WorldWideScience

Sample records for box jellyfish tripedalia

  1. The spectral sensitivity of the lens eyes of a box jellyfish, Tripedalia cystophora (Conant)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coates, Melissa M; Garm, Anders; Theobald, Jamie C;

    2006-01-01

    Box jellyfish, or cubomedusae (class Cubozoa), are unique among the Cnidaria in possessing lens eyes similar in morphology to those of vertebrates and cephalopods. Although these eyes were described over 100 years ago, there has been no work done on their electrophysiological responses to light. We...

  2. Unique structure and optics of the lesser eyes of the box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garm, A; Andersson, F; Nilsson, Dan-E

    2008-01-01

    mere light meters. The slit eyes, comprising four cell types, are complex and highly asymmetric. They also hold a lens-like structure, but its optical power is minute. Optical modeling suggests spatial resolution, but only in one plane. These unique and intriguing traits support strong peripheral......The visual system of box jellyfish comprises a total of 24 eyes. These are of four types and each probably has a special function. To investigate this hypothesis the morphology and optics of the lesser eyes, the pit and slit eyes, were examined. The pit eyes hold one cell type only and are probably...

  3. Temporal properties of the lens eyes of the box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora

    OpenAIRE

    O’Connor, Megan; Nilsson, Dan-E; Garm, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Box jellyfish (Cubomedusae) are visually orientating animals which posses a total of 24 eyes of 4 morphological types; 2 pigment cup eyes (pit eye and slit eye) and 2 lens eyes [upper lens-eye (ule) and lower lens-eye (lle)]. In this study, we use electroretinograms (ERGs) to explore temporal properties of the two lens eyes. We find that the ERG of both lens eyes are complex and using sinusoidal flicker stimuli we find that both lens eyes have slow temporal resolution. The average flicker fus...

  4. Visually guided obstacle avoidance in the box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora and Chiropsella bronzie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garm, A; O'Connor, M; Parkefelt, L;

    2007-01-01

    behavioral repertoire, which seems to be predominantly visually guided. Still, positive phototaxis is the only behavior described so far that is likely to be correlated with the eyes. We have explored the obstacle avoidance response of the Caribbean species Tripedalia cystophora and the Australian species...... Chiropsella bronzie in a flow chamber. Our results show that obstacle avoidance is visually guided. Avoidance behavior is triggered when the obstacle takes up a certain angle in the visual field. The results do not allow conclusions on whether color vision is involved but the strength of the response had a...... tendency to follow the intensity contrast between the obstacle and the surroundings (chamber walls). In the flow chamber Tripedalia cystophora displayed a stronger obstacle avoidance response than Chiropsella bronzie since they had less contact with the obstacles. This seems to follow differences in their...

  5. Pattern- and contrast-dependent visual response in the box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garm, Anders; Hedal, Ida; Islin, Majken; Gurska, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    formation in the so-called upper lens eye. Further, there are indications that obstacle avoidance requires image information from the lower lens eye. Here we use a behavioural assay to examine the obstacle avoidance behaviour of the Caribbean cubomedusa Tripedalia cystophora and test whether it requires......Cubomedusae possess a total of 24 eyes, some of which are structurally similar to vertebrate eyes. Accordingly, the medusae also display a range of light-guided behaviours including obstacle avoidance, diurnal activity patterns and navigation. Navigation is supported by spatial resolution and image...

  6. Temporal properties of the lens eyes of the box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connor, Megan; Nilsson, Dan-E; Garm, Anders Lydik

    2010-01-01

    Box jellyWsh (Cubomedusae) are visually orientating animals which posses a total of 24 eyes of 4 morphological types; 2 pigment cup eyes (pit eye and slit eye) and 2 lens eyes [upper lens-eye (ule) and lower lens-eye (lle)]. In this study, we use electroretinograms (ERGs) to explore temporal...... properties of the two lens eyes. We Wnd that the ERG of both lens eyes are complex and using sinusoidal Xicker stimuli we Wnd that both lens eyes have slow temporal resolution. The average Xicker fusion frequency (FFF) was found to be approximately 10 Hz for the ule and 8 Hz for the lle. DiVerences in the...... FFF and response patterns between the two lens eyes suggest that the ule and lle Wlter information diVerently in the temporal domain and thus are tuned to perform diVerent visual tasks. The data collected in this study support the idea that the visual system of box jellyWsh is a collection of special...

  7. Box jellyfish use terrestrial visual cues for navigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garm, Anders; Oskarsson, Magnus; Nilsson, Dan-Eric

    2011-01-01

    Box jellyfish have an impressive set of 24 eyes of four different types, including eyes structurally similar to those of vertebrates and cephalopods [1, 2]. However, the known visual responses are restricted to simple phototaxis, shadow responses, and object avoidance responses [3-8], and it has...... been a puzzle why they need such a complex set of eyes. Here we report that medusae of the box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora are capable of visually guided navigation in mangrove swamps using terrestrial structures seen through the water surface. They detect the mangrove canopy by an eye type that is...

  8. Setting the Pace: New Insights into Central Pattern Generator Interactions in Box Jellyfish Swimming

    OpenAIRE

    Stöckl, Anna Lisa; Petie, Ronald; Nilsson, Dan-Eric

    2011-01-01

    Central Pattern Generators (CPGs) produce rhythmic behaviour across all animal phyla. Cnidarians, which have a radially symmetric nervous system and pacemaker centres in multiples of four, provide an interesting comparison to bilaterian animals for studying the coordination between CPGs. The box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora is remarkable among cnidarians due to its most elaborate visual system. Together with their ability to actively swim and steer, they use their visual system for multipl...

  9. The Central Nervous System of Box Jellyfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garm, Anders Lydik; Ekström, Peter

    2008-01-01

    nervous system is described. Each rhopalium holds a separate part of the CNS with 1,000 nerve cells and a large amount of neuropil. The rhopalial nervous system has several subsystems defined by the anatomy, location, and immunocytochemistry of the cells. Most of the subsystems connect to one or more of...... behaviors in the box jellyfish such as obstacle avoidance and navigation. The need to process the visual information and turn it into the appropriate behavior puts strong demands on the nervous system of box jellyfish, which appears more elaborate than in other cnidarians. Here, the central part of this...... the eye types, and it is likely that the rhopalial nervous system accounts for most of the visual processing. The major part of the CNS is made up of a ring nerve encircling the bell shaped body. The ring nerve holds around 10,000 cells and is directly connected to all four rhopalial nervous systems...

  10. Setting the pace: new insights into central pattern generator interactions in box jellyfish swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöckl, Anna Lisa; Petie, Ronald; Nilsson, Dan-Eric

    2011-01-01

    Central Pattern Generators (CPGs) produce rhythmic behaviour across all animal phyla. Cnidarians, which have a radially symmetric nervous system and pacemaker centres in multiples of four, provide an interesting comparison to bilaterian animals for studying the coordination between CPGs. The box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora is remarkable among cnidarians due to its most elaborate visual system. Together with their ability to actively swim and steer, they use their visual system for multiple types of behaviour. The four swim CPGs are directly regulated by visual input. In this study, we addressed the question of how the four pacemaker centres of this radial symmetric cnidarian interact. We based our investigation on high speed camera observations of the timing of swim pulses of tethered animals (Tripedalia cystophora) with one or four rhopalia, under different simple light regimes. Additionally, we developed a numerical model of pacemaker interactions based on the inter pulse interval distribution of animals with one rhopalium. We showed that the model with fully resetting coupling and hyperpolarization of the pacemaker potential below baseline fitted the experimental data best. Moreover, the model of four swim pacemakers alone underscored the proportion of long inter pulse intervals (IPIs) considerably. Both in terms of the long IPIs as well as the overall swim pulse distribution, the simulation of two CPGs provided a better fit than that of four. We therefore suggest additional sources of pacemaker control than just visual input. We provide guidelines for future research on the physiological linkage of the cubozoan CPGs and show the insight from bilaterian CPG research, which show that pacemakers have to be studied in their bodily and nervous environment to capture all their functional features, are also manifest in cnidarians. PMID:22073288

  11. Structure and optics of the eyes of the box jellyfish Chiropsella bronzie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O’Connor, Megan; Garm, Anders Lydik; Nilsson, Dan-E.

    2009-01-01

    Cubomedusae have a total of 24 eyes of four morphologically different types. Two of these eye types are camera-type eyes (upper and lower lens-eye), while the other two eye types are simpler pigment pit eyes (pit and slit eye). Here, we give a description of the visual system of the box jellyfish...... species Chiropsella bronzie and the optics of the lens eyes in this species. One aim of this study is to distinguish between general cubozoan features and species-specific features in the layout and optics of the eyes. We find that both types of lens eyes are more severely under-focused in C. bronzie than...... those in the previously investigated species Tripedalia cystophora. In the lower lens-eye of C. bronzie, blur circles subtend 20 and 52° for closed and open pupil, respectively, effectively removing all but the coarsest structures of the image. Histology reveals that the retina of the lower lens-eye, in...

  12. Visual control of steering in the box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petie, Ronald; Garm, Anders; Nilsson, Dan-Eric

    2011-01-01

    darkening of one quadrant of the equatorial visual world by (1) increasing pulse frequency, (2) creating an asymmetry in the structure that constricts the outflow opening of the bell, the velarium, and (3) delaying contraction at one of the four sides of the bell. This causes the animals to orient their...... recorded changes in their swimming behaviour. Animals were tethered in a small experimental chamber, where we could control lighting conditions. The behaviour of the animals was quantified by tracking the movements of the bell, using a high-speed camera. We found that the animals respond predictably to the...

  13. Visual pigments of the box jellyfish species Chiropsella bronzie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O*Connor, Megan; Garm, Anders Lydik; Marshall, Justin; Heart, Natan; Ekström, Peter; Skogh, Charlotta; Nilsson, Dan-E

    2010-01-01

    Box jellyfish (Cubomedusae) possess a unique visual system comprising 24 eyes of four morphological types. Moreover, box jellyfish display several visually guided behaviours, including obstacle avoidance and light-shaft attractance. It is largely unknown what kind of visual information box jellyf...... results strongly indicate that only one type of visual pigment is present in the upper and lower lens eyes with a peak absorbance of approximately 510 nm. Additionally, the visual pigment appears to undergo bleaching, similar to that of vertebrate visual pigments....

  14. Multiple photoreceptor systems control the swim pacemaker activity in box jellyfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garm, Anders Lydik; Mori, S.

    2009-01-01

    Like all other cnidarian medusae, box jellyfish propel themselves through the water by contracting their bell-shaped body in discrete swim pulses. These pulses are controlled by a swim pacemaker system situated in their sensory structures, the rhopalia. Each medusa has four rhopalia each with a...

  15. In vitro angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibition by a peptide isolated from Chiropsalmus quadrigatus Haeckel (box jellyfish) venom hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Pamela Berilyn T; Rubio, Peter; Lirio, Stephen; Macabeo, Allan Patrick; Huang, Hsi-Ya; Corpuz, Mary Jho-Anne T; Villaflores, Oliver B

    2016-09-01

    The anti-angiotensin I converting enzyme activity of box jellyfish, Chiropsalmus quadrigatus Haeckel venom hydrolysate was studied. The venom extract was obtained by centrifugation and ultrasonication. Protein concentration of 12.99 μg/mL was determined using Bradford assay. The pepsin and papain hydrolysate was tested for its toxicity by Limit test following the OECD Guideline 425 using 5 female Sprague-Dawley rats. Results showed that the hydrolysate is nontoxic with an LD50 above 2000 mg/kg. In vitro angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity was determined using ACE kit-WST. Isolation of ACE inhibitory peptides using column chromatography with SP-Sephadex G-25 yielded 8 pooled fractions with fraction 3 (86.5%) exhibiting the highest activity. This was followed by reverse phase - high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with an octadecyl silica column (Inertsil ODS-3) using methanol:water 15:85 at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Among the 13 fractions separated with the RP-HPLC, fraction 3.5 exhibited the highest ACE inhibitory activity (84.1%). The peptide sequence ACPGPNPGRP (IC50 2.03 μM) from fraction 3.5 was identified using Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization with time-of-flight tandem mass spectroscopy analysis (MALDI-TOF/MS). PMID:27163886

  16. Abundant box jellyfish, Chironex sp. (Cnidaria: Cubozoa: Chirodropidae), discovered at depths of over 50 m on western Australian coastal reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keesing, John K; Strzelecki, Joanna; Stowar, Marcus; Wakeford, Mary; Miller, Karen J; Gershwin, Lisa-Ann; Liu, Dongyan

    2016-01-01

    Box jellyfish cause human fatalities and have a life cycle and habit associated with shallow waters (tow video and epibenthic sled surveys discovered large numbers (64 in a 1500 m tow or 0.05 m(-2)) of Chironex sp. very near to the benthos (tow videos and 3 of 41 epibenthic sleds spread over 2000 km(2). All Chironex filmed or captured were on low to medium relief reefs with rich filter feeder communities. None were on soft sediment habitat despite these habitats comprising 49% of all sites. The importance of the reef habitat to Chironex remains unclear. Being associated with filter feeder communities might represent a hazard, and other studies have shown C. fleckeri avoid habitats which represent a risk of entanglement of their tentacles. Most of our observations were made during the period of lowest tidal current flow in the morning. This may represent a period favourable for active hunting for prey close to the seabed. PMID:26924604

  17. Use of an Inverse Method for Time Series to Estimate the Dynamics of and Management Strategies for the Box Jellyfish Carybdea marsupialis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Bordehore

    Full Text Available Frequently, population ecology of marine organisms uses a descriptive approach in which their sizes and densities are plotted over time. This approach has limited usefulness for design strategies in management or modelling different scenarios. Population projection matrix models are among the most widely used tools in ecology. Unfortunately, for the majority of pelagic marine organisms, it is difficult to mark individuals and follow them over time to determine their vital rates and built a population projection matrix model. Nevertheless, it is possible to get time-series data to calculate size structure and densities of each size, in order to determine the matrix parameters. This approach is known as a "demographic inverse problem" and it is based on quadratic programming methods, but it has rarely been used on aquatic organisms. We used unpublished field data of a population of cubomedusae Carybdea marsupialis to construct a population projection matrix model and compare two different management strategies to lower population to values before year 2008 when there was no significant interaction with bathers. Those strategies were by direct removal of medusae and by reducing prey. Our results showed that removal of jellyfish from all size classes was more effective than removing only juveniles or adults. When reducing prey, the highest efficiency to lower the C. marsupialis population occurred when prey depletion affected prey of all medusae sizes. Our model fit well with the field data and may serve to design an efficient management strategy or build hypothetical scenarios such as removal of individuals or reducing prey. TThis This sdfsdshis method is applicable to other marine or terrestrial species, for which density and population structure over time are available.

  18. Use of an Inverse Method for Time Series to Estimate the Dynamics of and Management Strategies for the Box Jellyfish Carybdea marsupialis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordehore, Cesar; Fuentes, Verónica L.; Segarra, Jose G.; Acevedo, Melisa; Canepa, Antonio; Raventós, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Frequently, population ecology of marine organisms uses a descriptive approach in which their sizes and densities are plotted over time. This approach has limited usefulness for design strategies in management or modelling different scenarios. Population projection matrix models are among the most widely used tools in ecology. Unfortunately, for the majority of pelagic marine organisms, it is difficult to mark individuals and follow them over time to determine their vital rates and built a population projection matrix model. Nevertheless, it is possible to get time-series data to calculate size structure and densities of each size, in order to determine the matrix parameters. This approach is known as a “demographic inverse problem” and it is based on quadratic programming methods, but it has rarely been used on aquatic organisms. We used unpublished field data of a population of cubomedusae Carybdea marsupialis to construct a population projection matrix model and compare two different management strategies to lower population to values before year 2008 when there was no significant interaction with bathers. Those strategies were by direct removal of medusae and by reducing prey. Our results showed that removal of jellyfish from all size classes was more effective than removing only juveniles or adults. When reducing prey, the highest efficiency to lower the C. marsupialis population occurred when prey depletion affected prey of all medusae sizes. Our model fit well with the field data and may serve to design an efficient management strategy or build hypothetical scenarios such as removal of individuals or reducing prey. TThis This sdfsdshis method is applicable to other marine or terrestrial species, for which density and population structure over time are available. PMID:26376483

  19. Jellyfish Stings, First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Jellyfish Stings, First Aid A A A The rash caused by a ... to Portuguese man-of-war stings as well. First Aid Guide The rescuer should take care to avoid ...

  20. Jellyfish: Networking Data Centers Randomly

    CERN Document Server

    Singla, Ankit; Popa, Lucian; Godfrey, P Brighten

    2011-01-01

    Industry experience indicates that the ability to incrementally expand data centers is essential. However, existing high-bandwidth network designs have rigid structure that interferes with incremental expansion. We present Jellyfish, a high-capacity network interconnect, which, by adopting a random graph topology, yields itself naturally to incremental expansion. Somewhat surprisingly, Jellyfish is more cost-efficient than a fat-tree: A Jellyfish interconnect built using the same equipment as a fat-tree, supports as many as 25% more servers at full capacity at the scale of a few thousand nodes, and this advantage improves with scale. Jellyfish also allows great flexibility in building networks with different degrees of oversubscription. However, Jellyfish's unstructured design brings new challenges in routing, physical layout, and wiring. We describe and evaluate approaches that resolve these challenges effectively, indicating that Jellyfish could be deployed in today's data centers.

  1. Jellyfish movement data - Determining Movement Patterns of Jellyfish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is to determine horizontal and vertical movement patterns of two jellyfish species in Hood Canal, in relation to environmental variables. It is being...

  2. Jellyfish-associated bacterial communities and bacterioplankton in Indonesian Marine lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Daniel F R; Becking, Leontine E; Polónia, Ana R M; Freitas, Rossana M; Gomes, Newton C M

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, we compared communities of bacteria in two jellyfish species (the 'golden' jellyfishMastigiascf.papuaand the box jellyfishTripedaliacf.cystophora) and water in three marine lakes located in the Berau region of northeastern Borneo, Indonesia. Jellyfish-associated bacterial communities were compositionally distinct and less diverse than bacterioplankton communities. Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Synechococcophycidae and Flavobacteriia were the most abundant classes in water. Jellyfish-associated bacterial communities were dominated by OTUs assigned to the Gammaproteobacteria (family Endozoicimonaceae), Mollicutes, Spirochaetes and Alphaproteobacteria (orders Kiloniellales and Rhodobacterales). Mollicutes were mainly restricted toMastigiaswhereas Spirochaetes and the order Kiloniellales were most abundant inTripedaliahosts. The most abundant OTU overall in jellyfish hosts was assigned to the family Endozoicimonaceae and was highly similar to organisms in Genbank obtained from various hosts including an octocoral, bivalve and fish species. Other abundant OTUs included an OTU assigned to the order Entomoplasmatales and mainly found inMastigiashosts and OTUs assigned to the Spirochaetes and order Kiloniellales and mainly found inTripedaliahosts. The low sequence similarity of the Entomoplasmatales OTU to sequences in Genbank suggests that it may be a novel lineage inhabitingMastigiasand possibly restricted to marine lakes. PMID:27004797

  3. Jellyfish galaxies at low redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Poggianti, B M; Omizzolo, A; Gullieuszik, M; Bettoni, D; Moretti, A; Paccagnella, A; Jaffe', Y L; Vulcani, B; Fritz, J; Couch, W; D'Onofrio, M

    2015-01-01

    Jellyfish galaxies are galaxies that exhibit tentacles of debris material suggestive of gas stripping. We have conducted the first systematic search for jellyfish galaxies at low-z (z=0.04-0.07) in different environments. We have visually inspected B and V-band images and identified 241+153 candidates in 41+31 galaxy clusters of the OMEGAWINGS+WINGS sample and 99 candidates in groups and lower mass structures in the PM2GC sample. This large sample is well suited for follow-up studies of the gas and for a detailed analysis of the environments where such episodes of gas stripping occur. We present here the atlas of jellyfish candidates, a first analysis of their environment and their basic properties, such as morphologies, star formation rates and galaxy stellar masses. Jellyfish candidates are found in all clusters and at all clustercentric radii, and their number does not correlate with the cluster velocity dispersion or X-ray luminosity. Interestingly, convincing cases of jellyfish candidates are also found ...

  4. Social behaviour in mesopelagic jellyfish

    KAUST Repository

    Kaartvedt, Stein

    2015-06-11

    Gelatinous organisms apparently play a central role in deep pelagic ecosystems, but lack of observational methodologies has restricted information on their behaviour. We made acoustic records of diel migrating jellyfish Periphylla periphylla forming small, ephemeral groups at the upper fringe of an acoustic scattering layer consisting of krill. Groups of P. periphylla were also documented photographically using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV). Although the adaptive value of group formation remains speculative, we clearly demonstrate the ability of these jellyfishes to locate and team up with each other.

  5. Social behaviour in mesopelagic jellyfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaartvedt, Stein; Ugland, Karl I.; Klevjer, Thor A.; Røstad, Anders; Titelman, Josefin; Solberg, Ingrid

    2015-06-01

    Gelatinous organisms apparently play a central role in deep pelagic ecosystems, but lack of observational methodologies has restricted information on their behaviour. We made acoustic records of diel migrating jellyfish Periphylla periphylla forming small, ephemeral groups at the upper fringe of an acoustic scattering layer consisting of krill. Groups of P. periphylla were also documented photographically using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV). Although the adaptive value of group formation remains speculative, we clearly demonstrate the ability of these jellyfishes to locate and team up with each other.

  6. Jellyfish inspired underwater unmanned vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Alex; Bresser, Scott; Chung, Sanghun; Tadesse, Yonas; Priya, Shashank

    2009-03-01

    An unmanned underwater vehicle (UUV) was designed inspired by the form and functionality of a Jellyfish. These natural organisms were chosen as bio-inspiration for a multitude of reasons including: efficiency of locomotion, lack of natural predators, proper form and shape to incorporate payload, and varying range of sizes. The structure consists of a hub body surrounded by bell segments and microcontroller based drive system. The locomotion of UUV was achieved by shape memory alloy "Biometal Fiber" actuation which possesses large strain and blocking force with adequate response time. The main criterion in design of UUV was the use of low-profile shape memory alloy actuators which act as artificial muscles. In this manuscript, we discuss the design of two Jellyfish prototypes and present experimental results illustrating the performance and power consumption.

  7. Social behaviour in mesopelagic jellyfish

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Gelatinous organisms apparently play a central role in deep pelagic ecosystems, but lack of observational methodologies has restricted information on their behaviour. We made acoustic records of diel migrating jellyfish Periphylla periphylla forming small, ephemeral groups at the upper fringe of an acoustic scattering layer consisting of krill. Groups of P. periphylla were also documented photographically using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV). Although the adaptive value of group formation ...

  8. Immunological and Toxinological Responses to Jellyfish Stings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibballs, James; Yanagihara, Angel A.; Turner, Helen C.; Winkel, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Just over a century ago, animal responses to injections of jellyfish extracts unveiled the phenomenon of anaphylaxis. Yet, until very recently, understanding of jellyfish sting toxicity has remained limited. Upon contact, jellyfish stinging cells discharge complex venoms, through thousands of barbed tubules, into the skin resulting in painful and, potentially, lethal envenomations. This review examines the immunological and toxinological responses to stings by prominent species of jellyfish including Physalia sp. (Portuguese Man-o-War, Blue-bottle), Cubozoan jellyfish including Chironex fleckeri, several Carybdeids including Carybdea arborifera and Alatina moseri, Linuche unguiculta (Thimble jellyfish), a jellyfish responsible for Irukandji syndrome (Carukia barnesi) and Pelagia noctiluca. Jellyfish venoms are composed of potent proteinaceous porins (cellular membrane pore-forming toxins), neurotoxic peptides, bioactive lipids and other small molecules whilst the tubules contain ancient collagens and chitins. We postulate that immunologically, both tubular structural and functional biopolymers as well as venom components can initiate innate, adaptive, as well as immediate and delayed hypersensitivity reactions that may be amenable to topical anti-inflammatory-immunomodifier therapy. The current challenge for immunotoxinologists is to deconstruct the actions of venom components to target therapeutic modalities for sting treatment. PMID:21824077

  9. Heat Beats Cold for Treating Jellyfish Stings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158584.html Heat Beats Cold for Treating Jellyfish Stings Evidence favors hot water or hot packs to ease pain ... 29, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- If you're unlucky enough to suffer a jellyfish sting, new research says that heat is better than cold for easing the pain. ...

  10. Is the Presence of Jellyfish Problematic or Beneficial?

    OpenAIRE

    Udomsak DARUMAS

    2013-01-01

    Jellyfish are a diverse group of animals. The group consists of Chordata, Ctenophora and, mainly, Cnidaria. Jellyfish are often thought to be harmful, but few can cause fatality in humans. They are important throughout the trophic levels and consume a variety of prey. Jellyfish are used for food and have a high potential for pharmaceutical use. During a jellyfish bloom, energy flows are shunted through the trophic levels. Additionally, unusual increases in populations of jellyfish can cause p...

  11. The jellyfish buffet: jellyfish enhance seabird foraging opportunities by concentrating prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Nobuhiko N; Kokubun, Nobuo; Yamamoto, Takashi; Watanuki, Yutaka; Kitaysky, Alexander S; Takahashi, Akinori

    2015-08-01

    High levels of jellyfish biomass have been reported in marine ecosystems around the world, but understanding of their ecological role remains in its infancy. Jellyfish are generally thought to have indirect negative impacts on higher trophic-level predators, through changes in lower trophic pathways. However, high densities of jellyfish in the water column may affect the foraging behaviour of marine predators more directly, and the effects may not always be negative. Here, we present novel observations of a diving seabird, the thick-billed murre, feeding on fish aggregating among the long tentacles of large jellyfish, by using small video loggers attached to the birds. We show that the birds encountered large jellyfish, Chrysaora melanaster, during most of their dives, commonly fed on fish associated with jellyfish, and appeared to specifically target jellyfish with a high number of fish aggregating in their tentacles, suggesting the use of jellyfish may provide significant energetic benefits to foraging murres. We conclude that jellyfish provide feeding opportunities for diving seabirds by concentrating forage fish, and that the impacts of jellyfish on marine ecosystems are more complex than previously anticipated and may be beneficial to seabirds. PMID:26311157

  12. Jellyfish modulate bacterial dynamic and community structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinkara Tinta

    Full Text Available Jellyfish blooms have increased in coastal areas around the world and the outbreaks have become longer and more frequent over the past few decades. The Mediterranean Sea is among the heavily affected regions and the common bloom-forming taxa are scyphozoans Aurelia aurita s.l., Pelagia noctiluca, and Rhizostoma pulmo. Jellyfish have few natural predators, therefore their carcasses at the termination of a bloom represent an organic-rich substrate that supports rapid bacterial growth, and may have a large impact on the surrounding environment. The focus of this study was to explore whether jellyfish substrate have an impact on bacterial community phylotype selection. We conducted in situ jellyfish-enrichment experiment with three different jellyfish species. Bacterial dynamic together with nutrients were monitored to assess decaying jellyfish-bacteria dynamics. Our results show that jellyfish biomass is characterized by protein rich organic matter, which is highly bioavailable to 'jellyfish-associated' and 'free-living' bacteria, and triggers rapid shifts in bacterial population dynamics and composition. Based on 16S rRNA clone libraries and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE analysis, we observed a rapid shift in community composition from unculturable Alphaproteobacteria to culturable species of Gammaproteobacteria and Flavobacteria. The results of sequence analyses of bacterial isolates and of total bacterial community determined by culture independent genetic analysis showed the dominance of the Pseudoalteromonadaceae and the Vibrionaceae families. Elevated levels of dissolved proteins, dissolved organic and inorganic nutrient release, bacterial abundance and carbon production as well as ammonium concentrations characterized the degradation process. The biochemical composition of jellyfish species may influence changes in the amount of accumulated dissolved organic and inorganic nutrients. Our results can contribute insights into

  13. Jellyfish Stings and Their Management: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Giuseppe Mastrangelo; Luca Cegolon; Heymann, William C.; Lange, John H

    2013-01-01

    Jellyfish (cnidarians) have a worldwide distribution. Despite most being harmless, some species may cause local and also systemic reactions. Treatment of jellyfish envenomation is directed at: alleviating the local effects of venom, preventing further nematocyst discharges and controlling systemic reactions, including shock. In severe cases, the most important step is stabilizing and maintaining vital functions. With some differences between species, there seems to be evidence and consensus o...

  14. Optimal hash arrangement of tentacles in jellyfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabe, Takuya; Yoshimura, Jin

    2016-06-01

    At first glance, the trailing tentacles of a jellyfish appear to be randomly arranged. However, close examination of medusae has revealed that the arrangement and developmental order of the tentacles obey a mathematical rule. Here, we show that medusa jellyfish adopt the best strategy to achieve the most uniform distribution of a variable number of tentacles. The observed order of tentacles is a real-world example of an optimal hashing algorithm known as Fibonacci hashing in computer science.

  15. Jellyfish jelly press and jelly perception

    OpenAIRE

    Vandendriessche, S.; Vansteenbrugge, L.; Derweduwen , J.; Maelfait, H.; K. Hostens

    2016-01-01

    Since the early 2000's, invasions and blooms of jellyfish have been increasingly reported in scientific literature as well as in the general media. Despite this increased coverage, the global jellification issue remains unsolved due to the scarcity of extended time series. The aim of this study was to determine to what extent the main messages about jellyfish (increase, causes, threats, solutions, etc.) in the Flemish (Belgian Dutch-language) media correspond with the knowledge and perception...

  16. Ocean acidification alters fish-jellyfish symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagelkerken, Ivan; Pitt, Kylie A; Rutte, Melchior D; Geertsma, Robbert C

    2016-06-29

    Symbiotic relationships are common in nature, and are important for individual fitness and sustaining species populations. Global change is rapidly altering environmental conditions, but, with the exception of coral-microalgae interactions, we know little of how this will affect symbiotic relationships. We here test how the effects of ocean acidification, from rising anthropogenic CO2 emissions, may alter symbiotic interactions between juvenile fish and their jellyfish hosts. Fishes treated with elevated seawater CO2 concentrations, as forecast for the end of the century on a business-as-usual greenhouse gas emission scenario, were negatively affected in their behaviour. The total time that fish (yellowtail scad) spent close to their jellyfish host in a choice arena where they could see and smell their host was approximately three times shorter under future compared with ambient CO2 conditions. Likewise, the mean number of attempts to associate with jellyfish was almost three times lower in CO2-treated compared with control fish, while only 63% (high CO2) versus 86% (control) of all individuals tested initiated an association at all. By contrast, none of three fish species tested were attracted solely to jellyfish olfactory cues under present-day CO2 conditions, suggesting that the altered fish-jellyfish association is not driven by negative effects of ocean acidification on olfaction. Because shelter is not widely available in the open water column and larvae of many (and often commercially important) pelagic species associate with jellyfish for protection against predators, modification of the fish-jellyfish symbiosis might lead to higher mortality and alter species population dynamics, and potentially have flow-on effects for their fisheries. PMID:27358374

  17. Immunohistochemical evidence for multiple photosystems in box jellyfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekström, Peter; Garm, Anders Lydik; Pålsson, Jonas;

    2008-01-01

    rhodopsin or cone opsin antibodies tested. In neither of the two species were the pigment cup eyes immunoreactive for any of the opsin antibodies. ERG analysis of the Carybdea lower lens eyes demonstrated a single spectral sensitivity maximum at 485 nm suggesting the presence of a single opsin type. Our...

  18. Is the Presence of Jellyfish Problematic or Beneficial?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udomsak DARUMAS

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Jellyfish are a diverse group of animals. The group consists of Chordata, Ctenophora and, mainly, Cnidaria. Jellyfish are often thought to be harmful, but few can cause fatality in humans. They are important throughout the trophic levels and consume a variety of prey. Jellyfish are used for food and have a high potential for pharmaceutical use. During a jellyfish bloom, energy flows are shunted through the trophic levels. Additionally, unusual increases in populations of jellyfish can cause problems for fisheries, aquaculture, power plants and the tourist industries.

  19. Feeding Currents Generated by Upside Down Jellyfish

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez, Terry; Gyoerkoe, Megan; Miller, Laura

    2010-01-01

    We present fluid dynamics videos of the pulsing dynamics and the resulting fluid flow generated by the upside down jellyfish, Cassiopea spp. Medusae of this genus are unusual in that they typically rest upside down on the ocean floor and pulse their bells to generate feeding currents, only swimming when significantly disturbed. The pulsing kinematics and fluid flow around these upside down jellyfish is investigated using a combination of videography, flow visualization, and numerical simulation. Significant mixing occurs around and directly above the oral arms and secondary mouths. Numerical simulations using the immersed boundary method with a porous layer representing the oral arms agree with the experimental results. The simulations also suggest that the presence of porous oral arms induce net horizontal flow towards the bell. Coherent vortex rings are not seen in the wake above the jellyfish, but starting and stopping vortices are observed before breaking up as they pass through the elaborate oral arms (i...

  20. Not all jellyfish are equal: isotopic evidence for inter- and intraspecific variation in jellyfish trophic ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Fleming, Nicholas E.C.; Harrod, Chris; Newton, Jason; Houghton, Jonathan D.R.

    2015-01-01

    Jellyfish are highly topical within studies of pelagic food-webs and there is a growing realisation that their role is more complex than once thought. Efforts being made to include jellyfish within fisheries and ecosystem models are an important step forward, but our present understanding of their underlying trophic ecology can lead to their oversimplification in these models. Gelatinous zooplankton represent a polyphyletic assemblage spanning >2,000 species that inhabit coastal seas to th...

  1. [Causes of jellyfish blooms and their influence on marine environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Chang-feng; Song, Jin-ming; Li, Ning

    2014-12-01

    Jellyfish blooms have damaged the normal composition and function of marine ecosystem and ecological environments, which have been one of the new marine ecological disasters. In this study, we summarized the possible inducements of jellyfish blooms, and the influences of jellyfish blooms on biogenic elements, dissolved oxygen, seawater acidity and biological community were discussed emphatically. The results showed that jellyfish blooms had a close contact with its physiological structure and life history, which had favorable characteristics including simple body struc- ture, rapid growth, thriving reproduction and short generation interval to tolerate harsh environment better. Jellyfish abundance increased rapidly when it encountered suitable conditions. The temperature variations of seawater might be the major inducing factor which could result in jellyfish blooms. Jellyfish blooms may benefit from warmer temperature that could increase the food availability of jellyfish and promote jellyfish reproduction, especially for warm temperate jellyfish species. Eutrophication, climate change, overfishing, alien invasions and habitat modification were all possible important contributory factors of jellyfish blooms. Jellyfish could significantly influence the form distribution and biogeochemical cycling of biogenic elements. Jellyfish excreted NH4+ and P04(3-) at a rate of 59.1-91.5 micromol N x kg(-1) x h(-1) and 1.1-1.8 micromol P x kg(-1) x h(-1), which could meet about 8%-10% and 21.6% of the phytoplankton primary production requirement of N and P, respectively. Live jellyfish released dissolved organic carbon (DOC) at a rate of 1.0 micromol C x g(-1) x d(-1). As jellyfish decomposing, the effluxes of total N and total P were 4000 micromol N x kg(-1) x d(-1) and 120 micromol P x kg(-1) x d(-1), respectively, while the efflux of DOC reached 30 micromol C x g(-1) x d(-1). Jellyfish decomposition could cause seawater acidification and lowered level of dissolved oxygen

  2. Study on the carry capacity of edible jellyfish fishery in Liaodong Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Kui; Bian, Yongning; Ma, Caihua; Chi, Xupeng; Liu, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Yuyu

    2016-06-01

    Jellyfish fishing is a special type of fishery that mainly exists in some countries of East and Southeast Asia. China has the largest jellyfish fishery yield in the world with an annual harvest of around 300 thousand tons. Liaodong Bay is the most important jellyfish fishery ground in China. However, due to the high benefits of jellyfish fishery, which leads to illegal and out-of-season jellyfish fishing occurring each year in Liaodong Bay. Illegal jellyfish fishery in Liaodong Bay is a typical example of the tragedy of the commons. The key problem is that fishermen seek to an illegally initiate jellyfish fishing as early as possible. In this paper, basing on the data of edible jellyfish's biology and ecology, we mainly analyzed the history of jellyfish fishery in China, especially in Liaodong bay, and then we calculated the carry capacity of edible jellyfish in Liaodong Bay which is about 300 thousand tons one year. This number is equal to the recent annual yield of edible jellyfish in China. Furthermore, basing on the carry capacity and reasonable quotas price analysis, we set up a Jellyfish fishing quotas and deficit quotas buyback system which could be a suitable and effective solution for jellyfish fishery management and development in Liaodong Bay at the underlying roots. Although China is the first country with edible jellyfish aquaculture, the annual yield of jellyfish aquaculture is only one fifth of jellyfish fishing. So, there is a very bright developing prospect about edible jellyfish aquaculture in China.

  3. Not all jellyfish are equal: isotopic evidence for inter- and intraspecific variation in jellyfish trophic ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Nicholas E C; Harrod, Chris; Newton, Jason; Houghton, Jonathan D R

    2015-01-01

    Jellyfish are highly topical within studies of pelagic food-webs and there is a growing realisation that their role is more complex than once thought. Efforts being made to include jellyfish within fisheries and ecosystem models are an important step forward, but our present understanding of their underlying trophic ecology can lead to their oversimplification in these models. Gelatinous zooplankton represent a polyphyletic assemblage spanning >2,000 species that inhabit coastal seas to the deep-ocean and employ a wide variety of foraging strategies. Despite this diversity, many contemporary modelling approaches include jellyfish as a single functional group feeding at one or two trophic levels at most. Recent reviews have drawn attention to this issue and highlighted the need for improved communication between biologists and theoreticians if this problem is to be overcome. We used stable isotopes to investigate the trophic ecology of three co-occurring scyphozoan jellyfish species (Aurelia aurita, Cyanea lamarckii and C. capillata) within a temperate, coastal food-web in the NE Atlantic. Using information on individual size, time of year and δ (13)C and δ (15)N stable isotope values, we examined: (1) whether all jellyfish could be considered as a single functional group, or showed distinct inter-specific differences in trophic ecology; (2) Were size-based shifts in trophic position, found previously in A. aurita, a common trait across species?; (3) When considered collectively, did the trophic position of three sympatric species remain constant over time? Differences in δ (15)N (trophic position) were evident between all three species, with size-based and temporal shifts in δ (15)N apparent in A. aurita and C. capillata. The isotopic niche width for all species combined increased throughout the season, reflecting temporal shifts in trophic position and seasonal succession in these gelatinous species. Taken together, these findings support previous assertions

  4. Jellyfish Stings and Their Management: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Mastrangelo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Jellyfish (cnidarians have a worldwide distribution. Despite most being harmless, some species may cause local and also systemic reactions. Treatment of jellyfish envenomation is directed at: alleviating the local effects of venom, preventing further nematocyst discharges and controlling systemic reactions, including shock. In severe cases, the most important step is stabilizing and maintaining vital functions. With some differences between species, there seems to be evidence and consensus on oral/topical analgesics, hot water and ice packs as effective painkillers and on 30 s application of domestic vinegar (4%–6% acetic acid to prevent further discharge of unfired nematocysts remaining on the skin. Conversely, alcohol, methylated spirits and fresh water should be carefully avoided, since they could massively discharge nematocysts; pressure immobilization bandaging should also be avoided, as laboratory studies show that it stimulates additional venom discharge from nematocysts. Most treatment approaches are presently founded on relatively weak evidence; therefore, further research (especially randomized clinical trials is strongly recommended. Dissemination of appropriate treatment modalities should be deployed to better inform and educate those at risk. Adequate signage should be placed at beaches to notify tourists of the jellyfish risk. Swimmers in risky areas should wear protective equipment.

  5. Jellyfish Patch Detecting Using Low Latitude Remote Sensing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. S.; Jo, Y. H.

    2015-12-01

    Jellyfish can be asexual and sexual reproduction depending on the environment, and it has excellent environmental adaptability and reproduction than other sea creatures. If the marine environment become worse, jellyfish can take advantage in the competition for survival. Marine environmental changes caused by rapid climate change, dyke construction and land reclamation will increase the amount of jellyfish and as a result can lead to a various social and economic problems. In this study, jellyfish were observed in coastal area using a low-altitude Helikite remote sensing system for the first time. Helikite is a type of helium balloon plus a kite that can get the data with optical sensors for the desired spatial resolutions by adjusting the altitudes. In addition, it has an advantage that can monitor any objects for a long time at one place as long as the electric power and helium last. In this study, we observed the jellyfish patches using a digital camera in the Chesapeake Bay and estimate populations and size of jellyfish patches through image processing. Research results suggests that we can have long-term real-time observations for not only jellyfish, but also other harmful marine creatures.

  6. Feeding rates of the jellyfish Aurelia aurita on fish larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Titelman, J.; Hansson, L.J.

    2006-01-01

    prey captured by A. aurita during 2.5 h of feeding at extremely high prey concentration (> 200 prey l(-1)). Clearance rate in darkness scaled with jellyfish diameter to a power of similar to 1.7 for jellyfish 3.9-9.5 cm in diameter. The jellyfish did not alter their umbrella pulse frequency in response...... to presence of fish larvae. There were no significant differences between A. aurita feeding rates in light and darkness for yolk sac prey ages 0-7 days (at 7.5 degrees C). Although prey vision and escape abilities of fish may develop rapidly during early larval ontogeny, these factors apparently have...

  7. Passive mechanics in jellyfish-like locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Megan; Eldredge, Jeff

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this work is to identify possible benefits of passive flexibility in biologically-inspired locomotion. Substantial energy savings are likely achieved in natural locomotion by allowing a mix of actively controlled and passively responsive deformation. The jellyfish is a useful target of study, due to its relatively simple structure and the availability of recent kinematics and flow-field measurements. In this investigation, the jellyfish consists of a two-dimensional articulated system of rigid bodies linked by hinges. The kinematics -- expressed via the hinge angles -- are adapted from experimentally measured motion. The free swimming system is explored via high-fidelity numerical simulation with a viscous vortex particle method with coupled body dynamics. The computational tool allows the arbitrary designation of individual hinges as ``active'' or ``passive,'' to introduce a mix of flexibility into the system. In some cases, replacing an active hinge with a passive spring can enhance the mean swimming speed, thus reducing the power requirements of the system. Varying the stiffness and damping coefficients of the spring yield different locomotive results. The numerical solution is used to compute the finite-time Lyapunov exponents (FTLE) throughout the field. The FTLE fields reveal manifolds in the flow that act as transport barriers, uncovering otherwise unseen geometric characteristics of the flow field that add new insight into the locomotion mechanics.

  8. A fluid mechanical model for current-generating-feeding jellyfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jifeng; Dabiri, John

    2008-11-01

    Many jellyfish species, e.g. moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita, use body motion to generate fluid currents which carry their prey to the vicinity of their capture appendages. In this study, a model was developed to understand the fluid mechanics for this current-generating-feeding mode of jellyfish. The flow generated by free-swimming Aurelia aurita was measured using digital particle image velocimetry. The dynamics of prey (e.g., brine shrimp Artemia) in the flow field were described by a modified Maxey-Riley equation which takes into consideration the inertia of prey and the escape forces, which prey exert in the presence of predator. A Lagrangian analysis was used to identify the region of the flow in which prey can be captured by the jellyfish and the clearance rate was quantified. The study provides a new methodology to study biological current-generating-feeding and the transport and mixing of particles in fluid flow in general.

  9. Jellyfish blooms in China: Dominant species, causes and consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three jellyfish species, Aurelia aurita, Cyanea nozakii and Nemopilema nomurai, form large blooms in Chinese seas. We report on the distribution and increasing incidence of jellyfish blooms and their consequences in Chinese coastal seas and analyze their relationship to anthropogenically derived changes to the environment in order to determine the possible causes. A. aurita, C. nozakii and N. nomurai form blooms in the temperate Chinese seas including the northern East China Sea, Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea. N. nomurai forms offshore blooms while the other two species bloom mainly in inshore areas. Eutrophication, overfishing, habitat modification for aquaculture and climate change are all possible contributory factors facilitating plausible mechanisms for the proliferation of jellyfish blooms. In the absence of improvement in coastal marine ecosystem health, jellyfish blooms could be sustained and may even spread from the locations in which they now occur.

  10. Ecological and acoustic investigations of jellyfish (Scyphozoa and Hydrozoa)

    OpenAIRE

    Lynam, Christopher Philip

    2006-01-01

    As the biomass of jellyfish (medusae of the Scyphozoa and Hydrozoa) has risen in numerous locations worldwide, awareness of their potential to exert a controlling influence on marine ecosystems and hinder the recruitment of fish stocks has increased. Medusae are capable of intensive, size–selective, predation on zooplankton, which may alter the composition of the plankton community. Jellyfish are often found in dense layers, up to hundreds of metres thick, which can extend horizontally for hu...

  11. On the resonance analysis for compliant bionic jellyfishes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HSIEH; Wen-Hsiang; CHEN; Tsung-I

    2010-01-01

    A bionic jellyfish is a robot that can mimic the swimming of a real jellyfish. In practical application, the volume and the capacity of its carrying power are limited, hence its power consumption is a crucial factor for continuous swimming. The purpose of this paper is to propose an approach for the resonance analysis of bionic jellyfishes in order to investigate their energy efficiency in swimming. First, a suitable rigid-body bionic jellyfish was chosen from the previous study, and then its design approach was presented, Then, it was transformed into a compliant design, by the proposed method, in order to mimic the motion of a real jellyfish. Furthermore, its solid model was drawn, and the approach of modal analysis by using ANSYS software was addressed. After that, two terms, specific energy and energy ratio, were defined in order to evaluate its energy efficiency. Finally, a design example was given for illustration, and its motion simulations with and without resonance input were conducted by using ADAMS software. Additionally, their specific energies and energy ratios were found. The simulation results showed that the required input energy would be significantly reduced if a bionic jellyfish swims at its resonance frequency.

  12. Ocular Jellyfish Stings: Report of 2 Cases and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Chen; Hsu, Chien-Chin; Chen, Kuo-Tai

    2016-09-01

    An ocular jellyfish sting is an ophthalmic emergency and is rarely reported in the medical literature. With the evolution of aquatic activities and entertainment in recent decades, we anticipate that more patients with ocular jellyfish stings may be taken to the emergency department. However, most physicians are unaware of the typical presentations, suitable treatments, prognosis, and possible complications of ocular jellyfish stings. We reported 2 cases with ocular jellyfish stings and collected cases series from literature review. The most common clinical features of ocular jellyfish stings were pain, conjunctival injection, corneal lesion, and photophobia. All patients who sustained ocular stings did so during aquatic activities, and the best management at the scene was proper analgesics and copious irrigation of affected eyes with seawater or saline. The ocular lesions were treated with topical cycloplegics, topical steroids, topical antibiotics, topical antihistamines, and removal of nematocysts. The prognosis was good, and all patients recovered without any permanent sequelae. However, symptoms in some patients may last longer than 1 week. Reported complications included iritis, increased intraocular pressures, mydriasis, decreased accommodation, and peripheral anterior synechiae. PMID:27436284

  13. MICROBIOLOGICAL SURVEY ON JELLYFISH FOOD PRODUCTS: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    OpenAIRE

    L. Castigliego; L. Vallone; A. Armani; M.A. Marzano; Li, X. N.; F Fanzone; Fusco, S.; E. Facibeni; I. Dragoni; D. Gianfaldoni; A Guidi

    2009-01-01

    A microbiological survey was performed on ten brined jellyfish products, sampled in Italy from Chinese food markets. In general, the microbiological conditions were good and respected the standards contemplated in the regulations CE 2073/2005 e 1441/2007. The presence of inhibiting substances and the absence of aerobic mesophilic bacteria in two samples suggest a treatment to preserve the product.

  14. Current-driven Flow across a Stationary Jellyfish

    CERN Document Server

    Hamlet, Christina; Fan, Roger; Dollinger, Makani; Harenber, Steve

    2011-01-01

    We present several dye visualization and numerical simulation fluid dynamics videos of a sessile jellyfish subjected to channel flow. The low resolution video and the high resolution video display the vortex patterns in different channel flows. This description accompanies the video submission V038 to the 2011 APS DFD Gallery of Fluid Motion.

  15. J3-crystallin of the jellyfish lens: similarity to saposins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Piatigorsky, J.; Norman, B.; Dishaw, L. J.; Kos, L.; Horwitz, J.; Steinbach, P. J.; Kozmik, Zbyněk

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 98, č. 22 (2001), s. 12362-12367. ISSN 0027-8424 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A079 Keywords : crystallin * jellyfish * lens Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 10.890, year: 2001

  16. Jellyfish Bioactive Compounds: Methods for Wet-Lab Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazão, Bárbara; Antunes, Agostinho

    2016-04-01

    The study of bioactive compounds from marine animals has provided, over time, an endless source of interesting molecules. Jellyfish are commonly targets of study due to their toxic proteins. However, there is a gap in reviewing successful wet-lab methods employed in these animals, which compromises the fast progress in the detection of related biomolecules. Here, we provide a compilation of the most effective wet-lab methodologies for jellyfish venom extraction prior to proteomic analysis-separation, identification and toxicity assays. This includes SDS-PAGE, 2DE, gel chromatography, HPLC, DEAE, LC-MS, MALDI, Western blot, hemolytic assay, antimicrobial assay and protease activity assay. For a more comprehensive approach, jellyfish toxicity studies should further consider transcriptome sequencing. We reviewed such methodologies and other genomic techniques used prior to the deep sequencing of transcripts, including RNA extraction, construction of cDNA libraries and RACE. Overall, we provide an overview of the most promising methods and their successful implementation for optimizing time and effort when studying jellyfish. PMID:27077869

  17. Einstein's Boxes

    CERN Document Server

    Norsen, T

    2005-01-01

    At the 1927 Solvay conference, Einstein presented a thought experiment intended to demonstrate the incompleteness of the quantum mechanical description of reality. In the following years, the thought experiment was picked up and modified by Einstein, de Broglie, and several other commentators into a simple scenario involving the splitting in half of the wave function of a single particle in a box. In this paper we collect together several formulations of this thought experiment from the existing literature; analyze and assess it from the point of view of the Einstein-Bohr debates, the EPR dilemma, and Bell's theorem; and generally lobby for Einstein's Boxes taking its rightful place alongside similar but historically better-known quantum mechanical thought experiments such as EPR and Schroedinger's Cat.

  18. Einstein's Boxes

    OpenAIRE

    Norsen, Travis

    2004-01-01

    At the 1927 Solvay conference, Einstein presented a thought experiment intended to demonstrate the incompleteness of the quantum mechanical description of reality. In the following years, the thought experiment was picked up and modified by Einstein, de Broglie, and several other commentators into a simple scenario involving the splitting in half of the wave function of a single particle in a box. In this paper we collect together several formulations of this thought experiment from the exist...

  19. Jellyfish, jellypress and jellyperception: Final report - Belgian case study

    OpenAIRE

    Vandendriessche, S.; Vansteenbrugge, L.; K. Hostens; Maelfait, H.

