WorldWideScience

Sample records for box model studies

  1. The Box Model and the Acoustic Sounder, a Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Otto; Lundtang Petersen, Erik

    1979-01-01

    Concentrations of SO2 in a large city during a subsidence situation are predicted as a function of time by means of a simple box model and the predictions are compared to actual SO2 concentration measurements. The agreement between model results and measurements is found to be excellent. The model...

  2. A photochemical box model for urban air quality study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shengxin; Demerjian, Kenneth

    The photochemical box model (PBM) developed in the present study is based on the principle of mass conservation. It has a horizontal domain of the size of a typical city and a vertical dimension defined by the mixed-layer height. The concentration of any pollutant is determined by horizontal advection, vertical entrainment, source emissions and chemical reactions. A one-dimensional high resolution boundary layer model by Blackadar ( Preprints, Third Symp. on Atmospheric Turbulence, Diffusion, and Air Quality, Raleigh, Am. Met. Soc., pp. 443-447, 1976; Advances in Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Vol. 1, No. 1 (edited by Pfafflin J. and Ziegler E.), pp. 50-85. Gordon and Breach, New York, 1979) has been incorporated in the PBM and further developed to consider the effect of urban heat islands in the simulation of mixed layer height. The predicted mixed-layer heights compare very well with observations. The gas phase chemical kinetic mechanism used in the Regional Acid Deposition Model II (RADM2) and that of an earlier version of PBM have been used to calculate the contributions of chemical reactions to the changes of pollutant concentrations. Detailed analysis and comparisons of the two chemical mechanisms have been made. The simulated pollutant concentrations using both chemical mechanisms are in very good agreement with available observations for CO, NO, NO 2 and O 3. A radiative transfer model developed by Madronich ( J. geophys. Res.92, 9740-9752, 1987) has been incorporated in the PBM for the calculation of actinic flux and photolytic rate constants. Height-averaged and radiation-corrected photolytic rate constants are used for the photochemical reactions. Budget analyses conducted for CO, NO, NO 2 and O 3 have enhanced our understanding of the relative contributions of horizontal advection, vertical entrainment, source emissions and chemical reactions to the overall rate of change of their concentrations. Model predictions are not sensitive to the large

  3. Marine Ecosystem Modeling Beyond the Box: Using GIS to Study Carbon Fluxes in a Coastal Ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijnbladh, Erik [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Figeholm (Sweden). Site Investigations Oskarshamn; Joensson, Bror Fredrik [Boston Univ., MA (United States). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Kumblad, Linda [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Systems Ecology

    2006-12-15

    Studies of carbon fluxes in marine ecosystems are often done by using box model approaches with basin size boxes, or highly resolved 3D models, and an emphasis on the pelagic component of the ecosystem. Those approaches work well in the ocean proper, but can give rise to considerable problems when applied to coastal systems, because of the scale of certain ecological niches and the fact that benthic organisms are the dominant functional group of the ecosystem. In addition, 3D models require an extensive modeling effort. In this project, an intermediate approach based on a high resolution (20x20 m) GIS data-grid has been developed for the coastal ecosystem in the Laxemar area (Baltic Sea, Sweden) based on a number of different site investigations. The model has been developed in the context of a safety assessment project for a proposed nuclear waste repository, in which the fate of hypothetically released radionuclides from the planned repository is estimated. The assessment project requires not only a good understanding of the ecosystem dynamics at the site, but also quantification of stocks and flows of matter in the system. The data-grid was then used to set up a carbon budget describing the spatial distribution of biomass, primary production, net ecosystem production and thus where carbon sinks and sources are located in the area. From these results, it was clear that there was a large variation in ecosystem characteristics within the basins and, on a larger scale, that the inner areas are net producing and the outer areas net respiring, even in shallow phyto benthic communities. Benthic processes had a similar or larger influence on carbon fluxes as advective processes in inner areas, whereas the opposite appears to be true in the outer basins. As many radionuclides are expected to follow the pathways of organic matter in the environment, these findings enhance our abilities to realistically describe and predict their fate in the ecosystem.

  4. Impact of aircraft exhaust on the atmosphere. Box model studies and 3-D mesoscale numerical case studies of seasonal differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petry, H.; Ebel, A.; Franzkowiak, V.; Hendricks, J.; Lippert, E.; Moellhoff, M. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geophysik und Meteorologie

    1997-12-31

    The impact of aircraft emissions released in the tropopause region on atmospheric trace gases as O{sub 3} or HNO{sub 3} is investigated by means of model studies. Special emphasis is drawn on seasonal effects. A box model is applied as well as a 3-D mesoscale chemistry transport model. These model studies show that the impact of aircraft emissions on ozone in the tropopause region is much stronger in summer than in late autumn with a difference of one order of magnitude. (author) 14 refs.

  5. Simulation of transport and chemical transformation of aircraft exhaust at the tropopause region: Box model studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petry, H.; Lippert, E.; Hendricks, J.; Ebel, A. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geophysik und Meteorologie

    1997-12-01

    Within the framework of the STRATFLUT project (Simulation of the transport and the chemical transformation of aircraft exhaust at the tropopause region) a chemistry mechanism for applications in the tropopause region was developed and continuously improved (CHEST/CHEST2). This mechanism has been applied in various sensitivity studies and to the evaluation of effective aircraft emission indices. In particular, an increase of ozone production due to airtraffic induced NO{sub x} emissions is found. This increase depends in a non-linear manner on the atmospheric background conditions into which the exhaust is released, on the altitude of release (absolute and relative to the tropopause), on the emission amount, on the daytime of release, on season and on aerosol loading. The effect of NO{sub x} released during one day by a fleet of 10 aircrafts into a box on ozone was found to vary between 0.05 ppbv and 2.3 ppbv (relative changes between approximately 0.02% and 6.57%) depending on the specific assumptions for the respective experiment. (orig.) 144 figs., 42 tabs., 497 refs.

  6. Grey Box Modelling of Hydrological Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thordarson, Fannar Ørn

    The main topic of the thesis is grey box modelling of hydrologic systems, as well as formulation and assessment of their embedded uncertainties. Grey box model is a combination of a white box model, a physically-based model that is traditionally formulated using deterministic ordinary differential...... represent a stochastic state space model. In the grey box model the total noise is divided into a measurement noise and a process noise. The process noise is due to model approximations, undiscovered input and uncertainties in the input series. Estimates of the process noise can be used to highlight...... in the model, or formulation of process noise can be considered so that it meets the physical limits of the hydrological system and give an adequate description of the embedded uncertainty in model structure. The thesis consists of two parts: a summary report and a part which contains six scientific papers...

  7. Determination of sample size for higher volatile data using new framework of Box-Jenkins model with GARCH: A case study on gold price

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslindar Yaziz, Siti; Zakaria, Roslinazairimah; Hura Ahmad, Maizah

    2017-09-01

    The model of Box-Jenkins - GARCH has been shown to be a promising tool for forecasting higher volatile time series. In this study, the framework of determining the optimal sample size using Box-Jenkins model with GARCH is proposed for practical application in analysing and forecasting higher volatile data. The proposed framework is employed to daily world gold price series from year 1971 to 2013. The data is divided into 12 different sample sizes (from 30 to 10200). Each sample is tested using different combination of the hybrid Box-Jenkins - GARCH model. Our study shows that the optimal sample size to forecast gold price using the framework of the hybrid model is 1250 data of 5-year sample. Hence, the empirical results of model selection criteria and 1-step-ahead forecasting evaluations suggest that the latest 12.25% (5-year data) of 10200 data is sufficient enough to be employed in the model of Box-Jenkins - GARCH with similar forecasting performance as by using 41-year data.

  8. Physical Modeling Modular Boxes: PHOXES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelineck, Steven; Serafin, Stefania

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a set of musical instruments, which are based on known physical modeling sound synthesis techniques. The instruments are modular, meaning that they can be combined in various ways. This makes it possible to experiment with physical interaction and sonic expl...

  9. Study of WATCH GRB error boxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorosabel, J.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Lund, Niels

    1995-01-01

    We have studied the first WATCH GRB Catalogue ofγ-ray Bursts in order to find correlations between WATCH GRB error boxes and a great variety of celestial objects present in 33 different catalogues. No particular class of objects has been found to be significantly correlated with the WATCH GRBs....

  10. Grey-box modelling of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tornøe, Christoffer Wenzel; Jacobsen, Judith L; Pedersen, Oluf

    2004-01-01

    Grey-box pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modelling is presented as a promising way of modelling PK/PD systems. The concept behind grey-box modelling is based on combining physiological knowledge along with information from data in the estimation of model parameters. Grey-box modelling con...... in order to describe the complicated in vivo system of insulin and glucose following an IVGTT....

  11. Comparison of postbuckling model and finite element model with compression strength of corrugated boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas J. Urbanik; Edmond P. Saliklis

    2002-01-01

    Conventional compression strength formulas for corrugated fiberboard boxes are limited to geometry and material that produce an elastic postbuckling failure. Inelastic postbuckling can occur in squatty boxes and trays, but a mechanistic rationale for unifying observed strength data is lacking. This study employs a finite element model, instead of actual experiments, to...

  12. A Box-Cox normal model for response times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein Entink, R H; van der Linden, W J; Fox, J-P

    2009-11-01

    The log-transform has been a convenient choice in response time modelling on test items. However, motivated by a dataset of the Medical College Admission Test where the lognormal model violated the normality assumption, the possibilities of the broader class of Box-Cox transformations for response time modelling are investigated. After an introduction and an outline of a broader framework for analysing responses and response times simultaneously, the performance of a Box-Cox normal model for describing response times is investigated using simulation studies and a real data example. A transformation-invariant implementation of the deviance information criterium (DIC) is developed that allows for comparing model fit between models with different transformation parameters. Showing an enhanced description of the shape of the response time distributions, its application in an educational measurement context is discussed at length.

  13. Modelling of Box Type Solar Cooker Performance in a Tropical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thermal performance model of box type solar cooker with loaded water is presented. The model was developed using the method of Funk to estimate cooking power in terms of climatic and design parameters for box type solar cooker in a tropical environment. Coefficients for each term used in the model were determined ...

  14. A box model study on photochemical interactions between VOCs and reactive halogen species in the marine boundary layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Toyota

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A new chemical scheme is developed for the multiphase photochemical box model SEAMAC (size-SEgregated Aerosol model for Marine Air Chemistry to investigate photochemical interactions between volatile organic compounds (VOCs and reactive halogen species in the marine boundary layer (MBL. Based primarily on critically evaluated kinetic and photochemical rate parameters as well as a protocol for chemical mechanism development, the new scheme has achieved a near-explicit description of oxidative degradation of up to C3-hydrocarbons (CH4, C2H6, C3H8, C2H4, C3H6, and C2H2 initiated by reactions with OH radicals, Cl- and Br-atoms, and O3. Rate constants and product yields for reactions involving halogen species are taken from the literature where available, but the majority of them need to be estimated. In particular, addition reactions of halogen atoms with alkenes will result in forming halogenated organic intermediates, whose photochemical loss rates are carefully evaluated in the present work. Model calculations with the new chemical scheme reveal that the oceanic emissions of acetaldehyde (CH3CHO and alkenes (especially C3H6 are important factors for regulating reactive halogen chemistry in the MBL by promoting the conversion of Br atoms into HBr or more stable brominated intermediates in the organic form. The latter include brominated hydroperoxides, bromoacetaldehyde, and bromoacetone, which sequester bromine from a reactive inorganic pool. The total mixing ratio of brominated organic species thus produced is likely to reach 10-20% or more of that of inorganic gaseous bromine species over wide regions over the ocean. The reaction between Br atoms and C2H2 is shown to be unimportant for determining the degree of bromine activation in the remote MBL. These results imply that reactive halogen chemistry can mediate a link between the oceanic emissions of VOCs and the behaviors of compounds that are sensitive to halogen chemistry such as dimethyl

  15. Box photosynthesis modeling results for WRF/CMAQ LSM

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Box Photosynthesis model simulations for latent heat and ozone at 6 different FLUXNET sites. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Ran, L., J....

  16. Gray-box modelling approach for description of storage tunnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harremoës, Poul; Carstensen, Jacob

    1999-01-01

    The dynamics of a storage tunnel is examined using a model based on on-line measured data and a combination of simple deterministic and black-box stochastic elements. This approach, called gray-box modeling, is a new promising methodology for giving an on-line state description of sewer systems. ...... in a SCADA system because the most important information on the specific system is provided on-line...

  17. Modelling photochemical pollutants in a deep urban street canyon: Application of a coupled two-box model approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jian; Cai, Xiao-Ming; Bloss, William James

    2016-10-01

    Air pollution associated with road transport is a major environmental issue in urban areas. Buildings in urban areas are the artificial obstacles to atmospheric flow and cause reduced ventilation for street canyons. For a deep street canyon, there is evidence of the formation of multiple segregated vortices, which generate flow regimes such that pollutants exhibit a significant contrast between these vortices. This results in poor air ventilation conditions at pedestrian level, thereby leading to elevated pollutant levels and potential breaches of air quality limits. The hypothesis of a well-mixed deep street canyon in the practical one-box model approach is shown to be inappropriate. This study implements a simplified simulation of the canyon volume: a coupled two-box model with a reduced chemical scheme to represent the key photochemical processes with timescales similar to and smaller than the turbulent mixing timescale. The two-box model captures the significant pollutant contrast between the lower and upper parts of a deep street canyon, particularly for NO2. Core important parameters (i.e. heterogeneity coefficient, exchange velocity and box height ratio) in the two-box model approach were investigated through sensitivity tests. The two-box model results identify the emission regimes and the meteorological conditions under which NO2 in the lower canyon (i.e. the region of interest for the assessment of human health effects) is in breach of air quality standards. Higher NO2 levels were observed for the cases with higher heterogeneity coefficients (the two boxes are more segregated), with lower exchange velocities (worse ventilation conditions), or with smaller box height ratios (reduced dilution possibly due to secondary smaller eddies in the lower canyon). The performance of a one-box model using the same chemical scheme is also evaluated against the two-box model. The one-box model was found to systematically underestimate NO2 levels compared with those in

  18. IEA Common Exercise 4: ARX, ARMAX and grey-box models for thermal performance characterization of the test box

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder; Andersen, Philip Hvidthøft Delff

    In this report results of applying time series models for assessing the thermal performance of the IEA Annex 58 test box based on data given in the Common Exercise 4 (CE4), which was measured in Almeria, Spain. Both ARX, ARMAX and grey-box models are applied. Finally, the same models are fitted...

  19. Box-Cox Mixed Logit Model for Travel Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orro, Alfonso; Novales, Margarita; Benitez, Francisco G.

    2010-09-01

    To represent the behavior of travelers when they are deciding how they are going to get to their destination, discrete choice models, based on the random utility theory, have become one of the most widely used tools. The field in which these models were developed was halfway between econometrics and transport engineering, although the latter now constitutes one of their principal areas of application. In the transport field, they have mainly been applied to mode choice, but also to the selection of destination, route, and other important decisions such as the vehicle ownership. In usual practice, the most frequently employed discrete choice models implement a fixed coefficient utility function that is linear in the parameters. The principal aim of this paper is to present the viability of specifying utility functions with random coefficients that are nonlinear in the parameters, in applications of discrete choice models to transport. Nonlinear specifications in the parameters were present in discrete choice theory at its outset, although they have seldom been used in practice until recently. The specification of random coefficients, however, began with the probit and the hedonic models in the 1970s, and, after a period of apparent little practical interest, has burgeoned into a field of intense activity in recent years with the new generation of mixed logit models. In this communication, we present a Box-Cox mixed logit model, original of the authors. It includes the estimation of the Box-Cox exponents in addition to the parameters of the random coefficients distribution. Probability of choose an alternative is an integral that will be calculated by simulation. The estimation of the model is carried out by maximizing the simulated log-likelihood of a sample of observed individual choices between alternatives. The differences between the predictions yielded by models that are inconsistent with real behavior have been studied with simulation experiments.

  20. Software sensors based on the grey-box modelling approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, J.; Harremoës, P.; Strube, Rune

    1996-01-01

    -box model for the specific dynamics is identified. Similarly, an on-line software sensor for detecting the occurrence of backwater phenomena can be developed by comparing the dynamics of a flow measurement with a nearby level measurement. For treatment plants it is found that grey-box models applied to on......-line measurements. With respect to the development of software sensors, the grey-box models possess two important features. Firstly, the on-line measurements can be filtered according to the grey-box model in order to remove noise deriving from the measuring equipment and controlling devices. Secondly, the grey......-box models may contain terms which can be estimated on-line by use of the models and measurements. In this paper, it is demonstrated that many storage basins in sewer systems can be used as an on-line flow measurement provided that the basin is monitored on-line with a level transmitter and that a grey...

  1. A Grey Box Model for the Hydraulics in a Creek

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsdottir, Harpa; Jacobsen, Judith L.; Madsen, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    The Saint-Venant equation of mass balance is used to derive a stochastics lumped model, describing the dynamics of a cross-sectional area in a river. The unknown parameters of the model are estimated by combining the physical equation with a set of data, a method known as grey box modelling...

  2. A new transcriptome and transcriptome profiling of adult and larval tissue in the box jellyfish Alatina alata: an emerging model for studying venom, vision and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis Ames, Cheryl; Ryan, Joseph F; Bely, Alexandra E; Cartwright, Paulyn; Collins, Allen G

    2016-08-17

    Cubozoans (box jellyfish) are cnidarians that have evolved a number of distinguishing features. Many cubozoans have a particularly potent sting, effected by stinging structures called nematocysts; cubozoans have well-developed light sensation, possessing both image-forming lens eyes and light-sensitive eye spots; and some cubozoans have complex mating behaviors, including aggregations, copulation and internal fertilization. The cubozoan Alatina alata is emerging as a cnidarian model because it forms predictable monthly nearshore breeding aggregations in tropical to subtropical waters worldwide, making both adult and larval material reliably accessible. To develop resources for A. alata, this study generated a functionally annotated transcriptome of adult and larval tissue, applying preliminary differential expression analyses to identify candidate genes involved in nematogenesis and venom production, vision and extraocular sensory perception, and sexual reproduction, which for brevity we refer to as "venom", "vision" and "sex". We assembled a transcriptome de novo from RNA-Seq data pooled from multiple body parts (gastric cirri, ovaries, tentacle (with pedalium base) and rhopalium) of an adult female A. alata medusa and larval planulae. Our transcriptome comprises ~32 K transcripts, after filtering, and provides a basis for analyzing patterns of gene expression in adult and larval box jellyfish tissues. Furthermore, we annotated a large set of candidate genes putatively involved in venom, vision and sex, providing an initial molecular characterization of these complex features in cubozoans. Expression profiles and gene tree reconstruction provided a number of preliminary insights into the putative sites of nematogenesis and venom production, regions of phototransduction activity and fertilization dynamics in A. alata. Our Alatina alata transcriptome significantly adds to the genomic resources for this emerging cubozoan model. This study provides the first

  3. Opening Pandora's Box: The impact of open system modeling on interpretations of anoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotinski, Roberta M.; Kump, Lee R.; Najjar, Raymond G.

    2000-06-01

    The geologic record preserves evidence that vast regions of ancient oceans were once anoxic, with oxygen levels too low to sustain animal life. Because anoxic conditions have been postulated to foster deposition of petroleum source rocks and have been implicated as a kill mechanism in extinction events, the genesis of such anoxia has been an area of intense study. Most previous models of ocean oxygen cycling proposed, however, have either been qualitative or used closed-system approaches. We reexamine the question of anoxia in open-system box models in order to test the applicability of closed-system results over long timescales and find that open and closed-system modeling results may differ significantly on both short and long timescales. We also compare a scenario with basinwide diffuse upwelling (a three-box model) to a model with upwelling concentrated in the Southern Ocean (a four-box model). While a three-box modeling approach shows that only changes in high-latitude convective mixing rate and character of deepwater sources are likely to cause anoxia, four-box model experiments indicate that slowing of thermohaline circulation, a reduction in wind-driven upwelling, and changes in high-latitude export production may also cause dysoxia or anoxia in part of the deep ocean on long timescales. These results suggest that box models must capture the open-system and vertically stratified nature of the ocean to allow meaningful interpretations of long-lived episodes of anoxia.

  4. Modelization of an experimental solar test box equipped with a water-flow based window

    OpenAIRE

    Padial Molina, Juan Francisco; Claros Marfíl, Luis; Lauret Aguirregabiria, Benito

    2013-01-01

    A study on a water- ow window installed in a test box is presented. This window is composed of two glass panes separated by a chamber through water ows. The ow of water comes from an isolated tank which contains heat water. In order to fully evaluate the water- ow window performance for different room and window sizes, locations and weather conditions, a mathematical model of the whole box is needed. The proposed model, in which conduction heat transfer mechanism ...

  5. Constraining a hybrid volatility basis-set model for aging of wood-burning emissions using smog chamber experiments: a box-model study based on the VBS scheme of the CAMx model (v5.40

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ciarelli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, novel wood combustion aging experiments performed at different temperatures (263 and 288 K in a ∼ 7 m3 smog chamber were modelled using a hybrid volatility basis set (VBS box model, representing the emission partitioning and their oxidation against OH. We combine aerosol–chemistry box-model simulations with unprecedented measurements of non-traditional volatile organic compounds (NTVOCs from a high-resolution proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS and with organic aerosol measurements from an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS. Due to this, we are able to observationally constrain the amounts of different NTVOC aerosol precursors (in the model relative to low volatility and semi-volatile primary organic material (OMsv, which is partitioned based on current published volatility distribution data. By comparing the NTVOC ∕ OMsv ratios at different temperatures, we determine the enthalpies of vaporization of primary biomass-burning organic aerosols. Further, the developed model allows for evaluating the evolution of oxidation products of the semi-volatile and volatile precursors with aging. More than 30 000 box-model simulations were performed to retrieve the combination of parameters that best fit the observed organic aerosol mass and O : C ratios. The parameters investigated include the NTVOC reaction rates and yields as well as enthalpies of vaporization and the O : C of secondary organic aerosol surrogates. Our results suggest an average ratio of NTVOCs to the sum of non-volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds of ∼ 4.75. The mass yields of these compounds determined for a wide range of atmospherically relevant temperatures and organic aerosol (OA concentrations were predicted to vary between 8 and 30 % after 5 h of continuous aging. Based on the reaction scheme used, reaction rates of the NTVOC mixture range from 3.0 × 10−11 to 4. 0 × 10−11 cm3 molec−1 s−1

  6. Constraining a hybrid volatility basis-set model for aging of wood-burning emissions using smog chamber experiments: a box-model study based on the VBS scheme of the CAMx model (v5.40)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarelli, Giancarlo; El Haddad, Imad; Bruns, Emily; Aksoyoglu, Sebnem; Möhler, Ottmar; Baltensperger, Urs; Prévôt, André S. H.

    2017-06-01

    In this study, novel wood combustion aging experiments performed at different temperatures (263 and 288 K) in a ˜ 7 m3 smog chamber were modelled using a hybrid volatility basis set (VBS) box model, representing the emission partitioning and their oxidation against OH. We combine aerosol-chemistry box-model simulations with unprecedented measurements of non-traditional volatile organic compounds (NTVOCs) from a high-resolution proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) and with organic aerosol measurements from an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS). Due to this, we are able to observationally constrain the amounts of different NTVOC aerosol precursors (in the model) relative to low volatility and semi-volatile primary organic material (OMsv), which is partitioned based on current published volatility distribution data. By comparing the NTVOC / OMsv ratios at different temperatures, we determine the enthalpies of vaporization of primary biomass-burning organic aerosols. Further, the developed model allows for evaluating the evolution of oxidation products of the semi-volatile and volatile precursors with aging. More than 30 000 box-model simulations were performed to retrieve the combination of parameters that best fit the observed organic aerosol mass and O : C ratios. The parameters investigated include the NTVOC reaction rates and yields as well as enthalpies of vaporization and the O : C of secondary organic aerosol surrogates. Our results suggest an average ratio of NTVOCs to the sum of non-volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds of ˜ 4.75. The mass yields of these compounds determined for a wide range of atmospherically relevant temperatures and organic aerosol (OA) concentrations were predicted to vary between 8 and 30 % after 5 h of continuous aging. Based on the reaction scheme used, reaction rates of the NTVOC mixture range from 3.0 × 10-11 to 4. 0 × 10-11 cm3 molec-1 s-1. The average enthalpy of vaporization of secondary organic aerosol

  7. Selection of the optimal Box-Cox transformation parameter for modelling and forecasting age-specific fertility

    OpenAIRE

    Shang, Han Lin

    2015-01-01

    The Box-Cox transformation can sometimes yield noticeable improvements in model simplicity, variance homogeneity and precision of estimation, such as in modelling and forecasting age-specific fertility. Despite its importance, there have been few studies focusing on the optimal selection of Box-Cox transformation parameters in demographic forecasting. A simple method is proposed for selecting the optimal Box-Cox transformation parameter, along with an algorithm based on an in-sample forecast ...

  8. Application of black-box models to HVAC systems for fault detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peitsman, H.C.; Bakker, V.E.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the application of black-box models for fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) in heating, ventilat-ing, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. In this study, mul-tiple-input/single-output (MISO) ARX models and artificial neural network (ANN) models are used. The ARX models are

  9. Thermodynamic modeling of small scale biomass gasifiers: Development and assessment of the ''Multi-Box'' approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakalis, Stergios; Patuzzi, Francesco; Baratieri, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Modeling can be a powerful tool for designing and optimizing gasification systems. Modeling applications for small scale/fixed bed biomass gasifiers have been interesting due to their increased commercial practices. Fixed bed gasifiers are characterized by a wide range of operational conditions and are multi-zoned processes. The reactants are distributed in different phases and the products from each zone influence the following process steps and thus the composition of the final products. The present study aims to improve the conventional 'Black-Box' thermodynamic modeling by means of developing multiple intermediate 'boxes' that calculate two phase (solid-vapor) equilibriums in small scale gasifiers. Therefore the model is named ''Multi-Box''. Experimental data from a small scale gasifier have been used for the validation of the model. The returned results are significantly closer with the actual case study measurements in comparison to single-stage thermodynamic modeling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation process radiological in ternopil region method of box models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І.В. Матвєєва

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available  Results of radionuclides Sr-90 flows analyses in the ecosystem of Kotsubinchiky village of Ternopolskaya oblast were analyzed. The block-scheme of ecosystem and its mathematical model using the box models method were made. It allowed us to evaluate the ways of dose’s loadings formation of internal irradiation for miscellaneous population groups – working people, retirees, children, and also to prognose the dynamic of these loadings during the years after the Chernobyl accident.

  11. Box & Jenkins Model Identification:A Comparison of Methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Augusta Soares Machado

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on a presentation of a comparison of a neuro-fuzzy back propagation network and Forecast automatic model Identification to identify automatically Box & Jenkins non seasonal models.Recently some combinations of neural networks and fuzzy logic technologies have being used to deal with uncertain and subjective problems. It is concluded on the basis of the obtained results that this type of approach is very powerful to be used.

  12. Preliminary analysis on hybrid Box-Jenkins - GARCH modeling in forecasting gold price

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaziz, Siti Roslindar; Azizan, Noor Azlinna; Ahmad, Maizah Hura; Zakaria, Roslinazairimah; Agrawal, Manju; Boland, John

    2015-02-01

    Gold has been regarded as a valuable precious metal and the most popular commodity as a healthy return investment. Hence, the analysis and prediction of gold price become very significant to investors. This study is a preliminary analysis on gold price and its volatility that focuses on the performance of hybrid Box-Jenkins models together with GARCH in analyzing and forecasting gold price. The Box-Cox formula is used as the data transformation method due to its potential best practice in normalizing data, stabilizing variance and reduces heteroscedasticity using 41-year daily gold price data series starting 2nd January 1973. Our study indicates that the proposed hybrid model ARIMA-GARCH with t-innovation can be a new potential approach in forecasting gold price. This finding proves the strength of GARCH in handling volatility in the gold price as well as overcomes the non-linear limitation in the Box-Jenkins modeling.

  13. Numerical Study on Biaxial Seismic Performance of Reinforced Concrete Box Piers Based on OpenSees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuncheng; Lv, Chunlei; Wang, Chongyang; Yang, Geng; Huang, Dapeng; Zhang, Yiling

    2017-12-01

    In order to study the seismic performance of reinforced concrete box piers under biaxial loading, the hysteretic model of reinforced concrete box piers was established by selecting appropriate material model, constitutive relation, structural element type, and the corresponding boundary conditions and loading method based on OpenSees. The numerical simulation of the ductility of reinforced concrete box piers with different axial compression ratio, stirrup ratio and slenderness ratio under biaxial horizontal loading was conducted. The results of biaxial quasi-static tests and that of numerical simulation were compared. The analysis showed that the hysteretic behaviour of reinforced concrete box piers under biaxial loading could be well simulated and the degradation of strength and stiffness of box piers in the process of bidirectional cyclic loading could be reflected by OpenSees on the basis of the appropriate material constitutive model and structural element type. Furthermore, the influence of reinforcement ratio and concrete strength on the ductility of reinforced concrete box pier was studied by OpenSees.

  14. Assessing household health expenditure with Box-Cox censoring models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaze, Jean-Paul

    2005-09-01

    In order to assess the combined presence of zero expenditures and a heavily skewed distribution of positive expenditures, the Box-Cox transformation with location parameter is used to define a set of models generalising the standard Tobit, Heckman selection and double-hurdle models. Extended flexibility with respect to previous specifications is introduced, notably regarding negative transformation parameters, which may prove necessary for medical expenditures, and corner-solution outcomes. An illustration is provided by the analysis of household health expenditure in Switzerland. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Thermohaline circulation in the North Atlantic and its simulation with a box model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averyanova, E. A.; Polonsky, A. B.; Sannikov, V. F.

    2017-05-01

    Features of the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation response to periodic, stochastic, and instantaneous forcing are studied using a four-box model. The present-day circulation is shown to be characterized by a stable quasi-periodic oscillatory mode that manifests itself as the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. The thermohaline catastrophe is unlikely in the modern climate epoch.

  16. A multi-box model study of the role of the biospheric metabolism in the recent decline of δ18O in atmospheric CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizawa, Misa; Nakazawa, Takakiyo; Higuchi, Kaz

    2002-09-01

    From around 1993 to 1997, the NOAA-CU δ18O measurements at Pt. Barrow, Mauna Loa, Cape Kumukahi, Cape Grim and the South Pole show a decrease in atmospheric CO2δ18O of about 0.5‰. Recently, Gillon and Yakir (2001) have attributed this decrease to a conversion of C3 forests to C4 grasslands through anthropogenic land-use change. However, their explanation can account for only about 0.02‰ yr1 decrease rate. In this paper we offer a viable alternative explanation. We have used a multi-box model of the global carbon cycle and its δ18O to show that an increase in biospheric respiration (CO2 flux from plant with lower-than-atmosphere δ18O), combined with a decrease in the amount of CO2 (with higher-than-atmosphere δ18O) diffusing back from plant leaves before being assimilated as part of the gross primary production (GPP), could produce the observed decline in the atmospheric CO2δ18O. This decrease in the CO2 back diffusion out of leaves could be interpreted as an overall increase in both biospheric activities of photosynthesis and respiration. Change in the metabolic activities of the biosphere as a possible cause for the observed decrease in δ18O is a reasonable hypothesis, since isotopic fractionations that occur during CO2 exchange processes (photosynthesis and respiration) between the atmosphere and the biosphere contribute significantly to the observed variations in atmospheric CO2δ18O, while contribution from the net air-sea CO2 exchange is negligible.

  17. Collection/aggregation algorithms in Lagrangian cloud microphysical models: rigorous evaluation in box model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterstrasser, Simon; Hoffmann, Fabian; Lerch, Marion

    2017-04-01

    Recently, several Lagrangian microphysical models have been developed which use a large number of (computational) particles to represent a cloud. In particular, the collision process leading to coalescence of cloud droplets or aggregation of ice crystals is implemented differently in various models. Three existing implementations are reviewed and extended, and their performance is evaluated by a comparison with well-established analytical and bin model solutions. In this first step of rigorous evaluation, box model simulations, with collection/aggregation being the only process considered, have been performed for the three well-known kernels of Golovin, Long and Hall. Besides numerical parameters, like the time step and the number of simulation particles (SIPs) used, the details of how the initial SIP ensemble is created from a prescribed analytically defined size distribution is crucial for the performance of the algorithms. Using a constant weight technique, as done in previous studies, greatly underestimates the quality of the algorithms. Using better initialisation techniques considerably reduces the number of required SIPs to obtain realistic results. From the box model results, recommendations for the collection/aggregation implementation in higher dimensional model setups are derived. Suitable algorithms are equally relevant to treating the warm rain process and aggregation in cirrus.

  18. A white-box model of S-shaped and double S-shaped single-species population growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lev V. Kalmykov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Complex systems may be mechanistically modelled by white-box modeling with using logical deterministic individual-based cellular automata. Mathematical models of complex systems are of three types: black-box (phenomenological, white-box (mechanistic, based on the first principles and grey-box (mixtures of phenomenological and mechanistic models. Most basic ecological models are of black-box type, including Malthusian, Verhulst, Lotka–Volterra models. In black-box models, the individual-based (mechanistic mechanisms of population dynamics remain hidden. Here we mechanistically model the S-shaped and double S-shaped population growth of vegetatively propagated rhizomatous lawn grasses. Using purely logical deterministic individual-based cellular automata we create a white-box model. From a general physical standpoint, the vegetative propagation of plants is an analogue of excitation propagation in excitable media. Using the Monte Carlo method, we investigate a role of different initial positioning of an individual in the habitat. We have investigated mechanisms of the single-species population growth limited by habitat size, intraspecific competition, regeneration time and fecundity of individuals in two types of boundary conditions and at two types of fecundity. Besides that, we have compared the S-shaped and J-shaped population growth. We consider this white-box modeling approach as a method of artificial intelligence which works as automatic hyper-logical inference from the first principles of the studied subject. This approach is perspective for direct mechanistic insights into nature of any complex systems.

  19. Box models for the evolution of atmospheric oxygen: an update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasting, J. F.

    1991-01-01

    A simple 3-box model of the atmosphere/ocean system is used to describe the various stages in the evolution of atmospheric oxygen. In Stage I, which probably lasted until redbeds began to form about 2.0 Ga ago, the Earth's surface environment was generally devoid of free O2, except possibly in localized regions of high productivity in the surface ocean. In Stage II, which may have lasted for less than 150 Ma, the atmosphere and surface ocean were oxidizing, while the deep ocean remained anoxic. In Stage III, which commenced with the disappearance of banded iron formations around 1.85 Ga ago and has lasted until the present, all three surface reservoirs contained appreciable amounts of free O2. Recent and not-so-recent controversies regarding the abundance of oxygen in the Archean atmosphere are identified and discussed. The rate of O2 increase during the Middle and Late Proterozoic is identified as another outstanding question.

  20. [Construction and application of black-box model for glucoamylase production by Aspergillus niger].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lianwei; Lu, Hongzhong; Xia, Jianye; Chu, Ju; Zhuang, Yingping; Zhang, Siliang

    2015-07-01

    Carbon-limited continuous culture was used to study the relationship between the growth of Aspergillus niger and the production of glucoamylase. The result showed that when the specific growth rate was lower than 0.068 h(-1), the production of glucoamylase was growth-associated, when the specific growth rate was higher than 0.068 h(-1), the production of glucoamylase was not growth-associated. Based on the result of continuous culture, the Monod dynamics model of glucose consumption of A. niger was constructed, Combining Herbert-Pirt equation of glucose and oxygen consumption with Luedeking-Piret equation of enzyme production, the black-box model of Aspergillus niger for enzyme production was established. The exponential fed-batch culture was designed to control the specific growth rate at 0.05 h(-1) by using this model and the highest yield for glucoamylase production by A. niger reached 0.127 g glucoamylase/g glucose. The black-box model constructed in this study successfully described the glucoamylase production by A. niger and the result of the model fitted the measured value well. The black-box model could guide the design and optimization of glucoamylase production by A. niger.

  1. Augmented twin-nonlinear two-box behavioral models for multicarrier LTE power amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammi, Oualid

    2014-01-01

    A novel class of behavioral models is proposed for LTE-driven Doherty power amplifiers with strong memory effects. The proposed models, labeled augmented twin-nonlinear two-box models, are built by cascading a highly nonlinear memoryless function with a mildly nonlinear memory polynomial with cross terms. Experimental validation on gallium nitride based Doherty power amplifiers illustrates the accuracy enhancement and complexity reduction achieved by the proposed models. When strong memory effects are observed, the augmented twin-nonlinear two-box models can improve the normalized mean square error by up to 3 dB for the same number of coefficients when compared to state-of-the-art twin-nonlinear two-box models. Furthermore, the augmented twin-nonlinear two-box models lead to the same performance as previously reported twin-nonlinear two-box models while requiring up to 80% less coefficients.

  2. Augmented Twin-Nonlinear Two-Box Behavioral Models for Multicarrier LTE Power Amplifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oualid Hammi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel class of behavioral models is proposed for LTE-driven Doherty power amplifiers with strong memory effects. The proposed models, labeled augmented twin-nonlinear two-box models, are built by cascading a highly nonlinear memoryless function with a mildly nonlinear memory polynomial with cross terms. Experimental validation on gallium nitride based Doherty power amplifiers illustrates the accuracy enhancement and complexity reduction achieved by the proposed models. When strong memory effects are observed, the augmented twin-nonlinear two-box models can improve the normalized mean square error by up to 3 dB for the same number of coefficients when compared to state-of-the-art twin-nonlinear two-box models. Furthermore, the augmented twin-nonlinear two-box models lead to the same performance as previously reported twin-nonlinear two-box models while requiring up to 80% less coefficients.

  3. Efficient Parameterization for Grey-box Model Identification of Complex Physical Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, Mogens; Knudsen, Morten

    2006-01-01

    Grey box model identification preserves known physical structures in a model but with limits to the possible excitation, all parameters are rarely identifiable, and different parametrizations give significantly different model quality. Convenient methods to show which parameterizations are the be......Grey box model identification preserves known physical structures in a model but with limits to the possible excitation, all parameters are rarely identifiable, and different parametrizations give significantly different model quality. Convenient methods to show which parameterizations...

  4. Integrated Box Interrogation System (IBIS) Preliminary Design Study

    CERN Document Server

    Croft, S; Chard-Mj, P; Estop, J R; Martancik, D; Sheila-Melton; Young, B

    2003-01-01

    Canberra Industries has won the tendered solicitation, INEEL/EST-99-00121 for boxed waste Nondestructive Assay Development and Demonstration. Canberra will provide the Integrated Box Interrogation System (IBIS) which is a suite of assay instrumentation and a data reduction system that addresses the measurement needs for Boxed Wastes identified in the solicitation and facilitates the associated experimental program and demonstration of system capability. The IBIS system will consist of the next generation CWAM system, i.e. CWAM II, which is a Scanning Passive/Active Neutron interrogation system which we will call a Box Segmented Neutron Scanner (BSNS), combined with a physically separate Box Segmented Gamma-ray Scanning (BSGS) system. These systems are based on existing hardware designs but will be tailored to the large sample size and enhanced to allow the program to evaluate the following measurement criteria:Characterization and correction for matrix heterogeneity Characterization of non-uniform radio-nucli...

  5. A class of Box-Cox transformation models for recurrent event data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liuquan; Tong, Xingwei; Zhou, Xian

    2011-04-01

    In this article, we propose a class of Box-Cox transformation models for recurrent event data, which includes the proportional means models as special cases. The new model offers great flexibility in formulating the effects of covariates on the mean functions of counting processes while leaving the stochastic structure completely unspecified. For the inference on the proposed models, we apply a profile pseudo-partial likelihood method to estimate the model parameters via estimating equation approaches and establish large sample properties of the estimators and examine its performance in moderate-sized samples through simulation studies. In addition, some graphical and numerical procedures are presented for model checking. An example of application on a set of multiple-infection data taken from a clinic study on chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is also illustrated.

  6. Numerical models and experiment of air flow in a simulation box for optical wireless communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latal Jan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the authors focused on real measurements of mechanical turbulence generated by ventilators in the simulation box for Optical Wireless Communications. The mechanical turbulences disturb the optical beam that propagates along the central axis of the simulation box. The aim of authors is to show the effect of mechanical turbulence on optical beams at different heights in the simulation box. In the Ansys Fluent, we created numerical models which were then compared with real measurements. Authors compared the real and numerical models according to statistical methods.

  7. Neural and Neural Gray-Box Modeling for Entry Temperature Prediction in a Hot Strip Mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, José Angel; Torres-Alvarado, Miguel; Cavazos, Alberto; Leduc, Luis

    2011-10-01

    In hot strip mills, initial controller set points have to be calculated before the steel bar enters the mill. Calculations rely on the good knowledge of rolling variables. Measurements are available only after the bar has entered the mill, and therefore they have to be estimated. Estimation of process variables, particularly that of temperature, is of crucial importance for the bar front section to fulfill quality requirements, and the same must be performed in the shortest possible time to preserve heat. Currently, temperature estimation is performed by physical modeling; however, it is highly affected by measurement uncertainties, variations in the incoming bar conditions, and final product changes. In order to overcome these problems, artificial intelligence techniques such as artificial neural networks and fuzzy logic have been proposed. In this article, neural network-based systems, including neural-based Gray-Box models, are applied to estimate scale breaker entry temperature, given its importance, and their performance is compared to that of the physical model used in plant. Several neural systems and several neural-based Gray-Box models are designed and tested with real data. Taking advantage of the flexibility of neural networks for input incorporation, several factors which are believed to have influence on the process are also tested. The systems proposed in this study were proven to have better performance indexes and hence better prediction capabilities than the physical models currently used in plant.

  8. A random effects meta-analysis model with Box-Cox transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Yusuke; Maruo, Kazushi; Partlett, Christopher; Riley, Richard D

    2017-07-19

    In a random effects meta-analysis model, true treatment effects for each study are routinely assumed to follow a normal distribution. However, normality is a restrictive assumption and the misspecification of the random effects distribution may result in a misleading estimate of overall mean for the treatment effect, an inappropriate quantification of heterogeneity across studies and a wrongly symmetric prediction interval. We focus on problems caused by an inappropriate normality assumption of the random effects distribution, and propose a novel random effects meta-analysis model where a Box-Cox transformation is applied to the observed treatment effect estimates. The proposed model aims to normalise an overall distribution of observed treatment effect estimates, which is sum of the within-study sampling distributions and the random effects distribution. When sampling distributions are approximately normal, non-normality in the overall distribution will be mainly due to the random effects distribution, especially when the between-study variation is large relative to the within-study variation. The Box-Cox transformation addresses this flexibly according to the observed departure from normality. We use a Bayesian approach for estimating parameters in the proposed model, and suggest summarising the meta-analysis results by an overall median, an interquartile range and a prediction interval. The model can be applied for any kind of variables once the treatment effect estimate is defined from the variable. A simulation study suggested that when the overall distribution of treatment effect estimates are skewed, the overall mean and conventional I 2 from the normal random effects model could be inappropriate summaries, and the proposed model helped reduce this issue. We illustrated the proposed model using two examples, which revealed some important differences on summary results, heterogeneity measures and prediction intervals from the normal random effects model. The

  9. Box Model of Freshwater, Salinity and Nutrient in the Delta Mahakam, East Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marojahan Simanjuntak

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Box Model of Freshwater, Salinity and Nutrient in the Delta Mahakam, East Kalimantan. Research has been conducted in the southern part of the Mahakam Delta, East Kalimantan. Method of measuring temperature, salinity, light transmission and turbidity by using CTD model 603 SBE and current measurement and bathymetry by using ADCP model RDI. Measurement parameters on the nutrient chemistry are based of water samples taken using Nansen bottles from two depths. The purpose of this study to determine the mechanism of freshwater, salinity and nutrient transport from the land of the Mahakam River which interact with seawater by using box models. The results illustrate that the vertical distribution of salinity in the Mahakam Delta has obtained a high stratification, where the freshwater salinity 12.30 psu at the surface of a river flowing toward the sea, and seawater of high salinity 30.07 psu flowing in the direction river under the surface that are separated by a layer of mixture. Freshwater budget of the sea (VSurf obtained for 0,0306 x 109 m3 day-1, and the sea water salinity budget is going into the bottom layer system (VDeep.SOcn-d obtained for 20,727 x 109 psu day-1. While time dilution (Syst obtained for 0.245 day-1 or 5.87 hours. Nutrient budget in the surface layer obtained by the system is autotrophic while in layers near the bottom tend to be heterotrophic

  10. Integrated Box Interrogation System (IBIS) Preliminary Design Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DR. Stephen Croft; Mr. David Martancik; Dr. Brian Young; Dr. Patrick MJ Chard; Dr. Robert J Estop; Sheila Melton; Gaetano J. Arnone

    2003-01-13

    Canberra Industries has won the tendered solicitation, INEEL/EST-99-00121 for boxed waste Nondestructive Assay Development and Demonstration. Canberra will provide the Integrated Box Interrogation System (IBIS) which is a suite of assay instrumentation and a data reduction system that addresses the measurement needs for Boxed Wastes identified in the solicitation and facilitates the associated experimental program and demonstration of system capability. The IBIS system will consist of the next generation CWAM system, i.e. CWAM II, which is a Scanning Passive/Active Neutron interrogation system which we will call a Box Segmented Neutron Scanner (BSNS), combined with a physically separate Box Segmented Gamma-ray Scanning (BSGS) system. These systems are based on existing hardware designs but will be tailored to the large sample size and enhanced to allow the program to evaluate the following measurement criteria:Characterization and correction for matrix heterogeneity Characterization of non-uniform radio-nuclide and isotopic compositions Assay of high density matrices (both high-Z and high moderator contents)Correction for radioactive material physical form - such as self shielding or multiplication effects due to large accumulations of radioactive materials.Calibration with a minimal set of reference standards and representative matrices.THis document summarizes the conceptual design parameters of the IBIS and indicates areas key to the success of the project where development is to be centered. The work presented here is a collaborative effort between scientific staff within Canberra and within the NIS-6 group at LANL.

  11. Unlocking the black box: teaching mathematical modeling with popular culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofgren, Eric T

    2016-10-01

    Mathematical modeling is an important tool in biological research, allowing for the synthesis of results from many studies into an understanding of a system. Despite this, the need for extensive subject matter knowledge and complex mathematics often leaves modeling as an esoteric subspecialty. A 2-fold approach can be used to make modeling more approachable for students and those interested in obtaining a functional knowledge of modeling. The first is the use of a popular culture disease system-a zombie epidemic-to allow for exploration of the concepts of modeling using a flexible framework. The second is the use of available interactive and non-calculus-based tools to allow students to work with and implement models to cement their understanding. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Anatomically Detailed and Large-Scale Simulations Studying Synapse Loss and Synchrony Using NeuroBox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breit, Markus; Stepniewski, Martin; Grein, Stephan; Gottmann, Pascal; Reinhardt, Lukas; Queisser, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    The morphology of neurons and networks plays an important role in processing electrical and biochemical signals. Based on neuronal reconstructions, which are becoming abundantly available through databases such as NeuroMorpho.org, numerical simulations of Hodgkin-Huxley-type equations, coupled to biochemical models, can be performed in order to systematically investigate the influence of cellular morphology and the connectivity pattern in networks on the underlying function. Development in the area of synthetic neural network generation and morphology reconstruction from microscopy data has brought forth the software tool NeuGen. Coupling this morphology data (either from databases, synthetic, or reconstruction) to the simulation platform UG 4 (which harbors a neuroscientific portfolio) and VRL-Studio, has brought forth the extendible toolbox NeuroBox. NeuroBox allows users to perform numerical simulations on hybrid-dimensional morphology representations. The code basis is designed in a modular way, such that e.g., new channel or synapse types can be added to the library. Workflows can be specified through scripts or through the VRL-Studio graphical workflow representation. Third-party tools, such as ImageJ, can be added to NeuroBox workflows. In this paper, NeuroBox is used to study the electrical and biochemical effects of synapse loss vs. synchrony in neurons, to investigate large morphology data sets within detailed biophysical simulations, and used to demonstrate the capability of utilizing high-performance computing infrastructure for large scale network simulations. Using new synapse distribution methods and Finite Volume based numerical solvers for compartment-type models, our results demonstrate how an increase in synaptic synchronization can compensate synapse loss at the electrical and calcium level, and how detailed neuronal morphology can be integrated in large-scale network simulations. PMID:26903818

  13. Anatomically detailed and large-scale simulations studying synapse loss and synchrony using NeuroBox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus eBreit

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of neurons and networks plays an important role in processing electrical and biochemical signals. Based on neuronal reconstructions, which are becoming abundantly available through databases such as NeuroMorpho.org, numerical simulations of Hodgkin-Huxley-type equations, coupled to biochemical models, can be performed in order to systematically investigate the influence of cellular morphology and the connectivity pattern in networks on the underlying function. Development in the area of synthetic neural network generation and morphology reconstruction from microscopy data has brought forth the software tool NeuGen. Coupling this morphology data (either from databases, synthetic or reconstruction to the simulation platform UG 4 (which harbors a neuroscientific portfolio and VRL-Studio, has brought forth the extendible toolbox NeuroBox. NeuroBox allows users to perform numerical simulations on hybrid-dimensional morphology representations. The code basis is designed in a modular way, such that e.g. new channel or synapse types can be added to the library. Workflows can be specified through scripts or through the VRL-Studio graphical workflow representation. Third-party tools, such as ImageJ, can be added to NeuroBox workflows. In this paper, NeuroBox is used to study the electrical and biochemical effects of synapse loss vs. synchrony in neurons, to investigate large morphology data sets within detailed biophysical simulations, and used to demonstrate the capability of utilizing high-performance computing infrastructure for large scale network simulations. Using new synapse distribution methods and Finite Volume based numerical solvers for compartment-type models, our results demonstrate how an increase in synaptic synchronization can compensate synapse loss at the electrical and calcium level, and how detailed neuronal morphology can be integrated in large-scale network simulations.

  14. Internal Structural Design of the Common Research Model Wing Box for Aeroelastic Tailoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutte, Christine V.; Stanford, Bret K.; Wieseman, Carol D.

    2015-01-01

    This work explores the use of alternative internal structural designs within a full-scale wing box structure for aeroelastic tailoring, with a focus on curvilinear spars, ribs, and stringers. The baseline wing model is a fully-populated, cantilevered wing box structure of the Common Research Model (CRM). Metrics of interest include the wing weight, the onset of dynamic flutter, and the static aeroelastic stresses. Twelve parametric studies alter the number of internal structural members along with their location, orientation, and curvature. Additional evaluation metrics are considered to identify design trends that lead to lighter-weight, aeroelastically stable wing designs. The best designs of the individual studies are compared and discussed, with a focus on weight reduction and flutter resistance. The largest weight reductions were obtained by removing the inner spar, and performance was maintained by shifting stringers forward and/or using curvilinear ribs: 5.6% weight reduction, a 13.9% improvement in flutter speed, but a 3.0% increase in stress levels. Flutter resistance was also maintained using straight-rotated ribs although the design had a 4.2% lower flutter speed than the curved ribs of similar weight and stress levels were higher. For some configurations, the differences between curved and straight ribs were smaller, which provides motivation for future optimization-based studies to fully exploit the trade-offs.

  15. A box model for representing estuarine physical processes in Earth system models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiang; Whitney, Michael M.; Bryan, Frank O.; Tseng, Yu-heng

    2017-04-01

    Appropriately treating riverine freshwater discharge into the oceans in Earth system models is a challenging problem. Commonly, the river runoff is discharged into the ocean models with zero salinity and arbitrarily distributed either horizontally or vertically over several grid cells. Those approaches entirely neglect estuarine physical processes that modify river inputs before they reach the open ocean. In order to realistically represent riverine freshwater inputs in Earth system models, a physically based Estuary Box Model (EBM) is developed to parameterize the mixing processes in estuaries. The EBM represents the estuary exchange circulation with a two-layer box structure. It takes as input the river volume flux from the land surface model and the subsurface salinity at the estuary mouth from the ocean model. It delivers the estuarine outflow salinity and net volume flux into and out of the estuary to the ocean model. An offline test of the EBM forced with observed conditions for the Columbia River system shows good agreement with observations of outflow salinity and high-resolution simulations of the exchange flow volume flux. To illustrate the practicality of use of the EBM in an Earth system model, the EBM is implemented for all coastal grid cells with river runoff in the Community Earth System Model (CESM). Compared to the standard version of CESM, which treats runoff as an augmentation to precipitation, the EBM increases sea surface salinity and reduces stratification near river mouths. The EBM also leads to significant regional and remote changes in CESM ocean surface salinities.

  16. Developing and user-testing Decision boxes to facilitate shared decision making in primary care - a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rousseau François

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Applying evidence is one of the most challenging steps of evidence-based clinical practice. Healthcare professionals have difficulty interpreting evidence and translating it to patients. Decision boxes are summaries of the most important benefits and harms of diagnostic, therapeutic, and preventive health interventions provided to healthcare professionals before they meet the patient. Our hypothesis is that Decision boxes will prepare clinicians to help patients make informed value-based decisions. By acting as primers, the boxes will enhance the application of evidence-based practices and increase shared decision making during the clinical encounter. The objectives of this study are to provide a framework for developing Decision boxes and testing their value to users. Methods/Design We will begin by developing Decision box prototypes for 10 clinical conditions or topics based on a review of the research on risk communication. We will present two prototypes to purposeful samples of 16 family physicians distributed in two focus groups, and 32 patients distributed in four focus groups. We will use the User Experience Model framework to explore users' perceptions of the content and format of each prototype. All discussions will be transcribed, and two researchers will independently perform a hybrid deductive/inductive thematic qualitative analysis of the data. The coding scheme will be developed a priori from the User Experience Model's seven themes (valuable, usable, credible, useful, desirable, accessible and findable, and will include new themes suggested by the data (inductive analysis. Key findings will be triangulated using additional publications on the design of tools to improve risk communication. All 10 Decision boxes will be modified in light of our findings. Discussion This study will produce a robust framework for developing and testing Decision boxes that will serve healthcare professionals and patients alike. It

  17. Box-Cox Transformation and Random Regression Models for Fecal egg Count Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Marcos Vinícius Gualberto Barbosa; Van Tassell, Curtis P; Sonstegard, Tad S; Cobuci, Jaime Araujo; Gasbarre, Louis C

    2011-01-01

    Accurate genetic evaluation of livestock is based on appropriate modeling of phenotypic measurements. In ruminants, fecal egg count (FEC) is commonly used to measure resistance to nematodes. FEC values are not normally distributed and logarithmic transformations have been used in an effort to achieve normality before analysis. However, the transformed data are often still not normally distributed, especially when data are extremely skewed. A series of repeated FEC measurements may provide information about the population dynamics of a group or individual. A total of 6375 FEC measures were obtained for 410 animals between 1992 and 2003 from the Beltsville Agricultural Research Center Angus herd. Original data were transformed using an extension of the Box-Cox transformation to approach normality and to estimate (co)variance components. We also proposed using random regression models (RRM) for genetic and non-genetic studies of FEC. Phenotypes were analyzed using RRM and restricted maximum likelihood. Within the different orders of Legendre polynomials used, those with more parameters (order 4) adjusted FEC data best. Results indicated that the transformation of FEC data utilizing the Box-Cox transformation family was effective in reducing the skewness and kurtosis, and dramatically increased estimates of heritability, and measurements of FEC obtained in the period between 12 and 26 weeks in a 26-week experimental challenge period are genetically correlated.

  18. BOX-COX transformation and random regression models for fecal egg count data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Vinicius Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate genetic evaluation of livestock is based on appropriate modeling of phenotypic measurements. In ruminants fecal egg count (FEC is commonly used to measure resistance to nematodes. FEC values are not normally distributed and logarithmic transformations have been used to achieve normality before analysis. However, the transformed data are often not normally distributed, especially when data are extremely skewed. A series of repeated FEC measurements may provide information about the population dynamics of a group or individual. A total of 6,375 FEC measures were obtained for 410 animals between 1992 and 2003 from the Beltsville Agricultural Research Center Angus herd. Original data were transformed using an extension of the Box-Cox transformation to approach normality and to estimate (covariance components. We also proposed using random regression models (RRM for genetic and non-genetic studies of FEC. Phenotypes were analyzed using RRM and restricted maximum likelihood. Within the different orders of Legendre polynomials used, those with more parameters (order 4 adjusted FEC data best. Results indicated that the transformation of FEC data utilizing the Box-Cox transformation family was effective in reducing the skewness and kurtosis, and dramatically increased estimates of heritability, and measurements of FEC obtained in the period between 12 and 26 weeks in a 26-week experimental challenge period are genetically correlated.

  19. Analysis of a genetically structured variance heterogeneity model using the Box-Cox transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ye; Christensen, Ole F; Sorensen, Daniel

    2011-02-01

    Over recent years, statistical support for the presence of genetic factors operating at the level of the environmental variance has come from fitting a genetically structured heterogeneous variance model to field or experimental data in various species. Misleading results may arise due to skewness of the marginal distribution of the data. To investigate how the scale of measurement affects inferences, the genetically structured heterogeneous variance model is extended to accommodate the family of Box-Cox transformations. Litter size data in rabbits and pigs that had previously been analysed in the untransformed scale were reanalysed in a scale equal to the mode of the marginal posterior distribution of the Box-Cox parameter. In the rabbit data, the statistical evidence for a genetic component at the level of the environmental variance is considerably weaker than that resulting from an analysis in the original metric. In the pig data, the statistical evidence is stronger, but the coefficient of correlation between additive genetic effects affecting mean and variance changes sign, compared to the results in the untransformed scale. The study confirms that inferences on variances can be strongly affected by the presence of asymmetry in the distribution of data. We recommend that to avoid one important source of spurious inferences, future work seeking support for a genetic component acting on environmental variation using a parametric approach based on normality assumptions confirms that these are met.

  20. A simple multistage closed-(box+reservoir model of chemical evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caimmi R.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple closed-box (CB models of chemical evolution are extended on two respects, namely (i simple closed-(box+reservoir (CBR models allowing gas outflow from the box into the reservoir (Hartwick 1976 or gas inflow into the box from the reservoir (Caimmi 2007 with rate proportional to the star formation rate, and (ii simple multistage closed-(box+reservoir (MCBR models allowing different stages of evolution characterized by different inflow or outflow rates. The theoretical differential oxygen abundance distribution (TDOD predicted by the model maintains close to a continuous broken straight line. An application is made where a fictitious sample is built up from two distinct samples of halo stars and taken as representative of the inner Galactic halo. The related empirical differential oxygen abundance distribution (EDOD is represented, to an acceptable extent, as a continuous broken line for two viable [O/H]-[Fe/H] empirical relations. The slopes and the intercepts of the regression lines are determined, and then used as input parameters to MCBR models. Within the errors (-+σ, regression line slopes correspond to a large inflow during the earlier stage of evolution and to low or moderate outflow during the subsequent stages. A possible inner halo - outer (metal-poor bulge connection is also briefly discussed. Quantitative results cannot be considered for applications to the inner Galactic halo, unless selection effects and disk contamination are removed from halo samples, and discrepancies between different oxygen abundance determination methods are explained.

  1. Coupled Particle Transport and Pattern Formation in a Nonlinear Leaky-Box Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barghouty, A. F.; El-Nemr, K. W.; Baird, J. K.

    2009-01-01

    Effects of particle-particle coupling on particle characteristics in nonlinear leaky-box type descriptions of the acceleration and transport of energetic particles in space plasmas are examined in the framework of a simple two-particle model based on the Fokker-Planck equation in momentum space. In this model, the two particles are assumed coupled via a common nonlinear source term. In analogy with a prototypical mathematical system of diffusion-driven instability, this work demonstrates that steady-state patterns with strong dependence on the magnetic turbulence but a rather weak one on the coupled particles attributes can emerge in solutions of a nonlinearly coupled leaky-box model. The insight gained from this simple model may be of wider use and significance to nonlinearly coupled leaky-box type descriptions in general.

  2. Theoretical Evaluation of the Sediment/Water Exchange Description in Generic Compartment Models (SimpleBox)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, P. B.; Fauser, P.; Carlsen, L.

    in the calculations, the one box model needs to be evaluated in relation to a more complete solution of the differential equations for diffusion. General guidelines that are based on the system parameters are set up in order to establish the importance of diffusion and deposition respectively. These define the range......It is shown how diffusion and deposition of solids drive the flux of substance between the water column and the sediment. The generic compartment models (Mackay type) use a one box model for the sediment in order to keep the calculations simple. However, when diffusion needs to be included...

