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Sample records for box jellyfish tripedalia

  1. Visual control of steering in the box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petie, Ronald; Garm, Anders; Nilsson, Dan-Eric

    2011-01-01

    Box jellyfish carry an elaborate visual system consisting of 24 eyes, which they use for driving a number of behaviours. However, it is not known how visual input controls the swimming behaviour. In this study we exposed the Caribbean box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora to simple visual stimuli...... their bell in such a way that, if not tethered, they would turn and swim away from the dark area. We conclude that the visual system of T. cystophora has a predictable effect on swimming behaviour....... to the darkening of one quadrant of the equatorial visual world by (1) increasing pulse frequency, (2) creating an asymmetry in the structure that constricts the outflow opening of the bell, the velarium, and (3) delaying contraction at one of the four sides of the bell. This causes the animals to orient...

  2. The spectral sensitivity of the lens eyes of a box jellyfish, Tripedalia cystophora (Conant)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coates, Melissa M; Garm, Anders; Theobald, Jamie C

    2006-01-01

    Box jellyfish, or cubomedusae (class Cubozoa), are unique among the Cnidaria in possessing lens eyes similar in morphology to those of vertebrates and cephalopods. Although these eyes were described over 100 years ago, there has been no work done on their electrophysiological responses to light. We...... used an electroretinogram (ERG) technique to measure spectral sensitivity of the lens eyes of the Caribbean species Tripedalia cystophora. The cubomedusae have two kinds of lens eyes, the lower and upper lens eyes. We found that both lens eye types have similar spectral sensitivities, which likely...... result from the presence of a single receptor type containing a single opsin. The peak sensitivity is to blue-green light. Visual pigment template fits indicate a vitamin A-1 based opsin with peak sensitivity near 500 nm for both eye types....

  3. Visually guided obstacle avoidance in the box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora and Chiropsella bronzie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garm, A; O'Connor, M; Parkefelt, L;

    2007-01-01

    Box jellyfish, cubomedusae, possess an impressive total of 24 eyes of four morphologically different types. Two of these eye types, called the upper and lower lens eyes, are camera-type eyes with spherical fish-like lenses. Compared with other cnidarians, cubomedusae also have an elaborate...

  4. Unique structure and optics of the lesser eyes of the box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garm, A; Andersson, F; Nilsson, Dan-E

    2008-01-01

    The visual system of box jellyfish comprises a total of 24 eyes. These are of four types and each probably has a special function. To investigate this hypothesis the morphology and optics of the lesser eyes, the pit and slit eyes, were examined. The pit eyes hold one cell type only and are probably...... mere light meters. The slit eyes, comprising four cell types, are complex and highly asymmetric. They also hold a lens-like structure, but its optical power is minute. Optical modeling suggests spatial resolution, but only in one plane. These unique and intriguing traits support strong peripheral...

  5. Temporal properties of the lens eyes of the box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connor, Megan; Nilsson, Dan-E; Garm, Anders Lydik

    2010-01-01

    Box jellyWsh (Cubomedusae) are visually orientating animals which posses a total of 24 eyes of 4 morphological types; 2 pigment cup eyes (pit eye and slit eye) and 2 lens eyes [upper lens-eye (ule) and lower lens-eye (lle)]. In this study, we use electroretinograms (ERGs) to explore temporal...... properties of the two lens eyes. We Wnd that the ERG of both lens eyes are complex and using sinusoidal Xicker stimuli we Wnd that both lens eyes have slow temporal resolution. The average Xicker fusion frequency (FFF) was found to be approximately 10 Hz for the ule and 8 Hz for the lle. Di......Verences in the FFF and response patterns between the two lens eyes suggest that the ule and lle Wlter information diVerently in the temporal domain and thus are tuned to perform diVerent visual tasks. The data collected in this study support the idea that the visual system of box jellyWsh is a collection of special...

  6. Box jellyfish use terrestrial visual cues for navigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garm, Anders; Oskarsson, Magnus; Nilsson, Dan-Eric

    2011-01-01

    Box jellyfish have an impressive set of 24 eyes of four different types, including eyes structurally similar to those of vertebrates and cephalopods [1, 2]. However, the known visual responses are restricted to simple phototaxis, shadow responses, and object avoidance responses [3-8], and it has...... been a puzzle why they need such a complex set of eyes. Here we report that medusae of the box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora are capable of visually guided navigation in mangrove swamps using terrestrial structures seen through the water surface. They detect the mangrove canopy by an eye type...

  7. Jellyfish-associated bacterial communities and bacterioplankton in Indonesian Marine lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cleary, D.F.R.; Becking, L.E.; Polonia, A.; Freitas, B.M.; Gomes, N.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we compared communities of bacteria in two jellyfish species (the ‘golden’ jellyfish Mastigias cf. papua and the box jellyfish Tripedalia cf. cystophora) and water in three marine lakes located in the Berau region of northeastern Borneo, Indonesia. Jellyfish-associated bacteria

  8. Structure and optics of the eyes of the box jellyfish Chiropsella bronzie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O’Connor, Megan; Garm, Anders Lydik; Nilsson, Dan-E.

    2009-01-01

    Cubomedusae have a total of 24 eyes of four morphologically different types. Two of these eye types are camera-type eyes (upper and lower lens-eye), while the other two eye types are simpler pigment pit eyes (pit and slit eye). Here, we give a description of the visual system of the box jellyfish...... species Chiropsella bronzie and the optics of the lens eyes in this species. One aim of this study is to distinguish between general cubozoan features and species-specific features in the layout and optics of the eyes. We find that both types of lens eyes are more severely under-focused in C. bronzie than...... those in the previously investigated species Tripedalia cystophora. In the lower lens-eye of C. bronzie, blur circles subtend 20 and 52° for closed and open pupil, respectively, effectively removing all but the coarsest structures of the image. Histology reveals that the retina of the lower lens-eye...

  9. The Central Nervous System of Box Jellyfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garm, Anders Lydik; Ekström, Peter

    2008-01-01

    of behaviors in the box jellyfish such as obstacle avoidance and navigation. The need to process the visual information and turn it into the appropriate behavior puts strong demands on the nervous system of box jellyfish, which appears more elaborate than in other cnidarians. Here, the central part...... of this nervous system is described. Each rhopalium holds a separate part of the CNS with 1,000 nerve cells and a large amount of neuropil. The rhopalial nervous system has several subsystems defined by the anatomy, location, and immunocytochemistry of the cells. Most of the subsystems connect to one or more...... of the eye types, and it is likely that the rhopalial nervous system accounts for most of the visual processing. The major part of the CNS is made up of a ring nerve encircling the bell shaped body. The ring nerve holds around 10,000 cells and is directly connected to all four rhopalial nervous systems...

  10. Immunohistochemical evidence for multiple photosystems in box jellyfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekström, Peter; Garm, Anders Lydik; Pålsson, Jonas;

    2008-01-01

    data demonstrate that the lens eyes of box jellyfish utilize a single opsin and are thus color-blind, and that there is probably a different photopigment in the pigment cup eyes. The results support our hypothesis that the lens eyes and the pigment cup eyes of box jellyfish are involved in different...

  11. Setting the pace: new insights into central pattern generator interactions in box jellyfish swimming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lisa Stöckl

    Full Text Available Central Pattern Generators (CPGs produce rhythmic behaviour across all animal phyla. Cnidarians, which have a radially symmetric nervous system and pacemaker centres in multiples of four, provide an interesting comparison to bilaterian animals for studying the coordination between CPGs. The box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora is remarkable among cnidarians due to its most elaborate visual system. Together with their ability to actively swim and steer, they use their visual system for multiple types of behaviour. The four swim CPGs are directly regulated by visual input. In this study, we addressed the question of how the four pacemaker centres of this radial symmetric cnidarian interact. We based our investigation on high speed camera observations of the timing of swim pulses of tethered animals (Tripedalia cystophora with one or four rhopalia, under different simple light regimes. Additionally, we developed a numerical model of pacemaker interactions based on the inter pulse interval distribution of animals with one rhopalium. We showed that the model with fully resetting coupling and hyperpolarization of the pacemaker potential below baseline fitted the experimental data best. Moreover, the model of four swim pacemakers alone underscored the proportion of long inter pulse intervals (IPIs considerably. Both in terms of the long IPIs as well as the overall swim pulse distribution, the simulation of two CPGs provided a better fit than that of four. We therefore suggest additional sources of pacemaker control than just visual input. We provide guidelines for future research on the physiological linkage of the cubozoan CPGs and show the insight from bilaterian CPG research, which show that pacemakers have to be studied in their bodily and nervous environment to capture all their functional features, are also manifest in cnidarians.

  12. Chironex fleckeri (Box Jellyfish) Venom Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, Diane L.; Konstantakopoulos, Nicki; McInerney, Bernie V.; Mulvenna, Jason; Seymour, Jamie E.; Isbister, Geoffrey K.; Hodgson, Wayne C.

    2014-01-01

    The box jellyfish Chironex fleckeri produces extremely potent and rapid-acting venom that is harmful to humans and lethal to prey. Here, we describe the characterization of two C. fleckeri venom proteins, CfTX-A (∼40 kDa) and CfTX-B (∼42 kDa), which were isolated from C. fleckeri venom using size exclusion chromatography and cation exchange chromatography. Full-length cDNA sequences encoding CfTX-A and -B and a third putative toxin, CfTX-Bt, were subsequently retrieved from a C. fleckeri tentacle cDNA library. Bioinformatic analyses revealed that the new toxins belong to a small family of potent cnidarian pore-forming toxins that includes two other C. fleckeri toxins, CfTX-1 and CfTX-2. Phylogenetic inferences from amino acid sequences of the toxin family grouped CfTX-A, -B, and -Bt in a separate clade from CfTX-1 and -2, suggesting that the C. fleckeri toxins have diversified structurally and functionally during evolution. Comparative bioactivity assays revealed that CfTX-1/2 (25 μg kg−1) caused profound effects on the cardiovascular system of anesthetized rats, whereas CfTX-A/B elicited only minor effects at the same dose. Conversely, the hemolytic activity of CfTX-A/B (HU50 = 5 ng ml−1) was at least 30 times greater than that of CfTX-1/2. Structural homology between the cubozoan toxins and insecticidal three-domain Cry toxins (δ-endotoxins) suggests that the toxins have a similar pore-forming mechanism of action involving α-helices of the N-terminal domain, whereas structural diversification among toxin members may modulate target specificity. Expansion of the cnidarian toxin family therefore provides new insights into the evolutionary diversification of box jellyfish toxins from a structural and functional perspective. PMID:24403082

  13. Dose and time dependence of box jellyfish antivenom

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background The effectiveness of the currently available box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri) antivenom has been subject of debate for many years. To assess whether the box jellyfish antivenom has the ability to attenuate venom-induced damage at cellular level, the present study analyzed the dose and time dependence of the antivenom in a cell-based assay. Methods Different doses of antivenom were added to venom and subsequently administered to cells and the cell index was measured using xCelligen...

  14. Visual pigments of the box jellyfish species Chiropsella bronzie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O*Connor, Megan; Garm, Anders Lydik; Marshall, Justin;

    2010-01-01

    Box jellyfish (Cubomedusae) possess a unique visual system comprising 24 eyes of four morphological types. Moreover, box jellyfish display several visually guided behaviours, including obstacle avoidance and light-shaft attractance. It is largely unknown what kind of visual information box......, electrophysiological and immunohistochemical methods. However, the results from these studies are to some degree conflicting and inconclusive. Here, we present results from an investigation into the visual system of the box jellyfish Chiropsella bronzie, using microspectrophotometry and immunohistochemistry. Our...... results strongly indicate that only one type of visual pigment is present in the upper and lower lens eyes with a peak absorbance of approximately 510 nm. Additionally, the visual pigment appears to undergo bleaching, similar to that of vertebrate visual pigments....

  15. Pattern- and contrast-dependent visual response in the box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garm, Anders; Hedal, Ida; Islin, Majken;

    2013-01-01

    Cubomedusae possess a total of 24 eyes, some of which are structurally similar to vertebrate eyes. Accordingly, the medusae also display a range of light-guided behaviours including obstacle avoidance, diurnal activity patterns and navigation. Navigation is supported by spatial resolution and ima...

  16. Transcriptome and venom proteome of the box jellyfish Chironex fleckeri

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background The box jellyfish, Chironex fleckeri, is the largest and most dangerous cubozoan jellyfish to humans. It produces potent and rapid-acting venom and its sting causes severe localized and systemic effects that are potentially life-threatening. In this study, a combined transcriptomic and proteomic approach was used to identify C. fleckeri proteins that elicit toxic effects in envenoming. Results More than 40,000,000 Illumina reads were used to de novo assemble ∼ 34,000 contiguous cDN...

  17. Venom Proteome of the Box Jellyfish Chironex fleckeri

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The nematocyst is a complex intracellular structure unique to Cnidaria. When triggered to discharge, the nematocyst explosively releases a long spiny, tubule that delivers an often highly venomous mixture of components. The box jellyfish, Chironex fleckeri, produces exceptionally potent and rapid-acting venom and its stings to humans cause severe localized and systemic effects that are potentially life-threatening. In an effort to identify toxins that could be responsible for the serious heal...

  18. Venom proteome of the box jellyfish Chironex fleckeri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane L Brinkman

    Full Text Available The nematocyst is a complex intracellular structure unique to Cnidaria. When triggered to discharge, the nematocyst explosively releases a long spiny, tubule that delivers an often highly venomous mixture of components. The box jellyfish, Chironex fleckeri, produces exceptionally potent and rapid-acting venom and its stings to humans cause severe localized and systemic effects that are potentially life-threatening. In an effort to identify toxins that could be responsible for the serious health effects caused by C. fleckeri and related species, we used a proteomic approach to profile the protein components of C. fleckeri venom. Collectively, 61 proteins were identified, including toxins and proteins important for nematocyte development and nematocyst formation (nematogenesis. The most abundant toxins identified were isoforms of a taxonomically restricted family of potent cnidarian proteins. These toxins are associated with cytolytic, nociceptive, inflammatory, dermonecrotic and lethal properties and expansion of this important protein family goes some way to explaining the destructive and potentially fatal effects of C. fleckeri venom. Venom proteins and their post-translational modifications (PTMs were further characterized using toxin-specific antibodies and phosphoprotein/glycoprotein-specific stains. Results indicated that glycosylation is a common PTM of the toxin family while a lack of cross-reactivity by toxin-specific antibodies infers there is significant divergence in structure and possibly function among family members. This study provides insight into the depth and diversity of protein toxins produced by harmful box jellyfish and represents the first description of a cubozoan jellyfish venom proteome.

  19. Venom proteome of the box jellyfish Chironex fleckeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, Diane L; Aziz, Ammar; Loukas, Alex; Potriquet, Jeremy; Seymour, Jamie; Mulvenna, Jason

    2012-01-01

    The nematocyst is a complex intracellular structure unique to Cnidaria. When triggered to discharge, the nematocyst explosively releases a long spiny, tubule that delivers an often highly venomous mixture of components. The box jellyfish, Chironex fleckeri, produces exceptionally potent and rapid-acting venom and its stings to humans cause severe localized and systemic effects that are potentially life-threatening. In an effort to identify toxins that could be responsible for the serious health effects caused by C. fleckeri and related species, we used a proteomic approach to profile the protein components of C. fleckeri venom. Collectively, 61 proteins were identified, including toxins and proteins important for nematocyte development and nematocyst formation (nematogenesis). The most abundant toxins identified were isoforms of a taxonomically restricted family of potent cnidarian proteins. These toxins are associated with cytolytic, nociceptive, inflammatory, dermonecrotic and lethal properties and expansion of this important protein family goes some way to explaining the destructive and potentially fatal effects of C. fleckeri venom. Venom proteins and their post-translational modifications (PTMs) were further characterized using toxin-specific antibodies and phosphoprotein/glycoprotein-specific stains. Results indicated that glycosylation is a common PTM of the toxin family while a lack of cross-reactivity by toxin-specific antibodies infers there is significant divergence in structure and possibly function among family members. This study provides insight into the depth and diversity of protein toxins produced by harmful box jellyfish and represents the first description of a cubozoan jellyfish venom proteome.

  20. Disarming the box-jellyfish: nematocyst inhibition in Chironex fleckeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwick, R; Callanan, V; Williamson, J

    1980-01-12

    Laboratory tests indicate that methylated spirits, widely espoused as a first-aid treatment for jellyfish stings, causes massive discharge of nematocysts in living tentacles of the box-jellyfish, Chironex fleckeri. This action, together with demonstrated hazards of flammability and intoxication, casts doubt on this substance as a treatment for Chironex stings. In an attempt to find a substitute which will be effective in inactivating unfired nematocysts in the tentacles adhering to sting victims, a number of substances were tested in the laboratory. Weak solutions of acetic acid, as well as commerical vinegar, were found to inactivate the penetrating nematocysts of Chironex rapidly and completely. Most other substances tested proved less effective, and some actually stimulated the firing of nematocysts.

  1. Serious envenomation by the Northern Australian box-jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, J A; Callanan, V I; Hartwick, R F

    1980-01-12

    Serious envenomation of an adult pregnant woman by a box-jellyfish (Chironex flecteri) in North Queensland is reported. Quick thinking and resuscitation by bystanders which was followed by early hospital treatment resulted in a successful outcome both for mother and for fetus. A brief review of the historic background of box-jellyfish envenomation is given, and some specific problems concerning the management and prevention of envenomation from this unique animal are described. On-the-spot resuscitation takes absolute priority, and the advent of specific antivenom is a major advance. Avoidance of fetal stings in the future is possible by simple preventive measures. The role of the Surf Life Saving Association of Australia in the prevention and treatment of such problems is highlighted, and, as a result of recent research, possible changes in the management of box-jellyfish envenomations are predicted.

  2. Multiple photoreceptor systems control the swim pacemaker activity in box jellyfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garm, Anders Lydik; Mori, S.

    2009-01-01

    Like all other cnidarian medusae, box jellyfish propel themselves through the water by contracting their bell-shaped body in discrete swim pulses. These pulses are controlled by a swim pacemaker system situated in their sensory structures, the rhopalia. Each medusa has four rhopalia each with a s......Like all other cnidarian medusae, box jellyfish propel themselves through the water by contracting their bell-shaped body in discrete swim pulses. These pulses are controlled by a swim pacemaker system situated in their sensory structures, the rhopalia. Each medusa has four rhopalia each...

  3. Response of the box-jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri) cardiotoxin to intravenous administration of verapamil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J W; Calton, G J

    1983-08-20

    Verapamil, a calcium antagonist, has been shown to be effective in delaying death in mice after intravenous challenge with box-jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri) venom. Death from a challenge of up to three mouse-lethal doses of venom was significantly delayed after the prior intravenous administration of verapamil (P = 0.003). A smaller dose of verapamil could "rescue" mice previously envenomed with 1.25 mouse-lethal doses (P = 0.0001). These data suggest that verapamil injections should be added to the first-aid procedures performed on the beach for victims of box-jellyfish stings.

  4. Identification, cloning and sequencing of two major venom proteins from the box jellyfish, Chironex fleckeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, Diane; Burnell, James

    2007-11-01

    Two of the most abundant proteins found in the nematocysts of the box jellyfish Chironex fleckeri have been identified as C. fleckeri toxin-1 (CfTX-1) and toxin-2 (CfTX-2). The molecular masses of CfTX-1 and CfTX-2, as determined by SDS-PAGE, are approximately 43 and 45 kDa, respectively, and both proteins are strongly antigenic to commercially available box jellyfish antivenom and rabbit polyclonal antibodies raised against C. fleckeri nematocyst extracts. The amino acid sequences of mature CfTX-1 and CfTX-2 (436 and 445 residues, respectively) share significant homology with three known proteins: CqTX-A from Chiropsalmus quadrigatus, CrTXs from Carybdea rastoni and CaTX-A from Carybdea alata, all of which are lethal, haemolytic box jellyfish toxins. Multiple sequence alignment of the five jellyfish proteins has identified several short, but highly conserved regions of amino acids that coincide with a predicted transmembrane spanning region, referred to as TSR1, which may be involved in a pore-forming mechanism of action. Furthermore, remote protein homology predictions for CfTX-2 and CaTX-A suggest weak structural similarities to pore-forming insecticidal delta-endotoxins Cry1Aa, Cry3Bb and Cry3A.

  5. The effects of antivenom and verapamil on the haemodynamic actions of Chironex fleckeri (box jellyfish) venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibballs, J; Williams, D; Sutherland, S K

    1998-02-01

    The efficacy of antivenom and verapamil against Chironex fleckeri (box jellyfish) venom was investigated in monitored mechanically ventilated piglets. Chironex fleckeri tentacle extract alone, a mixture of tentacle extract with antivenom, and verapamil before tentacle extract were administered intravenously to groups of animals. Tentacle extract caused severe systemic hypotension, cardiac dysrrhythmias, pulmonary hypertension, haemolysis and hyperkalaemia. These effects were prevented by pre-incubation of tentacle extract with antivenom. Verapamil did not prevent any effect of venom, exacerbated cardiovascular collapse and increased mortality. We conclude that antivenom neutralizes the cardiovascular, haemolytic and hyperkalaemic effects of box jellyfish venom. Verapamil does not prevent any of these effects and is contra-indicated for treatment of envenomation.

  6. Acute management of serious envenomation by box-jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, J A; Le Ray, L E; Wohlfahrt, M; Fenner, P J

    Two cases of serious envenomation by the northern Australian box-jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri) are reported. The first-aid measures and the subsequent management and follow-up of patients are discussed. In addition to its known life-saving effects, the early administration of the specific antivenom appears to be the best treatment for the savage pain of the sting, and may also result in a reduction of subsequent skin scarring.

  7. Techniques applicable for purifying Chironex fleckeri (box-jellyfish) venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, I; Burnett, J W

    1990-01-01

    A survey of several techniques to isolate a purified lethal factor from the tentacles of Chironex fleckeri was completed. Heterologous band patterns were obtained from specific eluates after gel filtration, ion exchange, immunoaffinity and hydrophobic chromatography. SDS-PAGE revealed a dense band at 24,000 mol. wt in many of these fractions. Isoelectric focusing of the crude venom resulted in considerable loss of activity but indicated significant purification in the fractions having a pI of 5.2-6.8. These fractions were also immunologically active against sera from a convalescing post-evenomation patient. The primary difficulties encountered in jellyfish venom purification are the lack of stability and the tendency of the active toxins to adhere to each other and to various support matrices.

  8. [Marine envenomation by box-jellyfish in a tourist in Cambodia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellaud, G; Epelboin, L; Henn, A; Perignon, A; Bricaire, F; Caumes, E

    2013-10-01

    We report a case of box-jellyfish related envenomation in a 40 year old tourist that occurred in Sihanoukville, Cambodia, in the Gulf of Thailand. Symptoms that appeared within a few minutes associated intense pain, hand edema and large edematous and erythematous flagellations in the stung skin areas. Antibiotics and corticosteroids were delivered. Inflammatory signs and skin lesions disappeared within 15 days followed by crusts then scars. Jellyfish at risk for humans are generally found in tropical seas and their geographic distribution seems to spread. As it is difficult to prevent this kind of accident, travelers should be aware of the first acts to perform, such as appropriate cleaning of the wound, the interest of vinegar usage, the administration of analgesics and corticosteroids in case of significant inflammatory signs.

  9. The in vivo cardiovascular effects of an Australasian box jellyfish (Chiropsalmus sp.) venom in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Sharmaine; Isbister, Geoffrey K; Seymour, Jamie E; Hodgson, Wayne C

    2005-03-01

    Using a new technique to extract venom from the nematocysts of jellyfish, the in vivo cardiovascular effects of Chiropsalmus sp. venom were investigated in anaesthetized rats. Chiropsalmus sp. venom (150 microg/kg, i.v.) produced a transient hypertensive response (44+/-4 mmHg; n=6) followed by hypotension and cardiovascular collapse. Concurrent artificial respiration or pretreatment with Chironex fleckeri antivenom (AV, 3000 U/kg, i.v.) did not have any effect on the venom-induced hypertensive response nor the subsequent cardiovascular collapse. The cardiovascular response of animals receiving venom after the infusion of MgSO4 (50-70 mM @ 0.25 ml/min, i.v.; n=5) alone, or in combination with AV (n=5), was not significantly different from rats receiving venom alone. Prior administration of prazosin (50 microg/kg, i.v.; n=4) or ketanserin (1 mg/kg, i.v.; n=4) did not significantly attenuate the hypertensive response nor prevent the cardiovascular collapse induced by venom (50 microg/kg, i.v.). In contrast to previous work examining C. fleckeri venom, administration of AV alone, or in combination with MgSO4, was not effective in preventing cardiovascular collapse following the administration of Chiropsalmus sp. venom. This indicates that the venom of the two related box jellyfish contain different lethal components and highlights the importance of species identification prior to initiating treatment regimes following jellyfish envenoming.

  10. Monoclonal antibodies neutralizing the haemolytic activity of box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri) tentacle extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, S P; Comis, A; Marshall, M; Hartwick, R F; Howden, M E

    1993-09-01

    1. Three monoclonal antibodies have been produced which neutralize in vitro the haemolytic activity present in tentacle extracts of the box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri). 2. Two of these monoclonal antibodies bound specifically to a component of relative molecular mass 50,000 in tentacle extract on Western blots. 3. This binding only occurred when the extracts were electrophoresed under non-reducing conditions. 4. The third monoclonal antibody did not display binding to Western blots of tentacle extract under any of our experimental conditions.

  11. Stabilization of lethal and hemolytic activities of box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri) venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comis, A; Hartwick, R F; Howden, M E

    1989-01-01

    The stability of both the lethal and hemolytic activities of box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri) tentacle extract was assessed after various extraction procedures. Both activities were higher when no buffers or water were used during the initial extraction. Also, when the extract was first filtered through a Sep-pak C18 cartridge, the residual lethal titre, after incubation for 24 hr at room temperature, was increased 16-fold and hemolysis was increased 2.6-fold. Evidence for proteolytic activity in the extract was also obtained and monitored by size exclusion HPLC.

  12. Partial purification of cytolytic venom proteins from the box jellyfish, Chironex fleckeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, Diane; Burnell, James

    2008-04-01

    Venom proteins from the nematocysts of Chironex fleckeri were fractionated by size-exclusion and cation-exchange chromatography. Using sheep erythrocyte haemolysis as an indicator of cytolytic activity, two major cytolysins, with native molecular masses of approximately 370 and 145kDa, and one minor cytolysin ( approximately 70kDa) were isolated. SDS-PAGE and western blot protein profiles revealed that the 370kDa haemolysin is composed of CfTX-1 and CfTX-2 subunits ( approximately 43 and 45kDa, respectively); the most abundant proteins found in C. fleckeri nematocyst extracts. The 145kDa haemolysin predominately contains two other major proteins ( approximately 39 and 41kDa), which are not antigenic towards commercially available box jellyfish antivenom or rabbit polyclonal antibodies raised against whole C. fleckeri nematocyst extracts or CfTX-1 and -2. The kinetics of CfTX-1 and -2 haemolytic activities are temperature dependent and characterised by a pre-lytic lag phase ( approximately 6-7min) prior to initiation of haemolysis. Significant amino acid sequence homology between the CfTX proteins and other box jellyfish toxins suggest that CfTX-1 and -2 may also be lethal and dermonecrotic. Therefore, further in vivo and in vitro studies are required to investigate the potential roles of CfTX-1 and -2 in the lethal effects of C. fleckeri venom.

  13. An in vivo examination of the stability of venom from the Australian box jellyfish Chironex fleckeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, K L; Isbister, G K; Seymour, J E; Hodgson, W C

    2007-05-01

    We have previously characterised the pharmacological activity of a number of jellyfish venoms with a particular emphasis on the profound cardiovascular effects. It has been suggested that jellyfish venoms are difficult to work with and are sensitive to pH, temperature and chemical changes. The current study aimed to examine the working parameters of the venom of the Australian box jellyfish Chironex fleckeri to enable fractionation and isolation of the toxins with cardiovascular activity. C. fleckeri venom was made up fresh each day and subjected to a number of different environments (i.e. a pH range of 5-9 and a temperature range of 4-30 degrees C). In addition, the effect of freeze drying and reconstituting the venom was investigated. Venom (50 microg/kg, i.v.) produced a transient hypertensive response followed by cardiovascular collapse in anaesthetised rats. This biphasic response was not significantly effected by preparation of the venom at a pH of 5, 7 or 9. Similarly, venom (50 microg/kg, i.v.) did not display a loss of activity when exposed to temperatures of 4, 20 or 30 degrees C for 1.5h. However, the cardiovascular activity was abolished by boiling the venom. Freeze drying, and then reconstituting, the venom did not significantly affect its cardiovascular activity. However, repeated freeze drying and reconstituting of extracted venom resulted in a significantly loss of activity. This study provides a more detailed knowledge of the parameters in which C. fleckeri venom can be used and, while supporting some previous studies, contradicts some of the perceived problems of working with the venom.

  14. Partial purification of box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri) nematocyst venom isolated at the beachside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, D A; Burnett, J W; Alderslade, P

    1998-08-01

    Chironex fleckeri, the northern Australian box jellyfish produces one of, if not, the most potent animal venoms. Study of the venom has been hampered by the limits of the animals' range and the venom's thermolability. Using retained lethality and native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (NPAGE), we show that lyophilization of autolysis isolated nematocysts is an effective method of transporting the venom. In addition, Sephadex G-200 chromatography, spin concentration, and NPAGE fail to demonstrate the presence of a 600 kDa protein to which the bulk of the lethal activity has been ascribed. Sodium dodecyl sulfate capillary electrophoresis of crude venom yields several protein bands with a molecular weight range of 30-200 kDa. Freeze-thaw studies show a loss of activity and NPAGE bands after two freeze thaw cycles.

  15. Long-term fluctuations in circalunar Beach aggregations of the box jellyfish Alatina moseri in Hawaii, with links to environmental variability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano M Chiaverano

    Full Text Available The box jellyfish Alatina moseri forms monthly aggregations at Waikiki Beach 8-12 days after each full moon, posing a recurrent hazard to swimmers due to painful stings. We present an analysis of long-term (14 years: Jan 1998- Dec 2011 changes in box jellyfish abundance at Waikiki Beach. We tested the relationship of beach counts to climate and biogeochemical variables over time in the North Pacific Sub-tropical Gyre (NPSG. Generalized Additive Models (GAM, Change-Point Analysis (CPA, and General Regression Models (GRM were used to characterize patterns in box jellyfish arrival at Waikiki Beach 8-12 days following 173 consecutive full moons. Variation in box jellyfish abundance lacked seasonality, but exhibited dramatic differences among months and among years, and followed an oscillating pattern with significant periods of increase (1998-2001; 2006-2011 and decrease (2001-2006. Of three climatic and 12 biogeochemical variables examined, box jellyfish showed a strong, positive relationship with primary production, >2 mm zooplankton biomass, and the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO index. It is clear that that the moon cycle plays a key role in synchronizing timing of the arrival of Alatina moseri medusae to shore. We propose that bottom-up processes, likely initiated by inter-annual regional climatic fluctuations influence primary production, secondary production, and ultimately regulate food availability, and are therefore important in controlling the inter-annual changes in box jellyfish abundance observed at Waikiki Beach.

  16. Firing the Sting: Chemically Induced Discharge of Cnidae Reveals Novel Proteins and Peptides from Box Jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri) Venom

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Cnidarian venom research has lagged behind other toxinological fields due to technical difficulties in recovery of the complex venom from the microscopic nematocysts. Here we report a newly developed rapid, repeatable and cost effective technique of venom preparation, using ethanol to induce nematocyst discharge and to recover venom contents in one step. Our model species was the Australian box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri), which has a notable impact on public health. By utilizing scanning e...

  17. Firing the Sting: Chemically Induced Discharge of Cnidae Reveals Novel Proteins and Peptides from Box Jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri Venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdokht Jouiaei

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cnidarian venom research has lagged behind other toxinological fields due to technical difficulties in recovery of the complex venom from the microscopic nematocysts. Here we report a newly developed rapid, repeatable and cost effective technique of venom preparation, using ethanol to induce nematocyst discharge and to recover venom contents in one step. Our model species was the Australian box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri, which has a notable impact on public health. By utilizing scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy, we examined nematocyst external morphology before and after ethanol treatment and verified nematocyst discharge. Further, to investigate nematocyst content or “venom” recovery, we utilized both top-down and bottom-up transcriptomics–proteomics approaches and compared the proteome profile of this new ethanol recovery based method to a previously reported high activity and recovery protocol, based upon density purified intact cnidae and pressure induced disruption. In addition to recovering previously characterized box jellyfish toxins, including CfTX-A/B and CfTX-1, we recovered putative metalloproteases and novel expression of a small serine protease inhibitor. This study not only reveals a much more complex toxin profile of Australian box jellyfish venom but also suggests that ethanol extraction method could augment future cnidarian venom proteomics research efforts.

  18. Firing the sting: chemically induced discharge of cnidae reveals novel proteins and peptides from box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri) venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouiaei, Mahdokht; Casewell, Nicholas R; Yanagihara, Angel A; Nouwens, Amanda; Cribb, Bronwen W; Whitehead, Darryl; Jackson, Timothy N W; Ali, Syed A; Wagstaff, Simon C; Koludarov, Ivan; Alewood, Paul; Hansen, Jay; Fry, Bryan G

    2015-03-18

    Cnidarian venom research has lagged behind other toxinological fields due to technical difficulties in recovery of the complex venom from the microscopic nematocysts. Here we report a newly developed rapid, repeatable and cost effective technique of venom preparation, using ethanol to induce nematocyst discharge and to recover venom contents in one step. Our model species was the Australian box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri), which has a notable impact on public health. By utilizing scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy, we examined nematocyst external morphology before and after ethanol treatment and verified nematocyst discharge. Further, to investigate nematocyst content or "venom" recovery, we utilized both top-down and bottom-up transcriptomics-proteomics approaches and compared the proteome profile of this new ethanol recovery based method to a previously reported high activity and recovery protocol, based upon density purified intact cnidae and pressure induced disruption. In addition to recovering previously characterized box jellyfish toxins, including CfTX-A/B and CfTX-1, we recovered putative metalloproteases and novel expression of a small serine protease inhibitor. This study not only reveals a much more complex toxin profile of Australian box jellyfish venom but also suggests that ethanol extraction method could augment future cnidarian venom proteomics research efforts.

  19. Fatal envenomation by Chironex fleckeri, the north Australian box jellyfish: the continuing search for lethal mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumley, J; Williamson, J A; Fenner, P J; Burnett, J W; Colquhoun, D M

    1988-05-16

    A child with severe envenomation by Chironex fleckeri presented in cardiac arrest at a hospital between 15 and 20 min after the sting was sustained. Resuscitation was not successful. Objective confirmation of C. fleckeri as the cause of death is described. Four metres of tentacle contact in this case represents the smallest-measured fatal C. fleckeri sting that has been recorded so far. The mechanism of this death was toxic and not allergic. The available clinical information suggests direct myocardial interference, but does not exclude a respiratory hypoxic element. A more widespread venom-induced functional disruption of the cell membrane is postulated, with a resultant dysfunction in several vital organ systems that were acting in concert. Early, vigorous and sustained resuscitation that is performed as a first-aid measure offers the best hope of prehospital survival after a massive C. fleckeri sting, which is the most explosive envenomation process that is presently known to humans. In-hospital resuscitation from unresponsive circulatory arrest should now involve intravenously-administered verapamil (or its equivalent) and additional box-jellyfish antivenom, while the patient is being monitored.

  20. A pharmacological investigation of the venom extract of the Australian box jellyfish, Chironex fleckeri, in cardiac and vascular tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Richard J A; Angus, James A; Winkel, Kenneth D; Wright, Christine E

    2012-02-25

    The pharmacology of Australian box jellyfish, Chironex fleckeri, unpurified (crude) nematocyst venom extract (CVE) was investigated in rat isolated cardiac and vascular tissues and in anaesthetised rats. In small mesenteric arteries CVE (0.01-30 μg/ml) caused contractions (EC(50) 1.15±0.19 μg/ml) that were unaffected by prazosin (0.1 μM), bosentan (10 μM), CGRP(8-37) (1 μM) or tetrodotoxin (1 μM). Box jellyfish antivenom (5-92.6 units/ml) caused rightward shifts of the CVE concentration-response curve with no change in the maximum. In the presence of l-NAME (100 μM) the sensitivity and maximum response to CVE were increased, whilst MgSO(4) (6 mM) decreased both parameters. CVE (1-10 μg/ml) caused inhibition of the contractile response to electrical sympathetic nerve stimulation. Left atrial responses to CVE (0.001-30 μg/ml) were bi-phasic, composed of an initial positive inotropy followed by a marked negative inotropy and atrial standstill. CVE (0.3 μg/ml) elicited a marked decrease in right atrial rate followed by atrial standstill at 3 μg/ml. These responses were unaffected by 1 μM of propranolol, atropine or CGRP(8-37). Antivenom (54 and 73 units/ml) caused rightward shifts of the CVE concentration-response curve and prevented atrial standstill in left and right atria. The effects of CVE do not appear to involve autonomic nerves, post-synaptic α(1)- or β(1)-adrenoceptors, or muscarinic, endothelin or CGRP receptors, but may occur through direct effects on the cardiac and vascular muscle. Box jellyfish antivenom was effective in attenuating CVE-induced responses in isolated cardiac and vascular tissues.

  1. Chironex fleckeri (box jellyfish) venom proteins: expansion of a cnidarian toxin family that elicits variable cytolytic and cardiovascular effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, Diane L; Konstantakopoulos, Nicki; McInerney, Bernie V; Mulvenna, Jason; Seymour, Jamie E; Isbister, Geoffrey K; Hodgson, Wayne C

    2014-02-21

    The box jellyfish Chironex fleckeri produces extremely potent and rapid-acting venom that is harmful to humans and lethal to prey. Here, we describe the characterization of two C. fleckeri venom proteins, CfTX-A (∼40 kDa) and CfTX-B (∼42 kDa), which were isolated from C. fleckeri venom using size exclusion chromatography and cation exchange chromatography. Full-length cDNA sequences encoding CfTX-A and -B and a third putative toxin, CfTX-Bt, were subsequently retrieved from a C. fleckeri tentacle cDNA library. Bioinformatic analyses revealed that the new toxins belong to a small family of potent cnidarian pore-forming toxins that includes two other C. fleckeri toxins, CfTX-1 and CfTX-2. Phylogenetic inferences from amino acid sequences of the toxin family grouped CfTX-A, -B, and -Bt in a separate clade from CfTX-1 and -2, suggesting that the C. fleckeri toxins have diversified structurally and functionally during evolution. Comparative bioactivity assays revealed that CfTX-1/2 (25 μg kg(-1)) caused profound effects on the cardiovascular system of anesthetized rats, whereas CfTX-A/B elicited only minor effects at the same dose. Conversely, the hemolytic activity of CfTX-A/B (HU50 = 5 ng ml(-1)) was at least 30 times greater than that of CfTX-1/2. Structural homology between the cubozoan toxins and insecticidal three-domain Cry toxins (δ-endotoxins) suggests that the toxins have a similar pore-forming mechanism of action involving α-helices of the N-terminal domain, whereas structural diversification among toxin members may modulate target specificity. Expansion of the cnidarian toxin family therefore provides new insights into the evolutionary diversification of box jellyfish toxins from a structural and functional perspective.

  2. Rapid short term and gradual permanent cardiotoxic effects of vertebrate toxins from Chironex fleckeri (Australian box jellyfish) venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaousis, Stephanie; Smout, Michael; Wilson, David; Loukas, Alex; Mulvenna, Jason; Seymour, Jamie

    2014-03-01

    The vertebrate cardiotoxic components of the venom produced by the Australian box jellyfish, Chironex fleckeri, have not previously been isolated. We have uncovered for the first time, three distinct cytotoxic crude fractions from within the vertebrate cardiotoxic peak of C. fleckeri venom by monitoring viability of human muscle cells with an impedance based assay (ACEA xCELLigence system) measuring cell detachment as cytotoxicity which was correlated with a reduction in cell metabolism using a cell proliferation (MTS) assay. When the effects of the venom components on human cardiomyocytes and human skeletal muscle cells were compared, two fractions were found to specifically affect cardiomyocytes with distinct temporal profiles (labelled Crude Toxic Fractions (CTF), α and β). A third fraction (CTF-γ) was toxic to both muscle cell types and therefore not cardio specific. The vertebrate, cardio specific CTF-α and CTF-β, presented distinct activities; CTF-α caused rapid but short term cell detachment and reduction in cell metabolism with enhanced activity at lower concentrations than CTF-β. This activity was not permanent, with cell reattachment and subsequent increased metabolism of heart muscle cells observed when exposed to all but the highest concentrations of CTF-α tested. The cytotoxic effect of CTF-β took twice as long to act on the cells compared to CTF-α, however, the activity was permanent. Furthermore, we showed that the two fractions combined have a synergistic effect causing a much stronger and faster cell detachment (death) when combined than the sum of the individual effects of each toxin. These data presented here improves the current understanding of the toxic mechanisms of the Australian box jellyfish, C. fleckeri, and provides a basis for in vivo research of these newly isolated toxic fractions.

  3. The in vitro effects of two chirodropid (Chironex fleckeri and Chiropsalmus sp.) venoms: efficacy of box jellyfish antivenom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Sharmaine; Isbister, Geoff K; Seymour, Jamie E; Hodgson, Wayne C

    2003-05-01

    The pharmacological and biochemical isolation of cnidarian venoms has been hindered by difficulties with both extracting pure venom from nematocysts and venom stability. The development of a new technique to extract active, pure venom of Chironex fleckeri and Chiropsalmus sp. has enabled identify both neurotoxic and myotoxic activity in their venoms. These activities are similar, but not identical in each species. Venom (50 micro g/ml) from both species significantly inhibited indirect and direct twitches of the chick biventer nerve-muscle preparation. Pre-incubation with 1U/ml box jellyfish antivenom did not have any significant effect on venom-induced reductions of indirect twitches. However, this activity was markedly attenuated by prior addition of 5U/ml antivenom, albeit to a lesser degree for Chiropsalmus sp. In contrast, prior addition of 5U/ml box jellyfish antivenom did not neutralise the myotoxic activity of C. fleckeri venom (50 micro g/ml), although it did inhibit the myotoxicity produced by Chiropsalmus sp. venom (50 micro g/ml). Antivenom (5U/ml) added 1h after the addition of C. fleckeri venom (50 micro g/ml) had no effect on the indirect or direct twitches of the skeletal muscle preparation. However, it partially restored the reduction in indirect twitch height caused by Chiropsalmus sp. venom (50 micro g/ml). Myotoxicity was confirmed in muscle preparations stained with hematoxylin and eosin.Therefore, although antivenom was able to neutralize the neurotoxic effects of both species, and the myotoxic effects of Chiropsalmus sp., when added prior to venom, it was unable to reverse the effects after venom addition. This suggests that antivenom is unlikely to be useful in the treatment of neurotoxic or myotoxic effects in patients, although these effects are rarely seen clinically.

  4. The effectiveness of antivenom in countering the actions of box-jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri) nematocyst toxins in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endean, R; Sizemore, D J

    1988-01-01

    The neutralizing ability of commercially available antivenom prepared against 'milked' box-jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri) venom was tested intravenously in mice against crude nematocyst venom obtained by crushing isolated nematocysts and against each of two lethal toxins (T1 and T2) present in this venom. The in vitro neutralizing ability of the antivenom against crude venom was reduced markedly compared with its reported neutralizing ability against 'milked' venom whilst the in vivo neutralizing ability of the antivenom tested in both prophylactic and rescue experiments involving crude nematocyst venom was reduced approximately threefold. When tested in vitro and prophylactically in vivo the neutralizing ability of the antivenom was much more pronounced against T2 than against T1. This finding was in accord with the view that T1 was absent from the 'milked' venom against which the antivenom was prepared. Doses of crude venom in excess of twice the lethal dose killed mice within 2-3 min emphasizing the need for speed in the administration of antivenom.

  5. Monodisc strobilation in Japanese giant box jellyfish Morbakka virulenta (Kishinouye, 1910): a strong implication of phylogenetic similarity between Cubozoa and Scyphozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toshino, Sho; Miyake, Hiroshi; Ohtsuka, Susumu; Adachi, Aya; Kondo, Yusuke; Okada, Shoma; Hirabayashi, Takeshi; Hiratsuka, Tatsuya

    2015-01-01

    Both sexes of the Japanese giant box jellyfish Morbakka virulenta were collected from the Seto Inland Sea, western Japan in December 2011, in order to observe the developmental processes from polyps to medusae. The medusa production in M. virulenta is up to now a unique process in cubozoans in that it exhibits a form of monodisc strobilation where the polyp is regenerated before the medusa detaches. This mode of medusa production was previously thought to be exclusive to scyphozoans. The general shape of young medusae resembles that of other cubozoans such as Alatina moseri and Copula sivickisi, but is differentiated from these by the short capitate tentacles and the lack of gastric filaments in the stomach. The unique medusa production of M. virulenta highly implies a phylogenetic similarity between cubozoans and scyphozoans.

  6. Abundant box jellyfish, Chironex sp. (Cnidaria: Cubozoa: Chirodropidae), discovered at depths of over 50 m on western Australian coastal reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keesing, John K; Strzelecki, Joanna; Stowar, Marcus; Wakeford, Mary; Miller, Karen J; Gershwin, Lisa-Ann; Liu, Dongyan

    2016-02-29

    Box jellyfish cause human fatalities and have a life cycle and habit associated with shallow waters (Chironex sp. very near to the benthos (Chironex were not widespread, occurring only in 2 of 33 tow videos and 3 of 41 epibenthic sleds spread over 2000 km(2). All Chironex filmed or captured were on low to medium relief reefs with rich filter feeder communities. None were on soft sediment habitat despite these habitats comprising 49% of all sites. The importance of the reef habitat to Chironex remains unclear. Being associated with filter feeder communities might represent a hazard, and other studies have shown C. fleckeri avoid habitats which represent a risk of entanglement of their tentacles. Most of our observations were made during the period of lowest tidal current flow in the morning. This may represent a period favourable for active hunting for prey close to the seabed.

  7. An in vivo comparison of the efficacy of CSL box jellyfish antivenom with antibodies raised against nematocyst-derived Chironex fleckeri venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Kelly L; Isbister, Geoffrey K; Jacoby, Tamara; Seymour, Jamie E; Hodgson, Wayne C

    2009-06-01

    Although CSL box jellyfish antivenom (AV) remains the primary treatment for Chironex fleckeri envenoming, there has been considerable debate regarding its clinical effectiveness. Animal studies have shown that AV is largely ineffective in preventing C. fleckeri-induced cardiovascular collapse. This study examined the effectiveness of CSL box jellyfish AV (ovine IgG), raised against 'milked' venom, and polyclonal rabbit IgG antibodies (Ab) raised against nematocyst-derived venom. A venom dose of 30microg/kg, i.v., which causes an initial presser response (34+/-5mmHg; n=7) followed by cardiovascular collapse, was used in all experiments. A bolus dose of AV (3000U/kg, i.v.) or Ab (12mg; i.e. an equivalent protein 'load' to 3000U/kg AV), administered 15min prior to a bolus dose of venom, did not significantly attenuate the effects of venom. The venom response was also not significantly attenuated when AV (3000U/kg) was given as a bolus dose 10-60min prior to venom infusion. However, when the venom was incubated with either AV (3000U/kg) or Ab (12mg) for 3h prior to infusion, the effect of the venom was almost abolished. The results of this study demonstrate that antibodies raised against both 'milked' and nematocyst-derived venom are able to neutralise the cardiovascular collapse produced by the venom. However, large amounts of AV are required and must be preincubated with the venom to be protective. This indicates a very rapid action of the toxin(s) and that AV is unlikely to be clinically effective because it cannot be administered early enough.

  8. The in vivo cardiovascular effects of box jellyfish Chironex fleckeri venom in rats: efficacy of pre-treatment with antivenom, verapamil and magnesium sulphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Sharmaine; Isbister, Geoffrey K; Seymour, Jamie E; Hodgson, Wayne C

    2004-05-01

    Using a new technique to extract venom from the nematocysts, the efficacy of CSL box jellyfish antivenom (AV) and adjunct therapies, verapamil and magnesium sulfate (MgSO(4)), were investigated against the in vivo cardiovascular effects of Chironex fleckeri venom in anaesthetised rats. C. fleckeri venom (30 microg/kg; i.v.) produced a transient hypertensive response followed by hypotension and cardiovascular collapse within 4 min of administration. Prophylactic treatment of anaesthetised rats with CSL box jellyfish AV (3000 U/kg; i.v.) did not have any effect on the venom-induced pressor response, but prevented cardiovascular collapse in four out of 10 animals. Administration of verapamil (20mM@0.25 ml/min; i.v.) either alone or in combination with AV, did not have any effect on the C. fleckeri venom-induced pressor response nor the consequent hypotension or cardiovascular collapse of animals. However, the administration of verapamil negated the partially protective effects of AV. Concurrent artificial respiration of animals with the above treatments did not attenuate the C. fleckeri venom-induced cardiovascular effects. MgSO(4) (0.05-0.07M@0.25 ml/min; i.v.) alone did not have any effect on the venom-induced pressor response nor the consequent cardiovascular collapse of animals. However, although combined AV and MgSO(4) administration could not inhibit the transient pressor effect following the administration of C. fleckeri venom, it prevented cardiovascular collapse in all animals. We show for the first time, the cardiovascular effects of a C. fleckeri venom sample free of tentacular contamination and the potential of MgSO(4) as an adjunct therapy for the treatment of potentially fatal C. fleckeri envenomings.

  9. Pharmacologically distinct cardiovascular effects of box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri) venom and a tentacle-only extract in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Sharmaine; Isbister, Geoffrey K; Seymour, Jamie E; Hodgson, Wayne C

    2005-02-15

    Using a recently developed technique to extract jellyfish venom from nematocysts, the present study investigated the in vivo cardiovascular effects of Chironex fleckeri venom and tentacle extract (devoid of nematocysts). In anaesthetised rats, venom (10 microg/kg, i.v.) produced a transient pressor response (23+/-4 mmHg) followed, in two of five animals, by cardiovascular collapse. Tentacle extract (100 microg/kg, i.v.) produced a more prolonged hypertensive effect (31+/-3 mmHg) without cardiovascular collapse. Prazosin (50 microg/kg, i.v.) did not have any significant effect on the cardiovascular effects produced by venom. However, prazosin significantly attenuated the pressor response produced by tentacle extract. Ketanserin (1 mg/kg, i.v.) did not have any significant effect on the cardiovascular response of the anaesthetised rat to venom (10 microg/kg, i.v.; 25+/-1 mmHg). Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was performed to compare the two jellyfish samples used in the present study. In addition to ensuring reproducibility of future studies and allow comparison with previous research. We show, for the first time, that a pure venom sample extracted from C. fleckeri nematocysts and a tentacle extract have cardiovascular effects in the anaesthetised rat which are different and pharmacologically distinct.

  10. Jellyfish envenoming syndromes: unknown toxic mechanisms and unproven therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Paul M; Little, Mark; Jelinek, George A; Wilce, Jacqueline A

    2003-01-06

    Interest in envenoming syndromes caused by Australian jellyfish has been intense since the deaths in early 2002 of two tourists in Queensland, attributed to the Irukandji syndrome. We review current knowledge of these envenoming syndromes, mechanisms of venom action and therapy, focusing on the deadly box jellyfish, Chironex fleckeri, and the array of jellyfish thought to cause the Irukandji syndrome. Current understanding of jellyfish venom activity is very limited, and many treatments are unproven and based on anecdote.

  11. Use of an Inverse Method for Time Series to Estimate the Dynamics of and Management Strategies for the Box Jellyfish Carybdea marsupialis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Bordehore

    Full Text Available Frequently, population ecology of marine organisms uses a descriptive approach in which their sizes and densities are plotted over time. This approach has limited usefulness for design strategies in management or modelling different scenarios. Population projection matrix models are among the most widely used tools in ecology. Unfortunately, for the majority of pelagic marine organisms, it is difficult to mark individuals and follow them over time to determine their vital rates and built a population projection matrix model. Nevertheless, it is possible to get time-series data to calculate size structure and densities of each size, in order to determine the matrix parameters. This approach is known as a "demographic inverse problem" and it is based on quadratic programming methods, but it has rarely been used on aquatic organisms. We used unpublished field data of a population of cubomedusae Carybdea marsupialis to construct a population projection matrix model and compare two different management strategies to lower population to values before year 2008 when there was no significant interaction with bathers. Those strategies were by direct removal of medusae and by reducing prey. Our results showed that removal of jellyfish from all size classes was more effective than removing only juveniles or adults. When reducing prey, the highest efficiency to lower the C. marsupialis population occurred when prey depletion affected prey of all medusae sizes. Our model fit well with the field data and may serve to design an efficient management strategy or build hypothetical scenarios such as removal of individuals or reducing prey. TThis This sdfsdshis method is applicable to other marine or terrestrial species, for which density and population structure over time are available.

  12. More on that jellyfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pataky, Lucky; edprochack

    2014-03-01

    This jellyfish-like flying machine (built by Leif Ristroph and Stephen Childress of New York University) can hover and stabilize itself in flight with no feedback control ("Flying 'jellyfish' is self-stabilizing", 16 January http://ow.ly/tl63X; see also p5).

  13. Clinical manifestations and managements in jellyfish envenomation A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negar Taheri

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The phylum Cnidarians have over nine thousand species that approximately, one hundred species are dangerous for humans. Annually, a large number of deaths were reported due to jellyfish stings. The manifestations depend on their species and kind of venoms, and include the local and systemic manifestations. A number of methods and compounds were used and under investigation for management of injuries with jellyfishes. Due to the lack of an integrated systematic review, the current study was done. Materials and Methods: The PubMed data bank was searched for the term “Jellyfish”. A total of 1677 papers were found. These papers were divided into three categories: medical, biomedical and biotechnological fields. The medical category was further divided into three subcategories comprising systemic manifestations, cutaneous manifestations and treatments for the stings of jellyfishes. The biomedical category was further subdivided into genomics, proteomics, and biology of venoms, mechanisms of actions and products of biomedical significance. In this part of systematic review, the medical aspects of injuries with jellyfishes were evaluated. Results: The clinical manifestations in jellyfish envenomation depend on their species and the nature of venoms. The most common clinical manifestations of jellyfish stings are cutaneous presentations like urticasia, erythema, swelling, vesicles and severe dermonectoric manifestations. Systemic manifestations were seen in the stings of box jellyfishes, Portuguese man-of-war and in Irukandji syndrome. The most common recommendations for jellyfish envenomation managements include decreasing the local effects of venom, prevention of the venomous nematocysts release, and Controlling of systemic reactions. Application of commercial vinegar (4 - 6% acetic acid, hot water immersion (HWI (42 ° C for 20 minutes, ice packs, sea water rinsing for inactivating nematocysts, administration of topical and parenteral

  14. Recurrent dermatitis from jellyfish envenomation.

    OpenAIRE

    Menahem, S; Shvartzman, P.

    1994-01-01

    Jellyfish envenomation can cause an immediate local skin reaction, which is usually a painful linear vesiculourticarial eruption. Persistent, delayed, or recurrent dermatitis is less common. Because jellyfish sting reactions and their management are unfamiliar to family physicians, we describe a case of recurrent local dermatitis after jellyfish envenomation and suggest appropriate treatment.

  15. Jellyfish: Networking Data Centers Randomly

    CERN Document Server

    Singla, Ankit; Popa, Lucian; Godfrey, P Brighten

    2011-01-01

    Industry experience indicates that the ability to incrementally expand data centers is essential. However, existing high-bandwidth network designs have rigid structure that interferes with incremental expansion. We present Jellyfish, a high-capacity network interconnect, which, by adopting a random graph topology, yields itself naturally to incremental expansion. Somewhat surprisingly, Jellyfish is more cost-efficient than a fat-tree: A Jellyfish interconnect built using the same equipment as a fat-tree, supports as many as 25% more servers at full capacity at the scale of a few thousand nodes, and this advantage improves with scale. Jellyfish also allows great flexibility in building networks with different degrees of oversubscription. However, Jellyfish's unstructured design brings new challenges in routing, physical layout, and wiring. We describe and evaluate approaches that resolve these challenges effectively, indicating that Jellyfish could be deployed in today's data centers.

  16. Kinematics and Fluid Dynamics of Jellyfish Maneuvering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laura; Hoover, Alex

    2014-11-01

    Jellyfish propel themselves through the water through periodic contractions of their elastic bells. Some jellyfish, such as the moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita and the upside down jellyfish Cassiopea xamachana, can perform turns via asymmetric contractions of the bell. The fluid dynamics of jellyfish forward propulsion and turning is explored here by analyzing the contraction kinematics of several species and using flow visualization to quantify the resulting flow fields. The asymmetric contraction and structure of the jellyfish generates asymmetries in the starting and stopping vortices. This creates a diagonal jet and a net torque acting on the jellyfish. Results are compared to immersed boundary simulations

  17. Localized neuropathy following jellyfish sting.

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    This report describes the case of an 18 year old female who sustained a jellyfish sting on her right wrist. She subsequently developed complete radial, ulnar and median nerve palsies distal to the site of the sting, which recovered fully over the next 10 months. We believe this to be due to a direct neurotoxic effect of the jellyfish venom.

  18. Jellyfish movement data - Determining Movement Patterns of Jellyfish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is to determine horizontal and vertical movement patterns of two jellyfish species in Hood Canal, in relation to environmental variables. It is being...

  19. Jellyfish galaxies at low redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Poggianti, B M; Omizzolo, A; Gullieuszik, M; Bettoni, D; Moretti, A; Paccagnella, A; Jaffe', Y L; Vulcani, B; Fritz, J; Couch, W; D'Onofrio, M

    2015-01-01

    Jellyfish galaxies are galaxies that exhibit tentacles of debris material suggestive of gas stripping. We have conducted the first systematic search for jellyfish galaxies at low-z (z=0.04-0.07) in different environments. We have visually inspected B and V-band images and identified 241+153 candidates in 41+31 galaxy clusters of the OMEGAWINGS+WINGS sample and 99 candidates in groups and lower mass structures in the PM2GC sample. This large sample is well suited for follow-up studies of the gas and for a detailed analysis of the environments where such episodes of gas stripping occur. We present here the atlas of jellyfish candidates, a first analysis of their environment and their basic properties, such as morphologies, star formation rates and galaxy stellar masses. Jellyfish candidates are found in all clusters and at all clustercentric radii, and their number does not correlate with the cluster velocity dispersion or X-ray luminosity. Interestingly, convincing cases of jellyfish candidates are also found ...

  20. Social behaviour in mesopelagic jellyfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaartvedt, Stein; Ugland, Karl I.; Klevjer, Thor A.; Røstad, Anders; Titelman, Josefin; Solberg, Ingrid

    2015-06-01

    Gelatinous organisms apparently play a central role in deep pelagic ecosystems, but lack of observational methodologies has restricted information on their behaviour. We made acoustic records of diel migrating jellyfish Periphylla periphylla forming small, ephemeral groups at the upper fringe of an acoustic scattering layer consisting of krill. Groups of P. periphylla were also documented photographically using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV). Although the adaptive value of group formation remains speculative, we clearly demonstrate the ability of these jellyfishes to locate and team up with each other.

  1. Social behaviour in mesopelagic jellyfish

    KAUST Repository

    Kaartvedt, Stein

    2015-06-11

    Gelatinous organisms apparently play a central role in deep pelagic ecosystems, but lack of observational methodologies has restricted information on their behaviour. We made acoustic records of diel migrating jellyfish Periphylla periphylla forming small, ephemeral groups at the upper fringe of an acoustic scattering layer consisting of krill. Groups of P. periphylla were also documented photographically using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV). Although the adaptive value of group formation remains speculative, we clearly demonstrate the ability of these jellyfishes to locate and team up with each other.

  2. Australian venomous jellyfish, envenomation syndromes, toxins and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibballs, James

    2006-12-01

    The seas and oceans around Australia harbour numerous venomous jellyfish. Chironex fleckeri, the box jellyfish, is the most lethal causing rapid cardiorespiratory depression and although its venom has been characterised, its toxins remain to be identified. A moderately effective antivenom exists which is also partially effective against another chirodropid, Chiropsalmus sp. Numerous carybdeids, some unidentified, cause less severe illness, including Carybdea rastoni whose toxins CrTX-A and CrTX-B are large proteins. Carukia barnesi, another small carybdeid is one cause of the 'Irukandji' syndrome which includes delayed pain from severe muscle cramping, vomiting, anxiety, restlessness, sweating and prostration, and occasionally severe hypertension and acute cardiac failure. The syndrome is in part caused by release of catecholamines but the cause of heart failure is undefined. The venom contains a sodium channel modulator. Two species of Physalia are present and although one is potentially lethal, has not caused death in Australian waters. Other significant genera of jellyfish include Tamoya, Pelagia, Cyanea, Aurelia and Chyrosaora.

  3. Exploring the therapeutic potential of jellyfish venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Norelle L; Seymour, Jamie; Wilson, David

    2014-10-01

    The venom of certain jellyfish has long been known to be potentially fatal to humans, but it is only recently that details of the proteomes of these fascinating creatures are emerging. The molecular contents of the nematocysts from several jellyfish species have now been analyzed using proteomic MS approaches and include the analysis of Chironex fleckeri, one of the most venomous jellyfish known. These studies suggest that some species contain toxins related to peptides and proteins found in other venomous creatures. The detailed characterization of jellyfish venom is likely to provide insight into the diversification of toxins and might be a valuable resource in drug design.

  4. Immunological and toxinological responses to jellyfish stings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibballs, James; Yanagihara, Angel A; Turner, Helen C; Winkel, Ken

    2011-10-01

    Just over a century ago, animal responses to injections of jellyfish extracts unveiled the phenomenon of anaphylaxis. Yet, until very recently, understanding of jellyfish sting toxicity has remained limited. Upon contact, jellyfish stinging cells discharge complex venoms, through thousands of barbed tubules, into the skin resulting in painful and, potentially, lethal envenomations. This review examines the immunological and toxinological responses to stings by prominent species of jellyfish including Physalia sp (Portuguese Man-o-War, Blue-bottle), Cubozoan jellyfish including Chironex fleckeri, several Carybdeids including Carybdea arborifera and Alatina moseri, Linuche unguiculta (Thimble jellyfish), a jellyfish responsible for Irukandji syndrome (Carukia barnesi) and Pelagia noctiluca. Jellyfish venoms are composed of potent proteinaceous porins (cellular membrane pore-forming toxins), neurotoxic peptides, bioactive lipids and other small molecules whilst the tubules contain ancient collagens and chitins. We postulate that immunologically, both tubular structural and functional biopolymers as well as venom components can initiate innate, adaptive, as well as immediate and delayed hypersensitivity reactions that may be amenable to topical anti-inflammatory-immunomodifier therapy. The current challenge for immunotoxinologists is to deconstruct the actions of venom components to target therapeutic modalities for sting treatment.

