zaremba, Wojciech; Blaschko, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Zaremba W., Blaschko M., ''Discriminative training of CRF models with probably submodular constraints'', IEEE winter conference on applications of computer vision - WACV 2016, 7 pp., March 7-9, 2016, Lake Placid, NY, USA.

  7. Systems Engineering Model and Training Application for Desktop Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Jeffrey T.

    2010-01-01

    Provide a graphical user interface based simulator for desktop training, operations and procedure development and system reference. This simulator allows for engineers to train and further understand the dynamics of their system from their local desktops. It allows the users to train and evaluate their system at a pace and skill level based on the user's competency and from a perspective based on the user's need. The simulator will not require any special resources to execute and should generally be available for use. The interface is based on a concept of presenting the model of the system in ways that best suits the user's application or training needs. The three levels of views are Component View, the System View (overall system), and the Console View (monitor). These views are portals into a single model, so changing the model from one view or from a model manager Graphical User Interface will be reflected on all other views.

  8. Research for Future Training Modeling and Simulation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Simulation (M&S) — 2010 Research,” for the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering, Systems Engineering, Director, Modeling and...http://ignoranceisfutile.wordpress.com/2008/10/15/darpa-backked- siri -nearing-launch-of-personal-artificial- intelligence/. 11 virtual assistant ...this TMSSP addresses: • Defense Training Environment (DTE) • Personal Learning Assistant (PLA), and • More agile business models for training. This

  9. Prediction dynamic model of shock train with complex background waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Chang, Jun-Tao; Xu, Ke-Jing; Yu, Da-Ren; Bao, Wen; Song, Yan-Ping

    2017-11-01

    Oblique shock waves are unavoidable in a rectangular hypersonic inlet, leading to a non-uniform flow field. While a significant body of the literature exists regarding the shock train modeling in a uniform incoming flow condition, few efforts have focused on the shock train behavior considering the influence of the shock wave boundary layer interactions. A low-order dynamic model of the shock train has been constructed with the help of the free interaction theory and a 1-D analysis approach. Experimental and numerical investigations have been carried out to evaluate the low-order model. The results show that the model has the capability of qualitatively analyzing the shock train behavior. In the cases with incident shocks, the rapid forward movement of the shock train has been observed by experiment. Besides this phenomenon was also modeled using the low-order model. Schlieren images show that when the shock train approaches the interaction zone, its behavior is characterized by oscillation and then follows a rapid forward movement with a linear increasing backpressure at 2.7 Ma. This phenomenon is analyzed theoretically based on the free interaction theory. Meanwhile with the help of the direct numerical simulation results from some existing studies, the flow structures in the interaction region and the following boundary layer also provide the evidence.

  10. Train Dwell Time Models for Rail Passenger Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    San Hor Peay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, more studies had been conducted about train dwell time as it is a key parameter of rail system performance and reliability. This paper draws an overview of train dwell time models for rail passenger service from various continents, namely Asia, North America, Europe and Australia. The factors affecting train dwell time are identified and analysed across some rail network operators. The dwell time models developed by various researches are also discussed and reviewed. Finally, the contributions from the outcomes of these models are briefly addressed. In conclusion, this paper suggests that there is a need to further study the factors with strong influence upon dwell time to improve the quality of the train services.

  11. Training of Evaluators in the Third World: Implementation of the Action Training Model (ATM) in Kenya and Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhola, H. S.

    The Action Training Model (ATM) was developed for the delivery of evaluation training to development workers in Kenya and Botswana and implemented under the aegis of the German Foundation for International Development. Training of evaluators is a challenge in any context, but in the Third World environment, evaluation training offers special…

  12. Black-Box Search by Unbiased Variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehre, Per Kristian; Witt, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    The complexity theory for black-box algorithms, introduced by Droste, Jansen, and Wegener (Theory Comput. Syst. 39:525–544, 2006), describes common limits on the efficiency of a broad class of randomised search heuristics. There is an obvious trade-off between the generality of the black-box model...... and the strength of the bounds that can be proven in such a model. In particular, the original black-box model provides for well-known benchmark problems relatively small lower bounds, which seem unrealistic in certain cases and are typically not met by popular search heuristics.In this paper, we introduce a more...... restricted black-box model for optimisation of pseudo-Boolean functions which we claim captures the working principles of many randomised search heuristics including simulated annealing, evolutionary algorithms, randomised local search, and others. The key concept worked out is an unbiased variation operator...

  13. ENERGY STAR Certified Set Top Boxes

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 5.1 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Set-top Boxes that are effective as of January...

  14. An animal model to train Lichtenstein inguinal hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, J; Presch, I; Pommergaard, H C; Burcharth, J; Bagot d'Arc, M

    2013-04-01

    Inguinal hernia repair is a common surgical procedure, and the majority of operations worldwide are performed ad modum Lichtenstein (open tension-free mesh repair). Until now, no suitable surgical training model has been available for this procedure. We propose an experimental surgical training model for Lichtenstein's procedure on the male and female pig. In the pig, an incision is made 1 cm cranially to the inguinal sulcus where a string of subcutaneous lymph nodes is located and extends toward the pubic tubercle. The spermatic cord is located in a narrow sulcus in the pig, thus complicating the procedure if operation should be done in the inguinal canal. The chain of lymph nodes resembles the human spermatic cord and can be used to perform Lichtenstein's hernia repair. This experimental surgical model has been tested on two adult male pigs and three adult female pigs, and a total of 55 surgeons have been educated to perform Lichtenstein's hernia repair in these animals. This new experimental surgical model for training Lichtenstein's hernia repair mimics the human inguinal anatomy enough to make it suitable as a training model. The operation facilitates the training in the positioning and fixation of the mesh and can be performed numerous times on the same pig. It is therefore a useful training method for inexperienced surgeons to obtain experience in aspects of the Lichtenstein procedure.

  15. Quantifying and Reducing Model-Form Uncertainties in Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes Equations: An Open-Box, Physics-Based, Bayesian Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, H; Wang, J -X; Sun, R; Roy, C J

    2015-01-01

    Despite their well-known limitations, Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) models are still the workhorse tools for turbulent flow simulations in today's engineering applications. For many practical flows, the turbulence models are by far the most important source of uncertainty. In this work we develop an open-box, physics-informed Bayesian framework for quantifying model-form uncertainties in RANS simulations. Uncertainties are introduced directly to the Reynolds stresses and are represented with compact parameterization accounting for empirical prior knowledge and physical constraints (e.g., realizability, smoothness, and symmetry). An iterative ensemble Kalman method is used to assimilate the prior knowledge and observation data in a Bayesian framework, and to propagate them to posterior distributions of velocities and other Quantities of Interest (QoIs). We use two representative cases, the flow over periodic hills and the flow in a square duct, to evaluate the performance of the proposed framework. Si...

  16. Modeling the Effects of Stress: An Approach to Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuper, Taryn

    2010-01-01

    Stress is an integral element of the operational conditions experienced by combat medics. The effects of stress can compromise the performance of combat medics who must reach and treat their comrades under often threatening circumstances. Examples of these effects include tunnel vision, loss of motor control, and diminished hearing, which can result in an inability to perceive further danger, satisfactorily treat the casualty, and communicate with others. While many training programs strive to recreate this stress to aid in the experiential learning process, stress inducement may not always be feasible or desired. In addition, live simulations are not always a practical, convenient, and repeatable method of training. Instead, presenting situational training on a personal computer is proposed as an effective training platform in which the effects of stress can be addressed in a different way. We explore the cognitive and motor effects of stress, as well as the benefits of training for mitigating these effects in real life. While many training applications focus on inducing stress in order to "condition" the stress response, the author explores the possibilities of modeling stress to produce a similar effect. Can presenting modeled effects of stress help prepare or inoculate soldiers for stressful situations in which they must perform at a high level? This paper investigates feasibility of modeling stress and describes the preliminary design considerations of a combat medic training system that utilizes this method of battlefield preparation.

  17. A High-Speed Train Operation Plan Inspection Simulation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Rui

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We developed a train operation simulation tool to inspect a train operation plan. In applying an improved Petri Net, the train was regarded as a token, and the line and station were regarded as places, respectively, in accordance with the high-speed train operation characteristics and network function. Location change and running information transfer of the high-speed train were realized by customizing a variety of transitions. The model was built based on the concept of component combination, considering the random disturbance in the process of train running. The simulation framework can be generated quickly and the system operation can be completed according to the different test requirements and the required network data. We tested the simulation tool when used for the real-world Wuhan to Guangzhou high-speed line. The results showed that the proposed model can be developed, the simulation results basically coincide with the objective reality, and it can not only test the feasibility of the high-speed train operation plan, but also be used as a support model to develop the simulation platform with more capabilities.

  18. IMPROVEMENT OF MATHEMATICAL MODELS FOR ESTIMATION OF TRAIN DYNAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Ursulyak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Using scientific publications the paper analyzes the mathematical models developed in Ukraine, CIS countries and abroad for theoretical studies of train dynamics and also shows the urgency of their further improvement. Methodology. Information base of the research was official full-text and abstract databases, scientific works of domestic and foreign scientists, professional periodicals, materials of scientific and practical conferences, methodological materials of ministries and departments. Analysis of publications on existing mathematical models used to solve a wide range of problems associated with the train dynamics study shows the expediency of their application. Findings. The results of these studies were used in: 1 design of new types of draft gears and air distributors; 2 development of methods for controlling the movement of conventional and connected trains; 3 creation of appropriate process flow diagrams; 4 development of energy-saving methods of train driving; 5 revision of the Construction Codes and Regulations (SNiP ΙΙ-39.76; 6 when selecting the parameters of the autonomous automatic control system, created in DNURT, for an auxiliary locomotive that is part of a connected train; 7 when creating computer simulators for the training of locomotive drivers; 8 assessment of the vehicle dynamic indices characterizing traffic safety. Scientists around the world conduct numerical experiments related to estimation of train dynamics using mathematical models that need to be constantly improved. Originality. The authors presented the main theoretical postulates that allowed them to develop the existing mathematical models for solving problems related to the train dynamics. The analysis of scientific articles published in Ukraine, CIS countries and abroad allows us to determine the most relevant areas of application of mathematical models. Practicalvalue. The practical value of the results obtained lies in the scientific validity

  19. Exercise training reduces high mobility group box-1 protein levels in women with breast cancer: findings from the DIANA-5 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giallauria, Francesco; Gentile, Marco; Chiodini, Paolo; Berrino, Franco; Mattiello, Amalia; Maresca, Luigi; Vitelli, Alessandra; Mancini, Maria; Grieco, Alessandra; Lucci, Rosa; Torella, Giorgio; Panico, Salvatore; Vigorito, Carlo

    2014-06-01

    To determine whether exercise training might exert anti-inflammatory effect by reducing HMGB1 levels in women with breast cancer (BC). We analyzed monocentric data from the DIANA (DIET AND ANDROGENS)-5 PROJECT. Study population consisted of 94 patients randomized into two groups: 61 patients (53 +/- 8 yrs, training group) were assigned to a structured exercise training intervention (3 times/week for the first 3 months, and once /week for the following 9 months); whereas 33 patients (52 +/- 7 yrs, control group) followed only the general indications to adhere to the life-style intervention suggestions of the DIANA protocol. At study entry and after 12 months, all patients underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing, biochemical as- sessment [HMGB1, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6)]; and lipid and glycemic profile. There were no significant differences between groups in baseline clinical and inflammatory profile. Among the training group, only 19/61 patients had high adherence to the exercise intervention. After stratifying the study population according to the level of adhesion to the exer- cise intervention, 1-year HMGB1 levels were lower among patients more adherent to exercise (p for trend = 0.001). Further adjusting for age, body mass index and baseline values, 1-year HMGB1 levels remained significantly and inversely associated to the level of adhesion to the exercise intervention (B = -0.97, SE = 0.43, p = 0.01). Moderate intensity exercise training in BC survivors is associated with reduced HMGB1 levels that are proportional to the level of adhesion to the exercise intervention, independently from other classical inflammatory molecules, suggesting an exercise-induced anti-inflammatory effect mediated by HMGB1.

  20. Recovery Act. Development of a Model Energy Conservation Training Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-07-05

    The overall objective of this project was to develop an updated model Energy Conservation training program for stationary engineers. This revision to the IUOE National Training Fund’s existing Energy Conservation training curriculum is designed to enable stationary engineers to incorporate essential energy management into routine building operation and maintenance tasks. The curriculum uses a blended learning approach that includes classroom, hands-on, computer simulation and web-based training in addition to a portfolio requirement for a workplace-based learning application. The Energy Conservation training program goal is development of a workforce that can maintain new and existing commercial buildings at optimum energy performance levels. The grant start date was July 6, 2010 and the project continued through September 30, 2012, including a three month non-funded extension.

  1. Comparison of results of virtual-reality simulator and training model for basic ureteroscopy training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, David S; Abdelshehid, Corollos; Clayman, Ralph V; McDougall, Elspeth M

    2006-04-01

    The traditional method of acquiring surgical skills is by apprenticeship and involves an extensive period of training with patients. Model-based and virtual reality simulation is gaining interest as alternative training, allowing repetitive practice in a low-risk environment. The objective of this study was to determine if a materials, model-based training format and an interactive virtual-reality simulator could provide equivalent teaching of basic ureteroscopy skills to the inexperienced medical student. Sixteen first-year medical students received the same didactic session and video viewing on cystoscopy, guidewire access to the upper urinary tract, and ureteroscopy with intracorporeal laser lithotripsy and stone extraction by the same instructor. The participants were then randomized into two study groups: Group 1 was trained on the ureteroscopy training model (TMU) from Limbs & Things and Group 2 on the Simbionix UROMentor virtual-reality simulator (VRS) until the participants could perform the procedure independently. Two months later, the participants independently performed a ureteroscopic procedure on a pig kidney/ureter model and were graded from 1 to 5 on their ability to complete the steps of the procedure and the quality of their performance (handling of tissue, efficiency, instrument handling, knowledge of instruments, flow of operation, use of assistants, and knowledge of the specific procedure) for a possible total of 35 points. All participants were able to perform the steps of the procedure correctly. The TMU group and the VRS group received a mean of 22.9 +/- 4.8 and 23.6 +/- 5.4 points, respectively (P = 0.38) for their qualitative assessment. The medical students' skills and ability to perform a basic ureteroscopic stone-management procedure was independent of the training modality (VRS or TMU). Incorporating either of these devices into the preliminary training of urology residents may improve their initial clinical performance of these skills.

  2. Adopsi Model Competency Based Training dalam Kewirausahaan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut Santra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is improving the teaching method in entrepreneurship subject. This research adopted the competency based training (CBT into the entrepreneurship. The major task in this research is formulated and designed the entrepreneurship competency. Entrepreneurship competency indicated by Personal, Strategic and Situational and Business competence. All of entrepreneurship competences are described into sub topic of competence. After designing and formulating the game and simulation the research continuing to implement the competency based training in the real class. The time consumed to implementing the CBT one semester, starting on September 2006 to early February 2007. The lesson learnt from the implementation period, the CBT could improve the student competence in Personal, Situational Strategic and Business. The three of the competencies are important for the success entrepreneur. It is a sign of application of “Kurikulum Berbasis Kompetensi”. There are many evidences to describe the achievement of the CBT in entrepreneurship subject. Firstly, physically achievement, that all of the student’s business plan could became the real business. The evidences are presented by picture of the student’s real business. Secondly theoretically achievement, that the Personal, Situational Strategic and Business competence statistically have significant relation with Business Plan even Real Business quality. The effect of the Personal, Situational Strategic and Business competence to Business Plan quality is 84.4%. and, to the Real Business quality 77.2%. The statistic’s evidence suggests that the redesign of the entrepreneurship subject is the right way. The content of the entrepreneur competence (Personal, Situational and Strategic and Business competence have impact to the student to conduct and running for own business.

  3. Analysis of different training models for handball goalkeepers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Muñoz Moreno

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the goalkeeper for the team performance is critical, however, publications on specific preparation are few in number, with no clear lines of work. The present study aims to analyze the different methodologies used in the specific training handball goalkeeper, by setting what the different training models as well as deepen the potential applications of each.For this purpose, it was conducted an extensive literature review, categorizing each document based on the performance factor on which prioritizes: physical-technical, perceptual and tactical. The analysis of results found that there were no other models than those categorized, being more numerous publications falling under physical and technical training, followed by the perceptive and very few exist on tactical training. In light of the results seems essential to conduct a specific training program for goalkeeper, taking into account the most relevant variables for optimal performance. No single factor seems more relevant to any stage of training, it being necessary to deepen it.Keywords: specific training, perception, decision making, tactical

  4. Modeling of an ionic polymer metal composite actuator based on an extended Kalman filter trained neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quang Truong, Dinh; Ahn, Kyoung Kwan

    2014-07-01

    An ion polymer metal composite (IPMC) is an electroactive polymer that bends in response to a small applied electric field as a result of mobility of cations in the polymer network and vice versa. This paper presents an innovative and accurate nonlinear black-box model (NBBM) for estimating the bending behavior of IPMC actuators. The model is constructed via a general multilayer perceptron neural network (GMLPNN) integrated with a smart learning mechanism (SLM) that is based on an extended Kalman filter with self-decoupling ability (SDEKF). Here the GMLPNN is built with an ability to autoadjust its structure based on its characteristic vector. Furthermore, by using the SLM based on the SDEKF, the GMLPNN parameters are optimized with small computational effort, and the modeling accuracy is improved. An apparatus employing an IPMC actuator is first set up to investigate the IPMC characteristics and to generate the data for training and validating the model. The advanced NBBM model for the IPMC system is then created with the proper inputs to estimate IPMC tip displacement. Next, the model is optimized using the SLM mechanism with the training data. Finally, the optimized NBBM model is verified with the validating data. A comparison between this model and the previously developed model is also carried out to prove the effectiveness of the proposed modeling technique.

  5. BoxPlot++

    OpenAIRE

    Azmeh, Zeina; Hamoui, Fady; Huchard, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    We propose the BoxPlot++ as an extension of Tukey's boxplot. We improve the resulting data values distribution by removing the repeated values and by calculating distances between the points and the nearest median.

  6. Boxes and Shelves

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Dean

    2008-01-01

    The Boxes and Shelves series from 2008 are are all made from the backing card from discarded writing pads. Boxes and Shelves extended my investigation of quotidian materials and their relationship to the origins of creative toil. Since 1996 my research has sought to identify and locate instances where the 'unmeasurable' meets the measurable. I have consistently employed a range of utilitarian materials such as bus seats, bus tickets, puddles, A4 writing paper, to present a series of 'problem ...

  7. Freedom to box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, N

    1998-02-01

    The british Medical Association wants to criminalise all boxing. This article examines the logic of the arguments it uses and finds them wanting. The move from medical evidence about the risk of brain damage to the conclusion that boxing should be banned is not warranted. The BMA's arguments are a combination of inconsistent paternalism and legal moralism. Consistent application of the principles implicit in the BMA's arguments would lead to absurd consequences and to severe limitations being put on individual freedom.

  8. Teacher Training by Means of a School-Based Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Barry

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore how a school-based training model (SBTM) could help to address the shortage of teachers. This model also allows, among other aspects, for poor and disadvantaged students to study while they gain experience. This article reports on the results of the SBTM implemented by a South African university, whereby…

  9. On Modeling of Ejection Process in a Training Combat Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Głowiński, Sebastian; Krzyżyński, Tomasz

    2011-09-01

    The paper deals with modeling and simulation of motion trajectory of an ejection seat in the training-combat aircraft TS-11 "Iskra". The ejection seat and its operation are characterized. Mathematical and computer models are elaborated with the help of MATLAB-Simulink applications. Additionally, simulations are conducted for various velocities of the aircraft.

  10. Using TI-Nspire in a Modelling Teacher's Training Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Ángel Homero; Gómez, Adriana; Chávez, Xochitl

    2015-01-01

    Using Mathematical Modelling has become a useful tool in teaching-learning mathematics at all levels. This is so because mathematical objects are seen from their very applications, giving them meaning from the beginning. In this paper we present some details on the development of a teacher's training course called Modelling in the Teaching of…

  11. An assessment model in outcomes-based education and training ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From the information generated, an assessment model is proposed for application in health sciences and technology. By applying the Delphi technique, a validated assessment model is presented for assessment in outcomes-based education and training (OBET) in health sciences and technology. The process and product ...

  12. Injury and injury rates in Muay Thai kick boxing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gartland, S; Malik, M H; Lovell, M E

    2001-01-01

    To determine the type and number of injuries that occur during the training and practice of Muay Thai kick boxing and to compare the data obtained with those from previous studies of karate and taekwondo...

  13. Injury and injury rates in Muay Thai kick boxing

    OpenAIRE

    Gartland, S; Malik, M; Lovell, M.

    2001-01-01

    Objective—To determine the type and number of injuries that occur during the training and practice of Muay Thai kick boxing and to compare the data obtained with those from previous studies of karate and taekwondo.

  14. Counseling and Human Sexuality: A Training Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyfe, Bill

    1980-01-01

    Presents a counseling and human sexuality course model that provides counselors with an information base in human sexuality and assists them in exploring the emotional aspects of sexuality. Human sexuality is a vital aspect of personal development. (Author)

  15. Cumulative Training Dose's Effects on Interrelationships Between Common Training-Load Models During Basketball Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, Aaron T; Fox, Jordan L; Borges, Nattai R; Dascombe, Ben J; Dalbo, Vincent J

    2017-02-01

    The influence of various factors on training-load (TL) responses in basketball has received limited attention. This study aimed to examine the temporal changes and influence of cumulative training dose on TL responses and interrelationships during basketball activity. Ten state-level Australian male junior basketball players completed 4 × 10-min standardized bouts of simulated basketball activity using a circuit-based protocol. Internal TL was quantified using the session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE), summated heart-rate zones (SHRZ), Banister training impulse (TRIMP), and Lucia TRIMP models. External TL was assessed via measurement of mean sprint and circuit speeds. Temporal TL comparisons were performed between 10-min bouts, while Pearson correlation analyses were conducted across cumulative training doses (0-10, 0-20, 0-30, and 0-40 min). sRPE TL increased (P training doses (r = .84-.89; P training doses lasting beyond 20 min. Thus, the interchangeability of commonly used internal and external TL approaches appears dose-dependent during basketball activity, with various psychophysiological mediators likely underpinning temporal changes.

  16. A Novel Train-to-Train Communication Model Design Based on Multihop in High-Speed Railway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengyu Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Railway telematics applications are currently attracting attention and are under intense research. Reliable railway telematics applications increasingly tend to require a subsidiary means to help existent control system make train operation safer and more efficient. Since 2006, train-to-train communication has been studied to respond to such requirements. A key characteristic of train-to-train communication is that operation control to avoid possible accidents is conducted among trains without help of a base station. This paper proposes a novel train-to-train communication model in a physical layer based on multihop and cooperation, taking a high-speed railway propagation channel into account. The mechanism of this model lies in the idea that a source train uses trains on other tracks as relays to transmit signals to destination train on the same track. Based on occurrence of these potential relays, such mechanism can be divided into three cases. In each case, BER is applied to evaluate properties of the proposed communication model. Simulation results show that BER of the train-to-train communication model decreases to 10−6 when SNR is 10 dB and that the minimum receiving voltage of this model is −84 dBm, which is 8 dBm lower than the standards established by the International Union of Railways (UIC in a high-speed railway scenario.

  17. Cable Tester Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jason H.

    2011-01-01

    Cables are very important electrical devices that carry power and signals across multiple instruments. Any fault in a cable can easily result in a catastrophic outcome. Therefore, verifying that all cables are built to spec is a very important part of Electrical Integration Procedures. Currently, there are two methods used in lab for verifying cable connectivity. (1) Using a Break-Out Box and an ohmmeter this method is time-consuming but effective for custom cables and (2) Commercial Automated Cable Tester Boxes this method is fast, but to test custom cables often requires pre-programmed configuration files, and cables used on spacecraft are often uniquely designed for specific purposes. The idea is to develop a semi-automatic continuity tester that reduces human effort in cable testing, speeds up the electrical integration process, and ensures system safety. The JPL-Cable Tester Box is developed to check every single possible electrical connection in a cable in parallel. This system indicates connectivity through LED (light emitting diode) circuits. Users can choose to test any pin/shell (test node) with a single push of a button, and any other nodes that are shorted to the test node, even if they are in the same connector, will light up with the test node. The JPL-Cable Tester Boxes offers the following advantages: 1. Easy to use: The architecture is simple enough that it only takes 5 minutes for anyone to learn how operate the Cable Tester Box. No pre-programming and calibration are required, since this box only checks continuity. 2. Fast: The cable tester box checks all the possible electrical connections in parallel at a push of a button. If a cable normally takes half an hour to test, using the Cable Tester Box will improve the speed to as little as 60 seconds to complete. 3. Versatile: Multiple cable tester boxes can be used together. As long as all the boxes share the same electrical potential, any number of connectors can be tested together.

  18. CASAS: A Smart Home in a Box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Diane J; Crandall, Aaron S; Thomas, Brian L; Krishnan, Narayanan C

    2013-07-01

    While the potential benefits of smart home technology are widely recognized, a lightweight design is needed for the benefits to be realized at a large scale. We introduce the CASAS "smart home in a box", a lightweight smart home design that is easy to install and provides smart home capabilities out of the box with no customization or training. We discuss types of data analysis that have been performed by the CASAS group and can be pursued in the future by using this approach to designing and implementing smart home technologies.

