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Sample records for box interrogation system

  1. Integrated Box Interrogation System (IBIS) Preliminary Design Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DR. Stephen Croft; Mr. David Martancik; Dr. Brian Young; Dr. Patrick MJ Chard; Dr. Robert J Estop; Sheila Melton; Gaetano J. Arnone

    2003-01-13

    Canberra Industries has won the tendered solicitation, INEEL/EST-99-00121 for boxed waste Nondestructive Assay Development and Demonstration. Canberra will provide the Integrated Box Interrogation System (IBIS) which is a suite of assay instrumentation and a data reduction system that addresses the measurement needs for Boxed Wastes identified in the solicitation and facilitates the associated experimental program and demonstration of system capability. The IBIS system will consist of the next generation CWAM system, i.e. CWAM II, which is a Scanning Passive/Active Neutron interrogation system which we will call a Box Segmented Neutron Scanner (BSNS), combined with a physically separate Box Segmented Gamma-ray Scanning (BSGS) system. These systems are based on existing hardware designs but will be tailored to the large sample size and enhanced to allow the program to evaluate the following measurement criteria:Characterization and correction for matrix heterogeneity Characterization of non-uniform radio-nuclide and isotopic compositions Assay of high density matrices (both high-Z and high moderator contents)Correction for radioactive material physical form - such as self shielding or multiplication effects due to large accumulations of radioactive materials.Calibration with a minimal set of reference standards and representative matrices.THis document summarizes the conceptual design parameters of the IBIS and indicates areas key to the success of the project where development is to be centered. The work presented here is a collaborative effort between scientific staff within Canberra and within the NIS-6 group at LANL.

  2. Integrated Box Interrogation System (IBIS) Preliminary Design Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canberra Industries has won the tendered solicitation, INEEL/EST-99-00121 for boxed waste Nondestructive Assay Development and Demonstration. Canberra will provide the Integrated Box Interrogation System (IBIS) which is a suite of assay instrumentation and a data reduction system that addresses the measurement needs for Boxed Wastes identified in the solicitation and facilitates the associated experimental program and demonstration of system capability. The IBIS system will consist of the next generation CWAM system, i.e. CWAM II, which is a Scanning Passive/Active Neutron interrogation system which we will call a Box Segmented Neutron Scanner (BSNS), combined with a physically separate Box Segmented Gamma-ray Scanning (BSGS) system. These systems are based on existing hardware designs but will be tailored to the large sample size and enhanced to allow the program to evaluate the following measurement criteria:Characterization and correction for matrix heterogeneity Characterization of non-uniform radio-nuclide and isotopic compositions Assay of high density matrices (both high-Z and high moderator contents)Correction for radioactive material physical form - such as self shielding or multiplication effects due to large accumulations of radioactive materials.Calibration with a minimal set of reference standards and representative matrices.THis document summarizes the conceptual design parameters of the IBIS and indicates areas key to the success of the project where development is to be centered. The work presented here is a collaborative effort between scientific staff within Canberra and within the NIS-6 group at LANL

  3. Glove box posting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system for posting objects into closed containers, such as glove boxes, is described in which the bag used, preferably made of plastic, does not have to be fitted and sealed by the operator during each posting operation. (U.K.)

  4. Micro-size optical fibre strain interrogation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrad, Nezih; Xiao, Gaozhi; Guo, Honglei

    2008-03-01

    Within several countries, the military is undergoing significant economic pressure to extend the use of its air fleet beyond its established design life. The availability of low weight, small size, reliable and cost-effective technologies to detect and monitor incipient damage and to alert prior to catastrophic failures is critical to sustain operational effectiveness. To enable the implementation of distributed and highly multiplexed optical fiber sensors networks to aerospace platforms, the data acquisition (interrogation) system has to meet small size and low weight requirements. This paper reports on our current development of micro-sized Echelle Diffractive Gratings (EDG) based interrogation system for strain monitoring of serially multiplexed fibre Bragg grating sensors. The operation principle of the interrogator and its suitability for strain measurements is demonstrated. Static load measurements obtained using this system are compared to those acquired using a optical multi-wavelength meter and are found to have strong correlation.

  5. System design considerations for fast-neutron interrogation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonintrusive interrogation techniques that employ fast neutrons are of interest because of their sensitivity to light elements such as carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen. The primary requirement of a fast-neutron inspection system is to determine the value of atomic densities, or their ratios, over a volumetric grid superimposed on the object being interrogated. There are a wide variety of fast-neutron techniques that can provide this information. The differences between the various nuclear systems can be considered in light of the trade-offs relative to the performance requirements for each system's components. Given a set of performance criteria, the operational requirements of the proposed nuclear systems may also differ. For instance, resolution standards will drive scanning times and tomographic requirements, both of which vary for the different approaches. We are modelling a number of the fast-neutron interrogation techniques currently under consideration, to include Fast Neutron Transmission Spectroscopy (FNTS), Pulsed Fast Neutron Analysis (PFNA), and its variant, 14-MeV Associated Particle Imaging (API). The goals of this effort are to determine the component requirements for each technique, identify trade-offs that system performance standards impose upon those component requirements, and assess the relative advantages and disadvantages of the different approaches. In determining the component requirements, we will consider how they are driven by system performance standards, such as image resolution, scanning time, and statistical uncertainty. In considering the trade-offs between system components, we concentrate primarily on those which are common to all approaches, for example: source characteristics versus detector array requirements. We will then use the analysis to propose some figures-of-merit that enable performance comparisons between the various fast-neutron systems under consideration. The status of this ongoing effort is presented

  6. Ask Systems: Interrogative Access to Multiple Ways of Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonassen, David H.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to familiarize instructional designers and researchers with a useful design and research paradigm known as "Ask Systems." Ask Systems are interrogative interfaces to information and learning environments that model conversations with a skilled, reflective practitioner (Schon, The reflective practitioner, "1983") or…

  7. Simulation Of A Photofission-Based Cargo Interrogation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Michael; Gozani, Tsahi; Stevenson, John; Shaw, Timothy

    2011-06-01

    A comprehensive model has been developed to characterize and optimize the detection of Bremsstrahlung x-ray induced fission signatures from nuclear materials hidden in cargo containers. An effective active interrogation system should not only induce a large number of fission events but also efficiently detect their signatures. The proposed scanning system utilizes a 9-MV commercially available linear accelerator and the detection of strong fission signals i.e. delayed gamma rays and prompt neutrons. Because the scanning system is complex and the cargo containers are large and often highly attenuating, the simulation method segments the model into several physical steps, representing each change of radiation particle. Each approximation is carried-out separately, resulting in a major reduction in computational time and a significant improvement in tally statistics. The model investigates the effect on the fission rate and detection rate by various cargo types, densities and distributions. Hydrogenous and metallic cargos, homogeneous and heterogeneous, as well as various locations of the nuclear material inside the cargo container were studied. We will show that for the photofission-based interrogation system simulation, the final results are not only in good agreement with a full, single-step simulation but also with experimental results, further validating the full-system simulation.

  8. Simulation Of A Photofission-Based Cargo Interrogation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive model has been developed to characterize and optimize the detection of Bremsstrahlung x-ray induced fission signatures from nuclear materials hidden in cargo containers. An effective active interrogation system should not only induce a large number of fission events but also efficiently detect their signatures. The proposed scanning system utilizes a 9-MV commercially available linear accelerator and the detection of strong fission signals i.e. delayed gamma rays and prompt neutrons. Because the scanning system is complex and the cargo containers are large and often highly attenuating, the simulation method segments the model into several physical steps, representing each change of radiation particle. Each approximation is carried-out separately, resulting in a major reduction in computational time and a significant improvement in tally statistics. The model investigates the effect on the fission rate and detection rate by various cargo types, densities and distributions. Hydrogenous and metallic cargos, homogeneous and heterogeneous, as well as various locations of the nuclear material inside the cargo container were studied. We will show that for the photofission-based interrogation system simulation, the final results are not only in good agreement with a full, single-step simulation but also with experimental results, further validating the full-system simulation.

  9. An implantable pressure sensing system with electromechanical interrogation scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Albert; Powell, C R; Ziaie, Babak

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, we report on the development of an implantable pressure sensing system that is powered by mechanical vibrations in the audible acoustic frequency range. This technique significantly enhances interrogation range, alleviates the misalignment issues commonly encountered with inductive powering, and simplifies the external receiver circuitry. The interrogation scheme consists of two phases: a mechanical vibration phase and an electrical radiation phase. During the first phase, a piezoelectric cantilever acts as an acoustic receiver and charges a capacitor by converting sound vibration harmonics occurring at its resonant frequency into electrical power. In the subsequent electrical phase, when the cantilever is not vibrating, the stored electric charge is discharged across an LC tank whose inductor is pressure sensitive; hence, when the LC tank oscillates at its natural resonant frequency, it radiates a high-frequency signal that is detectable using an external receiver and its frequency corresponds to the measured pressure. The pressure sensitive inductor consists of a planar coil (single loop of wire) with a ferrite core whose distance to the coil varies with applied pressure. A prototype of the implantable pressure sensor is fabricated and tested, both in vitro and in vivo (swine bladder). A pressure sensitivity of 1 kHz/cm H2O is achieved with minimal misalignment sensitivity (26% drop at 90° misalignment between the implanted device and acoustic source; 60% drop at 90° misalignment between the implanted device and RF receiver coil). PMID:24800754

  10. Miniature fiber Bragg grating sensor interrogator (FBG-Transceiver) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Edgar A.; Kempen, Cornelia; Lopatin, Craig

    2007-04-01

    This paper describes recent progress conducted towards the development of a miniature fiber Bragg grating sensor interrogator (FBG-Transceiver TM) system based on multi-channel integrated optic sensor (InOSense TM) microchip technology. The hybrid InOSense TM microchip technology enables the integration of all of the functionalities, both passive and active, of conventional bench top FBG sensor interrogator systems, packaged in a miniaturized, low power operation, 2-cm x 5-cm package suitable for the long-term structural health monitoring in applications where size, weight, and power are critical for operation. The FBG-Transceiver system uses active optoelectronic components monolithically integrated to the InOSense TM microchip, a microprocessor controlled signal processing electronics board capable of processing the FBG sensors signals related to stress-strain and temperature as well as vibration and acoustics. The FBG-Transceiver TM system represents a new, reliable, highly robust technology that can be used to accurately monitor the status of an array of distributed fiber optic Bragg grating sensors installed in critical infrastructures. Its miniature package, low power operation, and state-of-the-art data communications architecture, all at a very affordable price makes it a very attractive solution for a large number of SHM/NDI applications in aerospace, naval and maritime industry, civil structures like bridges, buildings and dams, the oil and chemical industry, and for homeland security applications. The miniature, cost-efficient FBG-Transceiver TM system is poised to revolutionize the field of structural health monitoring and nondestructive inspection market. The sponsor of this program is NAVAIR under a DOD SBIR contract.

  11. Neutron Interrogation System For Underwater Threat Detection And Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzilov, Alexander P.; Novikov, Ivan S.; Womble, Phil C.

    2009-03-01

    Wartime and terrorist activities, training and munitions testing, dumping and accidents have generated significant munitions contamination in the coastal and inland waters in the United States and abroad. Although current methods provide information about the existence of the anomaly (for instance, metal objects) in the sea bottom, they fail to identify the nature of the found objects. Field experience indicates that often in excess of 90% of objects excavated during the course of munitions clean up are found to be non-hazardous items (false alarm). The technology to detect and identify waterborne or underwater threats is also vital for protection of critical infrastructures (ports, dams, locks, refineries, and LNG/LPG). We are proposing a compact neutron interrogation system, which will be used to confirm possible threats by determining the chemical composition of the suspicious underwater object. The system consists of an electronic d-T 14-MeV neutron generator, a gamma detector to detect the gamma signal from the irradiated object and a data acquisition system. The detected signal then is analyzed to quantify the chemical elements of interest and to identify explosives or chemical warfare agents.

  12. Neutron Interrogation System For Underwater Threat Detection And Identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wartime and terrorist activities, training and munitions testing, dumping and accidents have generated significant munitions contamination in the coastal and inland waters in the United States and abroad. Although current methods provide information about the existence of the anomaly (for instance, metal objects) in the sea bottom, they fail to identify the nature of the found objects. Field experience indicates that often in excess of 90% of objects excavated during the course of munitions clean up are found to be non-hazardous items (false alarm). The technology to detect and identify waterborne or underwater threats is also vital for protection of critical infrastructures (ports, dams, locks, refineries, and LNG/LPG). We are proposing a compact neutron interrogation system, which will be used to confirm possible threats by determining the chemical composition of the suspicious underwater object. The system consists of an electronic d-T 14-MeV neutron generator, a gamma detector to detect the gamma signal from the irradiated object and a data acquisition system. The detected signal then is analyzed to quantify the chemical elements of interest and to identify explosives or chemical warfare agents.

  13. Layered shielding design for an active neutron interrogation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whetstone, Zachary D.; Kearfott, Kimberlee J.

    2016-08-01

    The use of source and detector shields in active neutron interrogation can improve detector signal. In simulations, a shielded detector with a source rotated π/3 rad relative to the opening decreased neutron flux roughly three orders of magnitude. Several realistic source and detector shield configurations were simulated. A layered design reduced neutron and secondary photon flux in the detector by approximately one order of magnitude for a deuterium-tritium source. The shield arrangement can be adapted for a portable, modular design.

  14. The Central Nervous System of Box Jellyfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garm, Anders Lydik; Ekström, Peter

    2008-01-01

    nervous system is described. Each rhopalium holds a separate part of the CNS with 1,000 nerve cells and a large amount of neuropil. The rhopalial nervous system has several subsystems defined by the anatomy, location, and immunocytochemistry of the cells. Most of the subsystems connect to one or more of...... behaviors in the box jellyfish such as obstacle avoidance and navigation. The need to process the visual information and turn it into the appropriate behavior puts strong demands on the nervous system of box jellyfish, which appears more elaborate than in other cnidarians. Here, the central part of this...... the eye types, and it is likely that the rhopalial nervous system accounts for most of the visual processing. The major part of the CNS is made up of a ring nerve encircling the bell shaped body. The ring nerve holds around 10,000 cells and is directly connected to all four rhopalial nervous systems...

  15. Grey Box Modelling of Hydrological Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thordarson, Fannar Ørn

    intervals. The thesis illustrates three performance measures for this performance evaluations: reliability, sharpness and resolution. For decision making, a performance criterion is preferred that quantifies all of these measures in a single number, and for that the quantile skill score criterion is...... equations, and a black box model, which relates to models that are obtained statistically from input-output relations. Grey box model consists of a system description, defined by a finite set of stochastic differential equations, and an observation equation. Together, system and observation equations...... lack of fit in state space formulation, and further support decisions for a model expansion. By using stochastic differential equations to formulate the dynamics of the hydrological system, either the complexity of the model can be increased by including the necessary hydrological processes in the...

  16. Test procedure for boxed waste assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document, prepared by Los Alamos National Laboratory's NMT-4 group, details the test methodology and requirements for Acceptance/Qualification testing of a Boxed Waste Assay System (BWAS) designed and constructed by Pajarito Scientific Corporation. Testing of the BWAS at the Plutonium Facility (TA55) at Los Alamos National Laboratory will be performed to ascertain system adherence to procurement specification requirements. The test program shall include demonstration of conveyor handling capabilities, gamma ray energy analysis, and imaging passive/active neutron accuracy and sensitivity. Integral to these functions is the system's embedded operating and data reduction software

  17. An Overview of the Integrated Crate Interrogation System (ICIS) for use at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Integrated Crate Interrogation System (ICIS) was developed for use at the Savannah River Site to assay transuranic waste in large containers. The system comprises a Box Segmented Gamma Scanner (BSGS) providing high resolution gamma spectroscopy, and a Box Neutron Assay System (BNAS) providing passive neutron counting capability. The multi-modality approach is taken where the assay results from the gamma and neutron systems are combined to complement each other in satisfying Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) criteria. This paper gives an overview of the system that has been built, factory calibrated, and delivered to the site. The BSGS is similar to a standard Canberra Segmented Gamma Box Counter, but with the addition of a transmission option for ascertaining density and rudimentary fill-height information. This supplements the Multi-Curve approach based on efficiency in energy and density. The BSGS has a moving trolley which travels on rails through a passive emission counting station using large BEGe detectors, and a transmission counting station using NaI detectors in conjunction with high- and low-beam transmission stages. The assay result provides information on the Pu, Am and/or U isotopic ratios using standard isotopic analysis codes, quantitative measurement of Pu and U for low and medium density matrices, and direct measurement of other gamma emitters in the waste that are not identified in the isotopic measurement. It also provides basic positional information to improve the accuracy of both the gamma and the neutron measurement. The BNAS is a passive neutron coincidence counter intended for use with multiplicity counting of items of various geometries. The counter utilizes 320 3He filled proportional counters arranged in a 4 π geometry about the assay cavity and divided into 80 counting channels. The assay result provides the 240Pu-effective mass with which the gamma isotopic measurement is combined to provide reliable reporting of Pu and other

  18. Grey-box modelling of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tornøe, Christoffer Wenzel; Jacobsen, Judith L; Pedersen, Oluf;

    2004-01-01

    Grey-box pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modelling is presented as a promising way of modelling PK/PD systems. The concept behind grey-box modelling is based on combining physiological knowledge along with information from data in the estimation of model parameters. Grey-box modelling...

  19. SMS Fibre Structure for Temperature Measurement Using a Simple Intensity-Based Interrogation System

    OpenAIRE

    Hatta, Agus; Rajan, Ginu; Semenova, Yuliya; Farrell, Gerald

    2009-01-01

    A singlemode–multimode–singlemode (SMS) fibre structure for temperature measurement that utilises a simple intensity-based interrogation system is proposed. The temperature dependence of the SMS fibre structure utilised as a sensor is investigated numerically and experimentally. It is found that a strong temperature dependence for the SMS fibre structure exists at selected wavelengths. The temperature characteristic at such wavelengths is linear in nature and can be used for temperature measu...

  20. Performance analysis of peak tracking techniques for fiber Bragg grating interrogation systems

    OpenAIRE

    Olivero, Massimo; Tosi, Daniele; Perrone, Guido

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a spectral correlation-based technique for tracking the wavelength shift of a fiber Bragg grating. We compared this approach, by means of a Monte Carlo numerical simulation, to the typical peak tracking techniques applied in classic interrogation systems. As result, we obtained a considerable gain in terms of noise tolerance (about 20 dB), which can be further incremented by selecting large-bandwidth gratings. This permits to increase the power budget of a fiber Brag...

  1. Non-invasive biosensor and wilreless interrogating system for hypoglycemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadan, Vijay K.; Whitchurch, Ashwin K.; Saukesi, K.

    2002-11-01

    Hypoglycemia - abnormal decrease in blood sugar - is a major obstacle in the management of diabetes and prevention of long-term complications, and it may impose serious effects on the brain, including impairment of memory and other cognitive functions. This paper presents the development of a non-invasive sensor with miniaturized telemetry device in a wrist-watch for monitoring glucose concentration in blood. The sensor concept is based on optical chiralit of glucose level in the interstitial fluid. The wrist watch consists of a laser power source of the wavelength compatible with the glucose. A nanofilm with specific chirality is placed at the bottom of the watch. The light then passes through the film and illuminates a small area on the skin.It has been documented that there is certain concentration of sugar level is taken by the intertitial fluid from the blood stream and deposit a portion of it at the dead skin. The wrist-watch when in contact with the outer skin of the human will thus monitor the glucose concentration. A wireless monitoring system in the watch then downloads the data from the watch to a Palm or laptop computer.

  2. Noninvasive biosensor and wireless interrogating system for glucose in blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadan, Vijay K.; Whitchurch, Ashwin K.; Sarukesi, K.

    2003-07-01

    Hypoglycemia-abnormal decrease in blood sugar-is a major obstacle in the management of diabetes and prevention of long-term complications, and it may impose serious effects on the brain, including impairment of memory and other cognitive functions. This paper presents the development of a non-invasive sensor with miniaturized telemetry device in a wrist-watch for monitoring glucose concentration in blood. The sensor concept is based on optical chirality of glucose level in the interstitial fluid. The wrist watch consists of a laser power source of the wavelength compatible with the glucose. A nanofilm with specific chirality is placed at the bottom of the watch. The light then passes through the film and illuminates a small area on the skin. It has been documented that there is certain concentration of sugar level is taken by the intertitial fluid from the blood stream and deposit a portion of it at the dead skin. The wrist-watch when in contact with the outer skin of the human will thus monitor the glucose concentration. A wireless monitoring system in the watch then downloads the data from the watch to a Palm or a laptop computer.