  5. The jellyfish buffet: jellyfish enhance seabird foraging opportunities by concentrating prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Nobuhiko N; Kokubun, Nobuo; Yamamoto, Takashi; Watanuki, Yutaka; Kitaysky, Alexander S; Takahashi, Akinori

    2015-08-01

    High levels of jellyfish biomass have been reported in marine ecosystems around the world, but understanding of their ecological role remains in its infancy. Jellyfish are generally thought to have indirect negative impacts on higher trophic-level predators, through changes in lower trophic pathways. However, high densities of jellyfish in the water column may affect the foraging behaviour of marine predators more directly, and the effects may not always be negative. Here, we present novel observations of a diving seabird, the thick-billed murre, feeding on fish aggregating among the long tentacles of large jellyfish, by using small video loggers attached to the birds. We show that the birds encountered large jellyfish, Chrysaora melanaster, during most of their dives, commonly fed on fish associated with jellyfish, and appeared to specifically target jellyfish with a high number of fish aggregating in their tentacles, suggesting the use of jellyfish may provide significant energetic benefits to foraging murres. We conclude that jellyfish provide feeding opportunities for diving seabirds by concentrating forage fish, and that the impacts of jellyfish on marine ecosystems are more complex than previously anticipated and may be beneficial to seabirds.

  6. Jellyfish modulate bacterial dynamic and community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinta, Tinkara; Kogovšek, Tjaša; Malej, Alenka; Turk, Valentina

    2012-01-01

    Jellyfish blooms have increased in coastal areas around the world and the outbreaks have become longer and more frequent over the past few decades. The Mediterranean Sea is among the heavily affected regions and the common bloom-forming taxa are scyphozoans Aurelia aurita s.l., Pelagia noctiluca, and Rhizostoma pulmo. Jellyfish have few natural predators, therefore their carcasses at the termination of a bloom represent an organic-rich substrate that supports rapid bacterial growth, and may have a large impact on the surrounding environment. The focus of this study was to explore whether jellyfish substrate have an impact on bacterial community phylotype selection. We conducted in situ jellyfish-enrichment experiment with three different jellyfish species. Bacterial dynamic together with nutrients were monitored to assess decaying jellyfish-bacteria dynamics. Our results show that jellyfish biomass is characterized by protein rich organic matter, which is highly bioavailable to 'jellyfish-associated' and 'free-living' bacteria, and triggers rapid shifts in bacterial population dynamics and composition. Based on 16S rRNA clone libraries and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis, we observed a rapid shift in community composition from unculturable Alphaproteobacteria to culturable species of Gammaproteobacteria and Flavobacteria. The results of sequence analyses of bacterial isolates and of total bacterial community determined by culture independent genetic analysis showed the dominance of the Pseudoalteromonadaceae and the Vibrionaceae families. Elevated levels of dissolved proteins, dissolved organic and inorganic nutrient release, bacterial abundance and carbon production as well as ammonium concentrations characterized the degradation process. The biochemical composition of jellyfish species may influence changes in the amount of accumulated dissolved organic and inorganic nutrients. Our results can contribute insights into possible changes in

  7. Jellyfish modulate bacterial dynamic and community structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinkara Tinta

    Full Text Available Jellyfish blooms have increased in coastal areas around the world and the outbreaks have become longer and more frequent over the past few decades. The Mediterranean Sea is among the heavily affected regions and the common bloom-forming taxa are scyphozoans Aurelia aurita s.l., Pelagia noctiluca, and Rhizostoma pulmo. Jellyfish have few natural predators, therefore their carcasses at the termination of a bloom represent an organic-rich substrate that supports rapid bacterial growth, and may have a large impact on the surrounding environment. The focus of this study was to explore whether jellyfish substrate have an impact on bacterial community phylotype selection. We conducted in situ jellyfish-enrichment experiment with three different jellyfish species. Bacterial dynamic together with nutrients were monitored to assess decaying jellyfish-bacteria dynamics. Our results show that jellyfish biomass is characterized by protein rich organic matter, which is highly bioavailable to 'jellyfish-associated' and 'free-living' bacteria, and triggers rapid shifts in bacterial population dynamics and composition. Based on 16S rRNA clone libraries and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE analysis, we observed a rapid shift in community composition from unculturable Alphaproteobacteria to culturable species of Gammaproteobacteria and Flavobacteria. The results of sequence analyses of bacterial isolates and of total bacterial community determined by culture independent genetic analysis showed the dominance of the Pseudoalteromonadaceae and the Vibrionaceae families. Elevated levels of dissolved proteins, dissolved organic and inorganic nutrient release, bacterial abundance and carbon production as well as ammonium concentrations characterized the degradation process. The biochemical composition of jellyfish species may influence changes in the amount of accumulated dissolved organic and inorganic nutrients. Our results can contribute insights into

  8. Micro- and macrorheology of jellyfish extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambini, Camille; Abou, Bérengère; Ponton, Alain; Cornelissen, Annemiek J M

    2012-01-04

    Mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix (ECM) play a key role in tissue organization and morphogenesis. Rheological properties of jellyfish ECM (mesoglea) were measured in vivo at the cellular scale by passive microrheology techniques: microbeads were injected in jellyfish ECM and their Brownian motion was recorded to determine the mechanical properties of the surrounding medium. Microrheology results were compared with macrorheological measurements performed with a shear rheometer on slices of jellyfish mesoglea. We found that the ECM behaved as a viscoelastic gel at the macroscopic scale and as a much softer and heterogeneous viscoelastic structure at the microscopic scale. The fibrous architecture of the mesoglea, as observed by differential interference contrast and scanning electron microscopy, was in accord with these scale-dependent mechanical properties. Furthermore, the evolution of the mechanical properties of the ECM during aging was investigated by measuring microrheological properties at different jellyfish sizes. We measured that the ECM in adult jellyfish was locally stiffer than in juvenile ones. We argue that this stiffening is a consequence of local aggregations of fibers occurring gradually during aging of the jellyfish mesoglea and is enhanced by repetitive muscular contractions of the jellyfish.

  9. Optimal hash arrangement of tentacles in jellyfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabe, Takuya; Yoshimura, Jin

    2016-06-01

    At first glance, the trailing tentacles of a jellyfish appear to be randomly arranged. However, close examination of medusae has revealed that the arrangement and developmental order of the tentacles obey a mathematical rule. Here, we show that medusa jellyfish adopt the best strategy to achieve the most uniform distribution of a variable number of tentacles. The observed order of tentacles is a real-world example of an optimal hashing algorithm known as Fibonacci hashing in computer science.

  10. Toxins from the box-jellyfish Chironex fleckeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endean, R; Monks, S A; Cameron, A M

    1993-04-01

    Two myotoxins (T1 and T2) with mol. wts of approximately 600,000 and 150,000, respectively, and a haemolysin (T3) with a mol. wt of approximately 70,000 were isolated from the crude nematocyst venom of C. fleckeri by the use of Sephadex G-200 chromatography. A neurotoxic fraction (T4) and a haemolytic fraction (T5) containing proteins with apparent mol. wts of approximately 150,000 and 70,000, respectively, were also isolated by Sephadex chromatography from crude extracts of tentacular material from which nematocysts had been removed. The three nematocyst toxins and the two toxic fractions from tentacle extracts were lethal to mice on i.v. injection. After SDS-PAGE the myotoxins T1 and T2 yielded similar major bands corresponding with mol. wts different from those yielded by T3 and the toxic tentacle fractions. T1 and T2 appeared to be comprised of aggregations of subunits with mol. wts of approximately 18,000. On HPLC, crude nematocyst venom and the nematocyst toxins T1 and T2 lost their myotoxic properties. The need for thorough removal of extraneous tentacular material from isolated nematocysts, the need for effective rupture of nematocysts, the need to counter the lability of the nematocyst venom and the need to use myotoxicity as a criterion of venom activity if the active components of the venom are to be purified and characterized are emphasized.

  11. Length Is Associated with Pain: Jellyfish with Painful Sting Have Longer Nematocyst Tubules than Harmless Jellyfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitatani, Ryuju; Yamada, Mayu; Kamio, Michiya; Nagai, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    A large number of humans are stung by jellyfish all over the world. The stings cause acute pain followed by persistent pain and local inflammation. Harmful jellyfish species typically cause strong pain, whereas harmless jellyfish cause subtle or no pain. Jellyfish sting humans by injecting a tubule, contained in the nematocyst, the stinging organ of jellyfish. The tubule penetrates into the skin leading to venom injection. The detailed morphology of the nematocyst tubule and molecular structure of the venom in the nematocyst has been reported; however, the mechanism responsible for the difference in pain that is caused by harmful and harmless jellyfish sting has not yet been explored or explained. Therefore, we hypothesized that differences in the length of the nematocyst tubule leads to different degrees of epithelial damage. The initial acute pain might be generated by penetration of the tubule, which stimulates pain receptor neurons, whilst persistent pain might be caused by injection of venom into the epithelium. To test this hypothesis we compared the lengths of discharged nematocyst tubules from harmful and harmless jellyfish species and evaluated their ability to penetrate human skin. The results showed that the harmful jellyfish species, Chrysaora pacifica, Carybdea brevipedalia, and Chironex yamaguchii, causing moderate to severe pain, have nematocyst tubules longer than 200 μm, compared with a jellyfish species that cause little or no pain, Aurelia aurita. The majority of the tubules of harmful jellyfishes, C. yamaguchii and C. brevipedalia, were sufficiently long to penetrate the human epidermis and physically stimulate the free nerve endings of Aδ pain receptor fibers around plexuses to cause acute pain and inject the venom into the human skin epithelium to cause persistent pain and inflammation.

  12. The toxinology of jellyfishes a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negar Taheri

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Jellyfishes belong to the phylum Cnidarians with a wide range of size, from 22 centimeters to 2.5 meters. Jellyfishes have a worldwide distribution comprising over nine thousands species that approximately, 100 species are dangerous for humans. The venoms of these organisms contain biomolecules with extensive activities which could be used as a source of novel drugs in the future. Materials and Methods: The PubMed data bank was searched for the term “Jellyfish”. A total of 1677 papers were found. These papers were divided into three categories: medical, biomedical and biotechnological fields. The medical category was further divided into three subcategories comprising systemic manifestations, cutaneous manifestations and treatments for the stings of jellyfishes. The biomedical category was further subdivided into genomics, proteomics, and biology of venoms, mechanisms of actions and products of biomedical significance. In this part of systematic review, the biomedical and biotechnological and biotechnological fields were evaluated. Results: The genomics and proteomics of 24 species of jellyfishes had been studied in details. The mechanisms of actions of the venoms of 23 species were under investigations. The hematologic (hemolytic effects, cardiotoxic, neurotoxic, dermonecrotic, immunologic and cytotoxic presentations for the venoms were reported. Similar clinical presentations could be produced by different species of jellyfishes with a vast of molecular action mechanisms. Bioactive molecules with cytotoxic, anticancer, antibacterial and antioxidant effects were isolated from the venoms. Conclusion: The venoms of jellyfishes have bioactive molecules that produce a variety of complex intracellular interactions. Hence, the studies on the venomics of jellyfishes and the mechanisms of actions of their venoms could progress the therapeutic interventions and promise novel marine drugs.

  13. Ocean acidification alters fish-jellyfish symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagelkerken, Ivan; Pitt, Kylie A; Rutte, Melchior D; Geertsma, Robbert C

    2016-06-29

    Symbiotic relationships are common in nature, and are important for individual fitness and sustaining species populations. Global change is rapidly altering environmental conditions, but, with the exception of coral-microalgae interactions, we know little of how this will affect symbiotic relationships. We here test how the effects of ocean acidification, from rising anthropogenic CO2 emissions, may alter symbiotic interactions between juvenile fish and their jellyfish hosts. Fishes treated with elevated seawater CO2 concentrations, as forecast for the end of the century on a business-as-usual greenhouse gas emission scenario, were negatively affected in their behaviour. The total time that fish (yellowtail scad) spent close to their jellyfish host in a choice arena where they could see and smell their host was approximately three times shorter under future compared with ambient CO2 conditions. Likewise, the mean number of attempts to associate with jellyfish was almost three times lower in CO2-treated compared with control fish, while only 63% (high CO2) versus 86% (control) of all individuals tested initiated an association at all. By contrast, none of three fish species tested were attracted solely to jellyfish olfactory cues under present-day CO2 conditions, suggesting that the altered fish-jellyfish association is not driven by negative effects of ocean acidification on olfaction. Because shelter is not widely available in the open water column and larvae of many (and often commercially important) pelagic species associate with jellyfish for protection against predators, modification of the fish-jellyfish symbiosis might lead to higher mortality and alter species population dynamics, and potentially have flow-on effects for their fisheries.

  14. Is the Presence of Jellyfish Problematic or Beneficial?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udomsak DARUMAS

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Jellyfish are a diverse group of animals. The group consists of Chordata, Ctenophora and, mainly, Cnidaria. Jellyfish are often thought to be harmful, but few can cause fatality in humans. They are important throughout the trophic levels and consume a variety of prey. Jellyfish are used for food and have a high potential for pharmaceutical use. During a jellyfish bloom, energy flows are shunted through the trophic levels. Additionally, unusual increases in populations of jellyfish can cause problems for fisheries, aquaculture, power plants and the tourist industries.

  15. Recurrent jellyfish blooms are a consequence of global oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, Robert H; Duarte, Carlos M; Pitt, Kylie A; Robinson, Kelly L; Lucas, Cathy H; Sutherland, Kelly R; Mianzan, Hermes W; Bogeberg, Molly; Purcell, Jennifer E; Decker, Mary Beth; Uye, Shin-ichi; Madin, Laurence P; Brodeur, Richard D; Haddock, Steven H D; Malej, Alenka; Parry, Gregory D; Eriksen, Elena; Quiñones, Javier; Acha, Marcelo; Harvey, Michel; Arthur, James M; Graham, William M

    2013-01-15

    A perceived recent increase in global jellyfish abundance has been portrayed as a symptom of degraded oceans. This perception is based primarily on a few case studies and anecdotal evidence, but a formal analysis of global temporal trends in jellyfish populations has been missing. Here, we analyze all available long-term datasets on changes in jellyfish abundance across multiple coastal stations, using linear and logistic mixed models and effect-size analysis to show that there is no robust evidence for a global increase in jellyfish. Although there has been a small linear increase in jellyfish since the 1970s, this trend was unsubstantiated by effect-size analysis that showed no difference in the proportion of increasing vs. decreasing jellyfish populations over all time periods examined. Rather, the strongest nonrandom trend indicated jellyfish populations undergo larger, worldwide oscillations with an approximate 20-y periodicity, including a rising phase during the 1990s that contributed to the perception of a global increase in jellyfish abundance. Sustained monitoring is required over the next decade to elucidate with statistical confidence whether the weak increasing linear trend in jellyfish after 1970 is an actual shift in the baseline or part of an oscillation. Irrespective of the nature of increase, given the potential damage posed by jellyfish blooms to fisheries, tourism, and other human industries, our findings foretell recurrent phases of rise and fall in jellyfish populations that society should be prepared to face.

  16. Feeding Currents Generated by Upside Down Jellyfish

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez, Terry; Gyoerkoe, Megan; Miller, Laura

    2010-01-01

    We present fluid dynamics videos of the pulsing dynamics and the resulting fluid flow generated by the upside down jellyfish, Cassiopea spp. Medusae of this genus are unusual in that they typically rest upside down on the ocean floor and pulse their bells to generate feeding currents, only swimming when significantly disturbed. The pulsing kinematics and fluid flow around these upside down jellyfish is investigated using a combination of videography, flow visualization, and numerical simulation. Significant mixing occurs around and directly above the oral arms and secondary mouths. Numerical simulations using the immersed boundary method with a porous layer representing the oral arms agree with the experimental results. The simulations also suggest that the presence of porous oral arms induce net horizontal flow towards the bell. Coherent vortex rings are not seen in the wake above the jellyfish, but starting and stopping vortices are observed before breaking up as they pass through the elaborate oral arms (i...

  17. Jellyfish body plans provide allometric advantages beyond low carbon content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kylie A Pitt

    Full Text Available Jellyfish form spectacular blooms throughout the world's oceans. Jellyfish body plans are characterised by high water and low carbon contents which enables them to grow much larger than non-gelatinous animals of equivalent carbon content and to deviate from non-gelatinous pelagic animals when incorporated into allometric relationships. Jellyfish have, however, been argued to conform to allometric relationships when carbon content is used as the metric for comparison. Here we test the hypothesis that differences in allometric relationships for several key functional parameters remain for jellyfish even after their body sizes are scaled to their carbon content. Data on carbon and nitrogen contents, rates of respiration, excretion, growth, longevity and swimming velocity of jellyfish and other pelagic animals were assembled. Allometric relationships between each variable and the equivalent spherical diameters of jellyfish and other pelagic animals were compared before and after sizes of jellyfish were standardised for their carbon content. Before standardisation, the slopes of the allometric relationships for respiration, excretion and growth were the same for jellyfish and other pelagic taxa but the intercepts differed. After standardisation, slopes and intercepts for respiration were similar but excretion rates of jellyfish were 10× slower, and growth rates 2× faster than those of other pelagic animals. Longevity of jellyfish was independent of size. The slope of the allometric relationship of swimming velocity of jellyfish differed from that of other pelagic animals but because they are larger jellyfish operate at Reynolds numbers approximately 10× greater than those of other pelagic animals of comparable carbon content. We conclude that low carbon and high water contents alone do not explain the differences in the intercepts or slopes of the allometric relationships of jellyfish and other pelagic animals and that the evolutionary longevity

  18. Jellyfish body plans provide allometric advantages beyond low carbon content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, Kylie A; Duarte, Carlos M; Lucas, Cathy H; Sutherland, Kelly R; Condon, Robert H; Mianzan, Hermes; Purcell, Jennifer E; Robinson, Kelly L; Uye, Shin-Ichi

    2013-01-01

    Jellyfish form spectacular blooms throughout the world's oceans. Jellyfish body plans are characterised by high water and low carbon contents which enables them to grow much larger than non-gelatinous animals of equivalent carbon content and to deviate from non-gelatinous pelagic animals when incorporated into allometric relationships. Jellyfish have, however, been argued to conform to allometric relationships when carbon content is used as the metric for comparison. Here we test the hypothesis that differences in allometric relationships for several key functional parameters remain for jellyfish even after their body sizes are scaled to their carbon content. Data on carbon and nitrogen contents, rates of respiration, excretion, growth, longevity and swimming velocity of jellyfish and other pelagic animals were assembled. Allometric relationships between each variable and the equivalent spherical diameters of jellyfish and other pelagic animals were compared before and after sizes of jellyfish were standardised for their carbon content. Before standardisation, the slopes of the allometric relationships for respiration, excretion and growth were the same for jellyfish and other pelagic taxa but the intercepts differed. After standardisation, slopes and intercepts for respiration were similar but excretion rates of jellyfish were 10× slower, and growth rates 2× faster than those of other pelagic animals. Longevity of jellyfish was independent of size. The slope of the allometric relationship of swimming velocity of jellyfish differed from that of other pelagic animals but because they are larger jellyfish operate at Reynolds numbers approximately 10× greater than those of other pelagic animals of comparable carbon content. We conclude that low carbon and high water contents alone do not explain the differences in the intercepts or slopes of the allometric relationships of jellyfish and other pelagic animals and that the evolutionary longevity of jellyfish and

  19. [Causes of jellyfish blooms and their influence on marine environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Chang-feng; Song, Jin-ming; Li, Ning

    2014-12-01

    Jellyfish blooms have damaged the normal composition and function of marine ecosystem and ecological environments, which have been one of the new marine ecological disasters. In this study, we summarized the possible inducements of jellyfish blooms, and the influences of jellyfish blooms on biogenic elements, dissolved oxygen, seawater acidity and biological community were discussed emphatically. The results showed that jellyfish blooms had a close contact with its physiological structure and life history, which had favorable characteristics including simple body struc- ture, rapid growth, thriving reproduction and short generation interval to tolerate harsh environment better. Jellyfish abundance increased rapidly when it encountered suitable conditions. The temperature variations of seawater might be the major inducing factor which could result in jellyfish blooms. Jellyfish blooms may benefit from warmer temperature that could increase the food availability of jellyfish and promote jellyfish reproduction, especially for warm temperate jellyfish species. Eutrophication, climate change, overfishing, alien invasions and habitat modification were all possible important contributory factors of jellyfish blooms. Jellyfish could significantly influence the form distribution and biogeochemical cycling of biogenic elements. Jellyfish excreted NH4+ and P04(3-) at a rate of 59.1-91.5 micromol N x kg(-1) x h(-1) and 1.1-1.8 micromol P x kg(-1) x h(-1), which could meet about 8%-10% and 21.6% of the phytoplankton primary production requirement of N and P, respectively. Live jellyfish released dissolved organic carbon (DOC) at a rate of 1.0 micromol C x g(-1) x d(-1). As jellyfish decomposing, the effluxes of total N and total P were 4000 micromol N x kg(-1) x d(-1) and 120 micromol P x kg(-1) x d(-1), respectively, while the efflux of DOC reached 30 micromol C x g(-1) x d(-1). Jellyfish decomposition could cause seawater acidification and lowered level of dissolved oxygen

  20. Virtual box

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stougaard, Malthe Kirkhoff

    2007-01-01

    . This paper reports on the design, implementation and initial evaluation of Virtual Box. Virtual Box attempts to create a physical and engaging context in order to support reciprocal interactions with expressive content. An implemented version of Virtual Box is evaluated in a location-aware environment...

  1. Hypertonic saline in the treatment of corneal jellyfish stings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu Yao, Hsin; Cho, Ta Hsiung; Lu, Ching Hsiang; Lin, Feng Chi; Horng, Chi Ting

    2016-02-01

    A 20-year-old male soldier was hit by the jellyfish. The ophthalmic examination revealed that epithelial keratitis and corneal oedema in the right eye. We prescribed 3% NaCl eyedrops and 0.3% Norfloxacin eyedrops in the treatment of the corneal jellyfish stings. Two weeks later, the cornea in the right eye healed. In this case report, 3% NaCl eyedrops was effective in the treatment of acute phase of jellyfish stings of the cornea.

  2. Study on the carry capacity of edible jellyfish fishery in Liaodong Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Kui; Bian, Yongning; Ma, Caihua; Chi, Xupeng; Liu, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Yuyu

    2016-06-01

    Jellyfish fishing is a special type of fishery that mainly exists in some countries of East and Southeast Asia. China has the largest jellyfish fishery yield in the world with an annual harvest of around 300 thousand tons. Liaodong Bay is the most important jellyfish fishery ground in China. However, due to the high benefits of jellyfish fishery, which leads to illegal and out-of-season jellyfish fishing occurring each year in Liaodong Bay. Illegal jellyfish fishery in Liaodong Bay is a typical example of the tragedy of the commons. The key problem is that fishermen seek to an illegally initiate jellyfish fishing as early as possible. In this paper, basing on the data of edible jellyfish's biology and ecology, we mainly analyzed the history of jellyfish fishery in China, especially in Liaodong bay, and then we calculated the carry capacity of edible jellyfish in Liaodong Bay which is about 300 thousand tons one year. This number is equal to the recent annual yield of edible jellyfish in China. Furthermore, basing on the carry capacity and reasonable quotas price analysis, we set up a Jellyfish fishing quotas and deficit quotas buyback system which could be a suitable and effective solution for jellyfish fishery management and development in Liaodong Bay at the underlying roots. Although China is the first country with edible jellyfish aquaculture, the annual yield of jellyfish aquaculture is only one fifth of jellyfish fishing. So, there is a very bright developing prospect about edible jellyfish aquaculture in China.

  3. Jellyfish collagen scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyer, Birgit; Bernhardt, Anne; Lode, Anja; Heinemann, Sascha; Sewing, Judith; Klinger, Matthias; Notbohm, Holger; Gelinsky, Michael

    2014-02-01

    Porous scaffolds were engineered from refibrillized collagen of the jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum for potential application in cartilage regeneration. The influence of collagen concentration, salinity and temperature on fibril formation was evaluated by turbidity measurements and quantification of fibrillized collagen. The formation of collagen fibrils with a typical banding pattern was confirmed by atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy analysis. Porous scaffolds from jellyfish collagen, refibrillized under optimized conditions, were fabricated by freeze-drying and subsequent chemical cross-linking. Scaffolds possessed an open porosity of 98.2%. The samples were stable under cyclic compression and displayed an elastic behavior. Cytotoxicity tests with human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) did not reveal any cytotoxic effects of the material. Chondrogenic markers SOX9, collagen II and aggrecan were upregulated in direct cultures of hMSCs upon chondrogenic stimulation. The formation of typical extracellular matrix components was further confirmed by quantification of sulfated glycosaminoglycans.

  4. Statolith Morphometrics Can Discriminate among Taxa of Cubozoan Jellyfishes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Mooney

    Full Text Available Identification of potentially harmful cubomedusae is difficult due to their gelatinous nature. The only hard structure of medusae, the statolith, has the potential to provide robust measurements for morphometric analysis. Traditional morphometric length to width ratios (L: W and modern morphometric Elliptical Fourier Analysis (EFA were applied to proximal, oral and lateral statolith faces of 12 cubozoan species. EFA outperformed L: W as L: W did not account for the curvature of the statolith. Best discrimination was achieved with Canonical Discriminant Analysis (CDA when analysing proximal + oral + lateral statolith faces in combination. Normalised Elliptical Fourier (NEF coefficients classified 98% of samples to their correct species and 94% to family group. Statolith shape agreed with currently accepted cubozoan taxonomy. This has potential to assist in identifying levels of risk and stock structure of populations in areas where box jellyfish envenomations are a concern as the severity of envenomation is family dependent. We have only studied 12 (27% of the 45 currently accepted cubomedusae, but analyses demonstrated that statolith shape is an effective taxonomic discriminator within the Class.

  5. Jellyfish Stings and Their Management: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Mastrangelo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Jellyfish (cnidarians have a worldwide distribution. Despite most being harmless, some species may cause local and also systemic reactions. Treatment of jellyfish envenomation is directed at: alleviating the local effects of venom, preventing further nematocyst discharges and controlling systemic reactions, including shock. In severe cases, the most important step is stabilizing and maintaining vital functions. With some differences between species, there seems to be evidence and consensus on oral/topical analgesics, hot water and ice packs as effective painkillers and on 30 s application of domestic vinegar (4%–6% acetic acid to prevent further discharge of unfired nematocysts remaining on the skin. Conversely, alcohol, methylated spirits and fresh water should be carefully avoided, since they could massively discharge nematocysts; pressure immobilization bandaging should also be avoided, as laboratory studies show that it stimulates additional venom discharge from nematocysts. Most treatment approaches are presently founded on relatively weak evidence; therefore, further research (especially randomized clinical trials is strongly recommended. Dissemination of appropriate treatment modalities should be deployed to better inform and educate those at risk. Adequate signage should be placed at beaches to notify tourists of the jellyfish risk. Swimmers in risky areas should wear protective equipment.

  6. Do resonating bells increase jellyfish swimming performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Alexander; Miller, Laura

    2013-11-01

    A current question in swimming and flight is whether or not driving flexible appendages at their resonant frequency results in faster or more efficient locomotion. It has been suggested that jellyfish swim faster and/or more efficiently when the bell is driven at its resonant frequency. Previous work has modeled the jellyfish bell as a damped harmonic oscillator, and this simplified model suggests that work done by the bell is maximized when force is applied at the resonant frequency of the bell. We extend the idea of resonance phenomena of the jellyfish bell to a fluid structure interaction framework using the immersed boundary method. We first examine the effects of the bending stiffness of the bell on its resonant frequency. We then further our model with the inclusion of a ``muscular'' spring that connects the two sides of a 2D bell and drives it near its resonant frequency. We use this muscular spring to force the bell at varying frequencies and examine the work done by these springs and the resulting swimming speed. We finally augment our model with a flexible, passive bell margin to examine its role in propulsive efficiency.

  7. Mediterranean Jellyfish Venoms: A Review on Scyphomedusae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Luigi Mariottini

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The production of natural toxins is an interesting aspect, which characterizes the physiology and the ecology of a number of marine species that use them for defence/offence purposes. Cnidarians are of particular concern from this point of view; their venoms are contained in specialized structures–the nematocysts–which, after mechanical or chemical stimulation, inject the venom in the prey or in the attacker. Cnidarian stinging is a serious health problem for humans in the zones where extremely venomous jellyfish or anemones are common, such as in temperate and tropical oceanic waters and particularly along several Pacific coasts, and severe cases of envenomation, including also lethal cases mainly induced by cubomedusae, were reported. On the contrary, in the Mediterranean region the problem of jellyfish stings is quite modest, even though they can have anyhow an impact on public health and be of importance from the ecological and economic point of view owing to the implications on ecosystems and on some human activities such as tourism, bathing and fishing. This paper reviews the knowledge about the various aspects related to the occurrence and the stinging of the Mediterranean scyphozoan jellyfish as well as the activity of their venoms.

  8. Mechanical and scaling considerations for efficient jellyfish swimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Alexander; Miller, Laura; Griffith, Boyce

    2015-11-01

    With a fossil record dating over half a billion years, jellyfish represent one of the earliest examples of how multicellular organisms first organized into moving systems. Lacking an agonist-antagonist muscle pairing, jellyfish swim via a process of elastic deformation and recoil. Jellyfish propulsion is generated via the coordinated contraction of its elastic bell by its coronal swimming muscles and a complementary re-expansion that is passively driven by stored elastic energy. Recent studies have found jellyfish to be one of the most efficient swimmers due to its low energy expenditure in their forward movement. Using an immersed boundary framework, we will further examine the efficiency of jellyfish swimming by incorporating material models that are informed by the musculature present in jellyfish into a model of the elastic jellyfish bell in three dimensions. The fully-coupled fluid structure interaction problem is solved using an adaptive and parallelized version of the immersed boundary method (IBAMR). This model is then used to explore how variability in the mechanical properties of the bell affect the work done by the bell as well as the cost of transport related to jellyfish locomotion. We then examine how the efficiency of this system is affected by the Reynolds number.

  9. Bento Boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasio, Cindy

    2010-01-01

    Bento boxes are common objects in Japanese culture, designed to hold enough lunch for one person. They have individual compartments and sometimes multiple tiers for rice, vegetables, and other side dishes. They are made of materials ranging from wood, cloth, aluminum, or plastic. In general, the greater the number of foods, the better the box is…

  10. Jellyfish Patch Detecting Using Low Latitude Remote Sensing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. S.; Jo, Y. H.

    2015-12-01

    Jellyfish can be asexual and sexual reproduction depending on the environment, and it has excellent environmental adaptability and reproduction than other sea creatures. If the marine environment become worse, jellyfish can take advantage in the competition for survival. Marine environmental changes caused by rapid climate change, dyke construction and land reclamation will increase the amount of jellyfish and as a result can lead to a various social and economic problems. In this study, jellyfish were observed in coastal area using a low-altitude Helikite remote sensing system for the first time. Helikite is a type of helium balloon plus a kite that can get the data with optical sensors for the desired spatial resolutions by adjusting the altitudes. In addition, it has an advantage that can monitor any objects for a long time at one place as long as the electric power and helium last. In this study, we observed the jellyfish patches using a digital camera in the Chesapeake Bay and estimate populations and size of jellyfish patches through image processing. Research results suggests that we can have long-term real-time observations for not only jellyfish, but also other harmful marine creatures.

  11. Environmental forcing on jellyfish communities in a small temperate estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primo, Ana Lígia; Marques, Sónia C; Falcão, Joana; Crespo, Daniel; Pardal, Miguel A; Azeiteiro, Ulisses M

    2012-08-01

    The impact of biological, hydrodynamic and large scale climatic variables on the jellyfish community of Mondego estuary was evaluated from 2003 to 2010. Plankton samples were collected at the downstream part of the estuary. Siphonophora Muggiaea atlantica and Diphyes spp. were the main jellyfish species. Jellyfish density was generally higher in summer and since 2005 densities had increased. Summer community analysis pointed out Acartia clausi, estuarine temperature and salinity as the main driven forces for the assemblage's structure. Also, Chl a, estuarine salinity, runoff and SST were identified as the major environmental factors influencing the siphonophores summer interannual variability. Temperature influenced directly and indirectly the community and fluctuation of jellyfish blooms in the Mondego estuary. This study represents a contribution to a better knowledge of the gelatinous plankton communities in small temperate estuaries.

  12. A fluid mechanical model for current-generating-feeding jellyfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jifeng; Dabiri, John

    2008-11-01

    Many jellyfish species, e.g. moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita, use body motion to generate fluid currents which carry their prey to the vicinity of their capture appendages. In this study, a model was developed to understand the fluid mechanics for this current-generating-feeding mode of jellyfish. The flow generated by free-swimming Aurelia aurita was measured using digital particle image velocimetry. The dynamics of prey (e.g., brine shrimp Artemia) in the flow field were described by a modified Maxey-Riley equation which takes into consideration the inertia of prey and the escape forces, which prey exert in the presence of predator. A Lagrangian analysis was used to identify the region of the flow in which prey can be captured by the jellyfish and the clearance rate was quantified. The study provides a new methodology to study biological current-generating-feeding and the transport and mixing of particles in fluid flow in general.

  13. Is global ocean sprawl a cause of jellyfish blooms?

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, Carlos M.; Pitt, Kylie A.; Lucas, C.H.; Purcell, Jennifer E.; Uye, Shin-Ichi; Robinson, Kelly L.; Brotz, Lucas; Decker, MaryBeth; Kelly R Sutherland; Malej, Alenka; Madin, Laurence P.; Mianzan, Hermes; Gili, Josep-Maria; Fuentes, Veronica; Atienza, D.

    2013-01-01

    Jellyfish (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) blooms appear to be increasing in both intensity and frequency in many coastal areas worldwide, due to multiple hypothesized anthropogenic stressors. Here, we propose that the proliferation of artificial structures – associated with (1) the exponential growth in shipping, aquaculture, and other coastal industries, and (2) coastal protection (collectively, “ocean sprawl”) – provides habitat for jellyfish polyps and may be an important driver of the global increa...

  14. Environmental DNA reflects spatial and temporal jellyfish distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Miho; Katsuhara, Koki R.; Fujiwara, Ayaka; Hidaka, Shunsuke; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Takahashi, Kohji; Masuda, Reiji

    2017-01-01

    Recent development of environmental DNA (eDNA) analysis allows us to survey underwater macro-organisms easily and cost effectively; however, there have been no reports on eDNA detection or quantification for jellyfish. Here we present the first report on an eDNA analysis of marine jellyfish using Japanese sea nettle (Chrysaora pacifica) as a model species by combining a tank experiment with spatial and temporal distribution surveys. We performed a tank experiment monitoring eDNA concentrations over a range of time intervals after the introduction of jellyfish, and quantified the eDNA concentrations by quantitative real-time PCR. The eDNA concentrations peaked twice, at 1 and 8 h after the beginning of the experiment, and became stable within 48 h. The estimated release rates of the eDNA in jellyfish were higher than the rates previously reported in fishes. A spatial survey was conducted in June 2014 in Maizuru Bay, Kyoto, in which eDNA was collected from surface water and sea floor water samples at 47 sites while jellyfish near surface water were counted on board by eye. The distribution of eDNA in the bay corresponded with the distribution of jellyfish inferred by visual observation, and the eDNA concentration in the bay was ~13 times higher on the sea floor than on the surface. The temporal survey was conducted from March to November 2014, in which jellyfish were counted by eye every morning while eDNA was collected from surface and sea floor water at three sampling points along a pier once a month. The temporal fluctuation pattern of the eDNA concentrations and the numbers of observed individuals were well correlated. We conclude that an eDNA approach is applicable for jellyfish species in the ocean. PMID:28245277

  15. On the resonance analysis for compliant bionic jellyfishes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HSIEH; Wen-Hsiang; CHEN; Tsung-I

    2010-01-01

    A bionic jellyfish is a robot that can mimic the swimming of a real jellyfish. In practical application, the volume and the capacity of its carrying power are limited, hence its power consumption is a crucial factor for continuous swimming. The purpose of this paper is to propose an approach for the resonance analysis of bionic jellyfishes in order to investigate their energy efficiency in swimming. First, a suitable rigid-body bionic jellyfish was chosen from the previous study, and then its design approach was presented, Then, it was transformed into a compliant design, by the proposed method, in order to mimic the motion of a real jellyfish. Furthermore, its solid model was drawn, and the approach of modal analysis by using ANSYS software was addressed. After that, two terms, specific energy and energy ratio, were defined in order to evaluate its energy efficiency. Finally, a design example was given for illustration, and its motion simulations with and without resonance input were conducted by using ADAMS software. Additionally, their specific energies and energy ratios were found. The simulation results showed that the required input energy would be significantly reduced if a bionic jellyfish swims at its resonance frequency.

  16. Scyphozoan jellyfish venom metalloproteinases and their role in the cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunkyoung; Jung, Eun-sun; Kang, Changkeun; Yoon, Won Duk; Kim, Jong-Shu; Kim, Euikyung

    2011-09-01

    The present study, for the first time, comparatively investigated the enzymatic activities (proteases and hyaluronidases) in the venoms of four Scyphozoan jellyfish species, including Nemopilema nomurai, Rhopilema esculenta, Cyanea nozakii, and Aurelia aurita. For this, various zymographic analyses were performed using assay specific substrates. Interestingly, all the four jellyfish venoms showed gelatinolytic, caseinolytic, and fibrinolytic activities, each of which contains a multitude of enzyme components with molecular weights between 17 and 130 kDa. These four jellyfish venoms demonstrated a huge variation in their proteolytic activities in quantitative and qualitative manner depending on the species. Most of these enzymatic activities were disappeared by the treatment of 1,10-phenanthroline, suggesting they might be belonged to metalloproteinases. Toxicological significance of these venom proteases was examined by comparing their proteolytic activity and the cytotoxicity in NIH 3T3 cells. The relative cytotoxic potency was C. nozakii > N. nomurai > A. aurita > R. esculenta. The cytotoxicity of jellyfish venom shows a positive correlation with its overall proteolytic activity. The metalloproteinases appear to play an important role in the induction of jellyfish venom toxicities. In conclusion, the present report proposes a novel finding of Scyphozoan jellyfish venom metalloproteinases and their potential role in the cytotoxicity.

  17. Muscular Control of Turning and Maneuvering in Jellyfish Bells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Alexander; Miller, Laura; Griffith, Boyce

    2014-11-01

    Jellyfish represent one of the earliest and simplest examples of swimming by a macroscopic organism. Contractions of an elastic bell that expels water are driven by coronal swimming muscles. The re-expansion of the bell is passively driven by stored elastic energy. A current question in jellyfish propulsion is how the underlying neuromuscular organization of their bell allows for maneuvering. Using an immersed boundary framework, we will examine the mechanics of swimming by incorporating material models that are informed by the musculature present in jellyfish into a model of the elastic jellyfish bell in three dimensions. The fully-coupled fluid structure interaction problem is solved using an adaptive and parallelized version of the immersed boundary method (IBAMR). We then use this model to understand how variability in the muscular activation patterns allows for complicated swimming behavior, such as steering. We will compare the results of the simulations with the actual turning maneuvers of several species of jellyfish. Numerical flow fields will also be compared to those produced by actual jellyfish using particle image velocimetry (PIV).

  18. Pinging down the food web: multi-frequency acoustic discrimination of jellyfish and fish

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher P Lynam; Brierley, Andrew S.; Axelsen, Bjørn Erik

    2004-01-01

    Jellyfish are gaining increasing prominence in many pelagic marine ecosystems worldwide. It has been argued that jellyfish-dominated communities will be the end-point in ecosystems perturbed by high fishing effort, and that increases in jellyfish abundance could be indicative of, and consequences of, climate-induced changes and/or regime shifts in pelagic ecosystems. Jellyfish are difficult to sample using conventional netting techniques, and data on changes in distribution and abundance are ...

  19. JELLYFISH GALAXY CANDIDATES AT LOW REDSHIFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poggianti, B. M.; Fasano, G.; Omizzolo, A.; Gullieuszik, M.; Bettoni, D.; Paccagnella, A. [INAF-Astronomical Observatory of Padova (Italy); Moretti, A.; D’Onofrio, M. [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Padova (Italy); Jaffé, Y. L. [Department of Astronomy, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción (Chile); Vulcani, B. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study (UTIAS), the University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, 277-8582 (Japan); Fritz, J. [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, CRyA, UNAM, Michoacán (Mexico); Couch, W. [Australian Astronomical Observatory, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia)

    2016-03-15

    Galaxies that are being stripped of their gas can sometimes be recognized from their optical appearance. Extreme examples of stripped galaxies are the so-called “jellyfish galaxies” that exhibit tentacles of debris material with a characteristic jellyfish morphology. We have conducted the first systematic search for galaxies that are being stripped of their gas at low-z (z = 0.04−0.07) in different environments, selecting galaxies with varying degrees of morphological evidence for stripping. We have visually inspected B- and V-band images and identified 344 candidates in 71 galaxy clusters of the OMEGAWINGS+WINGS sample and 75 candidates in groups and lower mass structures in the PM2GC sample. We present the atlas of stripping candidates and a first analysis of their environment and their basic properties, such as morphologies, star formation rates and galaxy stellar masses. Candidates are found in all clusters and at all clustercentric radii, and their number does not correlate with the cluster velocity dispersion σ or X-ray luminosity L{sub X}. Interestingly, convincing cases of candidates are also found in groups and lower mass halos (10{sup 11}−10{sup 14}M{sub ⊙}), although the physical mechanism at work needs to be securely identified. All the candidates are disky, have stellar masses ranging from log M/M{sub ⊙} < 9 to > 11.5 and the majority of them form stars at a rate that is on average a factor of 2 higher (2.5σ) compared to non-stripped galaxies of similar mass. The few post-starburst and passive candidates have weak stripping evidence. We conclude that disturbed morphologies suggestive of stripping phenomena are ubiquitous in clusters and could be present even in groups and low mass halos. Further studies will reveal the physics of the gas stripping and clarify the mechanisms at work.

  20. Jellyfish Galaxy Candidates at Low Redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggianti, B. M.; Fasano, G.; Omizzolo, A.; Gullieuszik, M.; Bettoni, D.; Moretti, A.; Paccagnella, A.; Jaffé, Y. L.; Vulcani, B.; Fritz, J.; Couch, W.; D'Onofrio, M.

    2016-03-01

    Galaxies that are being stripped of their gas can sometimes be recognized from their optical appearance. Extreme examples of stripped galaxies are the so-called “jellyfish galaxies” that exhibit tentacles of debris material with a characteristic jellyfish morphology. We have conducted the first systematic search for galaxies that are being stripped of their gas at low-z (z = 0.04-0.07) in different environments, selecting galaxies with varying degrees of morphological evidence for stripping. We have visually inspected B- and V-band images and identified 344 candidates in 71 galaxy clusters of the OMEGAWINGS+WINGS sample and 75 candidates in groups and lower mass structures in the PM2GC sample. We present the atlas of stripping candidates and a first analysis of their environment and their basic properties, such as morphologies, star formation rates and galaxy stellar masses. Candidates are found in all clusters and at all clustercentric radii, and their number does not correlate with the cluster velocity dispersion σ or X-ray luminosity LX. Interestingly, convincing cases of candidates are also found in groups and lower mass halos (1011-1014M⊙), although the physical mechanism at work needs to be securely identified. All the candidates are disky, have stellar masses ranging from log M/M⊙ 11.5 and the majority of them form stars at a rate that is on average a factor of 2 higher (2.5σ) compared to non-stripped galaxies of similar mass. The few post-starburst and passive candidates have weak stripping evidence. We conclude that disturbed morphologies suggestive of stripping phenomena are ubiquitous in clusters and could be present even in groups and low mass halos. Further studies will reveal the physics of the gas stripping and clarify the mechanisms at work.

  1. Einstein's Boxes

    CERN Document Server

    Norsen, T

    2005-01-01

    At the 1927 Solvay conference, Einstein presented a thought experiment intended to demonstrate the incompleteness of the quantum mechanical description of reality. In the following years, the thought experiment was picked up and modified by Einstein, de Broglie, and several other commentators into a simple scenario involving the splitting in half of the wave function of a single particle in a box. In this paper we collect together several formulations of this thought experiment from the existing literature; analyze and assess it from the point of view of the Einstein-Bohr debates, the EPR dilemma, and Bell's theorem; and generally lobby for Einstein's Boxes taking its rightful place alongside similar but historically better-known quantum mechanical thought experiments such as EPR and Schroedinger's Cat.

  2. Identification of genetically and oceanographically distinct blooms of jellyfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Patricia L M; Dawson, Michael N; Neill, Simon P; Robins, Peter E; Houghton, Jonathan D R; Doyle, Thomas K; Hays, Graeme C

    2013-03-06

    Reports of nuisance jellyfish blooms have increased worldwide during the last half-century, but the possible causes remain unclear. A persistent difficulty lies in identifying whether blooms occur owing to local or regional processes. This issue can be resolved, in part, by establishing the geographical scales of connectivity among locations, which may be addressed using genetic analyses and oceanographic modelling. We used landscape genetics and Lagrangian modelling of oceanographic dispersal to explore patterns of connectivity in the scyphozoan jellyfish Rhizostoma octopus, which occurs en masse at locations in the Irish Sea and northeastern Atlantic. We found significant genetic structure distinguishing three populations, with both consistencies and inconsistencies with prevailing physical oceanographic patterns. Our analyses identify locations where blooms occur in apparently geographically isolated populations, locations where blooms may be the source or result of migrants, and a location where blooms do not occur consistently and jellyfish are mostly immigrant. Our interdisciplinary approach thus provides a means to ascertain the geographical origins of jellyfish in outbreaks, which may have wide utility as increased international efforts investigate jellyfish blooms.

  3. The elusive life cycle of scyphozoan jellyfish - metagenesis revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceh, Janja; Gonzalez, Jorge; Pacheco, Aldo S.; Riascos, José M.

    2015-07-01

    Massive proliferations of scyphozoan jellyfish considerably affect human industries and irreversibly change food webs. Efforts to understand the role of jellyfish in marine ecosystems are based on a life cycle model described 200 years ago. According to this paradigm the pelagic medusae is considered seasonal and alternates with the benthic polyp stage from which it derives. However, we provide evidence that a) the occurrence of several species of medusae is not restricted to a season in the year, they overwinter, b) polyp- and medusa generations are neither temporally nor spatially separated, and c) “metagenesis” which is defined as the alternation between sexual and asexual generations does not always occur. Hence we recommend additions to the current model and argue that the scyphozoan life cycle should be considered multi-modal, rather than metagenetic. The implications of these findings for jellyfish proliferations, including possible consequences and associated environmental drivers, are discussed.

  4. Ephyra jellyfish as a new model for ecotoxicological bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faimali, M; Garaventa, F; Piazza, V; Costa, E; Greco, G; Mazzola, V; Beltrandi, M; Bongiovanni, E; Lavorano, S; Gnone, G

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was a preliminary investigation on the possibility of using the ephyra of Scyphozoan jellyfish Aurelia aurita (Linnaeus, 1758), the common moon jellyfish, as an innovative model organism in marine ecotoxicology. A series of sequential experiments have been carried out in laboratory in order to investigate the influence of different culturing and methodological parameters (temperature, photoperiod, ephyrae density and age) on behavioural end-points (% of Frequency of Pulsations) and standardize a testing protocol. After that, the organisms have been exposed to two well known reference toxic compounds (Cadmium Nitrate and SDS) in order to analyse the acute and behavioural responses during static exposure. Results of this work indicate that the proposed behavioural end-point, frequency of pulsations (Fp), is an easily measurable one and can be used coupled with an acute one (immobilization) and that ephyrae of jellyfish are very promising model organisms for ecotoxicological investigation.

  5. The elusive life cycle of scyphozoan jellyfish--metagenesis revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceh, Janja; Gonzalez, Jorge; Pacheco, Aldo S; Riascos, José M

    2015-07-08

    Massive proliferations of scyphozoan jellyfish considerably affect human industries and irreversibly change food webs. Efforts to understand the role of jellyfish in marine ecosystems are based on a life cycle model described 200 years ago. According to this paradigm the pelagic medusae is considered seasonal and alternates with the benthic polyp stage from which it derives. However, we provide evidence that a) the occurrence of several species of medusae is not restricted to a season in the year, they overwinter, b) polyp- and medusa generations are neither temporally nor spatially separated, and c) "metagenesis" which is defined as the alternation between sexual and asexual generations does not always occur. Hence we recommend additions to the current model and argue that the scyphozoan life cycle should be considered multi-modal, rather than metagenetic. The implications of these findings for jellyfish proliferations, including possible consequences and associated environmental drivers, are discussed.

  6. Neuromuscular transmission in the jellyfish Aglantha digitale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerfoot, P A; Mackie, G O; Meech, R W; Roberts, A; Singla, C L

    1985-05-01

    In the jellyfish Aglantha digitale escape swimming is mediated by the nearly synchronous activity of eight giant motor axons which make direct synaptic contact with contractile myoepithelial cells on the under-surface of the body wall. The delay in transmission at these synapses was 0.7 +/- 0.1 ms (+/- S.D.;N = 6) at 12 degrees C as measured from intracellular records. Transmission depended on the presence of Ca2+ in the bathing medium. It was not blocked by increasing the level of Mg2+ to 127 mmol l-1. The myoepithelium is a thin sheet of electrically coupled cells and injection of current at one point was found to depolarize the surrounding cells. The potential change declined with distance from the current source as expected for two-dimensional current spread. The two-dimensional space constant (lambda) was 770 micron for current flow in the circular direction and 177 micron for radial flow. The internal resistance of the epithelium (178-201 omega cm) and the membrane time constant (5-10 ms) were direction independent. No propagated epithelial action potentials were observed. Spontaneous miniature synaptic potentials of similar amplitude and rise-time were recorded intracellularly at distances of up to 1 mm from the motor giant axon. Ultrastructural evidence confirms that neuro-myoepithelial synapses also occur away from the giant axons. It is likely that synaptic sites are widespread in the myoepithelium, probably associated with the lateral motor neurones as well as the giant axons. Local stimulation of lateral motor neurones generally produced contraction in distinct fields. We suppose that stimulation of a single motor giant axon excites a whole population of lateral motor neurones and hence a broad area of the myoepithelium.

  7. Current-driven Flow across a Stationary Jellyfish

    CERN Document Server

    Hamlet, Christina; Fan, Roger; Dollinger, Makani; Harenber, Steve

    2011-01-01

    We present several dye visualization and numerical simulation fluid dynamics videos of a sessile jellyfish subjected to channel flow. The low resolution video and the high resolution video display the vortex patterns in different channel flows. This description accompanies the video submission V038 to the 2011 APS DFD Gallery of Fluid Motion.

  8. Jellyfish Bioactive Compounds: Methods for Wet-Lab Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazão, Bárbara; Antunes, Agostinho

    2016-04-12

    The study of bioactive compounds from marine animals has provided, over time, an endless source of interesting molecules. Jellyfish are commonly targets of study due to their toxic proteins. However, there is a gap in reviewing successful wet-lab methods employed in these animals, which compromises the fast progress in the detection of related biomolecules. Here, we provide a compilation of the most effective wet-lab methodologies for jellyfish venom extraction prior to proteomic analysis-separation, identification and toxicity assays. This includes SDS-PAGE, 2DE, gel chromatography, HPLC, DEAE, LC-MS, MALDI, Western blot, hemolytic assay, antimicrobial assay and protease activity assay. For a more comprehensive approach, jellyfish toxicity studies should further consider transcriptome sequencing. We reviewed such methodologies and other genomic techniques used prior to the deep sequencing of transcripts, including RNA extraction, construction of cDNA libraries and RACE. Overall, we provide an overview of the most promising methods and their successful implementation for optimizing time and effort when studying jellyfish.

  9. Jellyfish Bioactive Compounds: Methods for Wet-Lab Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Frazão

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The study of bioactive compounds from marine animals has provided, over time, an endless source of interesting molecules. Jellyfish are commonly targets of study due to their toxic proteins. However, there is a gap in reviewing successful wet-lab methods employed in these animals, which compromises the fast progress in the detection of related biomolecules. Here, we provide a compilation of the most effective wet-lab methodologies for jellyfish venom extraction prior to proteomic analysis—separation, identification and toxicity assays. This includes SDS-PAGE, 2DE, gel chromatography, HPLC, DEAE, LC-MS, MALDI, Western blot, hemolytic assay, antimicrobial assay and protease activity assay. For a more comprehensive approach, jellyfish toxicity studies should further consider transcriptome sequencing. We reviewed such methodologies and other genomic techniques used prior to the deep sequencing of transcripts, including RNA extraction, construction of cDNA libraries and RACE. Overall, we provide an overview of the most promising methods and their successful implementation for optimizing time and effort when studying jellyfish.

  10. Simulation of prolate swimming jellyfish with jet-based locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Goon; Kim, Boyoung; Lee, Jin; Huang, Wei-Xi; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2014-11-01

    The hydrodynamic patterns in the wake of swimming jellyfish are based on the bell morphology. Jellyfish with a prolate bell morphology form a clear jet structure in the wake. A three-dimensional computational model was used to analyze the hydrodynamic patterns. The Froude propulsion efficiency, defined by the ratio of the value of the energy required to deform the elastic bell to the value of the average center velocity multiplied by the thrust, was compared with different forms of the elastic bell deformation. The immersed boundary method was adopted to consider the interaction between the swimming jellyfish and surrounding fluid. Due to the effect of the momentum transferred to the surrounding fluid by the bell deformation, the rotational fluid mass was formed, called vortices. The vortex structures in the wake of prolate swimming jellyfish were elucidated in detail in both quantitative and qualitative ways. A dimensionless temporal parameter was employed to investigate the vortex formation process quantitatively. The starting/stopping vortex structures were generated during the contraction/relaxation phase. During the early stage of the contraction, the vortex structures were mainly generated by the stroke, then the ejected fluid was entrained into the vortex structures. This study was supported by the Creative Research Initiatives (No.2014-001493) program of the National Research Foundation of Korea (MSIP).

  11. Skin and Systemic Manifestations of Jellyfish Stings in Iraqi Fishermen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Al-Rubiay

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Jellyfish stings are common worldwide with an estimated 150 million cases annually,and their stings cause a wide range of clinical manifestations from skin inflammation to cardiovascularand respiratory collapse. No studies on jellyfish stings have been carried out in Basra, Iraq.Objectives: To describe the immediate and delayed skin reactions to White Jellyfish (Rhizostomasp. stings and the types of local treatment used by fishermen. Methods and Materials: 150fishermen were enrolled at three Marine stations in Basra, Iraq. Demographic data, types of skinreactions, systemic manifestations and kinds of treatments were collected. Results: Overall, 79% offishermen in all three Marine stations gave a history of having been stung. The common sites of singswere the hands and arms followed by the legs. Most fishermen claimed that stings led to skinreactions within 5 minutes. The presenting complaints were itching, burning sensation, anderythematic wheals. A few days after the sting, new groups of painless and itchy erythematousmonomorphic papular rashes developed at the site of the sting in 62% of cases as a delayed type ofskin reaction that resolved spontaneously. The local remedies commonly used by the fishermen wereseawater, tap water and ice. A few fishermen considered stings as insignificant and did not think therewas a need to seek medical help. Conclusions: We conclude that jellyfish causes many stingsamong fishermen in the Basra region. Their stings lead to immediate and delayed skin reactions. Selftreatmentby topical remedies is common.

  12. Biogeochemical implications of decomposing jellyfish blooms in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelsky, Ariella; Pitt, Kylie A.; Welsh, David T.

    2015-03-01

    Jellyfish often exhibit 'boom and bust' population dynamics whereby they proliferate rapidly and then die en masse and decompose. The few studies that have investigated post-bloom processes have not studied how changing ocean conditions will alter rates of decomposition. Climate change will result in warmer and more acidic waters, and studies therefore need to consider these factors in concert to determine their combined effect on decomposition processes. To quantify the effect, we measured oxygen consumption and nutrient regeneration rates during decomposition of Catostylus mosaicus in mesocosms at current average summer pH and temperature (pH 8.0 and 27 °C) as well as conditions projected for year 2100 (pH 7.8 and 30 °C) and compared these fluxes to control mesocosms without jellyfish over 12 days. We hypothesised that rates of jellyfish decomposition, as measured by oxygen demand and nutrient regeneration, would be accelerated in the end-of-century treatments, compared to present day treatments. Overall decomposition rates were only slightly elevated under end-of-century conditions, and the difference was only significant for ammonium fluxes from 19 h until 43 h after the experiment commenced. The difference between treatments was much smaller than would be expected due to the temperature increase, based on theoretical modelling of jellyfish decomposition which predicts a Q10 of 4.28, or a 1.5 fold increase in decomposition rates. This highlights the importance of investigating net effects on decomposition rates, as simultaneous shifts in temperature and pH may not follow patterns predicted due to one stressor alone. Ultimately, these results suggest that rates of oxygen consumption and nutrient regeneration resulting from collapsed jellyfish blooms may not change drastically over the next 100 years.

  13. Jellyfish (Cyanea nozakii) decomposition and its potential influence on marine environments studied via simulation experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Chang-Feng; Song, Jin-Ming; Li, Ning; Li, Xue-Gang; Yuan, Hua-Mao; Duan, Li-Qin; Ma, Qing-Xia

    2015-08-15

    A growing body of evidence suggests that the jellyfish population in Chinese seas is increasing, and decomposition of jellyfish strongly influences the marine ecosystem. This study investigated the change in water quality during Cyanea nozakii decomposition using simulation experiments. The results demonstrated that the amount of dissolved nutrients released by jellyfish was greater than the amount of particulate nutrients. NH4(+) was predominant in the dissolved matter, whereas the particulate matter was dominated by organic nitrogen and inorganic phosphorus. The high N/P ratios demonstrated that jellyfish decomposition may result in high nitrogen loads. The inorganic nutrients released by C. nozakii decomposition were important for primary production. Jellyfish decomposition caused decreases in the pH and oxygen consumption associated with acidification and hypoxia or anoxia; however, sediments partially mitigated the changes in the pH and oxygen. These results imply that jellyfish decomposition can result in potentially detrimental effects on marine environments.

  14. On the dynamics of jellyfish locomotion via 3D particle tracking velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Matthew; Kim, Jin-Tae; Chamorro, Leonardo P.

    2016-11-01

    The dynamics of jellyfish (Aurelia aurita) locomotion is experimentally studied via 3D particle tracking velocimetry. 3D locations of the bell tip are tracked over 1.5 cycles to describe the jellyfish path. Multiple positions of the jellyfish bell margin are initially tracked in 2D from four independent planes and individually projected in 3D based on the jellyfish path and geometrical properties of the setup. A cubic spline interpolation and the exponentially weighted moving average are used to estimate derived quantities, including velocity and acceleration of the jellyfish locomotion. We will discuss distinctive features of the jellyfish 3D motion at various swimming phases, and will provide insight on the 3D contraction and relaxation in terms of the locomotion, the steadiness of the bell margin eccentricity, and local Reynolds number based on the instantaneous mean diameter of the bell.

  15. The global susceptibility of coastal forage fish to competition by large jellyfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnedler-Meyer, Nicolas Azaña; Mariani, Patrizio; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Competition between large jellyfish and forage fish for zooplankton prey is both a possible cause of jellyfish increases and a concern for the management of marine ecosystems and fisheries. Identifying principal factors affecting this competition is therefore important for marine management......, but the lack of both good quality data and a robust theoretical framework have prevented general global analyses. Here, we present a general mechanistic food web model that considers fundamental differences in feeding modes and predation pressure between fish and jellyfish. The model predicts forage fish...... dominance at low primary production, and a shift towards jellyfish with increasing productivity, turbidity and fishing. We present an index of global ecosystem susceptibility to shifts in fish–jellyfish dominance that compares well with data on jellyfish distributions and trends. The results are a step...

  16. Anticoagulant activity of Moon jellyfish (Aurelia aurita) tentacle extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Akriti; Biswas, Sumit; Sarkar, Angshuman; Chakrabarty, Dibakar

    2012-10-01

    Moon jellyfish (Aurelia aurita) tentacle extract was studied for its anticoagulant activity in vitro. The Jellyfish Tentacle Extract (JFTE) showed very strong fibrinogenolytic activity by cleaving Aα and Bβ chain of fibrinogen molecule. The fibrinogenolytic activity was found to be stronger than some snake venom derived anticoagulants. JFTE also completely liquefied fibrin clots in 24 h. JFTE was found to contain both high and low molecular weight proteins/peptides. The fibrinogenolysis appears to be caused by high molecular weight fractions of the extract. It has been also noted that PMSF significantly reduced fibrinogenolytic activity and heating totally abolished it. Autolytic degradation of the high molecular weight protein was also noted. Autolysis slowed down, but did not abolish the fibrinogenolytic activity of the extract.

  17. MICROBIOLOGICAL SURVEY ON JELLYFISH FOOD PRODUCTS: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Guidi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A microbiological survey was performed on ten brined jellyfish products, sampled in Italy from Chinese food markets. In general, the microbiological conditions were good and respected the standards contemplated in the regulations CE 2073/2005 e 1441/2007. The presence of inhibiting substances and the absence of aerobic mesophilic bacteria in two samples suggest a treatment to preserve the product.

  18. Cytochalasin derivatives from a jellyfish-derived fungus Phoma sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun La; Wang, Haibo; Park, Ju Hee; Hong, Jongki; Choi, Jae Sue; Im, Dong Soon; Chung, Hae Young; Jung, Jee H

    2015-01-01

    Four new cytochalasin derivatives (1-4), together with proxiphomin (5), were isolated from a jellyfish-derived fungus Phoma sp. The planar structures and relative stereochemistry were established by analysis of 1D and 2D NMR data. The absolute configuration was defined by the modified Mosher's method. The compounds showed moderate cytotoxicity against a small panel of human solid tumor cell lines (A549, KB, and HCT116).

  19. From fish to jellyfish in the eutrophicated Limfjorden (Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, Hans Ulrik; Andersen, Per; Hoffmann, Erik

    2012-01-01

    The heavily eutrophicated Limfjorden (Denmark) provides a good illustration of the value of long-term monitoring, especially if this is combined with an experimental, interdisciplinary research approach. Here, we first give a short overview of the environmental status of Limfjorden, including the...... a substantial part of the zooplankton biomass. Marine environmental management programmes should be aware of the increasing importance of both indigenous and new invasive jellyfish species that may show mass occurrence in especially eutrophicated and overfished areas...

  20. Hunting in bioluminescent light: Vision in the nocturnal box jellyfish Copula sivickisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders eGarm

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cubomedusae all have a similar set of six eyes on each of their four rhopalia. Still, there is a great variation in activity patterns with some species being strictly day active while others are strictly night active. Here we have examined the visual ecology of the medusa of the night active Copula sivickisi from Okinawa using optics, morphology, electrophysiology, and behavioural experiments. We found the lenses of both the upper and the lower lens eyes to be image forming but under-focused, resulting in low spatial resolution in the order of 10 – 15 degrees. The photoreceptor physiology is similar in the two lens eyes and they have a single opsin peaking around 460 nm and low temporal resolution with a flicker fusion frequency (fff of 2.5 Hz indicating adaptions to vision in low light intensities. Further, the outer segments have fluid filled swellings, which may concentrate the light in the photoreceptor membrane by total internal reflections, and thus enhance the signal to noise ratio in the eyes. Finally our behavioural experiments confirmed that the animals use vision when hunting. When they are active at night they seek out high prey-concentration by visual attraction to areas with abundant bioluminescent flashes triggered by their prey.