  19. Grey-box Modelling of a Household Refrigeration Unit Using Time Series Data in Application to Demand Side Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sossan, Fabrizio; Lakshmanan, Venkatachalam; Costanzo, Giuseppe Tommaso

    2016-01-01

    estimation (MLE), validated through the model residuals analysis and cross-validated to detect model over-fitting. A nonlinear model based on the reversed Carnot cycle is also presented and included in the modeling performance analysis. As an application of the models, we apply model predictive control (MPC...

  20. OPTIMAL TRAINING POLICY FOR PROMOTION - STOCHASTIC MODELS OF MANPOWER SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S.S. Yadavalli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the optimal planning of manpower training programmes in a manpower system with two grades is discussed. The planning of manpower training within a given organization involves a trade-off between training costs and expected return. These planning problems are examined through models that reflect the random nature of manpower movement in two grades. To be specific, the system consists of two grades, grade 1 and grade 2. Any number of persons in grade 2 can be sent for training and after the completion of training, they will stay in grade 2 and will be given promotion as and when vacancies arise in grade 1. Vacancies arise in grade 1 only by wastage. A person in grade 1 can leave the system with probability p. Vacancies are filled with persons in grade 2 who have completed the training. It is assumed that there is a perfect passing rate and that the sizes of both grades are fixed. Assuming that the planning horizon is finite and is T, the underlying stochastic process is identified as a finite state Markov chain and using dynamic programming, a policy is evolved to determine how many persons should be sent for training at any time k so as to minimize the total expected cost for the entire planning period T.

  1. Training and the Change Agent Role Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Wesley B.; Owens, Vyrle W.

    1973-01-01

    The authors discuss the qualities possessed by a model change agent and roles played by him as resident technical participant: analyst, advisor, advocate, systems linker, innovator, and trainer. Besides presenting the teaching plan for change agents, the authors call upon their Peace Corps experiences to provide specific examples of what is…

  2. Modeling the Optimization of Intermodal Train Schedules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Berliner; Crainic, Teodor Gabriel

    to those of direct door-to-door transportation. An intuitive idea is to reduce excess waiting time by synchronizing the schedules of the routes in the intermodal network. In this session we present a model based on the multicommodity network design problem that captures the synchronization aspect...

  3. Plasticine Model: An Useful Surgical Training in Plastic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Chenyang; Li, Ruiting; Liang, Weiqiang; Chen, Yuhong; Zhang, Jinming

    2016-02-01

    To help surgical trainees reach a deep understanding of plastic operations, we developed and evaluated an economical and convenient model using plasticine for plastic surgical training. From Sep of 2012 to Dec of 2014, we invited 57 medical interns to participate in a program designed for the qualitative evaluation of this model. In this program, 57 interns were asked to simulate certain surgical operations under guidance of the experienced staff of our department using the plasticine model. The value of the plasticine model was evaluated through questionnaire surveys. Their acceptance of the plasticine model, as well as the benefits and the flaws, was evaluated by the questionnaire survey. All the participants completed the training session as well as the questionnaire, all of whom felt that the plasticine model had increased their familiarity with the surgical procedure they were assigned. By remodeling plasticine, the trainees understood either the brief surgical procedures or some confusing operative details in plastic surgery. In the questionnaire surveys, the trainees showed considerable consensus with the training program. The flaws of this method were also listed. The flaws generally reflected that "it is difficult to model into a vivid image" and "it is not suitable for all the operation". Overall, the plasticine model is accepted by the participants in this survey. This model is economical and versatile, and could be used as a complementary training tool for novices in simulated operation training of plastic surgery. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.

  4. Stochastic models for spike trains of single neurons

    CERN Document Server

    Sampath, G

    1977-01-01

    1 Some basic neurophysiology 4 The neuron 1. 1 4 1. 1. 1 The axon 7 1. 1. 2 The synapse 9 12 1. 1. 3 The soma 1. 1. 4 The dendrites 13 13 1. 2 Types of neurons 2 Signals in the nervous system 14 2. 1 Action potentials as point events - point processes in the nervous system 15 18 2. 2 Spontaneous activi~ in neurons 3 Stochastic modelling of single neuron spike trains 19 3. 1 Characteristics of a neuron spike train 19 3. 2 The mathematical neuron 23 4 Superposition models 26 4. 1 superposition of renewal processes 26 4. 2 Superposition of stationary point processe- limiting behaviour 34 4. 2. 1 Palm functions 35 4. 2. 2 Asymptotic behaviour of n stationary point processes superposed 36 4. 3 Superposition models of neuron spike trains 37 4. 3. 1 Model 4. 1 39 4. 3. 2 Model 4. 2 - A superposition model with 40 two input channels 40 4. 3. 3 Model 4. 3 4. 4 Discussion 41 43 5 Deletion models 5. 1 Deletion models with 1nd~endent interaction of excitatory and inhibitory sequences 44 VI 5. 1. 1 Model 5. 1 The basic de...

  5. Gelatin model for training ultrasound-guided puncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Campos Moraes Amato

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is indispensable that members of the medical profession receive the technical training needed to enable them to rapidly obtain effective vascular access. Training procedures should be used judiciously to familiarize students with the technique. However, existing models are expensive or ineffective, and models need to be developed that are similar to what will be encountered in real patients.OBJECTIVES: To demonstrate creation and application of a gelatin model for training ultrasound-guided puncture.METHOS: The model was made using a mixture of colorless gelatin and water in a transparent plastic receptacle with two pairs of orifices of different diameters, through which two plastic tubes were inserted, to simulate blood vessels.RESULTS: The model was a close approximation to the real medical procedure in several aspects, since gelatin has a similar consistency to human tissues, providing a more faithful reproduction of the tactile sensation at the moment when the needle reaches the interior of a vessel and its contents are aspirated.CONCLUSIONS: The method proposed here can be used to easily construct a low-cost model using everyday materials that is suitable for large-scale training of ultrasound-guided puncture.

  6. Plasma{endash}neutral interaction in tokamak divertor for {open_quote}{open_quote}gas box{close_quote}{close_quote} neutral model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasheninnikov, S.I. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Plasma Fusion Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Soboleva, T.K. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1996-06-01

    Plasma flow through the gas cloud in a tokamak divertor for {open_quote}{open_quote}gas box{close_quote}{close_quote} divertor geometry and Knudsen regime of neutral transport is investigated. It is shown that similar to the neutral models that have considered previously, (i) plasma parameters near the target is sensitive to the energy flux into the hydrogen recycling region and can change rapidly, resulting in bifurcation-like behavior, which might be interpreted as a transition to detached regime, (ii) plasma flux onto the target starts to decrease at a very low plasma temperature near the target, while a strong pressure drop already occurs. At low plasma temperature near the target the recombination processes can significantly alter the plasma flux onto the target. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. TIME SERIES CHARACTERISTIC ANALYSIS OF RAINFALL, LAND USE AND FLOOD DISCHARGE BASED ON ARIMA BOX-JENKINS MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abror Abror

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia located in tropic area consists of wet season and dry season. However, in last few years, in river discharge in dry season is very little, but in contrary, in wet season, frequency of flood increases with sharp peak and increasingly great water elevation. The increased flood discharge may occur due to change in land use or change in rainfall characteristic. Both matters should get clarity. Therefore, a research should be done to analyze rainfall characteristic, land use and flood discharge in some watershed area (DAS quantitatively from time series data. The research was conducted in DAS Gintung in Parakankidang, DAS Gung in Danawarih, DAS Rambut in Cipero, DAS Kemiri in Sidapurna and DAS Comal in Nambo, located in Tegal Regency and Pemalang Regency in Central Java Province. This research activity consisted of three main steps: input, DAS system and output. Input is DAS determination and selection and searching secondary data. DAS system is early secondary data processing consisting of rainfall analysis, HSS GAMA I parameter, land type analysis and DAS land use. Output is final processing step that consisting of calculation of Tadashi Tanimoto, USSCS effective rainfall, flood discharge, ARIMA analysis, result analysis and conclusion. Analytical calculation of ARIMA Box-Jenkins time series used software Number Cruncher Statistical Systems and Power Analysis Sample Size (NCSS-PASS version 2000, which result in time series characteristic in form of time series pattern, mean square errors (MSE, root mean square ( RMS, autocorrelation of residual and trend. Result of this research indicates that composite CN and flood discharge is proportional that means when composite CN trend increase then flood discharge trend also increase and vice versa. Meanwhile, decrease of rainfall trend is not always followed with decrease in flood discharge trend. The main cause of flood discharge characteristic is DAS management characteristic, not change in

  8. Competence model in education and training process

    OpenAIRE

    Kovac, Darko

    2008-01-01

    Traditional learning processes in contemporary management practice, especially in global business environment, are being challenged by new approaches. They can not be avoided in the hospitality and tourism industry. Kolb’s experimental learning model is a solid base to build on. Experimental learning theory uses personal and group experiences while taking participants through various stages of learning associated with the theory. However, when talking about concrete experience, reflective obs...

  9. Box-modeling of the impacts of atmospheric nitrogen deposition and benthic remineralization on the nitrogen cycle of the eastern tropical South Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, B.; Pahlow, M.; Oschlies, A.

    2015-09-01

    Both atmospheric deposition and benthic remineralization influence the marine nitrogen cycle, and hence ultimately also marine primary production. The biological and biogeochemical relations of the eastern tropical South Pacific (ETSP) to nitrogen deposition, benthic denitrification and phosphate regeneration are analysed in a prognostic box model of the oxygen, nitrogen and phosphorus cycles in the ETSP. In the model, atmospheric nitrogen deposition based on estimates for the years 2000-2009 is offset by half by reduced N2 fixation, with the other half transported out of the model domain. Both model- and data-based benthic denitrification are found to trigger nitrogen fixation, partly compensating for the NO3- loss. Since phosphate is the ultimate limiting nutrient in the model, enhanced sedimentary phosphate regeneration under suboxic conditions stimulates primary production and subsequent export production and NO3- loss in the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). A sensitivity analysis of the local response to both atmospheric deposition and benthic remineralization indicates dominant stabilizing feedbacks in the ETSP, which tend to keep a balanced nitrogen inventory, i.e., nitrogen input by atmospheric deposition is counteracted by decreasing nitrogen fixation; NO3- loss via benthic denitrification is partly compensated by increased nitrogen fixation; enhanced nitrogen fixation stimulated by phosphate regeneration is partly removed by the stronger water-column denitrification. Even though the water column in our model domain acts as a NO3- source, the ETSP including benthic denitrification might become a NO3- sink.

  10. Effect of material uncertainties on dynamic response of segmental box girder bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchart Limkatanyu

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper was to investigate the effect of material uncertainties on dynamic response of segmental box girder bridge subjected to a moving load, in this case a rapid passing trains. Literatures concerned with the design of segmental box girder bridge, the application of finite element analysis to model the segmental box girder bridge, and the minimum requirement for structural conditions of the bridge were described and discussed in detail. A series of finite element analysis was carried out using SAP2000 Nonlinear software. The effect was investigated by varying the Modulus of Elasticity by 5%, 10% and 15%. The results were then compared with the case of assumed uniform property which had already been checked for model accuracy using the Standard prEN 1991-2. The results showed that, for the uniform case, the dynamic responses of the bridge gave the highest response at the resonance speed. When considering the non-uniform material properties (non-uniform case, the effect of material uncertainties appeared to have an effect on both displacement and acceleration responses. Nonetheless, the dynamic factor provided in the design code was sufficient for designing the segmental box girder bridge with either uniform or non-uniform material properties for the train speeds considered in this study.

  11. Teacher training by means of a school-based model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Richter

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to explore how a school-based training model (SBTM could help to address the shortage of teachers. This model also allows, among other aspects, for poor and disadvantaged students to study while they gain experience. This article reports on the results of the SBTM implemented by a South African university, whereby student teachers are appointed at schools as assistant teachers. A mixed method study was preferred in order to explore the effectiveness of the model. The findings of the research indicate that the majority of teachers, lecturers, students and members of school managements involved were positive regarding the SBTM, and that the advantages of the model outweighed the challenges. It is therefore recommended that the model be implemented as an alternative teacher training programme for the special conditions prevailing in South Africa, as well as other countries that experience a teacher shortage.

  12. Constraining a hybrid volatility basis-set model for aging of wood-burning emissions using smog chamber experiments: a box-model study based on the VBS scheme of the CAMx model (v5.40

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ciarelli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, novel wood combustion aging experiments performed at different temperatures (263 and 288 K in a ∼ 7 m3 smog chamber were modelled using a hybrid volatility basis set (VBS box model, representing the emission partitioning and their oxidation against OH. We combine aerosol–chemistry box-model simulations with unprecedented measurements of non-traditional volatile organic compounds (NTVOCs from a high-resolution proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS and with organic aerosol measurements from an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS. Due to this, we are able to observationally constrain the amounts of different NTVOC aerosol precursors (in the model relative to low volatility and semi-volatile primary organic material (OMsv, which is partitioned based on current published volatility distribution data. By comparing the NTVOC ∕ OMsv ratios at different temperatures, we determine the enthalpies of vaporization of primary biomass-burning organic aerosols. Further, the developed model allows for evaluating the evolution of oxidation products of the semi-volatile and volatile precursors with aging. More than 30 000 box-model simulations were performed to retrieve the combination of parameters that best fit the observed organic aerosol mass and O : C ratios. The parameters investigated include the NTVOC reaction rates and yields as well as enthalpies of vaporization and the O : C of secondary organic aerosol surrogates. Our results suggest an average ratio of NTVOCs to the sum of non-volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds of ∼ 4.75. The mass yields of these compounds determined for a wide range of atmospherically relevant temperatures and organic aerosol (OA concentrations were predicted to vary between 8 and 30 % after 5 h of continuous aging. Based on the reaction scheme used, reaction rates of the NTVOC mixture range from 3.0 × 10−11 to 4. 0 × 10−11 cm3 molec−1 s−1

  13. Constraining a hybrid volatility basis-set model for aging of wood-burning emissions using smog chamber experiments: a box-model study based on the VBS scheme of the CAMx model (v5.40)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarelli, Giancarlo; El Haddad, Imad; Bruns, Emily; Aksoyoglu, Sebnem; Möhler, Ottmar; Baltensperger, Urs; Prévôt, André S. H.

    2017-06-01

    In this study, novel wood combustion aging experiments performed at different temperatures (263 and 288 K) in a ˜ 7 m3 smog chamber were modelled using a hybrid volatility basis set (VBS) box model, representing the emission partitioning and their oxidation against OH. We combine aerosol-chemistry box-model simulations with unprecedented measurements of non-traditional volatile organic compounds (NTVOCs) from a high-resolution proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) and with organic aerosol measurements from an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS). Due to this, we are able to observationally constrain the amounts of different NTVOC aerosol precursors (in the model) relative to low volatility and semi-volatile primary organic material (OMsv), which is partitioned based on current published volatility distribution data. By comparing the NTVOC / OMsv ratios at different temperatures, we determine the enthalpies of vaporization of primary biomass-burning organic aerosols. Further, the developed model allows for evaluating the evolution of oxidation products of the semi-volatile and volatile precursors with aging. More than 30 000 box-model simulations were performed to retrieve the combination of parameters that best fit the observed organic aerosol mass and O : C ratios. The parameters investigated include the NTVOC reaction rates and yields as well as enthalpies of vaporization and the O : C of secondary organic aerosol surrogates. Our results suggest an average ratio of NTVOCs to the sum of non-volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds of ˜ 4.75. The mass yields of these compounds determined for a wide range of atmospherically relevant temperatures and organic aerosol (OA) concentrations were predicted to vary between 8 and 30 % after 5 h of continuous aging. Based on the reaction scheme used, reaction rates of the NTVOC mixture range from 3.0 × 10-11 to 4. 0 × 10-11 cm3 molec-1 s-1. The average enthalpy of vaporization of secondary organic aerosol

  14. Spray irrigation of landfill leachate: estimating potential exposures to workers and bystanders using a modified air box model and generalised source term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Duncan; Pollard, Simon J T; Spence, Lynn; Smith, Richard; Gronow, Jan R

    2005-02-01

    Generalised source term data from UK leachates and a probabilistic exposure model (BPRISC(4)) were used to evaluate key routes of exposure from chemicals of concern during the spraying irrigation of landfill leachate. Risk estimates secured using a modified air box model are reported for a hypothetical worker exposed to selected chemicals within a generalised conceptual exposure model of spray irrigation. Consistent with pesticide spray exposure studies, the key risk driver is dermal exposure to the more toxic components of leachate. Changes in spray droplet diameter (0.02-0.2 cm) and in spray flow rate (50-1000 l/min) have little influence on dermal exposure, although the lesser routes of aerosol ingestion and inhalation are markedly affected. The risk estimates modelled using this conservative worst case exposure scenario are not of sufficient magnitude to warrant major concerns about chemical risks to workers or bystanders from this practice in the general sense. However, the modelling made use of generic concentration data for only a limited number of potential landfill leachate contaminants, such that individual practices may require assessment on the basis of their own merits.

  15. Effect of a training model in local anesthesia teaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, H.S.; Baart, J.A.; Maas, N.E.; Bachet, I.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the preclinical use of a training model in local anesthesia teaching on the subsequent clinical administration of a local anesthetic. Sixty-five dental students gave their first injection to a fellow dental student: twenty-two students after previous experience

  16. A Hierarchy of Management Training Requirements: The Competency Domain Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandwith, Paul

    1993-01-01

    The Competency Domain Model has five domains of management competencies: conceptual/creative, leadership, interpersonal, administrative, and technical. Specific competencies and training plans can be identified in each domain for different levels--first line supervisor, field office manager, assistant manager, area manager, director of operations.…

  17. A Training Model for School, Family, and Community Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinchfield, Tracy A.; Zyromski, Brett

    2010-01-01

    Several authors emphasize the importance of multidisciplinary approaches to working with students, families, and their communities. However, existing school-community collaboration programs have not provided a model for direct clinical services to families using collaborative partnerships with counselors. The authors propose one training model…

  18. A complementary model for medical subspecialty training in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    could also be applied to other disciplines and where the need exists to complement other subspecialist education. The model envisages that all stakeholders in the training of subspecialists need to make a paradigm shift to facilitate changes to accommodate the complementary system, which will benefit both the private and ...

  19. Automation of a dust sampling train | Akinola | Journal of Modeling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Modeling, Design and Management of Engineering Systems ... Abstract. The accuracy of measuring the concentration of particulate matter in flue gas streams by a dust sampling train can be significantly improved or minimized by automating the sampling process using a microprocessor based system.

  20. Opto-Box

    CERN Document Server

    Bertsche, David; The ATLAS collaboration; Welch, Steven; Smith, Dale Shane; Che, Siinn; Gan, K.K.; Boyd, George Russell Jr

    2015-01-01

    The opto-box is a custom mini-crate for housing optical modules, which process and transfer optoelectronic data. The system tightly integrates electrical, mechanical, and thermal functionality into a small package of size 35x10x8 cm^3. Special attention was given to ensure proper shielding, grounding, cooling, high reliability, and environmental tolerance. The custom modules, which incorporate Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs), were developed through a cycle of rigorous testing and redesign. In total, fourteen opto-boxes have been installed and loaded with modules on the ATLAS detector. They are currently in operation as part of the LHC run 2 data read-out chain.

  1. ZnO/Mg-Al Layered Double Hydroxides as a Photocatalytic Bleaching of Methylene Orange - A Black Box Modeling by Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ali Hosseini

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports the development of ZnO-MgAl layered double hydroxides as an adsorbent-photo catalyst to remove the dye pollutants from aqueous solution and the experiments of a photocatalytic study were designed and modeled by response surface methodology (RSM and artificial neural network (ANN. The co-precipitation and urea methods were used to synthesize the ZnO-MgAl layered double hydroxides and FT-IR, XRD and SEM analysis were done for characterization of the catalyst.The performance of the ANN model was determined and showed the efficiency of the model in comparison to the RSM method to predict the percentage of dye removal accurately with a determination coefficient (R2 of 0.968. The optimized conditions were obtained as follows: 600 oC, 120 min, 0.05 g and 20 ppm for the calcination temperature, irradiation time, catalyst amount and dye pollutant concentration, respectively. Copyright © 2016 BCREC GROUP. All rights reserved Received: 22nd January 2016; Revised: 14th March 2016; Accepted:15th March 2016 How to Cite: Hosseini, S.A., Akbari, M. (2016. ZnO/Mg-Al Layered Double Hydroxides as a Photocatalytic Bleaching of Methylene Orange - A Black Box Modeling by Artificial Neural Network. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 11 (3: 299-315 (doi: 10.9767/bcrec.11.3.570.299-315 Permalink/DOI: http://doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.11.3.570.299-315

  2. A phoneme-based student model for adaptive spelling training

    OpenAIRE

    Baschera, Gian-Marco; Gross, Markus H.

    2009-01-01

    We present a novel phoneme-based student model for spelling training. Our model is data driven, adapts to the user and provides information for, e.g., optimal word selection. We describe spelling errors using a set of features accounting for phonemic, capitalization, typo, and other error categories. We compute the influence of individual features on the error expectation values based on previous input data using Poisson regression. This enables us to predict error expectation values and to c...

  3. Communication Skills Training in Pediatric Oncology: Moving Beyond Role Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feraco, Angela M; Brand, Sarah R; Mack, Jennifer W; Kesselheim, Jennifer C; Block, Susan D; Wolfe, Joanne

    2016-06-01

    Communication is central to pediatric oncology care. Pediatric oncologists disclose life-threatening diagnoses, explain complicated treatment options, and endeavor to give honest prognoses, to maintain hope, to describe treatment complications, and to support families in difficult circumstances ranging from loss of function and fertility to treatment-related or disease-related death. However, parents, patients, and providers report substantial communication deficits. Poor communication outcomes may stem, in part, from insufficient communication skills training, overreliance on role modeling, and failure to utilize best practices. This review summarizes evidence for existing methods to enhance communication skills and calls for revitalizing communication skills training within pediatric oncology. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Modelling electric trains energy consumption using Neural Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Fernandez, P.; Garcia Roman, C.; Insa Franco, R.

    2016-07-01

    Nowadays there is an evident concern regarding the efficiency and sustainability of the transport sector due to both the threat of climate change and the current financial crisis. This concern explains the growth of railways over the last years as they present an inherent efficiency compared to other transport means. However, in order to further expand their role, it is necessary to optimise their energy consumption so as to increase their competitiveness. Improving railways energy efficiency requires both reliable data and modelling tools that will allow the study of different variables and alternatives. With this need in mind, this paper presents the development of consumption models based on neural networks that calculate the energy consumption of electric trains. These networks have been trained based on an extensive set of consumption data measured in line 1 of the Valencia Metro Network. Once trained, the neural networks provide a reliable estimation of the vehicles consumption along a specific route when fed with input data such as train speed, acceleration or track longitudinal slope. These networks represent a useful modelling tool that may allow a deeper study of railway lines in terms of energy expenditure with the objective of reducing the costs and environmental impact associated to railways. (Author)

  5. AgMIP Training in Multiple Crop Models and Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boote, Kenneth J.; Porter, Cheryl H.; Hargreaves, John; Hoogenboom, Gerrit; Thornburn, Peter; Mutter, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    The Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) has the goal of using multiple crop models to evaluate climate impacts on agricultural production and food security in developed and developing countries. There are several major limitations that must be overcome to achieve this goal, including the need to train AgMIP regional research team (RRT) crop modelers to use models other than the ones they are currently familiar with, plus the need to harmonize and interconvert the disparate input file formats used for the various models. Two activities were followed to address these shortcomings among AgMIP RRTs to enable them to use multiple models to evaluate climate impacts on crop production and food security. We designed and conducted courses in which participants trained on two different sets of crop models, with emphasis on the model of least experience. In a second activity, the AgMIP IT group created templates for inputting data on soils, management, weather, and crops into AgMIP harmonized databases, and developed translation tools for converting the harmonized data into files that are ready for multiple crop model simulations. The strategies for creating and conducting the multi-model course and developing entry and translation tools are reviewed in this chapter.

  6. A new training model for robot-assisted urethrovesical anastomosis and posterior muscle-fascial reconstruction: the Verona training technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciamani, G; De Marco, V; Siracusano, S; De Marchi, D; Bizzotto, L; Cerruto, M A; Motton, G; Porcaro, A B; Artibani, W

    2017-06-01

    A training model is usually needed to teach robotic surgical technique successfully. In this way, an ideal training model should mimic as much as possible the "in vivo" procedure and allow several consecutive surgical simulations. The goal of this study was to create a "wet lab" model suitable for RARP training programs, providing the simulation of the posterior fascial reconstruction. The second aim was to compare the original "Venezuelan" chicken model described by Sotelo to our training model. Our training model consists of performing an anastomosis, reproducing the surgical procedure in "vivo" as in RARP, between proventriculus and the proximal portion of the esophagus. A posterior fascial reconstruction simulating Rocco's stitch is performed between the tissues located under the posterior surface of the esophagus and the tissue represented by the serosa of the proventriculus. From 2014 to 2015, during 6 different full-immersion training courses, thirty-four surgeons performed the urethrovesical anastomosis using our model and the Sotelo's one. After the training period, each surgeon was asked to fill out a non-validated questionnaire to perform an evaluation of the differences between the two training models. Our model was judged the best model, in terms of similarity with urethral tissue and similarity with the anatomic unit urethra-pelvic wall. Our training model as reported by all trainees is easily reproducible and anatomically comparable with the urethrovesical anastomosis as performed during radical prostatectomy in humans. It is suitable for performing posterior fascial reconstruction reported by Rocco. In this context, our surgical training model could be routinely proposed in all robotic training courses to develop specific expertise in urethrovesical anastomosis with the reproducibility of the Rocco stitch.