    2013-01-01

    During the last decades, the number of reports on invasions and blooms of jellyfish has increased, both in scientific literature as in the general media. There is however no clarity about a global rise of gelatinous zooplankton due to the lack of extended time series, and due to the fact that public perception is potentially driven by the media. However, public perception is a key driver in policy decisions, including coastal zone governance and research funding. Consequently, it is useful to...

  20. MICROBIOLOGICAL SURVEY ON JELLYFISH FOOD PRODUCTS: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Castigliego

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A microbiological survey was performed on ten brined jellyfish products, sampled in Italy from Chinese food markets. In general, the microbiological conditions were good and respected the standards contemplated in the regulations CE 2073/2005 e 1441/2007. The presence of inhibiting substances and the absence of aerobic mesophilic bacteria in two samples suggest a treatment to preserve the product.

  1. From fish to jellyfish in the eutrophicated Limfjorden (Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, Hans Ulrik; Andersen, Per; Hoffmann, Erik

    2012-01-01

    The heavily eutrophicated Limfjorden (Denmark) provides a good illustration of the value of long-term monitoring, especially if this is combined with an experimental, interdisciplinary research approach. Here, we first give a short overview of the environmental status of Limfjorden, including the...... a substantial part of the zooplankton biomass. Marine environmental management programmes should be aware of the increasing importance of both indigenous and new invasive jellyfish species that may show mass occurrence in especially eutrophicated and overfished areas...

  2. Jellyfish monitoring on coastlines using remote piloted aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last 10 years the number of jellyfish shoals that reach the swimming area of the Mediterranean Sea are increasing constantly. The term ''Jellyfish'' refers to animals from different taxonomic groups but the Scyphomedusae are within the most significant one. Four species of Scyphomedusae are the most conspicuous ones inhabiting the studied area, the Barcelona metropolitan area. Jellyfish are usually found at the surface waters, forming big swarms. This feature makes possible to detect them remotely, using a visual camera and image processing algorithms. In this paper we present the characteristics of a remote piloted aircraft capable to perform monitoring flights during the whole summer season. The requirements of the aircraft are to be easy to operate, to be able to flight at low altitude (100 m) following the buoy line (200 m from the beach line) and to be save for other users of the seaside. The remote piloted aircraft will carry a vision system and a processing board able to obtain useful information on real-time

  3. The Bright Side of Gelatinous Blooms: Nutraceutical Value and Antioxidant Properties of Three Mediterranean Jellyfish (Scyphozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Leone

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Jellyfish are recorded with increasing frequency and magnitude in many coastal areas and several species display biological features comparable to the most popular Asiatic edible jellyfish. The biochemical and antioxidant properties of wild gelatinous biomasses, in terms of nutritional and nutraceutical values, are still largely unexplored. In this paper, three of the most abundant and commonly recorded jellyfish species (Aurelia sp.1, Cotylorhiza tuberculata and Rhizostoma pulmo in the Mediterranean Sea were subject to investigation. A sequential enzymatic hydrolysis of jellyfish proteins was set up by pepsin and collagenase treatments of jellyfish samples after aqueous or hydroalcoholic protein extraction. The content and composition of proteins, amino acids, phenolics, and fatty acids of the three species were recorded and compared. Protein content (mainly represented by collagen up to 40% of jellyfish dry weight were found in two of the three jellyfish species (C. tuberculata and R. pulmo, whereas the presence of ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs was significantly higher in the zooxanthellate jellyfish C. tuberculata only. Remarkable antioxidant ability was also recorded from both proteinaceous and non proteinaceous extracts and the hydrolyzed protein fractions in all the three species. The abundance of collagen, peptides and other bioactive molecules make these Mediterranean gelatinous biomasses a largely untapped source of natural compounds of nutraceutical, cosmeceutical and pharmacological interest.

  4. 3D simulations of self-propelled, reconstructed jellyfish using vortex methods

    CERN Document Server

    Rasmussen, J T; Storti, F; Koumoutsakos, P; Walther, J H

    2009-01-01

    We present simulations of the vortex dynamics associated with the self-propelled motion of jellyfish. The geometry is obtained from image segmentation of video recordings from live jellyfish. The numerical simulations are performed using three-dimensional viscous, vortex particle methods with Brinkman penalization to impose the kinematics of the jellyfish motion. We study two types of strokes recorded in the experiment1. The first type (stroke A) produces two vortex rings during the stroke: one outside the bell during the power stroke and one inside the bell during the recovery stroke. The second type (stroke B) produces three vortex rings: one ring during the power stroke and two vortex rings during the recovery stroke. Both strokes propel the jellyfish, with stroke B producing the highest velocity. The speed of the jellyfish scales with the square root of the Reynolds number. The simulations are visualized in a fluid dynamics video.

  5. A biomimetic jellyfish robot based on ionic polymer metal composite actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A biomimetic jellyfish robot based on ionic polymer metal composite actuators was fabricated and activated to mimic real locomotive behavior with pulse and recovery processes. To imitate the curved shape of the jellyfish, a thermal treatment was applied to obtain a permanent initial deformation of a hemispherical form. The bio-inspired input signal was generated for mimicking real locomotion of the jellyfish. The vertical floating displacement and the thrust force of the biomimetic jellyfish robot under various input signals were measured and compared. The present results show that the bio-inspired electrical input signal with pulse-recovery process generates much higher floating velocity of the biomimetic jellyfish robot in comparison with pure sinusoidal excitations. The curved shape of the IPMC actuator through thermal treatments can be successfully applied to mimic the real biomimetic robots with smooth curves

  6. Hunting in Bioluminescent Light: Vision in the Nocturnal Box Jellyfish Copula sivickisi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garm, Anders; Bielecki, Jan; Petie, Ronald; Nilsson, Dan-Eric

    2016-01-01

    Cubomedusae all have a similar set of six eyes on each of their four rhopalia. Still, there is a great variation in activity patterns with some species being strictly day active while others are strictly night active. Here we have examined the visual ecology of the medusa of the night active Copula sivickisi from Okinawa using optics, morphology, electrophysiology, and behavioral experiments. We found the lenses of both the upper and the lower lens eyes to be image forming but under-focused, resulting in low spatial resolution in the order of 10–15°. The photoreceptor physiology is similar in the two lens eyes and they have a single opsin peaking around 460 nm and low temporal resolution with a flicker fusion frequency (fff) of 2.5 Hz indicating adaptions to vision in low light intensities. Further, the outer segments have fluid filled swellings, which may concentrate the light in the photoreceptor membrane by total internal reflections, and thus enhance the signal to noise ratio in the eyes. Finally our behavioral experiments confirmed that the animals use vision when hunting. When they are active at night they seek out high prey-concentration by visual attraction to areas with abundant bioluminescent flashes triggered by their prey. PMID:27065877

  7. Impact of stinging jellyfish proliferations along south Italian coasts: human health hazards, treatment and social costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Donno, Antonella; Idolo, Adele; Bagordo, Francesco; Grassi, Tiziana; Leomanni, Alessandro; Serio, Francesca; Guido, Marcello; Canitano, Mariarita; Zampardi, Serena; Boero, Ferdinando; Piraino, Stefano

    2014-03-01

    Stinging jellyfish outbreaks represent a health hazard, causing contact dermatitis and systemic reactions. This study investigated the epidemiology, severity, and treatment protocols of jellyfish stings in a coastal area with high tourist development and frequent stinging jellyfish outbreaks of the central Mediterranean (Salento, Southern Italy), and the associated costs for the Italian National Health Service. In 2007-2011, 1,733 bathers (mostly children and females) sought medical assistance following jellyfish stings, the main cause of human pathologies due to contact with marine organisms. The majority of events were reported in the years 2007-2009, whereas the occurrence of cnidarian jellyfish outbreaks has been increasingly reported in the same area since summer 2010. Most symptoms were limited to local and cutaneous reactions; conversely, 8.7% of cases evoked complications, mainly due to allergic reactions. The main drugs used were corticosteroids, locally applied and systemic (46% and 43%, respectively), and with ammonia (74%) as the main non-pharmacological treatment. The estimated cost of jellyfish-related first-aid services along the Salento coastline over the 5-year period was approximately 400,000 Euros. Therefore the management of jellyfish outbreak phenomena need coordinated research efforts towards a better understanding of underlying ecological mechanisms, together with the adoption of effective prevention policy, mitigation strategies, and appropriate planning of health services at tourist hot spots. PMID:24583831

  8. Impact of Stinging Jellyfish Proliferations along South Italian Coasts: Human Health Hazards, Treatment and Social Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella De Donno

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Stinging jellyfish outbreaks represent a health hazard, causing contact dermatitis and systemic reactions. This study investigated the epidemiology, severity, and treatment protocols of jellyfish stings in a coastal area with high tourist development and frequent stinging jellyfish outbreaks of the central Mediterranean (Salento, Southern Italy, and the associated costs for the Italian National Health Service. In 2007–2011, 1,733 bathers (mostly children and females sought medical assistance following jellyfish stings, the main cause of human pathologies due to contact with marine organisms. The majority of events were reported in the years 2007–2009, whereas the occurrence of cnidarian jellyfish outbreaks has been increasingly reported in the same area since summer 2010. Most symptoms were limited to local and cutaneous reactions; conversely, 8.7% of cases evoked complications, mainly due to allergic reactions. The main drugs used were corticosteroids, locally applied and systemic (46% and 43%, respectively, and with ammonia (74% as the main non-pharmacological treatment. The estimated cost of jellyfish-related first-aid services along the Salento coastline over the 5-year period was approximately 400,000 Euros. Therefore the management of jellyfish outbreak phenomena need coordinated research efforts towards a better understanding of underlying ecological mechanisms, together with the adoption of effective prevention policy, mitigation strategies, and appropriate planning of health services at tourist hot spots.

  9. [Olindias sambaquiensis jellyfish sting. Analysis of 49 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosovich, Juan H; Young, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    Olindias sambaquiensis jellyfish sting occurs frequently in Buenos Aires province coast beaches. Among five hundred and one thousand stings by jellyfish are reported each season at Monte Hermoso, a beach village in the South of Buenos Aires province. The skin damage provoked because of its highly irritant effect poses a serious issue related to tourism development. A total number of 49 cases that were examined during the first hour after the sting were enrolled in Monte Hermoso during January 1998. Twenty eight were males (57.1%). The average age was 16 ± 4.1 (range 5-80). Of them, 54% showed linear erythema-edematous lesions, 28% showed predominantly erythematous lesions, and in 18% the injuries were erythema-edematous plaques. In 73% of the cases the lesions were located in lower limbs. We had hereby redefined cutaneous lesions produced by O. sambaquiensis, its evolution, its dimensions and most frequent localizations. Besides, it has been typified and quantified the pain it provokes and other signs and symptoms that go with the sting during the posterior hour, during the first 24 hours, and after 30 days. We described the therapeutic conducts used in our coasts and we assessed the effectiveness of some of them in pain control, and finally we propose a therapeutic scheme for this sting. PMID:23089113

  10. Jellyfish as vectors of bacterial disease for farmed salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Hugh W; Delannoy, Christian M J; Hay, Stephen; Nicolson, James; Sutherland, David; Crumlish, Margaret

    2010-05-01

    Swarms or blooms of jellyfish are increasingly problematic and can result in high mortality rates of farmed fish. Small species of jellyfish, such as Phialella quadrata (13 mm in diameter), are capable of passing through the mesh of sea cages and being sucked into the mouth of fish during respiration. Results of the current study show that the initial damage to gills of farmed Atlantic salmon, likely produced by nematocyst-derived toxins from the jellyfish, was compounded by secondary bacterial infection with Tenacibaculum maritimum. Results also demonstrate that these filamentous bacteria were present on the mouth of the jellyfish and that their DNA sequences were almost identical to those of bacteria present on the salmon gills. This suggests that the bacterial lesions were not the result of an opportunistic infection of damaged tissue, as previously thought. Instead, P. quadrata is probably acting as a vector for this particular bacterial pathogen, and it is the first time that evidence to support such a link has been presented. No prior literature describing the presence of bacteria associated with jellyfish, except studies about their decay, could be found. It is not known if all jellyfish of this and other species carry similar bacteria or the relationship to each other. Their source, the role they play under other circumstances, and indeed whether the jellyfish were themselves diseased are also not known. The high proteolytic capabilities of T. maritimum mean that partially digested gill tissues were readily available to the jellyfish, which rely heavily on intracellular digestion for their nutrition. PMID:20453210

  11. Modeling of Bio-inspired Jellyfish Vehicle for Energy Efficient Propulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, Keyur Bhanuprasad

    2013-01-01

    Jellyfish have inhabited this planet for millions of years and are the oldest known metazoans that swim using muscles. They are found in freshwater sources and in oceans all over the world. Over millions of years of evolution, they have adapted to survive in a given environment. They are considered as one of the most energy efficient swimmers. Owing to these characteristics, jellyfish has attracted a lot of attention for developing energy efficient unmanned undersea vehicles (UUVs). The goal ...

  12. Capacity Extension of Software Defined Data Center Networks With Jellyfish Topology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehmeri, Victor; Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    We present a performance analysis of Jellyfish topology with Software-Defined commodity switches for Data Center networks. Our results show up to a 2-fold performance gain when compared to a Spanning Tree Protocol implementation.......We present a performance analysis of Jellyfish topology with Software-Defined commodity switches for Data Center networks. Our results show up to a 2-fold performance gain when compared to a Spanning Tree Protocol implementation....

  13. A jellyfish-like swimming mini-robot actuated by an electromagnetic actuation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Youngho; Na, Sungyoung; Lee, Youngwoo; Cha, Kyoungrae; Ko, Seong Young; Park, Jongoh; Park, Sukho

    2012-05-01

    Among the various kinds of actuations for biomimetic robots, the electromagnetic actuation (EMA) method has been regarded as the one with the most potential. This paper proposes a jellyfish-like swimming mini-robot actuated by an EMA system in three-dimensional (3D) space. The jellyfish-like mini-robot has four flexible fins, each of which is equipped with a permanent magnet for electromagnetic actuation; the robot’s body is 17 mm long and 0.5 mm thick. Our EMA system was able to generate a uniform magnetic field in a desired direction in 3D space, which could bend the fins of the jellyfish-like mini-robot. Therefore, a cyclic change in the uniform magnetic field, in the EMA system, would synchronize the fluctuation of the fins and could generate a propulsion force for the robot, in the desired direction. In order to maximize the propulsion force of the jellyfish-like mini-robot, the waveform and frequency of the input current in the EMA system are optimized. Consequently, our jellyfish-like mini-robot was able to generate maximum propulsion force when a square waveform input current (13 A magnitude and 10 Hz frequency) was applied to the EMA system. Finally, the jellyfish-like mini-robot with the EMA system was able to perform various 3D swimming motions.

  14. A jellyfish-like swimming mini-robot actuated by an electromagnetic actuation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the various kinds of actuations for biomimetic robots, the electromagnetic actuation (EMA) method has been regarded as the one with the most potential. This paper proposes a jellyfish-like swimming mini-robot actuated by an EMA system in three-dimensional (3D) space. The jellyfish-like mini-robot has four flexible fins, each of which is equipped with a permanent magnet for electromagnetic actuation; the robot’s body is 17 mm long and 0.5 mm thick. Our EMA system was able to generate a uniform magnetic field in a desired direction in 3D space, which could bend the fins of the jellyfish-like mini-robot. Therefore, a cyclic change in the uniform magnetic field, in the EMA system, would synchronize the fluctuation of the fins and could generate a propulsion force for the robot, in the desired direction. In order to maximize the propulsion force of the jellyfish-like mini-robot, the waveform and frequency of the input current in the EMA system are optimized. Consequently, our jellyfish-like mini-robot was able to generate maximum propulsion force when a square waveform input current (13 A magnitude and 10 Hz frequency) was applied to the EMA system. Finally, the jellyfish-like mini-robot with the EMA system was able to perform various 3D swimming motions. (technical note)

  15. Lipid Profile in Different Parts of Edible Jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Si; Ye, Mengwei; Xu, Jilin; Guo, Chunyang; Zheng, Huakun; Hu, Jiabao; Chen, Juanjuan; Wang, Yajun; Xu, Shanliang; Yan, Xiaojun

    2015-09-23

    Jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum has been exploited commercially as a delicious food for a long time. Although the edible and medicinal values of R. esculentum have gained extensive attention, the effects of lipids on its nutritional value have rarely been reported. In the present of study, the lipid profile including lipid classes, fatty acyl compositions, and fatty acid (FA) positions in lipids from different parts (oral arms, umbrella, and mouth stalk) of R. esculentum was explored by ultraperformance liquid chromatography--electrospray ionization--quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS). More than 87 species from 10 major lipid classes including phosphatidylcholine (PC), lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI), phosphatidylserine (PS), ceramide (Cer), ceramide 2-aminoethylphosphonate (CAEP), and triacylglycerol (TAG) were separated and characterized. Semiquantification of individual lipid species in different parts of R. esculentum was also conducted. Results showed that glycerophospholipids (GPLs) enriched in highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) were the major compenents in all parts of R. esculentum, which accounted for 54-63% of total lipids (TLs). Considering the high level of GPLs and the FA compositions in GPLs, jellyfish R. esculentum might have great potential as a health-promoting food for humans and as a growth-promoting diet for some commercial fish and crustaceans. Meanwhile, LPC, LPE, and LPI showed high levels in oral arms when compared with umbrella and mouth stalk, which may be due to the high proportion of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) in oral arms. Moreover, a high CAEP level was detected in oral arms, which may render cell membranes with resistance to chemical hydrolysis by PLA2. The relatively low TAG content could be associated with specific functions of oral arms. PMID:26322863

  16. Lévy night flights by the jellyfish Periphylla periphylla

    KAUST Repository

    Ugland, KI

    2014-10-22

    Jellyfish blooms occur in marine environments around the world and have been linked to over-fishing, eutrophication and climatic change. In some coastal areas of Norway, the circumglobal Periphylla periphylla has increased to exceptionally high abundances and has replaced fish as the main planktivorous predator despite the ineffectiveness of its non-visual predation compared to visual fish predation. Using data from a bottom-mounted acoustic platform, we collected 12341 in situ measurements of individual vertical movements of large individuals of P. periphylla. These jellyfish are characterized by a stepwise vertical movement. The distribution of their vertical swimming distances was extremely left skewed; about 85% of the swimming distances were less than 3 m, and a few displacements were extremely long with a maximum of 85 m. Chi-square tests of goodness of fit to the tail and Akaike’s information criterion gave overwhelming evidence of the truncated power law. There was a clear diel pattern in the exponent with values significantly larger than 3 during the daytime and significantly lower than 3 at night. This pattern means that P. periphylla switches from relatively limited movements during the day to Lévy-like flights during the night. Since the abundance of zooplankton is large in the P. periphylla fjord, Brownian motion, rather than Lévy flight, is predicted by the optimal foraging hypothesis. It is therefore possible that the Lévy-like search pattern has evolved in the food-scarce oceanic environment, which is the main natural habitat of P. periphylla. Alternatively, the large individuals of the population addressed here may forage on scarcer prey sources than the main prevailing zooplankton in Lurefjorden.

  17. Biology and ecology of Irukandji jellyfish (Cnidaria: Cubozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershwin, Lisa-ann; Richardson, Anthony J; Winkel, Kenneth D; Fenner, Peter J; Lippmann, John; Hore, Russell; Avila-Soria, Griselda; Brewer, David; Kloser, Rudy J; Steven, Andy; Condie, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Irukandji stings are a leading occupational health and safety issue for marine industries in tropical Australia and an emerging problem elsewhere in the Indo-Pacific and Caribbean. Their mild initial sting frequently results in debilitating illness, involving signs of sympathetic excess including excruciating pain, sweating, nausea and vomiting, hypertension and a feeling of impending doom; some cases also experience acute heart failure and pulmonary oedema. These jellyfish are typically small and nearly invisible, and their infestations are generally mysterious, making them scary to the general public, irresistible to the media, and disastrous for tourism. Research into these fascinating species has been largely driven by the medical profession and focused on treatment. Biological and ecological information is surprisingly sparse, and is scattered through grey literature or buried in dispersed publications, hampering understanding. Given that long-term climate forecasts tend toward conditions favourable to jellyfish ecology, that long-term legal forecasts tend toward increasing duty-of-care obligations, and that bioprospecting opportunities exist in the powerful Irukandji toxins, there is a clear need for information to help inform global research and robust management solutions. We synthesise and contextualise available information on Irukandji taxonomy, phylogeny, reproduction, vision, behaviour, feeding, distribution, seasonality, toxins, and safety. Despite Australia dominating the research in this area, there are probably well over 25 species worldwide that cause the syndrome and it is an understudied problem in the developing world. Major gaps in knowledge are identified for future research: our lack of clarity on the socio-economic impacts, and our need for time series and spatial surveys of the species, make this field particularly enticing. PMID:24182899

  18. Isolation, Characterization and Biological Evaluation of Jellyfish Collagen for Use in Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Lethias

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Fibrillar collagens are the more abundant extracellular proteins. They form a metazoan-specific family, and are highly conserved from sponge to human. Their structural and physiological properties have been successfully used in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. On the other hand, the increase of jellyfish has led us to consider this marine animal as a natural product for food and medicine. Here, we have tested different Mediterranean jellyfish species in order to investigate the economic potential of their collagens. We have studied different methods of collagen purification (tissues and experimental procedures. The best collagen yield was obtained using Rhizostoma pulmo oral arms and the pepsin extraction method (2–10 mg collagen/g of wet tissue. Although a significant yield was obtained with Cotylorhiza tuberculata (0.45 mg/g, R. pulmo was used for further experiments, this jellyfish being considered as harmless to humans and being an abundant source of material. Then, we compared the biological properties of R. pulmo collagen with mammalian fibrillar collagens in cell cytotoxicity assays and cell adhesion. There was no statistical difference in cytotoxicity (p > 0.05 between R. pulmo collagen and rat type I collagen. However, since heparin inhibits cell adhesion to jellyfish-native collagen by 55%, the main difference is that heparan sulfate proteoglycans could be preferentially involved in fibroblast and osteoblast adhesion to jellyfish collagens. Our data confirm the broad harmlessness of jellyfish collagens, and their biological effect on human cells that are similar to that of mammalian type I collagen. Given the bioavailability of jellyfish collagen and its biological properties, this marine material is thus a good candidate for replacing bovine or human collagens in selected biomedical applications.

  19. Current-oriented swimming by jellyfish and its role in bloom maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossette, Sabrina; Gleiss, Adrian Christopher; Chalumeau, Julien; Bastian, Thomas; Armstrong, Claire Denise; Vandenabeele, Sylvie; Karpytchev, Mikhail; Hays, Graeme Clive

    2015-02-01

    Cross-flows (winds or currents) affect animal movements [1-3]. Animals can temporarily be carried off course or permanently carried away from their preferred habitat by drift depending on their own traveling speed in relation to that of the flow [1]. Animals able to only weakly fly or swim will be the most impacted (e.g., [4]). To circumvent this problem, animals must be able to detect the effects of flow on their movements and respond to it [1, 2]. Here, we show that a weakly swimming organism, the jellyfish Rhizostoma octopus, can orientate its movements with respect to currents and that this behavior is key to the maintenance of blooms and essential to reduce the probability of stranding. We combined in situ observations with first-time deployment of accelerometers on free-ranging jellyfish and simulated the behavior observed in wild jellyfish within a high-resolution hydrodynamic model. Our results show that jellyfish can actively swim countercurrent in response to current drift, leading to significant life-history benefits, i.e., increased chance of survival and facilitated bloom formation. Current-oriented swimming may be achieved by jellyfish either directly detecting current shear across their body surface [5] or indirectly assessing drift direction using other cues (e.g., magnetic, infrasound). Our coupled behavioral-hydrodynamic model provides new evidence that current-oriented swimming contributes to jellyfish being able to form aggregations of hundreds to millions of individuals for up to several months, which may have substantial ecosystem and socioeconomic consequences [6, 7]. It also contributes to improve predictions of jellyfish blooms' magnitude and movements in coastal waters. PMID:25619761

  20. Laryngeal (Voice Box) Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Meeting Calendar Find an ENT Doctor Near You Voice Box (Laryngeal) Cancer Voice Box (Laryngeal) Cancer Patient Health Information News media ... laryngeal cancer can be severe with respect to voice, breathing, or swallowing. It is fundamentally a preventable ...

  1. Biogeography of jellyfish in the North Atlantic, by traditional and genomic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licandro, P.; Blackett, M.; Fischer, A.; Hosia, A.; Kennedy, J.; Kirby, R. R.; Raab, K.; Stern, R.; Tranter, P.

    2015-07-01

    Scientific debate on whether or not the recent increase in reports of jellyfish outbreaks represents a true rise in their abundance has outlined a lack of reliable records of Cnidaria and Ctenophora. Here we describe different jellyfish data sets produced within the EU programme EURO-BASIN. These data were assembled with the aim of creating an improved baseline and providing new data that can be used to evaluate the current diversity and standing stocks of jellyfish in the North Atlantic region. Using a net adapted to sample gelatinous zooplankton quantitatively, cnidarians and ctenophores were collected from the epipelagic layer during spring-summer 2010-2013, in inshore and offshore waters between lat 59 and 68° N and long 62° W and 5° E. Jellyfish were also identified and counted in samples opportunistically collected by other sampling equipment in the same region and at two coastal stations in the Bay of Biscay and in the Gulf of Cadiz. Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) samples collected in 2009-2012 were re-analysed with the aim of identifying the time and location of cnidarian blooms across the North Atlantic Basin. Overall the data show high variability in jellyfish abundance and diversity, mainly in relation to different water masses and bathymetry. Higher densities were generally recorded on the shelves, where the communities tend to be more diverse due to the presence of meropelagic medusae. Comparison of net records from the G.O. Sars transatlantic cruise shows that information on jellyfish diversity differs significantly depending on the sampling gear utilised. Indeed, the big trawls mostly collect relatively large scyphozoan and hydrozoan species, while small hydrozoans and early stages of Ctenophora are only caught by smaller nets. Based on CPR data from 2009 to 2012, blooms of cnidarians occurred in all seasons across the whole North Atlantic Basin. Molecular analysis revealed that, contrary to previous hypotheses, the CPR is able to detect

  2. Concurrent environmental stressors and jellyfish stings impair caged European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) physiological performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch-Belmar, Mar; Giomi, Folco; Rinaldi, Alessandro; Mandich, Alberta; Fuentes, Verónica; Mirto, Simone; Sarà, Gianluca; Piraino, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    The increasing frequency of jellyfish outbreaks in coastal areas has led to multiple ecological and socio-economic issues, including mass mortalities of farmed fish. We investigated the sensitivity of the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), a widely cultured fish in the Mediterranean Sea, to the combined stressors of temperature, hypoxia and stings from the jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca, through measurement of oxygen consumption rates (MO2), critical oxygen levels (PO2crit), and histological analysis of tissue damage. Higher levels of MO2, PO2crit and gill damage in treated fish demonstrated that the synergy of environmental and biotic stressors dramatically impair farmed fish metabolic performances and increase their health vulnerability. As a corollary, in the current scenario of ocean warming, these findings suggest that the combined effects of recurrent hypoxic events and jellyfish blooms in coastal areas might also threaten wild fish populations. PMID:27301314

  3. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Antarctic stalked jellyfish, Haliclystus antarcticus Pfeffer, 1889 (Staurozoa: Stauromedusae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsing-Hui Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In present study, the complete mitogenome sequence of the Antarctic stalked jellyfish, Haliclystus antarcticus Pfeffer (Staurozoa: Stauromedusae has been sequenced by next-generation sequencing method. The assembled mitogenome comprises of 15,766 bp including 13 protein coding genes, 7 transfer RNAs, and 2 ribosomal RNA genes. The overall base of Antarctic stalked jellyfish constitutes of 26.5% for A, 19.6% for C, 19.8% for G, 34.1% for T and show 90% identity to Sessile Jelly, Haliclystus sanjuanensis, in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. The complete mitogenome of the Antarctic stalked jellyfish, contributes fundamental and significant DNA molecular data for further phylogeography and evolutionary analysis for seahorse phylogeny. The complete sequence was deposited in DBBJ/EMBL/GenBank under accession number KU947038.

  4. Changes in the small-jellyfish community in recent decades in Jiaozhou Bay, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Song; LI Yinghong; SUN Xiaoxia

    2012-01-01

    We used long term monitoring data to evaluate changes in abundance and species dominance of small-jellyfish (collected with zooplankton net whose bell diameter was less than 5 cm) between 1991 and 2009 in the Jiaozhou Bay,China.Zooplankton samples were vertically towed with conical plankton net from near-bottom to surface,identified microscopically,and mapped in time-space using Grapher 7.0 and Surfer 8.0.Results show that the abundance of small-jellyfish throughout the bay had been increasing during 2001-2009 on average of 15.2 ind./m3,almost 5 times higher than that between 1991 and 2000.The occurrence of peak abundance shifted from spring to summer after 2000,and two peaks appeared in spring and summer,respectively,after 2005.Both the abundance and the frequency of blooms of small-jellyfish increased after 2000 in the bay.In addition,the biodiversity of jellyfish has increased significantly in recent years with a change in dominant species.Several new dominant species appeared after 2000,including Rathkae octopunctata in winter,Phialidium hemisphaericum in spring,summer,and autumn,Phialucium carolinae in spring,and Pleurobrachia globosa in summer and autumn,while some previous dominant species throughout the 1990s (Eirene ceylonensis,Zanclea costata,Lovenella assimilis,and Muggiaea atlantica) were no longer dominant after 2000.The abundance of small-jellyfish was positively correlated with the density of dinoflagellates,and the abundance of zooplankton.We believe that the changes in smalljellyfish abundance and species composition were the result of eutrophication,aquaculture and coastal construction activities around the bay.Concurrently,seawater warming and salinity decrease in recent decades promoted the growth and reproduction of small-jellyfish in the bay.

  5. Stable hovering of a jellyfish-like flying machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristroph, Leif; Childress, Stephen

    2014-03-01

    Ornithopters, or flapping-wing aircraft, offer an alternative to helicopters in achieving manoeuvrability at small scales, although stabilizing such aerial vehicles remains a key challenge. Here, we present a hovering machine that achieves self-righting flight using flapping wings alone, without relying on additional aerodynamic surfaces and without feedback control. We design, construct and test-fly a prototype that opens and closes four wings, resembling the motions of swimming jellyfish more so than any insect or bird. Measurements of lift show the benefits of wing flexing and the importance of selecting a wing size appropriate to the motor. Furthermore, we use high-speed video and motion tracking to show that the body orientation is stable during ascending, forward and hovering flight modes. Our experimental measurements are used to inform an aerodynamic model of stability that reveals the importance of centre-of-mass location and the coupling of body translation and rotation. These results show the promise of flapping-flight strategies beyond those that directly mimic the wing motions of flying animals. PMID:24430122

  6. Jellyfish and Ctenophores in Limfjorden (Denmark)—Mini-Review, with Recent New Observations

    OpenAIRE

    Hans Ulrik Riisgård; Josephine Goldstein

    2014-01-01

    Limfjorden is a major Danish water system that connects the North Sea via Thyborøn Kanal in the west and to the Kattegat in the east. Limfjorden is heavily eutrophicated and certain areas suffer from oxygen depletion each summer. Bottom-dwelling fish have disappeared as the number of jellyfish and ctenophores has increased. The abundance and predation impact of jellyfish and ctenophores in Limfjorden have been described in a number of studies conducted during the last decade, and a mini-rev...

  7. Recurrent dermatitis and dermal hypersensitivity following a jellyfish sting: a case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loredana Asztalos, Manuela; Rubin, Adam I; Elenitsas, Rosalie; Groft MacFarlane, Caroline; Castelo-Soccio, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    Jellyfish envenomation often causes an immediate painful vesiculopapular eruption. Less commonly it can cause a type IV allergic hypersensitivity that manifests with delayed or recurrent cutaneous lesions at the primary site or distant from the primary site. These secondary reactivations may be related to high antijellyfish immunoglobulin levels, intracutaneously sequestered antigen, or cross-reacting venom. Immunomodulators such as pimecrolimus and tacrolimus and topical and intralesional corticosteroid therapy decrease this recurrent dermatitis. We report a case of a 9-year-old girl with a recurrent jellyfish dermatitis lasting more than 1 year after the initial envenomation. The dermatitis finally resolved after treatment with tacrolimus and intralesional triamcinolone acetonide therapy. PMID:24495001

  8. 浸泡对市售盐渍海蜇皮及海蜇头影响分析%Analysis of Soaking for Commercial Salted Jellyfish and Jellyfish Head

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈瑜; 朱敬萍; 金雷; 鲍静姣

    2016-01-01

    Based on the experimental study on the soaking time, the content of salt, water and alum of jellyfish and jellyfish head was got. The experimental results showed that the water in jellyfish came up to 96. 0% and 96. 6% after 16 h and 24 h, the salt of jellyfish was down to 1. 82% and 0. 19%, the alum of jellyfish was down to 0. 28% and 0. 11% in the same time. The water in jellyfish head came up to 95. 4% and 97. 8% after 16 h and 24 h, the salt of jellyfish was down to 2. 80% and 0. 28%, the alum of jellyfish was down to 0. 28% and 0. 10% in the same time. It turned out that fresh water soaking can reduce the amount of salt and alum in jellyfish and jellyfish head. The salt of jellyfish and jellyfish head can reduce to about 0. 2% ~0. 3% after 24 h, and the salty taste was almost impossible to tell. Alum content was lowered to 0. 1%, it was far lower than the state of aluminum daily limit value of 0. 004 g.%通过对浸泡时长的实验研究,以期得到对海蜇皮和海蜇头的盐分、水分及明矾含量影响的客观了解。实验结果显示,海蜇皮浸泡16 h和24 h后水分含量分别达到96.0%和96.6%,盐分降至1.82%和0.19%,明矾含量降至0.28%和0.11%;海蜇头浸泡16 h和24 h后水分含量达到95.4%和97.8%,盐分降至2.80%和0.28%,明矾含量降至0.28%和0.10%。结果表明,淡水浸泡能有效降低海蜇皮和海蜇头的盐分和明矾含量,且经过24 h海蜇皮和海蜇头的盐分可降至0.2%~0.3%左右,味觉几乎无法辨别到咸味,明矾含量也可降至0.1%左右,远低于国家对铝元素每日摄入限量值0.004 g。

  9. Shaping 3-D boxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenholt, Rasmus; Madsen, Claus B.

    2011-01-01

    Enabling users to shape 3-D boxes in immersive virtual environments is a non-trivial problem. In this paper, a new family of techniques for creating rectangular boxes of arbitrary position, orientation, and size is presented and evaluated. These new techniques are based solely on position data...

  10. Vertical distribution of giant jellyfish, Nemopilema nomurai using acoustics and optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seonghun; Lee, Kyounghoon; Yoon, Won Duk; Lee, Hyungbeen; Hwang, Kangseok

    2016-03-01

    Nemopilema nomurai jellyfish, which are believed to complete their development in the East China Sea, have started migrating into the Yellow Sea in recent years. We obtained biomass estimates of this species in the Yellow Sea using bottom trawl fishing gear and sighting surveys over a 5-year period. These methods are effective for obtaining N. nomurai jellyfish density estimates and information about the community distribution near the bottom or surface of the sea. To verify the vertical distributions of giant jellyfish between, we used hydroacoustic equipment, including an optical stereo camera system attached to a towed sledge and an echo counting method with scientific echosounder system. Acoustic and optical data were collected while the vessel moved at 3 knots, from which the distribution and density of N. nomurai jellyfish were analyzed. Subsequently, the camera system was towed from a 7 m mean depth to sea level, with the detection range of the acoustic system extending from an 8 m depth to the bottom surface. The optical and acoustic methods indicated the presence of vertical distribution of 0.113 (inds/m3) and 0.064 (inds/m3), respectively. However, the vertical distribution indicated that around 93% of individuals occurred at a depth range of 10-40 m; thus, a 2.4-fold greater density was estimated by acoustic echo counting compared to the optical method.

  11. Jellyfish Distribution and Habitat, Aquatic Invasive Species (AIS) animal distribution in Wisconsin - Freshwater jellyfish, Published in 2009, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Wisconsin DNR Bureau of Watershed Management.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Jellyfish Distribution and Habitat dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Observation information as of 2009....

  12. Seasonal changes in infection with trematode species utilizing jellyfish as hosts: evidence of transmission to definitive host fish via medusivory

    OpenAIRE

    Kondo Yusuke; Ohtsuka Susumu; Hirabayashi Takeshi; Okada Shoma; Ogawa Nanako O.; Ohkouchi Naohiko; Shimazu Takeshi; Nishikawa Jun

    2016-01-01

    In the Seto Inland Sea of western Japan, metacercariae of three species of trematodes, Lepotrema clavatum Ozaki, 1932, Cephalolepidapedon saba Yamaguti, 1970, and Opechona olssoni (Yamaguti, 1934), were found in the mesoglea of the jellyfish Aurelia aurita s.l., Chrysaora pacifica, and Cyanea nozakii. Moreover, these jellyfish frequently harbored juveniles of the fish species Psenopsis anomala, Thamnaconus modestus, and Trachurus japonicus. The former two fish species are well-known medusivor...

  13. The Maine Music Box

    OpenAIRE

    Lutz, Marilyn; Gallucci, Laura

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes the Maine Music Box and examines its potential as a tool for teaching and learning music. Pedagogical concepts are demonstrated using MIDI, Scorch, image and streaming video files.

  14. Voice box (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The larynx, or voice box, is located in the neck and performs several important functions in the body. The larynx is involved in swallowing, breathing, and voice production. Sound is produced when the air which ...

  15. Jellyfish prediction of occurrence from remote sensing data and a non-linear pattern recognition approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albajes-Eizagirre, Anton; Romero, Laia; Soria-Frisch, Aureli; Vanhellemont, Quinten

    2011-11-01

    Impact of jellyfish in human activities has been increasingly reported worldwide in recent years. Segments such as tourism, water sports and leisure, fisheries and aquaculture are commonly damaged when facing blooms of gelatinous zooplankton. Hence the prediction of the appearance and disappearance of jellyfish in our coasts, which is not fully understood from its biological point of view, has been approached as a pattern recognition problem in the paper presented herein, where a set of potential ecological cues was selected to test their usefulness for prediction. Remote sensing data was used to describe environmental conditions that could support the occurrence of jellyfish blooms with the aim of capturing physical-biological interactions: forcing, coastal morphology, food availability, and water mass characteristics are some of the variables that seem to exert an effect on jellyfish accumulation on the shoreline, under specific spatial and temporal windows. A data-driven model based on computational intelligence techniques has been designed and implemented to predict jellyfish events on the beach area as a function of environmental conditions. Data from 2009 over the NW Mediterranean continental shelf have been used to train and test this prediction protocol. Standard level 2 products are used from MODIS (NASA OceanColor) and MERIS (ESA - FRS data). The procedure for designing the analysis system can be described as following. The aforementioned satellite data has been used as feature set for the performance evaluation. Ground truth has been extracted from visual observations by human agents on different beach sites along the Catalan area. After collecting the evaluation data set, the performance between different computational intelligence approaches have been compared. The outperforming one in terms of its generalization capability has been selected for prediction recall. Different tests have been conducted in order to assess the prediction capability of the

  16. Comparative analysis of methods for concentrating venom from jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum Kishinouye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cuiping; Yu, Huahua; Feng, Jinhua; Chen, Xiaolin; Li, Pengcheng

    2009-02-01

    In this study, several methods were compared for the efficiency to concentrate venom from the tentacles of jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum Kishinouye. The results show that the methods using either freezing-dry or gel absorption to remove water to concentrate venom are not applicable due to the low concentration of the compounds dissolved. Although the recovery efficiency and the total venom obtained using the dialysis dehydration method are high, some proteins can be lost during the concentrating process. Comparing to the lyophilization method, ultrafiltration is a simple way to concentrate the compounds at high percentage but the hemolytic activities of the proteins obtained by ultrafiltration appear to be lower. Our results suggest that overall lyophilization is the best and recommended method to concentrate venom from the tentacles of jellyfish. It shows not only the high recovery efficiency for the venoms but high hemolytic activities as well.

  17. Comparative analysis of methods for concentrating venom from jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum Kishinouye

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Huahua; FENG Jinhua; CHEN Xiaolin; LI Pengcheng

    2009-01-01

    In this study, several methods were compared for the efficiency to concentrate venom from the tentacles of jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum Kishinouye. The results show that the methods using either freezing-dry or gel absorption to remove water to concentrate venom are not applicable due to the low concentration of the compounds dissolved. Although the recovery efficiency and the total venom obtained using the dialysis dehydration method are high, some proteins can be lost during the concentrating process. Comparing to the lyophilization method, ultrafiltration is a simple way to concentrate the compounds at high percentage but the hemolytic activities of the proteins obtained by ultrafiltration appear to be lower. Our results suggest that overall lyophilization is the best and recommended method to concentrate venom from the tentacles of jellyfish. It shows not only the high recovery efficiency for the venoms but high hemolytic activities as well.

  18. Reynolds number limits for jet propulsion: A numerical study of simplified jellyfish

    CERN Document Server

    Herschlag, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    The Scallop Theorem states that reciprocal methods of locomotion, such as jet propulsion or paddling, will not work in Stokes flow (Reynolds number = 0). In nature the effective limit of jet propulsion is still in the range where inertial forces are significant. It appears that almost all animals that use jet propulsion swim at Reynolds numbers (Re) of about 5 or more. Juvenile squid and octopods hatch from the egg already swimming in this inertial regime. The limitations of jet propulsion at intermediate Re is explored here using the immersed boundary method to solve the two-dimensional Navier Stokes equations coupled to the motion of a simplified jellyfish. The contraction and expansion kinematics are prescribed, but the forward and backward swimming motions of the idealized jellyfish are emergent properties determined by the resulting fluid dynamics. Simulations are performed for both an oblate bell shape using a paddling mode of swimming and a prolate bell shape using jet propulsion. Average forward veloc...

  19. The BOXES Methodology Black Box Dynamic Control

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, David W

    2012-01-01

    Robust control mechanisms customarily require knowledge of the system’s describing equations which may be of the high order differential type.  In order to produce these equations, mathematical models can often be derived and correlated with measured dynamic behavior.  There are two flaws in this approach one is the level of inexactness introduced by linearizations and the other when no model is apparent.  Several years ago a new genre of control systems came to light that are much less dependent on differential models such as fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms. Both of these soft computing solutions require quite considerable a priori system knowledge to create a control scheme and sometimes complicated training program before they can be implemented in a real world dynamic system. Michie and Chambers’ BOXES methodology created a black box system that was designed to control a mechanically unstable system with very little a priori system knowledge, linearization or approximation.  All the method need...

  20. The degradation of different Schypozoan jellyfish species by the ambient bacterial community

    OpenAIRE

    TURK Valentina

    2015-01-01

    The chemical composition and degradation of dead jellyfish tissue of Aurelia sp., pelagia noctiluca and Rhizostoma pulmo by the ambient bacterial communitywas studied in laboratory experiment using samples from the Gulf of Trieste (northern Adriatic). Preliminary results showed rapid hydrolyzes of proteins in the presence of the natural microbial community and significant release of disolved and anorganic nutrients, which can significantly alter thecarbon and nitrogen cycles and ohygen dynami...

  1. Biomimetic jellyfish-inspired underwater vehicle actuated by ionic polymer metal composite actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the design, fabrication, and characterization of a biomimetic jellyfish robot that uses ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs) as flexible actuators for propulsion. The shape and swimming style of this underwater vehicle are based on the Aequorea victoria jellyfish, which has an average swimming speed of 20 mm s−1 and which is known for its high swimming efficiency. The Aequorea victoria is chosen as a model system because both its bell morphology and kinematic properties match the mechanical properties of IPMC actuators. This medusa is characterized by its low swimming frequency, small bell deformation during the contraction phase, and high Froude efficiency. The critical components of the robot include the flexible bell that provides the overall shape and dimensions of the jellyfish, a central hub and a stage used to provide electrical connections and mechanical support to the actuators, eight distinct spars meant to keep the upper part of the bell stationary, and flexible IPMC actuators that extend radially from the central stage. The bell is fabricated from a commercially available heat-shrinkable polymer film to provide increased shape-holding ability and reduced weight. The IPMC actuators constructed for this study demonstrated peak-to-peak strains of ∼0.7% in water across a frequency range of 0.1–1.0 Hz. By tailoring the applied voltage waveform and the flexibility of the bell, the completed robotic jellyfish with four actuators swam at an average speed 0.77 mm s−1 and consumed 0.7 W. When eight actuators were used the average speed increased to 1.5 mm s−1 with a power consumption of 1.14 W. (paper)

  2. What's in a jellyfish? Proximate and elemental composition and biometric relationships for use in biogeochemical studies

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas, C. H.; Pitt, K. A.; Purcell, J.E.; Lebrato, Mario; R. H. Condon

    2011-01-01

    Many marine organisms have gelatinous bodies, but the trait is most common in the medusae (phylum Cnidaria), ctenophores (phylum Ctenophora), and the pelagic tunicates (phylum Chordata, class Thaliacea). Although there are taxonomic and trophic differences between the thaliaceans and the other two closely related phyla, the collective term “jellyfish” has been used within the framework of this article. Because of the apparent increase in bloom events, jellyfish are receiving greater attention...

  3. Jellyfish mucin may have potential disease-modifying effects on osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urai Makoto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We aimed to study the effects of intra-articular injection of jellyfish mucin (qniumucin on articular cartilage degeneration in a model of osteoarthritis (OA created in rabbit knees by resection of the anterior cruciate ligament. Qniumucin was extracted from Aurelia aurita (moon jellyfish and Stomolophus nomurai (Nomura's jellyfish and purified by ion exchange chromatography. The OA model used 36 knees in 18 Japanese white rabbits. Purified qniumucin extracts from S. nomurai or A. aurita were used at 1 mg/ml. Rabbits were divided into four groups: a control (C group injected with saline; a hyaluronic acid (HA-only group (H group; two qniumucin-only groups (M groups; and two qniumucin + HA groups (MH groups. One milligram of each solution was injected intra-articularly once a week for 5 consecutive weeks, starting from 4 weeks after surgery. Ten weeks after surgery, the articular cartilage was evaluated macroscopically and histologically. Results In the C and M groups, macroscopic cartilage defects extended to the subchondral bone medially and laterally. When the H and both MH groups were compared, only minor cartilage degeneration was observed in groups treated with qniumucin in contrast to the group without qniumucin. Histologically, densely safranin-O-stained cartilage layers were observed in the H and two MH groups, but cartilage was strongly maintained in both MH groups. Conclusion At the concentrations of qniumucin used in this study, injection together with HA inhibited articular cartilage degeneration in this model of OA.

  4. A biomimetic robotic jellyfish (Robojelly) actuated by shape memory alloy composite actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis is conducted on the design, fabrication and performance of an underwater vehicle mimicking the propulsion mechanism and physical appearance of a medusa (jellyfish). The robotic jellyfish called Robojelly mimics the morphology and kinematics of the Aurelia aurita species. Robojelly actuates using bio-inspired shape memory alloy composite actuators. A systematic fabrication technique was developed to replicate the essential structural features of A. aurita. Robojelly's body was fabricated from RTV silicone having a total mass of 242 g and bell diameter of 164 mm. Robojelly was able to generate enough thrust in static water conditions to propel itself and achieve a proficiency of 0.19 s-1 while the A. aurita achieves a proficiency of around 0.25 s-1. A thrust analysis based on empirical measurements for a natural jellyfish was used to compare the performance of the different robotic configurations. The configuration with best performance was a Robojelly with segmented bell and a passive flap structure. Robojelly was found to consume an average power on the order of 17 W with the actuators not having fully reached a thermal steady state.

  5. Beyond the average: Diverse individual migration patterns in a population of mesopelagic jellyfish

    KAUST Repository

    Kaartvedt, Stein

    2011-11-01

    We examined the diel behavior among the jellyfish Periphylla periphylla in Lurefjorden, Norway in a sampling campaign and by a > 3-month continuous acoustic study. Jellyfish distribution and behavior were recorded by an upward-facing, bottom-mounted echo sounder at 280-m depth. The population was typically divided into four groups, each with different behavior. Individuals of behavioral Mode 1 undertook synchronous diel vertical migrations (DVM) within the upper 100 m. Individuals of behavioral Mode 2, stayed at ~ 160-200-m depth during the day, and also exhibited synchronized DVM, ascending at dusk and descending at dawn. The smaller individuals of behavioral Mode 3 swam continuously up and down throughout both day and night, yet occurred below Mode 2 individuals in daytime (~ 200 m-bottom), while their vertical range encompassed the entire water column during night. Mode 4 behavior was displayed by large jellyfish located between ~ 130 m and the bottom. These animals shifted between remaining motionless and relocating in rapid steps during both day and night. These four main behavioral patterns persisted throughout the registration period, although the synchronously migrating Mode 2 behavior became weaker in spring. This acoustic study has unveiled more diverse migration behaviors than previously derived from net sampling and remote-operated vehicles methods and emphasizes the importance of studying individuals. DVM is complex because individuals in a plankton population may simultaneously engage in a range of various contrasting behaviors.

  6. Opto-Box

    CERN Document Server

    Bertsche, David; The ATLAS collaboration; Welch, Steven; Smith, Dale Shane; Che, Siinn; Gan, K.K.; Boyd, George Russell Jr

    2015-01-01

    The opto-box is a custom mini-crate for housing optical modules, which process and transfer optoelectronic data. The system tightly integrates electrical, mechanical, and thermal functionality into a small package of size 35x10x8 cm^3. Special attention was given to ensure proper shielding, grounding, cooling, high reliability, and environmental tolerance. The custom modules, which incorporate Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs), were developed through a cycle of rigorous testing and redesign. In total, fourteen opto-boxes have been installed and loaded with modules on the ATLAS detector. They are currently in operation as part of the LHC run 2 data read-out chain.

  7. Teaching with Box Tops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiser, Lynne; D'Zamko, Mary Elizabeth

    1984-01-01

    Using environmental materials (such as the phone book and placemats from fast food restaurants) can be a motivating way to teach learning disabled students skills and concepts, as shown in an approach to reading, math, science and nutrition, and social studies instruction using a JELL-O brand gelatin box. (CL)

  8. Hydrophobic, Porous Battery Boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Bobby J.; Casey, John E., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Boxes made of porous, hydrophobic polymers developed to contain aqueous potassium hydroxide electrolyte solutions of zinc/air batteries while allowing air to diffuse in as needed for operation. Used on other types of batteries for in-cabin use in which electrolytes aqueous and from which gases generated during operation must be vented without allowing electrolytes to leak out.

  9. Glove box posting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system for posting objects into closed containers, such as glove boxes, is described in which the bag used, preferably made of plastic, does not have to be fitted and sealed by the operator during each posting operation. (U.K.)