  1. Cardiotoxic effects of venom fractions from the Australian box jellyfish Chironex fleckeri on human myocardiocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saggiomo, Silvia L A; Seymour, Jamie E

    2012-09-01

    An investigation into the cardiotoxic effects in human cardiomyocytes of different fractions (as produced from an FPLC) of the venom from Chironex fleckeri showed that whole venom caused cardiac cell death in minutes, measured as cell detachment using xCELLigence technology. However, only one fraction of the venom was responsible for this effect. When all extracted venoms were recombined a similar result was seen for the toxic fraction, however these effects were slower than unfractionated venom alone even though the concentrations were similar. The difference in the results between fractioned and unfractionated venom may have been caused by compounds remaining in the FPLC column, which may interact with the toxic fraction to cause rapid cell detachment or death.

  2. Effects of verapamil and CSL antivenom on Chironex fleckeri (box-jellyfish) induced mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, D A; Burnett, J W; Hebel, J R; Alderslade, P

    1999-11-01

    Ovine antivenom prolonged survival in mice challenged with intravenous Chironex fleckeri venom over a limited dose range. Verapamil enhanced the beneficial effect of ovine antivenom. This data suggests that there may be an, as yet undefined, optimal antivenom dose for humans and that verapamil, used in combination with antivenom is an effective agent.

  3. Separation of two myotoxins from nematocysts of the box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endean, R

    1987-01-01

    Two myotoxins, both lethal to mice by i.v. injection, were obtained by chromatography on Sephadex G-200 of material released from isolated microbasic mastigophores of C. fleckeri. Both toxins elicit contractures of skeletal (diaphragm) musculature of the rat and of smooth (ileum and vas deferens) and atrial musculature of the guinea-pig, although consistent differences in the parameters of the contractures of each muscle type elicited by the two toxins are shown. Moreover, one toxin, with a molecular weight of approximately 150,000, also elicits activity on crustacean (barnacle) musculature, whilst the other toxin, with a molecular weight of approximately 600,000, elicits no activity in barnacle musculature at the concentrations tested. The toxins are labile when released from nematocysts and they lose all myotoxic activity within 3 days at 5 degrees C. They can also be isolated chromatographically from crude extracts of the contents of mixed nematocysts of C. fleckeri. They are considered to be the principal toxins injected by C. fleckeri during nematocyst discharge and appear to be different from the C. fleckeri toxins described by other workers.

  4. Clinical implications of research on the box-jellyfish Chironex fleckeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, B

    1994-11-01

    Despite several decades of laboratory research, many anecdotal clinical publications and successful production of antivenom, the active components of Chironex fleckeri venom and their mechanisms of toxicity remain poorly elucidated. Conflicting results of animal experiments and venom studies and the lack of controlled clinical trials necessitate caution in formulating protocols of clinical management. Of particular note are that in severe envenomation (1) clinical deterioration can occur within minutes and cardiac support must be emphasised in addition to respiratory support; (2) larger doses of antivenom may be appropriate; and (3) recommendations of therapy with verapamil and other cardioactive drugs remain controversial.

  5. Swim pacemakers in box jellyfish are modulated by the visual input

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garm, Anders Lydik; Bielecki, Jan

    2008-01-01

    A major part of the cubozoan central nervous system is situated in the eye-bearing rhopalia. One of the neuronal output channels from the rhopalia carries a swim pacemaker signal, which has a one-to-one relation with the swim contractions of the bell shaped body. Given the advanced visual system ...... become more homogeneously distributed. A rise in intensity, on the other hand, produces a steep decline in the frequency and makes the ISIs highly variable. These electrophysiological data are correlated with behavioral observations from the natural habitat of the medusae....

  6. What's on the mind of a jellyfish? A review of behavioural observations on Aurelia sp. jellyfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, David J

    2011-01-01

    Aurelia sp. (scyphozoa; Moon Jellies) are one of the most common and widely distributed species of jellyfish. Their behaviours include swimming up in response to somatosensory stimulation, swimming down in response to low salinity, diving in response to turbulence, avoiding rock walls, forming aggregations, and horizontal directional swimming. These are not simple reflexes. They are species typical behaviours involving sequences of movements that are adjusted in response to the requirements of the situation and that require sensory feedback during their execution. They require the existence of specialized sensory receptors. The central nervous system of Aurelia sp. coordinates motor responses with sensory feedback, maintains a response long after the eliciting stimulus has disappeared, changes behaviour in response to sensory input from specialized receptors or from patterns of sensory input, organizes somatosensory input in a way that allows stimulus input from many parts of the body to elicit a similar response, and coordinates responding when stimuli are tending to elicit more than one response. While entirely different from that of most animals, the nervous system of Aurelia sp. includes a brain that creates numerous adaptive behaviours that are critical to the survival of these phylogenetically ancient species.

  7. The mechanism underlying the cardiotoxic effect of the toxin from the jellyfish Chironex fleckeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, M R; White, E; Hongo, K; Othman, I; Orchard, C H

    1995-08-01

    We have investigated the mechanisms underlying the cardiac effects of the toxin from the box jellyfish Chironex fleckeri. Papillary muscles isolated from the hearts of ferrets and ventricular myocytes isolated from the hearts of ferrets and rats were used. Force, intracellular [Ca2+], and membrane potential were monitored in the papillary muscles; contraction, intracellular [Ca2+], intracellular [Na+], and membrane currents were monitored in the isolated myocytes. Application of the toxin to these preparations resulted in a large increase in intracellular [Ca2+] and the adverse symptoms of Ca2+ overload (aftercontractions, spontaneous contractions, a decrease in developed force, and an increase in resting force). The response of papillary muscles to the toxin was not inhibited by blockers of Ca2+ or Na+ channels or by inhibitors of the sarcoplasmic reticulum, Na+/K+ ATPase, or Na+/H+ exchange. The response to the toxin was, however, blocked by prior exposure to a solution which contained no Na+ and by Ni2+. In the isolated myocytes, as well as an increase in intracellular [Ca2+], the toxin also caused an increase in intracellular [Na+] and the appearance of a current which was inward at negative potentials and reversed at about -10 mV. These data can be explained by the toxin increasing Na+ influx into the cell. The increase in intracellular [Na+] will then increase intracellular [Ca2+] via the Na+/Ca2+ exchange mechanism, thus producing the observed Ca2+ overload.

  8. Variation in lethality and effects of two Australian chirodropid jellyfish venoms in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kintner, Anna H; Seymour, Jamie E; Edwards, Susan L

    2005-11-01

    The North Queensland chirodropid box jellyfish Chironex fleckeri and Chiropsalmus sp. share similar nematocyst composition and the same prey of Acetes australis shrimps in their early medusa stages; however, as C. fleckeri individuals reach larger size, the animals add fish to their diet and their complement of nematocyst types changes, allowing larger doses of venom to be delivered to prey. This study demonstrated that the venoms of the two species differ as well: despite similar effects previously documented in crustacean prey models, the two had widely different cardiac and lethal effects in fish, with C. fleckeri being substantially more potent in its ability to cause death. Comparisons between the venom delivery abilities of the two species showed that the change in nematocysts of C. fleckeri cannot alone account for its ontogenetic shift to prey fish; instead, its prey ecology clearly necessitates it having venom capable of acting efficiently to cause death in fish. Although this venom is almost certainly produced at greater metabolic cost to the animal than the less-lethal venom of Chiropsalmus sp., owing to its greater molecular protein complexity, it confers the advantage of increased caloric intake from fish prey, facilitating larger size and potentially greater reproductive output of C. fleckeri over Chiropsalmus sp.

  9. The Jellyfish hunter--Jack Barnes: a pioneer medical toxinologist in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearn, John; Fenner, Peter

    2006-12-01

    Dr Jack Handyside Barnes (1922-1985) was one of the small and elite group of Pacific marine toxinologists whose work was characterised by an uncompromising rugged persona, a focussed resolve to solve challenging problems of human clinical envenomation, and who conducted curiosity-driven research under conditions of scientific isolation. He was a pioneering advocate for the preservation of marine heritage, particularly that of the Great Barrier Reef. A former military commando who later became a general medical practitioner with extensive surgical and obstetric skills, in 1947 he was appointed the Medical Superintendent of Thursday Island in the Torres Strait. Later (from January 1953), he worked indefatigably as a general medical practitioner in Cairns, in tropical North Australia. For four decades (1945-1985), Jack Barnes undertook detailed laboratory, clinical and field research into invertebrate envenomation, particularly medusan toxinology. In 1960 he discovered the species responsible for the Irukandji syndrome, a small carybdeid named Carukia barnesi in his honour. He invented the research technique for the extraction of venom from the world's most venomous creature, the Pacific box Jellyfish, Chironex fleckeri. By 1960, he had published taxonomic details of nematocyst structure and clinical envenomation details consequent upon stings by Physalia, Cyanea, Chironex, Chiropsalmus and Carukia. This paper is a précis of the chronology of his life, contributions and influence.

  10. Jellyfish monitoring on coastlines using remote piloted aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrado, C.; Fuentes, J. A.; Salamí, E.; Royo, P.; Olariaga, A. D.; López, J.; Fuentes, V. L.; Gili, J. M.; Pastor, E.

    2014-03-01

    In the last 10 years the number of jellyfish shoals that reach the swimming area of the Mediterranean Sea are increasing constantly. The term "Jellyfish" refers to animals from different taxonomic groups but the Scyphomedusae are within the most significant one. Four species of Scyphomedusae are the most conspicuous ones inhabiting the studied area, the Barcelona metropolitan area. Jellyfish are usually found at the surface waters, forming big swarms. This feature makes possible to detect them remotely, using a visual camera and image processing algorithms. In this paper we present the characteristics of a remote piloted aircraft capable to perform monitoring flights during the whole summer season. The requirements of the aircraft are to be easy to operate, to be able to flight at low altitude (100 m) following the buoy line (200 m from the beach line) and to be save for other users of the seaside. The remote piloted aircraft will carry a vision system and a processing board able to obtain useful information on real-time.

  11. The Bright Side of Gelatinous Blooms: Nutraceutical Value and Antioxidant Properties of Three Mediterranean Jellyfish (Scyphozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Leone

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Jellyfish are recorded with increasing frequency and magnitude in many coastal areas and several species display biological features comparable to the most popular Asiatic edible jellyfish. The biochemical and antioxidant properties of wild gelatinous biomasses, in terms of nutritional and nutraceutical values, are still largely unexplored. In this paper, three of the most abundant and commonly recorded jellyfish species (Aurelia sp.1, Cotylorhiza tuberculata and Rhizostoma pulmo in the Mediterranean Sea were subject to investigation. A sequential enzymatic hydrolysis of jellyfish proteins was set up by pepsin and collagenase treatments of jellyfish samples after aqueous or hydroalcoholic protein extraction. The content and composition of proteins, amino acids, phenolics, and fatty acids of the three species were recorded and compared. Protein content (mainly represented by collagen up to 40% of jellyfish dry weight were found in two of the three jellyfish species (C. tuberculata and R. pulmo, whereas the presence of ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs was significantly higher in the zooxanthellate jellyfish C. tuberculata only. Remarkable antioxidant ability was also recorded from both proteinaceous and non proteinaceous extracts and the hydrolyzed protein fractions in all the three species. The abundance of collagen, peptides and other bioactive molecules make these Mediterranean gelatinous biomasses a largely untapped source of natural compounds of nutraceutical, cosmeceutical and pharmacological interest.

  12. Jellyfish as vectors of bacterial disease for farmed salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Hugh W; Delannoy, Christian M J; Hay, Stephen; Nicolson, James; Sutherland, David; Crumlish, Margaret

    2010-05-01

    Swarms or blooms of jellyfish are increasingly problematic and can result in high mortality rates of farmed fish. Small species of jellyfish, such as Phialella quadrata (13 mm in diameter), are capable of passing through the mesh of sea cages and being sucked into the mouth of fish during respiration. Results of the current study show that the initial damage to gills of farmed Atlantic salmon, likely produced by nematocyst-derived toxins from the jellyfish, was compounded by secondary bacterial infection with Tenacibaculum maritimum. Results also demonstrate that these filamentous bacteria were present on the mouth of the jellyfish and that their DNA sequences were almost identical to those of bacteria present on the salmon gills. This suggests that the bacterial lesions were not the result of an opportunistic infection of damaged tissue, as previously thought. Instead, P. quadrata is probably acting as a vector for this particular bacterial pathogen, and it is the first time that evidence to support such a link has been presented. No prior literature describing the presence of bacteria associated with jellyfish, except studies about their decay, could be found. It is not known if all jellyfish of this and other species carry similar bacteria or the relationship to each other. Their source, the role they play under other circumstances, and indeed whether the jellyfish were themselves diseased are also not known. The high proteolytic capabilities of T. maritimum mean that partially digested gill tissues were readily available to the jellyfish, which rely heavily on intracellular digestion for their nutrition.

  13. The Bright Side of Gelatinous Blooms: Nutraceutical Value and Antioxidant Properties of Three Mediterranean Jellyfish (Scyphozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Antonella; Lecci, Raffaella Marina; Durante, Miriana; Meli, Federica; Piraino, Stefano

    2015-07-29

    Jellyfish are recorded with increasing frequency and magnitude in many coastal areas and several species display biological features comparable to the most popular Asiatic edible jellyfish. The biochemical and antioxidant properties of wild gelatinous biomasses, in terms of nutritional and nutraceutical values, are still largely unexplored. In this paper, three of the most abundant and commonly recorded jellyfish species (Aurelia sp.1, Cotylorhiza tuberculata and Rhizostoma pulmo) in the Mediterranean Sea were subject to investigation. A sequential enzymatic hydrolysis of jellyfish proteins was set up by pepsin and collagenase treatments of jellyfish samples after aqueous or hydroalcoholic protein extraction. The content and composition of proteins, amino acids, phenolics, and fatty acids of the three species were recorded and compared. Protein content (mainly represented by collagen) up to 40% of jellyfish dry weight were found in two of the three jellyfish species (C. tuberculata and R. pulmo), whereas the presence of ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) was significantly higher in the zooxanthellate jellyfish C. tuberculata only. Remarkable antioxidant ability was also recorded from both proteinaceous and non proteinaceous extracts and the hydrolyzed protein fractions in all the three species. The abundance of collagen, peptides and other bioactive molecules make these Mediterranean gelatinous biomasses a largely untapped source of natural compounds of nutraceutical, cosmeceutical and pharmacological interest.

  14. Biogeography of jellyfish in the North Atlantic, by traditional and genomic methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Licandro, P.; Blackett, M.; Fischer, A.; Hosia, A.; Kennedy, J.; Kirby, R.R.; Raab, K.; Stern, R.; Tranter, P.

    2015-01-01

    Scientific debate on whether or not the recent increase in reports of jellyfish outbreaks represents a true rise in their abundance has outlined a lack of reliable records of Cnidaria and Ctenophora. Here we describe different jellyfish data sets produced within the EU programme EURO-BASIN. These

  15. 3D simulations of self-propelled, reconstructed jellyfish using vortex methods

    CERN Document Server

    Rasmussen, J T; Storti, F; Koumoutsakos, P; Walther, J H

    2009-01-01

    We present simulations of the vortex dynamics associated with the self-propelled motion of jellyfish. The geometry is obtained from image segmentation of video recordings from live jellyfish. The numerical simulations are performed using three-dimensional viscous, vortex particle methods with Brinkman penalization to impose the kinematics of the jellyfish motion. We study two types of strokes recorded in the experiment1. The first type (stroke A) produces two vortex rings during the stroke: one outside the bell during the power stroke and one inside the bell during the recovery stroke. The second type (stroke B) produces three vortex rings: one ring during the power stroke and two vortex rings during the recovery stroke. Both strokes propel the jellyfish, with stroke B producing the highest velocity. The speed of the jellyfish scales with the square root of the Reynolds number. The simulations are visualized in a fluid dynamics video.

  16. Modeling jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca transport and stranding in the Ligurian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berline, L; Zakardjian, B; Molcard, A; Ourmières, Y; Guihou, K

    2013-05-15

    Jellyfish blooms are generally attributed to a biological response to the environment, neglecting the role of transport patterns in redistributing existing populations. Here, we use high-resolution (1.25km) ocean modeling to examine the role of transport in the onshore arrival and abundance of the pelagic stinging jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca on the Ligurian Sea coast. Jellyfish are modeled as Lagrangian particles with a 0-300-m diel vertical migration typical of P. noctiluca. Over the course of a year, onshore arrivals are not restricted to the summer. Arrivals are concentrated at capes, but abundance can reach maxima in bays and in the lee of capes. Two factors impact jellyfish arrivals at the coast: the position of the Northern Current and the wind. A comparison of summer 2006 and available onshore jellyfish observations suggests a correct capture of the main stranding events by the model. These results have implications for understanding long-term fluctuations.

  17. Ensemble Trajectory Simulation of Large Jellyfish in the Yellow and Bohai Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Lingjuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Combining Lagrange particle tracking method with the ensemble forecasting concept, one ensemble trajectory model is developed for large jellyfish with vertical movement of jellyfish taken into account in the Yellow and Bohai Sea. Besides, this ensemble model can give quick simulation of drifting trajectories and potential affected range. The comparison between observation and simulation of jellyfish trajectories in the coastal waters of Qingdao and Qinhuangdao as the typical place of the Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea has been made. And the results indicate that the ensemble trajectory model is more reliable than single one, and could provide more useful information for emergency response of jellyfish bloom, especially under the circumstance that autonomic (vertical movement of of jellyfish and its mechanism is not clear.

  18. Preliminary observations on the response of Chironex fleckeri (Cnidaria: Cubozoa: Chirodropida) to different colors of light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershwin, Lisa-Ann; Dawes, Peter

    2008-08-01

    Cubozoans are well known for their attraction to light and light-colored objects. Two highly venomous types are a public safety concern in Australian waters and elsewhere: Chironex fleckeri, long considered the world's deadliest animal and colloquially called the box jellyfish; and the irukandjis, a group of at least 10 species that cause various degrees of debilitating illness. We were asked by the tourism industry whether there might be a color of light that box jellyfish and irukandjis are not attracted to, such that nighttime diving activities might pose less risk of being stung. Our preliminary trials with Chironex fleckeri indicated a marked positive response to lights of white, red, yellow, green, orange, and blue. All colors elicited a strong and directed attraction to light; however, medusae slowed down their pulsation rate, streamed out their tentacles, and performed a series of figure-eight patterns back and forth through the lighted area when exposed to blue light, which we interpreted as feeding behavior. This compares curiously with a report subsequent to our testing, in which the small, mangrove-inhabiting cubomedusa Tripedalia cystophora and the beach-dwelling Chiropsella bronzie demonstrate a peak sensitivity to blue-green light in the region of 500 nm, and that the former is behaviorally attracted to blue and green light, but ignores red. This leaves open the possibility that Irukandji species, which are more closely related to Tripedalia than to Chironex, may be blind to red.

  19. Does the association of young fishes with jellyfishes protect from predation?A report on a failure case due to damage to the jellyfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Martini Bonaldo

    Full Text Available The fish-jellyfish association is regarded as a temporary symbiosis believed to protect the fishes from predators. Here we report on juvenile scads (Trachurus lathami associated with the jellyfish Chrysaora lactea, opportunistically preyed on by the grouper Mycteroperca acutirostris while the medusa was being damaged. The predation instances occurred when a couple of the filefish Stephanolepis hispidus approached the jellyfish to nibble on its umbrella. The feeding of the filefish caused a momentary disturbance of the defensive association, perceived and capitalised on by the watchful grouper, an opportunistic and versatile hunter. Before and after the disturbance, the protection offered to the young fish by the jellyfish showed to be effective, which strengthens the hypothesis of defensive function of this association.

  20. Biomass of scyphozoan jellyfish, and its spatial association with 0-group fish in the Barents Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Elena; Prozorkevich, Dmitry; Trofimov, Aleksandr; Howell, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    An 0-group fish survey is conducted annually in the Barents Sea in order to estimate fish population abundance. Data on jellyfish by-catch have been recorded since 1980, although this dataset has never been analysed. In recent years, however, the ecological importance of jellyfish medusae has become widely recognized. In this paper the biomass of jellyfish (medusae) in 0-60 m depths is calculated for the period 1980-2010. During this period the climate changed from cold to warm, and changes in zooplankton and fish distribution and abundance were observed. This paper discusses the less well known ecosystem component; jellyfish medusae within the Phylum Cnidaria, and their spatial and temporal variation. The long term average was ca. 9×10⁸ kg, with some years showing biomasses in excess of 5×10⁹ kg. The biomasses were low during 1980s, increased during 1990s, and were highest in early 2000s with a subsequent decline. The bulk of the jellyfish were observed in the central parts of the Barents Sea, which is a core area for most 0-group fishes. Jellyfish were associated with haddock in the western area, with haddock and herring in the central and coastal area, and with capelin in the northern area of the Barents Sea. The jellyfish were present in the temperature interval 1°Cjellyfish occurring between 4.0-7.0°C. It seems that the ongoing warming trend may be favourable for Barents Sea jellyfish medusae; however their biomass has showed a recent moderate decline during years with record high temperatures in the Barents Sea. Jellyfish are undoubtedly an important component of the Barents Sea ecosystem, and the data presented here represent the best summary of jellyfish biomass and distribution yet published for the region.

  1. Laryngeal (Voice Box) Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Voice Box (Laryngeal) Cancer Voice Box (Laryngeal) Cancer Patient Health Information News media ... laryngeal cancer can be severe with respect to voice, breathing, or swallowing. It is fundamentally a preventable ...

  2. Impact of Stinging Jellyfish Proliferations along South Italian Coasts: Human Health Hazards, Treatment and Social Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella De Donno

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Stinging jellyfish outbreaks represent a health hazard, causing contact dermatitis and systemic reactions. This study investigated the epidemiology, severity, and treatment protocols of jellyfish stings in a coastal area with high tourist development and frequent stinging jellyfish outbreaks of the central Mediterranean (Salento, Southern Italy, and the associated costs for the Italian National Health Service. In 2007–2011, 1,733 bathers (mostly children and females sought medical assistance following jellyfish stings, the main cause of human pathologies due to contact with marine organisms. The majority of events were reported in the years 2007–2009, whereas the occurrence of cnidarian jellyfish outbreaks has been increasingly reported in the same area since summer 2010. Most symptoms were limited to local and cutaneous reactions; conversely, 8.7% of cases evoked complications, mainly due to allergic reactions. The main drugs used were corticosteroids, locally applied and systemic (46% and 43%, respectively, and with ammonia (74% as the main non-pharmacological treatment. The estimated cost of jellyfish-related first-aid services along the Salento coastline over the 5-year period was approximately 400,000 Euros. Therefore the management of jellyfish outbreak phenomena need coordinated research efforts towards a better understanding of underlying ecological mechanisms, together with the adoption of effective prevention policy, mitigation strategies, and appropriate planning of health services at tourist hot spots.

  3. Impact of stinging jellyfish proliferations along south Italian coasts: human health hazards, treatment and social costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Donno, Antonella; Idolo, Adele; Bagordo, Francesco; Grassi, Tiziana; Leomanni, Alessandro; Serio, Francesca; Guido, Marcello; Canitano, Mariarita; Zampardi, Serena; Boero, Ferdinando; Piraino, Stefano

    2014-02-27

    Stinging jellyfish outbreaks represent a health hazard, causing contact dermatitis and systemic reactions. This study investigated the epidemiology, severity, and treatment protocols of jellyfish stings in a coastal area with high tourist development and frequent stinging jellyfish outbreaks of the central Mediterranean (Salento, Southern Italy), and the associated costs for the Italian National Health Service. In 2007-2011, 1,733 bathers (mostly children and females) sought medical assistance following jellyfish stings, the main cause of human pathologies due to contact with marine organisms. The majority of events were reported in the years 2007-2009, whereas the occurrence of cnidarian jellyfish outbreaks has been increasingly reported in the same area since summer 2010. Most symptoms were limited to local and cutaneous reactions; conversely, 8.7% of cases evoked complications, mainly due to allergic reactions. The main drugs used were corticosteroids, locally applied and systemic (46% and 43%, respectively), and with ammonia (74%) as the main non-pharmacological treatment. The estimated cost of jellyfish-related first-aid services along the Salento coastline over the 5-year period was approximately 400,000 Euros. Therefore the management of jellyfish outbreak phenomena need coordinated research efforts towards a better understanding of underlying ecological mechanisms, together with the adoption of effective prevention policy, mitigation strategies, and appropriate planning of health services at tourist hot spots.

  4. Deterministic Factors Overwhelm Stochastic Environmental Fluctuations as Drivers of Jellyfish Outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro; Canepa, Antonio; Fuentes, Veronica; Tamburello, Laura; Purcell, Jennifer E; Piraino, Stefano; Roberts, Jason; Boero, Ferdinando; Halpin, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Jellyfish outbreaks are increasingly viewed as a deterministic response to escalating levels of environmental degradation and climate extremes. However, a comprehensive understanding of the influence of deterministic drivers and stochastic environmental variations favouring population renewal processes has remained elusive. This study quantifies the deterministic and stochastic components of environmental change that lead to outbreaks of the jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca in the Mediterranen Sea. Using data of jellyfish abundance collected at 241 sites along the Catalan coast from 2007 to 2010 we: (1) tested hypotheses about the influence of time-varying and spatial predictors of jellyfish outbreaks; (2) evaluated the relative importance of stochastic vs. deterministic forcing of outbreaks through the environmental bootstrap method; and (3) quantified return times of extreme events. Outbreaks were common in May and June and less likely in other summer months, which resulted in a negative relationship between outbreaks and SST. Cross- and along-shore advection by geostrophic flow were important concentrating forces of jellyfish, but most outbreaks occurred in the proximity of two canyons in the northern part of the study area. This result supported the recent hypothesis that canyons can funnel P. noctiluca blooms towards shore during upwelling. This can be a general, yet unappreciated mechanism leading to outbreaks of holoplanktonic jellyfish species. The environmental bootstrap indicated that stochastic environmental fluctuations have negligible effects on return times of outbreaks. Our analysis emphasized the importance of deterministic processes leading to jellyfish outbreaks compared to the stochastic component of environmental variation. A better understanding of how environmental drivers affect demographic and population processes in jellyfish species will increase the ability to anticipate jellyfish outbreaks in the future.

  5. A new record of the freshwater jellyfish Craspedacusta sowerbii Lankester, 1880 (Hydrozoa) in Southeastern Anatolia (Turkey)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aysel BEKLEYEN; Memet VAROL; Bulent GOKOT

    2011-01-01

    We report the first record of the invasive freshwater jellyfish Craspedacusta sowerbii Lankester in Kralkizi Dam Lake, Southeastern Anatolia, Turkey. The medusa was found only in August, 2008 when average surface water temperatures were 26.9℃.

  6. Jellyfish Envenomation Resulting In Vascular Insufficiency And Neurogenic Injury of Upper Limb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choong CYL

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Following a week after a jellyfish sting, a young man presented with regional cyanosis and threat of distal gangrene secondary to vascular spasm in the forearm. The patient also suffered from transient paresis and numbness of the affected upper limb. Contrasted imaging revealed unopacified vessels in the distal forearm and worsening swelling warranted emergency surgical fasciotomy for impending compartment syndrome. This case highlights the occurrence of jellyfish envenomation and the need for early treatment.

  7. Capacity Extension of Software Defined Data Center Networks With Jellyfish Topology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehmeri, Victor; Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    We present a performance analysis of Jellyfish topology with Software-Defined commodity switches for Data Center networks. Our results show up to a 2-fold performance gain when compared to a Spanning Tree Protocol implementation.......We present a performance analysis of Jellyfish topology with Software-Defined commodity switches for Data Center networks. Our results show up to a 2-fold performance gain when compared to a Spanning Tree Protocol implementation....

  8. What's in a jellyfish? Proximate and elemental composition and biometric relationships for use in biogeochemical studies

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas, C.H.; Pitt, K. A.; Purcell, J.E.; Lebrato, Mario; R. H. Condon

    2011-01-01

    Many marine organisms have gelatinous bodies, but the trait is most common in the medusae (phylum Cnidaria), ctenophores (phylum Ctenophora), and the pelagic tunicates (phylum Chordata, class Thaliacea). Although there are taxonomic and trophic differences between the thaliaceans and the other two closely related phyla, the collective term "jellyfish" has been used within the framework of this article. Because of the apparent increase in bloom events, jellyfish are receiving greater attention...

  9. Jellyfish blooms result in a major microbial respiratory sink of carbon in marine systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, Robert H; Steinberg, Deborah K; del Giorgio, Paul A; Bouvier, Thierry C; Bronk, Deborah A; Graham, William M; Ducklow, Hugh W

    2011-06-21

    Jellyfish blooms occur in many estuarine and coastal regions and may be increasing in their magnitude and extent worldwide. Voracious jellyfish predation impacts food webs by converting large quantities of carbon (C), fixed by primary producers and consumed by secondary producers, into gelatinous biomass, which restricts C transfer to higher trophic levels because jellyfish are not readily consumed by other predators. In addition, jellyfish release colloidal and dissolved organic matter (jelly-DOM), and could further influence the functioning of coastal systems by altering microbial nutrient and DOM pathways, yet the links between jellyfish and bacterioplankton metabolism and community structure are unknown. Here we report that jellyfish released substantial quantities of extremely labile C-rich DOM, relative to nitrogen (25.6 ± 31.6 C:1N), which was quickly metabolized by bacterioplankton at uptake rates two to six times that of bulk DOM pools. When jelly-DOM was consumed it was shunted toward bacterial respiration rather than production, significantly reducing bacterial growth efficiencies by 10% to 15%. Jelly-DOM also favored the rapid growth and dominance of specific bacterial phylogenetic groups (primarily γ-proteobacteria) that were rare in ambient waters, implying that jelly-DOM was channeled through a small component of the in situ microbial assemblage and thus induced large changes in community composition. Our findings suggest major shifts in microbial structure and function associated with jellyfish blooms, and a large detour of C toward bacterial CO(2) production and away from higher trophic levels. These results further suggest fundamental transformations in the biogeochemical functioning and biological structure of food webs associated with jellyfish blooms.

  10. Straw in a Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerrard, Richard; Schneider, Joel; Smallberg, Ralph; Wetzel, John

    2006-01-01

    A problem on a state's high school exit exam asked for the longest straw that would fit in a box. The examiners apparently wanted the length of a diagonal of the box, but the figure accompanying the question suggested otherwise--that the radius of the straw be considered. This article explores that more general problem.

  11. ALUMINUM BOX BUNDLING PRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iosif DUMITRESCU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In municipal solid waste, aluminum is the main nonferrous metal, approximately 80- 85% of the total nonferrous metals. The income per ton gained from aluminum recuperation is 20 times higher than from glass, steel boxes or paper recuperation. The object of this paper is the design of a 300 kN press for aluminum box bundling.

  12. Shaping 3-D boxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenholt, Rasmus; Madsen, Claus B.

    2011-01-01

    Enabling users to shape 3-D boxes in immersive virtual environments is a non-trivial problem. In this paper, a new family of techniques for creating rectangular boxes of arbitrary position, orientation, and size is presented and evaluated. These new techniques are based solely on position data...

  13. The mirror box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Gene; Mathieson, Don

    2001-11-01

    The mirror box is an old standby in magic shows and an impressive demonstration of the law of reflection for the physics instructor. The box creates the illusion of an object floating in space by the use of a plane mirror.

  14. Boxing with neutrino oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, D. J.; Weiler, Thomas J.

    1999-06-01

    We develop a characterization of neutrino oscillations based on the coefficients of the oscillating terms. These coefficients are individually observable; although they are quartic in the elements of the unitary mixing matrix, they are independent of the conventions chosen for the angle and phase parametrization of the mixing matrix. We call these reparametrization-invariant observables ``boxes'' because of their geometric relation to the mixing matrix, and because of their association with the Feynman box diagram that describes oscillations in field theory. The real parts of the boxes are the coefficients for the CP- or T-even oscillation modes, while the imaginary parts are the coefficients for the CP- or T-odd oscillation modes. Oscillation probabilities are linear in the boxes, so measurements can straightforwardly determine values for the boxes (which can then be manipulated to yield magnitudes of mixing matrix elements). We examine the effects of unitarity on the boxes and discuss the reduction of the number of boxes to a minimum basis set. For the three-generation case, we explicitly construct the basis. Using the box algebra, we show that CP violation may be inferred from measurements of neutrino flavor mixing even when the oscillatory factors have averaged. The framework presented here will facilitate general analyses of neutrino oscillations among n>=3 flavors.

  15. Comprehensive analysis of the origin of giant jellyfish near Qinhuangdao in summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lingjuan; Wu, Xiaofen; Bai, Tao

    2016-09-01

    A massive bloom of the giant jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai occurred in waters off Qinhuangdao, a port city in Hebei Province, in July 2013. However, jellyfish larvae were not found in this location during the previous winter and spring. To determine the possible origin of the giant jellyfish medusa in the Bohai Sea, we developed a backward particle-tracking model and a series of numerical simulations were conducted by using the hydrodynamic, three-dimensional Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) results. The simulated results showed that passive particles, representing jellyfish medusae, released in surface waters at diff erent dates during the summer had consistent trajectories. Particles released at the sea surface on August 1 and 15 could be traced back to the center of the Bohai Sea and to waters between Feiyan Shoal and the new Huanghe (Yellow) River estuary. Particles released on July 1 and 15 could also be traced back to the center of the Bohai Sea and to waters between Feiyan Shoal and only to Zhuangxi tide station. However, none of the particles released in the middle and bottom water layers could be traced back to those areas. Based on the results of the numerical simulations, the distribution characteristics of seafloor sediments, and observational data for giant jellyfish in the region, we suggest that waters between Feiyan Shoal and the new Huanghe River estuary are the likely origin of giant jellyfish observed near Qinhuangdao in summer.

  16. Extract from the zooxanthellate jellyfish Cotylorhiza tuberculata modulates gap junction intercellular communication in human cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Antonella; Lecci, Raffaella Marina; Durante, Miriana; Piraino, Stefano

    2013-05-22

    On a global scale, jellyfish populations in coastal marine ecosystems exhibit increasing trends of abundance. High-density outbreaks may directly or indirectly affect human economical and recreational activities, as well as public health. As the interest in biology of marine jellyfish grows, a number of jellyfish metabolites with healthy potential, such as anticancer or antioxidant activities, is increasingly reported. In this study, the Mediterranean "fried egg jellyfish" Cotylorhiza tuberculata (Macri, 1778) has been targeted in the search forputative valuable bioactive compounds. A medusa extract was obtained, fractionated, characterized by HPLC, GC-MS and SDS-PAGE and assayed for its biological activity on breast cancer cells (MCF-7) and human epidermal keratinocytes (HEKa). The composition of the jellyfish extract included photosynthetic pigments, valuable ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids, and polypeptides derived either from jellyfish tissues and their algal symbionts. Extract fractions showed antioxidant activity and the ability to affect cell viability and intercellular communication mediated by gap junctions (GJIC) differentially in MCF-7 and HEKa cells. A significantly higher cytotoxicity and GJIC enhancement in MCF-7 compared to HEKa cells was recorded. A putative action mechanism for the anticancer bioactivity through the modulation of GJIC has been hypothesized and its nutraceutical and pharmaceutical potential was discussed.

  17. Nutritional composition and total collagen content of three commercially important edible jellyfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khong, Nicholas M H; Yusoff, Fatimah Md; Jamilah, B; Basri, Mahiran; Maznah, I; Chan, Kim Wei; Nishikawa, Jun

    2016-04-01

    The study aimed to evaluate nutraceutical potential of three commercially significant edible jellyfish species (Acromitus hardenbergi, Rhopilema hispidum and Rhopilema esculentum). The bell and oral arms of these jellyfishes were analyzed for their proximate composition, calorific value, collagen content, amino acid profile, chemical score and elemental constituent. In general, all jellyfish possessed low calorific values (1.0-4.9 kcal/g D.W.) and negligible fat contents (0.4-1.8 g/100 g D.W.), while protein (20.0-53.9 g/100 g D.W.) and minerals (15.9-57.2g/100g D.W.) were found to be the richest components. Total collagen content of edible jellyfish varied from 122.64 to 693.92 mg/g D.W., accounting for approximately half its total protein content. The dominant amino acids in both bell and oral arms of all jellyfish studied includes glycine, glutamate, threonine, proline, aspartate and arginine, while the major elements were sodium, potassium, chlorine, magnesium, sulfur, zinc and silicon. Among the jellyfish, A. hardenbergi exhibited significantly higher total amino acids, chemical scores and collagen content (pjellyfish is an appealing source of nutritive ingredients for the development of oral formulations, nutricosmetics and functional food.

  18. High activity and Levy searches: jellyfish can search the water column like fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Graeme C; Bastian, Thomas; Doyle, Thomas K; Fossette, Sabrina; Gleiss, Adrian C; Gravenor, Michael B; Hobson, Victoria J; Humphries, Nicolas E; Lilley, Martin K S; Pade, Nicolas G; Sims, David W

    2012-02-07

    Over-fishing may lead to a decrease in fish abundance and a proliferation of jellyfish. Active movements and prey search might be thought to provide a competitive advantage for fish, but here we use data-loggers to show that the frequently occurring coastal jellyfish (Rhizostoma octopus) does not simply passively drift to encounter prey. Jellyfish (327 days of data from 25 jellyfish with depth collected every 1 min) showed very dynamic vertical movements, with their integrated vertical movement averaging 619.2 m d(-1), more than 60 times the water depth where they were tagged. The majority of movement patterns were best approximated by exponential models describing normal random walks. However, jellyfish also showed switching behaviour from exponential patterns to patterns best fitted by a truncated Lévy distribution with exponents (mean μ=1.96, range 1.2-2.9) close to the theoretical optimum for searching for sparse prey (μopt≈2.0). Complex movements in these 'simple' animals may help jellyfish to compete effectively with fish for plankton prey, which may enhance their ability to increase in dominance in perturbed ocean systems.

  19. Characterization and neutralization of Nemopilema nomurai (Scyphozoa: Rhizostomeae) jellyfish venom using polyclonal antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Changkeun; Han, Dae-Yong; Park, Kwang-Il; Pyo, Min-Jung; Heo, Yunwi; Lee, Hyunkyoung; Kim, Gon Sup; Kim, Euikyung

    2014-08-01

    Jellyfish stings have often caused serious health concerns for sea bathers especially in tropical waters. In the coastal areas of Korea, China and Japan, the blooming and stinging accidents of poisonous jellyfish species have recently increased, including Nemopilema nomurai. We have generated a polyclonal antibody against N. nomurai jellyfish venom (NnV) by the immunization of white rabbits with NnV antigen. In the present study, the antibody has been characterized for its neutralizing effect against NnV. At first, the presence of NnV polyclonal antibody has been confirmed from the immunized rabbit serum by Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Then, the neutralizing activities of the polyclonal antibody have been investigated using cell-based toxicity test, hemolysis assay, and mice lethality test. When the polyclonal antibody was preincubated with NnV, it shows a high effectiveness in neutralizing the NnV toxicities in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, we explored proteomic analyses using 2-D SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry to illustrate the molecular identities of the jellyfish venom. From this, 18 different protein families have been identified as jellyfish venom-derived proteins; the main findings of which are matrix metalloproteinase-14, astacin-like metalloprotease toxin 3 precursor. It is expected that the present results would have contributed to our understandings of the envenomation by N. nomurai, their treatment and some valuable knowledge on the pathological processes of the jellyfish stinging.

  20. Decomposition of jellyfish carrion in situ: Short-term impacts on infauna, benthic nutrient fluxes and sediment redox conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelsky, Ariella; Pitt, Kylie A; Ferguson, Angus J P; Bennett, William W; Teasdale, Peter R; Welsh, David T

    2016-10-01

    Jellyfish often form blooms that persist for weeks to months before they collapse en masse, resulting in the sudden release of large amounts of organic matter to the environment. This study investigated the biogeochemical and ecological effects of the decomposition of jellyfish in a shallow coastal lagoon in New South Wales, Australia. Catostylus mosaicus carrion was added to the surface of shallow sub-tidal sediments and biogeochemical parameters and macrofaunal abundance immediately below the jellyfish carrion were measured over three days. Sediment plots without jellyfish served as controls. Sediment oxygen demand and carbon and nitrogen efflux increased by up to 60-fold in the jellyfish plots, compared to control plots, and dissolved organic nutrient fluxes were more sustained than in previous studies due to the use of fresh rather than frozen biomass. The decomposing jellyfish progressively altered sediment redox conditions, indicated by an increase in porewater iron (II) and sulfide concentrations measured by high-resolution in situ diffusive samplers. Abundance of some macrofaunal taxa in the jellyfish plots decreased relative to controls, however, the abundance of a carnivorous gastropod, which was presumably feeding on the carrion, increased in the jellyfish plots. While jellyfish carrion may be a food source for some macrofauna, low oxygen conditions coupled with the accumulation of toxic dissolved sulfides in the near-surface sediments may explain the overall change in the macroinfaunal community.

  1. Radioactivity in three species of eastern Mediterranean jellyfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamish, S; Al-Masri, M S; Durgham, H

    2015-11-01

    Activity concentrations of (137)Cs, (40)K, (210)Po, (210)Pb, (234)U and (238)U were determined in umbrella and oral arms of three widely distributed jellyfish species; namely Rhopilema nomadica Galil, 1990, Aurelia aurita Linne, 1758 and Aequorea forskalea Péron & Lesueur, 1810 collected from February 2011 to January 2012 in four sampling locations along the Syrian coast (Eastern Mediterranean Sea). The results have shown significant variations in radionuclides activity concentrations amongst the species. The average activity concentrations of (40)K, (210)Po, (210)Pb, (234)U and (238)U in the umbrella of R. nomadica species were higher than the average activity concentrations in the umbrella of A. aurita species by about 3.2, 1.4, 1.8, 3.2 and 3.2 folds, and A. forskalea species by about 45.5, 15.4, 19, 7.4 and 7.6 folds, respectively. The average activity concentrations of (40)K, (210)Po, (210)Pb, (234)U and (238)U in oral arms of R. nomadica species were higher than the average activity concentrations in oral arms of A. aurita species by about 3.8, 1.7, 1.9, 2.8 and 2.9 folds, respectively. (137)Cs activity concentrations were below the detection limit in all measured samples. In addition, activity concentrations of (137)Cs, (40)K, (210)Po, (210)Pb, (234)U and (238)U were also determined in 44 surface seawater samples and the activity concentrations ranged between 10.6 and 11.9 Bq l(-1) for (40)K, 1.1 and 1.4 mBq l(-1) for (210)Po, 0.5 and 0.7 mBq l(-1) for (210)Pb, 40.8 and 44.5 mBq l(-1) for (234)U, and 36.9 and 38.4 mBq l(-1) for (238)U, while (137)Cs activity concentrations were below the detection limit in all measured samples. Moreover, the umbrella and oral arms readily accumulated (40)K, (210)Po, (210)Pb, (234)U and (238)U above ambient seawater levels in the sequence of (210)Po > (210)Pb > (4) K > (234)U and (238)U. Concentration ratio (CR) values were relatively high for (210)Po and (210)Pb and reached 10(3) and 10(2), respectively for the jellyfish R

  2. Hovering of a jellyfish-like flying machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristroph, Leif; Childress, Stephen

    2013-11-01

    Ornithopters, or flapping-wing aircraft, offer an alternative to helicopters in achieving maneuverability at small scales, although stabilizing such aerial vehicles remains a key challenge. Here, we present a hovering machine that achieves self-righting flight using flapping wings alone, without relying on additional aerodynamic surfaces and without feedback control. We design, construct, and test-fly a prototype that opens and closes four wings, resembling the motions of swimming jellyfish more so than any insect or bird. Lift measurements and high-speed video of free-flight are used to inform an aerodynamic model that explains the stabilization mechanism. These results show the promise of flapping-flight strategies beyond those that directly mimic the wing motions of flying animals.

  3. Complete mitochondrial genome of the jellyfish, Chrysaora quinquecirrha (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Dae-Sik; Park, Eunji; Won, Yong-Jin; Lee, Woo-Jin; Shin, Kyoungsoon; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2014-02-01

    We sequenced 16,775 bp of the linear mitochondrial DNA of the jellyfish Chrysaora quinquecirrha and characterized them. C. quinquecirrha has 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 16S rRNA and 12S rRNA with 3 tRNAs (tRNA-Leu, tRNA-Ser(TGA), tRNA-Met) as shown in Aurelia sp. nov. Both have another two PCGs such as helicase and orf363 with telomeres at both ends. The PCGs of C. quinquecirrha shows anti-G bias on 2nd and 3rd positions of PCGs as well as anti-C bias on 1st and 3rd positions of PCGs.

  4. Hydrogen-fuel-powered bell segments of biomimetic jellyfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Yonas; Villanueva, Alex; Haines, Carter; Novitski, David; Baughman, Ray; Priya, Shashank

    2012-04-01

    Artificial muscles powered by a renewable energy source are desired for joint articulation in bio-inspired autonomous systems. In this study, a robotic underwater vehicle, inspired by jellyfish, was designed to be actuated by a chemical fuel source. The fuel-powered muscles presented in this work comprise nano-platinum catalyst-coated multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) sheets, wrapped on the surface of nickel-titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloy (SMA). As a mixture of oxygen and hydrogen gases makes contact with the platinum, the resulting exothermic reaction activates the nickel-titanium (NiTi)-based SMA. The MWCNT sheets serve as a support for the platinum particles and enhance the heat transfer due to the high thermal conductivity between the composite and the SMA. A hydrogen and oxygen fuel source could potentially provide higher power density than electrical sources. Several vehicle designs were considered and a peripheral SMA configuration under the robotic bell was chosen as the best arrangement. Constitutive equations combined with thermodynamic modeling were developed to understand the influence of system parameters that affect the overall actuation behavior of the fuel-powered SMA. The model is based on the changes in entropy of the hydrogen and oxygen fuel on the composite actuator within a channel. The specific heat capacity is the dominant factor controlling the width of the strain for various pulse widths of fuel delivery. Both theoretical and experimental strains for different diameter (100 and 150 µm) SMA/MWCNT/Pt fuel-powered muscles with dead weight attached at the end exhibited the highest magnitude under 450 ms of fuel delivery within 1.6 mm diameter conduit size. Fuel-powered bell deformation of 13.5% was found to be comparable to that of electrically powered (29%) and natural jellyfish (42%).

  5. Lévy night flights by the jellyfish Periphylla periphylla

    KAUST Repository

    Ugland, KI

    2014-10-22

    Jellyfish blooms occur in marine environments around the world and have been linked to over-fishing, eutrophication and climatic change. In some coastal areas of Norway, the circumglobal Periphylla periphylla has increased to exceptionally high abundances and has replaced fish as the main planktivorous predator despite the ineffectiveness of its non-visual predation compared to visual fish predation. Using data from a bottom-mounted acoustic platform, we collected 12341 in situ measurements of individual vertical movements of large individuals of P. periphylla. These jellyfish are characterized by a stepwise vertical movement. The distribution of their vertical swimming distances was extremely left skewed; about 85% of the swimming distances were less than 3 m, and a few displacements were extremely long with a maximum of 85 m. Chi-square tests of goodness of fit to the tail and Akaike’s information criterion gave overwhelming evidence of the truncated power law. There was a clear diel pattern in the exponent with values significantly larger than 3 during the daytime and significantly lower than 3 at night. This pattern means that P. periphylla switches from relatively limited movements during the day to Lévy-like flights during the night. Since the abundance of zooplankton is large in the P. periphylla fjord, Brownian motion, rather than Lévy flight, is predicted by the optimal foraging hypothesis. It is therefore possible that the Lévy-like search pattern has evolved in the food-scarce oceanic environment, which is the main natural habitat of P. periphylla. Alternatively, the large individuals of the population addressed here may forage on scarcer prey sources than the main prevailing zooplankton in Lurefjorden.

  6. Lipid Profile in Different Parts of Edible Jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Si; Ye, Mengwei; Xu, Jilin; Guo, Chunyang; Zheng, Huakun; Hu, Jiabao; Chen, Juanjuan; Wang, Yajun; Xu, Shanliang; Yan, Xiaojun

    2015-09-23

    Jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum has been exploited commercially as a delicious food for a long time. Although the edible and medicinal values of R. esculentum have gained extensive attention, the effects of lipids on its nutritional value have rarely been reported. In the present of study, the lipid profile including lipid classes, fatty acyl compositions, and fatty acid (FA) positions in lipids from different parts (oral arms, umbrella, and mouth stalk) of R. esculentum was explored by ultraperformance liquid chromatography--electrospray ionization--quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS). More than 87 species from 10 major lipid classes including phosphatidylcholine (PC), lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI), phosphatidylserine (PS), ceramide (Cer), ceramide 2-aminoethylphosphonate (CAEP), and triacylglycerol (TAG) were separated and characterized. Semiquantification of individual lipid species in different parts of R. esculentum was also conducted. Results showed that glycerophospholipids (GPLs) enriched in highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) were the major compenents in all parts of R. esculentum, which accounted for 54-63% of total lipids (TLs). Considering the high level of GPLs and the FA compositions in GPLs, jellyfish R. esculentum might have great potential as a health-promoting food for humans and as a growth-promoting diet for some commercial fish and crustaceans. Meanwhile, LPC, LPE, and LPI showed high levels in oral arms when compared with umbrella and mouth stalk, which may be due to the high proportion of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) in oral arms. Moreover, a high CAEP level was detected in oral arms, which may render cell membranes with resistance to chemical hydrolysis by PLA2. The relatively low TAG content could be associated with specific functions of oral arms.

  7. Pion in a Box

    CERN Document Server

    Bietenholz, W; Horsley, R; Nakamura, Y; Pleiter, D; Rakow, P E L; Schierholz, G; Zanotti, J M

    2010-01-01

    The residual mass of the pion in a finite spatial box at vanishing quark masses is computed with two flavors of dynamical clover fermions. The result is compared with predictions of chiral perturbation theory in the delta regime.

  8. Voice box (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The larynx, or voice box, is located in the neck and performs several important functions in the body. The larynx is involved in swallowing, breathing, and voice production. Sound is produced when the air which ...

  9. Current-oriented swimming by jellyfish and its role in bloom maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossette, Sabrina; Gleiss, Adrian Christopher; Chalumeau, Julien; Bastian, Thomas; Armstrong, Claire Denise; Vandenabeele, Sylvie; Karpytchev, Mikhail; Hays, Graeme Clive

    2015-02-02

    Cross-flows (winds or currents) affect animal movements [1-3]. Animals can temporarily be carried off course or permanently carried away from their preferred habitat by drift depending on their own traveling speed in relation to that of the flow [1]. Animals able to only weakly fly or swim will be the most impacted (e.g., [4]). To circumvent this problem, animals must be able to detect the effects of flow on their movements and respond to it [1, 2]. Here, we show that a weakly swimming organism, the jellyfish Rhizostoma octopus, can orientate its movements with respect to currents and that this behavior is key to the maintenance of blooms and essential to reduce the probability of stranding. We combined in situ observations with first-time deployment of accelerometers on free-ranging jellyfish and simulated the behavior observed in wild jellyfish within a high-resolution hydrodynamic model. Our results show that jellyfish can actively swim countercurrent in response to current drift, leading to significant life-history benefits, i.e., increased chance of survival and facilitated bloom formation. Current-oriented swimming may be achieved by jellyfish either directly detecting current shear across their body surface [5] or indirectly assessing drift direction using other cues (e.g., magnetic, infrasound). Our coupled behavioral-hydrodynamic model provides new evidence that current-oriented swimming contributes to jellyfish being able to form aggregations of hundreds to millions of individuals for up to several months, which may have substantial ecosystem and socioeconomic consequences [6, 7]. It also contributes to improve predictions of jellyfish blooms' magnitude and movements in coastal waters.

  10. Target organ identification of jellyfish envenomation using systemic and integrative analyses in anesthetized dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Changkeun; Kim, Young Ki; Lee, Hyunkyoung; Cha, Mijin; Sohn, Eun-Tae; Jung, Eun-Sun; Song, Chiyoun; Kim, Minkyung; Lee, Hee Chun; Kim, Jong-Shu; Hwang, Jin-Yong; Yoon, Won Duk; Kim, Euikyung

    2011-01-01

    Proper treatment of jellyfish envenomed patients can be successfully achieved only from an understanding of the overall functional changes and alterations in physiological parameters under its envenomation. The majority of previous investigations on jellyfish venoms have covered only a couple of parameters at a time. Unlike most other fragmentary jellyfish studies, we employed an integrative toxicological approach, including hemodynamics, clinical chemistry and hematology analyses, using N. nomurai jellyfish venom (NnV) in dogs. After the baseline measurements for mean arterial pressure (MAP), cardiac output (CO) and heart rate (HR), NnV was intravenously administered to the dogs at doses of 0.1 or 0.3mg/kg body weight. The dogs showed significant decreases in MAP (-27.4±3.7 and -48.1±9.9 mmHg), CO (-1.1±0.1 L/min and -1.0±0.2 L/min), and HR (-4.5±0.3 and -9.9±3.1 beats/min) comparing with the respective baseline controls. The onset of systemic hypotension and bradycardia occurred within 1 min of NnV injection and they lasted for 1-35 min, depending on the NnV doses. Interestingly, serum biochemical analyses of envenomed dogs exhibited dramatic increases of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), indicating its possible target organs. In conclusion, we have demonstrated simultaneously, for the first time, the multiple organ toxicities (cardiotoxic, myotoxic and hepatotoxic) of a scyphozoan jellyfish venom. Based on these results, an integrative toxinological approach using dogs appears to be effective in predicting jellyfish venom toxicities and designing their therapeutic strategies. We expect this method can be applied to other jellyfish venom research as well.

  11. Isolation, characterization and biological evaluation of jellyfish collagen for use in biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addad, Sourour; Exposito, Jean-Yves; Faye, Clément; Ricard-Blum, Sylvie; Lethias, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Fibrillar collagens are the more abundant extracellular proteins. They form a metazoan-specific family, and are highly conserved from sponge to human. Their structural and physiological properties have been successfully used in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. On the other hand, the increase of jellyfish has led us to consider this marine animal as a natural product for food and medicine. Here, we have tested different Mediterranean jellyfish species in order to investigate the economic potential of their collagens. We have studied different methods of collagen purification (tissues and experimental procedures). The best collagen yield was obtained using Rhizostoma pulmo oral arms and the pepsin extraction method (2-10 mg collagen/g of wet tissue). Although a significant yield was obtained with Cotylorhiza tuberculata (0.45 mg/g), R. pulmo was used for further experiments, this jellyfish being considered as harmless to humans and being an abundant source of material. Then, we compared the biological properties of R. pulmo collagen with mammalian fibrillar collagens in cell cytotoxicity assays and cell adhesion. There was no statistical difference in cytotoxicity (p > 0.05) between R. pulmo collagen and rat type I collagen. However, since heparin inhibits cell adhesion to jellyfish-native collagen by 55%, the main difference is that heparan sulfate proteoglycans could be preferentially involved in fibroblast and osteoblast adhesion to jellyfish collagens. Our data confirm the broad harmlessness of jellyfish collagens, and their biological effect on human cells that are similar to that of mammalian type I collagen. Given the bioavailability of jellyfish collagen and its biological properties, this marine material is thus a good candidate for replacing bovine or human collagens in selected biomedical applications.

  12. Isolation, Characterization and Biological Evaluation of Jellyfish Collagen for Use in Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Lethias

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Fibrillar collagens are the more abundant extracellular proteins. They form a metazoan-specific family, and are highly conserved from sponge to human. Their structural and physiological properties have been successfully used in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. On the other hand, the increase of jellyfish has led us to consider this marine animal as a natural product for food and medicine. Here, we have tested different Mediterranean jellyfish species in order to investigate the economic potential of their collagens. We have studied different methods of collagen purification (tissues and experimental procedures. The best collagen yield was obtained using Rhizostoma pulmo oral arms and the pepsin extraction method (2–10 mg collagen/g of wet tissue. Although a significant yield was obtained with Cotylorhiza tuberculata (0.45 mg/g, R. pulmo was used for further experiments, this jellyfish being considered as harmless to humans and being an abundant source of material. Then, we compared the biological properties of R. pulmo collagen with mammalian fibrillar collagens in cell cytotoxicity assays and cell adhesion. There was no statistical difference in cytotoxicity (p > 0.05 between R. pulmo collagen and rat type I collagen. However, since heparin inhibits cell adhesion to jellyfish-native collagen by 55%, the main difference is that heparan sulfate proteoglycans could be preferentially involved in fibroblast and osteoblast adhesion to jellyfish collagens. Our data confirm the broad harmlessness of jellyfish collagens, and their biological effect on human cells that are similar to that of mammalian type I collagen. Given the bioavailability of jellyfish collagen and its biological properties, this marine material is thus a good candidate for replacing bovine or human collagens in selected biomedical applications.

  13. Boxes and Shelves

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Dean

    2008-01-01

    The Boxes and Shelves series from 2008 are are all made from the backing card from discarded writing pads. Boxes and Shelves extended my investigation of quotidian materials and their relationship to the origins of creative toil. Since 1996 my research has sought to identify and locate instances where the 'unmeasurable' meets the measurable. I have consistently employed a range of utilitarian materials such as bus seats, bus tickets, puddles, A4 writing paper, to present a series of 'problem ...

  14. [Boxing: traumatology and prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanis, Emmanuel-Alain; Iba-Zizen, Marie-Thérèse; Perez, Georges; Senegas, Xavier; Furgoni, Julien; Pineau, Jean-Claude; Louquet, Jean-Louis; Henrion, Roger

    2010-10-01

    In 1986, a surgeon who, as an amateur boxer himself was concerned with boxers' health, approached a pioneering Parisian neuroimaging unit. Thus began a study in close cooperation with the French Boxing Federation, spanning 25 years. In a first series of 52 volunteer boxers (13 amateurs and 39 professionals), during which MRI gradually replaced computed tomography, ten risk factors were identified, which notably included boxing style: only one of 40 "stylists" with a good boxing technique had cortical atrophy (4.5 %), compared to 15 % of "sloggers". Changes to the French Boxing Federation rules placed the accent on medical prevention. The second series, of 247 boxers (81 amateurs and 266 professionals), showed a clear improvement, as lesions were suspected in 14 individuals, of which only 4 (1.35 %) were probably due to boxing. The third and fourth series were part of a protocol called "Brain-Boxing-Ageing", which included 76 boxers (11 having suffered KOs) and 120 MRI scans, with reproducible CT and MRI acquisitions (9 sequences with 1.5 T then 3 T, and CT). MRI anomalies secondary to boxing were found in 11 % of amateurs and 38 % of professionals (atrophy, high vascular T2 signal areas, 2 cases of post-KO subdural bleeding). CT revealed sinus damage in 13 % of the amateurs and 19 % of the professionals. The risk of acute and chronic facial and brain damage was underline, along with detailed precautionary measures (organization of bouts, role of the referee and ringside doctor, and application of French Boxing Federation rules).

  15. Infectious disease and boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Osric S

    2009-10-01

    There are no unique boxing diseases but certain factors contributing to the spread of illnesses apply strongly to the boxer, coach, and the training facility. This article examines the nature of the sport of boxing and its surrounding environment, and the likelihood of spread of infection through airborne, contact, or blood-borne routes of transmission. Evidence from other sports such as running, wrestling, and martial arts is included to help elucidate the pathophysiologic elements that could be identified in boxers.

  16. Nonneurologic emergencies in boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coletta, Domenic F

    2009-10-01

    Professional boxing has done an admirable job in promoting safety standards in its particular sport. However, injuries occur during the normal course of competition and, unfortunately, an occasional life-threatening emergency may arise. Although most common medical emergencies in boxing are injuries from closed head trauma, in this article those infrequent but potentially catastrophic nonneurologic conditions are reviewed along with some less serious emergencies that the physician must be prepared to address.

  17. Jellyfish decomposition at the seafloor rapidly alters biogeochemical cycling and carbon flow through benthic food-webs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sweetman, A.K.; Chelsky, A.; Pitt, K.A.; Andrade, H.; Van Oevelen, D.; Renaud, P.E.

    2016-01-01

    Jellyfish blooms have increased in magnitude in several locations around the world, including in fjords.While the factors that promote jellyfish blooms and the impacts of live blooms on marine ecosystems areoften investigated, the post-bloom effects from the sinking and accumulation of dead jellyfis

  18. Cable Tester Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jason H.

    2011-01-01

    Cables are very important electrical devices that carry power and signals across multiple instruments. Any fault in a cable can easily result in a catastrophic outcome. Therefore, verifying that all cables are built to spec is a very important part of Electrical Integration Procedures. Currently, there are two methods used in lab for verifying cable connectivity. (1) Using a Break-Out Box and an ohmmeter this method is time-consuming but effective for custom cables and (2) Commercial Automated Cable Tester Boxes this method is fast, but to test custom cables often requires pre-programmed configuration files, and cables used on spacecraft are often uniquely designed for specific purposes. The idea is to develop a semi-automatic continuity tester that reduces human effort in cable testing, speeds up the electrical integration process, and ensures system safety. The JPL-Cable Tester Box is developed to check every single possible electrical connection in a cable in parallel. This system indicates connectivity through LED (light emitting diode) circuits. Users can choose to test any pin/shell (test node) with a single push of a button, and any other nodes that are shorted to the test node, even if they are in the same connector, will light up with the test node. The JPL-Cable Tester Boxes offers the following advantages: 1. Easy to use: The architecture is simple enough that it only takes 5 minutes for anyone to learn how operate the Cable Tester Box. No pre-programming and calibration are required, since this box only checks continuity. 2. Fast: The cable tester box checks all the possible electrical connections in parallel at a push of a button. If a cable normally takes half an hour to test, using the Cable Tester Box will improve the speed to as little as 60 seconds to complete. 3. Versatile: Multiple cable tester boxes can be used together. As long as all the boxes share the same electrical potential, any number of connectors can be tested together.