  7. Dynamic Modeling and Very Short-term Prediction of Wind Power Output Using Box-Cox Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urata, Kengo; Inoue, Masaki; Murayama, Dai; Adachi, Shuichi

    2016-09-01

    We propose a statistical modeling method of wind power output for very short-term prediction. The modeling method with a nonlinear model has cascade structure composed of two parts. One is a linear dynamic part that is driven by a Gaussian white noise and described by an autoregressive model. The other is a nonlinear static part that is driven by the output of the linear part. This nonlinear part is designed for output distribution matching: we shape the distribution of the model output to match with that of the wind power output. The constructed model is utilized for one-step ahead prediction of the wind power output. Furthermore, we study the relation between the prediction accuracy and the prediction horizon.

  8. Teaching with Box Tops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiser, Lynne; D'Zamko, Mary Elizabeth

    1984-01-01

    Using environmental materials (such as the phone book and placemats from fast food restaurants) can be a motivating way to teach learning disabled students skills and concepts, as shown in an approach to reading, math, science and nutrition, and social studies instruction using a JELL-O brand gelatin box. (CL)

  9. Many-box locality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuqian; Cai, Yu; Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Gao, Fei; Scarani, Valerio

    2017-11-01

    There is an ongoing search for a physical or operational definition for quantum mechanics. Several informational principles have been proposed which are satisfied by a theory less restrictive than quantum mechanics. Here, we introduce the principle of "many-box locality," which is a refined version of the previously proposed "macroscopic locality." These principles are based on coarse graining the statistics of several copies of a given box. The set of behaviors satisfying many-box locality for N boxes is denoted LNM B. We study these sets in the bipartite scenario with two binary measurements, in relation with the sets Q and Q1 +A B of quantum and "almost quantum" correlations, respectively. We find that the LNM B sets are, in general, not convex. For unbiased marginals, by working in the Fourier space we can prove analytically that LNM B⊈Q for any finite N , while L∞M B=Q . Then, with suitably developed numerical tools, we find an example of a point that belongs to L16M B but not to Q1 +A B. Among the problems that remain open is whether Q ⊂L∞M B .

  10. IN-A-BOX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 2. Claude Elwood Shannon. Priti Shankar. Article-in-a-Box Volume 7 Issue 2 February 2002 pp 2-3. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/007/02/0002-0003. Author Affiliations.

  11. Mystery Box Marvels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Joel; Centurio, Tina

    2012-01-01

    What happens in the first week of school could very well set the stage for the rest of the school year. Setting high standards for science activities based in inquiry can start on the first day of science class and develop as the year unfolds. With the use of simple, readily available, inexpensive materials, an efficient mystery box lesson can be…

  12. Mission Command: Reconciling the ARFORGEN Model with Training Doctrine and the Current Operating Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    Training Units and Developing Leaders . 15. SUBJECT TERMS Mission Command, Army Force Generation (ARFORGEN), Training Management , Current Operating...of their training. Lastly, exercise mentorship and empower tactical leaders instead of management through metrics and data points in order to...training management , and the ARFORGEN process. Next, this paper will briefly review examples of force generation models and training studies to provide a

  13. Advanced psychotherapy training: psychotherapy scholars' track, and the apprenticeship model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Robert E; Yager, Joel

    2013-07-01

    Guided by ACGME's requirements, psychiatric residency training in psychotherapy currently focuses on teaching school-specific forms of psychotherapy (i.e., cognitive-behavioral, supportive, and psychodynamic psychotherapy). On the basis of a literature review of common factors affecting psychotherapy outcomes and experience with empirically supported and traditional psychotherapies, the authors aimed to develop an advanced contemporary and pragmatic approach to psychotherapy training for eight residents (two per PGY year) enrolled in a specialized Psychotherapy Scholars' Track within an adult general-residency program. The authors developed core principles and clinical practices, and drafted year-by-year educational goals and objectives to teach the psychotherapy scholars. Based on experiential learning principles, we also developed an individualized form of psychotherapy training, which we call "The Apprenticeship Model." The Psychotherapy Scholars' Track, and "Apprenticeship Model" of training are now in their third year. To date, authors report that scholars are highly satisfied with the structure and curriculum in the track. Trainees appreciate the protected time for self-directed study, mentored scholarship, and psychotherapy rotations. Patients and the Psychotherapy Scholars experience the "Apprenticeship Model" of psychotherapy training as authentic and compatible with their needs and resources. The Psychotherapy Scholars' Track developed and piloted in our general psychiatry residency is based on common factors, empirically-supported treatments, and use of experiential learning principles. Whether the Psychotherapy Scholars' Track and "Apprenticeship Model" will ultimately increase residents' psychotherapy skills and positively affect their ability to sustain postgraduate psychotherapy practice in varied settings requires long-term evaluation. The developers welcome empirical testing of the comparative effectiveness of this psychotherapy teaching approach

  14. Human cadaver brain infusion model for neurosurgical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabe, Jon; Olabe, Javier; Sancho, Vidal

    2009-12-01

    Microneurosurgical technique and anatomical knowledge require extensive laboratory training before mastering these skills. There are diverse training models based on synthetic materials, anesthetized animals, cadaver animals, or human cadaver. Human cadaver models are especially beneficial because they are the closest to live surgery with the greatest disadvantage of lacking hemodynamic factors. We developed the "brain infusion model" to provide a simple but realistic training method minimizing animal use or needs for special facilities. Four human cadaveric brains donated for educational purposes were explanted at autopsy. Carotids and vertebral arteries were cannulated with plastic tubes and fixed with suture. Water was flushed through the tubings until the whole arterial vasculature was observed as clean. The cannulated specimens were fixed with formaldehyde. Tap water infusion at a flow rate of 10 L/h was infused through the arterial tubings controlled with a drip regulator filling the arterial tree and leaking into the interstitial and cisternal space. Multiple microneurosurgical procedures were performed by 4 trainees. Cisternal and vascular dissection was executed in a very realistic fashion. Bypass anastomosis was created as well as aneurysm simulation with venous pouches. Vessel and aneurysm clipping and rupture situations were emulated and solution techniques were trained. Standard microsurgical laboratories regularly have scarce opportunities for working with decapitated human cadaver heads but could have human brains readily available. The human brain infusion model presents a realistic microneurosurgical training method. It is inexpensive and easy to set up. Such simplicity provides the adequate environment for developing microsurgical techniques. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. BOX MEDIA MODEL THROUGH THE USE OF CONTEXTUAL UNDERSTANDING TO IMPROVE STUDENT LEARNING CONCEPTS IN VOLUME BEAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dede Rohaeni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This research is motivated Cilengkrang Elementary School fifth grade students in the learning of the beam volume is still experiencing difficulties. This happens because the learning process that takes place is conventional. Learning by applying a contextual model chosen researchers by reason students will know if the learning is associated with the real world of students. The method used in this research is a classroom action research methods to the design of the research procedure refers to the spiral model Kemmis and MC. Tujuanpenelitianini is to obtain an overview of the planning, implementation and improvement of students' understanding of the results of the application of the concept model of contextual learning in the classroom beam volume V Elementary School Cilengkrang. The method used in this research is a classroom action research methods to the design of the research procedure refers to the spiral model Kemmis and MC. Taggart. Based on the implementation of the actions performed by three cycles, as a whole has shown an increase from the initial data, both process and outcomes of learning. So that the application of contextual models can enhance students' understanding of class V SDN Cilengkrang Northern District of Sumedang Sumedang district of the concept of the beam volume.   Keywords: Contextual Model, Mathematics, Mathematics Learning Objectives     Abstrak. Penelitian ini dilatarbelakangi siswa kelas V SDN Cilengkrang dalam pembelajaran volume balok masih mengalami kesulitan. Ini terjadi karena proses pembelajaran yang berlangsung bersifat konvensional. Pembelajaran dengan menerapkan model kontekstual dipilih peneliti dengan alasan siswa akan paham jika pembelajaran dikaitkan dengan dunia nyata siswa. Metode penelitian yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode penelitian tindakan kelas dengan rancangan prosedur penelitiannya mengacu pada model spiral Kemmis dan MC. Tujuanpenelitianini yaitu untuk memperoleh

  16. Thinking Outside the Box

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Lorne [World Nuclear Transport Institute, Remo House, 310-312 Regent Street, London, W1B 3AX (United Kingdom)

    2009-06-15

    The World Nuclear Transport Institute was formed to fill a need to provide a dedicated vehicle for the radioactive transport and packaging industry sectors worldwide, to exchange information and ideas, all with a view to working toward consolidated industry positions on the key issues affecting safe, efficient and reliable transport. WNTI was also intended to be a strong voice for industry in those international and national bodies where deliberations on such transport safety issues take place. The very fact that companies, sometimes in competition with each other, were prepared to come together in this way, reflects two important points: firstly, it represents an acknowledgement on industry's part that safe, effective and reliable transport is the sine qua non, the absolute essential. And second, it is a recognition that it is enhanced to the extent that industry is able to collaborate to this end. This is thinking outside the box. Another important attribute of safety is 'stability'. Everyone likes to know where he or she stands. The radioactive materials packaging and transport industry thrives within a stable regulatory framework for safety. For a stable regulatory regime allows operators to be properly trained; it allows operators to become familiar with safety requirements, and to be at ease with them. Stability is conducive to safety and efficiency. Stability is good for business too - for stability in package and transport requirements allows sufficient time for a fair return on investment in expensive package design, manufacture, licensing and use over time. Stability should not, however, be opposed to creativity. From experience we can develop new thinking to improve efficiency as illustrated in examples of work related to the packaging and transport of Uranium Concentrates for instance.. Another example is work within WNTI on the thermal test requirements for the packaging of uranium hexafluoride. The robustness of packages is based on the

  17. An Online Approach for Training International Climate Scientists to Use Computer Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarker, M. B.; Mesquita, M. D.; Veldore, V.

    2013-12-01

    With the mounting evidence by the work of IPCC (2007), climate change has been acknowledged as a significant challenge to Sustainable Development by the international community. It is important that scientists in developing countries have access to knowledge and tools so that well-informed decisions can be made about the mitigation and adaptation of climate change. However, training researchers to use climate modeling techniques and data analysis has become a challenge, because current capacity building approaches train researchers to use climate models through short-term workshops, which requires a large amount of funding. It has also been observed that many participants who recently completed capacity building courses still view climate and weather models as a metaphorical 'black box', where data goes in and results comes out; and there is evidence that these participants lack a basic understanding of the climate system. Both of these issues limit the ability of some scientists to go beyond running a model based on rote memorization of the process. As a result, they are unable to solve problems regarding run-time errors, thus cannot determine whether or not their model simulation is reasonable. Current research in the field of science education indicates that there are effective strategies to teach learners about science models. They involve having the learner work with, experiment with, modify, and apply models in a way that is significant and informative to the learner. It has also been noted that in the case of computational models, the installation and set up process alone can be time consuming and confusing for new users, which can hinder their ability to concentrate on using, experimenting with, and applying the model to real-world scenarios. Therefore, developing an online version of capacity building is an alternative approach to the workshop training programs, which makes use of new technologies and it allows for a long-term educational process in a way

  18. Avionics Box Cold Plate Damage Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambolian, Damon; Larcher, Steven; Henderson, Gena; Tran, Donald

    2011-01-01

    Over the years there have been several occurrences of damage to Space Shuttle Orbiter cold plates during removal and replacement of avionics boxes. Thus a process improvement team was put together to determine ways to prevent these kinds of damage. From this effort there were many solutions including, protective covers, training, and improved operations instructions. The focus of this paper is to explain the cold plate damage problem and the corrective actions for preventing future damage to aerospace avionics cold plate designs.

  19. Mastering Lymphatic Microsurgery: A New Training Model in Living Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campisi, Corrado Cesare; Jiga, Lucian P; Ryan, Melissa; di Summa, Pietro G; Campisi, Corradino; Ionac, Mihai

    2017-09-01

    Advanced microsurgical techniques have emerged as a promising approach for the treatment of lymphedema, but achieving international standards is limited by a scarcity of adequate training models. The purpose of this report is to describe our in vivo porcine training model for microsurgery. Five female common-breed pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus) weighing 20 to 28 kg were placed under general anesthesia, and blue patent violet dye was injected to highlight lymphatic structures and prepare the pigs for anatomical exploration and microsurgery. The number and type of patent anastomoses achieved and lymph node flaps created and any anatomical differences between porcine and human vessels were noted, in light of evaluating the use of pigs as a training model for microsurgery in living tissue. Multiple lymphatic-venous anastomoses were created at the site of a single incision made at the subinguinal region, running medial and parallel to the saphenous vessels. Ten multiple lymphatic-venous anastomoses were created in total, and all were demonstrated to be patent. Four lymph node flaps were prepared for lymph node transfer. The superficial lymphatic collector system in the caudal limb of the pig was identified and described with particular reference to the superficial, medial (dominant), and lateral branches along the saphenous vein and its accessory. The authors present a safe and adaptable in vivo experimental microsurgical porcine model that provides the opportunity to practice several advanced lymphatic microsurgical techniques in the same animal. The ideal lymph node transfer training model can be developed from this anatomical detail, giving the opportunity to use it for artery-to-artery anastomoses, vein-to-vein anastomoses, and lymphatic-to-lymphatic anastomoses.

  20. Consensus-based training and assessment model for general surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szasz, P; Louridas, M; de Montbrun, S; Harris, K A; Grantcharov, T P

    2016-05-01

    Surgical education is becoming competency-based with the implementation of in-training milestones. Training guidelines should reflect these changes and determine the specific procedures for such milestone assessments. This study aimed to develop a consensus view regarding operative procedures and tasks considered appropriate for junior and senior trainees, and the procedures that can be used as technical milestone assessments for trainee progression in general surgery. A Delphi process was followed where questionnaires were distributed to all 17 Canadian general surgery programme directors. Items were ranked on a 5-point Likert scale, with consensus defined as Cronbach's α of at least 0·70. Items rated 4 or above on the 5-point Likert scale by 80 per cent of the programme directors were included in the models. Two Delphi rounds were completed, with 14 programme directors taking part in round one and 11 in round two. The overall consensus was high (Cronbach's α = 0·98). The training model included 101 unique procedures and tasks, 24 specific to junior trainees, 68 specific to senior trainees, and nine appropriate to all. The assessment model included four procedures. A system of operative procedures and tasks for junior- and senior-level trainees has been developed along with an assessment model for trainee progression. These can be used as milestones in competency-based assessments. © 2016 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Emerging alternative model for cardiothoracic surgery training in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajan Vaithianathan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: In India, cardiothoracic (CT surgery training follows a 3+3-year model, where 3 years of general surgery residency with certification (MS/DNB is required for entering 3 years of thoracic surgery residency (MCh/DNB. There are two certifying boards at the national level. One being the Medical Council of India (MCI, which oversees the major accreditation process involving the undergraduate and postgraduate medical education in India, and the other being the National Board of Examinations (NBE, which was formed for the purpose of establishing a uniform standard of postgraduate medical education. Recently, the latter body has come up with an alternative model for thoracic surgery residency in India. This model includes an integrated 6-year residency, with lesser emphasis on general surgical skills and greater exposure to CT surgery. Conclusions: Changes to the current model of training for CT surgery is the need of the hour and should be initiated very soon by the MCI to meet the future demand for CT surgeons in India. An integrated training program is essential to create a new generation of cardiovascular specialists. Future directions to achieve this goal must include modifications to the undergraduate programs so as to infuse interest for CT surgery in the young minds of medical students.

  2. A new transcriptome and transcriptome profiling of adult and larval tissue in the box jellyfish Alatina alata: an emerging model for studying venom, vision and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis Ames, Cheryl; Ryan, Joseph F; Bely, Alexandra E; Cartwright, Paulyn; Collins, Allen G

    2016-08-17

    Cubozoans (box jellyfish) are cnidarians that have evolved a number of distinguishing features. Many cubozoans have a particularly potent sting, effected by stinging structures called nematocysts; cubozoans have well-developed light sensation, possessing both image-forming lens eyes and light-sensitive eye spots; and some cubozoans have complex mating behaviors, including aggregations, copulation and internal fertilization. The cubozoan Alatina alata is emerging as a cnidarian model because it forms predictable monthly nearshore breeding aggregations in tropical to subtropical waters worldwide, making both adult and larval material reliably accessible. To develop resources for A. alata, this study generated a functionally annotated transcriptome of adult and larval tissue, applying preliminary differential expression analyses to identify candidate genes involved in nematogenesis and venom production, vision and extraocular sensory perception, and sexual reproduction, which for brevity we refer to as "venom", "vision" and "sex". We assembled a transcriptome de novo from RNA-Seq data pooled from multiple body parts (gastric cirri, ovaries, tentacle (with pedalium base) and rhopalium) of an adult female A. alata medusa and larval planulae. Our transcriptome comprises ~32 K transcripts, after filtering, and provides a basis for analyzing patterns of gene expression in adult and larval box jellyfish tissues. Furthermore, we annotated a large set of candidate genes putatively involved in venom, vision and sex, providing an initial molecular characterization of these complex features in cubozoans. Expression profiles and gene tree reconstruction provided a number of preliminary insights into the putative sites of nematogenesis and venom production, regions of phototransduction activity and fertilization dynamics in A. alata. Our Alatina alata transcriptome significantly adds to the genomic resources for this emerging cubozoan model. This study provides the first

  3. Basic models modeling resistance training: an update for basic scientists interested in study skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholewa, Jason; Guimarães-Ferreira, Lucas; da Silva Teixeira, Tamiris; Naimo, Marshall Alan; Zhi, Xia; de Sá, Rafaele Bis Dal Ponte; Lodetti, Alice; Cardozo, Mayara Quadros; Zanchi, Nelo Eidy

    2014-09-01

    Human muscle hypertrophy brought about by voluntary exercise in laboratorial conditions is the most common way to study resistance exercise training, especially because of its reliability, stimulus control and easy application to resistance training exercise sessions at fitness centers. However, because of the complexity of blood factors and organs involved, invasive data is difficult to obtain in human exercise training studies due to the integration of several organs, including adipose tissue, liver, brain and skeletal muscle. In contrast, studying skeletal muscle remodeling in animal models are easier to perform as the organs can be easily obtained after euthanasia; however, not all models of resistance training in animals displays a robust capacity to hypertrophy the desired muscle. Moreover, some models of resistance training rely on voluntary effort, which complicates the results observed when animal models are employed since voluntary capacity is something theoretically impossible to measure in rodents. With this information in mind, we will review the modalities used to simulate resistance training in animals in order to present to investigators the benefits and risks of different animal models capable to provoke skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Our second objective is to help investigators analyze and select the experimental resistance training model that best promotes the research question and desired endpoints. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Hermit Points on a Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Richard; Grinstead, Charles; Grindstead, Marshall; Bergstrand, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    Suppose that we are given a rectangular box in 3-space. Given any two points on the surface of this box, we can define the surface distance between them to be the length of the shortest path between them on the surface of the box. This paper determines the pairs of points of maximum surface distance for all boxes. It is often the case that these…

  5. The development of multi-model rehabilitation training system for lower limb sitting function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianfeng; Sun, Yue; Wu, Qun

    2017-04-01

    The multi-model rehabilitation training system was manufactured according to the demands of patients' practical training. Through the use of the patient's exercise physiology information, the ability of muscle force and movement efficiency of the patient were identified. Following with medical rehabilitation therapy, the training model, a combination of active and passive training, was proposed to enhance the training efficiency and rehabilitation effect. Furthermore, taking the sitting movement training as an example, the research theory was applied in knee rehabilitation training. The results of the research provid technical support and practical reference to the relevant training equipment designs and clinical applications.

  6. Modeling Piezoceramic Twist Actuation in Single-Cell Anisotropic Torque Box of Low-Observable UAV Wing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cseke, Peter

    2000-01-01

    .... This creates torsion about the elastic axis, and a change in the wing lift coefficient. The torsion of the designed baseline UAV's wing torquebox was modeled in the presence of a full complement of air-loads by extending the Bredt-Batho theorem...

  7. The analytic solution of the firm's cost-minimization problem with box constraints and the Cobb-Douglas model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayón, L.; Grau, J. M.; Ruiz, M. M.; Suárez, P. M.

    2012-12-01

    One of the most well-known problems in the field of Microeconomics is the Firm's Cost-Minimization Problem. In this paper we establish the analytical expression for the cost function using the Cobb-Douglas model and considering maximum constraints for the inputs. Moreover we prove that it belongs to the class C1.

  8. Food Safety training: A Model HACCP Instructional Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Georgakopoulos, Vassilis

    2008-01-01

    This research project reports the findings of an original study with regards to a new Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) instructional technique to be used for training purposes. The study investigated the effectiveness of a model HACCP instructional technique, the main characteristics of which are the adoption of a new methodology when teaching HACCP and the use of the emerging computer-based technology of Virtual Reality (VR). The findings highlight the advantages offered by the...

  9. Preventive practicum training in healthcare organizations. The Meharry model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, R S; St Onge, J; Moriarty, C J; Bailey, S; Logan, T; Zhu, K; Nelson, B K; Hodder, R A; Marino, W

    1999-07-01

    Practicum training for preventive medicine residents often occurs in agencies whose community is geographically defined and whose governance is closely linked to public election. We were unsure about the financial ability of such departments to support training and are concerned that over-reliance on traditional health departments might not be best for either medically indigent populations or preventive medicine. We, therefore, sought to apply a public health model--based on a strategic partnership between nursing and preventive medicine--to a large health care organization. The result was formation of a mini-health department, suitable for fully accredited preventive medicine practicum training, within the Alvin C. York Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Murfreesboro, TN. This Center serves a defined population of 21,594 patients and about 1600 employees. The theoretical framework for the new department was based on demonstration of a close fit between the competencies expected of preventive medicine physicians by the American College of Preventive Medicine (ACPM) and activities required by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO). Because of JCAHO requirements, many healthcare organizations already pay for preventive medicine services. By placing preventive medicine training faculty into existing budget slots at our institution, systemwide personnel costs for prevention decreased by about $36,000 per year, even as personnel funding for preventive medicine physicians increased from about $24,000 to $376,000 per year. Moreover, there was dramatic, sustained improvement in 17 indicators of preventive care quality as determined by an external peer review organization. In addition to providing a new venue for training, this model may also improve the quality and reach of preventive services, decreased fixed costs for service delivery, and yield new employment opportunities for preventive medicine physicians.

  10. Opto-Box

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00377159; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The opto-box is a custom mini-crate for housing optical modules, which process and transfer optoelectronic data. Many novel solutions were developed for the custom design and manufacturing. The system tightly integrates electrical, mechanical, and thermal functionality into a small package of size 35x10x8 cm$^{3}$. Special attention was given to ensure proper shielding, grounding, cooling, high reliability, and environmental tolerance. The custom modules, which incorporate Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs), were developed through a cycle of rigorous testing and redesign. In total, fourteen opto-boxes have been installed and loaded with modules on the ATLAS detector. They are currently in operation as part of the LHC run 2 data read-out chain.

  11. Deep Cropping via Attention Box Prediction and Aesthetics Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wenguan; Shen, Jianbing

    2017-01-01

    We model the photo cropping problem as a cascade of attention box regression and aesthetic quality classification, based on deep learning. A neural network is designed that has two branches for predicting attention bounding box and analyzing aesthetics, respectively. The predicted attention box is treated as an initial crop window where a set of cropping candidates are generated around it, without missing important information. Then, aesthetics assessment is employed to select the final crop ...

  12. Boxed Permutation Pattern Matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amit, Mika; Bille, Philip; Cording, Patrick Hagge

    2016-01-01

    the goal is to only find the boxed subsequences of T that are order-isomorphic to P. This problem was introduced by Bruner and Lackner who showed that it can be solved in O(n3) time. Cho et al. [CPM 2015] gave an O(n2m) time algorithm and improved it to O(n2 logm). In this paper we present a solution...

  13. Reconciling White-Box and Black-Box Perspectives on Behavioral Self-adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Bruni, Roberto; Corradini, Andrea; Gadducci, Fabio; Hölzl, Matthias; Lluch Lafuente, Alberto; Vandin, Andrea; Wirsing, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes to reconcile two perspectives on behavioral adaptation commonly taken at different stages of the engineering of autonomic computing systems. Requirements engineering activities often take a black-box perspective: A system is considered to be adaptive with respect to an environment whenever the system is able to satisfy its goals irrespectively of the environment perturbations. Modeling and programming engineering activities often take a white-box perspective: A system is e...

  14. Percutaneous renal surgery: new model for learning and training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Earp Pedro P. de Sá

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Aiming at promoting and facilitating learning and training in percutaneous renal surgery, we have created an easy to assemble, reproducible and cheap laboratory model. The model was built using pig kidney, foam layer, plastic catheter, linen or cotton holding sutures, and wide scotch tape. SURGICAL TECHNIQUE: The kidney with catheterized ureter is fixed and involved in a foam layer. It stays hidden, and is visible only through radioscopy. This model is positioned and fixed to a radiological table in such a way that it simulates the patient’s lumbar region. After that, contrast medium is injected through the ureter, and the urinary system is examined through radioscopy. All percutaneous maneuvers can be accomplished, from the puncture, tract dilation, insertion of Amplatz sheath, and introduction of nephroscope, allowing lithotripsy and endopielotomy, as well as other types of percutaneous surgeries. COMMENTS: The great advantage of this model is its easy construction, by using very cheap and widely available material. Foam can be several times washed and reused. After treatment, the model can be immediately open, and a critical analysis can be made, being then possible to verify if the place of renal puncture was well chosen, if dilation was correctly accomplished, and if the collecting system has been preserved. Therefore, this model can represent a great advance for the learning and training in percutaneous surgery.