  3. A System for Cooling inside a Glove Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Martial

    2010-01-01

    An easy, efficient, reliable, and low-cost method of constructing a cooling system using a simple circulating pump is described. The system is employed in conjunction with an inert atmosphere glove box to achieve the synthesis of air- and moisture-sensitive compounds inside the glove box at controlled, low temperatures without contaminating the…

  4. Live Interrogation and Visualization of Earth Systems (LIVES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, J. A.; Anderson, L. C.

    2007-12-01

    Twenty tablet PCs and associated peripherals acquired through a HP Technology for Teaching grant are being used to redesign two freshman laboratory courses as well as a sophomore geobiology course in Geology and Geophysics at Louisiana State University. The two introductory laboratories serve approximately 750 students per academic year including both majors and non-majors; the geobiology course enrolls about 35 students/year and is required for majors in the department's geology concentration. Limited enrollments and 3 hour labs make it possible to incorporate hands-on visualization, animation, GIS, manipulation of data and images, and access to geological data available online. Goals of the course redesigns include: enhancing visualization of earth materials, physical/chemical/biological processes, and biosphere/geosphere history; strengthening student's ability to acquire, manage, and interpret multifaceted geological information; fostering critical thinking, the scientific method, and earth-system science/perspective in ancient and modern environments (such as coastal erosion and restoration in Louisiana or the Snowball Earth hypothesis); improving student communication skills; and increasing the quantity, quality, and diversity of students pursuing Earth Science careers. IT resources available in the laboratory provide students with sophisticated visualization tools, allowing them to switch between 2-D and 3-D reconstructions more seamlessly, and enabling them to manipulate larger integrated data- sets, thus permitting more time for critical thinking and hypothesis testing. IT resources also enable faculty and students to simultaneously work with simulation software to animate earth processes such as plate motions or groundwater flow and immediately test hypothesis formulated in the data analysis. Finally, tablet PCs make it possible for data gathering and analysis outside a formal classroom. As a result, students will achieve fluency in using visualization

  5. Irradiation Effects for the Pulsed Fast Neutron Analysis (PFNA) Cargo Interrogation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slater, C.O.

    2001-02-02

    At the request of Safety and Ecology Corporation of Tennessee, radiation effects of the proposed Pulsed Fast Neutron Analysis (PFNA) Cargo Interrogation System have been examined. First, fissile cargo were examined to determine if a significant neutron signal would be observable during interrogation. Results indicated that ample multiplication would be seen for near critical bare targets. The water-reflected sphere showed relatively little multiplication. By implication, a fissile target shielded by hydrogenous cargo might not be detectable by neutron interrogation, particularly if reliance is placed on the neutron signal. The cargo may be detectable if use can be made of the ample increase in the photon signal. Second, dose rates were calculated at various locations within and just outside the facility building. These results showed that some dose rates may be higher than the target dose rate of 0.05 mrem/h. However, with limited exposure time, the total dose may be well below the allowed total dose. Lastly, estimates were made of the activation of structures and typical cargo. Most cargo will not be exposed long enough to be activated to levels of concern. On the other hand, portions of the structure may experience buildup of some radionuclides to levels of concern.

  6. Development of a Liquid Scintillator-Based Active Interrogation System for LEU Fuel Assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA, in collaboration with the Joint Research Center (Ispra, IT) and Hybrid Instruments (Lancaster, UK), has developed a full scale, liquid scintillator-based active interrogation system to determine uranium (U) mass in fresh fuel assemblies. The system implements an array of moderate volume (∼1000 ml) liquid scintillator detectors, a multichannel pulse shape discrimination (PSD) system, and a high-speed data acquisition and signal processing system to assess the U content of fresh fuel assemblies. Extensive MCNPX-PoliMi modelling has been carried out to refine the system design and optimize the detector performance. These measurements, traditionally performed with 3He-based assay systems (e.g., Uranium Neutron Coincidence Collar [UNCL], Active Well Coincidence Collar [AWCC]), can now be performed with higher precision in a fraction of the acquisition time. The system uses a high-flash point, non-hazardous scintillating fluid (EJ309) enabling their use in commercial nuclear facilities and achieves significantly enhanced performance and capabilities through the combination of extremely short gate times, adjustable energy detection threshold, real-time PSD electronics, and high-speed, FPGA-based data acquisition. Given the possible applications, this technology is also an excellent candidate for the replacement of select 3He-based systems. Comparisons to existing 3He-based active interrogation systems are presented where possible to provide a baseline performance reference. This paper will describe the laboratory experiments and associated modelling activities undertaken to develop and initially test the prototype detection system. (authors)

  7. Miniature fiber Bragg grating sensor interrogator (FBG-Transceiver) system for use in aerospace and automotive health monitoring systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Edgar A.; Kempen, Cornelia; Panahi, Allan; Lopatin, Craig

    2007-09-01

    Fiber Bragg grating sensors (FBGs) have gained rapid acceptance in aerospace and automotive structural health monitoring applications for the measurement of strain, stress, vibration, acoustics, acceleration, pressure, temperature, moisture, and corrosion distributed at multiple locations within the structure using a single fiber element. The most prominent advantages of FBGs are: small size and light weight, multiple FBG transducers on a single fiber, and immunity to radio frequency interference. A major disadvantage of FBG technology is that conventional state-of-the-art fiber Bragg grating interrogation systems are typically bulky and heavy bench top instruments that are assembled from off-the-shelf fiber optic and optical components integrated with a signal electronics board into an instrument console. Based on the need for a compact FBG interrogation system, this paper describes recent progress towards the development of a miniature fiber Bragg grating sensor interrogator (FBG-Transceiver TM) system based on multi-channel integrated optic sensor (InOSense) microchip technology. The hybrid InOSense microchip technology enables the integration of all of the functionalities, both passive and active, of conventional bench top FBG sensor interrogators systems, packaged in a miniaturized, low power operation, 2-cm x 5-cm small form factor (SFF) package suitable for the long-term structural health monitoring in applications where size, weight, and power are critical for operation. The sponsor of this program is NAVAIR under a DOD SBIR contract.

  8. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems: the feasibility of computer interrogation of experts for WISAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wight, L.H.

    1980-05-01

    Simulation of the response of a waste repository to events that could initiate a fault tree to breach and failure is currently a keystone to the Battelle Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP). The repository simulation, which is part of the Disruptive Event Analysis Task, models the repository for its entire design life, one million years. This is clearly a challenging calculation, requiring input unlike any other response analysis by virtue of the long design life of the facility. What technology will provide design criteria for a million year design life. Answers to questions like this can, to some extent, be based on data, but always require some subjective judgments. The subjectivity, which is sometimes driven by inadequate or incomplete data or by a lack of understanding of the physical process, is therefore a crucial ingredient in an analysis of initiating events. Because of the variety of possible initiating events (glaciation, man-caused disruption, volcanism, etc.), many expert opinions will be solicited as input. The complexity of the simulation, the variety of experts involved, and the volume of applicable data all suggest that there may be a more direct, economical method to solicit the expert opinion. This report addresses the feasibility of such a system. Background information is presented that demonstrates the advantages of a computer interrogation system over conventional interrogation and assessment techniques. In the subsequent three sections the three elements - structure and decomposition, scaling, and synthesis - that are basic to any interrogation and assessment technique are reviewed. The interrelationship are schematically illustrated between these three fundamental elements and, therefore, serves as a useful guide to these three sections. Each of these three sections begins with a recommended approach to the particular element and ends with an illustration of representative dialogue.

  9. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems: the feasibility of computer interrogation of experts for WISAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simulation of the response of a waste repository to events that could initiate a fault tree to breach and failure is currently a keystone to the Battelle Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP). The repository simulation, which is part of the Disruptive Event Analysis Task, models the repository for its entire design life, one million years. This is clearly a challenging calculation, requiring input unlike any other response analysis by virtue of the long design life of the facility. What technology will provide design criteria for a million year design life. Answers to questions like this can, to some extent, be based on data, but always require some subjective judgments. The subjectivity, which is sometimes driven by inadequate or incomplete data or by a lack of understanding of the physical process, is therefore a crucial ingredient in an analysis of initiating events. Because of the variety of possible initiating events (glaciation, man-caused disruption, volcanism, etc.), many expert opinions will be solicited as input. The complexity of the simulation, the variety of experts involved, and the volume of applicable data all suggest that there may be a more direct, economical method to solicit the expert opinion. This report addresses the feasibility of such a system. Background information is presented that demonstrates the advantages of a computer interrogation system over conventional interrogation and assessment techniques. In the subsequent three sections the three elements - structure and decomposition, scaling, and synthesis - that are basic to any interrogation and assessment technique are reviewed. The interrelationship are schematically illustrated between these three fundamental elements and, therefore, serves as a useful guide to these three sections. Each of these three sections begins with a recommended approach to the particular element and ends with an illustration of representative dialogue

  10. Software for Manipulating and Embedding Data Interrogation Algorithms Into Integrated Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, David W.

    2004-01-01

    In this study a software package for easily creating and embedding structural health monitoring (SHM) data interrogation processes in remote hardware is presented. The software described herein is comprised of two pieces. The first is a client to allow graphical construction of data interrogation processes. The second is node software for remote execution of processes on remote sensing and monitoring hardware. The client software is created around a catalog of data interrogation algorithms co...

  11. Malay Interrogative Knowledge Corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah Sidi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The growth in the number of documents written in Malay language is enormously available on the web and intranets. There is a need to identify the information in the Malay documents that contain knowledge. This triggers the need to investigate the availability of knowledge in them. Approach: This study uses interrogative theory to identify knowledge from documents or texts. Results: The results are expected to lead towards establishment of new set of interrogative rules for Malay corpus. Conclusions/Recommendations: This study contributes the interrogative knowledge identification thru the development of Malay Interrogative Knowledge Corpus (MalayIKCorpus. It facilitates to explicitly capture and make available Malay knowledge representation in a knowledge-base system.

  12. Analysis and Performance Evaluation of an All-Fiber Wide Range Interrogation System for a Bragg Grating Sensor Array

    OpenAIRE

    Rajan, Ginu; Semenova, Yuliya; Farrell, Gerald

    2009-01-01

    Analysis and performance evaluation of a macro-bend ¯ber based interrogation system for a Bragg grating sensor array is presented. Due to the characteristic properties of the macro-bend ¯ber ¯lter such as polarization and temperature dependence and the total noise associated with the ratiometric system, a best ¯t ratio slope is required to interrogate multiple FBGs whose peak wavelengths are spread over a wide wavelength range, rather than the optimal slope for individual FBG. In this paper f...

  13. Leveraging dialog systems research to assist biomedical researchers' interrogation of Big Clinical Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoxha, Julia; Weng, Chunhua

    2016-06-01

    The worldwide adoption of electronic health records (EHR) promises to accelerate clinical research, which lies at the heart of medical advances. However, the interrogation of such Big Data by clinical researchers can be laborious and error-prone, involving iterative and ineffective communication of data requests to data analysts. Research on this communication process is rare. There also exists no contemporary system that offers intelligent solutions to assist clinical researchers in their quest for clinical data. In this article, we first provide a detailed characterization of the challenges encountered in this communication space. Second, we identify promising synergies between fields studying human-to-human and human-machine communication that can shed light on biomedical data query mediation. We propose a mixed-initiative dialog-based approach to support autonomous clinical data access and recommend needed technology development and communication study for accelerating clinical research. PMID:27067901

  14. High Pressure Sensing and Dynamics Using High Speed Fiber Bragg Grating Interrogation Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, G. [LANL; Sandberg, R. L. [LANL; Lalone, B. M. [NSTec; Marshall, B. R. [NSTec; Grover, M. [NSTec; Stevens, G. D. [NSTec; Udd, E. [Columbia Gorge Research

    2014-06-01

    Fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) are developing into useful sensing tools for measuring high pressure dynamics in extreme environments under shock loading conditions. Approaches using traditional diode array coupled FBG interrogation systems are often limited to readout speeds in the sub-MHz range. For shock wave physics, required detection speeds approaching 100 MHz are desired. We explore the use of two types of FBG sensing systems that are aimed at applying this technology as embedded high pressure probes for transient shock events. Both approaches measure time resolved spectral shifts in the return light from short (few mm long) uniform FBGs at 1550 nm. In the first approach, we use a fiber coupled spectrometer to demultiplex spectral channels into an array (up to 12) of single element InGaAs photoreceivers. By monitoring the detectors during a shock impact event with high speed recording, we are able to track the pressure induced spectral shifting in FBG down to a time resolution of 20 ns. In the second approach, developed at the Special Technologies Lab, a coherent mode-locked fiber laser is used to illuminate the FBG sensor. After the sensor, wavelength-to-time mapping is accomplished with a chromatic dispersive element, and entire spectra are sampled using a single detector at the modelocked laser repetition rate of 50 MHz. By sampling with a 12 GHz InGaAs detector, direct wavelength mapping in time is recorded, and the pressure induced FBG spectral shift is sampled at 50 MHz. Here, the sensing systems are used to monitor the spectral shifts of FBGs that are immersed into liquid water and shock compressed using explosives. In this configuration, the gratings survive to pressures approaching 50 kbar. We describe both approaches and present the measured spectral shifts from the shock experiments.

  15. Design and initial application of the extended aircraft interrogation and display system: Multiprocessing ground support equipment for digital flight systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Richard D.

    1987-01-01

    A pipelined, multiprocessor, general-purpose ground support equipment for digital flight systems has been developed and placed in service at the NASA Ames Research Center's Dryden Flight Research Facility. The design is an outgrowth of the earlier aircraft interrogation and display system (AIDS) used in support of several research projects to provide engineering-units display of internal control system parameters during development and qualification testing activities. The new system, incorporating multiple 16-bit processors, is called extended AIDS (XAIDS) and is now supporting the X-29A forward-swept-wing aircraft project. This report describes the design and mechanization of XAIDS and shows the steps whereby a typical user may take advantage of its high throughput and flexible features.

  16. Gas box control system for Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) uses several methods to feed gas (usually deuterium) at different energies into the plasma region of the machine. One is an arrangement of eight high-speed piezo-electric valves mounted on special manifolds (gas box) that feed cold gas directly to the plasma. This paper describes the electronic valve control and data acquisition portions of the gas box, which are controlled by a desk-top computer. Various flow profiles have been developed and stored in the control computer for ready access by the operator. The system uses two modes of operation, one that exercises and characterizes the valves and one that operates the valves with the rest of the experiment. Both the valve control signals and the pressure transducers data are recorded on the diagnostics computer so that they are available for experiment analysis

  17. Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS) Technology Tool Box (TTB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Monica; ONeil, Daniel A.; Christensen, Carissa B.

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS) is a decision support tool designed to aid program managers and strategic planners in determining how to invest technology research and development dollars. It is an Excel-based modeling package that allows a user to build complex space architectures and evaluate the impact of various technology choices. ATLAS contains system models, cost and operations models, a campaign timeline and a centralized technology database. Technology data for all system models is drawn from a common database, the ATLAS Technology Tool Box (TTB). The TTB provides a comprehensive, architecture-independent technology database that is keyed to current and future timeframes.

  18. Datgan, a reusable software system for facile interrogation and visualization of complex transcription profiling data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background We introduce Glaucoma Discovery Platform (GDP), an online environment for facile visualization and interrogation of complex transcription profiling datasets for glaucoma. We also report the availability of Datgan, the suite of scripts that was developed to construct GDP. This reusable software system complements existing repositories such as NCBI GEO or EBI ArrayExpress as it allows the construction of searchable databases to maximize understanding of user-selected transcription profiling datasets. Description Datgan scripts were used to construct both the underlying data tables and the web interface that form GDP. GDP is populated using data from a mouse model of glaucoma. The data was generated using the DBA/2J strain, a widely used mouse model of glaucoma. The DBA/2J-Gpnmb+ strain provided a genetically matched control strain that does not develop glaucoma. We separately assessed both the retina and the optic nerve head, important tissues in glaucoma. We used hierarchical clustering to identify early molecular stages of glaucoma that could not be identified using morphological assessment of disease. GDP has two components. First, an interactive search and retrieve component provides the ability to assess gene(s) of interest in all identified stages of disease in both the retina and optic nerve head. The output is returned in graphical and tabular format with statistically significant differences highlighted for easy visual analysis. Second, a bulk download component allows lists of differentially expressed genes to be retrieved as a series of files compatible with Excel. To facilitate access to additional information available for genes of interest, GDP is linked to selected external resources including Mouse Genome Informatics and Online Medelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM). Conclusion Datgan-constructed databases allow user-friendly access to datasets that involve temporally ordered stages of disease or developmental stages. Datgan and GDP are

  19. An Ultra-Stable Referenced Interrogation System in the Deep Ultraviolet for a Mercury Optical Lattice Clock

    CERN Document Server

    Dawkins, S T; Petersen, M; Millo, J; Magalhães, D V; Mandache, C; Coq, Y Le; Bize, S

    2010-01-01

    We have developed an ultra-stable source in the deep ultraviolet, suitable to fulfill the interrogation requirements of a future fully-operational lattice clock based on neutral mercury. At the core of the system is a Fabry-P\\'erot cavity which is highly impervious to temperature and vibrational perturbations. The mirror substrate is made of fused silica in order to exploit the comparatively low thermal noise limits associated with this material. By stabilizing the frequency of a 1062.6 nm Yb-doped fiber laser to the cavity, and including an additional link to LNE-SYRTE's fountain primary frequency standards via an optical frequency comb, we produce a signal which is both stable at the 1E-15 level in fractional terms and referenced to primary frequency standards. The signal is subsequently amplified and frequency-doubled twice to produce several milliwatts of interrogation signal at 265.6 nm in the deep ultraviolet.

  20. A wireless interrogation system exploiting narrowband acoustic resonator for remote physical quantity measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedt, J.-M [SENSeOR, 32 Avenue de l' Observatoire, 25044 Besancon (France); Droit, C.; Martin, G.; Ballandras, S. [Department of Time and Frequency, FEMTO-ST, 32 Avenue de l' Observatoire, 25044 Besancon (France)

    2010-01-15

    Monitoring physical quantities using acoustic wave devices can be advantageously achieved using the wave characteristic dependence to various parametric perturbations (temperature, stress, and pressure). Surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators are particularly well suited to such applications as their resonance frequency is directly influenced by these perturbations, modifying both the phase velocity and resonance conditions. Moreover, the intrinsic radio frequency (rf) nature of these devices makes them ideal for wireless applications, mainly exploiting antennas reciprocity and piezoelectric reversibility. In this paper, we present a wireless SAW sensor interrogation unit operating in the 434 MHz centered ISM band--selected as a tradeoff between antenna dimensions and electromagnetic wave penetration in dielectric media--based on the principles of a frequency sweep network analyzer. We particularly focus on the compliance with the ISM standard which reveals complicated by the need for switching from emission to reception modes similarly to radar operation. In this matter, we propose a fully digital rf synthesis chain to develop various interrogation strategies to overcome the corresponding difficulties and comply with the above-mentioned standard. We finally assess the reader interrogation range, accuracy, and dynamics.

  1. Communications systems design for testability: Grey-box testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probert, Robert L.; Geldrez, Cecilia

    Large systems such as telecommunications systems may involve several million lines of executable code and tend to evolve incrementally, thus rendering testing and maintainability a very complex task. For this reason, testing and verification requirements must be defined and incorporated into the development process early in the software development cycle. Thus, design becomes a key component of these systems. An approach to assist in enhancing the testability of software designs is proposed, termed grey-box testing. One particular grey-box testing paradigm named semantic instrumentation is illustrated. Designs are represented as design machines, an extension of finite-state machines. A design-level plan for verification/test is then derived to guarantee branch coverage of the design machine for both normal behaviors and for processing of exceptions. Finally, semantic probes are defined to provide a mapping from the design machine to implemented code. These probes are used to document design decisions, implementation decisions, and execution traces during code verification and test. The process of semantic instrumentation is illustrated on communications services, more precisely, on the service of the alternating bit protocol.

  2. Measuring the performance of two stationary interrogation systems for detecting downstream and upstream movement of PIT-tagged salmonids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, P.J.; Jezorek, I.G.; Martens, K.D.; Prentice, E.F.