  10. Cereal Box Totems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, AnnMarie

    2002-01-01

    Presents a multicultural project used with fourth-grade students in which they created a three-dimensional totem pole using leftover cereal boxes. Discusses in detail how to create the totem pole. Explains that students learned about Northwest American Indians in class. (CMK)

  11. PHOTOCHEMICAL BOX MODEL (PBM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This magnetic tape contains the FORTRAN source code, sample input data, and sample output data for the Photochemical Box Model (PBM). The PBM is a simple stationary single-cell model with a variable height lid designed to provide volume-integrated hour averages of O3 and other ph...

  12. Decommissioning a small glove box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An account is given of dismantling a fuel fabrication glove box using simple tooling. The fissile content of the box was first measured by several non-destructive techniques. After cleaning, the box was dismantled using hand tools and finally packed for disposal. A record of operator radiation doses, the time taken for each stage of the operation and packing information is given. (author)

  13. Opto-Box

    CERN Document Server

    Bertsche, David; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The opto-box is a custom mini-crate for housing optical modules, which process and transfer optoelectronic data. Many novel solutions were developed for the custom design and manufacturing. The system tightly integrates electrical, mechanical, and thermal functionality into a small package of size 35x10x8 cm$^{3}$. Special attention was given to ensure proper shielding, grounding, cooling, high reliability, and environmental tolerance. The custom modules, which incorporate Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs), were developed through a cycle of rigorous testing and redesign. In total, fourteen opto-boxes have been installed and loaded with modules on the ATLAS detector. They are currently in operation as part of the LHC run 2 data read-out chain.

  14. The Box Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    The velocity level in a room ventilated by jet ventilation is strongly influenced by the supply conditions. The momentum flow in the supply jets controls the air movement in the room and, therefore, it is very important that the inlet conditions and the numerical method can generate a satisfactor...... description of this momentum flow. The Box Method is a practical method for the description of an Air Terminal Device which will save grid points and ensure the right level of the momentum flow....

  15. Learning with box kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melacci, Stefano; Gori, Marco

    2013-11-01

    Supervised examples and prior knowledge on regions of the input space have been profitably integrated in kernel machines to improve the performance of classifiers in different real-world contexts. The proposed solutions, which rely on the unified supervision of points and sets, have been mostly based on specific optimization schemes in which, as usual, the kernel function operates on points only. In this paper, arguments from variational calculus are used to support the choice of a special class of kernels, referred to as box kernels, which emerges directly from the choice of the kernel function associated with a regularization operator. It is proven that there is no need to search for kernels to incorporate the structure deriving from the supervision of regions of the input space, because the optimal kernel arises as a consequence of the chosen regularization operator. Although most of the given results hold for sets, we focus attention on boxes, whose labeling is associated with their propositional description. Based on different assumptions, some representer theorems are given that dictate the structure of the solution in terms of box kernel expansion. Successful results are given for problems of medical diagnosis, image, and text categorization. PMID:24051728

  16. Surviving but not thriving: inconsistent responses of zooxanthellate jellyfish polyps to ocean warming and future UV-B scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, Shannon G.; Pitt, Kylie A.; Carroll, Anthony R.

    2016-01-01

    Complex changes to UV radiation at the Earth’s surface are occurring concurrently with ocean warming. Despite few empirical tests, jellyfish are hypothesised to be increasing in some parts of the world because they are robust to environmental stressors. Here we examine the effects of UV-B and ocean warming projections on zooxanthellate jellyfish polyps. We exposed Cassiopea sp. polyps to three levels of UV-B (future-low (1.43 Wm2), current (1.60 Wm2), future-high (1.77 Wm2)) and two levels of...

  17. Jellyfish and Ctenophores in Limfjorden (Denmark—Mini-Review, with Recent New Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Ulrik Riisgård

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Limfjorden is a major Danish water system that connects the North Sea via Thyborøn Kanal in the west and to the Kattegat in the east. Limfjorden is heavily eutrophicated and certain areas suffer from oxygen depletion each summer. Bottom-dwelling fish have disappeared as the number of jellyfish and ctenophores has increased. The abundance and predation impact of jellyfish and ctenophores in Limfjorden have been described in a number of studies conducted during the last decade, and a mini-review of this literature is given here in Section 2. The common jellyfish Aurelia aurita may, in a few years, be very abundant and exert a considerable predatory impact on zooplankton and fish larvae. Abundance, species composition, and population dynamics of A. aurita may, at irregular time intervals, be strongly influenced not only by the water brought into Limfjorden from the North Sea, but also by competition with the invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi that occurred for the first time in extremely high numbers in 2007, brought into the fjord system with North Sea water. It has been suggested that Limfjorden may function as an incubator for M. leidyi with the potential to further seed M. leidyi into the Kattegat and adjacent Danish waters, and recent observations seem to support this hypothesis. In Section 3, we report on two bloom events of ctenophores, Pleurobrachia pileus and M. leidyi, along with their predators (Beroe spp. in Limfjorden in the autumns of 2012 and 2013, when the usually dominating A. aurita was absent. However, the present observation of B. ovata being M. leidyi’s native predator and a new species in Limfjorden may in the future reduce the abundance of M. leidyi.

  18. Jellyfish: Observational Properties of Extreme Ram-Pressure Stripping Events in Massive Galaxy Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conor, McPartland; Ebeling, Harald; Roediger, Elke

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the physical origin and observational signatures of extreme ram-pressure stripping (RPS) in 63 massive galaxy clusters at z=0.3-0.7, based on data in the F606W passband obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys aboard the Hubble Space Telescope. Using a training set of a dozen ``jellyfish" galaxies identified earlier in the same imaging data, we define quantitative morphological criteria to select candidate galaxies which are similar to known cases of RPS. Considering a sample of 16 ``jellyfish" galaxies (10 of which we present for the first time), we visually derive estimates of the projected direction of motion based on dynamical features such as apparent compression shocks and debris trails. Our findings suggest that the observed events occur primarily at large distances from the cluster core and involve infall trajectories featuring high impact parameters. Simple models of cluster growth show that such trajectories are consistent with two scenarios: 1) galaxy infall along filaments; and 2) infall at high velocities (≥1000 km/s) characteristic of cluster mergers. The observed distribution of events is best described by timescales of ˜few Myr in agreement with recent numerical simulations of RPS. The broader areal coverage of the Hubble Frontier Fields should provide an even larger sample of RPS events to determine the relative contributions of infall and cluster mergers. Prompted by the discovery of several jellyfish galaxies whose brightness in the F606W passband rivals or exceeds that of the respective brightest cluster galaxy, we attempt to constrain the luminosity function of galaxies undergoing RPS. The observed significant excess at the bright end compared to the luminosity functions of blue cluster members strongly suggests enhanced star formation, thus challenging theoretical and numerical studies according to which RPS merely displaces existing star-forming regions. In-depth studies of individual objects will help test our

  19. Speciation and isotopic composition of sulfur in sediments from Jellyfish Lake, Palau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, A.L.; Spiker, E. C.; Orem, W.H.; Burnett, W.C.

    1993-01-01

    Jellyfish Lake, Palau, is a meromictic marine lake with high organic productivity, low reactive Fe content, and anoxic bottom waters. Sediment samples from Jellyfish Lake were examined for the distribution of sulfur species and their isotopic signatures in order to gain a better understanding of sedimentary sulfur incorporation in Fe-poor environments. Surface samples were taken along a transect from a near-shore site to the center of the lake, and include a sample below oxic water, a sample below the chemocline layer, and samples below anoxic waters. Three additional samples were taken from a core, 2 m long, collected near the lake center. Sulfur to organic carbon weight ratios in all samples were lower than the expected value of 0.36 for normal marine sediment, probably because the lake water is deficient in reactive Fe to form iron sulfides. Total sulfur contents in the surface sediments indicated no changes with distance from shore; however, the sulfur content of the surface sample at the chemocline layer may be slightly higher. Total sulfur content increased with depth in the core and is inversely related to organic carbon content. Organic sulfur is the major sulfur species in the samples, followed in descending order by sulfate, disulfides and monosulfides. Sulfate sulfur isotope ??34S-values are positive (from +20.56 to +12.04???), reflecting the marine source of sulfate in Jellyfish Lake. Disulfide and monosulfide ??34S-values are negative (from -25.07 to -7.60???), because of fractionation during bacterial reduction of sulfate. Monosulfide ??34S-values are somewhat higher than those of disulfides, and they are close to the ??34S-values of organic sulfur. These results indicate that most of the organic sulfur is formed by reaction of bacteriogenic monosulfides, or possibly monosulfide-derived polysulfides, with organic matter in the sediment. ?? 1993.

  20. Ecosystem relevance of variable jellyfish biomass in the Irish Sea between years, regions and water types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, Thomas; Lilley, Martin K. S.; Beggs, Steven E.; Hays, Graeme C.; Doyle, Thomas K.

    2014-08-01

    Monitoring the abundance and distribution of taxa is essential to assess their contribution to ecosystem processes. For marine taxa that are difficult to study or have long been perceived of little ecological importance, quantitative information is often lacking. This is the case for jellyfish (medusae and other gelatinous plankton). In the present work, 4 years of scyphomedusae by-catch data from the 2007-2010 Irish Sea juvenile gadoid fish survey were analysed with three main objectives: (1) to provide quantitative and spatially-explicit species-specific biomass data, for a region known to have an increasing trend in jellyfish abundance; (2) to investigate whether year-to-year changes in catch-biomass are due to changes in the numbers or in the size of medusa (assessed as the mean mass per individual), and (3) to determine whether inter-annual variation patterns are consistent between species and water masses. Scyphomedusae were present in 97% of samples (N = 306). Their overall annual median catch-biomass ranged from 0.19 to 0.92 g m-3 (or 8.6 to 42.4 g m-2). Aurelia aurita and Cyanea spp. (Cyanea lamarckii and Cyanea capillata) made up 77.7% and 21.5% of the total catch-biomass respectively, but species contributions varied greatly between sub-regions and years. No consistent pattern was detected between the distribution and inter-annual variations of the two genera, and contrasting inter-annual patterns emerged when considering abundance either as biomass or as density. Significantly, A. aurita medusae were heavier in stratified than in mixed waters, which we hypothesize may be linked to differences in timing and yield of primary and secondary productions between water masses. These results show the vulnerability of time-series from bycatch datasets to phenological changes and highlight the importance of taking species- and population-specific distribution patterns into account when integrating jellyfish into ecosystem models.

  1. Nemopilema nomurai Jellyfish venom treatment leads to alterations in rat cardiomyocytes proteome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indu Choudhary

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This data article restrains data associated to the Choudhary et al. [1]. Nemopilema nomurai Jellyfish venom (NnV can lead to cardiac toxicity. Here we analyzed the effect of NnV on rat cardiomyocytes cell line H9c2 at the proteome level using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS. This analysis resulted in 34 proteins with differential expression. Here we provide the dataset for the proteins with amplified or reduced level as compare to control.

  2. Analyzing Beach Recreationists' Preferences for the Reduction of Jellyfish Blooms: Economic Results from a Stated-Choice Experiment in Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Paulo A L D; Loureiro, Maria L; Piñol, Laia; Sastre, Sergio; Voltaire, Louinord; Canepa, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Jellyfish outbreaks and their consequences appear to be on the increase around the world, and are becoming particularly relevant in the Mediterranean. No previous studies have quantified tourism losses caused by jellyfish outbreaks. We used a stated-choice questionnaire and a Random Utility Model to estimate the amount of time respondents would be willing to add to their journey, in terms of reported extra travel time, in order to reduce the risk of encountering jellyfish blooms in the Catalan coast. The estimation results indicated that the respondents were willing to spend on average an additional 23.8% of their travel time to enjoy beach recreation in areas with a lower risk of jellyfish blooms. Using as a reference the opportunity cost of time, we found that the subsample of individuals who made a trade-off between the disutility generated by travelling longer in order to lower the risk of jellyfish blooms, and the utility gained from reducing this risk, are willing to pay on average €3.20 per beach visit. This estimate, combined with the respondents' mean income, yielded annual economic gains associated with reduction of jellyfish blooms on the Catalan coast around €422.57 million, or about 11.95% of the tourism expenditures in 2012. From a policy-making perspective, this study confirms the importance of the economic impacts of jellyfish blooms and the need for mitigation strategies. In particular, providing daily information using social media applications or other technical devices may reduce these social costs. The current lack of knowledge about jellyfish suggests that providing this information to beach recreationists may be a substantially effective policy instrument for minimising the impact of jellyfish blooms. PMID:26053674

  3. Is it possible to determine the economic impact of jellyfish outbreaks on fisheries? A Case Study – Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. NASTAV

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The interdependence between the economy and the environment is becoming a fact of increasing importance. Productive coastal areas have been recognised as one of the most valuable ecosystems from an ecological and socio-economic point of view. In this paper we focus on the massive presence of jellyfish in the northern Adriatic and their effect on the Slovenian economy. Our results indicate that high jellyfish abundance in 2004 resulted in a reduction of fish catch, value added, gross income, and employment in the fishing industry. Moreover, the government and the EU have acknowledged the impact of jellyfish on the fishing industry by allocating financial help to the fishermen involved. We attempted to assess other factors influencing the fishing industry but none were statistically significant. The input-output analysis has not revealed a significant impact on the entire Slovenian economy presumably due to the small contribution of the fishing industry to Slovenian GDP. Our work is a first attempt to relate ecological changes such as jellyfish outbreaks in the northern Adriatic to the wider economy and we suggest that such a methodology can be applied to other countries/regions and to other natural phenomena affecting the economy.

  4. Projection optics box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Layton C.; Malsbury, Terry; Hudyma, Russell M.; Parker, John M.

    2000-01-01

    A projection optics box or assembly for use in an optical assembly, such as in an extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) system using 10-14 nm soft x-ray photons. The projection optics box utilizes a plurality of highly reflective optics or mirrors, each mounted on a precision actuator, and which reflects an optical image, such as from a mask, in the EUVL system onto a point of use, such as a target or silicon wafer, the mask, for example, receiving an optical signal from a source assembly, such as a developed from laser system, via a series of highly reflective mirrors of the EUVL system. The plurality of highly reflective optics or mirrors are mounted in a housing assembly comprised of a series of bulkheads having wall members secured together to form a unit construction of maximum rigidity. Due to the precision actuators, the mirrors must be positioned precisely and remotely in tip, tilt, and piston (three degrees of freedom), while also providing exact constraint.

  5. Morphology controlling method for amorphous silica nanoparticles and jellyfish-like nanowires and their luminescence properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haitao; Huang, Zhaohui; Huang, Juntong; Xu, Song; Fang, Minghao; Liu, Yan-Gai; Wu, Xiaowen; Zhang, Shaowei

    2016-03-01

    Uniform silica nanoparticles and jellyfish-like nanowires were synthesized by a chemical vapour deposition method on Si substrates treated without and with Ni(NO3)2, using silicon powder as the source material. Composition and structural characterization using field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy showed that the as-prepared products were silica nanoparticles and nanowires which have amorphous structures. The form of nanoparticles should be related to gas-phase nucleation procedure. The growth of the nanowires was in accordance with vapour-liquid-solid mechanism, followed by Ostwald ripening to form the jellyfish-like morphology. Photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence measurements showed that the silica products excited by different light sources show different luminescence properties. The emission spectra of both silica nanoparticles and nanowires are due to the neutral oxygen vacancies (≡Si-Si≡). The as-synthesized silica with controlled morphology can find potential applications in future nanodevices with tailorable photoelectric properties.

  6. Structural and Developmental Disparity in the Tentacles of the Moon Jellyfish Aurelia sp.1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Gold

    Full Text Available Tentacles armed with stinging cells (cnidocytes are a defining trait of the cnidarians, a phylum that includes sea anemones, corals, jellyfish, and hydras. While cnidarian tentacles are generally characterized as structures evolved for feeding and defense, significant variation exists between the tentacles of different species, and within the same species across different life stages and/or body regions. Such diversity suggests cryptic distinctions exist in tentacle function. In this paper, we use confocal and transmission electron microscopy to contrast the structure and development of tentacles in the moon jellyfish, Aurelia species 1. We show that polyp oral tentacles and medusa marginal tentacles display markedly different cellular and muscular architecture, as well as distinct patterns of cellular proliferation during growth. Many structural differences between these tentacle types may reflect biomechanical solutions to different feeding strategies, although further work would be required for a precise mechanistic understanding. However, differences in cell proliferation dynamics suggests that the two tentacle forms lack a conserved mechanism of development, challenging the textbook-notion that cnidarian tentacles can be homologized into a conserved bauplan.

  7. Investigation into the hemolytic activity of tentacle venom from jellyfish Cyanea nozakii Kishinouye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cuiping; Yu, Huahua; Li, Rongfeng; Xing, Ronge; Liu, Song; Li, Pengcheng

    2016-03-01

    Cyanea nozakii Kishinouy e ( C. nozakii), a giant cnidarian of the class Scyphomedusae, order Semaeostomeae and family Cyaneidae, is widely distributed in the East China Sea, the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea, and is abundant from late summer to early autumn. Venom produced by C. nozakii during mass agglomerations can contaminate seawater resulting in death of the halobios and seriously damage commercial fisheries. Swimmers and fishermen commonly suff er painful stings from this jellyfish, resulting in local edema, tingling, breathing difficulties, depressed blood pressure and even death. Such effects arise from the complex mixture of biologically active molecules that make up jellyfish venom. In the present study, the hemolytic activity of venom from tentacles of C. nozakii and factors aff ecting its activity were assayed. The HU50 ( defined as the amount of protein required to lyse 50 % of erythrocytes) of the venom against dove and chicken erythrocytes was 34 and 59 μg/mL, respectively. Carboxylmethyl chitosan and glycerol could increase hemolytic activity at concentrations greater than 0.06% and 0.2 mol/L, respectively.

  8. A jellyfish-inspired jet propulsion robot actuated by an iris mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A jellyfish-inspired jet propulsion robot (JetPRo) is designed, fabricated, and characterized with the objective of creating a fast-swimming uncrewed undersea vehicle. JetPRo measures 7.9 cm in height, 5.7 cm in diameter and is designed to mimic the proficient jetting propulsion mechanism used by the hydromedusa Sarsia tubulosa, which measures approximately 1 cm in diameter. In order to achieve the uniform-bell contraction used by S. tubulosa, we develop a novel circumferential actuation technique based on a mechanical iris diaphragm. When triggered, this mechanism induces a volumetric change of a deformable silicone cavity to expel a jet of fluid and produces positive thrust. A theoretical jetting model is used to optimize JetPRo’s gait for maximum steady-state swimming velocity, a result achieved by minimizing the timing between the contraction and relaxation phases. We validate this finding empirically and quantify the swimming performance of the robot using video tracking and time resolved digital particle image velocimetry. JetPRo was able to produce discrete vortex rings shed before pinch off and swim upwards with a maximum steady-state velocity of 11.6 cm s−1, outperforming current state-of-the-art robotic jellyfish in velocity as well as diameter-normalized velocity. (paper)

  9. Predation by jellyfish on large and emergent zooplankton: Implications for benthic pelagic coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, Kylie A.; Clement, Anne-Laure; Connolly, Rod M.; Thibault-Botha, Delphine

    2008-03-01

    Stable carbon isotopes were used to determine the contribution of emergent demersal zooplankton to the diet of the scyphozoan jellyfish Catostylus mosaicus at Smiths Lake, New South Wales, Australia. A preliminary study in 2004 indicated that there was no difference in the δ13C of ectodermal tissue and mesoglea of the medusae. In 2005, medusae and zooplankton present during the day and night were sampled and isotopic signatures were modelled using IsoSource. Modelling indicated that: (1) mollusc veligers and copepods sampled during the day contributed Lucifer sp. contributed 88-94%. We hypothesised, therefore, that medusae derive most of their carbon from emergent species of zooplankton. In 2006, sampling done in 2005 was repeated three times over a period of 4 weeks to measure short-term temporal variation in isotopic signatures of medusae and zooplankton, and emergent demersal zooplankton was specifically sampled using emergence traps. Short-term temporal variation in isotopic signatures was observed for some taxa, however, actual variations were small (Lucifer sp. or mysid shrimp. Small but abundantly captured zooplankton (such as mollusc veligers) contribute only minor amounts of carbon. Jellyfish have a major role in the transfer of carbon between benthic and pelagic food webs in coastal systems.

  10. Jellyfish collagen and alginate: Combined marine materials for superior chondrogenesis of hMSC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustlauk, W; Paul, B; Gelinsky, M; Bernhardt, A

    2016-07-01

    Marine, hybrid constructs of porous scaffolds from fibrillized jellyfish collagen and alginate hydrogel are mimicking both of the main tissue components of cartilage, thus being a promising approach for chondrogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC). Investigating their potential for articular cartilage repair, the present study examined scaffolds being either infiltrated with an alginate-cell-suspension (ACS) or seeded with hMSC and embedded in alginate after cell adhesion (EAS). Hybrid constructs with 2×10(5) and 4.5×10(5)hMSC/scaffold were compared to hMSC encapsulated in pure alginate discs, both chondrogenically stimulated for 21days. Typical round, chondrocyte-like morphology was observed in pure alginate gels and ACS scaffolds, while cells in EAS were elongated and tightly attached to the collagen pores. Col 2 gene expression was comparable in all scaffold types examined. However, the Col 2/Col 1 ratio was higher for pure alginate discs and ACS scaffolds compared to EAS. In contrast, cells in EAS scaffolds displayed higher gene expression of Sox 9, Col 11 and ACAN compared to ACS and pure alginate. Secretion of sulfated glycosaminoglycans (sGAG) was comparable for ACS and EAS scaffolds. In conclusion hybrid constructs of jellyfish collagen and alginate support hMSC chondrogenic differentiation and provide more stable and constructs compared to pure hydrogels. PMID:27127044

  11. 海蜇制品中铝的研究进展%Research progress of aluminum in jellyfish products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李颖畅; 包桂林; 吕艳芳

    2014-01-01

    海蜇制品中胶原蛋白等营养成分含量丰富,具有抗氧化、抗疲劳和增强免疫力等生理功能,同时海蜇制品具有特殊的口感,深受广大消费者的喜爱,但是铝元素在海蜇等食品中广泛存在,其并非人体所需元素,铝摄入量超标会对中枢系统、生殖系统、骨骼和造血系统有潜在的慢性毒性,危害人体健康。本文综述了铝对人体健康的危害、海蜇制品中铝的检测方法、铝的去除方法,并对海蜇制品中铝的研究进行了展望。%The content of nutrients in jellyfish products is rich such as collagen. Collagen has antioxidant and antifatigue, enhance immunity. Jellyfish products were favored by consumers because of its special taste. Aluminum widely exists in jellyfish products and other food, but it is not necessary for human. Aluminum will have the potential chronic toxicity of central nervous system, reproductive system, skeletal and hematopoietic system when aluminum content in body exceeds the standard content. Aluminum will cause great harm to hu-man health. The harm of aluminum on human health, detection method of aluminum, aluminum removal of jellyfish and the prospect of aluminum in the jellyfish products were discussed.

  12. Glove-box filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Description is given of a device for simply and rapidly assembling and dissassembling the filters used inside sealed enclosures, such as glove-boxes and shielded cells equipped with nippers or manipulators, said filters being of the type comprising a cylindrical casing containing a filtering member, the upper portion of said casing being open so as to allow the gases to be cleaned to flow in, whereas the casing bottom is centrally provided with a hole extended outwardly by a threaded collar on which is screwed a connecting-sleeve to be fixed to the mouth of a gas outlet pipe. To a yoke transverse bar is welded a pin which can be likened to a bent spring-blade, one arm of which welded to said transverse bar, is rectilinear whereas its other arm is provided with a boss cooperating with a cavity made in a protrusion of said pipe, right under the mouth thereof

  13. ACSYS in a box

    CERN Document Server

    Briegel, C; Hendricks, B; King, C; Lackey, S; Neswold, R; Nicklaus, D; Patrick, J; Petrov, A; Rechenmacher, R; Schumann, C; Smedinghoff, J

    2012-01-01

    The Accelerator Control System at Fermilab has evolved to enable this relatively large control system to be encapsulated into a "box" such as a laptop. The goal was to provide a platform isolated from the "online" control system. This platform can be used internally for making major upgrades and modifications without impacting operations. It also provides a standalone environment for research and development including a turnkey control system for collaborators. Over time, the code base running on Scientific Linux has enabled all the salient features of the Fermilab's control system to be captured in an off-the-shelf laptop. The anticipated additional benefits of packaging the system include improved maintenance, reliability, documentation, and future enhancements.

  14. Cardboard Boxes: Learning Concepts Galore!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Laverne; Wilmoth, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Mrs. Keenan, a preschool teacher, observed her 3-year-old granddaughter Riley pull, tug, and stack piles of holiday boxes on the floor. She remembered that her child care director had suggested using boxes as a curriculum theme, but she hadn't given much thought about the idea until now. She said to herself, "I wonder if my children would be as…

  15. Students' approaches to mathematical tasks using software as a black-box, glass-box or open-box

    OpenAIRE

    Hosein, Anesa

    2009-01-01

    Three mathematical software modes are investigated in this thesis: black-box software showing no mathematical steps; glass-box software showing the intermediate mathematical steps; and open-box software showing and allowing interaction at the intermediate mathematical steps. The glass-box and open-box software modes are often recommended over the black-box software to help understanding but there is limited research comparing all three. This research investigated students' performance and the...

  16. Method of positioning channel box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upon measuring the dimension of a channel box by disposing ultrasonic sensors to the uppermost portion of a measuring device main body, the deviation of the channel box from the center of the device main body is detected by measuring the distance betwen the sensors at the uppermost portion of the device main body and the lower end of the channel box for four surfaces simultaneously. The direction and the distance for moving the channel box to the center of the device main body are calculated based on the results to feedback tham for the operation of a fuel exchanger, thereby positioning the channel box upon insertion to the device main body. That is, a fuel assembly loaded with the channel box is gradually brought down being suspended from a crane and the position of the channel box is recognized by the ultrasonic sensors, thereafter, the position of the center is corrected and it is brought down again and the outer dimension is measured. Accurate positioning in a short periodof time is enabled and operator's burden can be mitigated to prevent the danger of indury. (N.H.)

  17. Prokaryotic microbiota in the digestive cavity of the jellyfish Cotylorhiza tuberculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Lara, Sara; Urdiain, Mercedes; Mora-Ruiz, Merit; Prieto, Laura; Rosselló-Móra, Ramon

    2015-10-01

    The microbiota associated to the gastric cavity of four exemplars of the jellyfish Cotylorhiza tuberculata has been studied by means of cultured-dependent and -independent methods. The pyrosequencing approach rendered a very reduced diversity of Bacteria with four major groups shared by the four exemplars that made up to 95% of the total diversity. The culturing approach recovered low abundant organisms and some of them also detected by the pyrosequencing approach. The major key organisms were related to the genera Spiroplasma, Thalassospira, Tenacibaculum (from the pyrosequencing data), and Vibrio (from the cultivable fraction). Altogether the results indicate that C. tuberculata harbors an associated microbiota of very reduced diversity. On the other hand, some of the major key players may be potential pathogens and the host may serve as dispersal mechanism. PMID:26219225

  18. Jellyfish: The origin and distribution of extreme ram-pressure stripping events in massive galaxy clusters

    CERN Document Server

    McPartland, Conor; Roediger, Elke; Blumenthal, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the observational signatures and physical origin of ram-pressure stripping (RPS) in 63 massive galaxy clusters at $z=0.3-0.7$, based on images obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope. Using a training set of a dozen "jellyfish" galaxies identified earlier in the same imaging data, we define morphological criteria to select 211 additional, less obvious cases of RPS. Spectroscopic follow-up observations of 124 candidates so far confirmed 53 as cluster members. For the brightest and most favourably aligned systems we visually derive estimates of the projected direction of motion based on the orientation of apparent compression shocks and debris trails. Our findings suggest that the onset of these events occurs primarily at large distances from the cluster core ($>400$ kpc), and that the trajectories of the affected galaxies feature high impact parameters. Simple models show that such trajectories are highly improbable for galaxy infall along filaments but common for infall at high velocities, eve...

  19. From jellyfish to biosensors: the use of fluorescent proteins in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Ute; Larrieu, Antoine; Wells, Darren M

    2013-01-01

    The milestone discovery of green fluorescent protein (GFP) from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria, its optimisation for efficient use in plantae, and subsequent improvements in techniques for fluorescent detection and quantification have changed plant molecular biology research dramatically. Using fluorescent protein tags allows the temporal and spatial monitoring of dynamic expression patterns at tissue, cellular and subcellular scales. Genetically-encoded fluorescence has become the basis for applications such as cell-type specific transcriptomics, monitoring cell fate and identity during development of individual organs or embryos, and visualising protein-protein interactions in vivo. In this article, we will give an overview of currently available fluorescent proteins, their applications in plant research, the techniques used to analyse them and, using the recent development of an auxin sensor as an example, discuss the design principles and prospects for the next generation of fluorescent plant biosensors. PMID:24166435

  20. Jellyfish: the origin and distribution of extreme ram-pressure stripping events in massive galaxy clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPartland, Conor; Ebeling, Harald; Roediger, Elke; Blumenthal, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the observational signatures and physical origin of ram-pressure stripping (RPS) in 63 massive galaxy clusters at z = 0.3-0.7, based on images obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope. Using a training set of a dozen `jellyfish' galaxies identified earlier in the same imaging data, we define morphological criteria to select 211 additional, less obvious cases of RPS. Spectroscopic follow-up observations of 124 candidates so far confirmed 53 as cluster members. For the brightest and most favourably aligned systems, we visually derive estimates of the projected direction of motion based on the orientation of apparent compression shocks and debris trails. Our findings suggest that the onset of these events occurs primarily at large distances from the cluster core (>400 kpc), and that the trajectories of the affected galaxies feature high-impact parameters. Simple models show that such trajectories are highly improbable for galaxy infall along filaments but common for infall at high velocities, even after observational biases are accounted for, provided the duration of the resulting RPS events is ≲500 Myr. We thus tentatively conclude that extreme RPS events are preferentially triggered by cluster mergers, an interpretation that is supported by the disturbed dynamical state of many of the host clusters. This hypothesis implies that extreme RPS might occur also near the cores of merging poor clusters or even merging groups of galaxies. Finally, we present nine additional `jellyfish" galaxies at z > 0.3 discovered by us, thereby doubling the number of such systems known at intermediate redshift.

  1. Microclimate boxes for panel paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadum, Jørgen

    The use of microclimate boxes to protect vulnerable panel paintings is, therefore, not a new phenomenon of the past two or three decades. Rather, it has been a concern for conservators and curators to protect these objects of art at home and in transit since the end of the nineteenth century. The...... increased number of travelling exhibitions in recent years has heightened the need to protect paintings during circulation (Thomson 1961; Mecklenburg 1991). The use and design of microclimate boxes have been evolving since 1892. These boxes may be divided into three broad groups: those using an active...

  2. Two-dimensional box plot

    OpenAIRE

    Phattrawan Tongkumchum

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we propose a two-dimensional box plot, a simple bivariate extension of the box plot and the scatter plot. This plot comprises a pair of trapeziums oriented in the direction of a fitted straight line, with symbols denoting extreme values. The choice for the fitted straight resistant line showing the relationship between the two variables is Tukey’s resistance line. The main components of the plot are an inner box containing 50% of the projection points of the observations on the ...

  3. Myiasis in two box turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, W J; Georgi, M E

    1991-10-15

    Two eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) were treated for myiasis caused by Sarcophaga cistudinis. The tortoises were examined because of swellings of the proximal cervical regions. Both fully recovered following surgical removal of multiple larvae. PMID:1748614

  4. Diversity, phylogeny and expression patterns of Pou and Six homeodomain transcription factors in hydrozoan jellyfish Craspedacusta sowerbyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hroudova, Miluse; Vojta, Petr; Strnad, Hynek; Krejcik, Zdenek; Ridl, Jakub; Paces, Jan; Vlcek, Cestmir; Paces, Vaclav

    2012-01-01

    Formation of all metazoan bodies is controlled by a group of selector genes including homeobox genes, highly conserved across the entire animal kingdom. The homeobox genes from Pou and Six classes are key members of the regulation cascades determining development of sensory organs, nervous system, gonads and muscles. Besides using common bilaterian models, more attention has recently been targeted at the identification and characterization of these genes within the basal metazoan phyla. Cnidaria as a diploblastic sister group to bilateria with simple and yet specialized organs are suitable models for studies on the sensory organ origin and the associated role of homeobox genes. In this work, Pou and Six homeobox genes, together with a broad range of other sensory-specific transcription factors, were identified in the transcriptome of hydrozoan jellyfish Craspedacusta sowerbyi. Phylogenetic analyses of Pou and Six proteins revealed cnidarian-specific sequence motifs and contributed to the classification of individual factors. The majority of the Craspedacusta sowerbyi Pou and Six homeobox genes are predominantly expressed in statocysts, manubrium and nerve ring, the tissues with sensory and nervous activities. The described diversity and expression patterns of Pou and Six factors in hydrozoan jellyfish highlight their evolutionarily conserved functions. This study extends the knowledge of the cnidarian genome complexity and shows that the transcriptome of hydrozoan jellyfish is generally rich in homeodomain transcription factors employed in the regulation of sensory and nervous functions. PMID:22558464

  5. Thinking Outside the Box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The World Nuclear Transport Institute was formed to fill a need to provide a dedicated vehicle for the radioactive transport and packaging industry sectors worldwide, to exchange information and ideas, all with a view to working toward consolidated industry positions on the key issues affecting safe, efficient and reliable transport. WNTI was also intended to be a strong voice for industry in those international and national bodies where deliberations on such transport safety issues take place. The very fact that companies, sometimes in competition with each other, were prepared to come together in this way, reflects two important points: firstly, it represents an acknowledgement on industry's part that safe, effective and reliable transport is the sine qua non, the absolute essential. And second, it is a recognition that it is enhanced to the extent that industry is able to collaborate to this end. This is thinking outside the box. Another important attribute of safety is 'stability'. Everyone likes to know where he or she stands. The radioactive materials packaging and transport industry thrives within a stable regulatory framework for safety. For a stable regulatory regime allows operators to be properly trained; it allows operators to become familiar with safety requirements, and to be at ease with them. Stability is conducive to safety and efficiency. Stability is good for business too - for stability in package and transport requirements allows sufficient time for a fair return on investment in expensive package design, manufacture, licensing and use over time. Stability should not, however, be opposed to creativity. From experience we can develop new thinking to improve efficiency as illustrated in examples of work related to the packaging and transport of Uranium Concentrates for instance.. Another example is work within WNTI on the thermal test requirements for the packaging of uranium hexafluoride. The robustness of packages is based on the risk factors

  6. Comparison of black-box, glass-box and open-box software for aiding conceptual understanding

    OpenAIRE

    Hosein, Anesa; Aczel, James; Clow, Doug; Richardson, John T. E.

    2008-01-01

    Three mathematical software types: black-box (no steps shown), glass-box (steps shown) and open-box (interactive steps) were used by 32 students to solve conceptual and procedural tasks on the computer via remote observation. Comparison of the three software types suggests that there is no difference in the scores that students receive for conceptual understanding tasks. Students using the black-box are more likely to explore answers than students using the glass and open-box software.

  7. Plate forming and break down pizza box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantisano, Frank; Devine, Scott M.

    1992-01-01

    A standard corrugated paper pizza box is provided with slit cuts cut through the top panel of the pizza box in a shape to form four circular serving plates with a beveled raised edge and cross slit cuts through the bottom panel of the pizza box separating the box into four essentially equal portions for easy disposal.

  8. First-aid boxes - Reminder

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    With a view to ensuring optimum use of the first-aid boxes on the CERN site, we should like to remind you of various changes introduced in March 2009: The TSO of the buildings concerned is responsible for the first-aid boxes, including checking their contents.   First-aid boxes may be restocked ONLY at the CERN stores (SCEM No. 54.99.80). This is no longer possible at the Infirmary. The associated cost is charged to the Departments.   First-aid boxes should be used only for mild injuries. All other cases should be referred to the Medical Service Infirmary (Bldg. 57 – ground-floor, tel. 73802) between 8.00 a.m. and 5.30 p.m. or to the Fire and Rescue Service (tel. 74444). N.B.: This information does not apply to the red emergency first-aid boxes in the underground areas or to the emergency kits for use in the event of being splashed with hydrofluoric acid.

  9. Asymptotic Symmetries from finite boxes

    CERN Document Server

    Andrade, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    It is natural to regulate an infinite-sized system by imposing a boundary condition at finite distance, placing the system in a "box." This breaks symmetries, though the breaking is small when the box is large. One should thus be able to obtain the asymptotic symmetries of the infinite system by studying regulated systems. We provide concrete examples in the context of Einstein-Hilbert gravity (with negative or zero cosmological constant) by showing in 4 or more dimensions how the Anti-de Sitter and Poincar\\'e asymptotic symmetries can be extracted from gravity in a spherical box with Dirichlet boundary conditions. In 2+1 dimensions we obtain the full double-Virasoro algebra of asymptotic symmetries for AdS$_3$ and, correspondingly, the full Bondi-Metzner-Sachs (BMS) algebra for asymptotically flat space. In higher dimensions, a related approach may continue to be useful for constructing a good asymptotically flat phase space with BMS asymptotic symmetries.

  10. Asymptotic symmetries from finite boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Tomás; Marolf, Donald

    2016-01-01

    It is natural to regulate an infinite-sized system by imposing a boundary condition at finite distance, placing the system in a 'box.' This breaks symmetries, though the breaking is small when the box is large. One should thus be able to obtain the asymptotic symmetries of the infinite system by studying regulated systems. We provide concrete examples in the context of Einstein-Hilbert gravity (with negative or zero cosmological constant) by showing in 4 or more dimensions how the anti-de Sitter and Poincaré asymptotic symmetries can be extracted from gravity in a spherical box with Dirichlet boundary conditions. In 2 + 1 dimensions we obtain the full double-Virasoro algebra of asymptotic symmetries for AdS3 and, correspondingly, the full Bondi-Metzner-Sachs (BMS) algebra for asymptotically flat space. In higher dimensions, a related approach may continue to be useful for constructing a good asymptotically flat phase space with BMS asymptotic symmetries.

  11. Identifying competencies of boxing coaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Tasiopoulos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to find out the management skills required by boxing coaches to administrate their clubs. For the purposes of this study a scale was constructed which was answered by 98 boxing coaches. Explanatory factor analysis revealed seven factors: Communication-public relations (5 items, event management (4 items, management techniques (4 items, new technologies (4 items, prevention-safety (2 items, sport (5 items and sports facilities (2 items. The Cronbach of the scale was 0.85. The five competencies that rated by the coaches were: Supervisors of the area of training, maintaining excellent communication with athletes, using new technologies (e-mail, internet, handling disciplinary matters, accidents, complaints and reports on some sporting games and promoted harmony among athletes. We concluded that boxing coaches understand that the competencies required for meeting their obligations, were related to sports, prevention, safety and communications-public relations.

  12. Changes in bacterial community metabolism and composition during the degradation of dissolved organic matter from the jellyfish Aurelia aurita in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchet, Marine; Pringault, Olivier; Bouvy, Marc; Catala, Philippe; Oriol, Louise; Caparros, Jocelyne; Ortega-Retuerta, Eva; Intertaglia, Laurent; West, Nyree; Agis, Martin; Got, Patrice; Joux, Fabien

    2015-09-01

    Spatial increases and temporal shifts in outbreaks of gelatinous plankton have been observed over the past several decades in many estuarine and coastal ecosystems. The effects of these blooms on marine ecosystem functioning and particularly on the dynamics of the heterotrophic bacteria are still unclear. The response of the bacterial community from a Mediterranean coastal lagoon to the addition of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from the jellyfish Aurelia aurita, corresponding to an enrichment of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) by 1.4, was assessed for 22 days in microcosms (8 l). The high bioavailability of this material led to (i) a rapid mineralization of the DOC and dissolved organic nitrogen from the jellyfish and (ii) the accumulation of high concentrations of ammonium and orthophosphate in the water column. DOM from jellyfish greatly stimulated heterotrophic prokaryotic production and respiration rates during the first 2 days; then, these activities showed a continuous decay until reaching those measured in the control microcosms (lagoon water only) at the end of the experiment. Bacterial growth efficiency remained below 20%, indicating that most of the DOM was respired and a minor part was channeled to biomass production. Changes in bacterial diversity were assessed by tag pyrosequencing of partial bacterial 16S rRNA genes, DNA fingerprints, and a cultivation approach. While bacterial diversity in control microcosms showed little changes during the experiment, the addition of DOM from the jellyfish induced a rapid growth of Pseudoalteromonas and Vibrio species that were isolated. After 9 days, the bacterial community was dominated by Bacteroidetes, which appeared more adapted to metabolize high-molecular-weight DOM. At the end of the experiment, the bacterial community shifted toward a higher proportion of Alphaproteobacteria. Resilience of the bacterial community after the addition of DOM from the jellyfish was higher for metabolic functions than diversity

  13. Effect of Venom from the Jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai on the Silkworm Bombyx mori L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huahua Yu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The silkworm Bombyx mori L. (B. mori has a significant impact on the economy by producing more than 80% of the globally produced raw silk. The exposure of silkworm to pesticides may cause adverse effects on B. mori, such as a reduction in the production and quality of silk. This study aims to assay the effect of venom from the jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai on growth, cuticle and acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity of the silkworm B. mori by the leaf dipping method. The experimental results revealed that the four samples caused neither antifeeding nor a lethal effect on B. mori. The sample SFV inhibited B. mori growth after 6 days of treatment in a dose-dependent manner. The samples SFV, DSFV and Fr-1 inhibited the precipitation and synthesis of chitin in the cuticle after 12 and 14 days of treatment. In the case of the four samples, the AChE was significantly improved after 14 days of treatment.

  14. Innovations in Los Alamos alpha box design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Destructive examinations of irradiated fuel pins containing plutonium fuel must be performed in shielded hot cells with strict provisions for containing the plutonium. Alpha boxes provide containment for the plutonium, toxic fission products, and other hazardous highly radioactive materials. The alpha box contains windows for viewing and a variety of transfer systems specially designed to allow transfers in and out of the alpha box without spread of the hazardous materials that are contained in the box. Alpha boxes have been in use in the Wing 9 hot cells at Los Alamos National Laboratory for more than 20 years. Features of the newly designed alpha boxes are presented

  15. Innovations in Los Alamos alpha box design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledbetter, J.M.; Dowler, K.E.; Cook, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    Destructive examinations of irradiated fuel pins containing plutonium fuel must be performed in shielded hot cells with strict provisions for containing the plutonium. Alpha boxes provide containment for the plutonium, toxic fission products, and other hazardous highly radioactive materials. The alpha box contains windows for viewing and a variety of transfer systems specially designed to allow transfers in and out of the alpha box without spread of the hazardous materials that are contained in the box. Alpha boxes have been in use in the Wing 9 hot cells at Los Alamos National Laboratory for more than 20 years. Features of the newly designed alpha boxes are presented.

  16. Partons of a spherical box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculation of parton distributions in the 'cavity approximation' to the MIT bag model gives a divergent sum of positive terms. In this version of the model the flexible movable bag is replaced by an inflexible immovable box. This suggests that Bjorken scaling does not hold for the deep inelastic scattering in this version of the model. (K.A.)

  17. On the Dirichlet's Box Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Kin-Keung; Shiu, Wai-Chee

    2008-01-01

    In this note, we will focus on several applications on the Dirichlet's box principle in Discrete Mathematics lesson and number theory lesson. In addition, the main result is an innovative game on a triangular board developed by the authors. The game has been used in teaching and learning mathematics in Discrete Mathematics and some high schools in…

  18. A Box Full of Kisses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔增印

    2008-01-01

    The story goes that some time ago,a man pun- ished his 3-year-old daughter for wasting a roll of gold wrapping paper.Money was tight and he became infuriated when the child tried to decorate a box to put under the Christmas tree.Nevertheless,the little girl brought the gift to

  19. In vivo analysis of effects of venom from the jellyfish Chrysaora sp. in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra-Amezcua, Mayra P; Guerrero-Legarreta, Isabel; González-Márquez, Humberto; Guzmán-García, Xochitl

    2016-04-01

    The jellyfishes of the genus Chrysaora are present in all of the world's oceans, but the toxicity of their venoms has not yet been thoroughly characterized. The zebrafish as a toxicology model can be used for general toxicity testing of drugs and the investigation of toxicological mechanisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of crude venom from jellyfish Chrysaora sp., a species of jellyfish observed in the tropical lagoons of the Gulf of Mexico, on the zebrafish Danio rerio. Juvenile zebrafish were injected with different concentrations of venom from Chrysaora sp. via intraperitoneal and subcutaneous injections. The effects of the venom were determined by histopathological analysis and through the measurement of hemolytic and phospholipase A2 activities. The crude venom was examined by SDS-PAGE. The effect of sublethal concentrations of crude venom from Chrysaora sp. on D. rerio was hemorrhaging in the eyes, while the histopathological analysis demonstrated that the primary organs targeted were the pseudobranch, which displayed hyperemia, and the gill, which displayed hyperplasia and hypertrophy. The blood analysis exhibited hemolysis, nuclear abnormalities, and echinocytes by the action of phospholipase A2, which was determined to have 596 units of activity/mg of protein in the venom. The crude venom has proteins with molecular weights ranging from 250 to 6 kDa, with more density in the bands corresponding to 70, 20 and 15 kDa. The venom of Chysaora sp. caused disturbances in circulation associated with vascular dilation due to the localized release of inflammatory mediators. The hemolysis of erythrocytes was caused by the action of phospholipase A2. These findings not only provide an excellent study model but also have a great pharmacological potential for designing new drugs and for the elucidation of the mechanisms of action of and treatment against stings. PMID:26876134

  20. Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion's Pandora's Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News, Videos & Podcasts » Articles » Text Size Print Bookmark Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion’s Pandora’s Box? Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion’s Pandora’s Box? Foot and Ankle Surgeons Warn ...

  1. Jellyfish support high energy intake of leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea: video evidence from animal-borne cameras.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan G Heaslip

    Full Text Available The endangered leatherback turtle is a large, highly migratory marine predator that inexplicably relies upon a diet of low-energy gelatinous zooplankton. The location of these prey may be predictable at large oceanographic scales, given that leatherback turtles perform long distance migrations (1000s of km from nesting beaches to high latitude foraging grounds. However, little is known about the profitability of this migration and foraging strategy. We used GPS location data and video from animal-borne cameras to examine how prey characteristics (i.e., prey size, prey type, prey encounter rate correlate with the daytime foraging behavior of leatherbacks (n = 19 in shelf waters off Cape Breton Island, NS, Canada, during August and September. Video was recorded continuously, averaged 1:53 h per turtle (range 0:08-3:38 h, and documented a total of 601 prey captures. Lion's mane jellyfish (Cyanea capillata was the dominant prey (83-100%, but moon jellyfish (Aurelia aurita were also consumed. Turtles approached and attacked most jellyfish within the camera's field of view and appeared to consume prey completely. There was no significant relationship between encounter rate and dive duration (p = 0.74, linear mixed-effects models. Handling time increased with prey size regardless of prey species (p = 0.0001. Estimates of energy intake averaged 66,018 kJ • d(-1 but were as high as 167,797 kJ • d(-1 corresponding to turtles consuming an average of 330 kg wet mass • d(-1 (up to 840 kg • d(-1 or approximately 261 (up to 664 jellyfish • d(-1. Assuming our turtles averaged 455 kg body mass, they consumed an average of 73% of their body mass • d(-1 equating to an average energy intake of 3-7 times their daily metabolic requirements, depending on estimates used. This study provides evidence that feeding tactics used by leatherbacks in Atlantic Canadian waters are highly profitable and our results are consistent with estimates of mass gain prior to

  2. Jellyfish support high energy intake of leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea): video evidence from animal-borne cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaslip, Susan G; Iverson, Sara J; Bowen, W Don; James, Michael C

    2012-01-01

    The endangered leatherback turtle is a large, highly migratory marine predator that inexplicably relies upon a diet of low-energy gelatinous zooplankton. The location of these prey may be predictable at large oceanographic scales, given that leatherback turtles perform long distance migrations (1000s of km) from nesting beaches to high latitude foraging grounds. However, little is known about the profitability of this migration and foraging strategy. We used GPS location data and video from animal-borne cameras to examine how prey characteristics (i.e., prey size, prey type, prey encounter rate) correlate with the daytime foraging behavior of leatherbacks (n = 19) in shelf waters off Cape Breton Island, NS, Canada, during August and September. Video was recorded continuously, averaged 1:53 h per turtle (range 0:08-3:38 h), and documented a total of 601 prey captures. Lion's mane jellyfish (Cyanea capillata) was the dominant prey (83-100%), but moon jellyfish (Aurelia aurita) were also consumed. Turtles approached and attacked most jellyfish within the camera's field of view and appeared to consume prey completely. There was no significant relationship between encounter rate and dive duration (p = 0.74, linear mixed-effects models). Handling time increased with prey size regardless of prey species (p = 0.0001). Estimates of energy intake averaged 66,018 kJ • d(-1) but were as high as 167,797 kJ • d(-1) corresponding to turtles consuming an average of 330 kg wet mass • d(-1) (up to 840 kg • d(-1)) or approximately 261 (up to 664) jellyfish • d(-1). Assuming our turtles averaged 455 kg body mass, they consumed an average of 73% of their body mass • d(-1) equating to an average energy intake of 3-7 times their daily metabolic requirements, depending on estimates used. This study provides evidence that feeding tactics used by leatherbacks in Atlantic Canadian waters are highly profitable and our results are consistent with estimates of mass gain prior to

  3. The Heuristic Interpretation of Box Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lem, Stephanie; Onghena, Patrick; Verschaffel, Lieven; Van Dooren, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Box plots are frequently used, but are often misinterpreted by students. Especially the area of the box in box plots is often misinterpreted as representing number or proportion of observations, while it actually represents their density. In a first study, reaction time evidence was used to test whether heuristic reasoning underlies this…

  4. Box-shaped halophilic bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Javor, B; Requadt, C; Stoeckenius, W

    1982-01-01

    Three morphologically similar strains of halophilic, box-shaped procaryotes have been isolated from brines collected in the Sinai, Baja California (Mexico), and southern California (United States). Although the isolates in their morphology resemble Walsby's square bacteria, which are a dominant morphological type in the Red Sea and Baja California brines, they are probably not identical to them. The cells show the general characteristics of extreme halophiles and archaebacteria. They contain ...

  5. Broken links and black boxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindbæk, Søren Michael

    2013-01-01

    Long-distance communication has emerged as a particular focus for archaeological exploration using network theory, analysis, and modelling. Initial attempts to adapt methods from social network analysis to archaeological data have, however, struggled to produce decisive results. This paper argues...... ruined network from observable distributions and patterns of association in the archaeological record. In formal terms this is not a problem of network analysis, but network synthesis: the classic problem of cracking codes or reconstructing black-box circuits....