  3. Inverse grey-box model-based control of a dielectric elastomer actuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Richard William; Sarban, Rahimullah

    2012-01-01

    of control scheme was dictated by the desire for transparency in both controller design and operation. The internal model control (IMC) approach was chosen. In this particular application, the inverse of the linearized form of the grey-box model is used to formulate the IMC controller. To ensure consistent...

  4. An assessment of Box-Jenkins models: Forcados monthly rainfall as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An autoregressive Box-Jenkins stochastic model of the twelfth order has been developed for the monthly rainfall data for Forcados along the coast of South Eastern Nigeria. The goodness of fit of the model was assessed by estimating the autocorrelations of the residuals of the historical data (from January 1931 to ...

  5. Vertical structures induced by propeller moonlets: Comparison of hydrodynamical model and N-body box simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, H.; Seiß, M.; Salo, H.; Spahn, F.

    2014-04-01

    Small moonlets in Saturn's rings induce propeller called structures into the surrounding ring material. Images of Saturn's rings, taken by the Cassini spacecraft near Saturn's equinox in 2009, show shadows cast by these propellers [1], offering the opportunity to study their vertical structure. We compare results from an extended hydrodynamical propeller model with results from local N-body box simulations of propeller structures. In the hydrodynamical model, maximal propeller heights are determined from the gravitational scattering of the ring particles by the moonlet. Afterwards the disturbed balance of viscous heating and collisional cooling is considered as main mechanism of the propeller height relaxation [2]. For the N-body box simulations we use the code by Salo [3], which was also applied in the propeller simulations of [4] and [5]. We find that the exponential height relaxation predicted by the hydrodynamical modelling is confirmed by N-body simulations of non-self gravitating ring particles. By projecting the propeller height evolution of the hydrodynamical model into observations of the shadows cast by the Earhart propeller, we determine the exponential cooling constant of the height relaxation. With this cooling constant we estimate collision frequencies of about 6 collisions per particle per orbit in the propeller gap region or about 11 collisions per particle per orbit in the propeller wake region of the Earhart propeller. The N-body simulations lead to maximal propeller heights between 60 to 70 percent of the Hill radius of the corresponding moonlet. Moonlet sizes estimated by this relation are in fair agreement with size estimates from radial propeller scalings [5, 6] for propeller structures with observed shadows.

  6. The NIMO Monte Carlo model for box-air-mass factor and radiance calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Timothy D.; Bodeker, Greg E.; Kreher, Karin; Schofield, Robyn; Liley, J. Ben; Scherer, Martin; McDonald, Adrian J.

    2012-06-01

    A new fully spherical multiple scattering Monte Carlo radiative transfer model named NIMO (NIWA Monte Carlo model) is presented. The ray tracing algorithm is described in detail along with the treatment of scattering and absorption, and the simulation of backward adjoint trajectories. The primary application of NIMO is the calculation of box-air-mass factors (box-AMFs), which are used to convert slant column densities (SCDs) of trace gases, derived from UV-visible multiple axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) measurements, into vertical column densities (VCDs). Box-AMFs are also employed as weighting functions for optimal estimation retrievals of vertical trace gas profiles from SCDs. Monte Carlo models are well suited to AMF calculations at high solar zenith angles (SZA) and at low viewing elevation angles where multiple scattering is important. Additionally, the object-oriented structure of NIMO makes it easily extensible to new applications by plugging in objects for new absorbing or scattering species. Box-AMFs and radiances, calculated for various wavelengths, SZAs, viewing elevation and azimuth angles and aerosol scenarios, are compared with results from nine other models using a set of exercises from a recent radiative transfer model intercomparison. NIMO results for these simulations are well within the range of variability of the other models.

  7. Manifold boundaries give "gray-box" approximations of complex models

    CERN Document Server

    Transtrum, Mark K

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a method of parameter reduction in complex models known as the Manifold Boundary Approximation Method (MBAM). This approach, based on a geometric interpretation of statistics, maps the model reduction problem to a geometric approximation problem. It operates iteratively, removing one parameter at a time, by approximating a high-dimension, but thin manifold by its boundary. Although the method makes no explicit assumption about the functional form of the model, it does require that the model manifold exhibit a hierarchy of boundaries, i.e., faces, edges, corners, hyper-corners, etc. We empirically show that a variety of model classes have this curious feature, making them amenable to MBAM. These model classes include models composed of elementary functions (e.g., rational functions, exponentials, and partition functions), a variety of dynamical system (e.g., chemical and biochemical kinetics, Linear Time Invariant (LTI) systems, and compartment models), network models (e.g., Bayesian networks, Marko...

  8. A comparison between skeleton and bounding box models for falling direction recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narupiyakul, Lalita; Srisrisawang, Nitikorn

    2017-12-01

    Falling is an injury that can lead to a serious medical condition in every range of the age of people. However, in the case of elderly, the risk of serious injury is much higher. Due to the fact that one way of preventing serious injury is to treat the fallen person as soon as possible, several works attempted to implement different algorithms to recognize the fall. Our work compares the performance of two models based on features extraction: (i) Body joint data (Skeleton Data) which are the joint's positions in 3 axes and (ii) Bounding box (Box-size Data) covering all body joints. Machine learning algorithms that were chosen are Decision Tree (DT), Naïve Bayes (NB), K-nearest neighbors (KNN), Linear discriminant analysis (LDA), Voting Classification (VC), and Gradient boosting (GB). The results illustrate that the models trained with Skeleton data are performed far better than those trained with Box-size data (with an average accuracy of 94-81% and 80-75%, respectively). KNN shows the best performance in both Body joint model and Bounding box model. In conclusion, KNN with Body joint model performs the best among the others.

  9. Hydrodynamic modeling with grey-box method of a foil-like underwater vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin-yu; Li, Yi-ping; Wang, Ya-xing; Feng, Xi-sheng

    2017-12-01

    In this study, a dynamic modeling method for foil-like underwater vehicles is introduced and experimentally verified in different sea tests of the Hadal ARV. The dumping force of a foil-like underwater vehicle is sensitive to swing motion. Some foil-like underwater vehicles swing periodically when performing a free-fall dive task in experiments. Models using conventional modeling methods yield solutions with asymptotic stability, which cannot simulate the self-sustained swing motion. By improving the ridge regression optimization algorithm, a grey-box modeling method based on 378 viscous drag coefficients using the Taylor series expansion is proposed in this study. The method is optimized for over-fitting and convergence problems caused by large parameter matrices. Instead of the PMM test data, the unsteady computational fluid dynamics calculation results are used in modeling. The obtained model can better simulate the swing motion of the underwater vehicle. Simulation and experimental results show a good consistency in free-fall tests during sea trials, as well as a prediction of the dive speed in the swing state.

  10. Interpretable inference on the mixed effect model with the Box-Cox transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruo, K; Yamaguchi, Y; Noma, H; Gosho, M

    2017-07-10

    We derived results for inference on parameters of the marginal model of the mixed effect model with the Box-Cox transformation based on the asymptotic theory approach. We also provided a robust variance estimator of the maximum likelihood estimator of the parameters of this model in consideration of the model misspecifications. Using these results, we developed an inference procedure for the difference of the model median between treatment groups at the specified occasion in the context of mixed effects models for repeated measures analysis for randomized clinical trials, which provided interpretable estimates of the treatment effect. From simulation studies, it was shown that our proposed method controlled type I error of the statistical test for the model median difference in almost all the situations and had moderate or high performance for power compared with the existing methods. We illustrated our method with cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) data in an AIDS clinical trial, where the interpretability of the analysis results based on our proposed method is demonstrated. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. The Analysis of Organizational Diagnosis on Based Six Box Model in Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Rahimi; Siadat, Sayyed Ali; Reza, Hoveida; Arash, Shahin; Ali, Nasrabadi Hasan; Azizollah, Arbabisarjou

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The analysis of organizational diagnosis on based six box model at universities. Research method: Research method was descriptive-survey. Statistical population consisted of 1544 faculty members of universities which through random strafed sampling method 218 persons were chosen as the sample. Research Instrument were organizational…

  12. Comparative uncertainty analysis of copper loads in stormwater systems using GLUE and grey-box modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindblom, Erik Ulfson; Madsen, Henrik; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2007-01-01

    . With the proposed model and input data, the GLUE analysis show that the total sampled copper mass can be predicted within a range of +/- 50% of the median value ( 385 g), whereas the grey-box analysis showed a prediction uncertainty of less than +/- 30%. Future work will clarify the pros and cons of the two methods...

  13. Analysis of MADS-Box Gene Family Reveals Conservation in Floral Organ ABCDE Model of Moso Bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanchao Cheng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Mini chromosome maintenance 1, agamous, deficiens, and serum response factor (MADS-box genes are transcription factors which play fundamental roles in flower development and regulation of floral organ identity. However, till date, identification and functions of MADS-box genes remain largely unclear in Phyllostachys edulis. In view of this, we performed a whole-genome survey and identified 34 MADS-box genes in P. edulis, and based on phylogeny, they were classified as MIKCC, MIKC∗, Mα, and Mβ. The detailed analysis about gene structure and motifs, phylogenetic classification, comparison of gene divergence and duplication are provided. Interestingly, expression patterns for most genes were found similar to those of Arabidopsis and rice, indicating that the well-established ABCDE model can be applied to P. edulis. Moreover, we overexpressed PheMADS15, an AP1-like gene, in Arabidopsis, and found that the transgenic plants have early flowering phenotype, suggesting that PheMADS15 might be a regulator of flowering transition in P. edulis. Taken together, this study provides not only insightful comprehension but also useful information for understanding the functions of MADS-box genes in P. edulis.

  14. A Box-Cox normal model for response times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Entink, R.H.; Fox, J.P.; Linden, W.J. van der

    2009-01-01

    The log-transform has been a convenient choice in response time modelling on test items. However, motivated by a dataset of the Medical College Admission Test where the lognormal model violated the normality assumption, the possibilities of the broader class of Box–Cox transformations for response

  15. Estimation parameters and black box model of a brushless DC motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Becerra-Vargas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The modeling of a process or a plant is vital for the design of its control system, since it allows predicting its dynamic and behavior under different circumstances, inputs, disturbances and noise. The main objective of this work is to identify which model is best for a permanent magnet brushless DC specific motor. For this, the mathematical model of a DC motor brushless PW16D, manufactured by Golden Motor, is presented and compared with its black box model; both are derived from experimental data. These data, the average applied voltage and the angular velocity, are acquired by a data acquisition card and imported to the computer. The constants of the mathematical model are estimated by a curve fitting algorithm based on non-linear least squares and pattern search using computational tool. To estimate the mathematical model constants by non-linear least square and search pattern, a goodness of fit of 84.88% and 80.48% respectively was obtained. The goodness of fit obtained by the black box model was 87.72%. The mathematical model presented slightly lower goodness of fit, but allowed to analyze the behavior of variables of interest such as the power consumption and the torque applied to the motor. Because of this, it is concluded that the mathematical model obtained by experimental data of the brushless motor PW16D, is better than its black box model.

  16. Analysis of resusupention of Cs-137 in Fukushima with box model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yuta; Hatano, Yuko; Kita, Kazuyuki; Igarashi, Yasuhito; Kajino, Mizuo; Ishizuka, Masahide

    2017-04-01

    We use the atmospheric concentration of Cs-137 measured continuously at Namie, Fukushima and compare the observational results with a two-box model. Resuspension, deposition and the vertical diffusion are considered in the model. The values of five parameters in the model are estimated by the fitting of the data, such as the resuspension rate, the dry/wet deposition rate, and the exchange rate between the mixed layer and the higher atmosphere.

  17. Pandora's Box: A new model for education in Asia | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-31

    Jan 31, 2011 ... Malik is leading a project to develop a model for distance education that can be used in various Asian countries, with support from Canada's International Development Research Centre (IDRC). Through its Pan Asia Networking (PAN) program initiative, a program on Distance and Open Resource Access ...

  18. A Grey-Box Model for Spray Drying Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Norbert; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Multi-stage spray drying is an important and widely used unit operation in the production of food powders. In this paper we develop and present a dynamic model of the complete drying process in a multi-stage spray dryer. The dryer is divided into three stages: The spray stage and two fluid bed...

  19. Numerical heat transfer studies of PCMs used in a box-type solar cooker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C.R.; Sharma, Atul [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kun Shan University, 949 Da-Wan Road, Yung-Kung City, Tainan Hsien 710 (China); Tyagi, S.K. [Department of Building Services Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (China); Buddhi, D. [Thermal Energy Storage Laboratory, School of Energy and Environmental Studies, Khandwa Road Campus, Devi Ahilya University, Indore 452017 (India)

    2008-05-15

    Theoretical investigations on the phase change materials (PCMs) used as the heat storage media for box-type solar cookers have been conducted in this study. The selected PCMs are magnesium nitrate hexahydrate, stearic acid, acetamide, acetanilide and erythritol. For a two-dimensional simulation model based on the enthalpy approach, calculations have been made for the melt fraction with conduction only. Different materials such as glass, stainless steel, tin, aluminum mixed, aluminum and copper are used as the heat exchanger container materials in the numerical calculations. The large value of thermal conductivity of heat exchanger container material did not make a significant contribution on the melt fraction except for at very low thermal conductivities. Based on the theoretical results, stearic acid and acetamide are found to be good compatibility with latent heat storage system. It is also found that the initial temperature of PCM does not have very important effects on the melting time, while the boundary wall temperature plays an important role during the melting and has a strong effect on the melt fraction. The results also show that the effect of thickness of container material on the melt fraction is insignificant. The results obtained in this paper show that in a box-type solar cooker, acetamide and stearic acid should be used as a latent heat storage materials. (author)

  20. Solar Analysis Using Building Information Modelling with the Glass Box Method in Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riva Tomasowa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The utilisation of Building Information Modelling (BIM focuses more on the Schematic Design or Technical Design phase, while the Preliminary or the Conceptual design is pretty much skipped. This paper shows that a simple model could utilise BIM to gain rich information about solar radiation to give ideal orientation in Preliminary phase. On this case, a spot in Jakarta is analysed with Glass Box method to depict the ideal orientation that receive a minimum solar radiation in a year span.

  1. Modelling the Heat Consumption in District Heating Systems using a Grey-box approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg; Madsen, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    The heat consumption in a large geographical area is considered together with climate measurements on a single location in the area. The purpose is to identify a model linking the heat consumption to climate and calendar information. The process of building a model is split into a theoretical based...... identification of an overall model structure followed by data-based modelling, whereby the details of the model are identified. This approach is sometimes called grey-box modelling, but the specific approach used here does not require states to be specified. Overall, the paper demonstrates the power of the grey...

  2. Optimal experiment design for identification of grey-box models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadegh, Payman; Melgaard, Henrik; Madsen, Henrik

    1994-01-01

    Optimal experiment design is investigated for stochastic dynamic systems where the prior partial information about the system is given as a probability distribution function in the system parameters. The concept of information is related to entropy reduction in the system through Lindley's measur...... estimation results in a considerable reduction of the experimental length. Besides, it is established that the physical knowledge of the system enables us to design experiments, with the goal of maximizing information about the physical parameters of interest.......Optimal experiment design is investigated for stochastic dynamic systems where the prior partial information about the system is given as a probability distribution function in the system parameters. The concept of information is related to entropy reduction in the system through Lindley's measure...... of average information, and the relationship between the choice of information related criteria and some estimators (MAP and MLE) is established. A continuous time physical model of the heat dynamics of a building is considered and the results show that performing an optimal experiment corresponding to a MAP...

  3. A Grey-Box Dynamic Model of Plate Heat Exchangers Used in an Urban Heating System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Qingwei Miao; Shijun You; Wandong Zheng; Xuejing Zheng; Huan Zhang; Yaran Wang

    2017-01-01

    .... In the grey-box method, a newly developed parameter identification method was established. The simulation results of two outlet temperatures by the grey-box and white-box method, respectively, are compared with the test data...

  4. A Two-Step Identification Approach for Twin-Box Models of RF Power Amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Jiang Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a two-step identification approach for twin-box model (Wiener or Hammerstein of RF power amplifier. The linear filter block and the static nonlinearity block are extracted, respectively, based on least-squares method, by iterative calculation. Simulations show that the method can get quite accurate parameters to model different nonlinear models with memory such as Wiener, Hammerstein, Wiener-Hammerstein (W-H, and memory polynomial models, hence, demonstrating its robustness. Furthermore, experimental results show excellent agreement between measured output and modeled output, where one carrier WCDMA signal is used as the excitation for a wideband RF amplifier.

  5. Particle-in-a-Box Model of Exciton Absorption and Electroabsorption in Conjugated Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Garm

    2001-01-01

    The recently proposed particle-in-a-box model of one-dimensional excitons in conjugated polymers is applied in calculations of optical absorption and electroabsorption spectra. It is demonstrated that for polymers of long conjugation length a superposition of single exciton resonances produces a ...... a line shape characterized by a square-root singularity in agreement with experimental spectra near the absorption edge. The effects of finite conjugation length on both absorption and electroabsorption spectra are analyzed.......The recently proposed particle-in-a-box model of one-dimensional excitons in conjugated polymers is applied in calculations of optical absorption and electroabsorption spectra. It is demonstrated that for polymers of long conjugation length a superposition of single exciton resonances produces...

  6. Does box model training improve surgical dexterity and economy of movement during virtual reality laparoscopy? A randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clevin, Lotte; Grantcharov, Teodor P

    2008-01-01

    Laparoscopic box model trainers have been used in training curricula for a long time, however data on their impact on skills acquisition is still limited. Our aim was to validate a low cost box model trainer as a tool for the training of skills relevant to laparoscopic surgery. Randomised, controlled trial (Canadian Task Force Classification I). University Hospital. Sixteen gynaecologic residents with limited laparoscopic experience were randomised to a group that received a structured box model training curriculum, and a control group. Performance before and after the training was assessed in a virtual reality laparoscopic trainer (LapSim and was based on objective parameters, registered by the computer system (time, error, and economy of motion scores). Group A showed significantly greater improvement in all performance parameters compared with the control group: economy of movement (p=0.001), time (p=0.001) and tissue damage (p=0.036), confirming the positive impact of box-trainer curriculum on laparoscopic skills acquisition. Structured laparoscopic skill training on a low cost box model trainer improves performance as assessed using the VR system. Trainees who used the box model trainer showed significant improvement compared to the control group. Box model trainers are valid tools for laparoscopic skills training and should be implemented in the comprehensive training curricula in gynaecology.

  7. Finite element model updating of a prestressed concrete box girder bridge using subproblem approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, G. W.; Omenzetter, P.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the implementation of an updating procedure for the finite element model (FEM) of a prestressed concrete continuous box-girder highway off-ramp bridge. Ambient vibration testing was conducted to excite the bridge, assisted by linear chirp sweepings induced by two small electrodynamic shakes deployed to enhance the excitation levels, since the bridge was closed to traffic. The data-driven stochastic subspace identification method was executed to recover the modal properties from measurement data. An initial FEM was developed and correlation between the experimental modal results and their analytical counterparts was studied. Modelling of the pier and abutment bearings was carefully adjusted to reflect the real operational conditions of the bridge. The subproblem approximation method was subsequently utilized to automatically update the FEM. For this purpose, the influences of bearing stiffness, and mass density and Young's modulus of materials were examined as uncertain parameters using sensitivity analysis. The updating objective function was defined based on a summation of squared values of relative errors of natural frequencies between the FEM and experimentation. All the identified modes were used as the target responses with the purpose of putting more constrains for the optimization process and decreasing the number of potentially feasible combinations for parameter changes. The updated FEM of the bridge was able to produce sufficient improvements in natural frequencies in most modes of interest, and can serve for a more precise dynamic response prediction or future investigation of the bridge health.

  8. A Review of the Ginzburg-Syrovatskii's Galactic Cosmic-Ray Propagation Model and its Leaky-Box Limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barghouty, A. F.

    2012-01-01

    Phenomenological models of galactic cosmic-ray propagation are based on a diffusion equation known as the Ginzburg-Syrovatskii s equation, or variants (or limits) of this equation. Its one-dimensional limit in a homogeneous volume, known as the leaky-box limit or model, is sketched here. The justification, utility, limitations, and a typical numerical implementation of the leaky-box model are examined in some detail.

  9. Functional form and risk adjustment of hospital costs: Bayesian analysis of a Box-Cox random coefficients model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollenbeak, Christopher S

    2005-10-15

    While risk-adjusted outcomes are often used to compare the performance of hospitals and physicians, the most appropriate functional form for the risk adjustment process is not always obvious for continuous outcomes such as costs. Semi-log models are used most often to correct skewness in cost data, but there has been limited research to determine whether the log transformation is sufficient or whether another transformation is more appropriate. This study explores the most appropriate functional form for risk-adjusting the cost of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Data included patients undergoing CABG surgery at four hospitals in the midwest and were fit to a Box-Cox model with random coefficients (BCRC) using Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. Marginal likelihoods and Bayes factors were computed to perform model comparison of alternative model specifications. Rankings of hospital performance were created from the simulation output and the rankings produced by Bayesian estimates were compared to rankings produced by standard models fit using classical methods. Results suggest that, for these data, the most appropriate functional form is not logarithmic, but corresponds to a Box-Cox transformation of -1. Furthermore, Bayes factors overwhelmingly rejected the natural log transformation. However, the hospital ranking induced by the BCRC model was not different from the ranking produced by maximum likelihood estimates of either the linear or semi-log model. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. A multi-variable box model approach to the soft tissue carbon pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. de Boer

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The canonical question of which physical, chemical or biological mechanisms were responsible for oceanic uptake of atmospheric CO2 during the last glacial is yet unanswered. Insight from paleo-proxies has led to a multitude of hypotheses but none so far have been convincingly supported in three dimensional numerical modelling experiments. The processes that influence the CO2 uptake and export production are inter-related and too complex to solve conceptually while complex numerical models are time consuming and expensive to run which severely limits the combinations of mechanisms that can be explored. Instead, an intermediate inverse box model approach of the soft tissue pump is used here in which the whole parameter space is explored. The glacial circulation and biological production states are derived from these using proxies of glacial export production and the need to draw down CO2 into the ocean. We find that circulation patterns which explain glacial observations include reduced Antarctic Bottom Water formation and high latitude upwelling and mixing of deep water and to a lesser extent reduced equatorial upwelling. The proposed mechanism of CO2 uptake by an increase of eddies in the Southern Ocean, leading to a reduced residual circulation, is not supported. Regarding biological mechanisms, an increase in the nutrient utilization in either the equatorial regions or the northern polar latitudes can reduce atmospheric CO2 and satisfy proxies of glacial export production. Consistent with previous studies, CO2 is drawn down more easily through increased productivity in the Antarctic region than the sub-Antarctic, but that violates observations of lower export production there. The glacial states are more sensitive to changes in the circulation and less sensitive to changes in nutrient utilization rates than the interglacial states.

  11. MEP and planetary climates: insights from a two-box climate model containing atmospheric dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jupp, Tim E; Cox, Peter M

    2010-05-12

    A two-box model for equator-to-pole planetary heat transport is extended to include simple atmospheric dynamics. The surface drag coefficient CD is treated as a free parameter and solutions are calculated analytically in terms of the dimensionless planetary parameters eta (atmospheric thickness), omega (rotation rate) and xi (advective capability). Solutions corresponding to maximum entropy production (MEP) are compared with solutions previously obtained from dynamically unconstrained two-box models. As long as the advective capability xi is sufficiently large, dynamically constrained MEP solutions are identical to dynamically unconstrained MEP solutions. Consequently, the addition of a dynamical constraint does not alter the previously obtained MEP results for Earth, Mars and Titan, and an analogous result is presented here for Venus. The rate of entropy production in an MEP state is shown to be independent of rotation rate if the advective capability xi is sufficiently large (as for the four examples in the solar system), or if the rotation rate omega is sufficiently small. The model indicates, however, that the dynamical constraint does influence the MEP state when xi is small, which might be the case for some extrasolar planets. Finally, results from the model developed here are compared with previous numerical simulations in which the effect of varying surface drag coefficient on entropy production was calculated.

  12. Stability of the interhemispheric thermohaline circulation in a coupled box model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Peter H.; Krasovskiy, Yuriy P.

    1999-07-01

    The coupled atmosphere-ocean box model of the interhemispheric thermohaline circulation (THC) formulated by Scott et al. [Scott, J.R., Marotzke, J., Stone, P.H., 1999. Interhemispheric THC in a coupled box model. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 29, 351-365.] is solved analytically, by introducing the approximation that the time variations of salinity in the ocean are much slower than the time variations in the temperature. The analytic solution shows that there is an unstable limit cycle near the bifurcation where the flow becomes unstable, as suggested by Scott et al.'s numerical solutions. The solution also leads to an analytic expression for the conditions under which the instability discovered by Scott et al. sets in, which is more general than that found by Scott et al. In particular, it includes the effect of coupling the THC to the atmospheric meridional transports of heat and moisture. It shows that the stability of THC is much more sensitive to the representation of the atmospheric heat transport, i.e., to how it depends on the meridional temperature gradient, than it is in hemispheric models. In particular, it shows that interhemispheric ocean models that use mixed boundary conditions, or couple the ocean to a diffusive representation of the atmospheric heat transport, are less susceptible to this kind of instability than when the ocean is coupled to a representation of the atmospheric meridional heat transport which is more sensitive to the meridional temperature gradient, as is implied by observations and theory.

  13. cluster-in-a-box: Statistical model of sub-millimeter emission from embedded protostellar clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Lars E.; Bergin, Edwin A.

    2016-10-01

    Cluster-in-a-box provides a statistical model of sub-millimeter emission from embedded protostellar clusters and consists of three modules grouped in two scripts. The first (cluster_distribution) generates the cluster based on the number of stars, input initial mass function, spatial distribution and age distribution. The second (cluster_emission) takes an input file of observations, determines the mass-intensity correlation and generates outflow emission for all low-mass Class 0 and I sources. The output is stored as a FITS image where the flux density is determined by the desired resolution, pixel scale and cluster distance.

  14. Study of Injection Process Capability in Production of Plastic Boxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lestyánszka Škůrková Katarína

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring the process capability currently means the warranty that produced products will be in accordance with requirements, both on the company‘s as well as customer‘s side. This study focuses on the statistical control of injection process capability in serial production in a company focusing on products for healthcare. The injection process is evaluated by control charts, specifically by control chart for average and range ( x̄ , R. As the results showed, based on the chart for average and range, we are able to say that the injection process is under statistical control. The requirement for process capability was met; the indices of process capability Cp and Cpk are higher than the determined value 1.33. The normality of measured values was verified by histogram. The obtained values are: Cp = 1.85 and Cpk = 1.82. Therefore, we may consider the process as capable.

  15. Expectation Maximization Algorithm for Box-Cox Transformation Cure Rate Model and Assessment of Model Mis-specication under Weibull Lifetimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Suvra; Balakrishnan, N

    2017-05-16

    In this paper, we develop likelihood inference based on the expectation maximization (EM) algorithm for the Box- Cox transformation cure rate model assuming the lifetimes to follow a Weibull distribution. A simulation study is carried out to demonstrate the performance of the proposed estimation method. Through Monte Carlo simulations, we also study the effect of model mis-specification on the estimate of cure rate. Finally, we analyze a well-known data on melanoma with the model and the inferential method developed here.

  16. Cyclin-like F-box protein plays a role in growth and development of the three model species Medicago truncatula, Lotus japonicus, and Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boycheva I

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Irina Boycheva,1 Valya Vassileva,2 Miglena Revalska,1 Grigor Zehirov,2 Anelia Iantcheva1 1Department of Functional Genetics Legumes, 2AgroBioInstitute, Department of Plant Stress Molecular Biology, Institute of Plant Physiology and Genetics, Sofia, Bulgaria Abstract: In eukaryotes, F-box proteins are one of the main components of the SCF complex that belongs to the family of ubiquitin E3 ligases, which catalyze protein ubiquitination and maintain the balance between protein synthesis and degradation. In the present study, we clarified the role and function of the gene encoding cyclin-like F-box protein from Medicago truncatula using transgenic plants of the model species M. truncatula, Lotus japonicas, and Arabidopsis thaliana generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Morphological and transcriptional analyses combined with flow cytometry and histochemistry demonstrated the participation of this protein in many aspects of plant growth and development, including processes of indirect somatic embryogenesis and symbiotic nodulation. The cyclin-like F-box gene showed expression in all plant organs and tissues comprised of actively dividing cells. The observed variations in root and hypocotyl growth, leaf and silique development, ploidy levels, and leaf parameters in the obtained transgenic lines demonstrated the effects of this gene on organ development. Furthermore, knockdown of cyclin-like F-box led to accumulation of higher levels of the G2/M transition-specific gene cyclin B1:1 (CYCB1:1, suggesting its possible role in cell cycle control. Together, the collected data suggest a similar role of the cyclin-like F-box protein in the three model species, providing evidence for the functional conservation of the studied gene. Keywords: cyclin-like F-box, model legumes, Arabidopsis thaliana, plant growth, plant development, cell cycle

  17. Modeling a novel hypothetical use of postal collection boxes as automated external defibrillator access points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Sanjana; Salerno, Jessica; Hajari, Hadi; Weiss, Lenny S; Salcido, David D

    2017-11-01

    Optimizing placement of Automated External Defibrillators (AED) can increase survival after an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Using postal collection boxes (PCB) as locations for AEDs could potentially enhance accessibility and streamline maintenance. In this study, we modeled the hypothetical effects of deploying AEDs at PCB locations. We hypothesized that PCB-AEDs would increase AED coverage overall and in residential areas, and reduce the distance from OHCA to an AED. AEDs in Pittsburgh, PA were identified by the University of Pittsburgh Resuscitation Logistics and Informatics Venture (n=747). PCB locations were obtained from the United States Postal Service (n=479). OHCA locations from 2009 to 2014 were obtained from the Pittsburgh site of the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium. AED coverage assuming a ¼ mile radius around each AED was estimated for known AEDs, PCB-AEDs (hypothetical AED locations), and known AEDs augmented by PCB-AEDs, both overall and for residential and non-residential zones. Linear distance from each OHCA to the nearest AED was calculated and compared between the sets. The set of known AEDs augmented with PCB-AEDs covered more of the city overall (55% vs 30%), as well as greater proportions of residential (62% vs 27%) and non-residential areas (45% vs 30%). The median distance from OHCA to AED was significantly shorter when known AEDs were augmented with PCB-AEDs (0.12mi vs 0.32mi; p=0.001). Augmenting existing publicly accessible AEDs with AEDs deployed at PCBs can increase AED spatial coverage in both residential and non-residential areas, and reduce the distance from AED to OHCA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Barriers and facilitators to implementing Decision Boxes in primary healthcare teams to facilitate shared decisionmaking: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giguere Anik

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decision Boxes are summaries of the most important benefits and harms of health interventions provided to clinicians before they meet the patient, to prepare them to help patients make informed and value-based decisions. Our objective is to explore the barriers and facilitators to using Decision Boxes in clinical practice, more precisely factors stemming from (1 the Decision Boxes themselves, (2 the primary healthcare team (PHT, and (3 the primary care practice environment. Methods/design A two-phase mixed methods study will be conducted. Eight Decision Boxes relevant to primary care, and written in both English and in French, will be hosted on a website together with a tutorial to introduce the Decision Box. The Decision Boxes will be delivered as weekly emails over a span of eight weeks to clinicians of PHTs (family physicians, residents and nurses in five primary care clinics located across two Canadian provinces. Using a web-questionnaire, clinicians will rate each Decision Box with the Information Assessment Method (cognitive impacts, relevance, usefulness, expected benefits and with a questionnaire based on the Theory of Planned Behavior to study the determinants of clinicians’ intention to use what they learned from that Decision Box in their patient encounter (attitude, social norm, perceived behavioral control. Web-log data will be used to monitor clinicians’ access to the website. Following the 8-week intervention, we will conduct semi-structured group interviews with clinicians and individual interviews with clinic administrators to explore contextual factors influencing the use of the Decision Boxes. Data collected from questionnaires, focus groups and individual interviews will be combined to identify factors potentially influencing implementation of Decision Boxes in clinical practice by clinicians of PHTs. Conclusions This project will allow tailoring of Decision Boxes and their delivery to overcome the

  19. Grey-box Modeling for System Identification of Household Refrigerators: a Step Toward Smart Appliances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costanzo, Giuseppe Tommaso; Sossan, Fabrizio; Marinelli, Mattia

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the grey-box modeling of a vapor-compression refrigeration system for residential applications based on maximum likelihood estimation of parameters in stochastic differential equations. Models obtained are useful in the view of controlling refrigerators as flexible consumption...... units, which operation can be shifted within temperature and operational constraints. Even if the refrigerators are not intended to be used as smart loads, validated models are useful in predicting units consumption. This information can increase the optimality of the management of other flexible units......, such as heat pumps for space heating, in order to smooth the load factor during peak hours, enhance reliability and efficiency in power networks and reduce operational costs....

  20. The atmospheric chemistry box model CAABA/MECCA-3.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sander

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We present version 3.0 of the atmospheric chemistry box model CAABA/MECCA. In addition to a complete update of the rate coefficients to the most recent recommendations, a number of new features have been added: chemistry in multiple aerosol size bins; automatic multiple simulations reaching steady-state conditions; Monte-Carlo simulations with randomly varied rate coefficients within their experimental uncertainties; calculations along Lagrangian trajectories; mercury chemistry; more detailed isoprene chemistry; tagging of isotopically labeled species. Further changes have been implemented to make the code more user-friendly and to facilitate the analysis of the model results. Like earlier versions, CAABA/MECCA-3.0 is a community model published under the GNU General Public License.

  1. Grey Box Modelling of Flow in Sewer Systems with State Dependent Diffusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinholt, Anders; Thordarson, Fannar Örn; Møller, Jan Kloppenborg

    2011-01-01

    flow prediction limits, because the observation noise is proportionally scaled with the modelled output. Finally it is concluded that a state proportional diffusion term best and adequately describes the one-step flow prediction uncertainty, and a proper description of the system noise is important......Generating flow forecasts with uncertainty limits from rain gauge inputs in sewer systems require simple models with identifiable parameters that can adequately describe the stochastic phenomena of the system. In this paper, a simple grey-box model is proposed that is attractive for both....... It is shown that an additive diffusion noise term description leads to a violation of the physical constraints of the system, whereas a state dependent diffusion noise avoids this problem and should be favoured. It is also shown that a logarithmic transformation of the flow measurements secures positive lower...

  2. Virtual box

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stougaard, Malthe Kirkhoff

    2007-01-01

    . This paper reports on the design, implementation and initial evaluation of Virtual Box. Virtual Box attempts to create a physical and engaging context in order to support reciprocal interactions with expressive content. An implemented version of Virtual Box is evaluated in a location-aware environment...

  3. Does box model training improve surgical dexterity and economy of movement during virtual reality laparoscopy? A randomised trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clevin, L.; Grantcharov, T.P.

    2008-01-01

    . Performance before and after the training was assessed in a virtual reality laparoscopic trainer (LapSim and was based on objective parameters, registered by the computer system (time, error, and economy of motion scores). Group A showed significantly greater improvement in all performance parameters compared......OBJECTIVE: Laparoscopic box model trainers have been used in training curricula for a long time, however data on their impact on skills acquisition is still limited. Our aim was to validate a low cost box model trainer as a tool for the training of skills relevant to laparoscopic surgery. DESIGN......: Randomised, controlled trial (Canadian Task Force Classification I). SETTING: University Hospital. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Sixteen gynaecologic residents with limited laparoscopic experience were randomised to a group that received a structured box model training curriculum, and a control group...

  4. Flexible mixture modeling via the multivariate t distribution with the Box-Cox transformation: an alternative to the skew-t distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Kenneth; Gottardo, Raphael

    2012-01-01

    Cluster analysis is the automated search for groups of homogeneous observations in a data set. A popular modeling approach for clustering is based on finite normal mixture models, which assume that each cluster is modeled as a multivariate normal distribution. However, the normality assumption that each component is symmetric is often unrealistic. Furthermore, normal mixture models are not robust against outliers; they often require extra components for modeling outliers and/or give a poor representation of the data. To address these issues, we propose a new class of distributions, multivariate t distributions with the Box-Cox transformation, for mixture modeling. This class of distributions generalizes the normal distribution with the more heavy-tailed t distribution, and introduces skewness via the Box-Cox transformation. As a result, this provides a unified framework to simultaneously handle outlier identification and data transformation, two interrelated issues. We describe an Expectation-Maximization algorithm for parameter estimation along with transformation selection. We demonstrate the proposed methodology with three real data sets and simulation studies. Compared with a wealth of approaches including the skew-t mixture model, the proposed t mixture model with the Box-Cox transformation performs favorably in terms of accuracy in the assignment of observations, robustness against model misspecification, and selection of the number of components.

  5. Formulation and evaluation of an analytical model for composite box-beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Edward C.; Chopra, Inderjit

    1990-01-01

    A direct method for determining the effective elastic stiffnesses and deformation behavior of composite box-beam (BB) structures is developed analytically, validated, and demonstrated. The BB walls are modeled as orthotropic-ply laminated plates, so that the elastic properties vary both through the thickness and around the BB contour; deformation is described in terms of extension, bending, twisting, shearing, and torsion-related out-of-plane warping. Numerical results for several BB configurations are presented in tables and graphs and compared with experimental data and FEM computations (Stemple and Lee, 1989): good general agreement is obtained for cross-ply, antisymmetric, and symmetric layups, except for symmetric layups with ply orientation angles theta greater than 30 deg. Both out-of-plane warping and transverse shear coupling are found to have significant effects on BB elastic response.

  6. Dynamic finite element model updating of prestressed concrete continuous box-girder bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiankun; Zhang, Lingmi; Guo, Qintao; Zhang, Yufeng

    2009-09-01

    The dynamic finite element model (FEM) of a prestressed concrete continuous box-girder bridge, called the Tongyang Canal Bridge, is built and updated based on the results of ambient vibration testing (AVT) using a real-coded accelerating genetic algorithm (RAGA). The objective functions are defined based on natural frequency and modal assurance criterion (MAC) metrics to evaluate the updated FEM. Two objective functions are defined to fully account for the relative errors and standard deviations of the natural frequencies and MAC between the AVT results and the updated FEM predictions. The dynamically updated FEM of the bridge can better represent its structural dynamics and serve as a baseline in long-term health monitoring, condition assessment and damage identification over the service life of the bridge.

  7. Real-time process optimization based on grey-box neural models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Cubillos

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the feasibility of using grey-box neural models (GNM in Real Time Optimization (RTO. These models are based on a suitable combination of fundamental conservation laws and neural networks, being used in at least two different ways: to complement available phenomenological knowledge with empirical information, or to reduce dimensionality of complex rigorous physical models. We have observed that the benefits of using these simple adaptable models are counteracted by some difficulties associated with the solution of the optimization problem. Nonlinear Programming (NLP algorithms failed in finding the global optimum due to the fact that neural networks can introduce multimodal objective functions. One alternative considered to solve this problem was the use of some kind of evolutionary algorithms, like Genetic Algorithms (GA. Although these algorithms produced better results in terms of finding the appropriate region, they took long periods of time to reach the global optimum. It was found that a combination of genetic and nonlinear programming algorithms can be use to fast obtain the optimum solution. The proposed approach was applied to the Williams-Otto reactor, considering three different GNM models of increasing complexity. Results demonstrated that the use of GNM models and mixed GA/NLP optimization algorithms is a promissory approach for solving dynamic RTO problems.

  8. Simulation of atmospheric mercury depletion events (AMDEs during polar springtime using the MECCA box model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.-Q. Xie

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric mercury depletion events (AMDEs during polar springtime are closely correlated with bromine-catalyzed tropospheric ozone depletion events (ODEs. To study gas- and aqueous-phase reaction kinetics and speciation of mercury during AMDEs, we have included mercury chemistry into the box model MECCA (Module Efficiently Calculating the Chemistry of the Atmosphere, which enables dynamic simulation of bromine activation and ODEs.

    We found that the reaction of Hg with Br atoms dominates the loss of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM. To explain the experimentally observed synchronous depletion of GEM and O3, the reaction rate of Hg+BrO has to be much lower than that of Hg+Br. The synchronicity is best reproduced with rate coefficients at the lower limit of the literature values for both reactions, i.e. kHg+Br≈3×10−13 and kHg+BrO≤1×10−15 cm3 molecule−1 s−1, respectively.

    Throughout the simulated AMDEs, chem{BrHgOBr} was the most abundant reactive mercury species, both in the gas phase and in the aqueous phase. The aqueous-phase concentrations of BrHgOBr, HgBr2, and HgCl2 were several orders of magnitude larger than that of Hg(SO322−.

    Considering chlorine chemistry outside depletion events (i.e. without bromine activation, the concentration of total divalent mercury in sea-salt aerosol particles (mostly HgCl42− was much higher than in dilute aqueous droplets (mostly Hg(SO322−, and did not exhibit a diurnal cycle (no correlation with HO2 radicals.

  9. Amateur boxing and risk of chronic traumatic brain injury: systematic review of observational studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Charles H; Whyte, Greg P

    2007-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the risk of chronic traumatic brain injury from amateur boxing. Setting Secondary research performed by combination of sport physicians and clinical academics. Design, data sources, and methods Systematic review of observational studies in which chronic traumatic brain injury was defined as any abnormality on clinical neurological examination, psychometric testing, neuroimaging studies, and electroencephalography. Studies were identified through database (1950 to date) and bibliographic searches without language restrictions. Two reviewers extracted study characteristics, quality, and data, with adherence to a protocol developed from a widely recommended method for systematic review of observational studies (MOOSE). Results 36 papers had relevant extractable data (from a detailed evaluation of 93 studies of 943 identified from the initial search). Quality of evidence was generally poor. The best quality studies were those with a cohort design and those that used psychometric tests. These yielded the most negative results: only four of 17 (24%) better quality studies found any indication of chronic traumatic brain injury in a minority of boxers studied. Conclusion There is no strong evidence to associate chronic traumatic brain injury with amateur boxing. PMID:17916811

  10. Automatic Black-Box Model Order Reduction using Radial Basis Functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephanson, M B; Lee, J F; White, D A

    2011-07-15

    Finite elements methods have long made use of model order reduction (MOR), particularly in the context of fast freqeucny sweeps. In this paper, we discuss a black-box MOR technique, applicable to a many solution methods and not restricted only to spectral responses. We also discuss automated methods for generating a reduced order model that meets a given error tolerance. Numerical examples demonstrate the effectiveness and wide applicability of the method. With the advent of improved computing hardware and numerous fast solution techniques, the field of computational electromagnetics are progressed rapidly in terms of the size and complexity of problems that can be solved. Numerous applications, however, require the solution of a problem for many different configurations, including optimization, parameter exploration, and uncertainly quantification, where the parameters that may be changed include frequency, material properties, geometric dimensions, etc. In such cases, thousands of solutions may be needed, so solve times of even a few minutes can be burdensome. Model order reduction (MOR) may alleviate this difficulty by creating a small model that can be evaluated quickly. Many MOR techniques have been applied to electromagnetic problems over the past few decades, particularly in the context of fast frequency sweeps. Recent works have extended these methods to allow more than one parameter and to allow the parameters to represent material and geometric properties. There are still limitations with these methods, however. First, they almost always assume that the finite element method is used to solve the problem, so that the system matrix is a known function of the parameters. Second, although some authors have presented adaptive methods (e.g., [2]), the order of the model is often determined before the MOR process begins, with little insight about what order is actually needed to reach the desired accuracy. Finally, it not clear how to efficiently extend most

  11. Structure of the turbidity field in the Guadalquivir estuary: Analysis of observations and a box model approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez-Minguito, M.; Baquerizo, A.; de Swart, H. E.; Losada, M. A.

    2014-10-01

    A study is presented on the transport of suspended particulate matter (SPM) in the Guadalquivir estuary during low river flow conditions. Observations show that tidally induced SPM exceeds that associated with catchment-derived inputs. The main mechanisms that contribute to longitudinal transport are identified and quantified by analyzing the tidally averaged and depth-integrated SPM flux decomposition over time and space. The net transport is generally directed upstream, although differences in the direction between spring and neap tides are identified. The transport is largely controlled by the mean advection, the tidal pumping associated with the covariance between SPM concentration and current, and the tidal Stokes transport. The convergence of the transport associated to these mechanisms alone explains the presence of primary and secondary estuarine turbidity maxima. The tidal reflection at the upstream dam appears to play a significant role in their generation, as evidenced by the convergence zones of the M4 and M2 induced tidal pumping transports. The spatial structure of the transport motivates the development of a box model that describes the concentration of SPM and its exchange between different stretches along the estuary at subtidal time scales. The model is fed by the net SPM transport obtained from observations. Analysis of the morphodynamical state of the estuary using the box model indicates that erosion is dominant in the stretches close to the estuary mouth and that this sediment is transported upstream and deposited in the middle part of the estuary. This process is more influential during spring tides than during neap tides.

  12. Controlling the alien hand through the mirror box. A single case study of alien hand syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, D; Sedda, A; Dell'aquila, R; Dalla Costa, D; Beretta, G; Maravita, A; Bottini, G

    2014-06-01

    Disruption of motor control in the alien hand syndrome might result from a dissociation between intentions and sensory information. We hypothesized that voluntary motor control in this condition could improve by restoring the congruency between motor intentions and visual feedback. The present study shows that, in one patient with right alien hand syndrome, the use of a mirror box paradigm improved motor speed. We speculate that the visual feedback provided by the mirror increases the sense of congruence between intention and sensory feedback, leading to motor improvement.

  13. Bento Boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasio, Cindy

    2010-01-01

    Bento boxes are common objects in Japanese culture, designed to hold enough lunch for one person. They have individual compartments and sometimes multiple tiers for rice, vegetables, and other side dishes. They are made of materials ranging from wood, cloth, aluminum, or plastic. In general, the greater the number of foods, the better the box is…

  14. Evaluation of probabilistic flow predictions in sewer systems using grey box models and a skill score criterion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thordarson, Fannar Ørn; Breinholt, Anders; Møller, Jan Kloppenborg

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we show how the grey box methodology can be applied to find models that can describe the flow prediction uncertainty in a sewer system where rain data are used as input, and flow measurements are used for calibration and updating model states. Grey box models are composed of a drift...... term and a diffusion term, respectively accounting for the deterministic and stochastic part of the models. Furthermore, a distinction is made between the process noise and the observation noise. We compare five different model candidates’ predictive performances that solely differ with respect...... coverage of the prediction intervals, i.e. the bias between these coverages should ideally be zero. The sharpness is a measure of the distance between the lower and upper prediction limits, and skill score criterion makes it possible to pinpoint the preferred model by taking into account both reliability...

  15. Simulating atmospheric composition over a South-East Asian tropical rainforest: performance of a chemistry box model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. M. Pugh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric composition and chemistry above tropical rainforests is currently not well established, particularly for south-east Asia. In order to examine our understanding of chemical processes in this region, the performance of a box model of atmospheric boundary layer chemistry is tested against measurements made at the top of the rainforest canopy near Danum Valley, Malaysian Borneo. Multi-variate optimisation against ambient concentration measurements was used to estimate average canopy-scale emissions for isoprene, total monoterpenes and nitric oxide. The excellent agreement between estimated values and measured fluxes of isoprene and total monoterpenes provides confidence in the overall modelling strategy, and suggests that this method may be applied where measured fluxes are not available, assuming that the local chemistry and mixing are adequately understood. The largest contributors to the optimisation cost function at the point of best-fit are OH (29%, NO (22% and total peroxy radicals (27%. Several factors affect the modelled VOC chemistry. In particular concentrations of methacrolein (MACR and methyl-vinyl ketone (MVK are substantially overestimated, and the hydroxyl radical (OH concentration is substantially underestimated; as has been seen before in tropical rainforest studies. It is shown that inclusion of dry deposition of MACR and MVK and wet deposition of species with high Henry's Law values substantially improves the fit of these oxidised species, whilst also substantially decreasing the OH sink. Increasing OH production arbitrarily, through a simple OH recycling mechanism , adversely affects the model fit for volatile organic compounds (VOCs. Given the constraints on isoprene flux provided by measurements, a substantial decrease in the rate of reaction of VOCs with OH is the only remaining option to explain the measurement/model discrepancy for OH. A reduction in the isoprene+OH rate constant of 50%, in conjunction with

  16. Simulating atmospheric composition over a South-East Asian tropical rainforest: performance of a chemistry box model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, T. A. M.; MacKenzie, A. R.; Hewitt, C. N.; Langford, B.; Edwards, P. M.; Furneaux, K. L.; Heard, D. E.; Hopkins, J. R.; Jones, C. E.; Karunaharan, A.; Lee, J.; Mills, G.; Misztal, P.; Moller, S.; Monks, P. S.; Whalley, L. K.

    2010-01-01

    Atmospheric composition and chemistry above tropical rainforests is currently not well established, particularly for south-east Asia. In order to examine our understanding of chemical processes in this region, the performance of a box model of atmospheric boundary layer chemistry is tested against measurements made at the top of the rainforest canopy near Danum Valley, Malaysian Borneo. Multi-variate optimisation against ambient concentration measurements was used to estimate average canopy-scale emissions for isoprene, total monoterpenes and nitric oxide. The excellent agreement between estimated values and measured fluxes of isoprene and total monoterpenes provides confidence in the overall modelling strategy, and suggests that this method may be applied where measured fluxes are not available, assuming that the local chemistry and mixing are adequately understood. The largest contributors to the optimisation cost function at the point of best-fit are OH (29%), NO (22%) and total peroxy radicals (27%). Several factors affect the modelled VOC chemistry. In particular concentrations of methacrolein (MACR) and methyl-vinyl ketone (MVK) are substantially overestimated, and the hydroxyl radical (OH) concentration is substantially underestimated; as has been seen before in tropical rainforest studies. It is shown that inclusion of dry deposition of MACR and MVK and wet deposition of species with high Henry's Law values substantially improves the fit of these oxidised species, whilst also substantially decreasing the OH sink. Increasing OH production arbitrarily, through a simple OH recycling mechanism , adversely affects the model fit for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Given the constraints on isoprene flux provided by measurements, a substantial decrease in the rate of reaction of VOCs with OH is the only remaining option to explain the measurement/model discrepancy for OH. A reduction in the isoprene+OH rate constant of 50%, in conjunction with increased

  17. Box modelling approach for evaluation of influence of ice transport of radionuclides for doses to man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iospje, M. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Oesteraes (Norway)

    2002-04-01

    Modelling of the ice transport of radionuclides, which is a unique pathway in the Arctic ocean and adjacent sea areas, is limited by necessity to describe complete processes of incorporation of radioactivity into ice and ice sediment. Freezing / melting processes and transport of 'clean' ice can be described with a good accuracy for relatively short time scale on the basis of the present level of modelling, but detailed description of the sediment entrainment into ice based on the Reynolds equations with attention to coagulation processes is limited by low concentration of particles (grease ice cannot be described) and time scale up to 5{sup .}10{sup -2} s (1{sup .}10{sup -9} y) what is not available for large time scale and ice masses. Adding the radioactivity incorporation into the ice with following description of transport and fate of radionuclides will lead to further increasing of the complexity of the modelling. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an alternative approach for purposes of radiological assessment on the basis of the box modelling to describe the incorporation of radioactivity into ice and ice sediment, transport of radioactivity by ice and incorporation of radioactivity into sea areas through melding processes. It is shown that the ice transport of radionuclides can be a significant factor for some scenarios and radionuclides. The influence of the ice transport increases with increasing K{sub d} values for radionuclides. It is necessary to note that the content and structure of the sediment load in ice vary within wide limits, and therefore, sensitivity and uncertainty analysis can improve the possibility to represent model results satisfactorily. (LN)

  18. The Y-Box Binding Protein 1 Suppresses Alzheimer's Disease Progression in Two Animal Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N V Bobkova

    Full Text Available The Y-box binding protein 1 (YB-1 is a member of the family of DNA- and RNA binding proteins. It is involved in a wide variety of DNA/RNA-dependent events including cell proliferation and differentiation, stress response, and malignant cell transformation. Previously, YB-1 was detected in neurons of the neocortex and hippocampus, but its precise role in the brain remains undefined. Here we show that subchronic intranasal injections of recombinant YB-1, as well as its fragment YB-11-219, suppress impairment of spatial memory in olfactory bulbectomized (OBX mice with Alzheimer's type degeneration and improve learning in transgenic 5XFAD mice used as a model of cerebral amyloidosis. YB-1-treated OBX and 5XFAD mice showed a decreased level of brain β-amyloid. In OBX animals, an improved morphological state of neurons was revealed in the neocortex and hippocampus; in 5XFAD mice, a delay in amyloid plaque progression was observed. Intranasally administered YB-1 penetrated into the brain and could enter neurons. In vitro co-incubation of YB-1 with monomeric β-amyloid (1-42 inhibited formation of β-amyloid fibrils, as confirmed by electron microscopy. This suggests that YB-1 interaction with β-amyloid prevents formation of filaments that are responsible for neurotoxicity and neuronal death. Our data are the first evidence for a potential therapeutic benefit of YB-1 for treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

  19. Business intelligence from social media: a study from the VAST Box Office Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yafeng; Wang, Feng; Maciejewski, Ross

    2014-01-01

    With over 16 million tweets per hour, 600 new blog posts per minute, and 400 million active users on Facebook, businesses have begun searching for ways to turn real-time consumer-based posts into actionable intelligence. The goal is to extract information from this noisy, unstructured data and use it for trend analysis and prediction. Current practices support the idea that visual analytics (VA) can help enable the effective analysis of such data. However, empirical evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of a VA solution is still lacking. A proposed VA toolkit extracts data from Bitly and Twitter to predict movie revenue and ratings. Results from the 2013 VAST Box Office Challenge demonstrate the benefit of an interactive environment for predictive analysis, compared to a purely statistical modeling approach. The VA approach used by the toolkit is generalizable to other domains involving social media data, such as sales forecasting and advertisement analysis.

  20. [Application of the musculo-skeletal modelling software lhpFusionBox to a paleoanthropological problem: the Spyrou Neandertal moves!].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Tara; Semal, Patrick; Moiseev, Fedor; Louryan, Stéphane; Rooze, Marcel; Van Sint Jan, Serge

    2013-01-01

    LhpFusionBox is a program originally designed for biomechanical and clinical studies relating to the musculoskeletal system of anatomically modern humans (AMH). The program has recently been adapted for paleontological purposes and used to reconstruct and biomechanically analyse a fossil hominid. There is no complete Neandertal skeleton in the fossil record. The aim of the study was to reconstruct a complete three-dimensional (3D) model of a Neandertal using the relatively complete Spy II Neandertal and to conduct biomechanical feasibility studies on the knee and hamstring moment arms of the skeleton. Different Neandertal specimens were scaled to the size of Spy II to replace incomplete or missing bones. Biomechanical feasibility studies performed on the knee seem to show that Neandertal and AMHh gait is similar and Neandertals were shown to have larger moment arms in the hamstring muscles, which would have given them a mechanical advantage. The complete Neandertal was printed in 3D and used as the base to create the artistic model of "Spyrou" housed at l'Espace de l'Homme de Spy (EHoS) museum. © 2013 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  1. Learning basic laparoscopic skills: a randomized controlled study comparing box trainer, virtual reality simulator, and mental training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulla, Mubashir; Sharma, Davendra; Moghul, Masood; Kailani, Obeda; Dockery, Judith; Ayis, Salma; Grange, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to compare different methods of learning basic laparoscopic skills using box trainer (BT), virtual reality simulator (VRS) and mental training (MT); and (2) to determine the most effective method of learning laparoscopic skills. Randomized controlled trial. King's College, London. 41 medical students were included in the study. After randomization, they were divided into 5 groups. Group 1 was the control group without training; group 2 was box trained; group 3 was also box trained with an additional practice session; group 4 was VRS trained; and group 5 was solely mentally trained. The task was to cut out a circle marked on a stretchable material. All groups were assessed after 1 week on both BT and VRS. Four main parameters were assessed, namely time, precision, accuracy, and performance. Time: On BT assessment, the box-trained group with additional practice group 3 was the fastest, and the mental-trained group 5 was the slowest. On VRS assessment, the time difference between group 3 and the control group 1 was statistically significant. Precision: On BT assessment, the box-trained groups 2 and 3 scored high, and mental trained were low on precision. On VRS assessment, the VRS-trained group ranked at the top, and the MT group was at the bottom on precision. Accuracy: On BT assessment, the box-trained group 3 was best and the mental-trained group was last. On VRS assessment, the VRS-trained group 4 scored high closely followed by box-trained groups 2 and 3. Performance: On BT assessment, the box-trained group 3 ranked above all the other groups, and the mental-trained group ranked last. On VRS assessment, the VRS group 4 scored best, followed closely by box-trained groups 2 and 3. The skills learned on box training were reproducible on both VRS and BT. However, not all the skills learned on VRS were transferable to BT. Furthermore, VRS was found to be a reliable and the most convenient method of assessment. MT alone cannot

  2. A boxing-oriented exercise intervention for obese adolescent males: findings from a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Sarah P; Stoner, Lee; Lambrick, Danielle M; Lane, Andrew M

    2014-12-01

    In New Zealand, obese Māori and Pasifika adolescents are at risk of numerous cardio-metabolic conditions with raising physical activity levels being proposed as a useful intervention. The present study used a mixed method design to explore the effects of a non-contact boxing-oriented training programme designed in terms of improvements to cardio-metabolic variables. Traditional recruitment strategies (media, referrals) were employed, with limited success leading to 3 adolescent boys (14-15 y) participating in the pilot intervention. Exercise sessions included 30 minutes of non-contact boxing training, followed by 30 minutes of progressive resistance training. Participants attended three 1h training sessions each week, for a total of 12 weeks. Physiological variables included anthropometric indices, visceral fat thickness, central blood pressures, central arterial stiffness (augmentation index: AIx), and carotid arterial stiffness (β). Results revealed that there was no trend for change in body weight (125.5 ± 12.1 kg vs. 126.5 ± 11.0 kg) or BMI (39.3 ± 4.1 kg·m(-2) vs. 39.0 ± 4.6 kg·m(-2)). However, there was a moderate decrease in visceral fat thickness (4.34 ± 2.51 cm vs 3.65 ± 1.11 cm, d = 0.36). There was no change in central pulse pressure (38.7 ± 7.3 mmHg vs. 38.3 ± 5.0 mmHg), however, there was a small improvement in β (3.01 ± 0.73 vs. 2.87 ± 0.84, d = 0.18). Focus group interview data with participants and their parents were used to explore issues related to motivation to participation. Results revealed participants commented on how the programme has led to new friendships, changes to their physical appearance, and increased physical fitness. Parents commented on increased self-confidence, better performance in school, and a willingness to take part in new activities. In conclusion, it appears participating in the boxing oriented training programme was motivating to participants who engaged and had some physiological benefits in obese

  3. Opening the Big Black Box: European study reveals visitors' impressions of science laboratories

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    "On 29 - 30 March the findings of 'Inside the Big Black Box'- a Europe-wide science and society project - will be revealed during a two-day seminar hosted by CERN*. The principle aim of Inside the Big Black Box (IN3B) is to determine whether a working scientific laboratory can capture the curiosity of the general public through visits" (1 page)

  4. Functional and evolutionary studies of type I MADS box genes in Petunia hybrida and arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemer, Marian

    2008-01-01

    MADS-box genes are very important for plant development and especially for the formation of the flower. The MADS box family of transcription factors in plants can be subdivided into two classes: the MIKC-type genes, which play essential roles in flower formation, and the type I genes, which are

  5. Inference of median difference based on the Box-Cox model in randomized clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruo, K; Isogawa, N; Gosho, M

    2015-05-10

    In randomized clinical trials, many medical and biological measurements are not normally distributed and are often skewed. The Box-Cox transformation is a powerful procedure for comparing two treatment groups for skewed continuous variables in terms of a statistical test. However, it is difficult to directly estimate and interpret the location difference between the two groups on the original scale of the measurement. We propose a helpful method that infers the difference of the treatment effect on the original scale in a more easily interpretable form. We also provide statistical analysis packages that consistently include an estimate of the treatment effect, covariance adjustments, standard errors, and statistical hypothesis tests. The simulation study that focuses on randomized parallel group clinical trials with two treatment groups indicates that the performance of the proposed method is equivalent to or better than that of the existing non-parametric approaches in terms of the type-I error rate and power. We illustrate our method with cluster of differentiation 4 data in an acquired immune deficiency syndrome clinical trial. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Gray-Box Approach for Thermal Modelling of Buildings for Applications in District Heating and Cooling Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saurav, Kumar; Chandan, Vikas

    2017-05-19

    District-heating-and-cooling (DHC) systems are a proven energy solution that has been deployed for many years in a growing number of urban areas worldwide. They comprise a variety of technologies that seek to develop synergies between the production and supply of heat, cooling, domestic hot water and electricity. Although the benefits of DHC systems are significant and have been widely acclaimed, yet the full potential of modern DHC systems remains largely untapped. There are several opportunities for development of energy efficient DHC systems, which will enable the effective exploitation of alternative renewable resources, waste heat recovery, etc., in order to increase the overall efficiency and facilitate the transition towards the next generation of DHC systems. This motivated the need for modelling these complex systems. Large-scale modelling of DHC-networks is challenging, as it has several components such as buildings, pipes, valves, heating source, etc., interacting with each other. In this paper, we focus on building modelling. In particular, we present a gray-box methodology for thermal modelling of buildings. Gray-box modelling is a hybrid of data driven and physics based models where, coefficients of the equations from physics based models are learned using data. This approach allows us to capture the dynamics of the buildings more effectively as compared to pure data driven approach. Additionally, this approach results in a simpler models as compared to pure physics based models. We first develop the individual components of the building such as temperature evolution, flow controller, etc. These individual models are then integrated in to the complete gray-box model for the building. The model is validated using data collected from one of the buildings at Lule{\\aa}, a city on the coast of northern Sweden.