  19. Experiments and evidences:jellyfish (Nemopilema nomurai) decomposing and nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) released

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xuegang; SONG Jinming; MA Qingxia; LI Ning; YUAN Huamao; DUAN Liqin; QU Baoxiao

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate nitrogen and phosphorus released in the process of the decomposition of giant jellyfish in the laboratory and found the evidence to verify the influence of nutrients released by the decomposition of jellyfish on the ecosystem in the field. The release of nitrogen and phosphorus from the decomposition ofNemopilema nomurai was examined in a series of experiments under different incubation conditions such as different pH values, salinity values, temperatures and nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations. The results showed that the complete decomposition ofNemopilema nomurai generally took about 4–8 d. The release of nitrogen and phosphorus from the decomposition ofNemopilema nomurai could be divided into two stages: the early stage and the later stage, although the efflux rate of nitrogen was one order more than phosphorus. In the early stage of the decomposition ofNemopilema nomurai, the concentrations of dissolved nitrogen, dissolved phosphorus, total nitrogen and total phosphorus in seawater increased rapidly, and the concentration of nitrogen could reach the highest level in the whole degradation process. In the later stage of the decomposition, the concentrations of dissolved nitrogen and total nitrogen declined slowly, while the concentration of phosphorus in water could reach a maximum in the degradation process. High pH, low salinity, high temperature and N/P will promote the release of nitrogen; low pH is unfavorable to the release of nitrogen but favorable to the release of phosphorus. In addition, we found the concentrations of ammonium and phosphate in the bottom water were higher than those in the surface water during the period of jellyfish bloom in the Jiaozhou Bay, proving that nutrients released by the decomposition of jellyfish have significant influence on nitrogen and phosphorus in the field. For the whole Yellow Sea, nutrients released by jellyfish carcasses may reach up to (2.63±2.98)×107 mol/d of

  20. Biogeography of jellyfish in the North Atlantic, by traditional and genomic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licandro, P.; Blackett, M.; Fischer, A.; Hosia, A.; Kennedy, J.; Kirby, R. R.; Raab, K.; Stern, R.; Tranter, P.

    2015-07-01

    Scientific debate on whether or not the recent increase in reports of jellyfish outbreaks represents a true rise in their abundance has outlined a lack of reliable records of Cnidaria and Ctenophora. Here we describe different jellyfish data sets produced within the EU programme EURO-BASIN. These data were assembled with the aim of creating an improved baseline and providing new data that can be used to evaluate the current diversity and standing stocks of jellyfish in the North Atlantic region. Using a net adapted to sample gelatinous zooplankton quantitatively, cnidarians and ctenophores were collected from the epipelagic layer during spring-summer 2010-2013, in inshore and offshore waters between lat 59 and 68° N and long 62° W and 5° E. Jellyfish were also identified and counted in samples opportunistically collected by other sampling equipment in the same region and at two coastal stations in the Bay of Biscay and in the Gulf of Cadiz. Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) samples collected in 2009-2012 were re-analysed with the aim of identifying the time and location of cnidarian blooms across the North Atlantic Basin. Overall the data show high variability in jellyfish abundance and diversity, mainly in relation to different water masses and bathymetry. Higher densities were generally recorded on the shelves, where the communities tend to be more diverse due to the presence of meropelagic medusae. Comparison of net records from the G.O. Sars transatlantic cruise shows that information on jellyfish diversity differs significantly depending on the sampling gear utilised. Indeed, the big trawls mostly collect relatively large scyphozoan and hydrozoan species, while small hydrozoans and early stages of Ctenophora are only caught by smaller nets. Based on CPR data from 2009 to 2012, blooms of cnidarians occurred in all seasons across the whole North Atlantic Basin. Molecular analysis revealed that, contrary to previous hypotheses, the CPR is able to detect

  1. The BOXES Methodology Black Box Dynamic Control

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, David W

    2012-01-01

    Robust control mechanisms customarily require knowledge of the system’s describing equations which may be of the high order differential type.  In order to produce these equations, mathematical models can often be derived and correlated with measured dynamic behavior.  There are two flaws in this approach one is the level of inexactness introduced by linearizations and the other when no model is apparent.  Several years ago a new genre of control systems came to light that are much less dependent on differential models such as fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms. Both of these soft computing solutions require quite considerable a priori system knowledge to create a control scheme and sometimes complicated training program before they can be implemented in a real world dynamic system. Michie and Chambers’ BOXES methodology created a black box system that was designed to control a mechanically unstable system with very little a priori system knowledge, linearization or approximation.  All the method need...

  2. Role of Thyroxine in Space-Developed Jellyfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangenberg, Dorothy B.

    1997-01-01

    The Aurelia Metamorphosis Test System was previously used to determine the effects of the space environment on the development and behavior of tiny (1-2 mm) jellyfish ephyrae during the SLS-1 and IML-2 missions. Results from the SLS-1 experiment included the discovery that statolith numbers were significantly reduced in Earth-formed ephyrae flown for nine days in space as compared with ground-based controls. In addition, upon return to Earth, six times more ephyrae which had developed in space than those developed on Earth had pulsing abnormalities, indicating that either these animals did not form their neuromuscular structures normally while in space or they were unable to adapt to the Ig environment upon return to Earth. The metamorphosis process, which enables the formation of ephyrae from polyps is influenced by a hormone, Jf-T4 Oellyfish thyroxine) which is synthesized following iodine administration. Two groups of polyps in space, however, formed ephyrae without iodine administration indicating that Jf-T4 synthesis, utilization, or excretion was different in. the ephyrae. Increased synthesis or build-up in the media of the hormone may also be linked to the increased demineralization of statoliths found in space-exposed ephyrae. In previous experiments, we found that externally administered thyroxine causes increased demineralization of statoliths on Earth. Abnormal pulsina in ephyrae following return to Earth during the SLS-1 mission may also be traced to increased Jf-T4 levels. Thyroxine is known to be important to the normal development and function of the nervous system, heart, and skeletal muscles in higher animals. For this third Jellyfish-in-Space experiment, we proposed to quantitate the levels of Jf- T4 and of T4 receptors in space-developed ephyrae and media and to compare these levels with those of animals developing and at Ig in space and on Earth. We expected to be able to determine whether Jf-T4 synthesis and/or secretion is different in space

  3. Depth in box spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pont, Sylvia C; Nefs, Harold T; van Doorn, Andrea J; Wijntjes, Maarten W A; Te Pas, Susan F; de Ridder, Huib; Koenderink, Jan J

    2012-01-01

    Human observers adjust the frontal view of a wireframe box on a computer screen so as to look equally deep and wide, so that in the intended setting the box looks like a cube. Perspective cues are limited to the size-distance effect, since all angles are fixed. Both the size on the screen, and the viewing distance from the observer to the screen were varied. All observers prefer a template view of a cube over a veridical rendering, independent of picture size and viewing distance. If the rendering shows greater or lesser foreshortening than the template, the box appears like a long corridor or a shallow slab, that is, like a 'deformed' cube. Thus observers ignore 'veridicality'. This does not fit an 'inverse optics' model. We discuss a model of 'vision as optical user interface'.

  4. Giant jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai gathering in the Yellow Sea—a numerical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hao; Deng, Lijing; Wang, Yuheng; Zhao, Liang; Li, Xia; Zhang, Fang

    2015-04-01

    A particle tracking model, based on output from the Princeton Ocean Model (POM), is established to study the year-to-year variation of the gathering of giant jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai in early autumn in the Yellow Sea. Particles standing for scyphistoma adhered to the bottom are put initially along the coast from the Changjiang River estuary to Haizhou Bay. The triggering temperature for scyphistoma strobilation is set to 13 °C. The simulated N. nomurai distribution is in good agreement with observations in August 2009. Model results suggest that more jellyfish gathered near tidal front in August-September of 2008 than during the same period of 2009. Using a set of sensitivity experiments, the influences of temperature and circulation on N. nomurai gathering are discussed. Model results suggest the modeled difference in fall gathering of jellyfish between 2008 and 2009 can be attributed more to changes in circulation than the triggering of strobilation by spring bottom temperature.

  5. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Antarctic stalked jellyfish, Haliclystus antarcticus Pfeffer, 1889 (Staurozoa: Stauromedusae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsing-Hui Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In present study, the complete mitogenome sequence of the Antarctic stalked jellyfish, Haliclystus antarcticus Pfeffer (Staurozoa: Stauromedusae has been sequenced by next-generation sequencing method. The assembled mitogenome comprises of 15,766 bp including 13 protein coding genes, 7 transfer RNAs, and 2 ribosomal RNA genes. The overall base of Antarctic stalked jellyfish constitutes of 26.5% for A, 19.6% for C, 19.8% for G, 34.1% for T and show 90% identity to Sessile Jelly, Haliclystus sanjuanensis, in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. The complete mitogenome of the Antarctic stalked jellyfish, contributes fundamental and significant DNA molecular data for further phylogeography and evolutionary analysis for seahorse phylogeny. The complete sequence was deposited in DBBJ/EMBL/GenBank under accession number KU947038.

  6. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Antarctic stalked jellyfish, Haliclystus antarcticus Pfeffer, 1889 (Staurozoa: Stauromedusae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hsing-Hui; Sung, Ping-Jyun; Ho, Hsuan-Ching

    2016-06-01

    In present study, the complete mitogenome sequence of the Antarctic stalked jellyfish, Haliclystus antarcticus Pfeffer (Staurozoa: Stauromedusae) has been sequenced by next-generation sequencing method. The assembled mitogenome comprises of 15,766 bp including 13 protein coding genes, 7 transfer RNAs, and 2 ribosomal RNA genes. The overall base of Antarctic stalked jellyfish constitutes of 26.5% for A, 19.6% for C, 19.8% for G, 34.1% for T and show 90% identity to Sessile Jelly, Haliclystus sanjuanensis, in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. The complete mitogenome of the Antarctic stalked jellyfish, contributes fundamental and significant DNA molecular data for further phylogeography and evolutionary analysis for seahorse phylogeny. The complete sequence was deposited in DBBJ/EMBL/GenBank under accession number KU947038.

  7. Opto-Box

    CERN Document Server

    Bertsche, David; The ATLAS collaboration; Welch, Steven; Smith, Dale Shane; Che, Siinn; Gan, K.K.; Boyd, George Russell Jr

    2015-01-01

    The opto-box is a custom mini-crate for housing optical modules, which process and transfer optoelectronic data. The system tightly integrates electrical, mechanical, and thermal functionality into a small package of size 35x10x8 cm^3. Special attention was given to ensure proper shielding, grounding, cooling, high reliability, and environmental tolerance. The custom modules, which incorporate Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs), were developed through a cycle of rigorous testing and redesign. In total, fourteen opto-boxes have been installed and loaded with modules on the ATLAS detector. They are currently in operation as part of the LHC run 2 data read-out chain.

  8. Eye trauma in boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales, Gustavo; Curreri, Anthony

    2009-10-01

    In boxing, along with a few other sports, trauma is inherent to the nature of the sport; therefore it is considered a high-risk sport for ocular injuries. The long-term morbidity of ocular injuries suffered by boxers is difficult to estimate due to the lack of structured long-term follow-up of these athletes. Complications of blunt ocular trauma may develop years after the athlete has retired from the ring and is no longer considered to be at risk for boxing-related injuries. This article describes the wide range of eye injuries a boxer can sustain, and their immediate and long-term clinical management.

  9. Jellyfish extract induces apoptotic cell death through the p38 pathway and cell cycle arrest in chronic myelogenous leukemia K562 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Choong-Hwan; Abekura, Fukushi; Park, Jun-Young; Park, Nam Gyu; Chang, Young-Chae; Lee, Young-Choon; Chung, Tae-Wook; Ha, Ki-Tae; Son, Jong-Keun

    2017-01-01

    Jellyfish species are widely distributed in the world’s oceans, and their population is rapidly increasing. Jellyfish extracts have several biological functions, such as cytotoxic, anti-microbial, and antioxidant activities in cells and organisms. However, the anti-cancer effect of Jellyfish extract has not yet been examined. We used chronic myelogenous leukemia K562 cells to evaluate the mechanisms of anti-cancer activity of hexane extracts from Nomura’s jellyfish in vitro. In this study, jellyfish are subjected to hexane extraction, and the extract is shown to have an anticancer effect on chronic myelogenous leukemia K562 cells. Interestingly, the present results show that jellyfish hexane extract (Jellyfish-HE) induces apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner. To identify the mechanism(s) underlying Jellyfish-HE-induced apoptosis in K562 cells, we examined the effects of Jellyfish-HE on activation of caspase and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), which are responsible for cell cycle progression. Induction of apoptosis by Jellyfish-HE occurred through the activation of caspases-3,-8 and -9 and phosphorylation of p38. Jellyfish-HE-induced apoptosis was blocked by a caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD. Moreover, during apoptosis in K562 cells, p38 MAPK was inhibited by pretreatment with SB203580, an inhibitor of p38. SB203580 blocked jellyfish-HE-induced apoptosis. Additionally, Jellyfish-HE markedly arrests the cell cycle in the G0/G1 phase. Therefore, taken together, the results imply that the anti-cancer activity of Jellyfish-HE may be mediated apoptosis by induction of caspases and activation of MAPK, especially phosphorylation of p38, and cell cycle arrest at the Go/G1 phase in K562 cells. PMID:28133573

  10. Changes in the small-jellyfish community in recent decades in Jiaozhou Bay, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Song; LI Yinghong; SUN Xiaoxia

    2012-01-01

    We used long term monitoring data to evaluate changes in abundance and species dominance of small-jellyfish (collected with zooplankton net whose bell diameter was less than 5 cm) between 1991 and 2009 in the Jiaozhou Bay,China.Zooplankton samples were vertically towed with conical plankton net from near-bottom to surface,identified microscopically,and mapped in time-space using Grapher 7.0 and Surfer 8.0.Results show that the abundance of small-jellyfish throughout the bay had been increasing during 2001-2009 on average of 15.2 ind./m3,almost 5 times higher than that between 1991 and 2000.The occurrence of peak abundance shifted from spring to summer after 2000,and two peaks appeared in spring and summer,respectively,after 2005.Both the abundance and the frequency of blooms of small-jellyfish increased after 2000 in the bay.In addition,the biodiversity of jellyfish has increased significantly in recent years with a change in dominant species.Several new dominant species appeared after 2000,including Rathkae octopunctata in winter,Phialidium hemisphaericum in spring,summer,and autumn,Phialucium carolinae in spring,and Pleurobrachia globosa in summer and autumn,while some previous dominant species throughout the 1990s (Eirene ceylonensis,Zanclea costata,Lovenella assimilis,and Muggiaea atlantica) were no longer dominant after 2000.The abundance of small-jellyfish was positively correlated with the density of dinoflagellates,and the abundance of zooplankton.We believe that the changes in smalljellyfish abundance and species composition were the result of eutrophication,aquaculture and coastal construction activities around the bay.Concurrently,seawater warming and salinity decrease in recent decades promoted the growth and reproduction of small-jellyfish in the bay.

  11. protective effect of tetracycline against dermal toxicity induced by Jellyfish venom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changkeun Kang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previously, we have reported that most, if not all, of the Scyphozoan jellyfish venoms contain multiple components of metalloproteinases, which apparently linked to the venom toxicity. Further, it is also well known that there is a positive correlation between the inflammatory reaction of dermal tissues and their tissue metalloproteinase activity. Based on these, the use of metalloproteinase inhibitors appears to be a promising therapeutic alternative for the treatment of jellyfish envenomation. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Tetracycline (a metalloproteinase inhibitor has been examined for its activity to reduce or prevent the dermal toxicity induced by Nemopilema nomurai (Scyphozoa: Rhizostomeae jellyfish venom (NnV using in vitro and in vivo models. HaCaT (human keratinocyte and NIH3T3 (mouse fibroblast incubated with NnV showed decreases in cell viability, which is associated with the inductions of metalloproteinase-2 and -9. This result suggests that the use of metalloproteinase inhibitors, such as tetracycline, may prevent the jellyfish venom-mediated local tissue damage. In vivo experiments showed that comparing with NnV-alone treatment, tetracycline pre-mixed NnV demonstrated a significantly reduced progression of dermal toxicity upon the inoculation onto rabbit skin. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: It is believed that there has been no previous report on the therapeutic agent of synthetic chemical origin for the treatment of jellyfish venom-induced dermonecrosis based on understanding its mechanism of action except the use of antivenom treatment. Furthermore, the current study, for the first time, has proposed a novel mechanism-based therapeutic intervention for skin damages caused by jellyfish stings.

  12. Stable hovering of a jellyfish-like flying machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristroph, Leif; Childress, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Ornithopters, or flapping-wing aircraft, offer an alternative to helicopters in achieving manoeuvrability at small scales, although stabilizing such aerial vehicles remains a key challenge. Here, we present a hovering machine that achieves self-righting flight using flapping wings alone, without relying on additional aerodynamic surfaces and without feedback control. We design, construct and test-fly a prototype that opens and closes four wings, resembling the motions of swimming jellyfish more so than any insect or bird. Measurements of lift show the benefits of wing flexing and the importance of selecting a wing size appropriate to the motor. Furthermore, we use high-speed video and motion tracking to show that the body orientation is stable during ascending, forward and hovering flight modes. Our experimental measurements are used to inform an aerodynamic model of stability that reveals the importance of centre-of-mass location and the coupling of body translation and rotation. These results show the promise of flapping-flight strategies beyond those that directly mimic the wing motions of flying animals. PMID:24430122

  13. Pore Water Pumping by Upside-Down Jellyfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddam, Manikantam; Santhanakrishnan, Arvind

    2016-11-01

    Patchy aggregations of Cassiopea medusae, commonly called upside-down jellyfish, are found in sheltered marine environments with low-speed ambient flows. These medusae exhibit a sessile, non-swimming lifestyle, and are oriented such that their bells are attached to the substrate and oral arms point towards sunlight. Pulsations of their bells are used to generate currents for suspension feeding. Their pulsations have also been proposed to generate forces that can release sediment locked nutrients into the surrounding water. The goal of this study is to examine pore water pumping by Cassiopea individuals in laboratory aquaria, as a model for understanding pore water pumping in unsteady flows. Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) measurements were conducted to visualize the release of pore water via bell motion, using fluorescent dye introduced underneath the substrate. 2D particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements were conducted on the same individuals to correlate PLIF-based concentration profiles with the jets generated by pulsing of medusae. The effects of varying bell diameter on pore water release and pumping currents will be discussed.

  14. Faking giants: the evolution of high prey clearance rates in jellyfishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña, José Luis; López-Urrutia, Ángel; Colin, Sean

    2011-09-16

    Jellyfishes have functionally replaced several overexploited commercial stocks of planktivorous fishes. This is paradoxical, because they use a primitive prey capture mechanism requiring direct contact with the prey, whereas fishes use more efficient visual detection. We have compiled published data to show that, in spite of their primitive life-style, jellyfishes exhibit similar instantaneous prey clearance and respiration rates as their fish competitors and similar potential for growth and reproduction. To achieve this production, they have evolved large, water-laden bodies that increase prey contact rates. Although larger bodies are less efficient for swimming, optimization analysis reveals that large collectors are advantageous if they move through the water sufficiently slowly.

  15. Surfactant-laden drop jellyfish-breakup mode induced by the Marangoni effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Zhang, Wen-Bin; Xu, Jian-Liang; Li, Wei-Feng; Liu, Hai-Feng

    2017-03-01

    Drop breakup is a familiar event in both nature and technology. In this study, we find that the bag breakup mode can be replaced by a new breakup mode: jellyfish breakup, when the surfactant concentration of a surfactant-laden drop is high. This new breakup mode has a morphology resembling a jellyfish with many long tentacles. This is due to the inhomogeneous distribution of surfactant in the process of drop deformation and breakup. The thin film of liquid can remain stable as a result of the Marangoni effect. Finally, we propose that the dimensionless surfactant concentration can serve as a criterion for breakup mechanisms.

  16. Severe anaphylactic reaction to mediterranean jellyfish (Ropilhema nomadica envenomation: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadav Friedel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a 15-year-old female patient with an anaphylactic reaction to a jellyfish sting, sustained while surfing in the Mediterranean Sea. She experienced immediate difficulty in breathing, hoarseness and itching and was taken by ambulance to the emergency department, receiving intramuscular adrenaline on the way. She presented with periorbital swelling and facial edema and improved with systemic steroids and antihistamines. She was discharged 2 days later with allergy service follow up at our institution. This is the first case report documenting anaphylaxis due to Mediterranean jellyfish envenomation.

  17. The pharmacology of Malo maxima jellyfish venom extract in isolated cardiovascular tissues: A probable cause of the Irukandji syndrome in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ran; Wright, Christine E; Winkel, Kenneth D; Gershwin, Lisa-Ann; Angus, James A

    2011-03-25

    The in vitro cardiac and vascular pharmacology of Malo maxima, a newly described jellyfish suspected of causing Irukandji syndrome in the Broome region of Western Australia, was investigated in rat tissues. In left atria, M. maxima crude venom extract (CVE; 1-100μg/mL) caused concentration-dependent inotropic responses which were unaffected by atropine (1μM), but significantly attenuated by tetrodotoxin (TTX; 0.1μM), propranolol (1μM), Mg(2+) (6mM) or calcitonin gene-related peptide antagonist (CGRP(8-37); 1μM). CVE caused no change in right atrial rate until 100μg/mL, which elicited bradycardia. This was unaffected by atropine, TTX, propranolol or CGRP(8-37). In the presence of Mg(2+), CVE 30-100μg/mL caused tachycardia. In small mesenteric arteries CVE caused concentration-dependent contractions (pEC(50) 1.03±0.07μg/mL) that were unaffected by prazosin (0.3μM), ω-conotoxin GVIA (0.1μM) or Mg(2+) (6mM). There was a 2-fold increase in sensitivity in the presence of CGRP(8-37) (3μM). TTX (0.1μM), box jellyfish Chironex fleckeri antivenom (92.6U/mL) and benextramine (3μM) decreased sensitivity by 2.6, 1.9 and 2.1-fold, respectively. CVE-induced maximum contractions were attenuated by C. fleckeri antivenom (-22%) or benextramine (-49%). M. maxima CVE appears to activate the sympathetic, but not parasympathetic, nervous system and to stimulate sensory nerve CGRP release in left atria and resistance arteries. These effects are consistent with the catecholamine excess thought to cause Irukandji syndrome, with additional actions of CGRP release.

  18. Hydrophobic, Porous Battery Boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Bobby J.; Casey, John E., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Boxes made of porous, hydrophobic polymers developed to contain aqueous potassium hydroxide electrolyte solutions of zinc/air batteries while allowing air to diffuse in as needed for operation. Used on other types of batteries for in-cabin use in which electrolytes aqueous and from which gases generated during operation must be vented without allowing electrolytes to leak out.

  19. Mystery Box Marvels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Joel; Centurio, Tina

    2012-01-01

    What happens in the first week of school could very well set the stage for the rest of the school year. Setting high standards for science activities based in inquiry can start on the first day of science class and develop as the year unfolds. With the use of simple, readily available, inexpensive materials, an efficient mystery box lesson can be…

  20. Rapid scavenging of jellyfish carcasses reveals the importance of gelatinous material to deep-sea food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetman, Andrew K; Smith, Craig R; Dale, Trine; Jones, Daniel O B

    2014-12-07

    Jellyfish blooms are common in many oceans, and anthropogenic changes appear to have increased their magnitude in some regions. Although mass falls of jellyfish carcasses have been observed recently at the deep seafloor, the dense necrophage aggregations and rapid consumption rates typical for vertebrate carrion have not been documented. This has led to a paradigm of limited energy transfer to higher trophic levels at jelly falls relative to vertebrate organic falls. We show from baited camera deployments in the Norwegian deep sea that dense aggregations of deep-sea scavengers (more than 1000 animals at peak densities) can rapidly form at jellyfish baits and consume entire jellyfish carcasses in 2.5 h. We also show that scavenging rates on jellyfish are not significantly different from fish carrion of similar mass, and reveal that scavenging communities typical for the NE Atlantic bathyal zone, including the Atlantic hagfish, galatheid crabs, decapod shrimp and lyssianasid amphipods, consume both types of carcasses. These rapid jellyfish carrion consumption rates suggest that the contribution of gelatinous material to organic fluxes may be seriously underestimated in some regions, because jelly falls may disappear much more rapidly than previously thought. Our results also demonstrate that the energy contained in gelatinous carrion can be efficiently incorporated into large numbers of deep-sea scavengers and food webs, lessening the expected impacts (e.g. smothering of the seafloor) of enhanced jellyfish production on deep-sea ecosystems and pelagic-benthic coupling.

  1. 浸泡对市售盐渍海蜇皮及海蜇头影响分析%Analysis of Soaking for Commercial Salted Jellyfish and Jellyfish Head

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈瑜; 朱敬萍; 金雷; 鲍静姣

    2016-01-01

    Based on the experimental study on the soaking time, the content of salt, water and alum of jellyfish and jellyfish head was got. The experimental results showed that the water in jellyfish came up to 96. 0% and 96. 6% after 16 h and 24 h, the salt of jellyfish was down to 1. 82% and 0. 19%, the alum of jellyfish was down to 0. 28% and 0. 11% in the same time. The water in jellyfish head came up to 95. 4% and 97. 8% after 16 h and 24 h, the salt of jellyfish was down to 2. 80% and 0. 28%, the alum of jellyfish was down to 0. 28% and 0. 10% in the same time. It turned out that fresh water soaking can reduce the amount of salt and alum in jellyfish and jellyfish head. The salt of jellyfish and jellyfish head can reduce to about 0. 2% ~0. 3% after 24 h, and the salty taste was almost impossible to tell. Alum content was lowered to 0. 1%, it was far lower than the state of aluminum daily limit value of 0. 004 g.%通过对浸泡时长的实验研究,以期得到对海蜇皮和海蜇头的盐分、水分及明矾含量影响的客观了解。实验结果显示,海蜇皮浸泡16 h和24 h后水分含量分别达到96.0%和96.6%,盐分降至1.82%和0.19%,明矾含量降至0.28%和0.11%;海蜇头浸泡16 h和24 h后水分含量达到95.4%和97.8%,盐分降至2.80%和0.28%,明矾含量降至0.28%和0.10%。结果表明,淡水浸泡能有效降低海蜇皮和海蜇头的盐分和明矾含量,且经过24 h海蜇皮和海蜇头的盐分可降至0.2%~0.3%左右,味觉几乎无法辨别到咸味,明矾含量也可降至0.1%左右,远低于国家对铝元素每日摄入限量值0.004 g。

  2. [Effects of macro-jellyfish abundance dynamics on fishery resource structure in the Yangtze River estuary and its adjacent waters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Xiu-Juan; Zhuang, Zhi-Meng; Jin, Xian-Shi; Dai, Fang-Qun

    2011-12-01

    Based on the bottom trawl survey data in May 2007 and May and June 2008, this paper analyzed the effects of the abundance dynamics of macro-jellyfish on the species composition, distribution, and abundance of fishery resource in the Yangtze River estuary and its adjacent waters. From May 2007 to June 2008, the average catch per haul and the top catch per haul of macro-jellyfish increased, up to 222.2 kg x h(-1) and 1800 kg x h(-1) in June 2008, respectively. The macro-jellyfish were mainly distributed in the areas around 50 m isobath, and not beyond 100 m isobath where was the joint front of the coastal waters of East China Sea, Yangtze River runoff, and Taiwan Warm Current. The main distribution area of macro-jellyfish in June migrated northward, as compared with that in May, and the highest catches of macro-jellyfish in May 2007 and May 2008 were found in the same sampling station (122.5 degrees E, 28.5 degrees N). In the sampling stations with higher abundance of macro-jellyfish, the fishery abundance was low, and the fishery species also changed greatly, mainly composed by small-sized species (Trachurus japonicus, Harpadon nehereus, and Acropoma japonicum) and pelagic species (Psenopsis anomala, Octopus variabilis) and Trichiurus japonicus, and P. anomala accounted for 23.7% of the total catch in June 2008. Larimichthys polyactis also occupied higher proportion of the total catch in sampling stations with higher macro-jellyfish abundance, but the demersal species Lophius litulon was not found, and a few crustaceans were collected. This study showed that macro-jellyfish had definite negative effects on the fishery community structure and abundance in the Yangtze River estuary fishery ecosystem, and further, changed the energy flow patterns of the ecosystem through cascading trophic interactions. Therefore, macro-jellyfish was strongly suggested to be an independent ecological group when the corresponding fishery management measures were considered.

  3. Gill damage to Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar caused by the common jellyfish (Aurelia aurita under experimental challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily J Baxter

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over recent decades jellyfish have caused fish kill events and recurrent gill problems in marine-farmed salmonids. Common jellyfish (Aurelia spp. are among the most cosmopolitan jellyfish species in the oceans, with populations increasing in many coastal areas. The negative interaction between jellyfish and fish in aquaculture remains a poorly studied area of science. Thus, a recent fish mortality event in Ireland, involving Aurelia aurita, spurred an investigation into the effects of this jellyfish on marine-farmed salmon. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To address the in vivo impact of the common jellyfish (A. aurita on salmonids, we exposed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar smolts to macerated A. aurita for 10 hrs under experimental challenge. Gill tissues of control and experimental treatment groups were scored with a system that rated the damage between 0 and 21 using a range of primary and secondary parameters. Our results revealed that A. aurita rapidly and extensively damaged the gills of S. salar, with the pathogenesis of the disorder progressing even after the jellyfish were removed. After only 2 hrs of exposure, significant multi-focal damage to gill tissues was apparent. The nature and extent of the damage increased up to 48 hrs from the start of the challenge. Although the gills remained extensively damaged at 3 wks from the start of the challenge trial, shortening of the gill lamellae and organisation of the cells indicated an attempt to repair the damage suffered. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings clearly demonstrate that A. aurita can cause severe gill problems in marine-farmed fish. With aquaculture predicted to expand worldwide and evidence suggesting that jellyfish populations are increasing in some areas, this threat to aquaculture is of rising concern as significant losses due to jellyfish could be expected to increase in the future.

  4. Distribution of moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita in relation to summer hypoxia in Hiroshima Bay, Seto Inland Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Jun; Kudoh, Takaya; Takatsuji, Hideyuki; Kawaguchi, Osamu; Kasai, Akihide

    2010-02-01

    Biological and physical surveys were conducted in order to investigate the relationship between environmental conditions and the distribution of moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita in Hiroshima Bay, western Seto Inland Sea, Japan. Moon jellyfish and ichthyoplankton were collected at 13 stations in Hiroshima Bay during monthly surveys from July to September in 2006 and 2007. Surface temperature in 2006 was significantly lower during the August and September cruises and surface salinity was lower during all cruises than in 2007. Moon jellyfish was the most dominant gelatinous plankton collected, accounting for 89.7% in wet weight. Mean moon jellyfish abundance in 2006 was higher than that in 2007 from July through September, with significant inter-year differences for July and September. Variability in precipitation and nutritional input from the Ohta River, northernmost part of Hiroshima Bay, were suggested as possible factors affecting the inter-annual variability in moon jellyfish abundance in the coastal areas of northern Hiroshima Bay. Moon jellyfish were more abundant in the coastal areas of northern Hiroshima Bay, where the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration was lower, while low in the central part of the bay. Japanese anchovy Engraulis japonicus eggs were most dominant (58.1% in number) among the ichthyoplankton and were abundant in the central area of Hiroshima Bay. Explanatory analysis was conducted to detect possible effects of environmental conditions on the abundance of moon jellyfish and Japanese anchovy eggs during the summer months in Hiroshima Bay. Of the environmental conditions tested (temperature, salinity and DO of surface and bottom layers at each sampling station), bottom DO had the most significant effect on the moon jellyfish abundance: there was a negative correlation between the bottom DO and the moon jellyfish abundance in Hiroshima Bay during summer.

  5. Introduction to the China Jellyfish Project——The Key Processes, Mechanism and Ecological Consequences of Jellyfish Bloom in China Coastal Waters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xiaoxia; WANG Shiwei; SUN Song

    2011-01-01

    @@ As a National Basic Research Program (973 Program) of China, the Key Processes, Mechanism and Ecological Consequences of Jellyfish Bloom in China Coastal Waters led by Prof.SUN Song from Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IOCAS) was endorsed by the Ministry of Science and Technology.Recently, the kick-off meeting of this five-year (2011-2015) program was held on January 15-16 in Qingdao,China.More than 120 participants attended the meeting.

  6. Making Connections with Memory Boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whatley, April

    2000-01-01

    Addresses the use of children's literature within the social studies classroom on the topic of memory boxes. Includes discussions of four books: (1) "The Littlest Angel" (Charles Tazewell); (2) "The Hundred Penny Box" (Sharon Bell Mathis); (3) "Wilfrid Gordon McDonald Partridge" (Mem Fox); and (4) "The Memory Box" (Mary Bahr). (CMK)

  7. Sphingophosphonolipids, phospholipids, and fatty acids from Aegean jellyfish Aurelia aurita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariotoglou, D M; Mastronicolis, S K

    2001-11-01

    The goal of this study is to elucidate and identify several sphingophosphonolipids from Aurelia aurita, an abundant but harmless Aegean jellyfish, in which they have not previously been described. Total lipids of A. aurita were 0.031-0.036% of fresh tissue, and the lipid phosphorus content was 1.3-1.7% of total lipids. Phosphonolipids were 21.7% of phospholipids and consisted of a major ceramide aminoethylphosphonate (CAEP-I; 18.3%), as well as three minor CAEP (II, III, IV) methyl analogs at 1.3, 1.1, and 1.0%, respectively. The remaining phospholipid composition was: phosphatidylcholine, 44.5%, including 36.2% glycerylethers; phosphatidylethanolamine, 18.6%, including 4.5% glycerylethers; cardiolipin, 5.6%; phosphatidylinositol, 2.6%; and lysophosphatidylcholine, 5.0%. In CAEP-I, saturated fatty acids of 14-18 carbon chain length were 70.8% and were combined with 57.3% dihydroxy bases and 23.4% trihydroxy bases. The suite of the three minor CAEP methyl analogs were of the same lipid class based on the head group, but they separated into three different components because of their polarity as follows: CAEP-II and CAEP-III differentiation from the major CAEP-I was mainly due to the increased fatty acid unsaturation and not to a different long-chain base, but the CAEP-IV differentiation from CAEP-I, apart from fatty acid unsaturation, was due to the increased content of hydroxyl groups originated from both hydroxy fatty acids and trihydroxy long-chain bases. Saturated fatty acids were predominant in total (76.7%), polar (83.0%), and neutral lipids (67.6%) of A. aurita. The major phospholipid components of A. aurita were comparable to those previously found in a related organism (Pelagia noctiluca), which can injure humans.

  8. Systematics and biogeography of the jellyfish Aurelia labiata (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershwin, L A

    2001-08-01

    The hypothesis that the common eastern North Pacific Aurelia is A. aurita is falsified with morphological analysis. The name Aurelia labiata is resurrected, and the species is redescribed, to refer to medusae differing from A. aurita by a suite of characters related to a broad and elongated manubrium. Specifically, the oral arms are short, separated by and arising from the base of the fleshy manubrium, and the planulae are brooded upon the manubrium itself, rather than on the oral arms. Aurelia aurita possesses no corresponding enlarged structure. Furthermore, the number of radial canals is typically much greater in A. labiata, and thus the canals often appear more anastomosed than in A. aurita. Finally, most A. labiata medusae possess a 16-scalloped bell margin, whereas the margin is 8-scalloped in most A. aurita. Separation of the two forms has previously been noted on the basis of allozyme and isozyme analyses and on the histology of the neuromuscular system. Partial 18S rDNA sequencing corroborates these findings. Three distinct morphotypes of A. labiata, corresponding to separate marine bioprovinces, have been identified among 17 populations from San Diego, California, to Prince William Sound, Alaska. The long-undisputed species A. limbata may be simply a color morph of A. labiata, or a species within a yet-unelaborated A. labiata species complex. The first known introduction of Aurelia cf. aurita into southern California waters is documented. Although traditional jellyfish taxonomy tends to recognize many species as cosmopolitan or nearly so, these results indicate that coastal species, such as A. labiata, may experience rapid divergence among isolated populations, and that the taxonomy of such species should therefore be scrutinized with special care.

  9. Studying large jellyfish swimming hydrodynamics using a biomimetic robot named Cyro 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Colin; Krummel, Gregory; Villanueva, Alex; Marut, Kenneth; Priya, Shashank

    2015-11-01

    Some species of jellyfish can grow to great sizes, such as the lion's mane jellyfish (Cyanea capillata), which can span 2 m in diameter with tentacles 30 m long, roughly the same length as a blue whale. This is an impressive feat for an animal that begins its mobile life three orders of magnitude smaller. Such growth can require a large energy budget, suggesting that Cyanea may be a uniquely efficient swimmer, successful predator, or both. Either accolade would stem from a high level of hydrodynamic mastery as oblate jellyfish like Cyanea rely on the flow currents generated by bell pulsation for both propulsive thrust and prey encounter. However, further investigation has been hindered by the lack of reported quantitative flow measurements, perhaps due to the logistic challenges inherent to studying large specimen in vivo. Here, we used a 50 cm diameter biomimetic Cyanea robot named Cyro 2 as a proxy to study the hydrodynamics of large jellyfish. The effect of different trailing structure morphologies (e.g. oral arms and tentacles), swimming gaits, and kinematics on flow patterns were measured using PIV. Baseline swimming performance using biomimetic settings (but no trailing structures) was characterized by a cycle average velocity of 6.58 cm s-1, thrust of 1.9 N, and power input of 5.7 W, yielding a vehicle efficiency of 2.2% and a cost of transport of 15.4 J kg-1 m-1.

  10. Detection of microvasculature alterations by synchrotron radiation in murine with delayed jellyfish envenomation syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Beilei; Zhang, Bo; Huo, Hua; Wang, Tao; Wang, Qianqian; Wu, Yuanlin; Xiao, Liang; Ren, Yuqi; Zhang, Liming

    2014-04-01

    Using the tentacle extract (TE) from the jellyfish Cyanea capillata, we have previously established a delayed jellyfish envenomation syndrome (DJES) model, which is meaningful for clinical interventions against jellyfish stings. However, the mechanism of DJES still remains unclear. Thus, this study aimed to explore its potential mechanism by detecting TE-induced microvasculature alterations in vivo and ex vivo. Using a third-generation synchrotron radiation facility, we, for the first time, directly observed the blood vessel alterations induced by jellyfish venom in vivo and ex vivo. Firstly, microvasculature imaging of whole-body mouse in vivo indicated that the small blood vessel branches in the liver and kidney in the TE-treated group, seemed much thinner than those in the control group. Secondly, 3D imaging of kidney ex vivo showed that the kidneys in the TE-treated group had incomplete vascular trees where distal vessel branches were partly missing and disorderly disturbed. Finally, histopathological analysis found that obvious morphological changes, especially hemorrhagic effects, were also present in the TE-treated kidney. Thus, TE-induced microvasculature changes might be one of the important mechanisms of multiple organ dysfunctions in DJES. In addition, the methods we employed here will probably facilitate further studies on developing effective intervention strategies against DJES.

  11. Vertical distribution of giant jellyfish, Nemopilema nomurai using acoustics and optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seonghun; Lee, Kyounghoon; Yoon, Won Duk; Lee, Hyungbeen; Hwang, Kangseok

    2016-03-01

    Nemopilema nomurai jellyfish, which are believed to complete their development in the East China Sea, have started migrating into the Yellow Sea in recent years. We obtained biomass estimates of this species in the Yellow Sea using bottom trawl fishing gear and sighting surveys over a 5-year period. These methods are effective for obtaining N. nomurai jellyfish density estimates and information about the community distribution near the bottom or surface of the sea. To verify the vertical distributions of giant jellyfish between, we used hydroacoustic equipment, including an optical stereo camera system attached to a towed sledge and an echo counting method with scientific echosounder system. Acoustic and optical data were collected while the vessel moved at 3 knots, from which the distribution and density of N. nomurai jellyfish were analyzed. Subsequently, the camera system was towed from a 7 m mean depth to sea level, with the detection range of the acoustic system extending from an 8 m depth to the bottom surface. The optical and acoustic methods indicated the presence of vertical distribution of 0.113 (inds/m3) and 0.064 (inds/m3), respectively. However, the vertical distribution indicated that around 93% of individuals occurred at a depth range of 10-40 m; thus, a 2.4-fold greater density was estimated by acoustic echo counting compared to the optical method.

  12. Passive energy recapture in jellyfish contributes to propulsive advantage over other metazoans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemmell, Brad J; Costello, John H; Colin, Sean P; Stewart, Colin J; Dabiri, John O; Tafti, Danesh; Priya, Shashank

    2013-10-29

    Gelatinous zooplankton populations are well known for their ability to take over perturbed ecosystems. The ability of these animals to outcompete and functionally replace fish that exhibit an effective visual predatory mode is counterintuitive because jellyfish are described as inefficient swimmers that must rely on direct contact with prey to feed. We show that jellyfish exhibit a unique mechanism of passive energy recapture, which is exploited to allow them to travel 30% further each swimming cycle, thereby reducing metabolic energy demand by swimming muscles. By accounting for large interspecific differences in net metabolic rates, we demonstrate, contrary to prevailing views, that the jellyfish (Aurelia aurita) is one of the most energetically efficient propulsors on the planet, exhibiting a cost of transport (joules per kilogram per meter) lower than other metazoans. We estimate that reduced metabolic demand by passive energy recapture improves the cost of transport by 48%, allowing jellyfish to achieve the large sizes required for sufficient prey encounters. Pressure calculations, using both computational fluid dynamics and a newly developed method from empirical velocity field measurements, demonstrate that this extra thrust results from positive pressure created by a vortex ring underneath the bell during the refilling phase of swimming. These results demonstrate a physical basis for the ecological success of medusan swimmers despite their simple body plan. Results from this study also have implications for bioinspired design, where low-energy propulsion is required.

  13. Geographic patterns of fishes and jellyfish in Puget Sound surface waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Casimir A.; Duda, Jeffrey J.; Greene, Correigh M.; Karr, James R.

    2012-01-01

    We explored patterns of small pelagic fish assemblages and biomass of gelatinous zooplankton (jellyfish) in surface waters across four oceanographic subbasins of greater Puget Sound. Our study is the first to collect data documenting biomass of small pelagic fishes and jellyfish throughout Puget Sound; sampling was conducted opportunistically as part of a juvenile salmon survey of daytime monthly surface trawls at 52 sites during May–August 2003. Biomass composition differed spatially and temporally, but spatial differences were more distinct. Fish dominated in the two northern basins of Puget Sound, whereas jellyfish dominated in the two southern basins. Absolute and relative abundance of jellyfish, hatchery Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, and chum salmon O. keta decreased with increasing latitude, whereas the absolute and relative abundance of most fish species and the average fish species richness increased with latitude. The abiotic factors with the strongest relationship to biomass composition were latitude, water clarity, and sampling date. Further study is needed to understand the spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the taxonomic composition we observed in Puget Sound surface waters, especially as they relate to natural and anthropogenic influences.

  14. Lichen planus-like eruption resulting from a jellyfish sting: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh Sudip Kumar

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Contact with a jellyfish can cause a wide variety of conditions, ranging from cutaneous eruption to fatal cardiovascular and respiratory collapse. Cutaneous features can be both acute and chronic. We report a case of persistent lichen planus-like eruption in a young boy after a jellyfish sting, a hitherto unreported occurrence. Case presentation A 15-year-old boy presented with multiple lichen planus-like violaceous papules over the lower part of his left thigh on the anterior aspect and also over the patellar region. He had a history of a jellyfish sting over his lower limbs incurred while bathing in the sea four weeks prior to presentation. Histopathology revealed a predominantly perivascular mononuclear cell infiltrate immediately beneath the dermoepidermal junction underneath the hyperplastic epidermis. The lesions significantly subsided with topical corticosteroid application. Conclusion This case report demonstrates a new variant of chronic cutaneous change following a jellyfish sting. We report it because of its uniqueness and we believe that physicians should be aware of the possibility of an aquatic animal-induced disease when dealing with lesions with lichen planus-like morphology.

  15. Isolation, Characterization and Evaluation of Collagen from Jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum Kishinouye for Use in Hemostatic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiaochen; Liu, Chenguang

    2017-01-01

    Hemostat has been a crucial focus since human body is unable to control massive blood loss, and collagen proves to be an effective hemostat in previous studies. In this study, collagen was isolated from the mesoglea of jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum Kishinouye and its hemostatic property was studied. The yields of acid-soluble collagen (ASC) and pepsin-soluble (PSC) were 0.12% and 0.28% respectively. The SDS-PAGE patterns indicated that the collagen extracted from jellyfish mesoglea was type I collagen. The lyophilized jellyfish collagen sponges were cross-linked with EDC and interconnected networks in the sponges were revealed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Collagen sponges exhibited higher water absorption rates than medical gauze and EDC/NHS cross-linking method could improve the stability of the collagen sponges. Compared with medical gauze groups, the blood clotting indexes (BCIs) of collagen sponges were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) and the concentration of collagen also had an influence on the hemostatic property (P < 0.05). Collagen sponges had an improved hemostatic ability compared to the gauze control in tail amputation rat models. Hemostatic mechanism studies showed that hemocytes and platelets could adhere and aggregate on the surface of collagen sponge. All properties make jellyfish collagen sponge to be a suitable candidate used as hemostatic material and for wound healing applications. PMID:28103327

  16. Flawed citation practices facilitate the unsubstantiated perception of a global trend toward increased jellyfish blooms

    KAUST Repository

    Sanz-Martín, Marina

    2016-06-24

    Speculation over a global rise in jellyfish populations has become widespread in the scientific literature, but until recently the purported ‘global increase’ had not been tested. Here we present a citation analysis of peer-reviewed literature to track the evolution of the current perception of increases in jellyfish and identify key papers involved in its establishment. Trend statements and citation threads were reviewed and arranged in a citation network. Trend statements were assessed according their degree of affirmation and spatial scale, and the appropriateness of the citations used to support statements was assessed. Analyses showed that 48.9% of publications misinterpreted the conclusions of cited sources, with a bias towards claiming jellyfish populations are increasing, with a single review having the most influence on the network. Collectively, these disparities resulted in a network based on unsubstantiated statements and citation threads. As a community, we must ensure our statements about scientific findings in general are accurately substantiated and carefully communicated such that incorrect perceptions, as in the case of jellyfish blooms, do not develop in the absence of rigorous testing. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd

  17. Learning from jellyfish: Fluid transport in muscular pumps at intermediate Reynolds numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawroth, Janna; Dabiri, John

    2010-11-01

    Biologically inspired hydrodynamic propulsion and maneuvering strategies promise the advancement of medical implants and minimally invasive clinical tools. We have chosen juvenile jellyfish as a model system for investigating fluid dynamics and morphological properties underlying fluid transport by a muscular pump at intermediate Reynolds numbers. Recently we have described how natural variations in viscous forces are balanced by changes in jellyfish body shape (phenotypic plasticity), to the effect of facilitating efficient body-fluid interaction. Complementing these studies in our live model organisms, we are also engaged in engineering an artificial jellyfish, that is, a jellyfish-inspired construct of a flexible plastic sheet actuated by a monolayer of rat cardiomyocytes. The main challenges here are (1) to derive a body shape and deformation suitable for effective fluid transport under physiological conditions, (2) to understand the mechanical properties of the muscular film and derive a design capable of the desired deformation, (3) to master the proper alignment and timely contraction of the muscle component needed to achieve the desired deformation, and (4) to evaluate the performance of the design.

  18. Opto-Box

    CERN Document Server

    Bertsche, David; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The opto-box is a custom mini-crate for housing optical modules, which process and transfer optoelectronic data. Many novel solutions were developed for the custom design and manufacturing. The system tightly integrates electrical, mechanical, and thermal functionality into a small package of size 35x10x8 cm$^{3}$. Special attention was given to ensure proper shielding, grounding, cooling, high reliability, and environmental tolerance. The custom modules, which incorporate Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs), were developed through a cycle of rigorous testing and redesign. In total, fourteen opto-boxes have been installed and loaded with modules on the ATLAS detector. They are currently in operation as part of the LHC run 2 data read-out chain.

  19. Boxed Permutation Pattern Matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amit, Mika; Bille, Philip; Cording, Patrick Hagge;

    2016-01-01

    the goal is to only find the boxed subsequences of T that are order-isomorphic to P. This problem was introduced by Bruner and Lackner who showed that it can be solved in O(n3) time. Cho et al. [CPM 2015] gave an O(n2m) time algorithm and improved it to O(n2 logm). In this paper we present a solution...

  20. The Box Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    The velocity level in a room ventilated by jet ventilation is strongly influenced by the supply conditions. The momentum flow in the supply jets controls the air movement in the room and, therefore, it is very important that the inlet conditions and the numerical method can generate a satisfactory...... description of this momentum flow. The Box Method is a practical method for the description of an Air Terminal Device which will save grid points and ensure the right level of the momentum flow....

  1. The Electronic Battle Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouin, Denis; Turcotte, Guy; Lebel, Eric; Gilbert, Annie

    2000-08-01

    The Electronic Battle Box is an integrated suite of planning and decision-aid tools specially designed to facilitate Canadian Armed Force Officers during their training and during their tasks of preparing and conducting military operations. It is the result of a collaborative effort between the Defence Research Establishment Valcartier, the Directorate of Army Doctrine (DAD), the Directorate of Land Requirements (DLR), the G4 staff of 1Cdn Div HQ and CGI Information and Management Consultants Inc. Distributed on CD-ROM, the Electronic Battle Box contains efficient and user-friendly tools that significantly reduce the planning time for military operations and ensure staff officers a better focus on significant tasks. Among the tools are an OrBat Browser and an Equipment Browser allowing to view and edit military organizations, a Task Browser providing facilities to prepare plans using Gantt charts, a Logistic Planner allowing to estimate supply requirements applying complex calculations, and Road, Air and Rail Movement Planners. EBB also provides staff officers with a large set of doctrinal documents in an electronic format. This paper provides an overview of the various tools of the Electronic Battle Box.

  2. Jellyfish Distribution and Habitat, Aquatic Invasive Species (AIS) animal distribution in Wisconsin - Freshwater jellyfish, Published in 2009, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Wisconsin DNR Bureau of Watershed Management.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Jellyfish Distribution and Habitat dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Observation information as of 2009....

  3. Preformed beading and boxing appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, J Sashi Deepth; Padmanabhan, T V; Veerareddy, Chandrika; Chandrasekhar, M; Narendra, R

    2013-03-01

    Conventional beading and boxing procedure is time consuming and involves application of heat that might distort green stick compound used for border molding. Earlier studies regarding beading and boxing methods have shown usage of various materials that were disposable and that cannot be recycled. To reduce the time consumed for beading and boxing procedure and to make this procedure cost-effective by using recyclable beading material, "Preformed boxing appliance" with moldable clay meant for beading the secondary impression was used. Secondary impression was supported by 3 studs provided on the floor of the boxing appliance. The cast was poured. The duration for the entire procedure was much less than the conventional procedure.

  4. Reynolds number limits for jet propulsion: a numerical study of simplified jellyfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herschlag, Gregory; Miller, Laura

    2011-09-21

    The Scallop theorem states that reciprocal methods of locomotion, such as jet propulsion or paddling, will not work in Stokes flow (Reynolds number=0). In nature the effective limit of jet propulsion is still in the range where inertial forces are significant. It appears that almost all animals that use jet propulsion swim at Reynolds numbers (Re) of about 5 or more. Juvenile squid and octopods hatch from the egg already swimming in this inertial regime. Juvenile jellyfish, or ephyrae, break off from polyps swimming at Re greater than 5. Many other organisms, such as scallops, rarely swim at Re less than 100. The limitations of jet propulsion at intermediate Re is explored here using the immersed boundary method to solve the 2D Navier-Stokes equations coupled to the motion of a simplified jellyfish. The contraction and expansion kinematics are prescribed, but the forward and backward swimming motions of the idealized jellyfish are emergent properties determined by the resulting fluid dynamics. Simulations are performed for both an oblate bell shape using a paddling mode of swimming and a prolate bell shape using jet propulsion. Average forward velocities and work put into the system are calculated for Re between 1 and 320. The results show that forward velocities rapidly decay with decreasing Re for all bell shapes when Rejellyfish after two pulse cycles are comparable to those reported for Aurelia aurita, but discrepancies are observed in the vortex dynamics between when the 2D model oblate jellyfish and the organism. This discrepancy is likely due to a combination of the differences between the 3D reality of the jellyfish and the 2D simplification, as well as the rigidity of the time varying geometry imposed by the idealized model.

  5. Spatiotemporal distribution of protozooplankton and copepod nauplii in relation to the occurrence of giant jellyfish in the Yellow Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Xu, Kuidong

    2013-11-01

    The occurrence of the giant jellyfish, Nemopilema nomurai, has been a frequent phenomenon in the Yellow Sea. However, the relationship between the giant jellyfish and protozoa, in particular ciliates, remains largely unknown. We investigated the distribution of nanoflagellates, ciliates, Noctiluca scintillans, and copepod nauplii along the transect 33°N in the Yellow Sea in June and August, 2012, during an occurrence of the giant jellyfish, and in October of that year when the jellyfish was absent. The organisms studied were mainly concentrated in the surface waters in summer, while in autumn they were evenly distributed in the water column. Nanoflagellate, ciliate, and copepod nauplii biomasses increased from early June to August along with jellyfish growth, the first two decreased in October, while N. scintillans biomass peaked in early June to 3 571 μg C/L and decreased in August and October. In summer, ciliate biomass greatly exceeded that of copepod nauplii (4.61-15.04 μg C/L vs. 0.34-0.89 μg C/L). Ciliate production was even more important than biomass, ranging from 6.59 to 34.19 μg C/(L·d) in summer. Our data suggest a tight and positive association among the nano-, micro-, and meso-zooplankton in the study area. Statistical analysis revealed that the abundance and total production of ciliate as well as loricate ciliate biomass were positively correlated with giant jellyfish biomass, indicating a possible predator-prey relationship between ciliates and giant jellyfish. This is in contrast to a previous study, which reported a significant reduction in ciliate standing crops due to the mass occurrence of N. nomurai in summer. Our study indicates that, with its high biomass and, in particular, high production ciliates might support the mass occurrence of giant jellyfish.

  6. Growth, Development and Temporal Variation in the Onset of Six Chironex fleckeri Medusae Seasons: A Contribution to Understanding Jellyfish Ecology

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Despite the worldwide distribution, toxicity and commercial, industrial and medical impacts jellyfish present, many aspects of their ecology remain poorly understood. Quantified here are important ecological parameters of Chironex fleckeri medusae, contributing not only to the understanding of an understudied taxon, the cubozoa, but also to the broader understanding of jellyfish ecology. C. fleckeri medusae were collected across seven seasons (1999, 2000, 2003, 2005-07 and 2010), with growth ...

  7. Efficacy of Venom from Tentacle of Jellyfish Stomolophus meleagris (Nemopilema nomurai against the Cotton Bollworm Helicoverpa armigera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huahua Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficacy of venom from tentacle of jellyfish Stomolophus meleagris against the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera was determined. Venom from tentacle of jellyfish Stomolophus meleagris could inhibit the growth of Helicoverpa armigera and the weight inhibiting rate of sample NFr-2 was 60.53%. Of the six samples, only NFr-2 had high insecticidal activity against Helicoverpa armigera and the corrected mortality recorded at 7 d was 74.23%.

  8. Projection optics box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Layton C.; Malsbury, Terry; Hudyma, Russell M.; Parker, John M.

    2000-01-01

    A projection optics box or assembly for use in an optical assembly, such as in an extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) system using 10-14 nm soft x-ray photons. The projection optics box utilizes a plurality of highly reflective optics or mirrors, each mounted on a precision actuator, and which reflects an optical image, such as from a mask, in the EUVL system onto a point of use, such as a target or silicon wafer, the mask, for example, receiving an optical signal from a source assembly, such as a developed from laser system, via a series of highly reflective mirrors of the EUVL system. The plurality of highly reflective optics or mirrors are mounted in a housing assembly comprised of a series of bulkheads having wall members secured together to form a unit construction of maximum rigidity. Due to the precision actuators, the mirrors must be positioned precisely and remotely in tip, tilt, and piston (three degrees of freedom), while also providing exact constraint.

  9. Jellyfish prediction of occurrence from remote sensing data and a non-linear pattern recognition approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albajes-Eizagirre, Anton; Romero, Laia; Soria-Frisch, Aureli; Vanhellemont, Quinten

    2011-11-01

    Impact of jellyfish in human activities has been increasingly reported worldwide in recent years. Segments such as tourism, water sports and leisure, fisheries and aquaculture are commonly damaged when facing blooms of gelatinous zooplankton. Hence the prediction of the appearance and disappearance of jellyfish in our coasts, which is not fully understood from its biological point of view, has been approached as a pattern recognition problem in the paper presented herein, where a set of potential ecological cues was selected to test their usefulness for prediction. Remote sensing data was used to describe environmental conditions that could support the occurrence of jellyfish blooms with the aim of capturing physical-biological interactions: forcing, coastal morphology, food availability, and water mass characteristics are some of the variables that seem to exert an effect on jellyfish accumulation on the shoreline, under specific spatial and temporal windows. A data-driven model based on computational intelligence techniques has been designed and implemented to predict jellyfish events on the beach area as a function of environmental conditions. Data from 2009 over the NW Mediterranean continental shelf have been used to train and test this prediction protocol. Standard level 2 products are used from MODIS (NASA OceanColor) and MERIS (ESA - FRS data). The procedure for designing the analysis system can be described as following. The aforementioned satellite data has been used as feature set for the performance evaluation. Ground truth has been extracted from visual observations by human agents on different beach sites along the Catalan area. After collecting the evaluation data set, the performance between different computational intelligence approaches have been compared. The outperforming one in terms of its generalization capability has been selected for prediction recall. Different tests have been conducted in order to assess the prediction capability of the

  10. The Classroom Animal: Box Turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, David C.

    1986-01-01

    Provides basic information on the anatomy, physiology, behaviors, and distribution patterns of the box turtle. Offers suggestions for the turtle's care and maintenance in a classroom environment. (ML)

  11. Boxing-related head injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayarao, Mayur; Chin, Lawrence S; Cantu, Robert C

    2010-10-01

    Fatalities in boxing are most often due to traumatic brain injury that occurs in the ring. In the past 30 years, significant improvements in ringside and medical equipment, safety, and regulations have resulted in a dramatic reduction in the fatality rate. Nonetheless, the rate of boxing-related head injuries, particularly concussions, remains unknown, due in large part to its variability in clinical presentation. Furthermore, the significance of repeat concussions sustained when boxing is just now being understood. In this article, we identify the clinical manifestations, pathophysiology, and management of boxing-related head injuries, and discuss preventive strategies to reduce head injuries sustained by boxers.

  12. Polymers in Curved Boxes

    CERN Document Server

    Yaman, K; Solis, F J; Witten, T A

    1996-01-01

    We apply results derived in other contexts for the spectrum of the Laplace operator in curved geometries to the study of an ideal polymer chain confined to a spherical annulus in arbitrary space dimension D and conclude that the free energy compared to its value for an uncurved box of the same thickness and volume, is lower when $D < 3$, stays the same when $D = 3$, and is higher when lowers the effective bending elasticity of the walls, and might induce spontaneous symmetry breaking, i.e. bending. (Actually, the above mentioned results show that {\\em {any}} shell in $D = 3$ induces this effect, except for a spherical shell). We compute the contribution of this effect to the bending rigidities in the Helfrich free energy expression.

  13. ACSYS in a box

    CERN Document Server

    Briegel, C; Hendricks, B; King, C; Lackey, S; Neswold, R; Nicklaus, D; Patrick, J; Petrov, A; Rechenmacher, R; Schumann, C; Smedinghoff, J

    2012-01-01

    The Accelerator Control System at Fermilab has evolved to enable this relatively large control system to be encapsulated into a "box" such as a laptop. The goal was to provide a platform isolated from the "online" control system. This platform can be used internally for making major upgrades and modifications without impacting operations. It also provides a standalone environment for research and development including a turnkey control system for collaborators. Over time, the code base running on Scientific Linux has enabled all the salient features of the Fermilab's control system to be captured in an off-the-shelf laptop. The anticipated additional benefits of packaging the system include improved maintenance, reliability, documentation, and future enhancements.

  14. Jellyfish aggregations and leatherback turtle foraging patterns in a temperate coastal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Jonathan D R; Doyle, Thomas K; Wilson, Mark W; Davenport, John; Hays, Graeme C

    2006-08-01

    Leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) are obligate predators of gelatinous zooplankton. However, the spatial relationship between predator and prey remains poorly understood beyond sporadic and localized reports. To examine how jellyfish (Phylum Cnidaria: Orders Semaeostomeae and Rhizostomeae) might drive the broad-scale distribution of this wide ranging species, we employed aerial surveys to map jellyfish throughout a temperate coastal shelf area bordering the northeast Atlantic. Previously unknown, consistent aggregations of Rhizostoma octopus extending over tens of square kilometers were identified in distinct coastal "hotspots" during consecutive years (2003-2005). Examination of retrospective sightings data (>50 yr) suggested that 22.5% of leatherback distribution could be explained by these hotspots, with the inference that these coastal features may be sufficiently consistent in space and time to drive long-term foraging associations.

  15. Reynolds number limits for jet propulsion: A numerical study of simplified jellyfish

    CERN Document Server

    Herschlag, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    The Scallop Theorem states that reciprocal methods of locomotion, such as jet propulsion or paddling, will not work in Stokes flow (Reynolds number = 0). In nature the effective limit of jet propulsion is still in the range where inertial forces are significant. It appears that almost all animals that use jet propulsion swim at Reynolds numbers (Re) of about 5 or more. Juvenile squid and octopods hatch from the egg already swimming in this inertial regime. The limitations of jet propulsion at intermediate Re is explored here using the immersed boundary method to solve the two-dimensional Navier Stokes equations coupled to the motion of a simplified jellyfish. The contraction and expansion kinematics are prescribed, but the forward and backward swimming motions of the idealized jellyfish are emergent properties determined by the resulting fluid dynamics. Simulations are performed for both an oblate bell shape using a paddling mode of swimming and a prolate bell shape using jet propulsion. Average forward veloc...

  16. Optimization of antioxidant activity by response surface methodology in hydrolysates of jellyfish (Rhopilema esculentum) umbrella collagen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-liang ZHUANG; Xue ZHAO; Ba-fang LI

    2009-01-01

    To optimize the hydrolysis conditions to prepare hydrolysates of jellyfish umbrella collagen with the highest hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, collagen extracted from jellyfish umbrella was hydrolyzed with trypsin, and response surface methodology (RSM) was applied. The optimum conditions obtained from experiments were pH 7.75, temperature (7) 48.77 ℃, and enzyme-to-substrate ratio ([E]/[S]) 3.50%. The analysis of variance in RSM showed that pH and [E]/[S] were important factors that significantly affected the process (P3000 Da, 1000 Da

  17. Symmetrization in jellyfish: reorganization to regain function, and not lost parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Michael J; Goentoro, Lea

    2016-02-01

    We recently reported a previously unidentified strategy of self-repair in the moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita. Rather than regenerating lost parts, juvenile Aurelia reorganize remaining parts to regain essential body symmetry. This process that we called symmetrization is rapid and frequent, and is not driven by cell proliferation or cell death. Instead, the swimming machinery generates mechanical forces that drive symmetrization. We found evidence for symmetrization across three other species of jellyfish (Chrysaora pacifica, Mastigias sp., and Cotylorhiza tuberculata). We propose reorganization to regain function without recovery of initial morphology as a potentially broad class of self-repair strategy beyond radially symmetrical animals, and discuss the implications of this finding on the evolution of self-repair strategies in animals.