  6. Das k-Box-Produkt

    OpenAIRE

    Elser, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Ziel dieser Doktorarbeit ist es, bekannte und oft verwendete Eigenschaften des Tychonow-Produkts in analoger Form für das k-Box-Produkt zu beweisen, was bisher noch nicht geschehen ist, und die Verbindung zwischen der Infinitären Kombinatorik und der Topologie zu vertiefen. In der Infinitären Kombinatorik, ein Zweig der modernen Mengenlehre, bedient man sich gerne topologischer Begriffe, um einerseits Ergebnisse zu verdeutlichen und um andererseits den sehr abstrakten kombinatorischen Be...

  7. Recombinant expression and solution structure of antimicrobial peptide aurelin from jellyfish Aurelia aurita

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Aurelin was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and its spatial structure was studied by NMR. ► Aurelin compact structure encloses helical regions cross-linked by three disulfide bonds. ► Aurelin shows structural homology to the BgK and ShK toxins of sea anemones. ► Aurelin binds to the anionic lipid vesicles, but does not interact with zwitterionic ones. ► Aurelin binds to DPC micelle surface with moderate affinity via two helical regions. -- Abstract: Aurelin is a 40-residue cationic antimicrobial peptide isolated from the mezoglea of a scyphoid jellyfish Aurelia aurita. Aurelin and its 15N-labeled analogue were overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Antimicrobial activity of the recombinant peptide was examined, and its spatial structure was studied by NMR spectroscopy. Aurelin represents a compact globule, enclosing one 310-helix and two α-helical regions cross-linked by three disulfide bonds. The peptide binds to anionic lipid (POPC/DOPG, 3:1) vesicles even at physiological salt concentration, it does not interact with zwitterionic (POPC) vesicles and interacts with the DPC micelle surface with moderate affinity via two α-helical regions. Although aurelin shows structural homology to the BgK and ShK toxins of sea anemones, its surface does not possess the “functional dyad” required for the high-affinity interaction with the K+-channels. The obtained data permit to correlate the modest antibacterial properties and membrane activity of aurelin.

  8. Jellyfish Lake, Palau: Regeneration of C, N, Si, and P in anoxic marine lake sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, W.B.; Lent, R.M.; Burnett, W.C.; Chin, P.; Landing, W.M.; Orem, W.H.; McArthur, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Sediment cores from Jellyfish Lake were processed under an inert atmosphere and the pore waters extracted and analyzed for the following parameters: pH, titration alkalinity (TA), Cl-, H4SiO4, PO43-, NH4+, Ca2-, Mg2+, SO42-, and H2S. Additionally, in one set of pore-water samples (core 10), the ??13C of the ??CO2 was also determined. The TA, H4SiO4, PO43-, NH4+, and H2S increased with depth in the pore waters above anoxic bottom-water values. H2S values increased to 3.8 ??M. In one case, both H4SiO4 and PO43- concentrations increased to a maximum value and then decreased with depth, suggesting removal into solid phases. The H4SiO4 concentrations are equal to or greater than pore-water values observed in sediments underlying upwelling areas. PO43- concentrations are, in general, lower than pore-water values from terrigenous nearshore areas but higher than nearshore carbonate pore-water values from Florida Bay or Bermuda. The Ca2+, Cl-, and Mg2+: Cl- ratios show slight decreases in the top 15-20 cm, suggesting that authigenic carbonate may be forming. This suggestion is supported by the fact that the pore waters are saturated with respect to CaCO3 due to the very high TAs. The ??13C measurements of the pore-water ??CO2 are from a shorter core. These measurements reach their most negative concentration at 72 cm and then become slightly heavier. This change is accompanied by a decrease in TA, suggesting the onset of methanogenesis at this location in this core.

  9. Effects of large gut volume in gelatinous zooplankton: ingestion rate, bolus production and food patch utilization by the jellyfish Sarsia tubulosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, L.J.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Many gelatinous zooplankton consume a large amount of prey and have stomach volumes much greater than the volume of individual prey. We suggest that jellyfish can use their voluminous stomach as a buffering food-accumulating organ that allows the organism to feed at maximum clearance rate in a wide...

  10. Screening of extraction methods for glycoproteins from jellyfish ( Rhopilema esculentum) oral-arms by high performance liquid chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Guoyan; Li, Bafang; Zhao, Xue; Zhuang, Yongliang; Yan, Mingyan; Hou, Hu; Zhang, Xiukun; Chen, Li

    2009-03-01

    In order to select an optimum extraction method for the target glycoprotein (TGP) from jellyfish ( Rhopilema esculentum) oral-arms, a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-assay for the determination of the TGP was developed. Purified target glycoprotein was taken as a standard glycoprotein. The results showed that the calibration curves for peak area plotted against concentration for TGP were linear ( r = 0.9984, y = 4.5895 x+47.601) over concentrations ranging from 50 to 400 mgL-1. The mean extraction recovery was 97.84% (CV2.60%). The fractions containing TGP were isolated from jellyfish ( R. esculentum) oral-arms by four extraction methods: 1) water extraction (WE), 2) phosphate buffer solution (PBS) extraction (PE), 3) ultrasound-assisted water extraction (UA-WE), 4) ultrasound-assisted PBS extraction (UA-PE). The lyophilized extract was dissolved in Milli-Q water and analyzed directly on a short TSK-GEL G4000PWXL (7.8 mm×300 mm) column. Our results indicated that the UA-PE method was the optimum extraction method selected by HPLC.

  11. Nitrogen and Phosphorus Budget of a Polyculture System of Sea Cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus), Jellyfish (Rhopilema esculenta) and Shrimp (Fenneropenaeus chinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Junwei; DONG Shuanglin; GAO Qinfeng; ZHU Changbo

    2014-01-01

    The nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) budget and the ecological efficiency of a polyculture system of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus), jellyfish (Rhopilema esculenta) and shrimp (Fenneropenaeus chinensis) were studied in a cofferdam, 120.2 ha in size. The nutrients were supplied by spring tide inflow. In total, 139600 kg N yr-1 and 9730 kg P yr-1 input to the system;while 118900 kg N yr-1 and 2840 kg P yr-1 outflowed from the system concurrently, thus the outflow was 85.7%(N) and 29.2%(P) of inflow. The production of N and P was 889.5 kg yr-1 and 49.28 kg yr-1 (sea cucumber) and 204 kg yr-1 and 18.03 kg yr-1 (jellyfish and shrimp), respectively. The utilization rate of N and P by polycultured animals was 7.8‰and 6.9‰, respectively, 21.9%and 38%higher than that of monocultured sea cucumber. Our results indicated that the polyculture system was an efficient culture system of animals and a remediation system of coastal environment as well;it scavenged 14.3%and 70.8%of N and P, respectively. Such an ecological efficiency may be improved further by increasing either the stocking density or the size of sea cucumber or both.

  12. Nitrogen and phosphorus budget of a polyculture system of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus), jellyfish ( Rhopilema esculenta) and shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junwei; Dong, Shuanglin; Gao, Qinfeng; Zhu, Changbo

    2014-06-01

    The nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) budget and the ecological efficiency of a polyculture system of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus), jellyfish ( Rhopilema esculenta) and shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis) were studied in a cofferdam, 120.2 ha in size. The nutrients were supplied by spring tide inflow. In total, 139600 kg N yr-1 and 9730 kg P yr-1 input to the system; while 118900 kg N yr-1 and 2840 kg P yr-1 outflowed from the system concurrently, thus the outflow was 85.7% (N) and 29.2% (P) of inflow. The production of N and P was 889.5 kg yr-1 and 49.28 kg yr-1 (sea cucumber) and 204 kg yr-1 and 18.03 kg yr-1 (jellyfish and shrimp), respectively. The utilization rate of N and P by polycultured animals was 7.8‰ and 6.9‰, respectively, 21.9% and 38% higher than that of monocultured sea cucumber. Our results indicated that the polyculture system was an efficient culture system of animals and a remediation system of coastal environment as well; it scavenged 14.3% and 70.8% of N and P, respectively. Such an ecological efficiency may be improved further by increasing either the stocking density or the size of sea cucumber or both.

  13. The Acute Toxicity and Hematological Characterization of the Effects of Tentacle-Only Extract from the Jellyfish Cyanea capillata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Zhang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the hematologic changes and the activities of jellyfish venoms other than hemolytic and cardiovascular toxicities, the acute toxicity of tentacle-only extract (TOE from the jellyfish Cyanea capillata was observed in mice, and hematological indexes were examined in rats. The median lethal dose (LD50 of TOE was 4.25 mg/kg, and the acute toxicity involved both heart- and nervous system-related symptoms. Arterial blood gas indexes, including pH, PCO2, HCO3−, HCO3std, TCO2, BEecf and BE (B, decreased significantly. PO2 showed a slight increase, while SO2c (% had no change at any time. Na+ and Ca2+ decreased, but K+ increased. Biochemical indexes, including LDH, CK, CK-MB, ALT, AST and sCr, significantly increased. Other biochemical indexes, including BUN and hemodiastase, remained normal. Lactic acid significantly increased, while glucose, Hct% and THbc showed slight temporary increases and then returned to normal. These results on the acute toxicity and hematological changes should improve our understanding of the in vivo pathophysiological effects of TOE from C. capillata and indicate that it may also have neurotoxicity, liver toxicity and muscular toxicity in addition to hemolytic and cardiovascular toxicities, but no kidney or pancreatic toxicity.

  14. Characterising the enzymatic profile of crude tentacle extracts from the South Atlantic jellyfish Olindias sambaquiensis (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knittel, Paloma S; Long, Paul F; Brammall, Lucas; Marques, Antonio C; Almeida, Michelle T; Padilla, Gabriel; Moura-da-Silva, Ana M

    2016-09-01

    Jellyfish venoms are of medical and biotechnological importance, with toxins displaying antimicrobial, analgesic and anti-tumor activities. Although proteolytic enzymes have also been described, detailed characterisation of these proteins is scant in Olindias spp. High throughput mass spectrometry profiling of cnidarian venoms has become increasingly popular since the first description of the proteomic profile of putative toxins isolated from nematocysts of the hydrozoan jellyfish Olindias sambaquiensis describing the presence of orthologous enzymes as presented in venoms of advanced species as snakes. Rigorous bioinformatics analyses can aid functional annotation, but biochemical assays are prerequisite to unambiguously assign toxic function to a peptide or protein. Here we present results that experimentally confirm previously predicted proteomic analysis that crude venom extracts from tentacles of O. sambaquiensis are composed of polypeptides with metalloproteinase, serine proteinase and phospholipases A2 activities. Surprisingly, levels of serine proteinase and phospholipase A2 activities were comparable to those observed in venoms of Bothrops snakes which were used as positive controls in this study. Hence, these data offer new opportunities to explore serine proteinase and phospholipase A2 activities in the clinical sequelae following O. sambaquiensis envenomation, with future possible biopharmaceutical applications. PMID:27169682

  15. Macrobenthic community structure and species composition in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea in jellyfish bloom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Songyao; Li, Xinzheng; Wang, Hongfa; Zhang, Baolin

    2014-05-01

    To understand the characteristics of macrobenthic structures and the relationship between environment and benthic assemblages in jellyfish bloom, we studied the macrobenthos and related environmental factors in the coastal waters of the Yellow Sea and East China Sea. Data were collected during two seasonal cruises in April and August of 2011, and analyzed with multivariate statistical methods. Up to 306 macrobenthic species were registered from the research areas, including 115 species of Polychaeta, 78 of Crustacea, 61 of Mollusca, 30 of Echinodermata, and 22 of other groups. Nine polychaete species occurred at frequencies higher than 25% from the sampling stations: Lumbrineris longifolia, Notomastus latericeus, Ninöe palmata, Ophelina acuminata, Nephtys oligobranchia, Onuphis geophiliformis, Glycera chirori, Terebellides stroemii, and Aricidea fragilis. Both the average biomass and abundance of macrobenthos are higher in August (23.8 g/m2 and 237.7 ind./m2) than those in April (11.3 g/m2 and 128 ind./m2); the dissimilarity of macrobenthic structures among stations is as high as 70%. In terms of the dissimilarity values, we divided the stations into four clusters in spring and eight in summer. The ABC curve shows that the macrofauna communities in high jellyfish abundance were not changed. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that depth, temperature, median grain size, total organic carbon of sediment and total nitrogen in sediment were important factors affecting the macrozoobenthic community in the study area.

  16. Ionization box type radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ionization box for monitoring radiation rays, a first amplification circuit of a multi-stage amplification circuit employing a MOS type FET as an initial stage amplification device, a second amplification circuit employing a junction type FET as an initial stage amplification device, a first change-over switch for switching ionization current depending on input signals, a second change-over switch for switching output signals, and a signal level discrimination circuit are constituted integrally. When radiation dose rate is low, the ionization current is inputted to the first amplification circuit and outputted as a radiation ray monitor signal and, when the radiation dose rate is increased to higher than a predetermined value, the ionization current is inputted to the second amplification circuit and outputted as a radiation ray monitor signal. That is, monitoring accuracy is high when the ionization current is low since the MOS type FET of high input impedance is used. If the ionization current is higher than a predetermined value, there is no worry that the detection becomes impossible since the junction type FET having less worry of causing characteristic change due to high radiation dose rate is used. Accordingly, ionization box type monitor at a high monitoring reliability can be obtained. (N.H.)

  17. F-box proteins in flowering plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In eukaryotes, the ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation pathway has been shown to control several key biological processes such as cell division, development, metabolism and immune response. F-box proteins, as a part of SCF (Skp1-Cullin (or Cdc53)-F-box) complex, functioned by interacting with substrate proteins, leading to their subsequent degradation by the 26S proteasome. To date, several F-box proteins identified in Arabidopsis and Antirrhinum have been shown to play important roles in auxin signal transduction, floral organ formation, flowering and leaf senescence. Arabidopsis genome sequence analysis revealed that it encodes over 1000 predicted F-box proteins accounting for about 5% of total predicted proteins. These results indicate that the ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation involving the F-box proteins is an important mechanism controlling plant gene expression. Here, we review the known F-box proteins and their functionsin flowering plants.

  18. Understanding Recommender Dynamics driving Box Office Revenues

    CERN Document Server

    Yeung, C H; Jin, C -H

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a simple model to investigate the underlying dynamics driving movie box office. Without an explicit reliance on time, the box office of movies evolves naturally by movie-movie competition through reviews listed on a centralized recommender system. A simple mean-field approximation is employed which assumes an average interaction between the competing movies, and describes the interesting box office dynamics. Box office hits are found for movies with quality beyond a critical value, leading to booms in gross box office. Such critical value is dependent on the reviewing behaviors, intention of movie goers for new movies, and the quality of the peer competing movies. Finally we compare our analytical results with simulations and real system and obtain qualitative agreements, suggesting the present model in describing the fundamental dynamics of box office.

  19. Metod of black box and their us

    OpenAIRE

    Novotný, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This thesis on a topic "black-box method and its use" deals with the description of the method of solving problematic tasks as a black box and its use in teaching. Using the theory of systems and cybernetics disciplines, especially cybernetic-pedagogy attempts to describe this method so that it is as efficient as possible and to maximize the benefits for students. Besides, the implementation of selected black box that will be suitable and used for teaching subjects electrotechnics, automatiza...

  20. Repackaging SRS Black Box TRU Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historically, large items of TRU Waste, which were too large to be packaged in drums for disposal have been packaged in various sizes of custom made plywood boxes at the Savannah River Site (SRS), for many years. These boxes were subsequently packaged into large steel ''Black Boxes'' for storage at SRS, pending availability of Characterization and Certification capability, to facilitate disposal of larger items of TRU Waste. There are approximately 107 Black Boxes in inventory at SRS, each measuring some 18' x 12' x 7', and weighing up to 45,000 lbs. These Black Boxes have been stored since the early 1980s. The project to repackage this waste into Standard Large Boxes (SLBs), Standard Waste Boxes (SWB) and Ten Drum Overpacks (TDOP), for subsequent characterization and WIPP disposal, commenced in FY04. To date, 10 Black Boxes have been repackaged, resulting in 40 SLB-2's, and 37 B25 overpack boxes, these B25's will be overpacked in SLB-2's prior to shipping to WIPP. This paper will describe experience to date from this project

  1. Interchangeable breech lock for glove boxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemonds, David Preston

    2015-11-24

    A breech lock for a glove box is provided that may be used to transfer one or more items into the glove box. The breech lock can be interchangeably installed in place of a plug, glove, or other device in a port or opening of a glove box. Features are provided to aid the removal of items from the breech lock by a gloved operator. The breech lock can be reused or, if needed, can be replaced with a plug, glove, or other device at the port or opening of the glove box.

  2. Model Equations: "Black Box" Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezruchko, Boris P.; Smirnov, Dmitry A.

    Black box reconstruction is both the most difficult and the most tempting modelling problem when any prior information about an appropriate model structure is lacking. An intriguing thing is that a model capable of reproducing an observed behaviour or predicting further evolution should be obtained only from an observed time series, i.e. "from nothing" at first sight. Chances for a success are not large. Even more so, a "good" model would become a valuable tool to characterise an object and understand its dynamics. Lack of prior information causes one to utilise universal model structures, e.g. artificial neural networks, radial basis functions and algebraic polynomials are included in the right-hand sides of dynamical model equations. Such models are often multi-dimensional and involve quite many free parameters.

  3. Noninvasive laser therapy in the treatment of keloid scar after injury caused by a jellyfish: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kymplova, Jaroslava; Navratil, Leos; Skopek, Jiri

    2001-10-01

    Keloid scars trouble the patients particularly for aesthetical reasons. They also frequency result in various functional disturbances, they are painful and the patient suffers for dysesthesia on touch. Low level laser is able to provide three principal effects: biostimulating, analgesic and antiinflammatory. Particularly thanks to the first two effects we are able, when adhering to the proper therapeutic procedure, to moderate or even remove the above mentioned problems. We complement the low level laser treatment by applications of ointments, cremes or silicone strips. Our communication is aimed at a case report concerning the treatment of keloid scars resulting from an injury by a jellyfish with the aim to familiarize the reader with wide therapeutic possibilities of non-invasive laser, even in indications which are not frequently encountered in central Europe.

  4. Surviving but not thriving: inconsistent responses of zooxanthellate jellyfish polyps to ocean warming and future UV-B scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Shannon G; Pitt, Kylie A; Carroll, Anthony R

    2016-01-01

    Complex changes to UV radiation at the Earth's surface are occurring concurrently with ocean warming. Despite few empirical tests, jellyfish are hypothesised to be increasing in some parts of the world because they are robust to environmental stressors. Here we examine the effects of UV-B and ocean warming projections on zooxanthellate jellyfish polyps. We exposed Cassiopea sp. polyps to three levels of UV-B (future-low (1.43 Wm(2)), current (1.60 Wm(2)), future-high (1.77 Wm(2))) and two levels of temperature (current-day (25 °C) and future (28 °C)) over 6 weeks. The intensity of UV-B was varied throughout the day to mimic diel variation in UV-B irradiance. Polyp survival, asexual reproduction and YII were measured. In the current and future-high UV-B treatments, more polyps were produced in 25 °C than 28 °C. This pattern, however, was reversed under future-low UV-B conditions, where more polyps were produced at 28 °C. YII was highest under current summer conditions and future conditions of low UV-B and increased temperature. YII, however, was reduced under high UV-B conditions but was further reduced with warming. Our results suggest that although Cassiopea polyps may survive elevated UV-B and warming conditions, they are unlikely to thrive. If, however, UV-B radiation decreases then ocean warming may facilitate increases in Cassiopea populations. PMID:27374028

  5. Unification of box shapes in molecular simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, H.

    1997-01-01

    In molecular simulations with periodic boundary conditions the computational box may have five different shapes: triclinic; the hexagonal prism; two types of dodecahedrons; and the truncated octahedron. In this article, we show that every molecular simulation, formulated in one of these boxes, can b

  6. Black-Box Search by Unbiased Variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehre, Per Kristian; Witt, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    The complexity theory for black-box algorithms, introduced by Droste, Jansen, and Wegener (Theory Comput. Syst. 39:525–544, 2006), describes common limits on the efficiency of a broad class of randomised search heuristics. There is an obvious trade-off between the generality of the black-box model...

  7. Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion's Pandora's Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fashion’s Pandora’s Box? A A A | Print | Share Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion’s Pandora’s Box? Foot and ankle ... extreme and imprudent as it may sound, the cosmetic surgery craze isn't just for faces anymore- ...

  8. Modern biotechnology Panacea or new Pandora's box?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tramper, J.; Yang Zhu, Yang

    2011-01-01

    According to Greek mythology Pandora was sent down to earth upon the orders of Zeus. She was given a mysterious box which she was not allowed to open. However, Pandora was very curious and when she arrived on earth she couldn?t help taking a peek inside the box. She saw that it was filled with gifts

  9. Box Plots in the Australian Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jane M.

    2012-01-01

    This article compares the definition of "box plot" as used in the "Australian Curriculum: Mathematics" with other definitions used in the education community; describes the difficulties students experience when dealing with box plots; and discusses the elaboration that is necessary to enable teachers to develop the knowledge necessary to use them…

  10. 49 CFR 178.515 - Standards for reconstituted wood boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for reconstituted wood boxes. 178.515... wood boxes. (a) The identification code for a reconstituted wood box is 4F. (b) Construction requirements for reconstituted wood boxes are as follows: (1) The walls of boxes must be made of...

  11. A numerical study of the effects of bell pulsation dynamics and oral arms on the exchange currents generated by the upside-down jellyfish Cassiopea spp

    CERN Document Server

    Hamlet, Christina; Miller, Laura A

    2010-01-01

    Mathematical and experimental studies of the flows generated by jellyfish have focused primarily on mechanisms of swimming. More recent work has also considered the fluid dynamics of feeding from currents generated during swimming. Here the benthic lifestyle of the upside down jellyfish (Cassiopea spp.) is capitalized upon to explore the fluids dynamics of feeding uncoupled from swimming. A mathematical model is developed to capture the fundamental characteristics of the motion of the unique concave bell shape. Given the prominence of the oral arms, this structure is included and modeled as a porous layer that perturbs the flow generated by bell contractions. The immersed boundary method is used to solve the fluid-structure interaction problem. Velocity fields obtained from live organisms using digital particle image velocimetry were used to validate the numerical simulations. Parameter sweeps were used to numerically explore the effects of changes in pulse dynamics and the properties of the oral arms indepen...

  12. Improvements relating to glove boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is stated that radiation problems with glove boxes can only be partly overcome by adding shielding to their working faces, since about 25% of the working face may be taken up with glove ports at which the only shielding provided is that of the glove. A glove port cover is here described, mountable above the port, comprising a number of flaps of lead-loaded flexible material. The flaps can be pushed aside by hand to permit access to a glove fixed in the port, but overlap to close off the port when the hand is withdrawn. The lead loaded flexible material preferably has a natural or synthetic rubber base. Constructional details are given. Only the flaps need to be lead-loaded, and to facilitate manufacture and handling the surfaces of the cover are preferably lead-free. Three flaps can suffice, but five or six are preferred. For mounting purposes a cover may have beading at its periphery for clamped location in a groove round the glove port. (U.K.)

  13. Packing a cake into a box

    KAUST Repository

    Skopenkov, Mikhail

    2011-05-01

    Given a triangular cake and a box in the shape of its mirror image, how can the cake be cut into a minimal number of pieces so that it can be put into the box? The cake has icing, so we are not allowed to put it into the box upside down. V. G. Boltyansky asked this question in 1977 and showed that three pieces always suffice. In this paper we provide examples of cakes that cannot be cut into two pieces to be put into the box. This shows that three is the answer to Boltyansky\\'s question. We also give examples of cakes which can be cut into two pieces. © THE MATHEMATICAL ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA.

  14. Spacer for supporting fuel element boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A spacer plate unit arranged externally on each side and at a predetermined level of a polygonal fuel element box for mutually supporting, with respect to one another, a plurality of the fuel element boxes forming a fuel element bundle, is formed of a first and a second spacer plate part each having the same length and the same width and being constituted of unlike first and second materials, respectively. The first and second spacer plate parts of the several spacer plate units situated at the predetermined level are arranged in an alternating continuous series when viewed in the peripheral direction of the fuel element box, so that any two spacer plate units belonging to face-to-face oriented sides of two adjoining fuel element boxes in the fuel element bundle define interfaces of unlike materials

  15. Mystery Boxes, X Rays, and Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Norman

    2000-01-01

    Indicates the difficulties of teaching concepts beyond light and color and creating memorable learning experiences. Recommends sequential activities using the mystery box approach to explain how scientists and doctors use photon applications. (YDS)

  16. Packing a cake into a box

    CERN Document Server

    Skopenkov, Mikhail

    2010-01-01

    Given a cake in form of a triangle and a box that fits the mirror image of the cake, how to cut the cake into a minimal number of pieces so that it can be put into the box? The cake has an icing, so that we are not allowed to put it into the box upside down. V.G. Boltyansky asked this question in 1977 and showed that three pieces always suffice. In this paper we provide examples of cakes that cannot be cut into two pieces to put into the box. This shows that three is the answer to V.G. Boltyansky's question. Also we give examples of cakes which can be cut into two pieces.

  17. Decommissioning a tritium glove-box facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folkers, C.L.; Homann, S.G.; Nicolosi, A.S.; Hanel, S.L.; King, W.C.

    1979-08-08

    A large glove-box facility for handling reactive metal tritides was decommissioned. Major sections of the glove box were decontaminated and disassembled for reuse at another tritium facility. To achieve the desired results, decontamnation required repeated washing, first with organic liquids, then with water and detergents. Worker protection was provided by simple ventilation combined with careful monitoring of the work areas and employees. Several innovative techniques are described.

  18. Decommissioning a tritium glove-box facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large glove-box facility for handling reactive metal tritides was decommissioned. Major sections of the glove box were decontaminated and disassembled for reuse at another tritium facility. To achieve the desired results, decontamnation required repeated washing, first with organic liquids, then with water and detergents. Worker protection was provided by simple ventilation combined with careful monitoring of the work areas and employees. Several innovative techniques are described

  19. SET Backaction on the Single Electron Box

    OpenAIRE

    Turek, B. A.; Lehnert, K. W.; Clerk, A.; Gunnarsson, D.; Bladh, K.; Delsing, P.; Schoelkopf, R. J.

    2005-01-01

    We report an experimental observation of the backaction of a Single Electron Transistor (SET) measuring the Coulomb staircase of a single electron box. As current flows through the SET, the charge state of the SET island fluctuates. These fluctuations capacitively couple to the box and cause changes in the position, width, and asymmetry of the Coulomb staircase. A sequential tunnelling model accurately recreates these effects, confirming this mechanism of the backaction of an SET. This is a f...

  20. Random Young diagrams in a Rectangular Box

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Dan; Boutillier, Cédric; Enriquez, Nathanaël

    We exhibit the limit shape of random Young diagrams having a distribution proportional to the exponential of their area, and confined in a rectangular box. The Ornstein-Uhlenbeck bridge arises from the fluctuations around the limit shape.......We exhibit the limit shape of random Young diagrams having a distribution proportional to the exponential of their area, and confined in a rectangular box. The Ornstein-Uhlenbeck bridge arises from the fluctuations around the limit shape....

  1. HYDROGEN AND VOC RETENTION IN WASTE BOXES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PACE ME; MARUSICH RM

    2008-11-21

    The Hanford Waste Management Project Master Documented Safety Analysis (MDSA) (HNF-14741, 2003) identifies derived safety controls to prevent or mitigate the risks of a single-container deflagration during operations requiring moving, venting or opening transuranic (TRU)-waste containers. The issue is whether these safety controls are necessary for operations involving TRU-waste boxes that are being retrieved from burial at the Hanford Site. This paper investigates the potential for a deflagration hazard within these boxes and whether safety controls identified for drum deflagration hazards should be applied to operations involving these boxes. The study evaluates the accumulation of hydrogen and VOCs within the waste box and the transport of these gases and vapors out of the waste box. To perform the analysis, there were numerous and major assumptions made regarding the generation rate and the transport pathway dimensions and their number. Since there is little actual data with regards to these assumptions, analyses of three potential configurations were performed to obtain some indication of the bounds of the issue (the concentration of hydrogen or flammable VOCs within a waste box). A brief description of each of the three cases along with the results of the analysis is summarized.

  2. 49 CFR 178.517 - Standards for plastic boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for plastic boxes. 178.517 Section 178... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.517 Standards for plastic boxes. (a) The following are identification codes for plastic boxes: (1) 4H1 for an expanded plastic box; and (2) 4H2 for...

  3. 49 CFR 230.101 - Steam locomotive driving journal boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. 230.101... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.101 Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. (a) Driving journal boxes. Driving journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service. Not...

  4. Effect of an odor eliminator on feline litter box behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottam, Nicole; Dodman, Nicholas H

    2007-02-01

    Decreasing litter box odor may be an important treatment component in addressing feline inappropriate elimination. A three-phase study was conducted to determine if the use of Zero Odor litter box spray increases the preference of litter boxes to cats, presumably by its odor-eliminating quality. In the first phase, cats were given a litter box preference test between a litter box sprayed with Zero Odor and one without. In the second phase, the number of occurrences of behaviors indicative of a cat's dissatisfaction with the litter box (scratching at the sides of the box, floor or wall, hesitating when entering the litter box, balancing on the side of the box and eliminating outside of the litter box) was compared before and after the use of Zero Odor. Last, the frequency of eliminations that occurred outside the litter box was measured during a baseline phase and a test phase, in which Zero Odor was sprayed into all litter boxes in the home. Significantly fewer behaviors associated with feline litter box dissatisfaction and fewer undesirable eliminations were observed in phases 2 and 3, respectively. These findings suggest that use of Zero Odor litter box spray appears to decrease litter box odor and increases the attractiveness of litter box to cats. PMID:17049291

  5. 49 CFR 178.514 - Standards for plywood boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for plywood boxes. 178.514 Section 178... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.514 Standards for plywood boxes. (a) The identification code for a plywood box is 4D. (b) Construction requirements for plywood boxes are as follows:...

  6. The Acaricidal Activity of Venom from the Jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai against the Carmine Spider Mite Tetranychus cinnabarinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huahua; Yue, Yang; Dong, Xiangli; Li, Rongfeng; Li, Pengcheng

    2016-01-01

    The carmine spider mite Tetranychus cinnabarinus (T. cinnabarinus) is a common polyphagous pest that attacks crops, vegetables, flowers, and so on. It is necessary to find lead compounds for developing novel, powerful, and environmentally-friendly acaricides as an alternative approach to controlling the carmine spider mite because of the serious resistance and residual agrochemicals in the environment. In addition, the study on the acaricidal activities of marine bioactive substances is comparatively deficient. In the present study, the acaricidal activity of venom (NnFV) from the jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai against the carmine spider mite T. cinnabarinus was determined for the first time. The venom had contact toxicity, and the 24-h LC50-value was 29.1 μg/mL. The mite body wall was affected by the venom, with the mite body having no luster and being seriously shrunken after 24 h. T. cinnabarinus was a potential target pest of NnFV, which had potential as a type of natural bioacaricide. The repellent activity and systemic toxicity of the venom against T. cinnabarinus were also studied. However, NnFV had no repellent activity and systemic toxicity against T. cinnabarinus. PMID:27294957

  7. The Acaricidal Activity of Venom from the Jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai against the Carmine Spider Mite Tetranychus cinnabarinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huahua Yu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The carmine spider mite Tetranychus cinnabarinus (T. cinnabarinus is a common polyphagous pest that attacks crops, vegetables, flowers, and so on. It is necessary to find lead compounds for developing novel, powerful, and environmentally-friendly acaricides as an alternative approach to controlling the carmine spider mite because of the serious resistance and residual agrochemicals in the environment. In addition, the study on the acaricidal activities of marine bioactive substances is comparatively deficient. In the present study, the acaricidal activity of venom (NnFV from the jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai against the carmine spider mite T. cinnabarinus was determined for the first time. The venom had contact toxicity, and the 24-h LC50-value was 29.1 μg/mL. The mite body wall was affected by the venom, with the mite body having no luster and being seriously shrunken after 24 h. T. cinnabarinus was a potential target pest of NnFV, which had potential as a type of natural bioacaricide. The repellent activity and systemic toxicity of the venom against T. cinnabarinus were also studied. However, NnFV had no repellent activity and systemic toxicity against T. cinnabarinus.

  8. Bending analysis of laminated composite box beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathy, A.K.; Patel, H.J.; Pang, S.S. (Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1994-01-01

    Box beams are widely used in weight reduction structures such as aircraft wings. The use of composite box beams further reduces the weight factor for such structures with the same deflection and stress as that of isotropic box beams. The difference in the behavior of composite box beam with different fiber orientation, number of plies, and number of stringers also provides a wide range of designing parameters to achieve the required performance for a given problem. A bending analysis has been carried out for the study of deflections and stresses for box beams of different material (isotropic and laminated composites), size, and number of stringers subjected to different kinds of loading conditions. A finite element model has been developed based on the strain energy principle, and the results are compared with an available commercial code COSMOS/M.'' Experiments using aluminum and scotchply composite laminates were conducted to verify the results. An optimal design for size and number of stiffeners for a given loading condition has been achieved. Investigations have also been carried out to find the effect of transverse shear on the span-wise normal stress.

  9. Pharmacy Students’ Knowledge of Black Box Warnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shireman, Theresa I.; Generali, Joyce; Rigler, Sally; Mayorga, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the progression of pharmacy students’ knowledge of black box warnings across 3 years of didactic training, and to determine how they stay current with new warnings. Methods A cross-sectional survey instrument was administered to pharmacy students in their first (P1), second (P2), and third (P3) professional years. The survey assessed student awareness of medications possessing a black box warning and familiarity with the warning content for 20 medications (15 with and 5 without warnings). Results Mean number of correct responses identifying the presence or absence of a black box warning among the 20 medications were 5.8 ± 3.3, 9.6 ± 4.0, and 14.8 ± 2.8 for the P1, P2, and P3 students, respectively. Knowledge of black box warning content was variable. Students were least aware of the warning content for stavudine and enoxaparin. Students were most familiar with the warning content for paroxetine and estrogen. Conclusion Students’ awareness and understanding of black box warnings was proportional to their educational progression, but their knowledge level was inconsistent across drug groups. PMID:20221356

  10. Nearly Seamless Vacuum-Insulated Boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanian, Christopher J.; Ou, Danny; Hu, Xiangjun

    2010-01-01

    A design concept, and a fabrication process that would implement the design concept, have been proposed for nearly seamless vacuum-insulated boxes that could be the main structural components of a variety of controlled-temperature containers, including common household refrigerators and insulating containers for shipping foods. In a typical case, a vacuum-insulated box would be shaped like a rectangular parallelepiped conventional refrigerator box having five fully closed sides and a hinged door on the sixth side. Although it is possible to construct the five-closed-side portion of the box as an assembly of five unitary vacuum-insulated panels, it is not desirable to do so because the relatively high thermal conductances of the seams between the panels would contribute significant amounts of heat leakage, relative to the leakage through the panels themselves. In contrast, the proposal would make it possible to reduce heat leakage by constructing the five-closed-side portion of the box plus the stationary portion (if any) of the sixth side as a single, seamless unit; the only remaining seam would be the edge seal around the door. The basic cross-sectional configuration of each side of a vacuum-insulated box according to the proposal would be that of a conventional vacuum-insulated panel: a low-density, porous core material filling a partially evacuated space between face sheets. However, neither the face sheets nor the core would be conventional. The face sheets would be opposite sides of a vacuum bag. The core material would be a flexible polymer-modified silica aerogel of the type described in Silica/Polymer and Silica/Polymer/Fiber Composite Aero - gels (MSC-23736) in this issue of NASA Tech Briefs. As noted in that article, the stiffness of this core material against compression is greater than that of prior aerogels. This is an important advantage because it translates to greater retention of thickness and, hence, of insulation performance when pressure is

  11. Advances in the theory of box integrals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, J.M.; Crandall, R.E.

    2009-06-25

    Box integrals - expectations <|{rvec r}|{sup s}> or <|{rvec r}-{rvec q}|{sup s}> over the unit n-cube (or n-box) - have over three decades been occasionally given closed forms for isolated n,s. By employing experimental mathematics together with a new, global analytic strategy, we prove that for n {le} 4 dimensions the box integrals are for any integer s hypergeometrically closed in a sense we clarify herein. For n = 5 dimensions, we show that a single unresolved integral we call K{sub 5} stands in the way of such hyperclosure proofs. We supply a compendium of exemplary closed forms that naturally arise algorithmically from this theory.

  12. Spatiotemporal variation in community structure of marine benthic ciliates in the Yellow Sea during and after macroalgal and giant jellyfish blooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bailing; Xu, Kuidong

    2016-07-01

    The annual bloom of the green macroalgal Ulva prolifera from May through July since 2008 and another of giant jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai from June through September have been frequent events in the Yellow Sea. However, the patterns of benthic ciliate communities during and after the blooms are still not known. In combination with analyses of benthic environmental factors, we investigated the distribution and community composition of benthic ciliates in the Yellow Sea in July and November 2011. In July, ciliates had high standing crops and diversity in the northern Yellow Sea, and in the inshore area off the southern Shandong Peninsula, where large numbers of green macroalgae accumulated. In November, the abundance, biomass and diversity of ciliates were high in the sea areas off the Shandong Peninsula and Changjiang estuary, where a large quantity of jellyfish occurred in August. Neither the abundance nor the biomass had significant difference between seasons, or between different compartments of the Yellow Sea. The species number, and both Margalef and Shannon-Wiener indices of ciliates were all significantly higher in November than in July. In both seasons, prostomateans and karyorelicteans consistently constituted the first and second most important ciliate groups in biomass; and carnivorous ciliates constituted the primary feeding type in terms of biomass as well as species richness, followed by bacterivores, algivores and omnivores. Compared with that in June 2007 when no macroalgae occurred, the percentage of small-sized bacterivores (e.g. Metacystis spp., Euplotes spp. and scuticociliates) increased in July 2011. The proportion of carnivorous ciliates increased in November, and this increased dominance of carnivorous ciliates may be a response to the increase in predominance of heterotrophic nanoflagellates, which might in turn be ascribed to an effect of green macroalgal and giant jellyfish blooms in the Yellow Sea.

  13. Fire test of DOT 7A Boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary objective of conducting the full-scale fire tests of the DOT (Department of Transportation) 7A FRP Boxes was to provide information to assist in quantifying the fire hazard of the storage located at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC), and to learn if changing the storage array will decrease the fire risk. Also, the level of fire fighting and fire protection required to maintain the risk at the RWMC within acceptable DOE guidelines was investigated. Two full-scale fire tests were conducted at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) in June 1978, using the DOE 7A FRP Plywood Storage Containers. The fire tests showed that when subjected to a substantial ignition source, the boxes will propagate fire as long as no fire-suppression measures are taken. Fire will breach the boxes and spread the radioactive contaminated waste if it is not extinguished. As the fire progresses, additional boxes will become involved, and eventually the entire storage array will ignite. It is recommended that the use of DOT 7A Boxes be discontinued and replaced with noncombustible storage containers. In the event this is not practicable, guidance recommendations are presented to minimize the large fire loss potential. It is also recommended that an investigation be conducted into the number of boxes that can be destroyed and still maintain a safe environment for employees and the public. This investigation should include how far radioactive contamination will spread, what cleanup will be required, anticipated exposure of the people within the area, and the public impact of such a fire

  14. Testing of packings for stuffing boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stuffing box packings function when they are sealed tight and do not obstruct the movement of the spindle. Characteristic values are necessary to characterise the materials properties of stuffing box packings. Essentially, the definitions of the characteristic values are known and can be calculated in experimental setups. It is absolutely necessary to standardise the characteristic values as well as the testing procedures in order to be able to provide comparable and reproduceable characteristic values. Depending upon the importance of the fittings, it is necessary to guarantee sufficiently exact and reliable assembly for defined operating conditions. (orig.)

  15. Cereal Box Design: An Interdisciplinary Graphics Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Mike; Tsosie, Teri

    2012-01-01

    The cereal box design activity is intriguing both for its simplicity and the resourcefulness that it can generate in young people. Also, it lends itself to a variety of curriculums. It covers both consumerism and Design for the Environment (DfE) concepts broadly and in depth. The activity introduces a wide range of topics. They include graphic…

  16. Study of WATCH GRB error boxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorosabel, J.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Lund, Niels;

    1995-01-01

    We have studied the first WATCH GRB Catalogue ofγ-ray Bursts in order to find correlations between WATCH GRB error boxes and a great variety of celestial objects present in 33 different catalogues. No particular class of objects has been found to be significantly correlated with the WATCH GRBs....

  17. Black hole formation in a box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evidence is presented for Hawking's viewpoint that in an insulated box in thermal equilibrium, black holes should form and evaporate in a statistically time-symmetric way. In particular, it is shown that if a black hole can evaporate adiabatically, it is much more likely to form adiabatically than by Jeans instability. (author)

  18. Safety evaluation for packaging CPC metal boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP) provides authorization for the use of Container Products Corporation (CPC) metal boxes, as described in this document, for the interarea shipment of radioactive contaminated equipment and debris for storage in the Central Waste Complex (CWC) or T Plant located in the 200 West Area. Authorization is granted until November 30, 1995. The CPC boxes included in this SEP were originally procured as US Department of Transportation (DOT) Specification 7A Type A boxes. A review of the documentation provided by the manufacturer revealed the documentation did not adequately demonstrate compliance to the 4 ft drop test requirement of 49 CFR 173.465(c). Preparation of a SEP is necessary to document the equivalent safety of the onsite shipment in lieu of meeting DOT packaging requirements until adequate documentation is received. The equivalent safety of the shipment is based on the fact that the radioactive contents consist of contaminated equipment and debris which are not dispersible. Each piece is wrapped in two layers of no less than 4 mil plastic prior to being placed in the box which has an additional 10 mil liner. Pointed objects and sharp edges are padded to prevent puncture of the plastic liner and wrapping

  19. Choreographies with Secure Boxes and Compromised Principals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbone, Marco; Guttman, Joshua

      We equip choreography-level session descriptions with a simple abstraction of a security infrastruc- ture. Message components may be enclosed within (possibly nested) ”boxes” annotated with the intended source and destination of those components. The boxes are to be implemented with cryp...

  20. RELIABILITY BASED DESIGN OF A GEAR BOX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.MADHUSEKHAR

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Reliability is the probability that a system, component or device will perform without failure for a specified period of time under specified operating conditions. The concept of reliability is of great importance in the design of various machine members. Conventional engineering design uses a deterministic approach. It disregards the fact that the material properties, the dimensions of the components and the externally applied loads are statistical in nature. In conventional design this uncertainties are covered with a factor of safety, which is not always successful. The growing trend towards reducing uncertainty and increasing reliability is to use the probabilistic approach. In the present work a three shaft four speed gear box and six speed gear box are designed using reliability principles. For the specified reliability of the system (Gear box, component reliability (Gear pair is calculated by considering the system as a series system. Design is considered to be safe and adequate if the probability of failure of gear box is less than or equal to a specified quantity in each of the two failure modes. . All the parameters affecting the design are considered as random variables and all the random variables are assumed to follow normal distribution. A computer program in C++ is developed to calculate the face widths in bending and surface failure modes. The larger one out of the two values is considered. By changing the variations in the design parameters, variations in the face widths are studied.

  1. Nondestructive assay of boxed radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the problems related to the nondestructive assay (NDA) of boxed radioactive waste at the Hanford Site and how Westinghouse Hanford company (WHC) is solving the problems. The waste form and radionuclide content are described. The characteristics of the combined neutron and gamma-based measurement system are described

  2. A white box perspective on behavioural adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Roberto; Corradini, Andrea; Gadducci, Fabio; Lluch Lafuente, Alberto; Vandin, Andrea

    We present a white-box conceptual framework for adaptation developed in the context of the EU Project ASCENS coordinated by Martin Wirsing. We called it CoDA, for Control Data Adaptation, since it is based on the notion of control data. CoDA promotes a neat separation between application and...

  3. PVC posting bags for glove boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This specification covers the materials, measurements and manufacture of unpigmented PVC posting bags for use on glove boxes, together with methods of testing the materials. These bags are used in the handling of radioactive and toxic materials of a hazardous nature and therefore must be of the highest standard of mechanical strength, leak tightness and general finish. (author)

  4. Grey-box modelling of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tornøe, Christoffer Wenzel; Jacobsen, Judith L; Pedersen, Oluf;

    2004-01-01

    Grey-box pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modelling is presented as a promising way of modelling PK/PD systems. The concept behind grey-box modelling is based on combining physiological knowledge along with information from data in the estimation of model parameters. Grey-box modelling...

  5. 49 CFR 230.103 - Tender roller bearing journal boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender roller bearing journal boxes. 230.103... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.103 Tender roller bearing journal boxes. Tender roller bearing journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition....

  6. 49 CFR 230.102 - Tender plain bearing journal boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender plain bearing journal boxes. 230.102... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.102 Tender plain bearing journal boxes. Plain bearing journal boxes... expected to damage the bearing; or have a detrimental effect on the lubrication of the journal and...

  7. Application of Defense Technology Commonly Used in Boxing Match

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhixiao Li[1; Jianjun Liu[2

    2015-01-01

    Boxing defense technology is a kind of techniques to prevent the opponent from attacking successfully. Boxing is a kind of sports that needs close cooperation between attack and defense. Attack is used for defense, where there is no attack, there will be no defense, and vice versa. Defense technology is the foundation of attack technology, therefore, defense is of vital importance in boxing match.

  8. Grey Box Modelling of Hydrological Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thordarson, Fannar Ørn

    intervals. The thesis illustrates three performance measures for this performance evaluations: reliability, sharpness and resolution. For decision making, a performance criterion is preferred that quantifies all of these measures in a single number, and for that the quantile skill score criterion is...... equations, and a black box model, which relates to models that are obtained statistically from input-output relations. Grey box model consists of a system description, defined by a finite set of stochastic differential equations, and an observation equation. Together, system and observation equations...... lack of fit in state space formulation, and further support decisions for a model expansion. By using stochastic differential equations to formulate the dynamics of the hydrological system, either the complexity of the model can be increased by including the necessary hydrological processes in the...

  9. Fatal exit the automotive black box debate

    CERN Document Server

    Kowalick, Tom

    2005-01-01

    "Fatal Exit: The Automotive Black Box Debate cuts through thirty years of political wrangling and institutional biases to provide an argument for the Motor Vehicle Event Data Recorder (MVEDR). This automotive equivalent of an airplane's flight recorder or black box is intended to solve the mysteries of car crashes and improve the safety of our roads. The reader is taken inside the automotive industry and the government highway safety establishment to foster an understanding of the politics and the positions on all sides of this safety debate. The author takes an unbiased approach, chronologically presenting each argument and uncovering the agendas and mandates of each of the stakeholders." "This publication is essential reading for all consumers who need to have their voices heard on this critical issue, as well as for attorneys, public safety advocates, public policy administrators, engineers, automotive professionals, journalists, and insurance executives."--Jacket.

  10. The gradient flow in a twisted box

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Alberto [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC

    2013-08-15

    We study the perturbative behavior of the gradient flow in a twisted box. We apply this information to define a running coupling using the energy density of the flow field. We study the step-scaling function and the size of cutoff effects in SU(2) pure gauge theory. We conclude that the twisted gradient flow running coupling scheme is a valid strategy for step-scaling purposes due to the relatively mild cutoff effects and high precision.

  11. Dry boxes and inert atmosphere techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Practitioners need to conduct experiments with molten salts in an inert atmosphere owing to the chemical reactivity of these media. Most fused salt solvent systems show reactivity to water and/or oxygen, which results in significant chemical changes in the properties of these solvents. Although several studies on the nature of an oxygen/oxide electrode in this melt have been reported, the reactions have not been fully understood because of apparent water contamination in many cases. Nitrate melt systems are also hygroscopic; for example, the LiNO3-KNO3 eutectic (1770C) absorbs water to at least 0.2% by weight. The result is that the electrochemistry of heavier, electropositive metal ions has been significantly altered. In addition, trace amounts of water have been shown to significantly affect the oxygen-oxide redox chemistry in NaNO3-KNO3 melts (2500C). The haloaluminates, which include AlCl3-NaCl (1750C), as well as AlCl3-organic salt binaries are particularly sensitive to the presence of both oxygen and moisture. Oxygen is a strong oxidant in the fused hydroxide systems with formation of superoxide ion from either oxide or water. This chapter describes general, inert atmosphere techniques which can be used by the molten salt experimentalist. Because of the limitations of volatility, vacuum manipulations are not considered. Rather, the use of glove boxes, glove bags, and inert bench-top techniques are discussed. The areas covered are: glove box and bag equipment, operation and maintenance of glove boxes and glove bags, and common operations conducted inside glove boxes

  12. Adaptive Techniques to find Optimal Planar Boxes

    CERN Document Server

    Barbay, J; Pérez-Lantero, P

    2012-01-01

    Given a set $P$ of $n$ planar points, two axes and a real-valued score function $f()$ on subsets of $P$, the Optimal Planar Box problem consists in finding a box (i.e. axis-aligned rectangle) $H$ maximizing $f(H\\cap P)$. We consider the case where $f()$ is monotone decomposable, i.e. there exists a composition function $g()$ monotone in its two arguments such that $f(A)=g(f(A_1),f(A_2))$ for every subset $A\\subseteq P$ and every partition $\\{A_1,A_2\\}$ of $A$. In this context we propose a solution for the Optimal Planar Box problem which performs in the worst case $O(n^2\\lg n)$ score compositions and coordinate comparisons, and much less on other classes of instances defined by various measures of difficulty. A side result of its own interest is a fully dynamic \\textit{MCS Splay tree} data structure supporting insertions and deletions with the \\emph{dynamic finger} property, improving upon previous results [Cort\\'es et al., J.Alg. 2009].

  13. Changes in position and quality of preferred nest box: effects on nest box use by laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Anja Brinch; Nielsen, Birte L.

    2013-01-01

    Using laying hens, we investigated whether position of a nest box, both within the pen and relative to other nest boxes, influenced the preference for a nest box, and how a sudden and marked change to the preferred box influenced the use of nest boxes by the hens. Groups (n=12) of 15 Isa Warren...... hens were housed in pens, each with five identical nest boxes in different positions: Two single (in a corner or not) and a triplet of nest boxes (one of which in a corner). The use of nest boxes was determined by the number of eggs laid daily in each box. Three experiments, each lasting 10 days, were...... carried out. First, the undisturbed use of each of the nest box types was investigated, and a strong preference (P<0.001) was found for single nest boxes in a corner, with 62% of the nest box eggs laid there. Second, each of the hen groups was moved to another pen allocated at random, and where the...

  14. Business plan PME.Box: internationalization to Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Diogo José Gomes Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    The document herein described, provides detailed information of the development of PME.BOX Business Plan regarding the expansion to a detailed overview of the business model and strategies that PME.BOX looks to implement in order to maximize its business reach and in turn generate revenue. PME.BOX (firm) is an IT start up firm based in Madan Par the commercial rights of pme.box (software). Pme.box is a touch management solution intended to help small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in ...