  7. A Boxing-Oriented Exercise Intervention for Obese Adolescent Males: Findings from a Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah P. Shultz, Lee Stoner, Danielle M. Lambrick, Andrew M. Lane

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In New Zealand, obese Māori and Pasifika adolescents are at risk of numerous cardio-metabolic conditions with raising physical activity levels being proposed as a useful intervention. The present study used a mixed method design to explore the effects of a non-contact boxing-oriented training programme designed in terms of improvements to cardio-metabolic variables. Traditional recruitment strategies (media, referrals were employed, with limited success leading to 3 adolescent boys (14-15 y participating in the pilot intervention. Exercise sessions included 30 minutes of non-contact boxing training, followed by 30 minutes of progressive resistance training. Participants attended three 1h training sessions each week, for a total of 12 weeks. Physiological variables included anthropometric indices, visceral fat thickness, central blood pressures, central arterial stiffness (augmentation index: AIx, and carotid arterial stiffness (β. Results revealed that there was no trend for change in body weight (125.5 ± 12.1 kg vs. 126.5 ± 11.0 kg or BMI (39.3 ± 4.1 kg·m-2 vs. 39.0 ± 4.6 kg·m-2. However, there was a moderate decrease in visceral fat thickness (4.34 ± 2.51 cm vs 3.65 ± 1.11 cm, d = 0.36. There was no change in central pulse pressure (38.7 ± 7.3 mmHg vs. 38.3 ± 5.0 mmHg, however, there was a small improvement in β (3.01 ± 0.73 vs. 2.87 ± 0.84, d = 0.18. Focus group interview data with participants and their parents were used to explore issues related to motivation to participation. Results revealed participants commented on how the programme has led to new friendships, changes to their physical appearance, and increased physical fitness. Parents commented on increased self-confidence, better performance in school, and a willingness to take part in new activities. In conclusion, it appears participating in the boxing oriented training programme was motivating to participants who engaged and had some physiological benefits in obese

  8. Uncertainty estimation of a complex water quality model: The influence of Box-Cox transformation on Bayesian approaches and comparison with a non-Bayesian method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freni, Gabriele; Mannina, Giorgio

    In urban drainage modelling, uncertainty analysis is of undoubted necessity. However, uncertainty analysis in urban water-quality modelling is still in its infancy and only few studies have been carried out. Therefore, several methodological aspects still need to be experienced and clarified especially regarding water quality modelling. The use of the Bayesian approach for uncertainty analysis has been stimulated by its rigorous theoretical framework and by the possibility of evaluating the impact of new knowledge on the modelling predictions. Nevertheless, the Bayesian approach relies on some restrictive hypotheses that are not present in less formal methods like the Generalised Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE). One crucial point in the application of Bayesian method is the formulation of a likelihood function that is conditioned by the hypotheses made regarding model residuals. Statistical transformations, such as the use of Box-Cox equation, are generally used to ensure the homoscedasticity of residuals. However, this practice may affect the reliability of the analysis leading to a wrong uncertainty estimation. The present paper aims to explore the influence of the Box-Cox equation for environmental water quality models. To this end, five cases were considered one of which was the “real” residuals distributions (i.e. drawn from available data). The analysis was applied to the Nocella experimental catchment (Italy) which is an agricultural and semi-urbanised basin where two sewer systems, two wastewater treatment plants and a river reach were monitored during both dry and wet weather periods. The results show that the uncertainty estimation is greatly affected by residual transformation and a wrong assumption may also affect the evaluation of model uncertainty. The use of less formal methods always provide an overestimation of modelling uncertainty with respect to Bayesian method but such effect is reduced if a wrong assumption is made regarding the

  9. Predictive habitat models derived from nest-box occupancy for the endangered Carolina northern flying squirrel in the southern Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, W. Mark; Evans, A.M.; Odom, Richard H.; Rodrigue, Jane L.; Kelly, C.A.; Abaid, Nicole; Diggins, Corinne A.; Newcomb, Doug

    2016-01-01

    In the southern Appalachians, artificial nest-boxes are used to survey for the endangered Carolina northern flying squirrel (CNFS; Glaucomys sabrinus coloratus), a disjunct subspecies associated with high elevation (>1385 m) forests. Using environmental parameters diagnostic of squirrel habitat, we created 35 a priori occupancy models in the program PRESENCE for boxes surveyed in western North Carolina, 1996-2011. Our best approximating model showed CNFS denning associated with sheltered landforms and montane conifers, primarily red spruce Picea rubens. As sheltering decreased, decreasing distance to conifers was important. Area with a high probability (>0.5) of occupancy was distributed over 18662 ha of habitat, mostly across 10 mountain ranges. Because nest-box surveys underrepresented areas >1750 m and CNFS forage in conifers, we combined areas of high occupancy with conifer GIS coverages to create an additional distribution model of likely habitat. Regionally, above 1385 m, we determined that 31795 ha could be occupied by CNFS. Known occupied patches ranged from

  10. Arthroscopic skills assessment and use of box model for training in arthroscopic surgery using Sawbones – “FAST” workstation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goyal Saumitra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Arthroscopic skills training outside the operative room may decrease risks and errors by trainee surgeons. There is a need of simple objective method for evaluating proficiency and skill of arthroscopy trainees using simple bench model of arthroscopic simulator. The aim of this study is to correlate motor task performance to level of prior arthroscopic experience and establish benchmarks for training modules. Methods: Twenty orthopaedic surgeons performed a set of tasks to assess a arthroscopic triangulation, b navigation, c object handling and d meniscus trimming using SAWBONES “FAST” arthroscopy skills workstation. Time to completion and the errors were computed. The subjects were divided into four levels; “Novice”, “Beginner”, “Intermediate” and “Advanced” based on previous arthroscopy experience, for analyses of performance. Results: The task performance under transparent dome was not related to experience of the surgeon unlike opaque dome, highlighting the importance of hand-eye co-ordination required in arthroscopy. Median time to completion for each task improved as the level of experience increased and this was found to be statistically significant (p 85% of subjects across all the levels reported improvement in performance with sequential tasks. Conclusion: Use of the arthroscope requires visuo-spatial coordination which is a skill that develops with practice. This simple box model can reliably differentiate the arthroscopic skills based on experience and can be used to monitor progression of skills of trainees in institutions.

  11. Arthroscopic skills assessment and use of box model for training in arthroscopic surgery using Sawbones – “FAST” workstation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Saumitra; Radi, Mohamed Abdel; Ramadan, Islam Karam-allah; Said, Hatem Galal

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Arthroscopic skills training outside the operative room may decrease risks and errors by trainee surgeons. There is a need of simple objective method for evaluating proficiency and skill of arthroscopy trainees using simple bench model of arthroscopic simulator. The aim of this study is to correlate motor task performance to level of prior arthroscopic experience and establish benchmarks for training modules. Methods: Twenty orthopaedic surgeons performed a set of tasks to assess a) arthroscopic triangulation, b) navigation, c) object handling and d) meniscus trimming using SAWBONES “FAST” arthroscopy skills workstation. Time to completion and the errors were computed. The subjects were divided into four levels; “Novice”, “Beginner”, “Intermediate” and “Advanced” based on previous arthroscopy experience, for analyses of performance. Results: The task performance under transparent dome was not related to experience of the surgeon unlike opaque dome, highlighting the importance of hand-eye co-ordination required in arthroscopy. Median time to completion for each task improved as the level of experience increased and this was found to be statistically significant (p 85%) of subjects across all the levels reported improvement in performance with sequential tasks. Conclusion: Use of the arthroscope requires visuo-spatial coordination which is a skill that develops with practice. This simple box model can reliably differentiate the arthroscopic skills based on experience and can be used to monitor progression of skills of trainees in institutions. PMID:27801643

  12. Arthroscopic skills assessment and use of box model for training in arthroscopic surgery using Sawbones - "FAST" workstation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Saumitra; Radi, Mohamed Abdel; Ramadan, Islam Karam-Allah; Said, Hatem Galal

    2016-01-01

    Arthroscopic skills training outside the operative room may decrease risks and errors by trainee surgeons. There is a need of simple objective method for evaluating proficiency and skill of arthroscopy trainees using simple bench model of arthroscopic simulator. The aim of this study is to correlate motor task performance to level of prior arthroscopic experience and establish benchmarks for training modules. Twenty orthopaedic surgeons performed a set of tasks to assess a) arthroscopic triangulation, b) navigation, c) object handling and d) meniscus trimming using SAWBONES "FAST" arthroscopy skills workstation. Time to completion and the errors were computed. The subjects were divided into four levels; "Novice", "Beginner", "Intermediate" and "Advanced" based on previous arthroscopy experience, for analyses of performance. The task performance under transparent dome was not related to experience of the surgeon unlike opaque dome, highlighting the importance of hand-eye co-ordination required in arthroscopy. Median time to completion for each task improved as the level of experience increased and this was found to be statistically significant (p 85%) of subjects across all the levels reported improvement in performance with sequential tasks. Use of the arthroscope requires visuo-spatial coordination which is a skill that develops with practice. This simple box model can reliably differentiate the arthroscopic skills based on experience and can be used to monitor progression of skills of trainees in institutions. © The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2016.

  13. From field data to numerical models: application of the Box-Model to infer the dynamics of PDC generated during the AD 79 eruption of Somma-Vesuvio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadini, Alessandro; Neri, Augusto; Cioni, Raffaello; Bevilacqua, Andrea; Esposti Ongaro, Tomaso; Gurioli, Lucia

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this work is to present a validation procedure for a physical and numerical model of Pyroclastic Density Currents (PDC) using feedbacks from well-known deposits emplaced by specific single eruptive units. The study is specifically focused on the PDCs generated during the overall famous AD 79 eruption of the Somma-Vesuvio volcano. To this purpose, values of the maximum runout, volumes and Total Grain Size Distributions have been estimated for two eruptive units (i.e. EU3pf and EU4; Cioni et al. 2000) of the AD 79 eruption. These units have been used to define the input volcanological parameters for testing the Box-Model of Dade and Huppert (1995), when reproducing one specific end-member of the complex spectrum of PDCs, that is the more dilute, turbulent part of the PDCs reconstructed in the Somma-Vesuvio record (stratified flows with concentration of solid particles in volume up to about 5%). The Box-Model is a kinematic approach, which calculates the flow density and velocity along time and the kinetic energy of the flow front. This can be compared with the potential energy needed to overcome topographic obstacles to estimate flow invasion across complex topographies. Validation of the model has been performed with respect to: i) the degree of overlapping between inundation areas given by the model and by field data; ii) the thickness of the deposit versus the thickness of the model output with distance; iii) the mass fractions of the different grain size classes with distance in the real deposit versus the model output. Several simulations have been performed considering i) polydisperse (with 10 grain size classes) and monodisperse (with the Mdφ values) systems; ii) a direct version (where the initial volume is released and the invasion area is computed) and an inverse version (where the initial collapsing volume is a function of an inundation area defined by the user); iii) axisymmetrical and asymmetrical collapses. Results allow to obtain first

  14. Learning Shade Differentiation Using Toothguide Trainer and Toothguide Training Box: A Longitudinal Study with Dental Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olms, Constanze; Jakstat, H

    2016-02-01

    The positive training effect achieved with the Toothguide Training Box (TTB) has been demonstrated in previous studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the training effect with the TTB at six and 12 months using standardized color tests. The study involved 101 dental students. The participants were divided into two study groups and one control group. Ten standard color samples were determined under uniform environmental conditions with VITA 3D-Master. The control group (N=30) took the color test after one week. Study group 1 (N=49) took the color test after six months and study group 2 (N=22) at 12 months for the first time by following the TTB curriculum. The control group achieved an average ΔEt1=0.85. In study group 1, the ΔEt2 was 2.29, and in study group 2, ΔEt3=2.25. The results after six and 12 months were highly significant compared to the control group (α=0.001). Dependence was determined only with regard to gender. In this study, the TTB quickly led to an improvement in tooth color differentiation among students. After six months, there was a decrease in the training effect. These results suggest that the TTB curriculum should be provided at the end of preclinical training.

  15. Model Identification Using Stochastic Differential Equation Grey-Box Models in Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duun-Henriksen, Anne Katrine; Schmidt, Signe; Røge, Rikke Meldgaard

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The acceptance of virtual preclinical testing of control algorithms is growing and thus also the need for robust and reliable models. Models based on ordinary differential equations (ODEs) can rarely be validated with standard statistical tools. Stochastic differential equations (SDEs......) offer the possibility of building models that can be validated statistically and that are capable of predicting not only a realistic trajectory, but also the uncertainty of the prediction. In an SDE, the prediction error is split into two noise terms. This separation ensures that the errors...... are estimated on clinical data from four T1DM patients. The optimal SDE-GB is determined from likelihood-ratio tests. Finally, parameter tracking is used to track the variation in the "time to peak of meal response" parameter. RESULTS: We found that the transformation of the ODE model into an SDE-GB resulted...

  16. Scientific models red atoms, white lies and black boxes in a yellow book

    CERN Document Server

    Gerlee, Philip

    2016-01-01

    A zebrafish, the hull of a miniature ship, a mathematical equation and a food chain - what do these things have in common? They are examples of models used by scientists to isolate and study particular aspects of the world around us. This book begins by introducing the concept of a scientific model from an intuitive perspective, drawing parallels to mental models and artistic representations. It then recounts the history of modelling from the 16th century up until the present day. The iterative process of model building is described and discussed in the context of complex models with high predictive accuracy versus simpler models that provide more of a conceptual understanding. To illustrate the diversity of opinions within the scientific community, we also present the results of an interview study, in which ten scientists from different disciplines describe their views on modelling and how models feature in their work. Lastly, it includes a number of worked examples that span different modelling approaches a...

  17. Modeling a particular class of multiple-input/multiple-output black boxes with stochastic integral equations and identifying the required parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyman, E. D.; Kerr, T. H.; Loh, N. K.

    1973-01-01

    A method is given for obtaining a mathematical model of a class of black boxes having multiple inputs and multiple outputs in terms of Ito stochastic integral equations. This method is applicable to the class of black boxes having ergodic correlation functions when there is zero applied input. The point of view adopted in this paper is phenomenological in that it is desired that calculations made using the mathematical model should be close to what is actually observed at the output of the black box. How close is defined in the problem statement.

  18. Response surface modeling of boron adsorption from aqueous solution by vermiculite using different adsorption agents: Box-Behnken experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirçivi, Pelin; Saygılı, Gülhayat Nasün

    2017-07-01

    In this study, a different method was applied for boron removal by using vermiculite as the adsorbent. Vermiculite, which was used in the experiments, was not modified with adsorption agents before boron adsorption using a separate process. Hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HDTMA) and Gallic acid (GA) were used as adsorption agents for vermiculite by maintaining the solid/liquid ratio at 12.5 g/L. HDTMA/GA concentration, contact time, pH, initial boron concentration, inert electrolyte and temperature effects on boron adsorption were analyzed. A three-factor, three-level Box-Behnken design model combined with response surface method (RSM) was employed to examine and optimize process variables for boron adsorption from aqueous solution by vermiculite using HDTMA and GA. Solution pH (2-12), temperature (25-60 °C) and initial boron concentration (50-8,000 mg/L) were chosen as independent variables and coded x1, x2 and x3 at three levels (-1, 0 and 1). Analysis of variance was used to test the significance of variables and their interactions with 95% confidence limit (α = 0.05). According to the regression coefficients, a second-order empirical equation was evaluated between the adsorption capacity (qi) and the coded variables tested (xi). Optimum values of the variables were also evaluated for maximum boron adsorption by vermiculite-HDTMA (HDTMA-Verm) and vermiculite-GA (GA-Verm).

  19. Material and Thickness Grading for Aeroelastic Tailoring of the Common Research Model Wing Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Bret K.; Jutte, Christine V.

    2014-01-01

    This work quantifies the potential aeroelastic benefits of tailoring a full-scale wing box structure using tailored thickness distributions, material distributions, or both simultaneously. These tailoring schemes are considered for the wing skins, the spars, and the ribs. Material grading utilizes a spatially-continuous blend of two metals: Al and Al+SiC. Thicknesses and material fraction variables are specified at the 4 corners of the wing box, and a bilinear interpolation is used to compute these parameters for the interior of the planform. Pareto fronts detailing the conflict between static aeroelastic stresses and dynamic flutter boundaries are computed with a genetic algorithm. In some cases, a true material grading is found to be superior to a single-material structure.

  20. CONDUCTING AND ANALYZING THE RESULTS OF THE EXPERIMENTAL BOX TEST OF RETAINING WALL MODELS WITHOUT PILES AND ON THE PILE FOUNDATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Lisnevskyi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Taking into consideration that the bearing capacity of the foundation may be insufficient, in the study it is assumed that pile foundation can be used to reduce the impact of the construction of new retaining structures on roads and railways near the existing buildings or in areas of dense urban development and ensure the stability of the foundation. To reduce the volume of excavation it is necessary to choose the economic structure of the retaining wall. To do this, one should explore stress-strain state (SSS of the retaining walls, to develop methods to improve their strength and stability, as well as to choose the most appropriate method of their analysis. Methodology. In the design of retaining walls foundation mat and piles are considered as independent elements. Since the combined effect of the retaining wall, piles and foundation mat as well as the effect of soil or rock foundation on the structure are considered not fully, so there are some limitations in the existing design techniques. To achieve the purpose the box tests of retaining walls models without piles and with piles for studying their interaction with the surrounding soil massif were conducted. Findings. Laboratory simulation of complex systems «surrounding soil – retaining wall – pile» was carried out and on the basis of the box test results were analyzed strains and its main parameters of the stress-strain state. Analysis of the results showed that the structure of a retaining wall with piles is steady and stable. Originality. So far, in Ukraine has not been carried out similar experimental box tests with models of retaining walls in such combinations. In the article has been presented unique photos and test results, as well as their analysis. Practical value. Using the methodology of experimental tests of the retaining wall models with piles and without them gives a wider opportunity to study stress-strain state of such structures.

  1. A multiscale finite element model validation method of composite cable-stayed bridge based on Probability Box theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Rumian; Zong, Zhouhong; Niu, Jie; Liu, Qiqi; Zheng, Peijuan

    2016-05-01

    Modeling and simulation are routinely implemented to predict the behavior of complex structures. These tools powerfully unite theoretical foundations, numerical models and experimental data which include associated uncertainties and errors. A new methodology for multi-scale finite element (FE) model validation is proposed in this paper. The method is based on two-step updating method, a novel approach to obtain coupling parameters in the gluing sub-regions of a multi-scale FE model, and upon Probability Box (P-box) theory that can provide a lower and upper bound for the purpose of quantifying and transmitting the uncertainty of structural parameters. The structural health monitoring data of Guanhe Bridge, a composite cable-stayed bridge with large span, and Monte Carlo simulation were used to verify the proposed method. The results show satisfactory accuracy, as the overlap ratio index of each modal frequency is over 89% without the average absolute value of relative errors, and the CDF of normal distribution has a good coincidence with measured frequencies of Guanhe Bridge. The validated multiscale FE model may be further used in structural damage prognosis and safety prognosis.

  2. The Role of Teamwork in the Analysis of Big Data: A Study of Visual Analytics and Box Office Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Verica; Lu, Yafeng; McNeese, Nathan; Steptoe, Michael; Maciejewski, Ross; Cooke, Nancy

    2017-03-01

    Historically, domains such as business intelligence would require a single analyst to engage with data, develop a model, answer operational questions, and predict future behaviors. However, as the problems and domains become more complex, organizations are employing teams of analysts to explore and model data to generate knowledge. Furthermore, given the rapid increase in data collection, organizations are struggling to develop practices for intelligence analysis in the era of big data. Currently, a variety of machine learning and data mining techniques are available to model data and to generate insights and predictions, and developments in the field of visual analytics have focused on how to effectively link data mining algorithms with interactive visuals to enable analysts to explore, understand, and interact with data and data models. Although studies have explored the role of single analysts in the visual analytics pipeline, little work has explored the role of teamwork and visual analytics in the analysis of big data. In this article, we present an experiment integrating statistical models, visual analytics techniques, and user experiments to study the role of teamwork in predictive analytics. We frame our experiment around the analysis of social media data for box office prediction problems and compare the prediction performance of teams, groups, and individuals. Our results indicate that a team's performance is mediated by the team's characteristics such as openness of individual members to others' positions and the type of planning that goes into the team's analysis. These findings have important implications for how organizations should create teams in order to make effective use of information from their analytic models.

  3. Structural strength analysis and fatigue life prediction of traction converter box in high-speed EMU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Qin; Li, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    The method of building the FEA model of traction converter box in high-speed EMU and analyzing the static strength and fatigue strength of traction converter box based on IEC 61373-2010 and EN 12663 standards is presented in this paper. The load-stress correlation coefficients of weak points is obtained by FEA model, applied to transfer the load history of traction converter box to stress history of each point. The fatigue damage is calculated based on Miner's rule and the fatigue life of traction converter box is predicted. According to study, the structural strength of traction converter box meets design requirements.

  4. Conceptual Model of the Geometry and Physics of Water Flow in a Fractured Basalt Vadose Zone: Box Canyon Site, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faybishenko, Boris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Doughty, Christine [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Steiger, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Long, Jane C.S. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (US). Mackay School of Mines; Wood, Tom [Parsons Engineering, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Jacobsen, Janet [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lore, Jason [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Zawislanski, Peter T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1999-03-01

    A conceptual model of the geometry and physics of water flow in a fractured basalt vadose zone was developed based on the results of lithological studies and a series of ponded infiltration tests conducted at the Box Canyon site near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) in Idaho. The infiltration tests included one two-week test in 1996, three two-day tests in 1997, and one four-day test in 1997. For the various tests, initial infiltration rates ranged from 4.1 cm/day to 17.7 cm/day and then decreased with time, presumably due to mechanical or microbiological clogging of fractures and vesicularbasalt in the near-surface zone, as well as the effect of entrapped air. The subsurface moisture redistribution was monitored with tensiometers, neutron logging, time domain reflectrometry and ground penetrating radar. A conservative tracer, potassium bromide, was added to the pond water at a concentration of 3 g/L to monitor water flow with electrical resistivity probes and water sampling. Analysis of the data showed evidence of preferential flow rather than the propagation of a uniform wetting front. We propose a conceptual model describing the saturation-desaturation behavior of the basalt, in which rapid preferential flow through vertical column-bounding fractures occurs from the surface to the base of the basalt flow. After the rapid wetting of column-bounding fractures, a gradual wetting of other fractures and the basalt matrix occurs. Fractures that are saturated early in the tests may become desaturated thereafter, which we attribute to the redistribution of water between fractures and matrix. Lateral movement of water was also observed within a horizontal central fracture zone and rubble zone, which could have important implications for contaminant accumulation at contaminated sites.

  5. Evaluation of ''user-oriented'' and ''black-box'' traffic models for link provisioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Meent, R.; Mandjes, M.R.H.

    To offer users a sufficient performance level, network links should be properly provisioned. The required bandwidth capacity may be determined through the use of a model of the real network traffic. In this paper, we study the use of two classes of traffic models: (i) ‘user-oriented models’, which

  6. Heart rate response during a simulated Olympic boxing match is predominantly above ventilatory threshold 2: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Lira CA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Claudio Andre Barbosa de Lira,1 Luiz Fernando Peixinho-Pena,2 Rodrigo Luiz Vancini1,2 Rafael Júlio de Freitas Guina Fachina,3,4 Alexandre Aparecido de Almeida,2 Marília dos Santos Andrade,2 Antonio Carlos da Silva2 1Setor de Fisiologia Humana e do Exercício, Universidade Federal de Goiás (UFG, Câmpus Jataí, Jataí, GO, Brazil; 2Departamento de Fisiologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP, São Paulo, SP, Brazil; 3Departamento de Ciência do Esporte, Faculdade de Educação Física (FEF, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP, Campinas, Brazil; 4Confederação Brasileira de Basketball (CBB, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Abstract: The present study aimed to describe heart rate (HR responses during a simulated Olympic boxing match and examine physiological parameters of boxing athletes. Ten highly trained Olympic boxing athletes (six men and four women performed a maximal graded exercise test on a motorized treadmill to determine maximal oxygen uptake (52.2 mL · kg-1 · min-1 ± 7.2 mL · kg-1 · min-1 and ventilatory thresholds 1 and 2. Ventilatory thresholds 1 and 2 were used to classify the intensity of exercise based on respective HR during a boxing match. In addition, oxygen uptake (VO2 was estimated during the match based on the HR response and the HR-VO2 relationship obtained from a maximal graded exercise test for each participant. On a separate day, participants performed a boxing match lasting three rounds, 2 minutes each, with a 1-minute recovery period between each round, during which HR was measured. In this context, HR and VO2 were above ventilatory threshold 2 during 219.8 seconds ± 67.4 seconds. There was an increase in HR and VO2 as a function of round (round 3 < round 2 < round 1, P < 0.0001.These findings may direct individual training programs for boxing practitioners and other athletes. Keywords: heart rate, physiological profile, intermittent exercise, combat sports, boxing

  7. Opening the Black Box of Clinical Collaboration in Integrated Care Models for Frail, Elderly Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Stampa, Matthieu; Vedel, Isabelle; Bergman, Howard; Novella, Jean-Luc; Lechowski, Laurent; Ankri, Joel; Lapointe, Liette

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to understand better the clinical collaboration process among primary care physicians (PCPs), case managers (CMs), and geriatricians in integrated models of care. Methods: We conducted a qualitative study with semistructured interviews. A purposive sample of 35 PCPs, 7 CMs, and 4 geriatricians was selected in…

  8. Hierarchical linear model: thinking outside the traditional repeated-measures analysis-of-variance box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lininger, Monica; Spybrook, Jessaca; Cheatham, Christopher C

    2015-04-01

    Longitudinal designs are common in the field of athletic training. For example, in the Journal of Athletic Training from 2005 through 2010, authors of 52 of the 218 original research articles used longitudinal designs. In 50 of the 52 studies, a repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to analyze the data. A possible alternative to this approach is the hierarchical linear model, which has been readily accepted in other medical fields. In this short report, we demonstrate the use of the hierarchical linear model for analyzing data from a longitudinal study in athletic training. We discuss the relevant hypotheses, model assumptions, analysis procedures, and output from the HLM 7.0 software. We also examine the advantages and disadvantages of using the hierarchical linear model with repeated measures and repeated-measures analysis of variance for longitudinal data.

  9. The Wintertime Fate of N2O5: Observations and Box Model Analysis for the 2015 WINTER Aircraft Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDuffie, E. E.; Fibiger, D. L.; Dubé, W.; Lopez-Hilfiker, F.; Thornton, J. A.; Shah, V.; Jaegle, L.; Guo, H.; Weber, R. J.; Campuzano-Jost, P.; Schroder, J. C.; Jimenez, J. L.; Brown, S. S.

    2016-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) is a regulated secondary pollutant that degrades regional air quality and impacts the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere. Anthropogenic NOx emissions and chemistry are an important regional O3 source during midlatitude summer, but may destroy O3 during winter. The majority of previous field studies have focused on understanding reactive NOx-O3 relationships under summertime conditions. However, outstanding scientific uncertainties remain regarding the influence of NOx on wintertime O3, in part because the relevant atmospheric chemistry occurs largely at night, and in part because it involves multiphase processes. The winter tropospheric O3 and NOx budgets depend critically on the efficiency of N2O5 uptake to aerosol and the subsequent branching of its reaction products between soluble nitrate (HNO3) and nitryl chloride (ClNO2). The fate of tropospheric N2O5 can lead to net O3 destruction through HNO3 production, or transport and regeneration from N2O5 and ClNO2, which serve as NOx reservoirs. The WINTER campaign has provided the first aircraft measurements to constrain these critically important processes during the winter season. The Wintertime Investigation of Transport, Emission, and Reactivity (WINTER) campaign conducted 13 research flights over the eastern US in February and March 2015. A wide variety of environments were sampled during 11 nighttime flights over continental and marine environments. Reactive nitrogen and ozone measurements were collected with a cavity ring down spectrometer, while HNO3 and ClNO2 were measured with chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Analysis of these data with a chemical box model provides quantitative determinations of the N2O5 aerosol reactive uptake coefficient and production yield of ClNO2. The analysis determines the range and variability in these quantities, and their relationship to air mass composition and meteorology.

  10. Operant-Box Sociology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimond, Stuart J.

    1971-01-01

    Sketches a model which considers society a teacher which instructs like an operant box..." The author contends that the family, the school, the play group, the adolescent gang, the office, the prison, the mental hospital, each reward, instruct and control the individual who learns by operant means what the institution teaches." (Author/AL)

  11. Study on the pressure self-adaptive water-tight junction box in underwater vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haocai Huang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Underwater vehicles play a very important role in underwater engineering. Water-tight junction box (WJB is one of the key components in underwater vehicle. This paper puts forward a pressure self-adaptive water-tight junction box (PSAWJB which improves the reliability of the WJB significantly by solving the sealing and pressure problems in conventional WJB design. By redundancy design method, the pressure self-adaptive equalizer (PSAE is designed in such a way that it consists of a piston pressure-adaptive compensator (PPAC and a titanium film pressure-adaptive compensator (TFPAC. According to hydro-mechanical simulations, the operating volume of the PSAE is more than or equal to 11.6 % of the volume of WJB liquid system. Furthermore, the required operating volume of the PSAE also increases as the gas content of oil, hydrostatic pressure or temperature difference increases. The reliability of the PSAWJB is proved by hyperbaric chamber tests.

  12. A comparative study of microscopic images captured by a box type digital camera versus a standard microscopic photography camera unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Nandini J; Gupta, B D; Patel, Pratik Narendrabhai; Joshi, Vani Santosh

    2014-10-01

    Obtaining images of slides viewed by a microscope can be invaluable for both diagnosis and teaching.They can be transferred among technologically-advanced hospitals for further consultation and evaluation. But a standard microscopic photography camera unit (MPCU)(MIPS-Microscopic Image projection System) is costly and not available in resource poor settings. The aim of our endeavour was to find a comparable and cheaper alternative method for photomicrography. We used a NIKON Coolpix S6150 camera (box type digital camera) with Olympus CH20i microscope and a fluorescent microscope for the purpose of this study. We got comparable results for capturing images of light microscopy, but the results were not as satisfactory for fluorescent microscopy. A box type digital camera is a comparable, less expensive and convenient alternative to microscopic photography camera unit.

  13. Using rap music to promote adolescent health: pilot study of VoxBox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paukste, Ernesta; Harris, Neil

    2015-04-01

    Alcohol, tobacco and other drugs (ATODs) usage among adolescents, particularly those living in lower socioeconomic communities, is a population health problem in Australia that requires innovative health promotion strategies. There is a growing recognition of the potential of arts-based approaches to engage youth in health promoting activities. This paper presents the process evaluation of the pilot VoxBox intervention that used rap to build adolescents' awareness of risks associated with ATODs. The VoxBox intervention was piloted in Logan, Queensland, at five high schools with 18 adolescents completing the intervention. Data collection methods included observation, focus groups, semi-structured interviews and a survey of adolescent participants. The intervention was well received by participants and stakeholders. Three factors characterising the project's successful engagement of adolescents were: participate - go with the flow, learning from the real deal and resourced to make some noise. In VoxBox, the emphasis on engaging adolescents in an activity of real interest that was appropriately resourced and delivered was central to credibility and success. SO WHAT?: The findings highlight the importance of interventions matching the interests of the targeted population group.

  14. Prescription Disposal Practices: A 2-Year Ecological Study of Drug Drop Box Donations in Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Jeffrey; Hagemeier, Nicholas; Brooks, Billy; Alamian, Arsham

    2015-09-01

    We quantified controlled substance donations via permanent drug donation boxes over 2 years in a region with high prescription abuse, assessing medication characteristics, time between dispensing and donation, and weight of medications donated per capita. In partnership with Drug Enforcement Administration and local law enforcement, we analyzed permanent drug donation box collections in 8 Northeast Tennessee locations from June 2012 to April 2014. We recorded controlled substance dosage units along with the product dispensing date. We collected 4841 pounds of pharmaceutical waste, 4.9% (238.5 pounds) of which were controlled substances, totaling 106,464 controlled substance doses. Analysis of dispensing dates for controlled substances indicated a median of 34 months lapsed from dispensing to donation (range = 1-484 months). The mean controlled substance donation rate was 1.39 pounds per 1000 residents. Communities with fewer than 10,000 residents had a statistically higher controlled substance donation rate (P = .002) compared with communities with 10,000 or more residents. Permanent drug donation boxes can be an effective mechanism to remove controlled substances from community settings. Rural and urban community residents should be provided convenient and timely access to drug disposal options.

  15. NewsPaperBox - Online News Space: a visual model for representing the social space of a website

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selçuk Artut

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available NewsPaperBox * propounds an alternative visual model utilizing the treemap algorithm to represent the collective use of a website that evolves in response to user interaction. While the technology currently exists to track various user behaviors such as number of clicks, duration of stay on a given web site, these statistics are not yet employed to influence the visual representation of that site's design in real time. In that sense, this project propounds an alternative modeling of a representational outlook of a website that is developed by collaborations and competitions of its global users. This paper proposes the experience of cyberspace as a generative process driven by its effective user participation.

  16. Differences in energy balance-related behaviours in European preschool children: the ToyBox-study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke De Craemer

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to compare levels of energy balance-related behaviours (physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and dietary behaviours (more specifically water consumption, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and unhealthy snacking in four- to six-year-old preschoolers from six European countries (Belgium, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Poland, and Spain within the ToyBox cross-sectional study.A sample of 4,045 preschoolers (4.77 ± 0.43 years; 52.2% boys had valid physical activity data (steps per day, parents of 8,117 preschoolers (4.78 ± 0.46 years; 53.0% boys completed a parental questionnaire with questions on sedentary behaviours (television viewing, computer use, and quiet play, and parents of 7,244 preschoolers (4.77 ± 0.44 years; 52.0% boys completed a food frequency questionnaire with questions on water consumption, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and unhealthy snacking.The highest levels of physical activity were found in Spain (12,669 steps/day on weekdays, while the lowest levels were found in Bulgaria and Greece (9,777 and 9,656 steps/day on weekdays, respectively. German preschoolers spent the least amount of time in television viewing (43.3 min/day on weekdays, while Greek preschoolers spent the most time in television viewing (88.5 min/day on weekdays. A considerable amount of time was spent in quiet play in all countries, with the highest levels in Poland (104.9 min/day on weekdays, and the lowest levels in Spain (60.4 min/day on weekdays. Belgian, German, and Polish preschoolers had the lowest intakes of water and the highest intakes of sugar-sweetened beverages. The intake of snacks was the highest in Belgian preschoolers (73.1 g/day and the lowest in Greek preschoolers (53.3 g/day.Across six European countries, differences in preschoolers' energy balance-related behaviours were found. Future interventions should target European preschoolers' energy balance-related behaviours simultaneously, but should

  17. Enhanced transdermal delivery of ondansetron using nanovesicular systems: Fabrication, characterization, optimization and ex-vivo permeation study-Box-Cox transformation practical example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Basant A; Sayed, Sinar; Elsayed, Ghada M

    2018-01-30

    This study aimed to formulate suitable nanovesicles (NVs) for transdermal delivery of Ondansetron. It also illustrated a practical example for the importance of Box-Cox transformation. A 2 3 full factorial design was used to enable testing transfersomes, ethosomes, and transethosomes of Ondansetron simultaneously. The independent variables (IVs) studied were sodium taurocholate amount, ethanol volume in hydration medium and sonication time. The studied dependent variables (DVs) were: particle size (PS), zeta potential (ZP) and entrapment efficiency (EE). Polynomial equations were used to study the influence of IVs on each DV. Numerical multiple response optimization was applied to select an optimized formula (OF) with the goals of minimizing PS and maximizing ZP absolute value and EE. Box-Cox transformation was adopted to enable modeling PS raised to the power of 1.2 with an excellent prediction R 2 of 1.000. ZP and EE were adequately represented directly with prediction R 2 of 0.9549 and 0.9892 respectively. Response surface plots helped in explaining the influence of IVs on each DV. Two-sided 95% prediction interval test and percent deviation of actual values from predicted ones proved the validity of the elucidated models. The OF was a transfersomal formula with desirability of 0.866 and showed promising results in ex-vivo permeation study. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. development of modelling characteristics of training activity in single combats (in terms of boxing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaskov A. V.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Approach of the systems of creation of model descriptions of sportsmen is presented. The integral estimations of different sides of preparedness are developed (technical, tactical, psychical, general and special physical. They allow in the structure of preparedness of boxers in number to characterize a level, determine strong and weak links. Studied and analysed more than ten precontest stages. The stages ended with successful appearance of boxers on the competitions of the Russian and international scale.

  19. Molecular Cloning of a cDNA Encoding for Taenia solium TATA-Box Binding Protein 1 (TsTBP1 and Study of Its Interactions with the TATA-Box of Actin 5 and Typical 2-Cys Peroxiredoxin Genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Rodríguez-Lima

    Full Text Available TATA-box binding protein (TBP is an essential regulatory transcription factor for the TATA-box and TATA-box-less gene promoters. We report the cloning and characterization of a full-length cDNA that encodes a Taenia solium TATA-box binding protein 1 (TsTBP1. Deduced amino acid composition from its nucleotide sequence revealed that encodes a protein of 238 residues with a predicted molecular weight of 26.7 kDa, and a theoretical pI of 10.6. The NH2-terminal domain shows no conservation when compared with to pig and human TBP1s. However, it shows high conservation in size and amino acid identity with taeniids TBP1s. In contrast, the TsTBP1 COOH-terminal domain is highly conserved among organisms, and contains the amino acids involved in interactions with the TATA-box, as well as with TFIIA and TFIIB. In silico TsTBP1 modeling reveals that the COOH-terminal domain forms the classical saddle structure of the TBP family, with one α-helix at the end, not present in pig and human. Native TsTBP1 was detected in T. solium cysticerci´s nuclear extract by western blot using rabbit antibodies generated against two synthetic peptides located in the NH2 and COOH-terminal domains of TsTBP1. These antibodies, through immunofluorescence technique, identified the TBP1 in the nucleus of cells that form the bladder wall of cysticerci of Taenia crassiceps, an organism close related to T. solium. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays using nuclear extracts from T. solium cysticerci and antibodies against the NH2-terminal domain of TsTBP1 showed the interaction of native TsTBP1 with the TATA-box present in T. solium actin 5 (pAT5 and 2-Cys peroxiredoxin (Ts2-CysPrx gene promoters; in contrast, when antibodies against the anti-COOH-terminal domain of TsTBP1 were used, they inhibited the binding of TsTBP1 to the TATA-box of the pAT5 promoter gene.

  20. Evaluation of a Lagrangian box model using field measurements from EASE (Eastern Atlantic Summer Experiment) 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, M. J.; Shallcross, D. E.; Law, K. S.; Wild, J. O. F.; Simmonds, P. G.; Spain, T. G.; Berrisford, P.; Methven, J.; Lewis, A. C.; McQuaid, J. B.; Pilling, M. J.; Bandy, B. J.; Penkett, S. A.; Pyle, J. A.

    The Cambridge Tropospheric Trajectory model of Chemistry and Transport (CiTTyCAT), a Lagrangian chemistry model, has been evaluated using atmospheric chemical measurements collected during the East Atlantic Summer Experiment 1996 (EASE '96). This field campaign was part of the UK Natural Environment Research Council's (NERC) Atmospheric Chemistry Studies in the Oceanic Environment (ACSOE) programme, conducted at Mace Head, Republic of Ireland, during July and August 1996. The model includes a description of gas-phase tropospheric chemistry, and simple parameterisations for surface deposition, mixing from the free troposphere and emissions. The model generally compares well with the measurements and is used to study the production and loss of O 3 under a variety of conditions. The mean difference between the hourly O 3 concentrations calculated by the model and those measured is 0.6 ppbv with a standard deviation of 8.7 ppbv. Three specific air-flow regimes were identified during the campaign - westerly, anticyclonic (easterly) and south westerly. The westerly flow is typical of background conditions for Mace Head. However, on some occasions there was evidence of long-range transport of pollutants from North America. In periods of anticyclonic flow, air parcels had collected emissions of NO x and VOCs immediately before arriving at Mace Head, leading to O 3 production. The level of calculated O 3 depends critically on the precise details of the trajectory, and hence on the emissions into the air parcel. In several periods of south westerly flow, low concentrations of O 3 were measured which were consistent with deposition and photochemical destruction inside the tropical marine boundary layer.

  1. Opening the Black Box: Using a Hydrological Model to Link Stakeholder Engagement with Groundwater Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Eden

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Stakeholder participation is a foundation of good water governance. Good groundwater governance typically involves the co-production of knowledge about the groundwater system. Models provide a vehicle for producing this knowledge, as well as a “boundary object” around which scientists and stakeholders can convene the co-production process. Through co-production, stakeholders and scientific experts can engage in exchanges that create system knowledge not otherwise achievable. The process involves one-way transfer of information, active two-way conversations, and integration of multiple kinds of knowledge into shared understanding. In the Upper Santa Cruz River basin in Arizona, USA, the University of Arizona Water Resources Research Center (WRRC convened a project aimed at providing scientific underpinnings for groundwater planning and management. This project, entitled Groundwater, Climate, and Stakeholder Engagement, serves as a case study employing the first two stages of knowledge co-production using a hydrological model. Through an iterative process that included two-way communication, stakeholders provided critical input to hydrologic modeling analyses. Acting as a bridging organization, the WRRC facilitated a co-production process, involving location-specific and transferability workshops, which resulted in new knowledge and capacity for applying the model to novel problems.

  2. Molecular envelope and atomic model of an anti-terminated glyQS T-box regulator in complex with tRNAGly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetnani, Bhaskar

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A T-box regulator or riboswitch actively monitors the levels of charged/uncharged tRNA and participates in amino acid homeostasis by regulating genes involved in their utilization or biosynthesis. It has an aptamer domain for cognate tRNA recognition and an expression platform to sense the charge state and modulate gene expression. These two conserved domains are connected by a variable linker that harbors additional secondary structural elements, such as Stem III. The structural basis for specific tRNA binding is known, but the structural basis for charge sensing and the role of other elements remains elusive. To gain new structural insights on the T-box mechanism, a molecular envelope was calculated from small angle X-ray scattering data for the Bacillus subtilis glyQS T-box riboswitch in complex with an uncharged tRNAGly. A structural model of an anti-terminated glyQS T-box in complex with its cognate tRNAGly was derived based on the molecular envelope. It shows the location and relative orientation of various secondary structural elements. The model was validated by comparing the envelopes of the wild-type complex and two variants. The structural model suggests that in addition to a possible regulatory role, Stem III could aid in preferential stabilization of the T-box anti-terminated state allowing read-through of regulated genes. PMID:28531275

  3. Numerical Weather Prediction Models on Linux Boxes as tools in meteorological education in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyongyosi, A. Z.; Andre, K.; Salavec, P.; Horanyi, A.; Szepszo, G.; Mille, M.; Tasnadi, P.; Weidiger, T.

    2012-04-01

    Education of Meteorologist in Hungary - according to the Bologna Process - has three stages: BSc, MSc and PhD, and students graduating at each stage get the respective degree (BSc, MSc and PhD). The three year long base BSc course in Meteorology can be chosen by undergraduate students in the fields of Geosciences, Environmental Sciences and Physics. BasicsFundamentals in Mathematics (Calculus), Physics (General and Theoretical) Physics and Informatics are emphasized during their elementary education. The two year long MSc course - in which about 15 to 25 students are admitted each year - can be studied only at our the Eötvös Loránd uUniversity in the our country. Our aim is to give a basic education in all fields of Meteorology. Main topics are: Climatology, Atmospheric Physics, Atmospheric Chemistry, Dynamic and Synoptic Meteorology, Numerical Weather Prediction, modeling Modeling of surfaceSurface-atmosphere Iinteractions and Cclimate change. Education is performed in two branches: Climate Researcher and Forecaster. Education of Meteorologist in Hungary - according to the Bologna Process - has three stages: BSc, MSc and PhD, and students graduating at each stage get the respective degree. The three year long BSc course in Meteorology can be chosen by undergraduate students in the fields of Geosciences, Environmental Sciences and Physics. Fundamentals in Mathematics (Calculus), (General and Theoretical) Physics and Informatics are emphasized during their elementary education. The two year long MSc course - in which about 15 to 25 students are admitted each year - can be studied only at the Eötvös Loránd University in our country. Our aim is to give a basic education in all fields of Meteorology: Climatology, Atmospheric Physics, Atmospheric Chemistry, Dynamic and Synoptic Meteorology, Numerical Weather Prediction, Modeling of Surface-atmosphere Interactions and Climate change. Education is performed in two branches: Climate Researcher and Forecaster

  4. Box-modeling of the impacts of atmospheric nitrogen deposition and benthic remineralization on the nitrogen cycle of the eastern tropical South Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Su, B; M. Pahlow; Oschlies, A.

    2015-01-01

    Both atmospheric deposition and benthic remineralization influence the marine nitrogen cycle, and hence ultimately also marine primary production. The biological and biogeochemical relations of the eastern tropical South Pacific (ETSP) to nitrogen deposition, benthic denitrification and phosphate regeneration are analysed in a prognostic box model of the oxygen, nitrogen and phosphorus cycles in the ETSP. In the model, atmospheric nitrogen...

  5. Bayesian inference for multivariate meta-analysis Box-Cox transformation models for individual patient data with applications to evaluation of cholesterol-lowering drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungduk; Chen, Ming-Hui; Ibrahim, Joseph G; Shah, Arvind K; Lin, Jianxin

    2013-10-15

    In this paper, we propose a class of Box-Cox transformation regression models with multidimensional random effects for analyzing multivariate responses for individual patient data in meta-analysis. Our modeling formulation uses a multivariate normal response meta-analysis model with multivariate random effects, in which each response is allowed to have its own Box-Cox transformation. Prior distributions are specified for the Box-Cox transformation parameters as well as the regression coefficients in this complex model, and the deviance information criterion is used to select the best transformation model. Because the model is quite complex, we develop a novel Monte Carlo Markov chain sampling scheme to sample from the joint posterior of the parameters. This model is motivated by a very rich dataset comprising 26 clinical trials involving cholesterol-lowering drugs where the goal is to jointly model the three-dimensional response consisting of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides (TG) (LDL-C, HDL-C, TG). Because the joint distribution of (LDL-C, HDL-C, TG) is not multivariate normal and in fact quite skewed, a Box-Cox transformation is needed to achieve normality. In the clinical literature, these three variables are usually analyzed univariately; however, a multivariate approach would be more appropriate because these variables are correlated with each other. We carry out a detailed analysis of these data by using the proposed methodology. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Teaching with Box Tops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiser, Lynne; D'Zamko, Mary Elizabeth

    1984-01-01

    Using environmental materials (such as the phone book and placemats from fast food restaurants) can be a motivating way to teach learning disabled students skills and concepts, as shown in an approach to reading, math, science and nutrition, and social studies instruction using a JELL-O brand gelatin box. (CL)

  7. Thinking outside the boxes: Using current reading models to assess and treat developmental surface dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Caroline; Cupples, Linda

    2017-03-01

    Improving the reading performance of children with developmental surface dyslexia has proved challenging, with limited generalisation of reading skills typically reported after intervention. The aim of this study was to provide tailored, theoretically motivated intervention to two children with developmental surface dyslexia. Our objectives were to improve their reading performance, and to evaluate the utility of current reading models in therapeutic practice. Detailed reading and cognitive profiles for two male children with developmental surface dyslexia were compared to the results obtained by age-matched control groups. The specific area of single-word reading difficulty for each child was identified within the dual route model (DRM) of reading, following which a theoretically motivated intervention programme was devised. Both children showed significant improvements in single-word reading ability after training, with generalisation effects observed for untrained words. However, the assessment and intervention results also differed for each child, reinforcing the view that the causes and consequences of developmental dyslexia, even within subtypes, are not homogeneous. Overall, the results of the interventions corresponded more closely with the DRM than other current reading models, in that real word reading improved in the absence of enhanced nonword reading for both children.

  8. Spirit Boxes: Expressions of Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMuro, Ted

    1984-01-01

    After studying the culture and art of the ancient civilizations of South America, Mesopotamia, Greece, and Egypt, secondary level art students made spirit boxes as expressions of the various cultures. How to make the boxes and how to prepare the face molds are described. (RM)

  9. Modeling and optimization of trihalomethanes formation potential of surface water (a drinking water source) using Box-Behnken design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kunwar P; Rai, Premanjali; Pandey, Priyanka; Sinha, Sarita

    2012-01-01

    The present research aims to investigate the individual and interactive effects of chlorine dose/dissolved organic carbon ratio, pH, temperature, bromide concentration, and reaction time on trihalomethanes (THMs) formation in surface water (a drinking water source) during disinfection by chlorination in a prototype laboratory-scale simulation and to develop a model for the prediction and optimization of THMs levels in chlorinated water for their effective control. A five-factor Box-Behnken experimental design combined with response surface and optimization modeling was used for predicting the THMs levels in chlorinated water. The adequacy of the selected model and statistical significance of the regression coefficients, independent variables, and their interactions were tested by the analysis of variance and t test statistics. The THMs levels predicted by the model were very close to the experimental values (R(2) = 0.95). Optimization modeling predicted maximum (192 μg/l) TMHs formation (highest risk) level in water during chlorination was very close to the experimental value (186.8 ± 1.72 μg/l) determined in laboratory experiments. The pH of water followed by reaction time and temperature were the most significant factors that affect the THMs formation during chlorination. The developed model can be used to determine the optimum characteristics of raw water and chlorination conditions for maintaining the THMs levels within the safe limit.

  10. A Method for Systematic Improvement of Stochastic Grey-Box Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Rode; Madsen, Henrik; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2004-01-01

    A systematic framework for improving the quality of continuous time models of dynamic systems based on experimental data is presented. The framework is based on an interplay between stochastic differential equation modelling, statistical tests and nonparametric modelling and provides features...

  11. The BOXES Methodology Black Box Dynamic Control

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, David W

    2012-01-01

    Robust control mechanisms customarily require knowledge of the system’s describing equations which may be of the high order differential type.  In order to produce these equations, mathematical models can often be derived and correlated with measured dynamic behavior.  There are two flaws in this approach one is the level of inexactness introduced by linearizations and the other when no model is apparent.  Several years ago a new genre of control systems came to light that are much less dependent on differential models such as fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms. Both of these soft computing solutions require quite considerable a priori system knowledge to create a control scheme and sometimes complicated training program before they can be implemented in a real world dynamic system. Michie and Chambers’ BOXES methodology created a black box system that was designed to control a mechanically unstable system with very little a priori system knowledge, linearization or approximation.  All the method need...

  12. Hydroxyl radicals in the tropical troposphere over the Suriname rainforest: comparison of measurements with the box model MECCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kubistin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available As a major source region of the hydroxyl radical OH, the Tropics largely control the oxidation capacity of the atmosphere on a global scale. However, emissions of hydrocarbons from the tropical rainforest that react rapidly with OH can potentially deplete the amount of OH and thereby reduce the oxidation capacity. The airborne GABRIEL field campaign in equatorial South America (Suriname in October 2005 investigated the influence of the tropical rainforest on the HOx budget (HOx = OH + HO2. The first observations of OH and HO2 over a tropical rainforest are compared to steady state concentrations calculated with the atmospheric chemistry box model MECCA. The important precursors and sinks for HOx chemistry, measured during the campaign, are used as constraining parameters for the simulation of OH and HO2. Significant underestimations of HOx are found by the model over land during the afternoon, with mean ratios of observation to model of 12.2 ± 3.5 and 4.1 ± 1.4 for OH and HO2, respectively. The discrepancy between measurements and simulation results is correlated to the abundance of isoprene. While for low isoprene mixing ratios (above ocean or at altitudes >3 km, observation and simulation agree fairly well, for mixing ratios >200 pptV (<3 km over the rainforest the model tends to underestimate the HOx observations as a function of isoprene.

    Box model simulations have been performed with the condensed chemical mechanism of MECCA and with the detailed isoprene reaction scheme of MCM, resulting in similar results for HOx concentrations. Simulations with constrained HO2 concentrations show that the conversion from HO2 to OH in the model is too low. However, by neglecting the isoprene chemistry in the model, observations and simulations agree much better. An OH source similar to the strength of the OH sink

  13. The effect of plasma actuator on the depreciation of the aerodynamic drag on box model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harinaldi, Budiarso, Julian, James; Rabbani M., N.

    2016-06-01

    Recent active control research advances have provided many benefits some of which in the field of transportation by land, sea as well as by air. Flow engineering by using active control has proven advantages in energy saving significantly. One of the active control equipment that is being developed, especially in the 21st century, is a plasma actuator, with the ability to modify the flow of fluid by the approach of ion particles makes these actuators a very powerful and promising tool. This actuator can be said to be better to the previously active control such as suction, blowing and synthetic jets because it is easier to control, more flexible because it has no moving parts, easy to be manufactured and installed, and consumes a small amount of energy with maximum capability. Plasma actuator itself is the composition of a material composed of copper and a dielectric sheet, where the copper sheets act as an electricity conductor and the dielectric sheet as electricity insulator. Products from the plasma actuators are ion wind which is the result of the suction of free air around the actuator to the plasma zone. This study investigates the ability of plasma actuators in lowering aerodynamic drag which is commonly formed in the models of vehicles by varying the shape of geometry models and the flow speed.

  14. Many-box locality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuqian; Cai, Yu; Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Gao, Fei; Scarani, Valerio

    2017-11-01

    There is an ongoing search for a physical or operational definition for quantum mechanics. Several informational principles have been proposed which are satisfied by a theory less restrictive than quantum mechanics. Here, we introduce the principle of "many-box locality," which is a refined version of the previously proposed "macroscopic locality." These principles are based on coarse graining the statistics of several copies of a given box. The set of behaviors satisfying many-box locality for N boxes is denoted LNM B. We study these sets in the bipartite scenario with two binary measurements, in relation with the sets Q and Q1 +A B of quantum and "almost quantum" correlations, respectively. We find that the LNM B sets are, in general, not convex. For unbiased marginals, by working in the Fourier space we can prove analytically that LNM B⊈Q for any finite N , while L∞M B=Q . Then, with suitably developed numerical tools, we find an example of a point that belongs to L16M B but not to Q1 +A B. Among the problems that remain open is whether Q ⊂L∞M B .

  15. Identification of a nonlinear black-box model for a self-sensing polymer metal composite actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quang Truong, Dinh; Ahn, Kyoung Kwan; Nam, Doan Ngoc Chi; Yoon, Jong Il

    2010-08-01

    An ion polymer metal composite (IPMC) is an electro-active polymer that bends in response to a small applied electrical field as a result of the mobility of cations in the polymer network and vice versa. The aim of this paper is the identification of a novel accurate nonlinear black-box model (NBBM) for IPMC actuators with self-sensing behavior based on a recurrent multi-layer perceptron neural network (RMLPNN) and a self-adjustable learning mechanism (SALM). Firstly, an IPMC actuator is investigated. Driving voltage signals are applied to the IPMC in order to identify the IPMC characteristics. Secondly, the advanced NBBM for the IPMC is built with suitable inputs and output to estimate the IPMC tip displacement. Finally, the model parameters are optimized by the collected input/output training data. Modeling results show that the proposed self-sensing methodology based on the optimized NBBM model can well describe the bending behavior of the IPMC actuator corresponding to its applied power without using any measuring sensor.

  16. Smooth centile curves for skew and kurtotic data modelled using the Box-Cox power exponential distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Robert A; Stasinopoulos, D Mikis

    2004-10-15

    The Box-Cox power exponential (BCPE) distribution, developed in this paper, provides a model for a dependent variable Y exhibiting both skewness and kurtosis (leptokurtosis or platykurtosis). The distribution is defined by a power transformation Y(nu) having a shifted and scaled (truncated) standard power exponential distribution with parameter tau. The distribution has four parameters and is denoted BCPE (mu,sigma,nu,tau). The parameters, mu, sigma, nu and tau, may be interpreted as relating to location (median), scale (approximate coefficient of variation), skewness (transformation to symmetry) and kurtosis (power exponential parameter), respectively. Smooth centile curves are obtained by modelling each of the four parameters of the distribution as a smooth non-parametric function of an explanatory variable. A Fisher scoring algorithm is used to fit the non-parametric model by maximizing a penalized likelihood. The first and expected second and cross derivatives of the likelihood, with respect to mu, sigma, nu and tau, required for the algorithm, are provided. The centiles of the BCPE distribution are easy to calculate, so it is highly suited to centile estimation. This application of the BCPE distribution to smooth centile estimation provides a generalization of the LMS method of the centile estimation to data exhibiting kurtosis (as well as skewness) different from that of a normal distribution and is named here the LMSP method of centile estimation. The LMSP method of centile estimation is applied to modelling the body mass index of Dutch males against age. 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Model of the Ankyrin and SOCS Box Protein, ASB9, E3 Ligase Reveals a Mechanism for Dynamic Ubiquitin Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, Jamie M; Malmstrom, Robert D; Parnell, Jonathan; Ramirez-Sarmiento, Cesar; Reyes, Javiera; Amaro, Rommie E; Komives, Elizabeth A

    2016-08-02

    Cullin-RING E3 ligases (CRLs) are elongated and bowed protein complexes that transfer ubiquitin over 60 Å to proteins targeted for proteasome degradation. One such CRL contains the ankyrin repeat and SOCS box protein 9 (ASB9), which binds to and partially inhibits creatine kinase (CK). While current models for the ASB9-CK complex contain some known interface residues, the overall structure and precise interface of the ASB9-CK complex remains unknown. Through an integrative modeling approach, we report a third-generation model that reveals precisely the interface interactions and also fits the shape of the ASB9-CK complex as determined by small-angle X-ray scattering. We constructed an atomic model for the entire CK-targeting CRL to uncover dominant modes of motion that could permit ubiquitin transfer. Remarkably, only the correctly docked CK-containing E3 ligase and not incorrectly docked structures permitted close approach of ubiquitin to the CK substrate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Modeling signal integrity in electro-optical systems: 'gray box' models and appropriate test and simulation tools can help designers predict the performance of electro-optic devices, including modulators and amplifiers. (Modeling for Equipment Design)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meyer, Jeff

    2002-01-01

    ... technique for modeling is known as "gray box" modeling, which is the process for deriving a model where something is known about the basic internal topology of the component but there are no detailed component values. In the case of optical modulators and modulator driver amplifiers, we have a basic understanding of the internal topology but no ...

  19. Parametric study for graphene reinforced aluminum matrix composites production using Box Behnken design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasari, Bhagya Lakshmi; Nouri, Jamshid M.; Brabazon, Dermot; Naher, Sumsun

    2017-10-01

    The production of graphene reinforced aluminum matrix composite through powder metallurgical route requires optimization of process parameters to obtain better performance characteristics. One of the advanced method available for statistical analysis of parameters is Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The statistical analysis was carried out with three parameters, weight percentage of graphene reinforcement Wg (0.05%, 0.1% and 0.2%), stirring time ST(1h, 2h and 3h) and compaction pressure Pc(16T, 17T and 19T) while sintering temperature T kept constant. The performance of the Box Behnken design was analyzed and optimized using Design Expert software for the effective production of composites. From the results obtained from the analysis, the best set of parameters were considered for the future production of composites.