    2008-01-01

    We tested the performance of two stationary interrogation systems designed for detecting the movement of fish with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. These systems allowed us to determine the direction of fish movement with high detection efficiency and high precision in a dynamic stream environment. We describe an indirect method for deriving an estimate for detection efficiency and the associated variance that does not rely on a known number of fish passing the system. By using six antennas arranged in a longitudinal series of three arrays, we attained detection efficiencies for downstream- and upstream-moving fish exceeding 96% during high-flow periods and approached 100% during low-flow periods for the two interrogation systems we tested. Because these systems did not rely on structural components, such as bridges or culverts, they were readily adaptable to remote, natural stream sites. Because of built-in redundancy, these systems were able to perform even with a loss of one or more antennas owing to dislodgement or electrical failure. However, the reduction in redundancy resulted in decreased efficiency and precision and the potential loss of ability to determine the direction of fish movement. What we learned about these systems should be applicable to a wide variety of other antenna configurations and to other types of PIT tags and transceivers.

  3. A new glove-box system for a high-pressure tritium pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new glove-box system that was designed around a high-pressure tritium pump is described. The system incorporates new containment ideas such as burpler passive pressure controls, valves that can be turned from outside the box, inflatable door seals, ferro-fluidic motor-shaft seals, and rapid box-to-hood conversion during cryostaging. Currently under construction, the system will contain nine separate section with automatic pressure-balancing and venting systems

  4. A new glove-box system for a high-pressure tritium pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new glove-box system that was designed around a high-pressure tritium pump is described. The system incorporates new containment ideas such as ''burpler'' passive pressure controls, valves that can be turned from outside the box, inflatable door seals, ferro-fluidic motor-shaft seals, and rapid box-to-hood conversion during cryostaging. Currently under construction, the system will contain nine separate sections with automatic pressure-balancing and venting systems. 3 refs., 5 figs

  5. A Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor Interrogation System Based on a Linearly Wavelength-Swept Thermo-Optic Laser Chip

    OpenAIRE

    Hyung-Seok Lee; Hwi Don Lee; Hyo Jin Kim; Jae Du Cho; Myung Yung Jeong; Chang-Seok Kim

    2014-01-01

    A linearized wavelength-swept thermo-optic laser chip was applied to demonstrate a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor interrogation system. A broad tuning range of 11.8 nm was periodically obtained from the laser chip for a sweep rate of 16 Hz. To measure the linear time response of the reflection signal from the FBG sensor, a programmed driving signal was directly applied to the wavelength-swept laser chip. The linear wavelength response of the applied strain was clearly extracted with an R-sq...

  6. Solving problems by interrogating sets of knowledge systems: Toward a theory of multiple knowledge systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekorvin, Andre

    1989-01-01

    The main purpose is to develop a theory for multiple knowledge systems. A knowledge system could be a sensor or an expert system, but it must specialize in one feature. The problem is that we have an exhaustive list of possible answers to some query (such as what object is it). By collecting different feature values, in principle, it should be possible to give an answer to the query, or at least narrow down the list. Since a sensor, or for that matter an expert system, does not in most cases yield a precise value for the feature, uncertainty must be built into the model. Also, researchers must have a formal mechanism to be able to put the information together. Researchers chose to use the Dempster-Shafer approach to handle the problems mentioned above. Researchers introduce the concept of a state of recognition and point out that there is a relation between receiving updates and defining a set valued Markov Chain. Also, deciding what the value of the next set valued variable is can be phrased in terms of classical decision making theory such as minimizing the maximum regret. Other related problems are examined.

  7. Fast fiber Bragg grating interrogation system with scalability to support monitoring of large structures in harsh environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moslehi, Behzad; Black, Richard J.; Costa, Joannes M.; Edwards, Elizabeth H.; Faridian, Fereydoun; Sotoudeh, Vahid

    2014-04-01

    Fiber optic sensor systems can alleviate certain challenges faced by electronics sensors faced when monitoring structures subject to marine and other harsh environments. Challenges in implementation of such systems include scalability, interconnection and cabling. We describe a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor system architecture based that is scalable to support over 1000 electromagnetic interference immune sensors at high sampling rates for harsh environment applications. A key enabler is a high performance FBG interrogator supporting subsection sampling rates ranging from kHz to MHz. Results are presented for fast dynamic switching between multiple structural sections and the use of this sensing system for dynamic load monitoring as well as the potential for acoustic emission and ultrasonic monitoring on materials ranging from aluminum and composites to concrete subject to severe environments.

  8. Tropical Krichever construction for the non-periodic box and ball system

    CERN Document Server

    Iwao, Shinsuke; Isojima, Shin

    2012-01-01

    A solution for an initial value problem of the box and ball system is constructed from a solution of the periodic box and ball system. The construction is done through a specific limiting process based on the theory of tropical geometry. This method gives a tropical analogue of the Krichever construction, which is an algebro-geometric method to construct exact solutions to integrable systems, for the non-periodic system.

  9. Opening Pandora's Box: The impact of open system modeling on interpretations of anoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotinski, Roberta M.; Kump, Lee R.; Najjar, Raymond G.

    2000-06-01

    The geologic record preserves evidence that vast regions of ancient oceans were once anoxic, with oxygen levels too low to sustain animal life. Because anoxic conditions have been postulated to foster deposition of petroleum source rocks and have been implicated as a kill mechanism in extinction events, the genesis of such anoxia has been an area of intense study. Most previous models of ocean oxygen cycling proposed, however, have either been qualitative or used closed-system approaches. We reexamine the question of anoxia in open-system box models in order to test the applicability of closed-system results over long timescales and find that open and closed-system modeling results may differ significantly on both short and long timescales. We also compare a scenario with basinwide diffuse upwelling (a three-box model) to a model with upwelling concentrated in the Southern Ocean (a four-box model). While a three-box modeling approach shows that only changes in high-latitude convective mixing rate and character of deepwater sources are likely to cause anoxia, four-box model experiments indicate that slowing of thermohaline circulation, a reduction in wind-driven upwelling, and changes in high-latitude export production may also cause dysoxia or anoxia in part of the deep ocean on long timescales. These results suggest that box models must capture the open-system and vertically stratified nature of the ocean to allow meaningful interpretations of long-lived episodes of anoxia.

  10. A Method to Measure Reference Strain in FBG Strain Sensor Interrogation System Involving Actuators

    OpenAIRE

    Rajan, Ginu; Semenova, Yuliya; Wu, Qiang; Farrell, Gerald; Wang, Pengfei

    2007-01-01

    A method for reference strain measurement for FBG strain sensor in the testing stage while applying strain using actuators like piezo translators or micro screw is introduced. Unlike conventional methods of surface mounting, in our method the strain gauge is affixed directly to the optical fibre, which allows it to use with systems where the strain is applied directly using actuators while testing the FBG sensing system. Different bonding techniques were tested and a comparison with the resul...

  11. R-MASTIF: robotic mobile autonomous system for threat interrogation and object fetch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Aveek; Thakur, Dinesh; Keller, James; Kuthirummal, Sujit; Kira, Zsolt; Pivtoraiko, Mihail

    2013-01-01

    Autonomous robotic "fetch" operation, where a robot is shown a novel object and then asked to locate it in the field, re- trieve it and bring it back to the human operator, is a challenging problem that is of interest to the military. The CANINE competition presented a forum for several research teams to tackle this challenge using state of the art in robotics technol- ogy. The SRI-UPenn team fielded a modified Segway RMP 200 robot with multiple cameras and lidars. We implemented a unique computer vision based approach for textureless colored object training and detection to robustly locate previ- ously unseen objects out to 15 meters on moderately flat terrain. We integrated SRI's state of the art Visual Odometry for GPS-denied localization on our robot platform. We also designed a unique scooping mechanism which allowed retrieval of up to basketball sized objects with a reciprocating four-bar linkage mechanism. Further, all software, including a novel target localization and exploration algorithm was developed using ROS (Robot Operating System) which is open source and well adopted by the robotics community. We present a description of the system, our key technical contributions and experimental results.

  12. Development of a lower body negative pressure box with an environmental control system for physiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russomano, T; Falcao, F; Gurgel, J; Piccoli, L; Porto, F; Dalmarco, G; de Azevedo, D F G; Allan, J; Beck, L; Petrat, G; Thompsen, S

    2005-01-01

    A headward fluid shift occurs during microgravity exposure, which causes the cardiovascular adaptive syndrome. Different countermeasures have been proposed to decrease its symptomatology, like the application of lower body negative pressure (LBNP). A LBNP box with an environment control system was developed, aiming to improve features of LBNP boxes used worldwide. It consists of five carbon steel ribs in the shape of a cylinder, which is wrapped with high pressure resistant and transparent vinyl. Inner and outer-wheeled trolleys can comfortably and easily move the subject in and out of the box. A custom-made skirt is secured around the subject's waist by an adjustable belt. The other end is secured between two window-type wooden structures, which seal the LBNP box. Inlet and an outlet valves connect the external to the internal environment of the chamber and tube system allows air to circulate gently. Electronic sensors are used to adjust the airflow keeping a pre-set negative pressure without changing humidity and temperature inside the box. Structural, pressure profile and leaking tests were performed with successful results. The improvements of the present LBNP box have substantially decreased the undesirable side effects of uncontrolled environment conditions during rapid pressure changes, and increased test subjects' comfort. PMID:17281238

  13. Microwave interrogation of an air plasma plume as a model system for hot spots in explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Ron; Tringe, Joseph; Klunder, Greg; Baluyot, Emer; Densmore, John; Converse, Mark

    2015-06-01

    The evolution of hot spots within explosives is critical to understand for predicting how detonation waves form and propagate. However, it is challenging to observe hot spots directly because they are small (~ micron diameter), form quickly (much less than a microsecond), and many explosives of interest are optically opaque. Microwaves are well-suited to characterize hot spots because they readily penetrate most explosives. They also have sufficient temporal and spatial resolution to measure the coalescence of an ensemble of hot spots inside explosives. Here we employ 94 GHz microwaves to characterize the evolution of individual plasma plumes formed by laser ionization of air. We use interferometry to obtain velocity records as a function of plume position and orientation. Although the plasma plumes are larger than individual hot spots in explosives, they expand rapidly and predictably, and their structure can be optically imaged. They are therefore useful model systems to establish the spatial and temporal limits of microwave interferometry (MI) for understanding more complex hot spot behavior in solid explosives. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  14. FerryBox systems: State-of-the-art in Europe and future development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Wilhelm

    2014-12-01

    The current state-of-the-art of FerryBox systems are presented, and their usage as part of European observing systems such as Alg@line in the Baltic Sea or the coastal observatory COSYNA in the North Sea is discussed as well as data management systems. An overview of diverse FerryBox measurement activities is provided, covering the wide and varied potential for utilizing FerryBox data. One innovative technical component is the application of newly developed sensors suitable for FerryBox systems that focus on biogeochemical processes. This component could fill currently existing gaps of robust biogeochemical observations in the oceans and may create, together with the high spatial and temporal resolution of FerryBox systems, the possibility for new insights into physical and biogeochemical processes that were impossible to study before. Such new insights could contribute to the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) and include observations of the coastal carbonate system and its interaction with climate change or eutrophication and productivity.

  15. myBlackBox: Blackbox Mobile Cloud Systems for Personalized Unusual Event Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junho Ahn

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate the feasibility of constructing a novel and practical real-world mobile cloud system, called myBlackBox, that efficiently fuses multimodal smartphone sensor data to identify and log unusual personal events in mobile users’ daily lives. The system incorporates a hybrid architectural design that combines unsupervised classification of audio, accelerometer and location data with supervised joint fusion classification to achieve high accuracy, customization, convenience and scalability. We show the feasibility of myBlackBox by implementing and evaluating this end-to-end system that combines Android smartphones with cloud servers, deployed for 15 users over a one-month period.

  16. myBlackBox: Blackbox Mobile Cloud Systems for Personalized Unusual Event Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Junho; Han, Richard

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the feasibility of constructing a novel and practical real-world mobile cloud system, called myBlackBox, that efficiently fuses multimodal smartphone sensor data to identify and log unusual personal events in mobile users' daily lives. The system incorporates a hybrid architectural design that combines unsupervised classification of audio, accelerometer and location data with supervised joint fusion classification to achieve high accuracy, customization, convenience and scalability. We show the feasibility of myBlackBox by implementing and evaluating this end-to-end system that combines Android smartphones with cloud servers, deployed for 15 users over a one-month period. PMID:27223292

  17. Development of bagless transfer system for standard waste boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At several DOE site, substantial volumes of Transuranic (TRU) waste has been handled on a daily basis. Usually, the waste has been transferred from the facilities to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) or to an on site storage facility using the ''bag-out'' technique. This process begins in the most contaminated area by placing the waste in a strong plastic bag, twisting closed the neck of the bag, then taping the closed neck. This reduces the exposed TRU waste and the resulting contamination. However, even though that the contamination is reduced, it remains high enough to prevent direct transfer into the environment. In order to reduce the contamination to acceptable levels, the ''bag-out'' process is repeated until the outside contamination on the plastic bag is acceptable. This procedure has been affective, however, it also generates organic waste in the process. During the design of the Transuranic Waste Facility (TWF) at the Savannah River Site, a conceptual alternative was developed using the Standard Waste Box (SWB)

  18. Small-diameter optical fiber and high-speed wavelength interrogator for FBG/PZT hybrid sensing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsuzaki, Shinji; Kojima, Seiji; Hongo, Akihito; Takeda, Nobuo; Sakurai, Takeo

    2007-04-01

    We have been developing a sensing system for checking the health of aircraft structures made of composite materials. In this system, lead zirconium titanate (PZT) actuators generate elastic waves that travel through the composite material and are received by embedded fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors. By analyzing the change in received waveforms, we can detect various kinds of damage. The frequency of the elastic waves is several hundred kHz, which is too high for a conventional optical spectrum analyzer to detect the wavelength change. Moreover, a conventional single-mode optical fiber cannot be used for an embedded FBG sensor because it is so thick that it induces defects in the composite material structure when it is embedded. We are thus developing a wavelength interrogator with an arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) that can detect the high-speed wavelength change and a small-diameter optical fiber (cladding diameter of 40µm) that does not induce defects. We use an AWG to convert the wavelength change into an output power change by using the wavelength dependency of the AWG transmittance. For this conversion, we previously used two adjacent output ports that cover the reflection spectrum of an FBG sensor. However, this requires controlling the temperature of the AWG because the ratio of the optical power change to the wavelength change is very sensitive to the relationship of the center wavelengths between an FBG sensor and the output ports of the AWG. We have now investigated the use of a denser AWG and six adjacent output ports, which covers the reflection spectrum of an FBG sensor, for detecting the elastic waves. Experimental results showed that this method can suppress the sensitivity of the power change ratio to the relationship of the center wavelengths between an FBG sensor and the output ports. Although our improved small-diameter optical fiber does not induce structural defects in the composite material when it is embedded, there is some micro or macro

  19. Gray-box modeling and validation of residential HVAC system for control system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Gray-box models of residential HVAC system are developed. • Measurements were made on the inputs and outputs of each subsystem. • The parameters of the models were found by nonlinear least squares optimization. • Models were simulated in Matlab Simulink® and compared with the measurements. • Integrated HVAC model was developed by cascading the individual subsystem models. - Abstract: In this paper gray-box models of the residential heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system were developed. The HVAC system comprises of several subsystems such as energy recovery ventilator (ERV), air handling unit (AHU), buffer tank (BT), radiant floor heating (RFH) system, zone and ground source heat pump (GSHP) whose models can be identified separately and combined to obtain the model of the full system. The parameters of the subsystem models were identified from the data measured from the instrumented TRCA Archetype Sustainable House (TRCA-ASH) HVAC systems located at Kortright Centre for Conservation in Vaughan, Ontario, Canada. Individual subsystem models were combined to obtain the full system model which replicates the performance of the existing HVAC system and provides the cost estimate for running the HVAC system. Existing HVAC system uses ON/OFF controllers for zone temperature and BT temperature control. The ON/OFF controllers were integrated into the full scale system model and energy estimates were calculated for the operation of primary and secondary components (e.g., GSHP, fans and pumps). This model can be used to further investigate the effects of more advanced controllers (e.g., PID, model predictive control-MPC) and energy conservation strategies (e.g., set-point reset, passive/active thermal energy storage) in the simulation before implementing on the existing HVAC system

  20. MULTIAGENT LEARNING FOR BLACK BOX SYSTEM REWARD FUNCTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    KAGAN TUMER; ADRIAN AGOGINO

    2009-01-01

    In large, distributed systems composed of adaptive and interactive components (agents), ensuring the coordination among the agents so that the system achieves certain performance objectives is a challenging proposition. The key difficulty to overcome in such systems is one of credit assignment: How to apportion credit (or blame) to a particular agent based on the performance of the entire system. In this paper, we show how this problem can be solved in general for a large class of reward func...

  1. Bounding the Failure Probability Range of Polynomial Systems Subject to P-box Uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Luis G.; Kenny, Sean P.; Giesy, Daniel P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a reliability analysis framework for systems subject to multiple design requirements that depend polynomially on the uncertainty. Uncertainty is prescribed by probability boxes, also known as p-boxes, whose distribution functions have free or fixed functional forms. An approach based on the Bernstein expansion of polynomials and optimization is proposed. In particular, we search for the elements of a multi-dimensional p-box that minimize (i.e., the best-case) and maximize (i.e., the worst-case) the probability of inner and outer bounding sets of the failure domain. This technique yields intervals that bound the range of failure probabilities. The offset between this bounding interval and the actual failure probability range can be made arbitrarily tight with additional computational effort.

  2. Multiple photoreceptor systems control the swim pacemaker activity in box jellyfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garm, Anders Lydik; Mori, S.

    2009-01-01

    Like all other cnidarian medusae, box jellyfish propel themselves through the water by contracting their bell-shaped body in discrete swim pulses. These pulses are controlled by a swim pacemaker system situated in their sensory structures, the rhopalia. Each medusa has four rhopalia each with a...

  3. Bag-in-box technology: Pilot system for process-ready, fermented cucumbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    A pilot system was designed, constructed, and tested for preserving fermented cucumbers without generation of excess salt and organic wastes. The cucumbers are washed, blanched, cooled, aseptically transferred to a bag-in-box (250-330 gal) containing cover brine (salt to equalize at ca. 4%), inocul...