  15. Reconciling White-Box and Black-Box Perspectives on Behavioral Self-adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Roberto; Corradini, Andrea; Gadducci, Fabio; Hölzl, Matthias; Lluch Lafuente, Alberto; Vandin, Andrea; Wirsing, Martin

    This paper proposes to reconcile two perspectives on behavioral adaptation commonly taken at different stages of the engineering of autonomic computing systems. Requirements engineering activities often take a black-box perspective: A system is considered to be adaptive with respect to an...... environment whenever the system is able to satisfy its goals irrespectively of the environment perturbations. Modeling and programming engineering activities often take a white-box perspective: A system is equipped with suitable adaptation mechanisms and its behavior is classified as adaptive depending on...... whether the adaptation mechanisms are enacted or not. The proposed approach reconciles black- and white-box perspectives by proposing several notions of coherence between the adaptivity as observed by the two perspectives: These notions provide useful criteria for the system developer to assess and...

  16. 49 CFR 178.512 - Standards for steel or aluminum boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for steel or aluminum boxes. 178.512... aluminum boxes. (a) The following are identification codes for steel or aluminum boxes: (1) 4A for a steel box; and (2) 4B for an aluminum box. (b) Construction requirements for steel or aluminum boxes are...

  17. Adaptation of Black-Box Software Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Andreas Rasenack

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The globalization of the software market leads to crucial problems for software companies. More competition between software companies arises and leads to the force on companies to develop ever newer software products in ever shortened time interval. Therefore the time to market for software systems is shortened and obviously the product life cycle is shortened too. Thus software companies shortened the time interval for research and development. Due to the fact of competition between software companies software products have to develop low-priced and this leads to a smaller return on investment. A big challenge for software companies is the use of an effective research and development process to have these problems under control. A way to control these problems can be the reuse of existing software components and adapt those software components to new functionality or accommodate mismatched interfaces. Complete redevelopment of software products is more expensive and time consuming than to develop software components. The approach introduced here presents novel technique together with a supportive environment that enables developers to cope with the adaptability of black-box software components. A supportive environment will be designed that checks the compatibility of black-box software components with the assistance of their specifications. Generated adapter software components can take over the part of adaptation and advance the functionality. Besides, a pool of software components can be used to compose an application to satisfy customer needs. Certainly this pool of software components consists of black-box software components and adapter software components which can be connected on demand.

  18. Box codes of lengths 48 and 72

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, G.; Jin, Y.

    1993-11-01

    A self-dual code length 48, dimension 24, with Hamming distance essentially equal to 12 is constructed here. There are only six code words of weight eight. All the other code words have weights that are multiples of four and have a minimum weight equal to 12. This code may be encoded systematically and arises from a strict binary representation of the (8,4;5) Reed-Solomon (RS) code over GF (64). The code may be considered as six interrelated (8,7;2) codes. The Mattson-Solomon representation of the cyclic decomposition of these codes and their parity sums are used to detect an odd number of errors in any of the six codes. These may then be used in a correction algorithm for hard or soft decision decoding. A (72,36;15) box code was constructed from a (63,35;8) cyclic code. The theoretical justification is presented herein. A second (72,36;15) code is constructed from an inner (63,27;16) Bose Chaudhuri Hocquenghem (BCH) code and expanded to length 72 using box code algorithms for extension. This code was simulated and verified to have a minimum distance of 15 with even weight words congruent to zero modulo four. The decoding for hard and soft decision is still more complex than the first code constructed above. Finally, an (8,4;5) RS code over GF (512) in the binary representation of the (72,36;15) box code gives rise to a (72,36;16*) code with nine words of weight eight, and all the rest have weights greater than or equal to 16.

  19. Keller-box method and its application

    CERN Document Server

    Prasad, Kerehalli V

    2014-01-01

    Most of the problems arising in science and engineering are nonlinear. They are inherently difficult to solve. Traditional analytical approximations are valid only for weakly nonlinear problems, and often break down for problems with strong nonlinearity. This book presents the current theoretical developments and applications of Keller-Box method to nonlinear problems. The first half of the bookaddresses basic concepts to understand the theoretical framework for the method. In the second half of the book, the authorsgive a number of examples of coupled nonlinear problems that have been solved

  20. Mirror box therapy: seeing is believing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Kelly; Chin, May; Kogan, Mikhail

    2011-01-01

    Working with patients with different chronic pain syndromes can be challenging. Pharmacological therapies are often associated with variety of side effects. Mind-body modalities are thought to play a role; however, the lack of clear consensus and large body of clinical experience makes it hard to provide good evidence-based recommendation to most of our chronic pain patients. In recent years the Phantom Limb Pain (PLP) and to some degree Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) may prove to be an exception. In this review we summarize the current evidence supporting use of Mirror Box Therapy and its successor, Immersive Virtual Reality. PMID:22051561

  1. The Transformation of the "Black Box"

    OpenAIRE

    JIMENEZ DOMENECH, LUCIA

    2012-01-01

    The idea of this project is to convert an old office building downtown into an energy-neutral high-rise village. The assignment contained the office building located in the city centre of Groningen at Eendrachtskade 2, commonly called the "Black Box". It was built in 1976, and the actual technical condition is poor with inadequate insulation. When the building remains empty in 2014, the most obvious next thing to happen is the demolition. But, due to climate impact, the objective is to reuse ...

  2. Test procedure for boxed waste assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document, prepared by Los Alamos National Laboratory's NMT-4 group, details the test methodology and requirements for Acceptance/Qualification testing of a Boxed Waste Assay System (BWAS) designed and constructed by Pajarito Scientific Corporation. Testing of the BWAS at the Plutonium Facility (TA55) at Los Alamos National Laboratory will be performed to ascertain system adherence to procurement specification requirements. The test program shall include demonstration of conveyor handling capabilities, gamma ray energy analysis, and imaging passive/active neutron accuracy and sensitivity. Integral to these functions is the system's embedded operating and data reduction software

  3. Box model for channels of human migration

    CERN Document Server

    Vitanov, Nikolay K

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a mathematical model of migration channel based on the truncated Waring distribution. The truncated Waring distribution is obtained for a more general model of motion of substance through a channel containing finite number of boxes. The model is applied then for case of migrants moving through a channel consisting of finite number of countries or cities. The number of migrants in the channel strongly depends on the number of migrants that enter the channel through the country of entrance. It is shown that if the final destination country is very popular then large percentage of migrants may concentrate there.

  4. Radiometry of radiochemical processing plant box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiometry method is used to detect shielding losses in the newly designed processing plants, to control the personnel exposure handling the radioactivity. The acceptable radiation level in occupied area at the working place, as per AERB regulatory guidelines is 1 μSv/h (0.1mR/h). Hence a stringent control on the shielding is mandatory. The shielding integrity was evaluated using a sealed source of 900 mCi 60Co (1.17 MeV and 1.33 MeV g photons of 100% abundance), by radiometry at -the newly designed 100 mm lead shielded SS 6 cell -plant box used for processing 5 -10Ci of 32P, 51Cr,153Sm, 177Lu, 166Ho etc. The radiometry source introduced into plant box through the loading chamber in H2 can (Dia. 25 mm and length 40 mm) was loaded in the plant. MS stand was fabricated and used for housing the radiometry source at different elevations (300, 600 and 900 mm). The stand was kept in the center of the plant at different locations viz., 845 mm, 1445 mm and 2045 mm distance from one side. The transmitted radiation field was mapped using radiation survey meter at marked grid segments of 100 mm x 100 mm in all sides and top of the plant box. The transmitted radiation field in all sides and top of the plant box were mapped using radiation survey meter. At certain grids the radiation levels indicated shielding losses, all such cavities were filled up, the gap was plugged and the radiometry dose mapping was repeated. Due to this rectification, radiation level at most of the places was reduced and the results showed that the shielding had improved. There was higher transmitted radiation field on the plant during opening of sliding doors. Whenever doors are opened during some work, alarm of audio alarm system indicates door opening condition. Installation of the same had been made mandatory to control occupational exposure. The radiation level may not exceed the limit of 1 μ iSv/h for the permanent occupancy of lab personnel at the working place

  5. Smart Distribution Boxes, Complete Energy Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platise, Uros

    2010-09-15

    Present households demand side management implementations are turning conventional appliances into smart ones to support auto demand (AutoDR) response function. Present concept features a direct link between the power meters and appliances. In this paper new concept and example of implementation of a so-called Smart Distribution Box (SmartDB) is represented for complete energy and power management. SmartDBs, as an intermediate layer, are extending smart grid power meter functionality to support AutoDR with fast and guaranteed response times, distributed power sources, and besides provide full control over energy management and extra safety functions to the consumers.

  6. LHC Crab Cavity Coupler Test Boxes

    CERN Document Server

    Mitchell, James; Burt, Graeme; Calaga, Rama; Macpherson, Alick; Montesinos, Eric; Silva, Subashini; Tutte, Adam; Xiao, Binping

    2016-01-01

    The LHC double quarter wave (DQW) crab cavities have two different types of Higher Order Mode (HOM) couplers in addition to a fundamental power coupler (FPC). The FPC requires conditioning, so to achieve this we have designed a radio-frequency (RF) quarter wave resonator to provide high transmission between two opposing FPCs. For the HOM couplers we must ensure that the stop-band filter is positioned at the cavity frequency and that peak transmission occurs at the same frequencies as the strongest HOMs. We have designed two test boxes which preserve the cavity spectral response in order to test the couplers.

  7. Slepton pair production in the POWHEG BOX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an implementation for slepton pair production at hadron colliders in the POWHEG BOX, a framework for combining next-to-leading order QCD calculations with parton-shower Monte-Carlo programs. Our code provides a SUSY Les Houches Accord interface for setting the supersymmetric input parameters. Decays of the sleptons and parton-shower effects are simulated with PYTHIA. Our Monte-Carlo program allows the generation of events, and thus of arbitrary distributions with appropriate selection cuts. Kinematic distributions of experimentally observable quantities are shown for a representative point in the supersymmetric parameter space.

  8. Seismic stability of a standalone glove box structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Glove box is a leak tight, safety related structure used for handling radiotoxic materials. • To study the seismic performance of a freestanding glove box, extensive shake table testing has been carried out. • Glove box maintained structural integrity and leak tightness up to design basis earthquake loading. • Detailed three-dimensional finite element model of the structure is developed and analyzed by using direct time integration methods. • Simplified numerical method is proposed and successfully applied, to quickly estimate sliding displacement and determine upper bounds for it. - Abstract: In a nuclear fuel cycle facility, radiotoxic materials are being handled in freestanding leak tight enclosures called glove boxes (GBs). These glove boxes act as a primary confinement for the radiotoxic materials. Glove boxes are designed as per codal requirements for class I component. They are designed to withstand extreme level of earthquake loading with a return period of 10,000 years. To evaluate seismic performance of the glove box, there is a need to check the stability (sliding and overturning), structural integrity (stresses and strains) and leak tightness under earthquake loading. Extensive shake table experiments were conducted on a single standalone glove box. Actual laboratory conditions were simulated during testing to check the response. After extensive shake table testing, glove box structure was also analyzed using finite element (FE) software. Detailed three-dimensional model of glove box structure was developed and analyzed using nonlinear time history method. It was observed that finite element methods could be utilized to accurately predict dynamic response of glove box structure. This paper discusses the details and results of shake table testing and methodology used for modelling and analysing freestanding glove box structure under seismic loading. In addition, simplified numerical procedure, developed using energy conservation

  9. Seismic stability of a standalone glove box structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saraswat, A., E-mail: anupams@barc.gov.in [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Reddy, G.R. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Ghosh, S. [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai (India); Ghosh, A.K.; Kumar, Arun [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Glove box is a leak tight, safety related structure used for handling radiotoxic materials. • To study the seismic performance of a freestanding glove box, extensive shake table testing has been carried out. • Glove box maintained structural integrity and leak tightness up to design basis earthquake loading. • Detailed three-dimensional finite element model of the structure is developed and analyzed by using direct time integration methods. • Simplified numerical method is proposed and successfully applied, to quickly estimate sliding displacement and determine upper bounds for it. - Abstract: In a nuclear fuel cycle facility, radiotoxic materials are being handled in freestanding leak tight enclosures called glove boxes (GBs). These glove boxes act as a primary confinement for the radiotoxic materials. Glove boxes are designed as per codal requirements for class I component. They are designed to withstand extreme level of earthquake loading with a return period of 10,000 years. To evaluate seismic performance of the glove box, there is a need to check the stability (sliding and overturning), structural integrity (stresses and strains) and leak tightness under earthquake loading. Extensive shake table experiments were conducted on a single standalone glove box. Actual laboratory conditions were simulated during testing to check the response. After extensive shake table testing, glove box structure was also analyzed using finite element (FE) software. Detailed three-dimensional model of glove box structure was developed and analyzed using nonlinear time history method. It was observed that finite element methods could be utilized to accurately predict dynamic response of glove box structure. This paper discusses the details and results of shake table testing and methodology used for modelling and analysing freestanding glove box structure under seismic loading. In addition, simplified numerical procedure, developed using energy conservation

  10. Extraction and Isolation of Pepsin-solubilised Collagen from Jellyfish (Rhopilema esculentum )%海蜇胶原蛋白的提取及纯化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘磊; 陈伟

    2011-01-01

    Pepsin-solubllised collagen (PSC) which was isolated from the mesogloea of jellyfish (Rhopilema esculentum) ,by limited pepsin digestion and isolated by selective precipitation with NaCl and cm-cellulose chromatography.The PSC exhibited a maximum absorbance at 235 nm.The results of SDS-PAGE and amino acid compositions suggested the purified collagen was type Ⅰ collagen.It was the same with those of the collagen from jellyfish umbrella and the acidsoluble collagen from its mesoglce, such as S.nomurai and Rhopilema asamushi.As a primitive animal, amino analysis of pac revealed the slight difference between invertebrate and vertebrate.%通过胃蛋白酶的限制性酶切、选择性盐析及阳离子交换柱的层析作用,低温从海蜇中胶层提取可得到胃蛋白酶促溶且去除端肽(telopeptide)的胶原蛋白(PSC).紫外-可见扫描测得PSC的最大吸收峰位于235nm.凝胶电泳及氨基酸分析显示这些都符合Ⅰ型胶原的特征,同水母S.nomurai和Rhopilema asamushi来源的胶原蛋白基本一致,作为一个低等动物,其氨基酸分析显示了脊椎动物和非脊椎动物的微小差异.

  11. Teaching Outside the Box: ARL Librarians' Integration of the "One- Box" into Student Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulp, Christina; McCain, Cheryl; Scrivener, Laurie

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the results of a survey that targeted reference and instruction librarians who work at libraries that are members of the Asso- ciation of Research Libraries (ARL). Respondents were asked to indicate whether or not they teach students to use the one-box tool, and why or why not. Based on the responses of the 352 librarians who…

  12. Hairy Black Holes in a Box

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Pallab; Subramanian, P N Bala

    2016-01-01

    We do a systematic study of the phases of gravity coupled to an electromagnetic field and charged scalar in flat space, with box boundary conditions. The scalar-less box has previously been investigated by Braden, Brown, Whiting and York (and others) before AdS/CFT and we elaborate and extend their results in a language more familiar from holography. The phase diagram of the system is analogous to that of AdS black holes, but we emphasize the differences and explain their origin. Once the scalar is added, we show that the system admits both boson stars as well as hairy black holes as solutions, providing yet another way to evade flat space no-hair theorems. Furthermore both these solutions can exist as stable phases in regions of the phase diagram. The final picture of the phases that emerges is strikingly similar to that found recently for holographic superconductors in global AdS, arXiv: 1602.07211. Our construction lays bare certain previously unnoticed subtleties associated to the definition quasi-local c...

  13. Roles of F-box Proteins in Plant Hormone Responses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haichuan YU; Jiao WU; Nanfei XU; Ming PENG

    2007-01-01

    The F-box protein is an important component of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Skpl-Cullin-F-box protein complex. It binds specific substrates for ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. The F-box proteins contain a signature F-box motif at their amino-terminus and some protein-protein interaction motifs at their carboxyterminus, such as Trp-Asp repeats or leucine rich repeats. Many F-box proteins have been identified to be involved in plant hormone response as receptors or important medial components. These breakthrough findings shed light on our current understanding of the structure and function of the various F-box proteins,their related plant hormone signaling pathways, and their roles in regulating plant development.

  14. Software sensors based on the grey-box modelling approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, J.; Harremoës, P.; Strube, Rune

    1996-01-01

    In recent years the grey-box modelling approach has been applied to wastewater transportation and treatment Grey-box models are characterized by the combination of deterministic and stochastic terms to form a model where all the parameters are statistically identifiable from the on......-box model for the specific dynamics is identified. Similarly, an on-line software sensor for detecting the occurrence of backwater phenomena can be developed by comparing the dynamics of a flow measurement with a nearby level measurement. For treatment plants it is found that grey-box models applied to on......-line measurements. With respect to the development of software sensors, the grey-box models possess two important features. Firstly, the on-line measurements can be filtered according to the grey-box model in order to remove noise deriving from the measuring equipment and controlling devices. Secondly, the grey...

  15. Cash Flow Prediction Using a Grey-Box Model

    OpenAIRE

    Pang, Yang; Opong, Kwaku; Moutinho, Luia; Li, Yun

    2015-01-01

    This paper tackles the problem of financial forecasting by extending methods developed in automation, engineering and computing science. Current methods existing in the literature for firm-level cash flows are first analysed. Then a grey-box modelling method is developed to elevate the performance of cash-flow prediction. Linear panel data modelling is used as a benchmark model. Experiments with out-of-sample tests are used to validate the grey-box approach. Encouragingly, nonlinear grey-box ...

  16. Three Essays on Big-Box Retailers and Regional Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Peralta, Denis

    2016-01-01

    The big-box retail stores such as Wal-Mart and Target have become the focus of many studies researching their impacts on local economic outcomes. This dissertation studies three related topics: (i) the dynamic interrelationship among the presence of the big-box stores, retail wage, and employment, (ii) the impact of the big-box retailers on personal income growth, and (iii) the dynamic interrelationship between the presence of big-box retailers and personal income growth. The research draws i...

  17. Ion-wake Field inside a Glass Box

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Mudi; Zhang, Bo; Matthews, Lorin S; Hyde, Truell W

    2016-01-01

    The confinement provided by a glass box is proving ideal for the formation of vertically aligned structures and a convenient method for controlling the number of dust particles comprising these dust structures, as well as their size and shape. In this paper, the electronic confinement of the glass box is mapped and the particle interactions between the particle pairs inside the glass box are measured. The ion-wake field is shown to exist within the glass box and its vertical and horizontal extent is measured.

  18. New approaches to glove box design at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glove boxes provide the primary environmental containment system for plutonium processing operations at US Dept. of Energy (DOE)-owned facilities such as Rockwell Hanford. As noted in previous presentations, glove box designs and operations have evolved through stages that are a result of advances in processing techniques, new regulatory requirements, and cost escalation. These factors will continue to influence the current glove box designs and operations. The purpose of this presentation is to discuss required upgrades and changes that are being incorporated into glove boxes being installed at Rockwell Hanford and other DOE installations or are being evaluated for future upgrades

  19. Jellyfish Lake, Palau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, William C.; Landing, William M.; Lyons, W. Berry; Orem, William

    Elemental cycling in suboxic to anoxic marine environments has received considerable attention in the past few years. The recent expeditions of the RIV Knorr to the Black Sea, for example, illustrate the interest in deciphering the geochemical processes active in such environments “Murray, 1988”.This interest has been stimulated by the recognition that the type of elemental cycling that occurs in restrictive basins such as the Black Sea also occurs in many other environments. Examples include hydrothermal systems, estuarine and marine sediments, and other water columns with restrictive circulation. In addition, evidence that widespread anoxia has occurred in oceans of the geologic past “Fischer and Arthur, 1977; Jenkyns, 1980” requires us to obtain a better understanding of geochemical processes under such conditions. We report here on preliminary geochemical measurements made in a stratified marine lake—an unusual, yet useful environment as an analog of an anoxic ocean.

  20. Dream Box Learning. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "DreamBox Learning" is a supplemental online mathematics program that provides adaptive instruction for students in grades K-5 and focuses on number and operations, place value, and number sense. The What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) identified one study of "DreamBox Learning" that both falls within the scope of the Elementary…

  1. Effect of auricular acupuncture on oxygen consumption of boxing athletes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Zen-Pin; WANG Chung-Yuan; JANO Tsong-Rong; MA Tso-chiang; CHIA Fan; LIN Jaung-Geng; HSU Jen-Jeng; HO Tsung-Jung

    2009-01-01

    @@ Boxing is an official sport at the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games and the fast development of world-class high strength training and sport science has made a significant impact on scientific training. Boxing needs high cardio-respiratory function, speed, muscle strength, and anaerobic and intensive physical demands including weight control covering the grading of athlete's.

  2. Wind Speed Prediction Using Box-Jenkins Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helga Silaghi

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the Box-Jenkins method used for wind speed prediction. Box-Jenkins methodology finds the best fit of a time series to past values in order to make forecasts. This methodology uses the autocorrelation and partial autocorrelation functions.

  3. Olympic Sports(ⅩⅣ):Boxing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜全红

    2004-01-01

    Boxing has a long sporting history.The earliest evidence of boxing is found in Egypt around 3000 B.C.The sport was introduced to the Olympic Games by the Greeks in the late 7th century B.C.. Greek boxers used thongs of soft leather to bind their hands

  4. Decontamination and dismantling of large plutonium-contamined glove boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the work performed in the frame of two C.E.C. - Contracts FI1D-002400-B Decommissioning of very large glove boxes and FI1D-0058 Decommissioning of a complex glove box structure to be dismounted partially on place. Detailed information is given about each glove box. The selection of the solution Transportation of the glove boxes to a specialized dismantling plant is justified. The necessary contacts inside the BELGONUCLEAIRE MOX plant and between the latter and other organizations are explained. The problems of manipulating large gloves are listed and the retained solution of building a so called Stiffening frame around each glove box is described. Furthermore information is given concerning required operators time for cleaning, manipulating, packing and dismantling together with received doses and quantities of waste produced. Concerning the glove box unit partially to be dismounted on place, detailed information is given about the way the glove boxes have been treated prior to this partial dismantling on place and about the way this partial dismantling has been performed. From these results one can conclude that such a delicate task can be performed without major difficulties. Finally information is given of the decontamination test of a highly Pu contaminated glove box with freon with rather poor results and of the preliminary CO2 blasting tests on non active samples

  5. Faster Black-Box Algorithms Through Higher Arity Operators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doerr, Benjamin; Johannsen, Daniel; Kötzing, Timo; Lehre, Per Kristian; Wagner, Markus; Winzen, Carola

    We extend the work of Lehre and Witt (GECCO 2010) on the unbiased black-box model by considering higher arity variation operators. In particular, we show that already for binary operators the black-box complexity of LeadingOnes drops from (n2) for unary operators to O(n log n). For OneMax, the (n...

  6. Getting started with Oracle VM VirtualBox

    CERN Document Server

    Dash, Pradyumna

    2013-01-01

    A step-by-step guide that will show you how to install, configure, and manage VirtualBox.This book is for system administrators, technical architects, and virtualization enthusiasts who want to learn how to set up a virtual machine. Knowledge of the Linux environment is expected. Prior experience with VirtualBox or knowledge of virtualization is not required.

  7. A System for Cooling inside a Glove Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Martial

    2010-01-01

    An easy, efficient, reliable, and low-cost method of constructing a cooling system using a simple circulating pump is described. The system is employed in conjunction with an inert atmosphere glove box to achieve the synthesis of air- and moisture-sensitive compounds inside the glove box at controlled, low temperatures without contaminating the…

  8. Aspect ratio dependence in magnetorotational instability shearing box simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Bodo, G; Cattaneo, F; Rossi, P; Ferrari, A

    2008-01-01

    Aims: We study the changes in the properties of turbulence driven by the magnetorotational instability in a shearing box, as the computational domain size in the radial direction is varied relative to the height Methods: We perform 3D simulations in the shearing box approximation, with a net magnetic flux, and we consider computational domains with different aspect ratios Results: We find that in boxes of aspect ratio unity the transport of angular momentum is strongly intermittent and dominated by channel solutions in agreement with previous work. In contrast, in boxes with larger aspect ratio, the channel solutions and the associated intermittent behavior disappear. Conclusions: There is strong evidence that, as the aspect ratio becomes larger, the characteristics of the solution become aspect ratio independent. We conclude that shearing box calculations with aspect ratio unity or near unity may introduce spurious effects.

  9. Getting started with Citrix VDI-in-a-Box

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Stuart Arthur

    2013-01-01

    A practical and fast-paced guide that gives you all the information you need to simplify and streamline virtual desktops so you get a production-quality solution while instantly lowering your costs and improving security.Getting Started with Citrix VDI-in-a-Box is great for IT professionals who are new to VDI-in-a-Box and who are looking for a good grounding in the product. You may be planning to research VDI-in-a-Box in more detail, or you may be tasked with researching how VDI-in-a-Box could improve the productivity of your organization. No prior knowledge of VDI-in-a-Box is required, just a

  10. The influence of different diets on growth performance in moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita%不同饲料对海月水母生长性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文龙; 冷向军; 刘晃

    2009-01-01

    研究了5种饲料对海月水母Aurelia aurita(伞体直径为2.50 cm±0.10 cm)生长性能的影响.实验共分5组,每组设3个平行,分别投喂卤虫无节幼体、冰冻卤虫、冷冻干燥卤虫、国产微粒饲料和国外微粒饲料,依照投喂饲料的不同,各组分别记为G_(鲜活)、G_(冰冻)、G_(干燥)、G_(国产)、G_(国外)组,实验共进行30 d.结果表明:饲养30 d后,5组海月水母伞体的平均直径依次为(5.01±0.10)、(4.78±0.20)、(4.62±0.11)、(4.23±0.05)、(4.42±0.06)cm,卤虫无节幼体组生长性能最好,水母伞体直径显著高于其他各组(P0.05),收缩频率平均为0.5~0.66 次/s;冰冻卤虫组的三态氮含量均显著高于其他各组(P<0.05),国内微粒饲料组的三态氮含量次之,也显著高于其他3组(P<0.05).本实验结果表明,卤虫无节幼体是海月水母较理想的饵料,冰冻卤虫和冷冻干燥卤虫次之.国产微粒饲料因为在营养组成、水中稳定性和悬浮性方面较差,饲养海月水母的效果也较差.%Moon jellyfish Amelia aurita with initial umbrella diameter of (2.50 ± 0.10)cm were fed nauplii of Ar-temia, frozen Atemia, freeze dried Atemia, Chinese microdiet and microdiet abroad for one month to evaluate the influence of the diets above on growth performance in the moon jellyfish. The moon jellyfish fed the Chinese micro-diet had survival rate of 95% , whereas the moon jellyfish fed the other diets had survival rate of 100%. The moon jellyfish fed the nauplii of Anemia showed the best growth performance, the umbrella diameter (5.01 cm ±0. 10 cm) being significant higher than the animals fed other diets(P <0.05) .followed by the moon jellyfish fed the fro-zen Atemia (4.78 cm ±0.20 cm in umbrella diameter) or freeze dried Atemia (4.62 cm ±0.11 cm in umbrella diameter). The least growth was observed in the moon jellyfish fed the Chinese microdiet (4.42 cm ±0.06 cm in umbrella diameter). The highest constraction frequency (1/second) was

  11. Opening up a Colourful Cosmic Jewel Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    The combination of images taken by three exceptional telescopes, the ESO Very Large Telescope on Cerro Paranal , the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla observatory and the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, has allowed the stunning Jewel Box star cluster to be seen in a whole new light. Star clusters are among the most visually alluring and astrophysically fascinating objects in the sky. One of the most spectacular nestles deep in the southern skies near the Southern Cross in the constellation of Crux. The Kappa Crucis Cluster, also known as NGC 4755 or simply the "Jewel Box" is just bright enough to be seen with the unaided eye. It was given its nickname by the English astronomer John Herschel in the 1830s because the striking colour contrasts of its pale blue and orange stars seen through a telescope reminded Herschel of a piece of exotic jewellery. Open clusters [1] such as NGC 4755 typically contain anything from a few to thousands of stars that are loosely bound together by gravity. Because the stars all formed together from the same cloud of gas and dust their ages and chemical makeup are similar, which makes them ideal laboratories for studying how stars evolve. The position of the cluster amongst the rich star fields and dust clouds of the southern Milky Way is shown in the very wide field view generated from the Digitized Sky Survey 2 data. This image also includes one of the stars of the Southern Cross as well as part of the huge dark cloud of the Coal Sack [2]. A new image taken with the Wide Field Imager (WFI) on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile shows the cluster and its rich surroundings in all their multicoloured glory. The large field of view of the WFI shows a vast number of stars. Many are located behind the dusty clouds of the Milky Way and therefore appear red [3]. The FORS1 instrument on the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) allows a much closer look at the cluster itself. The telescope's huge mirror

  12. On (2,3)-agreeable Box Societies

    CERN Document Server

    Abrahams, Michael; Zell, Thierry

    2009-01-01

    The notion of $(k,m)$-agreeable society was introduced by Deborah Berg et al.: a family of convex subsets of $\\R^d$ is called $(k,m)$-agreeable if any subfamily of size $m$ contains at least one non-empty $k$-fold intersection. In that paper, the $(k,m)$-agreeability of a convex family was shown to imply the existence of a subfamily of size $\\beta n$ with non-empty intersection, where $n$ is the size of the original family and $\\beta\\in[0,1]$ is an explicit constant depending only on $k,m$ and $d$. The quantity $\\beta(k,m,d)$ is called the minimal \\emph{agreement proportion} for a $(k,m)$-agreeable family in $\\R^d$. If we only assume that the sets are convex, simple examples show that $\\beta=0$ for $(k,m)$-agreeable families in $\\R^d$ where $kboxes, i.e. cuboids with sides parallel to the coordinates hyperplanes. We derive explicit formulas for the first non-trivial case: the case...

  13. A formula for lubrication of journal boxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gimayev, R.N.; Aliyev, R.A.; Dolukhanov, R.Ts.; Kondrasheva, N.K.; Ol' kov, P.L.; Rogacheva, O.I.; Spivak, Ye.A.

    1982-01-01

    In order to improve lubricating properties of oils used for journal boxes, an extract that boils off at 275-470/sup 0/, 60-75, is used, with a thermal cracking residue that is ADS 25-40. The latter consists of oil fraction extracts in a mixture with a catalytically cracked heavy gasoil (low-coking). Thus, content of aromatic hydrocarbons and asphalt-tar substances determines its positive lubricating properties. Example: the lubricant derived by direct compounding of a selectively cleaned oil fraction extract (SE), having a boiling temp. of 275-470/sup 0/, thermal ADS cracking residue and density of 1.100 is prepared with a component ratio 75:25. The derived oil has a viscosity of 42.0 sSt/50/sup 0/; dynamic viscosity 110 pz/-10/sup 0/; boiling temp. in an open crucible is 140/sup 0/; congelation temp. -42/sup 0/; critical loading, determined by a four-bearing friction machine, 85 kgs; thickness of lubricating layer, determined by centrifuge, 3.35 mkm. Comparison of physicochemical properties of the given and known lubricants shows that the tested item has better viscosity and lubricating characteristics. Oil test samples satisfy all GOST 610-72 requirements for summer-type axle oils.

  14. Non-signaling boxes and quantum logics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a quantum logic approach we analyze the structure of the so-called non-signaling theories respecting relativistic causality, but allowing correlations violating bounds imposed by quantum mechanics such as CHSH inequality. We discuss the relations among such theories, quantum mechanics, and classical physics. Our main result is the construction of a probability theory adequate for the simplest instance of a non-signaling theory—the two non-signaling boxes world—in which we exhibit its differences in comparison with classical and quantum probabilities. We show that the question of whether such a theory can be treated as a kind of ‘generalization’ of the quantum theory of the two-qubit system cannot be answered positively. Some of its features put it closer to the quantum world—on the one hand, for example, the measurements are destructive, though on the other hand the Heisenberg uncertainty relations are not satisfied. Another interesting property contrasting it from quantum mechanics is that the subset of ‘classically correlated states’, i.e. the states with only classical correlations, does not reproduce the classical world of the two two-state systems. Our results establish a new link between quantum information theory and the well-developed theory of quantum logics. (paper)

  15. Probability boxes on totally preordered spaces for multivariate modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Troffaes, Matthias C M; 10.1016/j.ijar.2011.02.001

    2011-01-01

    A pair of lower and upper cumulative distribution functions, also called probability box or p-box, is among the most popular models used in imprecise probability theory. They arise naturally in expert elicitation, for instance in cases where bounds are specified on the quantiles of a random variable, or when quantiles are specified only at a finite number of points. Many practical and formal results concerning p-boxes already exist in the literature. In this paper, we provide new efficient tools to construct multivariate p-boxes and develop algorithms to draw inferences from them. For this purpose, we formalise and extend the theory of p-boxes using Walley's behavioural theory of imprecise probabilities, and heavily rely on its notion of natural extension and existing results about independence modeling. In particular, we allow p-boxes to be defined on arbitrary totally preordered spaces, hence thereby also admitting multivariate p-boxes via probability bounds over any collection of nested sets. We focus on t...

  16. Measure Guideline: Optimizing the Configuration of Flexible Duct Junction Boxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beach, R.; Burdick, A.

    2014-03-01

    This measure guideline offers additional recommendations to heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system designers for optimizing flexible duct, constant-volume HVAC systems using junction boxes within Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA) Manual D guidance (Rutkowski, H. Manual D -- Residential Duct Systems, 3rd edition, Version 1.00. Arlington, VA: Air Conditioning Contractors of America, 2009.). IBACOS used computational fluid dynamics software to explore and develop guidance to better control the airflow effects of factors that may impact pressure losses within junction boxes among various design configurations (Beach, R., Prahl, D., and Lange, R. CFD Analysis of Flexible Duct Junction Box Design. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, submitted for publication 2013). These recommendations can help to ensure that a system aligns more closely with the design and the occupants' comfort expectations. Specifically, the recommendations described herein show how to configure a rectangular box with four outlets, a triangular box with three outlets, metal wyes with two outlets, and multiple configurations for more than four outlets. Designers of HVAC systems, contractors who are fabricating junction boxes on site, and anyone using the ACCA Manual D process for sizing duct runs will find this measure guideline invaluable for more accurately minimizing pressure losses when using junction boxes with flexible ducts.

  17. Bayesian spatio-temporal kriging with misspecified black-box

    OpenAIRE

    Faye, Papa-Abdulaye; faye, Papa Abdoulaye; Druilhet, Pierre; Azzaoui, Nourddine; Yao, Anne-Françoise

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new algorithm for spatio-temporal prediction. At a given time t, we use a Bayesian kriging model for spatial prediction. The temporal evolution from t to t + 1 is given by a deterministic black-box which can be a complex numerical code or a partial differential equation. As often in practice, the black-box is misspecified, in the sense that its parameters are imprecisely known or may be varying randomly over time. At time t, we use the black-box to obtain a rough prediction at ti...

  18. Patent Boxes Design, Patents Location and Local R&D

    OpenAIRE

    Annette Alstadsæter; Salvador Barrios; Nicodème, Gaëtan J.A.; Agnieszka Skonieczna; Antonio Vezzani

    2015-01-01

    Patent boxes have been heavily debated for their role in corporate tax competition. This paper uses firm-level data for the period 2000-2011 for the top 2,000 corporate research and development (R&D) investors worldwide to consider the determinants of patent registration across a large sample of countries. Importantly, we disentangle the effects of corporate income taxation from the tax advantage of patent boxes. We also exploit a new and original dataset on patent box features such as the co...

  19. Patent Boxes Design, Patents Location and Local R&D

    OpenAIRE

    Annette Alstadsæter; Salvador Barrios; Gaëtan Nicodème; Agnieszka Maria Skonieczna; Antonio Vezzani

    2015-01-01

    Patent boxes have been heavily debated for their role in corporate tax competition.This paper uses firm-level data for the period 2000-2011 for the top 2,000 corporate R&D investors worldwide to consider the determinants of patent registration across a large sample of countries. Importantly, we disentangle the effects of corporate income taxation from the tax advantage of patent boxes. We also exploit a new and original dataset on patent box features such as the conditionality on performing r...

  20. The use of ephyrae of a scyphozoan jellyfish, Aurelia aurita, in the aquatic toxicological assessment of Macondo oils from the Deepwater Horizon incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echols, B S; Smith, A J; Gardinali, P R; Rand, G M

    2016-02-01

    Ephyrae of the scyphozoan jellyfish, Aurelia aurita, were evaluated in 96-hr acute toxicity tests for lethal response to Macondo crude oils from the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) incident in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Corexit 9500, and oil-dispersant mixtures. Water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of weathered and unweathered Macondo crude oils were not acutely toxic to ephyrae (LC50s > 100% WAF). The total PAHs (TPAHs), measured as the sum of 46 PAHs, averaged 21.1and 152 µg TPAH/L for WAFs of weathered and unweathered oil, respectively. Mortality was significantly (p = <0.0001) higher in the three highest exposure concentrations (184-736 µg TPAH/L) of chemically dispersed WAFs (CEWAF) compared to controls. Dispersant only tests resulted in a mean LC50 of 32.3 µL/L, which is in the range of previously published LC50s for marine zooplankton. Changes in appearance and muscle contractions were observed in organisms exposed to CEWAF dilutions of 12.5 and 25%, as early as 24 h post-exposure. Based on the results of these tests, crude oil alone did not cause significant acute toxicity; however, the presence of chemical dispersant resulted in substantial mortality and physical and behavioral abnormalities either due to an increase in hydrocarbons or droplet exposure. PMID:26547023

  1. The AirQuality SenseBox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuth, Dustin; Nuest, Daniel; Bröring, Arne; Pebesma, Edzer

    2013-04-01

    In the past year, a group of open hardware enthusiasts and citizen scientists had large success in the crowd-funding of an open hardware-based sensor platform for air quality monitoring, called the Air Quality Egg. Via the kickstarter platform, the group was able to collect triple the amount of money than needed to fulfill their goals. Data generated by the Air Quality Egg is pushed to the data logging platform cosm.com, which makes the devices a part of the Internet of Things. The project aims at increasing the participation of citizens in the collection of data, the development of sensors, the operation of sensor stations, and, as data on cosm is publicly available, the sharing, visualization and analysis of data. Air Quality Eggs can measure NO2 and CO concentrations, as well as relative humidity and temperature. The chosen sensors are low-cost and have limited precision and accurracy. The Air Quality Egg consists of a stationary outdoor and a stationary indoor unit. Each outdoor unit will wirelessly transmit air quality measurements to the indoor unit, which forwards the data to cosm. Most recent versions of the Air Quality Egg allow a rough calibration of the gas sensors and on-the-fly conversion from raw sensor readings (impedance) to meaningful air quality data expressed in units of parts per billion. Data generated by these low-cost platforms are not intended to replace well-calibrated official monitoring stations, but rather augment the density of the total monitoring network with citizen sensors. To improve the usability of the Air Quality Egg, we present a new and more advanced concept, called the AirQuality SenseBox. We made the outdoor platform more autonomous and location-aware by adding solarpanels and rechargeable batteries as a power source. The AirQuality SenseBox knows its own position from a GPS device attached to the platform. As a mobile sensor platform, it can for instance be attached to vehicles. A low-cost and low-power wireless chipset

  2. Experts’ Misinterpretation of Box Plots – a Dual Processing Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Lem

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that students often misinterpret the area of the box in box plots as representing the frequency or proportion of observations in that interval, while it actually represents density. This misinterpretation has been shown to be based on the saliency of this area and can be explained by heuristic reasoning as defined by dual process theories. In this study we tested whether expert users of box plots also display this misinterpretation and show signs of the same heuristic reasoning as found in students. Using a reaction time test, we found signs of heuristic reasoning in experts, both with respect to accuracy and reaction times. If even experts have difficulty interpreting box plots, one can question whether these are an appropriate form of representation to use when reporting data and deserve the prominent place they currently have in the statistics curriculum.

  3. Gray-box modelling approach for description of storage tunnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harremoës, Poul; Carstensen, Jacob

    1999-01-01

    The dynamics of a storage tunnel is examined using a model based on on-line measured data and a combination of simple deterministic and black-box stochastic elements. This approach, called gray-box modeling, is a new promising methodology for giving an on-line state description of sewer systems. ...... and implemented in a SCADA system because the most important information on the specific system is provided on-line......The dynamics of a storage tunnel is examined using a model based on on-line measured data and a combination of simple deterministic and black-box stochastic elements. This approach, called gray-box modeling, is a new promising methodology for giving an on-line state description of sewer systems...

  4. BoxLib with Tiling: An AMR Software Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Weiqun; Day, Marcus; Nguyen, Tan; Shalf, John; Unat, Didem

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a block-structured adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) software framework that incorporates tiling, a well-known loop transformation. Because the multiscale, multiphysics codes built in BoxLib are designed to solve complex systems at high resolution, performance on current and next generation architectures is essential. With the expectation of many more cores per node on next generation architectures, the ability to effectively utilize threads within a node is essential, and the current model for parallelization will not be sufficient. We describe a new version of BoxLib in which the tiling constructs are embedded so that BoxLib-based applications can easily realize expected performance gains without extra effort on the part of the application developer. We also discuss a path forward to enable future versions of BoxLib to take advantage of NUMA-aware optimizations using the TiDA portable library.

  5. Confirmation test on confinement performance of improved glove box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glove boxes are used at nuclear facilities to confine radioactive materials by ensuring a high level of airtightness and negative internal pressure. The allowable rate of air leakage is 0.1% vol/hr or less at the pre-service inspection. The negative pressure value is normally maintained at about -30 mm H2 O. Structural strength and confinement reliability of glove boxes during earthquake are major concerns, and most important glove boxes are designed to withstand seismic class A events is Japan. This paper describes vibration tests done to confirm that improve large-sized glove boxes maintain their confinement performance and structural strength even during earthquake and that the design analysis methods used are appropriate. (author). 1 ref., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Sizing Procedures for a Fibre Reinforced Plastic Box

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kamal

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available A fibre-reinforced plastic (FRP box is an important class of structural component employed as the bending, torsion, or bending-torsion load bearing member in the modern light- weight structures. This paper presents various steps involved in the design of such a box beginning with preliminary analysis and optimization to the final sizing. The box made up of carbon fibre composite is a typical numerical example of such FRP construction. Numerical results obtained from the static stress analysis, the panel buckling analysis and the structural optimization as used for this sizing exercise, are presented. It is believed that the complete procedure of analysis using finite element method and then sizing of any FRP box in a comprehensive way, is reported for the first time.

  7. Fusion welded fabrication of unshielded steel glove boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Specification deals with the manufacture, testing, inspection and delivery of fabricated glove boxes, including such internal and/or external fittings as are shown on the relevant drawings. (author)

  8. Fusion welded fabrication of unshielded steel glove boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This part of the Specification together with Part 1 covers the manufacture, testing, inspection and delivery of stainless steel glove boxes including such fittings internally and externally as shown on relevant drawings. (author)

  9. 49 CFR 178.516 - Standards for fiberboard boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... wooden frame or be entirely of wood or other suitable material. Reinforcements of wooden battens or other... resistant adhesive must be used. (5) Boxes must be designed so as to provide a snug fit to the contents....

  10. Necropsy Report - Eaastern Pipistrelle Box Culvert I-55 Grenada, MS

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Necropsy report of a eastern pipisttrelle tricolored bat found dead in a box culvert along I55, near Grenada, MS provides no indication of whitenose syndrome.

  11. Black-Box Policy Search with Probabilistic Programs

    OpenAIRE

    van de Meent, Jan-Willem; Tolpin, David; Paige, Brooks; Wood, Frank

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we explore how probabilistic programs can be used to represent policies in sequential decision problems. In this formulation, a probabilistic program is a black-box stochastic simulator for both the problem domain and the agent. We relate classic policy gradient techniques to recently introduced black-box variational methods which generalize to probabilistic program inference. We present case studies in the Canadian traveler problem, Rock Sample, and a benchmark for optimal diag...

  12. Maximal unitarity for the four-mass double box

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Henrik; Kosower, David A.; Larsen, Kasper J.

    2014-01-01

    We extend the maximal-unitarity formalism at two loops to double-box integrals with four massive external legs. These are relevant for higher-point processes, as well as for heavy vector rescattering, VV -> VV. In this formalism, the two-loop amplitude is expanded over a basis of integrals. We obtain formulas for the coefficients of the double-box integrals, expressing them as products of tree-level amplitudes integrated over specific complex multidimensional contours. The contours are subjec...

  13. SOME RECURRENCE FORMULAS FOR BOX SPLINES AND CONE SPLINES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patrick J. Van Fleet

    2004-01-01

    A degree elevation formula for multivariate simplex splines was given by Micchelli[6] and extended to hold for multivariate Dirichlet splines in [8]. We report similar formulae for multivariate cone splines and box splines. To this end, we utilize a relation due to Dahmen and Micchelli[4] that connects box splines and cone splines and a degree reduction formula given by Cohen, Lyche, and Riesenfeld in [2].

  14. SOME RECURRENCE FORMULAS FOR BOX SPLINES AND CONE SPLINES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patrick J. Van Fleet

    2002-01-01

    A degree elevation formula for multivariate simplex splines was given by Micchelli [6] and extended to hold for multivariate Dirichlet splines in [8]. We report similar formulae for multivariate cone splines and box_splines. To this end, we utilize a relation due to Dahmen and Micchelli [4] that connects box splines and cone splines and a degree reduction formula given by Cohen, Lyche, and Riesenfeld in [2].

  15. Coupling polariton quantum boxes in sub-wavelength grating microcavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the construction of decoupled, coupled, and quasi-one dimensional polariton systems from zero dimensional polariton quantum boxes using microcavities with sub-wavelength gratings as the top mirror. By designing the tethering patterns around the suspended sub-wavelength gratings, we control the coupling between individual quantum boxes through different optical potentials. Energy levels and real-space or momentum space distributions of the confined modes were measured, which agreed well with simulations

  16. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) depleted uranium waste boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) allows the one-time shipment of ten metal boxes and one wooden box containing depleted uranium material from the Fast Flux Test Facility to the burial grounds in the 200 West Area for disposal. This SEP provides the analyses and operational controls necessary to demonstrate that the shipment will be safe for the onsite worker and the public

  17. Reliability Based Optimum Design of a Gear Box

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Madhusekhar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The gear box represents an important mechanical sub system. In machine tools, the propose of a gear box is to provide a series of useful output speeds so that the machining operation can be carried out at its most optimum operating conditions high spindle speeds with low feed rate for roughing operations. An important aspect in the design of machine tool transmission is to keep the cost and volume of the gear box to a minimum. The probabilistic approach to design has been considered to be more rational compared to the conventional design approach based on the factor of safety. The existence of uncertainties in either engineering simulations or manufacturing processes calls for a reliability-based design optimization (RBDO model for robust and cost-effective designs. In the present work a three shaft four speed gear box is designed using reliability principles. For the specified reliability of the system (Gear box, component reliability (Gear pair is calculated by considering the system as a series system. Design is considered to be safe and adequate if the probability of failure of gear box is less than or equal to a specified quantity in each of the two failure modes. A FORTRAN program has been developed to calculate the mean values of face widths of gears for the minimum mass of gear box. By changing the probability of failure of system variations in the face widths are studied. The reliability based optimum design results are compared with those obtained by deterministic optimum design. The minimum mass of the gear box is increase as the specified values of the reliability is increased.

  18. Measure Guideline: Optimizing the Configuration of Flexible Duct Junction Boxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beach, R. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Burdick, A. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2014-03-01

    This measure guideline offers additional recommendations to heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system designers for optimizing flexible duct, constant-volume HVAC systems using junction boxes within Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA) Manual D guidance. IBACOS used computational fluid dynamics software to explore and develop guidance to better control the airflow effects of factors that may impact pressure losses within junction boxes among various design configurations. These recommendations can help to ensure that a system aligns more closely with the design and the occupants' comfort expectations. Specifically, the recommendations described herein show how to configure a rectangular box with four outlets, a triangular box with three outlets, metal wyes with two outlets, and multiple configurations for more than four outlets. Designers of HVAC systems, contractors who are fabricating junction boxes on site, and anyone using the ACCA Manual D process for sizing duct runs will find this measure guideline invaluable for more accurately minimizing pressure losses when using junction boxes with flexible ducts.

  19. Closure of an analytical chemistry glove box in alpha laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The works with plutonium are performed in gloves box, operated below atmospheric pressure, to protect the experimenters from this alpha-active material. After 12 years of continual processes, it was necessary the decommissioning of the chemistry glove box in our alpha-laboratory. A great deal of our attention was devoted to the working techniques because of extreme care needed to avoid activity release. The decommissioning includes the following main operations: a) Planning and documentation for the regulatory authority. b) Internal decontamination with surface cleaning and chelating agents. c) Measurement of the remainder internal radioactivity. d) Sealing of the glove ports and nozzles. e) Disconnection of the glove box from the exhaust duct. f) Design and construction of a container for the glove box. g) Transportation of the glove box from alpha-laboratory, to a transitory storage until its final disposal. The above mentioned operations are described in this paper including too: data of personal doses during the operations, characteristics and volumes of radioactive wastes and a description of the instrument used for the measurement of inside glove box activity. (Author)

  20. Unconventional Bearing Capacity Analysis and Optimization of Multicell Box Girders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovan Tepic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with unconventional bearing capacity analysis and the procedure of optimizing a two-cell box girder. The generalized model which enables the local stress-strain analysis of multicell girders was developed based on the principle of cross-sectional decomposition. The applied methodology is verified using the experimental data (Djelosevic et al., 2012 for traditionally formed box girders. The qualitative and quantitative evaluation of results obtained for the two-cell box girder is realized based on comparative analysis using the finite element method (FEM and the ANSYS v12 software. The deflection function obtained by analytical and numerical methods was found consistent provided that the maximum deviation does not exceed 4%. Multicell box girders are rationally designed support structures characterized by much lower susceptibility of their cross-sectional elements to buckling and higher specific capacity than traditionally formed box girders. The developed local stress model is applied for optimizing the cross section of a two-cell box carrier. The author points to the advantages of implementing the model of local stresses in the optimization process and concludes that the technological reserve of bearing capacity amounts to 20% at the same girder weight and constant load conditions.