  20. Black Box Model of Integrated Circuits for ESD Behavioral Simulation and Industrial Application Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Lafon

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to design electronic products for Electro Static Discharges constraints, the use of simulation is fundamental. This is the only solution to justify the design and to manage properly the margin during the development. In order to do so, models are required and especially for the integrated circuits (IC. A Pspice model had been developed and validated for ESD performance prediction of IC implemented inside an electronic product. Nevertheless, the practical implementation of these modeling techniques for IC induced some issues, especially under Pspice, being the targeted tool for our simulation. Divergences issues during time domain simulation were frequently observed and sometimes irresolvable with model previously proposed. We propose in this article new implementation techniques in Pspice. A practical example is used to demonstrate the capability of our model.

  1. NASA's Climate in a Box: Desktop Supercomputing for Open Scientific Model Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik, G. S.; Seablom, M. S.; Lee, T. J.; McConaughy, G. R.; Syed, R.; Oloso, A.; Kemp, E. M.; Greenseid, J.; Smith, R.

    2009-12-01

    NASA's High Performance Computing Portfolio in cooperation with its Modeling, Analysis, and Prediction program intends to make its climate and earth science models more accessible to a larger community. A key goal of this effort is to open the model development and validation process to the scientific community at large such that a natural selection process is enabled and results in a more efficient scientific process. One obstacle to others using NASA models is the complexity of the models and the difficulty in learning how to use them. This situation applies not only to scientists who regularly use these models but also non-typical users who may want to use the models such as scientists from different domains, policy makers, and teachers. Another obstacle to the use of these models is that access to high performance computing (HPC) accounts, from which the models are implemented, can be restrictive with long wait times in job queues and delays caused by an arduous process of obtaining an account, especially for foreign nationals. This project explores the utility of using desktop supercomputers in providing a complete ready-to-use toolkit of climate research products to investigators and on demand access to an HPC system. One objective of this work is to pre-package NASA and NOAA models so that new users will not have to spend significant time porting the models. In addition, the prepackaged toolkit will include tools, such as workflow, visualization, social networking web sites, and analysis tools, to assist users in running the models and analyzing the data. The system architecture to be developed will allow for automatic code updates for each user and an effective means with which to deal with data that are generated. We plan to investigate several desktop systems, but our work to date has focused on a Cray CX1. Currently, we are investigating the potential capabilities of several non-traditional development environments. While most NASA and NOAA models are

  2. A comparative study of the decomposition of pig carcasses in a methyl methacrylate box and open air conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liangliang; Wang, Jiangfeng; Wang, Yu

    2016-08-01

    Analysis of the process of decomposition is essential in establishing the postmortem interval. However, despite the fact that insects are important players in body decomposition, their exact function within the decay process is still unclear. There is also limited knowledge as to how the decomposition process occurs in the absence of insects. In the present study, we compared the decomposition of a pig carcass in open air with that of one placed in a methyl methacrylate box to prevent insect contact. The pig carcass in the methyl methacrylate box was in the fresh stage for 1 day, the bloated stage from 2 d to 11 d, and underwent deflated decay from 12 d. In contrast, the pig carcass in open air went through the fresh, bloated, active decay and post-decay stages; and 22.3 h (0.93 d), 62.47 h (2.60 d), 123.63 h (5.15 d) and 246.5 h (10.27 d) following the start of the experiment respectively, prior to entering the skeletonization stage. A large amount of soft tissue were remained on the pig carcass in the methyl methacrylate box on 26 d, while only scattered bones remained on the pig carcass in open air. The results indicate that insects greatly accelerate the decomposition process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  3. Prediction of black box warning by mining patterns of Convergent Focus Shift in clinical trial study populations using linked public data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Handong; Weng, Chunhua

    2016-04-01

    To link public data resources for predicting post-marketing drug safety label changes by analyzing the Convergent Focus Shift patterns among drug testing trials. We identified 256 top-selling prescription drugs between 2003 and 2013 and divided them into 83 BBW drugs (drugs with at least one black box warning label) and 173 ROBUST drugs (drugs without any black box warning label) based on their FDA black box warning (BBW) records. We retrieved 7499 clinical trials that each had at least one of these drugs for intervention from the ClinicalTrials.gov. We stratified all the trials by pre-marketing or post-marketing status, study phase, and study start date. For each trial, we retrieved drug and disease concepts from clinical trial summaries to model its study population using medParser and SNOMED-CT. Convergent Focus Shift (CFS) pattern was calculated and used to assess the temporal changes in study populations from pre-marketing to post-marketing trials for each drug. Then we selected 68 candidate drugs, 18 with BBW warning and 50 without, that each had at least nine pre-marketing trials and nine post-marketing trials for predictive modeling. A random forest predictive model was developed to predict BBW acquisition incidents based on CFS patterns among these drugs. Pre- and post-marketing trials of BBW and ROBUST drugs were compared to look for their differences in CFS patterns. Among the 18 BBW drugs, we consistently observed that the post-marketing trials focused more on recruiting patients with medical conditions previously unconsidered in the pre-marketing trials. In contrast, among the 50 ROBUST drugs, the post-marketing trials involved a variety of medications for testing their associations with target intervention(s). We found it feasible to predict BBW acquisitions using different CFS patterns between the two groups of drugs. Our random forest predictor achieved an AUC of 0.77. We also demonstrated the feasibility of the predictor for identifying long

  4. The Heuristic Interpretation of Box Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lem, Stephanie; Onghena, Patrick; Verschaffel, Lieven; Van Dooren, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Box plots are frequently used, but are often misinterpreted by students. Especially the area of the box in box plots is often misinterpreted as representing number or proportion of observations, while it actually represents their density. In a first study, reaction time evidence was used to test whether heuristic reasoning underlies this…

  5. Analytical Study on an Oscillating Buoy Wave Energy Converter Integrated into a Fixed Box-Type Breakwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuanlie Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An oscillating buoy wave energy converter (WEC integrated to an existing box-type breakwater is introduced in this study. The buoy is installed on the existing breakwater and designed to be much smaller than the breakwater in scale, aiming to reduce the construction cost of the WEC. The oscillating buoy works as a heave-type WEC in front of the breakwater towards the incident waves. A power take-off (PTO system is installed on the topside of the breakwater to harvest the kinetic energy (in heave mode of the floating buoy. The hydrodynamic performance of this system is studied analytically based on linear potential-flow theory. Effects of the geometrical parameters on the reflection and transmission coefficients and the capture width ratio (CWR of the system are investigated. Results show that the maximum efficiency of the energy extraction can reach 80% or even higher. Compared with the isolated box-type breakwater, the reflection coefficient can be effectively decreased by using this oscillating buoy WEC, with unchanged transmission coefficient. Thus, the possibility of capturing the wave energy with the oscillating buoy WEC integrated into breakwaters is shown.

  6. Spray irrigation of landfill leachate: estimating potential exposures to workers and bystanders using a modified air box model and generalised source term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Duncan; Pollard, Simon J T; Spence, Lynn; Smith, Richard; Gronow, Jan R

    2005-02-01

    Generalised source term data from UK leachates and a probabilistic exposure model (BPRISC(4)) were used to evaluate key routes of exposure from chemicals of concern during the spraying irrigation of landfill leachate. Risk estimates secured using a modified air box model are reported for a hypothetical worker exposed to selected chemicals within a generalised conceptual exposure model of spray irrigation. Consistent with pesticide spray exposure studies, the key risk driver is dermal exposure to the more toxic components of leachate. Changes in spray droplet diameter (0.02-0.2 cm) and in spray flow rate (50-1000 l/min) have little influence on dermal exposure, although the lesser routes of aerosol ingestion and inhalation are markedly affected. The risk estimates modelled using this conservative worst case exposure scenario are not of sufficient magnitude to warrant major concerns about chemical risks to workers or bystanders from this practice in the general sense. However, the modelling made use of generic concentration data for only a limited number of potential landfill leachate contaminants, such that individual practices may require assessment on the basis of their own merits.

  7. Developing grey-box model to diagnose asphaltene stability in crude oils: Application of refractive index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Zeinali Hasanvand

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Asphaltene precipitation can cause serious problems in petroleum industry while diagnosing the asphaltene stability conditions in crude oil system is still a challenge and has been subject of many investigations. To monitor and diagnose asphaltene stability, high performance intelligent approaches based bio-inspired science like artificial neural network which have been optimized by various optimization techniques have been carried out. The main purpose of the implemented optimization algorithms is to decide high accurate interconnected weights of proposed neural network model. The proposed intelligent approaches are examined by using extensive experimental data reported in open literature. Moreover, to highlight robustness and precision of the addressed approaches, two different regression models have been developed and results obtained from the aforementioned intelligent models and regression approaches are compared with the corresponding refractive index data measured in laboratory. Based on the results, hybrid of genetic algorithm and particle swarm optimization have high performance and average relative absolute deviation between the model outputs and the relevant experimental data was found to be less than 0.2%. Routs from this work indicate that implication of HGAPSO-ANN in monitoring refractive index can lead to more reliable estimation of addressed issue which can lead to design of more reliable phase behavior simulation and further plans of oil production.

  8. Opening the black box of energy modelling: Strategies and lessons learned

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfenninger, Stefan; Hirth, Lion; Schlecht, Ingmar

    2018-01-01

    are of particular importance. Here we provide a practical how-to guide based on the collective experience of members of the Open Energy Modelling Initiative (Openmod). We discuss key steps to consider when opening code and data, including determining intellectual property ownership, choosing a licence...

  9. An alternative technique to the demolition of a prestressed concrete box-girder bridge: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S.R. Pereira

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a case study in which the partial collapse of a prestressed concrete box-girder bridge in Brazil happened only nine days after removing the supporting scaffolding. It is believed that the actual reinforcement longitudinal steel bars in the pile caps were underestimated. Although only part of the structure had collapsed, it was decided that the whole structure should be demolished. It was claimed that there was not available alternatives for ‘in situ’ structural recovery that would not compromise local traffic and safety precaution procedures. This paper presents an alternative technique for the bridge structural recovery. The application of this technique was possible because the prestressing process used unbonded pos-tensioned concrete, i.e. the sheaths were not filled with grout. The technique was based on the use of a weld torch to cut the tensioned strands in the box-girders methodically, unloading the pillars and foundations. Experimental tests were performed ‘in loco’ and proved to be effective and safe. The application of this suggested technique ‘in situ’ is believed to be an original contribution to the knowledge.

  10. Recursive black-box identification of nonlinear state-space ODE models

    OpenAIRE

    Brus, Linda

    2006-01-01

    Nonlinear system identification methods is a topic that has been gaining interest over the last years. One reason is the many application areas in controller design and system development. However, the problem of modeling nonlinear systems is complex and finding a general method that can be used for many different applications is difficult. This thesis treats recursive identification methods for identification of systems that can be described by nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The ...

  11. Analysis of a genetically structured variance heterogeneity model using the Box-Cox transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Ye; Christensen, Ole Fredslund; Sorensen, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    of the marginal distribution of the data. To investigate how the scale of measurement affects inferences, the genetically structured heterogeneous variance model is extended to accommodate the family of Box–Cox transformations. Litter size data in rabbits and pigs that had previously been analysed...... in the untransformed scale were reanalysed in a scale equal to the mode of the marginal posterior distribution of the Box–Cox parameter. In the rabbit data, the statistical evidence for a genetic component at the level of the environmental variance is considerably weaker than that resulting from an analysis...

  12. Surface O3 photochemistry over the South China Sea: Application of a near-explicit chemical mechanism box model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Guo, Hai; Zou, Shichun; Lyu, Xiaopu; Ling, Zhenhao; Cheng, Hairong; Zeren, Yangzong

    2017-11-22

    A systematic field measurement was conducted at an island site (Wanshan Island, WSI) over the South China Sea (SCS) in autumn 2013. It was observed that mixing ratios of O3 and its precursors (such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) and carbon monoxide (CO)) showed significant differences on non-episode days and episode days. Additional knowledge was gained when a photochemical box model incorporating the Master Chemical Mechanism (PBM-MCM) was applied to further investigate the differences/similarities of O3 photochemistry between non-episode and episode days, in terms of O3-precursor relationship, atmospheric photochemical reactivity and O3 production. The simulation results revealed that, from non-O3 episode days to episode days, 1) O3 production changed from both VOC and NOx-limited (transition regime) to VOC-limited; 2) OH radicals increased and photochemical reaction cycling processes accelerated; and 3) both O3 production and destruction rates increased significantly, resulting in an elevated net O3 production over the SCS. The findings indicate the complexity of O3 pollution over the SCS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Y-Box Binding Protein 1 Suppresses Alzheimer’s Disease Progression in Two Animal Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobkova, N. V.; Lyabin, D. N.; Medvinskaya, N. I.; Samokhin, A. N.; Nekrasov, P. V.; Nesterova, I. V.; Aleksandrova, I. Y.; Tatarnikova, O. G.; Bobylev, A. G.; Vikhlyantsev, I. M.; Kukharsky, M. S.; Ustyugov, A. A.; Polyakov, D. N.; Eliseeva, I. A.; Kretov, D. A.; Guryanov, S. G.; Ovchinnikov, L. P.

    2015-01-01

    The Y-box binding protein 1 (YB-1) is a member of the family of DNA- and RNA binding proteins. It is involved in a wide variety of DNA/RNA-dependent events including cell proliferation and differentiation, stress response, and malignant cell transformation. Previously, YB-1 was detected in neurons of the neocortex and hippocampus, but its precise role in the brain remains undefined. Here we show that subchronic intranasal injections of recombinant YB-1, as well as its fragment YB-11−219, suppress impairment of spatial memory in olfactory bulbectomized (OBX) mice with Alzheimer’s type degeneration and improve learning in transgenic 5XFAD mice used as a model of cerebral amyloidosis. YB-1-treated OBX and 5XFAD mice showed a decreased level of brain β-amyloid. In OBX animals, an improved morphological state of neurons was revealed in the neocortex and hippocampus; in 5XFAD mice, a delay in amyloid plaque progression was observed. Intranasally administered YB-1 penetrated into the brain and could enter neurons. In vitro co-incubation of YB-1 with monomeric β-amyloid (1–42) inhibited formation of β-amyloid fibrils, as confirmed by electron microscopy. This suggests that YB-1 interaction with β-amyloid prevents formation of filaments that are responsible for neurotoxicity and neuronal death. Our data are the first evidence for a potential therapeutic benefit of YB-1 for treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:26394155

  14. Stochastic acceleration of cometary pickup ions - The classic leaky box model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, D. D.

    1989-01-01

    The acceleration of cometary pickup ions by magnetohydrodynamic waves at P/Giacobini-Zinner is examined in a model where acceleration predominantly occurs downstream of the bow shock throughout the cometosheath where intense magnetic turbulence exists. The mean free path for scattering by the magnetic fluctuations in this region is less than the characteristic dimension of the cometosheath so that pickup ions are rendered isotropic and energized by a modest amount in the process. This principal loss mechanism for the ions is spatial diffusion out of the acceleration region moderated by the self-same accelerating waves. This particular feature constrains the model in a way that the predicted ion spectrum is uniquely determined by the power spectrum of the magnetic turbulence. At both P/Giacobini-Zinner and P/Halley, the turbulence is non-Kolmogoroff with a spectral index of 2 resulting in an ion spectral behavior that is approximately an exponential in ion speed, consistent with a recent analysis of the Giacobini-Zinner data (see Richardson et al.).

  15. ZnO/Mg-Al Layered Double Hydroxides as a Photocatalytic Bleaching of Methylene Orange - A Black Box Modeling by Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ali Hosseini

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports the development of ZnO-MgAl layered double hydroxides as an adsorbent-photo catalyst to remove the dye pollutants from aqueous solution and the experiments of a photocatalytic study were designed and modeled by response surface methodology (RSM and artificial neural network (ANN. The co-precipitation and urea methods were used to synthesize the ZnO-MgAl layered double hydroxides and FT-IR, XRD and SEM analysis were done for characterization of the catalyst.The performance of the ANN model was determined and showed the efficiency of the model in comparison to the RSM method to predict the percentage of dye removal accurately with a determination coefficient (R2 of 0.968. The optimized conditions were obtained as follows: 600 oC, 120 min, 0.05 g and 20 ppm for the calcination temperature, irradiation time, catalyst amount and dye pollutant concentration, respectively. Copyright © 2016 BCREC GROUP. All rights reserved Received: 22nd January 2016; Revised: 14th March 2016; Accepted:15th March 2016 How to Cite: Hosseini, S.A., Akbari, M. (2016. ZnO/Mg-Al Layered Double Hydroxides as a Photocatalytic Bleaching of Methylene Orange - A Black Box Modeling by Artificial Neural Network. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 11 (3: 299-315 (doi: 10.9767/bcrec.11.3.570.299-315 Permalink/DOI: http://doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.11.3.570.299-315

  16. Exploring the black box of quality improvement collaboratives : modelling relations between conditions, applied changes and outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dückers, M.L.A.; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Wagner, C.; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Despite the popularity of quality improvement collaboratives (QICs) in different healthcare settings, relatively little is known about the implementation process. The objective of the current study is to learn more about relations between relevant conditions for successful

  17. Exploring the black box of quality improvement collaboratives: modelling relations between conditions, applied changes and outcomes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dückers, M.L.A.; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Wagner, C.; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Despite the popularity of quality improvement collaboratives (QICs) in different healthcare settings, relatively little is known about the implementation process. The objective of the current study is to learn more about relations between relevant conditions for successful

  18. Using the intervention mapping protocol to reduce European preschoolers' sedentary behavior, an application to the ToyBox-Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Decker, Ellen; De Craemer, Marieke; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Verbestel, Vera; Duvinage, Kristin; Iotova, Violeta; Grammatikaki, Evangelia; Wildgruber, Andreas; Mouratidou, Theodora; Manios, Yannis; Cardon, Greet

    2014-02-19

    High levels of sedentary behavior are often measured in preschoolers, but only a few interventions have been developed to counteract this. Furthermore, detailed descriptions of interventions in preschoolers targeting different forms of sedentary behavior could not be located in the literature. The aim of the present paper was to describe the different steps of the Intervention Mapping Protocol used towards the development of an intervention component of the ToyBox-study focusing on decreasing preschoolers' sedentary behavior. The ToyBox-study focuses on the prevention of overweight in 4- to 6-year-old children by implementing a multi-component kindergarten-based intervention with family involvement in six different European countries. Applying the Intervention Mapping Protocol, six different steps were systematically completed for the structured planning and development of the intervention. A literature search and results from focus groups with parents/caregivers and kindergarten teachers were used as a guide during the development of the intervention and the intervention materials. The application of the different steps in the Intervention Mapping Protocol resulted in the creation of matrices of change objectives, followed by the selection of practical applications for five different intervention tools that could be used at the individual level of the preschool child, at the interpersonal level (i.e., parents/caregivers) and at the organizational level (i.e., kindergarten teachers). No cultural differences regarding preschoolers' sedentary behavior were identified between the participating countries during the focus groups, so cultural and local adaptations of the intervention materials were not necessary to improve the adoption and implementation of the intervention. A systematic and evidence-based approach was used for the development of this kindergarten-based family-involved intervention targeting preschoolers, with the inclusion of parental involvement. The

  19. Using the intervention mapping protocol to reduce European preschoolers’ sedentary behavior, an application to the ToyBox-Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background High levels of sedentary behavior are often measured in preschoolers, but only a few interventions have been developed to counteract this. Furthermore, detailed descriptions of interventions in preschoolers targeting different forms of sedentary behavior could not be located in the literature. The aim of the present paper was to describe the different steps of the Intervention Mapping Protocol used towards the development of an intervention component of the ToyBox-study focusing on decreasing preschoolers’ sedentary behavior. The ToyBox-study focuses on the prevention of overweight in 4- to 6-year-old children by implementing a multi-component kindergarten-based intervention with family involvement in six different European countries. Methods Applying the Intervention Mapping Protocol, six different steps were systematically completed for the structured planning and development of the intervention. A literature search and results from focus groups with parents/caregivers and kindergarten teachers were used as a guide during the development of the intervention and the intervention materials. Results The application of the different steps in the Intervention Mapping Protocol resulted in the creation of matrices of change objectives, followed by the selection of practical applications for five different intervention tools that could be used at the individual level of the preschool child, at the interpersonal level (i.e., parents/caregivers) and at the organizational level (i.e., kindergarten teachers). No cultural differences regarding preschoolers’ sedentary behavior were identified between the participating countries during the focus groups, so cultural and local adaptations of the intervention materials were not necessary to improve the adoption and implementation of the intervention. Conclusions A systematic and evidence-based approach was used for the development of this kindergarten-based family-involved intervention targeting preschoolers, with

  20. Moving the Watershed Ecosystem Approach Beyond the Black Box with Sensor Technologies and New Conceptual Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, S. W.; McGuire, K. J.; Ross, D. S.

    2015-12-01

    The small watershed ecosystem as a unit of experimental manipulation and analysis has been a hallmark of the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest for 60 years. Water and nutrient budgets of headwater catchments have been instrumental in advancing our understanding of the response of forested ecosystems to disturbances such as air pollution and land management. A limitation in the practice of this approach is that point-scale measurements are compiled to create catchment scale estimates of fluxes and stores, thus losing process information that could be gained from spatial patterns that depend on position along hydrologic or biogeochemical pathways. Beginning in 2007, high frequency measurements of water table fluctuation, made possible by inexpensive sensor technology, highlighted the previously underappreciated role of groundwater in these steep headwater catchments. Hydropedologic units (HPUs), identified by morphological differences in soil profiles, and reflecting distinct groundwater regimes, were defined and arranged along a generalized toposequence to describe a conceptual model which partitions spatial variation into predictable, repeatable landscape units. Stratification of point scale measurements of soil and water quality elucidates spatial patterns of variation and allows identification of hot spots, or zones of the catchment where certain processes prevail. Specific HPUs are associated with high rates of dissolved organic matter production, nitrification, denitrification and delivery of mineral weathering products to the surface. Moving beyond the small watershed, contrasting spatial patterns in surface water chemistry at the basin scale suggest differing prevalence of various HPUs among headwater catchments. Comparison of water quality patterns with HPU distribution allows identification of catchment properties responsible for regulation of water quality at the point to the catchment to the basin scales.

  1. Unconventional Bearing Capacity Analysis and Optimization of Multicell Box Girders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovan Tepic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with unconventional bearing capacity analysis and the procedure of optimizing a two-cell box girder. The generalized model which enables the local stress-strain analysis of multicell girders was developed based on the principle of cross-sectional decomposition. The applied methodology is verified using the experimental data (Djelosevic et al., 2012 for traditionally formed box girders. The qualitative and quantitative evaluation of results obtained for the two-cell box girder is realized based on comparative analysis using the finite element method (FEM and the ANSYS v12 software. The deflection function obtained by analytical and numerical methods was found consistent provided that the maximum deviation does not exceed 4%. Multicell box girders are rationally designed support structures characterized by much lower susceptibility of their cross-sectional elements to buckling and higher specific capacity than traditionally formed box girders. The developed local stress model is applied for optimizing the cross section of a two-cell box carrier. The author points to the advantages of implementing the model of local stresses in the optimization process and concludes that the technological reserve of bearing capacity amounts to 20% at the same girder weight and constant load conditions.

  2. A case study of interior low-frequency noise from box-shaped bridge girders induced by running trains: Its mechanism, prediction and countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xun; Li, Xiaozhen; Hao, Hong; Wang, Dangxiong; Li, Yadong

    2016-04-01

    A side effect of high-speed railway and urban rail transit systems is the associated vibration and noise. Since the use of concrete viaducts is predominant in railway construction due to scarce land resources, low-frequency (20-200 Hz) structure-radiated noise from concrete bridges is a principal concern. Although it is the most commonly used bridge type, the mechanism of noise emission from box-shaped bridge girders when subjected to impact forces from moving trains, which sounds like beating a drum, has not been well studied. In this study, a field measurement was first made on a simply-supported box-shaped bridge to record the acceleration of the slabs and the associated sound pressures induced by running trains. These data indicated that a significant beat-wave noise occurred in the box-shaped cavity when the train speed was around 340 km/h, which arose from the interference between two sound waves of 75.0 Hz and 78.8 Hz. The noise leakage from the bridge expansion joint was serious and resulted in obvious noise pollution near the bridge once the beat-wave noise was generated in the cavity. The dominant frequency of the interior noise at 75.0 Hz was confirmed from the spectrum of the data and the modal analysis results, and originated from the peak vibration of the top slab due to resonance and the first-order vertical acoustic mode, which led to cavity resonance, amplifying the corresponding noise. The three-dimensional acoustic modes and local vibration modes of the slab were calculated by using the finite element method. A simplified vehicle-track-bridge coupling vibration model was then developed to calculate the wheel-rail interaction force in a frequency range of 20-200 Hz. Numerical simulations using the boundary element method confirmed the cavity resonance effect and the numerical results agreed well with the data. Based on the calibrated numerical model, three noise reduction measures, i.e., adding a horizontal baffle in the interior cavity, narrowing

  3. Numerical analysis of biological clogging in two-dimensional sand box experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildsgaard, J.; Engesgaard, Peter Knudegaard

    2001-01-01

    Two-dimensional models for biological clogging and sorptive tracer transport were used to study the progress of clogging in a sand box experiment. The sand box had been inoculated with a strip of bacteria and exposed to a continuous injection of nitrate and acetate. Brilliant Blue was regularly...... with the assumed linear constant Kd behaviour. It is demonstrated that the dimensionality of sand box experiments in comparison to column experiments results in a much lower reduction in hydraulic conductivity Žfactor of 100. and that the bulk hydraulic conductivity of the sand box decreased only slightly. However...

  4. Previsão de demanda: uma aplicação dos modelos Box-Jenkins na área de assistência técnica de computadores pessoais Demand forecasting: an application of the Box-Jenkins models in the technical assistance of personal computer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liane Werner

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A previsão de demanda é uma atividade importante para auxiliar na determinação dos recursos necessários para a empresa. Neste artigo, a metodologia de Box-Jenkins foi utilizada para analisar dados históricos de uma empresa de assistência técnica de computadores pessoais e obter previsões do número de atendimentos. A empresa estudada apresenta três tipos de clientes diferenciados: contratos, garantia e avulsos. Como cada segmento de clientes tem suas peculiaridades, a previsão de demanda foi direcionada a cada tipo, buscando representar o comportamento de tendência e a sazonalidade por meio dos modelos de Box-Jenkins. A obtenção dos modelos mais adequados foi baseada na análise de gráficos e em testes estatísticos próprios da metodologia, os quais subsidiaram a decisão de adotar o modelo AR(1 para prever o número de atendimentos dos clientes tipo contrato, o modelo ARIMA(2,1,0 para os clientes tipo garantia e um modelo sazonal SARIMA(0,1,0(0,1,112 para os clientes tipo avulsos.Demand forecasting is an important tool to aid on the determination of necessary resources of a given company. In this paper, the Box-Jenkins methodology was applied to analyze historical data of a personal computer repair company and provide a forecast for the number of service calls. The company studied presents three segments of clients: contracts, warranty, and on-call. As each client has it own characteristics, in order to better represent tendency and seasonality behavior through the Box-Jenkins models, a specific forecasting model was developed for each segment. The choice of the optimum models were based into graphic analysis and statistical tests, which lead to the decision of adopting the AR(1 model to foresee the number of contract clients, the ARIMA(2,1,0 model for warranty clients and the SARIMA(0,1,0(0,1,112 seasonal model for on-call clients.

  5. Prestressing force monitoring method for a box girder through distributed long-gauge FBG sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shi-Zhi; Wu, Gang; Xing, Tuo; Feng, De-Cheng

    2018-01-01

    Monitoring prestressing forces is essential for prestressed concrete box girder bridges. However, the current monitoring methods used for prestressing force were not applicable for a box girder neither because of the sensor’s setup being constrained or shear lag effect not being properly considered. Through combining with the previous analysis model of shear lag effect in the box girder, this paper proposed an indirect monitoring method for on-site determination of prestressing force in a concrete box girder utilizing the distributed long-gauge fiber Bragg grating sensor. The performance of this method was initially verified using numerical simulation for three different distribution forms of prestressing tendons. Then, an experiment involving two concrete box girders was conducted to study the feasibility of this method under different prestressing levels preliminarily. The results of both numerical simulation and lab experiment validated this method’s practicability in a box girder.

  6. Exploring the black box of quality improvement collaboratives: modelling relations between conditions, applied changes and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dückers, Michel L A; Spreeuwenberg, Peter; Wagner, Cordula; Groenewegen, Peter P

    2009-11-17

    Despite the popularity of quality improvement collaboratives (QICs) in different healthcare settings, relatively little is known about the implementation process. The objective of the current study is to learn more about relations between relevant conditions for successful implementation of QICs, applied changes, perceived successes, and actual outcomes. Twenty-four Dutch hospitals participated in a dissemination programme based on QICs. A questionnaire was sent to 237 leaders of teams who joined 18 different QICs to measure changes in working methods and activities, overall perceived success, team organisation, and supportive conditions. Actual outcomes were extracted from a database with team performance indicator data. Multi-level analyses were conducted to test a number of hypothesised relations within the cross-classified hierarchical structure in which teams are nested within QICs and hospitals. Organisational and external change agent support is related positively to the number of changed working methods and activities that, if increased, lead to higher perceived success and indicator outcomes scores. Direct and indirect positive relations between conditions and perceived success could be confirmed. Relations between conditions and actual outcomes are weak. Multi-level analyses reveal significant differences in organisational support between hospitals. The relation between perceived successes and actual outcomes is present at QIC level but not at team level. Several of the expected relations between conditions, applied changes and outcomes, and perceived successes could be verified. However, because QICs vary in topic, approach, complexity, and promised advantages, further research is required: first, to understand why some QIC innovations fit better within the context of the units where they are implemented; second, to assess the influence of perceived success and actual outcomes on the further dissemination of projects over new patient groups.

  7. Exploring the black box of quality improvement collaboratives: modelling relations between conditions, applied changes and outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Cordula

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Despite the popularity of quality improvement collaboratives (QICs in different healthcare settings, relatively little is known about the implementation process. The objective of the current study is to learn more about relations between relevant conditions for successful implementation of QICs, applied changes, perceived successes, and actual outcomes. Methods Twenty-four Dutch hospitals participated in a dissemination programme based on QICs. A questionnaire was sent to 237 leaders of teams who joined 18 different QICs to measure changes in working methods and activities, overall perceived success, team organisation, and supportive conditions. Actual outcomes were extracted from a database with team performance indicator data. Multi-level analyses were conducted to test a number of hypothesised relations within the cross-classified hierarchical structure in which teams are nested within QICs and hospitals. Results Organisational and external change agent support is related positively to the number of changed working methods and activities that, if increased, lead to higher perceived success and indicator outcomes scores. Direct and indirect positive relations between conditions and perceived success could be confirmed. Relations between conditions and actual outcomes are weak. Multi-level analyses reveal significant differences in organisational support between hospitals. The relation between perceived successes and actual outcomes is present at QIC level but not at team level. Discussion Several of the expected relations between conditions, applied changes and outcomes, and perceived successes could be verified. However, because QICs vary in topic, approach, complexity, and promised advantages, further research is required: first, to understand why some QIC innovations fit better within the context of the units where they are implemented; second, to assess the influence of perceived success and actual outcomes on the

  8. Evolution of the F-Box Gene Family in Euarchontoglires: Gene Number Variation and Selection Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ailan; Fu, Mingchuan; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Mao, Yuanhui; Li, Xiangchen; Tao, Shiheng

    2014-01-01

    F-box proteins are substrate adaptors used by the SKP1–CUL1–F-box protein (SCF) complex, a type of E3 ubiquitin ligase complex in the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS). SCF-mediated ubiquitylation regulates proteolysis of hundreds of cellular proteins involved in key signaling and disease systems. However, our knowledge of the evolution of the F-box gene family in Euarchontoglires is limited. In the present study, 559 F-box genes and nine related pseudogenes were identified in eight genomes. Lineage-specific gene gain and loss events occurred during the evolution of Euarchontoglires, resulting in varying F-box gene numbers ranging from 66 to 81 among the eight species. Both tandem duplication and retrotransposition were found to have contributed to the increase of F-box gene number, whereas mutation in the F-box domain was the main mechanism responsible for reduction in the number of F-box genes, resulting in a balance of expansion and contraction in the F-box gene family. Thus, the Euarchontoglire F-box gene family evolved under a birth-and-death model. Signatures of positive selection were detected in substrate-recognizing domains of multiple F-box proteins, and adaptive changes played a role in evolution of the Euarchontoglire F-box gene family. In addition, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) distributions were found to be highly non-random among different regions of F-box genes in 1092 human individuals, with domain regions having a significantly lower number of non-synonymous SNPs. PMID:24727786

  9. Numerical Electromagnetic Models of Cube-Shaped Boxes - An Initial Investigation for Near-Field Prediction of HF Shipboard Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    Caracas, 1011 Venezuela 12. Escuela Superior de Guerra Naval 2 Director Comandancia de la Armada Av. Vollmer San Benardino Caracas, 1011 Venezuela 13. Lt...Tell1 USEPA ORP P.O. Box 18416 Las Vegas , NV 89114 74 44. James Tertocha C-15 Tenbytowne Apts Delran, NJ 08075 45. Maj. IDF Katzir Joel 2 NPGS SMC 2421

  10. Inhibition of high-mobility group box 1 as therapeutic option in autoimmune disease : lessons from animal models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaper, Fleur; Heeringa, Peter; Bijl, Marc; Westra, Johanna

    Purpose of review High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a molecule that has gained much attention in the last couple of years as an important player in innate immune responses and modulating factor in several (auto) immune diseases. Furthermore, advancements have been made in identifying the diverse

  11. The Uncertain Role of Biogenic VOC for Boundary-Layer Ozone Concentration: Example Investigation of Emissions from Two Forest Types with a Box Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Bonn

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available High levels of air pollution including ground level ozone significantly reduce humans’ life expectancy and cause forest damage and decreased tree growth. The French Vosges and the German Black Forest are regions well-known for having the highest tropospheric ozone concentrations at remote forested sites in Central Europe. This box model study investigates the sensitivity of atmospheric chemistry calculations of derived ozone on differently resolved forest tree composition and volatile organic compound emissions. Representative conditions were chosen for the Upper Rhine area including the Alsatian Vosges/France and the Black Forest/Germany during summer. This study aims to answer the following question: What level of input detail for Alsace and Black Forest tree mixtures is required to accurately simulate ozone formation? While the French forest in Alsace—e.g., in the Vosges—emits isoprene to a substantially higher extent than the forest at the German site, total monoterpene emissions at the two sites are rather similar. However, the individual monoterpene structures, and therefore their reactivity, differs. This causes a higher ozone production rate for Vosges forest mixture conditions than for Black Forest tree mixtures at identical NOx levels, with the difference increasing with temperature. The difference in ozone formation is analyzed in detail and the short-comings of reduced descriptions are discussed. The outcome serves as a to-do-list to allow accurate future ozone predictions influenced by the climate adaptation of forests and the change in forest species composition.

  12. Performance of a Modified Shear Box Apparatus for Full Scale Laboratory Study of Segmental Retaining Wall Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Zahidul Islam Bhuiyan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper outlines the performance of a modified large scale shear box apparatus, which is mainly used to execute full scale laboratory study of segmental retaining walls. A typical apparatus has already been adopted by the current ASTM and NCMA test protocols and by literature studying of those test protocols, it is found that protocols recommend a fixed vertical actuator with roller or airbag configuration as a proposed vertical loading assembly. Previous research study demonstrated that vertical loading arrangement greatly influences the interface shear capacity of block systems and fixed vertical actuator with flexible airbag shows better loading arrangement for the blocks which have dilatant behavior. However, airbag arrangement is strenuous and time-consuming loading assembly compared to fixed vertical actuator which increases normal load with shear displacement due to bending of vertical actuator locked with the top block during shear loading. For the drawbacks of fixed vertical loading arrangement, the apparatus used in this study was fully redesigned and modified in terms of normal loading arrangement specially. A moveable vertical loading assembly is used in the modified apparatus which allows the piston movement with the top blocks during shear testing. The results outlined in this paper report that normal load remains constant over the period of shear testing for a wide range of surcharge loading. It could easily be concluded that the modified apparatus might be a better alternative to the existing apparatus used in the test protocols.

  13. Smart home in a box: usability study for a large scale self-installation of smart home technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yang; Tilke, Dominique; Adams, Taylor; Crandall, Aaron S; Cook, Diane J; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluates the ability of users to self-install a smart home in a box (SHiB) intended for use by a senior population. SHiB is a ubiquitous system, developed by the Washington State University Center for Advanced Studies in Adaptive Systems (CASAS). Participants involved in this study are from the greater Palouse region of Washington State, and there are 13 participants in the study with an average age of 69.23. The SHiB package, which included several different types of components to collect and transmit sensor data, was given to participants to self-install. After installation of the SHiB, the participants were visited by researchers for a check of the installation. The researchers evaluated how well the sensors were installed and asked the resident questions about the installation process to help improve the SHiB design. The results indicate strengths and weaknesses of the SHiB design. Indoor motion tracking sensors are installed with high success rate, low installation success rate was found for door sensors and setting up the Internet server.

  14. The DEAD-box helicase eIF4A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreou, Alexandra Z.; Klostermeier, Dagmar

    2013-01-01

    DEAD-box helicases catalyze the ATP-dependent unwinding of RNA duplexes. They share a helicase core formed by two RecA-like domains that carries a set of conserved motifs contributing to ATP binding and hydrolysis, RNA binding and duplex unwinding. The translation initiation factor eIF4A is the founding member of the DEAD-box protein family, and one of the few examples of DEAD-box proteins that consist of a helicase core only. It is an RNA-stimulated ATPase and a non-processive helicase that unwinds short RNA duplexes. In the catalytic cycle, a series of conformational changes couples the nucleotide cycle to RNA unwinding. eIF4A has been considered a paradigm for DEAD-box proteins, and studies of its function have revealed the governing principles underlying the DEAD-box helicase mechanism. However, as an isolated helicase core, eIF4A is rather the exception, not the rule. Most helicase modules in other DEAD-box proteins are modified, some by insertions into the RecA-like domains, and the majority by N- and C-terminal appendages. While the basic catalytic function resides within the helicase core, its modulation by insertions, additional domains or a network of interaction partners generates the diversity of DEAD-box protein functions in the cell. This review summarizes the current knowledge on eIF4A and its regulation, and discusses to what extent eIF4A serves as a model DEAD-box protein. PMID:22995829

  15. An effective box trap for capturing lynx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay A. Kolbe; John R. Squires; Thomas W. Parker

    2003-01-01

    We designed a box trap for capturing lynx (Lynx lynx) that is lightweight, safe, effective, and less expensive than many commercial models. It can be constructed in approximately 3-4 hours from readily available materials. We used this trap to capture 40 lynx 89 times (96% of lynx entering traps) and observed no trapping related injuries. We compare our box...

  16. Brazilian Cinema: A Comparative Study between Fundraising Through Mechanisms of Public Incentive versus the Selling Revenue on the Brazilian Box Offices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inácio Alaiola Nogueira Dos Santos Júnior

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Responsible for maintaining active the actual cinematographic production, the politics of incentive to cinema do not guarantee an equal state of recourse capture for all the movies produced in the country as well as provoke discussion which relate production quality to volume capture, in which has taken to the creation of the common sense that says that movies which present elevated recourse fund must present best-selling results. Therefore, this study has the objective of analyzing the relation between the recourse volume captured from the mechanisms of public incentive and the selling volume on the Brazilian box offices. Due to that, descriptive research was made, with documentary character and quantitative approach. The data used in this study is related to information towards fundraising and income about the box office of 666 brazilian movies released between 1995 and 2012, while the statistical analysis used was the 'Spearman correlation' coefficient. The results showed that there is a strong positive correlation between the two variablesanalyzed, revealing a trend of movies with high fundraising are the ones that register the highest grossing box office. Data analysis also revealed that there is a concentration of both incentive funds (61% as income at the box office (75% in films with volume greater uptake of R $ 3 million.

  17. Impact Characteristic According to the Structure of Crash Box at the Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min B.S.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The crash box between a bumper and a car body in automobiles can reduce impacts for car bodies with a bumper at a low-speed collision by preventing the shocks. Also, this crash box is the part playing a very important role for the safety of vehicle and the reduction of repair cost, and many studies have been investigated for the performance. In this study, aluminum foam was inserted in an aluminum crash box to analyze the relationships of deformation, stress and internal energy. The compression characteristics are compared with six cases. In addition, the load due to displacement at experiment for a case is verified by modeling with finite elements and performing the structural analysis. As these study results for investigating characteristics of the crash box, it is thought that the effective designs of crash box to enhance the durability for collision are made possible.

  18. Studies about the Behavior of the Crash Boxes of a Car Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin, B. A.; Iozsa, D.; Fratila, G.

    2016-11-01

    A continuous evolution of requirements and standards sheds over the development of new vehicles (for example EuroNCAP ratings) in order to create competition between same market models customer related. The low speed impact protection has to be permanently improved as the damage of the front end structure of the vehicle to be reduced to minimal. As a consequence, a lower damage implies less repair costs and therefore a lower insurance category. The front end structure, including the bumper, responds for the absorption of the kinetic energy created during the impact with maximum efficiency in order to avoid the large deformation of structural components. This is only one of the constraints that the front end structure has to cope with, additionally we can mention the dimensioning of the front end of the vehicle which can affect the packaging, which is mainly influenced by the design, styling and the pedestrian requirements intended to be accomplished by the vehicle. The present paper focuses on the low speed urban impact, offering an overview over the actual state, the load configuration, the applicable regulation, the challenging requirements of a modern front structure, which the modern bumper has to comply with and the finite element simulation of this kind of test.

  19. Making the most out of a hydrological model data set: Sensitivity analyses to open the model black-box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgonovo, E.; Lu, X.; Plischke, E.; Rakovec, O.; Hill, M. C.

    2017-09-01

    In this work, we investigate methods for gaining greater insight from hydrological model runs conducted for uncertainty quantification and model differentiation. We frame the sensitivity analysis questions in terms of the main purposes of sensitivity analysis: parameter prioritization, trend identification, and interaction quantification. For parameter prioritization, we consider variance-based sensitivity measures, sensitivity indices based on the L1-norm, the Kuiper metric, and the sensitivity indices of the DELSA methods. For trend identification, we investigate insights derived from graphing the one-way ANOVA sensitivity functions, the recently introduced CUSUNORO plots, and derivative scatterplots. For interaction quantification, we consider information delivered by variance-based sensitivity indices. We rely on the so-called given-data principle, in which results from a set of model runs are used to perform a defined set of analyses. One avoids using specific designs for each insight, thus controlling the computational burden. The methodology is applied to a hydrological model of a river in Belgium simulated using the well-established Framework for Understanding Structural Errors (FUSE) on five alternative configurations. The findings show that the integration of the chosen methods provides insights unavailable in most other analyses.

  20. Shaping 3-D boxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenholt, Rasmus; Madsen, Claus B.

    2011-01-01

    Enabling users to shape 3-D boxes in immersive virtual environments is a non-trivial problem. In this paper, a new family of techniques for creating rectangular boxes of arbitrary position, orientation, and size is presented and evaluated. These new techniques are based solely on position data......F) docking experiment against an existing technique, which requires the user to perform the rotation and scaling of the box explicitly. The precision of the users' box construction is evaluated by a novel error metric measuring the difference between two boxes. The results of the experiment strongly indicate...... that for precision docking of 9 DoF boxes, some of the proposed techniques are significantly better than ones with explicit rotation and scaling. Another interesting result is that the number of DoF simultaneously controlled by the user significantly influences the precision of the docking....

  1. Box Office Forecasting considering Competitive Environment and Word-of-Mouth in Social Networks: A Case Study of Korean Film Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taegu; Hong, Jungsik

    2017-01-01

    Accurate box office forecasting models are developed by considering competition and word-of-mouth (WOM) effects in addition to screening-related information. Nationality, genre, ratings, and distributors of motion pictures running concurrently with the target motion picture are used to describe the competition, whereas the numbers of informative, positive, and negative mentions posted on social network services (SNS) are used to gauge the atmosphere spread by WOM. Among these candidate variables, only significant variables are selected by genetic algorithm (GA), based on which machine learning algorithms are trained to build forecasting models. The forecasts are combined to improve forecasting performance. Experimental results on the Korean film market show that the forecasting accuracy in early screening periods can be significantly improved by considering competition. In addition, WOM has a stronger influence on total box office forecasting. Considering both competition and WOM improves forecasting performance to a larger extent than when only one of them is considered. PMID:28819355

  2. Box Office Forecasting considering Competitive Environment and Word-of-Mouth in Social Networks: A Case Study of Korean Film Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taegu; Hong, Jungsik; Kang, Pilsung

    2017-01-01

    Accurate box office forecasting models are developed by considering competition and word-of-mouth (WOM) effects in addition to screening-related information. Nationality, genre, ratings, and distributors of motion pictures running concurrently with the target motion picture are used to describe the competition, whereas the numbers of informative, positive, and negative mentions posted on social network services (SNS) are used to gauge the atmosphere spread by WOM. Among these candidate variables, only significant variables are selected by genetic algorithm (GA), based on which machine learning algorithms are trained to build forecasting models. The forecasts are combined to improve forecasting performance. Experimental results on the Korean film market show that the forecasting accuracy in early screening periods can be significantly improved by considering competition. In addition, WOM has a stronger influence on total box office forecasting. Considering both competition and WOM improves forecasting performance to a larger extent than when only one of them is considered.

  3. Box Office Forecasting considering Competitive Environment and Word-of-Mouth in Social Networks: A Case Study of Korean Film Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taegu Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate box office forecasting models are developed by considering competition and word-of-mouth (WOM effects in addition to screening-related information. Nationality, genre, ratings, and distributors of motion pictures running concurrently with the target motion picture are used to describe the competition, whereas the numbers of informative, positive, and negative mentions posted on social network services (SNS are used to gauge the atmosphere spread by WOM. Among these candidate variables, only significant variables are selected by genetic algorithm (GA, based on which machine learning algorithms are trained to build forecasting models. The forecasts are combined to improve forecasting performance. Experimental results on the Korean film market show that the forecasting accuracy in early screening periods can be significantly improved by considering competition. In addition, WOM has a stronger influence on total box office forecasting. Considering both competition and WOM improves forecasting performance to a larger extent than when only one of them is considered.

  4. Impact of FDA Black Box Warning on Psychotropic Drug Use in Noninstitutionalized Elderly Patients Diagnosed With Dementia: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rakesh R; Nayak, Rajesh

    2016-10-01

    The study seeks to investigate the impact of Food and Drug Administration's black box warning (BBW) on the use of atypical antipsychotics (AAP) and nonantipsychotic psychotropic alternatives in noninstitutionalized elderly population diagnosed with dementia. The Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (2004 through 2007) was utilized as the data source. Medication use in elderly patients (≥65 years) was defined as taking at least 1 medication for dementia. We performed a statistical comparison of prewarning (2004-2005) and postwarning (2006-2007) periods with respect to AAP and nonantipsychotic psychotropic use to examine the impact of labeling changes. A bivariate analysis did not yield statistically significant change in either the AAP or nonantipsychotic psychotropic use, pre- versus postwarning. However, multivariate logistic-regression analyses revealed greater odds for antidementia (odds ratio [OR] = 1.976, P = .0195) and benzodiazepine (OR = 3.046, P = .0227) medication use in postwarning period compared to the prewarning period. The regulatory warnings and labeling changes regarding off-label use of AAPs in dementia treatment showed minimal impact on their actual use in noninstitutionalized populations. A corresponding increase in the use of nonantipsychotic psychotropics explains that BBW might have resulted in a compensatory shift in favor of benzodiazepines and antidementia medications. Additional research should be conducted to examine the long-term impact of BBW on antipsychotic prescribing changes. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Identifying competencies of boxing coaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Tasiopoulos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to find out the management skills required by boxing coaches to administrate their clubs. For the purposes of this study a scale was constructed which was answered by 98 boxing coaches. Explanatory factor analysis revealed seven factors: Communication-public relations (5 items, event management (4 items, management techniques (4 items, new technologies (4 items, prevention-safety (2 items, sport (5 items and sports facilities (2 items. The Cronbach of the scale was 0.85. The five competencies that rated by the coaches were: Supervisors of the area of training, maintaining excellent communication with athletes, using new technologies (e-mail, internet, handling disciplinary matters, accidents, complaints and reports on some sporting games and promoted harmony among athletes. We concluded that boxing coaches understand that the competencies required for meeting their obligations, were related to sports, prevention, safety and communications-public relations.

  6. Box-Cox symmetric distributions and applications to nutritional data

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrari, Silvia L. P.; Fumes, Giovana

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the Box-Cox symmetric class of distributions, which is useful for modeling positively skewed, possibly heavy-tailed, data. The new class of distributions includes the Box-Cox t, Box-Cox Cole-Gree, Box-Cox power exponential distributions, and the class of the log-symmetric distributions as special cases. It provides easy parameter interpretation, which makes it convenient for regression modeling purposes. Additionally, it provides enough flexibility to handle outliers. The usefuln...

  7. Prospective study of jellyfish stings from tropical Australia, including the major box jellyfish Chironex fleckeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, G M; Isbister, G K; Lawrie, P M; Treston, G T; Currie, B J

    To determine the immediate and delayed effects of jellyfish stings, and correlate these with microscopic identification of jellyfish nematocysts. Prospective study of patients presenting with jellyfish stings. 40 people presenting with jellyfish stings to the emergency department of a teaching hospital in tropical Australia between 1 August 1999 and 31 July 2000. Clinical diagnosis (sting by Chironex fleckeri, "Darwin carybdeid" or other jellyfish, or "Irukandji" syndrome); clinical severity; delayed hypersensitivity; and sticky-tape sampling and microscopic identification of nematocysts. Patients were aged 2-50 years, with eight aged under 15 years; 23 were male. Presentations were consistent with C. fleckeri sting in 28 cases, Darwin carybdeid sting in five, and Irukandji syndrome in four. Sticky-tape sampling was done in 39 patients and was positive for C. fleckeri nematocysts in 23 and for non-C. fleckeri nematocysts in six, with nematocysts not detected in 10 (including all four with Irukandji syndrome). All microscopically confirmed C. fleckeri stings had typical clinical presentations. None of the stings were life-threatening, and no antivenom was given. Delayed hypersensitivity reactions were seen in 11 of the 19 patients (58%) followed up after stings positive for C. fleckeri nematocysts. Although most jellyfish stings presenting to Royal Darwin Hospital I were caused by C. fleckeri, severe envenomation was rare. There was a strong association between clinical features and sticky-tape identification of nematocysts. Delayed hypersensitivity was common after C. fleckeri stings.

  8. A local leaky-box model for the local stellar surface density-gas surface density-gas phase metallicity relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guangtun Ben; Barrera-Ballesteros, Jorge K.; Heckman, Timothy M.; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Sánchez, Sebastian F.; Yan, Renbin; Brinkmann, Jonathan

    2017-07-01

    We revisit the relation between the stellar surface density, the gas surface density and the gas-phase metallicity of typical disc galaxies in the local Universe with the SDSS-IV/MaNGA survey, using the star formation rate surface density as an indicator for the gas surface density. We show that these three local parameters form a tight relationship, confirming previous works (e.g. by the PINGS and CALIFA surveys), but with a larger sample. We present a new local leaky-box model, assuming star-formation history and chemical evolution is localized except for outflowing materials. We derive closed-form solutions for the evolution of stellar surface density, gas surface density and gas-phase metallicity, and show that these parameters form a tight relation independent of initial gas density and time. We show that, with canonical values of model parameters, this predicted relation match the observed one well. In addition, we briefly describe a pathway to improving the current semi-analytic models of galaxy formation by incorporating the local leaky-box model in the cosmological context, which can potentially explain simultaneously multiple properties of Milky Way-type disc galaxies, such as the size growth and the global stellar mass-gas metallicity relation.

  9. Cisplatin prevents high mobility group box 1 release and is protective in a murine model of hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinal, Jon; Pan, Pinhua; Dhupar, Rajeev; Ross, Mark; Nakao, Atsunori; Lotze, Michael; Billiar, Timothy; Geller, David; Tsung, Allan

    2009-08-01

    The nuclear protein high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is an important inflammatory mediator involved in the pathogenesis of liver ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Strategies aimed at preventing its release from stressed or damaged cells may be beneficial in preventing inflammation after I/R. Cisplatin is a member of the platinating chemotherapeutic agents and can induce DNA lesions that are capable of retaining high mobility group proteins inside the nucleus of cells. In vitro studies in primary cultured rat hepatocytes show that nontoxic concentrations of cisplatin can sequester HMGB1 inside the nucleus of hypoxic cells. Similarly, the in vivo administration of nontoxic doses of cisplatin prevents liver damage associated with a well-established murine model of hepatic I/R as measured by lower circulating serum aminotransferase levels, lower hepatic inflammatory cytokine levels including tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6, lower inducible NO synthase expression, and fewer I/R-associated histopathologic changes. The mechanism of action in vivo appears to involve the capacity of cisplatin to prevent the I/R-induced release of HMGB1 as well as to alter cell survival and stress signaling in the form of autophagy and mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, respectively. Low, nontoxic doses of cisplatin can sequester HMGB1 inside the nucleus of redox-stressed hepatocytes in vitro and prevent its release in vivo in a murine model of hepatic I/R. Furthermore, cell survival and stress signaling pathways are altered by low-dose cisplatin. Therefore, platinating agents may provide a novel approach to mitigating the deleterious effects of I/R-mediated disease processes.

  10. Cell penetrable-mouse forkhead box P3 suppresses type 1 T helper cell-mediated immunity in a murine model of delayed-type hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xia; Wang, Jun; Wang, Hui; Zhou, Chen; Yu, Qihong; Yin, Lei; Wu, Weijiang; Xia, Sheng; Shao, Qixiang

    2017-02-01

    Forkhead box P3 (FOXP3), which is a transcription factor, has a primary role in the development and function of regulatory T cells, and thus contributes to homeostasis of the immune system. A previous study generated a cell-permeable fusion protein of mouse FOXP3 conjugated to a protein transduction domain (PTD-mFOXP3) that successfully blocked differentiation of type 17 T helper cells in vitro and alleviated experimental arthritis in mice. In the present study, the role of PTD-mFOXP3 in type 1 T helper (Th1) cell-mediated immunity was investigated and the possible mechanisms for its effects were explored. Under Th1 polarization conditions, cluster of differentiation 4(+) T cells were treated with PTD-mFOXP3 and analyzed by flow cytometry in vitro, which revealed that PTD-mFOXP3 blocked Th1 differentiation in vitro. Mice models of delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions were generated by subcutaneous sensitization and challenge with ovalbumin (OVA) to the ears of mice. PTD-mFOXP3, which was administered via local subcutaneous injection, significantly reduced DTH-induced inflammation, including ear swelling (ear swelling, P<0.001; pinnae weight, P<0.05 or P<0.01 with 0.25 and 1.25 mg/kg PTD-mFOXP3, respectively), infiltration of T cells, and expression of interferon-γ at local inflammatory sites (mRNA level P<0.05) compared with the DTH group. The results of the present study demonstrated that PTD-mFOXP3 may attenuate DTH reactions by suppressing the infiltration and activity of Th1 cells.

  11. Genome-wide analysis of the SBP-box gene family in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hua-Wei; Song, Xiao-Ming; Duan, Wei-Ke; Wang, Yan; Hou, Xi-Lin

    2015-11-01

    The SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN (SBP)-box gene family contains highly conserved plant-specific transcription factors that play an important role in plant development, especially in flowering. Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis) is a leafy vegetable grown worldwide and is used as a model crop for research in genome duplication. The present study aimed to characterize the SBP-box transcription factor genes in Chinese cabbage. Twenty-nine SBP-box genes were identified in the Chinese cabbage genome and classified into six groups. We identified 23 orthologous and 5 co-orthologous SBP-box gene pairs between Chinese cabbage and Arabidopsis. An interaction network among these genes was constructed. Sixteen SBP-box genes were expressed more abundantly in flowers than in other tissues, suggesting their involvement in flowering. We show that the MiR156/157 family members may regulate the coding regions or 3'-UTR regions of Chinese cabbage SBP-box genes. As SBP-box genes were found to potentially participate in some plant development pathways, quantitative real-time PCR analysis was performed and showed that Chinese cabbage SBP-box genes were also sensitive to the exogenous hormones methyl jasmonic acid and salicylic acid. The SBP-box genes have undergone gene duplication and loss, evolving a more refined regulation for diverse stimulation in plant tissues. Our comprehensive genome-wide analysis provides insights into the SBP-box gene family of Chinese cabbage.

  12. Dynamic Modeling and Very Short-term Prediction of Wind Power Output Using Box-Cox Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urata, Kengo; Inoue, Masaki; Murayama, Dai; Adachi, Shuichi

    2016-09-01

    We propose a statistical modeling method of wind power output for very short-term prediction. The modeling method with a nonlinear model has cascade structure composed of two parts. One is a linear dynamic part that is driven by a Gaussian white noise and described by an autoregressive model. The other is a nonlinear static part that is driven by the output of the linear part. This nonlinear part is designed for output distribution matching: we shape the distribution of the model output to match with that of the wind power output. The constructed model is utilized for one-step ahead prediction of the wind power output. Furthermore, we study the relation between the prediction accuracy and the prediction horizon.

  13. Clustering of energy balance-related behaviours and parental education in European preschool children: the ToyBox study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel-Berges, María L; Zachari, Konstantina; Santaliestra-Pasias, Alba M; Mouratidou, Theodora; Androutsos, Odysseas; Iotova, Violeta; Galcheva, Sonya; De Craemer, Marieke; Cardon, Greet; Koletzko, Berthold; Kulaga, Zbigniew; Manios, Yannis; Moreno, Luis A

    2017-12-01

    Energy balance-related behaviours (EBRB) are established in childhood and seem to persist through to adulthood. A lower parental educational level was associated with unhealthy behavioural patterns. The aim of the study is to identify clusters of EBRB and examine their association with preschool children's BMI and maternal, paternal and parental education. A subsample of the ToyBox study (n 5387) conducted in six European countries was used. Six behavioural clusters ('healthy diet and low activity', 'active', 'healthy lifestyle', 'high water and screen time; low fruits and vegetables (F&V) and physical activity (PA)', 'unhealthy lifestyle' and 'high F&V consumers') emerged. The healthiest group characterised by high water and F&V consumption and high PA z scores ('healthy lifestyle') was more prevalent among preschool children with at least one medium- or higher-educated parent and showed markedly healthier trends for all the included EBRB. In the opposite, the 'unhealthy lifestyle' cluster (characterised by high soft drinks and screen time z scores, and low water, F&V and PA z scores) was more prevalent among children with lower parental, paternal and maternal education levels. OR identified that children with lower maternal, paternal and parental education levels were less likely to be allocated in the 'healthy lifestyle' cluster and more likely to be allocated in the 'unhealthy lifestyle' cluster. The 'unhealthy lifestyle' cluster was more prevalent among children with parents in lower parental educational levels and children who were obese. Therefore, parental educational level is one of the key factors that should be considered when developing childhood obesity prevention interventions.

  14. Flora, life form and chorological study of soil seed bank in Sisangan box tree (Buxus hyrcanus Pojark Forest Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moslem Akbarinia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study involves the soil seed bank flora of the Sisangan Box tree (Buxus hyrcanus Pojark reserve by using seedling emergence method. 150 soil samples were collected during late June and early November by hammering a hollow metal frame 400 cm2 to a depth of 5 cm. Results showed 67 species, representing 63 genera and 38 families germinated from soil seed bank. 45 species belonging to 28 families and 59 species belonging to 32 families were recorded in June and November soil seed bank respectively. The largest families were Asteraceae (7 species, 10.5%, Lamiaceae (6 species, 9%, Poaceae (5 species, 7.5% and Rosaceae (4 species, 6% which compromised 32.8% percent of the total species in the soil seed bank. Results also showed that Hemicrptophytes (28.4% and Euro-Sibria elements (23/9% were the most important biological spectrum and phytochorion respectivly in the soil seed bank of Sisangan forest. From the total number of species recorded in seed bank, 30 species (44.6 % were found only in the seed bank and never observed in above-ground vegetation. In this regard, seeds of 10 woody species including Albizia julibrissin, Ficus carica, Morus alba, Diospyrus lotus, Celtis australis, Gleditsia caspica, Buxus hyrcana, Ulmus minor, Zelkova carpinifolia and Carpinus betulus were found in the soil seed bank, from which only 6 species were able to produce persistent soil seed bank. This condition confirmed low similarity between above-ground vegetation and persistent soil seed bank and it also reiterated the importance of soil seed bank study for introducing more accurate capacity of plant biodiversity.