  18. Pentaplex PCR as screening assay for jellyfish species identification in food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armani, Andrea; Giusti, Alice; Castigliego, Lorenzo; Rossi, Aurelio; Tinacci, Lara; Gianfaldoni, Daniela; Guidi, Alessandra

    2014-12-17

    Salted jellyfish, a traditional food in Asian Countries, is nowadays spreading on the Western markets. In this work, we developed a Pentaplex PCR for the identification of five edible species (Nemopilema nomurai, Rhopilema esculentum, Rhizostoma pulmo, Pelagia noctiluca, and Cotylorhiza tuberculata), which cannot be identified by a mere visual inspection in jellyfish products sold as food. A common degenerated forward primer and five specie-specific reverse primers were designed to amplify COI gene regions of different lengths. Another primer pair targeted the 28SrRNA gene and was intended as common positive reaction control. Considering the high level of degradation in the DNA extracted from acidified and salted products, the maximum length of the amplicons was set at 200 bp. The PCR was developed using 66 reference DNA samples. It gave successful amplifications in 85.4% of 48 ready to eat products (REs) and in 60% of 30 classical salted products (CPs) collected on the market.

  19. Comparative analysis of methods for concentrating venom from jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum Kishinouye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cuiping; Yu, Huahua; Feng, Jinhua; Chen, Xiaolin; Li, Pengcheng

    2009-02-01

    In this study, several methods were compared for the efficiency to concentrate venom from the tentacles of jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum Kishinouye. The results show that the methods using either freezing-dry or gel absorption to remove water to concentrate venom are not applicable due to the low concentration of the compounds dissolved. Although the recovery efficiency and the total venom obtained using the dialysis dehydration method are high, some proteins can be lost during the concentrating process. Comparing to the lyophilization method, ultrafiltration is a simple way to concentrate the compounds at high percentage but the hemolytic activities of the proteins obtained by ultrafiltration appear to be lower. Our results suggest that overall lyophilization is the best and recommended method to concentrate venom from the tentacles of jellyfish. It shows not only the high recovery efficiency for the venoms but high hemolytic activities as well.

  20. Comparative analysis of methods for concentrating venom from jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum Kishinouye

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Huahua; FENG Jinhua; CHEN Xiaolin; LI Pengcheng

    2009-01-01

    In this study, several methods were compared for the efficiency to concentrate venom from the tentacles of jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum Kishinouye. The results show that the methods using either freezing-dry or gel absorption to remove water to concentrate venom are not applicable due to the low concentration of the compounds dissolved. Although the recovery efficiency and the total venom obtained using the dialysis dehydration method are high, some proteins can be lost during the concentrating process. Comparing to the lyophilization method, ultrafiltration is a simple way to concentrate the compounds at high percentage but the hemolytic activities of the proteins obtained by ultrafiltration appear to be lower. Our results suggest that overall lyophilization is the best and recommended method to concentrate venom from the tentacles of jellyfish. It shows not only the high recovery efficiency for the venoms but high hemolytic activities as well.

  1. Protective effects of batimastat against hemorrhagic injuries in delayed jellyfish envenomation syndrome models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Beilei; Liu, Dan; Liu, Guoyan; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Qianqian; Zheng, Jiemin; Zhou, Yonghong; He, Qian; Zhang, Liming

    2015-12-15

    Previously, we established delayed jellyfish envenomation syndrome (DJES) models and proposed that the hemorrhagic toxins in jellyfish tentacle extracts (TE) play a significant role in the liver and kidney injuries of the experimental model. Further, we also demonstrated that metalloproteinases are the central toxic components of the jellyfish Cyanea capillata (C. capillata), which may be responsible for the hemorrhagic effects. Thus, metalloproteinase inhibitors appear to be a promising therapeutic alternative for the treatment of hemorrhagic injuries in DJES. In this study, we examined the metalloproteinase activity of TE from the jellyfish C. capillata using zymography analyses. Our results confirmed that TE possessed a metalloproteinase activity, which was also sensitive to heat. Then, we tested the effect of metalloproteinase inhibitor batimastat (BB-94) on TE-induced hemorrhagic injuries in DJES models. Firstly, using SR-based X-ray microangiography, we found that BB-94 significantly improved TE-induced hepatic and renal microvasculature alterations in DJES mouse model. Secondly, under synchrotron radiation micro-computed tomography (SR-μCT), we also confirmed that BB-94 reduced TE-induced hepatic and renal microvasculature changes in DJES rat model. In addition, being consistent with the imaging results, histopathological and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated UTP end labeling (TUNEL)-like staining observations also clearly corroborated this hypothesis, as BB-94 was highly effective in neutralizing TE-induced extensive hemorrhage and necrosis in DJES rat model. Although it may require further clinical studies in the near future, the current study opens up the possibilities for the use of the metalloproteinase inhibitor, BB-94, in the treatment of multiple organ hemorrhagic injuries in DJES.

  2. Three Nucleons in a Box

    CERN Document Server

    Luu, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    I calculate finite-volume effects for three identical spin-1/2 fermions in a box assuming short-ranged repulsive interactions of `natural size'. This analysis employs standard perturbation theory in powers of 1/L, where L^3 is the volume of the box. I give results for the ground states in the A_1, T_1, and E cubic representations.

  3. Jellyfish mucin may have potential disease-modifying effects on osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urai Makoto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We aimed to study the effects of intra-articular injection of jellyfish mucin (qniumucin on articular cartilage degeneration in a model of osteoarthritis (OA created in rabbit knees by resection of the anterior cruciate ligament. Qniumucin was extracted from Aurelia aurita (moon jellyfish and Stomolophus nomurai (Nomura's jellyfish and purified by ion exchange chromatography. The OA model used 36 knees in 18 Japanese white rabbits. Purified qniumucin extracts from S. nomurai or A. aurita were used at 1 mg/ml. Rabbits were divided into four groups: a control (C group injected with saline; a hyaluronic acid (HA-only group (H group; two qniumucin-only groups (M groups; and two qniumucin + HA groups (MH groups. One milligram of each solution was injected intra-articularly once a week for 5 consecutive weeks, starting from 4 weeks after surgery. Ten weeks after surgery, the articular cartilage was evaluated macroscopically and histologically. Results In the C and M groups, macroscopic cartilage defects extended to the subchondral bone medially and laterally. When the H and both MH groups were compared, only minor cartilage degeneration was observed in groups treated with qniumucin in contrast to the group without qniumucin. Histologically, densely safranin-O-stained cartilage layers were observed in the H and two MH groups, but cartilage was strongly maintained in both MH groups. Conclusion At the concentrations of qniumucin used in this study, injection together with HA inhibited articular cartilage degeneration in this model of OA.

  4. Beyond the average: Diverse individual migration patterns in a population of mesopelagic jellyfish

    KAUST Repository

    Kaartvedt, Stein

    2011-11-01

    We examined the diel behavior among the jellyfish Periphylla periphylla in Lurefjorden, Norway in a sampling campaign and by a > 3-month continuous acoustic study. Jellyfish distribution and behavior were recorded by an upward-facing, bottom-mounted echo sounder at 280-m depth. The population was typically divided into four groups, each with different behavior. Individuals of behavioral Mode 1 undertook synchronous diel vertical migrations (DVM) within the upper 100 m. Individuals of behavioral Mode 2, stayed at ~ 160-200-m depth during the day, and also exhibited synchronized DVM, ascending at dusk and descending at dawn. The smaller individuals of behavioral Mode 3 swam continuously up and down throughout both day and night, yet occurred below Mode 2 individuals in daytime (~ 200 m-bottom), while their vertical range encompassed the entire water column during night. Mode 4 behavior was displayed by large jellyfish located between ~ 130 m and the bottom. These animals shifted between remaining motionless and relocating in rapid steps during both day and night. These four main behavioral patterns persisted throughout the registration period, although the synchronously migrating Mode 2 behavior became weaker in spring. This acoustic study has unveiled more diverse migration behaviors than previously derived from net sampling and remote-operated vehicles methods and emphasizes the importance of studying individuals. DVM is complex because individuals in a plankton population may simultaneously engage in a range of various contrasting behaviors.

  5. Structural and physical properties of collagen extracted from moon jellyfish under neutral pH conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, Ayako; Inaba, Satomi; Baba, Takayuki; Kihira, Koji; Fukada, Harumi; Oda, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    We extracted collagen from moon jellyfish under neutral pH conditions and analyzed its amino acid composition, secondary structure, and thermal stability. The content of hydroxyproline was 4.3%, which is lower than that of other collagens. Secondary structure analysis using circular dichroism (CD) showed a typical collagen helix. The thermal stability of this collagen at pH 3.0 was lower than those from fish scale and pig skin, which also correlates closely with jellyfish collagen having lower hydroxyproline content. Because the solubility of jellyfish collagen used in this study at neutral pH was quite high, it was possible to analyze its structural and physical properties under physiological conditions. Thermodynamic analysis using CD and differential scanning calorimetry showed that the thermal stability at pH 7.5 was higher than at pH 3.0, possibly due to electrostatic interactions. During the process of unfolding, fibrillation would occur only at neutral pH.

  6. A biomimetic robotic jellyfish (Robojelly) actuated by shape memory alloy composite actuators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villanueva, Alex; Smith, Colin; Priya, Shashank, E-mail: spriya@vt.edu [Center for Intelligent Material Systems and Structures (CIMSS), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    An analysis is conducted on the design, fabrication and performance of an underwater vehicle mimicking the propulsion mechanism and physical appearance of a medusa (jellyfish). The robotic jellyfish called Robojelly mimics the morphology and kinematics of the Aurelia aurita species. Robojelly actuates using bio-inspired shape memory alloy composite actuators. A systematic fabrication technique was developed to replicate the essential structural features of A. aurita. Robojelly's body was fabricated from RTV silicone having a total mass of 242 g and bell diameter of 164 mm. Robojelly was able to generate enough thrust in static water conditions to propel itself and achieve a proficiency of 0.19 s{sup -1} while the A. aurita achieves a proficiency of around 0.25 s{sup -1}. A thrust analysis based on empirical measurements for a natural jellyfish was used to compare the performance of the different robotic configurations. The configuration with best performance was a Robojelly with segmented bell and a passive flap structure. Robojelly was found to consume an average power on the order of 17 W with the actuators not having fully reached a thermal steady state.

  7. Simultaneous measurements of jellyfish bell kinematics and flow fields using PTV and PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Nicole; Dabiri, John

    2016-11-01

    A better understanding of jellyfish swimming can potentially improve the energy efficiency of aquatic vehicles or create biomimetic robots for ocean monitoring. Aurelia aurita is a simple oblate invertebrate composed of a flexible bell and coronal muscle, which contracts to eject water from the subumbrellar volume. Jellyfish locomotion can be studied by obtaining body kinematics or by examining the resulting fluid velocity fields using particle image velocimetry (PIV). Typically, swim kinematics are obtained by semi-manually tracking points of interest (POI) along the bell in video post-processing; simultaneous measurements of kinematics and flows involve using this semi-manual tracking method on PIV videos. However, we show that both the kinematics and flow fields can be directly visualized in 3D space by embedding phosphorescent particles in animals free-swimming in seeded environments. Particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) can then be used to calculate bell kinematics, such as pulse frequency, bell deformation, swim trajectories, and propulsive efficiency. By simultaneously tracking POI within the bell and collecting PIV data, we can further study the jellyfish's natural locomotive control mechanisms in conjunction with flow measurements. NSF GRFP.

  8. A Novel Metric For Detection of Jellyfish Reorder Attack on Ad Hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Jayasingh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ad Hoc networks are susceptible to many attacks due to its unique characteristics such as open network architecture, stringent resource constraints, shared wireless medium and highly dynamic topology. The attacks can be of different types out of which denial of service is one of the most difficult attacks to detect and defend. Jellyfish is a new denial of service attack that exploits the end to end congestion control mechanism of TCP (Transmission Control Protocol which has a very devastating effect on the throughput. The architecture for detection of such attack should be both distributed and cooperative to suit the needs of wireless ad-hoc networks that is every node in the wireless ad-hoc network should participate in the intrusion detection. We intend to develop an algorithm that detects the jellyfish attack at a single node and that can be effectively deployed at all other nodes in the ad hoc network. We propose the novel metric that detects the Jellyfish reorder attack based on the Reorder Density which is a basis for developing a metric. The comparison table shows the effectiveness of novel metric, it also helps protocol designers to develop the counter strategies for the attack.

  9. A biomimetic robotic jellyfish (Robojelly) actuated by shape memory alloy composite actuators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Alex; Smith, Colin; Priya, Shashank

    2011-09-01

    An analysis is conducted on the design, fabrication and performance of an underwater vehicle mimicking the propulsion mechanism and physical appearance of a medusa (jellyfish). The robotic jellyfish called Robojelly mimics the morphology and kinematics of the Aurelia aurita species. Robojelly actuates using bio-inspired shape memory alloy composite actuators. A systematic fabrication technique was developed to replicate the essential structural features of A. aurita. Robojelly's body was fabricated from RTV silicone having a total mass of 242 g and bell diameter of 164 mm. Robojelly was able to generate enough thrust in static water conditions to propel itself and achieve a proficiency of 0.19 s(-1) while the A. aurita achieves a proficiency of around 0.25 s(-1). A thrust analysis based on empirical measurements for a natural jellyfish was used to compare the performance of the different robotic configurations. The configuration with best performance was a Robojelly with segmented bell and a passive flap structure. Robojelly was found to consume an average power on the order of 17 W with the actuators not having fully reached a thermal steady state.

  10. To Pee, or Not to Pee: A Review on Envenomation and Treatment in European Jellyfish Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Montgomery

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing cause for concern on envenoming European species because of jellyfish blooms, climate change and globalization displacing species. Treatment of envenomation involves the prevention of further nematocyst release and relieving local and systemic symptoms. Many anecdotal treatments are available but species-specific first aid response is essential for effective treatment. However, species identification is difficult in most cases. There is evidence that oral analgesics, seawater, baking soda slurry and 42–45 °C hot water are effective against nematocyst inhibition and giving pain relief. The application of topical vinegar for 30 s is effective on stings of specific species. Treatments, which produce osmotic or pressure changes can exacerbate the initial sting and aggravate symptoms, common among many anecdotal treatments. Most available therapies are based on weak evidence and thus it is strongly recommended that randomized clinical trials are undertaken. We recommend a vital increase in directed research on the effect of environmental factors on envenoming mechanisms and to establish a species-specific treatment. Adequate signage on jellyfish stings and standardized first aid protocols with emphasis on protective equipment and avoidance of jellyfish to minimize cases should be implemented in areas at risk.

  11. To Pee, or Not to Pee: A Review on Envenomation and Treatment in European Jellyfish Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Louise; Seys, Jan; Mees, Jan

    2016-07-08

    There is a growing cause for concern on envenoming European species because of jellyfish blooms, climate change and globalization displacing species. Treatment of envenomation involves the prevention of further nematocyst release and relieving local and systemic symptoms. Many anecdotal treatments are available but species-specific first aid response is essential for effective treatment. However, species identification is difficult in most cases. There is evidence that oral analgesics, seawater, baking soda slurry and 42-45 °C hot water are effective against nematocyst inhibition and giving pain relief. The application of topical vinegar for 30 s is effective on stings of specific species. Treatments, which produce osmotic or pressure changes can exacerbate the initial sting and aggravate symptoms, common among many anecdotal treatments. Most available therapies are based on weak evidence and thus it is strongly recommended that randomized clinical trials are undertaken. We recommend a vital increase in directed research on the effect of environmental factors on envenoming mechanisms and to establish a species-specific treatment. Adequate signage on jellyfish stings and standardized first aid protocols with emphasis on protective equipment and avoidance of jellyfish to minimize cases should be implemented in areas at risk.

  12. Where are the polyps? Molecular identification, distribution and population differentiation of Aurelia aurita jellyfish polyps in the southern North Sea area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walraven, van L.; Driessen, F.; Bleijswijk, van J.; Bol, A.; Luttikhuizen, P.; Coolen, J.W.P.; Bos, O.G.; Gittenberger, A.; Schrieken, N.; Langenberg, V.T.; Veer, van der H.W.

    2016-01-01

    For many species of metagenic jellyfish the location of the benthic polyps is unknown. To gain insight in the distribution, species composition and population structure of scyphozoan jellyfish polyps in the southern North Sea area, polyp samples were collected from natural and artificial substrates

  13. Signatures of active and passive optimized Lévy searching in jellyfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Andy M

    2014-10-06

    Some of the strongest empirical support for Lévy search theory has come from telemetry data for the dive patterns of marine predators (sharks, bony fishes, sea turtles and penguins). The dive patterns of the unusually large jellyfish Rhizostoma octopus do, however, sit outside of current Lévy search theory which predicts that a single search strategy is optimal. When searching the water column, the movement patterns of these jellyfish change over time. Movement bouts can be approximated by a variety of Lévy and Brownian (exponential) walks. The adaptive value of this variation is not known. On some occasions movement pattern data are consistent with the jellyfish prospecting away from a preferred depth, not finding an improvement in conditions elsewhere and so returning to their original depth. This 'bounce' behaviour also sits outside of current Lévy walk search theory. Here, it is shown that the jellyfish movement patterns are consistent with their using optimized 'fast simulated annealing'--a novel kind of Lévy walk search pattern--to locate the maximum prey concentration in the water column and/or to locate the strongest of many olfactory trails emanating from more distant prey. Fast simulated annealing is a powerful stochastic search algorithm for locating a global maximum that is hidden among many poorer local maxima in a large search space. This new finding shows that the notion of active optimized Lévy walk searching is not limited to the search for randomly and sparsely distributed resources, as previously thought, but can be extended to embrace other scenarios, including that of the jellyfish R. octopus. In the presence of convective currents, it could become energetically favourable to search the water column by riding the convective currents. Here, it is shown that these passive movements can be represented accurately by Lévy walks of the type occasionally seen in R. octopus. This result vividly illustrates that Lévy walks are not necessarily

  14. 水母毒素研究与转化医学%Translational medicine underlying the studies on jellyfish toxins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖良; 王倩倩; 王蓓蕾; 王涛; 张林; 张黎明

    2011-01-01

    Jellyfish stinging is the most common marine life injury, and is increasing corresponding to the explosive growth of jellyfish by the recent changes in the environment. Jellyfish toxins have a variety of toxicities such as cardiovascular, hemolytic, nervous and muscular toxicities. Neither the toxic mechanisms nor the prevention and therapy interventions are clear now. It will greatly raise the level of research on jellyfish toxins by strengthening the intercross between the clinical studies on jellyfish stinging and the basic studies on the action mechanism, purification and identification of toxic components.%水母蜇伤是最常见的海洋生物伤,其发生率随着近年来环境变化引起的水母爆发性增长在不断上升.水母毒素对心血管、血液、神经、肌肉等具有多种生物毒性,其作用机制不明确,水母蜇伤防治也以对症处理为主.注重水母蜇伤临床症状、救治措施与水母毒素纯化鉴定、作用机制之间的相互联系,将加速水母毒素研究的整体推进.

  15. Research and development of jellyfish compaction technology; Kurage gen'yoka shori gijutsu ni kansuru kaihatsu kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uemura, N. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    1999-12-10

    An on-site test is conducted of devices for reducing in a short time the volume of jellyfish that flow into power plants. There are three methods to reduce the volume of jellyfish by separating water from them, which are heating, pressing, and chemical. The chemical treatment is not an object of this test because it is expected that the volume reduction rate by this method will be too low. For the achievement of a reduction rate of 80%, the two methods, physical and crushing, are compared at the laboratory level. It is found that the crushing method is superior because it can dispose of jellyfish in a shorter time. Using this method, the crushed jellyfish is separated into drain and bubbles, the latter containing jellyfish fragments. An on-site test is conducted using a general-purpose crusher. The relationship between the filter diameter (1-5mm) and the separation rate is investigated, and it is found that separation proceeds more rapidly when the filter diameter is smaller. It is found that the addition of a certain chemical accelerates the separation. COD (chemical oxygen demand) is 300-490mg/l in the drain, and BOD (biological oxygen demand) 400-500mg/l, with COD having increased by approximately 20%. A study is scheduled to be conducted using an experimental apparatus. (NEDO)

  16. Black Box QGP

    CERN Document Server

    Tawfik, A

    2006-01-01

    According to extensive ab initio calculations of lattice QCD, the very large energy density available in heavy-ion collisions at SPS and now at RHIC must be sufficient to generate quark-gluon plasma (QGP), a new state of matter in the form of plasma of free quarks and gluons. The new state of matter discovered at RHIC seems to be perfect fluid rather than free plasma. Its shear viscosity is assumed to be almost zero. In this work, I first considered the theoretical and phenomenological consequences of this discovery and finally asked questions about the nature of phase transition and properties of matter. It is important to answer these questions, otherwise QGP will remain a kind of black box; one sends a signal via new experiments or simulations or models and gets another one from it. I will show that some promising ideas have already been suggested a long time ago. I will also suggest a new phase diagram with separated deconfinement and freeze-out boundaries and a mixed state of thermal quark matter and bub...

  17. The Black Box QGP

    CERN Document Server

    Tawfik, A

    2006-01-01

    According to the extensive ab initio calculations of lattice QCD, the much large energy density available in the heavy-ion collisions at SPS and now at RHIC should be enough to create the quark-gluon plasma (QGP); a new state of matter in form plasma of free quarks and gluons. The new matter discovered at RHIC is a ''nearly perfect'' fluid rather than a plasma. The shear viscosity is too small. We should then ask about the theoretical and phenomenological consequences and why we simply assumed that the deconfined hadronic matter should be an ideal gas. Finally, I will address five questions; about the properties of the new phases at high temperatures and the orders of phase transitions. Before we clarify such questions, the QGP will remain a kind of black box. One sends a signal via new experiments or simulations and gets another one out if it. Then one try to explain what is going on. I will show that some promising ideas already have been suggested long time ago, but it seems that community didn't care. Is ...

  18. Cardiovascular actions of the venom from the Irukandji (Carukia barnesi) jellyfish: effects in human, rat and guinea-pig tissues in vitro and in pigs in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkel, Kenneth D; Tibballs, James; Molenaar, Peter; Lambert, Gavin; Coles, Peter; Ross-Smith, Mark; Wiltshire, Carolyn; Fenner, Peter J; Gershwin, Lisa-Ann; Hawdon, Gabrielle M; Wright, Christine E; Angus, James A

    2005-09-01

    1. We have investigated the cardiovascular pharmacology of the crude venom extract (CVE) from the potentially lethal, very small carybdeid jellyfish Carukia barnesi, in rat, guinea-pig and human isolated tissues and anaesthetized piglets. 2. In rat and guinea-pig isolated right atria, CVE (0.1-10 microg/mL) caused tachycardia in the presence of atropine (1 micromol/L), a response almost completely abolished by pretreatment with tetrodotoxin (TTX; 0.1 micromol/L). In paced left atria from guinea-pig or rat, CVE (0.1-3 microg/mL) caused a positive inotropic response in the presence of atropine (1 micromol/L). 3. In rat mesenteric small arteries, CVE (0.1-30 microg/mL) caused concentration-dependent contractions that were unaffected by 0.1 micromol/L TTX, 0.3 micromol/L prazosin or 0.1 micromol/L omega-conotoxin GVIA. 4. Neither the rat right atria tachycardic response nor the contraction of rat mesenteric arteries to CVE were affected by the presence of box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri) antivenom (92.6 units/mL). 5. In human isolated driven right atrial trabeculae muscle strips, CVE (10 microg/mL) tended to cause an initial fall, followed by a more sustained increase, in contractile force. In the presence of atropine (1 micromol/L), CVE only caused a positive inotropic response. In separate experiments in the presence of propranolol (0.2 micromol/L), the negative inotropic effect of CVE was enhanced, whereas the positive inotropic response was markedly decreased. 6. In anaesthetized piglets, CVE (67 microg/kg, i.v.) caused sustained tachycardia and systemic and pulmonary hypertension. Venous blood samples demonstrated a marked elevation in circulating levels of noradrenaline and adrenaline. 7. We conclude that C. barnesi venom may contain a neural sodium channel activator (blocked by TTX) that, in isolated atrial tissue (and in vivo), causes the release of transmitter (and circulating) catecholamines. The venom may also contain a 'direct' vasoconstrictor component

  19. Jellyfish as prey: frequency of predation and selective foraging of Boops boops (Vertebrata, Actinopterygii on the mauve stinger Pelagia noctiluca (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Milisenda

    Full Text Available In recent years, jellyfish blooms have attracted considerable scientific interest for their potential impacts on human activities and ecosystem functioning, with much attention paid to jellyfish as predators and to gelatinous biomass as a carbon sink. Other than qualitative data and observations, few studies have quantified direct predation of fish on jellyfish to clarify whether they may represent a seasonally abundant food source. Here we estimate predation frequency by the commercially valuable Mediterranean bogue, Boops boops on the mauve stinger jellyfish, Pelagia noctiluca, in the Strait of Messina (NE Sicily. A total of 1054 jellyfish were sampled throughout one year to quantify predation by B. boops from bite marks on partially eaten jellyfish and energy density of the jellyfish. Predation by B. boops in summer was almost twice that in winter, and they selectively fed according to medusa gender and body part. Calorimetric analysis and biochemical composition showed that female jellyfish gonads had significantly higher energy content than male gonads due to more lipids and that gonads had six-fold higher energy content than the somatic tissues due to higher lipid and protein concentrations. Energetically, jellyfish gonads represent a highly rewarding food source, largely available to B. boops throughout spring and summer. During the remainder of the year, when gonads were not very evident, fish predation switched towards less-selective foraging on the somatic gelatinous biomass. P. noctiluca, the most abundant jellyfish species in the Mediterranean Sea and a key planktonic predator, may represent not only a nuisance for human leisure activities and a source of mortality for fish eggs and larvae, but also an important resource for fish species of commercial value, such as B. boops.

  20. Jellyfish as prey: frequency of predation and selective foraging of Boops boops (Vertebrata, Actinopterygii) on the mauve stinger Pelagia noctiluca (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milisenda, Giacomo; Rosa, Sara; Fuentes, Veronica L; Boero, Ferdinando; Guglielmo, Letterio; Purcell, Jennifer E; Piraino, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, jellyfish blooms have attracted considerable scientific interest for their potential impacts on human activities and ecosystem functioning, with much attention paid to jellyfish as predators and to gelatinous biomass as a carbon sink. Other than qualitative data and observations, few studies have quantified direct predation of fish on jellyfish to clarify whether they may represent a seasonally abundant food source. Here we estimate predation frequency by the commercially valuable Mediterranean bogue, Boops boops on the mauve stinger jellyfish, Pelagia noctiluca, in the Strait of Messina (NE Sicily). A total of 1054 jellyfish were sampled throughout one year to quantify predation by B. boops from bite marks on partially eaten jellyfish and energy density of the jellyfish. Predation by B. boops in summer was almost twice that in winter, and they selectively fed according to medusa gender and body part. Calorimetric analysis and biochemical composition showed that female jellyfish gonads had significantly higher energy content than male gonads due to more lipids and that gonads had six-fold higher energy content than the somatic tissues due to higher lipid and protein concentrations. Energetically, jellyfish gonads represent a highly rewarding food source, largely available to B. boops throughout spring and summer. During the remainder of the year, when gonads were not very evident, fish predation switched towards less-selective foraging on the somatic gelatinous biomass. P. noctiluca, the most abundant jellyfish species in the Mediterranean Sea and a key planktonic predator, may represent not only a nuisance for human leisure activities and a source of mortality for fish eggs and larvae, but also an important resource for fish species of commercial value, such as B. boops.

  1. Jellyfish as Prey: Frequency of Predation and Selective Foraging of Boops boops (Vertebrata, Actinopterygii) on the Mauve Stinger Pelagia noctiluca (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Veronica L.; Boero, Ferdinando; Guglielmo, Letterio; Purcell, Jennifer E.; Piraino, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, jellyfish blooms have attracted considerable scientific interest for their potential impacts on human activities and ecosystem functioning, with much attention paid to jellyfish as predators and to gelatinous biomass as a carbon sink. Other than qualitative data and observations, few studies have quantified direct predation of fish on jellyfish to clarify whether they may represent a seasonally abundant food source. Here we estimate predation frequency by the commercially valuable Mediterranean bogue, Boops boops on the mauve stinger jellyfish, Pelagia noctiluca, in the Strait of Messina (NE Sicily). A total of 1054 jellyfish were sampled throughout one year to quantify predation by B. boops from bite marks on partially eaten jellyfish and energy density of the jellyfish. Predation by B. boops in summer was almost twice that in winter, and they selectively fed according to medusa gender and body part. Calorimetric analysis and biochemical composition showed that female jellyfish gonads had significantly higher energy content than male gonads due to more lipids and that gonads had six-fold higher energy content than the somatic tissues due to higher lipid and protein concentrations. Energetically, jellyfish gonads represent a highly rewarding food source, largely available to B. boops throughout spring and summer. During the remainder of the year, when gonads were not very evident, fish predation switched towards less-selective foraging on the somatic gelatinous biomass. P. noctiluca, the most abundant jellyfish species in the Mediterranean Sea and a key planktonic predator, may represent not only a nuisance for human leisure activities and a source of mortality for fish eggs and larvae, but also an important resource for fish species of commercial value, such as B. boops. PMID:24727977

  2. Effects of Collagen and Collagen Hydrolysate from Jellyfish Umbrella on Histological and Immunity Changes of Mice Photoaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongliang Zhuang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Jellyfish collagen (JC was extracted from jellyfish umbrella and hydrolyzed to prepare jellyfish collagen hydrolysate (JCH. The effects of JC and JCH on UV-induced skin damage of mice were evaluated by the skin moisture, microscopic analyses of skin and immunity indexes. The skin moisture analyses showed that moisture retention ability of UV-induced mice skin was increased by JC and JCH. Further histological analysis showed that JC and JCH could repair the endogenous collagen and elastin protein fibers, and could maintain the natural ratio of type I to type III collagen. The immunity indexes showed that JC and JCH play a role in enhancing immunity of photoaging mice in vivo. JCH showed much higher protective ability than JC. These results suggest that JCH as a potential novel antiphotoaging agent from natural resources.

  3. Computing out of the Box

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Baidu unveils "box computing/’ which it hopes will lead to a number of innovations on the InternetBaidu, China’s most popular search engine, held its Technology Innovation Conference 2009 at the China World

  4. Plate forming and break down pizza box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantisano, Frank; Devine, Scott M.

    1992-01-01

    A standard corrugated paper pizza box is provided with slit cuts cut through the top panel of the pizza box in a shape to form four circular serving plates with a beveled raised edge and cross slit cuts through the bottom panel of the pizza box separating the box into four essentially equal portions for easy disposal.

  5. 30 CFR 57.12006 - Distribution boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distribution boxes. 57.12006 Section 57.12006... and Underground § 57.12006 Distribution boxes. Distribution boxes shall be provided with a... deenergized, and the distribution box shall be labeled to show which circuit each device controls....

  6. Development studies of Aurelia (Jellyfish) ephyrae which developed during the SLS-1 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangenberg, D. B.; Jernigan, T.; McCombs, R.; Lowe, B. T.; Sampson, M.; Slusser, J.

    1994-08-01

    Aurelia polyps (scyphistomae) and ephyrae were exposed to microgravity for nine days aboard the space shuttle during the SLS-1 mission. During strobilation, polyps segment transversely and each segment develops into an ephyra. Polyps were induced to strobilate at 28°C, using iodine or thyroxine, at L(Launch)-48h, L-24h, and L+8h. Ephyrae developed in the groups tested in space and on Earth. The number of ephyrae formed per polyp was slightly higher in the L+8h groups as compared with those induced at L-24h and L-48h. On Earth, iodine is used by jellyfish to synthesize jellyfish-thyroxine (JfT 4), needed for ephyra production. Since iodine-treated polyps strobilated and formed ephyrae in space, it appears that jellyfish can synthesize Jf-T4 in space. Indeed, two groups of polyps not given inducer formed ephryae in space, presumably due to enhanced Jf-T4 synthesis, utilization or accumulation. Some ephyrae that formed in space were also fixed in space on Mission Day (MD) 8; others were fixed post-flight. Examination of living ephyrae with the light microscope and fixed ones with the Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopes revealed that those which developed in space were morphologically very similar to those which developed on Earth. Quantitation of arm numbers determined that there were no significant differences between space and Earth-developed ephyrae. Pulsing abnormalities, however, were found in greater numbers (18.3%) in space-developed ephyrae than in Earth-developed controls (2.9%). These abnormalities suggest abnormal development of the graviceptors, the neuromuscular system, or a defect in the integration between these systems in apparently microgravity-sensitive animals.

  7. The ontogenetic scaling of hydrodynamics and swimming performance in jellyfish (Aurelia aurita).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHenry, Matthew J; Jed, Jason

    2003-11-01

    It is not well understood how ontogenetic changes in the motion and morphology of aquatic animals influence the performance of swimming. The goals of the present study were to understand how changes in size, shape and behavior affect the hydrodynamics of jet propulsion in the jellyfish Aurelia aurita and to explore how such changes affect the ontogenetic scaling of swimming speed and cost of transport. We measured the kinematics of jellyfish swimming from video recordings and simulated the hydrodynamics of swimming with two computational models that calculated thrust generation by paddle and jet mechanisms. Our results suggest that thrust is generated primarily by jetting and that there is negligible thrust generation by paddling. We examined how fluid forces scaled with body mass using the jet model. Despite an ontogenetic increase in the range of motion by the bell diameter and a decrease in the height-to-diameter ratio, we found that thrust and acceleration reaction scaled with body mass as predicted by kinematic similarity. However, jellyfish decreased their pulse frequency with growth, and speed consequently scaled at a lower exponential rate than predicted by kinematic similarity. Model simulations suggest that the allometric growth in Aurelia results in swimming that is slower, but more energetically economical, than isometric growth with a prolate bell shape. The decrease in pulse frequency over ontogeny allows large Aurelia medusae to avoid a high cost of transport but generates slower swimming than if they maintained a high pulse frequency. Our findings suggest that ontogenetic change in the height-to-diameter ratio and pulse frequency of Aurelia results in swimming that is relatively moderate in speed but is energetically economical.

  8. Jellyfish life histories: role of polyps in forming and maintaining scyphomedusa populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Cathy H; Graham, William M; Widmer, Chad

    2012-01-01

    Large population fluctuations of jellyfish occur over a variety of temporal scales, from weekly to seasonal, inter-annual and even decadal, with some regions of the world reported to be experiencing persistent seasonal bloom events. Recent jellyfish research has focussed on understanding the causes and consequences of these population changes, with the vast majority of studies considering the effect of changing environmental variables only on the pelagic medusa. But many of the bloom-forming species are members of the Scyphozoa with complex metagenic life cycles consisting of a sexually reproducing pelagic medusa and asexually reproducing benthic polyp. Recruitment success during the juvenile (planula, polyp and ephyrae) stages of the life cycle can have a major effect on the abundance of the adult (medusa) population, but until very recently, little was known about the ecology of the polyp or scyphistoma phase of the scyphozoan life cycle. The aim of this review is to synthesise the current state of knowledge of polyp ecology by examining (1) the recruitment and metamorphosis of planulae larvae into polyps, (2) survival and longevity of polyps, (3) expansion of polyp populations via asexual propagation and (4) strobilation and recruitment of ephyrae (juvenile medusae). Where possible, comparisons are made with the life histories of other bentho-pelagic marine invertebrates so that further inferences can be made. Differences between tropical and temperate species are highlighted and related to climate change, and populations of the same species (in particular Aurelia aurita) inhabiting different habitats within its geographic range are compared. The roles that polyps play in ensuring the long-term survival of jellyfish populations as well as in the formation of bloom populations are considered, and recommendations for future research are presented.

  9. In vivo analysis of effects of venom from the jellyfish Chrysaora sp. in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra-Amezcua, Mayra P; Guerrero-Legarreta, Isabel; González-Márquez, Humberto; Guzmán-García, Xochitl

    2016-04-01

    The jellyfishes of the genus Chrysaora are present in all of the world's oceans, but the toxicity of their venoms has not yet been thoroughly characterized. The zebrafish as a toxicology model can be used for general toxicity testing of drugs and the investigation of toxicological mechanisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of crude venom from jellyfish Chrysaora sp., a species of jellyfish observed in the tropical lagoons of the Gulf of Mexico, on the zebrafish Danio rerio. Juvenile zebrafish were injected with different concentrations of venom from Chrysaora sp. via intraperitoneal and subcutaneous injections. The effects of the venom were determined by histopathological analysis and through the measurement of hemolytic and phospholipase A2 activities. The crude venom was examined by SDS-PAGE. The effect of sublethal concentrations of crude venom from Chrysaora sp. on D. rerio was hemorrhaging in the eyes, while the histopathological analysis demonstrated that the primary organs targeted were the pseudobranch, which displayed hyperemia, and the gill, which displayed hyperplasia and hypertrophy. The blood analysis exhibited hemolysis, nuclear abnormalities, and echinocytes by the action of phospholipase A2, which was determined to have 596 units of activity/mg of protein in the venom. The crude venom has proteins with molecular weights ranging from 250 to 6 kDa, with more density in the bands corresponding to 70, 20 and 15 kDa. The venom of Chysaora sp. caused disturbances in circulation associated with vascular dilation due to the localized release of inflammatory mediators. The hemolysis of erythrocytes was caused by the action of phospholipase A2. These findings not only provide an excellent study model but also have a great pharmacological potential for designing new drugs and for the elucidation of the mechanisms of action of and treatment against stings.

  10. Ecosystem relevance of variable jellyfish biomass in the Irish Sea between years, regions and water types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, Thomas; Lilley, Martin K. S.; Beggs, Steven E.; Hays, Graeme C.; Doyle, Thomas K.

    2014-08-01

    Monitoring the abundance and distribution of taxa is essential to assess their contribution to ecosystem processes. For marine taxa that are difficult to study or have long been perceived of little ecological importance, quantitative information is often lacking. This is the case for jellyfish (medusae and other gelatinous plankton). In the present work, 4 years of scyphomedusae by-catch data from the 2007-2010 Irish Sea juvenile gadoid fish survey were analysed with three main objectives: (1) to provide quantitative and spatially-explicit species-specific biomass data, for a region known to have an increasing trend in jellyfish abundance; (2) to investigate whether year-to-year changes in catch-biomass are due to changes in the numbers or in the size of medusa (assessed as the mean mass per individual), and (3) to determine whether inter-annual variation patterns are consistent between species and water masses. Scyphomedusae were present in 97% of samples (N = 306). Their overall annual median catch-biomass ranged from 0.19 to 0.92 g m-3 (or 8.6 to 42.4 g m-2). Aurelia aurita and Cyanea spp. (Cyanea lamarckii and Cyanea capillata) made up 77.7% and 21.5% of the total catch-biomass respectively, but species contributions varied greatly between sub-regions and years. No consistent pattern was detected between the distribution and inter-annual variations of the two genera, and contrasting inter-annual patterns emerged when considering abundance either as biomass or as density. Significantly, A. aurita medusae were heavier in stratified than in mixed waters, which we hypothesize may be linked to differences in timing and yield of primary and secondary productions between water masses. These results show the vulnerability of time-series from bycatch datasets to phenological changes and highlight the importance of taking species- and population-specific distribution patterns into account when integrating jellyfish into ecosystem models.

  11. Jellyfish: Observational Properties of Extreme Ram-Pressure Stripping Events in Massive Galaxy Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conor, McPartland; Ebeling, Harald; Roediger, Elke

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the physical origin and observational signatures of extreme ram-pressure stripping (RPS) in 63 massive galaxy clusters at z=0.3-0.7, based on data in the F606W passband obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys aboard the Hubble Space Telescope. Using a training set of a dozen ``jellyfish" galaxies identified earlier in the same imaging data, we define quantitative morphological criteria to select candidate galaxies which are similar to known cases of RPS. Considering a sample of 16 ``jellyfish" galaxies (10 of which we present for the first time), we visually derive estimates of the projected direction of motion based on dynamical features such as apparent compression shocks and debris trails. Our findings suggest that the observed events occur primarily at large distances from the cluster core and involve infall trajectories featuring high impact parameters. Simple models of cluster growth show that such trajectories are consistent with two scenarios: 1) galaxy infall along filaments; and 2) infall at high velocities (≥1000 km/s) characteristic of cluster mergers. The observed distribution of events is best described by timescales of ˜few Myr in agreement with recent numerical simulations of RPS. The broader areal coverage of the Hubble Frontier Fields should provide an even larger sample of RPS events to determine the relative contributions of infall and cluster mergers. Prompted by the discovery of several jellyfish galaxies whose brightness in the F606W passband rivals or exceeds that of the respective brightest cluster galaxy, we attempt to constrain the luminosity function of galaxies undergoing RPS. The observed significant excess at the bright end compared to the luminosity functions of blue cluster members strongly suggests enhanced star formation, thus challenging theoretical and numerical studies according to which RPS merely displaces existing star-forming regions. In-depth studies of individual objects will help test our

  12. Nemopilema nomurai Jellyfish venom treatment leads to alterations in rat cardiomyocytes proteome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indu Choudhary

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This data article restrains data associated to the Choudhary et al. [1]. Nemopilema nomurai Jellyfish venom (NnV can lead to cardiac toxicity. Here we analyzed the effect of NnV on rat cardiomyocytes cell line H9c2 at the proteome level using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS. This analysis resulted in 34 proteins with differential expression. Here we provide the dataset for the proteins with amplified or reduced level as compare to control.

  13. Jellyfish (Chrysaora lactea, Cnidaria, Semaeostomeae aggregations in southern Brazil and consequences of stings in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio C Marques

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of jellyfish blooms is generating a world-wide discussion about medusae population explosions, mainly those associated with stings. We report over 20,000 envenomations caused by Chrysaora lactea (Scyphozoa in the State of Paraná (southern Brazil during the austral summer of 2011 -2012. Envenomations were considered mild, but almost 600 cases were treated in emergency services, with either toxic and allergic reactions, some with systemic manifestations. We proposed non-exclusive hypotheses to explain this large number of cases.

  14. Complete mitochondrial genome of the moon jellyfish, Aurelia sp. nov. (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Dae-Sik; Park, Eunji; Won, Yong-Jin; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2014-02-01

    We sequenced 16,971 bp of the linear mitochondrial DNA of the moon jellyfish Aurelia sp. nov. and characterized it by comparing with Aurelia aurita. They had 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 16S rRNA and 12S rRNA with three tRNAs (tRNA-Leu, tRNA-Ser(TGA), tRNA-Met). Both have another two PCGs, orf969 and orf324 with telomeres at both ends. After comparison of Aurelia sp. nov. with Aurelia aurita, we found low-protein similarity of orf969 (59%) and orf324 (75%), respectively, while the other 13 PCGs showed 80% to 98% protein similarities.

  15. Analyzing Beach Recreationists' Preferences for the Reduction of Jellyfish Blooms: Economic Results from a Stated-Choice Experiment in Catalonia, Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo A L D Nunes

    Full Text Available Jellyfish outbreaks and their consequences appear to be on the increase around the world, and are becoming particularly relevant in the Mediterranean. No previous studies have quantified tourism losses caused by jellyfish outbreaks. We used a stated-choice questionnaire and a Random Utility Model to estimate the amount of time respondents would be willing to add to their journey, in terms of reported extra travel time, in order to reduce the risk of encountering jellyfish blooms in the Catalan coast. The estimation results indicated that the respondents were willing to spend on average an additional 23.8% of their travel time to enjoy beach recreation in areas with a lower risk of jellyfish blooms. Using as a reference the opportunity cost of time, we found that the subsample of individuals who made a trade-off between the disutility generated by travelling longer in order to lower the risk of jellyfish blooms, and the utility gained from reducing this risk, are willing to pay on average €3.20 per beach visit. This estimate, combined with the respondents' mean income, yielded annual economic gains associated with reduction of jellyfish blooms on the Catalan coast around €422.57 million, or about 11.95% of the tourism expenditures in 2012. From a policy-making perspective, this study confirms the importance of the economic impacts of jellyfish blooms and the need for mitigation strategies. In particular, providing daily information using social media applications or other technical devices may reduce these social costs. The current lack of knowledge about jellyfish suggests that providing this information to beach recreationists may be a substantially effective policy instrument for minimising the impact of jellyfish blooms.

  16. Analyzing Beach Recreationists' Preferences for the Reduction of Jellyfish Blooms: Economic Results from a Stated-Choice Experiment in Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Paulo A L D; Loureiro, Maria L; Piñol, Laia; Sastre, Sergio; Voltaire, Louinord; Canepa, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Jellyfish outbreaks and their consequences appear to be on the increase around the world, and are becoming particularly relevant in the Mediterranean. No previous studies have quantified tourism losses caused by jellyfish outbreaks. We used a stated-choice questionnaire and a Random Utility Model to estimate the amount of time respondents would be willing to add to their journey, in terms of reported extra travel time, in order to reduce the risk of encountering jellyfish blooms in the Catalan coast. The estimation results indicated that the respondents were willing to spend on average an additional 23.8% of their travel time to enjoy beach recreation in areas with a lower risk of jellyfish blooms. Using as a reference the opportunity cost of time, we found that the subsample of individuals who made a trade-off between the disutility generated by travelling longer in order to lower the risk of jellyfish blooms, and the utility gained from reducing this risk, are willing to pay on average €3.20 per beach visit. This estimate, combined with the respondents' mean income, yielded annual economic gains associated with reduction of jellyfish blooms on the Catalan coast around €422.57 million, or about 11.95% of the tourism expenditures in 2012. From a policy-making perspective, this study confirms the importance of the economic impacts of jellyfish blooms and the need for mitigation strategies. In particular, providing daily information using social media applications or other technical devices may reduce these social costs. The current lack of knowledge about jellyfish suggests that providing this information to beach recreationists may be a substantially effective policy instrument for minimising the impact of jellyfish blooms.

  17. Box graphs and resolutions I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas P. Braun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Box graphs succinctly and comprehensively characterize singular fibers of elliptic fibrations in codimension two and three, as well as flop transitions connecting these, in terms of representation theoretic data. We develop a framework that provides a systematic map between a box graph and a crepant algebraic resolution of the singular elliptic fibration, thus allowing an explicit construction of the fibers from a singular Weierstrass or Tate model. The key tool is what we call a fiber face diagram, which shows the relevant information of a (partial toric triangulation and allows the inclusion of more general algebraic blowups. We shown that each such diagram defines a sequence of weighted algebraic blowups, thus providing a realization of the fiber defined by the box graph in terms of an explicit resolution. We show this correspondence explicitly for the case of SU(5 by providing a map between box graphs and fiber faces, and thereby a sequence of algebraic resolutions of the Tate model, which realizes each of the box graphs.

  18. Box graphs and resolutions I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Andreas P.; Schäfer-Nameki, Sakura

    2016-04-01

    Box graphs succinctly and comprehensively characterize singular fibers of elliptic fibrations in codimension two and three, as well as flop transitions connecting these, in terms of representation theoretic data. We develop a framework that provides a systematic map between a box graph and a crepant algebraic resolution of the singular elliptic fibration, thus allowing an explicit construction of the fibers from a singular Weierstrass or Tate model. The key tool is what we call a fiber face diagram, which shows the relevant information of a (partial) toric triangulation and allows the inclusion of more general algebraic blowups. We shown that each such diagram defines a sequence of weighted algebraic blowups, thus providing a realization of the fiber defined by the box graph in terms of an explicit resolution. We show this correspondence explicitly for the case of SU (5) by providing a map between box graphs and fiber faces, and thereby a sequence of algebraic resolutions of the Tate model, which realizes each of the box graphs.

  19. First-aid boxes - Reminder

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    With a view to ensuring optimum use of the first-aid boxes on the CERN site, we should like to remind you of various changes introduced in March 2009: The TSO of the buildings concerned is responsible for the first-aid boxes, including checking their contents.   First-aid boxes may be restocked ONLY at the CERN stores (SCEM No. 54.99.80). This is no longer possible at the Infirmary. The associated cost is charged to the Departments.   First-aid boxes should be used only for mild injuries. All other cases should be referred to the Medical Service Infirmary (Bldg. 57 – ground-floor, tel. 73802) between 8.00 a.m. and 5.30 p.m. or to the Fire and Rescue Service (tel. 74444). N.B.: This information does not apply to the red emergency first-aid boxes in the underground areas or to the emergency kits for use in the event of being splashed with hydrofluoric acid.

  20. Asymptotic Symmetries from finite boxes

    CERN Document Server

    Andrade, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    It is natural to regulate an infinite-sized system by imposing a boundary condition at finite distance, placing the system in a "box." This breaks symmetries, though the breaking is small when the box is large. One should thus be able to obtain the asymptotic symmetries of the infinite system by studying regulated systems. We provide concrete examples in the context of Einstein-Hilbert gravity (with negative or zero cosmological constant) by showing in 4 or more dimensions how the Anti-de Sitter and Poincar\\'e asymptotic symmetries can be extracted from gravity in a spherical box with Dirichlet boundary conditions. In 2+1 dimensions we obtain the full double-Virasoro algebra of asymptotic symmetries for AdS$_3$ and, correspondingly, the full Bondi-Metzner-Sachs (BMS) algebra for asymptotically flat space. In higher dimensions, a related approach may continue to be useful for constructing a good asymptotically flat phase space with BMS asymptotic symmetries.

  1. Identifying competencies of boxing coaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Tasiopoulos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to find out the management skills required by boxing coaches to administrate their clubs. For the purposes of this study a scale was constructed which was answered by 98 boxing coaches. Explanatory factor analysis revealed seven factors: Communication-public relations (5 items, event management (4 items, management techniques (4 items, new technologies (4 items, prevention-safety (2 items, sport (5 items and sports facilities (2 items. The Cronbach of the scale was 0.85. The five competencies that rated by the coaches were: Supervisors of the area of training, maintaining excellent communication with athletes, using new technologies (e-mail, internet, handling disciplinary matters, accidents, complaints and reports on some sporting games and promoted harmony among athletes. We concluded that boxing coaches understand that the competencies required for meeting their obligations, were related to sports, prevention, safety and communications-public relations.

  2. Indomethacin induction of metamorphosis from the asexual stage to sexual stage in the moon jellyfish, Aurelia aurita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuniyoshi, Hisato; Okumura, Izumi; Kuroda, Rie; Tsujita, Natsumi; Arakawa, Kenji; Shoji, Jun; Saito, Tamio; Osada, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    We found while screening a chemical library that indomethacin, an inhibitor of prostaglandin biosynthesis, induced strobilation (metamorphosis from the asexual to sexual stage) in the moon jellyfish, Aurelia aurita. Indomethacin initiated strobilation in a dose-dependent manner, but was not involved in the progression of strobilation. Pharmacological experiments suggested that indomethacin could induce strobilation independently of prostaglandin biosynthesis.

  3. Relationship between bacteria and phytoplankton during the giant jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai bloom in an oligotrophic temperate marine ecosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Yang; HUANG Xuguang; HUANG Bangqin; MI Tiezhu

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial abundance, phytoplankton community structure and environmental parameters were investigated to study the relationships between bacteria and phytoplankton during giant jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai blooms in the central Yellow Sea during 2013. N. nomurai appeared in June, increased in August, reached a peak and began to degrade in September 2013. Results showed that phosphate was possible a key nutrient for both phytoplankton and bacteria in June, but it changed to nitrate in August and September. Phytoplankton composition significantly changed that pico-phytoplankton relative biomass significantly increased, whereas other size phytoplankton significantly decreased during jellyfish bloom. In June, a significantly positive correlation was observed between chlorophyll a concentration and bacterial abundance (r=0.67, P0.05, n=25), but the relationship (r=0.71, P<0.001, n=31) was rebuilt with jellyfish degradation in September. In August, small size phytoplankton occupied the mixed layer in offshore stations, while bacteria almost distributed evenly in vertical. Chlorophyll a concentration significantly increased from (0.42±0.056) μg/L in June to (0.74±0.174) μg/L in August , while bacterial abundance just slightly increased. Additionally, the negative net community production indicated that community respiration was not entirely determined by the local primary productivity in August. These results indicated that jellyfish blooms potentially affect coupling of phytoplankton and bacteria in marine ecosystems.

  4. Isolation and in vitro partial characterization of hemolytic proteins from the nematocyst venom of the jellyfish Stomolophus meleagris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rongfeng; Yu, Huahua; Xing, Ronge; Liu, Song; Qing, Yukun; Li, Kecheng; Li, Bing; Meng, Xiangtao; Cui, Jinhui; Li, Pengcheng

    2013-09-01

    Jellyfish venom contains various toxins and can cause itching, edema, muscle aches, shortness of breath, blood pressure depression, shock or even death after being stung. Hemolytic protein is one of the most hazardous components in the venom. The present study investigated the hemolytic activity of the nematocyst venom from jellyfish Stomolophus meleagris. Anion exchange chromatography, DEAE Sepharose Fast Flow, and gel filtration chromatography, Superdex200 had been employed to isolate hemolytic proteins from the nematocyst venom of jellyfish S. meleagris. Hemolysis of chicken red blood cells was used to quantify hemolytic potency of crude nematocyst venom and chromatography fractions during the purification process. Native-PAGE profile displayed one protein band in the purified hemolytic protein (SmTX); however, two protein bands with apparent molecular weights of ≈ 45 kDa and 52 kDa were observed in the reducing SDS-PAGE analysis. Approximately 70 μg/mL of SmTX caused 50% hemolysis (HU50) of the erythrocyte suspension. The hemolytic activity of SmTX was shown to be temperature and pH dependent, with the optimum temperature and pH being 37°C and pH 5.0. The present study is the first report of isolation and partial characterization of hemolytic proteins from the nematocyst venom of the jellyfish S. meleagris. The mechanism of the hemolytic activity of SmTX is not clear and deserves further investigation.

  5. Is it possible to determine the economic impact of jellyfish outbreaks on fisheries? A Case Study – Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. NASTAV

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The interdependence between the economy and the environment is becoming a fact of increasing importance. Productive coastal areas have been recognised as one of the most valuable ecosystems from an ecological and socio-economic point of view. In this paper we focus on the massive presence of jellyfish in the northern Adriatic and their effect on the Slovenian economy. Our results indicate that high jellyfish abundance in 2004 resulted in a reduction of fish catch, value added, gross income, and employment in the fishing industry. Moreover, the government and the EU have acknowledged the impact of jellyfish on the fishing industry by allocating financial help to the fishermen involved. We attempted to assess other factors influencing the fishing industry but none were statistically significant. The input-output analysis has not revealed a significant impact on the entire Slovenian economy presumably due to the small contribution of the fishing industry to Slovenian GDP. Our work is a first attempt to relate ecological changes such as jellyfish outbreaks in the northern Adriatic to the wider economy and we suggest that such a methodology can be applied to other countries/regions and to other natural phenomena affecting the economy.

  6. BOX: One Minute Volume 3

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, Rose

    2009-01-01

    BOX is a digital short originally developed in 2004 documented on a 1920’s box camera. This early moving image work formed the basis of a practice which interrogates our experience of moving image through the remediation of analogue technology with new media. In 2009 it was included in One Minute Volume 3; a programme of artists moving image curated by Kerry Baldry including work by: Tony Hill, Tina Keane, Katherine Meynell, Kayla Parker and Stuart Moore, Dave Griffiths, Marty St Jam...

  7. Black holes in a box

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witek, Helvi; Cardoso, Vitor; Nerozzi, Andrea [Centro Multidisciplinar de Astrofisica - CENTRA, Department de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Gualtieri, Leonardo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' Sapienza' and Sezione INFN Roma1, P.A. Moro 5, 00185, Roma (Italy); Herdeiro, Carlos; Zilhao, Miguel [Centro de Fisica do Porto e Departamento de Fisica da Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Sperhake, Ulrich, E-mail: helvi.witek@ist.utl.p, E-mail: vitor.cardoso@ist.utl.p, E-mail: Leonardo.Gualtieri@roma1.infn.i, E-mail: crherdei@fc.up.p, E-mail: andrea.nerozzi@ist.utl.p, E-mail: sperhake@tapir.caltech.ed, E-mail: mzilhao@fc.up.p [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2010-05-01

    The evolution of BHs in 'confining boxes' is interesting for a number of reasons, particularly because it mimics some aspects of anti-de Sitter spacetimes. These admit no Cauchy surface and are a simple example of a non-globally hyperbolic spacetime. We are here interested in the potential role that boundary conditions play in the evolution of a BH system. For that, we imprison a binary BH in a box, at which boundary we set mirror-like boundary conditions.

  8. NMR study on a novel mucin from jellyfish in natural abundance, Qniumucin from Aurelia aurita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzawa, Jun; Urai, Makoto; Baba, Takayuki; Seki, Hiroko; Taniguchi, Kayoko; Ushida, Kiminori

    2009-05-22

    A novel mucin (qniumucin), which we recently discovered in jellyfish, was investigated by several NMR techniques. Almost all the peaks in the (13)C and proton NMR spectra were satisfactorily assigned to the amino acids in the main chain and to the bridging GalNAc, the major sugar in the saccharide branches. The amino acid sequence in the tandem repeat part (-VVETTAAP-) was reconfirmed by the cross-peaks between alpha protons and carbonyl carbons in the HMBC spectrum. A connectivity analysis around the O-glycoside bond (GalNAc-Thr) was also performed, and detailed information on the local configuration was obtained by the DPFGSE-NOE-HSD technique. The strategy and the results described in this paper can be extended to the structural analysis of general O-glycan chains, which are more complex than the present mucin. NMR analyses reveal the simple structure of qniumucin extracted by the present protocol, and the homogeneity and purity of qniumucin are probably the result of it being extracted from jellyfish, a primitive animal.

  9. Mesogleal cells of the jellyfish Aurelia aurita are involved in the formation of mesogleal fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaposhnikova, Tatiana; Matveev, Ivan; Napara, Tatiana; Podgornaya, Olga

    2005-11-01

    The extracellular matrix of the jellyfish Aurelia aurita (Scyphozoa, Cnidaria), known as the mesoglea, is populated by numerous mesogleal cells (Mc). We determined the pattern of the Mc and the mesoglea, raised polyclonal antibodies (RA47) against the major mesogleal protein pA47 (47 kDa) and checked their specificity. In the mesoglea, RA47 stains pA47 itself. In immunoblots of Mc, RA47 stains bands of 120 kDa and 80 kDa; weaker staining is observed at pA47. The same staining pattern is seen on blots of jellyfish epidermal cells and of whole Hydra (Hydrozoa) or isolated mesoglea of Hydra. Our data indicate that pA47 is synthesized by Mc and epidermal cells as high molecular precursors. Using immunostaining techniques, we showed Mc to be involved in the formation of mesogleal non-collagenous (called "elastic" in classic morphological studies) fibres. The biochemical and morphological data suggest that Mc originate from the epidermis.

  10. Morphology controlling method for amorphous silica nanoparticles and jellyfish-like nanowires and their luminescence properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haitao; Huang, Zhaohui; Huang, Juntong; Xu, Song; Fang, Minghao; Liu, Yan-Gai; Wu, Xiaowen; Zhang, Shaowei

    2016-03-01

    Uniform silica nanoparticles and jellyfish-like nanowires were synthesized by a chemical vapour deposition method on Si substrates treated without and with Ni(NO3)2, using silicon powder as the source material. Composition and structural characterization using field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy showed that the as-prepared products were silica nanoparticles and nanowires which have amorphous structures. The form of nanoparticles should be related to gas-phase nucleation procedure. The growth of the nanowires was in accordance with vapour-liquid-solid mechanism, followed by Ostwald ripening to form the jellyfish-like morphology. Photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence measurements showed that the silica products excited by different light sources show different luminescence properties. The emission spectra of both silica nanoparticles and nanowires are due to the neutral oxygen vacancies (≡Si-Si≡). The as-synthesized silica with controlled morphology can find potential applications in future nanodevices with tailorable photoelectric properties.

  11. Structural and Developmental Disparity in the Tentacles of the Moon Jellyfish Aurelia sp.1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, David A; Nakanishi, Nagayasu; Hensley, Nicholai M; Cozzolino, Kira; Tabatabaee, Mariam; Martin, Michelle; Hartenstein, Volker; Jacobs, David K

    2015-01-01

    Tentacles armed with stinging cells (cnidocytes) are a defining trait of the cnidarians, a phylum that includes sea anemones, corals, jellyfish, and hydras. While cnidarian tentacles are generally characterized as structures evolved for feeding and defense, significant variation exists between the tentacles of different species, and within the same species across different life stages and/or body regions. Such diversity suggests cryptic distinctions exist in tentacle function. In this paper, we use confocal and transmission electron microscopy to contrast the structure and development of tentacles in the moon jellyfish, Aurelia species 1. We show that polyp oral tentacles and medusa marginal tentacles display markedly different cellular and muscular architecture, as well as distinct patterns of cellular proliferation during growth. Many structural differences between these tentacle types may reflect biomechanical solutions to different feeding strategies, although further work would be required for a precise mechanistic understanding. However, differences in cell proliferation dynamics suggests that the two tentacle forms lack a conserved mechanism of development, challenging the textbook-notion that cnidarian tentacles can be homologized into a conserved bauplan.

  12. Investigation into the hemolytic activity of tentacle venom from jellyfish Cyanea nozakii Kishinouye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cuiping; Yu, Huahua; Li, Rongfeng; Xing, Ronge; Liu, Song; Li, Pengcheng

    2016-03-01

    Cyanea nozakii Kishinouy e ( C. nozakii), a giant cnidarian of the class Scyphomedusae, order Semaeostomeae and family Cyaneidae, is widely distributed in the East China Sea, the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea, and is abundant from late summer to early autumn. Venom produced by C. nozakii during mass agglomerations can contaminate seawater resulting in death of the halobios and seriously damage commercial fisheries. Swimmers and fishermen commonly suff er painful stings from this jellyfish, resulting in local edema, tingling, breathing difficulties, depressed blood pressure and even death. Such effects arise from the complex mixture of biologically active molecules that make up jellyfish venom. In the present study, the hemolytic activity of venom from tentacles of C. nozakii and factors aff ecting its activity were assayed. The HU50 ( defined as the amount of protein required to lyse 50 % of erythrocytes) of the venom against dove and chicken erythrocytes was 34 and 59 μg/mL, respectively. Carboxylmethyl chitosan and glycerol could increase hemolytic activity at concentrations greater than 0.06% and 0.2 mol/L, respectively.

  13. Feeding and asexual reproduction of the jellyfish Sarsia gemmifera in response to resource enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stibor, Herwig; Tokle, Nils

    2003-04-01

    Jellyfish are ubiquitous predators in marine pelagic environments and can sometimes control their zooplankton prey populations. Recent considerations of the fertilization of entire food webs in coastal areas make it important to investigate the response of jellyfish to resource enrichment. We investigated feeding, assimilation and life history parameters in the hydromedusa species Sarsia gemmifera. S. gemmifera was able to ingest up to 3 micro g carbon per hour, which corresponds to a daily carbon ingestion that exceeds the individual's body weight (carbon). Conversion of ingested carbon into tissue was less than 30%. The assimilated carbon was allocated such that approximately 65% was used for growth and the remainder for asexual reproduction. Carbon from food was allocated to asexually produced offspring within hours. The numerical response of S. gemmifera reached saturation at prey levels of 100 or more copepods per liter. Propagule quality was influenced by maternal effects: higher net production of the mothers in higher food environments resulted in higher carbon content of individual propagules. Starvation resistance of propagules was therefore positively related to food density in the maternal environment. The food concentrations which S. gemmifera normally experiences in the field are much lower than the food levels at which this species had its maximum asexual reproductive output in the laboratory. Therefore, S. gemmifera may potentially benefit from food web perturbations which increase crustacean zooplankton densities.