  1. Principal Investigator-in-a-Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Laurence R.

    1999-01-01

    Human performance in orbit is currently limited by several factors beyond the intrinsic awkwardness of motor control in weightlessness. Cognitive functioning can be affected by such factors as cumulative sleep loss, stress and the psychological effects of long-duration small-group isolation. When an astronaut operates a scientific experiment, the performance decrement associated with such factors can lead to lost or poor quality data and even the total loss of a scientific objective, at great cost to the sponsors and to the dismay of the Principal Investigator. In long-duration flights, as anticipated on the International Space Station and on any planetary exploration, the experimental model is further complicated by long delays between training and experiment, and the large number of experiments each crew member must perform. Although no documented studies have been published on the subject, astronauts report that an unusually large number of simple errors are made in space. Whether a result of the effects of microgravity, accumulated fatigue, stress or other factors, this pattern of increased error supports the need for a computerized decision-making aid for astronauts performing experiments. Artificial intelligence and expert systems might serve as powerful tools for assisting experiments in space. Those conducting space experiments typically need assistance exactly when the planned checklist does not apply. Expert systems, which use bits of human knowledge and human methods to respond appropriately to unusual situations, have a flexibility that is highly desirable in circumstances where an invariably predictable course of action/response does not exist. Frequently the human expert on the ground is unavailable, lacking the latest information, or not consulted by the astronaut conducting the experiment. In response to these issues, we have developed "Principal Investigator-in-a-Box," or [PI], to capture the reasoning process of the real expert, the Principal

  2. Occurrence, inter-annual variability and zooplankton-predation impact of the invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi and the native jellyfish Aurelia aurita in Limfjorden (Denmark) in 2010 and 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgaard, Hans Ulrik; Jaspers, Cornelia; Serre, Sandrine;

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, the invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi was observed for the first time in Limfjorden (Denmark) where it exhibited mass occurrence in late summer while the indigenous and usually dominating common jellyfish, Aurelia aurita, was nearly absent. Both species were further studied in 2008...... in the Black Sea in 1989 when the zooplankton and fish stocks collapsed. Analysis of available hydrographic data and model calculations indicates that re-invasion of M. leidyi from the North Sea seeded the autumn population in Limfjorden in mid-September...

  3. A novel method to design S-box based on chaotic map and genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Wong, Kwok-Wo; Li, Changbing; Li, Yang

    2012-01-01

    The substitution box (S-box) is an important component in block encryption algorithms. In this Letter, the problem of constructing S-box is transformed to a Traveling Salesman Problem and a method for designing S-box based on chaos and genetic algorithm is proposed. Since the proposed method makes full use of the traits of chaotic map and evolution process, stronger S-box is obtained. The results of performance test show that the presented S-box has good cryptographic properties, which justify that the proposed algorithm is effective in generating strong S-boxes.

  4. A novel method to design S-box based on chaotic map and genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The substitution box (S-box) is an important component in block encryption algorithms. In this Letter, the problem of constructing S-box is transformed to a Traveling Salesman Problem and a method for designing S-box based on chaos and genetic algorithm is proposed. Since the proposed method makes full use of the traits of chaotic map and evolution process, stronger S-box is obtained. The results of performance test show that the presented S-box has good cryptographic properties, which justify that the proposed algorithm is effective in generating strong S-boxes. -- Highlights: ► The problem of constructing S-box is transformed to a Traveling Salesman Problem. ► We present a new method for designing S-box based on chaos and genetic algorithm. ► The proposed algorithm is effective in generating strong S-boxes.

  5. Implications of Big Box Retail Location on Regional Profits, Consumer Utility, and Land Rents

    OpenAIRE

    Stater, Mark; Visser, Michael S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses a monocentric city model to examine the effects of big box retailing on local retail prices, land values and utility. Relative to small local retailers, the big box offers a price discount that increases in its marginal cost advantage. Big box entry reduces local retail prices and profits, but provides an increase in household utility that depends positively on the distance between the big box location and the CBD. However, big box locations are unstable with imperfectly compe...

  6. Boxing participation by children and adolescents: A joint statement with the American Academy of Pediatrics

    OpenAIRE

    Purcell, Laura K; LeBlanc, Claire MA

    2012-01-01

    Thousands of boys and girls younger than 19 years of age participate in boxing in North America. Although boxing provides benefits for participants, including exercise, self-discipline and self-confidence, the sport of boxing encourages and rewards deliberate blows to the head and face. Participants in boxing are at risk of head, face and neck injuries, including chronic and even fatal neurological injuries. Concussions are one of the most common injuries occurring in boxing. Because of the r...

  7. Minimal components of the RNA polymerase II transcription apparatus determine the consensus TATA box

    OpenAIRE

    Bjornsdottir, Gudrun; Lawrence C Myers

    2008-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, multiple approaches have arrived at a consensus TATA box sequence of TATA(T/A)A(A/T)(A/G). TATA-binding protein (TBP) affinity alone does not determine TATA box function. To discover how a minimal set of factors required for basal and activated transcription contributed to the sequence requirements for a functional TATA box, we performed transcription reactions using highly purified proteins and CYC1 promoter TATA box mutants. The TATA box consensus sequence is a ...

  8. Mitrocomin from the jellyfish Mitrocoma cellularia with deleted C-terminal tyrosine reveals a higher bioluminescence activity compared to wild type photoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burakova, Ludmila P; Natashin, Pavel V; Markova, Svetlana V; Eremeeva, Elena V; Malikova, Natalia P; Cheng, Chongyun; Liu, Zhi-Jie; Vysotski, Eugene S

    2016-09-01

    The full-length cDNA genes encoding five new isoforms of Ca(2+)-regulated photoprotein mitrocomin from a small tissue sample of the outer bell margin containing photocytes of only one specimen of the luminous jellyfish Mitrocoma cellularia were cloned, sequenced, and characterized after their expression in Escherichia coli and subsequent purification. The analysis of cDNA nucleotide sequences encoding mitrocomin isoforms allowed suggestion that two isoforms might be the products of two allelic genes differing in one amino acid residue (64R/Q) whereas other isotypes appear as a result of transcriptional mutations. In addition, the crystal structure of mitrocomin was determined at 1.30Å resolution which expectedly revealed a high similarity with the structures of other hydromedusan photoproteins. Although mitrocomin isoforms reveal a high degree of identity of amino acid sequences, they vary in specific bioluminescence activities. At that, all isotypes displayed the identical bioluminescence spectra (473-474nm with no shoulder at 400nm). Fluorescence spectra of Ca(2+)-discharged mitrocomins were almost identical to their light emission spectra similar to the case of Ca(2+)-discharged aequorin, but different from Ca(2+)-discharged obelins and clytin which fluorescence is red-shifted by 25-30nm from bioluminescence spectra. The main distinction of mitrocomin from other hydromedusan photoproteins is an additional Tyr at the C-terminus. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we showed that this Tyr is not important for bioluminescence because its deletion even increases specific activity and efficiency of apo-mitrocomin conversion into active photoprotein, in contrast to C-terminal Pro of other photoproteins. Since genes in a population generally exist as different isoforms, it makes us anticipate the cloning of even more isoforms of mitrocomin and other hydromedusan photoproteins with different bioluminescence properties. PMID:27395792

  9. Classification of choroiditis based on inflammatory lesion process rather than fundus appearance: enhanced comprehension through the ICGA concepts of the iceberg and jellyfish effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbort, C P; Papadia, M; Mantovani, A

    2012-04-01

    Choroidal inflammatory diseases have been classically grouped under the term of white dot syndromes (WDS), a term only based on the appearance (white-yellow dots) of inflammatory fundus lesions. This purely descriptive and vague terminology, regrouping a pot-pourri of posterior inflammatory conditions, probably came into use because the precise exploration of the choroid was not possible, and also because many of the diseases were rare and not well understood. Since the availability of indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) that allows one to explore the choroidal compartment, it became possible to understand the lesion mechanism of choroiditides and to classify this group of diseases according to their pathophysiological behaviour. It was our aim to show here that the term WDS is applied to and encompasses inflammatory conditions that are characterized by completely different lesion mechanisms and should therefore be classified separately from each other. ICGA made it possible to differentiate two types of choroiditides, including on the one hand inflammatory diseases of the choroidal stroma and on the other hand inflammatory diseases of the choriocapillaris. Unfortunately, twenty years after its advent, ICGA is still not used routinely in uveitis centres and the traditional inappropriate but overall useless term of WDS is still used, maintaining the confusion about these diseases. The aim of this work was (i) to illustrate that meaningful exploration of choroidal inflammation, mostly occult and inaccessible to usual investigations, has to be performed using ICGA, (ii) to insist on the crucial importance of ICGA in the management of choroiditis and (iii) to enhance the comprehension of the ICGA-based classification of choroiditis, by using the demonstrative and striking analogue concepts of iceberg and jellyfish effects. PMID:22495994

  10. Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of Flexible Duct Junction Box Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beach, Robert [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Prahl, Duncan [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Lange, Rich [Applied Science Consultants, LLC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2013-12-01

    IBACOS explored the relationships between pressure and physical configurations of flexible duct junction boxes by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations to predict individual box parameters and total system pressure, thereby ensuring improved HVAC performance. Current Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA) guidance (Group 11, Appendix 3, ACCA Manual D, Rutkowski 2009) allows for unconstrained variation in the number of takeoffs, box sizes, and takeoff locations. The only variables currently used in selecting an equivalent length (EL) are velocity of air in the duct and friction rate, given the first takeoff is located at least twice its diameter away from the inlet. This condition does not account for other factors impacting pressure loss across these types of fittings. For each simulation, the IBACOS team converted pressure loss within a box to an EL to compare variation in ACCA Manual D guidance to the simulated variation. IBACOS chose cases to represent flows reasonably correlating to flows typically encountered in the field and analyzed differences in total pressure due to increases in number and location of takeoffs, box dimensions, and velocity of air, and whether an entrance fitting is included. The team also calculated additional balancing losses for all cases due to discrepancies between intended outlet flows and natural flow splits created by the fitting. In certain asymmetrical cases, the balancing losses were significantly higher than symmetrical cases where the natural splits were close to the targets. Thus, IBACOS has shown additional design constraints that can ensure better system performance.

  11. Integrated Box Interrogation System (IBIS) Preliminary Design Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DR. Stephen Croft; Mr. David Martancik; Dr. Brian Young; Dr. Patrick MJ Chard; Dr. Robert J Estop; Sheila Melton; Gaetano J. Arnone

    2003-01-13

    Canberra Industries has won the tendered solicitation, INEEL/EST-99-00121 for boxed waste Nondestructive Assay Development and Demonstration. Canberra will provide the Integrated Box Interrogation System (IBIS) which is a suite of assay instrumentation and a data reduction system that addresses the measurement needs for Boxed Wastes identified in the solicitation and facilitates the associated experimental program and demonstration of system capability. The IBIS system will consist of the next generation CWAM system, i.e. CWAM II, which is a Scanning Passive/Active Neutron interrogation system which we will call a Box Segmented Neutron Scanner (BSNS), combined with a physically separate Box Segmented Gamma-ray Scanning (BSGS) system. These systems are based on existing hardware designs but will be tailored to the large sample size and enhanced to allow the program to evaluate the following measurement criteria:Characterization and correction for matrix heterogeneity Characterization of non-uniform radio-nuclide and isotopic compositions Assay of high density matrices (both high-Z and high moderator contents)Correction for radioactive material physical form - such as self shielding or multiplication effects due to large accumulations of radioactive materials.Calibration with a minimal set of reference standards and representative matrices.THis document summarizes the conceptual design parameters of the IBIS and indicates areas key to the success of the project where development is to be centered. The work presented here is a collaborative effort between scientific staff within Canberra and within the NIS-6 group at LANL.

  12. Integrated Box Interrogation System (IBIS) Preliminary Design Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canberra Industries has won the tendered solicitation, INEEL/EST-99-00121 for boxed waste Nondestructive Assay Development and Demonstration. Canberra will provide the Integrated Box Interrogation System (IBIS) which is a suite of assay instrumentation and a data reduction system that addresses the measurement needs for Boxed Wastes identified in the solicitation and facilitates the associated experimental program and demonstration of system capability. The IBIS system will consist of the next generation CWAM system, i.e. CWAM II, which is a Scanning Passive/Active Neutron interrogation system which we will call a Box Segmented Neutron Scanner (BSNS), combined with a physically separate Box Segmented Gamma-ray Scanning (BSGS) system. These systems are based on existing hardware designs but will be tailored to the large sample size and enhanced to allow the program to evaluate the following measurement criteria:Characterization and correction for matrix heterogeneity Characterization of non-uniform radio-nuclide and isotopic compositions Assay of high density matrices (both high-Z and high moderator contents)Correction for radioactive material physical form - such as self shielding or multiplication effects due to large accumulations of radioactive materials.Calibration with a minimal set of reference standards and representative matrices.THis document summarizes the conceptual design parameters of the IBIS and indicates areas key to the success of the project where development is to be centered. The work presented here is a collaborative effort between scientific staff within Canberra and within the NIS-6 group at LANL

  13. Inferring 3D Articulated Models for Box Packaging Robot

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Heran; Cong, Matthew; Saxena, Ashutosh

    2011-01-01

    Given a point cloud, we consider inferring kinematic models of 3D articulated objects such as boxes for the purpose of manipulating them. While previous work has shown how to extract a planar kinematic model (often represented as a linear chain), such planar models do not apply to 3D objects that are composed of segments often linked to the other segments in cyclic configurations. We present an approach for building a model that captures the relation between the input point cloud features and the object segment as well as the relation between the neighboring object segments. We use a conditional random field that allows us to model the dependencies between different segments of the object. We test our approach on inferring the kinematic structure from partial and noisy point cloud data for a wide variety of boxes including cake boxes, pizza boxes, and cardboard cartons of several sizes. The inferred structure enables our robot to successfully close these boxes by manipulating the flaps.

  14. Stress and noises of steel box girders in Sutong Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Tao; Chen Zhijian; Dong Xuewu

    2008-01-01

    Sutong Bridge is a cable-stayed bridge with a main span of 1 088 m.370 high-precision stress monitoring measured data show that in the process of hoisting the steel box girders,the stress of the main girders is in the fluctuant and complex state and many meteorological factors,such as sunshine radiation,temperature and wind,have important influence on the change of stress of the steel box girders.According to the real-time weather data,the stress data after the process of wavelet denoising from representative measuring points in different weather conditions is picked to estab-lish the stress response brought by meteorological factors with Layered Separation method,thereby basically eliminating the influence of meteorological factors on the stress of main girders,so that accurate and reliable stress data can be got for steel box girders adjustment and cable-tensioned construction control.

  15. Thinking outside the box: fluctuations and finite size effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The isothermal compressibility of an interacting or non-interacting system may be extracted from the fluctuations of the number of particles in a well-chosen control volume. Finite size effects are prevalent and should be accounted for to obtain a meaningful, thermodynamic compressibility. In the traditional computational setup, where a given simulation box is replicated with periodic boundary conditions, we study particle number fluctuations outside the box (i.e. when the control volume exceeds the box itself), which bear relevant thermodynamic information. We also investigate the related problem of extracting the compressibility from the structure factor in the small wave-vector limit (k → 0). The calculation should be restricted to the discrete set of wave-vectors k that are compatible with the periodicity of the system, and we assess the consequences of considering other k values, a widespread error among beginners. (paper)

  16. Thinking outside the box: fluctuations and finite size effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamaina, Dario; Trizac, Emmanuel

    2014-05-01

    The isothermal compressibility of an interacting or non-interacting system may be extracted from the fluctuations of the number of particles in a well-chosen control volume. Finite size effects are prevalent and should be accounted for to obtain a meaningful, thermodynamic compressibility. In the traditional computational setup, where a given simulation box is replicated with periodic boundary conditions, we study particle number fluctuations outside the box (i.e. when the control volume exceeds the box itself), which bear relevant thermodynamic information. We also investigate the related problem of extracting the compressibility from the structure factor in the small wave-vector limit (k → 0). The calculation should be restricted to the discrete set of wave-vectors k that are compatible with the periodicity of the system, and we assess the consequences of considering other k values, a widespread error among beginners.

  17. Qualification of box HEPA filters for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have successfully completed qualification tests on high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters that are encapsulated within a box and manufactured by American Air Filters. The qualification tests are required by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Standard ASME N509 and the U.S. Military Standard MIL-F-51068 for HEPA filters to be used in nuclear applications. The qualification tests specify minimum filter efficiencies following exposure to heated air, overpressure, and rough handling. Prior to this study, no box HEPA filters from any manufacturer had been qualified despite their wide-spread use in Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Box HEPA filters are not addressed in any of the existing HEPA standards and only briefly discussed in the Nuclear Air Cleaning Handbook

  18. PARAMETRIC STUDY OF SKEW ANGLE ON BOX GIRDER BRIDGE DECK

    OpenAIRE

    Shrikant D. Bobade *, Dr. Valsson Varghese

    2016-01-01

    Box girder bridge deck, is the most common type of bridges in world and India, it consists of several Slab or girders. The span in the direction of the roadway and connected across their tops and bottoms by a thin continuous structural stab, the longitudinal box girders can be made of steel or concrete. The Simple supported single span concrete bridge deck is presented in present study. Skewed bridges are suitable in highway design when the geometry of straight bridges is not possible. The sk...

  19. Fermi hypernetted chain calculations in a periodic box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fermi hypernetted chain theory is reformulated to perform calculations with a finite number of fermions in a periodic box. The proposed method is expected to be useful to estimate the finite size effects in Quantum Monte Carlo simulations. Moreover, it can deal with anisotropic correlations as well as with different shaped boxes. Results are given for the neutron matter Bethe homework Hamiltonian and for nuclear matter with spin-isospin dependent central interactions. It is found that finite size effects come from both the kinetic and the potential energy expectation values

  20. Host-Guest Interactions in ExBox4+

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Ranjita

    2014-01-01

    The host-guest interaction between benzene or azine with the newly synthesized ExBox4+ complex is studied with the help of DFT. The solvent phase interaction energy is found to decrease with gradual substitution of methine group of guest benzene ring with N atom in the resultant azine@ExBox4+ complex. The nature of bonding interaction is studied with the help of newly developed NCI plot program package along with energy decomposition analysis (EDA) and charge decomposition analysis (CDA). The interaction is mostly pi-type van der Waals interaction.

  1. Boxed skew plane partition and integrable phase model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the relation between the boxed skew plane partition and the integrable phase model. We introduce a generalization of a scalar product of the phase model and calculate it in two ways: the first one in terms of the skew Schur functions, and the other one by use of the commutation relations of operators. In both cases, a generalized scalar product is expressed as a determinant. We show that a special choice of the spectral parameters of a generalized scalar product gives the generating function of the boxed skew plane partition

  2. Principal investigator in a box: Version 1.2 documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolph, Jurine; Bhatnagar, Rajiv; Colombano, Silvano P.; Compton, Michael; Frainer, Richard; Groleau, Nicolas; Holden, Kritina; Lai, Sen-Hao; Lam, Chih-Chao; Manahan, Meera

    1990-01-01

    Principal Investigator (PI) in a box is a computer system designed to help optimize the scientific results of experiments that are performed in space. The system will assist the astronaut experimenters in the collection and analysis of experimental data, recognition and pursuit of 'interesting' results, optimal use of the time allocated to the experiment, and troubleshooting of the experiment apparatus. This document discusses the problems that motivate development of 'PI-in-a-box', and presents a high- level system overview and a detailed description of each of the modules that comprise the current version of the system.

  3. AN ALGORITHM FOR AUTOMATICALLY GENERATING BLACK-BOX TEST CASES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Baowen; Nie Changhai; Shi Qunfeng; Lu Hong

    2003-01-01

    Selection of test cases plays a key role in improving testing efficiency. Black-box testing is an important way of testing, and its validity lies on the selection of test cases in some sense. A reasonable and effective method about the selection and generation of test cases is urgently needed. This letter first introduces some usualmethods on black-box test case generation,then proposes a new algorithm based on interface parameters and discusses its properties, finally shows the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  4. AN ALGORITHM FOR AUTOMATICALLY GENERATING BLACK-BOX TEST CASES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XuBaowen; NieChanghai; 等

    2003-01-01

    Selection of test cases plays a key role in improving testing efficiency.Black-box testing is an important way of testing,and is validity lies on the secection of test cases in some sense.A reasonable and effective method about the selection and generation of test cascs is urgently needed.This letter first introduces some usual methods on black-box test case generation,then proposes a new glgorithm based on interface parameters and discusses its properties,finally shows the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  5. Ancestry and diversity of the HMG box superfamily

    OpenAIRE

    Laudet, V; Stehelin, D.; Clevers, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    The HMG box is a novel type of DNA-binding domain found in a diverse group of proteins. The HMG box superfamily comprises a.o. the High Mobility Group proteins HMG1 and HMG2, the nucleolar transcription factor UBF, the lymphoid transcription factors TCF-1 and LEF-1, the fungal mating-type genes mat-Mc and MATA1, and the mammalian sex-determining gene SRY. The superfamily dates back to at least 1,000 million years ago, as its members appear in animals, plants and yeast. Alignment of all known ...

  6. Security of the AES with a Secret S-Box

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiessen, Tyge; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde; Kölbl, Stefan;

    2015-01-01

    How does the security of the AES change when the S-box is replaced by a secret S-box, about which the adversary has no knowledge? Would it be safe to reduce the number of encryption rounds? In this paper, we demonstrate attacks based on integral cryptanalysis which allow to recover both the secret...... interesting aspect of our attack is that it works both as chosen plaintext and as chosen ciphertext attack. Surprisingly, the chosen ciphertext variant has a significantly lower time complexity in the attacks on four and five round, compared to the respective chosen plaintext attacks....

  7. Gray-box modelling approach for description of storage tunnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harremoës, Poul; Carstensen, Jacob

    1999-01-01

    The dynamics of a storage tunnel is examined using a model based on on-line measured data and a combination of simple deterministic and black-box stochastic elements. This approach, called gray-box modeling, is a new promising methodology for giving an on-line state description of sewer systems...... inertia of the water in the overflow structures. The capacity of a pump draining the storage tunnel is estimated for two different rain events, revealing that the pump was malfunctioning during the first rain event. The proposed modeling approach can be used in automated online surveillance and control...

  8. Tests of CMS Hadron Forward Calorimeter Upgrade Readout Box Prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, Sergey; Sirunyan, Albert; Tumasyan, Armen; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Cornelis, Tom; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit Florent; Staykova, Zlatka; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Alves, Gilvan Augusto; Martins, Thiago Dos Reis; Pol, Maria Elena; Vaz Da Silva Filho, Mario; Alda Junior, Walter Luiz; Carvalho, Wagner De Paula; Chinellato, Jose Augusto; De Oliveira Martins, Carley Pedro; Figueiredo, Diego Matos; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson Jose; Molina Insfran, Jorge Andres; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Rosa Lopes Zachi, Alessandro; Finger, Miroslav; Finger, Michael; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Borras, Kerstin; Gunnellini, Paolo; Jung, Hannes; Knutsson, Albert Hans; Lutz, Benjamin; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro Miguel; Sen, Niladri; Baus, Colin; Katkov, Igor; Ulrich, Ralf Matthias; Wohrmann, H; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Bencze, Gyorgy; Horvath, D; Bala, Suman; Gupta, Ruchi; Jindal, M; Lal, Manjit Kaur; Nishu, Nishu; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, S; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Sharan, Manoj Kumar; Aziz, Tariq; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Katta, Sudhakar; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dugad, Shashikant Raichand; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Jafari, Abideh; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Zeinali, Maryam; Penzo, Aldo; Afanasyev, A; Bunin, Pavel; Ershov, Yuri; Fedoseev, Oleg; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Konoplynikov, V; Malakhov, Alexander; Moisenz, Petr; Smirnov, Vitaly; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoly; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Krasnikov, Nikolay; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, A; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Erofeeva, Maria; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Kosov, Mikhail Vladimirovich; Kudinov, Ilya; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, V; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlassov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Belyaev, A; Boos, Eduard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Korotkikh, Vladimir; Lokhtin, Igor; Markina, Anastasia; Obraztsov, Stepan; Perfilov, Maxim; Petrushanko, Sergey; Popov, Andrey; Savrin, Victor; Snigirev, Alexander; Vardanyan, Irina; Andreev, V; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Vinogradov, Alexey; Bayshev, Igor; Bityukov, Sergey; Grishin, Viatcheslav; Kryshkin, Victor; Petrov, V; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrey; Turchanovich, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Uzunyan, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Santanastasio, Francesco; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Numan Mustafa; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; G�kbulut, Gul; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Karapinar, Guler; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sogut, Kenan; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Latife Nukhet; Vergili, Mehmet; Aliyev, Takhmasib; Deniz, Muhammed; Guler, Ali Murat; Ozpineci, Altug; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Deliomeroglu, Mehmet; Gulmez, Erhan; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Sonmez, Nasuf; Cankocak, Kerem; Levchuk, Leonid; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, H; Scarborough, Tara Ann; Rumerio, Paolo; Heister, Arno; Hill, C; Lawson, Philip Daniel; Lazic, Dragoslav; Rohlf, James; St. John, Jason; Sulak, Lawrence; Gennadiy, G; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Narain, Meenakshi; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Tsang, Ka Vang; Long, Owen Rosser; Nguyen, Harold; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Sturdy, Jared; Stuart, David; To, Wing; West, Christopher Alan; Apresyan, Artur; Chen, Y; Mott, Alexander Robert; Spiropulu, Maria; Winn, David; Abdoulline, Salavat; Anderson, J; Chlebana, Frank; Freeman, James; Green, Daniel; Hanlon, J; Hirschauer, James Francis; Joshi, Umeshwar; Kunori, Shuichi; Musienko, Yuri; Sharma, Seema; Spalding, William Jeffrey; Tkaczyk, Slawomir; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, W; Gaultney, Vanessa; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete Edward; Martinez, German Ruben; Gleyzer, Sergei; Hagopian, Sharon Lee; Hagopian, Vasken; Jenkins, Charles Merrill; Baarmand, Marc M; Dorney, Brian L; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren James; Duru, Firdevs; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony Richard; Nachtman, Jane; Newsom, Charles Ray; Norbeck, John Edwin; Olson, Jonathan Edward; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Sen, Sercan; Schmidt, Ianos; Tiras, Emrah; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Kenny, Raymond Patrick; Murray, Michael Joseph; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Baden, Andrew; Calvert, Brian Michael; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Gomez, Jaime Arturo; Grassi, Tullio; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard; Kolberg, Ted; Lu, Y; Marionneau, Matthieu; Mignerey, Alice Louise Cox; Peterman, Alison Marie; Skuja, Andris; Temple, Jeffrey; Tonjes, Marguerite Belt; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin Humphrey; Mans, Jeremiah Michael; Pastika, Nathaniel Joseph; Kroeger, Robert; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sanders, David; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Jain, S; Anastassov, Anton; Velasco, Mayda Marie; Won, Steven; Heering, Adriaan; Karmgard, Daniel; Pearson, Tessa Jae; Ruchti, Randal; Berry, Edmund A; Halyo, Valerie; Hebda, Philip; Hunt, Adam Paul; Lujan, Paul Joseph; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Saka, Halil; Tully, Christopher; Zuranski, Andrzej Maciej; Barnes, Virgil Everett; Laasanen, Alvin; Bodek, Arie; Chung, Yeon Sei; de Barbaro, Pawel Jan; Eshaq, Yossof; Garcia-bellido, Aran Angel; Goldenzweig, Pablo David; Han, Ji Yeon; Harel, Amnon; Miner, Daniel Carl; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Zielinski, Marek; Bhatti, Anwar; Ciesielski, Robert Adam; Flanagan, Will Hogan; Kamon, Teruki; Montalvo, Roy Joaquin; Sakuma, Tai; Akchurin, Nural; Damgov, Jordan; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Volobouev, Igor; Gurrola, Alfredo; Milstene, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    A readout box prototype for CMS Hadron Forward calorimeter upgrade is built and tested in CERN H2 beamline. The prototype is designed to enable simultaneous tests of different readout options for the four anode upgrade PMTs, new front-end electronics design and new cabling. The response of the PMTs with different readout options is uniform and the background response is minimal. Multi-channel readout options further enhance the background elimination. Passing all the electronics, mechanical and physics tests, the readout box proves to be capable of providing the forward hadron calorimeter operations requirements in the upgrade era.

  9. Motivating crowding theory - opening the black box of intrinsic motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher

    2010-01-01

    . Studies have found support for the motivation crowding claim, but have neglected intrinsic motivation. This study opens the black box of intrinsic motivation and finds a meaningful distinction between task motivation and public service motivation. Among 2,772 physiotherapists in the Danish public sector...

  10. The Popcorn Box Activity and Reasoning about Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteley, Walter J.; Mamolo, Ami

    2012-01-01

    A well-known optimization problem is the Popcorn Box investigation, which involves a movie theater snack container. The problem has been tailored for classroom investigations by the Ontario Association for Mathematics Education. The exploration was designed for students in grades 9 through 12. A common strategy proposed for algebra students is to…

  11. A Grey Box Model for the Hydraulics in a Creek

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsdottir, Harpa; Jacobsen, Judith L.; Madsen, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    The Saint-Venant equation of mass balance is used to derive a stochastics lumped model, describing the dynamics of a cross-sectional area in a river. The unknown parameters of the model are estimated by combining the physical equation with a set of data, a method known as grey box modelling. The ...

  12. Approach to a correct function of stuffing boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuff boxes are often used to tighten the gaps between valve stems and the housing. The stuffing box packing material is compressed axially to achieve a radial stress value, which is necessary for tightness. Tightness is achieved, if the sealing materials are seated properly and if a sufficient stress value is acting in radial direction during all states of operation. High prestress values are necessary for tightening purposes, lower values are better for the function of the valve. As the seating and the prestressing force is applied axially (using the bolts of a gland), gasket factors must be known, that characterize the deformation behavior and the transmission (relation between radial/axial stress). Furthermore, gasket factors, that characterize the tightening behavior, are necessary. Such gasket factors give the relation between radial stress and leakage of the packing materials. A friction coefficient -- this parameter determines the function of the valve (together with the radial stress) -- is another important gasket factor. Additionally the relaxation of the stuffing box packing material between the assembly and the operating state must be known. In the paper definitions for the most important gasket factors of stuffing box materials are provided. Test procedures and test rigs for the determination of the gasket factors are discussed. Gasket factors, which have been measured with these newly developed test rigs, are related to experiences with real applications. Finally a method for a controlled prestressing of gland packings is described

  13. BMOBench: Black-Box Multi-Objective Optimization Benchmarking Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Dujaili, Abdullah; Suresh, S.

    2016-01-01

    This document briefly describes the Black-Box Multi-Objective Optimization Benchmarking (BMOBench) platform. It presents the test problems, evaluation procedure, and experimental setup. To this end, the BMOBench is demonstrated by comparing recent multi-objective solvers from the literature, namely SMS-EMOA, DMS, and MO-SOO.

  14. How Users Search the Library from a Single Search Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lown, Cory; Sierra, Tito; Boyer, Josh

    2013-01-01

    Academic libraries are turning increasingly to unified search solutions to simplify search and discovery of library resources. Unfortunately, very little research has been published on library user search behavior in single search box environments. This study examines how users search a large public university library using a prominent, single…

  15. 30 CFR 18.42 - Explosion-proof distribution boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to a distribution box. The current-carrying capacity of the specified connector shall be compatible... permanently marked to indicate its current-carrying capacity and each receptacle shall be such that it will..., EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES...

  16. Workplace statistical literacy for teachers: interpreting box plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Robyn; Chick, Helen

    2013-06-01

    As a consequence of the increased use of data in workplace environments, there is a need to understand the demands that are placed on users to make sense of such data. In education, teachers are being increasingly expected to interpret and apply complex data about student and school performance, and, yet it is not clear that they always have the appropriate knowledge and experience to interpret the graphs, tables and other data that they receive. This study examined the statistical literacy demands placed on teachers, with a particular focus on box plot representations. Although box plots summarise the data in a way that makes visual comparisons possible across sets of data, this study showed that teachers do not always have the necessary fluency with the representation to describe correctly how the data are distributed in the representation. In particular, a significant number perceived the size of the regions of the box plot to be depicting frequencies rather than density, and there were misconceptions associated with outlying data that were not displayed on the plot. As well, teachers' perceptions of box plots were found to relate to three themes: attitudes, perceived value and misconceptions.

  17. MADS-box gene evolution-structure and transcription patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Bo; Pedersen, Louise B; Skipper, Martin;

    2002-01-01

    This study presents a phylogenetic analysis of 198 MADS-box genes based on 420 parsimony-informative characters. The analysis includes only MIKC genes; therefore several genes from gymnosperms and pteridophytes are excluded. The strict consensus tree identifies all major monophyletic groups known...

  18. Features for Exploiting Black-Box Optimization Problem Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Malitsky, Yuri; Abell, Tinus

    2013-01-01

    Black-box optimization (BBO) problems arise in numerous scientic and engineering applications and are characterized by compu- tationally intensive objective functions, which severely limit the number of evaluations that can be performed. We present a robust set of features that analyze the tness...

  19. Fitting boxes to Manhattan scenes using linear integer programming

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Minglei

    2016-02-19

    We propose an approach for automatic generation of building models by assembling a set of boxes using a Manhattan-world assumption. The method first aligns the point cloud with a per-building local coordinate system, and then fits axis-aligned planes to the point cloud through an iterative regularization process. The refined planes partition the space of the data into a series of compact cubic cells (candidate boxes) spanning the entire 3D space of the input data. We then choose to approximate the target building by the assembly of a subset of these candidate boxes using a binary linear programming formulation. The objective function is designed to maximize the point cloud coverage and the compactness of the final model. Finally, all selected boxes are merged into a lightweight polygonal mesh model, which is suitable for interactive visualization of large scale urban scenes. Experimental results and a comparison with state-of-the-art methods demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework.

  20. A 23 GHz survey of GRB error boxes

    CERN Document Server

    Hewitt, J N; Barthelmy, S D; Baumgartner, W H; Cline, T L; Corey, B E; Fishman, G J; Gehrels, N; Hurley, K C; Kouveliotou, C; Meegan, C A; Moore, C B; Rutledge, R E; Trotter, C S

    1996-01-01

    The Haystack 37-meter telescope was used in a pilot project in May 1995 to observe GRB error boxes at 23~GHz. Seven BATSE error boxes and two IPN arcs were scanned by driving the beam of the telescope rapidly across their area. For the BATSE error boxes, the radio observations took place two to eighteen days after the BATSE detection and several boxes were observed more than once. Total power data were recorded continuously as the telescope was driven at a rate of 0.2~degrees/second, yielding Nyquist sampling of the beam with an integration time of 50~milliseconds, corresponding to a theoretical rms sensitivity of 0.5~Jy. Under conditions of good weather, this sensitivity was achieved. In a preliminary analysis of the data we detect only two sources, 3C273 and 0552+398, both catalogued sources that are known to be variable at 23~GHz. Neither had a flux density that was unusally high or low at the time of our observations.

  1. Optimal Black-Box Secret Sharing over Arbitrary Abelian Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer, Ronald; Fehr, Serge

    A black-box secret sharing scheme for the threshold access structure T t,n is one which works over any finite Abelian group G. Briefly, such a scheme differs from an ordinary linear secret sharing scheme (over, say, a given finite field) in that distribution matrix and reconstruction vectors are ...

  2. Energy Savings Assessment for Digital-to-Analog Converter Boxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, Hoi Ying Iris; Meier, Alan; Brown, Richard

    2011-01-18

    The Digital Television (DTV) Converter Box Coupon Program was administered by the U.S. government to subsidize purchases of digital-to-analog converter boxes, with up to two $40 coupons for each eligible household. In order to qualify as Coupon Eligible Converter Boxes (CECBs), these devices had to meet a number of minimum performance specifications, including energy efficiency standards. The Energy Star Program also established voluntary energy efficiency specifications that are more stringent than the CECB requirements. In this study, we measured the power and energy consumptions for a sample of 12 CECBs (including 6 Energy Star labeled models) in-use in homes and estimated aggregate energy savings produced by the energy efficiency policies. Based on the 35 million coupons redeemed through the end of the program, our analysis indicates that between 2500 and 3700 GWh per year are saved as a result of the energy efficiency policies implemented on digital-to-analog converter boxes. The energy savings generated are equivalent to the annual electricity use of 280,000 average US homes.

  3. Developing Box Plots While Navigating the Maze of Data Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Bruce; Fitzallen, Noleine

    2013-01-01

    The learning sequence described in this article was developed to provide students with a demonstration of the development of box plots from authentic data as an illustration of the advantages gained from using multiple forms of data representation. The sequence follows an authentic process that starts with a problem to which data representations…

  4. Optimizing PHB and Protease Production by Box Behnken Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amro Abd al fattah Amara

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mixed culture is more suitable to adapt more flexible fermentation process and produce different product simultaneously. In this study a mixed Bacillus culture was investigated for their ability to produce the bioplastic "Polyhydroxybutyrate" and both of the mesophilic and the thermophilic proteases in one flask. Box-Behnken experimental design was used. The produced amount of PHB has been increased significantly. Meanwhile there is a competition between PHB and proteases. The maximum produced amount of PHB using Box-Behnken design was 2.82 g/l/48 h with protease activity equal to 41.9 Units/ml/48 h for thermophilic proteases and 99.65 Units/ml/48 h for mesophilic proteases. Excel solver was used for extra-optimization for the optimum conditions obtained from Box-Behnken experiments and its model. The maximum PHB obtained after using Excel solver was 2.88 g/l/48 h. The maximum mesophilic and thermophilic activities obtained at the same PHB production conditions were 175.68 and 243.38 Units/ml respectively. The model accuracy as obtained from Excel solver was 118.8%, which prove the power of the experimental design in optimizing such complicated process. The strategies used in this study are recommended for the production of PHB and different proteases simultaneously using Bacillus mixed culture. ABSTRAK: Kultur campuran adalah lebih sesuai bagi proses penapaian yang fleksibel dan ia boleh menghasilkan produk yang berbeza secara serentak. Dalam kajian ini keupayaan  menghasilkan "Polyhydroxybutyrate" bioplastik serta mesofilik dan termofilik protease dalam satu flask oleh  kultur Bacillus campuran telah disiasat. Eksperimen rekabentuk Box-Behnken telah digunakan. Jumlah PHB yang dikeluarkan meningkat dengan ketara dan terdapat persaingan antara PHB dan protease. Jumlah keluaran PHB maksima menggunakan rekabentuk Box-Behnken adalah 2.82 g/l/48 jam dengan aktiviti protease sama dengan 41.9 Unit/ml/48 jam untuk protease termofilik dan 99.65 Unit

  5. Technology Solutions Case Study: New Insights for Improving the Designs of Flexible Duct Junction Boxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-01-01

    In this project, IBACOS explored the relationships between pressure and physical configurations of flexible duct junction boxes by using computational fluid dynamics simulations to predict individual box parameters and total system pressure, thereby ensuring improved HVAC performance.

  6. Enhancing Advanced Encryption Standard S-Box Generation Based on Round Key

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Juremi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new AES-like design for key- dependent AES using S-box rotation. The algorithm involves key expansion algorithm together with S-box rotation and this property can be used to make the S-box key-dependent, hence providing a better security to the block cipher. Fixed S-box allows attackers to study S- box and find weak points while by using key-dependent S-Box approach, it makes it harder for attacker to do any offline analysis of an attack of one particular set of S- boxes. The cipher structure resembles the original AES, only the S-box is made key-dependent without changing the value. This new design is tested using the NIST Statistical Test and will be further cryptanalyzed with algebraic attack in order to permit its subversion or evasion.

  7. 77 FR 38705 - Draft Specification for Airport Light Bases, Transformer Housings, Junction Boxes, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Draft Specification for Airport Light Bases, Transformer Housings... comment on the Draft ``Specification for Airport Light Bases, Transformer Housings, Junction Boxes, and... recommendations for airport light bases, transformer housings, junction boxes and accessories. The FAA has...

  8. Specific Genomic Fingerprints of Phosphate Solubilizing Pseudomonas Strains Generated by Box Elements

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Bagher Javadi Nobandegani; Halimi Mohd Saud; Wong Mui Yun

    2014-01-01

    Primers corresponding to conserved bacterial repetitive of BOX elements were used to show that BOX-DNA sequences are widely distributed in phosphate solubilizing Pseudomonas strains. Phosphate solubilizing Pseudomonas was isolated from oil palm fields (tropical soil) in Malaysia. BOX elements were used to generate genomic fingerprints of a variety of Pseudomonas isolates to identify strains that were not distinguishable by other classification methods. BOX-PCR, that derived genomic fingerprin...

  9. Comparison of Laparoscopy Training Using the Box Trainer Versus the Virtual Trainer

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi, Yousef; Lerner, Michelle A.; Sethi, Amanjot S.; Sundaram, Chandru P.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Objectives: To evaluate whether training on a virtual reality laparoscopic simulator improves the performance on a laparoscopic box trainer. Methods: Twenty-six subjects were trained using a box trainer, and 17 participants were trained using a virtual simulator. Participants in the experimental group completed 1 session of 5 exercises on the box trainer, 4 sessions on the virtual simulator, and a final session on the box trainer. Participants in the control group completed 6 s...

  10. Experimental Research and Numerical Simulation of Wing Boxes under Pure Bending Load

    OpenAIRE

    Peiyan Wang; Shile Yao; Xinmei Wang; Zhufeng Yue

    2014-01-01

    Two full-scale wing boxes with different types of butt joints were investigated under pure bending load, and numerical methods, including global analysis and detailed analysis, were proposed to determine the reasons for failure of the wing boxes. Wing boxes were tested under bending loads applied by a multichannel force control system. The experimental results showed that the region of the butt joint was the weakest location of the wing boxes, and the damage loads were far less than the desig...

  11. Frequency distribution of TATA Box and extension sequences on human promoters

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Background TATA box is one of the most important transcription factor binding sites. But the exact sequences of TATA box are still not very clear. Results In this study, we conduct a dedicated analysis on the frequency distribution of TATA Box and its extension sequences on human promoters. Sixteen TATA elements derived from the TATA Box motif, TATAWAWN, are classified into three distribution patterns: peak, bottom-peak, and bottom. Fourteen TATA extension sequences are predicted to be the ne...

  12. The progesterone receptor can regulate transcription in the absence of a functional TATA box element

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, A A; Ham, J.; Bakker, O.; Parker, M G

    1990-01-01

    We have investigated the importance of the TATA box element in the induction of transcription by the progesterone receptor. Transcription was analyzed from promoters containing a steroid response element upstream of a wild-type or mutated TATA box. Mutation of the TATA box resulted in a loss of correctly initiated transcripts and abolished binding of TATA factor to the TATA box in vitro but did not inhibit transcriptional activation by the progesterone receptor. Thus we conclude that the rece...

  13. The Role of Protein Electrostatics in Facilitating the Catalysis of DEAD-box Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Frenz, Christopher M.

    2008-01-01

    Protein electrostatic states have been demonstrated to play crucial roles in catalysis, ligand binding, protein stability, and in the modulation of allosteric effects. Electrostatic states are demonstrated to appear conserved among DEAD-box motifs and evidence is presented that the structural changes that occur to DEAD box proteins upon ligand binding alter the DEAD-box motif electrostatics in a way the facilitates the catalytic role of the DEAD-box glutatmate.

  14. 49 CFR 230.63 - Smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts. 230.63... Appurtenances Steam Pipes § 230.63 Smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts. The smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts shall be inspected at each annual inspection, or any other time that conditions warrant....

  15. 77 FR 29740 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BOX Options Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... requires greater expenditure of human and technical resources than regulating non- customer trading... Transactions (transactions executed on the BOX Book). The account types on BOX are Public Customer..., Inc. Liquidity Fees and Credits for Non-Auction Transactions Orders that add liquidity to the BOX...

  16. Entanglement and decoherence of a micromechanical resonator via coupling to a Cooper box

    OpenAIRE

    Armour, A. D.; Blencowe, M. P.; Schwab, K. C.

    2001-01-01

    We analyse the quantum dynamics of a micromechanical resonator capacitively coupled to a Cooper box. With appropriate quantum state control of the Cooper box, the resonator can be driven into a superposition of spatially separated states. The Cooper box can also be used to probe the environmentally-induced decoherence of the resonator superposition state.

  17. Justification procedure of hydrogen safety of RU BN compartments as exemplified by steam generator box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic proposals on completing calculational procedures of sodium cooled reactors hydrogen safety justification, particularly steam generator (SG) box, are presented. It is pointed out that hydrogen appearance in SG box is possible only in accidents with multiple failures. The data presented shows that hydrogen safety and explosion-proofness of fast reactor facility SG box are provided without any special complex and expensive means

  18. A white-box model of S-shaped and double S-shaped single-species population growth

    OpenAIRE

    Kalmykov, Lev V.; Vyacheslav L. Kalmykov

    2015-01-01

    Complex systems may be mechanistically modelled by white-box modeling with using logical deterministic individual-based cellular automata. Mathematical models of complex systems are of three types: black-box (phenomenological), white-box (mechanistic, based on the first principles) and grey-box (mixtures of phenomenological and mechanistic models). Most basic ecological models are of black-box type, including Malthusian, Verhulst, Lotka–Volterra models. In black-box models, the individual-bas...

  19. Box products in nilpotent normal form theory: The factoring method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, James

    2016-01-01

    Let N be a nilpotent matrix and consider vector fields x ˙ = Nx + v (x) in normal form. Then v is equivariant under the flow eN*t for the inner product normal form or eMt for the sl2 normal form. These vector equivariants can be found by finding the scalar invariants for the Jordan blocks in N* or M; taking the box product of these to obtain the invariants for N* or M itself; and then boosting the invariants to equivariants by another box product. These methods, developed by Murdock and Sanders in 2007, are here given a self-contained exposition with new foundations and new algorithms yielding improved (simpler) Stanley decompositions for the invariants and equivariants. Ideas used include transvectants (from classical invariant theory), Stanley decompositions (from commutative algebra), and integer cones (from integer programming). This approach can be extended to covariants of sl2k for k > 1, known as SLOCC in quantum computing.

  20. Observational semantics of the Prolog Resolution Box Model

    CERN Document Server

    Deransart, Pierre; Ferrand, Gérard

    2007-01-01

    This paper specifies an observational semantics and gives an original presentation of the Byrd box model. The approach accounts for the semantics of Prolog tracers independently of a particular Prolog implementation. Prolog traces are, in general, considered as rather obscure and difficult to use. The proposed formal presentation of its trace constitutes a simple and pedagogical approach for teaching Prolog or for implementing Prolog tracers. It is a form of declarative specification for the tracers. The trace model introduced here is only one example to illustrate general problems relating to tracers and observing processes. Observing processes know, from observed processes, only their traces. The issue is then to be able to reconstitute, by the sole analysis of the trace, part of the behaviour of the observed process, and if possible, without any loss of information. As a matter of fact, our approach highlights qualities of the Prolog resolution box model which made its success, but also its insufficiencies...

  1. Permanent sealing: Valve stuffing boxes in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water in nuclear powerstations contains up to 2000 ppm of boric acid. If a valve leaks, the boric acid crystallises out around the stuffing box and the packing is destroyed. Replacement is very problematical, particularly because of radiation, takes a long time and is very expensive (possible shutdown). Electricite de France has therefore developed stuffing boxes made of expanding graphite. Before E.d.F. uses a seal permanently in a nuclear powerstation, intensive tests are carried out such as the investigation of dynamic sealing for boric acid solutions at 200 bar and 3000C (JAPET experimental plant), corrosion tests (6 months life test a 3000C and 90 bar) and test of deformation characteristics under pressure and pressure transients. ''Lattygraf E1'', a packing made of expanding graphite, was selected as the best product. The construction and operation are discussed. (DOMA)

  2. Competitive markets, collective action, and the Big Box Retailer problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent D. Beal

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available I use a stylized scenario—the Big Box retailer Problem—to demonstrate that the presence of behavioural interdependence in economic markets may result in deficient outcomes that are both stable and supported by ongoing participant behaviour. I present a theoretical discussion of social dilemmas and use the Big Box retailer Problem to illustrate that these characteristics—stability and ongoing support—cannot be reliably employed as indicators of outcome efficiency. Equally important is the conclusion that upfront costs and the ongoing necessity of monitoring and encouraging contributory behaviour are not reliable indicators of the relative inefficiency of outcomes associated with collective action. Questions are raised regarding the ethical responsibilities of business educators and the implications of social dilemmas for corporate social responsibility research.

  3. Free box^k Scalar Conformal Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Brust, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    We consider the generalizations of the free U(N) and O(N) scalar conformal field theories to actions with higher powers of the Laplacian, box^k, in general dimension d. We study the spectra, Verma modules, anomalies and OPE of these theories. We argue that in certain d and k, the spectrum contains zero norm operators which are both primary and descendant, as well as extension operators which are neither primary nor descendant. In addition, we argue that in even dimensions d <= 2k, there are well-defined operator algebras which are related to the box^k theories and are novel in that they have a finite number of single-trace states.

  4. Application of glove box robotics to hazardous waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLNL) is developing a semi-automated system for handling, characterizing, processing, sorting, and repackaging hazardous wastes containing tritium. The system combines an IBM developed gantry robot with a special glove box enclosure designed to protect the operators and minimize the potential release of tritium to the atmosphere. All hazardous waste handling and processing will be performed remotely using the robot in a telerobotic mode for one-of-a-kind functions and in an autonomous mode for repetitive type operations. The system will initially be used in conjunction with a portable gas system designed to capture any gaseous phase tritium released into the glove box. This paper presents the objectives of this program, provides background related to LLNL's robotics and waste handling program, describes the major system components, outlines system operation, and discusses current status and plans

  5. Pressure regulation in the dry-boxes. Argon purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Each dry-box is equipped with an autonomous installation for circulation and purification of argon and for pressure regulation. This installation consists essentially of a ballast tank, a compressor and two valves electromagnetically controlled by a contact manometer. The compressor and the valves are enclosed in the tank to form a system as compact as possible. The argon is purified by passing it over a furnace filled with titanium-zirconium turnings brought to about 800 deg. C, branching off the main system. With this set-up as well as the automatic maintenance of a constant depression in the box, a quality of argon is obtained whose oxygen contact is undetectable by the manganous hydroxide method. (author)

  6. Study of plutonium fire extinction in glove-boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report concerns attempts to extinguish fire in uranium - chosen as a basis for comparison - and in plutonium, these being contained in glove boxes. The extinguishing powders TEC and MG 10 were tried and compared. The operator used in plastic bags. The metal was dealt with respectively in the form of billets, compact chips and finally thin shavings. In each case fire control was without difficulty. One must allow a certain time for cooling. The powder MG 10 showed very good results. Moreover, the trials proved that densely packed shavings are a very real security factor. The interior lay-out of the glove boxes ought, in order to facilitate further manipulations, be such as to render extinction as easy as possible should the need arise. (authors)

  7. The role of secondary electron collection in box IEMP coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analytical models have been developed to estimate the secondary electron current collected at a biased land during box IEMP. The simple models are intended for the use of systems designers who must estimate the threat to active electronics during box IEMP and who may not have access to the large computer codes which simulate SGEMP. Separate theories apply to the nonself-consistent regime (when the collected charge does not greatly perturb the cavity fields) and the spacecharge-limited regime (when the secondary electrons screen the potential near the land). Analytical calculations for simple test cases compare well with selfconsistent SGEMP computer simulations and with data from past experiments at an MBS facility. Underprediction of the response at biases above +100 V suggests that an undetermined physical mechanism becomes important at high biases

  8. Application Analysis of Ad Lamp-box Controller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Yuan; LU Bin

    2014-01-01

    The ad lamp-box controller is designed in consideration that ordinary urban ad lights usually remain lit through the night and a specially assigned staff needs to be on duty to control their switches. It can be automatically controlled with a photo resistance testing the day and night as well as a CD4060 chip controlling the length of time interval between switching the ad lamp-boxes on and off. In this way, both energy and labor can be saved with the controller. It is matching with the target of“constructing a conservation-minded society”in our country and deserves to be promoted in market with its practical signifi-cance.