  4. Instant optimizing embedded systems using BusyBox

    CERN Document Server

    Zhangjin, Wu

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. A step-by-step guide which provides concise and clear recipes for getting started with Busybox.If you are an embedded system developer or Android developer who wishes to learn to build an embedded (Android Linux) system from scratch, as well as to optimize the system performance, then this book will be great for you. It's assumed that you have some experience in Linux and UNIX utilities. If you are a new developer, this book will also help you to get started with Busybox and Android

  5. Evaluation of Fish Movements, Migration Patterns, and Population Abundance with Streamwidth PIT Tag Interrogation Systems, Final Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zydlewski, Gayle; Winter, Christiane; McClanahan, Dee

    2003-02-01

    Two remote Streamwidth PIT tag Interrogation systems (SPIs) were operated continuously for over one year to test the feasibility of these systems for generating movement, migration, survival and smolt production estimates for salmonids. A total of 1,588 juvenile (< 100 mm FL) naturally produced salmonids (7 coho salmon, 482 cutthroat trout, and 1,099 steelhead) were PIT tagged above the upstream-most SPI (9 sites approximately 1 linear km each) in Fall 2001. Age at tagging for wild caught cutthroat and steelhead was 1 year. SPIs were operating before any PIT tagged fish were released in the creek. Over 390,000 detections were recorded from October 2001 to 31 July 2002. Efficiencies were site dependent, but overall detection efficiency for the creek was 97% with 95% confidence intervals of 91-100%. PIT tag detection efficiency ranged from 55-100% depending on the SPI and varied throughout the year with average efficiencies of 73% and 89%. SPI efficiency of PIT tag detection was not completely dependent on electronics noise levels or environmental conditions. Fish from all tagging locations were detected at the SPIs. Steelhead and cutthroat trout were primarily detected moving in the Spring (April-June) coincident with the anticipated smolt migration. Steelhead were also detected moving past SPIs at lower numbers in the Fall and Winter. Travel time between SPIs (downstream movement) was highly dependent on time of year. Travel time in the Spring was significantly faster (34.4 {+-} 7.0 hours) for all species than during any other time of year (763.1 {+-} 267.0 hours). Steelhead and cutthroat migrating in the Spring were the same age as those that did not migrate in the Spring. Peak of steelhead migration recorded at the two SPIs was 5/11 and 5/12 and the peak in the screw trap was recorded on 5/17. Steelhead smolt production estimates using SPIs (3,802 with 95% confidence intervals of 3,440 - 4,245) was similar to those using more standard screw trap methods

  6. Evaluation of Fish Movements, Migration Patterns and Populations Abundance with Streamwidth PIT Tag Interrogation Systems, Final Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zydlewski, Gayle B.; Casey, Sean

    2003-02-01

    Two remote Streamwidth PIT tag Interrogation systems (SPIs) were operated continuously for over one year to test the feasibility of these systems for generating movement, migration, survival and smolt production estimates for salmonids. A total of 1,588 juvenile (< 100 mm FL) naturally produced salmonids (7 coho salmon, 482 cutthroat trout, and 1,099 steelhead) were PIT tagged above the upstream-most SPI (9 sites approximately 1 linear km each) in Fall 2001. Age at tagging for wild caught cutthroat and steelhead was 1 year. SPIs were operating before any PIT tagged fish were released in the creek. Over 390,000 detections were recorded from October 2001 to 31 July 2002. Efficiencies were site dependent, but overall detection efficiency for the creek was 97% with 95% confidence intervals of 91-100%. PIT tag detection efficiency ranged from 55-100% depending on the SPI and varied throughout the year with average efficiencies of 73% and 89%. SPI efficiency of PIT tag detection was not completely dependent on electronics noise levels or environmental conditions. Fish from all tagging locations were detected at the SPIs. Steelhead and cutthroat trout were primarily detected moving in the Spring (April-June) coincident with the anticipated smolt migration. Steelhead were also detected moving past SPIs at lower numbers in the Fall and Winter. Travel time between SPIs (downstream movement) was highly dependent on time of year. Travel time in the Spring was significantly faster (34.4 {+-} 7.0 hours) for all species than during any other time of year (763.1 {+-} 267.0 hours). Steelhead and cutthroat migrating in the Spring were the same age as those that did not migrate in the Spring. Peak of steelhead migration recorded at the two SPIs was 5/11 and 5/12 and the peak in the screw trap was recorded on 5/17. Steelhead smolt production estimates using SPIs (3,802 with 95% confidence intervals of 3,440-4,245) was similar to those using more standard screw trap methods

  7. A flag-based algorithm and associated neutron interrogation system for the detection of explosives in sea–land cargo containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent efforts in the simulation of sea–land cargo containers in active neutron interrogation scenarios resulted in the identification of several flags indicating the presence of conventional explosives. These flags, defined by specific mathematical manipulations of the neutron and photon spectra, have been combined into a detection algorithm for screening cargo containers at international borders and seaports. The detection algorithm's steps include classifying the cargo type, identifying containers filled with explosives, triggering in the presence of concealed explosives, and minimizing the number of false positives due to cargo heterogeneity. The algorithm has been implemented in a system that includes both neutron and photon detectors. This system will take about 10 min to scan a container and cost approximately $1M to construct. Dose calculations resulted in estimates of less than 0.5 mSv for a person hidden in the container, and an operator annual dose of less than 0.9 mSv. - Highlights: • Monte Carlo model of explosives screening in cargo containers using fast neutrons. • Monte Carlo model also explores neutron detector response. • Development of an explosives detection algorithm using active neutron interrogation. • Implementation of the algorithm, including equipment, infrastructure, cost and dose. • System will cost ~1M USD and an entire container may be scanned in ~10 min

  8. Black-box calibration for complex-system simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Alexander I J

    2010-08-13

    Predicting or measuring the output of complex systems is an important and challenging part of many areas of science. If multiple observations are required for parameter studies and optimization, accurate, computationally intensive predictions or expensive experiments are intractable. This paper looks at the use of Gaussian-process-based correlations to correct simple computer models with sparse data from physical experiments or more complex computer models. In essence, physics-based computer codes and experiments are replaced by fast problem-specific statistics-based codes. Two aerodynamic design examples are presented. First, a cheap two-dimensional potential-flow solver is calibrated to represent the flow over the wing of an unmanned air vehicle. The rear wing of a racing car is then optimized using rear-wing simulations calibrated to include the effects of the flow over the whole car. PMID:20603368

  9. myBlackBox: Blackbox Mobile Cloud Systems for Personalized Unusual Event Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Junho Ahn; Richard Han

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the feasibility of constructing a novel and practical real-world mobile cloud system, called myBlackBox, that efficiently fuses multimodal smartphone sensor data to identify and log unusual personal events in mobile users’ daily lives. The system incorporates a hybrid architectural design that combines unsupervised classification of audio, accelerometer and location data with supervised joint fusion classification to achieve high accuracy, customization, convenience and scalabi...

  10. SIMULATION OF CARGO CONTAINER INTERROGATION BY D-D NEUTRONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High fidelity, three-dimensional computer models based on a CAD drawing of an intermodal cargo container, representative payload objects, and detector array panels were developed to simulate the underlying physical events taking place during active interrogation. These computer models are used to assess the performance of interrogation systems with different sources and detection schemes. In this presentation, we will show that the use oversimplified models, such as analyzing homogenized payloads only, can lead to errors in determining viable approaches for interrogation

  11. SIMULATION OF CARGO CONTAINER INTERROGATION BY D-D NEUTRONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lou, Tak Pui; Antolak, Arlyn

    2007-02-15

    High fidelity, three-dimensional computer models based on a CAD drawing of an intermodal cargo container, representative payload objects, and detector array panels were developed to simulate the underlying physical events taking place during active interrogation. These computer models are used to assess the performance of interrogation systems with different sources and detection schemes. In this presentation, we will show that the use oversimplified models, such as analyzing homogenized payloads only, can lead to errors in determining viable approaches for interrogation.

  12. A Morphological Box for Handling Temporal Data in B2C Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Knolmayer, Gerhard F.; Borean, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    User interfaces are key properties of Business-to-Consumer (B2C) systems, and Web-based reservation systems are an important class of B2C systems. In this paper we show that these systems use a surprisingly broad spectrum of different approaches to handling temporal data in their Web inter faces. Based on these observations and on a literature analysis we develop a Morphological Box to present the main options for handling temporal data and give examples. The results indicate that the present...

  13. Micro elements for interrogating magnetoelastic sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Cai

    2011-11-01

    This paper reports a new approach for interrogating a magnetoelastic sensor\\'s resonant frequency. Previously, the frequency of a magnetoelastic sensor was measured by using a large-scale solenoid coil of at least some millimeters both in diameter and length. Planar structures of straight-line and rectangular spiral coil are designed, fabricated and tested to interrogate the resonant frequency of a magnetoelastic sensor. A sensor of 4 mm length is measured to have a resonant frequency of 551 kHz in air. The ability to interrogate a magnetoelastic sensor with such microscale elements is a step towards the miniaturization of a magnetoelastic sensor system and integration of such a system in a microfluidics device. © 2011 IEEE.

  14. Multiplexed reflective-matched optical fiber grating interrogation technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yage Zhan; Shaolin Xue; Qinyu Yang

    2007-01-01

    The multiplexed-reflective matched fiber grating interrogation technique was presented in this paper.The interrogation technique was based on the use of two (or more) wavelength-matched fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) to receive the reflected signal from the sensing FBG. The two (or more) matched gratings were arranged parallelly and used as filters to convert wavelength into intensity encoded information for interrogation. Theoretical and experimental results demonstrated that the interrogation system is immune to the source fluctuation and cross-sensitivity effect between temperature and strain, and also can enlarge the dynamic range.

  15. Characterizing and correcting for the dynamic response of a bag-in-box system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, J H; Prisk, G K; Tanner, T E; McKinnon, A E

    1984-01-01

    A bag-in-box system (BBS) whose volume is monitored by a mechanical spirometer tends to have a slow response if the volume of the box is large, and this may significantly affect its measurement of gas flow. We describe a device for creating reproducible gas flows with which the impulse response of a BBS may be conveniently determined. Two computational techniques for correcting a BBS flow measurement for the effects of the impulse response were investigated: 1) an exponential model method that assumes a second-order model of the BBS dynamics and 2) a Fourier transform-based method of deconvolution known as Wiener filtering. Both correction methods produced a significant increase in the accuracy of BBS flow estimations, with the Wiener filter giving superior results. PMID:6693330

  16. A flag-based algorithm and associated neutron interrogation system for the detection of explosives in sea-land cargo containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, A. L.; Kearfott, K. J.

    2015-07-01

    Recent efforts in the simulation of sea-land cargo containers in active neutron interrogation scenarios resulted in the identification of several flags indicating the presence of conventional explosives. These flags, defined by specific mathematical manipulations of the neutron and photon spectra, have been combined into a detection algorithm for screening cargo containers at international borders and seaports. The detection algorithm's steps include classifying the cargo type, identifying containers filled with explosives, triggering in the presence of concealed explosives, and minimizing the number of false positives due to cargo heterogeneity. The algorithm has been implemented in a system that includes both neutron and photon detectors. This system will take about 10 min to scan a container and cost approximately 1M to construct. Dose calculations resulted in estimates of less than 0.5 mSv for a person hidden in the container, and an operator annual dose of less than 0.9 mSv.

  17. Self-interrogation of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method for the assay of spent-fuel assemblies has been developed that eliminates the need for external isotopic neutron sources, yet retains the advantages of an active interrogation system. The assay is accomplished by changing the reactivity of the system and correlating the measurements to burnup

  18. NASA Technical Interchange Meeting (TIM): Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS) Technology Tool Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    ONeil, D. A.; Craig, D. A.; Christensen, C. B.; Gresham, E. C.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this Technical Interchange Meeting was to increase the quantity and quality of technical, cost, and programmatic data used to model the impact of investing in different technologies. The focus of this meeting was the Technology Tool Box (TTB), a database of performance, operations, and programmatic parameters provided by technologists and used by systems engineers. The TTB is the data repository used by a system of models known as the Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS). This report describes the result of the November meeting, and also provides background information on ATLAS and the TTB.

  19. DOWNSLOPE EROSION PROCESS UNDER UPSLOPE RUNOFF AND SEDIMENT USING A DUAL-BOX SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peiqing XIAO; Fenli ZHENG; Wenyi YAO

    2005-01-01

    Soil erosion at the hilly-gully region of the Loess Plateau has obvious vertical erosion zonation from watershed boundary to gully edge. Meanwhile, upslope runoff and sediment have a significant impact on the downslope erosion process. But due to the limits of research methods, there is not much data available to quantify the effects of upslope runoff and sediment on the downslope erosion process under different conditions. The objective of this study was to quantify the effects of upslope runoff and sediment on the downslope erosion process using a dual-box system with a 15° gradient consisting of a 2 m-long feeder box and a 5 m-long test box under different runoff rates and sediment concentrations in upslope runoff, rainfall intensities and soil surface conditions. The results showed that the sediment regime was detachment-transport dominant at steep hillslopes. The net sediment delivery S caused by upslope runoff was controlled by sediment concentration in upslope runoff, especially by interaction of the rainfall intensity, runoff rate, surface condition and dominant erosion process. The net sediment delivery S accounted for the total sediment delivery Sft at downslope 31.7% to 97.3% and 27.8 to 89.7% for both loose and compact surface treatments, respectively. Rainfall intensity, slope gradient, surface condition, and rill erosion development had important influences on the downslope erosion process.

  20. Uniform spacing interrogation of a Fourier domain mode-locked fiber Bragg grating sensor system using a polarization-maintaining fiber Sagnac interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel linearized interrogation method is presented for a Fourier domain mode-locked (FDML) fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor system. In a high speed regime over several tens of kHz modulations, a sinusoidal wave is available to scan the center wavelength of an FDML wavelength-swept laser, instead of a conventional triangular wave. However, sinusoidal wave modulation suffers from an exaggerated non-uniform wavelength-spacing response in demodulating the time-encoded parameter to the absolute wavelength. In this work, the calibration signal from a polarization-maintaining fiber Sagnac interferometer shares the FDML wavelength-swept laser for FBG sensors to convert the time-encoded FBG signal to the wavelength-encoded uniform-spacing signal. (paper)

  1. Second NASA Technical Interchange Meeting (TIM): Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS) Technology Tool Box (TTB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ONeil, D. A.; Mankins, J. C.; Christensen, C. B.; Gresham, E. C.

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS), a spreadsheet analysis tool suite, applies parametric equations for sizing and lifecycle cost estimation. Performance, operation, and programmatic data used by the equations come from a Technology Tool Box (TTB) database. In this second TTB Technical Interchange Meeting (TIM), technologists, system model developers, and architecture analysts discussed methods for modeling technology decisions in spreadsheet models, identified specific technology parameters, and defined detailed development requirements. This Conference Publication captures the consensus of the discussions and provides narrative explanations of the tool suite, the database, and applications of ATLAS within NASA s changing environment.

  2. Alpha activity estimation in used HEPA filters of glove box ventilation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At Radiochemistry facility, various radio-chemical operations are carried out on isotopes of Plutonium and trans-plutonics under containment and safe operational conditions. The ventilation system is designed with separate headers for laboratory and glove box exhausts. The ventilation provided to the labs act as dynamic containment is a Once - through system with the ventilation inlet as processed air and exhausted through stack after filtration through HEPA filter banks. These activity saturated/used HEPA filters are changed periodically. This paper describes the assessment of buildup α activity in the used filter. (author)

  3. The dynamic nature of interrogation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Christopher E; Miller, Jeaneé C; Redlich, Allison D

    2016-06-01

    Building on a substantial body of literature examining interrogation methods employed by police investigators and their relationship to suspect behaviors, we analyzed a sample of audio and video interrogation recordings of individuals suspected of serious violent crimes. Existing survey research has focused on the tactics reportedly used, at what rate, and under what conditions; observational studies detail which methods are actually employed. With a few notable exceptions, these foundational studies were static examinations of interrogation methods that documented the absence or presence of various approaches. In the present study, we cast interrogation as a dynamic phenomenon and code the recordings in 5-min intervals to examine how interrogation methods and suspect cooperation change over time. Employing the interrogation taxonomy framework, particularly 4 discrete domains-rapport and relationship building, emotion provocation, presentation of evidence, and confrontation/competition-we found that the emphasis of the domains varied across interrogations and were significantly different when suspects confessed versus when they denied involvement. In regression models, suspect cooperation was positively influenced by the rapport and relationship building domain, though it was negatively impacted by presentation of evidence and confrontation/competition. Moreover, we found that the negative effects of confrontation/competition on suspect cooperation lasted for up to 15 min. The implications of the findings for practice and future research include the benefits of a rapport-based approach, the deleterious effects of accusatorial methods, and the importance of studying when, not just if, certain interrogation techniques are employed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26651622

  4. Modified laser flash thermal diffusivity measurement system for shielded glove box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PIE and Radwaste (Post Irradiation Examination and Radio-active Waste) division at KAERI(Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) has carried out post irradiation examinations (PIEs) of the nuclear materials and fuels for the Hanaro reactor, CANDU, PWR and newly developed nuclear fuels. IMEF(Irradiated Material Examination Facility) in PIE and Radwaste division has been developing many kinds of PIE technologies. The thermal conductivity is considered to be one of the most important thermo-physical properties for nuclear fuels and materials. The determination of the thermal conductivity of a nuclear material is accomplished by a measurement of the thermal diffusivity and the use of a defining relation for the diffusivity, specific heat capacity and density. The most widely employed technique is the pulse heating flash. In spite of the many merits in using the pulse heating flash technique, the complexity of the laser flash thermal diffusivity measuring system restricts its use a radioactive environment. Due to a sample's characteristics, the measuring system should be in stalled in a hot cell or a shielded glove box. Therefore, it is necessary to review, investigate and analyze the related requirement so as to install the measuring system in a hot cell or a shielded glove box. Selected requirement is reflected in the specification of a measuring system and realized requirement is used to solve the related problems

  5. Comparative uncertainty analysis of copper loads in stormwater systems using GLUE and grey-box modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindblom, Erik Ulfson; Madsen, Henrik; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2007-01-01

    In this paper two attempts to assess the uncertainty involved with model predictions of copper loads from stormwater systems are made. In the first attempt, the GLUE methodology is applied to derive model parameter sets that result in model outputs encompassing a significant number of the...... proposed model and input data, the GLUE analysis show that the total sampled copper mass can be predicted within a range of +/- 50% of the median value ( 385 g), whereas the grey-box analysis showed a prediction uncertainty of less than +/- 30%. Future work will clarify the pros and cons of the two methods...

  6. Grey-box Modeling for System Identification of Household Refrigerators: a Step Toward Smart Appliances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costanzo, Giuseppe Tommaso; Sossan, Fabrizio; Marinelli, Mattia;

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the grey-box modeling of a vapor-compression refrigeration system for residential applications based on maximum likelihood estimation of parameters in stochastic differential equations. Models obtained are useful in the view of controlling refrigerators as flexible consumption...... units, which operation can be shifted within temperature and operational constraints. Even if the refrigerators are not intended to be used as smart loads, validated models are useful in predicting units consumption. This information can increase the optimality of the management of other flexible units...

  7. Advanced material accountancy glove box assay system for process material at PFPF.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, H. (Hajime); Fujiwara, S. (Shigeo); Takahashi, S. (Saburo); Kuno, K.; Menlove, Howard O.; Wenz, T. R. (Tracy R.)

    2002-01-01

    The Material Accountancv Glove Box Assay System (MAGB) is a neutron coincidence counting system that has been developed under the akeement between Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in order to measure plutonium in the MOX transfer container in the glove box at Plutonium Fuel Production Facility (PFPF) in Japan. The system was installed at PFPF in August 1989 and afterwards it has been using for verification ofplutonium in the transfer container by inspectorate during inspection Process equipment to improve its performance has been installed in the PFPF fabrication line. As a result the number of sample requiredfor inspection increased. Since MAGBs were only used, it was anticipated that the reduction of the time of sampling and movement time of nuclear materialfor verification would be difficult. Furthermore, the sample has to be taken from the transfer containers that contain a large amount of plutonium. Therefore, in order to reduce the time for sampling, time required for the transfer container to arrive at sampling point, and personal radiation exposure, the integrated MAGB system combined with High resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy (HRGS), called M G B, was developed. This system was installed at PFPF in August 2000, and then, the functional test and the calibration were carried out in the presence of inspectorate. In the course of these activities, the data that is necessary for evaluating the system were fully acquired The system is now being in the process of evaluation whether it can be used as an attended safeguards system for International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Japan Safeguards Office (JSGO).

  8. Discrete Bose-Einstein systems in a box with low adiabatic invariant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bose-Einstein energy spectrum of a quantum gas, confined in a (cubic) box, is discrete and strongly dependent on the box geometry and temperature, for low product of the atomic mass number, Aat and the adiabatic invariant, TV2/3, i.e. on γ=AatTV2/3. Even within the approximation of noninteracting particles in the gas, the calculation of the thermodynamic properties of Bose-Einstein systems turns out to be a difficult mathematical problem. It is solved in the textbooks and most papers by approximating the sums by integrals. The present study compares the total number of particles and the total energy obtained by summing up the exact contributions of the eigenvalues and their weights, for defined values of γ, to the results of the approximate integrals. Then, the passage from sums to integrals is done in a more rigorous manner and better analytical approximations are found. The corrected thermodynamic functions depend on γ. The critical temperature is corrected also in order to describe more accurately the discrete Bose-Einstein systems and their onset of the phase transition. (author)

  9. Active Interrogation for Spent Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swinhoe, Martyn Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dougan, Arden [National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-11-05

    The DDA instrument for nuclear safeguards is a fast, non-destructive assay, active neutron interrogation technique using an external 14 MeV DT neutron generator for characterization and verification of spent nuclear fuel assemblies.

  10. Black-Box System Testing of Real-Time Embedded Systems Using Random and Search-based Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Arcuri, Andrea; Iqbal, Muhammad Zohaib; Briand, Lionel

    2010-01-01

    Testing real-time embedded systems (RTES) is in many ways challenging. Thousands of test cases can be potentially executed on an industrial RTES. Given the magnitude of testing at the system level, only a fully automated approach can really scale up to test industrial RTES. In this paper we take a black-box approach and model the RTES environment using the UML/MARTE international standard. Our main motivation is to provide a more practical approach to the model-based testing of RTES by allowi...

  11. Box Energy: rental of energy-storage systems and alternative fuel technologies for vehicles; Box-energy. Rental of energy. Storage systems and alternative-fuel. Technologies for vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bautz, R.

    2004-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of study on the rental of energy-storage systems and alternative fuel technologies for vehicles. Experience gained in the area of battery-rental is discussed. The aims of the 'Box Energy' project are described, as is its market environment. The 'Box Energy' concept is described and possible customers and partners listed. Logistics aspects are discussed. The organisation of 'Box Energy' is described and the concept's chances and weaknesses are discussed. The launching of a pilot project in Switzerland is discussed. Recommendations on further work to be done are made.

  12. Programmable DNA Nanosystem for Molecular Interrogation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Divita; Henderson, Eric R.