  14. A jellyfish-inspired jet propulsion robot actuated by an iris mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marut, Kenneth; Stewart, Colin; Michael, Tyler; Villanueva, Alex; Priya, Shashank

    2013-09-01

    A jellyfish-inspired jet propulsion robot (JetPRo) is designed, fabricated, and characterized with the objective of creating a fast-swimming uncrewed undersea vehicle. JetPRo measures 7.9 cm in height, 5.7 cm in diameter and is designed to mimic the proficient jetting propulsion mechanism used by the hydromedusa Sarsia tubulosa, which measures approximately 1 cm in diameter. In order to achieve the uniform-bell contraction used by S. tubulosa, we develop a novel circumferential actuation technique based on a mechanical iris diaphragm. When triggered, this mechanism induces a volumetric change of a deformable silicone cavity to expel a jet of fluid and produces positive thrust. A theoretical jetting model is used to optimize JetPRo’s gait for maximum steady-state swimming velocity, a result achieved by minimizing the timing between the contraction and relaxation phases. We validate this finding empirically and quantify the swimming performance of the robot using video tracking and time resolved digital particle image velocimetry. JetPRo was able to produce discrete vortex rings shed before pinch off and swim upwards with a maximum steady-state velocity of 11.6 cm s-1, outperforming current state-of-the-art robotic jellyfish in velocity as well as diameter-normalized velocity.

  15. Optimal stroke patterns for a model jellyfish swimmer with thin, flexible body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jifeng; Dabiri, John

    2007-11-01

    In this study, a numerical model is built to simulate swimming of oblate jellyfish (e.g. Aurelia aurita). The model swimmer is a thin, axisymmetric circular plate which is flexible and is able to deform, mimicking contraction and relaxation of a jellyfish. Using body deformation, the swimmer is able to swim by shedding vortices into fluid wake. A prescribed body motion extracted from a free-swimming Aurelia aurita is applied to the swimmer. The induced vortex wake is solved by a vortex sheet method and is compared with the wake of the free-swimming Aurelia aurita measured by PIV. The stoke pattern of the swimmer is optimized for minimal cost of locomotion. The body kinematics are parameterized and cost of locomotion is calculated from simulation using the vortex sheet method. A surrogate management framework is used as the optimization scheme. The vortex wake induced by the optimal stroke pattern is investigated to identify the characteristics of the wake which enhance swimming performance.

  16. A Comparative Study of White Box, Black Box and Grey Box Testing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Ehmer Khan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Software testing is the process to uncover requirement, design and coding errors in the program. It is used to identify the correctness, completeness, security and quality of software products against a specification. Software testing is the process used to measure the quality of developed computer software. It exhibits all mistakes, errors and flaws in the developed software. There are many approaches to software testing, but effective testing of complex product is essentially a process of investigation, not merely a matter of creating and following route procedure. It is not possible to find out all the errors in the program. This fundamental problem in testing thus throws an open question, as to what would be the strategy we should adopt for testing. In our paper, we have described and compared the three most prevalent and commonly used software testing techniques for detecting errors, they are: white box testing, black box testing and grey box testing.

  17. Exploring the Antibacterial and Antifungal Potential of Jellyfish-Associated Marine Fungi by Cultivation-Dependent Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Yang; Yu, Huahua; Li, Rongfeng; Xing, Ronge; Liu, Song; Li, Pengcheng

    2015-01-01

    Fungi isolated from marine invertebrates are of considerable importance as new promising sources of unique secondary metabolites with significant biomedical potential. However, the cultivable fungal community harbored in jellyfish was less investigated. In this work, we seek to recover symbiotic fungi from different tissues of jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai. A total of seven morphotypes were isolated, which were assigned into four genera (Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Purpureocillium, and Tilletiopsis) from two phyla (Ascomycota and Basidiomycota) by comparing the rDNA-ITS sequences with the reference sequences in GenBank. The most fungi were found in the inner tissues of subumbrella. Two of the cultivation-independent procedures, changing media type and co-cultivation, were employed to maximize the complexity of metabolites. Thus, thirteen EtOAc gum were obtained and fingerprinted by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) equipped with a photodiode array (PDA) detector. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of these complex mixtures were tested against a panel of bacterial and fungal pathogens. The antimicrobial results showed that all of the 13 EtOAc extracts displayed different levels of antibacterial activity, three of which exhibited strong to significant antibacterial activity to the bacterial pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella entrica. Antifungal activity indicated that the EtOAc extracts from pure culture of Aspergillus versicolor and co-culture of A. versicolor and Tilletiopsis sp. in rice media were promising for searching new compounds, with the maximal mycelial growth inhibition of 82.32% ± 0.61% for Rhizoctonia solani and 48.41% ± 11.02% for Botrytis cinerea at 200 μg/ml, respectively. This study is the first report on the antibacterial and antifungal activity of jellyfish-associated fungi and allows the first sight into cultivable fungal community residing in jellyfish. Induced metabolites by cultivation-dependent approaches

  18. 海蜇制品中铝的研究进展%Research progress of aluminum in jellyfish products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李颖畅; 包桂林; 吕艳芳

    2014-01-01

    海蜇制品中胶原蛋白等营养成分含量丰富,具有抗氧化、抗疲劳和增强免疫力等生理功能,同时海蜇制品具有特殊的口感,深受广大消费者的喜爱,但是铝元素在海蜇等食品中广泛存在,其并非人体所需元素,铝摄入量超标会对中枢系统、生殖系统、骨骼和造血系统有潜在的慢性毒性,危害人体健康。本文综述了铝对人体健康的危害、海蜇制品中铝的检测方法、铝的去除方法,并对海蜇制品中铝的研究进行了展望。%The content of nutrients in jellyfish products is rich such as collagen. Collagen has antioxidant and antifatigue, enhance immunity. Jellyfish products were favored by consumers because of its special taste. Aluminum widely exists in jellyfish products and other food, but it is not necessary for human. Aluminum will have the potential chronic toxicity of central nervous system, reproductive system, skeletal and hematopoietic system when aluminum content in body exceeds the standard content. Aluminum will cause great harm to hu-man health. The harm of aluminum on human health, detection method of aluminum, aluminum removal of jellyfish and the prospect of aluminum in the jellyfish products were discussed.

  19. Exploring the Antibacterial and Antifungal Potential of Jellyfish-Associated Marine Fungi by Cultivation-Dependent Approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yue

    Full Text Available Fungi isolated from marine invertebrates are of considerable importance as new promising sources of unique secondary metabolites with significant biomedical potential. However, the cultivable fungal community harbored in jellyfish was less investigated. In this work, we seek to recover symbiotic fungi from different tissues of jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai. A total of seven morphotypes were isolated, which were assigned into four genera (Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Purpureocillium, and Tilletiopsis from two phyla (Ascomycota and Basidiomycota by comparing the rDNA-ITS sequences with the reference sequences in GenBank. The most fungi were found in the inner tissues of subumbrella. Two of the cultivation-independent procedures, changing media type and co-cultivation, were employed to maximize the complexity of metabolites. Thus, thirteen EtOAc gum were obtained and fingerprinted by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC equipped with a photodiode array (PDA detector. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of these complex mixtures were tested against a panel of bacterial and fungal pathogens. The antimicrobial results showed that all of the 13 EtOAc extracts displayed different levels of antibacterial activity, three of which exhibited strong to significant antibacterial activity to the bacterial pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella entrica. Antifungal activity indicated that the EtOAc extracts from pure culture of Aspergillus versicolor and co-culture of A. versicolor and Tilletiopsis sp. in rice media were promising for searching new compounds, with the maximal mycelial growth inhibition of 82.32% ± 0.61% for Rhizoctonia solani and 48.41% ± 11.02% for Botrytis cinerea at 200 μg/ml, respectively. This study is the first report on the antibacterial and antifungal activity of jellyfish-associated fungi and allows the first sight into cultivable fungal community residing in jellyfish. Induced metabolites by cultivation

  20. The Bird Box Survey Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    When high school students are asked what's the best part of science class, many will say it's the field trips. Students enjoy engaging in authentic, community-based science outside the classroom. To capitalize on this, Patrick Willis created the Bird Box Survey Project for his introductory field biology class. The project takes students…

  1. On the Dirichlet's Box Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Kin-Keung; Shiu, Wai-Chee

    2008-01-01

    In this note, we will focus on several applications on the Dirichlet's box principle in Discrete Mathematics lesson and number theory lesson. In addition, the main result is an innovative game on a triangular board developed by the authors. The game has been used in teaching and learning mathematics in Discrete Mathematics and some high schools in…

  2. Back office to box office

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haigh, Matthew

    sees a mounting unsecured debt where its members see practical value. Between the two, a steward who may not profit from its office delegates it to back-office agents whose fiduciary management is engendered by box office-sized bonuses. Standard theorisation has foundered. The architecture...

  3. Microclimate boxes for panel paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadum, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    The use of microclimate boxes to protect vulnerable panel paintings is, therefore, not a new phenomenon of the past two or three decades. Rather, it has been a concern for conservators and curators to protect these objects of art at home and in transit since the end of the nineteenth century. The...

  4. A Box Full of Kisses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔增印

    2008-01-01

    The story goes that some time ago,a man pun- ished his 3-year-old daughter for wasting a roll of gold wrapping paper.Money was tight and he became infuriated when the child tried to decorate a box to put under the Christmas tree.Nevertheless,the little girl brought the gift to

  5. Reference: AT1BOX [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AT1BOX Ueda T, Pichersky E, Malik VS, Cashmore AR The level of expression of the to...mato rbcs-3A gene is modulated by a far-upstream promoter element in a developmentary regulated manner. Plant Cell 1:217-227 (1989) PubMed: 2535544; GenBank: S44160; ...

  6. EPA-Expo-Box Terminology

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA-Expo-Box is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases,

  7. Is sleep's 'supreme mystery' unraveling? An evolutionary analysis of sleep encounters no mystery; nor does life's earliest sleep, recently discovered in jellyfish.

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Biotelemetry has revealed daily 15-h behavioral sleep periods in a cubomedusan jellyfish, Chironex fleckeri. Its sleep is expected to be phylogenetically most primitive, since jellyfish possess only two germ layers. They belong to the phylum Cnidaria, the 'simplest' multicellular organisms with an organized nervous system. Cubomedusae have a complex visual system with 24 eyes of four different types, each type specialized for a different task. Input to these eyes during visually guided fast-s...

  8. Global Transcriptome Analysis of the Tentacle of the Jellyfish Cyanea capillata Using Deep Sequencing and Expressed Sequence Tags: Insight into the Toxin- and Degenerative Disease-Related Transcripts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoyan Liu

    Full Text Available Jellyfish contain diverse toxins and other bioactive components. However, large-scale identification of novel toxins and bioactive components from jellyfish has been hampered by the low efficiency of traditional isolation and purification methods.We performed de novo transcriptome sequencing of the tentacle tissue of the jellyfish Cyanea capillata. A total of 51,304,108 reads were obtained and assembled into 50,536 unigenes. Of these, 21,357 unigenes had homologues in public databases, but the remaining unigenes had no significant matches due to the limited sequence information available and species-specific novel sequences. Functional annotation of the unigenes also revealed general gene expression profile characteristics in the tentacle of C. capillata. A primary goal of this study was to identify putative toxin transcripts. As expected, we screened many transcripts encoding proteins similar to several well-known toxin families including phospholipases, metalloproteases, serine proteases and serine protease inhibitors. In addition, some transcripts also resembled molecules with potential toxic activities, including cnidarian CfTX-like toxins with hemolytic activity, plancitoxin-1, venom toxin-like peptide-6, histamine-releasing factor, neprilysin, dipeptidyl peptidase 4, vascular endothelial growth factor A, angiotensin-converting enzyme-like and endothelin-converting enzyme 1-like proteins. Most of these molecules have not been previously reported in jellyfish. Interestingly, we also characterized a number of transcripts with similarities to proteins relevant to several degenerative diseases, including Huntington's, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. This is the first description of degenerative disease-associated genes in jellyfish.We obtained a well-categorized and annotated transcriptome of C. capillata tentacle that will be an important and valuable resource for further understanding of jellyfish at the molecular level and information

  9. Antioxidant activity of the giant jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai measured by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity and hydroxyl radical averting capacity methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kazuki; Maeda, Toshimichi; Hasegawa, Yoshiro; Tokunaga, Takushi; Ogawa, Shinya; Fukuda, Kyoko; Nagatsuka, Norie; Nagao, Keiko; Ueno, Shunshiro

    2011-01-01

    The giant jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai (reaching sizes of up to 2 m diameter and 150 kg), which forms dense blooms, has caused extensive damage to fisheries by overloading trawl nets, while its toxic nematocysts cause dermatological symptoms. Giant jellyfish are currently discarded on the grounds of pest control. However, the giant jellyfish is considered to be edible and is part of Chinese cuisine. Therefore, we investigated whether any benefits for human health may be derived from consumption of the jellyfish in order to formulate medicated diets. Antioxidant activity of Nemopilema nomurai was measured using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and hydroxyl radical averting capacity (HORAC) methods. Based on the results, the ORAC value of the giant jellyfish freeze-dried sample was 541 µmol trolox equivalent (TE)/100 g and the HORAC value was 3,687 µmol gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g. On the other hand, the IC50 value of hydroxyl radical scavenging activity measured by using the electron spin resonance method was 3.3%. In conclusion, the results suggest that the freeze-dried powder of the giant jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai is a potentially beneficial food for humans.

  10. Main: BOX2PVCHS15 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BOX2PVCHS15 S000209 11-May-2006 (last modified) kehi Box 2 of bean (P.v.) chs15 pro...moter; SBF-1 binding site; For a compilation of related GT elements and factors, see Villain et al. (1996); Box 2; chs; chs1

  11. Main: BOX3PVCHS15 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BOX3PVCHS15 S000210 11-May-2006 (last modified) kehi Box 3 of bean (P.v.) chs15 pro...moter; SBF-1 binding site; For a compilation of related GT elements and factors, see Villain et al. (1996); Box 3; chs; chs1

  12. The Heuristic Interpretation of Box Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lem, Stephanie; Onghena, Patrick; Verschaffel, Lieven; Van Dooren, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Box plots are frequently used, but are often misinterpreted by students. Especially the area of the box in box plots is often misinterpreted as representing number or proportion of observations, while it actually represents their density. In a first study, reaction time evidence was used to test whether heuristic reasoning underlies this…

  13. Main: BOX2PSGS2 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BOX2PSGS2 S000204 17-May-1998 (last modified) kehi Box 2 in glutamine synthetase (GS...2) gene in pea (P.s.); Repeated in tandem with a partial palindrome located between the repeats; Located at ca. -300 of pea GS...2; Box 2; glutamine synthetase; GS2; pea (Pisum sativum); TCTAAGCAAAG ...

  14. 30 CFR 56.12006 - Distribution boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distribution boxes. 56.12006 Section 56.12006... Distribution boxes. Distribution boxes shall be provided with a disconnecting device for each branch circuit... visual observation when such a device is open and that the circuit is deenergized, the distribution...

  15. Illumination box and camera system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Jeffrey S.; Kelly, Fredrick R.; Bushman, John F.; Wiefel, Michael H.; Jensen, Wayne A.; Klunder, Gregory L.

    2002-01-01

    A hand portable, field-deployable thin-layer chromatography (TLC) unit and a hand portable, battery-operated unit for development, illumination, and data acquisition of the TLC plates contain many miniaturized features that permit a large number of samples to be processed efficiently. The TLC unit includes a solvent tank, a holder for TLC plates, and a variety of tool chambers for storing TLC plates, solvent, and pipettes. After processing in the TLC unit, a TLC plate is positioned in a collapsible illumination box, where the box and a CCD camera are optically aligned for optimal pixel resolution of the CCD images of the TLC plate. The TLC system includes an improved development chamber for chemical development of TLC plates that prevents solvent overflow.

  16. Broken links and black boxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindbæk, Søren Michael

    2013-01-01

    Long-distance communication has emerged as a particular focus for archaeological exploration using network theory, analysis, and modelling. Initial attempts to adapt methods from social network analysis to archaeological data have, however, struggled to produce decisive results. This paper argues...... observable distributions and patterns of association in the archaeological record. In formal terms this is not a problem of network analysis, but network synthesis: the classic problem of cracking codes or reconstructing black-box circuits....

  17. 水母暴发研究所面临的挑战%Challenges in the Jellyfish Bloom Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙松

    2012-01-01

    在过去的10多年中,全球海洋中的水母数量都有所增加,在一些局部区域出现了水母种群暴发的现象,主要是在近海、特别是一些重要的渔场和高生产力区。水母暴发已经形成重要的生态灾害,对沿海工业、海洋渔业和滨海旅游业等造成严重危害。水母暴发的原因、生态危害、如何应对等是一个世界性难题,引起全球沿海国家的重视,也是国际海洋生态系统研究领域的焦点问题之一。由于水母特殊的生物学和生态学特性,水母暴发的研究面临众多的困难和挑战。水母的暴发与全球气候变化、海洋渔业活动、富营养化、海岸带工程等密切相关,水母暴发现象是海洋生态系统演变的一种具体体现,通过对水母暴发机理的研究,将会加深对在全球变化和人类活动共同作用下海洋生态系统演变机理和变化趋势的了解。%In the last 10 years, jellyfish bloom occurred in the ocean globally, especially in the coastal waters. Jellyfish bloom is one of the main ecological disasters in the ocean; it affects the coastal industries, fishery and tourism. It is one of the worldwide issues to understand the causes, mechanism and consequences of the jelly- fish bloom. The big challenges for the jellyfish bloom research include jellyfish bloom observation, absence of the long term data, complexity of the life cycle for many of the jellyfish. The jellyfish bloom is an indicator of the ma- rine ecosystem change; it is one of the ecosvstem responses to the global climate change and the human activities.

  18. Main: BOX1PSGS2 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BOX1PSGS2 S000222 19-August-2004 (last modified) kehi Box 1 element in pea (P.s.) glutamine synthetase (GS...2) gene; An element in a 33-bp AT-rich sequence (box 1) of the 5' end of a GS2 promot...er; Located at -837 to -827 of pea GS2; Multimer of box 1 element was used to isolate a cDNA encoding an AT-...rich DNA binding protein (ATBP-1) (Tjaden & Coruzzi, 1994); Box 1; glutamine synthetase; GS2; ATBp; ATBP-1; pea (Pisum sativum) ATAGAAATCAA ...

  19. Structural analysis of O-glycans of mucin from jellyfish (Aurelia aurita) containing 2-aminoethylphosphonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urai, Makoto; Nakamura, Takemichi; Uzawa, Jun; Baba, Takayuki; Taniguchi, Kayoko; Seki, Hiroko; Ushida, Kiminori

    2009-11-02

    The structure of O-glycan in qniumucin (Q-mucin), which is a novel mucin extracted from jellyfish, was analyzed by a combination of NMR and ESI-MS/MS. A previously unidentified monosaccharide involved in the glycan chains was determined to be N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) substituted by 2-aminoethylphosphonate (AEP) at the C-6. The O-glycans in Q-mucin from Aurelia aurita were proved to be mainly composed of three monosaccharides: GalNAc, AEP-(O-->6)-GalNAc, and P-6-GalNAc. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of an O-glycan structure of glycoproteins containing AEP. This exceptionally simple structure of Q-mucin and its potential use in material science and technology are revealed.

  20. Occurrence of high levels of tetracosahexaenoic acid in the jellyfish Aurelia sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Peter D; Danaher, Kathryn T; Koslow, J Anthony

    2003-11-01

    The FA composition of the pelagic jellyfish Aurelia sp. collected from off-shore Western Australia waters was determined by capillary GC and GC-MS, with confirmation of PUFA structure performed by analysis of 4,4-dimethyloxazoline derivatives. PUFA constituted 47.6% of the total FA, with the essential PUFA eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), arachidonic acid, and DHA accounting for 34%. Of particular interest, the unusual very long chain PUFA 6,9,12,15,18,21-tetracosahexaenoic acid (THA, 24:6n-3) was present at 9.3%, and the rarely reported 6,9,12,15,18-tetracosapentaenoic acid (24:5n-6) also was detected at 0.8%. To our knowledge, this represents the first report of THA as a major PUFA in a pelagic marine organism.

  1. Effect of Venom from the Jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai on the Silkworm Bombyx mori L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huahua; Li, Rongfeng; Chen, Xiaolin; Yue, Yang; Xing, Ronge; Liu, Song; Li, Pengcheng

    2015-09-24

    The silkworm Bombyx mori L. (B. mori) has a significant impact on the economy by producing more than 80% of the globally produced raw silk. The exposure of silkworm to pesticides may cause adverse effects on B. mori, such as a reduction in the production and quality of silk. This study aims to assay the effect of venom from the jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai on growth, cuticle and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity of the silkworm B. mori by the leaf dipping method. The experimental results revealed that the four samples caused neither antifeeding nor a lethal effect on B. mori. The sample SFV inhibited B. mori growth after 6 days of treatment in a dose-dependent manner. The samples SFV, DSFV and Fr-1 inhibited the precipitation and synthesis of chitin in the cuticle after 12 and 14 days of treatment. In the case of the four samples, the AChE was significantly improved after 14 days of treatment.

  2. Exploring vortex enhancement and manipulation mechanisms in jellyfish that contributes to energetically efficient propulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemmell, Brad J; Costello, John H; Colin, Sean P

    2014-01-01

    The ability of animals to propel themselves efficiently through a fluid medium is ecologically advantageous. Flexible components that influence vortex interactions are widespread among animal propulsors. However the mechanisms by which vortices are enhanced and appropriately positioned for thrust generation are still poorly understood. Here, we describe how kinematic propulsor movements of a jellyfish can enhance and reposition a vortex ring that allows the recapture of wake energy for secondary thrust generation and efficient locomotion. We use high-speed video and digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) to resolve kinematics simultaneously with fluid structures. These results provide new insight into how animals can manipulate fluid structures to reduce metabolic energy demands of swimming muscles and may have implications in bio-inspired design.

  3. Pelagia benovici sp. nov. (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa): a new jellyfish in the Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piraino, Stefano; Aglieri, Giorgio; Martell, Luis; Mazzoldi, Carlotta; Melli, Valentina; Milisenda, Giacomo; Scorrano, Simonetta; Boero, Ferdinando

    2014-05-07

    A bloom of an unknown semaestome jellyfish species was recorded in the North Adriatic Sea from September 2013 to early 2014. Morphological analysis of several specimens showed distinct differences from other known semaestome species in the Mediterranean Sea and unquestionably identified them as belonging to a new pelagiid species within genus Pelagia. The new species is morphologically distinct from P. noctiluca, currently the only recognized valid species in the genus, and from other doubtful Pelagia species recorded from other areas of the world. Molecular analyses of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and nuclear 28S ribosomal DNA genes corroborate its specific distinction from P. noctiluca and other pelagiid taxa, supporting the monophyly of Pelagiidae. Thus, we describe Pelagia benovici sp. nov. Piraino, Aglieri, Scorrano & Boero.

  4. A Simple Computational Model of a jellyfish-like flying machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fang; Ristroph, Leif; Shelley, Michael

    2013-11-01

    We explore theoretically the aerodynamics of a jellyfish-like flying machine recently fabricated at NYU. This experimental device achieves flight and hovering by opening and closing a set of flapping wings. It displays orientational flight stability without additional control surfaces or feedback control. Our model machine consists of two symmetric massless flapping wings connected to a body with mass and moment of inertia. A vortex sheet shedding and wake model is used for the flow simulation. Use of the Fast Multipole Method (FMM), and adaptive addition/deletion of vortices, allows us to simulate for long times and resolve complex wakes. We use our model to explore the physical parameters that maintain body hovering, its ascent and descent, and investigate the stability of these states.

  5. Isolation and characterization of venom from nematocysts of jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum Kishinouye

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Jinhua; YU Huahua; LI Cuiping; XING Ronge; LIU Song; WANG Lin; CAI Shengbao; LI Pengcheng

    2009-01-01

    The present work is the first report of the biochemical characterization of the venom from nematocysts of the jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum Kishinouye. The nematocysts were isolated by autolysis and centrifugation and separated by flow cytometry. Four types of nematocysts were identified: mastigophores, euryteles, and atrichous and holotrichous isorhiza. SDS-PAGE and amino acid analyses demonstrated that most of the proteins in the nematocyst extract were between 10 kDa and 40 kDa, and that glutamic acid was the main amino acid. A hemolytic activity assay showed that the activity of the nematocyst venom (RNV) was strongest in Tris-HCl buffer (50 mmol/L, pH 7.8, 5% glycerol, 0.5 mmol/L EDTA, 0.1 mol/L NaCl). The hemolytic activity was related to protein concentration and the HU_(50) against chicken erythrocytes was 0.91 μg/mL.

  6. Prokaryotic microbiota in the digestive cavity of the jellyfish Cotylorhiza tuberculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Lara, Sara; Urdiain, Mercedes; Mora-Ruiz, Merit; Prieto, Laura; Rosselló-Móra, Ramon

    2015-10-01

    The microbiota associated to the gastric cavity of four exemplars of the jellyfish Cotylorhiza tuberculata has been studied by means of cultured-dependent and -independent methods. The pyrosequencing approach rendered a very reduced diversity of Bacteria with four major groups shared by the four exemplars that made up to 95% of the total diversity. The culturing approach recovered low abundant organisms and some of them also detected by the pyrosequencing approach. The major key organisms were related to the genera Spiroplasma, Thalassospira, Tenacibaculum (from the pyrosequencing data), and Vibrio (from the cultivable fraction). Altogether the results indicate that C. tuberculata harbors an associated microbiota of very reduced diversity. On the other hand, some of the major key players may be potential pathogens and the host may serve as dispersal mechanism.

  7. Evidence-based treatment of jellyfish stings in North America and Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Nicholas T; Darracq, Michael A; Tomaszewski, Christian; Clark, Richard F

    2012-10-01

    We performed a systematic review of the evidence supporting various treatments for envenomation by jellyfish (cnidarian) and related organisms in North America and Hawaii. Our review produced 19 pertinent primary articles. Current research demonstrates variable response to treatment, often with conflicting results according to species studied, which contributes to considerable confusion about what treatment is warranted and efficacious. Our review suggests that vinegar causes pain exacerbation or nematocyst discharge in the majority of species. Hot water and topical lidocaine appear more widely beneficial in improving pain symptoms and are preferentially recommended. Unfortunately, they may be difficult to obtain at the site of envenomation, such as the beach or diving sites. In these instances, removing the nematocysts and washing the area with saltwater may be considered. If the envenomation is thought to be due to the bluebottle (Physalia), vinegar may be beneficial.

  8. Jellyfish: The origin and distribution of extreme ram-pressure stripping events in massive galaxy clusters

    CERN Document Server

    McPartland, Conor; Roediger, Elke; Blumenthal, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the observational signatures and physical origin of ram-pressure stripping (RPS) in 63 massive galaxy clusters at $z=0.3-0.7$, based on images obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope. Using a training set of a dozen "jellyfish" galaxies identified earlier in the same imaging data, we define morphological criteria to select 211 additional, less obvious cases of RPS. Spectroscopic follow-up observations of 124 candidates so far confirmed 53 as cluster members. For the brightest and most favourably aligned systems we visually derive estimates of the projected direction of motion based on the orientation of apparent compression shocks and debris trails. Our findings suggest that the onset of these events occurs primarily at large distances from the cluster core ($>400$ kpc), and that the trajectories of the affected galaxies feature high impact parameters. Simple models show that such trajectories are highly improbable for galaxy infall along filaments but common for infall at high velocities, eve...

  9. The Occurrence of Type S1A Serine Proteases in Sponge and Jellyfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Ana; Doolittle, Russell F.

    2003-01-01

    Although serine proteases are found in all kinds of cellular organisms and many viruses, the classic "chymotrypsin family" (Group S1A by th e 1998 Barrett nomenclature) has an unusual phylogenetic distribution , being especially common in animals, entirely absent from plants and protists, and rare among fungi. The distribution in Bacteria is larg ely restricted to the genus Streptomyces, although a few isolated occ urrences in other bacteria have been reported. The family may be enti rely absent from Archaea. Although more than a thousand sequences have been reported for enzymes of this type from animals, none of them ha ve been from early diverging phyla like Porifera or Cnidaria, We now report the existence of Group SlA serine proteases in a sponge (phylu m Porifera) and a jellyfish (phylum Cnidaria), making it safe to conc lude that all animal groups possess these enzymes.

  10. Jellyfish: the origin and distribution of extreme ram-pressure stripping events in massive galaxy clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPartland, Conor; Ebeling, Harald; Roediger, Elke; Blumenthal, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the observational signatures and physical origin of ram-pressure stripping (RPS) in 63 massive galaxy clusters at z = 0.3-0.7, based on images obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope. Using a training set of a dozen `jellyfish' galaxies identified earlier in the same imaging data, we define morphological criteria to select 211 additional, less obvious cases of RPS. Spectroscopic follow-up observations of 124 candidates so far confirmed 53 as cluster members. For the brightest and most favourably aligned systems, we visually derive estimates of the projected direction of motion based on the orientation of apparent compression shocks and debris trails. Our findings suggest that the onset of these events occurs primarily at large distances from the cluster core (>400 kpc), and that the trajectories of the affected galaxies feature high-impact parameters. Simple models show that such trajectories are highly improbable for galaxy infall along filaments but common for infall at high velocities, even after observational biases are accounted for, provided the duration of the resulting RPS events is ≲500 Myr. We thus tentatively conclude that extreme RPS events are preferentially triggered by cluster mergers, an interpretation that is supported by the disturbed dynamical state of many of the host clusters. This hypothesis implies that extreme RPS might occur also near the cores of merging poor clusters or even merging groups of galaxies. Finally, we present nine additional `jellyfish" galaxies at z > 0.3 discovered by us, thereby doubling the number of such systems known at intermediate redshift.

  11. Cytotoxicity and hemolytic activity of jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai (Scyphozoa: Rhizostomeae) venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Changkeun; Munawir, Al; Cha, Mijin; Sohn, Eun-Tae; Lee, Hyunkyoung; Kim, Jong-Shu; Yoon, Won Duk; Lim, Donghyun; Kim, Euikyung

    2009-07-01

    The recent bloom of a giant jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai has caused a danger to sea bathers and fishery damages in the waters of China, Korea, and Japan. The present study investigated the cytotoxic and hemolytic activities of crude venom extract of N. nomurai using a number of in vitro assays. The jellyfish venom showed a much higher cytotoxic activity in H9C2 heart myoblast than in C2C12 skeletal myoblast (LC(50)=2 microg/mL vs. 12 microg/mL, respectively), suggesting its possible in vivo selective toxicity on cardiac tissue. This result is consistent with our previous finding that cardiovascular function is a target of the venom. In order to determine the stability of N. nomurai venom, its cytotoxicity was examined under the various temperature and pH conditions. The activity was relatively well retained at low environmental temperature (or=60 degrees C). In pH stability test, the venom has abruptly lost its activity at low pH environment (pH

  12. Local versus Generalized Phenotypes in Two Sympatric Aurelia Species: Understanding Jellyfish Ecology Using Genetics and Morphometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaverano, Luciano M; Bayha, Keith W; Graham, William M

    2016-01-01

    For individuals living in environmentally heterogeneous environments, a key component for adaptation and persistence is the extent of phenotypic differentiation in response to local environmental conditions. In order to determine the extent of environmentally induced morphological variation in a natural population distributed along environmental gradients, it is necessary to account for potential genetic differences contributing to morphological differentiation. In this study, we set out to quantify geographic morphological variation in the moon jellyfish Aurelia exposed at the extremes of a latitudinal environmental gradient in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM). We used morphological data based on 28 characters, and genetic data taken from mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and nuclear internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1). Molecular analyses revealed the presence of two genetically distinct species of Aurelia co-occurring in the GoM: Aurelia sp. 9 and Aurelia c.f. sp. 2, named for its divergence from (for COI) and similarity to (for ITS-1) Aurelia sp. 2 (Brazil). Neither species exhibited significant population genetic structure between the Northern and the Southeastern Gulf of Mexico; however, they differed greatly in the degree of geographic morphological variation. The morphology of Aurelia sp. 9 exhibited ecophenotypic plasticity and varied significantly between locations, while morphology of Aurelia c.f. sp. 2 was geographically invariant (i.e., canalized). The plastic, generalist medusae of Aurelia sp. 9 are likely able to produce environmentally-induced, "optimal" phenotypes that confer high relative fitness in different environments. In contrast, the non-plastic generalist individuals of Aurelia c.f. sp. 2 likely produce environmentally-independent phenotypes that provide the highest fitness across environments. These findings suggest the two Aurelia lineages co-occurring in the GoM were likely exposed to different past environmental conditions (i

  13. Local versus Generalized Phenotypes in Two Sympatric Aurelia Species: Understanding Jellyfish Ecology Using Genetics and Morphometrics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano M Chiaverano

    Full Text Available For individuals living in environmentally heterogeneous environments, a key component for adaptation and persistence is the extent of phenotypic differentiation in response to local environmental conditions. In order to determine the extent of environmentally induced morphological variation in a natural population distributed along environmental gradients, it is necessary to account for potential genetic differences contributing to morphological differentiation. In this study, we set out to quantify geographic morphological variation in the moon jellyfish Aurelia exposed at the extremes of a latitudinal environmental gradient in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM. We used morphological data based on 28 characters, and genetic data taken from mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI and nuclear internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1. Molecular analyses revealed the presence of two genetically distinct species of Aurelia co-occurring in the GoM: Aurelia sp. 9 and Aurelia c.f. sp. 2, named for its divergence from (for COI and similarity to (for ITS-1 Aurelia sp. 2 (Brazil. Neither species exhibited significant population genetic structure between the Northern and the Southeastern Gulf of Mexico; however, they differed greatly in the degree of geographic morphological variation. The morphology of Aurelia sp. 9 exhibited ecophenotypic plasticity and varied significantly between locations, while morphology of Aurelia c.f. sp. 2 was geographically invariant (i.e., canalized. The plastic, generalist medusae of Aurelia sp. 9 are likely able to produce environmentally-induced, "optimal" phenotypes that confer high relative fitness in different environments. In contrast, the non-plastic generalist individuals of Aurelia c.f. sp. 2 likely produce environmentally-independent phenotypes that provide the highest fitness across environments. These findings suggest the two Aurelia lineages co-occurring in the GoM were likely exposed to different past environmental conditions

  14. Aurelin, a novel antimicrobial peptide from jellyfish Aurelia aurita with structural features of defensins and channel-blocking toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovchinnikova, Tatiana V; Balandin, Sergey V; Aleshina, Galina M; Tagaev, Andrey A; Leonova, Yulia F; Krasnodembsky, Eugeny D; Men'shenin, Alexander V; Kokryakov, Vladimir N

    2006-09-22

    A novel 40-residue antimicrobial peptide, aurelin, exhibiting activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, was purified from the mesoglea of a scyphoid jellyfish Aurelia aurita by preparative gel electrophoresis and RP-HPLC. Molecular mass (4296.95 Da) and complete amino acid sequence of aurelin (AACSDRAHGHICESFKSFCKDSGRNGVKLRANCKKTCGLC) were determined. Aurelin has six cysteines forming three disulfide bonds. The total RNA was isolated from the jellyfish mesoglea, RT-PCR and cloning were performed, and cDNA was sequenced. A 84-residue preproaurelin contains a putative signal peptide (22 amino acids) and a propiece of the same size (22 amino acids). Aurelin has no structural homology with any previously identified antimicrobial peptides but reveals partial similarity both with defensins and K+ channel-blocking toxins of sea anemones and belongs to ShKT domain family.

  15. Flow structure and transport characteristics of feeding and exchange currents generated by upside-down Cassiopea jellyfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhanakrishnan, Arvind; Dollinger, Makani; Hamlet, Christina L; Colin, Sean P; Miller, Laura A

    2012-07-15

    Quantifying the flows generated by the pulsations of jellyfish bells is crucial for understanding the mechanics and efficiency of their swimming and feeding. Recent experimental and theoretical work has focused on the dynamics of vortices in the wakes of swimming jellyfish with relatively simple oral arms and tentacles. The significance of bell pulsations for generating feeding currents through elaborate oral arms and the consequences for particle capture are not as well understood. To isolate the generation of feeding currents from swimming, the pulsing kinematics and fluid flow around the benthic jellyfish Cassiopea spp. were investigated using a combination of videography, digital particle image velocimetry and direct numerical simulation. During the rapid contraction phase of the bell, fluid is pulled into a starting vortex ring that translates through the oral arms with peak velocities that can be of the order of 10 cm s(-1). Strong shear flows are also generated across the top of the oral arms throughout the entire pulse cycle. A coherent train of vortex rings is not observed, unlike in the case of swimming oblate medusae such as Aurelia aurita. The phase-averaged flow generated by bell pulsations is similar to a vertical jet, with induced flow velocities averaged over the cycle of the order of 1-10 mm s(-1). This introduces a strong near-horizontal entrainment of the fluid along the substrate and towards the oral arms. Continual flow along the substrate towards the jellyfish is reproduced by numerical simulations that model the oral arms as a porous Brinkman layer of finite thickness. This two-dimensional numerical model does not, however, capture the far-field flow above the medusa, suggesting that either the three-dimensionality or the complex structure of the oral arms helps to direct flow towards the central axis and up and away from the animal.

  16. [Lipid variation in oocytes of the jellyfish Stomolophus meleagris (Scyphozoa: Rhizostomeae) from Las Guasimas Lagoon, Mexico, during gonadal development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho-Saucedo, Liliana; García-Domínguez, Federico; Rodríguez-Jaramillo, Carmen; López-Martínez, Juana

    2010-03-01

    The jellyfish Stomolophus meleagris has potential for commercial exploitation but there is little information on their reproductive biology. This paper seeks to evaluate some biochemical and demographic characteristics of the species. Samples were taken monthly during 2005 and 2006. Jellyfish collected in 2005 were used to describe the characteristics and quantity of oocyte triglycerides and phospholipids with the Sudan black technique, and to ascertain the degree of gonadal development and sex ratio by the hematoxylin-eosin technique. The 2006 jellyfish were used to determine the size at first maturity and protein and total lipids contents. Four stages of development in both sexes were determined, with a continuous gamete development. The highest percentage of mature organisms was recorded in April. The proportion of sexes was 0.7:1.3. We found higher concentrations of triglycerides than phospholipids in the cytoplasm. There was a positive correlation between triglycerides and the diameter of the oocyte. The size at first maturity for both sexes was 105 mm. The highest protein and lipids contents were obtained in April and March respectively.

  17. Diversity, phylogeny and expression patterns of Pou and Six homeodomain transcription factors in hydrozoan jellyfish Craspedacusta sowerbyi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miluse Hroudova

    Full Text Available Formation of all metazoan bodies is controlled by a group of selector genes including homeobox genes, highly conserved across the entire animal kingdom. The homeobox genes from Pou and Six classes are key members of the regulation cascades determining development of sensory organs, nervous system, gonads and muscles. Besides using common bilaterian models, more attention has recently been targeted at the identification and characterization of these genes within the basal metazoan phyla. Cnidaria as a diploblastic sister group to bilateria with simple and yet specialized organs are suitable models for studies on the sensory organ origin and the associated role of homeobox genes. In this work, Pou and Six homeobox genes, together with a broad range of other sensory-specific transcription factors, were identified in the transcriptome of hydrozoan jellyfish Craspedacusta sowerbyi. Phylogenetic analyses of Pou and Six proteins revealed cnidarian-specific sequence motifs and contributed to the classification of individual factors. The majority of the Craspedacusta sowerbyi Pou and Six homeobox genes are predominantly expressed in statocysts, manubrium and nerve ring, the tissues with sensory and nervous activities. The described diversity and expression patterns of Pou and Six factors in hydrozoan jellyfish highlight their evolutionarily conserved functions. This study extends the knowledge of the cnidarian genome complexity and shows that the transcriptome of hydrozoan jellyfish is generally rich in homeodomain transcription factors employed in the regulation of sensory and nervous functions.

  18. Screening of Extraction Methods for Glycoproteins from Jellyfish (Rhopilema esculentum) Oral-Arms by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Guoyan; LI Bafang; ZHAO Xue; ZHUANG Yongliang; YAN Mingyan; HOU Hu; ZHANG Xiukun; CHEN Li

    2009-01-01

    In order to select an optimum extraction method for the target glycoprotein (TGP) from jellyfish (Rhopilema esculentum) oral-arms, a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-assay for the determination of the TGP was developed. Purified target glycoprotein was taken as a standard glycoprotcin. The results showed that the calibration curves for peak area plotted against con-centration for TGP were linear (r=0.9984, y=4.5895x+47.601) over concentrations ranging from 50 to 400mgL-1. The mean extrac-tion recovery was 97.84% (CV2.60%). The fractions containing TGP were isolated from jellyfish (R. esculentum) oral-arms bv four extraction methods: 1) water extraction (WE), 2) phosphate buffer solution (PBS) extraction (PE), 3) ultrasound-assisted water ex-traction (UA-WE), 4) ultrasound-assisted PBS extraction (UA-PE). The lyophtlized extract was dissolved in Milli-Q water and ana-lyzed directly on a short TSK-GEL G4000PWXL (7.8mm×300mm) column. Our results indicated that the UA-PE method was the optimum extraction method selected by HPLC.Kay words HPLC; glycoprotein; jellyfish; extraction method

  19. Impact assessment of non-indigenous jellyfish species on the estuarine community dynamic: A model of medusa phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muha, Teja Petra; Teodósio, Maria Alexandra; Ben-Hamadou, Radhouan

    2017-03-01

    Non-indigenous jellyfish species (NIJS) Blackforida virginica have recently been introduced to the Guadiana Estuary. A modelling approach was used for the assessment of the species-specific impact on the native community, during the medusa phase. The novel interactions between NIJS and the native community are assessed through biomass variation including hydrodynamic and climatic variables. Sensitivity analysis shows that both native species, as well as NIJS highly depend on the water discharge regime, nutrient contribution and the amount of detritus production. Abiotic factors such as the Northern Atlantic Oscillation, water discharge, nutrient load and detritus production are the most influential factors for the dynamics of the estuarine ecosystem demonstrated by the model. Low water discharge and low nutrient retention rate appear to be the most favourable conditions for B. virginica. The species is a non-selective predator able to integrate into the system effectively and has caused a decrease in the biomass of other organisms in the estuarine ecosystem throughout the summer after dam removal. The B. virginica significant impact can be evaluated only when the jellyfish detritus food pathway is involved. The B. virginica predatory impact potential, as well as food preference, appears to be the most influential factors for the overall biomass variation. On the contrary, winter freshwater pulses reduce the survival rate of jellyfish polyps which results in a decrease of medusa during summer. The model presents a strong ecohydrology movement where the fluctuation of organism biomass strongly depends on the hydrological conditions including the amount of nutrient load.

  20. Jellyfish collagen stimulates production of TNF-α and IL-6 by J774.1 cells through activation of NF-κB and JNK via TLR4 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra, Agus Budiawan Naro; Nishi, Kosuke; Shiraishi, Ryusuke; Doi, Mikiharu; Sugahara, Takuya

    2014-03-01

    We previously reported that jellyfish collagen stimulates both the acquired and innate immune responses. In the acquired immune response, jellyfish collagen enhanced immunoglobulin production by lymphocytes in vitro and in vivo. Meanwhile, in the innate immune response jellyfish collagen promoted cytokine production and phagocytotic activity of macrophages. The facts that jellyfish collagen plays several potential roles in stimulating cytokine production by macrophages have further attracted us to uncover its mechanisms. We herein describe that the cytokine production-stimulating activity of jellyfish collagen was canceled by a Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) inhibitor. Moreover, jellyfish collagen stimulated phosphorylation of inhibitor of κBα (IκBα), promoted the translocation of nucleus factor-κB (NF-κB), and activated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). A JNK inhibitor also abrogated the cytokine production-stimulating activity of jellyfish collagen. These results suggest that jellyfish collagen may facilitate cytokine production by macrophages through activation of NF-κB and JNK via the TLR4 signaling pathways.

  1. The Lithium Vapor Box Divertor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldston, Robert; Hakim, Ammar; Hammett, Gregory; Jaworski, Michael; Myers, Rachel; Schwartz, Jacob

    2015-11-01

    Projections of scrape-off layer width to a demonstration power plant suggest an immense parallel heat flux, of order 12 GW/m2, which will necessitate nearly fully detached operation. Building on earlier work by Nagayama et al. and by Ono et al., we propose to use a series of differentially pumped boxes filled with lithium vapor to isolate the buffering vapor from the main plasma chamber, allowing stable detachment. This powerful differential pumping is only available for condensable vapors, not conventional gases. We demonstrate the properties of such a system through conservation laws for vapor mass and enthalpy, and then include plasma entrainment and ultimately an estimate of radiated power. We find that full detachment should be achievable with little leakage of lithium to the main plasma chamber. We also present progress towards solving the Navier-Stokes equation numerically for the chain of vapor boxes, including self-consistent wall boundary conditions and fully-developed shocks, as well as concepts for an initial experimental demonstration-of-concept. This work supported by DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  2. Plastic Jellyfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Christine

    2000-01-01

    Presents an environmental science activity designed to enhance students' awareness of the hazards of plastic waste for wildlife in aquatic environments. Discusses how students can take steps to reduce the effects of plastic waste. (WRM)

  3. Jellyfish stings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The World of Medusa and Her Sisters. 2016. Springer. Wilcox CL, Yanagihara AA. Heated debates: Hot-water ... medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- ...

  4. F-box proteins in flowering plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In eukaryotes, the ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation pathway has been shown to control several key biological processes such as cell division, development, metabolism and immune response. F-box proteins, as a part of SCF (Skp1-Cullin (or Cdc53)-F-box) complex, functioned by interacting with substrate proteins, leading to their subsequent degradation by the 26S proteasome. To date, several F-box proteins identified in Arabidopsis and Antirrhinum have been shown to play important roles in auxin signal transduction, floral organ formation, flowering and leaf senescence. Arabidopsis genome sequence analysis revealed that it encodes over 1000 predicted F-box proteins accounting for about 5% of total predicted proteins. These results indicate that the ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation involving the F-box proteins is an important mechanism controlling plant gene expression. Here, we review the known F-box proteins and their functionsin flowering plants.

  5. Understanding Recommender Dynamics driving Box Office Revenues

    CERN Document Server

    Yeung, C H; Jin, C -H

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a simple model to investigate the underlying dynamics driving movie box office. Without an explicit reliance on time, the box office of movies evolves naturally by movie-movie competition through reviews listed on a centralized recommender system. A simple mean-field approximation is employed which assumes an average interaction between the competing movies, and describes the interesting box office dynamics. Box office hits are found for movies with quality beyond a critical value, leading to booms in gross box office. Such critical value is dependent on the reviewing behaviors, intention of movie goers for new movies, and the quality of the peer competing movies. Finally we compare our analytical results with simulations and real system and obtain qualitative agreements, suggesting the present model in describing the fundamental dynamics of box office.

  6. Studies on nucleoside constituents of Jellyfish Stomopholus meleagris%沙蜇Stomopholus meleagris核苷类成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡杨鹏; 刘璐璐; 闫玉霞; 李平林; 李八方

    2011-01-01

    首次对沙蜇的核苷类成分进行比较全面的提取、分离和结构鉴定,为沙蜇的进一步综合开发利用提供理论依据.方法 新鲜沙蜇的甲醇提取物用石油醚、乙酸乙酯和正丁醇分级萃取;再用硅胶柱层析、Sephadex LH-20凝胶柱层析、薄层制备层析等分离技术得到单体化合物;通过GC-MS、ESIMS、NMR等分析方法,结合文献对照,对所得化合物进行结构鉴定.结果 从沙蜇的甲醇提取物中分离出6个单体:胸腺嘧啶(1)、2'-甲氧基尿嘧啶核苷(2)、尿嘧啶(3)、2’-脱氧胸腺嘧啶核苷(4)、2'-脱氧尿嘧啶核苷(5)、尿嘧啶核苷(6).结论 化合物1~6均为首次从沙蜇中分离得到.%Objective For further utilization and exploitation of jellyfish resource, nucleoside constituents from jellyfish Stomopholus meleagris were investigated. Methods Methanol extracts of fresh jellyfish was partitioned successively with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol. Then silica gel chro-matography, Sephadex LH-20 gel filtration and PTLC were performed for the isolation and purification of the compounds, and GC-MS, ESIMS,NMR analyses as well as data comparison with reported literatures were applied for the structure elucidation. Results Six compounds were isolated and determined from jellyfish; thymine (1), 2'-O-methyluridine (2), uracil (3), 2-deoxythymidine (4), 2'-deoxyuridine (5), uridine (6). Conclusion All the compounds obtained were purified and identified from jellyfish Stomopholus meleagris for the first time.

  7. Main: BOX1PVCHS15 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BOX1PVCHS15 S000208 11-May-2006 (last modified) kehi Box 1 of bean (P.v.) chs15 pro...moter; one of SBF-1 binding sites in chs15 promoter; Located at -318 to -305; Involved in organ-specific exp...e Villain et al. (1996); Box 1; chs; chs15; CHS; SBF-1; silencer; organ-specific; Gt; GT-1; GT; bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) TAAAAGTTAAAAAC ...

  8. VO₂ requirements of boxing exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arseneau, Eric; Mekary, Saïd; Léger, Luc A

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the physiological requirements of various boxing exercises such as sparring, pad work, and punching bag. Because it was not possible to measure the oxygen uptake (VO₂) of "true" sparring with a collecting gas valve in the face, we developed and validated a method to measure VO₂ of "true" sparring based on "postexercise" measurements. Nine experienced male amateur boxers (Mean ± SD: age = 22.0 ± 3.5 years, height = 176.0 ± 8.0 cm, weight = 71.4 ± 10.9 kg, number of fights = 13.0 ± 9.5) of regional and provincial level volunteered to participate in 3 testing sessions: (a) maximal treadmill test in the LAB, (b) standardized boxing training in the GYM, and (c) standardized boxing exercises in the LAB. Measures of VO₂, heart rate (HR), blood lactate concentration [LA], rated perceived exertion level, and punching frequencies were collected. VO₂ values of 43.4 ± 5.9, 41.1 ± 5.1, 24.7 ± 6.1, 30.4 ± 5.8, and 38.3 ± 6.5 ml·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹ were obtained, which represent 69.7 ± 8.0, 66.1 ± 8.0, 39.8 ± 10.4, 48.8 ± 8.5, and 61.7 ± 10.3%VO₂peak for sparring, pad work, and punching bag at 60, 120, and 180 b·min⁻¹, respectively. Except for lower VO₂ values for punching the bag at 60 and 120 b·min⁻¹ (p < 0.05), there was no VO₂ difference between exercises. Similar pattern was obtained for %HRmax with respective values of 85.5 ± 5.9, 83.6 ± 6.3, 67.5 ± 3.5, 74.8 ± 5.9, and 83.0 ± 6.0. Finally, sparring %HRmax and [LA] were slightly higher in the GYM (91.7 ± 4.3 and 9.4 ± 2.2 mmol·L⁻¹) vs. LAB (85.5 ± 5.9 and 6.1 ± 2.3 mmol·L⁻¹). Thus, in this study simulated LAB sparring and pad work required similar VO₂ (43-41 ml·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹, respectively), which corresponds to ~70%VO₂peak. These results underline the importance of a minimum of aerobic fitness for boxers and draw some guidelines for the intensity of training.

  9. 海蜇ACE抑制肽水解用酶的筛选%Screening of Proteases for Hydrolysis of Jellyfish ACE Inhibitory Peptides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘新; 张绵松; 孟秀梅; 张永刚; 王萍; 刘昌衡

    2012-01-01

    Take several indexes into consideration, including peptides content, ACE inhibition rate and the rate ofpeptides, the proteases for hydrolysis of Jellyfish ACE Inhibitory Peptides were screened. The results showed that different protease had different effects on the hydrolysis of jellyfish. Papain and protamex were the good choices for hydrolysis of Jellyfish ACE Inhibitory Peptides.%采用肽含量、ACE抑制率和肽的比例等多个指标对六种蛋白酶的水解效果进行评价筛选海蜇ACE抑制肽的酶法制备用酶。试验结果表明,不同的蛋白酶对海蜇的水解效果不同,综合考虑三项指标,复合蛋白酶是海蜇ACE抑制肽酶法制备的理想用酶

  10. 49 CFR 38.33 - Fare box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fare box. 38.33 Section 38.33 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Buses, Vans and Systems § 38.33 Fare box. Where provided, the farebox shall be located as far forward as...

  11. 36 CFR 1192.33 - Fare box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fare box. 1192.33 Section 1192.33 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Buses, Vans and Systems § 1192.33 Fare box. Where...

  12. Modern biotechnology Panacea or new Pandora's box?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tramper, J.; Yang Zhu, Yang

    2011-01-01

    According to Greek mythology Pandora was sent down to earth upon the orders of Zeus. She was given a mysterious box which she was not allowed to open. However, Pandora was very curious and when she arrived on earth she couldn?t help taking a peek inside the box. She saw that it was filled with gifts

  13. Box Plots in the Australian Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jane M.

    2012-01-01

    This article compares the definition of "box plot" as used in the "Australian Curriculum: Mathematics" with other definitions used in the education community; describes the difficulties students experience when dealing with box plots; and discusses the elaboration that is necessary to enable teachers to develop the knowledge necessary to use them…

  14. Boxing Injuries from an Instructional Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Michael J.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the safeguards as well as the injury pattern of the boxing program at the US Military Academy at West Point from 1983 to 1985. About 2,100 cadets received boxing instruction during this period with an injury rate of less than four percent. (Author/MT)

  15. Changes in bacterial community metabolism and composition during the degradation of dissolved organic matter from the jellyfish Aurelia aurita in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchet, Marine; Pringault, Olivier; Bouvy, Marc; Catala, Philippe; Oriol, Louise; Caparros, Jocelyne; Ortega-Retuerta, Eva; Intertaglia, Laurent; West, Nyree; Agis, Martin; Got, Patrice; Joux, Fabien

    2015-09-01

    Spatial increases and temporal shifts in outbreaks of gelatinous plankton have been observed over the past several decades in many estuarine and coastal ecosystems. The effects of these blooms on marine ecosystem functioning and particularly on the dynamics of the heterotrophic bacteria are still unclear. The response of the bacterial community from a Mediterranean coastal lagoon to the addition of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from the jellyfish Aurelia aurita, corresponding to an enrichment of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) by 1.4, was assessed for 22 days in microcosms (8 l). The high bioavailability of this material led to (i) a rapid mineralization of the DOC and dissolved organic nitrogen from the jellyfish and (ii) the accumulation of high concentrations of ammonium and orthophosphate in the water column. DOM from jellyfish greatly stimulated heterotrophic prokaryotic production and respiration rates during the first 2 days; then, these activities showed a continuous decay until reaching those measured in the control microcosms (lagoon water only) at the end of the experiment. Bacterial growth efficiency remained below 20%, indicating that most of the DOM was respired and a minor part was channeled to biomass production. Changes in bacterial diversity were assessed by tag pyrosequencing of partial bacterial 16S rRNA genes, DNA fingerprints, and a cultivation approach. While bacterial diversity in control microcosms showed little changes during the experiment, the addition of DOM from the jellyfish induced a rapid growth of Pseudoalteromonas and Vibrio species that were isolated. After 9 days, the bacterial community was dominated by Bacteroidetes, which appeared more adapted to metabolize high-molecular-weight DOM. At the end of the experiment, the bacterial community shifted toward a higher proportion of Alphaproteobacteria. Resilience of the bacterial community after the addition of DOM from the jellyfish was higher for metabolic functions than diversity

  16. Recombinant expression and solution structure of antimicrobial peptide aurelin from jellyfish Aurelia aurita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenkarev, Zakhar O; Panteleev, Pavel V; Balandin, Sergey V; Gizatullina, Albina K; Altukhov, Dmitry A; Finkina, Ekaterina I; Kokryakov, Vladimir N; Arseniev, Alexander S; Ovchinnikova, Tatiana V

    2012-12-07

    Aurelin is a 40-residue cationic antimicrobial peptide isolated from the mezoglea of a scyphoid jellyfish Aurelia aurita. Aurelin and its (15)N-labeled analogue were overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Antimicrobial activity of the recombinant peptide was examined, and its spatial structure was studied by NMR spectroscopy. Aurelin represents a compact globule, enclosing one 3(10)-helix and two α-helical regions cross-linked by three disulfide bonds. The peptide binds to anionic lipid (POPC/DOPG, 3:1) vesicles even at physiological salt concentration, it does not interact with zwitterionic (POPC) vesicles and interacts with the DPC micelle surface with moderate affinity via two α-helical regions. Although aurelin shows structural homology to the BgK and ShK toxins of sea anemones, its surface does not possess the "functional dyad" required for the high-affinity interaction with the K(+)-channels. The obtained data permit to correlate the modest antibacterial properties and membrane activity of aurelin.

  17. Jellyfish: Special Tools for Biological Research on Earth and in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangenberg, Dorothy B.

    1991-01-01

    The most intriguing nature of the jellyfish polyps is their ability to metamorphose, giving rise to tiny immature medusae called ephyrae which have a different form or shape from the polyps. The Aurelia Metamorphosis Test System was used to determine the subtle effects of hydrocarbons found in oil spills and the effects of X-irradiation on developing ephyrae. Currently, this test system is used to determine the effects of the gravity-less environment of outer space on the development and behavior of ephyrae. For this purpose, the effects of clinostat rotation on development of the ephyrae and their gravity receptor are being studied. The behavior of the ephyrae during 0 gravity achieved for short intervals of 30 seconds in parabolic flight is examined. The developing ephyrae and the mature ephyrae are exposed to gravity-less environment of outer space via a six or seven day shuttle experiment. If gravity receptors do form in outer space, they will be studied in detail using various types of microscopes, including the electron microscope, to determin whether they developed normally in space as compared with control on Earth.

  18. Jellyfish skin polysaccharides: extraction and inhibitory activity on macrophage-derived foam cell formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Lin; Cui, Shao-Hua; Zha, Xue-Qiang; Bansal, Vibha; Xue, Lei; Li, Xiao-Long; Hao, Ran; Pan, Li-Hua; Luo, Jian-Ping

    2014-06-15

    In this work, response surface methodology was used to determine optimum conditions for extraction of polysaccharides from jellyfish skin (JSP). The optimum parameters were found to be raw material to water ratio 1:7.5 (w/v), extraction temperature 100°C and extraction time 4h. Under these conditions, the JSP yield reached 1.007 mg/g. Papain (15 U/mL) in combination with Sevag reagent was beneficial in removing proteins from JSP. After precipitation with ethanol at final concentration of 40%, 60% and 80% in turn, three polysaccharide fractions of JSP1, JSP2 and JSP3 were obtained from JSP, respectively. The three fractions exhibited different physicochemical properties with respect to molecular weight distribution, monosaccharide composition, infrared absorption spectra, and glycosyl bond composition. In addition, JSP3 showed strong inhibitory effects on oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) induced conversion of macrophages into foam cells, which possibly attributed to the down-regulation of some atherogenesis-related gene expressions.

  19. Cloning and expression of aequorin genes from jellyfish Aequorea and characterization of aequorins activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗文新; 张军; 李少伟; 程通; 陈敏; 李少菁; 夏宁邵

    2002-01-01

    Two new aequorin genes, aeqxm and aeqxxm, were isolated from jellyfish Aequorea macrodactyla and Aequorea parva respectively, which are commonly found in the warmer waters on the coastal region of the East China Sea. The DNA sequences of the two genes have no introns and each one contains an ORF of 585 bp in full-length encoding a 195-aa protein. The two genes of aeqxm and aeqxxm share nuclcotide homologies of 80.7% and 85.1% with AEVAQ440X respectively, and the corresponding proteins share amino acid homologies of 84.7 % and 84.2 % with AEVAQ440X. High amino acid homology was found between apoaeqxm and apoaeqxxm. The two genes were cloned into expression vector pTO -T7 respectively, and the expression yields amounted to 40% of the total protein in E. coli BL21. The activities of the two photoproteins were reconstituted by incubating the expressed apoproteins with coelenterazine f. In the presence of Ca ion, both of the regenerated aeqxm and aeqxxm exhibited an emission peak at the wave length of 470 nm.

  20. A specific antimicrobial protein CAP-1 from Pseudomonas sp. isolated from the jellyfish Cyanea capillata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Manman; Liu, Dan; Xu, Feng; Xiao, Liang; Wang, Qianqian; Wang, Beilei; Chang, Yinlong; Zheng, Jiemin; Tao, Xia; Liu, Guoyan; Zhang, Liming

    2016-01-01

    A bacterium strain, designated as CMF-2, was isolated from the jellyfish Cyanea capillata and its culture supernatant exhibited a significant antimicrobial activity. The strain CMF-2 was identified as Pseudomonas sp. based on the morphological, biochemical and physiological characteristics as well as 16S rRNA sequence analysis. In this study, an antimicrobial protein, named as CAP-1, was isolated from the culture of CMF-2 through ammonium sulfate precipitation and gel filtration chromatography. According to the result of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), a major band indicated that the antimicrobial protein had a molecular mass of about 15 kDa, and it was identified as a hypothetical protein by MALDI-TOF-MS analysis and Mascot searching. CAP-1 displayed a broad antimicrobial spectrum against the indicator bacteria and fungus, including Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Candida albicans, especially some marine-derived microorganisms such as Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio cholera, and Vibrio anguillarum, but showed little impact on tumor cells and normal human cells. The protein CAP-1 remained a stable antimicrobial activity in a wide range of temperature (20-80°C) and pH (2-10) conditions. These results suggested that CAP-1 might have a specific antimicrobial function not due to cytotoxicity.

  1. Construction of chitin/PVA composite hydrogels with jellyfish gel-like structure and their biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Meng; Wang, Zhenggang; Cao, Yan; Zhao, Yanteng; Duan, Bo; Chen, Yun; Xu, Min; Zhang, Lina

    2014-09-08

    High strength chitin/poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) composite hydrogels (RCP) were constructed by adding PVA into chitin dissolved in a NaOH/urea aqueous solution, and then by cross-linking with epichlorohydrin (ECH) and freezing-thawing process. The RCP hydrogels were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, FTIR, differential scanning calorimetry, solid-state (13)C NMR, wide-angle X-ray diffraction, and compressive test. The results revealed that the repeated freezing/thawing cycles induced the bicrosslinked networks consisted of chitin and PVA crystals in the composite gels. Interestingly, a jellyfish gel-like structure occurred in the RCP75 gel with 25 wt % PVA content in which the amorphous and crystalline PVA were immobilized tightly in the chitin matrix through hydrogen bonding interaction. The freezing/thawing cycles played an important role in the formation of the layered porous PVA networks and the tight combining of PVA with the pore wall of chitin. The mechanical properties of RCP75 were much higher than the other RCP gels, and the compressive strength was 20× higher than that of pure chitin gels, as a result of broadly dispersing stress caused by the orderly multilayered networks. Furthermore, the cell culture tests indicated that the chitin/PVA composite hydrogels exhibited excellent biocompatibility and safety, showing potential applications in the field of tissue engineering.