  9. Safeguards Approaches for Black Box Processes or Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Marcano, Helly; Gitau, Ernest TN; Hockert, John; Miller, Erin; Wylie, Joann

    2013-09-25

    The objective of this study is to determine whether a safeguards approach can be developed for “black box” processes or facilities. These are facilities where a State or operator may limit IAEA access to specific processes or portions of a facility; in other cases, the IAEA may be prohibited access to the entire facility. The determination of whether a black box process or facility is safeguardable is dependent upon the details of the process type, design, and layout; the specific limitations on inspector access; and the restrictions placed upon the design information that can be provided to the IAEA. This analysis identified the necessary conditions for safeguardability of black box processes and facilities.

  10. Gas box control system for Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) uses several methods to feed gas (usually deuterium) at different energies into the plasma region of the machine. One is an arrangement of eight high-speed piezo-electric valves mounted on special manifolds (gas box) that feed cold gas directly to the plasma. This paper describes the electronic valve control and data acquisition portions of the gas box, which are controlled by a desk-top computer. Various flow profiles have been developed and stored in the control computer for ready access by the operator. The system uses two modes of operation, one that exercises and characterizes the valves and one that operates the valves with the rest of the experiment. Both the valve control signals and the pressure transducers data are recorded on the diagnostics computer so that they are available for experiment analysis

  11. Gray-Box Modeling of a Pneumatic Servo-Valve

    OpenAIRE

    Mojtaba Aghamirsalim; Hosein Farahmandzad; Farhad Toorani

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the evaluation as well as the combined analytical andexperimental identification (gray box identification) of a servo-valve torque motor as thedirectional valve applied in a pneumatic actuator. Based on analytical modelling, a simplelinear parametric model with transfer function and block diagram is developed. Next, thestatic and dynamic characteristics of the torque motor are obtained from experimentalobservations. The characteristics confirm the desired linear behaviour ...

  12. Stiffened flanges used in steel box girder bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Pedro; Virtuoso, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a design method for stiffened flanges used in steel box girder bridges based on a set of design curves that take into account all relevant parameters regarding the ultimate strength of stiffened flanges, including the real boundary conditions for the inplane displacements at the edges. These design curves were developed and calibrated based on the results obtained with nonlinear analysis using the semi-analytical and finite element methods and they were vali...

  13. Black-Box Algorithms for Sampling from Continuous Distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Hörmann, Wolfgang; Leydold, Josef

    2006-01-01

    For generating non-uniform random variates, black-box algorithms are powerful tools that allow drawing samples from large classes of distributions. We give an overview of the design principles of such methods and show that they have advantages compared to specialized algorithms even for standard distributions, e.g., the marginal generation times are fast and depend mainly on the chosen method and not on the distribution. Moreover these methods are suitable for specialized tasks like sampling ...

  14. Evaluation of multi-box diagrams in six dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a simple method which simplifies the evaluation of the on-shell multiple box diagrams reducing them to triangle type ones. For the L-loop diagram one gets the expression in terms of Feynman parameters with 2L-fold integration. As examples we consider the 2 and 3 loops cases, the numerical integration up to six loops is also presented. The method is valid in six dimensions where neither UV not IR divergences appear

  15. A NEW PRINCIPAL PIVOTING SCHEME FOR BOX LINEAR COMPLEMENTARITY PROBLEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGZHEMIN

    1997-01-01

    Judice and Pires developed in recent years principal pivoting methods for the solving ofthe so-called box linear complementarity problems (BLCPs) where the constraint matrices are restrictedly supposed to be of P-matrices. This paper aims at presenting a new principal pivoting scheme for BLCPs where the constraint matrices are loosely supposed to be row sufficient. This scheme can be applied to the solving of convex quadratic programs subject to linear constraints and arbitrary upper and lower bound constraints on variables.

  16. Fermionic Casimir energy in a three-dimensional box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we calculate the Casimir energy for a massless fermionic field confined inside a three-dimensional rectangular box. We use the MIT bag model boundary condition for the confinement. We use the direct mode summation method along with the Abel-Plana summation formula to compute the Casimir energy, without any use of regularization or analytic continuation techniques. We obtain a negative Casimir energy, as opposed to the previously reported result for the interior of a three-dimensional sphere.

  17. Chinese boxes: "Typhoon" and Conrad's history of the Chinese

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, D.

    2009-01-01

    This essay examines the novel "Typhoon," by Joseph Conrad, as a story about Chinamen coolies and seamen onboard a steamer transporting Chinese laborers. It argues that the Chinese boxes of the coolies represent several versions of the history of the Chinese and that the coolies are also representatives of a civilization with ideas and institutions, a law and order of nature. It also describes the images of Chinese life and their association to sociality, cooperation, nourishment, simplicity, ...

  18. Salmonella in pig lairage and in stunning box

    OpenAIRE

    Karabasil Neđeljko; Dimitrijević Mirjana; Pavlićević Nataša; Teodorović Vlado; Lončina Jasna; Nedeljković-Trailović Jelena; Baltić Milan Ž.

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella is one of the most important zoonotic pathogens and the consumption of pork meat is a major source of human infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of Salmonella on different surfaces in the pig lairage and stunning box as potential sources of cross contamination of animals and carcasses. Sampling was conducted in two abattoirs (slaughterhouse A and slaughterhouse B). Samples were taken from slaughterhouse A in two instan...

  19. Numerical cubature from Archimedes' hat-box theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Kuperberg, Greg

    2004-01-01

    Archimedes' hat-box theorem states that uniform measure on a sphere projects to uniform measure on an interval. This fact can be used to derive Simpson's rule. We present various constructions of, and lower bounds for, numerical cubature formulas using moment maps as a generalization of Archimedes' theorem. We realize some well-known cubature formulas on simplices as projections of spherical designs. We combine cubature formulas on simplices and tori to make new formulas on spheres. In partic...

  20. ArduiPod Box: a low-cost and open-source Skinner box using an iPod Touch and an Arduino microcontroller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineño, Oskar

    2014-03-01

    This article introduces the ArduiPod Box, an open-source device built using two main components (i.e., an iPod Touch and an Arduino microcontroller), developed as a low-cost alternative to the standard operant conditioning chamber, or "Skinner box." Because of its affordability, the ArduiPod Box provides an opportunity for educational institutions with small budgets seeking to set up animal laboratories for research and instructional purposes. A pilot experiment is also presented, which shows that the ArduiPod Box, in spite of its extraordinary simplicity, can be effectively used to study animal learning and behavior. PMID:23813238

  1. Wind Turbine Box - energy fluxes around a characteristic wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calaf, Marc; Cortina, Gerard; Sharma, Varun

    2015-11-01

    This research project presents a new tool, so called ``Wind Turbine Box'', that allows for the direct comparison between the flow around a single wind turbine and the flow around a characteristic wind turbine immersed within a large wind farm. The Wind Turbine Box consists of a limited control volume defined around each wind turbine that is timely co-aligned with each corresponding turbine's yaw-angle. Hence it is possible to extract flow statistics around each wind turbine, regardless of whether the turbine is fully isolated or it is plunged within a large wind farm. The Wind Turbine Box tool has been used to compute the energy fluxes around a characteristic wind turbine of a large wind farm to better understand the wake replenishment processes throughout a complete diurnal cycle. The effective loading of the wind farm has been gradually increased, ranging from quasi-isolated wind turbines to a highly packed wind farm. For this purpose, several Large Eddy Simulations have been run, forced with a constant geostrophic wind and a time varying surface temperature extracted from a selected period of the CASES-99 field experiment. Results illustrate the differences in the flow dynamics as it evolves around a characteristic wind turbine within a large wind farm and its asymptotic transition to the fully developed wind turbine array boundary layer.

  2. Packaging design criteria modified fuel spacer burial box. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various Hanford facilities must transfer large radioactively contaminated items to burial/storage. Presently, there are eighteen Fuel Spacer Burial Boxes (FSBBs) available on the Hanford Site for transport of such items. Previously, the FSBBS were transported from a rail car to the burial trench via a drag-off operation. To allow for the lifting of the boxes into the burial trench, it will be necessary to improve the packagings lifting attachments and provide structural reinforcement. Additional safety improvements to the packaging system will be provided by the addition of a positive closure system and package ventilation. FSBBs that are modified in such a manner are referred to as Modified Fuel Spacer Burial Boxes (MFSBs). The criteria provided by this PDC will be used to demonstrate that the transfer of the MFSB will provide an equivalent degree of safety as would be provided by a package meeting offsite transportation requirements. This fulfills the onsite transportation safety requirements implemented in WHC-CM-2-14, Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping. A Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) will be prepared to evaluate the safety of the transfer operation. Approval of the SARP is required to authorize transfer. Criteria are also established to ensure burial requirements are met

  3. An Introduction to Plum Blossom Boxing: History, Culture and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Zhang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Meihuaquan (“Plum Blossom Fist [Boxing]” has traditionally been practiced as vernacular (folk art practiced among the Han ethnic group residing in the Shandong, Henan and Hebei Provinces of China. Historical documentation dates Plum Blossom Boxing to the seventeenth century. The classic Chinese novel, Shuǐhǔ Zhuàn (Marsh Chronicles recounts the martial exploits of Shandong’s twelfth century outlaw heroes who may have been Mei Boxers, also. Thus, for perhaps a millennium, the region has been noted for vernacular martial arts and social banditry. The region’s rampant lawlessness promoted highly-developed martial prowess among both lawbreakers and those who were required to protect themselves against the brigands. Cultural, economic, and environmental factors in the region gave rise to heterodox political and religious beliefs that frequently served as a catalyst for martial sects, most notably the “Boxers” who at the turn of the twentieth century, came into conflict with the imperial government. These factors laid the groundwork for the “character traits” of the art while Taoism, the Five Elements theory, and a concept of predictable change shaped Plum Boxing’s strategic and mechanical principles. In the past decade, there have been efforts to globalize this vernacular martial art. Rather than driving Plum Boxing to extinction it is likely that the folk and the “larger than local” will co-exist.

  4. POD Model Reconstruction for Gray-Box Fault Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Han; Zak, Michail

    2007-01-01

    Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) is the mathematical basis of a method of constructing low-order mathematical models for the "gray-box" fault-detection algorithm that is a component of a diagnostic system known as beacon-based exception analysis for multi-missions (BEAM). POD has been successfully applied in reducing computational complexity by generating simple models that can be used for control and simulation for complex systems such as fluid flows. In the present application to BEAM, POD brings the same benefits to automated diagnosis. BEAM is a method of real-time or offline, automated diagnosis of a complex dynamic system.The gray-box approach makes it possible to utilize incomplete or approximate knowledge of the dynamics of the system that one seeks to diagnose. In the gray-box approach, a deterministic model of the system is used to filter a time series of system sensor data to remove the deterministic components of the time series from further examination. What is left after the filtering operation is a time series of residual quantities that represent the unknown (or at least unmodeled) aspects of the behavior of the system. Stochastic modeling techniques are then applied to the residual time series. The procedure for detecting abnormal behavior of the system then becomes one of looking for statistical differences between the residual time series and the predictions of the stochastic model.

  5. 太阳日总辐射量的Box-Jenkins模型%BOX-JENKINS MODEL FOR DAILY SOLAR RADIATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏; 丁明

    2012-01-01

    基于天文辐射和日照率数据,采用系统辨识的方法建立了模拟太阳日总辐射量的BJ( Box-Jenkins)模型.该模型与传统的(A)ngstr(m)的日总辐射量的计算公式相比,模拟和预测效果更好.%Based on astronomical radiation and percentage of possible sunshine data, the BJ (Box-Jenkins) model for daily solar irradiation is established using system identification method. The simulation and the one-step forecast results of the BJ model are better than Angstrm formula of the calculation.

  6. Monte Carlo simulation experiments on box-type radon dosimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Khalid; Kamran, Muhammad; Illahi, Ahsan; Manzoor, Shahid

    2014-11-01

    Epidemiological studies show that inhalation of radon gas (222Rn) may be carcinogenic especially to mine workers, people living in closed indoor energy conserved environments and underground dwellers. It is, therefore, of paramount importance to measure the 222Rn concentrations (Bq/m3) in indoors environments. For this purpose, box-type passive radon dosimeters employing ion track detector like CR-39 are widely used. Fraction of the number of radon alphas emitted in the volume of the box type dosimeter resulting in latent track formation on CR-39 is the latent track registration efficiency. Latent track registration efficiency is ultimately required to evaluate the radon concentration which consequently determines the effective dose and the radiological hazards. In this research, Monte Carlo simulation experiments were carried out to study the alpha latent track registration efficiency for box type radon dosimeter as a function of dosimeter's dimensions and range of alpha particles in air. Two different self developed Monte Carlo simulation techniques were employed namely: (a) Surface ratio (SURA) method and (b) Ray hitting (RAHI) method. Monte Carlo simulation experiments revealed that there are two types of efficiencies i.e. intrinsic efficiency (ηint) and alpha hit efficiency (ηhit). The ηint depends upon only on the dimensions of the dosimeter and ηhit depends both upon dimensions of the dosimeter and range of the alpha particles. The total latent track registration efficiency is the product of both intrinsic and hit efficiencies. It has been concluded that if diagonal length of box type dosimeter is kept smaller than the range of alpha particle then hit efficiency is achieved as 100%. Nevertheless the intrinsic efficiency keeps playing its role. The Monte Carlo simulation experimental results have been found helpful to understand the intricate track registration mechanisms in the box type dosimeter. This paper explains that how radon concentration from the

  7. Monte Carlo simulation experiments on box-type radon dosimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamil, Khalid, E-mail: kjamil@comsats.edu.pk; Kamran, Muhammad; Illahi, Ahsan; Manzoor, Shahid

    2014-11-11

    Epidemiological studies show that inhalation of radon gas ({sup 222}Rn) may be carcinogenic especially to mine workers, people living in closed indoor energy conserved environments and underground dwellers. It is, therefore, of paramount importance to measure the {sup 222}Rn concentrations (Bq/m{sup 3}) in indoors environments. For this purpose, box-type passive radon dosimeters employing ion track detector like CR-39 are widely used. Fraction of the number of radon alphas emitted in the volume of the box type dosimeter resulting in latent track formation on CR-39 is the latent track registration efficiency. Latent track registration efficiency is ultimately required to evaluate the radon concentration which consequently determines the effective dose and the radiological hazards. In this research, Monte Carlo simulation experiments were carried out to study the alpha latent track registration efficiency for box type radon dosimeter as a function of dosimeter’s dimensions and range of alpha particles in air. Two different self developed Monte Carlo simulation techniques were employed namely: (a) Surface ratio (SURA) method and (b) Ray hitting (RAHI) method. Monte Carlo simulation experiments revealed that there are two types of efficiencies i.e. intrinsic efficiency (η{sub int}) and alpha hit efficiency (η{sub hit}). The η{sub int} depends upon only on the dimensions of the dosimeter and η{sub hit} depends both upon dimensions of the dosimeter and range of the alpha particles. The total latent track registration efficiency is the product of both intrinsic and hit efficiencies. It has been concluded that if diagonal length of box type dosimeter is kept smaller than the range of alpha particle then hit efficiency is achieved as 100%. Nevertheless the intrinsic efficiency keeps playing its role. The Monte Carlo simulation experimental results have been found helpful to understand the intricate track registration mechanisms in the box type dosimeter. This paper

  8. Saturation of the magnetorotational instability in the unstratified shearing box with zero net flux: convergence in taller boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ji-Ming; Stone, James M.; Huang, Chelsea X.

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies of the non-linear regime of the magnetorotational instability in one particular type of shearing box model - unstratified with no net magnetic flux - find that without explicit dissipation (viscosity and resistivity) the saturation amplitude decreases with increasing numerical resolution. We show that this result is strongly dependent on the vertical aspect ratio of the computational domain Lz/Lx. When Lz/Lx ≲ 1, we recover previous results. However, when the vertical domain is extended Lz/Lx ≳ 2.5, we find the saturation level of the stress is greatly increased (giving a ratio of stress to pressure α ≳ 0.1), and moreover the results are independent of numerical resolution. Consistent with previous results, we find that saturation of the magnetorotational (MRI) in this regime is controlled by a cyclic dynamo which generates patches of strong toroidal field that switches sign on scales of Lx in the vertical direction. We speculate that when Lz/Lx ≲ 1, the dynamo is inhibited by the small size of the vertical domain, leading to the puzzling dependence of saturation amplitude on resolution. We show that previous toy models developed to explain the MRI dynamo are consistent with our results, and that the cyclic pattern of toroidal fields observed in stratified shearing box simulations (leading to the so-called butterfly diagram) may also be related. In tall boxes the saturation amplitude is insensitive to whether or not explicit dissipation is included in the calculations, at least for large magnetic Reynolds and Prandtl number. Finally, we show MRI turbulence in tall domains has a smaller critical Pmc, and an extended lifetime compared to Lz/Lx ≲ 1 boxes.

  9. Insights into the quality of DnaA boxes and their cooperativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming G.; Christensen, Bjarke Bak; Nielsen, Christina Bang;

    2006-01-01

    Plasmids carrying the mioC promoter region with its two DnaA boxes are as efficient in titration of DnaA protein as plasmids carrying a replicationinactivated oriC region with its five DnaA boxes. The two DnaA boxes upstream of the mioC promoter were mutated in various ways to study the cooperati......Plasmids carrying the mioC promoter region with its two DnaA boxes are as efficient in titration of DnaA protein as plasmids carrying a replicationinactivated oriC region with its five DnaA boxes. The two DnaA boxes upstream of the mioC promoter were mutated in various ways to study the...... cooperativity between the DnaA boxes, and to study in vivo the in vitrodefined 9mer DnaA box consensus sequence TTA/TTNCACA). The quality and cooperativity of the DnaA oxes were determined in two complementary ways: as titration of DnaA protein leading to derepression of the dnaA promoter, and as repression of...... the mioC promoter caused by the DnaA protein binding to the DnaA boxes. Titration of DnaA protein correlated with repression of the mioC promoter. The level of titration and repression with the normal promoter-proximal box (TTTTCCACA) depends strongly on the presence and the quality of a DnaA box in...

  10. Fano-Kondo and the Kondo box regimes crossover in a quantum dot coupled to a quantum box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Victor M; Orellana, Pedro A; Pacheco, Monica; Anda, Enrique V

    2013-12-18

    In this work, we study the Kondo effect of a quantum dot (QD) connected to leads and to a discrete set of one-particle states provided by a quantum box represented by a quantum ring (QR) pierced by a magnetic flux side attached to the QD. The interplay between the bulk Kondo effect and the so-called Kondo box regime is studied. In this system the QR energies can be continuously modified by the application of the magnetic field. The crossover between these two regimes is analyzed by changing the connection of the QD to the QR from the weak to the strong coupling regime. In the weak coupling regime, the differential conductance develops a sequence of Fano-Kondo anti-resonances due to destructive interference between the discrete quantum ring levels and the conducting Kondo channel provided by the leads. In the strong coupling regime the differential conductance has very sharp resonances when one of the Kondo discrete sub-levels characterizing the Kondo box is tuned by the applied potential. The conductance, the current fluctuations and the Fano coefficient result as being the relevant physical magnitudes to be analyzed to reveal the physical properties of these two Kondo regimes and the crossover region between them. The results were obtained by using the slave boson mean field theory (SBMFT). PMID:24275637

  11. Devin, Alligators, Jellyfish, and Me.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiyama, Elaine

    1997-01-01

    Describes how a first-grade teacher used the "hypothesis-test" approach with Devin, a first grader who struggled as a reader and writer. Points out that, when she started working with Devin, she wanted to understand his difficulties, but by the end, she realized that it was her curriculum, not his difficulties, that needed to be in the foreground.…

  12. some chocolate和a box of chocolates的区别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王振元

    2012-01-01

    在《牛津小学英语》5A Unit8 A campingt rip一课中,有这么一句话:Miss Li has a box of chocolates and Mr Green has some fruit.这里出现了chocolate的复数。在平时的教学中,教师告诉学生chocolate是不可数名词,这里又出现了复数,作何解释呢?笔者认为,理解单复数还要根据不同的文化背景。

  13. Introduction to game physics with Box2D

    CERN Document Server

    Parberry, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Written by a pioneer of game development in academia, Introduction to Game Physics with Box2D covers the theory and practice of 2D game physics in a relaxed and entertaining yet instructional style. It offers a cohesive treatment of the topics and code involved in programming the physics for 2D video games. Focusing on writing elementary game physics code, the first half of the book helps you grasp the challenges of programming game physics from scratch, without libraries or outside help. It examines the mathematical foundation of game physics and illustrates how it is applied in practice thro

  14. Standard Waste Box Lid Screw Removal Option Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides results from test work conducted to resolve the removal of screws securing the standard waste box (SWB) lids that hold the remediated nitrate salt (RNS) drums. The test work evaluated equipment and process alternatives for removing the 42 screws that hold the SWB lid in place. The screws were secured with a red Loctite thread locker that makes removal very difficult because the rivets that the screw threads into would slip before the screw could be freed from the rivet, making it impossible to remove the screw and therefore the SWB lid.

  15. Standard Waste Box Lid Screw Removal Option Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anast, Kurt Roy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-11

    This report provides results from test work conducted to resolve the removal of screws securing the standard waste box (SWB) lids that hold the remediated nitrate salt (RNS) drums. The test work evaluated equipment and process alternatives for removing the 42 screws that hold the SWB lid in place. The screws were secured with a red Loctite thread locker that makes removal very difficult because the rivets that the screw threads into would slip before the screw could be freed from the rivet, making it impossible to remove the screw and therefore the SWB lid.

  16. COMPUTER MODEL AND SIMULATION OF A GLOVE BOX PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. FOSTER; ET AL

    2001-01-01

    The development of facilities to deal with the disposition of nuclear materials at an acceptable level of Occupational Radiation Exposure (ORE) is a significant issue facing the nuclear community. One solution is to minimize the worker's exposure though the use of automated systems. However, the adoption of automated systems for these tasks is hampered by the challenging requirements that these systems must meet in order to be cost effective solutions in the hazardous nuclear materials processing environment. Retrofitting current glove box technologies with automation systems represents potential near-term technology that can be applied to reduce worker ORE associated with work in nuclear materials processing facilities. Successful deployment of automation systems for these applications requires the development of testing and deployment strategies to ensure the highest level of safety and effectiveness. Historically, safety tests are conducted with glove box mock-ups around the finished design. This late detection of problems leads to expensive redesigns and costly deployment delays. With wide spread availability of computers and cost effective simulation software it is possible to discover and fix problems early in the design stages. Computer simulators can easily create a complete model of the system allowing a safe medium for testing potential failures and design shortcomings. The majority of design specification is now done on computer and moving that information to a model is relatively straightforward. With a complete model and results from a Failure Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA), redesigns can be worked early. Additional issues such as user accessibility, component replacement, and alignment problems can be tackled early in the virtual environment provided by computer simulation. In this case, a commercial simulation package is used to simulate a lathe process operation at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The Lathe process operation is

  17. Mom-and-Pops or Big Box Stores

    OpenAIRE

    Michael J. Hicks; Keil, Stanley R.; Lee C. Spector

    2012-01-01

    This article explores WalMart’s impact on the retail sector in the counties in which it is located, as well as in surrounding counties, by examining the number and size of retail outlets, by retail category. Using statewide data as well as a case study incorporating econometric modes, we find that the main impact of the entrance of a WalMart primarily falls on competitive big box stores. Furthermore, we find that the long-run adjustment to the entrance of a WalMart takes between 18 and 36 m...

  18. Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS) Technology Tool Box (TTB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Monica; ONeil, Daniel A.; Christensen, Carissa B.

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS) is a decision support tool designed to aid program managers and strategic planners in determining how to invest technology research and development dollars. It is an Excel-based modeling package that allows a user to build complex space architectures and evaluate the impact of various technology choices. ATLAS contains system models, cost and operations models, a campaign timeline and a centralized technology database. Technology data for all system models is drawn from a common database, the ATLAS Technology Tool Box (TTB). The TTB provides a comprehensive, architecture-independent technology database that is keyed to current and future timeframes.

  19. Tortoiseshell or Polymer? Spectroscopic Analysis to Redefine a Purported Tortoiseshell Box with Gold Decorations as a Plastic Box with Brass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, António; Caldeira, Ana Teresa; Maduro, Belmira; Vandenabeele, Peter; Candeias, António

    2016-01-01

    The study and preservation of museum collections requires complete knowledge and understanding of constituent materials that can be natural, synthetic, or semi-synthetic polymers. In former times, objects were incorporated in museum collections and classified solely by their appearance. New studies, prompted by severe degradation processes or conservation-restoration actions, help shed light on the materiality of objects that can contradict the original information or assumptions. The selected case study presented here is of a box dating from the beginning of the 20th century that belongs to the Portuguese National Ancient Art Museum. Museum curators classified it as a tortoiseshell box decorated with gold applications solely on the basis of visual inspection and the information provided by the donor. This box has visible signs of degradation with white veils, initially assumed to be the result of biological degradation of a proteinaceous matrix. This paper presents the methodological rationale behind this study and proposes a totally non-invasive methodology for the identification of polymeric materials in museum artifacts. The analysis of surface leachates using (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) complemented by in situ attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR FT-IR) allowed for full characterization of the object s substratum. The NMR technique unequivocally identified a great number of additives and ATR FT-IR provided information about the polymer structure and while also confirming the presence of additives. The pressure applied during ATR FT-IR spectroscopy did not cause any physical change in the structure of the material at the level of the surface (e.g., color, texture, brightness, etc.). In this study, variable pressure scanning electron microscopy (VP-SEM-EDS) was also used to obtain the elemental composition of the metallic decorations. Additionally, microbiologic and enzymatic assays were performed in order to identify the

  20. Broadband set-top box using MAP-CA processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, John E.; Lee, Woobin; Basoglu, Chris

    2001-12-01

    Advances in broadband access are expected to exert a profound impact in our everyday life. It will be the key to the digital convergence of communication, computer and consumer equipment. A common thread that facilitates this convergence comprises digital media and Internet. To address this market, Equator Technologies, Inc., is developing the Dolphin broadband set-top box reference platform using its MAP-CA Broadband Signal ProcessorT chip. The Dolphin reference platform is a universal media platform for display and presentation of digital contents on end-user entertainment systems. The objective of the Dolphin reference platform is to provide a complete set-top box system based on the MAP-CA processor. It includes all the necessary hardware and software components for the emerging broadcast and the broadband digital media market based on IP protocols. Such reference design requires a broadband Internet access and high-performance digital signal processing. By using the MAP-CA processor, the Dolphin reference platform is completely programmable, allowing various codecs to be implemented in software, such as MPEG-2, MPEG-4, H.263 and proprietary codecs. The software implementation also enables field upgrades to keep pace with evolving technology and industry demands.

  1. Stuffing box for a sucker rod pump assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, M.B.

    1987-03-03

    A stuffing box is described for use with a sucker rod pump assembly for a producing well including a polish rod at the upper end of the sucker rods, comprising a tubular housing for mounting on the wellhead of a producing well through which the polish rod reciprocates. Two longitudinally spaced packing assemblies are located in the tubular housing in sealing engagement with the polish rod and the housing to provide an annular chamber for a lubricating fluid to surround the polish rod. The box also comprises a lubricating fluid reservoir mounted on the tubular housing and surrounding the portion of the housing in which the annular chamber is located, upper and lower ports in the housing adjacent the upper and lower ends of the chamber connecting the annular chamber with the lubricating fluid reservoir, the housing being imperforate between the ports, and a removable annular spacer located in the annular chamber between the packing assemblies to hold the packing assemblies spaced apart. The spacer has upper and lower ports adjacent the upper and lower end of the chamber and is in substantially the same plane as the upper and lower ports in the housing.

  2. Innovation by design lessons from post box design & development

    CERN Document Server

    Chakravarthy, Battula Kalyana

    2013-01-01

    The book provides an in-depth knowledge on how a product is designed and developed by Product Designers. This has been achieved through a case study of one product – the Post Box. This product was chosen for the study primarily due to its simple and non-technical nature as that would make it easy for the readers to comprehend the design process. At the same time the Post Box posed all the challenges a designer would face while creating a new product. Through a step by step process the book gradually takes the reader through the design and development journey – right from understanding the product, identifying the user need through market research, comprehending client’s brief, generating product ideas and concepts to development of prototype, manufacturing and final performance of the product. The book illustrates the stages in the design process that lead to innovation which is applicable to all types of products. To make the book more stimulating, interesting facts, figures and pictures on related iss...

  3. Communications systems design for testability: Grey-box testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probert, Robert L.; Geldrez, Cecilia

    Large systems such as telecommunications systems may involve several million lines of executable code and tend to evolve incrementally, thus rendering testing and maintainability a very complex task. For this reason, testing and verification requirements must be defined and incorporated into the development process early in the software development cycle. Thus, design becomes a key component of these systems. An approach to assist in enhancing the testability of software designs is proposed, termed grey-box testing. One particular grey-box testing paradigm named semantic instrumentation is illustrated. Designs are represented as design machines, an extension of finite-state machines. A design-level plan for verification/test is then derived to guarantee branch coverage of the design machine for both normal behaviors and for processing of exceptions. Finally, semantic probes are defined to provide a mapping from the design machine to implemented code. These probes are used to document design decisions, implementation decisions, and execution traces during code verification and test. The process of semantic instrumentation is illustrated on communications services, more precisely, on the service of the alternating bit protocol.

  4. No Quantum Realization of Extremal No-Signaling Boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Ravishankar; Tuziemski, Jan; Horodecki, Michał; Horodecki, Paweł

    2016-07-01

    The study of quantum correlations is important for fundamental reasons as well as for quantum communication and information processing tasks. On the one hand, it is of tremendous interest to derive the correlations produced by measurements on separated composite quantum systems from within the set of all correlations obeying the no-signaling principle of relativity, by means of information-theoretic principles. On the other hand, an important ongoing research program concerns the formulation of device-independent cryptographic protocols based on quantum nonlocal correlations for the generation of secure keys, and the amplification and expansion of random bits against general no-signaling adversaries. In both these research programs, a fundamental question arises: Can any measurements on quantum states realize the correlations present in pure extremal no-signaling boxes? Here, we answer this question in full generality showing that no nontrivial (not local realistic) extremal boxes of general no-signaling theories can be realized in quantum theory. We then explore some important consequences of this fact.

  5. Mirror boxes and mirror mounts for photophysics beamline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photophysics beamline makes use of one metre Seya-Namioka monochromator and two toroidal mirrors in its fore optics. The first toroidal mirror (pre mirror) focuses light originating from the tangent point of the storage ring onto the entrance slit of the monochromator and second toroidal mirror (post mirror) collects light from the exit slit of the monochromator and focuses light onto the sample placed at a distance of about one metre away from the 2nd mirror. To steer light through monochromator and to focus it on the sample of 1mm x 1mm size require precision rotational and translational motion of the mirrors and this has been achieved with the help of precision mirror mounts. Since Indus-1 operates at pressures less than 10-9 m.bar, the mirror mounts should be manipulated under similar ultra high vacuum conditions. Considering these requirements, two mirror boxes and two mirror mounts have been designed and fabricated. The coarse movements to the mirrors are imparted from outside the mirror chamber with the help of x-y tables and precision movements to the mirrors are achieved with the help of mirror mounts. The UHV compatibility and performance of the mirror mounts connected to mirror boxes under ultra high vacuum condition is evaluated. The details of the design, fabrication and performance evaluation are discussed in this report. 5 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  6. Numerical Characterization of a Composite Bonded Wing-Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeltzer, Stanley S., III; Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Satyanarayana, Arunkumar

    2008-01-01

    The development of composite wing structures has focused on the use of mechanical fasteners to join heavily-loaded areas, while bonded joints have been used only for select locations. The focus of this paper is the examination of the adhesive layer in a generic bonded wing box that represents a "fastenerless" or unitized structure in order to characterize the general behavior and failure mechanisms. A global/local approach was applied to study the response of the adhesive layer using a global shell model and a local shell/solid model. The wing box was analyzed under load to represent a high-g up-bending condition such that the strains in the composite sandwich face sheets are comparable to an expected design allowable. The global/local analysis indicates that at these wing load levels the strains in the adhesive layer are well within the adhesive's elastic region, such that yielding would not be expected in the adhesive layer. The global/local methodology appears to be a promising approach to evaluate the structural integrity of the adhesively bonded structures.

  7. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in a split potential box

    CERN Document Server

    Shamriz, Elad; Malomed, Boris A

    2016-01-01

    We report results of the analysis of the spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB) in the basic (actually, simplest) model which is capable to produce the SSB phenomenology in the one-dimensional setting. It is based on the Gross-Pitaevskii - nonlinear Schroedinger equation with the cubic self-attractive term and a double-well-potential built as an infinitely deep potential box split by a narrow (delta-functional) barrier. The barrier's strength, epsilon, is the single free parameter of the scaled form of the model. It may be implemented in atomic Bose-Einstein condensates and nonlinear optics. The SSB bifurcation of the symmetric ground state (GS) is predicted analytically in two limit cases, viz., for deep or weak splitting of the potential box by the barrier. For the generic case, a variational approximation (VA) is elaborated. The analytical findings are presented along with systematic numerical results. Stability of stationary states is studied through the calculation of eigenvalues for small perturbations, an...

  8. The approximate scaling law of the cochlea box model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetesník, A; Nobili, R

    2006-12-01

    The hydrodynamic box-model of the cochlea is reconsidered here for the primary purpose of studying in detail the approximate scaling law that governs tonotopic responses in the frequency domain. "Scaling law" here means that any two solutions representing waveforms elicited by tones of equal amplitudes differ only by a complex factor depending on frequency. It is shown that this property holds with excellent approximation almost all along the basilar membrane (BM) length, with the exception of a small region adjacent to the BM base. The analytical expression of the approximate law is explicitly given and compared to numerical solutions carried out on a virtually exact implementation of the model. It differs significantly from that derived by Sondhi in 1978, which suffers from an inaccuracy in the hyperbolic approximation of the exact Green's function. Since the cochleae of mammals do not exhibit the scaling properties of the box model, the subject presented here may appear to be just an academic exercise. The results of our study, however, are significant in that a more general scaling law should hold for real cochleae. To support this hypothesis, an argument related to the problem of cochlear amplifier-gain stabilization is advanced. PMID:17008036

  9. Dynamics of TBP binding to the TATA box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schluesche, Peter; Heiss, Gregor; Meisterernst, Michael; Lamb, Don C.

    2008-02-01

    Gene expression is highly controlled and regulated in living cells. One of the first steps in gene transcription is recognition of the promoter site by the TATA box Binding Protein (TBP). TBP recruits other transcriptions factors and eventually the RNA polymerase II to transcribe the DNA in mRNA. We developed a single pair Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (spFRET) assay to investigate the mechanism of gene regulation. Here, we apply this assay to investigate the initial binding process of TBP to the adenovirus major late (AdML) promoter site. From the spFRET measurements, we were able to identify two conformations of the TBP-DNA complex that correspond to TBP bound in the correct and the opposite orientation. Increased incubation times or the presence of the transcription factor TFIIA improved the alignment of TBP on the promoter site. Binding of TBP to the TATA box shows a rich dynamics with abrupt transitions between multiple FRET states. A frame-wise histogram analysis revealed the presence of at least six discrete states, showing that TBP binding is more complicated than previously thought. Hence, the spFRET assay is very sensitive to the conformation of the TBP-DNA complex and is very promising tool for investigating the pathway of TBP binding in detail.

  10. Tritium stripping in a nitrogen glove box using palladium/zeolite and SAES St 198 trademark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glove box clean-up experiments were conducted in a nitrogen glove box using palladium deposited on zeolite (Pd/z) and a SAES St 198 trademark getter as tritium stripping materials. Protium/deuterium samples spiked with tritium were released into a 620 liter glove box to simulate tritium releases in a 10,500 liter glove box. The Pd/z and the SAES St 198 trademark stripper beds produced a reduction in tritium activity of approximately two to three orders of magnitude and glove box clean-up was limited by a persistent background tritium activity level. Attempts to significantly reduce the glove box activity to lower levels without purging were unsuccessful

  11. Decontamination and reconditioning of the Argonne National Laboratory-West Casting Laboratory alpha glove box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Casting Laboratory (CL) alpha glove box was used to melt and cast metallic uranium and plutonium fuels as part of the Department of Energy''s Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Program. This highly contaminated alpha glove box was decontaminated and reconditioned to allow a change in mission. The goal of reconditioning was to install experimental apparatus and to improve contamination control prior to introducing plutonium-238 into the CL glove box. Construction of a glove box containment structure and an increase in room ventilation were required. A temporary breathing air station was provided for personnel protection as well as personnel comfort. The historical contamination levels, the decontamination techniques, and the results of decontamination also are presented. The health physics aspects of the CL alpha glove box project may be applicable to other glove box refurbishment or decommissioning projects

  12. Construction of Substitution Box Based on Piecewise Linear Chaotic Map and S8 Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Iqtadar; Gondal, Muhammad Asif; Hussain, Azkar

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, a scheme for the construction of substitution boxes (S-boxes) based on chaotic map and S8 (symmetric group of permutation) is presented. The properties such as nonlinearity, strict avalanche and resistance against the differential cryptanalysis are analyzed in detail. The result shows that the criterion for designing good S-box can be met approximately. As a result, our approach is suitable for practical application in designing block cryptosystem.

  13. A new glove-box system for a high-pressure tritium pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new glove-box system that was designed around a high-pressure tritium pump is described. The system incorporates new containment ideas such as burpler passive pressure controls, valves that can be turned from outside the box, inflatable door seals, ferro-fluidic motor-shaft seals, and rapid box-to-hood conversion during cryostaging. Currently under construction, the system will contain nine separate section with automatic pressure-balancing and venting systems

  14. A new glove-box system for a high-pressure tritium pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new glove-box system that was designed around a high-pressure tritium pump is described. The system incorporates new containment ideas such as ''burpler'' passive pressure controls, valves that can be turned from outside the box, inflatable door seals, ferro-fluidic motor-shaft seals, and rapid box-to-hood conversion during cryostaging. Currently under construction, the system will contain nine separate sections with automatic pressure-balancing and venting systems. 3 refs., 5 figs

  15. Somatotype Analysis of Elite Boxing Athletes Compared with Nonathletes for Sports Physiotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Noh, Ji-Woong; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Park, Byoung-Sun; Yang, Seung-Min; Jeon, Hye-Joo; Lee, Won-Deok; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Jang, Sung-Ho; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Junghwan

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to show somatotype and physical characteristic differences between elite boxing athletes and non-athletes. [Methods] The somatotypes of 23 elite boxing athletes and 23 nonathletes were measured with the Heath-Carter method. The subjects were divided into four weight divisions as follows: lightweight, light middleweight, middleweight, and heavyweight class. [Results] The endomorphic component values of the boxing athletes were lower than those of the non...

  16. ATP hydrolysis is required for DEAD-box protein recycling but not for duplex unwinding

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Fei; Putnam, Andrea; Jankowsky, Eckhard

    2008-01-01

    DEAD-box proteins, the largest helicase family, catalyze ATP-dependent remodeling of RNA–protein complexes and the unwinding of RNA duplexes. Because DEAD-box proteins hydrolyze ATP in an RNA-dependent fashion, the energy provided by ATP hydrolysis is commonly assumed to drive the energetically unfavorable duplex unwinding. Here, we show efficient unwinding of stable duplexes by several DEAD-box proteins in the presence of the nonhydrolyzable ATP analog ADP-beryllium fluoride. Another ATP ana...

  17. SPL8, an SBP-box gene that affects pollen sac development in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Unte, Ulrike S.; Sorensen, Anna-Marie; Pesaresi, Paolo; Gandikota, Madhuri; Leister, Dario; Saedler, Heinz; Huijser, Peter

    2003-01-01

    SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-box genes (SBP-box genes) encode plant-specific proteins that share a highly conserved DNA binding domain, the SBP domain. Although likely to represent transcription factors, little is known about their role in development. In Arabidopsis, SBP-box genes constitute a structurally heterogeneous family of 16 members known as SPL genes. For one of these genes, SPL8, we isolated three independent transposon-tagged mutants, all of which exhibited a strong reduction...

  18. Smart Call Box Field Operation Test Evaluation: Summary Report (revised Draft 5-1-97)

    OpenAIRE

    Banks, James H.; Powell, Patrick A. D.

    1997-01-01

    The Smart Call Box Field Operational Test evaluated the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of using smart call boxes for five data processing and transmission tasks: traffic census, incident detection, hazardous weather reporting, changeable message sign control, and video surveillance. Evaluation focused on assessing the cost-effectiveness of smart call boxes as compared with a baseline system using hardwire telephone communications. The evaluation was primarily based on functional adequacy ...

  19. Effect of material uncertainties on dynamic response of segmental box girder bridge

    OpenAIRE

    Suchart Limkatanyu; Kittisak Kuntiyawichai

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this paper was to investigate the effect of material uncertainties on dynamic response of segmental box girder bridge subjected to a moving load, in this case a rapid passing trains. Literatures concerned with the design of segmental box girder bridge, the application of finite element analysis to model the segmental box girder bridge, and the minimum requirement for structural conditions of the bridge were described and discussed in detail. A series of finite element a...

  20. Two high-mobility group box domains act together to underwind and kink DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez-Giraldo, R.; Acosta-Reyes, F. J. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Malarkey, C. S. [University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Saperas, N. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Churchill, M. E. A., E-mail: mair.churchill@ucdenver.edu [University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Campos, J. L., E-mail: mair.churchill@ucdenver.edu [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-06-30

    The crystal structure of HMGB1 box A bound to an unmodified AT-rich DNA fragment is reported at a resolution of 2 Å. A new mode of DNA recognition for HMG box proteins is found in which two box A domains bind in an unusual configuration generating a highly kinked DNA structure. High-mobility group protein 1 (HMGB1) is an essential and ubiquitous DNA architectural factor that influences a myriad of cellular processes. HMGB1 contains two DNA-binding domains, box A and box B, which have little sequence specificity but have remarkable abilities to underwind and bend DNA. Although HMGB1 box A is thought to be responsible for the majority of HMGB1–DNA interactions with pre-bent or kinked DNA, little is known about how it recognizes unmodified DNA. Here, the crystal structure of HMGB1 box A bound to an AT-rich DNA fragment is reported at a resolution of 2 Å. Two box A domains of HMGB1 collaborate in an unusual configuration in which the Phe37 residues of both domains stack together and intercalate the same CG base pair, generating highly kinked DNA. This represents a novel mode of DNA recognition for HMGB proteins and reveals a mechanism by which structure-specific HMG boxes kink linear DNA.

  1. Crash energy absorption of two-segment crash box with holes under frontal load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choiron, Moch. Agus; Sudjito, Hidayati, Nafisah Arina

    2016-03-01

    Crash box is one of the passive safety components which designed as an impact energy absorber during collision. Crash box designs have been developed in order to obtain the optimum crashworthiness performance. Circular cross section was first investigated with one segment design, it rather influenced by its length which is being sensitive to the buckling occurrence. In this study, the two-segment crash box design with additional holes is investigated and deformation behavior and crash energy absorption are observed. The crash box modelling is performed by finite element analysis. The crash test components were impactor, crash box, and fixed rigid base. Impactor and the fixed base material are modelled as a rigid, and crash box material as bilinear isotropic hardening. Crash box length of 100 mm and frontal crash velocity of 16 km/jam are selected. Crash box material of Aluminum Alloy is used. Based on simulation results, it can be shown that holes configuration with 2 holes and ¾ length locations have the largest crash energy absorption. This condition associated with deformation pattern, this crash box model produces axisymmetric mode than other models.

  2. The Black Box Theater and AV/IT Convergence: Creating the Classroom of the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenti, Mark S.

    2002-01-01

    Describes "black box" classrooms, which incorporate audiovisual and information technologies to provide an inherently flexible learning environment. Details various technological components of such classrooms. (EV)

  3. Effect of heterogeneity of nest boxes on occurrence of gregarious nesting in laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Tina; Riber, Anja Brinch

    2012-01-01

    Gregarious nesting, where hens select already occupied nest boxes even when other nest boxes are unoccupied, is an unwanted behaviour in laying hens that may reduce animal welfare and pose a financial cost to the producer. It has been suggested that gregarious nesting is caused by the difficulties...... nesting was higher in experimental groups compared to control groups (P < 0.01). The pre-laying period did not differ between the experimental and control groups (P = 0.41). Numbers of visits to and eggs laid in nest boxes positioned either left or right were higher compared to nest boxes positioned in...

  4. Intellectual Property (IP) Box Regimes : Tax Planning, Effective Tax Burdens, and Tax Policy Options

    OpenAIRE

    Evers, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    This thesis contributes to the current debate on Intellectual Property (IP) Box regimes and IP tax planning. It provides a comprehensive survey of the 12 IP Box regimes in place in Europe by the end of 2014 and presents effective tax rates associated with the IP Box regimes and the use of popular tax planning models. Moreover, it evaluates the IP Box regimes on the basis of the EU State Aid rules and the EU Code of Conduct for business taxation and discusses options to reform the taxation of ...

  5. Box traps on an atom chip for one-dimensional quantum gases

    CERN Document Server

    van Es, J J P; van Amerongen, A H; Rétif, C; Whitlock, S; van Druten, N J

    2009-01-01

    We present the implementation of tailored trapping potentials for ultracold gases on an atom chip. We realize highly elongated traps with box-like confinement along the long, axial direction combined with conventional harmonic confinement along the two radial directions. The design, fabrication and characterization of the atom chip and the box traps is described. We load ultracold ($\\lesssim1 \\mu$K) clouds of $^{87}$Rb in a box trap, and demonstrate Bose-gas focusing as a means to characterize these atomic clouds in arbitrarily shaped potentials. Our results show that box-like axial potentials on atom chips are very promising for studies of one-dimensional quantum gases.

  6. A method for designing dynamical S-boxes based on discretized chaotic map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for obtaining dynamically cryptographically strong substitution boxes (S-boxes) based on discretized chaotic map is presented in this paper. The cryptographical properties such as bijection, nonlinearity, strict avalanche, output bits independence and equiprobable input/output XOR distribution of these S-boxes are analyzed in detail. The results of numerical analysis show that all the criteria for designing good S-box can be met approximately. As a result, our approach is suitable for practical application in designing block cryptosystem

  7. RNA polymerase II/III transcription specificity determined by TATA box orientation.

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Y.; Stumph, W E

    1995-01-01

    The TATA box sequence in eukaryotes is located about 25 bp upstream of many genes transcribed by RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and some genes transcribed by RNA polymerase III (Pol III). The TATA box is recognized in a sequence-specific manner by the TATA box-binding protein (TBP), an essential factor involved in the initiation of transcription by all three eukaryotic RNA polymerases. We have investigated the recognition of the TATA box by the Pol II and Pol III basal transcription machinery and...

  8. Ethical and Practical Considerations in Removing Black Box Warnings from Drug Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, James S; Sarpatwari, Ameet; Kesselheim, Aaron S

    2016-08-01

    Boxed warnings-also known as "black box" warnings-can be a powerful tool in communicating drug risks to physicians and patients. The overall number of boxed warnings has grown in recent years as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved more drugs on the basis of limited pre-marketing information and as new safety issues for marketed drugs have been identified. Two recent manufacturers' petitions to remove boxed warnings on the drugs rosiglitazone (Avandia) and varenicline (Chantix) have led to divergent FDA decisions and revealed different considerations involved in boxed warning imposition and removal. For ethical and practical reasons, the FDA is justified in applying a higher standard for boxed warning removal than for imposition, as removal of a boxed warning may have unintended effects on physician and patient behavior. However, no guidelines on boxed warning removal currently exist. To promote safe use of approved prescription drugs, the FDA should adopt a uniform and transparent process governing decisions to impose or remove boxed warnings. PMID:27000800

  9. Crosstalk Enhancement in 32 nm FD SOI MOSFET using HR Substrate and Multilayer BOX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Tavanazadeh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the crosstalk in 32 nm UTB SOI MOSFET is examined by using a new structure, a high resistivity substrate, and a multilayer BOX (SiO2-Diamond. The electrical and thermal characteristics of the conventional SOI and a multilayer BOX SOI are compared, and it is concluded that parasitic capacitances and crosstalk are improved by incorporating multilayer BOX to a HR Substrate. In a conventional HR FD SOI, crosstalk is approximately -121dB, while by incorporating multilayer BOX substrate and increasing the thickness of the Diamond to 100nm, crosstalk can be reduced by 20%.

  10. A Quantitative Vainberg Method for Black Box Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galkowski, Jeffrey

    2016-05-01

    We give a quantitative version of Vainberg's method relating pole free regions to propagation of singularities for black box scatterers. In particular, we show that there is a logarithmic resonance free region near the real axis of size {τ} with polynomial bounds on the resolvent if and only if the wave propagator gains derivatives at rate {τ} . Next we show that if there exist singularities in the wave trace at times tending to infinity which smooth at rate {τ} , then there are resonances in logarithmic strips whose width is given by {τ} . As our main application of these results, we give sharp bounds on the size of resonance free regions in scattering on geometrically nontrapping manifolds with conic points. Moreover, these bounds are generically optimal on exteriors of nontrapping polygonal domains.

  11. Packing Boxes into Multiple Containers Using Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menghani, Deepak; Guha, Anirban

    2016-07-01

    Container loading problems have been studied extensively in the literature and various analytical, heuristic and metaheuristic methods have been proposed. This paper presents two different variants of a genetic algorithm framework for the three-dimensional container loading problem for optimally loading boxes into multiple containers with constraints. The algorithms are designed so that it is easy to incorporate various constraints found in real life problems. The algorithms are tested on data of standard test cases from literature and are found to compare well with the benchmark algorithms in terms of utilization of containers. This, along with the ability to easily incorporate a wide range of practical constraints, makes them attractive for implementation in real life scenarios.

  12. Peter Szendy, Tubes. La Philosophie dans le juke-box

    OpenAIRE

    Buch, Esteban

    2010-01-01

    Quelque part vers la fin de Tubes. La Philosophie dans le juke-box, Peter Szendy évoque la première fois où il entendit Money, de Pink Floyd. C’était sur une plage de Crète, il avait dix-huit ans et envie de fumer. Le sable étant trop chaud pour marcher, il est allé à la nage, l’argent sur la tête, vers ce stand du bord de mer qui proposait des tubes et des cigarettes. « Mes brasses, étrange convoyeur de fonds que j’étais, épousaient le rythme de la chanson des Pink Floyd… » (p. 82) Les point...