  15. Modelling expected train passenger delays on large scale railway networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2006-01-01

    Forecasts of regularity for railway systems have traditionally – if at all – been computed for trains, not for passengers. Relatively recently it has become possible to model and evaluate the actual passenger delays by a passenger regularity model for the operation already carried out. First the ...... and compare future scenarios. In this way it is possible to estimate the network effects of the passengers and to identify critical stations or sections in the railway network for further investigation or optimization.......Forecasts of regularity for railway systems have traditionally – if at all – been computed for trains, not for passengers. Relatively recently it has become possible to model and evaluate the actual passenger delays by a passenger regularity model for the operation already carried out. First...... the paper describes the passenger regularity model used to calculate passenger delays of the Copenhagen suburban rail network the previous day. Secondly, the paper describes how it is possible to estimate future passenger delays by combining the passenger regularity model with railway simulation software...

  16. Music training and inhibitory control: a multidimensional model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Sylvain; Farzan, Faranak

    2015-03-01

    Training programs aimed to improve cognitive skills have either yielded mixed results or remain to be validated. The limited benefits of such regimens are largely attributable to weak understanding of (1) how (and which) interventions provide the most cognitive improvements; and (2) how brain networks and neural mechanisms that underlie specific cognitive abilities can be modified selectively. Studies indicate that music training leads to robust and long-lasting benefits to behavior. Importantly, behavioral advantages conferred by music extend beyond perceptual abilities to even nonauditory functions, such as inhibitory control (IC) and its neural correlates. Alternative forms of arts engagement or brain training do not appear to yield such enhancements, which suggests that music uniquely taps into brain networks subserving a variety of auditory as well as domain-general mechanisms such as IC. To account for such widespread benefits of music training, we propose a framework of transfer effects characterized by three dimensions: level of processing, nature of the transfer, and involvement of executive functions. We suggest that transfer of skills is mediated through modulation of general cognitive processes, in particular IC. We believe that this model offers a viable framework to test the extent and limitations of music-related changes. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  17. The Uncertain Role of Biogenic VOC for Boundary-Layer Ozone Concentration: Example Investigation of Emissions from Two Forest Types with a Box Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Bonn

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available High levels of air pollution including ground level ozone significantly reduce humans’ life expectancy and cause forest damage and decreased tree growth. The French Vosges and the German Black Forest are regions well-known for having the highest tropospheric ozone concentrations at remote forested sites in Central Europe. This box model study investigates the sensitivity of atmospheric chemistry calculations of derived ozone on differently resolved forest tree composition and volatile organic compound emissions. Representative conditions were chosen for the Upper Rhine area including the Alsatian Vosges/France and the Black Forest/Germany during summer. This study aims to answer the following question: What level of input detail for Alsace and Black Forest tree mixtures is required to accurately simulate ozone formation? While the French forest in Alsace—e.g., in the Vosges—emits isoprene to a substantially higher extent than the forest at the German site, total monoterpene emissions at the two sites are rather similar. However, the individual monoterpene structures, and therefore their reactivity, differs. This causes a higher ozone production rate for Vosges forest mixture conditions than for Black Forest tree mixtures at identical NOx levels, with the difference increasing with temperature. The difference in ozone formation is analyzed in detail and the short-comings of reduced descriptions are discussed. The outcome serves as a to-do-list to allow accurate future ozone predictions influenced by the climate adaptation of forests and the change in forest species composition.

  18. Model-Based Reasoning in Humans Becomes Automatic with Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lübbert, Annika; Guitart-Masip, Marc; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2015-01-01

    Model-based and model-free reinforcement learning (RL) have been suggested as algorithmic realizations of goal-directed and habitual action strategies. Model-based RL is more flexible than model-free but requires sophisticated calculations using a learnt model of the world. This has led model-based RL to be identified with slow, deliberative processing, and model-free RL with fast, automatic processing. In support of this distinction, it has recently been shown that model-based reasoning is impaired by placing subjects under cognitive load—a hallmark of non-automaticity. Here, using the same task, we show that cognitive load does not impair model-based reasoning if subjects receive prior training on the task. This finding is replicated across two studies and a variety of analysis methods. Thus, task familiarity permits use of model-based reasoning in parallel with other cognitive demands. The ability to deploy model-based reasoning in an automatic, parallelizable fashion has widespread theoretical implications, particularly for the learning and execution of complex behaviors. It also suggests a range of important failure modes in psychiatric disorders. PMID:26379239

  19. Model-Based Reasoning in Humans Becomes Automatic with Training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Economides

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Model-based and model-free reinforcement learning (RL have been suggested as algorithmic realizations of goal-directed and habitual action strategies. Model-based RL is more flexible than model-free but requires sophisticated calculations using a learnt model of the world. This has led model-based RL to be identified with slow, deliberative processing, and model-free RL with fast, automatic processing. In support of this distinction, it has recently been shown that model-based reasoning is impaired by placing subjects under cognitive load--a hallmark of non-automaticity. Here, using the same task, we show that cognitive load does not impair model-based reasoning if subjects receive prior training on the task. This finding is replicated across two studies and a variety of analysis methods. Thus, task familiarity permits use of model-based reasoning in parallel with other cognitive demands. The ability to deploy model-based reasoning in an automatic, parallelizable fashion has widespread theoretical implications, particularly for the learning and execution of complex behaviors. It also suggests a range of important failure modes in psychiatric disorders.

  20. Rates and regimes of photochemical ozone production over Central East China in June 2006: a box model analysis using comprehensive measurements of ozone precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kanaya

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available An observation-based box model approach was undertaken to estimate concentrations of OH, HO2, and RO2 radicals and the net photochemical production rate of ozone at the top of Mount Tai, located in the middle of Central East China, in June 2006. The model calculation was constrained by the measurements of O3, H2O, CO, NO, NO2, hydrocarbon, HCHO, and CH3CHO concentrations, and temperature and J values. The net production rate of ozone was estimated to be 6.4 ppb h−1 as a 6-h average (09:00–15:00 CST, suggesting 58±37 ppb of ozone is produced in one day. Thus the daytime buildup of ozone recorded at the mountain top as ~23 ppb on average is likely affected by in situ photochemistry as well as by the upward transport of polluted air mass in the daytime. On days with high ozone concentrations (hourly values exceeding 100 ppb at least once, in situ photochemistry was more active than it was on low ozone days, suggesting that in situ photochemistry is an important factor controlling ozone concentrations. Sensitivity model runs for which different NOx and hydrocarbon concentrations were assumed suggested that the ozone production occurred normally under NOx-limited conditions, with some exceptional periods (under volatile-organic-compound-limited conditions in which there was fresh pollution. We also examined the possible influence of the heterogeneous loss of gaseous HO2 radicals in contact with aerosol particle surfaces on the rate and regimes of ozone production.

  1. A novel supermicrosurgery training model: the chicken thigh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei F; Eid, Anas; Yamamoto, Takumi; Keith, Jerrod; Nimmons, Grace L; Lawrence, W Thomas

    2014-07-01

    Supermicrosurgery is an increasingly important technique in reconstructive surgery. It requires a more technically refined skill set compared with standard microsurgery. All currently available biologic training models involve the use of live rats. A nonliving model would be more accessible and cost-effective for practice. We have developed such a model using chicken thighs purchased from a local grocery store. The ischiatic neurovascular bundle was identified in 20 chicken thighs and dissected distally to the end of the specimen. The vessel diameters were measured at several points along the artery, vein, and their respective branches. Vessels with diameters in the 0.3-0.8-mm range were then divided and supermicrosurgical anastomoses were attempted. The branching pattern of the ischiatic artery and vein were anatomically consistent with intermediate and terminal secondary and tertiary branches consistently in the range of 0.3-0.8 mm. In all specimens, at least one 0.3-mm vessel could be identified, though additional intramuscular dissection was sometimes required. It was demonstrated that supermicrosurgical anastomoses could be successfully performed using these branches. This study introduces a novel, convenient, and economical model for supermicrosurgery utilizing easily obtained chicken thighs. The chicken thighs have an anatomically consistent vascular branching pattern, and vessels of appropriate sizes for training can be easily identified and isolated. Surgeons looking to develop or refine supermicrosurgical skills may find this nonliving, biologic model very useful. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Andragogical Model in Language Training of Mining Specialists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondareva, Evgeniya; Chistyakova, Galina; Kleshevskyi, Yury; Sergeev, Sergey; Stepanov, Aleksey

    2017-11-01

    Nowadays foreign language competence is one of the main professional skills of mining engineers. Modern competitive conditions require the ability for meeting production challenges in a foreign language from specialists and managers of mining enterprises. This is the reason of high demand on foreign language training/retraining courses. Language training of adult learners fundamentally differs from children and adolescent education. The article describes the features of andragogical learning model. The authors conclude that distance learning is the most productive education form having a number of obvious advantages over traditional (in-class) one. Interactive learning method that involves active engagement of adult trainees appears to be of the greatest interest due to introduction of modern information and communication technologies for distance learning.

  3. Andragogical Model in Language Training of Mining Specialists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondareva Evgeniya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays foreign language competence is one of the main professional skills of mining engineers. Modern competitive conditions require the ability for meeting production challenges in a foreign language from specialists and managers of mining enterprises. This is the reason of high demand on foreign language training/retraining courses. Language training of adult learners fundamentally differs from children and adolescent education. The article describes the features of andragogical learning model. The authors conclude that distance learning is the most productive education form having a number of obvious advantages over traditional (in-class one. Interactive learning method that involves active engagement of adult trainees appears to be of the greatest interest due to introduction of modern information and communication technologies for distance learning.

  4. Previsão de demanda: uma aplicação dos modelos Box-Jenkins na área de assistência técnica de computadores pessoais Demand forecasting: an application of the Box-Jenkins models in the technical assistance of personal computer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liane Werner

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A previsão de demanda é uma atividade importante para auxiliar na determinação dos recursos necessários para a empresa. Neste artigo, a metodologia de Box-Jenkins foi utilizada para analisar dados históricos de uma empresa de assistência técnica de computadores pessoais e obter previsões do número de atendimentos. A empresa estudada apresenta três tipos de clientes diferenciados: contratos, garantia e avulsos. Como cada segmento de clientes tem suas peculiaridades, a previsão de demanda foi direcionada a cada tipo, buscando representar o comportamento de tendência e a sazonalidade por meio dos modelos de Box-Jenkins. A obtenção dos modelos mais adequados foi baseada na análise de gráficos e em testes estatísticos próprios da metodologia, os quais subsidiaram a decisão de adotar o modelo AR(1 para prever o número de atendimentos dos clientes tipo contrato, o modelo ARIMA(2,1,0 para os clientes tipo garantia e um modelo sazonal SARIMA(0,1,0(0,1,112 para os clientes tipo avulsos.Demand forecasting is an important tool to aid on the determination of necessary resources of a given company. In this paper, the Box-Jenkins methodology was applied to analyze historical data of a personal computer repair company and provide a forecast for the number of service calls. The company studied presents three segments of clients: contracts, warranty, and on-call. As each client has it own characteristics, in order to better represent tendency and seasonality behavior through the Box-Jenkins models, a specific forecasting model was developed for each segment. The choice of the optimum models were based into graphic analysis and statistical tests, which lead to the decision of adopting the AR(1 model to foresee the number of contract clients, the ARIMA(2,1,0 model for warranty clients and the SARIMA(0,1,0(0,1,112 seasonal model for on-call clients.

  5. Evaluation of a dental model for training veterinary students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumbis, Rachel H; Gregory, Susan P; Baillie, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Periodontal disease has deleterious effects on an animal's health and potentially serious implications for its welfare. Consequently, veterinarians frequently perform routine periodontal treatment in small-animal practice. One would therefore assume that small-animal dentistry would constitute a core component of a veterinary curriculum. However, most practitioners received little or no formal training in dentistry during their veterinary degrees, and the amount of instruction students currently receive is variable, often with limited opportunities to practice. At the Royal Veterinary College, a prototype dental model was developed to address the lack of practical training; it was made using ceramic tiles, silicone sealant, and grout to emulate teeth, gingiva, and calculus, respectively. A study was conducted with third-year veterinary students to compare the outcomes of learning to perform a professional dental cleaning using a model (group A) or a video (group B). Performance was assessed using an objective structured clinical examination. Students in group A scored significantly better than those in group B (pdentistry-related skills. All students identified a model as a potentially valuable learning tool to supplement existing teaching methods and facilitate the acquisition of small-animal dentistry skills. The dental model has the potential to equip students with useful, practical skills in a safe and risk-free environment.

  6. Human cadaver brain infusion skull model for neurosurgical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabe, Jon; Olabe, Javier; Roda, Jose Maria; Sancho, Vidal

    2011-01-01

    Microsurgical technique and anatomical knowledge require extensive laboratory training. Human cadaver models are especially valuable as they supply a good microsurgical training environment simultaneously providing authentic brain anatomy. We developed the "skull infusion model" as an extension of our previous "brain infusion model" taking it a step further maintaining simplicity but enhancing realism. Four human cadaveric brains donated for educational purposes were explanted at autopsy. The specimens were prepared cannulating carotid and vertebral arteries with plastic tubings, flushed with abundant water and fixed for 1 month in formaldehyde. They were then enclosed with white silk clothing (emulating the dura mater) and inserted into human skulls cut previously into two pieces. Tap water at a flow rate of 10 L/h was infused through the arterial tubings. Diverse microsurgical procedures were performed by two trainees, including craniotomies with microsurgical approaches and techniques such as sylvian fissure exposure, extra-intracranial and intra-intracranial bypass, approaches to the ventricles and choroidal fissure opening. The water infusion fills the arterial system, leaking into the interstitial and cisternal space and finally moistening the whole specimen. This makes vascular microsurgical techniques become extremely realistic, increasing its compliance making manipulations easier and more authentic. Standard microsurgical laboratories frequently have difficulties to work with decapitated human cadaver heads but could have human brains readily available. Using the infusion model and inserting it in a human skull makes the environment much more realistic. Its simplicity and inexpensiveness make it a good alternative for developing microsurgical techniques.

  7. Simultaneous lidar observations of a polar stratospheric cloud on the east and west sides of the Scandinavian mountains and microphysical box model simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Blum

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of polar stratospheric clouds (PSC for polar ozone depletion is well established. Lidar experiments are well suited to observe and classify polar stratospheric clouds. On 5 January 2005 a PSC was observed simultaneously on the east and west sides of the Scandinavian mountains by ground-based lidars. This cloud was composed of liquid particles with a mixture of solid particles in the upper part of the cloud. Multi-colour measurements revealed that the liquid particles had a mode radius of r≈300 nm, a distribution width of σ≈1.04 and an altitude dependent number density of N≈2–20 cm−3. Simulations with a microphysical box model show that the cloud had formed about 20 h before observation. High HNO3 concentrations in the PSC of 40–50 weight percent were simulated in the altitude regions where the liquid particles were observed, while this concentration was reduced to about 10 weight percent in that part of the cloud where a mixture between solid and liquid particles was observed by the lidar. The model simulations also revealed a very narrow particle size distribution with values similar to the lidar observations. Below and above the cloud almost no HNO3 uptake was simulated. Although the PSC shows distinct wave signatures, no gravity wave activity was observed in the temperature profiles measured by the lidars and meteorological analyses support this observation. The observed cloud must have formed in a wave field above Iceland about 20 h prior to the measurements and the cloud wave pattern was advected by the background wind to Scandinavia. In this wave field above Iceland temperatures potentially dropped below the ice formation temperature, so that ice clouds may have formed which can act as condensation nuclei for the nitric acid trihydrate (NAT particles observed at the cloud top above Esrange.

  8. Cisplatin prevents high mobility group box 1 release and is protective in a murine model of hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinal, Jon; Pan, Pinhua; Dhupar, Rajeev; Ross, Mark; Nakao, Atsunori; Lotze, Michael; Billiar, Timothy; Geller, David; Tsung, Allan

    2009-08-01

    The nuclear protein high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is an important inflammatory mediator involved in the pathogenesis of liver ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Strategies aimed at preventing its release from stressed or damaged cells may be beneficial in preventing inflammation after I/R. Cisplatin is a member of the platinating chemotherapeutic agents and can induce DNA lesions that are capable of retaining high mobility group proteins inside the nucleus of cells. In vitro studies in primary cultured rat hepatocytes show that nontoxic concentrations of cisplatin can sequester HMGB1 inside the nucleus of hypoxic cells. Similarly, the in vivo administration of nontoxic doses of cisplatin prevents liver damage associated with a well-established murine model of hepatic I/R as measured by lower circulating serum aminotransferase levels, lower hepatic inflammatory cytokine levels including tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6, lower inducible NO synthase expression, and fewer I/R-associated histopathologic changes. The mechanism of action in vivo appears to involve the capacity of cisplatin to prevent the I/R-induced release of HMGB1 as well as to alter cell survival and stress signaling in the form of autophagy and mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, respectively. Low, nontoxic doses of cisplatin can sequester HMGB1 inside the nucleus of redox-stressed hepatocytes in vitro and prevent its release in vivo in a murine model of hepatic I/R. Furthermore, cell survival and stress signaling pathways are altered by low-dose cisplatin. Therefore, platinating agents may provide a novel approach to mitigating the deleterious effects of I/R-mediated disease processes.

  9. Controlled Delivery of T-box21 Small Interfering RNA Ameliorates Autoimmune Alopecia (Alopecia Areata) in a C3H/HeJ Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Motonobu; Jo, Jun-ichiro; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Ishikawa, Osamu

    2008-01-01

    Autoimmune alopecia (alopecia areata) is considered to be triggered by a collapse of immune privilege in hair follicles. Here we confirmed that infiltrating CD4 T lymphocytes around hair follicles of patients with alopecia areata were primarily CCR5-positive with few CCR4-positive cells, suggesting a dominant role of Th1 cells in the alopecic lesion. Given this finding, we sought to elucidate the effect of cytokine therapy in C3H/HeJ mice, a mouse model of alopecia areata, by applying recombinant interleukin-4 and neutralizing anti-interferon-γ antibody. We found that local injections of both interleukin-4 and neutralizing anti-interferon-γ antibody effectively treated alopecia in C3H/HeJ mice. Results from immunohistochemistry and semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that intralesional injection of interleukin-4 suppressed CD8 T cell infiltrates around the hair follicles and repressed enhanced interferon-γ mRNA expression in the affected alopecic skin. Furthermore, Th1 transcription factor T-box21 small interfering RNAs conjugated to cationized gelatin showed mitigating effects on alopecia in C3H/HeJ mice, resulting in the restoration of hair shaft elongation. Taken together, the use of gelatin–small interfering RNA conjugates promises to be a novel, efficient, and safe tool as an alternative gene therapy for the treatment of various human diseases. To our knowledge, this is the first report of effective controlled delivery of small interfering RNA using biodegradable cationized gelatin microspheres in an animal model of disease. PMID:18245811

  10. Simultaneous lidar observations of a polar stratospheric cloud on the east and west sides of the Scandinavian mountains and microphysical box model simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Blum

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of polar stratospheric clouds (PSC for polar ozone depletion is well established. Lidar experiments are well suited to observe and classify polar stratospheric clouds. On 5 January 2005 a PSC was observed simultaneously on the east and west sides of the Scandinavian mountains by ground-based lidars. This cloud was composed of liquid particles with a mixture of solid particles in the upper part of the cloud. Multi-colour measurements revealed that the liquid particles had a mode radius of r≈300 nm, a distribution width of σ≈1.04 and an altitude dependent number density of N≈2–20 cm−3. Simulations with a microphysical box model show that the cloud had formed about 20 h before observation. High HNO3 concentrations in the PSC of 40–50 weight percent were simulated in the altitude regions where the liquid particles were observed, while this concentration was reduced to about 10 weight percent in that part of the cloud where a mixture between solid and liquid particles was observed by the lidar. The model simulations also revealed a very narrow particle size distribution with values similar to the lidar observations. Below and above the cloud almost no HNO3 uptake was simulated. Although the PSC shows distinct wave signatures, no gravity wave activity was observed in the temperature profiles measured by the lidars and meteorological analyses support this observation. The observed cloud must have formed in a wave field above Iceland about 20 h prior to the measurements and the cloud wave pattern was advected by the background wind to Scandinavia. In this wave field above Iceland temperatures potentially dropped below the ice formation temperature, so that ice clouds may have formed which can act as condensation nuclei for the nitric acid trihydrate (NAT particles observed at the cloud top above Esrange.

  11. Training Post-9/11 Police Officers with a Counter-Terrorism Reality-Based Training Model: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative holistic multiple-case study was to identify the optimal theoretical approach for a Counter-Terrorism Reality-Based Training (CTRBT) model to train post-9/11 police officers to perform effectively in their counter-terrorism assignments. Post-9/11 police officers assigned to counter-terrorism duties are not trained…

  12. A Model for Reintegrating Couples and Family Therapy Training in Psychiatric Residency Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rait, Douglas; Glick, Ira

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors propose a family-systems training model for general residency training programs in psychiatry based on the couples and family therapy training program in Stanford's Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences. Methods: The authors review key elements in couples and family therapy training. Examples are drawn from the…

  13. Firm-Related Training Tracks: A Random Effects Ordered Probit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groot, Wim; van den Brink, Henriette Maassen

    2003-01-01

    A random effects ordered response model of training is estimated to analyze the existence of training tracks and time varying coefficients in training frequency. Two waves of a Dutch panel survey of workers are used covering the period 1992-1996. The amount of training received by workers increased during the period 1994-1996 compared to…

  14. Small, Lightweight, Collapsible Glove Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    A small, lightweight, collapsible glove box enables its user to perform small experiments and other tasks. Originally intended for use aboard a space shuttle or the International Space Station (ISS), this glove box could also be attractive for use on Earth in settings in which work space or storage space is severely limited and, possibly, in which it is desirable to minimize weight. The development of this glove box was prompted by the findings that in the original space-shuttle or ISS setting, (1) it was necessary to perform small experiments in a large general-purpose work station, so that, in effect, they occupied excessive space; and it took excessive amounts of time to set up small experiments. The design of the glove box reflects the need to minimize the space occupied by experiments and the time needed to set up experiments, plus the requirement to limit the launch weight of the box and the space needed to store the box during transport into orbit. To prepare the glove box for use, the astronaut or other user has merely to insert hands through the two fabric glove ports in the side walls of the box and move two hinges to a locking vertical position (see figure). The user could do this while seated with the glove box on the user fs lap. When stowed, the glove box is flat and has approximately the thickness of two pieces of 8-in. (.20 cm) polycarbonate.

  15. Outage Analysis of Train-to-Train Communication Model over Nakagami-m Channel in High-Speed Railway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengyu Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the end-to-end outage performance of high-speed-railway train-to-train communication model in high-speed railway over independent identical and nonidentical Nakagami-m channels. The train-to-train communication is inter-train communication without an aid of infrastructure (for base station. Source train uses trains on other rail tracks as relays to transmit signals to destination train on the same track. The mechanism of such communication among trains can be divided into three cases based on occurrence of possible-occurrence relay trains. We first present a new closed form for the sum of squared independent Nakagami-m variates and then derive an expression for the outage probability of the identical and non-identical Nakagami-m channels in three cases. In particular, the problem is improved by the proposed formulation that statistic for sum of squared Nakagami-m variates with identical m tends to be infinite. Numerical analysis indicates that the derived analytic results are reasonable and the outage performance is better over Nakagami-m channel in high-speed railway scenarios.

  16. Comprehensive Analysis of Chicken Vessels as Microvascular Anastomosis Training Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Young Kang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundNonliving chickens are commonly used as a microvascular anastomosis training model. However, previous studies have investigated only a few types of vessel, and no study has compared the characteristics of the various vessels. The present study evaluated the anatomic characteristics of various chicken vessels as a training model.MethodsEight vessels—the brachial artery, basilic vein, radial artery, ulnar artery, ischiatic artery and vein, cranial tibial artery, and common dorsal metatarsal artery—were evaluated in 26 fresh chickens and 30 chicken feet for external diameter (ED and thicknesses of the tunica adventitia and media. The dissection time from skin incision to application of vessel clamps was also measured.ResultsThe EDs of the vessels varied. The ischiatic vein had the largest ED of 2.69±0.33 mm, followed by the basilic vein (1.88±0.36 mm, ischiatic artery (1.68±0.24 mm, common dorsal metatarsal artery (1.23±0.23 mm, cranial tibial artery (1.18±0.19 mm, brachial artery (1.08±0.15 mm, ulnar artery (0.82±0.13 mm, and radial artery (0.56±0.12 mm, and the order of size was consistent across all subjects. Thicknesses of the tunica adventitia and media were also diverse, ranging from 74.09±19.91 µm to 158.66±40.25 µm (adventitia and from 31.2±7.13 µm to 154.15±46.48 µm (media, respectively. Mean dissection time was <3 minutes for all vessels.ConclusionsOur results suggest that nonliving chickens can provide various vessels with different anatomic characteristics, which can allow trainees the choice of an appropriate microvascular anastomosis training model depending on their purpose and skillfulness.