  15. Math in the Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeYoung, Mary J.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how to make an origami paper box and explores the algebra, geometry, and other mathematics that unfolds. A set of origami steps that transforms the paper into an open box can hold mathematical surprises for both students and teachers. An origami lesson can engage students in an open-ended exploration of the relationship…

  16. ALUMINUM BOX BUNDLING PRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iosif DUMITRESCU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In municipal solid waste, aluminum is the main nonferrous metal, approximately 80- 85% of the total nonferrous metals. The income per ton gained from aluminum recuperation is 20 times higher than from glass, steel boxes or paper recuperation. The object of this paper is the design of a 300 kN press for aluminum box bundling.

  17. Forkhead box transcription factors in embryonic heart development and congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic heart development is a very complicated process regulated precisely by a network composed of many genes and signaling pathways in time and space. Forkhead box (Fox, FOX) proteins are a family of transcription factors characterized by the presence of an evolutionary conserved "forkhead"or "winged-helix" DNA-binding domain and able to organize temporal and spatial gene expression during development. They are involved in a wide variety of cellular processes, such as cell cycle progression, proliferation, differentiation, migration, metabolism and DNA damage response. An abundance of studies in model organisms and systems has established that Foxa2, Foxc1/c2, Foxh1 and Foxm1, Foxos and Foxps are important components of the signaling pathways that instruct cardiogenesis and embryonic heart development, playing paramount roles in heart development. The previous studies also have demonstrated that mutations in some of the forkhead box genes and the aberrant expression of forkhead box gene are heavily implicated in the congenital heart disease (CHD) of humans. This review primarily focuses on the current understanding of heart development regulated by forkhead box transcription factors and molecular genetic mechanisms by which forkhead box factors modulate heart development during embryogenesis and organogenesis. This review also summarizes human CHD related mutations in forkhead box genes as well as the abnormal expression of forkhead box gene, and discusses additional possible regulatory mechanisms of the forkhead box genes during embryonic heart development that warrant further investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Boxes and Sound Quality in AN Italian Opera House

    Science.gov (United States)

    COCCHI, A.; GARAI, M.; TAVERNELLI, C.

    2000-04-01

    The “Teatro Comunale” (City Theatre) in Bologna is an Italian opera house of the 18th century, designed by the famous architect Antonio Galli Bibiena. Largely built in masonry, it has been only partially restored and altered several times, but never destroyed and rebuilt. The study of its acoustics, while interesting for itself, offers the opportunity to investigate the role of the boxes, which constitute the most evident characteristic of Italian opera houses. The study was carried on at first by measurements, acquiring binaural impulse responses in the stalls and in the boxes, and then by computer simulation, modelling also some changes which cannot be done in the real hall. The measurements revealed clear differences between the listening quality in the boxes and in the stalls, especially regarding ITDG, clarity and IACC. Computer simulations show how the sound field in the historical theatre could be if the sound absorption of the boxes were changed, adding some velvet curtains, as was done in ancient times, and clarify the effects of the cavities which constitutes the boxes.

  19. Dissociation of lipotoxicity and glucotoxicity in a mouse model of obesity associated diabetes: role of forkhead box O1 (FOXO1) in glucose-induced beta cell failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluth, O; Mirhashemi, F; Scherneck, S; Kaiser, D; Kluge, R; Neschen, S; Joost, H-G; Schürmann, A

    2011-03-01

    Carbohydrate-free diet prevents hyperglycaemia and beta cell destruction in the New Zealand Obese (NZO) mouse model. Here we have used a sequential dietary regimen to dissociate the effects of obesity and hyperglycaemia on beta cell function and integrity, and to study glucose-induced alterations of key transcription factors over 16 days. Mice were rendered obese by feeding a carbohydrate-free diet for 18 weeks. Thereafter, a carbohydrate-containing diet was given. Plasma glucose, plasma insulin and total pancreatic insulin were determined, and forkhead box O1 protein (FOXO1) phosphorylation and the transcription factors pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (PDX1), NK6 homeobox 1 protein (NKX6.1) and v-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene family, protein A (avian) (MAFA) were monitored by immunohistochemistry for 16 days. Dietary carbohydrates produced a rapid and continuous increase in plasma glucose in NZO mice between day 2 and 16 after the dietary challenge. Hyperglycaemia caused a dramatic dephosphorylation of FOXO1 at day 2, followed by a progressive depletion of insulin stores. The loss of beta cells was triggered by apoptosis (detectable at day 8), associated with reduction of crucial transcription factors (PDX1, NKX6.1 and MAFA). Incubation of isolated islets from carbohydrate-restricted NZO mice or MIN6 cells with palmitate and glucose for 48 h resulted in a dephosphorylation of FOXO1 and thymoma viral proto-oncogene 1 (AKT) without changing the protein levels of both proteins. The dietary regimen dissociates the effects of obesity (lipotoxicity) from those of hyperglycaemia (glucotoxicity) in NZO mice. Obese NZO mice are unable to compensate for the carbohydrate challenge by increasing insulin secretion or synthesising adequate amounts of insulin. In response to the hyperglycaemia, FOXO1 is dephosphorylated, leading to reduced levels of beta cell-specific transcription factors and to apoptosis of the cells.

  20. Using the Eddy Covariance Method, Chambers, and Box Modeling to Characterize Spatial and Temporal Trends in Greenhouse Gas Emissions over a Barley Field in the Inland Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldo, S.; Kostyanovsky, K.; O'Keeffe, P.; Chi, J.; Pressley, S. N.; Huggins, D.; Uberuaga, D.; Lamb, B. K.

    2013-12-01

    Characterizing the dynamics of greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes in agricultural systems is becoming increasingly important in the face of population growth and climate change. Monitoring baseline fluxes of both carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) over agroecosystems allows for a better understanding of how climate and management practices affect the GHG budget of a given field. In this study, fluxes of CO2 and N2O were measured and compared using the eddy covariance (EC) technique and four automated static chambers (LI-8100A). The site is outfitted with an EC tower to continuously measure fluxes of CO2, H2O, and energy as well as auxiliary meteorological variables. Both the chamber system and N2O instrument were added for a month-long period following spring fertilization and seeding. The difference in scales between the tower and the chambers allowed for analysis of the spatial variability of fluxes. For N2O, the spatial variability was very high, with up to ten-fold differences in fluxes between the four chambers. However, the magnitude of the tower-based fluxes was closest to that of the highest-emitting chamber. In addition to addressing spatial variability, the chamber measurements helped to characterize nighttime fluxes, when stable conditions often lead to gaps in eddy covariance data. Box modeling techniques were also used to fill in nocturnal data gaps. The relationship between N2O fluxes and meteorological conditions was analyzed, as well as the relationship between N2O emissions and CO2 respiration. It was found that the total N2O-N emission from the site in the one-month period following fertilization exceeded the IPCC estimate of 1% of fertilizer-N applied. Instrumented tower and one of the four chambers monitoring the exchange of GHGs over a barley field

  1. The feasibility and effectiveness of high-intensity boxing training versus moderate-intensity brisk walking in adults with abdominal obesity: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Cheema, Birinder S.; Davies, Timothy B; Stewart, Matthew; Papalia, Shona; Atlantis, Evan

    2015-01-01

    Background High-intensity interval training (HIIT) performed on exercise cycle or treadmill is considered safe and often more beneficial for fat loss and cardiometabolic health than moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT). The aim of this pilot study was to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of a 12-week boxing training (HIIT) intervention compared with an equivalent dose of brisk walking (MICT) in obese adults. Methods Men and women with abdominal obesity and body mass index >25?...

  2. Black-Box Search by Unbiased Variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehre, Per Kristian; Witt, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    The complexity theory for black-box algorithms, introduced by Droste, Jansen, and Wegener (Theory Comput. Syst. 39:525–544, 2006), describes common limits on the efficiency of a broad class of randomised search heuristics. There is an obvious trade-off between the generality of the black-box model...... and the strength of the bounds that can be proven in such a model. In particular, the original black-box model provides for well-known benchmark problems relatively small lower bounds, which seem unrealistic in certain cases and are typically not met by popular search heuristics.In this paper, we introduce a more...... restricted black-box model for optimisation of pseudo-Boolean functions which we claim captures the working principles of many randomised search heuristics including simulated annealing, evolutionary algorithms, randomised local search, and others. The key concept worked out is an unbiased variation operator...

  3. ENERGY STAR Certified Set Top Boxes

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 5.1 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Set-top Boxes that are effective as of January...

  4. Quantifying and Reducing Model-Form Uncertainties in Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes Equations: An Open-Box, Physics-Based, Bayesian Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, H; Wang, J -X; Sun, R; Roy, C J

    2015-01-01

    Despite their well-known limitations, Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) models are still the workhorse tools for turbulent flow simulations in today's engineering applications. For many practical flows, the turbulence models are by far the most important source of uncertainty. In this work we develop an open-box, physics-informed Bayesian framework for quantifying model-form uncertainties in RANS simulations. Uncertainties are introduced directly to the Reynolds stresses and are represented with compact parameterization accounting for empirical prior knowledge and physical constraints (e.g., realizability, smoothness, and symmetry). An iterative ensemble Kalman method is used to assimilate the prior knowledge and observation data in a Bayesian framework, and to propagate them to posterior distributions of velocities and other Quantities of Interest (QoIs). We use two representative cases, the flow over periodic hills and the flow in a square duct, to evaluate the performance of the proposed framework. Si...

  5. The feasibility and effectiveness of high-intensity boxing training versus moderate-intensity brisk walking in adults with abdominal obesity: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheema, Birinder S; Davies, Timothy B; Stewart, Matthew; Papalia, Shona; Atlantis, Evan

    2015-01-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) performed on exercise cycle or treadmill is considered safe and often more beneficial for fat loss and cardiometabolic health than moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT). The aim of this pilot study was to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of a 12-week boxing training (HIIT) intervention compared with an equivalent dose of brisk walking (MICT) in obese adults. Men and women with abdominal obesity and body mass index >25 kg/m(2) were randomized to either a boxing group or a brisk walking (control) group for 12 weeks. Each group engaged in 4 training sessions per week, equated for total physical activity. Feasibility outcomes included recruitment rates, assessment of training intensities, adherence and adverse events. Effectiveness was assessed pre and post intervention via pertinent obesity-, cardiovascular-, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) outcomes. Nineteen individuals expressed an interest and 63% (n = 12) consented. Recruitment was slower than anticipated (1.3 participants/week). The boxing group trained at a significantly higher intensity each week versus the brisk walking group (p exercise with modifications to the exercise program. No other adverse events were noted. The boxing group attended more sessions (79% vs. 55%) and had a lower attrition rate (n = 0 vs. n = 2) than the walking group. Analysis of covariance revealed that the boxing group significantly improved body fat percentage (p = 0.047), systolic blood pressure (p = 0.026), augmentation index (AIx; p walking group did not improve any clinical outcomes, and experienced a worsening of Vitality (p = 0.043). Boxing training (HIIT) in adults with abdominal obesity is feasible and may elicit a better therapeutic effect on obesity, cardiovascular, and HRQoL outcomes than an equivalent dose of brisk walking (MICT). Robustly designed randomized controlled trials are required to confirm these findings and inform

  6. BOX-COX REGRESSION METHOD IN TIME SCALING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ATİLLA GÖKTAŞ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Box-Cox regression method with λj, for j = 1, 2, ..., k, power transformation can be used when dependent variable and error term of the linear regression model do not satisfy the continuity and normality assumptions. The situation obtaining the smallest mean square error  when optimum power λj, transformation for j = 1, 2, ..., k, of Y has been discussed. Box-Cox regression method is especially appropriate to adjust existence skewness or heteroscedasticity of error terms for a nonlinear functional relationship between dependent and explanatory variables. In this study, the advantage and disadvantage use of Box-Cox regression method have been discussed in differentiation and differantial analysis of time scale concept.

  7. Magnetorotational dynamo action in the shearing box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Justin; Boldyrev, Stanislav

    2017-09-01

    Magnetic dynamo action caused by the magnetorotational instability is studied in the shearing-box approximation with no imposed net magnetic flux. Consistent with recent studies, the dynamo action is found to be sensitive to the aspect ratio of the box: it is much easier to obtain in tall boxes (stretched in the direction normal to the disc plane) than in long boxes (stretched in the radial direction). Our direct numerical simulations indicate that the dynamo is possible in both cases, given a large enough magnetic Reynolds number. To explain the relatively larger effort required to obtain the dynamo action in a long box, we propose that the turbulent eddies caused by the instability most efficiently fold and mix the magnetic field lines in the radial direction. As a result, in the long box the scale of the generated strong azimuthal (stream-wise directed) magnetic field is always comparable to the scale of the turbulent eddies. In contrast, in the tall box the azimuthal magnetic flux spreads in the vertical direction over a distance exceeding the scale of the turbulent eddies. As a result, different vertical sections of the tall box are permeated by large-scale non-zero azimuthal magnetic fluxes, facilitating the instability. In agreement with this picture, the cases when the dynamo is efficient are characterized by a strong intermittency of the local azimuthal magnetic fluxes.

  8. Experimental study on buckling and ultimate strength of thin-walled box stub columns; Usuniku hakogata danmen buzai no zakutsu / shukyoku kyodo tokusei ni kansuru jikkenteki kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakai, H.; Kitada, T. [Osaka City Univ. (Japan); Oryu, T. [Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1998-10-21

    Thin-walled box stub columns such as beams of cable-stayed bridge, suspension bridge tower, arch rib of arch bridge and steel piers and so forth can also bear torsion at the same time besides compression and bending. These thin-walled box stub columns may achieve ultimate condition before reaching to plastic condition due to the effect of local buckling and so forth. Accordingly, it is the important topic to study the properties regarding ultimate strength of thin-walled box members in order to evaluate correctly the effect on load bearing resistance of local buckling. In this report, validity of load bearing resistance curve and ultimate strength interaction curve proposed by authors was studied using load bearing capacity experiment results. As a result, all ultimate strengths obtained by the experiment were higher than the ultimate strengths estimated by load bearing capacity curve and ultimate strength interaction curve. Further, it was revealed that the specimens subjected to torsion or subjected to bending and torsion and so forth exceeded the plastic strength due to the effect of strain hardening. 12 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Experts’ Misinterpretation of Box Plots – a Dual Processing Approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stephanie Lem; Patrick Onghena; Lieven Verschaffel; Wim Van Dooren

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that students often misinterpret the area of the box in box plots as representing the frequency or proportion of observations in that interval, while it actually represents density...

  10. The clinicopathological significance of forkhead box P1 and forkhead box O3a in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xin; Yang, Zhulin; Liu, Xiao; Liu, Ziru; Miao, Xiongying; Li, Daiqiang; Zou, Qiong; Yuan, Yuan

    2017-05-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is a highly malignant tumor with poor prognosis, and the biomarkers for the early diagnosis, targeting therapy, and prognosis are still not clinically available. This study investigated the expression of forkhead box P1 and forkhead box O3a proteins in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma tumor tissues and pancreatic tissues with and without benign lesions using immunohistochemical staining. Results showed that the positive rates of forkhead box P1 and forkhead box O3a protein expression were significantly lower in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma tumors compared to peritumoral tissues, benign pancreatic tissues, and normal pancreatic tissues (p box P1 and forkhead box O3a protein expression exhibited dysplasia or intraepithelial neoplasia. The positive rates of forkhead box P1 and forkhead box O3a expression were significantly lower in cases with tumor mass >5 cm, lymph node metastasis, invasion to surrounding tissues and organs, and tumor-node-metastasis III + IV stage disease compared to cases with tumor mass ⩽5 cm (p box P1 and forkhead box O3a expression survived significantly shorter than patients with positive forkhead box P1 and forkhead box O3a expression (p = 0.000). Cox multivariate analysis revealed that negative forkhead box P1 and forkhead box O3a expression was an independent poor prognosis factor in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma patients. The area under the curve of a receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.642 for forkhead box P1 (95% confidence interval: 0.553-0.730) and 0.655 for forkhead box O3a (95% confidence interval: 0.6568-0.742). Loss of forkhead box P1 and forkhead box O3a protein expression is associated with carcinogenesis, progression, and poor prognosis in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas.

  11. BoxPlot++

    OpenAIRE

    Azmeh, Zeina; Hamoui, Fady; Huchard, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    We propose the BoxPlot++ as an extension of Tukey's boxplot. We improve the resulting data values distribution by removing the repeated values and by calculating distances between the points and the nearest median.

  12. Can the design of glove dispensing boxes influence glove contamination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assadian, O; Leaper, D J; Kramer, A; Ousey, K J

    2016-11-01

    Few studies have explored the microbial contamination of glove boxes in clinical settings. The objective of this observational study was to investigate whether a new glove packaging system in which single gloves are dispensed vertically, cuff end first, has lower levels of contamination on the gloves and on the surface around the box aperture compared with conventional glove boxes. Seven participating sites were provided with vertical glove dispensing systems (modified boxes) and conventional boxes. Before opening glove boxes, the surface around the aperture was sampled microbiologically to establish baseline levels of superficial contamination. Once the glove boxes were opened, the first pair of gloves in each box was sampled for viable bacteria. Thereafter, testing sites were visited on a weekly basis over a period of six weeks and the same microbiological assessments were made. The surface near the aperture of the modified boxes became significantly less contaminated over time compared with the conventional boxes (Pcontamination around the aperture. Overall, gloves from modified boxes showed significantly less colony-forming unit contamination than gloves from conventional boxes (Pcontamination. This simple improvement to glove box design reduces contamination of unused gloves. Such modifications could decrease the risk of microbial cross-transmission in settings that use gloves. However, such advantages do not substitute for strict hand hygiene compliance and appropriate use of non-sterile, single-use gloves. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Boxes and Shelves

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Dean

    2008-01-01

    The Boxes and Shelves series from 2008 are are all made from the backing card from discarded writing pads. Boxes and Shelves extended my investigation of quotidian materials and their relationship to the origins of creative toil. Since 1996 my research has sought to identify and locate instances where the 'unmeasurable' meets the measurable. I have consistently employed a range of utilitarian materials such as bus seats, bus tickets, puddles, A4 writing paper, to present a series of 'problem ...

  14. Freedom to box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, N

    1998-02-01

    The british Medical Association wants to criminalise all boxing. This article examines the logic of the arguments it uses and finds them wanting. The move from medical evidence about the risk of brain damage to the conclusion that boxing should be banned is not warranted. The BMA's arguments are a combination of inconsistent paternalism and legal moralism. Consistent application of the principles implicit in the BMA's arguments would lead to absurd consequences and to severe limitations being put on individual freedom.

  15. Brownian dynamics simulations on CPU and GPU with BD_BOX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Długosz, Maciej; Zieliński, Paweł; Trylska, Joanna

    2011-09-01

    There has been growing interest in simulating biological processes under in vivo conditions due to recent advances in experimental techniques dedicated to study single particle behavior in crowded environments. We have developed a software package, BD_BOX, for multiscale Brownian dynamics simulations. BD_BOX can simulate either single molecules or multicomponent systems of diverse, interacting molecular species using flexible, coarse-grained bead models. BD_BOX is written in C and employs modern computer architectures and technologies; these include MPI for distributed-memory architectures, OpenMP for shared-memory platforms, NVIDIA CUDA framework for GPGPU, and SSE vectorization for CPU. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. What Is More Important for Fourth-Grade Primary School Students for Transforming Their Potential into Achievement: The Individual or the Environmental Box in Multidimensional Conceptions of Giftedness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeger, Heidrun; Steinbach, Julia; Obergriesser, Stefanie; Matthes, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Multidimensional models of giftedness specify individual and environmental moderators or catalysts that help transform potential into achievement. However, these models do not state whether the importance of the "individual boxes" and the "environmental boxes" changes during this process. The present study examines whether,…

  17. Cable Tester Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jason H.

    2011-01-01

    Cables are very important electrical devices that carry power and signals across multiple instruments. Any fault in a cable can easily result in a catastrophic outcome. Therefore, verifying that all cables are built to spec is a very important part of Electrical Integration Procedures. Currently, there are two methods used in lab for verifying cable connectivity. (1) Using a Break-Out Box and an ohmmeter this method is time-consuming but effective for custom cables and (2) Commercial Automated Cable Tester Boxes this method is fast, but to test custom cables often requires pre-programmed configuration files, and cables used on spacecraft are often uniquely designed for specific purposes. The idea is to develop a semi-automatic continuity tester that reduces human effort in cable testing, speeds up the electrical integration process, and ensures system safety. The JPL-Cable Tester Box is developed to check every single possible electrical connection in a cable in parallel. This system indicates connectivity through LED (light emitting diode) circuits. Users can choose to test any pin/shell (test node) with a single push of a button, and any other nodes that are shorted to the test node, even if they are in the same connector, will light up with the test node. The JPL-Cable Tester Boxes offers the following advantages: 1. Easy to use: The architecture is simple enough that it only takes 5 minutes for anyone to learn how operate the Cable Tester Box. No pre-programming and calibration are required, since this box only checks continuity. 2. Fast: The cable tester box checks all the possible electrical connections in parallel at a push of a button. If a cable normally takes half an hour to test, using the Cable Tester Box will improve the speed to as little as 60 seconds to complete. 3. Versatile: Multiple cable tester boxes can be used together. As long as all the boxes share the same electrical potential, any number of connectors can be tested together.

  18. Grey-box Modelling of a Household Refrigeration Unit Using Time Series Data in Application to Demand Side Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sossan, Fabrizio; Lakshmanan, Venkatachalam; Costanzo, Giuseppe Tommaso

    2016-01-01

    estimation (MLE), validated through the model residuals analysis and cross-validated to detect model over-fitting. A nonlinear model based on the reversed Carnot cycle is also presented and included in the modeling performance analysis. As an application of the models, we apply model predictive control (MPC...

  19. Interdisciplinary study of the venom from the Australian box jellyfish Chironex Fleckeri and its potential in drug discovery

    OpenAIRE

    VICTOR MIKHAILOVICH SUTURIN

    2017-01-01

    The Australian box jellyfish is the world's most venomous marine organism, which can kill a grown human in minutes due to its savage cocktail of toxins. However, in this deadly venom reside molecules, which can be usurped for uses in research and medicine. In this PhD, we investigated this complex venom as a drug discovery source for cardiovascular and nervous system disorders. In the end, we uncovered a portfolio of interactive toxins with unique effects in the heart, brain and sensory nervo...

  20. Autoantibodies to box A of high mobility group box 1 in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaper, F; de Leeuw, K; Horst, G; Maas, F; Bootsma, H; Heeringa, P; Limburg, P C; Westra, J

    2017-06-01

    Autoantibodies to nuclear structures are a hallmark of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), including autoantibodies to nuclear protein high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1). HMGB1 consists of three separate domains: box A, box B and an acidic tail. Recombinant box A acts as a competitive antagonist for HMGB1 and might be an interesting treatment option in SLE. However, antibodies to box A might interfere. Therefore, levels of anti-box A were examined in SLE patients in association with disease activity and clinical parameters. Serum anti-box A was measured in 86 SLE patients and 44 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HC). Serum samples of 28 patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome and 32 patients with rheumatoid arthritis were included as disease controls. Anti-HMGB1 and anti-box B levels were also measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay during quiescent disease [SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) ≤ 4, n = 47] and active disease (SLEDAI ≥ 5, n = 39). Anti-box A levels in active SLE patients were higher compared to quiescent patients, and were increased significantly compared to HC and disease controls. Anti-box A levels correlated positively with SLEDAI and anti-dsDNA levels and negatively with complement C3 levels. Increased levels of anti-box A antibodies were present in the majority of patients with nephritic (73%) and non-nephritic exacerbations (71%). Antibodies to the box A domain of HMGB1 might be an interesting new biomarker, as these had a high specificity for SLE and were associated with disease activity. Longitudinal studies should be performed to evaluate whether these antibodies perform better in predicting an exacerbation, especially non-nephritic exacerbations. © 2017 British Society for Immunology.

  1. Utilizing the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm for enhanced registration of high resolution surface models - more than a simple black-box application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöcker, Claudia; Eltner, Anette

    2016-04-01

    Advances in computer vision and digital photogrammetry (i.e. structure from motion) allow for fast and flexible high resolution data supply. Within geoscience applications and especially in the field of small surface topography, high resolution digital terrain models and dense 3D point clouds are valuable data sources to capture actual states as well as for multi-temporal studies. However, there are still some limitations regarding robust registration and accuracy demands (e.g. systematic positional errors) which impede the comparison and/or combination of multi-sensor data products. Therefore, post-processing of 3D point clouds can heavily enhance data quality. In this matter the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm represents an alignment tool which iteratively minimizes distances of corresponding points within two datasets. Even though tool is widely used; it is often applied as a black-box application within 3D data post-processing for surface reconstruction. Aiming for precise and accurate combination of multi-sensor data sets, this study looks closely at different variants of the ICP algorithm including sub-steps of point selection, point matching, weighting, rejection, error metric and minimization. Therefore, an agricultural utilized field was investigated simultaneously by terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) sensors two times (once covered with sparse vegetation and once bare soil). Due to different perspectives both data sets show diverse consistency in terms of shadowed areas and thus gaps so that data merging would provide consistent surface reconstruction. Although photogrammetric processing already included sub-cm accurate ground control surveys, UAV point cloud exhibits an offset towards TLS point cloud. In order to achieve the transformation matrix for fine registration of UAV point clouds, different ICP variants were tested. Statistical analyses of the results show that final success of registration and therefore

  2. Plasma{endash}neutral interaction in tokamak divertor for {open_quote}{open_quote}gas box{close_quote}{close_quote} neutral model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasheninnikov, S.I. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Plasma Fusion Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Soboleva, T.K. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1996-06-01

    Plasma flow through the gas cloud in a tokamak divertor for {open_quote}{open_quote}gas box{close_quote}{close_quote} divertor geometry and Knudsen regime of neutral transport is investigated. It is shown that similar to the neutral models that have considered previously, (i) plasma parameters near the target is sensitive to the energy flux into the hydrogen recycling region and can change rapidly, resulting in bifurcation-like behavior, which might be interpreted as a transition to detached regime, (ii) plasma flux onto the target starts to decrease at a very low plasma temperature near the target, while a strong pressure drop already occurs. At low plasma temperature near the target the recombination processes can significantly alter the plasma flux onto the target. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. TIME SERIES CHARACTERISTIC ANALYSIS OF RAINFALL, LAND USE AND FLOOD DISCHARGE BASED ON ARIMA BOX-JENKINS MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abror Abror

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia located in tropic area consists of wet season and dry season. However, in last few years, in river discharge in dry season is very little, but in contrary, in wet season, frequency of flood increases with sharp peak and increasingly great water elevation. The increased flood discharge may occur due to change in land use or change in rainfall characteristic. Both matters should get clarity. Therefore, a research should be done to analyze rainfall characteristic, land use and flood discharge in some watershed area (DAS quantitatively from time series data. The research was conducted in DAS Gintung in Parakankidang, DAS Gung in Danawarih, DAS Rambut in Cipero, DAS Kemiri in Sidapurna and DAS Comal in Nambo, located in Tegal Regency and Pemalang Regency in Central Java Province. This research activity consisted of three main steps: input, DAS system and output. Input is DAS determination and selection and searching secondary data. DAS system is early secondary data processing consisting of rainfall analysis, HSS GAMA I parameter, land type analysis and DAS land use. Output is final processing step that consisting of calculation of Tadashi Tanimoto, USSCS effective rainfall, flood discharge, ARIMA analysis, result analysis and conclusion. Analytical calculation of ARIMA Box-Jenkins time series used software Number Cruncher Statistical Systems and Power Analysis Sample Size (NCSS-PASS version 2000, which result in time series characteristic in form of time series pattern, mean square errors (MSE, root mean square ( RMS, autocorrelation of residual and trend. Result of this research indicates that composite CN and flood discharge is proportional that means when composite CN trend increase then flood discharge trend also increase and vice versa. Meanwhile, decrease of rainfall trend is not always followed with decrease in flood discharge trend. The main cause of flood discharge characteristic is DAS management characteristic, not change in

  4. Box-modeling of the impacts of atmospheric nitrogen deposition and benthic remineralization on the nitrogen cycle of the eastern tropical South Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, B.; Pahlow, M.; Oschlies, A.

    2015-09-01

    Both atmospheric deposition and benthic remineralization influence the marine nitrogen cycle, and hence ultimately also marine primary production. The biological and biogeochemical relations of the eastern tropical South Pacific (ETSP) to nitrogen deposition, benthic denitrification and phosphate regeneration are analysed in a prognostic box model of the oxygen, nitrogen and phosphorus cycles in the ETSP. In the model, atmospheric nitrogen deposition based on estimates for the years 2000-2009 is offset by half by reduced N2 fixation, with the other half transported out of the model domain. Both model- and data-based benthic denitrification are found to trigger nitrogen fixation, partly compensating for the NO3- loss. Since phosphate is the ultimate limiting nutrient in the model, enhanced sedimentary phosphate regeneration under suboxic conditions stimulates primary production and subsequent export production and NO3- loss in the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). A sensitivity analysis of the local response to both atmospheric deposition and benthic remineralization indicates dominant stabilizing feedbacks in the ETSP, which tend to keep a balanced nitrogen inventory, i.e., nitrogen input by atmospheric deposition is counteracted by decreasing nitrogen fixation; NO3- loss via benthic denitrification is partly compensated by increased nitrogen fixation; enhanced nitrogen fixation stimulated by phosphate regeneration is partly removed by the stronger water-column denitrification. Even though the water column in our model domain acts as a NO3- source, the ETSP including benthic denitrification might become a NO3- sink.

  5. Optimizing PHB and Protease Production by Box Behnken Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amro Abd al fattah Amara

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mixed culture is more suitable to adapt more flexible fermentation process and produce different product simultaneously. In this study a mixed Bacillus culture was investigated for their ability to produce the bioplastic "Polyhydroxybutyrate" and both of the mesophilic and the thermophilic proteases in one flask. Box-Behnken experimental design was used. The produced amount of PHB has been increased significantly. Meanwhile there is a competition between PHB and proteases. The maximum produced amount of PHB using Box-Behnken design was 2.82 g/l/48 h with protease activity equal to 41.9 Units/ml/48 h for thermophilic proteases and 99.65 Units/ml/48 h for mesophilic proteases. Excel solver was used for extra-optimization for the optimum conditions obtained from Box-Behnken experiments and its model. The maximum PHB obtained after using Excel solver was 2.88 g/l/48 h. The maximum mesophilic and thermophilic activities obtained at the same PHB production conditions were 175.68 and 243.38 Units/ml respectively. The model accuracy as obtained from Excel solver was 118.8%, which prove the power of the experimental design in optimizing such complicated process. The strategies used in this study are recommended for the production of PHB and different proteases simultaneously using Bacillus mixed culture. ABSTRAK: Kultur campuran adalah lebih sesuai bagi proses penapaian yang fleksibel dan ia boleh menghasilkan produk yang berbeza secara serentak. Dalam kajian ini keupayaan  menghasilkan "Polyhydroxybutyrate" bioplastik serta mesofilik dan termofilik protease dalam satu flask oleh  kultur Bacillus campuran telah disiasat. Eksperimen rekabentuk Box-Behnken telah digunakan. Jumlah PHB yang dikeluarkan meningkat dengan ketara dan terdapat persaingan antara PHB dan protease. Jumlah keluaran PHB maksima menggunakan rekabentuk Box-Behnken adalah 2.82 g/l/48 jam dengan aktiviti protease sama dengan 41.9 Unit/ml/48 jam untuk protease termofilik dan 99.65 Unit

  6. Opto-Box

    CERN Document Server

    Bertsche, David; The ATLAS collaboration; Welch, Steven; Smith, Dale Shane; Che, Siinn; Gan, K.K.; Boyd, George Russell Jr

    2015-01-01

    The opto-box is a custom mini-crate for housing optical modules, which process and transfer optoelectronic data. The system tightly integrates electrical, mechanical, and thermal functionality into a small package of size 35x10x8 cm^3. Special attention was given to ensure proper shielding, grounding, cooling, high reliability, and environmental tolerance. The custom modules, which incorporate Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs), were developed through a cycle of rigorous testing and redesign. In total, fourteen opto-boxes have been installed and loaded with modules on the ATLAS detector. They are currently in operation as part of the LHC run 2 data read-out chain.

  7. A comparison of high-mobility group-box 1 protein, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein and procalcitonin in severe community-acquired infections and bacteraemia: a prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaïni, Shahin; Koldkjaer, Ole G; Møller, Holger J

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: High-mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1) has been known as a chromosomal protein for many years. HMGB1 has recently been shown to be a proinflammatory cytokine with a role in the immunopathogenesis of sepsis. Lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) has a central role in the innate...... cell count and neutrophils) were measured with commercially available laboratory techniques. RESULTS: A total of 185 adult patients were included in the study; 154 patients fulfilled our definition of infection. Levels of HMGB1, LBP and PCT were higher in infected patients compared with a healthy...

  8. From Boutique to Big Box: A Case Study Concerning Teacher Change Transitioning to a Public Montessori Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Acker, Teresa A.

    2013-01-01

    Public Montessori schools have grown in number significantly in the United States. This case study chronicles the journey of teachers as they navigate the tension of balancing the Montessori approach with an accountability Standards model. Although Montessori may be in demand among parents in the nation, exhibited by the increase in public…

  9. IN-A-BOX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 2. Claude Elwood Shannon. Priti Shankar. Article-in-a-Box Volume 7 Issue 2 February 2002 pp 2-3. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/007/02/0002-0003. Author Affiliations.

  10. Mystery Box Marvels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Joel; Centurio, Tina

    2012-01-01

    What happens in the first week of school could very well set the stage for the rest of the school year. Setting high standards for science activities based in inquiry can start on the first day of science class and develop as the year unfolds. With the use of simple, readily available, inexpensive materials, an efficient mystery box lesson can be…

  11. Detailed comparisons of airborne formaldehyde measurements with box models during the 2006 INTEX-B and MILAGRO campaigns: potential evidence for significant impacts of unmeasured and multi-generation volatile organic carbon compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fried

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Detailed comparisons of airborne CH2O measurements acquired by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy with steady state box model calculations were carried out using data from the 2006 INTEX-B and MILARGO campaign in order to improve our understanding of hydrocarbon oxidation processing. This study includes comparisons over Mexico (including Mexico City, the Gulf of Mexico, parts of the continental United States near the Gulf coast, as well as the more remote Pacific Ocean, and focuses on comparisons in the boundary layer. Select previous comparisons in other campaigns have highlighted some locations in the boundary layer where steady state box models have tended to underpredict CH2O, suggesting that standard steady state modeling assumptions might be unsuitable under these conditions, and pointing to a possible role for unmeasured hydrocarbons and/or additional primary emission sources of CH2O. Employing an improved instrument, more detailed measurement-model comparisons with better temporal overlap, up-to-date measurement and model precision estimates, up-to-date rate constants, and additional modeling tools based on both Lagrangian and Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM runs, we have explained much of the disagreement between observed and predicted CH2O as resulting from non-steady-state atmospheric conditions in the vicinity of large pollution sources, and have quantified the disagreement as a function of plume lifetime (processing time. We show that in the near field (within ~4 to 6 h of the source, steady-state models can either over-or-underestimate observations, depending on the predominant non-steady-state influence. In addition, we show that even far field processes (10–40 h can be influenced by non-steady-state conditions which can be responsible for CH2O model underestimations by ~20%. At the longer processing times in the 10 to 40 h range during Mexico City outflow events

  12. Prospective study of Chironex fleckeri and other box jellyfish stings in the "Top End" of Australia's Northern Territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Bart J; Jacups, Susan P

    To describe the epidemiology and clinical features of box jellyfish envenoming in the Top End of the Northern Territory and, in particular, confirmed stings from the major Australian box jellyfish, Chironex fleckeri. Prospective collection of clinical data and skin scrapings or sticky-tape tests for nematocyst identification from patients presenting to Royal Darwin Hospital and remote coastal community health clinics in the Northern Territory, spanning 10 950 km of coastline; analysis of tidal, weather and seasonal data. All patients with jellyfish sting details recorded between 1 April 1991 and 30 May 2004. Demographic and clinical features, use of C. fleckeri antivenom, and associations between weather, seasonal and tidal factors and confirmed C. fleckeri stings. Of 606 jellyfish stings documented, 225 were confirmed to have been caused by C. fleckeri. 37% of C. fleckeri stings were in children, 92% occurred during the "stinger season" (1 October to 1 June), 83% occurred in water 1 m or less deep, and 17% occurred while victims were entering the water. Stings were least common on outgoing tides (P < 0.001) and commonest between 15:00 and 18:00 (P < 0.001) and on days with wind speed less than that month's average (P < 0.001). Nearly all victims experienced immediate pain, but this could often be controlled with ice; only 30% required parenteral narcotics and 8% required hospital admission. Cardiorespiratory arrest occurred within several minutes of the sting in the one fatal case, involving a 3-year-old girl with only 1.2 m of visible tentacle contact. C. fleckeri antivenom was given to another 21 patients, none of whom had life-threatening features at the time they were given antivenom. Most C. fleckeri stings are not life-threatening; patients who die usually have cardiopulmonary arrest within minutes of the sting. The potential benefit of antivenom and magnesium under these circumstances remains to be shown, but a protocol with their rapid use is recommended

  13. BOX MEDIA MODEL THROUGH THE USE OF CONTEXTUAL UNDERSTANDING TO IMPROVE STUDENT LEARNING CONCEPTS IN VOLUME BEAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dede Rohaeni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This research is motivated Cilengkrang Elementary School fifth grade students in the learning of the beam volume is still experiencing difficulties. This happens because the learning process that takes place is conventional. Learning by applying a contextual model chosen researchers by reason students will know if the learning is associated with the real world of students. The method used in this research is a classroom action research methods to the design of the research procedure refers to the spiral model Kemmis and MC. Tujuanpenelitianini is to obtain an overview of the planning, implementation and improvement of students' understanding of the results of the application of the concept model of contextual learning in the classroom beam volume V Elementary School Cilengkrang. The method used in this research is a classroom action research methods to the design of the research procedure refers to the spiral model Kemmis and MC. Taggart. Based on the implementation of the actions performed by three cycles, as a whole has shown an increase from the initial data, both process and outcomes of learning. So that the application of contextual models can enhance students' understanding of class V SDN Cilengkrang Northern District of Sumedang Sumedang district of the concept of the beam volume.   Keywords: Contextual Model, Mathematics, Mathematics Learning Objectives     Abstrak. Penelitian ini dilatarbelakangi siswa kelas V SDN Cilengkrang dalam pembelajaran volume balok masih mengalami kesulitan. Ini terjadi karena proses pembelajaran yang berlangsung bersifat konvensional. Pembelajaran dengan menerapkan model kontekstual dipilih peneliti dengan alasan siswa akan paham jika pembelajaran dikaitkan dengan dunia nyata siswa. Metode penelitian yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode penelitian tindakan kelas dengan rancangan prosedur penelitiannya mengacu pada model spiral Kemmis dan MC. Tujuanpenelitianini yaitu untuk memperoleh

  14. Super blue box recycling (SUBBOR) enhanced two-stage anaerobic digestion process for recycling municipal solid waste: laboratory pilot studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, G M; Liu, H W; Kennedy, K J; Vogt, H S; Holbein, B E

    2002-12-01

    The super blue box recycling (SUBBOR) process is an enhanced, multi-stage anaerobic digestion process for mixed municipal solid waste (MSW) and other biomass feedstock materials. The technology centers on enhanced high solids, thermophilic digestion after steam-pressure disruption of the ligno-cellulosic fiber components that are recalcitrant to conventional anaerobic digestion. Mixed MSW, rich in organic components but also containing inorganic materials, such as glass, aluminum and steel, as well as non-digestible plastic materials, has been laboratory pilot tested with a fully integrated process train designed to treat and recycle all of the MSW components. Methane yields from the MSW were 0.36 m3 CH4/kg volatile solids (VS) representing a 40% increase over the yield obtained from conventional single stage digestion. The secondary digestion step after steam pressure disruption also provided a 40% improvement in total solids and VS reduction. The residual organic fraction following two-stage digestion was fine in texture and was recovered as a clean peat fraction with reduced contents of heavy metal and other fugitive non-digested contaminants. Mass and energy balance determinations indicated a high degree of MSW diversion from landfill disposal (>80%) was achievable by the SUBBOR process as well as substantial net electrical and thermal energy production. Continuous long-term trials of the SUBBOR process at 25,000 tonnes/year are underway.

  15. Study on the Effect and Mechanism of Aerodynamic Measures for the Vortex-Induced Vibration of Separate Pairs of Box Girders in Cable-Stayed Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Xin He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although not always resulting in catastrophic failures, vortex-induced vibration (VIV response can seriously impact the fatigue life and functionality of bridges, especially for separate pairs of box girders in cable-stayed bridges. This study investigates the effects of three aerodynamic measures: grating, inclined web plate, and the baffles on separated box girders in the cable-stayed bridges. The experimental result indicates that the grating of different opening ratios can control the vortex-induced vibration effectively, and the optimized grating opening ratio set in this paper is 40%. Increasing the angle of inclined web plate has a great control on mitigation of the vortex-induced vibration. However, there is an optimum angle where the amplitude of vortex-induced vibration is the smallest at low wind speed. The amplitude of vortex-induced vibration becomes larger with the increase of the web inclined angle that exceeds the optimum angle. Comparatively, the baffles installed on both sides of the inclined webs are more effective to restrain the vortex-induced resonance. The Computational Fluent Dynamics (CFD software is utilized to investigate the mechanism of the experimental results.

  16. Hermit Points on a Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Richard; Grinstead, Charles; Grindstead, Marshall; Bergstrand, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    Suppose that we are given a rectangular box in 3-space. Given any two points on the surface of this box, we can define the surface distance between them to be the length of the shortest path between them on the surface of the box. This paper determines the pairs of points of maximum surface distance for all boxes. It is often the case that these…

  17. Dynamic Analysis of Horizontally Curved Thin-Walled Box-Girder Bridge due to Moving Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nallasivam

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact on curved box-girder bridges due to vehicle moving across rough bridge deck have been analyzed using bridge-vehicle coupled dynamics. The bridge deck unevenness has been assumed to be a homogeneous random process in space specified by a PSD function. The analysis incorporates the effect of centrifugal forces due to vehicle moving on curved bridge. The curved box-girder bridge has been numerically modeled using computationally efficient thin-walled box-beam finite elements which take into account the torsional warping, distortion and distortional warping, that are important features of thin-walled box girders. Rigid vehicle with longitudinal and transverse input to the wheels giving rise to heave-pitch-roll degrees of freedom has been considered. The theoretical bridge model used in simulation study has been validated by a free vibration experiment using impact excitation. The impact factors for several response parameters such as bending moment, shear force, torsional moment, torsional bi-moment, distortional moment, distortional bi-moment and vertical deflections have been obtained for various bridge-vehicle parameters. Both constant velocity and forward acceleration of the vehicle have been considered to examine impact factor. The results highlighted that the impact factors of a curved box girder bridge corresponding to torsion, distortion and their corresponding bimoments have been observed to be generally very high, while those of the other responses are also relatively higher than that of corresponding straight box girder bridge.

  18. Modeling Piezoceramic Twist Actuation in Single-Cell Anisotropic Torque Box of Low-Observable UAV Wing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cseke, Peter

    2000-01-01

    .... This creates torsion about the elastic axis, and a change in the wing lift coefficient. The torsion of the designed baseline UAV's wing torquebox was modeled in the presence of a full complement of air-loads by extending the Bredt-Batho theorem...

  19. The analytic solution of the firm's cost-minimization problem with box constraints and the Cobb-Douglas model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayón, L.; Grau, J. M.; Ruiz, M. M.; Suárez, P. M.

    2012-12-01

    One of the most well-known problems in the field of Microeconomics is the Firm's Cost-Minimization Problem. In this paper we establish the analytical expression for the cost function using the Cobb-Douglas model and considering maximum constraints for the inputs. Moreover we prove that it belongs to the class C1.

  20. Opto-Box

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00377159; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The opto-box is a custom mini-crate for housing optical modules, which process and transfer optoelectronic data. Many novel solutions were developed for the custom design and manufacturing. The system tightly integrates electrical, mechanical, and thermal functionality into a small package of size 35x10x8 cm$^{3}$. Special attention was given to ensure proper shielding, grounding, cooling, high reliability, and environmental tolerance. The custom modules, which incorporate Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs), were developed through a cycle of rigorous testing and redesign. In total, fourteen opto-boxes have been installed and loaded with modules on the ATLAS detector. They are currently in operation as part of the LHC run 2 data read-out chain.

  1. HYDROGEN AND VOC RETENTION IN WASTE BOXES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PACE ME; MARUSICH RM

    2008-11-21

    The Hanford Waste Management Project Master Documented Safety Analysis (MDSA) (HNF-14741, 2003) identifies derived safety controls to prevent or mitigate the risks of a single-container deflagration during operations requiring moving, venting or opening transuranic (TRU)-waste containers. The issue is whether these safety controls are necessary for operations involving TRU-waste boxes that are being retrieved from burial at the Hanford Site. This paper investigates the potential for a deflagration hazard within these boxes and whether safety controls identified for drum deflagration hazards should be applied to operations involving these boxes. The study evaluates the accumulation of hydrogen and VOCs within the waste box and the transport of these gases and vapors out of the waste box. To perform the analysis, there were numerous and major assumptions made regarding the generation rate and the transport pathway dimensions and their number. Since there is little actual data with regards to these assumptions, analyses of three potential configurations were performed to obtain some indication of the bounds of the issue (the concentration of hydrogen or flammable VOCs within a waste box). A brief description of each of the three cases along with the results of the analysis is summarized.

  2. Box-Cox transformation for QTL mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Runqing; Yi, Nengjun; Xu, Shizhong

    2006-01-01

    The maximum likelihood method of QTL mapping assumes that the phenotypic values of a quantitative trait follow a normal distribution. If the assumption is violated, some forms of transformation should be taken to make the assumption approximately true. The Box-Cox transformation is a general transformation method which can be applied to many different types of data. The flexibility of the Box-Cox transformation is due to a variable, called transformation factor, appearing in the Box-Cox formula. We developed a maximum likelihood method that treats the transformation factor as an unknown parameter, which is estimated from the data simultaneously along with the QTL parameters. The method makes an objective choice of data transformation and thus can be applied to QTL analysis for many different types of data. Simulation studies show that (1) Box-Cox transformation can substantially increase the power of QTL detection; (2) Box-Cox transformation can replace some specialized transformation methods that are commonly used in QTL mapping; and (3) applying the Box-Cox transformation to data already normally distributed does not harm the result.

  3. Deep Cropping via Attention Box Prediction and Aesthetics Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wenguan; Shen, Jianbing

    2017-01-01

    We model the photo cropping problem as a cascade of attention box regression and aesthetic quality classification, based on deep learning. A neural network is designed that has two branches for predicting attention bounding box and analyzing aesthetics, respectively. The predicted attention box is treated as an initial crop window where a set of cropping candidates are generated around it, without missing important information. Then, aesthetics assessment is employed to select the final crop ...

  4. Boxed Permutation Pattern Matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amit, Mika; Bille, Philip; Cording, Patrick Hagge

    2016-01-01

    the goal is to only find the boxed subsequences of T that are order-isomorphic to P. This problem was introduced by Bruner and Lackner who showed that it can be solved in O(n3) time. Cho et al. [CPM 2015] gave an O(n2m) time algorithm and improved it to O(n2 logm). In this paper we present a solution...

  5. Reconciling White-Box and Black-Box Perspectives on Behavioral Self-adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Bruni, Roberto; Corradini, Andrea; Gadducci, Fabio; Hölzl, Matthias; Lluch Lafuente, Alberto; Vandin, Andrea; Wirsing, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes to reconcile two perspectives on behavioral adaptation commonly taken at different stages of the engineering of autonomic computing systems. Requirements engineering activities often take a black-box perspective: A system is considered to be adaptive with respect to an environment whenever the system is able to satisfy its goals irrespectively of the environment perturbations. Modeling and programming engineering activities often take a white-box perspective: A system is e...

  6. Autoantibodies Against High Mobility Group Box 1 (HMGB1) in Patients with SLE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaper, Fleur; Horst, Gerda; Henegouwen, Daan van Beijeren Bergenen; Bijzet, Johan; de Leeuw, Karina; Stel, Alja; Limburg, Pieter C.; Heeringa, Peter; Westra, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    Background/Purpose: High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a damage-associated molecular pattern and can be divided in three separate domains: the A Box, B Box and the acidic tail. Box A by itself serves as a competitive antagonist for HMGB1 and inhibits HMGB1 activity. In an earlier study we showed

  7. Rates and regimes of photochemical ozone production over Central East China in June 2006: a box model analysis using comprehensive measurements of ozone precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kanaya

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available An observation-based box model approach was undertaken to estimate concentrations of OH, HO2, and RO2 radicals and the net photochemical production rate of ozone at the top of Mount Tai, located in the middle of Central East China, in June 2006. The model calculation was constrained by the measurements of O3, H2O, CO, NO, NO2, hydrocarbon, HCHO, and CH3CHO concentrations, and temperature and J values. The net production rate of ozone was estimated to be 6.4 ppb h−1 as a 6-h average (09:00–15:00 CST, suggesting 58±37 ppb of ozone is produced in one day. Thus the daytime buildup of ozone recorded at the mountain top as ~23 ppb on average is likely affected by in situ photochemistry as well as by the upward transport of polluted air mass in the daytime. On days with high ozone concentrations (hourly values exceeding 100 ppb at least once, in situ photochemistry was more active than it was on low ozone days, suggesting that in situ photochemistry is an important factor controlling ozone concentrations. Sensitivity model runs for which different NOx and hydrocarbon concentrations were assumed suggested that the ozone production occurred normally under NOx-limited conditions, with some exceptional periods (under volatile-organic-compound-limited conditions in which there was fresh pollution. We also examined the possible influence of the heterogeneous loss of gaseous HO2 radicals in contact with aerosol particle surfaces on the rate and regimes of ozone production.

  8. Structure of the turbidity field in the Guadalquivir estuary : Analysis of observations and a box model approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diez-Minguito, M.; Baquerizo, A.; de Swart, H. E.; Losada, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    A study is presented on the transport of suspended particulate matter (SPM) in the Guadalquivir estuary during low river flow conditions. Observations show that tidally induced SPM exceeds that associated with catchment-derived inputs. The main mechanisms that contribute to longitudinal transport

  9. Modeling out-of-plane actuation in thin-film nematic polymer networks: From chiral ribbons to auto-origami boxes via twist and topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez-Pinto, Vianney; Ye, Fangfu; Mbanga, Badel; Selinger, Jonathan V.; Selinger, Robin L. B.

    2017-03-01

    Various experimental and theoretical studies demonstrate that complex stimulus-responsive out-of-plane distortions such as twist of different chirality, emergence of cones, simple and anticlastic bending can be engineered and pre-programmed in a liquid crystalline rubbery material given a well-controlled director microstructure. Via 3-d finite element simulation studies, we demonstrate director-encoded chiral shape actuation in thin-film nematic polymer networks under external stimulus. Furthermore, we design two complex director fields with twisted nematic domains and nematic disclinations that encode a pattern of folds for an auto-origami box. This actuator will be flat at a reference nematic state and form four well-controlled bend distortions as orientational order changes. Device fabrication is applicable via current experimental techniques. These results are in qualitative agreement with theoretical predictions, provide insight into experimental observations, and demonstrate the value of finite element methods at the continuum level for designing and engineering liquid crystal polymeric devices.

  10. EXPERIMENTAL CHALLENGE STUDY OF FV3-LIKE RANAVIRUS INFECTION IN PREVIOUSLY FV3-LIKE RANAVIRUS INFECTED EASTERN BOX TURTLES (TERRAPENE CAROLINA CAROLINA) TO ASSESS INFECTION AND SURVIVAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, Jennifer C; Wack, Allison N; Allender, Matthew C; Cranfield, Mike R; Murphy, Kevin J; Barrett, Kevin; Romero, Jennell L; Wellehan, James F X; Blum, Stella A; Zink, M Christine; Bronson, Ellen

    2015-12-01

    The Maryland Zoo in Baltimore experienced an outbreak of Frog virus-3 (FV3)-like ranavirus during the summer of 2011, during which 14 of 27 (52%) of its captive eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) survived. To assess survival, immunity, and viral shedding, an experimental challenge study was performed in which the surviving, previously infected turtles were reinfected with the outbreak strain of FV3-like ranavirus. Seven turtles were inoculated with virus intramuscularly and four control turtles received saline intramuscularly. The turtles were monitored for 8 wk with blood and oral swabs collected for quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). During that time, one of seven (14%) inoculated turtles and none of the controls (0%) died; there was no significant difference in survival. Clinical signs of the inoculated turtles, except for the turtle that died, were mild compared to the original outbreak. Quantitative PCR for FV3-like ranavirus on blood and oral swabs was positive for all inoculated turtles and negative for all controls. The turtle that died had intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in multiple organs. Three inoculated and two control turtles were euthanized at the end of the study. No inclusion bodies were present in any of the organs. Quantitative PCR detected FV3-like ranavirus in the spleen of a control turtle, which suggested persistence of the virus. The surviving five turtles were qPCR-negative for FV3-like ranavirus from blood and oral swabs after brumation. Quantitative PCR for Terrapene herpesvirus 1 found no association between ranavirus infection and herpesvirus loads. In conclusion, previously infected eastern box turtles can be reinfected with the same strain of FV3-like ranavirus and show mild to no clinical signs but can shed the virus from the oral cavity.

  11. Simultaneous lidar observations of a polar stratospheric cloud on the east and west sides of the Scandinavian mountains and microphysical box model simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Blum

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of polar stratospheric clouds (PSC for polar ozone depletion is well established. Lidar experiments are well suited to observe and classify polar stratospheric clouds. On 5 January 2005 a PSC was observed simultaneously on the east and west sides of the Scandinavian mountains by ground-based lidars. This cloud was composed of liquid particles with a mixture of solid particles in the upper part of the cloud. Multi-colour measurements revealed that the liquid particles had a mode radius of r≈300 nm, a distribution width of σ≈1.04 and an altitude dependent number density of N≈2–20 cm−3. Simulations with a microphysical box model show that the cloud had formed about 20 h before observation. High HNO3 concentrations in the PSC of 40–50 weight percent were simulated in the altitude regions where the liquid particles were observed, while this concentration was reduced to about 10 weight percent in that part of the cloud where a mixture between solid and liquid particles was observed by the lidar. The model simulations also revealed a very narrow particle size distribution with values similar to the lidar observations. Below and above the cloud almost no HNO3 uptake was simulated. Although the PSC shows distinct wave signatures, no gravity wave activity was observed in the temperature profiles measured by the lidars and meteorological analyses support this observation. The observed cloud must have formed in a wave field above Iceland about 20 h prior to the measurements and the cloud wave pattern was advected by the background wind to Scandinavia. In this wave field above Iceland temperatures potentially dropped below the ice formation temperature, so that ice clouds may have formed which can act as condensation nuclei for the nitric acid trihydrate (NAT particles observed at the cloud top above Esrange.

  12. Controlled Delivery of T-box21 Small Interfering RNA Ameliorates Autoimmune Alopecia (Alopecia Areata) in a C3H/HeJ Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Motonobu; Jo, Jun-ichiro; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Ishikawa, Osamu

    2008-01-01

    Autoimmune alopecia (alopecia areata) is considered to be triggered by a collapse of immune privilege in hair follicles. Here we confirmed that infiltrating CD4 T lymphocytes around hair follicles of patients with alopecia areata were primarily CCR5-positive with few CCR4-positive cells, suggesting a dominant role of Th1 cells in the alopecic lesion. Given this finding, we sought to elucidate the effect of cytokine therapy in C3H/HeJ mice, a mouse model of alopecia areata, by applying recombinant interleukin-4 and neutralizing anti-interferon-γ antibody. We found that local injections of both interleukin-4 and neutralizing anti-interferon-γ antibody effectively treated alopecia in C3H/HeJ mice. Results from immunohistochemistry and semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that intralesional injection of interleukin-4 suppressed CD8 T cell infiltrates around the hair follicles and repressed enhanced interferon-γ mRNA expression in the affected alopecic skin. Furthermore, Th1 transcription factor T-box21 small interfering RNAs conjugated to cationized gelatin showed mitigating effects on alopecia in C3H/HeJ mice, resulting in the restoration of hair shaft elongation. Taken together, the use of gelatin–small interfering RNA conjugates promises to be a novel, efficient, and safe tool as an alternative gene therapy for the treatment of various human diseases. To our knowledge, this is the first report of effective controlled delivery of small interfering RNA using biodegradable cationized gelatin microspheres in an animal model of disease. PMID:18245811

  13. Simultaneous lidar observations of a polar stratospheric cloud on the east and west sides of the Scandinavian mountains and microphysical box model simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Blum

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of polar stratospheric clouds (PSC for polar ozone depletion is well established. Lidar experiments are well suited to observe and classify polar stratospheric clouds. On 5 January 2005 a PSC was observed simultaneously on the east and west sides of the Scandinavian mountains by ground-based lidars. This cloud was composed of liquid particles with a mixture of solid particles in the upper part of the cloud. Multi-colour measurements revealed that the liquid particles had a mode radius of r≈300 nm, a distribution width of σ≈1.04 and an altitude dependent number density of N≈2–20 cm−3. Simulations with a microphysical box model show that the cloud had formed about 20 h before observation. High HNO3 concentrations in the PSC of 40–50 weight percent were simulated in the altitude regions where the liquid particles were observed, while this concentration was reduced to about 10 weight percent in that part of the cloud where a mixture between solid and liquid particles was observed by the lidar. The model simulations also revealed a very narrow particle size distribution with values similar to the lidar observations. Below and above the cloud almost no HNO3 uptake was simulated. Although the PSC shows distinct wave signatures, no gravity wave activity was observed in the temperature profiles measured by the lidars and meteorological analyses support this observation. The observed cloud must have formed in a wave field above Iceland about 20 h prior to the measurements and the cloud wave pattern was advected by the background wind to Scandinavia. In this wave field above Iceland temperatures potentially dropped below the ice formation temperature, so that ice clouds may have formed which can act as condensation nuclei for the nitric acid trihydrate (NAT particles observed at the cloud top above Esrange.

  14. Small, Lightweight, Collapsible Glove Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    A small, lightweight, collapsible glove box enables its user to perform small experiments and other tasks. Originally intended for use aboard a space shuttle or the International Space Station (ISS), this glove box could also be attractive for use on Earth in settings in which work space or storage space is severely limited and, possibly, in which it is desirable to minimize weight. The development of this glove box was prompted by the findings that in the original space-shuttle or ISS setting, (1) it was necessary to perform small experiments in a large general-purpose work station, so that, in effect, they occupied excessive space; and it took excessive amounts of time to set up small experiments. The design of the glove box reflects the need to minimize the space occupied by experiments and the time needed to set up experiments, plus the requirement to limit the launch weight of the box and the space needed to store the box during transport into orbit. To prepare the glove box for use, the astronaut or other user has merely to insert hands through the two fabric glove ports in the side walls of the box and move two hinges to a locking vertical position (see figure). The user could do this while seated with the glove box on the user fs lap. When stowed, the glove box is flat and has approximately the thickness of two pieces of 8-in. (.20 cm) polycarbonate.

  15. Time-dependent modeling of oscillatory instability of three-dimensional natural convection of air in a laterally heated cubic box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfgat, Alexander Yu.

    2017-08-01

    Transition from steady to oscillatory buoyancy convection of air in a laterally heated cubic box is studied numerically by straight-forward time integration of Boussinesq equations using a series of gradually refined finite volume grids. Horizontal and spanwise cube boundaries are assumed to be either perfectly thermally conducting or perfectly thermally insulated, which results in four different sets of thermal boundary conditions. Critical Grashof numbers are obtained by interpolation of numerically extracted growth/decay rates of oscillation amplitude to zero. Slightly supercritical flow regimes are described by time-averaged flows, snapshots, and spatial distribution of the oscillation amplitude. Possible similarities and dissimilarities with two-dimensional instabilities in laterally heated square cavities are discussed. Break of symmetries and sub- or supercritical character of bifurcations are examined. Three consequent transitions from steady to the oscillatory regime, from the oscillatory to the steady regime, and finally to the oscillatory flow, are found in the case of perfectly insulated horizontal and spanwise boundaries. Arguments for grid and time-step independence of the results are given.