    2016-06-01

    We describe a self-assembling DNA-based nanosystem for interrogating molecular interactions. The nanosystem contains a rigid supporting dumbbell-shaped frame, a cylindrical central core, and a mobile ring that is coaxial with the core. Motion of the ring is influenced by several control elements whose force-generating capability is based on the transition of single-stranded DNA to double-stranded DNA. These forces can be directed to act in opposition to adhesive forces between the ring and the frame thereby providing a mechanism for molecular detection and interrogation at the ring-frame interface. As proof of principle we use this system to evaluate base stacking adhesion and demonstrate detection of a soluble nucleic acid viral genome mimic.

  13. Software Development to Assist in the Processing and Analysis of Data Obtained Using Fiber Bragg Grating Interrogation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    A fiber Bragg grating is a portion of a core of a fiber optic stand that has been treated to affect the way light travels through the strand. Light within a certain narrow range of wavelengths will be reflected along the fiber by the grating, while light outside that range will pass through the grating mostly undisturbed. Since the range of wavelengths that can penetrate the grating depends on the grating itself as well as temperature and mechanical strain, fiber Bragg gratings can be used as temperature and strain sensors. This capability, along with the light-weight nature of the fiber optic strands in which the gratings reside, make fiber optic sensors an ideal candidate for flight testing and monitoring in which temperature and wing strain are factors. A team of NASA Dryden engineers has been working to advance the fiber optic sensor technology since the mid 1990 s. The team has been able to improve the dependability and sample rate of fiber optic sensor systems, making them more suitable for real-time wing shape and strain monitoring and capable of rivaling traditional strain gauge sensors in accuracy. The sensor system was recently tested on the Ikhana unmanned aircraft and will be used on the Global Observer unmanned aircraft. Since a fiber Bragg grating sensor can be placed every halfinch on each optic fiber, and since fibers of approximately 40 feet in length each are to be used on the Global Observer, each of these fibers will have approximately 1,000 sensors. A total of 32 fibers are to be placed on the Global Observer aircraft, to be sampled at a rate of about 50 Hz, meaning about 1.6 million data points will be taken every second. The fiber optic sensors system is capable of producing massive amounts of potentially useful data; however, methods to capture, record, and analyze all of this data in a way that makes the information useful to flight test engineers are currently limited. The purpose of this project is to research the availability of software

  14. Epithermal interrogation of fissile waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coop, K.L.; Hollas, C.L.

    1996-09-01

    Self-shielding of interrogating thermal neutrons in lumps of fissile material can be a major source of error in transuranic waste assay using the widely employed differential dieaway technique. We are developing a new instrument, the combined thermal/epithermal neutron (CTEN) interrogation instrument to detect the occurrence of self- shielding and mitigate its effects. Neutrons are moderated in the graphite walls of the CTEN instrument to provide an interrogating flux of epithermal and thermal neutrons. The induced prompt fission neutrons are detected in proportional counters. We report the results of measurements made with the CTEN instrument, using minimal and highly self-shielding plutonium and uranium sources in 55 gallon drums containing a variety of mock waste matrices. Fissile isotopes and waste forms for which the method is most applicable, and limitations associated with the hydrogen content of the waste package/matrix are described.

  15. Epithermal interrogation of fissile waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Self-shielding of interrogating thermal neutrons in lumps of fissile material can be a major source of error in transuranic waste assay using the widely employed differential dieaway technique. We are developing a new instrument, the combined thermal/epithermal neutron (CTEN) interrogation instrument to detect the occurrence of self- shielding and mitigate its effects. Neutrons are moderated in the graphite walls of the CTEN instrument to provide an interrogating flux of epithermal and thermal neutrons. The induced prompt fission neutrons are detected in proportional counters. We report the results of measurements made with the CTEN instrument, using minimal and highly self-shielding plutonium and uranium sources in 55 gallon drums containing a variety of mock waste matrices. Fissile isotopes and waste forms for which the method is most applicable, and limitations associated with the hydrogen content of the waste package/matrix are described

  16. Oxidative reduction of glove box wipers with a downdraft thermal oxidation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wipers (rags) used for decontamination and glove box cleanup in the Plutonium Finishing Plant often become soaked with acid and plutonium-rich solutions. After use, these wipers are rinsed in a dilute NaOH solution and dried, but the formation of unstable nitrates and the hydrogen gas caused by hydrolysis are concerns that still must be addressed. This report gives the results of testing with a small downdraft thermal oxidation system that was constructed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to stabilize glove wiper waste, reduce the waste volume, and reclaim plutonium. Proof-of-principle testing was conducted with eight runs using various combinations of rag moisture and chemical pretreatment. All runs went to planned completion. Results of these tests indicate that the thermal oxidation system has the potential for providing significant reductions in waste volume. Weight reductions of 150:1 were easily obtainable during this project. Modifications could result in weight reductions of over 200:1, with possible volume reductions of 500:1

  17. Modeling and new equipment definition for the vibration isolation box equipment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani, Robert L.

    1993-01-01

    Our MSAD-funded research project is to provide numerical modeling support for the VIBES (Vibration Isolation Box Experiment System) which is an IML2 flight experiment being built by the Japanese research team of Dr. H. Azuma of the Japanese National Aerospace Laboratory. During this reporting period, the following have been accomplished: A semi-consistent mass finite element projection algorithm for 2D and 3D Boussinesq flows has been implemented on Sun, HP And Cray Platforms. The algorithm has better phase speed accuracy than similar finite difference or lumped mass finite element algorithms, an attribute which is essential for addressing realistic g-jitter effects as well as convectively-dominated transient systems. The projection algorithm has been benchmarked against solutions generated via the commercial code FIDAP. The algorithm appears to be accurate as well as computationally efficient. Optimization and potential parallelization studies are underway. Our implementation to date has focused on execution of the basic algorithm with at most a concern for vectorization. The initial time-varying gravity Boussinesq flow simulation is being set up. The mesh is being designed and the input file is being generated. Some preliminary 'small mesh' cases will be attempted on our HP9000/735 while our request to MSAD for supercomputing resources is being addressed. The Japanese research team for VIBES was visited, the current set up and status of the physical experiment was obtained and ongoing E-Mail communication link was established.

  18. Coordinate-Space Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov Solvers for Super fluid Fermi Systems in Large Boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, J. C.; Fann, G. I.; Harrison, R. J.; Nazarewicz, W.; Hill, J.; Galindo, D.; Jia, J.

    2012-12-01

    The self-consistent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov problem in large boxes can be solved accurately in the coordinate space with the recently developed solvers HFB-AX (2D) and MADNESS-HFB (3D). This is essential for the description of superfluid Fermi systems with complicated topologies and significant spatial extend, such as fissioning nuclei, weakly-bound nuclei, nuclear matter in the neutron star rust, and ultracold Fermi atoms in elongated traps. The HFB-AX solver based on B-spline techniques uses a hybrid MPI and OpenMP programming model for parallel computation for distributed parallel computation, within a node multi-threaded LAPACK and BLAS libraries are used to further enable parallel calculations of large eigensystems. The MADNESS-HFB solver uses a novel multi-resolution analysis based adaptive pseudo-spectral techniques to enable fully parallel 3D calculations of very large systems. In this work we present benchmark results for HFB-AX and MADNESS-HFB on ultracold trapped fermions.

  19. Coordinate-Space Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov Solvers for Super fluid Fermi Systems in Large Boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The self-consistent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov problem in large boxes can be solved accurately in the coordinate space with the recently developed solvers HFB-AX (2D) and MADNESS-HFB (3D). This is essential for the description of superfluid Fermi systems with complicated topologies and significant spatial extend, such as fissioning nuclei, weakly-bound nuclei, nuclear matter in the neutron star rust, and ultracold Fermi atoms in elongated traps. The HFB-AX solver based on B-spline techniques uses a hybrid MPI and OpenMP programming model for parallel computation for distributed parallel computation, within a node multi-threaded LAPACK and BLAS libraries are used to further enable parallel calculations of large eigensystems. The MADNESS-HFB solver uses a novel multi-resolution analysis based adaptive pseudo-spectral techniques to enable fully parallel 3D calculations of very large systems. In this work we present benchmark results for HFB-AX and MADNESS-HFB on ultracold trapped fermions.

  20. Coordinate-Space Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov Solvers for Superfluid Fermi Systems in Large Boxes

    CERN Document Server

    Pei, J C; Harrison, R J; Nazarewicz, W; Hill, J; Galindo, D; Jia, J

    2012-01-01

    The self-consistent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov problem in large boxes can be solved accurately in the coordinate space with the recently developed solvers HFB-AX (2D) and MADNESS-HFB (3D). This is essential for the description of superfluid Fermi systems with complicated topologies and significant spatial extend, such as fissioning nuclei, weakly-bound nuclei, nuclear matter in the neutron star rust, and ultracold Fermi atoms in elongated traps. The HFB-AX solver based on B-spline techniques uses a hybrid MPI and OpenMP programming model for parallel computation for distributed parallel computation, within a node multi-threaded LAPACK and BLAS libraries are used to further enable parallel calculations of large eigensystems. The MADNESS-HFB solver uses a novel multi-resolution analysis based adaptive pseudo-spectral techniques to enable fully parallel 3D calculations of very large systems. In this work we present benchmark results for HFB-AX and MADNESS-HFB on ultracold trapped fermions.

  1. ALGORITHM OF WORK OF SYSTEM OF MANAGEMENT BY AUTOMATED GEAR-BOXES CARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Smirnov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of algorithms of management system’s work by the automated gear-boxes vehicles is considered and the results of their practical use on the example of the KamAZ truck are considered.

  2. Modeling of flow dynamics in layered groundwater system: Comparative evaluation of black box and numerical approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The numerical flow and transport models are used to calculate the streamline distribution in the aquifer and the tracer concentration in the outflow from the system for the groundwater aquifer consists of parallel layers with different hydraulic conductivity. Infiltration takes place through the whole aquifer surface and the aquifer is drainaged by the river (constant head). Using the streamline distribution calculated using numerical model of water flow, the distribution of the transit time of water particle through the aquifer is constructed. These distribution functions calculated for different imagine aquifers are compared with the well known distribution functions of Black-Box-Model (BBM) approach. In that way it was found which of BBM functions approximates the real hydrological situation with the best accuracy. It was also found the relation of the mean transit time of water to the aquifer parameters. Additionally, the numerical transport model was applied for the continuous injection of ideal tracer through the aquifer surface and the calculated weighted concentrations found for the outflow (river) were taken into BBM modeling. It was found which BBM model can be calibrated to the observed output concentrations and what is the value of the mean transit time of water through the aquifer. The aquifer parameters obtained by applying distribution functions to the numerical modeling of water flow and by applying BBM to the transport modeling, are compared with the real parameters of the aquifers being considered. (author)

  3. Groundwater Visualisation System (GVS): A software framework for integrated display and interrogation of conceptual hydrogeological models, data and time-series animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Malcolm E.; James, Allan; Hawke, Amy; Raiber, Matthias

    2013-05-01

    Valley, and the Surat Basin, a large sedimentary basin of confined artesian aquifers. This latter example required more detail in the hydrostratigraphy, correlation of formations with drillholes and visualisation of simulation piezometric surfaces. Both alluvial system GVS models were developed during drought conditions to support government strategies to implement groundwater management. The Surat Basin model was industry sponsored research, for coal seam gas groundwater management and community information and consultation. The "virtual" groundwater systems in these 3D GVS models can be interactively interrogated by standard functions, plus production of 2D cross-sections, data selection from the 3D scene, rear end database and plot displays. A unique feature is that GVS allows investigation of time-series data across different display modes, both 2D and 3D. GVS has been used successfully as a tool to enhance community/stakeholder understanding and knowledge of groundwater systems and is of value for training and educational purposes. Projects completed confirm that GVS provides a powerful support to management and decision making, and as a tool for interpretation of groundwater system hydrological processes. A highly effective visualisation output is the production of short videos (e.g. 2-5 min) based on sequences of camera 'fly-throughs' and screen images. Further work involves developing support for multi-screen displays and touch-screen technologies, distributed rendering, gestural interaction systems. To highlight the visualisation and animation capability of the GVS software, links to related multimedia hosted online sites are included in the references.

  4. Military Interrogations: Best Practices and Beliefs

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew D. Semel

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to address some of the gaps in knowledge about interrogations conducted by military interrogators and provide information about methods from their perspectives, based on their experiences.  Kassin et al.  (2007) conducted the first self-report survey of best interrogation practices and beliefs of law enforcement officers. This study followed that model, using a different population from which to obtain the sample: military interrogators.  Like Kassin&rsq...

  5. Demonstration of detectability of SHM system with FBG/PZT hybrid system in composite wing box structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soejima, Hideki; Ogisu, Toshimichi; Yoneda, Hiroshi; Okabe, Yoji; Takeda, Nobuo; Koshioka, Yasuhiro

    2008-03-01

    We have developed a novel damage monitoring system that can monitor the integrity of composite structures in aircrafts. In this system, fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors are used as sensors and piezoelectric transducers (PZT) are used as the generators of elastic waves that propagate in the structure to be inspected. The damage monitoring system can detect the structural integrity by the change in elastic waves that are detected by the FBG sensor and arrayed waveguide grating (AWG)-type filter. We confirmed that the structure health monitoring (SHM) system was able to monitor the damage initiation and propagation by a change in the waveform of the elastic waves in coupon specimens and structural element specimens. In this study, we demonstrate the detectability of the damage monitoring system by using a subcomponent test specimen that simulates an actual aircraft wing box structure composed of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRPs). The FBG sensors and PZTs are bonded to the surfaces of hat-shaped stringers by an adhesive. Damages such as de-bonding and delamination are introduced in the bonded sections of the skin and stringers by impact. Damage monitoring and diagnosis are carried out by the SHM system under ambient conditions. We successfully verify the detectability of our system.

  6. A methodology for designing urban solid waste collection by means of extreme generation factors: fixed box systems (FBS)

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Alfonso Zafra Mejía

    2010-01-01

    Economic development and that of consumer society implies large-scale production of solid waste in any determined locality. This becomes a serious environmental problem if there is no suitable infrastructure for its integral management. This paper pre- sents a methodology for designing urban solid waste collection using fixed box systems (FBS), considering temporary variations in the amounts generated and collected. Temporary variation has been included by analysing three generation poi...

  7. Tracer Gas Technique Versus a Control Box Method for Estimating Direct Capture Efficiency of Exhaust Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, U.; Aubertin, G.; Breum, N. O.; Fontaine, J. R.; Nielsen, Peter V.

    Numerical modelling of direct capture efficiency of a local exhaust is used to compare the tracer gas technique of a proposed CEN standard against a more consistent approach based on an imaginary control box. It is concluded that the tracer gas technique is useful for field applications....

  8. Black-Box System Testing of Real-Time Embedded Systems Using Random and Search-Based Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcuri, Andrea; Iqbal, Muhammad Zohaib; Briand, Lionel

    Testing real-time embedded systems (RTES) is in many ways challenging. Thousands of test cases can be potentially executed on an industrial RTES. Given the magnitude of testing at the system level, only a fully automated approach can really scale up to test industrial RTES. In this paper we take a black-box approach and model the RTES environment using the UML/MARTE international standard. Our main motivation is to provide a more practical approach to the model-based testing of RTES by allowing system testers, who are often not familiar with the system design but know the application domain well-enough, to model the environment to enable test automation. Environment models can support the automation of three tasks: the code generation of an environment simulator, the selection of test cases, and the evaluation of their expected results (oracles). In this paper, we focus on the second task (test case selection) and investigate three test automation strategies using inputs from UML/MARTE environment models: Random Testing (baseline), Adaptive Random Testing, and Search-Based Testing (using Genetic Algorithms). Based on one industrial case study and three artificial systems, we show how, in general, no technique is better than the others. Which test selection technique to use is determined by the failure rate (testing stage) and the execution time of test cases. Finally, we propose a practical process to combine the use of all three test strategies.

  9. Application of exergetic sustainable index to the quantum irreversible Diesel refrigerator cycles for 1D box system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Açıkkalp, Emin; Caner, Necmettin

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, an irreversible quantum Diesel refrigerator for a 1D-box system is described and analyzed. The exergetic sustainability index that is the rate of the exergy output from the system to the total exergetic losses including exergy destruction and exergy loss from the system is applied for the first time to an irreversible quantum engine. Other thermodynamic parameters including work input, cooling load, exergy destruction, COP and exergy efficiency are investigated according to the cycle temperatures and numerical results are presented.

  10. Einstein's Boxes

    CERN Document Server

    Norsen, T

    2005-01-01

    At the 1927 Solvay conference, Einstein presented a thought experiment intended to demonstrate the incompleteness of the quantum mechanical description of reality. In the following years, the thought experiment was picked up and modified by Einstein, de Broglie, and several other commentators into a simple scenario involving the splitting in half of the wave function of a single particle in a box. In this paper we collect together several formulations of this thought experiment from the existing literature; analyze and assess it from the point of view of the Einstein-Bohr debates, the EPR dilemma, and Bell's theorem; and generally lobby for Einstein's Boxes taking its rightful place alongside similar but historically better-known quantum mechanical thought experiments such as EPR and Schroedinger's Cat.

  11. Einstein's Boxes

    OpenAIRE

    Norsen, Travis

    2004-01-01

    At the 1927 Solvay conference, Einstein presented a thought experiment intended to demonstrate the incompleteness of the quantum mechanical description of reality. In the following years, the thought experiment was picked up and modified by Einstein, de Broglie, and several other commentators into a simple scenario involving the splitting in half of the wave function of a single particle in a box. In this paper we collect together several formulations of this thought experiment from the exist...

  12. Active interrogation using energetic protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, Christopher L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chung, Kiwhan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Greene, Steven J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hogan, Gary E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Makela, Mark [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mariam, Fesseha [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Milner, Edward C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Murray, Matthew [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Saunders, Alexander [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Spaulding, Randy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wang, Zhehui [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Waters, Laurie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wysocki, Frederick [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Energetic proton beams provide an attractive alternative when compared to electromagnetic and neutron beams for active interrogation of nuclear threats because they have large fission cross sections, long mean free paths and high penetration, and they can be manipulated with magnetic optics. We have measured time-dependent cross sections and neutron yields for delayed neutrons and gamma rays using 800 MeV and 4 GeV proton beams with a set of bare and shielded targets. The results show significant signals from both unshielded and shielded nuclear materials. Measurements of neutron energies yield suggest a signature unique to fissile material. Results are presented in this paper.

  13. Towards a Flexible Database Interrogation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Fayech

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we are interested in the use of domain ontologies as a semantic enrichment for traditional databases. Our first aim is to help the user in his search when his initial query doesn’t return any result. So, we propose a solution based on two different approaches allowing the user to express his interrogation in a relatively free way. The first approach detects and resolves naming and schematic conflicts. It is an ontological approach for SQL query expansion generating a set of queries. The second one is a join detection approach to eventually add all missed constraints in each generated query.

  14. SMS fiber structure with a multimode fiber graded index type for a temperature measurement using an intensity-based interrogation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mufarrikha, Ainun; Hatta, Agus M.; Koentjoro, Sekartedjo

    2015-01-01

    Temperature sensing based on a singlemode-multimode-singlemode (SMS) fiber structure with a graded index multimode fiber (GI-MMF) type using an intensity-based interrogation has been investigated numerically and experimentally. The effect of temperature on the SMS fiber structure with the MMF-GI type was modeled using a modal propagation analysis (MPA). The SMS fiber structures for temperature sensor was fabricated and tested with the MMF length of 57 mm. It is demonstrated experimentally, and supported with numerical results, that the sensor showed a sensitivity of 0.063 dB/°C with a temperature measurement range of 175-325°C. This sensor offers simple configuration and low cost of fabrication for the temperature measurement applications.

  15. Military Interrogations: Best Practices and Beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D. Semel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to address some of the gaps in knowledge about interrogations conducted by military interrogators and provide information about methods from their perspectives, based on their experiences.  Kassin et al.  (2007 conducted the first self-report survey of best interrogation practices and beliefs of law enforcement officers. This study followed that model, using a different population from which to obtain the sample: military interrogators.  Like Kassin’s study, this survey asked participants to address and self-report on a number of issues, some in common with law enforcement and others that apply specifically to military interrogations.  Participants were asked to estimate, rate and self-report on seven facets of their work. (Like the law enforcement study, the goal here was to obtain common practices, observations, and beliefs about interrogations directly from military interrogators.  Subsequent research can test the interrogation methods that the subjects of this study believe are the most effective and focus on practices and beliefs unique to the military context.  This study empirically supports, for the first time, the hypothesis that experienced interrogators favor rapport-building approaches over all other available techniques.