  2. To flap or not to flap: a discussion between a fish and a jellyfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nathan; Roh, Chris; Idrees, Suhail; Gharib, Morteza

    2016-11-01

    Fish and jellyfish are known to swim by flapping and by periodically contracting respectively, but which is the more effective propulsion mechanism? In an attempt to answer this question, an experimental comparison is made between simplified versions of these motions to determine which generates the greatest thrust for the least power. The flapping motion is approximated by pitching plates while periodic contractions are approximated by clapping plates. A machine is constructed to operate in either a flapping or a clapping mode between Reynolds numbers 1,880 and 11,260 based on the average plate tip velocity and span. The effect of the total sweep angle, total sweep time, plate flexibility, and duty cycle are investigated. The average thrust generated and power required per cycle are compared between the two modes when their total sweep angle and total sweep time are identical. In general, operating in the clapping mode required significantly more power to generate a similar thrust compared to the flapping mode. However, modifying the duty cycle for clapping caused the effectiveness to approach that of flapping with an unmodified duty cycle. These results suggest that flapping is the more effective propulsion mechanism within the range of Reynolds numbers tested. This work was supported by the Charyk Bio-inspired Laboratory at the California Institute of Technology, the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE-1144469, and the Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowships program.

  3. Effect of Venom from the Jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai on the Silkworm Bombyx mori L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huahua Yu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The silkworm Bombyx mori L. (B. mori has a significant impact on the economy by producing more than 80% of the globally produced raw silk. The exposure of silkworm to pesticides may cause adverse effects on B. mori, such as a reduction in the production and quality of silk. This study aims to assay the effect of venom from the jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai on growth, cuticle and acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity of the silkworm B. mori by the leaf dipping method. The experimental results revealed that the four samples caused neither antifeeding nor a lethal effect on B. mori. The sample SFV inhibited B. mori growth after 6 days of treatment in a dose-dependent manner. The samples SFV, DSFV and Fr-1 inhibited the precipitation and synthesis of chitin in the cuticle after 12 and 14 days of treatment. In the case of the four samples, the AChE was significantly improved after 14 days of treatment.

  4. Clearance rates of ephyrae and small medusae of the common jellyfish Aurelia aurita offered different types of prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riisgård, Hans Ulrik; Madsen, Caroline V.

    2011-01-01

    Prey selection and knowledge of the amounts of water processed by the early stages of the common jellyfish Aurelia aurita may at certain times of the year be crucial for understanding the plankton dynamics in marine ecosystems with mass occurrences of this jellyfish. In the present study we used two different methods ("clearance method" and "ingestion-rate method") to estimate the amount of water cleared per unit of time of different types and sizes of prey organisms offered to A. aurita ephyrae and small medusae. The mean clearance rates of medusae, estimated with Artemia sp. nauplii as prey by both methods, agreed well, namely 3.8 ± 1.4 l h - 1 by the clearance method and 3.2 ± 1.1 l h - 1 by the ingestion-rate method. Both methods showed that copepods (nauplii and adults) and mussel veligers are captured with considerably lower efficiency, 22 to 37% and 14 to 30%, respectively, than Artemia salina nauplii. By contrast, the water processing rates of ephyrae measured by the clearance method with A. salina nauplii as prey were 3 to 5 times lower than those measured by the ingestion-rate method. This indicates that the prerequisite of full mixing for using the clearance method may not have been fulfilled in the ephyrae experiments. The study demonstrates that the predation impact of the young stages of A. aurita is strongly dependent on its developmental stage (ephyra versus medusa), and the types and sizes of prey organisms. The estimated prey-digestion time of 1.3 h in a steady-state feeding experiment with constant prey concentration supports the reliability of the ingestion-rate method, which eliminates the negative "container effects" of the clearance method, and it seems to be useful in future jellyfish studies, especially on small species/younger stages in which both type and number of prey can be easily and precisely assessed.

  5. In depth analysis of the in vivo toxicity of venom from the jellyfish Stomolophus meleagris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rongfeng; Yu, Huahua; Yue, Yang; Liu, Song; Xing, Ronge; Chen, Xiaolin; Wang, Xueqin; Li, Pengcheng

    2014-12-15

    Jellyfish Stomolophus meleagris, a synonym of Nemopilema nomurai, which has often bloomed in the China Sea in recent years, is becoming an increasing threat to human health and life as a result of its strong toxicity. Each year, hundreds of thousands of people were stung, especially in the high season, and the victims suffered itch, edema, myalgia, dyspnea, hypotension, shock and even death. Here, we present the in-depth analysis of the in vivo toxicity of the venom from the jellyfish S. meleagris by using both an acute toxicological approach and pathological analyses. The venom showed an LD50 of approximately 2.92 μg/g body weight in mice following an intravenous injection and caused renal glomerular swelling, renal vesicle stricture, renal tubules dilatation, hepatic blood sinusoid dilatation, pulmonary edema and malignant pleural effusion. The pathological sections analysis showed that the kidney and liver were significantly damaged, but the heart, spleen and stomach had no observed changes. Additionally, the hemanalysis showed an increase of white blood cells (WBC), middle cells (Mid), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), blood urine nitrogen (BUN) and uric acid (UA) in the blood. Moreover, the mice also displayed convulsions, mouth bleeding, piloerection, dyspnea and death after the injection of the venom. In conclusion, this venom has a strong toxicity to the kidney of the mice and the acute renal failure might be one of the most important factors for the death after a severe sting. Hopefully, the present study will provide a significant reference for the treatment of stings by the jellyfish S. meleagris in the future.

  6. Vertical distribution of Aurelia labiata (Scyphozoa) jellyfish in Roscoe Bay is similar during flood and ebb tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, David J.

    2010-10-01

    The vertical distribution of the jellyfish, Aurelia labiata, was assessed during flood and ebb tides in April, May, June, and August 2009 in Roscoe Bay (British Columbia, Canada). Assessments were made at locations along the entire length of the bay. The average tide change was 3.7 m. The vertical position of medusae (in 2 m intervals) did not differ significantly during ebb ( N = 17) and flood tides ( N = 18) in 6 and 8 m water columns. These results indicate that A. labiata do not use tidally synchronized vertical migration to maintain their location or presence in Roscoe Bay.

  7. Jellyfish support high energy intake of leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea: video evidence from animal-borne cameras.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan G Heaslip

    Full Text Available The endangered leatherback turtle is a large, highly migratory marine predator that inexplicably relies upon a diet of low-energy gelatinous zooplankton. The location of these prey may be predictable at large oceanographic scales, given that leatherback turtles perform long distance migrations (1000s of km from nesting beaches to high latitude foraging grounds. However, little is known about the profitability of this migration and foraging strategy. We used GPS location data and video from animal-borne cameras to examine how prey characteristics (i.e., prey size, prey type, prey encounter rate correlate with the daytime foraging behavior of leatherbacks (n = 19 in shelf waters off Cape Breton Island, NS, Canada, during August and September. Video was recorded continuously, averaged 1:53 h per turtle (range 0:08-3:38 h, and documented a total of 601 prey captures. Lion's mane jellyfish (Cyanea capillata was the dominant prey (83-100%, but moon jellyfish (Aurelia aurita were also consumed. Turtles approached and attacked most jellyfish within the camera's field of view and appeared to consume prey completely. There was no significant relationship between encounter rate and dive duration (p = 0.74, linear mixed-effects models. Handling time increased with prey size regardless of prey species (p = 0.0001. Estimates of energy intake averaged 66,018 kJ • d(-1 but were as high as 167,797 kJ • d(-1 corresponding to turtles consuming an average of 330 kg wet mass • d(-1 (up to 840 kg • d(-1 or approximately 261 (up to 664 jellyfish • d(-1. Assuming our turtles averaged 455 kg body mass, they consumed an average of 73% of their body mass • d(-1 equating to an average energy intake of 3-7 times their daily metabolic requirements, depending on estimates used. This study provides evidence that feeding tactics used by leatherbacks in Atlantic Canadian waters are highly profitable and our results are consistent with estimates of mass gain prior to

  8. Paecilonic acids A and B, bicyclic fatty acids from the jellyfish-derived fungus Paecilomyces variotii J08NF-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haibo; Hong, Jongki; Yin, Jun; Liu, Juan; Liu, Yonghong; Choi, Jae Sue; Jung, Jee H

    2016-05-01

    Two new bicyclic fatty acids, paecilonic acids A and B (1 and 2), were isolated from the culture broth of the marine fungus Paecilomyces variotii derived from the jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai. Compounds 1 and 2 share the same molecular formula and possess a 6,8-dioxabicyclo[3.2.1]octane core skeleton. The planar structures of compounds 1 and 2 were established by spectroscopic analysis, which included NMR and ESI-MS/MS. Relative and absolute configurations were determined by analyzing coupling constants, NOESY correlations, and optical rotations.

  9. Antihypertensive effect of long-term oral administration of jellyfish (Rhopilema esculentum) collagen peptides on renovascular hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Yongliang; Sun, Liping; Zhang, Yufeng; Liu, Gaoxiang

    2012-02-01

    Antihypertensive effect of long-term oral administration of jellyfish (Rhopilema esculentum) collagen peptides (JCP) on renovascular hypertension rats (RVHs) was evaluated. The systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure of the RVHs were significantly reduced with administration of JCP (p oral treatment with high dose JCP (p > 0.05). Furthermore, effect of JCP on angiotensin II (Ang II) concentration of plasma had no significance (p > 0.05), but JCP significantly inhibited the Ang II concentration in RVHs' kidney (p < 0.05). The kidney should be the target site of JCP.

  10. MADS-box gene evolution - structure and transcription patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Bo; Pedersen, Louise Buchholt; Skipper, Martin;

    2002-01-01

    Mads-box genes, ABC model, Evolution, Phylogeny, Transcription patterns, Gene structure, Conserved motifs......Mads-box genes, ABC model, Evolution, Phylogeny, Transcription patterns, Gene structure, Conserved motifs...

  11. Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion's Pandora's Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A A A | Print | Share Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion’s Pandora’s Box? Foot and ankle surgeons warn against ... a "face lift" and fit them into high-fashion shoes. But physician members of the American College ...

  12. Light Therapy Boxes for Seasonal Affective Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseases and Conditions Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) Light therapy boxes can offer an effective treatment for seasonal affective disorder. Features such as light intensity, safety, cost and style are important considerations. ...

  13. Starling nest box monitoring [Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document described the standard operating procedures for observing and recording data collected from starling nest box monitoring at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal....

  14. Packing a cake into a box

    KAUST Repository

    Skopenkov, Mikhail

    2011-05-01

    Given a triangular cake and a box in the shape of its mirror image, how can the cake be cut into a minimal number of pieces so that it can be put into the box? The cake has icing, so we are not allowed to put it into the box upside down. V. G. Boltyansky asked this question in 1977 and showed that three pieces always suffice. In this paper we provide examples of cakes that cannot be cut into two pieces to be put into the box. This shows that three is the answer to Boltyansky\\'s question. We also give examples of cakes which can be cut into two pieces. © THE MATHEMATICAL ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA.

  15. Packing a cake into a box

    CERN Document Server

    Skopenkov, Mikhail

    2010-01-01

    Given a cake in form of a triangle and a box that fits the mirror image of the cake, how to cut the cake into a minimal number of pieces so that it can be put into the box? The cake has an icing, so that we are not allowed to put it into the box upside down. V.G. Boltyansky asked this question in 1977 and showed that three pieces always suffice. In this paper we provide examples of cakes that cannot be cut into two pieces to put into the box. This shows that three is the answer to V.G. Boltyansky's question. Also we give examples of cakes which can be cut into two pieces.

  16. Mitochondrial genome of the freshwater jellyfish Craspedacusta sowerbyi and phylogenetics of Medusozoa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zou

    Full Text Available The 17,922 base pairs (bp nucleotide sequence of the linear mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA molecule of the freshwater jellyfish Craspedacusta sowerbyi (Hydrozoa, Trachylina, Limnomedusae has been determined. This sequence exhibits surprisingly low A+T content (57.1%, containing genes for 13 energy pathway proteins, a small and a large subunit rRNAs, and methionine and tryptophan tRNAs. Mitochondrial ancestral medusozoan gene order (AMGO was found in the C. sowerbyi, as those found in Cubaia aphrodite (Hydrozoa, Trachylina, Limnomedusae, discomedusan Scyphozoa and Staurozoa. The genes of C. sowerbyi mtDNA are arranged in two clusters with opposite transcriptional polarities, whereby transcription proceeds toward the ends of the DNA molecule. Identical inverted terminal repeats (ITRs flank the ends of the mitochondrial DNA molecule, a characteristic typical of medusozoans. In addition, two open reading frames (ORFs of 354 and 1611 bp in length were found downstream of the large subunit rRNA gene, similar to the two ORFs of ORF314 and polB discovered in the linear mtDNA of C. aphrodite, discomedusan Scyphozoa and Staurozoa. Phylogenetic analyses of C. sowerbyi and other cnidarians were carried out based on both nucleotide and inferred amino acid sequences of the 13 mitochondrial energy pathway genes. Our working hypothesis supports the monophyletic Medusozoa being a sister group to Octocorallia (Cnidaria, Anthozoa. Within Medusozoa, the phylogenetic analysis suggests that Staurozoa may be the earliest diverging class and the sister group of all other medusozoans. Cubozoa and coronate Scyphozoa form a clade that is the sister group of Hydrozoa plus discomedusan Scyphozoa. Hydrozoa is the sister group of discomedusan Scyphozoa. Semaeostomeae is a paraphyletic clade with Rhizostomeae, while Limnomedusae (Trachylina is the sister group of hydroidolinans and may be the earliest diverging lineage among Hydrozoa.

  17. Mitochondrial genome of the freshwater jellyfish Craspedacusta sowerbyi and phylogenetics of Medusozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Hong; Zhang, Jin; Li, Wenxiang; Wu, Shangong; Wang, Guitang

    2012-01-01

    The 17,922 base pairs (bp) nucleotide sequence of the linear mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecule of the freshwater jellyfish Craspedacusta sowerbyi (Hydrozoa, Trachylina, Limnomedusae) has been determined. This sequence exhibits surprisingly low A+T content (57.1%), containing genes for 13 energy pathway proteins, a small and a large subunit rRNAs, and methionine and tryptophan tRNAs. Mitochondrial ancestral medusozoan gene order (AMGO) was found in the C. sowerbyi, as those found in Cubaia aphrodite (Hydrozoa, Trachylina, Limnomedusae), discomedusan Scyphozoa and Staurozoa. The genes of C. sowerbyi mtDNA are arranged in two clusters with opposite transcriptional polarities, whereby transcription proceeds toward the ends of the DNA molecule. Identical inverted terminal repeats (ITRs) flank the ends of the mitochondrial DNA molecule, a characteristic typical of medusozoans. In addition, two open reading frames (ORFs) of 354 and 1611 bp in length were found downstream of the large subunit rRNA gene, similar to the two ORFs of ORF314 and polB discovered in the linear mtDNA of C. aphrodite, discomedusan Scyphozoa and Staurozoa. Phylogenetic analyses of C. sowerbyi and other cnidarians were carried out based on both nucleotide and inferred amino acid sequences of the 13 mitochondrial energy pathway genes. Our working hypothesis supports the monophyletic Medusozoa being a sister group to Octocorallia (Cnidaria, Anthozoa). Within Medusozoa, the phylogenetic analysis suggests that Staurozoa may be the earliest diverging class and the sister group of all other medusozoans. Cubozoa and coronate Scyphozoa form a clade that is the sister group of Hydrozoa plus discomedusan Scyphozoa. Hydrozoa is the sister group of discomedusan Scyphozoa. Semaeostomeae is a paraphyletic clade with Rhizostomeae, while Limnomedusae (Trachylina) is the sister group of hydroidolinans and may be the earliest diverging lineage among Hydrozoa.

  18. Jellyfish Lake, Palau: Regeneration of C, N, Si, and P in anoxic marine lake sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, W.B.; Lent, R.M.; Burnett, W.C.; Chin, P.; Landing, W.M.; Orem, W.H.; McArthur, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Sediment cores from Jellyfish Lake were processed under an inert atmosphere and the pore waters extracted and analyzed for the following parameters: pH, titration alkalinity (TA), Cl-, H4SiO4, PO43-, NH4+, Ca2-, Mg2+, SO42-, and H2S. Additionally, in one set of pore-water samples (core 10), the ??13C of the ??CO2 was also determined. The TA, H4SiO4, PO43-, NH4+, and H2S increased with depth in the pore waters above anoxic bottom-water values. H2S values increased to 3.8 ??M. In one case, both H4SiO4 and PO43- concentrations increased to a maximum value and then decreased with depth, suggesting removal into solid phases. The H4SiO4 concentrations are equal to or greater than pore-water values observed in sediments underlying upwelling areas. PO43- concentrations are, in general, lower than pore-water values from terrigenous nearshore areas but higher than nearshore carbonate pore-water values from Florida Bay or Bermuda. The Ca2+, Cl-, and Mg2+: Cl- ratios show slight decreases in the top 15-20 cm, suggesting that authigenic carbonate may be forming. This suggestion is supported by the fact that the pore waters are saturated with respect to CaCO3 due to the very high TAs. The ??13C measurements of the pore-water ??CO2 are from a shorter core. These measurements reach their most negative concentration at 72 cm and then become slightly heavier. This change is accompanied by a decrease in TA, suggesting the onset of methanogenesis at this location in this core.

  19. Preliminary assessment of the jellyfish bycatch captured off southern and southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Schroeder

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Macromedusoid forms of Hydrozoa, Scyphozoa and Cubozoa captured by different fishing gears active in south and southeast of Brazil were recorded on board by scientific observers. After each fishing operation, catch composition was quantified and precise information about the position of the catch was taken between 2008 and 2011. Macromedusae records have been systemized in order to analyze the spatial-temporal distribution, the areas of concentration of the identified species and their relationship with other components of the bycatch. Catch composition analyzed in 986 fishing tows, demonstrated that the participation of these organisms ranged from 6-16%, and the hydromedusae Rhacostoma atlanticum L. Agassiz, 1851 and Olindias sambaquiensis Müller, 1861 were the most abundant and widely distributed species. R. atlanticum was recorded between 20 and 140 m deep while O. sambaquiensis presented registers in shallower waters between 10 and 70 m. No other identified species has been recorded in depths greater than 60 m. Areas of high concentration included the north-central coast of Santa Catarina and Paraná, the northern part of São Paulo and the north-central portion of Rio Grande do Sul State. Although the participation of the macromedusae has been relatively low, in areas of elevated concentration, the relative importance was high, making its participation almost exclusive among other zoological groups. Those registers of abundance and the respective areas of high concentration of macromedusae, which were associated to high primary production sites, may serve as a theoretical reference of the abundance of these organisms for future studies that aim to evaluate possible changes in jellyfish populations.

  20. Recombinant expression and solution structure of antimicrobial peptide aurelin from jellyfish Aurelia aurita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shenkarev, Zakhar O.; Panteleev, Pavel V.; Balandin, Sergey V. [Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Miklukho-Maklaya str., 16/10, 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation); Gizatullina, Albina K.; Altukhov, Dmitry A. [Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Miklukho-Maklaya str., 16/10, 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Department of Physicochemical Biology and Biotechnology, Institutskii per., 9, 141700 Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Finkina, Ekaterina I. [Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Miklukho-Maklaya str., 16/10, 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation); Kokryakov, Vladimir N. [Institute of Experimental Medicine, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Academica Pavlova str., 12, 197376 Saint-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Arseniev, Alexander S. [Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Miklukho-Maklaya str., 16/10, 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Department of Physicochemical Biology and Biotechnology, Institutskii per., 9, 141700 Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Ovchinnikova, Tatiana V., E-mail: ovch@ibch.ru [Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Miklukho-Maklaya str., 16/10, 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Department of Physicochemical Biology and Biotechnology, Institutskii per., 9, 141700 Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2012-12-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aurelin was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and its spatial structure was studied by NMR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aurelin compact structure encloses helical regions cross-linked by three disulfide bonds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aurelin shows structural homology to the BgK and ShK toxins of sea anemones. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aurelin binds to the anionic lipid vesicles, but does not interact with zwitterionic ones. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aurelin binds to DPC micelle surface with moderate affinity via two helical regions. -- Abstract: Aurelin is a 40-residue cationic antimicrobial peptide isolated from the mezoglea of a scyphoid jellyfish Aurelia aurita. Aurelin and its {sup 15}N-labeled analogue were overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Antimicrobial activity of the recombinant peptide was examined, and its spatial structure was studied by NMR spectroscopy. Aurelin represents a compact globule, enclosing one 3{sub 10}-helix and two {alpha}-helical regions cross-linked by three disulfide bonds. The peptide binds to anionic lipid (POPC/DOPG, 3:1) vesicles even at physiological salt concentration, it does not interact with zwitterionic (POPC) vesicles and interacts with the DPC micelle surface with moderate affinity via two {alpha}-helical regions. Although aurelin shows structural homology to the BgK and ShK toxins of sea anemones, its surface does not possess the 'functional dyad' required for the high-affinity interaction with the K{sup +}-channels. The obtained data permit to correlate the modest antibacterial properties and membrane activity of aurelin.

  1. [Molecular identification and detection of moon jellyfish (Aurelia sp.) based on partial sequencing of mitochondrial 16S rDNA and COI].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Yan; Zhen, Yu; Wang, Guo-shan; Mi, Tie-Zhu; Yu, Zhi-gang

    2013-03-01

    Taking the moon jellyfish Aurelia sp. commonly found in our coastal sea areas as test object, its genome DNA was extracted, the partial sequences of mt-16S rDNA (650 bp) and mt-COI (709 bp) were PCR-amplified, and, after purification, cloning, and sequencing, the sequences obtained were BLASTn-analyzed. The sequences of greater difference with those of the other jellyfish were chosen, and eight specific primers for the mt-16S rDNA and mt-COI of Aurelia sp. were designed, respectively. The specificity test indicated that the primer AS3 for the mt-16S rDNA and the primer AC3 for the mt-COI were excellent in rapidly detecting the target jellyfish from Rhopilema esculentum, Nemopilema nomurai, Cyanea nozakii, Acromitus sp., and Aurelia sp., and thus, the techniques for the molecular identification and detection of moon jellyfish were preliminarily established, which could get rid of the limitations in classical morphological identification of Aurelia sp. , being able to find the Aurelia sp. in the samples more quickly and accurately.

  2. 新鲜海蜇不同部位总糖含量的测定%Determination of total sugar concentration in different parts of fresh jellyfish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙鑫; 刘希光; 李海; 薛松; 高玉荣; 李鹏程; 于华华

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, different parts of fresh jellyfish (Rhopilema esculentum) were lyophilized , and the total sugar contents were determined by improved differential phenol-sulfuric acid method. The hydrolysis conditions of the treated jellyfish samples were optimized by orthogonal test. The optimal hydrolysis conditions of lyophilized jellyfish were 1 mol/L H2SO4 at 90℃for two hours. The result showed that the total sugar content was 9.42%in the gonad tissue, 7.28%in the umbrella tissue and 7.58%in the oral arms tissue of dried jellyfish, respectively.%以新鲜海蜇(Rhopilema esculentum Kishinouye)为原料,将其冷冻干燥处理后,采用改良的差示苯酚-硫酸法测定了海蜇不同部位的总糖含量,并用正交实验优化了水解条件。实验结果表明,海蜇的最佳水解条件为:1 mol/L硫酸,90℃水解120 min,测得海蜇生殖腺、海蜇皮、海蜇头的总糖含量分别为9.42%,7.28%和7.58%。

  3. Effects of large gut volume in gelatinous zooplankton: ingestion rate, bolus production and food patch utilization by the jellyfish Sarsia tubulosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, L.J.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Many gelatinous zooplankton consume a large amount of prey and have stomach volumes much greater than the volume of individual prey. We suggest that jellyfish can use their voluminous stomach as a buffering food-accumulating organ that allows the organism to feed at maximum clearance rate in a wide...

  4. The Spectra of Des S-Boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    function takes an n-bit ciphertext with a k-bit key and maps the combination into an n-bit plaintext. In traditional math lingo , E and D undo each... analysis went into the selection of the eight S-Boxes. Yet, a randomly designed S-Box can often achieve an adequate level of resistance to attacks...argues that IBM knew of this technique and purposely designed the algorithm to defeat this technique. Regardless, differential crypt- analysis is

  5. BOX-DEATH HOLLOW ROADLESS AREA, UTAH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Gordon W.; Lane, Michael

    1984-01-01

    Geologic mapping, geochemical sampling, and a search for prospects and mineralized rock in the Box-Death Hollow Roadless Area, Utah indicate that there is little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources in the area. Additional exploratory drilling by industry seems warranted if wells elsewhere in the region find oil or gas in strata as yet untested in the Box-Death Hollow Roadless Area.

  6. A look inside the actuarial black box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Math, S E; Youngerman, H

    1992-12-01

    Hospital executives often rely on actuaries (and their "black boxes") to determine self-insurance program liabilities and funding contributions. Typically, the hospital supplies the actuary with a myriad of statistics, and eventually the hospital receives a liability estimate and recommended funding level. The mysterious actuarial calculations that occur in between data reporting and receipt of the actuary's report are akin to a black box--a complicated device whose internal mechanism is hidden from or mysterious to the user.

  7. Random Young diagrams in a Rectangular Box

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Dan; Boutillier, Cédric; Enriquez, Nathanaël

    We exhibit the limit shape of random Young diagrams having a distribution proportional to the exponential of their area, and confined in a rectangular box. The Ornstein-Uhlenbeck bridge arises from the fluctuations around the limit shape.......We exhibit the limit shape of random Young diagrams having a distribution proportional to the exponential of their area, and confined in a rectangular box. The Ornstein-Uhlenbeck bridge arises from the fluctuations around the limit shape....

  8. HYDROGEN AND VOC RETENTION IN WASTE BOXES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PACE ME; MARUSICH RM

    2008-11-21

    The Hanford Waste Management Project Master Documented Safety Analysis (MDSA) (HNF-14741, 2003) identifies derived safety controls to prevent or mitigate the risks of a single-container deflagration during operations requiring moving, venting or opening transuranic (TRU)-waste containers. The issue is whether these safety controls are necessary for operations involving TRU-waste boxes that are being retrieved from burial at the Hanford Site. This paper investigates the potential for a deflagration hazard within these boxes and whether safety controls identified for drum deflagration hazards should be applied to operations involving these boxes. The study evaluates the accumulation of hydrogen and VOCs within the waste box and the transport of these gases and vapors out of the waste box. To perform the analysis, there were numerous and major assumptions made regarding the generation rate and the transport pathway dimensions and their number. Since there is little actual data with regards to these assumptions, analyses of three potential configurations were performed to obtain some indication of the bounds of the issue (the concentration of hydrogen or flammable VOCs within a waste box). A brief description of each of the three cases along with the results of the analysis is summarized.

  9. Amateur boxing: physical and physiological attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaabène, Helmi; Tabben, Montassar; Mkaouer, Bessem; Franchini, Emerson; Negra, Yassine; Hammami, Mehrez; Amara, Samiha; Chaabène, Raja Bouguezzi; Hachana, Younés

    2015-03-01

    Boxing is one of the oldest combat sports. The aim of the current review is to critically analyze the amateur boxer's physical and physiological characteristics and to provide practical recommendations for training as well as new areas of scientific research. High-level male and female boxers show a propensity for low body fat levels. Although studies on boxer somatotypes are limited, the available information shows that elite-level male boxers are characterized by a higher proportion of mesomorphy with a well-developed muscle mass and a low body fat level. To help support the overall metabolic demands of a boxing match and to accelerate the recovery process between rounds, athletes of both sexes require a high level of cardiorespiratory fitness. International boxers show a high peak and mean anaerobic power output. Muscle strength in both the upper and lower limbs is paramount for a fighter's victory and is one of the keys to success in boxing. As boxing punches are brief actions and very dynamic, high-level boxing performance requires well-developed muscle power in both the upper and lower limbs. Albeit limited, the available studies reveal that isometric strength is linked to high-level boxing performance. Future investigations into the physical and physiological attributes of boxers are required to enrich the current data set and to help create a suitable training program.

  10. Screening of extraction methods for glycoproteins from jellyfish ( Rhopilema esculentum) oral-arms by high performance liquid chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Guoyan; Li, Bafang; Zhao, Xue; Zhuang, Yongliang; Yan, Mingyan; Hou, Hu; Zhang, Xiukun; Chen, Li

    2009-03-01

    In order to select an optimum extraction method for the target glycoprotein (TGP) from jellyfish ( Rhopilema esculentum) oral-arms, a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-assay for the determination of the TGP was developed. Purified target glycoprotein was taken as a standard glycoprotein. The results showed that the calibration curves for peak area plotted against concentration for TGP were linear ( r = 0.9984, y = 4.5895 x+47.601) over concentrations ranging from 50 to 400 mgL-1. The mean extraction recovery was 97.84% (CV2.60%). The fractions containing TGP were isolated from jellyfish ( R. esculentum) oral-arms by four extraction methods: 1) water extraction (WE), 2) phosphate buffer solution (PBS) extraction (PE), 3) ultrasound-assisted water extraction (UA-WE), 4) ultrasound-assisted PBS extraction (UA-PE). The lyophilized extract was dissolved in Milli-Q water and analyzed directly on a short TSK-GEL G4000PWXL (7.8 mm×300 mm) column. Our results indicated that the UA-PE method was the optimum extraction method selected by HPLC.

  11. Cardiovascular effect is independent of hemolytic toxicity of tentacle-only extract from the jellyfish Cyanea capillata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Liang

    Full Text Available Our previous studies have confirmed that the crude tentacle-only extract (cTOE from the jellyfish Cyanea capillata (Cyaneidae exhibits hemolytic and cardiovascular toxicities simultaneously. So, it is quite difficult to discern the underlying active component responsible for heart injury caused by cTOE. The inactivation of the hemolytic toxicity from cTOE accompanied with a removal of plenty of precipitates would facilitate the separation of cardiovascular component and the investigation of its cardiovascular injury mechanism. In our research, after the treatment of one-step alkaline denaturation followed by twice dialysis, the protein concentration of the treated tentacle-only extract (tTOE was about 1/3 of cTOE, and SDS-PAGE showed smaller numbers and lower density of protein bands in tTOE. The hemolytic toxicity of tTOE was completely lost while its cardiovascular toxicity was well retained. The observations of cardiac function, histopathology and ultrastructural pathology all support tTOE with significant cardiovascular toxicity. Blood gas indexes and electrolytes changed far less by tTOE than those by cTOE, though still with significant difference from normal. In summary, the cardiovascular toxicity of cTOE can exist independently of the hemolytic toxicity and tTOE can be employed as a better venom sample for further purification and mechanism research on the jellyfish cardiovascular toxic proteins.

  12. Heavy Metals Affect Nematocysts Discharge Response and Biological Activity of Crude Venom in the Jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Morabito

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pollution of marine ecosystems and, specifically, heavy metals contamination may compromise the physiology of marine animals with events occurring on a cellular and molecular level. The present study focuses on the effect of short-term exposure to heavy metals like Zinc, Cadmium, Cobalt and Lanthanum (2-10 mM on the homeostasis of Pelagia noctiluca (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa, a jellyfish abundant in the Mediterranean sea. This species possesses stinging organoids, termed nematocysts, whose discharge and concomitant delivery of venom underlie the survival of all Cnidaria. Methods: Nematocysts discharge response, elicited by combined chemico-physical stimulation, was verified on excised oral arms exposed to heavy metals for 20 min. In addition, the hemolytic activity of toxins, contained in the crude venom extracted from nematocysts isolated from oral arms, was tested on human erythrocytes, in the presence of heavy metals or their mixture. Results: Treatment with heavy metals significantly inhibited both nematocysts discharge response and hemolytic activity of crude venom, in a dose-dependent manner, not involving oxidative events, that was irreversible in the case of Lanthanum. Conclusion: Our findings show that the homeostasis of Pelagia noctiluca, in terms of nematocysts discharge capability and effectiveness of venom toxins, is dramatically and rapidly compromised by heavy metals and confirm that this jellyfish is eligible as a model for ecotoxicological investigations.

  13. Nitrogen and Phosphorus Budget of a Polyculture System of Sea Cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus), Jellyfish (Rhopilema esculenta) and Shrimp (Fenneropenaeus chinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Junwei; DONG Shuanglin; GAO Qinfeng; ZHU Changbo

    2014-01-01

    The nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) budget and the ecological efficiency of a polyculture system of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus), jellyfish (Rhopilema esculenta) and shrimp (Fenneropenaeus chinensis) were studied in a cofferdam, 120.2 ha in size. The nutrients were supplied by spring tide inflow. In total, 139600 kg N yr-1 and 9730 kg P yr-1 input to the system;while 118900 kg N yr-1 and 2840 kg P yr-1 outflowed from the system concurrently, thus the outflow was 85.7%(N) and 29.2%(P) of inflow. The production of N and P was 889.5 kg yr-1 and 49.28 kg yr-1 (sea cucumber) and 204 kg yr-1 and 18.03 kg yr-1 (jellyfish and shrimp), respectively. The utilization rate of N and P by polycultured animals was 7.8‰and 6.9‰, respectively, 21.9%and 38%higher than that of monocultured sea cucumber. Our results indicated that the polyculture system was an efficient culture system of animals and a remediation system of coastal environment as well;it scavenged 14.3%and 70.8%of N and P, respectively. Such an ecological efficiency may be improved further by increasing either the stocking density or the size of sea cucumber or both.

  14. The Acute Toxicity and Hematological Characterization of the Effects of Tentacle-Only Extract from the Jellyfish Cyanea capillata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Zhang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the hematologic changes and the activities of jellyfish venoms other than hemolytic and cardiovascular toxicities, the acute toxicity of tentacle-only extract (TOE from the jellyfish Cyanea capillata was observed in mice, and hematological indexes were examined in rats. The median lethal dose (LD50 of TOE was 4.25 mg/kg, and the acute toxicity involved both heart- and nervous system-related symptoms. Arterial blood gas indexes, including pH, PCO2, HCO3−, HCO3std, TCO2, BEecf and BE (B, decreased significantly. PO2 showed a slight increase, while SO2c (% had no change at any time. Na+ and Ca2+ decreased, but K+ increased. Biochemical indexes, including LDH, CK, CK-MB, ALT, AST and sCr, significantly increased. Other biochemical indexes, including BUN and hemodiastase, remained normal. Lactic acid significantly increased, while glucose, Hct% and THbc showed slight temporary increases and then returned to normal. These results on the acute toxicity and hematological changes should improve our understanding of the in vivo pathophysiological effects of TOE from C. capillata and indicate that it may also have neurotoxicity, liver toxicity and muscular toxicity in addition to hemolytic and cardiovascular toxicities, but no kidney or pancreatic toxicity.

  15. Macrobenthic community structure and species composition in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea in jellyfish bloom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Songyao; Li, Xinzheng; Wang, Hongfa; Zhang, Baolin

    2014-05-01

    To understand the characteristics of macrobenthic structures and the relationship between environment and benthic assemblages in jellyfish bloom, we studied the macrobenthos and related environmental factors in the coastal waters of the Yellow Sea and East China Sea. Data were collected during two seasonal cruises in April and August of 2011, and analyzed with multivariate statistical methods. Up to 306 macrobenthic species were registered from the research areas, including 115 species of Polychaeta, 78 of Crustacea, 61 of Mollusca, 30 of Echinodermata, and 22 of other groups. Nine polychaete species occurred at frequencies higher than 25% from the sampling stations: Lumbrineris longifolia, Notomastus latericeus, Ninöe palmata, Ophelina acuminata, Nephtys oligobranchia, Onuphis geophiliformis, Glycera chirori, Terebellides stroemii, and Aricidea fragilis. Both the average biomass and abundance of macrobenthos are higher in August (23.8 g/m2 and 237.7 ind./m2) than those in April (11.3 g/m2 and 128 ind./m2); the dissimilarity of macrobenthic structures among stations is as high as 70%. In terms of the dissimilarity values, we divided the stations into four clusters in spring and eight in summer. The ABC curve shows that the macrofauna communities in high jellyfish abundance were not changed. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that depth, temperature, median grain size, total organic carbon of sediment and total nitrogen in sediment were important factors affecting the macrozoobenthic community in the study area.

  16. Cloning a Chymotrypsin-Like 1 (CTRL-1 Protease cDNA from the Jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunwi Heo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available An enzyme in a nematocyst extract of the Nemopilema nomurai jellyfish, caught off the coast of the Republic of Korea, catalyzed the cleavage of chymotrypsin substrate in an amidolytic kinetic assay, and this activity was inhibited by the serine protease inhibitor, phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride. We isolated the full-length cDNA sequence of this enzyme, which contains 850 nucleotides, with an open reading frame of 801 encoding 266 amino acids. A blast analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence showed 41% identity with human chymotrypsin-like (CTRL and the CTRL-1 precursor. Therefore, we designated this enzyme N. nomurai CTRL-1. The primary structure of N. nomurai CTRL-1 includes a leader peptide and a highly conserved catalytic triad of His69, Asp117, and Ser216. The disulfide bonds of chymotrypsin and the substrate-binding sites are highly conserved compared with the CTRLs of other species, including mammalian species. Nemopilema nomurai CTRL-1 is evolutionarily more closely related to Actinopterygii than to Scyphozoan (Aurelia aurita or Hydrozoan (Hydra vulgaris. The N. nomurai CTRL1 was amplified from the genomic DNA with PCR using specific primers designed based on the full-length cDNA, and then sequenced. The N. nomurai CTRL1 gene contains 2434 nucleotides and four distinct exons. The 5′ donor splice (GT and 3′ acceptor splice sequences (AG are wholly conserved. This is the first report of the CTRL1 gene and cDNA structures in the jellyfish N. nomurai.

  17. Nitrogen and phosphorus budget of a polyculture system of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus), jellyfish ( Rhopilema esculenta) and shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junwei; Dong, Shuanglin; Gao, Qinfeng; Zhu, Changbo

    2014-06-01

    The nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) budget and the ecological efficiency of a polyculture system of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus), jellyfish ( Rhopilema esculenta) and shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis) were studied in a cofferdam, 120.2 ha in size. The nutrients were supplied by spring tide inflow. In total, 139600 kg N yr-1 and 9730 kg P yr-1 input to the system; while 118900 kg N yr-1 and 2840 kg P yr-1 outflowed from the system concurrently, thus the outflow was 85.7% (N) and 29.2% (P) of inflow. The production of N and P was 889.5 kg yr-1 and 49.28 kg yr-1 (sea cucumber) and 204 kg yr-1 and 18.03 kg yr-1 (jellyfish and shrimp), respectively. The utilization rate of N and P by polycultured animals was 7.8‰ and 6.9‰, respectively, 21.9% and 38% higher than that of monocultured sea cucumber. Our results indicated that the polyculture system was an efficient culture system of animals and a remediation system of coastal environment as well; it scavenged 14.3% and 70.8% of N and P, respectively. Such an ecological efficiency may be improved further by increasing either the stocking density or the size of sea cucumber or both.

  18. Growth, development and temporal variation in the onset of six Chironex fleckeri medusae seasons: a contribution to understanding jellyfish ecology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Gordon

    Full Text Available Despite the worldwide distribution, toxicity and commercial, industrial and medical impacts jellyfish present, many aspects of their ecology remain poorly understood. Quantified here are important ecological parameters of Chironex fleckeri medusae, contributing not only to the understanding of an understudied taxon, the cubozoa, but also to the broader understanding of jellyfish ecology. C. fleckeri medusae were collected across seven seasons (1999, 2000, 2003, 2005-07 and 2010, with growth rates, temporal variation in the medusae season onset and differences in population structure between estuarine and coastal habitats quantified. With a mean of 2 September ± 2 d (mean ± 95% confidence limits, the earliest date of metamorphosis was temporally constrained between seasons, varying by only 7 d (30 August to 5 September. Juvenile medusae appeared to be added over an extended period, suggesting polyp metamorphosis was an ongoing process once it commenced. At a maximum of 3 ± 0.2 mm d(-1 IPD, medusae growth to an asymptotic size of ~190 mm IPD was rapid, yet, with the oldest medusae estimated to be ~78 d in age, medusae did not appear to accumulate along the coastline. Furthermore, a greater proportion of juveniles were observed along the coastline, with estuarine populations typified by larger medusae. With key aspects of C. fleckeri's ecology now quantified, medusae season management protocols can be further developed.

  19. Growth, development and temporal variation in the onset of six Chironex fleckeri medusae seasons: a contribution to understanding jellyfish ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Matthew; Seymour, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    Despite the worldwide distribution, toxicity and commercial, industrial and medical impacts jellyfish present, many aspects of their ecology remain poorly understood. Quantified here are important ecological parameters of Chironex fleckeri medusae, contributing not only to the understanding of an understudied taxon, the cubozoa, but also to the broader understanding of jellyfish ecology. C. fleckeri medusae were collected across seven seasons (1999, 2000, 2003, 2005-07 and 2010), with growth rates, temporal variation in the medusae season onset and differences in population structure between estuarine and coastal habitats quantified. With a mean of 2 September ± 2 d (mean ± 95% confidence limits), the earliest date of metamorphosis was temporally constrained between seasons, varying by only 7 d (30 August to 5 September). Juvenile medusae appeared to be added over an extended period, suggesting polyp metamorphosis was an ongoing process once it commenced. At a maximum of 3 ± 0.2 mm d(-1) IPD, medusae growth to an asymptotic size of ~190 mm IPD was rapid, yet, with the oldest medusae estimated to be ~78 d in age, medusae did not appear to accumulate along the coastline. Furthermore, a greater proportion of juveniles were observed along the coastline, with estuarine populations typified by larger medusae. With key aspects of C. fleckeri's ecology now quantified, medusae season management protocols can be further developed.

  20. Simulate of the depletion of fishery and jellyfish in Liaodong Bay%辽东湾海蜇资源衰退仿真研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏艺; 金成浩; 孙康

    2015-01-01

    Based on Netlogo software ,this paper simulates the jellyfish resources of Liaodong Bay to explore the way of how to sustain the jellyfish resources .The results show that the fishing intensity and sea pollution are the key factors of system optimization ,which are effective ways to restore and sustain the jellyfish resources for decreasing fishing intensity and sea pollution .It is also a gradual process .T he result indicates that breeding massively babies of jellyfish may take the place of decrea‐sing fishing intensity and sea pollution .Therefore ,the government should adopt two steps .The first is breeding massively babies of jellyfish to replace decreasing fishing intensity and sea pollution .T he second is decreasing fishing intensity and sea pollution .%运用Netlogo仿真工具对辽东湾海蜇资源进行仿真实验,探讨海蜇资源可持续利用的途径。研究结论表明:大规模的海蜇增殖放流可以有效缓解短期内无法大幅度降低捕捞强度和海域污染的压力,但不能从根本上遏制海蜇资源的衰退。海域污染和捕捞强度是实现系统优化的关键,两者的降低是一个渐进过程,首先,可以采取增加海蜇资源初始量代替降低海域污染水平和捕捞强度的措施;其次,是以降低海域污染水平和捕捞强度为主的分阶段海蜇捕捞专项管理措施。

  1. 49 CFR 178.517 - Standards for plastic boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for plastic boxes. 178.517 Section 178... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.517 Standards for plastic boxes. (a) The following are identification codes for plastic boxes: (1) 4H1 for an expanded plastic box; and (2) 4H2 for...

  2. 49 CFR 230.101 - Steam locomotive driving journal boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. 230.101... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.101 Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. (a) Driving journal boxes. Driving journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service. Not...

  3. Complementarity in the Einstein-Bohr photon box

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieks, D.G.B.J.; Lam, S

    2008-01-01

    The Bohr-Einstein photon box thought experiment is a forerunner of the EPR experiment: a packet of radiation escapes from a box, and the box-plus-radiation state remains entangled. Hence, a measurement on the box makes a difference for the state of the far-away radiation long after its escape. This

  4. Slat Heater Boxes for Thermal Vacuum Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Eugene

    2003-01-01

    Slat heater boxes have been invented for controlling the sink temperatures of objects under test in a thermal vacuum chamber, the walls of which are cooled to the temperature of liquid nitrogen. A slat heater box (see Figure 1) includes a framework of struts that support electrically heated slats that are coated with a high-emissivity optically gray paint. The slats can be grouped together into heater zones for the purpose of maintaining an even temperature within each side. The sink temperature of an object under test is defined as the steady-state temperature of the object in the vacuum/ radiative environment during the absence of any internal heat source or sink. The slat heater box makes it possible to closely control the radiation environment to obtain a desired sink temperature. The slat heater box is placed inside the cold thermal vacuum chamber, and the object under test is placed inside (but not in contact with) the slat heater box. The slat heaters occupy about a third of the field of view from any point on the surface of the object under test, the remainder of the field of view being occupied by the cold chamber wall. Thus, the radiation environment is established by the combined effects of the slat heater box and the cold chamber wall. Given (1) the temperature of the chamber wall, (2) the fractions of the field of view occupied by the chamber wall and the slat heater box, and (3) the emissivities of the slats, chamber wall, and the surface of object under test, the slat temperature required to maintain a desired sink temperature can be calculated by solving the equations of gray-body radiation for the steady-state adiabatic case (equal absorption and emission by the object under test). Slat heater boxes offer an important advantage over the infrared lamps that have been previously used to obtain desired sink temperatures: In comparison with an infrared lamp, a slat heater box provides a greater degree of sink temperature uniformity for a test

  5. Changes in position and quality of preferred nest box: effects on nest box use by laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Anja Brinch; Nielsen, Birte L.

    2013-01-01

    Using laying hens, we investigated whether position of a nest box, both within the pen and relative to other nest boxes, influenced the preference for a nest box, and how a sudden and marked change to the preferred box influenced the use of nest boxes by the hens. Groups (n=12) of 15 Isa Warren...... revealed that some hens were location conservative, i.e. continued laying in a corner location (or as close to that as possible), whereas others were isolation conservative, i.e. continued laying in the most isolated nest box despite it being positioned in a different area of the pen....... hens were housed in pens, each with five identical nest boxes in different positions: Two single (in a corner or not) and a triplet of nest boxes (one of which in a corner). The use of nest boxes was determined by the number of eggs laid daily in each box. Three experiments, each lasting 10 days, were...

  6. Black-Box Search by Unbiased Variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehre, Per Kristian; Witt, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    and the strength of the bounds that can be proven in such a model. In particular, the original black-box model provides for well-known benchmark problems relatively small lower bounds, which seem unrealistic in certain cases and are typically not met by popular search heuristics.In this paper, we introduce a more...... restricted black-box model for optimisation of pseudo-Boolean functions which we claim captures the working principles of many randomised search heuristics including simulated annealing, evolutionary algorithms, randomised local search, and others. The key concept worked out is an unbiased variation operator....... Considering this class of algorithms, significantly better lower bounds on the black-box complexity are proved, amongst them an Ω(nlogn) bound for functions with unique optimum. Moreover, a simple unimodal function and plateau functions are considered. We show that a simple (1+1) EA is able to match...

  7. Advances in the theory of box integrals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, J.M.; Crandall, R.E.

    2009-06-25

    Box integrals - expectations <|{rvec r}|{sup s}> or <|{rvec r}-{rvec q}|{sup s}> over the unit n-cube (or n-box) - have over three decades been occasionally given closed forms for isolated n,s. By employing experimental mathematics together with a new, global analytic strategy, we prove that for n {le} 4 dimensions the box integrals are for any integer s hypergeometrically closed in a sense we clarify herein. For n = 5 dimensions, we show that a single unresolved integral we call K{sub 5} stands in the way of such hyperclosure proofs. We supply a compendium of exemplary closed forms that naturally arise algorithmically from this theory.

  8. General Analysis Tool Box for Controlled Perturbation

    CERN Document Server

    Osbild, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    The implementation of reliable and efficient geometric algorithms is a challenging task. The reason is the following conflict: On the one hand, computing with rounded arithmetic may question the reliability of programs while, on the other hand, computing with exact arithmetic may be too expensive and hence inefficient. One solution is the implementation of controlled perturbation algorithms which combine the speed of floating-point arithmetic with a protection mechanism that guarantees reliability, nonetheless. This paper is concerned with the performance analysis of controlled perturbation algorithms in theory. We answer this question with the presentation of a general analysis tool box. This tool box is separated into independent components which are presented individually with their interfaces. This way, the tool box supports alternative approaches for the derivation of the most crucial bounds. We present three approaches for this task. Furthermore, we have thoroughly reworked the concept of controlled per...

  9. Bioinformatic Analysis on Jellyfish Hematoxin%水母溶血毒素的生物信息学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳春磊; 高佳栋; 任玉坤; 肖良; 王倩倩; 郭玉峰; 蔡滨欣; 张黎明

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To illustrate the structure and function of five hematoxin sequences reported in four jellyfish and explore the possible mechanism of pathogenesis.METHODS: Bioinformatic methods were used to analyze the composition and sequence of amino acid residues, physico-chemical property, signal peptide, membrane spanning domain, hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity, secon- dary structure, conserved region and molecular phylogenetic evolution.RESULT and CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that the five jellyfish hematoxins were similar in composition and sequence of amino acid residues and physico-chemical property.The amino acid sequences of jellyfish hematoxins contained membrane spanning domain and hydrophobic regions; with a possible cleavage site in the signal peptide between the amino acid residues 20 and 21; α-helix and random coil were the major motifs of predicted secondary structure while β-tum and extended strand spread in the whole protein; There were four conserved amino acid sequences in three of the five hematoxins and similar phylogenetic trees were constructed by both NJ and MP methods.%目的与方法:为阐明已报道的5种水母溶血毒素的氨基酸组成和序列、信号肽、跨膜结构域、疏水性/亲水性、二级结构,保守区域、分子进化关系等,利用生物信息学方法对其进行了分析和预测.结果与结论:不同水母溶血毒素的氨基酸组成和理化性质相类似;水母溶血毒素存在跨膜结构域和疏水区域;在20~21位点最有可能存在信号肽切割位点:α螺旋、不规则卷曲是二级结构中最大量的结构元件,β折叠散布于整个蛋白质中;在其中3种水母毒素蛋白中存在4个保守区;以MP法和NJ法构建的系统发生树基本一致.

  10. FAST BUS Test Box (LAIKA) (Engineering Materials)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    The assembly drawing AD 135-518-00-RO, and the drawings referenced thereon, provide the data and specifications for constructing the LAIKA Test Box. Some drawings are not available, although they are listed on the material lists included. The assembly is a manual tester for FAST BUS modules, both masters and slaves. FAST BUS signals are generated by means of switches or push buttons and provide the state of the bus lines by lighting LED's. The box acts as either a master or slave - depending upon the module under test. It also acts as an ATC to test the arbitration logic of a master or ATC device.

  11. CASAS: A Smart Home in a Box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Diane J; Crandall, Aaron S; Thomas, Brian L; Krishnan, Narayanan C

    2013-07-01

    While the potential benefits of smart home technology are widely recognized, a lightweight design is needed for the benefits to be realized at a large scale. We introduce the CASAS "smart home in a box", a lightweight smart home design that is easy to install and provides smart home capabilities out of the box with no customization or training. We discuss types of data analysis that have been performed by the CASAS group and can be pursued in the future by using this approach to designing and implementing smart home technologies.

  12. 长期低温条件对海蜇横裂生殖的影响%Long-term Low Temperature Effect on Jellyfish Strobilation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游奎; 王绍军; 马彩华; 高天翔; 王云中; 杨翠华

    2011-01-01

    采用实验生态学手段,研究了长期低温条件对海蜇螅状体保育存活率和横裂生殖效率的影响.结果表明:海蜇横裂生殖后的螅状体经过1a的长期低温保育后,其存活率约33%,显著高于不采用低温条件保育螅状体的成活率.横裂生殖后的螅状体经长期低温保育后仍具有横裂生殖能力,碟状幼体释放率仍然高达15%,其横裂生殖能力可与正常螅状幼体相比.采用长期低温环境条件,可以有效地提高海蜇螅状体的存活率,并可以恢复促进海蜇的横裂生殖效率,相关结果可以为海蜇苗种生产提供参考和指导.%By means of methods in experimental ecology, the survival rate of jellyfish scyphistomae bred under long-term low temperature conditions, and the effects of these conditions on the jellyfish strobilation are studied. It is shown in the study results that after scyphistomae reproduced from jellyfish strobilation has been bred under one-year long low temperature conditions, its survival rate is about 33 %, significantly higher than that of scyphistomae without low temperature breeding conditions. Although those survivors have been bred under low temperature conditions for a long time, they still have their strobilation ability,and the ephyrae release rate is as high as iS%. Those ephyrae lavae will have their strobilation ability comparable with the ability of scyphistomae lavae bred under normal conditions. Therefore the long-term low temperature conditions are favourable to effectively raise the survival rate of jellyfish scyphistomae larvae and to improve jellyfish strobilation efficiency. These relevand results might be used as reference and guidance for jellyfish lava production.

  13. Investigation on features and tendencies of axle-box heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olegas LUNYS

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Breakdown of rolling stock axle-boxes if not detected in due time may cause a rail accident or disaster. At present, a lot of advanced technologies, modern equipment and devices, which “recognizes” faulty axle-boxes when the train is in motion, have been implemented. However, the timely identification of breakdown of rolling stock axle-boxes still is an acute problem, the initial stage of damage emergence being especially problematic. Presently, rolling stock axle-box breakdown is determined according to the higher than permissible temperature of the axle-box body. The article provides statistical data of dangerously heated axle-boxes, determined train delay durations, the number of delayed trains by danger level, and dependence of damage on the season. After systematization of data on axle-box damage and heating temperatures of broken axle-boxes, heating tendencies of axle-boxes of freight wagons are described. Finally, basic conclusions are given.

  14. Settlement of planulae of the Moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita onto hydrophilic polycarbonate plates modified by atmospheric plasma treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaru, Akiko; Sasaki, Ryota; Miyahara, Hidekazu; Okino, Akitoshi; Ogawa, Nobuhiro; Hamasaki, Koji

    2014-01-01

    It has been reported that planula larvae of some jellyfish prefer artificial substrates for settlement. This research focused on the relationship between the settlement of planulae and the wettability of artificial substrate surfaces. We used atmospheric plasmas to change the wettability of the surfaces of polycarbonate (PC) plates because plasma treatment has no chemical side effects. The treatment made the surfaces hydrophilic, as evidenced by the decrease of contact angle from 85° to 35°. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that the change of wettability of the PC plates could be attributed to N2, which was probably ionized in the air above the plates. Scanning electron microscopy revealed no difference in the surface morphology of the plates before and after plasma treatment. Results of bioassays using treated PC plates showed that planulae tended to preferentially settle on hydrophobic surfaces.

  15. Settlement of planulae of the Moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita onto hydrophilic polycarbonate plates modified by atmospheric plasma treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Tomaru

    Full Text Available It has been reported that planula larvae of some jellyfish prefer artificial substrates for settlement. This research focused on the relationship between the settlement of planulae and the wettability of artificial substrate surfaces. We used atmospheric plasmas to change the wettability of the surfaces of polycarbonate (PC plates because plasma treatment has no chemical side effects. The treatment made the surfaces hydrophilic, as evidenced by the decrease of contact angle from 85° to 35°. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that the change of wettability of the PC plates could be attributed to N2, which was probably ionized in the air above the plates. Scanning electron microscopy revealed no difference in the surface morphology of the plates before and after plasma treatment. Results of bioassays using treated PC plates showed that planulae tended to preferentially settle on hydrophobic surfaces.

  16. Surviving but not thriving: inconsistent responses of zooxanthellate jellyfish polyps to ocean warming and future UV-B scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Shannon G.; Pitt, Kylie A.; Carroll, Anthony R.

    2016-07-01

    Complex changes to UV radiation at the Earth’s surface are occurring concurrently with ocean warming. Despite few empirical tests, jellyfish are hypothesised to be increasing in some parts of the world because they are robust to environmental stressors. Here we examine the effects of UV-B and ocean warming projections on zooxanthellate jellyfish polyps. We exposed Cassiopea sp. polyps to three levels of UV-B (future-low (1.43 Wm2), current (1.60 Wm2), future-high (1.77 Wm2)) and two levels of temperature (current-day (25 °C) and future (28 °C)) over 6 weeks. The intensity of UV-B was varied throughout the day to mimic diel variation in UV-B irradiance. Polyp survival, asexual reproduction and YII were measured. In the current and future-high UV-B treatments, more polyps were produced in 25 °C than 28 °C. This pattern, however, was reversed under future-low UV-B conditions, where more polyps were produced at 28 °C. YII was highest under current summer conditions and future conditions of low UV-B and increased temperature. YII, however, was reduced under high UV-B conditions but was further reduced with warming. Our results suggest that although Cassiopea polyps may survive elevated UV-B and warming conditions, they are unlikely to thrive. If, however, UV-B radiation decreases then ocean warming may facilitate increases in Cassiopea populations.

  17. First evidence of inbreeding, relatedness and chaotic genetic patchiness in the holoplanktonic jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca (Scyphozoa, Cnidaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aglieri, Giorgio; Papetti, Chiara; Zane, Lorenzo; Milisenda, Giacomo; Boero, Ferdinando; Piraino, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Genetic drift and non-random mating seldom influence species with large breeding populations and high dispersal potential, characterized by unstructured gene pool and panmixia at a scale lower than the minimum dispersal range of individuals. In the present study, a set of nine microsatellite markers was developed and used to investigate the spatio-temporal genetic patterns of the holoplanktonic jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca (Scyphozoa) in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea. Homozygote excess was detected at eight loci, and individuals exhibited intra-population relatedness higher than expected by chance in at least three samples. This result was supported by the presence of siblings in at least 5 out 8 samples, 4 of which contained full-sib in addition to half-sib dyads. Having tested and ruled out alternative explanations as null alleles, our results suggest the influence of reproductive and behavioural features in shaping the genetic structure of P. noctiluca, as outcomes of population genetics analyses pointed out. Indeed, the genetic differentiation among populations was globally small but highlighted: a) a spatial genetic patchiness uncorrelated with distance between sampling locations, and b) a significant genetic heterogeneity between samples collected in the same locations in different years. Therefore, despite its extreme dispersal potential, P. noctiluca does not maintain a single homogenous population, but rather these jellyfish appear to have intra-bloom localized recruitment and/or individual cohesiveness, whereby siblings more likely swarm together as a single group and remain close after spawning events. These findings provide the first evidence of family structures and consequent genetic patchiness in a species with highly dispersive potential throughout its whole life cycle, contributing to understanding the patterns of dispersal and connectivity in marine environments.

  18. RELIABILITY BASED DESIGN OF A GEAR BOX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.MADHUSEKHAR

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Reliability is the probability that a system, component or device will perform without failure for a specified period of time under specified operating conditions. The concept of reliability is of great importance in the design of various machine members. Conventional engineering design uses a deterministic approach. It disregards the fact that the material properties, the dimensions of the components and the externally applied loads are statistical in nature. In conventional design this uncertainties are covered with a factor of safety, which is not always successful. The growing trend towards reducing uncertainty and increasing reliability is to use the probabilistic approach. In the present work a three shaft four speed gear box and six speed gear box are designed using reliability principles. For the specified reliability of the system (Gear box, component reliability (Gear pair is calculated by considering the system as a series system. Design is considered to be safe and adequate if the probability of failure of gear box is less than or equal to a specified quantity in each of the two failure modes. . All the parameters affecting the design are considered as random variables and all the random variables are assumed to follow normal distribution. A computer program in C++ is developed to calculate the face widths in bending and surface failure modes. The larger one out of the two values is considered. By changing the variations in the design parameters, variations in the face widths are studied.

  19. Argon purge gas cooled by chill box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiro, L. W.

    1966-01-01

    Cooling argon purge gas by routing it through a shop-fabricated chill box reduces charring of tungsten inert gas torch head components. The argon gas is in a cooled state as it enters the torch and prevents buildup of char caused by the high concentrations of heat in the weld area during welding operations.

  20. Box of Ideal Gas in Free Fall

    CERN Document Server

    Kothawala, Dawood

    2011-01-01

    We study the quantum partition function of non-relativistic, ideal gas in a (non-cubical) box falling freely in arbitrary curved spacetime with centre 4-velocity u^a. Using perturbed energy eigenvalues to evaluate the canonical partition function, we find that corrections to various thermodynamic quantities such as mean energy, entropy and specific heat include a very specific, sub-dominant term characterized by the dimensionless quantity, X = R_00 q^2, where R_00 = R_ab u^a u^b and q = \\beta \\hbar c. This X-contribution does not depend on kinematic details of the system such as box dimensions and mass of particles, and in particular leads to S_X = (1/2) \\beta U_X (see text), a relation familiar from black hole thermodynamics. What is curious is that our result depends crucially on quantum mechanics since, in effect, the gas is allowed to "feel" the presence of the box through use of unperturbed wave function satisfying appropriate boundary conditions at the box walls. This is the feature which a classical an...

  1. Using Story Boxes in Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Rita

    2009-01-01

    Story boxes and story bags are containers for holding realia that are used to enhance reading and provide a variety of activities for encouraging language acquisition and use. Whatever the packaging, these are good ways to develop students' interest in books. Using realia, or real-life objects, to teach a foreign language is not a novel concept.…

  2. Study of WATCH GRB error boxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorosabel, J.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Lund, Niels;

    1995-01-01

    We have studied the first WATCH GRB Catalogue ofγ-ray Bursts in order to find correlations between WATCH GRB error boxes and a great variety of celestial objects present in 33 different catalogues. No particular class of objects has been found to be significantly correlated with the WATCH GRBs....

  3. One-dimensional oscillator in a box

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amore, Paolo [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal DIaz del Castillo 340, Colima, Colima (Mexico); Fernandez, Francisco M [INIFTA (UNLP, CCT La Plata-CONICET), Division Quimica Teorica, Blvd 113 S/N, Sucursal 4, Casilla de Correo 16, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)], E-mail: paolo@ucol.mx, E-mail: fernande@quimica.unlp.edu.ar

    2010-01-15

    We discuss a quantum-mechanical model of two particles that interact by means of a harmonic potential and are confined to a one-dimensional box with impenetrable walls. We apply perturbation theory to the cases of different and equal masses and analyse the symmetry of the states in the latter case. We compare the approximate perturbation results with accurate numerical ones.

  4. Fast box-counting algorithm on GPU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, J; Ruiz de Miras, J

    2012-12-01

    The box-counting algorithm is one of the most widely used methods for calculating the fractal dimension (FD). The FD has many image analysis applications in the biomedical field, where it has been used extensively to characterize a wide range of medical signals. However, computing the FD for large images, especially in 3D, is a time consuming process. In this paper we present a fast parallel version of the box-counting algorithm, which has been coded in CUDA for execution on the Graphic Processing Unit (GPU). The optimized GPU implementation achieved an average speedup of 28 times (28×) compared to a mono-threaded CPU implementation, and an average speedup of 7 times (7×) compared to a multi-threaded CPU implementation. The performance of our improved box-counting algorithm has been tested with 3D models with different complexity, features and sizes. The validity and accuracy of the algorithm has been confirmed using models with well-known FD values. As a case study, a 3D FD analysis of several brain tissues has been performed using our GPU box-counting algorithm.