  16. Effects of a kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention on motor performance ability in 3- to 6-year-old children: the ToyBox-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, Julia; Geyer, Christine; Kirchberg, Franca; Manios, Yannis; Koletzko, Berthold

    2017-02-01

    This study targeted to examine the effect of the ToyBox-intervention, a kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention, aiming to improve preschooler's energy-related behaviours (e.g., physical activity) on motor performance ability. Physical activity sessions, classroom activities, environmental changes and tools for parents were the components of the 1-year intervention. The intervention and control were cluster-randomised, and children's anthropometry and two motor test items (jumping from side to side, JSS and standing long jump, SLJ) were assessed. A total of 1293 (4.6 ± 0.69 years; 52% boys) from 45 kindergartens in Germany were included (intervention, n = 863; control, n = 430). The effect was assessed using generalised estimating equation. The intervention group showed a better improvement in JSS (Estimate 2.19 jumps, P = 0.01) and tended to improve better in SLJ (Estimate 2.73 cm, P = 0.08). The intervention was more effective in boys with respect to SLJ (P of interaction effect = 0.01). Children aged <4.5 years did not show a significant benefit while older children improved (JSS, Estimate 3.38 jumps, P = 0.004; SLJ, Estimate 4.18 cm, P = 0.04). Children with low socio-economic status improved in JSS (Estimate 5.98 jumps, P = 0.0001). The ToyBox-intervention offers an effective strategy to improve specific components of motor performance ability in early childhood. Future programmes should consider additional strategies specifically targeting girls and younger aged children. BMI: body mass index; SES: socio-economic status; JSS: jumping from side to side; SLJ: standing long jump; SD: standard deviation; GEE: generalised estimating equation.

  17. Concepts and strategies on how to train and motivate teachers to implement a kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention to prevent obesity in early childhood. The ToyBox-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payr, A; Birnbaum, J; Wildgruber, A; Kreichauf, S; Androutsos, O; Lateva, M; De Decker, E; De Craemer, M; Iotova, V; Manios, Y; Koletzko, B

    2014-08-01

    The key person for the implementation of kindergarten-based behavioural interventions is the kindergarten teacher. When conducting intervention studies in kindergartens, training sessions are needed to train and motivate kindergarten teachers for programme implementation. This paper presents the systematic development of the teachers' trainings executed in the ToyBox-intervention - a kindergarten-based and family-involved obesity prevention programme for children aged 4-6. Based on concepts for the education of kindergarten teachers, on general strategies for successful programme implementation and on the ToyBox programme-specific requirements, the aims of the teachers' trainings were defined and an overall concept was deduced. Regarding the concept for the ToyBox teachers' training sessions, it is concluded that the training modules should focus on presenting information on the practical implementation of the intervention. Furthermore, these modules should also include self-efficacy enhancing components and should give kindergarten teachers opportunities to share experiences. Regarding the didactic methods applied in the ToyBox teachers' training sessions, constructivist learning approaches that facilitate active participation, reflective thinking and personal involvement were implemented. Emphasis was put not only on the content but especially on the didactic methods of teachers' trainings in order to enhance devotion to, and quality and sustainability of the ToyBox-intervention. © 2014 World Obesity.

  18. Evaluation of Pre-marketing Factors to Predict Post-marketing Boxed Warnings and Safety Withdrawals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, Andreas; Miller, Kathleen L; Lanthier, Michael; Dal Pan, Gerald; Nardinelli, Clark

    2017-06-01

    An important goal in drug regulation is understanding serious safety issues with new drugs as soon as possible. Achieving this goal requires us to understand whether information provided during the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) drug review can predict serious safety issues that are usually identified after the product is approved. However, research on this topic remains understudied. In this paper, we examine whether any pre-marketing drug characteristics are associated with serious post-marketing safety actions. We study this question using an internal FDA database containing every new small molecule drug submitted to the FDA's Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) on or after November 21, 1997, and approved and commercially launched before December 31, 2009. Serious post-marketing safety actions include whether these drugs ever experienced either a post-marketing boxed warning or a withdrawal from the market due to safety concerns. A random effects logistic regression model was used to test whether any pre-marketing characteristics were associated with either post-marketing safety action. A total of 219 new molecular entities were analyzed. Among these drugs, 11 experienced a safety withdrawal and 30 received boxed warnings by July 31, 2016. Contrary to prevailing hypotheses, we find that neither clinical trial sample sizes nor review time windows are associated with the addition of a post-marketing boxed warning or safety withdrawal. However, we do find that new drugs approved with either a boxed warning or priority review are more likely to experience post-marketing boxed warnings. Furthermore, drugs approved with boxed warnings tend to receive post-marketing boxed warnings resulting from new safety information that are unrelated to the original warning. Drugs approved with a boxed warning are 3.88 times more likely to receive a post-marketing boxed warning, while drugs approved with a priority review are 3.51 times more likely to receive a post

  19. One-dimensional oscillator in a box

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amore, Paolo [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal DIaz del Castillo 340, Colima, Colima (Mexico); Fernandez, Francisco M [INIFTA (UNLP, CCT La Plata-CONICET), Division Quimica Teorica, Blvd 113 S/N, Sucursal 4, Casilla de Correo 16, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)], E-mail: paolo@ucol.mx, E-mail: fernande@quimica.unlp.edu.ar

    2010-01-15

    We discuss a quantum-mechanical model of two particles that interact by means of a harmonic potential and are confined to a one-dimensional box with impenetrable walls. We apply perturbation theory to the cases of different and equal masses and analyse the symmetry of the states in the latter case. We compare the approximate perturbation results with accurate numerical ones.

  20. Surface reflectance drives nest box temperature profiles and thermal suitability for target wildlife.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R Griffiths

    Full Text Available Thermal properties of tree hollows play a major role in survival and reproduction of hollow-dependent fauna. Artificial hollows (nest boxes are increasingly being used to supplement the loss of natural hollows; however, the factors that drive nest box thermal profiles have received surprisingly little attention. We investigated how differences in surface reflectance influenced temperature profiles of nest boxes painted three different colors (dark-green, light-green, and white: total solar reflectance 5.9%, 64.4%, and 90.3% respectively using boxes designed for three groups of mammals: insectivorous bats, marsupial gliders and brushtail possums. Across the three different box designs, dark-green (low reflectance boxes experienced the highest average and maximum daytime temperatures, had the greatest magnitude of variation in daytime temperatures within the box, and were consistently substantially warmer than light-green boxes (medium reflectance, white boxes (high reflectance, and ambient air temperatures. Results from biophysical model simulations demonstrated that variation in diurnal temperature profiles generated by painting boxes either high or low reflectance colors could have significant ecophysiological consequences for animals occupying boxes, with animals in dark-green boxes at high risk of acute heat-stress and dehydration during extreme heat events. Conversely in cold weather, our modelling indicated that there are higher cumulative energy costs for mammals, particularly smaller animals, occupying light-green boxes. Given their widespread use as a conservation tool, we suggest that before boxes are installed, consideration should be given to the effect of color on nest box temperature profiles, and the resultant thermal suitability of boxes for wildlife, particularly during extremes in weather. Managers of nest box programs should consider using several different colors and installing boxes across a range of both orientations and

  1. Surface reflectance drives nest box temperature profiles and thermal suitability for target wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Stephen R; Rowland, Jessica A; Briscoe, Natalie J; Lentini, Pia E; Handasyde, Kathrine A; Lumsden, Linda F; Robert, Kylie A

    2017-01-01

    Thermal properties of tree hollows play a major role in survival and reproduction of hollow-dependent fauna. Artificial hollows (nest boxes) are increasingly being used to supplement the loss of natural hollows; however, the factors that drive nest box thermal profiles have received surprisingly little attention. We investigated how differences in surface reflectance influenced temperature profiles of nest boxes painted three different colors (dark-green, light-green, and white: total solar reflectance 5.9%, 64.4%, and 90.3% respectively) using boxes designed for three groups of mammals: insectivorous bats, marsupial gliders and brushtail possums. Across the three different box designs, dark-green (low reflectance) boxes experienced the highest average and maximum daytime temperatures, had the greatest magnitude of variation in daytime temperatures within the box, and were consistently substantially warmer than light-green boxes (medium reflectance), white boxes (high reflectance), and ambient air temperatures. Results from biophysical model simulations demonstrated that variation in diurnal temperature profiles generated by painting boxes either high or low reflectance colors could have significant ecophysiological consequences for animals occupying boxes, with animals in dark-green boxes at high risk of acute heat-stress and dehydration during extreme heat events. Conversely in cold weather, our modelling indicated that there are higher cumulative energy costs for mammals, particularly smaller animals, occupying light-green boxes. Given their widespread use as a conservation tool, we suggest that before boxes are installed, consideration should be given to the effect of color on nest box temperature profiles, and the resultant thermal suitability of boxes for wildlife, particularly during extremes in weather. Managers of nest box programs should consider using several different colors and installing boxes across a range of both orientations and shade profiles (i

  2. Surface reflectance drives nest box temperature profiles and thermal suitability for target wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Jessica A.; Briscoe, Natalie J.; Lentini, Pia E.; Handasyde, Kathrine A.; Lumsden, Linda F.; Robert, Kylie A.

    2017-01-01

    Thermal properties of tree hollows play a major role in survival and reproduction of hollow-dependent fauna. Artificial hollows (nest boxes) are increasingly being used to supplement the loss of natural hollows; however, the factors that drive nest box thermal profiles have received surprisingly little attention. We investigated how differences in surface reflectance influenced temperature profiles of nest boxes painted three different colors (dark-green, light-green, and white: total solar reflectance 5.9%, 64.4%, and 90.3% respectively) using boxes designed for three groups of mammals: insectivorous bats, marsupial gliders and brushtail possums. Across the three different box designs, dark-green (low reflectance) boxes experienced the highest average and maximum daytime temperatures, had the greatest magnitude of variation in daytime temperatures within the box, and were consistently substantially warmer than light-green boxes (medium reflectance), white boxes (high reflectance), and ambient air temperatures. Results from biophysical model simulations demonstrated that variation in diurnal temperature profiles generated by painting boxes either high or low reflectance colors could have significant ecophysiological consequences for animals occupying boxes, with animals in dark-green boxes at high risk of acute heat-stress and dehydration during extreme heat events. Conversely in cold weather, our modelling indicated that there are higher cumulative energy costs for mammals, particularly smaller animals, occupying light-green boxes. Given their widespread use as a conservation tool, we suggest that before boxes are installed, consideration should be given to the effect of color on nest box temperature profiles, and the resultant thermal suitability of boxes for wildlife, particularly during extremes in weather. Managers of nest box programs should consider using several different colors and installing boxes across a range of both orientations and shade profiles (i

  3. Faster Black-Box Algorithms Through Higher Arity Operators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doerr, Benjamin; Johannsen, Daniel; Kötzing, Timo

    2011-01-01

    We extend the work of Lehre and Witt (GECCO 2010) on the unbiased black-box model by considering higher arity variation operators. In particular, we show that already for binary operators the black-box complexity of LeadingOnes drops from (n2) for unary operators to O(n log n). For OneMax, the (n...

  4. Theory of box-model hyperfine couplings and transport signatures of long-range nuclear-spin coherence in a quantum-dot spin valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesi, Stefano; Coish, W. A.

    2015-06-01

    We have theoretically analyzed coherent nuclear-spin dynamics induced by electron transport through a quantum-dot spin valve. The hyperfine interaction between electron and nuclear spins in a quantum dot allows for the transfer of angular momentum from spin-polarized electrons injected from ferromagnetic or half-metal leads to the nuclear spin system under a finite voltage bias. Accounting for a local nuclear-spin dephasing process prevents the system from becoming stuck in collective dark states, allowing a large nuclear polarization to be built up in the long-time limit. After reaching a steady state, reversing the voltage bias induces a transient current response as the nuclear polarization is reversed. Long-range nuclear-spin coherence leads to a strong enhancement of spin-flip transition rates (by an amount proportional to the number of nuclear spins) and is revealed by an intense current burst, analogous to superradiant light emission. The crossover to a regime with incoherent spin flips occurs on a relatively long-time scale, on the order of the single-nuclear-spin dephasing time, which can be much longer than the time scale for the superradiant current burst. This conclusion is confirmed through a general master equation. For the two limiting regimes (coherent/incoherent spin flips), the general master equation recovers our simpler treatment based on rate equations, but is also applicable at intermediate dephasing. Throughout this work, we assume uniform hyperfine couplings, which yield the strongest coherent enhancement. We propose realistic strategies, based on isotopic modulation and wave-function engineering in core-shell nanowires, to realize this analytically solvable "box-model" of hyperfine couplings.

  5. Visual pigments of the box jellyfish species Chiropsella bronzie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O*Connor, Megan; Garm, Anders Lydik; Marshall, Justin

    2010-01-01

    Box jellyfish (Cubomedusae) possess a unique visual system comprising 24 eyes of four morphological types. Moreover, box jellyfish display several visually guided behaviours, including obstacle avoidance and light-shaft attractance. It is largely unknown what kind of visual information box...... jellyfish use for carrying out these behaviours. Brightness contrast is almost certainly involved, but it is also possible that box jellyfish extract colour information from their surroundings. The possible presence of colour vision in box jellyfish has previously been investigated using behavioural......, electrophysiological and immunohistochemical methods. However, the results from these studies are to some degree conflicting and inconclusive. Here, we present results from an investigation into the visual system of the box jellyfish Chiropsella bronzie, using microspectrophotometry and immunohistochemistry. Our...

  6. On the hydroelastic response of box-shaped floating structure with shallow draft. Tank test with large scale model; Senkitsusui hakogata futai no harochu dansei oto ni tsuite. Ogata mokei ni yoru suiso shiken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yago, K.; Endo, H. [Ship Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    The hydroelastic response test was carried out in waves using an approximately 10m long large model, and the numerical analysis was done by the direct method, for a commercial-size (300m long) box-shaped floating structure with shallow draft. The scale ratio of the model is 1/30.8, and the minimum wave cycle is around 0.7s from wave-making capacity of the tank, which corresponds to 4 to 14s with the commercial-size structure. Elastic displacement and bending strain were measured. The calculated results by the direct method are in good agreement with the observed results. The fluid dynamic mutual interference effects between elements are weak in added mass but strong in damping force, indicating that the range of mutual interference is strongly related to rolling cycle in the range of mutual interference. Wave pressure on the floating structure bottom is high at the upper side of the wave, greatly damping towards the downside of the wave. However, response amplitude of elastic displacement tends to increase at the ends, both in upside and downside of the wave. For the floating structure studied, the 0 to 4th mode components are predominant in longitudinal waves, and the 6th or higher mode components are negligibly low. 21 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Reconciling White-Box and Black-Box Perspectives on Behavioral Self-adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Roberto; Corradini, Andrea; Gadducci, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes to reconcile two perspectives on behavioral adaptation commonly taken at different stages of the engineering of autonomic computing systems. Requirements engineering activities often take a black-box perspective: A system is considered to be adaptive with respect...... to an environment whenever the system is able to satisfy its goals irrespectively of the environment perturbations. Modeling and programming engineering activities often take a white-box perspective: A system is equipped with suitable adaptation mechanisms and its behavior is classified as adaptive depending...... and possibly modify the adaptation requirements, models and programs of an autonomic system....

  8. Being Creative "Inside the Box"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomascoff, Rocky

    2011-01-01

    Artist Joseph Cornell (1903-1972) created wonderful environments inside boxes using mostly found objects. They were often Surrealistic in nature. Some boxes were designed with glass fronts, and others were meant to be interactive with the viewer, wherein the objects could be handled. With Joseph Cornell in mind, the author introduces an art…

  9. Box-and-Whisker Plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Russell D.

    1985-01-01

    Box-and-whisker plots (which give rapid visualization of batches of data) can be effectively used to present diverse collections of data used in traditional first-year chemistry courses. Construction of box-and-whisker plots and their use with bond energy data and data on heats of formation and solution are discussed. (JN)

  10. Efficiency of S&P CNX Nifty Index Option of the National Stock Exchange (NSE, India, using Box Spread Arbitrage Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Girish

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Box spread is a trading strategy in which one simultaneously buys and sells options having the same underlying asset and time to expiration, but different exercise prices. This study examined the efficiency of European style S&P CNX Nifty Index options of National Stock Exchange, (NSE India by making use of high-frequency data on put and call options written on Nifty (Time-stamped transactions data for the time period between 1st January 2002 and 31st December 2005 using box-spread arbitrage strategy. The advantages of box-spreads include reduced joint hypothesis problem since there is no consideration of pricing model or market equilibrium, no consideration of inter-market non-synchronicity since trading box spreads involve only one market, computational simplicity with less chances of mis-specification error, estimation error and the fact that buying and selling box spreads more or less replicates risk-free lending and borrowing. One thousand three hundreds and fifty eight exercisable box-spreads were found for the time period considered of which 78 Box spreads were found to be profitable after incorporating transaction costs (32 profitable box spreads were identified for the year 2002, 19 in 2003, 14 in 2004 and 13 in 2005 The results of our study suggest that internal option market efficiency has improved over the years for S&P CNX Nifty Index options of NSE India.

  11. Evaluating the Effects of On-Task in a Box as a Class-Wide Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Allison A.; Radley, Keith C.; Ness, Emily J.

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of the On-Task in a Box intervention on student on-task behavior when used as a class-wide intervention. The intervention package includes self-monitoring, video modeling, and reinforcement contingency components. A multiple baseline design across three elementary classrooms was used to determine the effects…

  12. Thermo-mechanical Design Methodology for ITER Cryodistribution cold boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Vinit; Patel, Pratik; Das, Jotirmoy; Vaghela, Hitensinh; Bhattacharya, Ritendra; Shah, Nitin; Choukekar, Ketan; Chang, Hyun-Sik; Sarkar, Biswanath

    2017-04-01

    The ITER cryo-distribution (CD) system is in charge of proper distribution of the cryogen at required mass flow rate, pressure and temperature level to the users; namely the superconducting (SC) magnets and cryopumps (CPs). The CD system is also capable to use the magnet structures as a thermal buffer in order to operate the cryo-plant as much as possible at a steady state condition. A typical CD cold box is equipped with mainly liquid helium (LHe) bath, heat exchangers (HX’s), cryogenic valves, filter, heaters, cold circulator, cold compressor and process piping. The various load combinations which are likely to occur during the life cycle of the CD cold boxes are imposed on the representative model and impacts on the system are analyzed. This study shows that break of insulation vacuum during nominal operation (NO) along with seismic event (Seismic Level-2) is the most stringent load combination having maximum stress of 224 MPa. However, NO+SMHV (Séismes Maximaux Historiquement Vraisemblables = Maximum Historically Probable Earthquakes) load combination is having the least safety margin and will lead the basis of the design of the CD system and its sub components. This paper presents and compares the results of different load combinations which are likely to occur on a typical CD cold box.

  13. Limit theorems for the number of occupied boxes in the Bernoulli sieve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gnedin, A.V.; Iksanov, A.; Marynych, O.

    2010-01-01

    The Bernoulli sieve is a version of the classical `balls-in-boxes' occupancy scheme, in which random frequencies of in¯nitely many boxes are produced by a multiplicative renewal process, also known as the residual allocation model or stick-breaking. We focus on the number Kn of boxes occupied by at

  14. Inside the black box of food safety: a qualitative study of 'non-compliance' among food businesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brough, Mark; Davies, Belinda; Johnstone, Eleesa

    2016-04-01

    Issue addressed This paper examines the meaning of food safety among food businesses deemed non-compliant and considers the need for an insider perspective to inform a more nuanced health promotion practice. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with 29 food business operators who had recently been deemed 'non-compliant' through Council inspection. Results Paradoxically, these 'non-compliers' revealed a strong belief in the importance of food safety as well as a desire to comply with the regulations as communicated to them by Environmental Health Officers. Conclusions The evidence base of food safety is largely informed by the science of food hazards, yet there is a very important need to consider the practical daily application of food safety practices. This requires a more socially nuanced appreciation of food businesses beyond the simple dichotomy of compliant/ non-compliant. So what? Armed with a deeper understanding of the social context surrounding food safety practice, it is anticipated that a more balanced, collaborative mode of food safety health promotion could develop, which could add to the current model of regulation.

  15. Dream Box Learning. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "DreamBox Learning" is a supplemental online mathematics program that provides adaptive instruction for students in grades K-5 and focuses on number and operations, place value, and number sense. The What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) identified one study of "DreamBox Learning" that both falls within the scope of the Elementary…

  16. Analysis of the petunia MADS-box transcription factor family

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Immink, R.G.H.; Ferrario, S.I.T.; Busscher-Lange, J.; Kooiker, M.; Busscher, M.; Angenent, G.C.

    2003-01-01

    Transcription factors are key regulators of plant development. One of the major groups of transcription factors is the MADS-box family, of which at least 80 members are encoded in the Arabidopsis genome. In this study, 23 members of the petunia MADS-box transcription factor family were investigated

  17. The "Box Universe" of 1 m[superscript 3]: An Activity for Introduction to the Study of Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhini, Marcos Daniel

    2009-01-01

    This is a report of an activity of introduction to the study of astronomy developed with a group of future physics teachers at a Brazilian public university. Such activity had the goal of giving privileged emphasis to notions of spatiality, alternative conceptions of the participants, and the process of interaction among peers, with the objective…

  18. Thinking outside the (Voice) Box: A Case Study of Students' Perceptions of the Relevance of Anatomy to Speech Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Kristy A.

    2008-01-01

    Speech pathology students readily identify the importance of a sound understanding of anatomical structures central to their intended profession. In contrast, they often do not recognize the relevance of a broader understanding of structure and function. This study aimed to explore students' perceptions of the relevance of anatomy to speech…

  19. (Box-filling-model)-based ONU schedule algorithm and bandwidth-requirement-based ONU transfer mechanism for multi-subsystem-based VPONs' management in metro-access optical network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuchao; Gan, Chaoqin; Gou, Kaiyu; Hua, Jian

    2017-07-01

    ONU schedule algorithm and ONU transfer mechanism for multi-subsystem-based VPONs' management is proposed in this paper. To avoid frequent wavelength switch and realize high system stability, ONU schedule algorithm is presented for wavelength allocation by introducing box-filling model. At the same time, judgement mechanism is designed to filter wavelength-increased request caused by slight bandwidth fluctuation of VPON. To share remained bandwidth among VPONs, ONU transfer mechanism is put forward according to flexible wavelength routing. To manage wavelength resource of entire network and wavelength requirement from VPONs, information-managed matrix model is constructed. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed scheme is demonstrated by simulation and analysis.

  20. Sound radiation characteristics of a box-type structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran Lin, Tian; Pan, Jie

    2009-09-01

    The finite element and boundary element methods are employed in this study to investigate the sound radiation characteristics of a box-type structure. It has been shown [T.R. Lin, J. Pan, Vibration characteristics of a box-type structure, Journal of Vibration and Acoustics, Transactions of ASME 131 (2009) 031004-1-031004-9] that modes of natural vibration of a box-type structure can be classified into six groups according to the symmetry properties of the three panel pairs forming the box. In this paper, we demonstrate that such properties also reveal information about sound radiation effectiveness of each group of modes. The changes of radiation efficiencies and directivity patterns with the wavenumber ratio (the ratio between the acoustic and the plate bending wavenumbers) are examined for typical modes from each group. Similar characteristics of modal radiation efficiencies between a box structure and a corresponding simply supported panel are observed. The change of sound radiation patterns as a function of the wavenumber ratio is also illustrated. It is found that the sound radiation directivity of each box mode can be correlated to that of elementary sound sources (monopole, dipole, etc.) at frequencies well below the critical frequency of the plates of the box. The sound radiation pattern on the box surface also closely related to the vibration amplitude distribution of the box structure at frequencies above the critical frequency. In the medium frequency range, the radiated sound field is dominated by the edge vibration pattern of the box. The radiation efficiency of all box modes reaches a peak at frequencies above the critical frequency, and gradually approaches unity at higher frequencies.

  1. Exotic tree plantations and avian conservation in northern Iberia: a view from a nest–box monitoring study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De la Hera, I.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The spread of exotic tree plantations on the North Atlantic coast of the Iberian peninsula raises concern regarding the conservation of avian biodiversity as current trends suggest this region might become a monoculture of Australian Eucalyptus species. To shed more light on the factors promoting differences in avian communities between and within exotic tree (Monterey Pine Pinus radiata and Eucalyptus spp. plantations and native forests in the Urdaibai area (northern Spain, this study aimed to explore (1 how the type of habitat and vegetation characteristics affect bird species richness and the settlement of some particular species during the breeding period, (2 if some reproductive parameters (i.e. egg–laying date and clutch size vary among habitats in a generalist bird species (the Great Tit Parus major, and (3 the existence of differences among habitats in the abundance of a key food resource on which some insectivorous birds are expected to rely upon for breeding (i.e. caterpillars. Our results confirmed that Eucalyptus stands house the poorest bird communities, and identified understory development as an important determinant for the establishment of titmice species. Furthermore, we found that exotic trees showed lower caterpillar abundance than native Oak trees (Quercus robur, which might contribute to explain observed differences among habitats in bird abundance and richness in this region. However, we did not find differences among habitats in egg–laying date and clutch size for the Great Tit, suggesting that the potential costs of breeding in exotic tree plantations would occur in later stages of the reproductive period (e.g. number of nestlings fledged, a circumstance that will require further research.

  2. Microclimate boxes for panel paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadum, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    The use of microclimate boxes to protect vulnerable panel paintings is, therefore, not a new phenomenon of the past two or three decades. Rather, it has been a concern for conservators and curators to protect these objects of art at home and in transit since the end of the nineteenth century....... The increased number of travelling exhibitions in recent years has heightened the need to protect paintings during circulation (Thomson 1961; Mecklenburg 1991). The use and design of microclimate boxes have been evolving since 1892. These boxes may be divided into three broad groups: those using an active...

  3. Two-dimensional box plot

    OpenAIRE

    Phattrawan Tongkumchum

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we propose a two-dimensional box plot, a simple bivariate extension of the box plot and the scatter plot. This plot comprises a pair of trapeziums oriented in the direction of a fitted straight line, with symbols denoting extreme values. The choice for the fitted straight resistant line showing the relationship between the two variables is Tukey’s resistance line. The main components of the plot are an inner box containing 50% of the projection points of the observations on the ...

  4. A real-time study of the interaction of TBP with a TATA box-containing duplex identical to an ancestral or minor allele of human gene LEP or TPI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkova, Olga; Kuznetsov, Nikita; Fedorova, Olga; Savinkova, Ludmila

    2017-11-01

    It is known that only a single-nucleotide substitution (SNP: a single nucleotide polymorphism) in the sequence of a TATA box can influence the affinity of the interaction of TBP with the TATA box and contribute to the pathogenesis of complex hereditary human diseases and sometimes may be a cause of monogenic diseases (for instance, β-thalassemia). In the present work, we studied the interaction of human TBP with a double-stranded oligodeoxyribonucleotide (ODN) 15 or 26 bp long identical to a TATA box of promoters of a real-life human gene, TPI or LEP, and labeled with fluorophores TAMRA and FAM. To analyze the interaction of TBP with a TATA box of an ancestral or minor allele (SNP in the TATA box) in real time, we used the stopped-flow method with detection of a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) signal. The nature of the resulting kinetic curves reflecting changes in the FRET signal (and therefore of DNA conformation during the interaction with TBP) pointed to a multistage mechanism of the formation of the TBP complex with the TATA-containing ODN. The results showed that with the increasing concentration and length of the ODN, heterogeneity of conformational changes (taking place during the first second of the interaction with TBP) in DNA also increases. In contrast to the initial nonspecific interaction, the subsequent phases strictly depend on TBP concentration: at the TBP:ODN ratio of 10:1, the velocity of change of the FRET signal increases approximately 100-fold.

  5. DIRECT KICKS IN BOXING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izet Kahrović

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Hit directly, giving any impact maximum muscle strength is skill, and it is neces- sary to the exercise and learning to make it perfect. Training begins with oral statement, so that students get to know with the techni- que that works. After oral exposure, it is necessary to create a good notion on technology that is adopted. The best way for the creation of good notion is a good demonstration. In direct training kicks in the box, you need patience and gradualness and there- fore uses a large number of additional exercises. In their work with beginners, in the first class, individual elements of technology, and also direct blow, it is necessary to separate the parts and run them on multiple commands, to later come to the confluence in one command. Direct wounds, with left and right hand, can be run from the towns, on the head and body, from the movement, to step forward, step back and step aside, the remedy to the left and right side. Left direct is taking out from a running protrusion hands, but kick, which is a pro- duct of the system, ankle-knee-pelvis and shoulder forward horizontaly. Set at the time of stripes, body weight over the left leg. Right direct from the place, starting ekscentrical reflecsive impuls of a extensor muscle in ankle, knee and joint of a hip.This kind of a sud- den movement is running simultaneously with the rotation of the body around vertical (longitudinal axis, with the transfer body weight on the left leg. Further movement to the hand which serves as a lever, which is transmitted through the power stroke

  6. Real-Time Interaction between TBP and the TATA Box of the Human Triosephosphate Isomerase Gene Promoter in the Norm and Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkova, O V; Kuznetsov, N A; Fedorova, O S; Kolchanov, N A; Savinkova, L K

    2014-04-01

    The TATA-binding protein (TBP) is a key part of the transcription complex of RNA polymerase II. Alone or as a part of the basal transcription factor TFIID, TBP binds the TATA box located in the core region of the TATA-containing promoters of class II genes. Previously, we studied the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on TBP/TATA-box interactions using gel retardation assay. It was demonstrated that most SNPs in the TATA boxes of some human gene promoters cause a 2- to 4-fold decrease in TBP/TATA affinity, which is associated with an increased risk of hereditary diseases, such as β thalassemias of diverse severity, hemophilia B Leyden, myocardial infarction, thrombophlebitis, lung cancer, etc. In this work, the process of TBP/TATA complex formation has been studied in real time by a stopped-flow technique using recombinant human TBP and duplexes, which were identical to the TATA box of the wild-type and a SNP-containing triosephosphate isomerase gene promoter and were fluorescently labeled by the Cy3/Cy5 FRET pair. It has been demonstrated for the first time that real-time binding of TBP to the TATA box of the TPI gene promoter is complete within 10 s and is described by a single-stage kinetic model. The complex formation of TBP with the wild-type TATA box occurs 5.5 times faster and the complex dissociation occurs 31 times slower compared with the SNPcontaining TATA box. Within the first seconds of the interaction, TBP binds to and simultaneously bends the TATA box. Importantly, the TATA box of the wild-type TPI gene promoter requires lower TBP concentrations compared to the TATA box containing the -24T → G SNP, which is associated with neurological and muscular disorders, cardiomyopathy, and other diseases.

  7. Box Plots: Basic and Advanced.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullenex, James L.

    1990-01-01

    Describes a five-number summary which is a display of the minimum value, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum value. Indicates how to draw box plots as graphical representations of a five-number summary. (YP)

  8. Mirror box therapy added to cognitive behavioural therapy in three chronic complex regional pain syndrome type I patients : a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tichelaar, Y. I. G. Vladimir; Geertzen, Jan H. B.; Keizer, Doeke; van Wilgen, C. Paul

    Complex regional pain syndrome type I is a disorder of the extremities with disability and pain as the most prominent features. This paper describes the results of cognitive behavioural therapy combined with mirror box therapy in three patients with chronic complex regional pain syndrome type I.

  9. Open the "Black Box" Creativity and Innovation: A Study of Activities in R&D Departments. Some Prospects for Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, Charlyne; Oget, David; Cavallucci, Denis

    2017-01-01

    Innovation is a key component to the success and longevity of companies. Our research opens the "black box" of creativity and innovation in R&D teams. We argue that understanding the nature of R&D projects in terms of creativity/innovation, efficiency/inefficiency, is important for designing education policies and improving…

  10. Implementace hry Dots and Boxes

    OpenAIRE

    Balko, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Title: Dots and Boxes implementation Author: Martin Balko Department: Department of Applied Mathematics Supervisor: RNDr. Ondřej Pangrác, Ph.D. Supervisor's email address: Abstract: The presented thesis deals with the analysis of a popular logical game Dots and Boxes and its generalized versions. It focuses on the different methods and algorithms of opponent's artificial intelligence. The result of the work is implementation of the generalized version of this game in w...

  11. Prohibiting Headgear for Safety in Amateur Boxing? Opinion of the Canadian Boxing Community: an Online Poll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Philip; Rempel, Philip

    In 2013, the Amateur International Boxing Association (AIBA) introduced a rule banning headgear for male-senior open class boxers during competition. The AIBA has defended the rule change as motivated by safety and supported by internal unpublished studies. As a result, in 2018, the AIBA plans to universally prohibit headgear in competition: for all competitors (male and female), all ages and all levels. Within Canada, this ruling has generated controversy in the boxing community, yet there has been no overall measure of opinion. To address this, we instituted a voluntary, anonymous, online open-access poll to allow members of the boxing community to express their stance on headgear use in competition. In total, 636 responses were received. A total of 71.5 % of Canadian respondents believed headgear should be mandatory at all levels. Only 5.8 % agreed that headgear should be prohibited, as planned for 2018. Estimating results on a representative breakdown of boxing membership in Canada, a similar pattern emerged, whereby 68.2 % concurred with mandatory headgear while only 4.95 % supported its prohibition. Parents of boxers were almost unanimously against banning headgear, stating they would change sports as a result. Similarly, only 1.7 % of women believed headgear should be prohibited. The consensus of the Canadian boxing community largely opposes the rule changes that the AIBA has implemented. The results highlight risks posed to the long-term viability of the sport, if significant grassroots safety concerns are disregarded.

  12. Immunohistochemical detection of high-mobility group box 1 correlates with resistance of preoperative chemoradiotherapy for lower rectal cancer: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongo, Kumiko; Kazama, Shinsuke; Tsuno, Nelson H; Ishihara, Soichiro; Sunami, Eiji; Kitayama, Joji; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2015-01-27

    High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a nucleoprotein that is related to inflammation. It has been implicated in a variety of biologically important processes, including transcription, DNA repair, differentiation, development, and extracellular signaling. Recently, its important role in the process of tumor invasion, metastasis, and resistance to anti-cancer therapies has been demonstrated. In this study, we aimed to investigate the correlation of HMGB1 expression and resistance of rectal cancer patients to chemoradiotherapy (CRT) prior to curative operation. We retrospectively reviewed the data of 75 lower rectal cancer patients without complete pathological response who had received preoperative CRT and had undergone curative resection at the University of Tokyo Hospital between May 2003 and June 2010. HMGB1 expression in surgically resected specimens was evaluated using immunohistochemical detection and specimens were classified into high or low HMGB1 expression groups. Clinicopathologic features, degree of tumor reduction, regression of tumor grade, and patient survival were compared between the groups using non-paired Student's t-tests and Kaplan-Meier analysis. A total of 52 (69.3%) patients had high HMGB1 expression, and 23 (30.7%) had low expression. HMGB1 expression was significantly correlated with histologic type (P=0.02), lymphatic invasion (P=0.02), and venous invasion (P=0.05). Compared to patients with low HMGB1 expression, those with high expression had a poorer response to CRT, in terms of tumor reduction ratio (42.2 versus 28.9%, respectively; P<0.01) and post-CRT histological tumor regression grade (56.5 versus 30.8% grade 2; respectively; P=0.03). However, no significant correlation was found between HMGB1 expression and recurrence-free and overall survival rates. HMGB1 expression may be one of the key factors regulating the response of rectal cancer to preoperative CRT in terms of tumor invasiveness and resistance to therapy.

  13. Thinking Outside the Box

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Lorne [World Nuclear Transport Institute, Remo House, 310-312 Regent Street, London, W1B 3AX (United Kingdom)

    2009-06-15

    The World Nuclear Transport Institute was formed to fill a need to provide a dedicated vehicle for the radioactive transport and packaging industry sectors worldwide, to exchange information and ideas, all with a view to working toward consolidated industry positions on the key issues affecting safe, efficient and reliable transport. WNTI was also intended to be a strong voice for industry in those international and national bodies where deliberations on such transport safety issues take place. The very fact that companies, sometimes in competition with each other, were prepared to come together in this way, reflects two important points: firstly, it represents an acknowledgement on industry's part that safe, effective and reliable transport is the sine qua non, the absolute essential. And second, it is a recognition that it is enhanced to the extent that industry is able to collaborate to this end. This is thinking outside the box. Another important attribute of safety is 'stability'. Everyone likes to know where he or she stands. The radioactive materials packaging and transport industry thrives within a stable regulatory framework for safety. For a stable regulatory regime allows operators to be properly trained; it allows operators to become familiar with safety requirements, and to be at ease with them. Stability is conducive to safety and efficiency. Stability is good for business too - for stability in package and transport requirements allows sufficient time for a fair return on investment in expensive package design, manufacture, licensing and use over time. Stability should not, however, be opposed to creativity. From experience we can develop new thinking to improve efficiency as illustrated in examples of work related to the packaging and transport of Uranium Concentrates for instance.. Another example is work within WNTI on the thermal test requirements for the packaging of uranium hexafluoride. The robustness of packages is based on the

  14. CLOCKWORK ORANGE Enhances PERIOD Mediated Rhythms in Transcriptional Repression by Antagonizing E-box Binding by CLOCK-CYCLE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Drosophila circadian oscillator controls daily rhythms in physiology, metabolism and behavior via transcriptional feedback loops. CLOCK-CYCLE (CLK-CYC heterodimers initiate feedback loop function by binding E-box elements to activate per and tim transcription. PER-TIM heterodimers then accumulate, bind CLK-CYC to inhibit transcription, and are ultimately degraded to enable the next round of transcription. The timing of transcriptional events in this feedback loop coincide with, and are controlled by, rhythms in CLK-CYC binding to E-boxes. PER rhythmically binds CLK-CYC to initiate transcriptional repression, and subsequently promotes the removal of CLK-CYC from E-boxes. However, little is known about the mechanism by which CLK-CYC is removed from DNA. Previous studies demonstrated that the transcription repressor CLOCKWORK ORANGE (CWO contributes to core feedback loop function by repressing per and tim transcription in cultured S2 cells and in flies. Here we show that CWO rhythmically binds E-boxes upstream of core clock genes in a reciprocal manner to CLK, thereby promoting PER-dependent removal of CLK-CYC from E-boxes, and maintaining repression until PER is degraded and CLK-CYC displaces CWO from E-boxes to initiate transcription. These results suggest a model in which CWO co-represses CLK-CYC transcriptional activity in conjunction with PER by competing for E-box binding once CLK-CYC-PER complexes have formed. Given that CWO orthologs DEC1 and DEC2 also target E-boxes bound by CLOCK-BMAL1, a similar mechanism may operate in the mammalian clock.

  15. CLOCKWORK ORANGE Enhances PERIOD Mediated Rhythms in Transcriptional Repression by Antagonizing E-box Binding by CLOCK-CYCLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian; Yu, Wangjie; Hardin, Paul E

    2016-11-01

    The Drosophila circadian oscillator controls daily rhythms in physiology, metabolism and behavior via transcriptional feedback loops. CLOCK-CYCLE (CLK-CYC) heterodimers initiate feedback loop function by binding E-box elements to activate per and tim transcription. PER-TIM heterodimers then accumulate, bind CLK-CYC to inhibit transcription, and are ultimately degraded to enable the next round of transcription. The timing of transcriptional events in this feedback loop coincide with, and are controlled by, rhythms in CLK-CYC binding to E-boxes. PER rhythmically binds CLK-CYC to initiate transcriptional repression, and subsequently promotes the removal of CLK-CYC from E-boxes. However, little is known about the mechanism by which CLK-CYC is removed from DNA. Previous studies demonstrated that the transcription repressor CLOCKWORK ORANGE (CWO) contributes to core feedback loop function by repressing per and tim transcription in cultured S2 cells and in flies. Here we show that CWO rhythmically binds E-boxes upstream of core clock genes in a reciprocal manner to CLK, thereby promoting PER-dependent removal of CLK-CYC from E-boxes, and maintaining repression until PER is degraded and CLK-CYC displaces CWO from E-boxes to initiate transcription. These results suggest a model in which CWO co-represses CLK-CYC transcriptional activity in conjunction with PER by competing for E-box binding once CLK-CYC-PER complexes have formed. Given that CWO orthologs DEC1 and DEC2 also target E-boxes bound by CLOCK-BMAL1, a similar mechanism may operate in the mammalian clock.

  16. Comparison of black-box, glass-box and open-box software for aiding conceptual understanding

    OpenAIRE

    Hosein, Anesa; Aczel, James; Clow, Doug; Richardson, John T E

    2008-01-01

    Three mathematical software types: black-box (no steps shown), glass-box (steps shown) and open-box (interactive steps) were used by 32 students to solve conceptual and procedural tasks on the computer via remote observation. Comparison of the three software types suggests that there is no difference in the scores that students receive for conceptual understanding tasks. Students using the black-box are more likely to explore answers than students using the glass and open-box software.

  17. 30 CFR 56.12006 - Distribution boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distribution boxes. 56.12006 Section 56.12006... Distribution boxes. Distribution boxes shall be provided with a disconnecting device for each branch circuit... visual observation when such a device is open and that the circuit is deenergized, the distribution box...

  18. 30 CFR 57.12006 - Distribution boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distribution boxes. 57.12006 Section 57.12006... and Underground § 57.12006 Distribution boxes. Distribution boxes shall be provided with a... deenergized, and the distribution box shall be labeled to show which circuit each device controls. ...

  19. Dissecting the Hydrobiogeochemical Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Alves Meira Neto, A.; Sengupta, A.; Root, R. A.; Dontsova, K.; Troch, P. A. A.; Chorover, J.

    2015-12-01

    Soil genesis is a coupled hydrologic and biogeochemical process that involves the interaction of weathering rock surfaces and water. Due to strong nonlinear coupling, it is extremely difficult to predict biogeochemical changes from hydrological modeling in natural field systems. A fully controlled and monitored system with known initial conditions could be utilized to isolate variables and simplify these natural processes. To investigate the initial weathering of host rock to soil, we employed a 10° sloping soil lysimeter containing one cubic meter of crushed and homogenized basaltic rock. A major experiment of the Periodic Tracer Hierarchy (PERTH) method (Harman and Kim, 2014) coupled with its bonus experiment were performed in the past two years. These experimental applications successfully described the transit-time distribution (TTD) of a tracer-enriched water breakthrough curve in this unique hydrological system (Harman, 2015). With intensive irrigation and high volume of water storage throughout the experiments, rapid biological changes have been observed on the soil surface, such as algal and grass growth. These observations imply that geochemical hotspots may be established within the soil lysimeter. To understand the detailed 2D spatial distribution of biogeochemical changes, 100 selected and undisturbed soil blocks, among a total 1000 sub-gridded equal sized, are tested with several geochemical tools. Each selected soil block was subjected to elemental analysis by pXRF to determine if elemental migration is detectable in the dynamic proto-soil development. Synchrotron XRD quantification with Reitveld refinement will follow to clarify mineralogical transformations in the soil blocks. The combined techniques aim to confirm the development of geochemical hotspots; and link these findings with previous hydrological findings from the PERTH experiment as well as other hydrological modeling, such as conducted with Hydrus and CATHY. This work provides insight to

  20. Combining Multiple External Representations and Refutational Text: An Intervention on Learning to Interpret Box Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lem, Stephanie; Kempen, Goya; Ceulemans, Eva; Onghena, Patrick; Verschaffel, Lieven; Van Dooren, Wim

    2015-01-01

    Box plots are frequently misinterpreted and educational attempts to correct these misinterpretations have not been successful. In this study, we used two instructional techniques that seemed powerful to change the misinterpretation of the area of the box in box plots, both separately and in combination, leading to three experimental conditions,…

  1. First-aid boxes - Reminder

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    With a view to ensuring optimum use of the first-aid boxes on the CERN site, we should like to remind you of various changes introduced in March 2009: The TSO of the buildings concerned is responsible for the first-aid boxes, including checking their contents.   First-aid boxes may be restocked ONLY at the CERN stores (SCEM No. 54.99.80). This is no longer possible at the Infirmary. The associated cost is charged to the Departments.   First-aid boxes should be used only for mild injuries. All other cases should be referred to the Medical Service Infirmary (Bldg. 57 – ground-floor, tel. 73802) between 8.00 a.m. and 5.30 p.m. or to the Fire and Rescue Service (tel. 74444). N.B.: This information does not apply to the red emergency first-aid boxes in the underground areas or to the emergency kits for use in the event of being splashed with hydrofluoric acid.

  2. A quantitative evaluation of multiple biokinetic models using an assembled water phantom: A feasibility study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Ming Yeh

    Full Text Available This study examined the feasibility of quantitatively evaluating multiple biokinetic models and established the validity of the different compartment models using an assembled water phantom. Most commercialized phantoms are made to survey the imaging system since this is essential to increase the diagnostic accuracy for quality assurance. In contrast, few customized phantoms are specifically made to represent multi-compartment biokinetic models. This is because the complicated calculations as defined to solve the biokinetic models and the time-consuming verifications of the obtained solutions are impeded greatly the progress over the past decade. Nevertheless, in this work, five biokinetic models were separately defined by five groups of simultaneous differential equations to obtain the time-dependent radioactive concentration changes inside the water phantom. The water phantom was assembled by seven acrylic boxes in four different sizes, and the boxes were linked to varying combinations of hoses to signify the multiple biokinetic models from the biomedical perspective. The boxes that were connected by hoses were then regarded as a closed water loop with only one infusion and drain. 129.1±24.2 MBq of Tc-99m labeled methylene diphosphonate (MDP solution was thoroughly infused into the water boxes before gamma scanning; then the water was replaced with de-ionized water to simulate the biological removal rate among the boxes. The water was driven by an automatic infusion pump at 6.7 c.c./min, while the biological half-life of the four different-sized boxes (64, 144, 252, and 612 c.c. was 4.8, 10.7, 18.8, and 45.5 min, respectively. The five models of derived time-dependent concentrations for the boxes were estimated either by a self-developed program run in MATLAB or by scanning via a gamma camera facility. Either agreement or disagreement between the practical scanning and the theoretical prediction in five models was thoroughly discussed. The

  3. Process evaluation design and tools used in a kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention to prevent obesity in early childhood. The ToyBox-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androutsos, O; Apostolidou, E; Iotova, V; Socha, P; Birnbaum, J; Moreno, L; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Koletzko, B; Manios, Y

    2014-08-01

    Process evaluation (PE) is used for the in-depth evaluation of the implementation process of health promotion programmes. The aim of the current paper was to present the PE design and tools used in the ToyBox-intervention. The PE design was based on a three-step approach, including the identification of ToyBox-specific PE elements (step 1), the development of PE tools and harmonization of procedures (step 2), and the implementation of PE using standardized protocol and tools across the intervention countries (step 3). Specifically, to evaluate the implementation of the intervention, teachers' monthly logbooks were recorded (dose delivered, fidelity, dose received); post-intervention questionnaires were completed by parents/caregivers and teachers (dose received); participation and attrition rates were recorded (recruitment, reach); and audit questionnaires and retrospective information on weather conditions were collected (physical and social environment within which the intervention was implemented). Regarding the teachers' training sessions, the researchers who performed the trainings completed evaluation forms and documented teachers' attendance after each training (dose delivered, fidelity, dose received) and teachers completed evaluation forms after each training (dose received). The PE performed in the ToyBox-intervention may contribute in the evaluation of its effectiveness, guide the revision of the intervention material and provide insights for future health promotion programmes and public health policy. © 2014 World Obesity.

  4. Interferometric investigation of convection in plexiglas boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, J. N.

    1983-09-01

    Real-time holographic interferometry is used to study free convection in cavities heated from below and bounded by Plexiglas windows. Advantages and shortcomings of this visualization technique applied to such Plexiglas boxes are discussed. As Plexiglas has a high temperature-dependent refractive index, temperature fields in the windows and the fluid layer are visualized. These visualizations furnished proof of a pronounced thermal influence of the walls on the flow pattern based on what we call “thermal memory” of Plexiglas.

  5. SUPERSTITIOUS BEHAVIOR AMONG JUDO, TAEKWONDO AND BOXING PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dureja Gaurav

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The present study was designed to measure superstitious behavior among Judo, Taekwondo and Boxing players. Material: Thirty (N=30 male inter-college level players with the age group of 19-25 years were selected through purposive sampling technique to act as subjects from affiliated colleges of Panjab University, Chandigarh. They were further divided into three groups: Group-A [Judo (n=10], Group-B [Taekwondo (n=10] and Group-C [Boxing (n=10]. One Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA was applied to find out the differences among judo, taekwondo and boxing players. Where F values found significant, Least Significant Differences (LSD Post-hoc test was applied to find out the direction and degree of difference. Results: The level of significance was set at 0.05. The result revealed significant differences among judo, taekwondo and boxing players on the sub parameters: clothing and appearance, preparation, team ritual and coach. However, no significant differences have been observed on the sub-parameters fetish, game/competition, prayer and parameter superstitious (Total. Conclusions: The obtained results showed significant differences on the sub-parameter Coach among Judo, Taekwondo and Boxing players. While calculating the mean values of entire groups, it has been observed that Boxing players demonstrate significantly better on the sub-parameter Coach. Therefore, it can be ascertained that Boxing players are more confident that coach bring a lucky charm to our game.

  6. SUPERSTITIOUS BEHAVIOR AMONG JUDO, TAEKWONDO AND BOXING PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Dureja

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The present study was designed to measure superstitious behavior among Judo, Taekwondo and Boxing players. Material: Thirty (N=30 male inter-college level players with the age group of 19-25 years were selected through purposive sampling technique to act as subjects from affiliated colleges of Panjab University, Chandigarh. They were further divided into three groups: Group-A [Judo (n=10], Group-B [Taekwondo (n=10] and Group-C [Boxing (n=10]. One Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA was applied to find out the differences among judo, taekwondo and boxing players. Where ‘F’ values found significant, Least Significant Differences (LSD Post-hoc test was applied to find out the direction and degree of difference. Results: The level of significance was set at 0.05. The result revealed significant differences among judo, taekwondo and boxing players on the sub parameters: clothing and appearance, preparation, team ritual and coach. However, no significant differences have been observed on the sub-parameters fetish, game/competition, prayer and parameter superstitious (Total. Conclusions: The obtained results showed significant differences on the sub-parameter Coach among Judo, Taekwondo and Boxing players. While calculating the mean values of entire groups, it has been observed that Boxing players demonstrate significantly better on the sub-parameter Coach. Therefore, it can be ascertained that Boxing players are more confident that coach bring a lucky charm to our game.

  7. Injury and injury rates in Muay Thai kick boxing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gartland, S; Malik, M H; Lovell, M E

    2001-01-01

    To determine the type and number of injuries that occur during the training and practice of Muay Thai kick boxing and to compare the data obtained with those from previous studies of karate and taekwondo...

  8. Injury and injury rates in Muay Thai kick boxing

    OpenAIRE

    Gartland, S; Malik, M; Lovell, M.

    2001-01-01

    Objective—To determine the type and number of injuries that occur during the training and practice of Muay Thai kick boxing and to compare the data obtained with those from previous studies of karate and taekwondo.

  9. Effect of material uncertainties on dynamic response of segmental box girder bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchart Limkatanyu

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper was to investigate the effect of material uncertainties on dynamic response of segmental box girder bridge subjected to a moving load, in this case a rapid passing trains. Literatures concerned with the design of segmental box girder bridge, the application of finite element analysis to model the segmental box girder bridge, and the minimum requirement for structural conditions of the bridge were described and discussed in detail. A series of finite element analysis was carried out using SAP2000 Nonlinear software. The effect was investigated by varying the Modulus of Elasticity by 5%, 10% and 15%. The results were then compared with the case of assumed uniform property which had already been checked for model accuracy using the Standard prEN 1991-2. The results showed that, for the uniform case, the dynamic responses of the bridge gave the highest response at the resonance speed. When considering the non-uniform material properties (non-uniform case, the effect of material uncertainties appeared to have an effect on both displacement and acceleration responses. Nonetheless, the dynamic factor provided in the design code was sufficient for designing the segmental box girder bridge with either uniform or non-uniform material properties for the train speeds considered in this study.

  10. Shear deformable finite beam elements for composite box beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam-Il; Choi, Dong-Ho

    2014-04-01

    The shear deformable thin-walled composite beams with closed cross-sections have been developed for coupled flexural, torsional, and buckling analyses. A theoretical model applicable to the thin-walled laminated composite box beams is presented by taking into account all the structural couplings coming from the material anisotropy and the shear deformation effects. The current composite beam includes the transverse shear and the restrained warping induced shear deformation by using the first-order shear deformation beam theory. Seven governing equations are derived for the coupled axial-flexural-torsional-shearing buckling based on the principle of minimum total potential energy. Based on the present analytical model, three different types of finite composite beam elements, namely, linear, quadratic and cubic elements are developed to analyze the flexural, torsional, and buckling problems. In order to demonstrate the accuracy and superiority of the beam theory and the finite beam elements developed by this study, numerical solutions are presented and compared with the results obtained by other researchers and the detailed three-dimensional analysis results using the shell elements of ABAQUS. Especially, the influences of the modulus ratio and the simplified assumptions in stress-strain relations on the deflection, twisting angle, and critical buckling loads of composite box beams are investigated. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  11. Numerical Characterization of a Composite Bonded Wing-Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeltzer, Stanley S., III; Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Satyanarayana, Arunkumar

    2008-01-01

    The development of composite wing structures has focused on the use of mechanical fasteners to join heavily-loaded areas, while bonded joints have been used only for select locations. The focus of this paper is the examination of the adhesive layer in a generic bonded wing box that represents a "fastenerless" or unitized structure in order to characterize the general behavior and failure mechanisms. A global/local approach was applied to study the response of the adhesive layer using a global shell model and a local shell/solid model. The wing box was analyzed under load to represent a high-g up-bending condition such that the strains in the composite sandwich face sheets are comparable to an expected design allowable. The global/local analysis indicates that at these wing load levels the strains in the adhesive layer are well within the adhesive's elastic region, such that yielding would not be expected in the adhesive layer. The global/local methodology appears to be a promising approach to evaluate the structural integrity of the adhesively bonded structures.

  12. Protection mechanisms of the carapace of a box turtle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Bingbing; Wagner, H Daniel

    2017-07-01

    In this study we explore the materials design principles of the carapace of a Terrapene Carolina box turtle, which possesses a sandwich-like structure consisting of a foam-like interior layer (FIL) enclosed by two dense exterior layers (DEL). A constitutive scheme accounting for the large deformation, plastic yielding and post-yield strain hardening caused by densification of the cells in the foam is developed to model the mechanical properties of the FIL, and a large deformation elastic-plastic model for the DEL is proposed. Computational simulations of the carapace subjected to indentation loading are performed and it is found that the layer sequence plays an essential role in the mechanical properties of the carapace. For the sandwich-like layering, the stiff DEL provides penetration resistance and the FIL contributes to the energy dissipation of the entire structure through plastic deformation, which enables reduction in back-deformations, enhanced penetration resistance and low stresses transmitted to the inner layer. For other layer sequential patterns, the contributions of the DEL and FIL are limited, leading to poorer mechanical performance. Based on these results, we propose that the sandwich-like structure of the carapace of the box turtle is designed to maintain sufficient resistance to penetration deformation, a defeating mechanism, and at the same time to significantly amplify energy dissipation, a defending mechanism. This double function could be used in the development of future human body armor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Design and development of a freezer and chiller delivery box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Mohd Zakimi; Hung, Goh Chung; Dawi, Mohd Syedi Imran Mohd; Hussin, Radhwan; Khalil, Ahmad Nabil Mohd; Naim, Muhammad Khairy Md; Hilmi, Ahmad Humaizi

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents an action research of designed and fabricated using well insulating materials in order to ensure the coolness inside the freezer and chiller delivery box is as good minimize temperature raised. The main purpose of this study is to develop freeze and chiller delivery box that will be able to keep fresh meat during travelling long delivery. A range of freeze and chill solutions exists for that must be kept within a specific temperature range throughout the supply-and-distribution chain. This will help to minimize the activeness of bacteria to spoil the meats, at the same time it can linger the duration for meats to spoil. All affecting parameter such as temperature inside the delivery box, heat transfer rate, and natural convection flow pattern has been studied to design and development of the delivery box. Finally, temperature distribution analysis has been conducted which showed that in operating condition inside temperature are suitable to keep the fresh meats condition.

  14. Expo-Box Contact Us

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA-Expo-Box is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases, mode

  15. On the Dirichlet's Box Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Kin-Keung; Shiu, Wai-Chee

    2008-01-01

    In this note, we will focus on several applications on the Dirichlet's box principle in Discrete Mathematics lesson and number theory lesson. In addition, the main result is an innovative game on a triangular board developed by the authors. The game has been used in teaching and learning mathematics in Discrete Mathematics and some high schools in…

  16. The Bird Box Survey Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    When high school students are asked what's the best part of science class, many will say it's the field trips. Students enjoy engaging in authentic, community-based science outside the classroom. To capitalize on this, Patrick Willis created the Bird Box Survey Project for his introductory field biology class. The project takes students…

  17. Insights into the quality of DnaA boxes and their cooperativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming G.; Christensen, Bjarke Bak; Nielsen, Christina Bang

    2006-01-01

    Plasmids carrying the mioC promoter region with its two DnaA boxes are as efficient in titration of DnaA protein as plasmids carrying a replicationinactivated oriC region with its five DnaA boxes. The two DnaA boxes upstream of the mioC promoter were mutated in various ways to study the cooperati......Plasmids carrying the mioC promoter region with its two DnaA boxes are as efficient in titration of DnaA protein as plasmids carrying a replicationinactivated oriC region with its five DnaA boxes. The two DnaA boxes upstream of the mioC promoter were mutated in various ways to study...... the cooperativity between the DnaA boxes, and to study in vivo the in vitrodefined 9mer DnaA box consensus sequence TTA/TTNCACA). The quality and cooperativity of the DnaA oxes were determined in two complementary ways: as titration of DnaA protein leading to derepression of the dnaA promoter, and as repression...... of the mioC promoter caused by the DnaA protein binding to the DnaA boxes. Titration of DnaA protein correlated with repression of the mioC promoter. The level of titration and repression with the normal promoter-proximal box (TTTTCCACA) depends strongly on the presence and the quality of a DnaA box...

  18. Effect and process evaluation of a kindergarten-based, family-involved cluster randomised controlled trial in six European countries on four- to six-year-old children's steps per day: the ToyBox-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Craemer, Marieke; Verloigne, Maïté; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Androutsos, Odysseas; Iotova, Violeta; Moreno, Luis; Koletzko, Berthold; Socha, Piotr; Manios, Yannis; Cardon, Greet

    2017-08-29

    The ToyBox-intervention is a theory- and evidence-based intervention delivered in kindergartens to improve four- to six-year-old children's energy balance-related behaviours and prevent obesity. The current study aimed to (1) examine the effect of the ToyBox-intervention on increasing European four- to six-year-old children' steps per day, and (2) examine if a higher process evaluation score from teachers and parents was related to a more favourable effect on steps per day. A sample of 2438 four- to six-year-old children (51.9% boys, mean age 4.75 ± 0.43 years) from 6 European countries (Belgium, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Poland and Spain) wore a motion sensor (pedometer or accelerometer) for a minimum of two weekdays and one weekend day both at baseline and follow-up to objectively measure their steps per day. Kindergarten teachers implemented the physical activity component of the ToyBox-intervention for 6 weeks in total, with a focus on (1) environmental changes in the classroom, (2) the child performing the actual behaviour and (3) classroom activities. Children's parents received newsletters, tip cards and posters. To assess intervention effects, multilevel repeated measures analyses were conducted for the total sample and the six intervention countries separately. In addition, process evaluation questionnaires were used to calculate a total process evaluation score (with implementation and satisfaction as a part of the overall score) for teachers and parents which was then linked with the physical activity outcomes. No significant intervention effects on four- to six-year-old children' steps per weekday, steps per weekend day and steps per average day were found, both in the total sample and in the country-specific samples (all p > 0.05). In general, the intervention effects on steps per day were least favourable in four- to six-year-old children with a low teachers process evaluation score and most favourable in four- to six-year-old children with a

  19. A pharmacological and biochemical characterisation of Australian box jellyfish venoms

    OpenAIRE

    Winter, Kelly Lee

    2017-01-01

    Box jellyfish are found throughout the northern tropical waters of Australia and are responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality. Chironex fleckeri is arguably the most venomous creature in the world and has been responsible for over 70 deaths. Despite considerable research, the mechanisms of action of these venoms have yet to be elucidated. The current study investigated the pharmacological and biochemical characteristics of venom from the following species of box jellyfish: C. flec...