  16. Opto-Box

    CERN Document Server

    Bertsche, David; The ATLAS collaboration; Welch, Steven; Smith, Dale Shane; Che, Siinn; Gan, K.K.; Boyd, George Russell Jr

    2015-01-01

    The opto-box is a custom mini-crate for housing optical modules, which process and transfer optoelectronic data. The system tightly integrates electrical, mechanical, and thermal functionality into a small package of size 35x10x8 cm^3. Special attention was given to ensure proper shielding, grounding, cooling, high reliability, and environmental tolerance. The custom modules, which incorporate Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs), were developed through a cycle of rigorous testing and redesign. In total, fourteen opto-boxes have been installed and loaded with modules on the ATLAS detector. They are currently in operation as part of the LHC run 2 data read-out chain.

  17. Variation in Miami Cuban Spanish Interrogative Intonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvord, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    The interrogative intonation of Cubans and Cuban Americans living in Miami is investigated. Two different intonation patterns are used in this variety of Spanish to convey absolute interrogative meaning: one with a falling final contour, as has been observed in Cuban Spanish, and one with a rising final contour, as is used in American English and…

  18. Innovations in Los Alamos alpha box design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Destructive examinations of irradiated fuel pins containing plutonium fuel must be performed in shielded hot cells with strict provisions for containing the plutonium. Alpha boxes provide containment for the plutonium, toxic fission products, and other hazardous highly radioactive materials. The alpha box contains windows for viewing and a variety of transfer systems specially designed to allow transfers in and out of the alpha box without spread of the hazardous materials that are contained in the box. Alpha boxes have been in use in the Wing 9 hot cells at Los Alamos National Laboratory for more than 20 years. Features of the newly designed alpha boxes are presented

  19. Innovations in Los Alamos alpha box design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledbetter, J.M.; Dowler, K.E.; Cook, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    Destructive examinations of irradiated fuel pins containing plutonium fuel must be performed in shielded hot cells with strict provisions for containing the plutonium. Alpha boxes provide containment for the plutonium, toxic fission products, and other hazardous highly radioactive materials. The alpha box contains windows for viewing and a variety of transfer systems specially designed to allow transfers in and out of the alpha box without spread of the hazardous materials that are contained in the box. Alpha boxes have been in use in the Wing 9 hot cells at Los Alamos National Laboratory for more than 20 years. Features of the newly designed alpha boxes are presented.

  20. The BOXES Methodology Black Box Dynamic Control

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, David W

    2012-01-01

    Robust control mechanisms customarily require knowledge of the system’s describing equations which may be of the high order differential type.  In order to produce these equations, mathematical models can often be derived and correlated with measured dynamic behavior.  There are two flaws in this approach one is the level of inexactness introduced by linearizations and the other when no model is apparent.  Several years ago a new genre of control systems came to light that are much less dependent on differential models such as fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms. Both of these soft computing solutions require quite considerable a priori system knowledge to create a control scheme and sometimes complicated training program before they can be implemented in a real world dynamic system. Michie and Chambers’ BOXES methodology created a black box system that was designed to control a mechanically unstable system with very little a priori system knowledge, linearization or approximation.  All the method need...

  1. 32 CFR 637.21 - Recording interviews and interrogations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.21 Recording interviews and interrogations. The recording of interviews and interrogations by military police personnel...

  2. New box container system for waste drums: dynamic tests and qualification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A first technical report is presented on a new 20' box container, designed by the firm CORROBESCH/STM as a Type A package for the transport of radioactive and other dangerous materials, and having a carrying capacity of 22 tons. The container itself weighs only 4 tons, and it incorporates a proprietary corrosion finish that is highly resistant to mechanical wear, deformation, and radioactive contamination. The Type A Package, which also can be used as industrial package Type 2 and Type 3, is designed to withstand accelerations of up to 6g. This design criterion was established based on the European Railroad Associations requirement of considering dynamic loads of 4g arising during routine transport times a safety factor of 1.5. In contrast, the ISO Norm 1496, part 1, does not require explicit consideration of dynamic loads but only requires a static load test. Therefore, the main motivation behind the dynamic load design criteria was the complete lack of freight containers capable of withstanding dynamic loads of up to 6g. The container was subjected in Germany to a series of collision and drop tests, as specified by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and it passed these tests to complete satisfaction. As a result, the container received certification by agencies such as the Germanischer Lloyd (GL), the Deutsche Bahn AG (DB), and the Bundesanstalt fuer Materialpruefung (BAM). At the same time, the authors have also developed a mathematical model of the container to predict its dynamic behaviour during service loads, and have been able to make motion predictions that are in good agreement with signatures recorded during tests. (author)

  3. Biotic and abiotic dynamics of a high solid-state anaerobic digestion box-type container system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Andreas; Probst, Maraike; Hinterberger, Stephan; Müller, Horst; Insam, Heribert

    2016-03-01

    A solid-state anaerobic digestion box-type container system for biomethane production was observed in 12 three-week batch fermentations. Reactor performance was monitored using physico-chemical analysis and the methanogenic community was identified using ANAEROCHIP-microarrays and quantitative PCR. A resilient community was found in all batches, despite variations in inoculum to substrate ratio, feedstock quality, and fluctuating reactor conditions. The consortia were dominated by mixotrophic Methanosarcina that were accompanied by hydrogenotrophic Methanobacterium, Methanoculleus, and Methanocorpusculum. The relationship between biotic and abiotic variables was investigated using bivariate correlation analysis and univariate analysis of variance. High amounts of biogas were produced in batches with high copy numbers of Methanosarcina. High copy numbers of Methanocorpusculum and extensive percolation, however, were found to negatively correlate with biogas production. Supporting these findings, a negative correlation was detected between Methanocorpusculum and Methanosarcina. Based on these results, this study suggests Methanosarcina as an indicator for well-functioning reactor performance. PMID:26860425

  4. A methodology for designing urban solid waste collection by means of extreme generation factors: fixed box systems (FBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alfonso Zafra Mejía

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Economic development and that of consumer society implies large-scale production of solid waste in any determined locality. This becomes a serious environmental problem if there is no suitable infrastructure for its integral management. This paper pre- sents a methodology for designing urban solid waste collection using fixed box systems (FBS, considering temporary variations in the amounts generated and collected. Temporary variation has been included by analysing three generation point factors: weekly extreme coefficient (WEC, daily extreme coefficient (DEC and daily extreme coefficient of heterogeneous distribution (DECH. Such time-based consideration allows making reasonable designs which can be adjusted to maximum generation and collection rates. The proposed model considers per capita production (PCP, weekly extreme coefficient (WEC and daily extreme coefficient of heterogeneous distribution (DECH. The proposed methodology can be used for selecting the equipment and the size of the in- tegral management units for urban solid waste.

  5. Distributed audio recording using OFDR with double interrogation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabai, Haniel; Eyal, Avishay

    2014-05-01

    We introduce a phase sensitive, dynamic and long range fiber-optic sensing system with fully distributed audio recording capabilities. The proposed system implements a recently developed OFDR design, which is based on double interrogation of a sensing fiber with equally-spaced discrete reflectors. In this paper, the ability of each sensing segment to operate as an independent, purely optical audio recorder with little cross-talk artifacts is demonstrated.

  6. Development of a SoC for Digital Television Set-Top Box: Architecture and System Integration Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Borin Soares

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the integration of several IPs to generate a system-on-chip (SoC for digital television set-top box compliant to the SBTVD standard. Embedded consumer electronics for multimedia applications like video processing systems require large storage capacity and high bandwidth memory. Also, those systems are built from heterogeneous processing units, designed to perform specific tasks in order to maximize the overall system efficiency. A single off-chip memory is generally shared between the processing units to reduce power and save costs. The external memory access is one bottleneck when decoding high-definition video sequences in real time. In this work, a four-level memory hierarchy was designed to manage the decoded video in macroblock granularity with low latency. The use of the memory hierarchy in the system design is challenging because it impacts the system integration process and IP reuse in a collaborative design team. Practical strategies used to solve integration problems are discussed in this text. The SoC architecture was validated and is being progressively prototyped using a Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGA board.

  7. Integrated nanoscale tools for interrogating living cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgolli, Marsela

    The development of next-generation, nanoscale technologies that interface biological systems will pave the way towards new understanding of such complex systems. Nanowires -- one-dimensional nanoscale structures -- have shown unique potential as an ideal physical interface to biological systems. Herein, we focus on the development of nanowire-based devices that can enable a wide variety of biological studies. First, we built upon standard nanofabrication techniques to optimize nanowire devices, resulting in perfectly ordered arrays of both opaque (Silicon) and transparent (Silicon dioxide) nanowires with user defined structural profile, densities, and overall patterns, as well as high sample consistency and large scale production. The high-precision and well-controlled fabrication method in conjunction with additional technologies laid the foundation for the generation of highly specialized platforms for imaging, electrochemical interrogation, and molecular biology. Next, we utilized nanowires as the fundamental structure in the development of integrated nanoelectronic platforms to directly interrogate the electrical activity of biological systems. Initially, we generated a scalable intracellular electrode platform based on vertical nanowires that allows for parallel electrical interfacing to multiple mammalian neurons. Our prototype device consisted of 16 individually addressable stimulation/recording sites, each containing an array of 9 electrically active silicon nanowires. We showed that these vertical nanowire electrode arrays could intracellularly record and stimulate neuronal activity in dissociated cultures of rat cortical neurons similar to patch clamp electrodes. In addition, we used our intracellular electrode platform to measure multiple individual synaptic connections, which enables the reconstruction of the functional connectivity maps of neuronal circuits. In order to expand and improve the capability of this functional prototype device we designed

  8. Police interrogations through the prism of science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Areh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Several approaches can be employed for information gathering from human sources, differing in their theoretical basis, goals, realisation, and ethical acceptability. The paper critically presents and compares two prevalent approaches to suspect interrogation used by the police. The older, prevalent interrogation approach focuses on obtaining suspects’ incriminating statements and admissions, which severely elevates the risk of false confessions. Consequently, this interrogation approach is termed accusatorial or coercive since suspects are forced to admit to a crime. The newer interrogation approach is the information-gathering approach, also known as the investigative interview. It focuses on gathering accurate information in order to exclude or accuse a suspect in a criminal investigation. In comparison with coercive interrogation models, the information-gathering approach has a lower probability of false confessions since suspects are exposed to significantly lower levels of psychological pressure. Moreover, it is ethically more acceptable, has scientific grounds, enables the gathering of more accurate information, and has been found to be at least as effective as the coercive approach in criminal investigations. The investigative interview relies mainly on findings from social psychology. An analysis of coercive interrogation models reveals that they have no scientific basis and as such rely mainly on uncorroborated common-sense assumptions from authorities. In developed countries, coercive interrogation models are increasingly being replaced by the information-gathering approach, a trend connected with the enforcement of high human rights standards and a higher awareness of risks associated with coercive interrogation methods by the general public, academia, and professionals alike.

  9. Final Project Report: Self-Correcting Controls for VAV System Faults Filter/Fan/Coil and VAV Box Sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brambley, Michael R.; Fernandez, Nicholas; Wang, Weimin; Cort, Katherine A.; Cho, Heejin; Ngo, Hung; Goddard, James K.

    2011-05-01

    This report addresses original research by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the California Institute for Energy and Environment on self-correcting controls for variable-air-volume (VAV) heating, ventilating and air-conditioning systems and focuses specifically on air handling and VAV box components of the air side of the system. A complete set of faults for these components was compiled and a fault mode analysis performed to understand the detectable symptoms of the faults and the chain of causation. A set of 26 algorithms was developed to facilitate the automatic correction of these faults in typical commercial VAV systems. These algorithms include training tests that are used during commissioning to develop models of normal system operation, passive diagnostics used to detect the symptoms of faults, proactive diagnostics used to diagnose the cause of a fault, and finally fault correction algorithms. Ten of the twenty six algorithms were implemented in a prototype software package that interfaces with a test bed facility at PNNL's Richland, WA, laboratory. Measurement bias faults were instigated in the supply-air temperature sensor and the supply-air flow meter to test the algorithms developed. The algorithms as implemented in the laboratory software correctly detected, diagnosed and corrected these faults. Finally, an economic and impact assessment was performed for the State of California for deployment of self-correcting controls. Assuming 15% HVAC energy savings and a modeled deployment profile, 3.1-5.8 TBu of energy savings are possible by year 15.

  10. Opto-Box

    CERN Document Server

    Bertsche, David; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The opto-box is a custom mini-crate for housing optical modules, which process and transfer optoelectronic data. Many novel solutions were developed for the custom design and manufacturing. The system tightly integrates electrical, mechanical, and thermal functionality into a small package of size 35x10x8 cm$^{3}$. Special attention was given to ensure proper shielding, grounding, cooling, high reliability, and environmental tolerance. The custom modules, which incorporate Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs), were developed through a cycle of rigorous testing and redesign. In total, fourteen opto-boxes have been installed and loaded with modules on the ATLAS detector. They are currently in operation as part of the LHC run 2 data read-out chain.

  11. Methow and Columbia Rivers studies: summary of data collection, comparison of database structure and habitat protocols, and impact of additional PIT tag interrogation systems to survival estimates, 2008-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Kyle D.; Tibbits, Wesley T.; Watson, Grace A.; Newsom, Michael A.; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    designed to show some initial analysis and to disseminate summary information that could potentially be used in ongoing modeling efforts by USGS, Reclamation, and University of Idaho. The second chapter documents the database of fish and habitat data collected by USGS from 2004 through 2012 and compares USGS habitat protocols to the Columbia Habitat Monitoring Program (CHaMP) protocol. The third chapter is a survival analysis of fish moving through Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tag interrogation systems in the Methow and Columbia Rivers. It examines the effects of adding PIT tags and/or PIT tag interrogation systems on survival estimates of juvenile steelhead and Chinook salmon.

  12. Design and fabrication of a high vacuum box, to be used in one ion polarization system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses in considerable detail some of the concepts associated with vacuum systems as well as some of the factors which enter into the design of components and units employed in such systems. One of the aims pursued is to establish national technology suited to designing and manufacturing needs arising in connection with problems like the one described, with training, as appropriate, for the personnel involved in the entire development process. (author)

  13. The development of enabling technologies for producing active interrogation beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A U.S./Russian collaboration of accelerator scientists was directed to the development of high averaged-current (∼1 mA) and high-quality (emittance ∼15 πmm mrad; energy spread ∼0.1%) 1.75 MeV proton beams to produce active interrogation beams that could be applied to counterterrorism. Several accelerator technologies were investigated. These included an electrostatic tandem accelerator of novel design, a compact cyclotron, and a storage ring with energy compensation and electron cooling. Production targets capable of withstanding the beam power levels were designed, fabricated, and tested. The cyclotron/storage-ring system was theoretically studied and computationally designed, and the electrostatic vacuum tandem accelerator at BINP was demonstrated for its potential in active interrogation of explosives and special nuclear materials.

  14. Soil-embedded optical fiber sensing cable interrogated by Brillouin optical time-domain reflectometry (B-OTDR) and optical frequency-domain reflectometry (OFDR) for embedded cavity detection and sinkhole warning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanticq, V.; Bourgeois, E.; Magnien, P.; Dieleman, L.; Vinceslas, G.; Sang, A.; Delepine-Lesoille, S.

    2009-03-01

    A soil-embedded optical fiber sensing cable is evaluated for an embedded cavity detection and sinkhole warning system in railway tunnels. Tests were performed on a decametric structure equipped with an embedded 110 m long fiber optic cable. Both Brillouin optical time-domain reflectometry (B-OTDR) and optical frequency-domain reflectometry (OFDR) sensing techniques were used for cable interrogation, yielding results that were in good qualitative agreement with finite-element calculations. Theoretical and experimental comparison enabled physical interpretation of the influence of ground properties, and the analysis of embedded cavity size and position. A 5 mm embedded cavity located 2 m away from the sensing cable was detected. The commercially available sensing cable remained intact after soil collapse. Specificities of each technique are analyzed in view of the application requirements. For tunnel monitoring, the OFDR technique was determined to be more viable than the B-OTDR due to higher spatial resolution, resulting in better detection and size determination of the embedded cavities. Conclusions of this investigation gave outlines for future field use of distributed strain-sensing methods under railways and more precisely enabled designing a warning system suited to the Ebersviller tunnel specificities.

  15. 基于系统辨识的地表太阳辐射Box-Jenkins模型的建立%ESTABLISHMENT OF BOX-JENKINS MODEL FOR SURFACE SOLAR RADIATION BASED ON SYSTEM IDENTIFICATION METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏; 丁明

    2012-01-01

    Astronomical radiation as the input data, the BJ (Box-Jenkins) model for surface solar radiation was established using system identification method. The model was affirmed to be workable by residual analysis and zero-pole test. This method can be used to predict the surface solar radiation of 5 -15 minutes time interval, the prediction results can provide solar radiation data for power output forecast of solar PV power plants.%利用天文辐射作为输入数据,采用系统辨识的方法得到地表太阳辐射的BJ(Box-Jenkins)模型,并通过残 差分析和零极点检验.该方法可用于预测5~ 15min时间间隔的地表太阳辐射,为太阳能电站的功率输出预测提供太阳能辐射数据.

  16. Illusion-related brain activations: a new virtual reality mirror box system for use during functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diers, Martin; Kamping, Sandra; Kirsch, Pinar; Rance, Mariela; Bekrater-Bodmann, Robin; Foell, Jens; Trojan, Joerg; Fuchs, Xaver; Bach, Felix; Maaß, Heiko; Cakmak, Hüseyin; Flor, Herta

    2015-01-12

    Extended viewing of movements of one's intact limb in a mirror as well as motor imagery have been shown to decrease pain in persons with phantom limb pain or complex regional pain syndrome and to increase the movement ability in hemiparesis following stroke. In addition, mirrored movements differentially activate sensorimotor cortex in amputees with and without phantom limb pain. However, using a so-called mirror box has technical limitations, some of which can be overcome by virtual reality applications. We developed a virtual reality mirror box application and evaluated its comparability to a classical mirror box setup. We applied both paradigms to 20 healthy controls and analyzed vividness and authenticity of the illusion as well as brain activation patterns. In both conditions, subjects reported similar intensities for the sensation that movements of the virtual left hand felt as if they were executed by their own left hand. We found activation in the primary sensorimotor cortex contralateral to the actual movement, with stronger activation for the virtual reality 'mirror box' compared to the classical mirror box condition, as well as activation in the primary sensorimotor cortex contralateral to the mirrored/virtual movement. We conclude that a virtual reality application of the mirror box is viable and that it might be useful for future research. PMID:25446453

  17. Unlocking the Black Box: Exploring the Link between High-Performance Work Systems and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messersmith, Jake G.; Patel, Pankaj C.; Lepak, David P.

    2011-01-01

    With a growing body of literature linking systems of high-performance work practices to organizational performance outcomes, recent research has pushed for examinations of the underlying mechanisms that enable this connection. In this study, based on a large sample of Welsh public-sector employees, we explored the role of several individual-level…

  18. Functional characterization of the ER stress induced X-box-binding protein-1 (Xbp-1 in the porcine system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Dong-Il

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The unfolded protein response (UPR is an evolutionary conserved adaptive reaction for increasing cell survival under endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress conditions. X-box-binding protein-1 (Xbp1 is a key transcription factor of UPR that activates genes involved in protein folding, secretion, and degradation to restore ER function. The UPR induced by ER stress was extensively studied in diseases linked to protein misfolding and aggregations. However, in the porcine system, genes in the UPR pathway were not investigated. In this study, we isolated and characterized the porcine Xbp1 (pXbp1 gene in ER stress using porcine embryonic fibroblast (PEF cells and porcine organs. ER stress was induced by the treatment of tunicamycin and cell viability was investigated by the MTT assay. For cloning and analyzing the expression pattern of pXbp1, RT-PCR analysis and Western blot were used. Knock-down of pXbp1 was performed by the siRNA-mediated gene silencing. Results We found that the pXbp1 mRNA was the subject of the IRE1α-mediated unconventional splicing by ER stress. Knock-down of pXbp1 enhanced ER stress-mediated cell death in PEF cells. In adult organs, pXbp1 mRNA and protein were expressed and the spliced forms were detected. Conclusions It was first found that the UPR mechanisms and the function of pXbp1 in the porcine system. These results indicate that pXbp1 plays an important role during the ER stress response like other animal systems and open a new opportunity for examining the UPR pathway in the porcine model system.