  17. Efektivitas Model Pembelajaran Discerete Trial Training untuk Siswa Penyandang Autisme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melan Puji Sulistiyaningsih

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan Penelitian ini untuk mendeskripsikan dan menganalisis: Bagaimana perencanaan, pelaksanaan, dan evaluasi pembelajaran bagi penyandang autisme pada mata pelajaran TIK kelas IV di SDLB Talitakum Semarang. Metode yang digunakan adalah kualitatif deskriptif. Teknik pengumpulan data dengan melakukan wawancara, observasi dan studidokumentasi terhadap implementasi model pembelajaran. Analisis hasil penelitian ini dapat disimpulkan bahawa (1 Dalam perencanaan proses pembelajaran guru menggunakan kurikulum 2013 yang disesuaikan dengan kemampuan penyandang autisme. Pendekatan yang digunakan yaitu saintifk yang telah dimodifkasi, menggunakan model Happy Class, metode pembelajaran khusus yaitu Discrete Trial Training (DTT dalam proses pembelajaran, dan metode komunikasi khusus Metode Maternal Reflektif (MMR. (2 Pelaksanaan Model HC, Metode DTT, dan MMR dalam satu kelas terdiri dari 5 siswa dan 2 guru terbukti efektif dan membuat kelas kondusif. (3 Evaluasi pembelajaran menggunakan evaluasi Educational System Evaluation yang menekankan bahwa evaluasi dilakukan dalam setiap tahap dan proses pembelajaran setiap harinya melalui Buku Penghubung.

  18. One-dimensional oscillator in a box

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amore, Paolo [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal DIaz del Castillo 340, Colima, Colima (Mexico); Fernandez, Francisco M [INIFTA (UNLP, CCT La Plata-CONICET), Division Quimica Teorica, Blvd 113 S/N, Sucursal 4, Casilla de Correo 16, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)], E-mail: paolo@ucol.mx, E-mail: fernande@quimica.unlp.edu.ar

    2010-01-15

    We discuss a quantum-mechanical model of two particles that interact by means of a harmonic potential and are confined to a one-dimensional box with impenetrable walls. We apply perturbation theory to the cases of different and equal masses and analyse the symmetry of the states in the latter case. We compare the approximate perturbation results with accurate numerical ones.

  19. Surface reflectance drives nest box temperature profiles and thermal suitability for target wildlife.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R Griffiths

    Full Text Available Thermal properties of tree hollows play a major role in survival and reproduction of hollow-dependent fauna. Artificial hollows (nest boxes are increasingly being used to supplement the loss of natural hollows; however, the factors that drive nest box thermal profiles have received surprisingly little attention. We investigated how differences in surface reflectance influenced temperature profiles of nest boxes painted three different colors (dark-green, light-green, and white: total solar reflectance 5.9%, 64.4%, and 90.3% respectively using boxes designed for three groups of mammals: insectivorous bats, marsupial gliders and brushtail possums. Across the three different box designs, dark-green (low reflectance boxes experienced the highest average and maximum daytime temperatures, had the greatest magnitude of variation in daytime temperatures within the box, and were consistently substantially warmer than light-green boxes (medium reflectance, white boxes (high reflectance, and ambient air temperatures. Results from biophysical model simulations demonstrated that variation in diurnal temperature profiles generated by painting boxes either high or low reflectance colors could have significant ecophysiological consequences for animals occupying boxes, with animals in dark-green boxes at high risk of acute heat-stress and dehydration during extreme heat events. Conversely in cold weather, our modelling indicated that there are higher cumulative energy costs for mammals, particularly smaller animals, occupying light-green boxes. Given their widespread use as a conservation tool, we suggest that before boxes are installed, consideration should be given to the effect of color on nest box temperature profiles, and the resultant thermal suitability of boxes for wildlife, particularly during extremes in weather. Managers of nest box programs should consider using several different colors and installing boxes across a range of both orientations and

  20. Surface reflectance drives nest box temperature profiles and thermal suitability for target wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Stephen R; Rowland, Jessica A; Briscoe, Natalie J; Lentini, Pia E; Handasyde, Kathrine A; Lumsden, Linda F; Robert, Kylie A

    2017-01-01

    Thermal properties of tree hollows play a major role in survival and reproduction of hollow-dependent fauna. Artificial hollows (nest boxes) are increasingly being used to supplement the loss of natural hollows; however, the factors that drive nest box thermal profiles have received surprisingly little attention. We investigated how differences in surface reflectance influenced temperature profiles of nest boxes painted three different colors (dark-green, light-green, and white: total solar reflectance 5.9%, 64.4%, and 90.3% respectively) using boxes designed for three groups of mammals: insectivorous bats, marsupial gliders and brushtail possums. Across the three different box designs, dark-green (low reflectance) boxes experienced the highest average and maximum daytime temperatures, had the greatest magnitude of variation in daytime temperatures within the box, and were consistently substantially warmer than light-green boxes (medium reflectance), white boxes (high reflectance), and ambient air temperatures. Results from biophysical model simulations demonstrated that variation in diurnal temperature profiles generated by painting boxes either high or low reflectance colors could have significant ecophysiological consequences for animals occupying boxes, with animals in dark-green boxes at high risk of acute heat-stress and dehydration during extreme heat events. Conversely in cold weather, our modelling indicated that there are higher cumulative energy costs for mammals, particularly smaller animals, occupying light-green boxes. Given their widespread use as a conservation tool, we suggest that before boxes are installed, consideration should be given to the effect of color on nest box temperature profiles, and the resultant thermal suitability of boxes for wildlife, particularly during extremes in weather. Managers of nest box programs should consider using several different colors and installing boxes across a range of both orientations and shade profiles (i

  1. Surface reflectance drives nest box temperature profiles and thermal suitability for target wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Jessica A.; Briscoe, Natalie J.; Lentini, Pia E.; Handasyde, Kathrine A.; Lumsden, Linda F.; Robert, Kylie A.

    2017-01-01

    Thermal properties of tree hollows play a major role in survival and reproduction of hollow-dependent fauna. Artificial hollows (nest boxes) are increasingly being used to supplement the loss of natural hollows; however, the factors that drive nest box thermal profiles have received surprisingly little attention. We investigated how differences in surface reflectance influenced temperature profiles of nest boxes painted three different colors (dark-green, light-green, and white: total solar reflectance 5.9%, 64.4%, and 90.3% respectively) using boxes designed for three groups of mammals: insectivorous bats, marsupial gliders and brushtail possums. Across the three different box designs, dark-green (low reflectance) boxes experienced the highest average and maximum daytime temperatures, had the greatest magnitude of variation in daytime temperatures within the box, and were consistently substantially warmer than light-green boxes (medium reflectance), white boxes (high reflectance), and ambient air temperatures. Results from biophysical model simulations demonstrated that variation in diurnal temperature profiles generated by painting boxes either high or low reflectance colors could have significant ecophysiological consequences for animals occupying boxes, with animals in dark-green boxes at high risk of acute heat-stress and dehydration during extreme heat events. Conversely in cold weather, our modelling indicated that there are higher cumulative energy costs for mammals, particularly smaller animals, occupying light-green boxes. Given their widespread use as a conservation tool, we suggest that before boxes are installed, consideration should be given to the effect of color on nest box temperature profiles, and the resultant thermal suitability of boxes for wildlife, particularly during extremes in weather. Managers of nest box programs should consider using several different colors and installing boxes across a range of both orientations and shade profiles (i

  2. Faster Black-Box Algorithms Through Higher Arity Operators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doerr, Benjamin; Johannsen, Daniel; Kötzing, Timo

    2011-01-01

    We extend the work of Lehre and Witt (GECCO 2010) on the unbiased black-box model by considering higher arity variation operators. In particular, we show that already for binary operators the black-box complexity of LeadingOnes drops from (n2) for unary operators to O(n log n). For OneMax, the (n...

  3. Dust Plume Modeling at Fort Bliss: Full Training Scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Elaine G.; Rishel, Jeremy P.; Rutz, Frederick C.; Seiple, Timothy E.; Newsom, Rob K.; Allwine, K Jerry

    2006-09-26

    The potential for air quality impacts from heavy mechanized vehicles operating in the training ranges and on the unpaved main supply routes at Fort Bliss is being investigated. The investigation uses the atmospheric modeling system DUSTRAN to simulate fugitive dust emission and dispersion from typical activities occurring on the installation. This report conveys the results of DUSTRAN simulations conducted using a “Full Training” scenario developed by Fort Bliss personnel. he Full Training scenario includes simultaneous off-road activities of two full Heavy Brigade Combat Teams (HCBTs) and one HCBT battalion on three training ranges. Simulations were conducted for the six-day period, April 25-30, 2005, using previously archived meteorological records. Simulation results are presented in the form of 24-hour average PM10 plots and peak 1-hour PM10 concentration plots, where the concentrations represent contributions resulting from the specified military vehicular activities, not total ambient PM10 concentrations. Results indicate that the highest PM10 contribution concentrations occurred on April 30 when winds were light and variable. Under such conditions, lofted particulates generated by vehicular movement stay in the area of generation and are not readily dispersed. The effect of training duration was investigated by comparing simulations with vehicular activity extending over a ten hour period (0700 to 1700 MST) with simulations where vehicular activity was compressed into a one hour period (0700 to 0800 MST). Compressing all vehicular activity into one hour led to higher peak one-hour and 24-hour average concentration contributions, often substantially higher.

  4. A multi-box model study of the role of the biospheric metabolism in the recent decline of δ18O in atmospheric CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizawa, Misa; Nakazawa, Takakiyo; Higuchi, Kaz

    2002-09-01

    From around 1993 to 1997, the NOAA-CU δ18O measurements at Pt. Barrow, Mauna Loa, Cape Kumukahi, Cape Grim and the South Pole show a decrease in atmospheric CO2δ18O of about 0.5‰. Recently, Gillon and Yakir (2001) have attributed this decrease to a conversion of C3 forests to C4 grasslands through anthropogenic land-use change. However, their explanation can account for only about 0.02‰ yr1 decrease rate. In this paper we offer a viable alternative explanation. We have used a multi-box model of the global carbon cycle and its δ18O to show that an increase in biospheric respiration (CO2 flux from plant with lower-than-atmosphere δ18O), combined with a decrease in the amount of CO2 (with higher-than-atmosphere δ18O) diffusing back from plant leaves before being assimilated as part of the gross primary production (GPP), could produce the observed decline in the atmospheric CO2δ18O. This decrease in the CO2 back diffusion out of leaves could be interpreted as an overall increase in both biospheric activities of photosynthesis and respiration. Change in the metabolic activities of the biosphere as a possible cause for the observed decrease in δ18O is a reasonable hypothesis, since isotopic fractionations that occur during CO2 exchange processes (photosynthesis and respiration) between the atmosphere and the biosphere contribute significantly to the observed variations in atmospheric CO2δ18O, while contribution from the net air-sea CO2 exchange is negligible.

  5. Dissociation of lipotoxicity and glucotoxicity in a mouse model of obesity associated diabetes: role of forkhead box O1 (FOXO1) in glucose-induced beta cell failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluth, O; Mirhashemi, F; Scherneck, S; Kaiser, D; Kluge, R; Neschen, S; Joost, H-G; Schürmann, A

    2011-03-01

    Carbohydrate-free diet prevents hyperglycaemia and beta cell destruction in the New Zealand Obese (NZO) mouse model. Here we have used a sequential dietary regimen to dissociate the effects of obesity and hyperglycaemia on beta cell function and integrity, and to study glucose-induced alterations of key transcription factors over 16 days. Mice were rendered obese by feeding a carbohydrate-free diet for 18 weeks. Thereafter, a carbohydrate-containing diet was given. Plasma glucose, plasma insulin and total pancreatic insulin were determined, and forkhead box O1 protein (FOXO1) phosphorylation and the transcription factors pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (PDX1), NK6 homeobox 1 protein (NKX6.1) and v-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene family, protein A (avian) (MAFA) were monitored by immunohistochemistry for 16 days. Dietary carbohydrates produced a rapid and continuous increase in plasma glucose in NZO mice between day 2 and 16 after the dietary challenge. Hyperglycaemia caused a dramatic dephosphorylation of FOXO1 at day 2, followed by a progressive depletion of insulin stores. The loss of beta cells was triggered by apoptosis (detectable at day 8), associated with reduction of crucial transcription factors (PDX1, NKX6.1 and MAFA). Incubation of isolated islets from carbohydrate-restricted NZO mice or MIN6 cells with palmitate and glucose for 48 h resulted in a dephosphorylation of FOXO1 and thymoma viral proto-oncogene 1 (AKT) without changing the protein levels of both proteins. The dietary regimen dissociates the effects of obesity (lipotoxicity) from those of hyperglycaemia (glucotoxicity) in NZO mice. Obese NZO mice are unable to compensate for the carbohydrate challenge by increasing insulin secretion or synthesising adequate amounts of insulin. In response to the hyperglycaemia, FOXO1 is dephosphorylated, leading to reduced levels of beta cell-specific transcription factors and to apoptosis of the cells.

  6. Theory of box-model hyperfine couplings and transport signatures of long-range nuclear-spin coherence in a quantum-dot spin valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesi, Stefano; Coish, W. A.

    2015-06-01

    We have theoretically analyzed coherent nuclear-spin dynamics induced by electron transport through a quantum-dot spin valve. The hyperfine interaction between electron and nuclear spins in a quantum dot allows for the transfer of angular momentum from spin-polarized electrons injected from ferromagnetic or half-metal leads to the nuclear spin system under a finite voltage bias. Accounting for a local nuclear-spin dephasing process prevents the system from becoming stuck in collective dark states, allowing a large nuclear polarization to be built up in the long-time limit. After reaching a steady state, reversing the voltage bias induces a transient current response as the nuclear polarization is reversed. Long-range nuclear-spin coherence leads to a strong enhancement of spin-flip transition rates (by an amount proportional to the number of nuclear spins) and is revealed by an intense current burst, analogous to superradiant light emission. The crossover to a regime with incoherent spin flips occurs on a relatively long-time scale, on the order of the single-nuclear-spin dephasing time, which can be much longer than the time scale for the superradiant current burst. This conclusion is confirmed through a general master equation. For the two limiting regimes (coherent/incoherent spin flips), the general master equation recovers our simpler treatment based on rate equations, but is also applicable at intermediate dephasing. Throughout this work, we assume uniform hyperfine couplings, which yield the strongest coherent enhancement. We propose realistic strategies, based on isotopic modulation and wave-function engineering in core-shell nanowires, to realize this analytically solvable "box-model" of hyperfine couplings.

  7. Cell penetrable-mouse forkhead box P3 suppresses type 1 T helper cell-mediated immunity in a murine model of delayed-type hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xia; Wang, Jun; Wang, Hui; Zhou, Chen; Yu, Qihong; Yin, Lei; Wu, Weijiang; Xia, Sheng; Shao, Qixiang

    2017-02-01

    Forkhead box P3 (FOXP3), which is a transcription factor, has a primary role in the development and function of regulatory T cells, and thus contributes to homeostasis of the immune system. A previous study generated a cell-permeable fusion protein of mouse FOXP3 conjugated to a protein transduction domain (PTD-mFOXP3) that successfully blocked differentiation of type 17 T helper cells in vitro and alleviated experimental arthritis in mice. In the present study, the role of PTD-mFOXP3 in type 1 T helper (Th1) cell-mediated immunity was investigated and the possible mechanisms for its effects were explored. Under Th1 polarization conditions, cluster of differentiation 4(+) T cells were treated with PTD-mFOXP3 and analyzed by flow cytometry in vitro, which revealed that PTD-mFOXP3 blocked Th1 differentiation in vitro. Mice models of delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions were generated by subcutaneous sensitization and challenge with ovalbumin (OVA) to the ears of mice. PTD-mFOXP3, which was administered via local subcutaneous injection, significantly reduced DTH-induced inflammation, including ear swelling (ear swelling, P<0.001; pinnae weight, P<0.05 or P<0.01 with 0.25 and 1.25 mg/kg PTD-mFOXP3, respectively), infiltration of T cells, and expression of interferon-γ at local inflammatory sites (mRNA level P<0.05) compared with the DTH group. The results of the present study demonstrated that PTD-mFOXP3 may attenuate DTH reactions by suppressing the infiltration and activity of Th1 cells.

  8. Using the Eddy Covariance Method, Chambers, and Box Modeling to Characterize Spatial and Temporal Trends in Greenhouse Gas Emissions over a Barley Field in the Inland Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldo, S.; Kostyanovsky, K.; O'Keeffe, P.; Chi, J.; Pressley, S. N.; Huggins, D.; Uberuaga, D.; Lamb, B. K.

    2013-12-01

    Characterizing the dynamics of greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes in agricultural systems is becoming increasingly important in the face of population growth and climate change. Monitoring baseline fluxes of both carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) over agroecosystems allows for a better understanding of how climate and management practices affect the GHG budget of a given field. In this study, fluxes of CO2 and N2O were measured and compared using the eddy covariance (EC) technique and four automated static chambers (LI-8100A). The site is outfitted with an EC tower to continuously measure fluxes of CO2, H2O, and energy as well as auxiliary meteorological variables. Both the chamber system and N2O instrument were added for a month-long period following spring fertilization and seeding. The difference in scales between the tower and the chambers allowed for analysis of the spatial variability of fluxes. For N2O, the spatial variability was very high, with up to ten-fold differences in fluxes between the four chambers. However, the magnitude of the tower-based fluxes was closest to that of the highest-emitting chamber. In addition to addressing spatial variability, the chamber measurements helped to characterize nighttime fluxes, when stable conditions often lead to gaps in eddy covariance data. Box modeling techniques were also used to fill in nocturnal data gaps. The relationship between N2O fluxes and meteorological conditions was analyzed, as well as the relationship between N2O emissions and CO2 respiration. It was found that the total N2O-N emission from the site in the one-month period following fertilization exceeded the IPCC estimate of 1% of fertilizer-N applied. Instrumented tower and one of the four chambers monitoring the exchange of GHGs over a barley field

  9. Modelling Withdrawal and Persistence for Initial Teacher Training: Revising Tinto's Longitudinal Model of Departure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a theoretical model to explain trainee withdrawal and persistence within higher education (HE) based initial teacher training (ITT). Within ITT, attrition and persistence are under-researched and under-theorised, thus providing the rationale for this study. Within HE more broadly, a number of models have been proposed, most…

  10. Rat tail revascularization model for advanced microsurgery training and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakrak, Tamer; Köse, A Aydan; Karabağli, Yakup; Koçman, A Emre; Ozbayoğlu, A Ceyla; Cetįn, Cengiz

    2011-09-01

    We describe a time-saving microsurgical exercise for continuing microsurgical training and research. The rat tail replantation model was simplified by excluding bone detachment. Rats were divided into two groups: devascularization only ( N = 3) and revascularization after devascularization ( N = 7). The tail was devascularized by ligation and division of artery and veins in the first group to reveal if a collateral circulation from bone existed. The divided vessels were reanastomosed in the second group. The circulation of the rat tails was followed for 1 week. The tails showed total necrosis in the devascularization group, whereas only two of seven tails showed partial necrosis in the revascularization group. Reexploration showed thrombosis narrowing the lumen at the anastomotic site of the partially necrosed tails, most likely due to an anastomotic insufficiency. The present study revealed that total amputation is not necessary for tail devascularization. The rat tail revascularization model provides a practical tool for advanced and continuing microsurgical training and research. © Thieme Medical Publishers.

  11. Segway 2.0: Gaussian mixture models and minibatch training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Rachel C W; Libbrecht, Maxwell W; Roberts, Eric G; Bilmes, Jeffrey A; Noble, William Stafford; Hoffman, Michael M; Birol, Inanc

    2018-02-15

    Segway performs semi-automated genome annotation, discovering joint patterns across multiple genomic signal datasets. We discuss a major new version of Segway and highlight its ability to model data with substantially greater accuracy. Major enhancements in Segway 2.0 include the ability to model data with a mixture of Gaussians, enabling capture of arbitrarily complex signal distributions, and minibatch training, leading to better learned parameters. Segway and its source code are freely available for download at http://segway.hoffmanlab.org. We have made available scripts (https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.802939) and datasets (https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.802906) for this paper's analysis. michael.hoffman@utoronto.ca. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  12. Comparative performance of high-fidelity training models for flexible ureteroscopy: Are all models effective?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashikant Mishra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We performed a comparative study of high-fidelity training models for flexible ureteroscopy (URS. Our objective was to determine whether high-fidelity non-virtual reality (VR models are as effective as the VR model in teaching flexible URS skills. Materials and Methods: Twenty-one trained urologists without clinical experience of flexible URS underwent dry lab simulation practice. After a warm-up period of 2 h, tasks were performed on a high-fidelity non-VR (Uro-scopic Trainer TM ; Endo-Urologie-Modell TM and a high-fidelity VR model (URO Mentor TM . The participants were divided equally into three batches with rotation on each of the three stations for 30 min. Performance of the trainees was evaluated by an expert ureteroscopist using pass rating and global rating score (GRS. The participants rated a face validity questionnaire at the end of each session. Results: The GRS improved statistically at evaluation performed after second rotation (P<0.001 for batches 1, 2 and 3. Pass ratings also improved significantly for all training models when the third and first rotations were compared (P<0.05. The batch that was trained on the VR-based model had more improvement on pass ratings on second rotation but could not achieve statistical significance. Most of the realistic domains were higher for a VR model as compared with the non-VR model, except the realism of the flexible endoscope. Conclusions: All the models used for training flexible URS were effective in increasing the GRS and pass ratings irrespective of the VR status.

  13. The Conceptual Model of Future Teachers Training to Dual Education in VET (Vocational Education & Training)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zholdasbekova, Saule; Nurzhanbayeva, Zhanat; Karatayev, Galymzhan; Akhmet, Laura Smatullaevna; Anarmetov, Bahitzhan

    2016-01-01

    In the article the author presents the theoretical understanding of research problems of training of the future teachers-organizers of the dual training system in vocational education & training (VET) in the conditions of the credit technology of education. The author's vision of way to solve the problem is discussed in the description of the…

  14. Transfer between training of part-tasks in complex skill training : Model development and supporting data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roessingh, J.J.M.; Kappers, A.M.L.; Koenderink, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    One of the most common instruction-strategies for training complex skills is part-training. A complex task can often be divided into part-tasks. Part-training requires that certain part-tasks or combinations of part-tasks be practised in isolation in order to promote the transfer of skills

  15. Development of a computer-based training (CBT) course for the FSUTMS comprehensive modeling workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    FSUTMS training is a major activity of the Systems Planning Office of the Florida Department of : Transportation (FDOT). The training aims to establish and maintain quality assurance for consistent : statewide modeling standards and provide up-to-dat...

  16. Enhanced Simulink Induction Motor Model for Education and Maintenance Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Pineda-Sanchez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The training of technicians in maintenance requires the use of signals produced by faulty machines in different operating conditions, which are difficult to obtain either from the industry or through destructive testing. Some tasks in electricity and control courses can also be complemented by an interactive induction machine model having a wider internal parameter configuration. This paper presents a new analytical model of induction machine under fault, which is able to simulate induction machines with rotor asymmetries and eccentricity in different load conditions, both stationary and transient states and yielding magnitudes such as currents, speed and torque. This model is faster computationally than the traditional method of simulating induction machine faults based on the Finite Element Method and also than other analytical models due to the rapid calculation of the inductances. The model is presented in Simulink by Matlab for the comprehension and interactivity with the students or lecturers and also to allow the easy combination of the effect of the fault with external influences, studying their consequences on a determined load or control system. An associated diagnosis tool is also presented.

  17. IMPLEMENTATION MODEL OF MOTOR TRACTION FORCE OF MAGLEV TRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Polyakov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Traction force implementation (TFI by the motor of magnetic levitation train (MLT occurs in the process of electric-to-kinetic energy transformation at interaction of inductor and armature magnetic fields. Ac-cordingly, the aim of this study is to obtain a correct description of such energy transformation. Methodology. At the present stage, a mathematical and, in particular, computer simulation is the main and most universal tool for analysis and synthesis of processes and systems. At the same time, radical advantages of this tool make the precision of selection of a particular research methodology even more important. It is especially important for such a large and complex system as MLT. Therefore the special attention in the work is given to the rationale for choosing the research paradigm selective features. Findings. The analysis results of existing TFI process model versions indicate that each of them has both advantages and disadvantages. Therefore, one of the main results of this study was the creation of a mathematical model for such process that would preserve the advantages of previous versions, but would be free from their disadvantages. The work provides rationale for application (for the purposes of research of train motor TFI of the integrative holistic paradigm, which assimilates the advantages of the theory of electric circuit and magnetic field. Originality. The priority of creation of such paradigm and corresponding version of FI model constitute the originality of the research. Practical value. The main manifestation of practical value of this research in the opportunity, in case of use of its results, for significant increase in efficiency of MLT dynamic studies, on the condition that their generalized costs will not rise.

  18. A train dispatching model based on fuzzy passenger demand forecasting during holidays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Dou Dou

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Purpose: The train dispatching is a crucial issue in the train operation adjustment when passenger flow outbursts. During holidays, the train dispatching is to meet passenger demand to the greatest extent, and ensure safety, speediness and punctuality of the train operation. In this paper, a fuzzy passenger demand forecasting model is put up, then a train dispatching optimization model is established based on passenger demand so as to evacuate stranded passengers effectively during holidays. Design/methodology/approach: First, the complex features and regularity of passenger flow during holidays are analyzed, and then a fuzzy passenger demand forecasting model is put forward based on the fuzzy set theory and time series theory. Next, the bi-objective of the train dispatching optimization model is to minimize the total operation cost of the train dispatching and unserved passenger volume during holidays. Finally, the validity of this model is illustrated with a case concerned with the Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway in China. Findings: The case study shows that the fuzzy passenger demand forecasting model can predict outcomes more precisely than ARIMA model. Thus train dispatching optimization plan proves that a small number of trains are able to serve unserved passengers reasonably and effectively. Originality/value: On the basis of the passenger demand predictive values, the train dispatching optimization model is established, which enables train dispatching to meet passenger demand in condition that passenger flow outbursts, so as to maximize passenger demand by offering the optimal operation plan.