  20. Clutch-size variation in Western Palaearctic secondary hole-nesting passerine birds in relation to nest box design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Møller, A.P.; Adriaensen, F.; Artemyev, A.; Bańbura, J.; Barba, E.; Biard, C.; Blondel, J.; Bouslama, Z.; Bouvier, J.-C.; Camprodon, J.; Cecere, F.; Chaine, A.; Charmantier, A.; Charter, M.; Cichoń, M.; Cusimano, C.; Czeszczewik, D.; Doligez, B.; Doutrelant, C.; Dubiec, A.; Eens, M.; Eeva, T.; Faivre, B.; Ferns, P.N.; Forsman, J.T.; García-del-Rey, E.; Goldshtein, A.; Goodenough, A.E.; Gosler, A.G.; Góźdź, I.; Grégoire, A.; Gustafsson, L.; Hartley, I.R.; Heeb, P.; Hinsley, S.A.; Isenmann, P.; Jacob, S.; Järvinen, A.; Juškaitis, R.; Kania, W.; Korpimäki, E.; Krams, I.; Laaksonen, T.; Leclercq, B.; Lehikoinen, E.; Loukola, O.; Lundberg, A.; Mainwaring, M.C.; Mänd, R.; Massa, B.; Mazgajski, T.D.; Merino, S.; Mitrus, C.; Mönkkönen, M.; Morales-Fernaz, J.; Moreno, J.; Morin, X.; Nager, R.G.; Nilsson, J.-Å.; Nilsson, S.G.; Norte, A.C.; Orell, M.; Perret, P.; Perrins, C.M.; Pimentel, C.S.; Pinxten, R.; Priedniece, I.; Quidoz, M.-C.; Remeš, V.; Richner, H.; Robles, H.; Russell, A.; Rytkönen, S.; Senar, J.C.; Seppänen, J.T.; Pascoal da Silva, L.; Slagsvold, T.; Solonen, T.; Sorace, A.; Stenning, M.J.; Török, J.; Tryjanowski, P.; Van Noordwijk, A.J.; von Numers, M.; Walankiewicz, W.; Lambrechts, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    * Secondary hole-nesting birds that do not construct nest holes themselves and hence regularly breed in nest boxes constitute important model systems for field studies in many biological disciplines with hundreds of scientists and amateurs involved. Those research groups are spread over wide

  1. Creep behavior of precast segmental box girder bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xihua, Dai; Liangfang, Liu; Rong, Xian

    2017-08-01

    The concrete creep effect is more obvious when the box girder is assembled by segment. It is necessary to consider the influence of the loading value of the section at different time and the different age of concrete at different stages. In this paper, ACI209R-92, CEB-FIP MC90 and B3 and other concrete creep models are compared. The results show that the B3 model has many factors to consider and the calculation accuracy is high. Secondly, this paper discusses the influence of the segmental construction technology on the creep calculation, and puts forward the characteristics of the stress analysis of the segmental box girder. Finally, on the basis of the B3 model of concrete creep, the Midas software is used to establish the calculation model of segmental box girder, and the internal force and deformation of the box girder are calculated. The results show that the internal force and deformation of the box girder is too large due to the poor integrity of the segmental assembling process, which will seriously affect the normal service performance.

  2. Simultaneous determination of the bilirubin oxidation end products Z-BOX A and Z-BOX B in human serum using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Raphael A; Kahnes, Marcel; Bauer, Michael; Pohnert, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Bilirubin oxidation end products (BOXes) appear upon endogenous heme degradation and can be found in the cerebrospinal fluid after hemorrhagic stroke. BOXes are assumed to contribute to delayed cerebral vasospasm and secondary loss of brain tissue. Here, we present a validated LC-ESI-MS/MS method for the sensitive determination of the regio-isomers Z-BOX A and Z-BOX B in human serum. We found that Z-BOX A and Z-BOX B appear in serum of healthy volunteers. The sample preparation includes the addition of 5-bromonicotinamide as internal standard and protein precipitation with acetonitrile. Baseline-separation was achieved on a C-18 column with a binary solvent gradient of formic acid in water/acetonitrile at 1 mL/min within a total analysis time of 17 min. Using single reaction monitoring in the positive ion mode, the linear working ranges were 2.74-163 pg/μL (Z-BOX A) and 2.12-162.4 pg/μL (Z-BOX B) with R(2)>0.995. Intra- and inter-day precisions were human serum were determined by standard addition. The photolability of both analytes was demonstrated. This method enables to monitor Z-BOX A and Z-BOX B as a prerequisite to systematically study the biological significance of higher order metabolites of heme degradation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Evolution and Classification of the T-Box Transcription Factor Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebé-Pedrós, A; Ruiz-Trillo, I

    2017-01-01

    T-box proteins are key developmental transcription factors in Metazoa. Until recently they were thought to be animal specific and many T-box classes were considered bilaterian specific. Recent genome data from both early-branching animals and their closest unicellular relatives have radically changed this scenario. Thus, we now know that T-box genes originated in premetazoans, being present in the genomes of some extant early-branching fungi and unicellular holozoans. Here, we update the evolutionary classification of T-box families and review the evolution of T-box function in early-branching animals (sponges, ctenophores, placozoans, and cnidarians) and nonmodel bilaterians. We show that concomitant with the origin of Metazoa, the T-box family radiated into the major known T-box classes. On the other hand, while functional studies are still missing for many T-box classes, the emerging picture is that T-box genes have key roles in multiple aspects of development and in adult terminal cell-type differentiation in different animal lineages. A paradigmatic example is that of Brachyury, the founding member of the T-box family, for which several studies indicate a widely conserved role in regulating cell motility in different animal lineages and probably even before the advent of animal multicellularity. Overall, we here review the evolutionary history of T-box genes from holozoans to animals and discuss both their functional diversity and conservation. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. T-Box Genes in Human Development and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, T K; Brook, J D; Wilsdon, A

    2017-01-01

    T-box genes are important development regulators in vertebrates with specific patterns of expression and precise roles during embryogenesis. They encode transcription factors that regulate gene transcription, often in the early stages of development. The hallmark of this family of proteins is the presence of a conserved DNA binding motif, the "T-domain." Mutations in T-box genes can cause developmental disorders in humans, mostly due to functional deficiency of the relevant proteins. Recent studies have also highlighted the role of some T-box genes in cancer and in cardiomyopathy, extending their role in human disease. In this review, we focus on ten T-box genes with a special emphasis on their roles in human disease. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Matter-wave dark solitons in box-like traps

    CERN Document Server

    Sciacca, M; Parker, N G

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the experimental development of quasi-homogeneous Bose-Einstein condensates confined in box-like traps, we study numerically the dynamics of dark solitons in such traps at zero temperature. We consider the cases where the side walls of the box potential rise either as a power-law or a Gaussian. While the soliton propagates through the homogeneous interior of the box without dissipation, it typically dissipates energy during a reflection from a wall through the emission of sound waves, causing a slight increase in the soliton's speed. We characterise this energy loss as a function of the wall parameters. Moreover, over multiple oscillations and reflections in the box-like trap, the energy loss and speed increase of the soliton can be significant, although the decay eventually becomes stabilized when the soliton equilibrates with the ambient sound field.

  6. Sharp asymptotics for Kawasaki dynamics on a finite box with open boundary

    CERN Document Server

    Bovier, A; Nardi, F

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we study the metastable behavior of the lattice gas in two and three dimensions subject to Kawasaki dynamics in the limit of low temperature and low density. We consider the local version of the model, where particles live on a finite box and are created, respectively, annihilated at the boundary of the box in a way that reflects an infinite gas reservoir. We are interested in how the system nucleates, i.e., how it reaches a full box when it starts from an empty box. Our approach combines geometric and potential theoretic arguments. In two dimensions, we identify the full geometry of the set of critical droplets for the nucleation, compute the average nucleation time up to a multiplicative factor that tends to one in the limit of low temperature and low density, express the proportionality constant in terms of certain capacities associated with simple random walk, and compute the asymptotic behavior of this constant as the system size tends to infinity. In three dimensions, we obtain similar res...

  7. Light Therapy Boxes for Seasonal Affective Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seasonal affective disorder treatment: Choosing a light therapy box Light therapy boxes can offer an effective treatment for seasonal affective disorder. Features such as light intensity, safety, cost and ...

  8. A Finite Segment Method for Skewed Box Girder Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingwei Xue

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A finite segment method is presented to analyze the mechanical behavior of skewed box girders. By modeling the top and bottom plates of the segments with skew plate beam element under an inclined coordinate system and the webs with normal plate beam element, a spatial elastic displacement model for skewed box girder is constructed, which can satisfy the compatibility condition at the corners of the cross section for box girders. The formulation of the finite segment is developed based on the variational principle. The major advantage of the proposed approach, in comparison with the finite element method, is that it can simplify a three-dimensional structure into a one-dimensional structure for structural analysis, which results in significant saving in computational times. At last, the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed finite segment method are verified by a model test.

  9. RNAa Induced by TATA Box-Targeting MicroRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yijun; Zhang, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies reveal that some nuclear microRNAs (miRNA) and synthesized siRNAs target gene promoters to activate gene transcription (RNAa). Interestingly, our group identified a novel HIV-1-encoded miRNA, miR-H3, which targets specifically the core promoter TATA box of HIV-1 and activates viral gene expression. Depletion of miR-H3 significantly impaired the replication of HIV-1. miR-H3 mimics could activate viruses from CD4(+) T cells isolated from patients receiving suppressive highly active antiretroviral therapy, which is very intriguing for reducing HIV-1 latent reservoir. Further study revealed that many cellular miRNAs also function like miR-H3. For instance, let-7i targets the TATA box of the interleukin-2 (IL-2) promoter and upregulates IL-2 expression in T-lymphocytes. In RNAa induced by TATA box-targeting miRNAs, Argonaute (AGO) proteins are needed, but there is no evidence for the involvement of promoter-associated transcripts or epigenetic modifications. We propose that the binding of small RNA-AGO complex to TATA box could facilitate the assembly of RNA Polymerase II transcription preinitiation complex. In addition, synthesized small RNAs targeting TATA box can also efficiently activate transcription of interested genes, such as insulin, IL-2, and c-Myc. The discovery of RNAa induced by TATA box-targeting miRNA provides an easy-to-use tool for activating gene expression.

  10. Program management model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, J. J.; Russell, J. E.; Seline, J. R.; Sumner, N. R., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Two models, a system performance model and a program assessment model, have been developed to assist NASA management in the evaluation of development alternatives for the Earth Observations Program. Two computer models were developed and demonstrated on the Goddard Space Flight Center Computer Facility. Procedures have been outlined to guide the user of the models through specific evaluation processes, and the preparation of inputs describing earth observation needs and earth observation technology. These models are intended to assist NASA in increasing the effectiveness of the overall Earth Observation Program by providing a broader view of system and program development alternatives.

  11. Thinking Outside the Box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingles, Judith; Kyathanahalli, Chandrashekara N; Jeyasuria, Pancharatnam; Condon, Jennifer C

    2017-07-01

    A broad definition of preconditioning is "the preparation for a subsequent action." Mounting evidence demonstrates that novel remote preconditioning paradigms, in which protective stimuli experienced locally can capacitate systemic tolerance and enhanced cell viability upon exposure to ensuing cellular insults, have been largely successful in the field of cardiovascular ischemia/reperfusion injury. To ensure successful protective preconditioning, some models (including the uterus) have been demonstrated to activate the unfolded protein response (UPR), which is a cellular stress response controlled at the level of the endoplasmic reticulum. However, in the context of remote preconditioning, activation of these intracellular molecular pathways must result in the extracellular transmission of adaptive signals to remote targets. In our recently published manuscript, we have described the activation of the UPR in the pregnant uterine myocyte to be associated with increased uterine myocyte quiescence and normal gestational length. We hypothesize that ubiquitous uterine gestational stresses experienced in every pregnancy, which have been demonstrated in other systems to activate the UPR, may induce a robust paracrine dissemination of a uterine secretome, for example, glucose-regulated protein 78, with preconditioning-like properties. Furthermore, we speculate that the gestational stress-induced uterine secretome acts to promote both local and systemic tolerance to the ensuing gestational insults, allowing for the maintenance of uterine quiescence. In this context, preterm labor may be the result of a pregnant uterus experiencing a stress it cannot accommodate or when it is unable to host an appropriate UPR resulting in insufficient preconditioning and a diminished local and systemic capacity to tolerate pregnancy-dependent increases in normal gestational stress. This is highly attractive from a clinical viewpoint as we ultimately aim to identify local and systemic

  12. Meal box schemes a convenient way to avoid convenience food? Uses and understandings of meal box schemes among Danish consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Frej Daniel; Halkier, Bente

    2017-07-01

    The term convenience food is subject to diversification, lack of clarity and moral ambiguity. In this paper we address these issues and critically discuss convenience food by using empirical findings from a Danish study that deals with practitioners' uses of meal box schemes. The methodological design consists of thirteen individual interviews, four focus groups and some observations of cooking practices. We combine the empirical findings with a particular definition of convenience food by Brunner et al. (2010) and selected practice theoretical concepts. This particular combination enables us to categorize meal box schemes as a new form of convenience food called convenient food. In addition, results suggest that meal box schemes reduce leftovers from dinner. Meal boxes also influence dinner related activities such as planning ahead in time and grocery shopping, which require less physical and mental effort. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. From Boxing to Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosiewicz Jerzy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article begins the cycle of portraits of the members of the Editorial Board and Editorial Advisory Board of the journal Physical Culture and Sport. Studies and Research, who are eminent social scientists researching the issue of sport. Among them, there are many world-class professors, rectors and deans of excellent universities, founders, presidents and secretaries-general of continental and international scientific societies and editors of high-scoring journals related to social sciences focusing on sport. The journal Physical Culture and Sport. Studies and Research started its activities in 2008 and gathered many readers, distinguished authors and outstanding reviewers. It is worth taking a moment to present the profiles of the individual editors, thanks to whom the journal keeps getting better and better. The journal is increasingly appreciated internationally particular among the scientists from the humanist and social areas of investigations. The rapidly increasing number of its readers and its surprisingly wide reception, indicated by the number of visits and downloads in English-speaking countries, including hundreds of universities (up to 791 were interested in the content of issue 62 of our magazine, research institutes and related libraries, as well as academics, researchers and students, should be celebrated. These data are derived only from one bibliographic data base (EBSCO. It must be noted that the journal is indexed in 43 bases.

  14. Main: BOX2PSGS2 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BOX2PSGS2 S000204 17-May-1998 (last modified) kehi Box 2 in glutamine synthetase (G...S2) gene in pea (P.s.); Repeated in tandem with a partial palindrome located between the repeats; Located at ca. -300 of pea GS2; Box

  15. DETERMINATION OF MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF PULTRUDED GRP BOX SECTION USING A "SHORT" TENSILE COUPON

    OpenAIRE

    SARIBIYIK, Mehmet; ÇAĞLAR, Naci

    2010-01-01

    Glass fibre reinforced plastic (GRP) structural members are currently being produced successfully by pultrusion and are now used in an increasing number of civil engineering applications. Measurements of the orthotropic mechanical properties of the GRP box section are necessary for use in the numerical modelling of connection. Pultruded GRP structural sections may not possess the dimensions necessary for the extraction of standard length coupons for tensile testing. In this study, initial exp...

  16. Efficient approximation of black-box functions and Pareto sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rennen, G.

    2009-01-01

    In the case of time-consuming simulation models or other so-called black-box functions, we determine a metamodel which approximates the relation between the input- and output-variables of the simulation model. To solve multi-objective optimization problems, we approximate the Pareto set, i.e. the

  17. Testing the Box-Cox Parameter for an Integrated Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Huang (Jian); M. Kobayashi (Masahito); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analyses the constant elasticity of volatility (CEV) model suggested by Chan et al. (1992). The CEV model without mean reversion is shown to be the inverse Box-Cox transformation of integrated processes asymptotically. It is demonstrated that the maximum likelihood estimator

  18. Application of Box-Behnken Design for Optimum Citric Acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of three factors, temperature, pH and inoculum density on citric acid production was determined using a three variable Box-Behnken design (BBD). The BBD was used to develop a statistical model to describe the production of citric acid and the fermentation conditions were then optimised using RSM. The model ...

  19. ArduiPod Box: a low-cost and open-source Skinner box using an iPod Touch and an Arduino microcontroller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineño, Oskar

    2014-03-01

    This article introduces the ArduiPod Box, an open-source device built using two main components (i.e., an iPod Touch and an Arduino microcontroller), developed as a low-cost alternative to the standard operant conditioning chamber, or "Skinner box." Because of its affordability, the ArduiPod Box provides an opportunity for educational institutions with small budgets seeking to set up animal laboratories for research and instructional purposes. A pilot experiment is also presented, which shows that the ArduiPod Box, in spite of its extraordinary simplicity, can be effectively used to study animal learning and behavior.

  20. Opening the Black Box of Intra-Household Decision-Making : Theory and Non-Parametric Empirical Tests of General Collective Consumption Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cherchye, L.J.H.; de Rock, B.; Vermeulen, F.M.P.

    2005-01-01

    We non-parametrically test a general collective consumption model with public consumption and externalities inside the household.We further propose a novel approach to model special cases of the general collective model.These special cases include alternative restrictions on the 'sharing rule' that

  1. Numerical investigation of thermally stratified Williamson fluid flow over a cylindrical surface via Keller box method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, S.; Rehman, Khalil Ur; Malik, M. Y.

    Present study is addressed to express the implementation of Keller-Box technique on physical problem in the field of fluid rheology, for this purpose the Williamson fluid flow is considered along a cylindrical stretching surface manifested with temperature stratification. The flow model is translated mathematically in terms of differential equations. Numerical simulation is executed to trace out the solution structure of developed differential system. The graphical outcomes for the flow regime of two different geometries (i-e cylindrical and plane surface) are reported and examined towards involved physical parameters. Furthermore, the local skin friction coefficient and local Nusselt number are computed numerically. A remarkable agreement of present study is noticed with the previously published results, which confirms the implementation and validation of Keller-Box scheme and it will serve as a helping source for the future correspondence.

  2. Using BIM to Improve the Design and Construction of Bridge Projects: A Case Study of a Long-span Steel-box Arch Bridge Project

    OpenAIRE

    Wenping Liu; Hongling Guo; Heng Li; Yan Li

    2014-01-01

    More and more mega-complex bridge projects are being or will be built worldwide. At the same time, the design and construction of such projects involve more and more challenges, e.g., complex structural designs, complicated construction environments, etc. This research study aims to apply BIM (Building Information Modelling) to bridge projects to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of design and construction. Through the analysis of the characteristics of bridge projects and relevant, as...

  3. Quantum computing with black-box quantum subroutines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Jayne [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, 117543 Singapore (Singapore); Gu, Mile [Center for Quantum Information, Institute for Interdisciplinary Information Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, 117543 Singapore (Singapore); Modi, Kavan [School of Physics, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Vedral, Vlatko [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Clarendon Laboratory, Oxford, OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, 117543 Singapore (Singapore); Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, 117551 Singapore (Singapore)

    2014-07-01

    In classical computation a subroutine is treated as a black box and we do not need to know its exact physical implementation to use it. A complex problem can be decomposed into smaller problems using such modularity. We show that quantum mechanically applying an unknown quantum process as a subroutine is impossible, and this restricts computation models such as DQC1 from operating on unknown inputs. We present a method to avoid this situation for certain computational problems and apply to a modular version of Shor's factoring algorithm. We examine how quantum entanglement and discord fare in this implementation. In this way we are able to study the role of discord in Shor's factoring algorithm.

  4. Low-profile self-sealing sample transfer flexure box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Kevin; Porz, Lukas; Swamy, Tushar; Chiang, Yet-Ming; Slocum, Alexander

    2017-08-01

    A flexural bearing mechanism has enabled the development of a self-sealing box for protecting air sensitive samples during transfer between glove boxes, micro-machining equipment, and microscopy equipment. The simplicity and self-actuating feature of this design makes it applicable to many devices that operate under vacuum conditions. The models used to design the flexural mechanism are presented in detail. The device has been tested in a Zeiss Merlin GEMINI II scanning electron microscope with Li 3 PS 4 samples, showing effective isolation from air and corrosion prevention.

  5. Applying the Intervention Mapping protocol to develop a kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention to increase European preschool children's physical activity levels: the ToyBox-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Craemer, M; De Decker, E; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Verloigne, M; Duvinage, K; Koletzko, B; Ibrügger, S; Kreichauf, S; Grammatikaki, E; Moreno, L; Iotova, V; Socha, P; Szott, K; Manios, Y; Cardon, G

    2014-08-01

    Although sufficient physical activity is beneficial for preschoolers' health, activity levels in most preschoolers are low. As preschoolers spend a considerable amount of time at home and at kindergarten, interventions should target both environments to increase their activity levels. The aim of the current paper was to describe the six different steps of the Intervention Mapping protocol towards the systematic development and implementation of the physical activity component of the ToyBox-intervention. This intervention is a kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention implemented across six European countries. Based on the results of literature reviews and focus groups with parents/caregivers and kindergarten teachers, matrices of change objectives were created. Then, theory-based methods and practical strategies were selected to develop intervention materials at three different levels: (i) individual level (preschoolers); (ii) interpersonal level (parents/caregivers) and (iii) organizational level (teachers). This resulted in a standardized intervention with room for local and cultural adaptations in each participating country. Although the Intervention Mapping protocol is a time-consuming process, using this systematic approach may lead to an increase in intervention effectiveness. The presented matrices of change objectives are useful for future programme planners to develop and implement an intervention based on the Intervention Mapping protocol to increase physical activity levels in preschoolers. © 2014 World Obesity.

  6. Optimatization of loop heat pipe for cooling of electrotechnical box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Banovcan; Tomas, Puchor; Andrej, Kapjor; Milan, Malcho

    2017-09-01

    The paper deals with use of LOOP thermosyphon heat pipe to transfer heat from electrotechnical box and describe of construction individual types of LOOP heat pipes. The LOOP heat pipe is very good cooling device which requires no mechanical parts in their design. LOOP heat pipe use only phase change during heat transfer, without a compressor, fan or pump. LOOP heat pipe is more energy saving compared to conventional cooling systems with forced convection. The main advantage of cooling by heat pipe is that electrotechnical box can be hermetically closed (dust -free construction), because dust reduces the lifetime of electrotechnical elements in box. Lifetime of LOOP heat pipe equals to the lifetime of construction material. The paper describes mathematical model of LOOP thermosyphon heat pipe (condenser). Compares selected types of working fluids which are filled with a heat pipe and construction materials of heat pipe.

  7. Smocks and Jocks outside the Box: The Paradigmatic Evolution of Sport and Exercise Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vealey, Robin S.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this article is to describe the historical development of sport and exercise psychology, with a particular emphasis on the construction and evolution of the "box" through history. The box represents the dominant paradigm that serves as the model for research and application as it evolves through successive historical eras (Kuhn,…

  8. The Design of the Orthogonal Box Cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moretti, Alfred; /Fermilab

    2010-09-15

    The muon collider and/or the neutrino factory require large accelerating electric field gradients immersed in large (3 to 6 T) solenoidal magnetic fields for ionization cooling of muon beams. Our original vacuum breakdown study demonstrated a loss of achievable peak accelerating gradient in solenoidal magnetic fields by a factor 2 or greater. The Muon Collaboration has developed a theory of a method to suppress high electric field breakdown in vacuum cavities needed for a Muon collider or neutrino factory. It has been shown in our studies and by others that high gradient electric field emitted electrons (dark current) are the primary cause of breakdown. A DC magnetic field orthogonal to the RF electric accelerating field prevents dark current high field emitted electrons from traveling across the accelerating gap and then will prevent breakdown. We have decided to test this theory by building a special cavity in the shape of vacuum box. Figure 1 is a simplified view of the cavity design. The design is based on an 805 MHz WR975 waveguide cavity resonating in the TE{sub 101} mode. For the TE{sub 101} mode the resonant frequency f{sub 0} is given by the relationship f{sub 0} = c[(I/a){sup 2} + (m/b){sup 2} + (n/d){sup 2}]{sup 0.5}/2 where a and d are the lengths of the base sides and b is the height of the box in MKS units and c is the velocity of light.

  9. Phylogenetic Distribution and Evolutionary History of Bacterial DEAD-Box Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    López-Ramírez, Varinia; Alcaraz, Luis D; Moreno-Hagelsieb, Gabriel; Olmedo-Álvarez, Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    DEAD-box proteins are found in all domains of life and participate in almost all cellular processes that involve RNA. The presence of DEAD and Helicase_C conserved domains distinguish these proteins. DEAD-box proteins exhibit RNA-dependent ATPase activity in vitro, and several also show RNA helicase activity. In this study, we analyzed the distribution and architecture of DEAD-box proteins among bacterial genomes to gain insight into the evolutionary pathways that have shaped their history. W...

  10. Beyond the Black Box: Coupling x-ray tomographic imaging of multi-phase flow processes to numerical models and traditional laboratory measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildenschild, Dorthe; Porter, M.L.; Schaap, M.G.

    advances in x-ray microtomography techniques that can generate high-resolution image-based data for (1) validation of pore-scale multi-phase flow models such as the lattice-Boltzmann technique and pore network models (with respect to fluid saturations, fluid distribution, and relationships among capillary......Quantitative non-invasive imaging has evolved rapidly in the last decade, and is now being used to assess a variety of problems in vadose zone research, including unsaturated flow and transport of water and contaminants, macropore-dominated processes, soil-water-root interactions, more recent work...

  11. Pitx2-dependent occupancy by histone deacetylases is associated with T-box gene regulation in mammalian abdominal tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Traci; Gross, Michael K; Kioussi, Chrissa

    2010-04-09

    The homeodomain transcription factor Pitx2 and the T-box transcription factors are essential for organogenesis. Pitx2 and T-box genes are induced by growth factors and function as transcriptional activators or repressors. Gene expression analyses on abdominal tissue were used to identify seven of the T-box genes of the genome as Pitx2 target genes in the abdomen at embryonic day.10.5. Pitx2 activated Tbx4, Tbx15, and Mga and repressed Tbx1, Tbx2, Tbx5, and Tbx6 expression. As expected, activated genes showed reduced expression patterns, and repressed T-box genes showed increased expression patterns in the abdomen of Pitx2 mutants. Pitx2 occupied chromatin sites near all of these T-box genes. Co-occupancy by coactivators, corepressors, and histone acetylation at these sites was frequently Pitx2-dependent. Genes repressed by Pitx2 generally showed increased histone acetylation and decreased histone deacetylase (HDAC)/corepressor occupancy in Pitx2 mutants. The lower N-CoR, HDAC1, and HDAC3 occupancy observed at multiple sites along Tbx1 chromatin in mutants is consistent with the model that increased histone acetylation and gene expression of Tbx1 may result from a loss of recruitment of corepressors by Pitx2. Genes activated by Pitx2 showed less consistent patterns in chromatin analyses. Reduced H4 acetylation and increased HDAC1/nuclear receptor corepressor (N-CoR) occupancy at some Tbx4 sites were accompanied by increased H3 acetylation and reduced HDAC3 occupancy at the same or other more distal chromatin sites in mutants. Pitx2-dependent occupancy by corepressors resulted in alteration of the acetylation levels of several T-box genes, whereas Pitx2-dependent occupancy by coactivators was more site-localized. These studies will provide the basic scientific underpinning to understand abdominal wall syndromes.

  12. Distribusi Difference dari S-Box Berbasis Fungsi Balikan Pada GF(28

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriani Adi Lestari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Substitution-box (s-box is a basic component of block cipher which performs a substitution. Two powerful cryptanalysis techniques applied to block ciphers are linear cryptanalysis and differential cryptanalysis. The resistance against differential cryptanalysis can be achieved by eliminating high-probability differential trails. We should choose an s-box where the maximum difference propagation probability is as small as possible to eliminating high-probability differential trails. Nyberg proposed a method to construct the s-box by using the inverse mapping on a finite field then implements affine transformations on . In this study, we generate 47.104 s-box according to Nyberg. The experimental results showed that s-boxes have the maximum difference propagation probability with the same frequency.

  13. Lessons from the light-cone box

    CERN Document Server

    Leibbrandt, G

    2000-01-01

    Working in the noncovariant light-cone gauge, we discuss the explicit computation of the 1PI four-point function ("box diagram") in Yang- Mills theory. The complete box diagram which consists of 16 box subdiagrams, 8 lynx subdiagrams and 4 fish subdiagrams, yields both local and nonlocal UV divergent terms. The nonlocal terms are consistent with gauge symmetry and correspond to a nonlocal renormalization of the wave function. (14 refs).

  14. Hairy black holes in a box

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, Pallab [International Center for Theoretical Sciences,IISc Campus, Bangalore 560012 (India); Krishnan, Chethan; Subramanian, P.N. Bala [Center for High Energy Physics, Indian Institute of Science,Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2016-11-08

    We do a systematic study of the phases of gravity coupled to an electromagnetic field and charged scalar in flat space, with box boundary conditions. The scalar-less box has previously been investigated by Braden, Brown, Whiting and York (and others) before AdS/CFT and we elaborate and extend their results in a language more familiar from holography. The phase diagram of the system is analogous to that of AdS black holes, but we emphasize the differences and explain their origin. Once the scalar is added, we show that the system admits both boson stars as well as hairy black holes as solutions, providing yet another way to evade flat space no-hair theorems. Furthermore both these solutions can exist as stable phases in regions of the phase diagram. The final picture of the phases that emerges is strikingly similar to that found recently for holographic superconductors in global AdS, http://arxiv.org/abs/1602.07211. Our construction lays bare certain previously unnoticed subtleties associated to the definition quasi-local charges for gravitating scalar fields in finite regions.

  15. Fitting boxes to Manhattan scenes using linear integer programming

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Minglei

    2016-02-19

    We propose an approach for automatic generation of building models by assembling a set of boxes using a Manhattan-world assumption. The method first aligns the point cloud with a per-building local coordinate system, and then fits axis-aligned planes to the point cloud through an iterative regularization process. The refined planes partition the space of the data into a series of compact cubic cells (candidate boxes) spanning the entire 3D space of the input data. We then choose to approximate the target building by the assembly of a subset of these candidate boxes using a binary linear programming formulation. The objective function is designed to maximize the point cloud coverage and the compactness of the final model. Finally, all selected boxes are merged into a lightweight polygonal mesh model, which is suitable for interactive visualization of large scale urban scenes. Experimental results and a comparison with state-of-the-art methods demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework.

  16. Identification and quantification of expression levels of three FRUITFULL-like MADS-box genes from the orchid Dendrobium thyrsiflorum (Reichb. f.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skipper, Martin; Pedersen, Kim B.; Johansen, Louise Buchholt

    2005-01-01

    Orchids serve as useful model plants for the discovery and study of genes involved in novel processes in floral development because of their highly modified flowers. In this study three different FRUITFULL (FUL)-like MADS-box genes, DthyrFL1, -2, and -3 have been isolated from the orchid Dendrobium...

  17. Laparoscopic virtual reality simulator and box trainer in gynecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdemir, Ali; Sendağ, Fatih; Oztekin, Mehmet K

    2014-05-01

    To investigate whether a virtual reality simulator (LapSim) and traditional box trainer are effective tools for the acquisition of basic laparoscopic skills, and whether the LapSim is superior to the box trainer in surgical education. In a study at Ege University School of Medicine, Izmir, Turkey, between September 2008 and March 2013, 40 first- and second-year residents were randomized to train via the LapSim or box trainer for 4 weeks, and 20 senior residents were allocated to a control group. All 3 groups performed laparoscopic bilateral tubal ligation. Video records of each operation were assessed via the general rating scale of the Objective Structured Assessment of Laparoscopic Salpingectomy and by operation time in seconds. Compared with the control group, the LapSim and box trainer groups performed significantly better in total score (Peducation. Training with a virtual reality simulator or box trainer should be considered before actual laparoscopic procedures are carried out. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. T-Box Genes in the Kidney and Urinary Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kispert, A

    2017-01-01

    T-box (Tbx) genes encode an ancient group of transcription factors that play important roles in patterning, specification, proliferation, and differentiation programs in vertebrate organogenesis. This is testified by severe organ malformation syndromes in mice homozygous for engineered null alleles of specific T-box genes and by the large number of human inherited organ-specific diseases that have been linked to mutations in these genes. One of the organ systems that has not been associated with loss of specific T-box gene function in human disease for long is the excretory system. However, this has changed with the finding that mutations in TBX18, a member of a vertebrate-specific subgroup within the Tbx1-subfamily of T-box transcription factor genes, cause congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract, predominantly hydroureter and ureteropelvic junction obstruction. Gene expression analyses, loss-of-function studies, and lineage tracing in the mouse suggest a primary role for this transcription factor in specifying the ureteric mesenchyme in the common anlage of the kidney, the ureter, and the bladder. We review the function of Tbx18 in ureterogenesis and discuss the body of evidence that Tbx18 and other members of the T-box gene family, namely, Tbx1, Tbx2, Tbx3, and Tbx20, play additional roles in development and homeostasis of other components of the excretory system in vertebrates. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The extra-depth toe box: a rational approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, R A

    1994-03-01

    The conservative management of foot deformities often requires the use of a modified shoe. A higher toe box is one of the most common variations required when the abnormality is located in region of the forefoot. High toe boxes are available in a variety of footgear, including athletic sneakers, comfort shoes, and prescription footwear. A rational approach to accommodating a deformed forefoot would be to first measure the maximum height of the abnormal toes in a weightbearing position. Then, by referring to a table listing shoes and available toe box space, the physician could match the foot with a shoe. The purpose of this study was to collect and tabulate measurements of toe box height for a variety of shoes. Impressions were taken from various shoes using a moldable plastic material. Toe box height was then measured and recorded. Results were tabulated for various types of men's and women's shoes. The depth of shoes at the point 5 cm from the tip of the toe was about 44 mm for most styles. The sagittal profile (i.e., vertical height available) of extra-depth shoes, comfort shoes, and athletic shoes was similar.

  20. Using a box instead of a column for process chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Raja

    2016-10-14

    Columns with relatively short bed-height to diameter ratios are frequently used for process-scale chromatography applications such as biopharmaceutical purification. Non-uniform flow distribution within such columns could result in broad and poorly resolved eluted peaks, which could in turn affect purity, recovery and productivity of the process. Different strategies centered on improved column header design have been proposed for addressing this problem. This paper describes a radically different approach, i.e. the use of a chromatography box (or chromato-box) instead of a column, for addressing the challenges posed by flow mal-distribution in process-scale, packed-bed chromatography devices. The design of the chromatography box devices used in this study is based on a laterally-fed membrane chromatography (or LFMC) device, that has been described and discussed in several recent papers. The performances of two chromatography box devices were compared with their equivalent columns in terms of sharpness and asymmetry of flow-through and eluted peaks, number of theoretical plates per metre, and peak resolution in binary and ternary protein separations. In each of the above comparisons, the chromatography box devices performed better than their equivalent columns, clearly indicating their potential as an alternative in process-scale chromatography applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of thermal insulation on electrical connections and outlet boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beausoliel, R. W.; Clifton, J. R.; Meese, W. J.

    1981-04-01

    When residential walls are retrofitted with foamed-in urea formaldehyde or blown-in cellulose thermal insulations, the insulation may enter electrical outlet and switch boxes. The effects of these thermal insulations on the durability of electrical components were studied. These studies were carried out at 44, 75, and 96 percent relative humidities with test periods between one and twelve months. Laboratory test methods were developed and tests performed to determine the electrical and corrosive effects of urea formaldehyde and cellulose thermal insulation contained in electrical outlet and switch boxes.

  2. IMPROVED, FAVORABLE FOR ENVIRONMENT POLYURETHANE COLD-BOX-PROCESS (COLD BOX «HUTTENES-ALBERTUS» .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sergini

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the laboratory and industrial investigations, the purpose of which is improvement of the classical Cold-box-process, i.e. the process of the slugs hardening in cold boxes, are presented.

  3. Box model of radionuclide dispersion and radiation risk estimation for population in case of radioactivity release from nuclear submarine {number_sign}601 dumped in the Kara Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yefimov, E.I.; Pankratov, D.V.; Ignatiev, S.V. [Inst. of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    When ships with nuclear reactors or nuclear materials aboard suffer shipwreck or in the case of burial or dumping of radioactive wastes, atmospheric fallout, etc., radionuclides may be released and spread in the sea, contaminating the sea water and the sea bottom. When a nuclear submarine (NS) is dumped this spread of activity may occur due to gradual core destruction by corrosion over many years. The objective of this paper is to develop a mathematical model of radionuclide dispersion and to assess the population dose and radiation risk for radionuclide release from the NS No. 601, with Pb-Bi coolant that was dumped in the Kara Sea.

  4. Design of an effective bifunctional catalyst organotriphosphonic acid-functionalized ferric alginate (ATMP-FA) and optimization by Box-Behnken model for biodiesel esterification synthesis of oleic acid over ATMP-FA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Yin, Ping; Liu, Xiguang; Qu, Rongjun

    2014-12-01

    Biodiesel production has become an intense research area because of rapidly depleting energy reserves and increasing petroleum prices together with environmental concerns. This paper focused on the optimization of the catalytic performance in the esterification reaction of oleic acid for biodiesel production over the bifunctional catalyst organotriphosphonic acid-functionalized ferric alginate ATMP-FA. The reaction parameters including catalyst amount, ethanol to oleic acid molar ratio and reaction temperature have been optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) using the Box-Behnken model. It was found that the reaction temperature was the most significant factor, and the best conversion ratio of oleic acid could reach 93.17% under the reaction conditions with 9.53% of catalyst amount and 8.62:1 of ethanol to oleic acid molar ratio at 91.0 °C. The research results show that two catalytic species could work cooperatively to promote the esterification reaction, and the bifunctional ATMP-FA is a potential catalyst for biodiesel production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Ber analysis of the box relaxation for BPSK signal recovery

    KAUST Repository

    Thrampoulidis, Christos

    2016-06-24

    We study the problem of recovering an n-dimensional BPSK signal from m linear noise-corrupted measurements using the box relaxation method which relaxes the discrete set {±1}n to the convex set [-1,1]n to obtain a convex optimization algorithm followed by hard thresholding. When the noise and measurement matrix have iid standard normal entries, we obtain an exact expression for the bit-wise probability of error Pe in the limit of n and m growing and m/n fixed. At high SNR our result shows that the Pe of box relaxation is within 3dB of the matched filter bound (MFB) for square systems, and that it approaches the (MFB) as m grows large compared to n. Our results also indicate that as m, n → ∞, for any fixed set of size k, the error events of the corresponding k bits in the box relaxation method are independent.

  6. Sequential Convex Programming for Power Set-point Optimization in a Wind Farm using Black-box Models, Simple Turbine Interactions, and Integer Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgaard, Tobias Gybel; Larsen, Lars F. S.; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2012-01-01

    from the wind farm model, enabling us to use a very simple linear relationship for describing the turbine interactions. In addition, we allow individual turbines to be turned on or off introducing integer variables into the optimization problem. We solve this within the same framework of iterative......We consider the optimization of power set-points to a large number of wind turbines arranged within close vicinity of each other in a wind farm. The goal is to maximize the total electric power extracted from the wind, taking the wake effects that couple the individual turbines in the farm...... into account. For any mean wind speed, turbulence intensity, and direction we find the optimal static operating points for the wind farm. We propose an iterative optimization scheme to achieve this goal. When the complicated, nonlinear, dynamics of the aerodynamics in the turbines and of the fluid dynamics...

  7. The Power of Refutational Text: Changing Intuitions about the Interpretation of Box Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lem, Stephanie; Onghena, Patrick; Verschaffel, Lieven; Van Dooren, Wim

    2017-01-01

    Graphicacy is an important skill in today's society; however, the interpretation of graphs proofs to be more difficult than it might seem. In this study, we focus on one specific misinterpretation, the area misinterpretation of box plots, which is caused by incorrect heuristic processing of salient features of the box plot. In this study, we tried…

  8. Atmospheric chemistry of a 33-34 hour old volcanic cloud from Hekla Volcano (Iceland): Insights from direct sampling and the application of chemical box modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, William I.; Millard, G.A.; Mather, T.A.; Hunton, D.E.; Anderson, B.; Oppenheimer, C.; Thornton, B.F.; Gerlach, T.M.; Viggiano, A.A.; Kondo, Y.; Miller, T.M.; Ballenthin, J.O.

    2006-01-01

    On 28 February 2000, a volcanic cloud from Hekla volcano, Iceland, was serendipitously sampled by a DC-8 research aircraft during the SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE I). It was encountered at night at 10.4 km above sea level (in the lower stratosphere) and 33-34 hours after emission. The cloud is readily identified by abundant SO2 (???1 ppmv), HCl (???70 ppbv), HF (???60 ppbv), and particles (which may have included fine silicate ash). We compare observed and modeled cloud compositions to understand its chemical evolution. Abundances of sulfur and halogen species indicate some oxidation of sulfur gases but limited scavenging and removal of halides. Chemical modeling suggests that cloud concentrations of water vapor and nitric acid promoted polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) formation at 201-203 K, yielding ice, nitric acid trihydrate (NAT), sulfuric acid tetrahydrate (SAT), and liquid ternary solution H2SO4/H2O/HNO3 (STS) particles. We show that these volcanically induced PSCs, especially the ice and NAT particles, activated volcanogenic halogens in the cloud producing >2 ppbv ClOx. This would have destroyed ozone during an earlier period of daylight, consistent with the very low levels of ozone observed. This combination of volcanogenic PSCs and chlorine destroyed ozone at much faster rates than other PSCs that Arctic winter. Elevated levels of HNO3 and NOy in the cloud can be explained by atmospheric nitrogen fixation in the eruption column due to high temperatures and/or volcanic lightning. However, observed elevated levels of HOx remain unexplained given that the cloud was sampled at night. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  9. A Novel Image Encryption Based on Algebraic S-box and Arnold Transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farwa, Shabieh; Muhammad, Nazeer; Shah, Tariq; Ahmad, Sohail

    2017-09-01

    Recent study shows that substitution box (S-box) only cannot be reliably used in image encryption techniques. We, in this paper, propose a novel and secure image encryption scheme that utilizes the combined effect of an algebraic substitution box along with the scrambling effect of the Arnold transform. The underlying algorithm involves the application of S-box, which is the most imperative source to create confusion and diffusion in the data. The speciality of the proposed algorithm lies, firstly, in the high sensitivity of our S-box to the choice of the initial conditions which makes this S-box stronger than the chaos-based S-boxes as it saves computational labour by deploying a comparatively simple and direct approach based on the algebraic structure of the multiplicative cyclic group of the Galois field. Secondly the proposed method becomes more secure by considering a combination of S-box with certain number of iterations of the Arnold transform. The strength of the S-box is examined in terms of various performance indices such as nonlinearity, strict avalanche criterion, bit independence criterion, linear and differential approximation probabilities etc. We prove through the most significant techniques used for the statistical analyses of the encrypted image that our image encryption algorithm satisfies all the necessary criteria to be usefully and reliably implemented in image encryption applications.

  10. Structural and functional annotation of the MADS-box transcription factor family in grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimplet, Jérôme; Martínez-Zapater, José Miguel; Carmona, María José

    2016-01-27

    MADS-box genes encode transcription factors that are involved in developmental control and signal transduction in eukaryotes. In plants, they are associated to numerous development processes most notably those related to reproductive development: flowering induction, specification of inflorescence and flower meristems, establishment of flower organ identity, as well as regulation of fruit, seed and embryo development. Genomic analyses of MADS-box genes in different plant species are providing new relevant information on the function and evolution of this transcriptional factor family. We have performed a true genome-wide analysis of the complete set of MADS-box genes in grapevine (Vitis vinifera), analyzed their expression pattern and establish their phylogenetic relationships (including MIKC* and type I MADS-box) with genes from 16 other plant species. This study was integrated to previous works on the family in grapevine. A total of 90 MADS-box genes were detected in the grapevine reference genome by completing current gene annotations with a genome-wide analysis based on sequence similarity. We performed a thorough in-depth curation of all gene models and combined the results with gene expression information including RNAseq data to clarifying the expression of newly identified genes and improve their functional characterization. Curated data were uploaded to the ORCAE database for grapevine in the frame of the grapevine genome curation effort. This approach resulted in the identification of 30 additional MADS box genes. Among them, ten new MIKC(C) genes were identified, including a potential new group of short proteins similar to the SVP protein subfamily. The MIKC* subgroup contains six genes in grapevine that can be grouped in the S (4 genes) and P (2 genes) clades, showing less redundancy than that observed in Arabidopsis thaliana. Expression pattern of these genes in grapevine is compatible with a role in male gametophyte development. Most of the identified

  11. 36 CFR 1192.33 - Fare box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fare box. 1192.33 Section 1192.33 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD... Systems § 1192.33 Fare box. Where provided, the farebox shall be located as far forward as practicable and...

  12. Unification of box shapes in molecular simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, H.

    1997-01-01

    In molecular simulations with periodic boundary conditions the computational box may have five different shapes: triclinic; the hexagonal prism; two types of dodecahedrons; and the truncated octahedron. In this article, we show that every molecular simulation, formulated in one of these boxes, can

  13. Modern biotechnology Panacea or new Pandora's box?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tramper, J.; Yang Zhu, Yang

    2011-01-01

    According to Greek mythology Pandora was sent down to earth upon the orders of Zeus. She was given a mysterious box which she was not allowed to open. However, Pandora was very curious and when she arrived on earth she couldn?t help taking a peek inside the box. She saw that it was filled with gifts

  14. Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion's Pandora's Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fashion’s Pandora’s Box? A A A | Print | Share Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion’s Pandora’s Box? Foot and ankle ... extreme and imprudent as it may sound, the cosmetic surgery craze is not just for faces anymore— ...

  15. Box Plots in the Australian Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jane M.

    2012-01-01

    This article compares the definition of "box plot" as used in the "Australian Curriculum: Mathematics" with other definitions used in the education community; describes the difficulties students experience when dealing with box plots; and discusses the elaboration that is necessary to enable teachers to develop the knowledge…

  16. 49 CFR 38.33 - Fare box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fare box. 38.33 Section 38.33 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Buses, Vans and Systems § 38.33 Fare box. Where provided, the farebox...

  17. The in vivo dissection of direct RFX-target gene promoters in C. elegans reveals a novel cis-regulatory element, the C-box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burghoorn, Jan; Piasecki, Brian P; Crona, Filip; Phirke, Prasad; Jeppsson, Kristian E; Swoboda, Peter

    2012-08-15

    At the core of the primary transcriptional network regulating ciliary gene expression in Caenorhabditis elegans sensory neurons is the RFX/DAF-19 transcription factor, which binds and thereby positively regulates 13-15 bp X-box promoter motifs found in the cis-regulatory regions of many ciliary genes. However, the variable expression of direct RFX-target genes in various sets of ciliated sensory neurons (CSNs) occurs through as of yet uncharacterized mechanisms. In this study the cis-regulatory regions of 41 direct RFX-target genes are compared using in vivo genetic analyses and computational comparisons of orthologous nematode sequences. We find that neither the proximity to the translational start site nor the exact sequence composition of the X-box promoter motif of the respective ciliary gene can explain the variation in expression patterns observed among different direct RFX-target genes. Instead, a novel enhancer element appears to co-regulate ciliary genes in a DAF-19 dependent manner. This cytosine- and thymidine-rich sequence, the C-box, was found in the cis-regulatory regions in close proximity to the respective X-box motif for 84% of the most broadly expressed direct RFX-target genes sampled in this study. Molecular characterization confirmed that these 8-11 bp C-box sequences act as strong enhancer elements for direct RFX-target genes. An artificial promoter containing only an X-box promoter motif and two of the C-box enhancer elements was able to drive strong expression of a GFP reporter construct in many C. elegans CSNs. These data provide a much-improved understanding of how direct RFX-target genes are differentially regulated in C. elegans and will provide a molecular model for uncovering the transcriptional network mediating ciliary gene expression in animals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. North American box turtles: A natural history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, C. Kenneth

    2002-01-01

    Once a familiar backyard visitor in many parts of the United States and Mexico, the box turtle is losing the battle against extinction. In North American Box Turtles, C. Kenneth Dodd, Jr., has written the first book-length natural history of the twelve species and subspecies of this endangered animal. This volume includes comprehensive information on the species’ evolution, behavior, courtship and reproduction, habitat use, diet, population structure, systematics, and disease. Special features include color photos of all species, subspecies, and their habitats; a simple identification guide to both living and fossil species; and a summary of information on fossil Terrapene and Native uses of box turtles. End-of-chapter sections highlight future research directions, including the need for long-term monitoring and observation of box turtles within their natural habitat and conservation applications. A glossary and a bibliography of literature on box turtles accompany the text.

  19. Box-Cox transformation of left-censored data with application to the analysis of coronary artery calcification and pharmacokinetic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Cong; Kronmal, Richard

    2004-12-15

    Box-Cox transformation is investigated for regression models for left-censored data. Examples are provided using coronary calcification data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and pharmacokinetic data of a nicotine nasal spray. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Roof Box Shape Streamline Adaptation and the Impact towards Fuel Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Latif M.F.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The fuel price hike is currently a sensational national issue in Malaysia. Since the rationalization of fuel subsidies many were affected especially the middle income family. Vehicle aerodynamic were directly related to the fuel consumption, were extra frontal area result a higher drag force hence higher fuel consumption. Roof box were among the largest contributor to the extra drag, thus the roof box shape rationalization were prominent to reduce the extra drag. The idea of adopting water drop shape to the roof box design shows prominent result. The roof box has been simulated using MIRA virtual wind tunnel modelling via commercial computational fluid dynamic (CFD package. This streamline shape drastically reduce the drag force by 34% resulting to a 1.7% fuel saving compare to the conventional boxy roof box. This is an effort to reduce the carbon foot print for a sustainable green world.

  1. Modelling of Hydraulic Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik; Zhou, Jianjun; Hansen, Lars Henrik

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a case study of identifying the physical model (or the grey box model) of a hydraulic test robot. The obtained model is intended to provide a basis for model-based control of the robot. The physical model is formulated in continuous time and is derived by application...

  2. Review of Elastic Analysis of Box Girder Bridges | Ezeokpube ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance of thin-walled box girder bridges has attracted the attention of researchers since the last five decades. A lot of literature has dealt with the analytical formulations as well as experimental investigations. Field studies have increased tremendously in the last decade. So far the agreement between the analytical ...

  3. MADS-box gene evolution-structure and transcription patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Bo; Pedersen, Louise B; Skipper, Martin

    2002-01-01

    This study presents a phylogenetic analysis of 198 MADS-box genes based on 420 parsimony-informative characters. The analysis includes only MIKC genes; therefore several genes from gymnosperms and pteridophytes are excluded. The strict consensus tree identifies all major monophyletic groups known...

  4. How Users Search the Library from a Single Search Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lown, Cory; Sierra, Tito; Boyer, Josh

    2013-01-01

    Academic libraries are turning increasingly to unified search solutions to simplify search and discovery of library resources. Unfortunately, very little research has been published on library user search behavior in single search box environments. This study examines how users search a large public university library using a prominent, single…

  5. Comparative study of measured and modelled number concentrations of nanoparticles in an urban street canyon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Prashant; Garmory, Andrew; Ketzel, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    This study presents a comparison between measured and modelled particle number concentrations (PNCs) in the 10-300 nm size range at different heights in a canyon. The PNCs were modelled using a simple modelling approach (modified Box model, including vertical variation), an Operational Street...... Pollution Model (OSPM) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code FLUENT. All models disregarded any particle dynamics. CFD simulations have been carried out in a simplified geometry of the selected street canyon. Four different sizes of emission sources have been used in the CFD simulations to assess...... the effect of source size on mean PNC distributions in the street canyon. The measured PNCs were between a factor of two and three of those from the three models, suggesting that if the model inputs are chosen carefully, even a simplified approach can predict the PNCs as well as more complex models. CFD...

  6. TC-motifs at the TATA-box expected position in plant genes: a novel class of motifs involved in the transcription regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lecharny Alain

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The TATA-box and TATA-variants are regulatory elements involved in the formation of a transcription initiation complex. Both have been conserved throughout evolution in a restricted region close to the Transcription Start Site (TSS. However, less than half of the genes in model organisms studied so far have been found to contain either one of these elements. Indeed different core-promoter elements are involved in the recruitment of the TATA-box-binding protein. Here we assessed the possibility of identifying novel functional motifs in plant genes, sharing the TATA-box topological constraints. Results We developed an ab-initio approach considering the preferential location of motifs relative to the TSS. We identified motifs observed at the TATA-box expected location and conserved in both Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa promoters. We identified TC-elements within non-TA-rich promoters 30 bases upstream of the TSS. As with the TATA-box and TATA-variant sequences, it was possible to construct a unique distance graph with the TC-element sequences. The structural and functional features of TC-element-containing genes were distinct from those of TATA-box- or TATA-variant-containing genes. Arabidopsis thaliana transcriptome analysis revealed that TATA-box-containing genes were generally those showing relatively high levels of expression and that TC-element-containing genes were generally those expressed in specific conditions. Conclusions Our observations suggest that the TC-elements might constitute a class of novel regulatory elements participating towards the complex modulation of gene expression in plants.

  7. The Remarkably Diverse Family of T-Box Factors in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okkema, P G

    2017-01-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a simple metazoan animal that is widely used as a model to understand the genetic control of development. The completely sequenced C. elegans genome contains 22 T-box genes, and they encode factors that show remarkable diversity in sequence, DNA-binding specificity, and function. Only three of the C. elegans T-box factors can be grouped into the conserved subfamilies found in other organisms, while the remaining factors are significantly diverged and unlike those in most other animals. While some of the C. elegans factors can bind canonical T-box binding elements, others bind and regulate target gene expression through distinct sequences. The nine genetically characterized T-box factors have varied functions in development and morphogenesis of muscle, hypodermal tissues, and neurons, as well as in early blastomere fate specification, cell migration, apoptosis, and sex determination, but the functions of most of the C. elegans T-box factors have not yet been extensively characterized. Like T-box factors in other animals, interaction with a Groucho-family corepressor and posttranslational SUMOylation have been shown to affect C. elegans T-box factor activity, and it is likely that additional mechanisms affecting T-box factor activity will be discovered using the effective genetic approaches in this organism. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Comprehensive modelling study on observed new particle formation at the SORPES station in Nanjing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Huang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available New particle formation (NPF has been investigated intensively during the last 2 decades because of its influence on aerosol population and the possible contribution to cloud condensation nuclei. However, intensive measurements and modelling activities on this topic in urban metropolitan areas in China with frequent high-pollution episodes are still very limited. This study provides results from a comprehensive modelling study on the occurrence of NPF events in the western part of the Yangtze River Delta (YRD region, China. The comprehensive modelling system, which combines the WRF-Chem (the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry regional chemical transport model and the MALTE-BOX sectional box model (the model to predict new aerosol formation in the lower troposphere, was shown to be capable of simulating atmospheric nucleation and subsequent growth. Here we present a detailed discussion of three typical NPF days, during which the measured air masses were notably influenced by either anthropogenic activities, biogenic emissions, or mixed ocean and continental sources. Overall, simulated NPF events were generally in good agreement with the corresponding measurements, enabling us to get further insights into NPF processes in the YRD region. Based on the simulations, we conclude that biogenic organic compounds, particularly monoterpenes, play an essential role in the initial condensational growth of newly formed clusters through their low-volatility oxidation products. Although some uncertainties remain in this modelling system, this method provides a possibility to better understand particle formation and growth processes.

  9. AvrXa27 binding influences unwinding of the double-stranded DNA in the UPT box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Bo; Jiang, Junpeng; Liu, Nanv; Wei, Qi; Xi, Xuguang; Fu, Jing

    2017-03-04

    Transcription-Activator Like (TAL) effectors, delivered by Xanthomonas pathogens bind specifically to UP-regulated by TAL effectors (UPT) box of the host gene promoter to arouse disease or trigger defense response. This type of protein-DNA interaction model has been applied in site-directed genome editing. However, the off-target effects of TAL have severely hindered the development of this promising technology. To better exploit the specific interaction and to deeper understand the TAL-induced host transcription rewiring, the binding between the central repeat region (CRR) of the TAL effector AvrXa27 and its UPT box variants was studied by kinetics analysis and TAL-blocked helicase unwinding assay. The results revealed that while AvrXa27 exhibited the highest affinity to the wild type UPT box, it could also bind to mutated UPT box variants, implying the possibility of non-specific interactions. Furthermore, some of these non-specific combinations restricted the helicase-elicited double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) separation to a greater extent. Our findings provide insight into the mechanism of TAL transcriptional activation and are beneficial to TAL-mediated genome modification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Estimation of Radiation Limit from a Huygens' Box under Non-Free-Space Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franek, Ondrej; Sørensen, Morten; Bonev, Ivan Bonev

    2013-01-01

    The recently studied Huygens' box method has difficulties when radiation of an electronic module is to be determined under non-free-space conditions, i.e. with an enclosure. We propose an estimate on radiation limit under such conditions based only on the Huygens' box data from free...

  11. Sex Differences in a Human Analogue of the Radial Arm Maze: The ''17-Box Maze Test''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Q.; Abrahams, S.; Jussab, F.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated sex differences in spatial memory using a human analogue of the Radial Arm Maze: a revision on the Nine Box Maze originally developed by Abrahams, Pickering, Polkey, and Morris (1997) called the 17-Box Maze Test herein. The task encourages allocentric spatial processing, dissociates object from spatial memory, and…

  12. Making the Black Box of Collaborative Learning Transparent: Combining Process-Oriented and Cognitive Load Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Jeroen; Kirschner, Femke; Erkens, Gijsbert; Kirschner, Paul A.; Paas, Fred

    2010-01-01

    Traditional research on collaborative learning employs a "black box" approach that makes it difficult to gain a deeper understanding of the differential effects of collaborative learning. To make the black box transparent, researchers have studied the process of collaboration, in order to establish which interaction features are likely to make…

  13. Exploring the "Black Box" of Programming: Applying Systematic Implementation Evaluation to a Structured Camp Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainieri, Tracy L.; Anderson, Denise M.

    2015-01-01

    Camp scholars have designed structured curricula to engender specific outcomes and to break down the "black box" of programming. Implementation evaluation explores how well a program operates when delivered, further breaking down the black box. The purpose of this study was to explore the implementation of a new structured camp…

  14. Norm Scores of the Box and Block Test for Children Ages 3-10 Years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongbloed-Pereboom, M.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.; Steenbergen, B.

    2013-01-01

    This study provides new norm scores for the Box and Block Test for gross manual dexterity in children ages 3-10 yr. Two hundred fifteen Dutch children performed the Box and Block Test separately with each hand. We found an age effect for the scores; older children obtained higher scores than younger

  15. Norm scores of the box and block test for children ages 3-10 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongbloed-Pereboom, M.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.; Steenbergen, B.

    2013-01-01

    This study provides new norm scores for the Box and Block Test for gross manual dexterity in children ages 3-10 yr. Two hundred fifteen Dutch children performed the Box and Block Test separately with each hand. We found an age effect for the scores; older children obtained higher scores than younger

  16. Opening the black box of quality improvement collaboratives: An Actor-Network theory approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Broer (Tineke); A.P. Nieboer (Anna); R.A. Bal (Roland)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground. Quality improvement collaboratives are often labeled as black boxes because effect studies usually do not describe exactly how the results were obtained. In this article we propose a way of opening such a black box, by taking up a dynamic perspective based on Actor-Network

  17. Therapeutic Intervention in a Case of Ataxic Dysarthria Associated with a History of Amateur Boxing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMicken, Betty L.; Ostergren, Jennifer A.; Vento-Wilson, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    The goals of this study were to (a) describe the presenting features of ataxic dysarthria present in a participant with a long history of amateur boxing, (b) describe a novel application of behavioral principles in the treatment of this participant, and (c) discuss implications in the treatment of ataxic dysarthria secondary to boxing. The…

  18. MADS goes genomic in conifers: towards determining the ancestral set of MADS-box genes in seed plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramzow, Lydia; Weilandt, Lisa; Theißen, Günter

    2014-11-01

    MADS-box genes comprise a gene family coding for transcription factors. This gene family expanded greatly during land plant evolution such that the number of MADS-box genes ranges from one or two in green algae to around 100 in angiosperms. Given the crucial functions of MADS-box genes for nearly all aspects of plant development, the expansion of this gene family probably contributed to the increasing complexity of plants. However, the expansion of MADS-box genes during one important step of land plant evolution, namely the origin of seed plants, remains poorly understood due to the previous lack of whole-genome data for gymnosperms. The newly available genome sequences of Picea abies, Picea glauca and Pinus taeda were used to identify the complete set of MADS-box genes in these conifers. In addition, MADS-box genes were identified in the growing number of transcriptomes available for gymnosperms. With these datasets, phylogenies were constructed to determine the ancestral set of MADS-box genes of seed plants and to infer the ancestral functions of these genes. Type I MADS-box genes are under-represented in gymnosperms and only a minimum of two Type I MADS-box genes have been present in the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of seed plants. In contrast, a large number of Type II MADS-box genes were found in gymnosperms. The MRCA of extant seed plants probably possessed at least 11-14 Type II MADS-box genes. In gymnosperms two duplications of Type II MADS-box genes were found, such that the MRCA of extant gymnosperms had at least 14-16 Type II MADS-box genes. The implied ancestral set of MADS-box genes for seed plants shows simplicity for Type I MADS-box genes and remarkable complexity for Type II MADS-box genes in terms of phylogeny and putative functions. The analysis of transcriptome data reveals that gymnosperm MADS-box genes are expressed in a great variety of tissues, indicating diverse roles of MADS-box genes for the development of gymnosperms. This study is

  19. Comparative analysis of profitability of honey production using traditional and box hives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed A; Adgaba, Nuru; Herab, Ahmed H; Ansari, Mohammad J

    2017-07-01

    Information on the profitability and productivity of box hives is important to encourage beekeepers to adopt the technology. However, comparative analysis of profitability and productivity of box and traditional hives is not adequately available. The study was carried out on 182 beekeepers using cross sectional survey and employing a random sampling technique. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, analysis of variance (ANOVA), the Cobb-Douglas (CD) production function and partial budgeting. The CD production function revealed that supplementary bee feeds, labor and medication were statistically significant for both box and traditional hives. Generally, labor for bee management, supplementary feeding, and medication led to productivity differences of approximately 42.83%, 7.52%, and 5.34%, respectively, between box and traditional hives. The study indicated that productivity of box hives were 72% higher than traditional hives. The average net incomes of beekeepers using box and traditional hives were 33,699.7 SR/annum and 16,461.4 SR/annum respectively. The incremental net benefit of box hives over traditional hives was nearly double. Our study results clearly showed the importance of adoption of box hives for better productivity of the beekeeping subsector.