  5. A white box perspective on behavioural adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Roberto; Corradini, Andrea; Gadducci, Fabio;

    2015-01-01

    We present a white-box conceptual framework for adaptation developed in the context of the EU Project ASCENS coordinated by Martin Wirsing. We called it CoDA, for Control Data Adaptation, since it is based on the notion of control data. CoDA promotes a neat separation between application and adap...

  6. Hazard Analysis of Japanese Boxed Lunches (Bento).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Frank L.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    For the purposes of identifying contaminants, of assessing risks, and of determining critical food processing control points, hazard analyses were conducted at two "bento" (oriental boxed meals) catering operations. Time and temperature abuses during the holding period, after cooking and prior to consumption, were found to be the primary…

  7. Covering Points by Disjoint Boxes with Outliers

    CERN Document Server

    Ahn, Hee-Kap; Demaine, Erik D; Demaine, Martin L; Kim, Sang-Sub; Korman, Matias; Reinbacher, Iris; Son, Wanbin

    2009-01-01

    For a set of n points in the plane, we consider the axis--aligned (p,k)-Box Covering problem: Find p axis-aligned, pairwise-disjoint boxes that together contain n-k points. In this paper, we consider the boxes to be either squares or rectangles, and we want to minimize the area of the largest box. For general p we show that the problem is NP-hard for both squares and rectangles. For a small, fixed number p, we give algorithms that find the solution in the following running times: For squares we have O(n+k log k) time for p=1, and O(n log n+k^p log^p k time for p = 2,3. For rectangles we get O(n + k^3) for p = 1 and O(n log n+k^{2+p} log^{p-1} k) time for p = 2,3. In all cases, our algorithms use O(n) space.

  8. Cereal Box Design: An Interdisciplinary Graphics Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Mike; Tsosie, Teri

    2012-01-01

    The cereal box design activity is intriguing both for its simplicity and the resourcefulness that it can generate in young people. Also, it lends itself to a variety of curriculums. It covers both consumerism and Design for the Environment (DfE) concepts broadly and in depth. The activity introduces a wide range of topics. They include graphic…

  9. box modeling of the eastern mediterranean sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkenazy, Y.; Stone, P. H.

    2003-04-01

    Recently (~1990) a new source of deep water formation in the Eastern Mediterranean was found in the southern part of the Aegean sea. Till then, the only source of deep water formation in the Eastern Mediterranean was in the Adriatic sea; the rate of the deep water formation of the new Aegean source is 1Sv=10^6m^3/s, three times larger then the Adriatic source. We develop a simple 3 box-model to study the stability of the thermohaline circulation of the Eastern Mediterranean sea. The 3 boxes represent the Adriatic sea, Aegean sea, and the Ionian sea. The boxes exchange heat and salinity and may be described by a set of nonlinear differential equations. We analytically analyze these equations and find that the system may have one, two, or four stable flux states. We consider two cases for which the temperatures of the boxes are (i) fixed or (ii) variable. After setting the parameters to correspond to the Eastern Mediterranean we find that the system has two stable states, one with (i) two thermally dominant sources of deep water formation in the Adriatic and Aegean and the other with (ii) a salinity dominant source of deep water formation in the Adriatic and a thermally dominant source in the Aegean. While the Adriatic thermally dominant source is comparable to the observed flux of 0.3Sv the Aegean source has much smaller flux than the observed value. This situation is analogous to the state of the thermohaline circulation pre 1990 where the only source of deep water formation was in the Adriatic. If we decrease the atmospheric temperature of the Aegean box by 2C in accordance with recent observations, we find that the deep water formation of the Aegean increases significantly to a value comparable to the recently observed flux.

  10. A numerical study of the effects of bell pulsation dynamics and oral arms on the exchange currents generated by the upside-down jellyfish Cassiopea spp

    CERN Document Server

    Hamlet, Christina; Miller, Laura A

    2010-01-01

    Mathematical and experimental studies of the flows generated by jellyfish have focused primarily on mechanisms of swimming. More recent work has also considered the fluid dynamics of feeding from currents generated during swimming. Here the benthic lifestyle of the upside down jellyfish (Cassiopea spp.) is capitalized upon to explore the fluids dynamics of feeding uncoupled from swimming. A mathematical model is developed to capture the fundamental characteristics of the motion of the unique concave bell shape. Given the prominence of the oral arms, this structure is included and modeled as a porous layer that perturbs the flow generated by bell contractions. The immersed boundary method is used to solve the fluid-structure interaction problem. Velocity fields obtained from live organisms using digital particle image velocimetry were used to validate the numerical simulations. Parameter sweeps were used to numerically explore the effects of changes in pulse dynamics and the properties of the oral arms indepen...

  11. Occurrence of the freshwater jellyfish Craspedacusta sowerbii (Lankester, 1880) (Hydrozoa, Limnomedusae) in a calcareous lake in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,William Marcos; Roche, Kennedy Francis

    2007-01-01

    The occurrence of the freshwater jellyfish Craspedacusta sowerbii (=sowerbyi) Lankester, 1880 was recorded in April 2006 in the Lagoa Misteriosa water body, a calcareous lake (doline) in Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. Only Rotifera composed the zooplankton community was composed only of Rotifera and the environment was meso-eutrophic system. The nomenclature of C. sowerbii is discussed with regard to the use of the correct spelling and an alternative one. The distributions of C. sowerbii i...

  12. Artificial 'Voice Box' Implant Helps Cancer Patient Speak

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162873.html Artificial 'Voice Box' Implant Helps Cancer Patient Speak New device ... WEDNESDAY, Jan. 4, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- An artificial "voice box" has provided long-term relief for a ...

  13. First report of a peroxiredoxin homologue in jellyfish: molecular cloning, expression and functional characterization of CcPrx4 from Cyanea capillata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Zengliang; Liu, Guoyan; Wang, Beilei; Zhou, Yonghong; Lu, Jia; Wang, Qianqian; Zhao, Jie; Zhang, Liming

    2014-01-09

    We first identified and characterized a novel peroxiredoxin (Prx), designated as CcPrx4, from the cDNA library of the tentacle of the jellyfish Cyanea capillata. The full-length cDNA sequence of CcPrx4 consisted of 884 nucleotides with an open reading frame encoding a mature protein of 247 amino acids. It showed a significant homology to peroxiredoxin 4 (Prx4) with the highly conserved F-motif (93FTFVCPTEI101), hydrophobic region (217VCPAGW222), 140GGLG143 and 239YF240, indicating that it should be a new member of the Prx4 family. The deduced CcPrx4 protein had a calculated molecular mass of 27.2 kDa and an estimated isoelectric point of 6.3. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that CcPrx4 mRNA could be detected in all the jellyfish tissues analyzed. CcPrx4 protein was cloned into the expression vector, pET-24a, and expressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3) pLysS. Recombinant CcPrx4 protein was purified by HisTrap High Performance chelating column chromatography and analyzed for its biological function. The results showed that the purified recombinant CcPrx4 protein manifested the ability to reduce hydrogen peroxide and protect supercoiled DNA from oxidative damage, suggesting that CcPrx4 protein may play an important role in protecting jellyfish from oxidative damage.

  14. First Report of a Peroxiredoxin Homologue in Jellyfish: Molecular Cloning, Expression and Functional Characterization of CcPrx4 from Cyanea capillata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zengliang Ruan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We first identified and characterized a novel peroxiredoxin (Prx, designated as CcPrx4, from the cDNA library of the tentacle of the jellyfish Cyanea capillata. The full-length cDNA sequence of CcPrx4 consisted of 884 nucleotides with an open reading frame encoding a mature protein of 247 amino acids. It showed a significant homology to peroxiredoxin 4 (Prx4 with the highly conserved F-motif (93FTFVCPTEI101, hydrophobic region (217VCPAGW222, 140GGLG143 and 239YF240, indicating that it should be a new member of the Prx4 family. The deduced CcPrx4 protein had a calculated molecular mass of 27.2 kDa and an estimated isoelectric point of 6.3. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that CcPrx4 mRNA could be detected in all the jellyfish tissues analyzed. CcPrx4 protein was cloned into the expression vector, pET-24a, and expressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3 pLysS. Recombinant CcPrx4 protein was purified by HisTrap High Performance chelating column chromatography and analyzed for its biological function. The results showed that the purified recombinant CcPrx4 protein manifested the ability to reduce hydrogen peroxide and protect supercoiled DNA from oxidative damage, suggesting that CcPrx4 protein may play an important role in protecting jellyfish from oxidative damage.

  15. Conceptual design and optimization methodology for box wing aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Jemitola, Paul Olugbeji

    2012-01-01

    A conceptual design optimization methodology was developed for a medium range box wing aircraft. A baseline conventional cantilever wing aircraft designed for the same mis- sion and payload was also optimized alongside a baseline box wing aircraft. An empirical formula for the mass estimation of the fore and aft wings of the box wing aircraft was derived by relating conventional cantilever wings to box wing aircraft wings. The results indicate that the fore and aft wings would ...

  16. Application of Defense Technology Commonly Used in Boxing Match

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhixiao Li[1; Jianjun Liu[2

    2015-01-01

    Boxing defense technology is a kind of techniques to prevent the opponent from attacking successfully. Boxing is a kind of sports that needs close cooperation between attack and defense. Attack is used for defense, where there is no attack, there will be no defense, and vice versa. Defense technology is the foundation of attack technology, therefore, defense is of vital importance in boxing match.

  17. Clocks, Cameras, and Chatter, Chatter, Chatter: Activity Boxes as Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suskind, Diane; Kittel, Jeanie

    1989-01-01

    Describes activity boxes which can be used in early childhood classrooms to further curriculum and development goals. Activity boxes are containers filled with related objects categorized by color, shape, or material which encourage children to explore, sort, and manipulate real things. Discusses goals and lists contents for 24 activity boxes.…

  18. Using Origami Boxes to Explore Concepts of Geometry and Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wares, Arsalan

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this classroom note is to provide an example of how a simple origami box can be used to explore important concepts of geometry and calculus. This article describes how an origami box can be folded, then it goes on to describe how its volume and surface area can be calculated. Finally, it describes how the box could be folded to…

  19. 47 CFR 90.241 - Radio call box operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... remains on for a period in excess of three minutes. The automatic cutoff system must be designed so the... Safety Pool for highway call box systems subject to the following requirements: (1) Call box transmitters... effective radiated power (ERP). (3) The height of a call box antenna may not exceed 6.1 meters (20...

  20. 49 CFR 230.102 - Tender plain bearing journal boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender plain bearing journal boxes. 230.102... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.102 Tender plain bearing journal boxes. Plain bearing journal boxes... expected to damage the bearing; or have a detrimental effect on the lubrication of the journal and...

  1. 49 CFR 230.103 - Tender roller bearing journal boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender roller bearing journal boxes. 230.103... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.103 Tender roller bearing journal boxes. Tender roller bearing journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition....

  2. Fast adaptive elliptical filtering using box splines

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhury, Kunal Narayan; Unser, Michael

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate that it is possible to filter an image with an elliptic window of varying size, elongation and orientation with a fixed computational cost per pixel. Our method involves the application of a suitable global pre-integrator followed by a pointwise-adaptive localization mesh. We present the basic theory for the 1D case using a B-spline formalism and then appropriately extend it to 2D using radially-uniform box splines. The size and ellipticity of these radially-uniform box splines is adaptively controlled. Moreover, they converge to Gaussians as the order increases. Finally, we present a fast and practical directional filtering algorithm that has the capability of adapting to the local image features.

  3. Box of ideal gas in free fall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kothawala, Dawood, E-mail: dawood@physics.iitm.ac.in [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, NB, E3B 5A3 (Canada)

    2013-03-26

    We study the quantum partition function of non-relativistic, ideal gas in a (non-cubical) box falling freely in arbitrary curved spacetime with center 4-velocity u{sup a}. When perturbed energy eigenvalues are properly taken into account, we find that corrections to various thermodynamic quantities include a very specific, sub-dominant term which is independent of kinematic details such as box dimensions and mass of particles. This term is characterized by the dimensionless quantity, Ξ=R{sub 0{sup ^}0{sup ^}}Λ{sup 2}, where R{sub 0{sup ^}0{sup ^}}=R{sub ab}u{sup a}u{sup b} and Λ=βℏc, and, quite intriguingly, produces Euler relation of homogeneity two between entropy and energy – a relation familiar from black hole thermodynamics.

  4. Choreographies with Secure Boxes and Compromised Principals

    CERN Document Server

    Carbone, Marco; 10.4204/EPTCS.12.1

    2009-01-01

    We equip choreography-level session descriptions with a simple abstraction of a security infrastructure. Message components may be enclosed within (possibly nested) "boxes" annotated with the intended source and destination of those components. The boxes are to be implemented with cryptography. Strand spaces provide a semantics for these choreographies, in which some roles may be played by compromised principals. A skeleton is a partially ordered structure containing local behaviors (strands) executed by regular (non-compromised) principals. A skeleton is realized if it contains enough regular strands so that it could actually occur, in combination with any possible activity of compromised principals. It is delivery guaranteed (DG) realized if, in addition, every message transmitted to a regular participant is also delivered. We define a novel transition system on skeletons, in which the steps add regular strands. These steps solve tests, i.e. parts of the skeleton that could not occur without additional regu...

  5. Grey Box Modelling of Hydrological Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thordarson, Fannar Ørn

    statistical methods. The simple models in these papers consider only part of the well field, but data analysis reveals that the wells in the well field are highly correlated. In the third paper, all wells pumping from the same aquifer are included in the state space formulation of the model, but instead...... equations, and a black box model, which relates to models that are obtained statistically from input-output relations. Grey box model consists of a system description, defined by a finite set of stochastic differential equations, and an observation equation. Together, system and observation equations...... in the model, or formulation of process noise can be considered so that it meets the physical limits of the hydrological system and give an adequate description of the embedded uncertainty in model structure. The thesis consists of two parts: a summary report and a part which contains six scientific papers...

  6. Fatal exit the automotive black box debate

    CERN Document Server

    Kowalick, Tom

    2005-01-01

    "Fatal Exit: The Automotive Black Box Debate cuts through thirty years of political wrangling and institutional biases to provide an argument for the Motor Vehicle Event Data Recorder (MVEDR). This automotive equivalent of an airplane's flight recorder or black box is intended to solve the mysteries of car crashes and improve the safety of our roads. The reader is taken inside the automotive industry and the government highway safety establishment to foster an understanding of the politics and the positions on all sides of this safety debate. The author takes an unbiased approach, chronologically presenting each argument and uncovering the agendas and mandates of each of the stakeholders." "This publication is essential reading for all consumers who need to have their voices heard on this critical issue, as well as for attorneys, public safety advocates, public policy administrators, engineers, automotive professionals, journalists, and insurance executives."--Jacket.

  7. The gradient flow in a twisted box

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Alberto [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC

    2013-08-15

    We study the perturbative behavior of the gradient flow in a twisted box. We apply this information to define a running coupling using the energy density of the flow field. We study the step-scaling function and the size of cutoff effects in SU(2) pure gauge theory. We conclude that the twisted gradient flow running coupling scheme is a valid strategy for step-scaling purposes due to the relatively mild cutoff effects and high precision.

  8. Masking a Compact AES S-box

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-07

    Lecture Notes in Computer Science , pages 309–18, 2001. [2] D. Canright. A very compact S-box for AES. In CHES2005, volume 3659 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science , pages...et al., editor, CHES2003, volume 2779 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science , pages 319–333. Springer, 2003. [4] Jovan Dj. Golić and Christophe Tymen...Multiplicative masking and power analysis of AES. In CHES 2002, volume 2523 of Lecture

  9. PCB-Based Break-Out Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jason H.

    2011-01-01

    Break-out boxes (BOBs) are necessary for all electrical integration/cable checkouts and troubleshooting. Because the price of a BOB is high, and no work can be done without one, often the procedure stops, simply waiting for a BOB. A less expensive BOB would take less time in the integration, testing, and troubleshooting process. The PCB-based BOB works and looks the same as a standard JPL BOB, called Gold Boxes. The only differences between the old BOB and the new PCB-based BOB is that the new one has 80 percent of its circuitry in a printed circuit board. This process reduces the time for fabrication, thus making the BOBs less expensive. Moreover, because of its unique design, the new BOBs can be easily assembled and fixed. About 80 percent of the new PCB-based BOB is in a $22 (at the time of this reporting) custom-designed, yet commercially available PCB. This device has been used successfully to verify that BOB cables were properly made. Also, upon completion, the BOB was beeped out via a multimeter to ensure that all sockets on the connectors were properly connected to the respective banana jack. When compared to the Gold Box BOBs, the new BOB has many advantages. It is much more cost efficient, it delivers equal usability at substantially lower cost of the BOB, and the Gold Box is much heavier when compared to the new BOB. The new BOB is also a bit longer and much more versatile in that connectors are easily changeable and if a banana jack is broken, it can be replaced instead of throwing away an entire BOB.

  10. Cardiovascular issues in boxing and contact sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Stephen A

    2009-10-01

    Despite the inherent risks associated with exercise in general and boxing in particular, the sport has had a limited number of catastrophic cardiovascular events. Screening should be based on risks involved and become more extensive with the advancement of the athlete. Anatomic and electrophysiologic risks need to be assessed and may preclude participation with resultant life style and economic complications. There should be adequate preparation for the rare potential cardiovascular complication at all events, with the ability to rapidly assess and treat arrhythmias.

  11. Adaptive Techniques to find Optimal Planar Boxes

    CERN Document Server

    Barbay, J; Pérez-Lantero, P

    2012-01-01

    Given a set $P$ of $n$ planar points, two axes and a real-valued score function $f()$ on subsets of $P$, the Optimal Planar Box problem consists in finding a box (i.e. axis-aligned rectangle) $H$ maximizing $f(H\\cap P)$. We consider the case where $f()$ is monotone decomposable, i.e. there exists a composition function $g()$ monotone in its two arguments such that $f(A)=g(f(A_1),f(A_2))$ for every subset $A\\subseteq P$ and every partition $\\{A_1,A_2\\}$ of $A$. In this context we propose a solution for the Optimal Planar Box problem which performs in the worst case $O(n^2\\lg n)$ score compositions and coordinate comparisons, and much less on other classes of instances defined by various measures of difficulty. A side result of its own interest is a fully dynamic \\textit{MCS Splay tree} data structure supporting insertions and deletions with the \\emph{dynamic finger} property, improving upon previous results [Cort\\'es et al., J.Alg. 2009].

  12. Research of salted jellyfish products dealumination and safety guidelines%盐渍海蜇脱铝研究及安全食用建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵玉庭; 李佳蕙; 靳洋; 苏博; 何鑫; 张昀昌

    2015-01-01

    Objective To discuss the risk of aluminum exceeding content in jellyfish product and study the method to reduce aluminum content in salted jellyfish product.MethodsHighly purified water, hydrochloric acid, glacial acetic acid, citric acid and vinegar were used to soak salted jellyfish samples with different aluminum content in order to remove aluminum, then the aluminum content in the samples were determined and sensory changes after the experiment were observed.ResultsAluminum content in water soaked jellyfish was only slightly reduced. Although the effects of hydrochloric acid and citric acid soaking in aluminum content reduction were good, the toughness of those samples declined after soaking, which leaded to worse quality. Glacial acetic acid and vinegar solution had a better effect on dealumination and jellyfishs sample became shiny, soft and flexible after soaking. The optimal dealumination condition was soaking with 0.1 mol/L glacial acetic acid for 4 h with the vinegar/water concentration ratio of 1/9.ConclusionIt is recommended that the producers can add acetic acid soaking process in the process of jellyfish producing and consumers can soak salted jellyfish with acetic acid before eating.%目的:采用不同弱酸浸泡盐渍海蜇脱铝,探讨海蜇产品铝含量超标安全风险,研究降低海蜇产品铝含量的食用方法。方法采用高纯水、盐酸、冰醋酸、柠檬酸以及食用醋5种不同溶液分别浸泡不同铝含量的盐渍海蜇除去盐渍海蜇中的铝,分析实验前后铝含量及观察实验前后样品感官变化。结果水浸泡法对降低海蜇中残留铝的效果有限;盐酸与柠檬酸溶液有较好的脱铝效果,但脱铝后海蜇样品韧性变差,品质下降;冰醋酸与食用醋溶液有较好的脱铝效果,且脱铝后海蜇样品有光泽,柔软饱满、有弹性,冰醋酸浓度为0.1 mol/L浸泡4h时和食用醋浓度为体积比1/9浸泡4 h,是最佳的浸泡浓度及时间,脱铝后海

  13. Effectiveness of box trainers in laparoscopic training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhariwal Anender

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Rationale and Objectives: Various devices are used to aid in the education of laparoscopic skills ranging from simple box trainers to sophisticated virtual reality trainers. Virtual reality system is an advanced and effective training method, however it is yet to be adopted in India due to its cost and the advanced technology required for it. Therefore, box trainers are being used to train laparoscopic skills. Hence this study was undertaken to assess the overall effectiveness of the box-training course. Study Procedure: The study was conducted during six-day laparoscopic skills training workshops held during 2006. Twenty five surgeons; age range of 26 to 45 years, of either sex, who had not performed laparoscopic surgery before; attending the workshop were evaluated. Each participant was given a list of tasks to perform before beginning the box-training course on day one and was evaluated quantitatively by rating the successful completion of each test. Evaluation began when the subject placed the first tool into the cannula and ended with task completion. Two evaluation methods used to score the subject, including a global rating scale and a task-specific checklist. After the subject completed all sessions of the workshop, they were asked to perform the same tasks and were evaluated in the same manner. For each task completed by the subjects, the difference in the scores between the second and first runs were calculated and interpreted as an improvement as a percentage of the initial score. Statistical Analysis: Wilcoxon matched-paired signed-ranks test was applied to find out the statistical significance of the results obtained. Results: The mean percentage improvement in scores for both the tasks, using global rating scale, was 44.5% + 6.930 (Mean + SD. For task 1, using the global rating scale mean percentage improvement was 49.4% + 7.948 (Mean + SD. For task 2, mean percentage improvement using global rating scale was 39.6% + 10.4 (Mean

  14. Policy statement—Boxing participation by children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Laura; LeBlanc, Claire M A

    2011-09-01

    Thousands of boys and girls younger than 19 years participate in boxing in North America. Although boxing provides benefits for participants, including exercise, self-discipline, and self-confidence, the sport of boxing encourages and rewards deliberate blows to the head and face. Participants in boxing are at risk of head, face, and neck injuries, including chronic and even fatal neurologic injuries. Concussions are one of the most common injuries that occur with boxing. Because of the risk of head and facial injuries, the American Academy of Pediatrics and the Canadian Paediatric Society oppose boxing as a sport for children and adolescents. These organizations recommend that physicians vigorously oppose boxing in youth and encourage patients to participate in alternative sports in which intentional head blows are not central to the sport.

  15. DFBX boxes - electrical and cryogenic distribution boxes for the superconducting magnets in the LHC straight sections

    CERN Document Server

    Zbasnik, J P; Gourlay, S A; Green, M A; Hafalia, A Q; Kajiyama, Y; Knolls, M J; La Mantia, R F; Rasson, J E; Reavill, D; Turner, W C

    2003-01-01

    DFBX distribution boxes provide cryogenic and electrical services to superconducting quadrupoles and to a superconducting dipole at either end of four of the long straight sections in the LHC. The DFBX boxes also provide instrumentation and quench protection to the magnets. Current for the quadrupole and the dipole magnet is delivered through leads that combine HTS and gas cooled leads. Current for the 600 A and 120 A correction magnets is provided by pure gas-cooled leads. The bus bars from the leads to the magnets pass through low leak-rate lambda plugs between 1.8 K and 4.4 K. The heat leak into the 1.9 K region from the liquid helium tank is determined by the design of the lambda plugs. This paper describes the DFBX boxes and their function of delivering current and instrumentation signals to the magnets. (2 refs).

  16. Sodium bicarbonate ingestion and boxing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Jason C; Hirscher, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    Boxing is a sport that consists of multiple high-intensity bouts separated by minimal recovery time and may benefit from a pre-exercise alkalotic state. The purpose of this study was to observe the ergogenic potential of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) ingestion on boxing performance. Ten amateur boxers volunteered to participate in 2 competitive sparring bouts. The boxers were prematched for weight and boxing ability and consumed either 0.3 g.kg(-1) body weight (BW) of NaHCO3 (BICARB) or 0.045 g.kg(-1) BW of NaCl placebo (PLAC) mixed in diluted low calorie-flavored cordial. The sparring bouts consisted of four 3-minute rounds, each separated by 1-minute seated recovery. Blood acid-base (pH, bicarbonate [HCO3(-)], base excess [BE]), and performance (rates of perceived exertion [RPE], heart rate [HR] [HR(ave) and HR(max)], total punches landed successfully) profiles were analyzed before (where applicable) and after sparring. The results indicated a significant interaction effect for HCO3(-) (p < or = 0.001) and BE (p < 0.001), but not for pH (p = 0.48). Post hoc analysis revealed higher presparring HCO3(-) and BE for the BICARB condition, but no differences between the BICARB and PLAC conditions postsparring. There was a significant increase in punches landed during the BICARB condition (p < 0.001); however, no significant interaction effects for HRave (p = 0.15), HRmax (p = 0.32), or RPE (p = 0.38). The metabolic alkalosis induced by the NaHCO3 loading elevated before and after sparring blood buffering capacity. In practical application, the findings suggest that a standard NaHCO3 loading dose (0.3 g.kg(-1)) improves punch efficacy during 4 rounds of sparring performance.

  17. Experimental Study on Stability of Breakwaters with Penetrating Box Foundations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    别社安; 李伟; 李增志; 任增金; 及春宁

    2003-01-01

    The breakwater with top-sealed, shallow and wide penetrating box foundations is a new type of structure, applicable to deep water and soft seabed. The relations of horizontal and vertical bearing capacities of the box foundation structure as well as the instability-induced failure modes to its dimensions and external loads are discussed through static model tests and wave tests. The mechanical properties of the stability of the box foundation are similar to those of embedded rigid foundations, i.e. the vertical stresses at the bottom of the box are distributed in a linear pattern under the action of vertical loads, and passive and active soil pressures are developed at the front and back sides of the box under the action of horizontal loads; there are two instability-induced failure modes of the foundation structure-horizontal slide along the box base and tilting due to insufficient local vertical bearing capacity of the soil beneath the box base. The stability of box foundations can be analyzed by use of the methods applied to analysis of the embedded rigid foundations. To increase the width of the box is the most effective way to improve the stability of box foundations.

  18. Smart Distribution Boxes, Complete Energy Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platise, Uros

    2010-09-15

    Present households demand side management implementations are turning conventional appliances into smart ones to support auto demand (AutoDR) response function. Present concept features a direct link between the power meters and appliances. In this paper new concept and example of implementation of a so-called Smart Distribution Box (SmartDB) is represented for complete energy and power management. SmartDBs, as an intermediate layer, are extending smart grid power meter functionality to support AutoDR with fast and guaranteed response times, distributed power sources, and besides provide full control over energy management and extra safety functions to the consumers.

  19. CASAS: A Smart Home in a Box

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Diane J.; Crandall, Aaron S.; Thomas, Brian L.; Krishnan, Narayanan C.

    2012-01-01

    While the potential benefits of smart home technology are widely recognized, a lightweight design is needed for the benefits to be realized at a large scale. We introduce the CASAS “smart home in a box”, a lightweight smart home design that is easy to install and provides smart home capabilities out of the box with no customization or training. We discuss types of data analysis that have been performed by the CASAS group and can be pursued in the future by using this approach to designing and...

  20. Box model for channels of human migration

    CERN Document Server

    Vitanov, Nikolay K

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a mathematical model of migration channel based on the truncated Waring distribution. The truncated Waring distribution is obtained for a more general model of motion of substance through a channel containing finite number of boxes. The model is applied then for case of migrants moving through a channel consisting of finite number of countries or cities. The number of migrants in the channel strongly depends on the number of migrants that enter the channel through the country of entrance. It is shown that if the final destination country is very popular then large percentage of migrants may concentrate there.

  1. Determinants of Box Products of Paths

    CERN Document Server

    Pragel, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Suppose that G is the graph obtained by taking the box product of a path of length n and a path of length m. Let M be the adjacency matrix of G. If n=m, H.M. Rara showed in 1996 that det(M)=0. We extend this result to allow n and m to be any positive integers, and show that, if gcd(n+1,m+1)>1, then det(M)=0; otherwise, if gcd(n+1,m+1)=1, then det(M)=(-1)^(nm/2).

  2. LHC Crab Cavity Coupler Test Boxes

    CERN Document Server

    Mitchell, James; Burt, Graeme; Calaga, Rama; Macpherson, Alick; Montesinos, Eric; Silva, Subashini; Tutte, Adam; Xiao, Binping

    2016-01-01

    The LHC double quarter wave (DQW) crab cavities have two different types of Higher Order Mode (HOM) couplers in addition to a fundamental power coupler (FPC). The FPC requires conditioning, so to achieve this we have designed a radio-frequency (RF) quarter wave resonator to provide high transmission between two opposing FPCs. For the HOM couplers we must ensure that the stop-band filter is positioned at the cavity frequency and that peak transmission occurs at the same frequencies as the strongest HOMs. We have designed two test boxes which preserve the cavity spectral response in order to test the couplers.

  3. An Architectural Alternative to the Big Box

    OpenAIRE

    Fowler, Kristen Faye

    2008-01-01

    Wal-Mart has plans to open a store in the town of Blacksburg, Virginia. The fact that there is already a Wal-Mart store, in the town of Christiansburg, just four miles away from the proposed location makes this idea ridiculous for some. A large group of Blacksburg residents are opposed to the idea of a Wal-Mart in their town. The usual complaints are about how it will affect small businesses and traffic. The core concept of the â big boxâ store is not the problem. The idea of being abl...

  4. Keller-box method and its application

    CERN Document Server

    Prasad, Kerehalli V

    2014-01-01

    Most of the problems arising in science and engineering are nonlinear. They are inherently difficult to solve. Traditional analytical approximations are valid only for weakly nonlinear problems, and often break down for problems with strong nonlinearity. This book presents the current theoretical developments and applications of Keller-Box method to nonlinear problems. The first half of the bookaddresses basic concepts to understand the theoretical framework for the method. In the second half of the book, the authorsgive a number of examples of coupled nonlinear problems that have been solved

  5. Preliminary results of the in vivo and in vitro characterization of a tentacle venom fraction from the jellyfish Aurelia aurita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Dalia; López-Vera, Estuardo; Aguilar, Manuel B; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Judith

    2013-12-06

    The neurotoxic effects produced by a tentacle venom extract and a fraction were analyzed and correlated by in vivo and in vitro approaches. The tentacle venom extract exhibited a wide range of protein components (from 24 to >225 kDa) and produced tetanic reactions, flaccid paralysis, and death when injected into crabs. Two chromatography fractions also produced uncontrolled appendix movements and leg stretching. Further electrophysiological characterization demonstrated that one of these fractions potently inhibited ACh-elicited currents mediated by both vertebrate fetal and adult muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) subtypes. Receptor inhibition was concentration-dependent and completely reversible. The calculated IC(50) values were 1.77 μg/μL for fetal and 2.28 μg/μL for adult muscle nAChRs. The bioactive fraction was composed of a major protein component at ~90 kDa and lacked phospholipase A activity. This work represents the first insight into the interaction of jellyfish venom components and muscle nicotinic receptors.

  6. Preliminary Results of the in Vivo and in Vitro Characterization of a Tentacle Venom Fraction from the Jellyfish Aurelia aurita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Dalia; López-Vera, Estuardo; Aguilar, Manuel B.; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Judith

    2013-01-01

    The neurotoxic effects produced by a tentacle venom extract and a fraction were analyzed and correlated by in vivo and in vitro approaches. The tentacle venom extract exhibited a wide range of protein components (from 24 to >225 kDa) and produced tetanic reactions, flaccid paralysis, and death when injected into crabs. Two chromatography fractions also produced uncontrolled appendix movements and leg stretching. Further electrophysiological characterization demonstrated that one of these fractions potently inhibited ACh-elicited currents mediated by both vertebrate fetal and adult muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) subtypes. Receptor inhibition was concentration-dependent and completely reversible. The calculated IC50 values were 1.77 μg/μL for fetal and 2.28 μg/μL for adult muscle nAChRs. The bioactive fraction was composed of a major protein component at ~90 kDa and lacked phospholipase A activity. This work represents the first insight into the interaction of jellyfish venom components and muscle nicotinic receptors. PMID:24322597

  7. Preliminary Results of the in Vivo and in Vitro Characterization of a Tentacle Venom Fraction from the Jellyfish Aurelia aurita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Ponce

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The neurotoxic effects produced by a tentacle venom extract and a fraction were analyzed and correlated by in vivo and in vitro approaches. The tentacle venom extract exhibited a wide range of protein components (from 24 to >225 kDa and produced tetanic reactions, flaccid paralysis, and death when injected into crabs. Two chromatography fractions also produced uncontrolled appendix movements and leg stretching. Further electrophysiological characterization demonstrated that one of these fractions potently inhibited ACh-elicited currents mediated by both vertebrate fetal and adult muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR subtypes. Receptor inhibition was concentration-dependent and completely reversible. The calculated IC50 values were 1.77 μg/μL for fetal and 2.28 μg/μL for adult muscle nAChRs. The bioactive fraction was composed of a major protein component at ~90 kDa and lacked phospholipase A activity. This work represents the first insight into the interaction of jellyfish venom components and muscle nicotinic receptors.

  8. Physiological and chemical analysis of neurotransmitter candidates at a fast excitatory synapse in the jellyfish Cyanea capillata (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter A V; Trapido-Rosenthal, H G

    2009-12-01

    Motor nerve net (MNN) neurons in the jellyfish Cyanea capillata communicate with one another by way of fast, bidirectional excitatory chemical synapses. As is the case with almost all identified chemical synapses in cnidarians, the identity of the neurotransmitter at these synapses is unclear. MNN neurons are large enough for stable intracellular recordings. This, together with the fact that they can be exposed, providing unlimited access to them and to their synapses, prompted a study of the action of a variety of neurotransmitter candidates, including those typically associated with fast synapses in higher animals. Only the amino acids taurine and beta-alanine produced physiological responses consistent with those of the normal EPSP in these cells. Moreover, chemical analysis revealed that both taurine and beta-alanine are present in the neurons and released by depolarization. These various findings strongly suggest that either or both of these amino acids, or a closely related compound is the neurotransmitter at the fast chemical synapses between MNN neurons.

  9. The Acaricidal Activity of Venom from the Jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai against the Carmine Spider Mite Tetranychus cinnabarinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huahua Yu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The carmine spider mite Tetranychus cinnabarinus (T. cinnabarinus is a common polyphagous pest that attacks crops, vegetables, flowers, and so on. It is necessary to find lead compounds for developing novel, powerful, and environmentally-friendly acaricides as an alternative approach to controlling the carmine spider mite because of the serious resistance and residual agrochemicals in the environment. In addition, the study on the acaricidal activities of marine bioactive substances is comparatively deficient. In the present study, the acaricidal activity of venom (NnFV from the jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai against the carmine spider mite T. cinnabarinus was determined for the first time. The venom had contact toxicity, and the 24-h LC50-value was 29.1 μg/mL. The mite body wall was affected by the venom, with the mite body having no luster and being seriously shrunken after 24 h. T. cinnabarinus was a potential target pest of NnFV, which had potential as a type of natural bioacaricide. The repellent activity and systemic toxicity of the venom against T. cinnabarinus were also studied. However, NnFV had no repellent activity and systemic toxicity against T. cinnabarinus.

  10. Fine structure, histochemistry, and morphogenesis during excystment of the podocysts of the giant jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai (Scyphozoa, Rhizostomeae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Hideki; Ohtsu, Kohzoh; Uye, Shin-Ichi

    2011-12-01

    Production of podocysts is the exclusive form of asexual reproduction by polyps of the giant jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai, which has been recurrently blooming in the East Asian seas in the last decade. Podocycts consist of a dome-shaped chitinous capsule with laminated structure that encapsulates a mass of cyst cells filled with granules containing nutrient reserves such as proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids. Mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum, and Golgi complexes are scarce in the cytoplasm of these cells, and the staining reaction for RNA is weak, indicating very low metabolic activity. Podocysts are capable of dormancy for at least 5 years without significant change of internal structure or nutrient reserves. Integrated information about spontaneous and artificially induced metamorphosis suggests that the following processes occur during excystment: (1) nematocyst formation in the internal cell mass, (2) stratification of the cell mass into endoderm and ectoderm, (3) extrusion of the cell mass through a gradual opening of the capsule, (4) formation of primordial polyp mouth and tentacles, and (5) metamorphosis to a polyp. We morphologically confirmed that N. nomurai podocysts have the capacity for long-term dormancy, an ability that should contribute to the periodic nature of the massive blooms of medusae of this species.

  11. Sea Water Acidification Affects Osmotic Swelling, Regulatory Volume Decrease and Discharge in Nematocytes of the Jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Morabito

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increased acidification/PCO2 of sea water is a threat to the environment and affects the homeostasis of marine animals. In this study, the effect of sea water pH changes on the osmotic phase (OP, regulatory volume decrease (RVD and discharge of the jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa nematocytes, collected from the Strait of Messina (Italy, was assessed. Methods: Isolated nematocytes, suspended in artificial sea water (ASW with pH 7.65, 6.5 and 4.5, were exposed to hyposmotic ASW of the same pH values and their osmotic response and RVD measured optically in a special flow through chamber. Nematocyte discharge was analyzed in situ in ASW at all three pH values. Results: At normal pH (7.65, nematocytes subjected to hyposmotic shock first expanded osmotically and then regulated their cell volume within 15 min. Exposure to hyposmotic ASW pH 6.5 and 4.5 compromised the OP and reduced or totally abrogated the ensuing RVD, respectively. Acidic pH also significantly reduced the nematocyte discharge response. Conclusion: Data indicate that the homeostasis and function of Cnidarians may be altered by environmental changes such as sea water acidification, thereby validating their use as novel bioindicators for the quality of the marine environment.

  12. The Acaricidal Activity of Venom from the Jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai against the Carmine Spider Mite Tetranychus cinnabarinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huahua; Yue, Yang; Dong, Xiangli; Li, Rongfeng; Li, Pengcheng

    2016-01-01

    The carmine spider mite Tetranychus cinnabarinus (T. cinnabarinus) is a common polyphagous pest that attacks crops, vegetables, flowers, and so on. It is necessary to find lead compounds for developing novel, powerful, and environmentally-friendly acaricides as an alternative approach to controlling the carmine spider mite because of the serious resistance and residual agrochemicals in the environment. In addition, the study on the acaricidal activities of marine bioactive substances is comparatively deficient. In the present study, the acaricidal activity of venom (NnFV) from the jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai against the carmine spider mite T. cinnabarinus was determined for the first time. The venom had contact toxicity, and the 24-h LC50-value was 29.1 μg/mL. The mite body wall was affected by the venom, with the mite body having no luster and being seriously shrunken after 24 h. T. cinnabarinus was a potential target pest of NnFV, which had potential as a type of natural bioacaricide. The repellent activity and systemic toxicity of the venom against T. cinnabarinus were also studied. However, NnFV had no repellent activity and systemic toxicity against T. cinnabarinus.

  13. The Acaricidal Activity of Venom from the Jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai against the Carmine Spider Mite Tetranychus cinnabarinus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huahua; Yue, Yang; Dong, Xiangli; Li, Rongfeng; Li, Pengcheng

    2016-01-01

    The carmine spider mite Tetranychus cinnabarinus (T. cinnabarinus) is a common polyphagous pest that attacks crops, vegetables, flowers, and so on. It is necessary to find lead compounds for developing novel, powerful, and environmentally-friendly acaricides as an alternative approach to controlling the carmine spider mite because of the serious resistance and residual agrochemicals in the environment. In addition, the study on the acaricidal activities of marine bioactive substances is comparatively deficient. In the present study, the acaricidal activity of venom (NnFV) from the jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai against the carmine spider mite T. cinnabarinus was determined for the first time. The venom had contact toxicity, and the 24-h LC50-value was 29.1 μg/mL. The mite body wall was affected by the venom, with the mite body having no luster and being seriously shrunken after 24 h. T. cinnabarinus was a potential target pest of NnFV, which had potential as a type of natural bioacaricide. The repellent activity and systemic toxicity of the venom against T. cinnabarinus were also studied. However, NnFV had no repellent activity and systemic toxicity against T. cinnabarinus. PMID:27294957

  14. Development of a rapid assay to detect the jellyfish Cyanea nozakii using a loop-mediated isothermal amplification method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhongyuan; Dong, Zhijun; Liu, Dongyan

    2016-07-01

    Blooms of the harmful jellyfish Cyanea nozakii, which are a severe nuisance to fisheries and tourisms, frequently occur in the northern East China Sea, Yellow Sea, and Bohai Sea. To provide early warning of this species, a simple and effective molecular method for identifying C. nozakii was developed using the loop-mediated isothermal amplification method (LAMP). The LAMP assay is highly specific and uses a set of four primers that target six different regions on the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene of C. nozakii. The amplification conditions, including the dNTP and betaine concentrations, the inner primer to outer primer concentration ratio, reaction time and temperature, were optimized. The LAMP assay amplified DNA extracted from tissue samples of C. nozakii but did not amplify DNA from other common scyphozoans and hydrozoans collected in the same region. In addition, the LAMP assay was more sensitive than conventional PCR. Therefore, the established LAMP assay is a sensitive, specific, fast, and easily performed method for detection of C. nozakii at different stages in their life cycle.

  15. Reconciling White-Box and Black-Box Perspectives on Behavioral Self-adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Roberto; Corradini, Andrea; Gadducci, Fabio;

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes to reconcile two perspectives on behavioral adaptation commonly taken at different stages of the engineering of autonomic computing systems. Requirements engineering activities often take a black-box perspective: A system is considered to be adaptive with respect to an environ...

  16. Teaching Outside the Box: ARL Librarians' Integration of the "One- Box" into Student Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulp, Christina; McCain, Cheryl; Scrivener, Laurie

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the results of a survey that targeted reference and instruction librarians who work at libraries that are members of the Asso- ciation of Research Libraries (ARL). Respondents were asked to indicate whether or not they teach students to use the one-box tool, and why or why not. Based on the responses of the 352 librarians who…

  17. Hairy Black Holes in a Box

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Pallab; Subramanian, P N Bala

    2016-01-01

    We do a systematic study of the phases of gravity coupled to an electromagnetic field and charged scalar in flat space, with box boundary conditions. The scalar-less box has previously been investigated by Braden, Brown, Whiting and York (and others) before AdS/CFT and we elaborate and extend their results in a language more familiar from holography. The phase diagram of the system is analogous to that of AdS black holes, but we emphasize the differences and explain their origin. Once the scalar is added, we show that the system admits both boson stars as well as hairy black holes as solutions, providing yet another way to evade flat space no-hair theorems. Furthermore both these solutions can exist as stable phases in regions of the phase diagram. The final picture of the phases that emerges is strikingly similar to that found recently for holographic superconductors in global AdS, arXiv: 1602.07211. Our construction lays bare certain previously unnoticed subtleties associated to the definition quasi-local c...

  18. Research of intelligent bus coin box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Shihao

    2017-03-01

    In the energy-saving emission reduction of the social context, in response to low-carbon travel, buses become the majority of people choose. We have designed this sorting machine for the present situation that the bus company has received a large amount of mixed zero coins and employed a large amount of manpower to sort out and lower the efficiency. Its function is to separate the coins and notes mixed, and the coins sort storage, the display shows the value of the received coins, so that the whole mechanized inventory classification, reduce the cost of clearing up and improve the efficiency of zero cash recycling, use Simple mechanical principles for classification, to be efficient, accurate and practical. Really meet the current city bus companies, commerce and banking and other industries in order to zero notes, zero coins in the actual demand. The size and specification of this machine are designed according to the size of the bus coin box. It is suitable for almost all buses. It can be installed in the coin box directly, real-time sorting and real-time counting. The difficulty of clearing change.

  19. The Ion Wakefield Inside a Glass Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mudi; Matthews, Lorin; Hyde, Truell

    2016-10-01

    The formation of an ion wakefield downstream of dust particles in a complex plasma sheath has long been understood to have strong implications on their structure, stability and dynamics . The presence of the ion wake introduces interesting phenomena such as charge reduction on downstream particles and asymmetric interaction forces between upstream and downstream particles. Many of the self-ordered dust particle structures observed in complex plasma experiments are the result of the combination of the ion-wakefield and the external confinement; unfortunately, few experimental measurements isolating the effect of the wakefield have been conducted. In this experiment, 1-D dust particle structures (i.e., vertically aligned particle chains) are formed in a GEC RF reference cell within a glass box sitting on the powered lower electrode. A diode pumped, solid-state laser is used to perturb individual particles within the particle chain, allowing a map of the ion wakefield inside the glass box to be generated. The implications of these results will be discussed. NSF / DOE funding is gratefully acknowledged - PHY1414523 & PHY1262031.

  20. Injuries in competitive boxing. A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siewe, J; Rudat, J; Zarghooni, K; Sobottke, R; Eysel, P; Herren, C; Knöll, P; Illgner, U; Michael, J

    2015-03-01

    Boxing remains a subject of controversy and is often classified as dangerous. But the discussion is based mostly on retrospective studies. This survey was conducted as a prospective study. From October 2012 to September 2013, 44 competitive boxers were asked to report their injuries once a month. The questionnaire collected general information (training, competition) and recorded the number of bouts fought, injuries and resulting lost days. A total of 192 injuries were recorded, 133 of which resulted in interruption of training or competition. Each boxer sustained 3 injuries per year on average. The injury rate was 12.8 injuries per 1 000 h of training. Boxers fighting more than 3 bouts per year sustain more injuries (p=0.0075). The injury rate does is not a function of age (age≤19 vs. > 19a, p=0.53). Injuries to the head and the upper limbs occur most frequently. The most common injuries are soft tissue lacerations and contusions. Head injuries with neurological symptoms rarely occur (4.2%). Boxing has a high injury rate that is comparable with other contact sports, but most injuries are minor. Injury frequency is not a function of whether the boxer competes in the junior or adult category. Athletes fighting many bouts per year have a greater risk of injury.

  1. Roles of F-box Proteins in Plant Hormone Responses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haichuan YU; Jiao WU; Nanfei XU; Ming PENG

    2007-01-01

    The F-box protein is an important component of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Skpl-Cullin-F-box protein complex. It binds specific substrates for ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. The F-box proteins contain a signature F-box motif at their amino-terminus and some protein-protein interaction motifs at their carboxyterminus, such as Trp-Asp repeats or leucine rich repeats. Many F-box proteins have been identified to be involved in plant hormone response as receptors or important medial components. These breakthrough findings shed light on our current understanding of the structure and function of the various F-box proteins,their related plant hormone signaling pathways, and their roles in regulating plant development.

  2. ORIGIN OF THE GIANT JELLYFISH IN QINGDAO OFFSHORE IN SUMMER%青岛外海夏季水母路径溯源研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海彦; 赵亮; 魏皓

    2012-01-01

    2011年夏季,青岛外海发现大量大型水母,如沙海蜇、海月水母和白色霞水母等,而在冬、春季未在当地海区发现其幼体。本文采用拉格朗日方法,以粒子代表水母,不考虑水母自身运动,进行反向追踪,追溯其运动路径及可能源地。不同追踪实验结果显示,在不同时间不同深度处释放的粒子路径不同。在海面处释放的粒子分别可以追溯到海州湾、江苏沿岸及长江口附近的海域,其中8月1日和8月15日在海面释放的粒子最远可以追溯至长江口外海域:2m层上释放的粒子最远也可到达长江口附近,而10m层以深释放的粒子基本分布在35°N以北。由于反向追踪只考虑海流的影响,追踪过程可逆,因此,从运动路径来看,青岛外海的部分水母可能来源于海州湾、江苏沿岸及长江口附近海域。从水母种类分布特征来看,海州湾、江苏沿岸及长江口附近海域在有粒子分布时期的水母种类与7、8月份青岛外海部分水母种类一致,为寻找青岛外海夏季水母的潜在的来源地提供了依据。%In the summer of 2011, massive giant jellyfish was observed in Qingdao offshore. These jellyfish, including Nemopilema nomurai, Cyanea nozakii and Aurelia aurita, were remote origin because their larvae were not found in Qingdao offshore in the past winter and spring. We conducted a series of backward Lagrangian particle-tracking experi- ments driven by the Princeton Ocean Model (POM) hydrodynamical results to identify possible source regions of the ob- served giant jellyfish. Passive particles representing the jellyfish were released in surface layer and at some other depths at different times in summer. The trajectories of the particles depended on both the depth and the date of release. Backward tracking from the summer to spring, the released particles in surface layer were mainly found in Haizhou Bay, Jiangsu coast area, and

  3. 46 CFR 78.47-10 - Manual alarm boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Manual alarm boxes. 78.47-10 Section 78.47-10 Shipping... and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-10 Manual alarm boxes. (a) In all new installations, manual... at least 1/2 inch letters “IN CASE OF FIRE BREAK GLASS.” All manual alarm boxes shall be numbered...

  4. [Boxing-related cranial injury in children: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timsit, S; Rougeau, T; Grevent, D; Chéron, G

    2012-11-01

    No pediatric recommendations exist in France on the exercise of boxing by children and adolescents despite the risk of traumatic injury, sometimes serious. We report the case of a 15-year-old boy who participated in amateur boxing and had a subdural hematoma. Brain injuries and concussions are frequent and multiple. Severity is not always correlated with the intensity of the blows. There are age-related features. Several international medical organizations oppose boxing for children and adolescents.

  5. Average of Distribution and Remarks on Box-Splines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yue-sheng

    2001-01-01

    A class of generalized moving average operators is introduced, and the integral representations of an average function are provided. It has been shown that the average of Dirac δ-distribution is just the well known box-spline. Some remarks on box-splines, such as their smoothness and the corresponding partition of unity, are made. The factorization of average operators is derived. Then, the subdivision algorithm for efficient computing of box-splines and their linear combinations follows.

  6. Spatiotemporal variation in community structure of marine benthic ciliates in the Yellow Sea during and after macroalgal and giant jellyfish blooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bailing; Xu, Kuidong

    2016-07-01

    The annual bloom of the green macroalgal Ulva prolifera from May through July since 2008 and another of giant jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai from June through September have been frequent events in the Yellow Sea. However, the patterns of benthic ciliate communities during and after the blooms are still not known. In combination with analyses of benthic environmental factors, we investigated the distribution and community composition of benthic ciliates in the Yellow Sea in July and November 2011. In July, ciliates had high standing crops and diversity in the northern Yellow Sea, and in the inshore area off the southern Shandong Peninsula, where large numbers of green macroalgae accumulated. In November, the abundance, biomass and diversity of ciliates were high in the sea areas off the Shandong Peninsula and Changjiang estuary, where a large quantity of jellyfish occurred in August. Neither the abundance nor the biomass had significant difference between seasons, or between different compartments of the Yellow Sea. The species number, and both Margalef and Shannon-Wiener indices of ciliates were all significantly higher in November than in July. In both seasons, prostomateans and karyorelicteans consistently constituted the first and second most important ciliate groups in biomass; and carnivorous ciliates constituted the primary feeding type in terms of biomass as well as species richness, followed by bacterivores, algivores and omnivores. Compared with that in June 2007 when no macroalgae occurred, the percentage of small-sized bacterivores (e.g. Metacystis spp., Euplotes spp. and scuticociliates) increased in July 2011. The proportion of carnivorous ciliates increased in November, and this increased dominance of carnivorous ciliates may be a response to the increase in predominance of heterotrophic nanoflagellates, which might in turn be ascribed to an effect of green macroalgal and giant jellyfish blooms in the Yellow Sea.

  7. Antioxidant Activity of Enzymatic Gonad Hydrolysates from Jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum%海蜇生殖腺酶解物抗氧化活性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑杰; 于笛; 陈冲; 袁成玉

    2014-01-01

    为提高海蜇的综合利用率,利用木瓜蛋白酶酶解技术制备海蜇生殖腺酶解物。分析酶解物的氨基酸组成,并通过体外化学模拟体系评价酶解物与F e2+螯合前后的抗氧化活性。试验结果表明,海蜇生殖腺酶解物含有17种氨基酸,具有一定的Fe2+螯合能力和DPPH ·清除能力,其螯合率和清除率达到50%时的质量浓度分别为1.73 mg/mL 和22.20 mg/mL。同时,具有一定的还原能力,其在700 nm处吸光值达到0.5时的质量浓度为17.61 mg/mL。海蜇生殖腺酶解物与Fe2+螯合后,抗氧化能力显著增强,DPPH ·清除率达到50%和在700 nm处吸光值达到0.5时的质量浓度分别为0.15 mg/mL和0.86 mg/mL。%The enzymatic hydrolysates of gonad in jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum were prepared by papain ,and the amino acid composition and the antioxidant activities of the hydrolysates were analyzed by Fe2+-chelating assay ,1 ,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH · ) assay and reducing power assay to make full use of the jellyfish .The results showed that the hydrolysates from jellyfish gonad were composed of 17 amino acids ,and possessed Fe2+ -chelatin ability ,DPPH radical scavenging capacity with IC50 values of 1 . 73 and 22 .20 mg/mL , respectively , and reducing power with AC0 .5 value of 17 .61 mg/mL .The antioxidant activities of enzymatic hydrolysates ,chelated with Fe2+ ,were obviously improved ,with the IC50 and AC0 .5 values of 0 .15 mg/mL in DPPH radical scavenging capacity and 0 .86 mg/mL in reducing power .The findings provide theoretical support for the further exploitation of jellyfish gonad .

  8. Design Research: Six Views in a Box

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    professional organizations in a user-driven approach to explore and learn what it means to identify and admit that a person has Alzheimer’s. Apart from making contributions to the common box, the students have written reports in which they reflect on their work both in relation to the design research process...... and close relations, and professional caretakers. Alzheimer's destroys brain cells, causing memory loss and problems with thinking and behavior severe enough to affect work, lifelong hobbies and social life. As Alzheimer’s is a fatal disease that affects many people, there is a strong interest in finding...... ways to better understand the consequences of the disease, spread the knowledge to more people and diagnosis the disease as soon as possible. The class was partly sponsored by Johnson & Johnson, an international pharmaceutical company. The students also collaborated with the Danish Alzheimer...

  9. Choreographies with Secure Boxes and Compromised Principals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbone, Marco; Guttman, Joshua

    2009-01-01

      We equip choreography-level session descriptions with a simple abstraction of a security infrastruc- ture. Message components may be enclosed within (possibly nested) ”boxes” annotated with the intended source and destination of those components. The boxes are to be implemented with cryp......- tography. Strand spaces provide a semantics for these choreographies, in which some roles may be played by compromised principals. A skeleton is a partially ordered structure containing local behaviors (strands) executed by regular (non-compromised) principals. A skeleton is realized if it contains enough...... it embeds. Second, if no step is possible from a skeleton A, then A is DG realized. Finally, if a DG realized A′ is accessible from A, then A′ is minimal. Thus, the transition system provides a systematic way to construct the possible behaviors of the choreography, in the presence of compromised principals.  ...

  10. Counting Closed String States in a Box

    CERN Document Server

    Meana, M L; Peñalba, J P; Meana, Marco Laucelli; Peñalba, Jesús Puente

    1997-01-01

    The computation of the microcanonical density of states for a string gas in a finite volume needs a one by one count because of the discrete nature of the spectrum. We present a way to do it using geometrical arguments in phase space. We take advantage of this result in order to obtain the thermodynamical magnitudes of the system. We show that the results for an open universe exactly coincide with the infinite volume limit of the expression obtained for the gas in a box. For any finite volume the Hagedorn temperature is a maximum one, and the specific heat is always positive. We also present a definition of pressure compatible with R-duality seen as an exact symmetry, which allows us to make a study on the physical phase space of the system. Besides a maximum temperature the gas presents an asymptotic pressure.

  11. Nondestructive boxed transuranic (TRU) waste assay systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, John T.; Jones, Stephanie A.; Lucero, Randy F.

    1999-01-01

    A brief history of boxed waste assay systems (primarily those developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory) is presented. The characteristics and design process involved with current generation systems--as practiced by BII--are also discussed in some detail. Finally, a specific boxed waste assay system and acceptance test results are presented. This system was developed by BII and installed at the Waste Receiving and Packaging (WRAP) facility in Hanford, Washington in early 1997. The WRAP system combines imaging passive/active neutron (IPAN) techniques with gamma- ray energy analysis (GEA) to assay crates up to 2.5 m X 2.5 m X 6.5 m in size. (Systems that incorporate both these methodologies are usually denoted IPAN/GEA types.) Two separate gamma-ray measurements are accomplished utilizing 16 arrayed NaI detectors and a moveable HPGe detector, while 3He detectors acquire both active and passive neutron data. These neutron measurements use BII's proprietary imaging methodology. Acceptance testing of the system was conducted at Hanford in January 1998. The system's operating performance was evaluated based on accuracy and sensitivity requirements for three different matrix types. Test results indicate an average 13% active mode accuracy for 10 nCi/g loadings of Pu waste and 5% passive mode accuracy for 10 g loadings of Pu waste. Sensitivity testing demonstrated an active mode lower limit of detection of less than 5 nCi/g of 239Pu for the medium matrix and less than 20 pCi/g of fission and activation products at 3(sigma) above background.

  12. The "eyes absent" (eya) gene in the eye-bearing hydrozoan jellyfish Cladonema radiatum: conservation of the retinal determination network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziussi, Daria Federica; Suga, Hiroshi; Schmid, Volker; Gehring, Walter Jakob

    2012-06-01

    Eyes absent (Eya) is a member of the Retinal Determination Gene Network (RDGN), a set of genes responsible for eye specification in Drosophila. Eya is a dual function protein, working as a transcription factor in the nucleus and as a tyrosine phosphatase in the cytoplasm. It had been shown that Pax and Six family genes, main components of the RDGN, are present in the hydrozoan Cladonema radiatum and that they are expressed in the eye. However, nothing had been known about the Eya family in hydrozoan jellyfish. Here we report the presence of an Eya homologue (CrEya) in Cladonema. Real-time PCR analysis and in situ hybridization showed that CrEya is expressed in the eye. Furthermore, the comprehensive survey of eukaryote genomes revealed that the acquisition of the N-terminal transactivation domain, including the EYA Domain 2 and its adjacent sequence shared by all eumetazoans, happened early in evolution, before the separation of Cnidaria and Bilateria. Our results uncover the evolution of the two domains and show a conservation of the expression pattern of the Eya gene between Cnidaria and Bilateria, which, together with previous data, supports the hypothesis of the monophyletic origin of metazoans eyes. We additionally show that CrEya is also expressed in the oocytes, where two other members of the RDGN, CrPaxB, and Six4/5-Cr, are known to be expressed. These data suggest that several members of the RDGN have begun to be localized also into the different context of egg development early in the course of metazoan evolution.

  13. A Comparison of Energy Expenditure During "Wii Boxing" Versus Heavy Bag Boxing in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perusek, Kristen; Sparks, Kenneth; Little, Kathleen; Motley, Mary; Patterson, Sheila; Wieand, Jennifer

    2014-02-01

    Traditional computer videogames are sedentary, whereas new computer videogames, such as the Nintendo(®) (Redmond, WA) "Wii™ Sports" games, allow users to physically interact while playing the sport. Energy expenditure (EE), heart rate (HR), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during heavy bag boxing versus the Nintendo "Wii Boxing" game were compared. Fifteen males and 14 females (mean age, 25.6 years; height, 171.3 cm; weight, 71.8 kg) randomly selected (by a coin toss) heavy bag boxing or "Wii Boxing" for their first test session and completed the other protocol at their second session at least 2 days later. Each session lasted for a total duration of 30 minutes and consisted of 10 3-minute exercise bouts with measurements of HR, RPE, and EE obtained from indirect calorimetry. A paired-samples t test was used to analyze the results. Significant differences were found for HR (bag, 156 beats per minute; Wii, 138 beats per minute; P=0.001) and RPE (bag, 13.8; Wii, 11.4; P=0.0001) but not for EE (bag, 8.0 kcal/minute; Wii, 7.1 kcal/minute; bag, 241 total kcal; Wii, 213 total kcal; P=0.078). The results suggest that computer active videogames, such as the Nintendo Wii, have the potential to provide similar EE as their traditional forms of exercise and may be a sufficient replacement for traditional target HR zone activities, especially in less fit individuals. Further research is needed to compare EE for different "Wii Sports" games with those for their traditional forms of exercise.

  14. 49 CFR 215.107 - Defective plain bearing box: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.107 Defective plain bearing box: General. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if the car has— (a) A plain bearing box that does not contain visible free oil; (b) A...

  15. Dream Box Learning. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "DreamBox Learning" is a supplemental online mathematics program that provides adaptive instruction for students in grades K-5 and focuses on number and operations, place value, and number sense. The What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) identified one study of "DreamBox Learning" that both falls within the scope of the Elementary…

  16. Faster Black-Box Algorithms Through Higher Arity Operators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doerr, Benjamin; Johannsen, Daniel; Kötzing, Timo

    2011-01-01

    We extend the work of Lehre and Witt (GECCO 2010) on the unbiased black-box model by considering higher arity variation operators. In particular, we show that already for binary operators the black-box complexity of LeadingOnes drops from (n2) for unary operators to O(n log n). For OneMax, the (n...

  17. Empty Tissue Boxes: Considering Poverty in Diversity Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuthrell, Kristen; Ledford, Carolyn; Stapleton, Joy

    2007-01-01

    A preservice teacher doing her internship overhears some of her students asking a classmate why he regularly takes home empty tissue boxes. The boy replies that he builds cities and bridges with his empty boxes. His classmates then ask why he does not just build a city with Legos or building blocks. The preservice teacher listens intently as the…

  18. Olympic Sports(ⅩⅣ):Boxing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜全红

    2004-01-01

    Boxing has a long sporting history.The earliest evidence of boxing is found in Egypt around 3000 B.C.The sport was introduced to the Olympic Games by the Greeks in the late 7th century B.C.. Greek boxers used thongs of soft leather to bind their hands

  19. Validating SimpleBox-Computed Steady-State Concentration Ratios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker J; Brandes LJ; Hollander HA den; Meent D van de; Struijs J; SEC; IMP; LER

    2004-01-01

    The validity of the multi-media model SimpleBox version 2.0 with respect to its specific use in the procedure of testing the coherence of independently derived environmental quality objectives is evaluated. The SimpleBox procedure for testing the coherence of environmental quality objectives has bee

  20. Getting started with Oracle VM VirtualBox

    CERN Document Server

    Dash, Pradyumna

    2013-01-01

    A step-by-step guide that will show you how to install, configure, and manage VirtualBox.This book is for system administrators, technical architects, and virtualization enthusiasts who want to learn how to set up a virtual machine. Knowledge of the Linux environment is expected. Prior experience with VirtualBox or knowledge of virtualization is not required.