  19. Reconciling White-Box and Black-Box Perspectives on Behavioral Self-adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Roberto; Corradini, Andrea; Gadducci, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes to reconcile two perspectives on behavioral adaptation commonly taken at different stages of the engineering of autonomic computing systems. Requirements engineering activities often take a black-box perspective: A system is considered to be adaptive with respect...... to an environment whenever the system is able to satisfy its goals irrespectively of the environment perturbations. Modeling and programming engineering activities often take a white-box perspective: A system is equipped with suitable adaptation mechanisms and its behavior is classified as adaptive depending...... and possibly modify the adaptation requirements, models and programs of an autonomic system....

  20. Spirit Boxes: Expressions of Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMuro, Ted

    1984-01-01

    After studying the culture and art of the ancient civilizations of South America, Mesopotamia, Greece, and Egypt, secondary level art students made spirit boxes as expressions of the various cultures. How to make the boxes and how to prepare the face molds are described. (RM)

  1. Being Creative "Inside the Box"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomascoff, Rocky

    2011-01-01

    Artist Joseph Cornell (1903-1972) created wonderful environments inside boxes using mostly found objects. They were often Surrealistic in nature. Some boxes were designed with glass fronts, and others were meant to be interactive with the viewer, wherein the objects could be handled. With Joseph Cornell in mind, the author introduces an art…

  2. Box-and-Whisker Plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Russell D.

    1985-01-01

    Box-and-whisker plots (which give rapid visualization of batches of data) can be effectively used to present diverse collections of data used in traditional first-year chemistry courses. Construction of box-and-whisker plots and their use with bond energy data and data on heats of formation and solution are discussed. (JN)

  3. Artery Soft-Tissue Modelling for Stent Implant Training System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Aloisio

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Virtual reality technology can be utilised to provide new systematic training methods for surgical procedures. Our aim is to build a simulator that allows medical students to practice the coronary stent implant procedure and avoids exposing patients to risks. The designed simulation system consists of a virtual environment and a haptic interface, in order to provide both the visualization of the coronary arteries and the tactile and force feedback generated during the interactions of the surgical instruments in the virtual environment. Since the arteries are soft tissues, their shape may change during an operation; for this reason physical modelling of the organs is necessary to render their behaviour under the influence of surgeon's instruments. The idea is to define a model that computes the displacement of the tissue versus time; from the displacement it is possible to calculate the response of the tissue to the surgical tool external stimuli. Information about tools displacements and tissue responses are also used to graphically model the artery wall and virtual surgical instrument deformations generated as a consequence of their coming into contact. In order to obtain a realistic simulation, the Finite Element Method has been used to model the soft tissues of the artery, using linear elasticity to reduce computational time and speed up interaction rates.

  4. Statistical Lip-Appearance Models Trained Automatically Using Audio Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daubias Philippe

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We aim at modeling the appearance of the lower face region to assist visual feature extraction for audio-visual speech processing applications. In this paper, we present a neural network based statistical appearance model of the lips which classifies pixels as belonging to the lips, skin, or inner mouth classes. This model requires labeled examples to be trained, and we propose to label images automatically by employing a lip-shape model and a red-hue energy function. To improve the performance of lip-tracking, we propose to use blue marked-up image sequences of the same subject uttering the identical sentences as natural nonmarked-up ones. The easily extracted lip shapes from blue images are then mapped to the natural ones using acoustic information. The lip-shape estimates obtained simplify lip-tracking on the natural images, as they reduce the parameter space dimensionality in the red-hue energy minimization, thus yielding better contour shape and location estimates. We applied the proposed method to a small audio-visual database of three subjects, achieving errors in pixel classification around 6%, compared to 3% for hand-placed contours and 20% for filtered red-hue.

  5. Model Guided Design and Development Process for an Electronic Health Record Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ze; Marquard, Jenna; Henneman, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Effective user training is important to ensure electronic health record (EHR) implementation success. Though many previous studies report best practice principles and success and failure stories, current EHR training is largely empirically-based and often lacks theoretical guidance. In addition, the process of training development is underemphasized and underreported. A white paper by the American Medical Informatics Association called for models of user training for clinical information system implementation; existing instructional development models from learning theory provide a basis to meet this call. We describe in this paper our experiences and lessons learned as we adapted several instructional development models to guide our development of EHR user training. Specifically, we focus on two key aspects of this training development: training content and training process.

  6. How many doctors should we train for Sri Lanka? System dynamics modelling for training needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Silva, D

    2017-12-26

    Over the years, Sri Lanka has achieved remarkable health gains for the money spent on health. Currently about 1450 doctors enter the health system annually. While some advocate opening up of new medical schools to address an apparent shortage of doctors in the country, others argue against it. To identify the number of doctors Sri Lanka need. System dynamics, an analytical modelling approach and a methodology for studying complex feedback systems was used. Two sub models of “need” and “supply” were developed and simulated for a period of 15 years from 2017 to 2032 At present the doctor to population ratio is 1:671 and 91% of the need has been met. This study shows that currently there is a shortage of doctors in the country. However, the supply will match the need by 2025/26. Increasing the number of doctors, will result in oversupply of doctors towards the latter part of the next decade. There is no acute necessity to open up new Medical Schools. However comprehensive health workforce analysis needs to be done once in 5 years and the number of doctors to be trained, decided accordingly.

  7. Utilizing the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm for enhanced registration of high resolution surface models - more than a simple black-box application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöcker, Claudia; Eltner, Anette

    2016-04-01

    Advances in computer vision and digital photogrammetry (i.e. structure from motion) allow for fast and flexible high resolution data supply. Within geoscience applications and especially in the field of small surface topography, high resolution digital terrain models and dense 3D point clouds are valuable data sources to capture actual states as well as for multi-temporal studies. However, there are still some limitations regarding robust registration and accuracy demands (e.g. systematic positional errors) which impede the comparison and/or combination of multi-sensor data products. Therefore, post-processing of 3D point clouds can heavily enhance data quality. In this matter the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm represents an alignment tool which iteratively minimizes distances of corresponding points within two datasets. Even though tool is widely used; it is often applied as a black-box application within 3D data post-processing for surface reconstruction. Aiming for precise and accurate combination of multi-sensor data sets, this study looks closely at different variants of the ICP algorithm including sub-steps of point selection, point matching, weighting, rejection, error metric and minimization. Therefore, an agricultural utilized field was investigated simultaneously by terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) sensors two times (once covered with sparse vegetation and once bare soil). Due to different perspectives both data sets show diverse consistency in terms of shadowed areas and thus gaps so that data merging would provide consistent surface reconstruction. Although photogrammetric processing already included sub-cm accurate ground control surveys, UAV point cloud exhibits an offset towards TLS point cloud. In order to achieve the transformation matrix for fine registration of UAV point clouds, different ICP variants were tested. Statistical analyses of the results show that final success of registration and therefore

  8. Urology residents training in laparoscopic surgery. Development of a virtual reality model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Baños, J L; Ballestero-Diego, R; Truan-Cacho, D; Aguilera-Tubet, C; Villanueva-Peña, A; Manuel-Palazuelos, J C

    2015-11-01

    The training and learning of residents in laparoscopic surgery has legal, financial and technological limitations. Simulation is an essential tool in the training of residents as a supplement to their training in laparoscopic surgery. The training should be structured in an appropriate environment, with previously established and clear objectives, taught by professionals with clinical and teaching experience in simulation. The training should be conducted with realistic models using animals and ex-vivo tissue from animals. It is essential to incorporate mechanisms to assess the objectives during the residents' training progress. We present the training model for laparoscopic surgery for urology residents at the University Hospital Valdecilla. The training is conducted at the Virtual Hospital Valdecilla, which is associated with the Center for Medical Simulation in Boston and is accredited by the American College of Surgeons. The model is designed in 3 blocks, basic for R1, intermediate for R2-3 and advanced for R4-5, with 9 training modules. The training is conducted in 4-hour sessions for 4 afternoons, for 3 weeks per year of residence. Residents therefore perform 240 hours of simulated laparoscopic training by the end of the course. For each module, we use structured objective assessments to measure each resident's training progress. Since 2003, 9 urology residents have been trained, in addition to the 5 who are currently in training. The model has undergone changes according to the needs expressed in the student feedback. The acquisition of skills in a virtual reality model has enabled the safe transfer of those skills to actual practice. A laparoscopic surgery training program designed in structured blocks and with progressive complexity provides appropriate training for transferring the skills acquired using this model to an actual scenario while maintaining patient safety. Copyright © 2015 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Child Sexual Abuse Prevention: Evaluation of a Teacher Training Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleemeier, Carol; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The effectiveness of a six-hour teacher training workshop on child sexual abuse prevention was evaluated. Findings indicated that trained teachers demonstrated significant increases in knowledge about child sexual abuse and pro-intervention opinions. Trained teachers were better able to identify behavioral indicators of abuse and suggest…

  10. Limit theorems for the number of occupied boxes in the Bernoulli sieve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gnedin, A.V.; Iksanov, A.; Marynych, O.

    2010-01-01

    The Bernoulli sieve is a version of the classical `balls-in-boxes' occupancy scheme, in which random frequencies of in¯nitely many boxes are produced by a multiplicative renewal process, also known as the residual allocation model or stick-breaking. We focus on the number Kn of boxes occupied by at

  11. Designing A Model of Vocational Training Programs for Disables through ODL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaista MAJID

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to designing a model of vocational training programs for disables. For this purpose desk review was carried out and the vocational training models/programs of Israel, U.K., Vietnam, Japan and Thailand were analyzed to form a conceptual frame work of the model. Keeping in view the local conditions/requirements a model of vocational training program was proposed. The proposed model involved the vocational training plan for the job of cashier for mild group, receptionist for moderate and computer operator for severe group. It specified the type of disability as well involved in the training plan. The model recommended the vocational training of three levels of disability; mild, moderate and severe irrespective to the type. The model consisted of details of structure, objectives, professional support involved, vocational training plan and syllabus/activities, evaluation and on job training etc. International practices regarding VT mixed with the national existing situations were critically analyzed during desk review and finally a plan of VT for disables was proposed. A survey was conducted via a questionnaire to get opinion of the heads and senior vocational instructors of Federal Government vocational training and rehabilitation centers for PWDs. The collected data was statistically analyzed to quantify the suggestions on proposed model. The major findings included that all stakeholders considered VT helpful in rehabilitation of PWDs. All heads and vocational instructors are willing to adopt this model, minimum or no extra funds are needed in its implementation, the vocational teacher employed in the centers can easily manage to adopt this model at their centers because no extra training is required for the staff and they all endorse the VT plan proposed in this model. A vocational training model is required to reduce socio-economic gap and to set professional standards by developing human resources trained in trades. The

  12. Sports medicine training room clinic model for the military.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawley, Stephen; Fairbanks, Keith; Nguyen, William; Blivin, Steve; Frantz, Earl

    2012-02-01

    A transition from traditional problem-based clinics to the Sports Medicine and Reconditioning Team (SMART) clinic model was completed by January 2009 at Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune. The SMART clinic model allows for more patients to be seen and enhances coordinated care between providers. The objective of this research is to show the advantages of implementing a training room team approach for the care of musculoskeletal injuries in active duty members by comparing the number of patients seen, the number of limited duty (LIMDU) periods, the number of physical evaluation boards (PEBs), and the percentage of orthopedic referrals. Electronic medical records for patients seen at sports medicine clinics between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2010 were reviewed. Naval Hospital Camp Lejeune provided a database of patients placed on LIMDU and PEB from 2007 through 2010. Fifty-eight and twenty-four percent more encounters occurred in 2009 and 2010, respectively, than that in 2007. The percentage of LIMDU referred for PEB in 2010 was reduced to 9% compared to that in 2007. In conclusion, the SMART clinic model allows for more patients to be seen and a reduction in the percentage of patients recommended for PEB from LIMDU.

  13. (Box-filling-model)-based ONU schedule algorithm and bandwidth-requirement-based ONU transfer mechanism for multi-subsystem-based VPONs' management in metro-access optical network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuchao; Gan, Chaoqin; Gou, Kaiyu; Hua, Jian

    2017-07-01

    ONU schedule algorithm and ONU transfer mechanism for multi-subsystem-based VPONs' management is proposed in this paper. To avoid frequent wavelength switch and realize high system stability, ONU schedule algorithm is presented for wavelength allocation by introducing box-filling model. At the same time, judgement mechanism is designed to filter wavelength-increased request caused by slight bandwidth fluctuation of VPON. To share remained bandwidth among VPONs, ONU transfer mechanism is put forward according to flexible wavelength routing. To manage wavelength resource of entire network and wavelength requirement from VPONs, information-managed matrix model is constructed. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed scheme is demonstrated by simulation and analysis.

  14. Implementing a new model for on-the-job training: critical success factors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zolingen, S.J.; Streumer, Jan; van der Klink, Marcel; de Jong, Rolinda

    2000-01-01

    Post Offices Inc. in The Netherlands has developed and implemented a new instruction model for the training of desk employees. The quality of the new instruction model was assessed by means of the evaluation model of Jacobs and Jones for on-the-job training. It is concluded that the implementation

  15. A nonlinear model for the characterization and optimization of athletic training and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turner James D.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: Mathematical models of the relationship between training and performance facilitate the design of training protocols to achieve performance goals. However, current linear models do not account for nonlinear physiological effects such as saturation and over-training. This severely limits their practical applicability, especially for optimizing training strategies. This study describes, analyzes, and applies a new nonlinear model to account for these physiological effects. Material and methods: This study considers the equilibria and step response of the nonlinear differential equation model to show its characteristics and trends, optimizes training protocols using genetic algorithms to maximize performance by applying the model under various realistic constraints, and presents a case study fitting the model to human performance data. Results: The nonlinear model captures the saturation and over-training effects; produces realistic training protocols with training progression, a high-intensity phase, and a taper; and closely fits the experimental performance data. Fitting the model parameters to subsets of the data identifies which parameters have the largest variability but reveals that the performance predictions are relatively consistent. Conclusions: These findings provide a new mathematical foundation for modeling and optimizing athletic training routines subject to an individual’s personal physiology, constraints, and performance goals.

  16. Microclimate boxes for panel paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadum, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    The use of microclimate boxes to protect vulnerable panel paintings is, therefore, not a new phenomenon of the past two or three decades. Rather, it has been a concern for conservators and curators to protect these objects of art at home and in transit since the end of the nineteenth century....... The increased number of travelling exhibitions in recent years has heightened the need to protect paintings during circulation (Thomson 1961; Mecklenburg 1991). The use and design of microclimate boxes have been evolving since 1892. These boxes may be divided into three broad groups: those using an active...

  17. Two-dimensional box plot

    OpenAIRE

    Phattrawan Tongkumchum

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we propose a two-dimensional box plot, a simple bivariate extension of the box plot and the scatter plot. This plot comprises a pair of trapeziums oriented in the direction of a fitted straight line, with symbols denoting extreme values. The choice for the fitted straight resistant line showing the relationship between the two variables is Tukey’s resistance line. The main components of the plot are an inner box containing 50% of the projection points of the observations on the ...

  18. Genetic Optimization of Training Sets for Improved Machine Learning Models of Molecular Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Nicholas J; Ramakrishnan, Raghunathan; von Lilienfeld, O Anatole; Roethlisberger, Ursula

    2017-04-06

    The training of molecular models of quantum mechanical properties based on statistical machine learning requires large data sets which exemplify the map from chemical structure to molecular property. Intelligent a priori selection of training examples is often difficult or impossible to achieve, as prior knowledge may be unavailable. Ordinarily representative selection of training molecules from such data sets is achieved through random sampling. We use genetic algorithms for the optimization of training set composition consisting of tens of thousands of small organic molecules. The resulting machine learning models are considerably more accurate: in the limit of small training sets, mean absolute errors for out-of-sample predictions are reduced by up to ∼75%. We discuss and present optimized training sets consisting of 10 molecular classes for all molecular properties studied. We show that these classes can be used to design improved training sets for the generation of machine learning models of the same properties in similar but unrelated molecular sets.

  19. Off-the-job microsurgical training on dry models: Siberian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belykh, Evgenii; Byvaltsev, Vadim

    2014-01-01

    Microsurgical training has become an obligatory part of many neurosurgical training programs. To assess the cost and effectiveness of acquiring and maintaining microneurosurgical skills by training on an off-the-job basis using dry models. A dry off-the-job microneurosurgical training module was set up. Training exercises involved microdissection in a deep operation field, suturing and tying on gauze, untying, pushing of thread end, and microanastomosis. The time to complete the task and success rate were evaluated. The total cost of all necessary equipment and expendables for the training module was US$910. Fifteen residents participated in the continuous off-the-job training. The average time taken to perform the anastomosis decreased after the month of training from 90 to 20 minutes. Authors revealed that at 2 months, the total time and time to complete anastomosis increased significantly for the participants who discontinued practice after the first month, compared with those who just practiced suturing on gauze after the first month (P job training showed to be readily available and can be helpful for microsurgical training in the low-income regions of the world. Our data suggest that microsurgical training should be continuous and repetitive. Simulation training may benefit from models for repetitive training of relevant technical part-skills. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Structural strength analysis and fatigue life prediction of traction converter box in high-speed EMU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Qin; Li, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    The method of building the FEA model of traction converter box in high-speed EMU and analyzing the static strength and fatigue strength of traction converter box based on IEC 61373-2010 and EN 12663 standards is presented in this paper. The load-stress correlation coefficients of weak points is obtained by FEA model, applied to transfer the load history of traction converter box to stress history of each point. The fatigue damage is calculated based on Miner's rule and the fatigue life of traction converter box is predicted. According to study, the structural strength of traction converter box meets design requirements.

  1. Laparoscopic virtual reality simulator and box trainer in gynecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdemir, Ali; Sendağ, Fatih; Oztekin, Mehmet K

    2014-05-01

    To investigate whether a virtual reality simulator (LapSim) and traditional box trainer are effective tools for the acquisition of basic laparoscopic skills, and whether the LapSim is superior to the box trainer in surgical education. In a study at Ege University School of Medicine, Izmir, Turkey, between September 2008 and March 2013, 40 first- and second-year residents were randomized to train via the LapSim or box trainer for 4 weeks, and 20 senior residents were allocated to a control group. All 3 groups performed laparoscopic bilateral tubal ligation. Video records of each operation were assessed via the general rating scale of the Objective Structured Assessment of Laparoscopic Salpingectomy and by operation time in seconds. Compared with the control group, the LapSim and box trainer groups performed significantly better in total score (Peducation. Training with a virtual reality simulator or box trainer should be considered before actual laparoscopic procedures are carried out. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Box Plots: Basic and Advanced.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullenex, James L.

    1990-01-01

    Describes a five-number summary which is a display of the minimum value, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum value. Indicates how to draw box plots as graphical representations of a five-number summary. (YP)

  3. Training models in laparoscopy: a systematic review comparing their effectiveness in learning surgical skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willaert, W; Van De Putte, D; Van Renterghem, K; Van Nieuwenhove, Y; Ceelen, W; Pattyn, P

    2013-01-01

    Surgery has traditionally been learned on patients in the operating room, which is time-consuming, can have an impact on the patient outcomes, and is of variable effectiveness. As a result, surgical training models have been developed, which are compared in this systematic review. We searched Pubmed, CENTRAL, and Science Citation index expanded for randomised clinical trials and randomised cross-over studies comparing laparoscopic training models. Studies comparing one model with no training were also included. The reference list of identified trials was searched for further relevant studies. Fifty-eight trials evaluating several training forms and involving 1591 participants were included (four studies with a low risk of bias). Training (virtual reality (VR) or video trainer (VT)) versus no training improves surgical skills in the majority of trials. Both VR and VT are as effective in most studies. VR training is superior to traditional laparoscopic training in the operating room. Outcome results for VR robotic simulations versus robot training show no clear difference in effectiveness for either model. Only one trial included human cadavers and observed better results versus VR for one out of four scores. Contrasting results are observed when robotic technology is compared with manual laparoscopy. VR training and VT training are valid teaching models. Practicing on these models similarly improves surgical skills. A combination of both methods is recommended in a surgical curriculum. VR training is superior to unstructured traditional training in the operating room. The reciprocal effectiveness of the other models to learn surgical skills has not yet been established.

  4. Implementace hry Dots and Boxes

    OpenAIRE

    Balko, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Title: Dots and Boxes implementation Author: Martin Balko Department: Department of Applied Mathematics Supervisor: RNDr. Ondřej Pangrác, Ph.D. Supervisor's email address: Abstract: The presented thesis deals with the analysis of a popular logical game Dots and Boxes and its generalized versions. It focuses on the different methods and algorithms of opponent's artificial intelligence. The result of the work is implementation of the generalized version of this game in w...

  5. Moving Model Test of High-Speed Train Aerodynamic Drag Based on Stagnation Pressure Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mingzhi; Du, Juntao; Huang, Sha; Zhou, Dan

    2017-01-01

    A moving model test method based on stagnation pressure measurements is proposed to measure the train aerodynamic drag coefficient. Because the front tip of a high-speed train has a high pressure area and because a stagnation point occurs in the center of this region, the pressure of the stagnation point is equal to the dynamic pressure of the sensor tube based on the obtained train velocity. The first derivation of the train velocity is taken to calculate the acceleration of the train model ejected by the moving model system without additional power. According to Newton’s second law, the aerodynamic drag coefficient can be resolved through many tests at different train speeds selected within a relatively narrow range. Comparisons are conducted with wind tunnel tests and numerical simulations, and good agreement is obtained, with differences of less than 6.1%. Therefore, the moving model test method proposed in this paper is feasible and reliable. PMID:28095441

  6. Moving Model Test of High-Speed Train Aerodynamic Drag Based on Stagnation Pressure Measurements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingzhi Yang

    Full Text Available A moving model test method based on stagnation pressure measurements is proposed to measure the train aerodynamic drag coefficient. Because the front tip of a high-speed train has a high pressure area and because a stagnation point occurs in the center of this region, the pressure of the stagnation point is equal to the dynamic pressure of the sensor tube based on the obtained train velocity. The first derivation of the train velocity is taken to calculate the acceleration of the train model ejected by the moving model system without additional power. According to Newton's second law, the aerodynamic drag coefficient can be resolved through many tests at different train speeds selected within a relatively narrow range. Comparisons are conducted with wind tunnel tests and numerical simulations, and good agreement is obtained, with differences of less than 6.1%. Therefore, the moving model test method proposed in this paper is feasible and reliable.

  7. Moving Model Test of High-Speed Train Aerodynamic Drag Based on Stagnation Pressure Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mingzhi; Du, Juntao; Li, Zhiwei; Huang, Sha; Zhou, Dan

    2017-01-01

    A moving model test method based on stagnation pressure measurements is proposed to measure the train aerodynamic drag coefficient. Because the front tip of a high-speed train has a high pressure area and because a stagnation point occurs in the center of this region, the pressure of the stagnation point is equal to the dynamic pressure of the sensor tube based on the obtained train velocity. The first derivation of the train velocity is taken to calculate the acceleration of the train model ejected by the moving model system without additional power. According to Newton's second law, the aerodynamic drag coefficient can be resolved through many tests at different train speeds selected within a relatively narrow range. Comparisons are conducted with wind tunnel tests and numerical simulations, and good agreement is obtained, with differences of less than 6.1%. Therefore, the moving model test method proposed in this paper is feasible and reliable.

  8. An Extended Cellular Automaton Model for Train Traffic Flow on the Dedicated Passenger Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbo Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As one of the key components for the railway transportation system, the Train Operation Diagram can be greatly influenced by many extrinsic and intrinsic factors. Therefore, the railway train flow has shown the strong nonlinear characteristics, which makes it quite difficult to take further relative studies. Fortunately, the cellular automaton model has its own advantages in solving nonlinear problems and traffic flow simulation. Considering the mixed features of multispeed running trains on the passenger dedicated lines, this paper presents a new train model under the moving block system with different types of trains running with the cellular automaton idea. By analyzing such key factors as the maintenance skylight, the proportion of the multispeed running trains, and the distance between adjacent stations and departure intervals, the corresponding running rules for the cellular automaton model are reestablished herewith. By means of this CA model, the program of train running system is designed to analyze the potential impact on railway carrying capacity by various factors; the model can also be implemented to simulate the actual train running process and to draw the train operation diagram by computers. Basically the theory can be applied to organize the train operation on the dedicated passenger lines.

  9. Assessment of training effects on employability within the institutional Spanish training model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramírez-del-Río, Antonio

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The association between quantity of training and employability was analysed through a non experimental research with two non equivalent groups. The operationalization of training quantity is considered to provide an indicator of training effort. Thus, training effort (number of courses was analysed as the independent variable and employability as dependent variable (occupation indicators, activity enhancement and job performance. The results show that training is related to activity enhancement, specially when workers belong to a small/medium enterprise (SME and/or to technical or qualified positions. A positive association between training and performance also appeared in the case of SMEs. Se analiza la asociación entre cantidad de formación y empleabilidad mediante una investigación no experimental con dos grupos no equivalentes. Se considera que la operativización de la cantidad de formación proporciona un indicador próximo al esfuerzo formativo realizado. Así, se estudió la variable independiente esfuerzo formativo (número de cursos y la dependiente, empleabilidad (indicadores de ocupación, enriquecimiento de actividad y desempeño. Los resultados muestran que la formación está asociada al enriquecimiento de la actividad, sobre todo si los trabajadores pertenecen a una PYME y/o a puestos técnicos o cualificados. También hay una asociación positiva entre formación y desempeño en PYMES.