  19. ACSYS in a box

    CERN Document Server

    Briegel, C; Hendricks, B; King, C; Lackey, S; Neswold, R; Nicklaus, D; Patrick, J; Petrov, A; Rechenmacher, R; Schumann, C; Smedinghoff, J

    2012-01-01

    The Accelerator Control System at Fermilab has evolved to enable this relatively large control system to be encapsulated into a "box" such as a laptop. The goal was to provide a platform isolated from the "online" control system. This platform can be used internally for making major upgrades and modifications without impacting operations. It also provides a standalone environment for research and development including a turnkey control system for collaborators. Over time, the code base running on Scientific Linux has enabled all the salient features of the Fermilab's control system to be captured in an off-the-shelf laptop. The anticipated additional benefits of packaging the system include improved maintenance, reliability, documentation, and future enhancements.

  20. Asymptotic Symmetries from finite boxes

    CERN Document Server

    Andrade, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    It is natural to regulate an infinite-sized system by imposing a boundary condition at finite distance, placing the system in a "box." This breaks symmetries, though the breaking is small when the box is large. One should thus be able to obtain the asymptotic symmetries of the infinite system by studying regulated systems. We provide concrete examples in the context of Einstein-Hilbert gravity (with negative or zero cosmological constant) by showing in 4 or more dimensions how the Anti-de Sitter and Poincar\\'e asymptotic symmetries can be extracted from gravity in a spherical box with Dirichlet boundary conditions. In 2+1 dimensions we obtain the full double-Virasoro algebra of asymptotic symmetries for AdS$_3$ and, correspondingly, the full Bondi-Metzner-Sachs (BMS) algebra for asymptotically flat space. In higher dimensions, a related approach may continue to be useful for constructing a good asymptotically flat phase space with BMS asymptotic symmetries.

  1. Asymptotic symmetries from finite boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Tomás; Marolf, Donald

    2016-01-01

    It is natural to regulate an infinite-sized system by imposing a boundary condition at finite distance, placing the system in a 'box.' This breaks symmetries, though the breaking is small when the box is large. One should thus be able to obtain the asymptotic symmetries of the infinite system by studying regulated systems. We provide concrete examples in the context of Einstein-Hilbert gravity (with negative or zero cosmological constant) by showing in 4 or more dimensions how the anti-de Sitter and Poincaré asymptotic symmetries can be extracted from gravity in a spherical box with Dirichlet boundary conditions. In 2 + 1 dimensions we obtain the full double-Virasoro algebra of asymptotic symmetries for AdS3 and, correspondingly, the full Bondi-Metzner-Sachs (BMS) algebra for asymptotically flat space. In higher dimensions, a related approach may continue to be useful for constructing a good asymptotically flat phase space with BMS asymptotic symmetries.

  2. Projection optics box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Layton C.; Malsbury, Terry; Hudyma, Russell M.; Parker, John M.

    2000-01-01

    A projection optics box or assembly for use in an optical assembly, such as in an extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) system using 10-14 nm soft x-ray photons. The projection optics box utilizes a plurality of highly reflective optics or mirrors, each mounted on a precision actuator, and which reflects an optical image, such as from a mask, in the EUVL system onto a point of use, such as a target or silicon wafer, the mask, for example, receiving an optical signal from a source assembly, such as a developed from laser system, via a series of highly reflective mirrors of the EUVL system. The plurality of highly reflective optics or mirrors are mounted in a housing assembly comprised of a series of bulkheads having wall members secured together to form a unit construction of maximum rigidity. Due to the precision actuators, the mirrors must be positioned precisely and remotely in tip, tilt, and piston (three degrees of freedom), while also providing exact constraint.

  3. Laryngeal (Voice Box) Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Meeting Calendar Find an ENT Doctor Near You Voice Box (Laryngeal) Cancer Voice Box (Laryngeal) Cancer Patient Health Information News media ... laryngeal cancer can be severe with respect to voice, breathing, or swallowing. It is fundamentally a preventable ...

  4. Lagrangian 3D particle tracking in high-speed flows: Shake-The-Box for multi-pulse systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novara, Matteo; Schanz, Daniel; Reuther, Nico; Kähler, Christian J.; Schröder, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    The Shake-The-Box (STB) particle tracking technique, recently introduced for time-resolved 3D particle image velocimetry (PIV) images, is applied here to data from a multi-pulse investigation of a turbulent boundary layer flow with adverse pressure gradient in air at 36 m/s ( Re τ = 10,650). The multi-pulse acquisition strategy allows for the recording of four-pulse long time-resolved sequences with a time separation of a few microseconds. The experimental setup consists of a dual-imaging system and a dual-double-cavity laser emitting orthogonal polarization directions to separate the four pulses. The STB particle triangulation and tracking strategy is adapted here to cope with the limited amount of realizations available along the time sequence and to take advantage of the ghost track reduction offered by the use of two independent imaging systems. Furthermore, a correction scheme to compensate for camera vibrations is discussed, together with a method to accurately identify the position of the wall within the measurement domain. Results show that approximately 80,000 tracks can be instantaneously reconstructed within the measurement volume, enabling the evaluation of both dense velocity fields, suitable for spatial gradients evaluation, and highly spatially resolved boundary layer profiles. Turbulent boundary layer profiles obtained from ensemble averaging of the STB tracks are compared to results from 2D-PIV and long-range micro particle tracking velocimetry; the comparison shows the capability of the STB approach in delivering accurate results across a wide range of scales.

  5. A high pulse repetition frequency ultrasound system for the ex vivo measurement of mechanical properties of crystalline lenses with laser-induced microbubbles interrogated by acoustic radiation force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sangpil; Aglyamov, Salavat; Karpiouk, Andrei; Emelianov, Stanislav

    2012-08-01

    A high pulse repetition frequency ultrasound system for an ex vivo measurement of mechanical properties of an animal crystalline lens was developed and validated. We measured the bulk displacement of laser-induced microbubbles created at different positions within the lens using nanosecond laser pulses. An impulsive acoustic radiation force was applied to the microbubble, and spatio-temporal measurements of the microbubble displacement were assessed using a custom-made high pulse repetition frequency ultrasound system consisting of two 25 MHz focused ultrasound transducers. One of these transducers was used to emit a train of ultrasound pulses and another transducer was used to receive the ultrasound echoes reflected from the microbubble. The developed system was operating at 1 MHz pulse repetition frequency. Based on the measured motion of the microbubble, Young’s moduli of surrounding tissue were reconstructed and the values were compared with those measured using the indentation test. Measured values of Young’s moduli of four bovine lenses ranged from 2.6 ± 0.1 to 26 ± 1.4 kPa, and there was good agreement between the two methods. Therefore, our studies, utilizing the high pulse repetition frequency ultrasound system, suggest that the developed approach can be used to assess the mechanical properties of ex vivo crystalline lenses. Furthermore, the potential of the presented approach for in vivo measurements is discussed.

  6. Interrogative Suggestibility in an Adolescent Forensic Occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, G.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Sixty-five juvenile offenders in residential care completed the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale, and their scores were matched for IQ and memory with those of 60 adult offenders. The juveniles gave in significantly more to interrogative pressure through negative feedback but were no more yielding to leading questions than adults. (JPS)

  7. Rheo: Japanese Sound Art Interrogating Digital Mediality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandsø, Anette

    THe article asks in what way the Japanese sound artist Ryoichi Kurokawa's audiovisual installation Rheo 5 Horisonz (2010) is 'digital'. Using Professor Lars Elleströms concept of 'mediality, the main claim in this article is that Rheo no only uses digital tehcnology, but also interrogates digital...

  8. Opening up the Quantum Three-Box Problem with Undetectable Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    George, Richard E; Maroney, Owen; Blok, Machiel; Bernien, Hannes; Markham, Matthew L; Twitchen, Daniel J; Morton, John J L; Briggs, G Andrew D; Hanson, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    One of the most striking features of quantum mechanics is the profound effect exerted by measurements alone. Sophisticated quantum control is now available in several experimental systems, exposing discrepancies between quantum and classical mechanics whenever measurement induces disturbance of the interrogated system. In practice, such discrepancies may frequently be explained as the back-action required by quantum mechanics adding quantum noise to a classical signal. Here we implement the 'three-box' quantum game of Aharonov and Vaidman in which quantum measurements add no detectable noise to a classical signal, by utilising state-of-the-art control and measurement of the nitrogen vacancy centre in diamond. Quantum and classical mechanics then make contradictory predictions for the same experimental procedure, however classical observers cannot invoke measurement-induced disturbance to explain this discrepancy. We quantify the residual disturbance of our measurements and obtain data that rule out any classi...

  9. Understanding Recommender Dynamics driving Box Office Revenues

    CERN Document Server

    Yeung, C H; Jin, C -H

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a simple model to investigate the underlying dynamics driving movie box office. Without an explicit reliance on time, the box office of movies evolves naturally by movie-movie competition through reviews listed on a centralized recommender system. A simple mean-field approximation is employed which assumes an average interaction between the competing movies, and describes the interesting box office dynamics. Box office hits are found for movies with quality beyond a critical value, leading to booms in gross box office. Such critical value is dependent on the reviewing behaviors, intention of movie goers for new movies, and the quality of the peer competing movies. Finally we compare our analytical results with simulations and real system and obtain qualitative agreements, suggesting the present model in describing the fundamental dynamics of box office.

  10. Temperature-compensated strain measurement of full-scale small aircraft wing structure using low-cost FBG interrogator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J. H.; Lee, Y. G.; Park, Y.; Kim, C. G.

    2013-04-01

    Recently, health and usage monitoring systems (HUMS) are being studied to monitor the real-time condition of aircrafts during flight. HUMSs can prevent aircraft accidents and reduce inspection time and cost. Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors are widely used for aircraft HUMSs with many advantages such as light weight, small size, easy-multiplexing, and EMI immunity. However, commercial FBG interrogators are too expensive to apply for small aircrafts. Generally the cost of conventional FBG interrogators is over 20,000. Therefore, cost-effective FBG interrogation systems need to be developed for small aircraft HUMSs. In this study, cost-effective low speed FBG interrogator was applied to full-scale small aircraft wing structure to examine the operational applicability of the low speed FBG interrogator to the monitoring of small aircrafts. The cost of the developed low speed FBG interrogator was about 10,000, which is an affordable price for a small aircraft. 10 FBG strain sensors and 1 FBG temperature sensor were installed on the surface of the full-scale wing structure. Load was applied to the tip of the wing structure, and the low speed interrogator detected the change in the center wavelength of the FBG sensors at the sampling rate of 10Hz. To assess the applicability of the low-cost FBG interrogator to full-scale small aircraft wing structure, a temperature-compensated strain measurement algorithm was verified experimentally under various loading conditions of the wing structure with temperature variations.

  11. Metod of black box and their us

    OpenAIRE

    Novotný, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This thesis on a topic "black-box method and its use" deals with the description of the method of solving problematic tasks as a black box and its use in teaching. Using the theory of systems and cybernetics disciplines, especially cybernetic-pedagogy attempts to describe this method so that it is as efficient as possible and to maximize the benefits for students. Besides, the implementation of selected black box that will be suitable and used for teaching subjects electrotechnics, automatiza...

  12. Active interrogation of highly enriched uranium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairrow, Nannette Lea

    Safeguarding special nuclear material (SNM) in the Department of Energy Complex is vital to the national security of the United States. Active and passive nondestructive assays are used to confirm the presence of SNM in various configurations ranging from waste to nuclear weapons. Confirmation measurements for nuclear weapons are more challenging because the design complicates the detection of a distinct signal for highly enriched uranium. The emphasis of this dissertation was to investigate a new nondestructive assay technique that provides an independent and distinct signal to confirm the presence of highly enriched uranium (HEU). Once completed and tested this assay method could be applied to confirmation measurements of nuclear weapons. The new system uses a 14-MeV neutron source for interrogation and records the arrival time of neutrons between the pulses with a high efficiency detection system. The data is then analyzed by the Feynman reduced variance method. The analysis determined the amount of correlation in the data and provided a unique signature of correlated fission neutrons. Measurements of HEU spheres were conducted at Los Alamos with the new system. Then, Monte Carlo calculations were performed to verify hypothesis made about the behavior of the neutrons in the experiment. Comparisons of calculated counting rates by the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP) were made with the experimental data to confirm that the measured response reflected the desired behavior of neutron interactions in the highly enriched uranium. In addition, MCNP calculations of the delayed neutron build-up were compared with the measured data. Based on the results obtained from this dissertation, this measurement method has the potential to be expanded to include mass determinations of highly enriched uranium. Although many safeguards techniques exist for measuring special nuclear material, the number of assays that can be used to confirm HEU in shielded systems is

  13. A wearable passive force sensor/active interrogator intended for intra-splint use for the detection and recording of bruxism

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzáles, C.; Diaz Lantada, Andres

    2009-01-01

    A wearable bite force sensing system proto type made up of a passive force sensor and an active interrogator/reader is described. The system is aimed a* bite sensing using a wireless link between the passive sensor to be located in (lie moutb and the external interrogator that can record the evolution of detected force. The interrogator generates a magnetic field that energizes the passive sensor which is also used as the information transmission earlier. The passive farce sensor does not nee...

  14. Encapsulated microsensors for reservoir interrogation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Eddie Elmer; Aines, Roger D.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.

    2016-03-08

    In one general embodiment, a system includes at least one microsensor configured to detect one or more conditions of a fluidic medium of a reservoir; and a receptacle, wherein the receptacle encapsulates the at least one microsensor. In another general embodiment, a method include injecting the encapsulated at least one microsensor as recited above into a fluidic medium of a reservoir; and detecting one or more conditions of the fluidic medium of the reservoir.

  15. Microwave field controlled slow and fast light with a coupled system consisting of a nanomechanical resonator and a Cooper-pair box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Peng-Cheng; Xiao, Yin; Yu, Ya-Fei; Zhang, Zhi-Ming

    2014-02-10

    We theoretically demonstrate an efficient method to control slow and fast light in microwave regime with a coupled system consisting of a nanomechanical resonator (NR) and a superconducting Cooper-pair box (CPB). Using the pump-probe technique, we find that both slow and fast light effects of the probe field can appear in this coupled system. Furthermore, we show that a tunable switch from slow light to fast light can be achieved by only adjusting the pump-CPB detuning from the NR frequency to zero. Our coupled system may have potential applications, for example, in optical communication, microwave photonics, and nonlinear optics. PMID:24663653

  16. Wireless SAW Interrogator and Sensor System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Wireless, passive, Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW), Orthogonal Frequency Coded (OFC) temperature sensors, operating in a multi-sensor environment, developed at the...

  17. Natural syntax : English interrogative main clauses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Oresnik

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural Syntax is a developing deductive theory, a branch of Naturalness Theory. The naturalnessjudgements are couched in naturalness scales, whichfollow from the basic parameters (or «axioms» listed at the beginning of the paper. The predictions of the theory are calculated in deductions, whose chief components are apair of naturalness scales and the rules governing the alignment of corresponding naturalness values. Parallel and chiastic alignments are distinguished, in complementary distribution. Chiastic alignment is mandatory in deductions limited to unnatural environments. The paper deals with English interrogative main clauses. Within these, only the interrogatives containing wh-words exclusively insitu constitute an extremely unnatural environment and require chiastic alignment. Otherwiseparallel alignment is used. Earlier publications on Natural Syntax: Kavcic 2005a,b, Oresnik 1999, 2000a,b, 200la-f   2002, 2003a-c, 2002/03, 2004. This list cites only works written in English.

  18. Wirelessly Interrogated Wear or Temperature Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Stanley E.; Taylor, Bryant D.

    2010-01-01

    Sensors for monitoring surface wear and/or temperature without need for wire connections have been developed. Excitation and interrogation of these sensors are accomplished by means of a magnetic-field-response recorder. In a sensor of the present type as in the previously reported ones, the capacitance and, thus, the resonance frequency, varies as a known function of the quantity of interest that one seeks to determine. Hence, the resonance frequency is measured and used to calculate the quantity of interest.

  19. Projected Applications of a "Climate in a Box" Computing System at the NASA Short-Term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.; Molthan, Andrew L.; Zavodsky, Bradley; Case, Jonathan L.; LaFontaine, Frank J.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center focuses on the transition of unique observations and research capabilities to the operational weather community, with a goal of improving short-term forecasts on a regional scale. Advances in research computing have lead to "Climate in a Box" systems, with hardware configurations capable of producing high resolution, near real-time weather forecasts, but with footprints, power, and cooling requirements that are comparable to desktop systems. The SPoRT Center has developed several capabilities for incorporating unique NASA research capabilities and observations with real-time weather forecasts. Planned utilization includes the development of a fully-cycled data assimilation system used to drive 36-48 hour forecasts produced by the NASA Unified version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model (NU-WRF). The horsepower provided by the "Climate in a Box" system is expected to facilitate the assimilation of vertical profiles of temperature and moisture provided by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) aboard the NASA Aqua satellite. In addition, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments aboard NASA s Aqua and Terra satellites provide high-resolution sea surface temperatures and vegetation characteristics. The development of MODIS normalized difference vegetation index (NVDI) composites for use within the NASA Land Information System (LIS) will assist in the characterization of vegetation, and subsequently the surface albedo and processes related to soil moisture. Through application of satellite simulators, NASA satellite instruments can be used to examine forecast model errors in cloud cover and other characteristics. Through the aforementioned application of the "Climate in a Box" system and NU-WRF capabilities, an end goal is the establishment of a real-time forecast system that fully integrates modeling and analysis capabilities developed within the NASA SPo

  20. Shaping 3-D boxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenholt, Rasmus; Madsen, Claus B.

    2011-01-01

    Enabling users to shape 3-D boxes in immersive virtual environments is a non-trivial problem. In this paper, a new family of techniques for creating rectangular boxes of arbitrary position, orientation, and size is presented and evaluated. These new techniques are based solely on position data...

  1. Hidden explosives detector employing pulsed neutron and x-ray interrogation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods and systems for the detection of small amounts of modern, highly-explosive nitrogen-based explosives, such as plastic explosives, hidden in airline baggage. Several techniques are employed either individually or combined in a hybrid system. One technique employed in combination is X-ray imaging. Another technique is interrogation with a pulsed neutron source in a two-phase mode of operation to image both nitrogen and oxygen densities. Another technique employed in combination is neutron interrogation to form a hydrogen density image or three-dimensional map. In addition, deliberately-placed neutron-absorbing materials can be detected

  2. Investigation of active interrogation techniques to detect special nuclear material in maritime environments: Boarded search of a cargo container ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The detonation of a terrorist nuclear weapon in the United States would result in the massive loss of life and grave economic damage. Even if a device was not detonated, its known or suspected presence aboard a cargo container ship in a U.S. port would have major economic and political consequences. One possible means to prevent this threat would be to board a ship at sea and search for the device before it reaches port. The scenario considered here involves a small Coast Guard team with strong intelligence boarding a container ship to search for a nuclear device. Using active interrogation, the team would nonintrusively search a block of shipping containers to locate the fissile material. Potential interrogation source and detector technologies for the team are discussed. The methodology of the scan is presented along with a technique for calculating the required interrogation source strength using computer simulations. MCNPX was used to construct a computer model of a container ship, and several search scenarios were simulated. The results of the simulations are presented in terms of the source strength required for each interrogation scenario. Validation measurements were performed in order to scale these simulation results to expected performance. Interrogations through the short (2.4 m) axis of a standardized shipping container appear to be feasible given the entire range of container loadings tested. Interrogations through several containers at once or a single container through its long (12.2 m) axis do not appear to be viable with a portable interrogation system

  3. Sequential interrogation of multiple FBG sensors using LPG modulation and an artificial neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interrogating multiple fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) requires highly sensitive spectrum scanning equipment such as optical spectrum analyzers, tunable filters, acousto-optic tunable filters etc, which are expensive, bulky and time consuming. In this paper, we present a new approach for multiple FBG sensor interrogation using long-period gratings and an artificial neural network. The reflection spectra of the multiplexed FBGs are modulated by two long period gratings separately and the modulated optical intensities were detected by two photodetectors. The outputs of the detectors are then used as input in a previously trained artificial neural network to interrogate the FBG sensors. Simulations have been performed to determine the strain and wavelength shift using two and four sensors. The interrogation system has also been demonstrated experimentally for two sensors using simply supported beams in the range of 0–350 μstrain. The proposed interrogation scheme has been found to identify the perturbed FBG, and to determine strain and wavelength shift with reasonable accuracy. (paper)

  4. Miniature and low cost fiber bragg grating interrogator for structural monitoring in nano-satellites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, P.M.; Hagen, R.A.J.; Hakkesteegt, H.C.; Lugtenburg, J.; Maniscalco, M.P.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present a newly developed Fiber Optic measurement system, consisting of Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors and an FBG interrogator. The development of the measuring system is part of the PiezoElectric Assisted Smart Satellite Structure (PEASSS) project, which was initiated at the beg

  5. Interrogating scarcity: how to think about 'resource-scarce settings'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrecker, Ted

    2013-07-01

    The idea of resource scarcity permeates health ethics and health policy analysis in various contexts. However, health ethics inquiry seldom asks-as it should-why some settings are 'resource-scarce' and others not. In this article I describe interrogating scarcity as a strategy for inquiry into questions of resource allocation within a single political jurisdiction and, in particular, as an approach to the issue of global health justice in an interconnected world. I demonstrate its relevance to the situation of low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) with brief descriptions of four elements of contemporary globalization: trade agreements; the worldwide financial marketplace and capital flight; structural adjustment; imperial geopolitics and foreign policy. This demonstration involves not only health care, but also social determinants of health. Finally, I argue that interrogating scarcity provides the basis for a new, critical approach to health policy at the interface of ethics and the social sciences, with specific reference to market fundamentalism as the value system underlying contemporary globalization. PMID:22899597

  6. "Enhanced" interrogation of detainees: do psychologists and psychiatrists participate?