  20. Comparative analysis of profitability of honey production using traditional and box hives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Al-Ghamdi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Information on the profitability and productivity of box hives is important to encourage beekeepers to adopt the technology. However, comparative analysis of profitability and productivity of box and traditional hives is not adequately available. The study was carried out on 182 beekeepers using cross sectional survey and employing a random sampling technique. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, analysis of variance (ANOVA, the Cobb-Douglas (CD production function and partial budgeting. The CD production function revealed that supplementary bee feeds, labor and medication were statistically significant for both box and traditional hives. Generally, labor for bee management, supplementary feeding, and medication led to productivity differences of approximately 42.83%, 7.52%, and 5.34%, respectively, between box and traditional hives. The study indicated that productivity of box hives were 72% higher than traditional hives. The average net incomes of beekeepers using box and traditional hives were 33,699.7 SR/annum and 16,461.4 SR/annum respectively. The incremental net benefit of box hives over traditional hives was nearly double. Our study results clearly showed the importance of adoption of box hives for better productivity of the beekeeping subsector.

  1. Hydro-Balanced Stuffing Box field test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giangiacomo, L.A.

    1999-05-28

    The Hydro-Balanced Stuffing Box is a seal assembly for polished rod pumping installations commonly used in oil and gas pumping well installations to contain produced well fluids. The improved stuffing box was developed and patented by Harold H. Palmour of The Palmour Group of Livingston, TX. The stuffing box is designed to reduce the incidence of seal leakage and to utilize an environmentally safe fluid, so that if there is any leakage, environmental damage is reduced or eliminated. The unit was tested on two wells at the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center. During the test period, the performance of the stuffing box was measured by monitoring the pressure on the tubing and the inner chamber with a Barton Two-pen recorder. The amount of safe fluid consumed, fluid leakage at the top of the stuffing box, pressure supplied from the nitrogen bottle, ambient temperature, and polish rod temperature was recorded. The stuffing box is capable of providing a better seal between well fluids an d the environment than conventional stuffing boxes. It allows the polished rod to operate cooler and with lubrication, extending the life of the packing elements, and reducing the amount of attention required to prevent leakage.

  2. Ultrasonic Modeling for Borehole Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perton, M.; Sanchez-Sesma, F. J.; Spurlin, J. H.; Flores, E.; Navarrete-Montesinos, M.; Gomez, R.

    2008-12-01

    Elastic wave propagation in and around wells is of interest in a variety of instances. It is relevant in petroleum and geothermal studies as the seismic signals in carefully designed experiments can be useful to characterize the reservoir rocks and design optimal operation. Numerical modeling of field data is usually the chosen strategy. However, the complexity of realistic settings sometimes is beyond analytical techniques and experiments may be helpful to visualize wave propagation. In this work both experiments and numerical simulations are presented to explore the possibilities of using ultrasonic scaled models. A laser ultrasonic experimental setup is used to study wave propagation around scaled wells. Two simulation techniques, the discrete wave number method and a finite differences, are used to understand the physics, to compute comparisons with the experimental signals, and to explore the advantages of scaled model. The main difference with the real scale is the mechanism of attenuation. Two simple and well-known attenuation models are used at the ultrasonic scale: the Kelvin-Voigt model for the solid and the Maxwell one into the fluid. Both are part of the Zener model usually used in the petroleum industry. According to the results quality, the model matches perfectly with the experience. Scaled models seem to be a new useful way to study elastic wave propagation in complex media. Acknowledgements. Partial support from DGAPA-UNAM, Project IN114706, Mexico is greatly appreciated.

  3. A study of mental models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tarciso Borges

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available The concept of mental models is being used in several areas of knowledge in order to study the representations users have about physical systems and events, as well as the content of such representations. However, it cannot be considered a unitary concept. This paper discusses the assumptions envolved in different areas of knowledge and describes a study of the mental model of magnetism held by students and professionals such as electricians physics teachers, and engineers. The identified model stress two aspects: what is the origin of permanent magnets and what is the mechanism of the magnetic interaction.

  4. Interpreting Black-Box Classifiers Using Instance-Level Visual Explanations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamagnini, Paolo; Krause, Josua W.; Dasgupta, Aritra; Bertini, Enrico

    2017-05-14

    To realize the full potential of machine learning in diverse real- world domains, it is necessary for model predictions to be readily interpretable and actionable for the human in the loop. Analysts, who are the users but not the developers of machine learning models, often do not trust a model because of the lack of transparency in associating predictions with the underlying data space. To address this problem, we propose Rivelo, a visual analytic interface that enables analysts to understand the causes behind predictions of binary classifiers by interactively exploring a set of instance-level explanations. These explanations are model-agnostic, treating a model as a black box, and they help analysts in interactively probing the high-dimensional binary data space for detecting features relevant to predictions. We demonstrate the utility of the interface with a case study analyzing a random forest model on the sentiment of Yelp reviews about doctors.

  5. Study of fractal features of magnetized plasma through an MHD shell model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, M.; Nigro, G.; Muñoz, V.; Carbone, V.

    2017-07-01

    A magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shell model is used to describe the dissipative events which take place in magnetized plasmas. A scatter plot box-counting fractal dimension D is calculated for the time series of the magnetic energy dissipation rate obtained in the MHD shell model, and the correlation between D and the energy dissipation rate is analyzed. We show that, depending on the values of the viscosity and the diffusivity, the fractal dimension and the occurrence of bursts exhibit correlations similar to those observed in previous studies.

  6. Total Radiosynthesis: Thinking outside "the box".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Steven H; Vasdev, Neil

    2015-09-01

    The logic of total synthesis transformed a stagnant state of medicinal and synthetic organic chemistry when there was a paucity of methods and reagents to synthesize drug molecules and/or natural products. Molecular imaging by positron emission tomography (PET) is now experiencing a renaissance in the way radiopharmaceuticals for molecular imaging are synthesized, however, a paradigm shift is desperately needed in the discovery pipeline to accelerate in vivo imaging studies. A significant challenge in radiochemistry is the limited choice of labeled reagents (or building blocks) available for the synthesis of novel radiopharmaceuticals with the most commonly used short-lived radionuclides carbon-11 (11C; half-life ~20 minutes) and fluorine-18 (18F; half-life ~2 hours). In fact, most drugs cannot be labeled with 11C or 18F due to a lack of efficient and diverse radiosynthetic methods. In general, routine radiopharmaceutical production relies on the incorporation of the isotope at the last or penultimate step of synthesis, ideally within one half-life of the radionuclide, to maximize radiochemical yields and specific activities thereby reducing losses due to radioactive decay. Reliance on radiochemistry conducted within the constraints of an automated synthesis unit ("box") has stifled the exploration of multi-step reactions with short-lived radionuclides. Radiopharmaceutical synthesis can be transformed by considering logic of total synthesis to develop novel approaches for 11C- and 18F-radiolabeling complex molecules via retrosynthetic analysis and multi-step reactions. As a result of such exploration, new methods, reagents and radiopharmaceuticals for in vivo imaging studies are discovered. A new avenue to develop radiotracers that were previously unattainable due to the lack of efficient radiosynthetic methods is necessary to work towards our ultimate, albeit impossible goal - the concept we term total radiosynthesis - to radiolabel virtually any molecule. As with

  7. Broken links and black boxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindbæk, Søren Michael

    2013-01-01

    Long-distance communication has emerged as a particular focus for archaeological exploration using network theory, analysis, and modelling. Initial attempts to adapt methods from social network analysis to archaeological data have, however, struggled to produce decisive results. This paper argues...... that the archaeological study of communication networks in the past calls for radically different analytical methods from those employed by most other forms of social network analysis. The fragmentary archaeological evidence presents researchers with the task of reconstructing the broken links of a ruined network from...

  8. Light directs zebrafish period2 expression via conserved D and E boxes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gad Vatine

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available For most species, light represents the principal environmental signal for entraining the endogenous circadian clock. The zebrafish is a fascinating vertebrate model for studying this process since unlike mammals, direct exposure of most of its tissues to light leads to local clock entrainment. Importantly, light induces the expression of a set of genes including certain clock genes in most zebrafish cell types in vivo and in vitro. However, the mechanism linking light to gene expression remains poorly understood. To elucidate this key mechanism, here we focus on how light regulates transcription of the zebrafish period2 (per2 gene. Using transgenic fish and stably transfected cell line-based assays, we define a Light Responsive Module (LRM within the per2 promoter. The LRM lies proximal to the transcription start site and is both necessary and sufficient for light-driven gene expression and also for a light-dependent circadian clock regulation. Curiously, the LRM sequence is strongly conserved in other vertebrate per2 genes, even in species lacking directly light-sensitive peripheral clocks. Furthermore, we reveal that the human LRM can substitute for the zebrafish LRM to confer light-regulated transcription in zebrafish cells. The LRM contains E- and D-box elements that are critical for its function. While the E-box directs circadian clock regulation by mediating BMAL/CLOCK activity, the D-box confers light-driven expression. The zebrafish homolog of the thyrotroph embryonic factor binds efficiently to the LRM D-box and transactivates expression. We demonstrate that tef mRNA levels are light inducible and that knock-down of tef expression attenuates light-driven transcription from the per2 promoter in vivo. Together, our results support a model where a light-dependent crosstalk between E- and D-box binding factors is a central determinant of per2 expression. These findings extend the general understanding of the mechanism whereby the clock is

  9. A Note on Implementing Box-Cox Quantile Regression

    OpenAIRE

    Wilke, Ralf A.; Fitzenberger, Bernd; Zhang, Xuan

    2005-01-01

    The Box-Cox quantile regression model using the two stage method introduced by Chamberlain (1994) and Buchinsky (1995) provides an attractive extension of linear quantile regression techniques. However, a major numerical problem exists when implementing this method which has not been addressed so far in the literature. We suggest a simple solution modifying the estimator slightly. This modification is easy to implement. The modified estimator is still [square root] n-consistent and its asympt...

  10. Does previous use affect litter box appeal in multi-cat households?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J J; McGowan, R T S; Martin, F

    2017-08-01

    It is commonly assumed that cats actively avoid eliminated materials (especially in multi-cat homes), suggesting regular litter box cleaning as the best defense against out-of-box elimination. The relationship between previous use and litter box appeal to familiar subsequent users is currently unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between previous litter box use and the identity of the previous user, type of elimination, odor, and presence of physical/visual obstructions in a multi-cat household scenario. Cats preferred a clean litter box to a dirty one, but the identity of the previous user had no impact on preferences. While the presence of odor from urine and/or feces did not impact litter box preferences, the presence of odorless faux-urine and/or feces did - with the presence of faux-feces being preferred over faux-urine. Results suggest neither malodor nor chemical communication play a role in litter box preferences, and instead emphasize the importance of regular removal of physical/visual obstructions as the key factor in promoting proper litter box use. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Parametric Design and Rapid Prototyping of Installation Box for Vehicle Terminal PCB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xingxing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Installation box for vehicle terminal PCB (Printed Circuit Board was took as research object, which is encountered in the process of project developing. Vehicle terminal PCB in actual development process was set as an example, point cloud data were acquired by three coordinate measuring method; Imageware software was used to reconstruct the vehicle terminal PCB model, basic size parameters of vehicle terminal PCB can be got and then design parameters of installation box for vehicle terminal PCB can be determined. Design of the installation box for vehicle terminal PCB was completed based on Solidworks software, then 3D modeling and 2D drawing of installation box for vehicle terminal PCB was gained. Up Plus 2 rapid prototype machine was used to manufacture installation box for vehicle terminal PCB rapidly based on 3D printing technology, then prototype of installation box for vehicle terminal PCB was obtained. It is of certain engineering significant for single (small amount manufacturing of installation box for general PCB.

  12. METHODOLOGY FOR THE NUMBER OF FILTERS NEEDED IN A WASTE BOX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MARUSICH, R.M.

    2007-05-17

    Waste in large waste boxes can generate volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hydrogen. These waste boxes may or may not have flow paths out of them (although it is believed that most do). These boxes will be retrieved, sampled, and then coated with polyurea. After coating, filters will be installed in the box to keep the concentration of VOCs and hydrogen acceptably low. The MDSA requires that a vent path must be protected during application of the polyurea coating. If the box has been sampled then it is vented and the vent path must be protected. This report provides a model in which the user inputs the free volume of the waste box, sample concentration (ppm of total VOC or volume fraction hydrogen) along with the number of filters to be placed into the waste box lid. Using this information, the model provides an estimate of concentration vs. time or the number of filters needed to reduce the concentration by a specified fraction. If the equations from this report are placed into spreadsheets which are then used to demonstrate TSR compliance, the spreadsheets must come under the Software QA Plan for such documents. Chapters 2 and 3 present the theory. Chapter 4 presents the method with examples of its use found in Chapter 5. Chapter 6 provides the basis far the use of 1,000 ppm as the concentration below which the method is valid under any condition.

  13. Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS) Technology Tool Box (TTB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Monica; ONeil, Daniel A.; Christensen, Carissa B.

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS) is a decision support tool designed to aid program managers and strategic planners in determining how to invest technology research and development dollars. It is an Excel-based modeling package that allows a user to build complex space architectures and evaluate the impact of various technology choices. ATLAS contains system models, cost and operations models, a campaign timeline and a centralized technology database. Technology data for all system models is drawn from a common database, the ATLAS Technology Tool Box (TTB). The TTB provides a comprehensive, architecture-independent technology database that is keyed to current and future timeframes.

  14. Heating Processes Of The Axle-Boxes Of Rolling-Stock On Railway Track Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olegas Lunys

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the heating process of the axle-boxes ofrolling stock when the train is in motion and discusses the forcesacting on the wheel-set when rolling stock moves along the trackcurves. The paper analyses scientific publications relevant tothe forces acting on the wheel-set of rolling stock and focuseson the axle-box heating process. The article also discusses theresults of theoretical studies on wheel-set forces that affect theheat exchange process of axle-boxes for a railway vehicle. Theresearch has determined a change in heating temperatures ofdifferent axle-boxes of rolling stock and reasons for their variationsand tendencies. The paper has estimated an effect of thetrain running along the track curves on the heating intensity ofthe axle-box. Finally, valid conclusions and recommendationshave been provided.

  15. [Present views on boxing--Henner's legacy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichý, J

    1997-05-29

    Fifty years ago academician Henner formulated clearly the negative view of neurologists on boxing as practised in his time. It was his merit that a protective helmet was introduced, many of his demands concerning the regime after a KO and the importance of medical examinations were no yet adequately appreciated. At the opportunity of the 100th anniversary of Henner's birth and the fiftieth anniversary of the Clinic he founded in the premises of saint Catherine the author discusses contemporary views on boxing, the risk of repeated injuries for the development of encephalopathia pugilistica and their relationship to Alzheimer's disease. Contemporary boxing is a spectacle which is a continuation of historical fights of gladiators. If the main objective is to hurt the adversary, this activity does not deserve the name of "sport" Sport should promote and maintain physical and mental health which is not the case in professional boxing.

  16. EPA EcoBox Tools by Stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eco-Box is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases

  17. Packing a cake into a box

    KAUST Repository

    Skopenkov, Mikhail

    2011-05-01

    Given a triangular cake and a box in the shape of its mirror image, how can the cake be cut into a minimal number of pieces so that it can be put into the box? The cake has icing, so we are not allowed to put it into the box upside down. V. G. Boltyansky asked this question in 1977 and showed that three pieces always suffice. In this paper we provide examples of cakes that cannot be cut into two pieces to be put into the box. This shows that three is the answer to Boltyansky\\'s question. We also give examples of cakes which can be cut into two pieces. © THE MATHEMATICAL ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA.

  18. A Lithium Vapor Box Divertor Similarity Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Robert A.; Emdee, Eric D.; Goldston, Robert J.; Jaworski, Michael A.; Schwartz, Jacob A.

    2017-10-01

    A lithium vapor box divertor offers an alternate means of managing the extreme power density of divertor plasmas by leveraging gaseous lithium to volumetrically extract power. The vapor box divertor is a baffled slot with liquid lithium coated walls held at temperatures which increase toward the divertor floor. The resulting vapor pressure differential drives gaseous lithium from hotter chambers into cooler ones, where the lithium condenses and returns. A similarity experiment was devised to investigate the advantages offered by a vapor box divertor design. We discuss the design, construction, and early findings of the vapor box divertor experiment including vapor can construction, power transfer calculations, joint integrity tests, and thermocouple data logging. Heat redistribution of an incident plasma-based heat flux from a typical linear plasma device is also presented. This work supported by DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466 and The Princeton Environmental Institute.

  19. Unlocking the black box: line managers and HRM performance in a call centre context

    OpenAIRE

    Harney, Brian; Jordan, Claire

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to show the way to unlock the black box of HRM and performance linkages by exploring one of the key variables that mediates the link, namely whether line managers can stimulate improvements in firm performance by eliciting appropriate employee outcomes in a call centre context. Design/methodology/approach – The research draws on Purcell's "People-Performance Model" as a sensitising framework to inform an in-depth case study of a call centre. This pro...

  20. Random Young diagrams in a Rectangular Box

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Dan; Boutillier, Cédric; Enriquez, Nathanaël

    We exhibit the limit shape of random Young diagrams having a distribution proportional to the exponential of their area, and confined in a rectangular box. The Ornstein-Uhlenbeck bridge arises from the fluctuations around the limit shape.......We exhibit the limit shape of random Young diagrams having a distribution proportional to the exponential of their area, and confined in a rectangular box. The Ornstein-Uhlenbeck bridge arises from the fluctuations around the limit shape....

  1. Tracking the Motion of Box Jellyfish

    OpenAIRE

    Kjellberg, Tobias; Palmér, Tobias; Oskarsson, Magnus; Åström, Karl

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we investigate a system for tracking the motion of box jellyfish tripedalia cystophora in a special test setup. The goal is to measure the motor response of the animal given certain visual stimuli. The approach is based on tracking the special sensory structures – the rhopalia – of the box jellyfish from high-speed video sequences. We have focused on a realtime system with simple building blocks in our system. However, using a combination of simple intensity...

  2. Box Lesion with Single Radiofrequency Clamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikhrezai, Kasra; Spadaccio, Cristiano; Hunter, Steven

    2017-04-12

    We introduce a maneuver to perform the box lesion as a part of Cox maze IV procedure with single radiofrequency clamp. The maneuver entails engaging the right pulmonary veins with the clamp, then advancing the clamp jaws underneath the superior vena cava through the transverse sinus to include the roof and the left pulmonary veins in the clamp. We regularly use this technique for box lesion with desirable transmurality. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Box spaces in pictorial space: linear perspective versus templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ridder, Huib; Pont, Sylvia C.

    2012-03-01

    In the past decades perceptual (or perceived) image quality has been one of the most important criteria for evaluating digitally processed image and video content. With the growing popularity of new media like stereoscopic displays there is a tendency to replace image quality with viewing experience as the ultimate criterion. Adopting such a high-level psychological criterion calls for a rethinking of the premises underlying human judgment. One premise is that perception is about accurately reconstructing the physical world in front of you ("inverse optics"). That is, human vision is striving for veridicality. The present study investigated one of its consequences, namely, that linear perspective will always yield the correct description of the perceived 3D geometry in 2D images. To this end, human observers adjusted the frontal view of a wireframe box on a television screen so as to look equally deep and wide (i.e. to look like a cube) or twice as deep as wide. In a number of stimulus configurations, the results showed huge deviations from veridicality suggesting that the inverse optics model fails. Instead, the results seem to be more in line with a model of "vision as optical interface".

  4. The influence of temperature on ozone production under varying NOx conditions - a modelling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Jane; Mar, Kathleen A.; Ojha, Narendra; Butler, Tim M.

    2016-09-01

    Surface ozone is a secondary air pollutant produced during the atmospheric photochemical degradation of emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the presence of sunlight and nitrogen oxides (NOx). Temperature directly influences ozone production through speeding up the rates of chemical reactions and increasing the emissions of VOCs, such as isoprene, from vegetation. In this study, we used an idealised box model with different chemical mechanisms (Master Chemical Mechanism, MCMv3.2; Common Representative Intermediates, CRIv2; Model for OZone and Related Chemical Tracers, MOZART-4; Regional Acid Deposition Model, RADM2; Carbon Bond Mechanism, CB05) to examine the non-linear relationship between ozone, NOx and temperature, and we compared this to previous observational studies. Under high-NOx conditions, an increase in ozone from 20 to 40 °C of up to 20 ppbv was due to faster reaction rates, while increased isoprene emissions added up to a further 11 ppbv of ozone. The largest inter-mechanism differences were obtained at high temperatures and high-NOx emissions. CB05 and RADM2 simulated more NOx-sensitive chemistry than MCMv3.2, CRIv2 and MOZART-4, which could lead to different mitigation strategies being proposed depending on the chemical mechanism. The increased oxidation rate of emitted VOC with temperature controlled the rate of Ox production; the net influence of peroxy nitrates increased net Ox production per molecule of emitted VOC oxidised. The rate of increase in ozone mixing ratios with temperature from our box model simulations was about half the rate of increase in ozone with temperature observed over central Europe or simulated by a regional chemistry transport model. Modifying the box model set-up to approximate stagnant meteorological conditions increased the rate of increase of ozone with temperature as the accumulation of oxidants enhanced ozone production through the increased production of peroxy radicals from the secondary degradation of

  5. Real-time geometric scene estimation for RGBD images using a 3D box shape grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Andrew R.; Brink, Kevin M.

    2016-06-01

    This article describes a novel real-time algorithm for the purpose of extracting box-like structures from RGBD image data. In contrast to conventional approaches, the proposed algorithm includes two novel attributes: (1) it divides the geometric estimation procedure into subroutines having atomic incremental computational costs, and (2) it uses a generative "Block World" perceptual model that infers both concave and convex box elements from detection of primitive box substructures. The end result is an efficient geometry processing engine suitable for use in real-time embedded systems such as those on an UAVs where it is intended to be an integral component for robotic navigation and mapping applications.

  6. Inside the black box: Starting to uncover the underlying decision rules used in a one-by-one expert assessment of occupational exposure in case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wheeler, D.C.; Burstyn, I.; Vermeulen, R.; Yu, K.; Shortreed, S.M.; Pronk, A.; Stewart, P.A.; Colt, J.S.; Baris, D.; Karagas, M.R.; Schwenn, M.; Johnson, A.; Silverman, D.T.; Friesen, M.C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Evaluating occupational exposures in population-based case-control studies often requires exposure assessors to review each study participant's reported occupational information job-by-job to derive exposure estimates. Although such assessments likely have underlying decision rules, they

  7. Effect and process evaluation of a kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention with a randomized cluster design on sedentary behaviour in 4- to 6- year old European preschool children: The ToyBox-study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latomme, Julie; Cardon, Greet; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Iotova, Violeta; Koletzko, Berthold; Socha, Piotr; Moreno, Luis; Androutsos, Odysseas; Manios, Yannis; De Craemer, Marieke

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study evaluated the effect and process of the ToyBox-intervention on proxy-reported sedentary behaviours in 4- to 6-year-old preschoolers from six European countries. Methods In total, 2434 preschoolers’ parents/primary caregivers (mean age: 4.7±0.4 years, 52.2% boys) filled out a questionnaire, assessing preschoolers’ sedentary behaviours (TV/DVD/video viewing, computer/video games use and quiet play) on weekdays and weekend days. Multilevel repeated measures analyses were conducted to measure the intervention effects. Additionally, process evaluation data were included to better understand the intervention effects. Results Positive intervention effects were found for computer/video games use. In the total sample, the intervention group showed a smaller increase in computer/video games use on weekdays (ß = -3.40, p = 0.06; intervention: +5.48 min/day, control: +8.89 min/day) and on weekend days (ß = -5.97, p = 0.05; intervention: +9.46 min/day, control: +15.43 min/day) from baseline to follow-up, compared to the control group. Country-specific analyses showed similar effects in Belgium and Bulgaria, while no significant intervention effects were found in the other countries. Process evaluation data showed relatively low teachers’ and low parents’ process evaluation scores for the sedentary behaviour component of the intervention (mean: 15.6/24, range: 2.5–23.5 and mean: 8.7/17, range: 0–17, respectively). Higher parents’ process evaluation scores were related to a larger intervention effect, but higher teachers’ process evaluation scores were not. Conclusions The ToyBox-intervention had a small, positive effect on European preschoolers’ computer/video games use on both weekdays and weekend days, but not on TV/DVD/video viewing or quiet play. The lack of larger effects can possibly be due to the fact that parents were only passively involved in the intervention and to the fact that the intervention was too

  8. Effect and process evaluation of a kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention with a randomized cluster design on sedentary behaviour in 4- to 6- year old European preschool children: The ToyBox-study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Latomme

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study evaluated the effect and process of the ToyBox-intervention on proxy-reported sedentary behaviours in 4- to 6-year-old preschoolers from six European countries.In total, 2434 preschoolers' parents/primary caregivers (mean age: 4.7±0.4 years, 52.2% boys filled out a questionnaire, assessing preschoolers' sedentary behaviours (TV/DVD/video viewing, computer/video games use and quiet play on weekdays and weekend days. Multilevel repeated measures analyses were conducted to measure the intervention effects. Additionally, process evaluation data were included to better understand the intervention effects.Positive intervention effects were found for computer/video games use. In the total sample, the intervention group showed a smaller increase in computer/video games use on weekdays (ß = -3.40, p = 0.06; intervention: +5.48 min/day, control: +8.89 min/day and on weekend days (ß = -5.97, p = 0.05; intervention: +9.46 min/day, control: +15.43 min/day from baseline to follow-up, compared to the control group. Country-specific analyses showed similar effects in Belgium and Bulgaria, while no significant intervention effects were found in the other countries. Process evaluation data showed relatively low teachers' and low parents' process evaluation scores for the sedentary behaviour component of the intervention (mean: 15.6/24, range: 2.5-23.5 and mean: 8.7/17, range: 0-17, respectively. Higher parents' process evaluation scores were related to a larger intervention effect, but higher teachers' process evaluation scores were not.The ToyBox-intervention had a small, positive effect on European preschoolers' computer/video games use on both weekdays and weekend days, but not on TV/DVD/video viewing or quiet play. The lack of larger effects can possibly be due to the fact that parents were only passively involved in the intervention and to the fact that the intervention was too demanding for the teachers. Future interventions

  9. Effect and process evaluation of a kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention with a randomized cluster design on sedentary behaviour in 4- to 6- year old European preschool children: The ToyBox-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latomme, Julie; Cardon, Greet; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Iotova, Violeta; Koletzko, Berthold; Socha, Piotr; Moreno, Luis; Androutsos, Odysseas; Manios, Yannis; De Craemer, Marieke

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study evaluated the effect and process of the ToyBox-intervention on proxy-reported sedentary behaviours in 4- to 6-year-old preschoolers from six European countries. In total, 2434 preschoolers' parents/primary caregivers (mean age: 4.7±0.4 years, 52.2% boys) filled out a questionnaire, assessing preschoolers' sedentary behaviours (TV/DVD/video viewing, computer/video games use and quiet play) on weekdays and weekend days. Multilevel repeated measures analyses were conducted to measure the intervention effects. Additionally, process evaluation data were included to better understand the intervention effects. Positive intervention effects were found for computer/video games use. In the total sample, the intervention group showed a smaller increase in computer/video games use on weekdays (ß = -3.40, p = 0.06; intervention: +5.48 min/day, control: +8.89 min/day) and on weekend days (ß = -5.97, p = 0.05; intervention: +9.46 min/day, control: +15.43 min/day) from baseline to follow-up, compared to the control group. Country-specific analyses showed similar effects in Belgium and Bulgaria, while no significant intervention effects were found in the other countries. Process evaluation data showed relatively low teachers' and low parents' process evaluation scores for the sedentary behaviour component of the intervention (mean: 15.6/24, range: 2.5-23.5 and mean: 8.7/17, range: 0-17, respectively). Higher parents' process evaluation scores were related to a larger intervention effect, but higher teachers' process evaluation scores were not. The ToyBox-intervention had a small, positive effect on European preschoolers' computer/video games use on both weekdays and weekend days, but not on TV/DVD/video viewing or quiet play. The lack of larger effects can possibly be due to the fact that parents were only passively involved in the intervention and to the fact that the intervention was too demanding for the teachers. Future interventions targeting

  10. Inhibition of forkhead boxO-specific transcription prevents mechanical ventilation-induced diaphragm dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smuder, Ashley J; Sollanek, Kurt J; Min, Kisuk; Nelson, W Bradley; Powers, Scott K

    2015-05-01

    Mechanical ventilation is a lifesaving measure for patients with respiratory failure. However, prolonged mechanical ventilation results in diaphragm weakness, which contributes to problems in weaning from the ventilator. Therefore, identifying the signaling pathways responsible for mechanical ventilation-induced diaphragm weakness is essential to developing effective countermeasures to combat this important problem. In this regard, the forkhead boxO family of transcription factors is activated in the diaphragm during mechanical ventilation, and forkhead boxO-specific transcription can lead to enhanced proteolysis and muscle protein breakdown. Currently, the role that forkhead boxO activation plays in the development of mechanical ventilation-induced diaphragm weakness remains unknown. This study tested the hypothesis that mechanical ventilation-induced increases in forkhead boxO signaling contribute to ventilator-induced diaphragm weakness. University research laboratory. Young adult female Sprague-Dawley rats. Cause and effect was determined by inhibiting the activation of forkhead boxO in the rat diaphragm through the use of a dominant-negative forkhead boxO adeno-associated virus vector delivered directly to the diaphragm. Our results demonstrate that prolonged (12 hr) mechanical ventilation results in a significant decrease in both diaphragm muscle fiber size and diaphragm-specific force production. However, mechanically ventilated animals treated with dominant-negative forkhead boxO showed a significant attenuation of both diaphragm atrophy and contractile dysfunction. In addition, inhibiting forkhead boxO transcription attenuated the mechanical ventilation-induced activation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system, the autophagy/lysosomal system, and caspase-3. Forkhead boxO is necessary for the activation of key proteolytic systems essential for mechanical ventilation-induced diaphragm atrophy and contractile dysfunction. Collectively, these results suggest that

  11. An in silico analysis of T-box regulated genes and T-box evolution in prokaryotes, with emphasis on prediction of substrate specificity of transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleerebezem Michiel

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background T-box anti-termination is an elegant and sensitive mechanism by which many bacteria maintain constant levels of amino acid-charged tRNAs. The amino acid specificity of the regulatory element is related to a so-called specifier codon and can in principle be used to guide the functional annotation of the genes controlled via the T-box anti-termination mechanism. Results Hidden Markov Models were defined to search the T-box regulatory element and were applied to all completed prokaryotic genomes. The vast majority of the genes found downstream of the retrieved elements encoded functionalities related to transport and synthesis of amino acids and the charging of tRNA. This is completely in line with findings reported in literature and with the proposed biological role of the regulatory element. For several species, the functional annotation of a large number of genes encoding proteins involved in amino acid transport could be improved significantly on basis of the amino acid specificity of the identified T-boxes. In addition, these annotations could be extrapolated to a larger number of orthologous systems in other species. Analysis of T-box distribution confirmed that the element is restricted predominantly to species of the phylum Firmicutes. Furthermore, it appeared that the distribution was highly species specific and that in the case of amino acid transport some boxes seemed to "pop-up" only recently. Conclusion We have demonstrated that the identification of the molecular specificity of a regulatory element can be of great help in solving notoriously difficult annotation issues, e.g. by defining the substrate specificity of genes encoding amino acid transporters on basis of the amino acid specificity of the regulatory T-box. Furthermore, our analysis of the species-dependency of the occurrence of specific T-boxes indicated that these regulatory elements propagate in a semi-independent way from the genes that they control.

  12. Campus network security model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-ku; Song, Li-ren

    2011-12-01

    Campus network security is growing importance, Design a very effective defense hacker attacks, viruses, data theft, and internal defense system, is the focus of the study in this paper. This paper compared the firewall; IDS based on the integrated, then design of a campus network security model, and detail the specific implementation principle.

  13. Direct modulation of T-box riboswitch-controlled transcription by protein synthesis inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatopoulou, Vassiliki; Apostolidi, Maria; Li, Shuang; Lamprinou, Katerina; Papakyriakou, Athanasios; Zhang, Jinwei; Stathopoulos, Constantinos

    2017-09-29

    Recently, it was discovered that exposure to mainstream antibiotics activate numerous bacterial riboregulators that control antibiotic resistance genes including metabolite-binding riboswitches and other transcription attenuators. However, the effects of commonly used antibiotics, many of which exhibit RNA-binding properties, on the widespread T-box riboswitches, remain unknown. In Staphylococcus aureus, a species-specific glyS T-box controls the supply of glycine for both ribosomal translation and cell wall synthesis, making it a promising target for next-generation antimicrobials. Here, we report that specific protein synthesis inhibitors could either significantly increase T-box-mediated transcription antitermination, while other compounds could suppress it, both in vitro and in vivo. In-line probing of the full-length T-box combined with molecular modelling and docking analyses suggest that the antibiotics that promote transcription antitermination stabilize the T-box:tRNA complex through binding specific positions on stem I and the Staphylococcal-specific stem Sa. By contrast, the antibiotics that attenuate T-box transcription bind to other positions on stem I and do not interact with stem Sa. Taken together, our results reveal that the transcription of essential genes controlled by T-box riboswitches can be directly modulated by commonly used protein synthesis inhibitors. These findings accentuate the regulatory complexities of bacterial response to antimicrobials that involve multiple riboregulators. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  14. Methods to Reduce Sand Ejecta from Projectile Impact - a Scaled Study with the Goal of Application to Depleted Uranium Penetrator Catch Boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    organization provided high-speed camera support. This work was conducted under the general supervision of Andy Martin , Chief, EP-E, and Warren...bomb attack: Studies with uranium and metal stimulants. Environmental Progress 26(1):94-103. Ormo, J., M. Lindstrom , A. Lepinette, J. Martinez-Frias

  15. Ship Detection Using Transfer Learned Single Shot Multi Box Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nie Gu-Hong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ship detection in satellite images is a challenging task. In this paper, we introduce a transfer learned Single Shot MultiBox Detector (SSD for ship detection. To this end, a state-of-the-art object detection model pre-trained from a large number of natural images was transfer learned for ship detection with limited labeled satellite images. To the best of our knowledge, this could be one of the first studies which introduce SSD into ship detection on satellite images. Experiments demonstrated that our method could achieve 87.9% AP at 47 FPS using NVIDIA TITAN X. In comparison with Faster R-CNN, 6.7% AP improvement could be achieved. Effects of the observation resolution has also been studied with the changing input sizes among 300 × 300, 600 × 600 and 900 × 900. It has been noted that the detection accuracy declined sharply with the decreasing resolution that is mainly caused by the missing small ships.

  16. Complementarity in the Einstein-Bohr photon box

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieks, D.G.B.J.; Lam, S

    2008-01-01

    The Bohr-Einstein photon box thought experiment is a forerunner of the EPR experiment: a packet of radiation escapes from a box, and the box-plus-radiation state remains entangled. Hence, a measurement on the box makes a difference for the state of the far-away radiation long after its escape. This

  17. Exercise training reduces high mobility group box-1 protein levels in women with breast cancer: findings from the DIANA-5 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giallauria, Francesco; Gentile, Marco; Chiodini, Paolo; Berrino, Franco; Mattiello, Amalia; Maresca, Luigi; Vitelli, Alessandra; Mancini, Maria; Grieco, Alessandra; Lucci, Rosa; Torella, Giorgio; Panico, Salvatore; Vigorito, Carlo

    2014-06-01

    To determine whether exercise training might exert anti-inflammatory effect by reducing HMGB1 levels in women with breast cancer (BC). We analyzed monocentric data from the DIANA (DIET AND ANDROGENS)-5 PROJECT. Study population consisted of 94 patients randomized into two groups: 61 patients (53 +/- 8 yrs, training group) were assigned to a structured exercise training intervention (3 times/week for the first 3 months, and once /week for the following 9 months); whereas 33 patients (52 +/- 7 yrs, control group) followed only the general indications to adhere to the life-style intervention suggestions of the DIANA protocol. At study entry and after 12 months, all patients underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing, biochemical as- sessment [HMGB1, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6)]; and lipid and glycemic profile. There were no significant differences between groups in baseline clinical and inflammatory profile. Among the training group, only 19/61 patients had high adherence to the exercise intervention. After stratifying the study population according to the level of adhesion to the exer- cise intervention, 1-year HMGB1 levels were lower among patients more adherent to exercise (p for trend = 0.001). Further adjusting for age, body mass index and baseline values, 1-year HMGB1 levels remained significantly and inversely associated to the level of adhesion to the exercise intervention (B = -0.97, SE = 0.43, p = 0.01). Moderate intensity exercise training in BC survivors is associated with reduced HMGB1 levels that are proportional to the level of adhesion to the exercise intervention, independently from other classical inflammatory molecules, suggesting an exercise-induced anti-inflammatory effect mediated by HMGB1.

  18. Finding External Indicators of Load on a Web Server via Analysis of Black-Box Performance Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarini, Marc A.

    2010-01-01

    Traditional methods for system performance analysis have long relied on a mix of queuing theory, detailed system knowledge, intuition, and trial-and-error. These approaches often require construction of incomplete gray-box models that can be costly to build and difficult to scale or generalize. In this thesis, we present a black-box analysis…

  19. Health Related Behaviours in Normal Weight and Overweight Preschoolers of a Large Pan-European Sample: The ToyBox-Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greet Cardon

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of health related behaviours (HRB with Body Mass Index (BMI in preschoolers, and to study the likelihood of being overweight/obese in relation to compliance with recommended HRB. The sample consisted of 3301 normal weight and overweight/obese preschoolers (mean age: 4.7 years; 52% boys, 85% normal weight from six European countries (Belgium, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Poland, Spain. Height and weight were measured, total daily step counts were registered during six days, and HRB were assessed with validated parental surveys in 2012. Multiple linear and logistic regression analyses were performed. Only few HRB were significantly associated with BMI. In boys, higher water intake and higher soft drink and higher fruit consumption were significantly associated with higher BMI. Boys drinking less water than recommended were less likely to be overweight/obese (OR = 0.60, while boys who consume soft drinks were more likely to be overweight/obese (OR = 1.52. In girls, higher water intake, higher vegetable consumption, and more TV time on weekend days were significantly associated with higher BMI. Girls eating less vegetables than recommended were less likely to be overweight/obese (OR = 0.62, and girls who engaged in quiet play for more than 90 minutes on weekend days were more likely to be overweight/obese (OR = 1.64. In general, the associations between HRB and BMI or being overweight/obese were limited and mainly related to dietary intake. Awareness campaigns for caregivers should stress that HRB of young children are important and independent of children's weight status.

  20. Black box integration of computer-aided diagnosis into PACS deserves a second chance: results of a usability study concerning bone age assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldermann, Ina; Grouls, Christoph; Kuhl, Christiane; Deserno, Thomas M; Spreckelsen, Cord

    2013-08-01

    Usability aspects of different integration concepts for picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) and computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) were inquired on the example of BoneXpert, a program determining the skeletal age from a left hand's radiograph. CAD-PACS integration was assessed according to its levels: data, function, presentation, and context integration focusing on usability aspects. A user-based study design was selected. Statements of seven experienced radiologists using two alternative types of integration provided by BoneXpert were acquired and analyzed using a mixed-methods approach based on think-aloud records and a questionnaire. In both variants, the CAD module (BoneXpert) was easily integrated in the workflow, found comprehensible and fitting in the conceptual framework of the radiologists. Weak points of the software integration referred to data and context integration. Surprisingly, visualization of intermediate image processing states (presentation integration) was found less important as compared to efficient handling and fast computation. Seamlessly integrating CAD into the PACS without additional work steps or unnecessary interrupts and without visualizing intermediate images may considerably improve software performance and user acceptance with efforts in time.

  1. How to lift a box that is too large to fit between the knees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingma, Idsart; Faber, Gert S; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2010-10-01

    Many studies compared lifting techniques such as stoop and squat lifting. Results thus far show that when lifting a wide load, high back loads result, irrespective of the lifting technique applied. This study compared four lifting techniques in 11 male subjects lifting wide loads. One of these techniques, denoted as the weight lifters' technique (WLT), is characterised by a wide foot placement, moderate knee flexion and a straight but not upright trunk. Net moments were calculated with a 3-D linked segment model and spinal forces with an electromyographic-driven trunk model. When lifting the wide box at handles that allow a high grip position, the WLT resulted in over 20% lower compression forces than the free, squat and stoop lifting technique, mainly due to a smaller horizontal distance between the l5S1 joint and the load. When lifting the wide box at the bottom, none of the lifting techniques was clearly superior to the others. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Lifting low-lying and large objects results in high back loads and may therefore result in a high risk of developing low back pain. This study compares the utility of a WLT, in terms of back load and lumbar flexion, to more familiar techniques in these high-risk lifting tasks.

  2. Changes in position and quality of preferred nest box: effects on nest box use by laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Anja Brinch; Nielsen, Birte L.

    2013-01-01

    hens were housed in pens, each with five identical nest boxes in different positions: Two single (in a corner or not) and a triplet of nest boxes (one of which in a corner). The use of nest boxes was determined by the number of eggs laid daily in each box. Three experiments, each lasting 10 days, were...

  3. Characterization and expression analysis of AGAMOUS-like, SEEDSTICK-like, and SEPALLATA-like MADS-box genes in peach (Prunus persica) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Eleni; Polidoros, Alexios N; Flemetakis, Emmanouil; Stedel, Catalina; Kalloniati, Chrissanthi; Demetriou, Kyproula; Katinakis, Panagiotis; Tsaftaris, Athanasios S

    2009-08-01

    MADS-box genes encode transcriptional regulators that are critical for flowering, flower organogenesis and plant development. Although there are extensive reports on genes involved in flower organogenesis in model and economically important plant species, there are few reports on MADS-box genes in woody plants. In this study, we have cloned and characterized AGAMOUS (AG), SEEDSTICK (STK) and SEPALLATA (SEP) homologs from peach tree (Prunus persica L. Batsch) and studied their expression patterns in different tissues as well as in fruit pericarp during pit hardening. AG- STK- and SEP-like homologs, representative of the C-, D-, E-like MADS-box gene lineages, respectively, play key roles in stamen, carpel, ovule and fruit development in Arabidopsis thaliana. Sequence similarities, phylogenetic analysis and structural characteristics were used to provide classification of the isolated genes in type C (PPERAG), type D (PPERSTK) and type E (PPERSEP1, PPERSEP3, PPERFB9) organ identity genes. Expression patterns were determined and in combination with phylogenetic data provided useful indications on the function of these genes. These data suggest the involvement of MADS-box genes in peach flower and fruit development and provide further evidence for the role of these genes in woody perennial trees that is compatible with their function in model plant species.

  4. Shedding light into the black box: A prospective longitudinal study identifying the CanMEDS roles of final year medical students' on-ward activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugaj, Till Johannes; Schmid, Carolin; Koechel, Ansgar; Stiepak, Jan; Groener, Jan B; Herzog, Wolfgang; Nikendei, Christoph

    2017-08-01

    To our best knowledge, a rigorous prospective analysis of final year medical students' (FY medical students) activity profiles during workplace learning is lacking. The present study investigated the CanMEDS characteristics of all on-ward activities performed by internal medicine FY medical students. We tested the hypotheses that during FY medical student workplace training (I) routine activities are predominantly performed, while supervised, more complex activities are underrepresented with (II) FY medical students performing an insufficient number of autonomous activities and that (III) the CanMEDS roles of the Communicator and the Professional prevail. During the second and the sixth week of their final year trimester at the University of Heidelberg Medical Hospital, N = 34 FY medical students (73% female; mean age 26.4 ± 2.4) were asked to keep a detailed record of all their on-ward activities and to document the duration, mode of action (active versus passive; independent versus supervised), estimated relevance for later practice, and difficulty-level in specially designed activity logbooks. CanMEDS roles were assigned to the documented activities via post-hoc expert consensus. About 4308 activities lasting a total of 2211.4 h were documented. Drawing blood (20.8%) was the most frequently documented medical activity followed by full admission procedures (9.6%). About 14.9% of the time was spent with non-medical activities. About 82.1% of all medical activities performed went unsupervised. The Communicator (42%), the Professional (38%), and the Collaborator (7%) were assigned as the top three CanMEDS roles. The results call for increased efforts in creating more authentic learning experiences for FY medical students shifting towards more complex, supervised tasks, and improved team integration.

  5. The thy-box for sonographic assessment of the fetal thymus: nomogram and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Chápuli, Mar; Gámez, Francisco; Bravo, Coral; Ortiz, Luis; Pérez, Ricardo; De León-Luis, Juan A

    2015-05-01

    To assess the feasibility and reproducibility of fetal thy-box visualization and to set normative data for the fetal thymus using this technique. We performed a cross-sectional observational study in pregnant women in their second trimester of pregnancy who attended the fetal medicine unit of the Hospital Gregorio Marañón from March 2011 to March 2013. Using thy-box sonography, which sets boundaries within the thymus, we assessed the feasibility of the thy-box and analyzed the factors related to its visualization. Measurements of the thy-box anteroposterior and transverse diameters were performed in healthy fetuses. Interobserver agreement was studied for both items. We set normative data for the thy-box diameters in singleton and twin pregnancies. A total of 337 patients from 15 to 37 weeks were recruited after exclusion criteria. Thy-box feasibility was 74.2% (250 of 337). Nonfeasible cases were related to the fetal anterior spine and advanced gestational age. Assessment of the thy-box anteroposterior and transverse diameters was achievable in 250 fetuses. Interobserver agreement was good for feasibility and measurements (κ = 0.80). Linear growth of the thy-box in both diameters was observed in relation to gestational age during the second half of pregnancy. Thy-box diameters did not show significant differences according to the type of gestation, fetal sex, or chorionicity. Thy-box diameters are achievable and reproducible by sonography in normal singleton and twin pregnancies during the second trimester; however, although feasible, the thy-box transverse diameter measurement is not reliable beyond 28 weeks. Further studies are needed to evaluate thy-box diameters in pathologic cases, especially conotruncal anomalies. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  6. Time Series Analysis of JEPX Spot Price with the Box-Jenkins Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Hiroshi

    Following the examples of other countries, in April 2005 Japan launched wholesale electric power exchange operations as a primary item of system reform in line with electric liberalization. Only two years have passed since the initiation of these operations. However, in the summer of 2005, the surge in market prices was evident, which suggested that certain measures should be taken to confront potential market risks. Establishing a useful system for forecasting market prices through the modeling of price fluctuations in the wholesale electric market became essential. Currently, various price models are being proposed. Taking both the limited amount of data and the model's purpose into consideration, this study adopted the univariate time series model. We conducted a time series analysis on the open price indexes in the JEPX spot market with the Box-Jenkins method. Since a seven-day cycle can be observed in the data, we adopted the seasonal ARIMA model. In accordance with the procedures of the Box-Jenkins method, we determined the degree of the model's polynomial using the autocorrelation and partial autocorrelation of the data and estimated the parameters of the model with the maximum likelihood method. We conducted a forecast on next day JEPX spot market prices with this time series model and examined its validity and utility as a forecasting tool. Price forecasts made with this model require only a small amount of data and will save substantial analysis work. Consequently, this method is expected to be widely used by market participants as the reference data for their bid pricing.

  7. Multiple-state quantum Otto engine, 1D box system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifah, E.; Purwanto, A.

    2014-03-01

    Quantum heat engines produce work using quantum matter as their working substance. We studied adiabatic and isochoric processes and defined the general force according to quantum system. The processes and general force are used to evaluate a quantum Otto engine based on multiple-state of one dimensional box system and calculate the efficiency. As a result, the efficiency depends on the ratio of initial and final width of system under adiabatic processes.

  8. Multiple-state quantum Otto engine, 1D box system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latifah, E., E-mail: enylatifah@um.ac.id [Laboratory of Theoretical Physics and Natural Philosophy, Physics Department, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, ITS, Surabaya, Indonesia and Physics Department, Malang State University (Indonesia); Purwanto, A. [Laboratory of Theoretical Physics and Natural Philosophy, Physics Department, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, ITS, Surabaya (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Quantum heat engines produce work using quantum matter as their working substance. We studied adiabatic and isochoric processes and defined the general force according to quantum system. The processes and general force are used to evaluate a quantum Otto engine based on multiple-state of one dimensional box system and calculate the efficiency. As a result, the efficiency depends on the ratio of initial and final width of system under adiabatic processes.

  9. Two-Black Box Concept for Warhead Verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, Cameron Russell [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Frame, Katherine Chiyoko [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mckigney, Edward Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Smith, Morag Kristin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-06

    We have created a possible solution to meeting the requirements of certification/authentication while still employing complicated criteria. Technical solutions to protecting information from the host in an inspection environment needs to be assessed by those with specific expertise but, LANL can still study the verification problem. The two-black box framework developed provides another potential solution to the confidence vs. certification paradox.

  10. Advances in the theory of box integrals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, J.M.; Crandall, R.E.

    2009-06-25

    Box integrals - expectations <|{rvec r}|{sup s}> or <|{rvec r}-{rvec q}|{sup s}> over the unit n-cube (or n-box) - have over three decades been occasionally given closed forms for isolated n,s. By employing experimental mathematics together with a new, global analytic strategy, we prove that for n {le} 4 dimensions the box integrals are for any integer s hypergeometrically closed in a sense we clarify herein. For n = 5 dimensions, we show that a single unresolved integral we call K{sub 5} stands in the way of such hyperclosure proofs. We supply a compendium of exemplary closed forms that naturally arise algorithmically from this theory.

  11. Reassessment of the nonlocality of correlation boxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, A.P.; Parisio, Fernando, E-mail: parisio@df.ufpe.br

    2017-01-15

    Correlation boxes are hypothetical systems usually designed to produce the maximal algebraic violation of a Bell inequality, beyond the quantum bound and without superluminal signalling. The fact that these systems show stronger correlations than those presented by maximally entangled quantum states, as the spin singlet, has been regarded as a demonstration that the former are more nonlocal than the latter. By applying an alternative, consistent measure of nonlocality to a family of correlation boxes, we show that this conclusion is not necessarily true. Complementarily, we define a class of systems displaying subquantum correlations which, nevertheless, are more nonlocal than the singlet state, showing that the extent of the numeric violation of an inequality may have little to do with the degree of nonlocality, especially in the case of correlation boxes.

  12. DEAD-box Helicases as Integrators of RNA, Nucleotide and Protein Binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Andrea A.

    2013-01-01

    DEAD-box helicases perform diverse cellular functions in virtually all steps of RNA metabolism from Bacteria to Humans. Although DEAD-box helicases share a highly conserved core domain, the enzymes catalyze a wide range of biochemical reactions. In addition to the well established RNA unwinding and corresponding ATPase activities, DEAD-box helicases promote duplex formation and displace proteins from RNA. They can also function as assembly platforms for larger ribonucleoprotein complexes, and as metabolite sensors. This review aims to provide a perspective on the diverse biochemical features of DEAD-box helicases and connections to structural information. We discuss these data in the context of a model that views the enzymes as integrators of RNA, nucleotide, and protein binding. PMID:23416748

  13. A fast identification algorithm for Box-Cox transformation based radial basis function neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Xia

    2006-07-01

    In this letter, a Box-Cox transformation-based radial basis function (RBF) neural network is introduced using the RBF neural network to represent the transformed system output. Initially a fixed and moderate sized RBF model base is derived based on a rank revealing orthogonal matrix triangularization (QR decomposition). Then a new fast identification algorithm is introduced using Gauss-Newton algorithm to derive the required Box-Cox transformation, based on a maximum likelihood estimator. The main contribution of this letter is to explore the special structure of the proposed RBF neural network for computational efficiency by utilizing the inverse of matrix block decomposition lemma. Finally, the Box-Cox transformation-based RBF neural network, with good generalization and sparsity, is identified based on the derived optimal Box-Cox transformation and a D-optimality-based orthogonal forward regression algorithm. The proposed algorithm and its efficacy are demonstrated with an illustrative example in comparison with support vector machine regression.

  14. Paired box mutations in familial and sporadic aniridia predicts truncated aniridia proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martha, A.; Saunders, G.F. (Univ. of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)); Mintz-Hittner, H. (Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)); Lyons, L.A. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States))

    1994-05-01

    Aniridia, an autosomal dominant ocular disorder characterized by iris hypoplasia, results from mutations in the PAX6 gene, which encodes paired box and homeobox motifs. In this report the authors describe five new mutations in the paired box region of the human PAX6 gene that are associated with aniridia. The paired box mutations detected were in both familial (three) and sporadic (two cases) cases. All five mutations predict truncated PAX6 proteins. This study indicates that early premature translational termination mutations in the PAX6 gene result in haploinsufficiency and generate the aniridia phenotype. 32 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. The cigarette box as an advertising vehicle in the United Kingdom: A case for plain packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewe, Michaela; Ogden, Jane; Coyle, Adrian

    2015-07-01

    This research aimed to study tobacco advertising between 1950-2003 and to evaluate the role of the cigarette box in advertising. Tobacco company advertisements (n = 204) were coded for content and meanings used to promote their product. There was a significant shift from cigarettes being displayed to the cigarette box only. Changes in advertising and the meanings evoked were unrelated to changes in smoking behaviour. It is argued that the cigarette box has absorbed the meanings associated with smoking and has become an effective vehicle for advertising. It is also argued that this can only be minimised with plain packaging. © The Author(s) 2013.

  16. Analyses of S-Box in Image Encryption Applications Based on Fuzzy Decision Making Criterion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Inayatur; Shah, Tariq; Hussain, Iqtadar

    2014-06-01

    In this manuscript, we put forward a standard based on fuzzy decision making criterion to examine the current substitution boxes and study their strengths and weaknesses in order to decide their appropriateness in image encryption applications. The proposed standard utilizes the results of correlation analysis, entropy analysis, contrast analysis, homogeneity analysis, energy analysis, and mean of absolute deviation analysis. These analyses are applied to well-known substitution boxes. The outcome of these analyses are additional observed and a fuzzy soft set decision making criterion is used to decide the suitability of an S-box to image encryption applications.

  17. Thermodynamics of the fragile X mental retardation protein RGG box interactions with G quartet forming RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanotti, Kimberly J; Lackey, Patrick E; Evans, Genevieve L; Mihailescu, Mihaela-Rita

    2006-07-11

    Fragile X syndrome, the most common form of inherited mental retardation, is the result of an unstable expansion of a CGG trinucleotide repeat in the 5' UTR of the fragile X mental retardation-1 (FMR1) gene. The abnormal hypermethylation of the expanded CGG repeats causes the transcriptional silencing of the FMR1 gene and, consequently, the loss of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). FMRP is an RNA binding protein that binds to G quartet forming RNA using its RGG box motif. In this study we have performed a thermodynamic analysis of the interactions between the FMRP RGG box domain and Sc1, an RNA molecule which had been previously shown to be bound with high affinity by both the full-length FMRP and by its RGG box domain. We have determined that the association between the FMRP RGG box and Sc1 RNA is dominated by hydrophobic and hydrogen bond interactions, with minor contributions from electrostatic interactions, and that the FMRP RGG box binding increases the stability of the G quartet RNA structure significantly. Interestingly, we found that the G quartet recognition is necessary but not sufficient for the FMRP RGG box binding to this RNA target, indicating that additional interactions of the peptide, possibly with the stem and/or stem-G quartet junction region, are required. Our results also indicate that the G quartet RNA recognition is not a general feature of the RGG box motif but rather carries some sequence, protein and/or RNA, specificity.

  18. Co-expression and co-purification of archaeal and eukaryal box C/D RNPs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Peng

    Full Text Available Box C/D ribonucleoprotein particles (RNPs are 2'-O-methylation enzymes required for maturation of ribosomal and small nuclear RNA. Previous biochemical and structural studies of the box C/D RNPs were limited by the unavailability of purified intact RNPs. We developed a bacterial co-expression strategy based on the combined use of a multi-gene expression system and a tRNA-scaffold construct that allowed the expression and purification of homogeneous archaeal and human box C/D RNPs. While the co-expressed and co-purified archaeal box C/D RNP was found to be fully active in a 2'-O-methylation assay, the intact human U14 box C/D RNP showed no detectable catalytic activity, consistent with the earlier findings that assembly of eukaryotic box C/D RNPs is nonspontaneous and requires additional protein factors. Our systems provide a means for further biochemical and structural characterization of box C/D RNPs and their assembly factors.

  19. High-mobility group box-1 protein, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein in children with community acquired infections and bacteraemia: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalnins Imants

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Even though sepsis is one of the common causes of children morbidity and mortality, specific inflammatory markers for identifying sepsis are less studied in children. The main aim of this study was to compare the levels of high-mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1, Lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP, Interleukin-6 (IL-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP between infected children without systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS and children with severe and less severe sepsis. The second aim was to examine HMGB1, LBP, IL6 and CRP as markers for of bacteraemia. Methods Totally, 140 children with suspected or proven infections admitted to the Children's Clinical University Hospital of Latvia during 2008 and 2009 were included. Clinical and demographical information as well as infection focus were assessed in all patients. HMGB1, LBP, IL-6 and CRP blood samples were determined. Children with suspected or diagnosed infections were categorized into three groups of severity of infection: (i infected without SIRS (n = 36, (ii sepsis (n = 91 and, (iii severe sepsis (n = 13. They were furthermore classified according bacteraemia into (i bacteremia (n = 30 and (ii no bacteraemia (n = 74. Results There was no statistically significant difference in HMGB1 levels between children with different levels of sepsis or with and without bacteraemia. The levels of LBP, IL-6 and CRP were statistically significantly higher among patients with sepsis compared to those infected but without SIRS (p p Conclusion Elevated levels of LBP, IL-6 and CRP were associated with a more severe level of infection in children. Whereas LBP, IL-6 and CRP seem to be good markers to detect patients with bacteraemia, HMGB1 seem to be of minor importance. LBP, IL-6 and CRP levels may serve as good biomarkers for identifying children with severe sepsis and bacteraemia and, thus, may be routinely used in clinical practice.

  20. Rodent models for studying empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keum, Sehoon; Shin, Hee-Sup

    2016-11-01

    Empathy is the important capacity to recognize and share emotions with others. Recent evidence shows that rodents possess a remarkable affective sensitivity to the emotional state of others and that primitive forms of empathy exist in social lives of rodents. However, due to the ambiguous definitional boundaries between empathy, emotional contagion and other related terms, distinct components of empathic behaviors in rodents need to be clarified. Hence, we review recent experimental studies demonstrating that rodents are able to share emotions with others. Specifically, we highlight several behavioral models that examine different aspects of rodent empathic behaviors in response to the various distress of conspecifics. Experimental approaches using rodent behavioral models will help elucidate the neural circuitry of empathy and its neurochemical association. Integrating these findings with corresponding experiments in humans will ultimately provide novel insights into therapeutic interventions for mental disorders associated with empathy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.