  10. Improving real-time train dispatching : Models, algorithms and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Ariano, A.

    2008-01-01

    Traffic controllers monitor railway traffic sequencing train movements and setting routes with the aim of ensuring smooth train behaviour and limiting as much as existing delays. Due to the strict time limit available for computing a new timetable during operations, which so far is rather infeasible

  11. Pilot Behavior Models for LSO (Landing Signal Officer) Training Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    0063-2 There were other infuences upon the design of this study. Of major importance was selection of an approach for estimating the potential impact...training system will be one instructional component within the overall LSO training program. Other methods and media employed within this integrated

  12. Simulation Models for Teacher Training: Perspectives and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manisha

    2015-01-01

    It has always been a mind dwelling exercise for the trainers to meet the training needs of the future role players of any organization. May it be corporate offices, Government offices and charitable organizations; training is needed at various stages of job from executives to administrators, from teachers to principals, from line officer to JE and…

  13. Different models of training and certification in plastic surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fodor, L.; Ciuce, C.; Fodor, M.; Shrank, C.; Lapid, O.; Kon, M.; Ramon, Y.; Ullmann, Y.

    2009-01-01

    A varying period of training followed by examinations is the usual way to become a specialist in one of the many fields of Medicine. Plastic Surgery is one of the surgical fields that require good technical and cognitive skills. The best way to train and evaluate a candidate is hard to judge. The

  14. Testing an empirically derived mental health training model featuring small groups, distributed practice and patient discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrihy, Rachael C; Byrne, Mitchell K; Gonsalvez, Craig J

    2009-02-01

    Internationally, family doctors seeking to enhance their skills in evidence-based mental health treatment are attending brief training workshops, despite clear evidence in the literature that short-term, massed formats are not likely to improve skills in this complex area. Reviews of the educational literature suggest that an optimal model of training would incorporate distributed practice techniques; repeated practice over a lengthy time period, small-group interactive learning, mentoring relationships, skills-based training and an ongoing discussion of actual patients. This study investigates the potential role of group-based training incorporating multiple aspects of good pedagogy for training doctors in basic competencies in brief cognitive behaviour therapy (BCBT). Six groups of family doctors (n = 32) completed eight 2-hour sessions of BCBT group training over a 6-month period. A baseline control design was utilised with pre- and post-training measures of doctors' BCBT skills, knowledge and engagement in BCBT treatment. Family doctors' knowledge, skills in and actual use of BCBT with patients improved significantly over the course of training compared with the control period. This research demonstrates preliminary support for the efficacy of an empirically derived group training model for family doctors. Brief CBT group-based training could prove to be an effective and viable model for future doctor training.

  15. Evaluation of arthroscopic training using a porcine knee model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee-June; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Kyung, Hee-Soo

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of arthroscopic skills training. A routine diagnostic arthroscopic exercise using a porcine knee was performed. A checklist of 10 tasks was used in the training and the time taken to complete the checklist was evaluated, and the Arthroscopic Surgery Skill Evaluation Tool (ASSET) score was used to score the training and evaluate the practice session. A total of 14 residents attended this training, including five first- and second-year residents, five third- and fourth-year residents, and four orthopedic fellows. The ASSET score and time taken to complete the task checklist were evaluated, and the first and third practice sessions were scored to evaluate the effectiveness of the training. The mean ASSET score improved from 21.8 in the first practice session to 24.9 in the third session ( p arthroscopic surgical techniques.

  16. Virtual reality training for surgical trainees in laparoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagendran, Myura; Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan; Aggarwal, Rajesh; Loizidou, Marilena; Davidson, Brian R

    2013-08-27

    Standard surgical training has traditionally been one of apprenticeship, where the surgical trainee learns to perform surgery under the supervision of a trained surgeon. This is time-consuming, costly, and of variable effectiveness. Training using a virtual reality simulator is an option to supplement standard training. Virtual reality training improves the technical skills of surgical trainees such as decreased time for suturing and improved accuracy. The clinical impact of virtual reality training is not known. To assess the benefits (increased surgical proficiency and improved patient outcomes) and harms (potentially worse patient outcomes) of supplementary virtual reality training of surgical trainees with limited laparoscopic experience. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Science Citation Index Expanded until July 2012. We included all randomised clinical trials comparing virtual reality training versus other forms of training including box-trainer training, no training, or standard laparoscopic training in surgical trainees with little laparoscopic experience. We also planned to include trials comparing different methods of virtual reality training. We included only trials that assessed the outcomes in people undergoing laparoscopic surgery. Two authors independently identified trials and collected data. We analysed the data with both the fixed-effect and the random-effects models using Review Manager 5 analysis. For each outcome we calculated the mean difference (MD) or standardised mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals based on intention-to-treat analysis. We included eight trials covering 109 surgical trainees with limited laparoscopic experience. Of the eight trials, six compared virtual reality versus no supplementary training. One trial compared virtual reality training versus box-trainer training and versus no supplementary training, and one trial compared

  17. Teacher training in South Africa: The integrated model as viable option

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article contributes to the debate regarding the preferred model for teacher education to provide for teacher shortages. The models commonly referred to are the consecutive model, the integrated model and the concurrent model for teacher training. The aim of this article is to determine if the integrated model for teacher ...

  18. Study on Innovation of Teacher Training Model in Basic Education from the Perspective of "Blended Learning"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Huabai; Bu, Shizhen

    2012-01-01

    Gradual integration of synergetic technology, P2P technology and online learning community furnishes a new research field for innovation of teacher training model in a knowledge economy era. This article proposes the innovative model of "whole of three lines" in teacher training in basic education from the perspective of "blended…

  19. A Comprehensive Planning Model and Delivery System for Leadership Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janosik, Steven M.; Sina, Julie A.

    1988-01-01

    Presents an eight-step planning model that operationally defines a comprehensive delivery systems approach to campuswide leadership training. Lists four goals of the model: to increase efficiency of leadership training through shared resources, to decrease costs, to provide quality control, and to increase impact of programming effort by creating…

  20. Evaluating Vocational Educators' Training Programs: A Kirkpatrick-Inspired Evaluation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravicchio, Fabrizio; Trentin, Guglielmo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the article is to describe the assessment model adopted by the SCINTILLA Project, a project in Italy aimed at the online vocational training of young, seriously-disabled subjects and their subsequent work inclusion in smart-work mode. It will thus describe the model worked out for evaluation of the training program conceived for the…

  1. Performance Improvement: Applying a Human Performance Model to Organizational Processes in a Military Training Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaberg, Wayne; Thompson, Carla J.; West, Haywood V.; Swiergosz, Matthew J.

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a description and the results of a study that utilized the human performance (HP) model and methods to explore and analyze a training organization. The systemic and systematic practices of the HP model are applicable to military training organizations as well as civilian organizations. Implications of the study for future…

  2. A Context-Adaptive Teacher Training Model in a Ubiquitous Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min; Chiang, Feng Kuang; Jiang, Ya Na; Yu, Sheng Quan

    2017-01-01

    In view of the discrepancies in teacher training and teaching practice, this paper put forward a context-adaptive teacher training model in a ubiquitous learning (u-learning) environment. The innovative model provides teachers of different subjects with adaptive and personalized learning content in a u-learning environment, implements intra- and…

  3. A new beating-heart off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting training model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, Wobbe; Kuijpers, Michiel; Bijleveld, Aanke; De Maat, Gijs E.; Koene, Bart M.; Erasmus, Michiel E.; Natour, Ehsan; Mariani, Massimo A.

    OBJECTIVES: Training models are essential in mastering the skills required for off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB). We describe a new, high-fidelity, effective and reproducible beating-heart OPCAB training model in human cadavers. METHODS: Human cadavers were embalmed according to the

  4. Ureteroscopic skills with and without Roboflex Avicenna in the K-box® simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proietti, Silvia; Dragos, Laurian; Emiliani, Esteban; Butticè, Salvatore; Talso, Michele; Baghdadi, Mohammed; Villa, Luca; Doizi, Steeve; Giusti, Guido; Traxer, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the acquisition of basic ureteroscopic skills with and without Roboflex Avicenna by subjects with no prior surgical training. Ten medical students were divided in two groups: Group 1 was trained with Roboflex Avicenna and Group 2 with flexible ureteroscope alone, using the K-box® simulator model. Participants were scored on their ability to perform or not two exercises, recording the time. In addition, the participants were evaluated on the quality of their performance for the following parameters: respect of the surrounding environment, flow of the operation, orientation, vision centering and stability. The first exercise was completed only by three and four out of five of students in Group 1 and Group 2, respectively. Stability with the scope was significantly more accurate in the first group compared with the second (P = 0.02). There were no differences in timing, flow or orientation between groups. Although not significant, a tendency of respecting the surrounding tissue and maintaining centered vision was perceived more in the first group. As for the second exercise, there were no differences between groups in regard of orientation, flow, respecting the surrounding tissue, stability or the ability of maintaining centered vision. Although not significant, the second group had a tendency of performing the exercise faster. According to these preliminary results, the acquisition of basic ureteroscopic skills with and without robotic fURS in the K-box® simulator, by subjects with no prior surgical training, is similar.

  5. Comparison of black-box, glass-box and open-box software for aiding conceptual understanding

    OpenAIRE

    Hosein, Anesa; Aczel, James; Clow, Doug; Richardson, John T E

    2008-01-01

    Three mathematical software types: black-box (no steps shown), glass-box (steps shown) and open-box (interactive steps) were used by 32 students to solve conceptual and procedural tasks on the computer via remote observation. Comparison of the three software types suggests that there is no difference in the scores that students receive for conceptual understanding tasks. Students using the black-box are more likely to explore answers than students using the glass and open-box software.

  6. Model training of future specialists in human health to strengthen the use of health technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Mikheenko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : develop a model of scientific and methodological training of future specialists in human health to strengthen the use of health technologies. Material : processed more than 100 literary sources. Results : analyzed the methodological, organizational and educational and training aspects of the training of future specialists in human health. On the basis of scientific modeling, the basic structural components of the model of professional training of future specialists, are characterized by their nature and relationship. Theoretical basis to ensure a high level of training future specialist is an integral concept of professionalization based on the theoretical and methodological basis of its essence. Conclusions : it is proved that the effectiveness of training future specialist determined holistic concept of professionalization and relevant scientific and methodological support of the educational process.

  7. Model reference control of conceptual clutched train substituted for vehicular friction clutch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Wei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to essentially reduce heat generation and frictional dissipation carried by friction clutch engagement, conceptual design of clutched train combined with hydrostatic braking system is proposed as a novel substitution for vehicular friction clutch. Potential collateral merits of clutched train may improve service life and control accuracy since less friction heat generated during synchronization process. Parameter of clutched train is obtained by Genetic Algorithm optimization aiming at axial space-saving and light weight. Control-oriented model of proposed concept is derived and used in Model Reference Control development. Based on optimum parameter of clutched train, simulation result has shown the functionality of clutched train on vehicle standing-start, and well-behaved Model Reference Control on smoothing clutched train synchronization process.

  8. Adaptively trained reduced-order model for acceleration of oscillatory flow simulations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oxtoby, Oliver F

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We present an adaptively trained Reduced-Order Model (ROM) to dramatically speed up flow simulations of an oscillatory nature. Such repetitive flowfields are frequently encountered in fluid-structure interaction modelling, aeroelastic flutter being...

  9. 30 CFR 56.12006 - Distribution boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distribution boxes. 56.12006 Section 56.12006... Distribution boxes. Distribution boxes shall be provided with a disconnecting device for each branch circuit... visual observation when such a device is open and that the circuit is deenergized, the distribution box...

  10. 30 CFR 57.12006 - Distribution boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distribution boxes. 57.12006 Section 57.12006... and Underground § 57.12006 Distribution boxes. Distribution boxes shall be provided with a... deenergized, and the distribution box shall be labeled to show which circuit each device controls. ...

  11. TRAINING MANAGEMENT MODEL FOR HUMAN RESOURCE CAPACITY BUILDING (ANALYSIS OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING AGENCY, WEST JAVA PROVINCE, INDONESIA)

    OpenAIRE

    -, Mustakim

    2017-01-01

    Stakeholderis a driving force in an organization. However, over time, an organizationcannot be avoided with the crisis of leadership. This condition is due to thelack of human resources that has credibility and capacity as a leader. Throughthe Training Management Model, it aims to improve the capacity of humanresources, which is expected to become a model of the emergence of futureleaders. The civil service is a state apparatus that works to serve the Stateof the Republic of Indonesia. Then, ...

  12. Houston, We Have a Problem Solving Model for Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Lacey; Slack, Kelley; Keeton, Kathryn; Barshi, Immanuel; Martin, Lynne; Mauro, Robert; O'Keefe, William; Baldwin, Evelyn; Huning, Therese

    2011-01-01

    In late 2006, the Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) at NASA began looking at ways to make training more efficient for the flight controllers who support the International Space Station. The average certification times for flight controllers spanned from 18 months to three years and the MOD, responsible for technical training, was eager to develop creative solutions that would reduce the time to 12 months. Additionally, previously trained flight controllers sometimes participated in more than 50 very costly, eight-hour integrated simulations before becoming certified. New trainees needed to gain proficiency with far fewer lessons and training simulations than their predecessors. This poster presentation reviews the approach and the process that is currently in development to accomplish this goal.

  13. CGAT: a model for immersive personalized training in computational genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, David; Ponting, Chris P; Heger, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    How should the next generation of genomics scientists be trained while simultaneously pursuing high quality and diverse research? CGAT, the Computational Genomics Analysis and Training programme, was set up in 2010 by the UK Medical Research Council to complement its investment in next-generation sequencing capacity. CGAT was conceived around the twin goals of training future leaders in genome biology and medicine, and providing much needed capacity to UK science for analysing genome scale data sets. Here we outline the training programme employed by CGAT and describe how it dovetails with collaborative research projects to launch scientists on the road towards independent research careers in genomics. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  14. A Frequency Matching Method for Generation of a Priori Sample Models from Training Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Katrine; Cordua, Knud Skou; Frydendall, Jan

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a Frequency Matching Method (FMM) for generation of a priori sample models based on training images and illustrates its use by an example. In geostatistics, training images are used to represent a priori knowledge or expectations of models, and the FMM can be used to generate...... new images that share the same multi-point statistics as a given training image. The FMM proceeds by iteratively updating voxel values of an image until the frequency of patterns in the image matches the frequency of patterns in the training image; making the resulting image statistically...

  15. Paediatric laparoscopic orchidopexy as a novel mentorship: Training model

    OpenAIRE

    Vipul Gupta; Sunil Kumar Yadav; Elterman Dean; Pradip Vincent; Farhat Walid; Abdulnaser Al Said

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although Laparoscopy is becoming a standard procedure in management of pediatric urology disorders, but its widespread use still limited. This can be attributed mainly to difficulty in acquiring such specialized technique, especially by post graduate practicing urologist. Thus, we herein evaluate the impact of condensed laparoscopic training programme in children hospital with the aim to analyze the feasibility and safety of laparoscopic orchidopexy in training basic laparoscopic ...

  16. Unconventional Bearing Capacity Analysis and Optimization of Multicell Box Girders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovan Tepic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with unconventional bearing capacity analysis and the procedure of optimizing a two-cell box girder. The generalized model which enables the local stress-strain analysis of multicell girders was developed based on the principle of cross-sectional decomposition. The applied methodology is verified using the experimental data (Djelosevic et al., 2012 for traditionally formed box girders. The qualitative and quantitative evaluation of results obtained for the two-cell box girder is realized based on comparative analysis using the finite element method (FEM and the ANSYS v12 software. The deflection function obtained by analytical and numerical methods was found consistent provided that the maximum deviation does not exceed 4%. Multicell box girders are rationally designed support structures characterized by much lower susceptibility of their cross-sectional elements to buckling and higher specific capacity than traditionally formed box girders. The developed local stress model is applied for optimizing the cross section of a two-cell box carrier. The author points to the advantages of implementing the model of local stresses in the optimization process and concludes that the technological reserve of bearing capacity amounts to 20% at the same girder weight and constant load conditions.

  17. Training Regular Educators with Exceptional Kids: A Guide for Adapting the TREK Model of Inservice Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmont, Wendy L.; And Others

    The document describes Project TREK (Training Regular Educators with Exceptional Kids) which provides services to seven school districts within the Portland, Oregon area. Chapter 1 offers an overview of the project's purpose and philosophy, target population, organization and staffing, delivery of services, and staff support and interaction.…

  18. First-aid boxes - Reminder

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    With a view to ensuring optimum use of the first-aid boxes on the CERN site, we should like to remind you of various changes introduced in March 2009: The TSO of the buildings concerned is responsible for the first-aid boxes, including checking their contents.   First-aid boxes may be restocked ONLY at the CERN stores (SCEM No. 54.99.80). This is no longer possible at the Infirmary. The associated cost is charged to the Departments.   First-aid boxes should be used only for mild injuries. All other cases should be referred to the Medical Service Infirmary (Bldg. 57 – ground-floor, tel. 73802) between 8.00 a.m. and 5.30 p.m. or to the Fire and Rescue Service (tel. 74444). N.B.: This information does not apply to the red emergency first-aid boxes in the underground areas or to the emergency kits for use in the event of being splashed with hydrofluoric acid.

  19. Accurate modeling of switched reluctance machine based on hybrid trained WNN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoujun Song

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available According to the strong nonlinear electromagnetic characteristics of switched reluctance machine (SRM, a novel accurate modeling method is proposed based on hybrid trained wavelet neural network (WNN which combines improved genetic algorithm (GA with gradient descent (GD method to train the network. In the novel method, WNN is trained by GD method based on the initial weights obtained per improved GA optimization, and the global parallel searching capability of stochastic algorithm and local convergence speed of deterministic algorithm are combined to enhance the training accuracy, stability and speed. Based on the measured electromagnetic characteristics of a 3-phase 12/8-pole SRM, the nonlinear simulation model is built by hybrid trained WNN in Matlab. The phase current and mechanical characteristics from simulation under different working conditions meet well with those from experiments, which indicates the accuracy of the model for dynamic and static performance evaluation of SRM and verifies the effectiveness of the proposed modeling method.

  20. Accurate modeling of switched reluctance machine based on hybrid trained WNN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shoujun; Ge, Lefei; Ma, Shaojie; Zhang, Man

    2014-04-01

    According to the strong nonlinear electromagnetic characteristics of switched reluctance machine (SRM), a novel accurate modeling method is proposed based on hybrid trained wavelet neural network (WNN) which combines improved genetic algorithm (GA) with gradient descent (GD) method to train the network. In the novel method, WNN is trained by GD method based on the initial weights obtained per improved GA optimization, and the global parallel searching capability of stochastic algorithm and local convergence speed of deterministic algorithm are combined to enhance the training accuracy, stability and speed. Based on the measured electromagnetic characteristics of a 3-phase 12/8-pole SRM, the nonlinear simulation model is built by hybrid trained WNN in Matlab. The phase current and mechanical characteristics from simulation under different working conditions meet well with those from experiments, which indicates the accuracy of the model for dynamic and static performance evaluation of SRM and verifies the effectiveness of the proposed modeling method.

  1. A Model Train-The-Trainer Program for HACCP-Based Food Safety Training in the Retail/Food Service Industry: An Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Kenneth E.; Knabel, Steve; Mendenhall, Von

    1999-01-01

    A survey showed states are adopting higher training and certification requirements for food-service workers. A train-the-trainer model was developed to prepare extension agents, health officers, and food-service managers to train others in food-safety procedures. (SK)

  2. Paediatric laparoscopic orchidopexy as a novel mentorship: Training model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipul Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although Laparoscopy is becoming a standard procedure in management of pediatric urology disorders, but its widespread use still limited. This can be attributed mainly to difficulty in acquiring such specialized technique, especially by post graduate practicing urologist. Thus, we herein evaluate the impact of condensed laparoscopic training programme in children hospital with the aim to analyze the feasibility and safety of laparoscopic orchidopexy in training basic laparoscopic skills. The aim of this study was to review experience as a mentor in training laparoscopic skills through condensed training programme based on high volume low risk procedure of pediatric laparoscopic orchidopexy. Materials and Methods: In order to implement a condensed laparoscopic curriculum in a short period of time while maintaining utmost patient safety, laparoscopic orchidopexy was used as the technique of choice. The course was conducted over a period of 5 days starting from 1 st November 2010 in a tertiary pediatric surgical center under guidance of an expert mentor. A total of 30 testicular units in 27 pediatric patients of different age group diagnosed with impalpable undescended testis underwent laparoscopic intervention. The course was conducted in three stages with the aim to deliver laparoscopic skills to trainee. In stage one out of eight cases operated by mentor with assistance of trainee six were operated on day 1 and two cases were operated on second day. The trainee performed 12 cases of laparoscopy independently with assistance of mentor in stage two which was carried out on day 2, 3 and 4. Finally all 7 cases including two second stage laparoscopic orchidopexy procedures were carried out independently by trainee under observer ship of mentor in stage three during day 4 and 5 of training programme. The feasibility and efficacy of laparoscopic orchidopexy in training laparoscopic skills through condensed training programme was assessed

  3. [Evaluation of simulated mandibular models in skill training of implantology for dental undergraduates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feng-Wei; Shang, Jiang; Song, Jian; DU, Ping-Gong; Liu, Zhong-Hao

    2017-10-01

    To explore the effects of simulated mandibular models in skill training of implantology for dental undergraduate. Pre-clinical teaching of oral implantology was implemented on simulation models for 51 undergraduates of grade 2013. Each undergraduate inserted a dental implant and took an impression in the simulation model under the teacher's guidance. After the training course, the scores were evaluated both objectively and subjectively. An average score of 91.6 was obtained in the course of oral implantology on simulated mandibular models. All students appreciated the teaching methods. They believed that training on simulation models could improve their learning interest and arouse their learning motivation. Simulated mandibular models are good tools in training of oral implantology for dental undergraduates education, which is worthy of wide application.

  4. Integrating molecular diagnostics into histopathology training: the Belfast model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, C; James, J; Maxwell, P; McQuaid, S; Ervine, A; Catherwood, M; Loughrey, M B; McGibben, D; Somerville, J; McManus, D T; Gray, M; Herron, B; Salto-Tellez, M

    2014-07-01

    Molecular medicine is transforming modern clinical practice, from diagnostics to therapeutics. Discoveries in research are being incorporated into the clinical setting with increasing rapidity. This transformation is also deeply changing the way we practise pathology. The great advances in cell and molecular biology which have accelerated our understanding of the pathogenesis of solid tumours have been embraced with variable degrees of enthusiasm by diverse medical professional specialties. While histopathologists have not been prompt to adopt molecular diagnostics to date, the need to incorporate molecular pathology into the training of future histopathologists is imperative. Our goal is to create, within an existing 5-year histopathology training curriculum, the structure for formal substantial teaching of molecular diagnostics. This specialist training has two main goals: (1) to equip future practising histopathologists with basic knowledge of molecular diagnostics and (2) to create the option for those interested in a subspecialty experience in tissue molecular diagnostics to pursue this training. It is our belief that this training will help to maintain in future the role of the pathologist at the centre of patient care as the integrator of clinical, morphological and molecular information. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Methodology of Transport Scheme Selection for Metro Trains Using a Combined Simulation-Optimization Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetla Dimitrova Stoilova

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A major problem connected with planning the organization of trains in metros is the optimization of the scheme of movement, which determines the routing and the number of trains. In this paper, a combined simulation-optimization model including four steps is proposed. In the first step, the train movement has been simulated in order to study the interval between the trains according to the incoming passenger flows at the stations. The simulation model was elaborated using the ARENA software. The results were validated through experimental observations. Using the results obtained from simulations in the second step the correlation between the observed parameters - the incoming passengers and the interval between trains - has been studied. Recent research has established a non-linear relationship between the interval of movement, incoming passengers at the station and passengers on the platform. The third step defines the variant schemes of transportation. The fourth step presents the optimal choice of transportation of trains in metros based on linear optimization model. The model uses the regression obtained in the second step. The practicability of the combined simulation-optimization model is demonstrated through the case study of Sofia’s metro in two peak periods – morning and evening. The model results and the real situation have been compared. It was found that the model results are similar to the real data for the morning peak period but for the evening peak period it is necessary to increase the number of trains.

  6. Professional growth of trainees: applying teacher training models to the training of GPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavriel, George; Gavriel, Jennifer

    2011-10-01

    Study of professional growth is useful for reflective purposes at any time during a career. The concept of known knowns and unknowns with a training twist can be used to summarise the overall stages of any trainee. At the start of vocational training the trainee does not know what they do not know, they have not yet recognised how much they have to learn. This happens in the second stage (that could be equated to survival) when they begin to understand the vast array of skills they must develop to make it look easy. With time and practice they will reach the point where they know what they have to do--not always getting it right but then who does? Finally, and it is particularly important that trainers recognise this, an individual will reach the point where everything is so automatic they are no longer aware of the intricacies of the skills they have acquired. This is where most trainers, both for teachers and GPs, find themselves and this can be frustrating for both trainee and trainer as they find they are unable to communicate effectively. A good trainer will spend time dissecting and 'unlearning' their skills so they are able to teach their trainees successfully. Trainees, meanwhile, must realise that, one day, they will have their own unknown knowns, but they cannot expect it to happen overnight or without substantial effort. In moving forward from our training it is how we deal with repeated survival stages that determines if we can keep doing the job, it is how we deal with the plateau that determines if we will be any good at it--effective on-the-job training leads to lifelong on-the-job learning.