  13. Dynamic Magnification Factor in a Box-Shape Steel Girder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbar-Ranji, A.

    2014-01-01

    The dynamic effect of moving loads on structures is treated as a dynamic magnification factor when resonant is not imminent. Studies have shown that the calculated magnification factors from field measurements could be higher than the values specified in design codes. It is the main aim of present paper to investigate the applicability and accuracy of a rule-based expression for calculation of dynamic magnification factor for lifting appliances used in marine industry. A steel box shape girder of a crane is considered and transient dynamic analysis using computer code ANSYS is implemented. Dynamic magnification factor is calculated for different loading conditions and compared with rule-based equation. The effects of lifting speeds, acceleration, damping ratio and position of cargo are examined. It is found that rule-based expression underestimate dynamic magnification factor.

  14. The Planck/LFI Radiometer Electronics Box Assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Herreros, J M; Rebolo, R; Chulani, H; Rubino-Martin, J A; Hildebrandt, S R; Bersanelli, M; Butler, R C; Miccolis, M; Pena, A; Pereira, M; Torrero, F; Franceschet, C; Lopez, M; Alcala, C; 10.1088/1748-0221/4/12/T12008

    2010-01-01

    The Radiometer Electronics Box Assembly (REBA) is the control and data processing on board computer of the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) of the Planck mission (ESA). The REBA was designed and built incorporating state of the art processors, communication interfaces and real time operating system software in order to meet the scientific performance of the LFI. We present a technical summary of the REBA, including a physical, functional, electrical, mechanical and thermal description. Aspects of the design and development, the assembly, the integration and the verification of the equipment are provided. A brief description of the LFI on board software is given including the Low-Level Software and the main functionalities and architecture of the Application Software. The compressor module, which has been developed as an independent product, later integrated in the application, is also described in this paper. Two identical engineering models EM and AVM, the engineering qualification model EQM, the flight model ...

  15. A Body that Matters: Tom Kilroy's Talbot's Box

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Poulain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at Tom Kilroy’s play Talbot Box, and argues that it resorts to the tropes of the Passion narrative, revisited by ex-centric mystic Matt Talbot, to expose the homogenising, normalising and exploitative efforts of the Catholic Church, a powerful institution which is shown to work in collusion with the forces of capitalism. Using a grotesque, often farcical dramaturgy, the play displays the joint attempts of ecclesiastical and temporal powers to appropriate Matt Talbot’s private performance of the Christian Passion for their own purposes, as well as the ways in which he resists instrumentalization by submitting himself to a radical form of bodily exposure. The play thus invents its own version of a theatre of cruelty in order to accommodate a mystical experience which lies beyond the reach of realistic representation. 

  16. Accuracy of the box-counting algorithm for noisy fractals

    CERN Document Server

    Gorski, A Z; Oswiecimka, P; Skrzat, J

    2014-01-01

    The box-counting (BC) algorithm is applied to calculate fractal dimensions of four fractal sets. The sets are contaminated with an additive noise with amplitude $\\gamma = 10^{-5} \\div 10^{-1}$. The accuracy of calculated numerical values of the fractal dimensions is analyzed as a function of $\\gamma$ for different sizes of the data sample ($n_{tot}$). In particular, it has been found that a tiny ($10^{-5}$) addition of noise generates much larger (three orders of magnitude) error of the calculated fractal exponents. Natural saturation of the error for larger noise values prohibits the power-like scaling. Moreover, the noise effect cannot be cured by taking larger data samples.

  17. Investigation on processing technology for tritiated water in glove box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 0.5 nm molecular sieve absorption column and a hot decomposing magnesium bed was found to be one of the effective means to collect and decompose HTO in glove box atmosphere. The absorption characteristics of the 0.5 nm molecular sieve column and water decomposing characteristics of the hot Mg bed were obtained. The results showed that the column absorbs water vapour from air with efficiency up to 99.99%. Water in tested gases was between 3.4 x 103 to 4.2 x 103 μg·g-1 and the total water absorbed on the column was up to 162 g, under this condition no water was detected in output gases. Using the hot magnesium bed more than 99.9% desorption water from the column was decomposed

  18. Investigation on processing technology for tritiated water in glove box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 5A molecular sieve absorption column and a hot decomposing Mg bed are one of the effective means to collect and decompose HTO in glove box atmosphere. The performances of the 5A molecular sieve column and the hot Mg bed are measured. The results show that the column absorbs water vapour from air with efficiency up to 99.99%. No water in the output gases is detected even though the water content in the input gases is about 3.4 x 10-3-4.2 x 10-3, and the total water absorbed on the column is up to 162 g. In the hot bed, more than 99.9% desorption water from the column is decomposed though more than 80% magnesium in the bed is used up

  19. Experimental Grey Box Model Identification of an Active Gas Bearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theisen, Lukas Roy Svane; Pierart Vásquez, Fabián Gonzalo; Niemann, Hans Henrik;

    2014-01-01

    Gas bearings have inherent dynamics that gives rise to low damping and potential instability at certain rotational speeds. Required damping and stabilization properties can be achieved by active ow control if bearing parameters are known. This paper deals with identifacation of parameters in a...... dynamic model of an active gas bearing and subsequent control loop design. A grey box model is determined based on experiments where piezo actuated valves are used to perturb the journal and hence excite the rotor-bearing system. Such modelling from actuator to output is shown to effciently support...... controller design, in contrast to impact models that focus on resonance dynamics. The identified model is able to accurately reproduce the lateral dynamics of the rotor-bearing system in a desired operating range, in this case around the first two natural frequencies. The identified models are validated and...

  20. Word Boxes Help Children with Learning Disabilities Identify and Spell Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Laurice M.

    1999-01-01

    Describes Marie Clay's word boxes that help children attend to phonological and orthographic features of words, developing phonemic awareness and improving word recognition and spelling. Describes a study showing that the use of word boxes with several elementary school students with learning disabilities was effective for improving and…

  1. Design of a shaking table test box for a subway station structure in soft soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Linde; JI Qianqian; ZHENG Yonglai; YANG Chao; ZHANG Dongliang

    2007-01-01

    A reasonable choice of structure of a model box is significant for a shaking table test to be successful in geo- technical engineering. A model box has been designed for the shaking table test of a subway station structure in the soft soil of Shanghai in the paper. The reasonable geometric similarity scale of the subway station structure has been determined by a 3-D dynamic analysis under the action of lateral equiva- lent static loading. The shape, size and structure of the model box are chosen by considering all the involved factors comprehensively. The shape of the box is similar to that of a typical station structure, and the ratio between the plane dimension of the model ground and that of the model struc- ture is big enough to reduce the influence of boundary condi- tion effectively. The structure is strong enough to avoid being demolished by shaking during a test. The contact conditions between the model soil and box are clear to help the data gained from the test well fit that from numerical analysis. The total weight of the model soil and box is less than the bearing capacity of the shaking table apparatus and there is no reso- nance between the model soil and box. The results show that the model box can be used to simulate the dynamic response of a subway station structure very well, so it provides a firm foundation for the success of the shaking table test of a subway station structure.

  2. Specific Heat of Helium in 2 μm3 Boxes, Coupled or Uncoupled?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on recent measurements of the specific heat of helium confined in pill-boxes 2 μm across and 2 μm deep made lithographically on a silicon wafer. The experimental cells distribute liquid from a bulk reservoir to ∼ 108 boxes by an array of very shallow fill-channels (0.019 μm and 0.010 μm) which represent a negligible volume compared to that of the boxes. Since the channels are so shallow, the helium in them becomes superfluid at a much lower temperature than the liquid in the boxes. Therefore, during the course of the heat capacity measurements, the liquid in the channels in always normal, and the cell would be expected to behave as a system of uncoupled boxes. We compare these measurements with one previously made of a cell where the confinement was to 1 μm boxes with an equivalent fill arrangement. While the shift in the position of the specific heat maximum relative to the 1 μm cell is what one would expect on the basis of finite-size scaling, there are discrepancies in the specific heat amplitude between the 2 μm cell utilizing different depth fill-channels, and with the 1 μm cell. It is possible that the channels, even though normal and of negligible volume, provide a weak coupling between the boxes leading to a collective rather than single-box behavior

  3. Smocks and Jocks outside the Box: The Paradigmatic Evolution of Sport and Exercise Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vealey, Robin S.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this article is to describe the historical development of sport and exercise psychology, with a particular emphasis on the construction and evolution of the "box" through history. The box represents the dominant paradigm that serves as the model for research and application as it evolves through successive historical eras (Kuhn,…

  4. MADS-box genes in maize: Frequent targets of selection during domestication

    Science.gov (United States)

    MADS-box genes encode transcription factors that are key regulators of plant inflorescence and flower development. We examined DNA sequence variation in 32 maize MADS-box genes and 32 random loci from the maize genome and investigated their involvement in maize domestication and improvement. Using n...

  5. Development with age of nest box use and gregarious nesting in laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Anja Brinch

    2010-01-01

    position (left + corner, middle, and right). Nesting behaviour was video recorded for 5 days in each of five distinct periods: age 20, 26, 32, 38, and 44 weeks. The total number of visits and the number of gregarious visits were higher in the left nest box than in the other two nest boxes at all ages and...

  6. Estimation of Radiation Limit from a Huygens' Box under Non-Free-Space Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franek, Ondrej; Sørensen, Morten; Bonev, Ivan Bonev; Ebert, Hans; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    The recently studied Huygens' box method has difficulties when radiation of an electronic module is to be determined under non-free-space conditions, i.e. with an enclosure. We propose an estimate on radiation limit under such conditions based only on the Huygens' box data from free...

  7. Teacher's Guide to Animal Camouflage: The MATCH Box Project; Prototype Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standring, Gillian; Bernath, Robert

    The Materials and Activities for Teachers and Children (MATCH Box) project was developed in 1965 to provide for the relatively intensive treatment of a subject over a short period through materials geared to the elementary school level. Each MATCH Box contains materials, equipment, and activities that work together to foster the teaching/learning…

  8. The effect of box shape on the dynamic properties of proteins simulated under periodic boundary conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassenaar, T.A.; Mark, A.E.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of the box shape on the dynamic behavior of proteins simulated under periodic boundary conditions is evaluated. In particular, the influence of simulation boxes defined by the near-densest lattice packing (NDLP) in conjunction with rotational constraints is compared to that of standard bo

  9. 77 FR 39547 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BOX Options Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ...\\ \\5\\ See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 66871 (April 27, 2012) 77 FR 26323 (May 3, 2012) (File 10... Effectiveness of Proposed Rule To Amend the BOX Options Exchange LLC Limited Liability Company Agreement and the BOX Holdings Group LLC Limited Liability Company Agreement June 27, 2012. Pursuant to Section...

  10. Optical and near-infrared observations of the GRB 970616 error box

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorosabel, J.; Castro-Tirado, A.J.; Pedersen, Henrik;

    1999-01-01

    We report on near-infrared and optical observations of the GRB 970616 error box and of the X-ray sources discovered by ASCA and ROSAT in the region. No optical transient was found either within the IPN band or in the X-ray error boxes, similarly to other bursts, and we suggest that either...

  11. 49 CFR 178.513 - Standards for boxes of natural wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for boxes of natural wood. 178.513... natural wood. (a) The following are the identification codes for boxes of natural wood: (1) 4C1 for an... natural wood are as follows: (1) The wood used must be well-seasoned, commercially dry and free...

  12. Post-training vasopressin injections may facilitate or delay shuttle-box avoidance extinction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagan, J.J.; Bohus, B.; Wied, D. de

    1982-01-01

    After training to avoid footshock in a two-way shuttle box rats were injected with lysine vasopressin (LVP) and returned to the shuttle box 24 hr later for 10 extinction trials. Experiment 1 shows that when injected 30 min after training subsequent extinction responding varied as an inverted “U”-sha

  13. 77 FR 29718 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BOX Options Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... the order. Additionally, the Exchange is making a voluntary decision to make this data available...\\ The automated electronic trading system that is currently operated by BOX Group as a facility of... automated electronic trading system that is currently operated by BOX Group as a facility of NASDAQ OMX...

  14. Within the Box: Cross-Cultural Art Therapy with Survivors of the Rwanda Genocide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the creative making of boxes as a cross-cultural art therapy intervention in Kigali, Rwanda, with survivors of the 1994 Rwandan genocide. The box as an art form is particularly applicable with young adult survivors, given the nature of their prodigious trauma and the possibility of posttraumatic stress disorder, as well as…

  15. Characterisation of a New Joining Structure for Application to Shielding Boxes Made of Conductive Plastics

    OpenAIRE

    Catrysse, Johan; Vanhee, Filip; Pissoort, Davy; Dewitte, Rik; Hellert, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    When using shielding boxes made of conductive plastics, the main problem is how to contact both parts of the box in a conductive way. A new low-cost joining structure has been developed and characterised. Both the joining structure as the characterisation method and procedure are discussed in this paper.

  16. Stepwise bending of DNA by a single TATA box binding protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolic-Nørrelykke, Simon F; Rasmussen, Mette B; Pavone, Francesco S; Berg-Sørensen, Kirstine; Oddershede, Lene B.

    2006-01-01

    The TATA-box binding protein (TBP) is required by all three eucaryotic RNA polymerases for the initiation of transcription from most promoters. TBP recognizes, binds to, and bends promoter sequences called "TATA-boxes" in the DNA. We present results from the study of individual Saccharomyces cere...

  17. 78 FR 41174 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BOX Options Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... Back Office Trade Management Software (``TMS'') Fee under Section V.B. The Exchange proposes to rename... Management Software (``TMS'')'' from the Fee Schedule. The TMS Software is optional software to which BOX... Section V.B. and offer TMS Software to all BOX Participants at no cost. The Exchange believes...

  18. Arrival of the cold box for the cryogenic refrigeration plant and installation in building SHL5.

    CERN Multimedia

    Goran Perinic

    2002-01-01

    The pictures show the arrival of the cold box and the installation of both the cold box and the valve panel in building SHL5. The installation was achieved by lowering the components through an opening in the roof which had been specially forseen for this operation.

  19. The F-box protein MAX2 contributes to resistance to bacterial phytopathogens in Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    PiisilÀ, Maria; Keceli, Mehmet A; Brader, GÌnter; Jakobson, Liina; Jõesaar, Indrek; Sipari, Nina; Kollist, Hannes; Palva, E. T.; Kariola, Tarja

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background The Arabidopsis thaliana F-box protein MORE AXILLARY GROWTH2 (MAX2) has previously been characterized for its role in plant development. MAX2 appears essential for the perception of the newly characterized phytohormone strigolactone, a negative regulator of polar auxin transport in Arabidopsis. Results A reverse genetic screen for F-box protein ...

  20. Norm scores of the box and block test for children ages 3-10 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongbloed-Pereboom, M.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.; Steenbergen, B.

    2013-01-01

    This study provides new norm scores for the Box and Block Test for gross manual dexterity in children ages 3-10 yr. Two hundred fifteen Dutch children performed the Box and Block Test separately with each hand. We found an age effect for the scores; older children obtained higher scores than younger

  1. Norm Scores of the Box and Block Test for Children Ages 3-10 Years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongbloed-Pereboom, M.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.; Steenbergen, B.

    2013-01-01

    This study provides new norm scores for the Box and Block Test for gross manual dexterity in children ages 3-10 yr. Two hundred fifteen Dutch children performed the Box and Block Test separately with each hand. We found an age effect for the scores; older children obtained higher scores than younger

  2. Therapeutic Intervention in a Case of Ataxic Dysarthria Associated with a History of Amateur Boxing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMicken, Betty L.; Ostergren, Jennifer A.; Vento-Wilson, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    The goals of this study were to (a) describe the presenting features of ataxic dysarthria present in a participant with a long history of amateur boxing, (b) describe a novel application of behavioral principles in the treatment of this participant, and (c) discuss implications in the treatment of ataxic dysarthria secondary to boxing. The…

  3. Exploring the "Black Box" of Programming: Applying Systematic Implementation Evaluation to a Structured Camp Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainieri, Tracy L.; Anderson, Denise M.

    2015-01-01

    Camp scholars have designed structured curricula to engender specific outcomes and to break down the "black box" of programming. Implementation evaluation explores how well a program operates when delivered, further breaking down the black box. The purpose of this study was to explore the implementation of a new structured camp…

  4. Sex Differences in a Human Analogue of the Radial Arm Maze: The ''17-Box Maze Test''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Q.; Abrahams, S.; Jussab, F.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated sex differences in spatial memory using a human analogue of the Radial Arm Maze: a revision on the Nine Box Maze originally developed by Abrahams, Pickering, Polkey, and Morris (1997) called the 17-Box Maze Test herein. The task encourages allocentric spatial processing, dissociates object from spatial memory, and…

  5. Analysis of Data on Xanthan Fermentation in Stationary Phase Using Black Box and Metabolic Network Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马红武; 赵学明; 唐寅杰

    1999-01-01

    The xanthan fermentation data in the stationary phase was analyzed using the black box and the metabolic network models. The data consistency ls checked through the elemental balance in the black box model. In the metabolic network model, the metabolic flux distribution in the cell is calculated using the metabolic flux analysis method, then the maintenance coefficients is calculated.

  6. Box graphs and resolutions II: From Coulomb phases to fiber faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Andreas P.; Schäfer-Nameki, Sakura

    2016-04-01

    Box graphs, or equivalently Coulomb phases of three-dimensional N = 2 supersymmetric gauge theories with matter, give a succinct, comprehensive and elegant characterization of crepant resolutions of singular elliptically fibered varieties. Furthermore, the box graphs predict that the phases are organized in terms of a network of flop transitions. The geometric construction of the resolutions associated to the phases is, however, a difficult problem. Here, we identify a correspondence between box graphs for the gauge algebras su (2 k + 1) with resolutions obtained using toric tops and generalizations thereof. Moreover, flop transitions between different such resolutions agree with those predicted by the box graphs. Our results thereby provide explicit realizations of the box graph resolutions.

  7. ESF SOUTH PORTAL BOX-CUT/HIGHWALL STABILITY ANALYSIS (SCPB:N/A)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose and objective of this analysis is to design a Box-Cut at the ESF South Portal to accommodate the Tunnel Boring Machine's (TBM) exit at the conclusion of the ESF Main Loop construction. The stability of the Highwall and the sidewalls at the Box-Cut are assessed using analytical methods by numerical modeling techniques. A ground reinforcement system for the South Ramp Box-Cut slopes will be recommended. This report summarizes the results of the analyses and provides the details of the recommended ground reinforcement system for the Box-Cut slopes at the South Portal. The reinforcement design details are then incorporated into design output documents for implementation in the field. Method of excavation for the Box-Cut is also discussed and a recommendation is provided in this analysis

  8. Box Graphs and Resolutions II: From Coulomb Phases to Fiber Faces

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, Andreas P

    2015-01-01

    Box graphs, or equivalently Coulomb phases of three-dimensional N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories with matter, give a succinct, comprehensive and elegant characterization of crepant resolutions of singular elliptically fibered varieties. Furthermore, the box graphs predict that the phases are organized in terms of a network of flop transitions. The geometric construction of the resolutions associated to the phases is, however, a difficult problem. Here, we identify a correspondence between box graphs for the gauge algebras su(2k+1) with resolutions obtained using toric tops and generalizations thereof. Moreover, flop transitions between different such resolutions agree with those predicted by the box graphs. Our results thereby provide explicit realizations of the box graph resolutions.

  9. Thermohaline circulation stability: a box model study - Part I: uncoupled model

    CERN Document Server

    Lucarini, V; Lucarini, Valerio; Stone, Peter H.

    2004-01-01

    A thorough analysis of the stability of the uncoupled Rooth interhemispheric 3-box model of thermohaline circulation (THC) is presented. The model consists of a northern high latitudes box, a tropical box, and a southern high latitudes box, which respectively correspond to the northern, tropical and southern Atlantic ocean. We adopt restoring boundary conditions for the temperature variables and flux boundary conditions for the salinity variables. We study how the strength of THC changes when the system undergoes forcings that are analogous to those of global warming conditions by applying to the equilibrium state perturbations to the moisture and heat fluxes into the three boxes. In each class of experiments, we determine, using suitably de- fined metrics, the boundary dividing the set of forcing scenarios that lead the system to equilibria characterized by a THC pattern similar to the present one, from those that drive the system to equilibria with a reversed THC. Fast increases in the moisture flux into th...

  10. Heating Processes Of The Axle-Boxes Of Rolling-Stock On Railway Track Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olegas Lunys

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the heating process of the axle-boxes ofrolling stock when the train is in motion and discusses the forcesacting on the wheel-set when rolling stock moves along the trackcurves. The paper analyses scientific publications relevant tothe forces acting on the wheel-set of rolling stock and focuseson the axle-box heating process. The article also discusses theresults of theoretical studies on wheel-set forces that affect theheat exchange process of axle-boxes for a railway vehicle. Theresearch has determined a change in heating temperatures ofdifferent axle-boxes of rolling stock and reasons for their variationsand tendencies. The paper has estimated an effect of thetrain running along the track curves on the heating intensity ofthe axle-box. Finally, valid conclusions and recommendationshave been provided.

  11. [The design of heat dissipation of the field low temperature box for storage and transportation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jiancang; Suin, Jianjun; Wu, Jian

    2013-02-01

    Because of the compact structure of the field low temperature box for storage and transportation, which is due to the same small space where the compressor, the condenser, the control circuit, the battery and the power supply device are all placed in, the design for heat dissipation and ventilation is of critical importance for the stability and reliability of the box. Several design schemes of the heat dissipation design of the box were simulated using the FLOEFD hot fluid analysis software in this study. Different distributions of the temperature field in every design scheme were constructed intimately in the present study. It is well concluded that according to the result of the simulation analysis, the optimal heat dissipation design is decent for the field low temperature box for storage and transportation, and the box can operate smoothly for a long time using the results of the design. PMID:23488142

  12. The radiation pattern of a monopole antenna attached to a conducting box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Andrew W. C.; Long, Stuart A.; Wilton, Donald R.

    1990-01-01

    A system investigation was undertaken to determine the radiation patterns of a monopole antenna mounted on a cubical conducting box over a ground plane. The effects of the location of the monopole and the electrical size of the box were compared with similar patterns measured over a flat ground plane and with numerically predicted values obtained from a method-of-moments patch code. It was concluded that the location at which a monopole antenna is mounted on a conducting box and the electrical size of the box clearly affect the overall radiation pattern of a monopole antenna. In general, mounting the antenna away from the center of the box will increase the depth of the nulls. In particular, planes will also increase the maximum E(phi) component of the field to the extent that it can become comparable to E(theta).

  13. Design and test of box girder for a large wind turbine blade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Hørlyk; Tesauro, Angelo; Bitsche, Robert;

    This report is covering the structural design and full scale test of a box girder as a part of the project “Demonstration of new blade design using manufacturing process simulations” supported by the EUDP program. A box girder with a predetermined outer geometry was designed using new inventions......, which create an inner structure in the box girder. With a combination of advanced FEM analysis and the inventions it was possible to reduce the material thickness of the cap by up to 40%. The new design of the box girder was manufactured at SSP Technology A/S, where it was demonstrated that the...... manufacturing process could include the new inventions. Subsequently the box girder was transported to the blade test facility at DTU Wind Energy. A series of test was performed with the blade to investigate the behaviour during loading, and finally the girder was loaded to ultimate failure. The report includes...

  14. Ectromelia virus encodes a family of Ankyrin/F-box proteins that regulate NFκB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burles, Kristin, E-mail: burles@ualberta.ca; Buuren, Nicholas van; Barry, Michele

    2014-11-15

    A notable feature of poxviruses is their ability to inhibit the antiviral response, including the nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) pathway. NFκB is a transcription factor that is sequestered in the cytoplasm until cell stimulation, and relies on the SCF (Skp1, culllin-1, F-box) ubiquitin ligase to target its inhibitor, IκBα, for degradation. IκBα is recruited to the SCF by the F-box domain-containing protein βTrCP. Here, we show that ectromelia virus, the causative agent of mousepox, encodes four F-box-containing proteins, EVM002, EVM005, EVM154, and EVM165, all of which contain Ankyrin (Ank) domains. The Ank/F-box proteins inhibit NFκB nuclear translocation, and this inhibition is dependent on the F-box domain. We also demonstrate that EVM002, EVM005, EVM154, and EVM165 prevent IκBα degradation, suggesting that they target the SCF. This study identifies a new mechanism by which ectromelia virus inhibits NFκB. - Highlights: • Ectromelia virus encodes four Ank/F-box proteins, EVM002, EVM005, EVM154 and EVM165. • The Ank/F-box proteins inhibit NFκB nuclear translocation, dependent on the F-box. • The Ank/F-box proteins prevent IκBα degradation, suggesting they target the SCF. • Deletion of a single Ank/F-box gene from ECTV does not prevent viral NFκB inhibition. • This study identifies a new mechanism by which ectromelia virus inhibits NFκB.

  15. Expansion, diversification, and expression of T-box family genes in Porifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstien, Kay; Rivera, Ajna; Windsor, Pam; Ding, Siyu; Leys, Sally P; Hill, Malcolm; Hill, April

    2010-12-01

    Sponges are among the earliest diverging lineage within the metazoan phyla. Although their adult morphology is distinctive, at several stages of development, they possess characteristics found in more complex animals. The T-box family of transcription factors is an evolutionarily ancient gene family known to be involved in the development of structures derived from all germ layers in the bilaterian animals. There is an incomplete understanding of the role that T-box transcription factors play in normal sponge development or whether developmental pathways using the T-box family share similarities between parazoan and eumetazoan animals. To address these questions, we present data that identify several important T-box genes in marine and freshwater sponges, place these genes in a phylogenetic context, and reveal patterns in how these genes are expressed in developing sponges. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that sponges have members of at least two of the five T-box subfamilies (Brachyury and Tbx2/3/4/5) and that the T-box genes expanded and diverged in the poriferan lineage. Our analysis of signature residues in the sponge T-box genes calls into question whether "true" Brachyury genes are found in the Porifera. Expression for a subset of the T-box genes was elucidated in larvae from the marine demosponge, Halichondria bowerbanki. Our results show that sponges regulate the timing and specificity of gene expression for T-box orthologs across larval developmental stages. In situ hybridization reveals distinct, yet sometimes overlapping expression of particular T-box genes in free-swimming larvae. Our results provide a comparative framework from which we can gain insights into the evolution of developmentally important pathways. PMID:21082201

  16. Ectromelia virus encodes a family of Ankyrin/F-box proteins that regulate NFκB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A notable feature of poxviruses is their ability to inhibit the antiviral response, including the nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) pathway. NFκB is a transcription factor that is sequestered in the cytoplasm until cell stimulation, and relies on the SCF (Skp1, culllin-1, F-box) ubiquitin ligase to target its inhibitor, IκBα, for degradation. IκBα is recruited to the SCF by the F-box domain-containing protein βTrCP. Here, we show that ectromelia virus, the causative agent of mousepox, encodes four F-box-containing proteins, EVM002, EVM005, EVM154, and EVM165, all of which contain Ankyrin (Ank) domains. The Ank/F-box proteins inhibit NFκB nuclear translocation, and this inhibition is dependent on the F-box domain. We also demonstrate that EVM002, EVM005, EVM154, and EVM165 prevent IκBα degradation, suggesting that they target the SCF. This study identifies a new mechanism by which ectromelia virus inhibits NFκB. - Highlights: • Ectromelia virus encodes four Ank/F-box proteins, EVM002, EVM005, EVM154 and EVM165. • The Ank/F-box proteins inhibit NFκB nuclear translocation, dependent on the F-box. • The Ank/F-box proteins prevent IκBα degradation, suggesting they target the SCF. • Deletion of a single Ank/F-box gene from ECTV does not prevent viral NFκB inhibition. • This study identifies a new mechanism by which ectromelia virus inhibits NFκB

  17. View of the inner part of the VO prototype box. The WLS fibers wrapped up in teflon strips are coupled to connectors which ensure the passage of the light outside the box and its transfer in optical fibers.

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    View of the inner part of the VO prototype box. The WLS fibers wrapped up in teflon strips are coupled to connectors which ensure the passage of the light outside the box and its transfer in optical fibers.

  18. Box Boxing Boxers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Meijden, Peter Alexander

    2014-01-01

    I anledning af lanceringen af Lomholt Mail Art Archive online skitserer artiklen forholdet mellem mail art og udstillingen/arkivet som formidlingsform. Udgangspunkt er spørgsmålet, hvorfor så mange mail art-kunstnere på trods af deres anti-institutionalisme alligevel valgte at organisere udstilli...

  19. A role of transcriptional activators as antirepressors for the autoinhibitory activity of TATA box binding of transcription factor IID

    OpenAIRE

    Kotani, Tomohiro; Banno, Ken-ichi; Ikura, Mitsuhiko; Hinnebusch, Alan G.; Nakatani, Yoshihiro; Kawaichi, Masashi; Kokubo, Tetsuro

    2000-01-01

    The TATA box-binding activity of transcription factor IID (TFIID) is autoinhibited by the N-terminal domain of the Drosophila TATA box-binding protein- (TBP) associated factor 230/yeast TBP-associated factor 145 subunit, which binds to the TATA box-binding domain of TBP by mimicking the TATA box structure. Here, we propose a mechanism of transcriptional activation that involves antirepression of this autoinhibitory activity by transcriptional activators. Like the autoinhibitory domain of TFII...

  20. Seismic response of skewed RC box-girder bridges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmed Abdel-Mohti; Gokhan Pekcan

    2008-01-01

    It is critical to ensure the functionality of highway bridges after earthquakes to provide access to important facilities.Since the 1971 San Fernando earthquake,there has been a better understanding of the seismic performance of bridges.Nonetheless,there are no detailed guidelines addressing the performance of skewed highway bridges.Several parameters affect the response of skewed highway bridges under both service and seismic loads which makes their behavior complex.Therefore,there is a need for more research to study the effect of skew angle and other related factors on the performance of highway bridges.This paper examines the seismic performance of a three-span continuous concrete box girder bridge with skew angles from 0 to 60 degrees,analytically.Finite element (FE) and simplified beam-stick (BS) models of the bridge were developed using SAP2000.Different types of analysis were considered on both models such as:nonlinear static pushover,and linear and nonlinear time history analyses.A comparison was conducted between FE and BS,different skew angles,abutment support conditions,and time history and pushover analysis.It is shown that the BS model has the capability to capture the coupling due to skew and the significant modes for moderate skew angles.Boundary conditions and pushover load profile are determined to have a major effect on pushover analysis.Pushover analysis may be used to predict the maximum deformation and hinge formation adequately.

  1. Hazard Analysis for Building 34 Vacuum Glove Box Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meginnis, Ian

    2014-01-01

    One of the characteristics of an effective safety program is the recognition and control of hazards before mishaps or failures occur. Conducting potentially hazardous tests necessitates a thorough hazard analysis in order to prevent injury to personnel, and to prevent damage to facilities and equipment. The primary purpose of this hazard analysis is to define and address the potential hazards and controls associated with the Building 34 Vacuum Glove Box Assembly, and to provide the applicable team of personnel with the documented results. It is imperative that each member of the team be familiar with the hazards and controls associated with his/her particular tasks, assignments and activities while interfacing with facility test systems, equipment and hardware. In fulfillment of the stated purposes, the goal of this hazard analysis is to identify all hazards that have the potential to harm personnel, damage the facility or its test systems or equipment, test articles, Government or personal property, or the environment. This analysis may also assess the significance and risk, when applicable, of lost test objectives when substantial monetary value is involved. The hazards, causes, controls, verifications, and risk assessment codes have been documented on the hazard analysis work sheets in Appendix A of this document. The preparation and development of this report is in accordance with JPR 1700.1, "JSC Safety and Health Handbook" and JSC 17773 Rev D "Instructions for Preparation of Hazard Analysis for JSC Ground Operations".

  2. A CERN fireman becomes a world boxing champion

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    From 19 to 28 October, Sydney (Australia) welcomed thousands of firemen and women from all over the world for the 12th World Firefighters Games. Launched in 1990 in Auckland (New Zealand), this biennial celebration is – according to its organizers – “intended to be an inclusive event that celebrates the camaraderie, heroism, health, fitness and spirit of the women and men who work in one of the world’s most respected professions”.   This year, Craig Stevenson, who is member of the CERN Fire Brigade, took part in the competition. He went as far as winning the gold medal in the boxing championship, in the “under 75 kg” category. “This is my last year at CERN, and I wanted to do something special,” Craig explains. “I work with a lot of inspirational people, who have really made me want to achieve more.”  In order to compete in the “under 75 kg” category, Crai...

  3. The Virtual Solar Observatory: Still a Small Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurman, J. B.; Bogart, R. S.; Davey, A. R.; Dimitoglou, G.; Hill, F.; Hourcle, J. A.; Martens, P. C.; Surez-Sola, I.; Tian, K. Q.; Wampler, S.

    2005-01-01

    Two and a half years after a design study began, and a year and a half after development commenced, version 1.0 of the Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO) was released at the 2004 Fall AGU meeting. Although internal elements of the VSO have changed, the basic design has remained the same, reflecting the team's belief in the importance of a simple, robust mechanism for registering data provider holdings, initiating queries at the appropriate provider sites, aggregating the responses, allowing the user to iterate before making a final selection, and enabling the delivery of data directly from the providers. In order to make the VSO transparent, lightweight, and portable, the developers employed XML for the registry, SOAP for communication between a VSO instance and data services, and HTML for the graphic user interface (GUI's). We discuss the internal data model, the API, and user responses to various trial GUI's as typical design issues for any virtual observatory. We also discuss the role of the "small box" of data search, identification, and delivery services provided by the VSO in the larger, Sun-Solar System Connection virtual observatory (VxO) scheme.

  4. The Planck-LFI Radiometer Electronics Box Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radiometer Electronics Box Assembly (REBA) is the control and data processing on board computer of the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) of the Planck mission (ESA). The REBA was designed and built incorporating state of the art processors, communication interfaces and real time operating system software in order to meet the scientific performance of the LFI. We present a technical summary of the REBA, including a physical, functional, electrical, mechanical and thermal description. Aspects of the design and development, the assembly, the integration and the verification of the equipment are provided. A brief description of the LFI on board software is given including the Low-Level Software and the main functionalities and architecture of the Application Software. The compressor module, which has been developed as an independent product, later integrated in the application, is also described in this paper. Two identical engineering models EM and AVM, the engineering qualification model EQM, the flight model FM and flight spare have been manufactured and tested. Low-level and Application software have been developed. Verification activities demonstrated that the REBA hardware and software fulfil all the specifications and perform as required for flight operation.

  5. The Planck-LFI Radiometer Electronics Box Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herreros, J M; Gomez, M F; Rebolo, R; Chulani, H; Rubino-Martin, J A; Hildebrandt, S R [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), 38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Bersanelli, M; Franceschet, C [Universita di Milano, Dipartamento di Fisica, Via G. Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Butler, R C [INAF-IASF Bologna, Via P. Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Miccolis, M [Thales Alenia Space Italia S.p.A., IUEL - Scientific Instruments, S.S. Padana Superiore 290, 20090 Vimodrone (Italy); Pena, A; Pereira, M; Torrero, F; Lopez, M; Alcala, C, E-mail: rrl@iac.e [EADS Astrium CRISA, C/Torres Quevedo, 9, 28760 Tres Cantos (Spain)

    2009-12-15

    The Radiometer Electronics Box Assembly (REBA) is the control and data processing on board computer of the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) of the Planck mission (ESA). The REBA was designed and built incorporating state of the art processors, communication interfaces and real time operating system software in order to meet the scientific performance of the LFI. We present a technical summary of the REBA, including a physical, functional, electrical, mechanical and thermal description. Aspects of the design and development, the assembly, the integration and the verification of the equipment are provided. A brief description of the LFI on board software is given including the Low-Level Software and the main functionalities and architecture of the Application Software. The compressor module, which has been developed as an independent product, later integrated in the application, is also described in this paper. Two identical engineering models EM and AVM, the engineering qualification model EQM, the flight model FM and flight spare have been manufactured and tested. Low-level and Application software have been developed. Verification activities demonstrated that the REBA hardware and software fulfil all the specifications and perform as required for flight operation.

  6. A box model of the Arctic natural variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Hsien-Wang

    2013-04-01

    We consider a box model of the Arctic system to examine its natural variability pertaining to the decadal Arctic Oscillation (AO) and the multidecadal Low-Frequency Oscillation (LFO). We distinguish the hierarchical order of the winter over the summer open-areas with only the former perturbing the sea-level pressure to effect coupled balances. From such balances, we discern two feedback loops on the winter open-area: a positive ice-flux feedback that elevates its overall variance and a negative buoyancy feedback that suppresses its low-frequency variance to render a decadal AO peak when subjected to white atmospheric noise. This negative buoyancy feedback may also reproduce observed phasing among LFO signals forced by the AMV (Atlantic Multidecadal Variability), thus resolving some outstanding questions. For the summer open-area, its variance is induced mainly by the winter forcings and insensitive to the base state. Its decadal signal merely reflects the preconditioning winter open-area, but its LFO variance is induced additionally and in comparable measure by the winter SAT (surface air temperature) through the latter's effect on the melt duration and the first-year ice thickness. As such, the summer open-area signal is dominantly multidecadal, which moreover is several times its winter counterpart, consistent with the observed disparity. Although the model is extremely crude, its explicit solution allows quantitative comparison with observations and the generally positive outcome suggests that the model has isolated the essential physics of the Arctic natural variability of our concern.

  7. Shearing Box Simulations of the MRI in a Collisionless Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe local shearing box simulations of turbulence driven by the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in a collisionless plasma. Collisionless effects may be important in radiatively inefficient accretion flows, such as near the black hole in the Galactic Center. The MHD version of ZEUS is modified to evolve an anisotropic pressure tensor. A fluid closure approximation is used to calculate heat conduction along magnetic field lines. The anisotropic pressure tensor provides a qualitatively new mechanism for transporting angular momentum in accretion flows (in addition to the Maxwell and Reynolds stresses). We estimate limits on the pressure anisotropy due to pitch angle scattering by kinetic instabilities. Such instabilities provide an effective ''collision'' rate in a collisionless plasma and lead to more MHD-like dynamics. We find that the MRI leads to efficient growth of the magnetic field in a collisionless plasma, with saturation amplitudes comparable to those in MHD. In the saturated state, the anisotropic stress is comparable to the Maxwell stress, implying that the rate of angular momentum transport may be moderately enhanced in a collisionless plasma

  8. Shearing Box Simulations of the MRI in a Collisionless Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Prateek; Hammett, Gregory, W.; Quataert, Eliot; Stone, James, M.

    2005-08-31

    We describe local shearing box simulations of turbulence driven by the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in a collisionless plasma. Collisionless effects may be important in radiatively inefficient accretion flows, such as near the black hole in the Galactic Center. The MHD version of ZEUS is modified to evolve an anisotropic pressure tensor. A fluid closure approximation is used to calculate heat conduction along magnetic field lines. The anisotropic pressure tensor provides a qualitatively new mechanism for transporting angular momentum in accretion flows (in addition to the Maxwell and Reynolds stresses). We estimate limits on the pressure anisotropy due to pitch angle scattering by kinetic instabilities. Such instabilities provide an effective ''collision'' rate in a collisionless plasma and lead to more MHD-like dynamics. We find that the MRI leads to efficient growth of the magnetic field in a collisionless plasma, with saturation amplitudes comparable to those in MHD. In the saturated state, the anisotropic stress is comparable to the Maxwell stress, implying that the rate of angular momentum transport may be moderately enhanced in a collisionless plasma.

  9. Corrosion Evaluation of Tank 40 Leak Detection Box

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickalonis, J.I.

    1999-07-29

    'Leak detection from the transfer lines in the tank farm has been a concern for many years because of the need to minimize exposure of personnel and contamination of the environment. The leak detection box (LDB) is one line of defense, which must be maintained to meet this objective. The evaluation of a failed LDB was one item from an action plan aimed at minimizing the degradation of LDBs. The Tank 40 LDB, which failed in service, was dug up and shipped to SRTC for evaluation. During a video inspection while in service, this LDB was found to have black tubercles on the interior, which suggested possible microbial involvement. The failure point, however, was believed to have occurred in the drain line from the transfer line jacket. Visual, metallurgical, and biological analyses were performed on the LDB. The analysis results showed that there was not any adverse microbiological growth or significant localized corrosion. The corrosion of the LDB was caused by exposure to aqueous environments and was typical of carbon steel pipes in soil environments.'

  10. High-mobility group box-1 in sterile inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsung, A; Tohme, S; Billiar, T R

    2014-11-01

    High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) was originally defined as a ubiquitous nuclear protein, but it was later determined that the protein has different roles both inside and outside of cells. Nuclear HMGB1 regulates chromatin structure and gene transcription, whereas cytosolic HMGB1 is involved in inflammasome activation and autophagy. Extracellular HMGB1 has drawn attention because it can bind to related cell signalling transduction receptors, such as the receptor for advanced glycation end products, Toll-like receptor (TLR)2, TLR4 and TLR9. It also participates in the development and progression of a variety of diseases. HMGB1 is actively secreted by stimulation of the innate immune system, and it is passively released by ischaemia or cell injury. This review focuses on the important role of HMGB1 in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic sterile inflammatory conditions. Strategies that target HMGB1 have been shown to significantly decrease inflammation in several disease models of sterile inflammation, and this may represent a promising clinical approach for treatment of certain conditions associated with sterile inflammation. PMID:24935761

  11. Thermal design and tests for the CMS HCAL readout box

    CERN Document Server

    Baumbaugh, B; Booke, M; Karmgard, D; Los, S; Lu, Q; Marchant, J; Reidy, J; Ronzhin, A; Ruchti, R C; Wiand, D

    2000-01-01

    A method is necessary to cool the electronics contained in the readout boxes for the CMS HCAL. The electronics to pre-amplify and digitize signals from the optical detectors will generate a large amount of heat that must be removed from the CMS HCAL system. To accomplish this a thermal management system has been designed that uses metallic extrusions, liquid coolant, and thermal foam to transfer the heat from the electronics to the exterior cooling system. Because the electronics are difficult to access throughout the life of the experiment, the temperature must be kept low to extend life expectancy. In order to test the concepts before the final design is implemented a thermal test station was built. Several methods to are under study to determine the best method of making the thermal routing from source of the heat to the liquid for heat removal. The test bed for this evaluation and methods to monitor the electronics temperature in situ will be discussed. 3 Refs.

  12. Economic analysis of open space box model utilization in spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Atif F.; Straub, Jeremy

    2015-05-01

    It is a known fact that the amount of data about space that is stored is getting larger on an everyday basis. However, the utilization of Big Data and related tools to perform ETL (Extract, Transform and Load) applications will soon be pervasive in the space sciences. We have entered in a crucial time where using Big Data can be the difference (for terrestrial applications) between organizations underperforming and outperforming their peers. The same is true for NASA and other space agencies, as well as for individual missions and the highly-competitive process of mission data analysis and publication. In most industries, conventional opponents and new candidates alike will influence data-driven approaches to revolutionize and capture the value of Big Data archives. The Open Space Box Model is poised to take the proverbial "giant leap", as it provides autonomic data processing and communications for spacecraft. We can find economic value generated from such use of data processing in our earthly organizations in every sector, such as healthcare, retail. We also can easily find retailers, performing research on Big Data, by utilizing sensors driven embedded data in products within their stores and warehouses to determine how these products are actually used in the real world.

  13. Gray-Box Modeling of a Pneumatic Servo-Valve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Aghamirsalim

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the evaluation as well as the combined analytical andexperimental identification (gray box identification of a servo-valve torque motor as thedirectional valve applied in a pneumatic actuator. Based on analytical modelling, a simplelinear parametric model with transfer function and block diagram is developed. Next, thestatic and dynamic characteristics of the torque motor are obtained from experimentalobservations. The characteristics confirm the desired linear behaviour of the torque motor.Hence, linearized coefficients from a best curve fitting of static characteristics can bederived. Classical methods of identification are applied on the frequency and stepresponses obtained from a set of tests on the torque motor. Obtained tests results based onparsimony principle and model order of analytical investigations are then implemented toderive the best identified transfer function to describe the performance of the servo-valvetorque motor. Design parameters are estimated with the comparison of the experimentaland analytical models. These parameters can be implemented with acceptable accuracy forservo control studies of pneumatic actuators.

  14. Update of human and mouse forkhead box (FOX gene families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Brian C

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The forkhead box (FOX proteins are transcription factors that play complex and important roles in processes from development and organogenesis to regulation of metabolism and the immune system. There are 50 FOX genes in the human genome and 44 in the mouse, divided into 19 subfamilies. All human FOX genes have close mouse orthologues, with one exception: the mouse has a single Foxd4, whereas the human gene has undergone a recent duplication to a total of seven (FOXD4 and FOXD4L1 → FOXD4L6. Evolutionarily ancient family members can be found as far back as the fungi and metazoans. The DNA-binding domain, the forkhead domain, is an example of the winged-helix domain, and is very well conserved across the FOX family and across species, with a few notable exceptions in which divergence has created new functionality. Mutations in FOX genes have been implicated in at least four familial human diseases, and differential expression may play a role in a number of other pathologies -- ranging from metabolic disorders to autoimmunity. Furthermore, FOX genes are differentially expressed in a large number of cancers; their role can be either as an oncogene or tumour suppressor, depending on the family member and cell type. Although some drugs that target FOX gene expression or activity, notably proteasome inhibitors, appear to work well, much more basic research is needed to unlock the complex interplay of upstream and downstream interactions with FOX family transcription factors.

  15. Growth and morphometrics of the box turtle, Terrapene c. carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.; Bunck, C.M.

    1989-01-01

    Growth of box turtles in a bottomland forest in Maryland was studied over a period of years (1944-1981). A bivariate analysis of age related growth showed that between 8 and 13 yr, male turtles grew at an average rate of 6.7% per year in carapace length, whereas females grew at 5.3% per year. Both males and females grew considerably more slowly between 14 and 19 years, males at 2.3% per year and females at 3.4% per year. Growth slowed still more in the twenties. Growth in the six other dimensions that were measured provided additional comparisons. Allometric analysis of the different carapace and plastron dimensions showed that among males length increased proportionally more than either width or height and that width increased more than height. Among females, only the greater increase of length than of width was statistically significant. Fully grown males were larger than females in all dimensions except height. Differences from the normal scutal pattern occurred in 16.8% of fully grown males and 18.4% of the females

  16. Taking into account seismic risk on glove boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Built in 1981, the LEFCA is a Basic Nuclear Facility (BNF) in which experimental plutonium based fuels are produced and characterised in about a hundred Gloves Boxes (GB). Many safety rules are required, especially those concerning seismic risk. In order to prepare the December 2003 safety reconsideration, the following methodology has been proposed so that GB might resist the Safe Shutdown Earthquake. 1) The determination of a safety target: the GB static containment. 2) The realisation of an ''in situ'' assessment: the definition of several classes of GB, vibrating table tests and the modelling of the GB behaviour with seismic solicitations, 3) A strength diagnosis for equipment: filters, connecting tunnels and pipes holding. 4) A proposal for further strengthening modifications if necessary : fixing the frame, interlocking GB and the frame, taking internal or external GB missiles into account. This process has contributed to a reduction in the radiological potential seismic impact for the neighbouring populations. We shall present the implemented methodology and the strengthening works that have been approved by Safety Authorities. Reinforcement modifications will begin in 2004. (Author)

  17. Thinking Inside the Box: Simple Methods to Evaluate Complex Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Michael Menke

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We risk ignoring cheaper and safer medical treatments because they cannot be patented, lack profit potential, require too much patient-contact time, or do not have scientific results. Novel medical treatments may be difficult to evaluate for a variety of reasons such as patient selection bias, the effect of the package of care, or the lack of identifying the active elements of treatment. Whole Systems Research (WSR is an approach designed to assess the performance of complete packages of clinical management. While the WSR method is compelling, there is no standard procedure for WSR, and its implementation may be intimidating. The truth is that WSR methodological tools are neither new nor complicated. There are two sequential steps, or boxes, that guide WSR methodology: establishing system predictability, followed by an audit of system element effectiveness. We describe the implementation of WSR with a particular attention to threats to validity (Shadish, Cook, & Campbell, 2002; Shadish & Heinsman, 1997. DOI: 10.2458/azu_jmmss.v2i1.12365

  18. SOx-NOx-Rox Box trademark demonstration project review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SOx-NOx-Rox Box trademark (SNRB trademark) process is a combined SOx, NOx and particulate (Rox) emission control technology developed by Babcock ampersand Wilcox in which high removal efficiencies for all three pollutants are achieved in a high-temperature baghouse. A 5-MWe equivalent demonstration of the technology cosponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, the Ohio Department of Development/Ohio Coal Development Office and the Electric Power Research Institute has recently been completed at the Ohio Edison R.E. Burger Plant. SNRB incorporates dry sorbent injection for SOx emission control, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for reducing NOx emissions, and a pulse-jet baghouse operating at 450 to 850 degrees F for controlling particulate emissions. The unique, high-temperature baghouse/catalyst configuration provides for integrated particulate capture, SO2 removal, and NOx reduction as well as the potential for reducing emissions of selected air toxics. The simultaneous, multiple emission control performance of SNRB is summarized using operating data generated in over 2,000 hours, of operation at the demonstration site

  19. Mesoscopic Anderson Box: Connecting Weak to Strong Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong E.; Burdin, Sebastien; Baranger, Harold U.; Ullmo, Denis

    2011-03-01

    Both the weakly coupled and strong coupling Anderson impurity problem are characterized by a Fermi-liquid theory with weakly interacting quasiparticles. In an Anderson box, mesoscopic fluctuations of the effective single particle properties will be large. We study how the statistical fluctuations in these two problems are connected. We use random matrix theory and the slave boson mean field approximation (SBMF, at low temperature) to address this question, obtaining the following results. First, for a resonant level model such as results from the SBMF approximation, we find the joint distribution of energy levels with and without the resonant level present. Second, if only energy levels within the Kondo resonance are considered, the distribution of perturbed levels collapse to one universal form for both GOE and GUE for all values of the coupling V. Finally, a purely Fermi liquid method is developed for calculating the perturbed levels within the Kondo resonance. Comparing the levels that result to those of the SBMF, we find remarkable agreement.

  20. Development of bagless transfer system for standard waste boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At several DOE site, substantial volumes of Transuranic (TRU) waste has been handled on a daily basis. Usually, the waste has been transferred from the facilities to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) or to an on site storage facility using the ''bag-out'' technique. This process begins in the most contaminated area by placing the waste in a strong plastic bag, twisting closed the neck of the bag, then taping the closed neck. This reduces the exposed TRU waste and the resulting contamination. However, even though that the contamination is reduced, it remains high enough to prevent direct transfer into the environment. In order to reduce the contamination to acceptable levels, the ''bag-out'' process is repeated until the outside contamination on the plastic bag is acceptable. This procedure has been affective, however, it also generates organic waste in the process. During the design of the Transuranic Waste Facility (TWF) at the Savannah River Site, a conceptual alternative was developed using the Standard Waste Box (SWB)