  7. Sparse generalized volterra model of human hippocampal spike train transformation for memory prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dong; Robinson, Brian S; Hampson, Robert E; Marmarelis, Vasilis Z; Deadwyler, Sam A; Berger, Theodore W

    2015-01-01

    In order to build hippocampal prostheses for restoring memory functions, we build multi-input, multi-output (MIMO) nonlinear dynamical models of the human hippocampus. Spike trains are recorded from the hippocampal CA3 and CA1 regions of epileptic patients performing a memory-dependent delayed match-to-sample task. Using CA3 and CA1 spike trains as inputs and outputs respectively, second-order sparse generalized Laguerre-Volterra models are estimated with group lasso and local coordinate descent methods to capture the nonlinear dynamics underlying the spike train transformations. These models can accurately predict the CA1 spike trains based on the ongoing CA3 spike trains and thus will serve as the computational basis of the hippocampal memory prosthesis.

  8. Model of training of computer science teachers by means of distant education technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т А Соловьева

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Training of future computer science teachers in conditions of informatization of education is analyzed. Distant educational technologies (DET and traditional process of training, their advantages and disadvantages are considered, active functions of DET as the basis of the model of training by means of DET is stressed. It is shown that mixed education combining both distant ant traditional technologies takes place on the basis of the created model. Practical use of the model is shown on the example of the course «Recursion» for future computer science teachers.

  9. A Conceptual Model for Employer Training to Manage Employee Counter-Productive Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Naomi Spickard

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a model for employer training to manage employees who possess counter-productive behaviors. With the increasing encouragement for employers to hire without discriminating, the number of individuals with disabilities in the workforce will rise. There is limited training in universities and businesses to…

  10. Multicultural Grand Rounds: Competency-Based Training Model for Clinical Psychology Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stites, Shana D.; Warholic, Christina L.

    2014-01-01

    Preparing students to enter the field of psychology as competent professionals requires that multicultural practices be infused into all areas of training. This article describes how the Grand Rounds model was adapted to a graduate clinical psychology training program to foster applied learning in multicultural competence. This extension of Grand…

  11. A Partnership Model for Training Episodic Environmental Stewardship 4-H Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jane Chin; Alexander, Janice; Smith, Martin H.

    2013-01-01

    The Marin Environmental Stewardship pilot project demonstrates the potential for a partnership model that brings together external and internal collaborators to recruit and train episodic 4-H volunteers to meet environmental education needs within a community. The clientele served by the volunteers trained through the project was at-risk, urban…

  12. Method for development of human behaviour models for simulation based training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluimer, R.R.; Bosch, K. van den

    2004-01-01

    There is a growing interest in Human Behavior models for training purposes. The reason for this is twofold: Firstly, the cost of training will drop by using cognitive agents as team members or adversaries, because the number of human participants will decrease. Secondly, cognitive agents can enhance

  13. Rationale and Resources for Teaching the Mathematical Modeling of Athletic Training and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, David C.; Skiba, Philip F.

    2013-01-01

    A number of professions rely on exercise prescription to improve health or athletic performance, including coaching, fitness/personal training, rehabilitation, and exercise physiology. It is therefore advisable that the professionals involved learn the various tools available for designing effective training programs. Mathematical modeling of…

  14. Utility of Modern Arthroscopic Simulator Training Models: A Meta-analysis and Updated Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Rachel M; Wang, Kevin C; Davey, Annabelle; Cotter, Eric J; Cole, Brian J; Romeo, Anthony A; Bush-Joseph, Charles A; Bach, Bernard R; Verma, Nikhil N

    2018-01-20

    To determine the utility of modern arthroscopic simulators in transferring skills learned on the model to the operating room. A meta-analysis and systematic review of all English-language studies relevant to validated arthroscopic simulation models using PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses) guidelines from 1999 to 2016 was performed. Data collected included the specific simulator model, the joint used, participant demographic characteristics, participant level of training, training session information, type and number of tasks, pre- and post-training assessments, and overall outcomes of simulator performance. Three independent reviewers analyzed all studies. Fifty-seven studies with 1,698 participants met the study criteria and were included. Of the studies, 25 (44%) incorporated an arthroscopic training program into the study methods whereas 32 (56%) did not. In 46 studies (81%), the studies' respective simulator models were used to assess arthroscopic performance, whereas 9 studies (16%) used Sawbones models, 8 (14%) used cadaveric models, and 4 (7%) evaluated subject performance on a live patient in the operating room. In 21 studies (37%), simulator performance was compared with experience level, with 20 of these (95%) showing that clinical experience correlated with simulator performance. In 25 studies (44%), task performance was evaluated before and after simulator training, with 24 of these (96%) showing improvement after training. All 4 studies that included live-patient arthroscopy reported improved operating room performance after simulator training compared with the performance of subjects not participating in a training program. This review suggests that (1) training on arthroscopic simulators improves performance on arthroscopic simulators and (2) performance on simulators for basic diagnostic arthroscopy correlates with experience level. Limited data suggest that simulator training can improve basic diagnostic

  15. Effectiveness of Training Model Capacity Building for Entrepreneurship Women Based Empowerment Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idawati; Mahmud, Alimuddin; Dirawan, Gufran Darma

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the effectiveness of a training model for capacity building of women entrepreneurship community-based. Research type approach Research and Development Model, which refers to the model of development research that developed by Romiszowki (1996) combined with a model of development Sugiono (2011) it was…

  16. Train-induced ground vibrations : Modeling and experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ditzel, A.

    2003-01-01

    Ground vibrations generated by high-speed trains are of great concern because of the possible damage they can cause to buildings or other structures near the track, and the annoyance to the public living in the vicinity of the track. Particularly in soft-soil regions, where the wave speed is

  17. Counseling Psychology Model Training Values Statement Addressing Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counseling Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Respect for diversity and for values different from one's own is a central value of counseling psychology training programs. The valuing of diversity is also consistent with the profession of psychology as mandated by the American Psychological Association's (APA's) Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct and as discussed in the Guidelines and…

  18. Bayesian model ensembling using meta-trained recurrent neural networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ambrogioni, L.; Berezutskaya, Y.; Gü ç lü , U.; Borne, E.W.P. van den; Gü ç lü tü rk, Y.; Gerven, M.A.J. van; Maris, E.G.G.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate that a recurrent neural network meta-trained on an ensemble of arbitrary classification tasks can be used as an approximation of the Bayes optimal classifier. This result is obtained by relying on the framework of e-free approximate Bayesian inference, where the Bayesian

  19. Histopathology practice and training in Nigeria – a model | Sabageh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Contemporary histopathology practice and training in Nigeria have been plagued by the fundamental issue of inadequate exposure to surgical pathology material by both trainees and trainers. This paper critically examines the factors that affect the discipline and profers practical solutions to aid its advancement.

  20. Original Business Modelling: Potential Roles of Creativity in Entrepreneurship Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrge, Christian; Kristiansen, Kristian Brøndum

    2017-01-01

    This extended abstract aims to design a research method for studying potential meaningful roles creativity may take in entrepreneurship training. It suggests an experimental setup using a 30 ECTS entrepreneurship course at a Danish university for conducting the experiments and the data collection...

  1. Building Multicultural Residential Communities: A Model for Training Student Staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petryk, Taryn; Thompson, Monita C.; Boynton, Trelawny

    2013-01-01

    The growing diversity and changing demographics within the United States increases the importance of students developing skills to engage across identity difference. The purpose of this chapter is to describe how a pre-employment course for student staff members is used as a multicultural intervention training to provide students with the…

  2. Routing Trains through railway stations: model formulation and algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. Zwaneveld (Peter); L.G. Kroon (Leo); H.E. Romeijn (Edwin); M. Salomon (Marc); S. Dauzere-Peres; S. van Hoesel (Stan); H.W. Ambergen

    1996-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we consider the problem of routing trains through railway stations. This problem occurs as a subproblem in a project which the authors are carrying out in cooperation with the Dutch railways. The project involves the analysis of future infrastructural capacity requirements

  3. Training by Contract: Models of Success between Colleges and Employers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    College Entrance Examination Board, New York, NY.

    This book offers colleges and universities information on contract training with business and industry, suggesting ways to blend corporate education programs into the organizational structure of both the educational institution and the business organization, and providing guidelines for obtaining contracts and delivering programs. Included also…

  4. Development and Validity of a Silicone Renal Tumor Model for Robotic Partial Nephrectomy Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monda, Steven M; Weese, Jonathan R; Anderson, Barrett G; Vetter, Joel M; Venkatesh, Ramakrishna; Du, Kefu; Andriole, Gerald L; Figenshau, Robert S

    2018-02-05

    Objectives To provide a training tool to address the technical challenges of robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy, we created silicone renal tumor models using 3D printed molds of a patient's kidney with a mass. In this study, we assessed the face, content, and construct validity of these models. Materials and Methods Surgeons of different training levels completed four simulations on silicone renal tumor models. Participants were surveyed on the usefulness and realism of the model as a training tool. Performance was measured using operation specific metrics, self-reported operative demands (NASA TLX), and blinded expert assessment (GEARS). Results 24 participants included attending urologists, endourology fellows, urology residents, and medical students. Post-training surveys of expert participants yielded mean results of 79.2 on the realism of the model's overall feel and 90.2 on the model's overall usefulness for training. Renal artery clamp times and GEARS scores were significantly better in surgeons further in training (p≤0.005, p≤0.025). Renal artery clamp times, preserved renal parenchyma, positive margins, NASA TLX, and GEARS scores were all found to improve across trials (psilicone renal tumor model in a cohort of surgeons of different training levels. Expert participants deemed the model useful and realistic. Surgeons of higher training levels performed better than less experienced surgeons in various study metrics, and improvements within individuals were observed over sequential trials. Future studies should aim to assess model predictive validity, namely the association between model performance improvements and improvements in live surgery. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Expo-Box Contact Us

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA-Expo-Box is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases, mode

  6. On the Dirichlet's Box Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Kin-Keung; Shiu, Wai-Chee

    2008-01-01

    In this note, we will focus on several applications on the Dirichlet's box principle in Discrete Mathematics lesson and number theory lesson. In addition, the main result is an innovative game on a triangular board developed by the authors. The game has been used in teaching and learning mathematics in Discrete Mathematics and some high schools in…

  7. The Bird Box Survey Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    When high school students are asked what's the best part of science class, many will say it's the field trips. Students enjoy engaging in authentic, community-based science outside the classroom. To capitalize on this, Patrick Willis created the Bird Box Survey Project for his introductory field biology class. The project takes students…

  8. Model based control and optimization of a feed-water heater train; Modellbaserad reglering och optimering av en foervaermarekedja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velut, Stephane; Raaberg, Martin; Wendel, Hans (Grontmij AB (SE))

    2007-12-15

    Thermal power plants are complex processes in which many variables must be monitored and controlled in real-time for a safe and economic operation. The complex interactions between actuators and controlled variables as well as the load dependent dynamics make the design and tuning of all controllers a challenging task. A mathematical model of the process that describes critical characteristics such as dynamics, interactions, and nonlinearities might greatly facilitate the task of the control engineer. Such controllers can be designed in a rather systematic way to achieve good performance in terms of response time and robustness. This enables the operator to run the process closer to its limits while minimizing damage risks. The goal of the project was threefold. The first objective was to describe the available methods to compute process models directly from experimental data and illustrate how those models can be used for control design. The second objective was to apply some of the fore mentioned methods on a specific process, namely a feed water heater train to control the level in each preheater. The third objective was to analyze how the level in each preheater affects the thermal efficiency of the plant and derive adequate set-points for the model-based controllers. The project started at the end of the production season, which resulted in a tight schedule for the planning and the realization of experiments. Informative data could however be collected and models could be derived for some specific loads. Unfortunately the effect of the changes in the level set point could not be verified because of the limited length of the experiments. The project results can be summarized as follows: The way the condensate level should be chosen in every preheater has been formulated as a simple optimization problem that aims as maximizing the thermal efficiency of the plant. Even though the model used in the optimization was simple, the results were pretty intuitive. The

  9. Model training curriculum for Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyner, C.J.; Birk, S.M.

    1995-09-01

    This document is to assist in the development of the training programs required to be in place for the operating license for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. It consists of an introductory document and four additional appendixes of individual training program curricula. This information will provide the starting point for the more detailed facility-specific training programs that will be developed as the facility hires and trains new personnel and begins operation. This document is comprehensive and is intended as a guide for the development of a company- or facility-specific program. The individual licensee does not need to use this model training curriculum as written. Instead, this document can be used as a menu for the development, modification, or verification of customized training programs.

  10. Incorporating the life course model into MCH nutrition leadership education and training programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haughton, Betsy; Eppig, Kristen; Looney, Shannon M; Cunningham-Sabo, Leslie; Spear, Bonnie A; Spence, Marsha; Stang, Jamie S

    2013-01-01

    Life course perspective, social determinants of health, and health equity have been combined into one comprehensive model, the life course model (LCM), for strategic planning by US Health Resources and Services Administration's Maternal and Child Health Bureau. The purpose of this project was to describe a faculty development process; identify strategies for incorporation of the LCM into nutrition leadership education and training at the graduate and professional levels; and suggest broader implications for training, research, and practice. Nineteen representatives from 6 MCHB-funded nutrition leadership education and training programs and 10 federal partners participated in a one-day session that began with an overview of the models and concluded with guided small group discussions on how to incorporate them into maternal and child health (MCH) leadership training using obesity as an example. Written notes from group discussions were compiled and coded emergently. Content analysis determined the most salient themes about incorporating the models into training. Four major LCM-related themes emerged, three of which were about training: (1) incorporation by training grants through LCM-framed coursework and experiences for trainees, and similarly framed continuing education and skills development for professionals; (2) incorporation through collaboration with other training programs and state and community partners, and through advocacy; and (3) incorporation by others at the federal and local levels through policy, political, and prevention efforts. The fourth theme focused on anticipated challenges of incorporating the model in training. Multiple methods for incorporating the LCM into MCH training and practice are warranted. Challenges to incorporating include the need for research and related policy development.

  11. A new beating-heart off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting training model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouma, Wobbe; Kuijpers, Michiel; Bijleveld, Aanke; De Maat, Gijs E; Koene, Bart M; Erasmus, Michiel E; Natour, Ehsan; Mariani, Massimo A

    2015-01-01

    Training models are essential in mastering the skills required for off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB). We describe a new, high-fidelity, effective and reproducible beating-heart OPCAB training model in human cadavers. Human cadavers were embalmed according to the 'Thiel method' which allows their long-term and repeated use. The training model was constructed by bilateral ligation of the pulmonary veins, cross-clamping of the aorta, positioning of an intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) in the left ventricle (LV) through the apex (tightened with pledget-reinforced purse strings) and finally placing of a fluid line in the LV through the left atrial appendage (tightened with a pledget-reinforced purse string). The LV was filled with saline to the desired pressure through the fluid line and the IABP was switched on and set to a desired frequency [usually 60-80 beats per minute (bpm)]. A high-fidelity simulation has known limitations, but a more complex, realistic training environment with an actual beating (human) heart strengthens the entire training exercise and is of incremental value. All types of coronary artery anastomosis can be trained with this model. Training should be performed under the supervision of an experienced OPCAB surgeon and training progress is best evaluated with serial Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS). A score of at least 48 points on the final OSATS ('good' on all components) is recommended before trainees can start their training on patients. The entire set-up provides a versatile training model to help develop and improve the skills required to safely perform beating heart OPCAB anastomoses. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  12. Modeling out-of-plane actuation in thin-film nematic polymer networks: From chiral ribbons to auto-origami boxes via twist and topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez-Pinto, Vianney; Ye, Fangfu; Mbanga, Badel; Selinger, Jonathan V.; Selinger, Robin L. B.

    2017-03-01

    Various experimental and theoretical studies demonstrate that complex stimulus-responsive out-of-plane distortions such as twist of different chirality, emergence of cones, simple and anticlastic bending can be engineered and pre-programmed in a liquid crystalline rubbery material given a well-controlled director microstructure. Via 3-d finite element simulation studies, we demonstrate director-encoded chiral shape actuation in thin-film nematic polymer networks under external stimulus. Furthermore, we design two complex director fields with twisted nematic domains and nematic disclinations that encode a pattern of folds for an auto-origami box. This actuator will be flat at a reference nematic state and form four well-controlled bend distortions as orientational order changes. Device fabrication is applicable via current experimental techniques. These results are in qualitative agreement with theoretical predictions, provide insight into experimental observations, and demonstrate the value of finite element methods at the continuum level for designing and engineering liquid crystal polymeric devices.

  13. Time-dependent modeling of oscillatory instability of three-dimensional natural convection of air in a laterally heated cubic box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfgat, Alexander Yu.

    2017-08-01

    Transition from steady to oscillatory buoyancy convection of air in a laterally heated cubic box is studied numerically by straight-forward time integration of Boussinesq equations using a series of gradually refined finite volume grids. Horizontal and spanwise cube boundaries are assumed to be either perfectly thermally conducting or perfectly thermally insulated, which results in four different sets of thermal boundary conditions. Critical Grashof numbers are obtained by interpolation of numerically extracted growth/decay rates of oscillation amplitude to zero. Slightly supercritical flow regimes are described by time-averaged flows, snapshots, and spatial distribution of the oscillation amplitude. Possible similarities and dissimilarities with two-dimensional instabilities in laterally heated square cavities are discussed. Break of symmetries and sub- or supercritical character of bifurcations are examined. Three consequent transitions from steady to the oscillatory regime, from the oscillatory to the steady regime, and finally to the oscillatory flow, are found in the case of perfectly insulated horizontal and spanwise boundaries. Arguments for grid and time-step independence of the results are given.

  14. The DEAD-box helicase eIF4A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreou, Alexandra Z.; Klostermeier, Dagmar

    2013-01-01

    DEAD-box helicases catalyze the ATP-dependent unwinding of RNA duplexes. They share a helicase core formed by two RecA-like domains that carries a set of conserved motifs contributing to ATP binding and hydrolysis, RNA binding and duplex unwinding. The translation initiation factor eIF4A is the founding member of the DEAD-box protein family, and one of the few examples of DEAD-box proteins that consist of a helicase core only. It is an RNA-stimulated ATPase and a non-processive helicase that unwinds short RNA duplexes. In the catalytic cycle, a series of conformational changes couples the nucleotide cycle to RNA unwinding. eIF4A has been considered a paradigm for DEAD-box proteins, and studies of its function have revealed the governing principles underlying the DEAD-box helicase mechanism. However, as an isolated helicase core, eIF4A is rather the exception, not the rule. Most helicase modules in other DEAD-box proteins are modified, some by insertions into the RecA-like domains, and the majority by N- and C-terminal appendages. While the basic catalytic function resides within the helicase core, its modulation by insertions, additional domains or a network of interaction partners generates the diversity of DEAD-box protein functions in the cell. This review summarizes the current knowledge on eIF4A and its regulation, and discusses to what extent eIF4A serves as a model DEAD-box protein. PMID:22995829

  15. Training of different endoscopic skills on ex-vivo animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinek, Jan; Stefanova, Magdalena; Suchanek, Stepan; Zavada, Filip; Svobodova, Barbora; Strosova, Alice; Zavoral, Miroslav

    2014-04-01

    Virtual reality simulator and ex vivo animal models are used for training of both basic and advanced endoscopic techniques. The aim of this study was to assess whether hands-on training on ex vivo animal model improves endoscopic skills. Four different endoscopic techniques were practiced: endoscopic resection, endoscopic stenting, application of the over-the-scope (OVESCO) clip, and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). Except for 2 participants, all trainees participated in a 1-day course. Two remaining participants took part in 7 ESD courses. All training courses consisted of theoretical introduction and a 6-hour training on Erlangen Active Training Simulator. The endoscopic skills were assessed before and after the training session by 2 independent assessors. Each assessor evaluated the skills by using a score on a scale of 1 to 5, where 1 stands for excellent and 5 for insufficient. Each assessor also assessed whether the procedure was successfully completed. The main outcome measurement was the percentage of participants who successfully completed the procedure during the test. For endoscopic resection, endoscopists (n = 15) improved their skills (median [10th and 90th percentiles] score before training, 3.5 [2.7-4.2]; after training 1.5 [1-2.3], P skills to prepare and apply the clip (given the score of 4.5 [3.9-5] before and 2.0 [1.2-2.8] after, P skills (with scores of 4 before and 1.6 after); given the small number of participants, this finding is statistically insignificant. The effect of training on clinical outcome was not investigated. There was a lack of pretraining versus posttraining tests blinding. A 1-day training course on ex vivo animal model improves general endoscopic competence on simulator in endoscopic resection, insertion of stents, and application of OVESCO clips. In contrast, 1-day course does not improve skills for ESD that requires a higher number of training courses.

  16. Creep behavior of precast segmental box girder bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xihua, Dai; Liangfang, Liu; Rong, Xian

    2017-08-01

    The concrete creep effect is more obvious when the box girder is assembled by segment. It is necessary to consider the influence of the loading value of the section at different time and the different age of concrete at different stages. In this paper, ACI209R-92, CEB-FIP MC90 and B3 and other concrete creep models are compared. The results show that the B3 model has many factors to consider and the calculation accuracy is high. Secondly, this paper discusses the influence of the segmental construction technology on the creep calculation, and puts forward the characteristics of the stress analysis of the segmental box girder. Finally, on the basis of the B3 model of concrete creep, the Midas software is used to establish the calculation model of segmental box girder, and the internal force and deformation of the box girder are calculated. The results show that the internal force and deformation of the box girder is too large due to the poor integrity of the segmental assembling process, which will seriously affect the normal service performance.

  17. Optimized feed-forward neural-network algorithm trained for cyclotron-cavity modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamadian, Masoumeh; Afarideh, Hossein; Ghergherehchi, Mitra

    2017-01-01

    The cyclotron cavity presented in this paper is modeled by a feed-forward neural network trained by the authors’ optimized back-propagation (BP) algorithm. The training samples were obtained from simulation results that are for a number of defined situations and parameters and were achieved parametrically using MWS CST software; furthermore, the conventional BP algorithm with different hidden-neuron numbers, structures, and other optimal parameters such as learning rate that are applied for our purpose was also used here. The present study shows that an optimized FFN can be used to estimate the cyclotron-model parameters with an acceptable error function. A neural network trained by an optimized algorithm therefore shows a proper approximation and an acceptable ability regarding the modeling of the proposed structure. The cyclotron-cavity parameter-modeling results demonstrate that an FNN that is trained by the optimized algorithm could be a suitable method for the estimation of the design parameters in this case.

  18. An ethics instrument in teacher training: the self-assessment model “i-SAPERI”

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Laura Loti

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide some ideas about the importance of self-assessment process in teacher training and its ethical value, taking as example the self-assessment model “i-SAPERI...

  19. Dissecting the Hydrobiogeochemical Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Alves Meira Neto, A.; Sengupta, A.; Root, R. A.; Dontsova, K.; Troch, P. A. A.; Chorover, J.

    2015-12-01

    Soil genesis is a coupled hydrologic and biogeochemical process that involves the interaction of weathering rock surfaces and water. Due to strong nonlinear coupling, it is extremely difficult to predict biogeochemical changes from hydrological modeling in natural field systems. A fully controlled and monitored system with known initial conditions could be utilized to isolate variables and simplify these natural processes. To investigate the initial weathering of host rock to soil, we employed a 10° sloping soil lysimeter containing one cubic meter of crushed and homogenized basaltic rock. A major experiment of the Periodic Tracer Hierarchy (PERTH) method (Harman and Kim, 2014) coupled with its bonus experiment were performed in the past two years. These experimental applications successfully described the transit-time distribution (TTD) of a tracer-enriched water breakthrough curve in this unique hydrological system (Harman, 2015). With intensive irrigation and high volume of water storage throughout the experiments, rapid biological changes have been observed on the soil surface, such as algal and grass growth. These observations imply that geochemical hotspots may be established within the soil lysimeter. To understand the detailed 2D spatial distribution of biogeochemical changes, 100 selected and undisturbed soil blocks, among a total 1000 sub-gridded equal sized, are tested with several geochemical tools. Each selected soil block was subjected to elemental analysis by pXRF to determine if elemental migration is detectable in the dynamic proto-soil development. Synchrotron XRD quantification with Reitveld refinement will follow to clarify mineralogical transformations in the soil blocks. The combined techniques aim to confirm the development of geochemical hotspots; and link these findings with previous hydrological findings from the PERTH experiment as well as other hydrological modeling, such as conducted with Hydrus and CATHY. This work provides insight to

  20. Original Business Modelling: Potential Roles of Creativity in Entrepreneurship Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrge, Christian; Kristiansen, Kristian Brøndum

    2017-01-01

    This extended abstract aims to design a research method for studying potential meaningful roles creativity may take in entrepreneurship training. It suggests an experimental setup using a 30 ECTS entrepreneurship course at a Danish university for conducting the experiments and the data collection...... to take place in autumn 2017. At the conferenceconference, we hope for any kind of feedback that may help us improve the quality of this forthcoming study....