    OpenAIRE

    Halpern John H; Halpern Abraham L; Doherty Sean B

    2008-01-01

    Abstract After revelations of participation by psychiatrists and psychologists in interrogation of prisoners at Guantánamo Bay and Central Intelligence Agency secret detention centers, the American Psychiatric Association and the American Psychological Association adopted Position Statements absolutely prohibiting their members from participating in torture under any and all circumstances, and, to a limited degree, forbidding involvement in interrogations. Some interrogations utilize very agg...

  7. High efficiency Nondistortion Quantum Interrogation of atoms in quantum superpositions

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Xingxiang; Zhou, Zheng-Wei; Guo, Guang-Can; Feldman, Marc J.

    2001-01-01

    We consider the nondistortion quantum interrogation (NQI) of an atom prepared in a quantum superposition. By manipulating the polarization of the probe photon and making connections to interaction free measurements of opaque objects, we show that nondistortion interrogation of an atom in a quantum superposition can be done with efficiency approaching unity. However, if any component of the atom's superposition is completely transparent to the probe wave function, a nondistortion interrogation...

  8. Narcotics detection using fast-neutron interrogation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Micklich, B.J.; Fink, C.L.

    1995-12-31

    Fast-neutron interrogation techniques are being investigated for detection of narcotics in luggage and cargo containers. This paper discusses two different fast-neutron techniques. The first uses a pulsed accelerator or sealed-tube source to produce monoenergetic fast neutrons. Gamma rays characteristic of carbon and oxygen are detected and the elemental densities determined. Spatial localization is accomplished by either time of flight or collimators. This technique is suitable for examination of large containers because of the good penetration of the fast neutrons and the low attenuation of the high-energy gamma rays. The second technique uses an accelerator to produce nanosecond pulsed beams of deuterons that strike a target to produce a pulsed beam of neutrons with a continuum of energies. Elemental distributions are obtained by measuring the neutron spectrum after the source neutrons pass through the items being interrogated. Spatial variation of elemental densities is obtained by tomographic reconstruction of projection data obtained for three to five angles and relatively low (2 cm) resolution. This technique is best suited for examination of luggage or small containers with average neutron transmissions greater than about 0.01. Analytic and Monte-Carlo models are being used to investigate the operational characteristics and limitations of both techniques.

  9. Long fiber Bragg grating sensor interrogation using discrete-time microwave photonic filtering techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricchiuti, Amelia Lavinia; Barrera, David; Sales, Salvador; Thevenaz, Luc; Capmany, José

    2013-11-18

    A novel technique for interrogating photonic sensors based on long fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) is presented and experimentally demonstrated, dedicated to detect the presence and the precise location of several spot events. The principle of operation is based on a technique used to analyze microwave photonics (MWP) filters. The long FBGs are used as quasi-distributed sensors. Several hot-spots can be detected along the FBG with a spatial accuracy under 0.5 mm using a modulator and a photo-detector (PD) with a modest bandwidth of less than 1 GHz. The proposed interrogation system is intrinsically robust against environmental changes. PMID:24514329

  10. High-sensitivity transuranic waste assay by simultaneous proton and thermal-neutron interrogation using an electron linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simultaneous photon and neutron interrogation from electron linear accelerator pulses is used as the basis for a unique assay technique for transuranics. Both prompt and delayed neutrons from the induced fissions are counted on a single detection system, and the contributions from each interrogating flux are resolved. Detection limits (3 sigma) for 239Pu were estimated to be 3 mg for prompt fission neutrons and 6 mg for delayed neutrons. The technique also provides a clear distinction between fissile and fertile nuclides

  11. The Maine Music Box

    OpenAIRE

    Lutz, Marilyn; Gallucci, Laura

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes the Maine Music Box and examines its potential as a tool for teaching and learning music. Pedagogical concepts are demonstrated using MIDI, Scorch, image and streaming video files.

  12. Voice box (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The larynx, or voice box, is located in the neck and performs several important functions in the body. The larynx is involved in swallowing, breathing, and voice production. Sound is produced when the air which ...

  13. THE INTERROGATION OF THE SUSPECT IN THE CASES OF MURDER OF A NEWBORN CHILD BY MOTHER IN CONFLICT SITUATIONS: THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapitsa T. A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account the integrated approach, we have set out some theoretical and practical issues of preparation and conduct of the interrogation of the suspect on the cases of murder of a newborn child by mother; the article also shows a system tactics of interrogation of a suspect in a conflict situation

  14. THE INTERROGATION OF THE SUSPECT IN THE CASES OF MURDER OF A NEWBORN CHILD BY MOTHER IN CONFLICT SITUATIONS: THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL ASPECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Kapitsa T. A.

    2014-01-01

    Taking into account the integrated approach, we have set out some theoretical and practical issues of preparation and conduct of the interrogation of the suspect on the cases of murder of a newborn child by mother; the article also shows a system tactics of interrogation of a suspect in a conflict situation

  15. Development, optimization and evaluation of surfactant-based pulmonary nanolipid carrier system of paclitaxel for the management of drug resistance lung cancer using Box-Behnken design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Prabhjot; Garg, Tarun; Rath, Goutam; Murthy, R S Rayasa; Goyal, Amit K

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) along with various surfactants loaded with paclitaxel (PTX) were prepared by an emulsification technique using a Box-Behnken design. The Box-Behnken design indicated that the most effective factors on the size and PDI were at high surfactant concentration (1.5%), low lipids ratio (6:4) and medium homogenization speed (6000 rpm). Among all the formulations, Tween 20-loaded NLCs show least particle size compared to Tween 80 and Tween 60. Entrapment efficiency of Tween 20, Tween 80 and Tween 60-loaded formulations were 82.40, 85.60 and 79.78%, respectively. Drug release of Tween 80, Tween 20 and Tween 60-loaded NLCs is 64.9, 62.3 and 59.7%, respectively (within 72 h). Maximum cellular uptake was observed with Tween 20 formulation on Caco-2 cell lines. Furthermore, spray drying of resultant NLCs was showed good flow properties and was selected for drug delivery to deeper airways. In-vivo studies demonstrated the better localization of drug within the lungs using different surfactant-based pulmonary delivery systems. From this study, we have concluded that delivering drugs through pulmonary route is advantageous for local action in lungs as maximum amount of drug concentration was observed in lungs. The surfactants could prove to be beneficial in treating drug resistance lung cancer by inhibiting P-gp efflux in the form of nano lipidic carriers. PMID:25544602

  16. Improved Fission Neutron Data Base for Active Interrogation of Actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozzi, Sara; Czirr, J. Bart; Haight, Robert; Kovash, Michael; Tsvetkov, Pavel

    2013-11-06

    This project will develop an innovative neutron detection system for active interrogation measurements. Many active interrogation methods to detect fissionable material are based on the detection of neutrons from fission induced by fast neutrons or high-energy gamma rays. The energy spectrum of the fission neutrons provides data to identify the fissionable isotopes and materials such as shielding between the fissionable material and the detector. The proposed path for the project is as follows. First, the team will develop new neutron detection systems and algorithms by Monte Carlo simulations and bench-top experiments. Next, They will characterize and calibrate detection systems both with monoenergetic and white neutron sources. Finally, high-fidelity measurements of neutron emission from fissions induced by fast neutrons will be performed. Several existing fission chambers containing U-235, Pu-239, U-238, or Th-232 will be used to measure the neutron-induced fission neutron emission spectra. The challenge for making confident measurements is the detection of neutrons in the energy ranges of 0.01 – 1 MeV and above 8 MeV, regions where the basic data on the neutron energy spectrum emitted from fission is least well known. In addition, improvements in the specificity of neutron detectors are required throughout the complete energy range: they must be able to clearly distinguish neutrons from other radiations, in particular gamma rays and cosmic rays. The team believes that all of these challenges can be addressed successfully with emerging technologies under development by this collaboration. In particular, the collaboration will address the area of fission neutron emission spectra for isotopes of interest in the advanced fuel cycle initiative (AFCI).

  17. Interrogative Model of Inquiry and Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkarainen, Kai; Sintonen, Matti

    2002-01-01

    Examines how the Interrogative Model of Inquiry (I-Model), developed for the purposes of epistemology and philosophy of science, could be applied to analyze elementary school students' process of inquiry in computer-supported learning. Suggests that the interrogative approach to inquiry can be productively applied for conceptualizing inquiry in…

  18. Laser interrogation of surface agents (LISA) for chemical agent reconnaissance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higdon, N. S.; Chyba, Thomas H.; Richter, Dale A.; Ponsardin, Patrick L.; Armstrong, Wayne T.; Lobb, C. T.; Kelly, Brian T.; Babnick, Robert D.; Sedlacek, Arthur J., III

    2002-06-01

    Laser Interrogation of Surface Agents (LISA) is a new technique which exploits Raman scattering to provide standoff detection and identification of surface-deposited chemical agents. ITT Industries, Advanced Engineering and Sciences Division is developing the LISA technology under a cost-sharing arrangement with the US Army Soldier and Biological Chemical Command for incorporation on the Army's future reconnaissance vehicles. A field-engineered prototype LISA-Recon system is being designed to demonstrate on-the- move measurements of chemical contaminants. In this article, we will describe the LISA technique, data form proof-of- concept measurements, the LISA-Recon design, and some of the future realizations envisioned for military sensing applications.

  19. Resolution-improved in situ DNA hybridization detection based on microwave photonic interrogation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuan; Guo, Tuan; Wang, Xudong; Sun, Dandan; Ran, Yang; Feng, Xinhuan; Guan, Bai-ou

    2015-10-19

    In situ bio-sensing system based on microwave photonics filter (MPF) interrogation method with improved resolution is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. A microfiber Bragg grating (mFBG) is used as sensing probe for DNA hybridization detection. Different from the traditional wavelength monitoring technique, we use the frequency interrogation scheme for resolution-improved bio-sensing detection. Experimental results show that the frequency shift of MPF notch presents a linear response to the surrounding refractive index (SRI) change over the range of 1.33 to 1.38, with a SRI resolution up to 2.6 × 10(-5) RIU, which has been increased for almost two orders of magnitude compared with the traditional fundamental mode monitoring technique (~3.6 × 10(-3) RIU). Due to the high Q value (about 27), the whole process of DNA hybridization can be in situ monitored. The proposed MPF-based bio-sensing system provides a new interrogation method over the frequency domain with improved sensing resolution and rapid interrogation rate for biochemical and environmental measurement. PMID:26480367

  20. Increasing dynamic range of a fibre Bragg grating edge-filtering interrogator with a proportional control loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a fibre Bragg grating (FBG) interrogator that uses a microcontroller board and a tunable optical filter in a proportional control loop to increase dynamic range and achieve high strain sensitivity. It is an edge-filtering interrogator with added proportional control loop that locks the operating wavelength to the mid-reflection point on the FBG spectrum. The interrogator separates low-frequency (LF) components of strain and measures them with extended dynamic range, while at the same time measuring high-frequency (HF) strain without loss in strain sensitivity. In this paper, we describe the implementation of the interrogator and analyse the characteristics of individual components, such as the speed and voltage resolution of the microcontroller and the tunable optical filter. We measure the performance of the proportional control loop at frequencies up to 1 kHz and characterize the system using control theory. We illustrate the limitation of the conventional interrogator to measure strains greater than 40 μϵ and demonstrate successful application of the proposed interrogator for simultaneous measurement of 450 μϵ LF strain at 50 Hz superimposed with 32 kHz HF strain. (paper)

  1. 基于 MSP430单片机的急救盒系统设计%Design of First-Aid Box System Based On MSP430

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张成功; 石广田

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a design based on the emergency-aid box structure, as well as its combination.With the help of MSP430 micro-controller, it draws an overall design plan for the low-cost emergency-aid box controlling system, and its stability is ensured by the design, drawing and optimization of the circuit board.Taking into account of the fact that the physi-cal conditions of the elder population are relatively weak, information of the system could be reflected exactly and punctually by specific chips.Besides, because of the low-cost feature of the MSP430, the number of charge times is reduced greatly, and the radio function is combined with the emergency-aid box, which makes the product convenient, portable, and with high cost performance, and embraces a wide usage in the medical facilities.%给出了一种急救盒系统结构的设计和系统的组成。在这种系统中,采用MSP430微控制器,给出了一种低功耗的急救盒控制系统的总体设计方案。通过电路板的设计[1]、绘制、优化,使得该系统稳定可靠。并且,依照老年人群身体状况相对弱下的原因及特点,选用各种相关的芯片,使得该系统的信息能够及时、准确的得到反馈。同时,这种MSP430微控制器的低功耗特性,大大降低了充电的次数,再者将收音机功能和急救盒捆绑在一起,方便、强化随身携带和提高产品的性价比。在医疗器械应用领域,有广泛的普及性。

  2. 基于 MSP430单片机的急救盒系统设计%Design of First-Aid Box System Based On MSP430

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张成功; 石广田

    2015-01-01

    给出了一种急救盒系统结构的设计和系统的组成。在这种系统中,采用MSP430微控制器,给出了一种低功耗的急救盒控制系统的总体设计方案。通过电路板的设计[1]、绘制、优化,使得该系统稳定可靠。并且,依照老年人群身体状况相对弱下的原因及特点,选用各种相关的芯片,使得该系统的信息能够及时、准确的得到反馈。同时,这种MSP430微控制器的低功耗特性,大大降低了充电的次数,再者将收音机功能和急救盒捆绑在一起,方便、强化随身携带和提高产品的性价比。在医疗器械应用领域,有广泛的普及性。%This paper presents a design based on the emergency-aid box structure, as well as its combination.With the help of MSP430 micro-controller, it draws an overall design plan for the low-cost emergency-aid box controlling system, and its stability is ensured by the design, drawing and optimization of the circuit board.Taking into account of the fact that the physi-cal conditions of the elder population are relatively weak, information of the system could be reflected exactly and punctually by specific chips.Besides, because of the low-cost feature of the MSP430, the number of charge times is reduced greatly, and the radio function is combined with the emergency-aid box, which makes the product convenient, portable, and with high cost performance, and embraces a wide usage in the medical facilities.

  3. Interrogating transcriptional regulatory sequences in Tol2-mediated Xenopus transgenics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela G Loots

    Full Text Available Identifying gene regulatory elements and their target genes in vertebrates remains a significant challenge. It is now recognized that transcriptional regulatory sequences are critical in orchestrating dynamic controls of tissue-specific gene expression during vertebrate development and in adult tissues, and that these elements can be positioned at great distances in relation to the promoters of the genes they control. While significant progress has been made in mapping DNA binding regions by combining chromatin immunoprecipitation and next generation sequencing, functional validation remains a limiting step in improving our ability to correlate in silico predictions with biological function. We recently developed a computational method that synergistically combines genome-wide gene-expression profiling, vertebrate genome comparisons, and transcription factor binding-site analysis to predict tissue-specific enhancers in the human genome. We applied this method to 270 genes highly expressed in skeletal muscle and predicted 190 putative cis-regulatory modules. Furthermore, we optimized Tol2 transgenic constructs in Xenopus laevis to interrogate 20 of these elements for their ability to function as skeletal muscle-specific transcriptional enhancers during embryonic development. We found 45% of these elements expressed only in the fast muscle fibers that are oriented in highly organized chevrons in the Xenopus laevis tadpole. Transcription factor binding site analysis identified >2 Mef2/MyoD sites within ~200 bp regions in 6 of the validated enhancers, and systematic mutagenesis of these sites revealed that they are critical for the enhancer function. The data described herein introduces a new reporter system suitable for interrogating tissue-specific cis-regulatory elements which allows monitoring of enhancer activity in real time, throughout early stages of embryonic development, in Xenopus.

  4. Active neutron and active gamma interrogation of 500 litre drums of cement-encapsulated intermediate level waste using an electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes work carried out on linac-driven active neutron and active gamma interrogation of 500 litre cement encapsulated ILW drums at Harwell Laboratory, as part of a three year research programme on the development of an integrated radioactive waste package assay facility. Active neutron interrogation is sensitive to the fissile inventory and active gamma interrogation is sensitive to the total actinide inventory of the drum. Techniques for the calculation of neutron energy spectra and yields from a linac neutron target were developed and validated by comparison with published and new measurements. Existing Monte Carlo neutron transport codes and extensions of computer codes previously developed for active gamma interrogation work were also used. A facility for operation in either neutron or gamma interrogation mode was constructed in the Low Energy Cell of the Harwell linac HELIOS and was furnished with a bremsstrahlung target, a neutron target (for use in neutron interrogation mode), a variety of fast and thermal neutron detectors, and a flexible computer-controlled data acquisition system. Measurements were made of the system response in both interrogation modes for three 500 litre drums of simulated cemented CAGR, Magnox and PCM ILW each provided with a series of vertical sample holes into which samples of 235U (for active neutron interrogation) or natU and D2O (for active gamma interrogation) were placed. Measurements were made of the system response as a function of position and as a function of mass of the samples. In general the measurements confirmed the feasibility of the interrogation method. (author)

  5. Optically powered and interrogated rotary position sensor for aircraft engine control applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spillman, W. B.; Crowne, D. H.; Woodward, D. W.

    A throttle level angle (TLA) sensing system is described that utilizes a capacitance based rotary position transducer that is powered and interrogated via light from a single multimode optical fiber. The system incorporates a unique GaAs device that serves as both a power converter and optical data transmitter. Design considerations are discussed, and the fabrication and performance of the sensor system are detailed.

  6. Hybrid Monte Carlo/Deterministic Methods for Accelerating Active Interrogation Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peplow, Douglas E. [ORNL; Miller, Thomas Martin [ORNL; Patton, Bruce W [ORNL; Wagner, John C [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    The potential for smuggling special nuclear material (SNM) into the United States is a major concern to homeland security, so federal agencies are investigating a variety of preventive measures, including detection and interdiction of SNM during transport. One approach for SNM detection, called active interrogation, uses a radiation source, such as a beam of neutrons or photons, to scan cargo containers and detect the products of induced fissions. In realistic cargo transport scenarios, the process of inducing and detecting fissions in SNM is difficult due to the presence of various and potentially thick materials between the radiation source and the SNM, and the practical limitations on radiation source strength and detection capabilities. Therefore, computer simulations are being used, along with experimental measurements, in efforts to design effective active interrogation detection systems. The computer simulations mostly consist of simulating radiation transport from the source to the detector region(s). Although the Monte Carlo method is predominantly used for these simulations, difficulties persist related to calculating statistically meaningful detector responses in practical computing times, thereby limiting their usefulness for design and evaluation of practical active interrogation systems. In previous work, the benefits of hybrid methods that use the results of approximate deterministic transport calculations to accelerate high-fidelity Monte Carlo simulations have been demonstrated for source-detector type problems. In this work, the hybrid methods are applied and evaluated for three example active interrogation problems. Additionally, a new approach is presented that uses multiple goal-based importance functions depending on a particle s relevance to the ultimate goal of the simulation. Results from the examples demonstrate that the application of hybrid methods to active interrogation problems dramatically increases their calculational efficiency.

  7. Death during police interrogation: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atanasijević Tatjana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cases of sudden and unexpected deaths of criminal suspects in presence of police always have special forensic medical approach. Often, such deaths are preceded by a state of extreme psychophysical activity (excitated delirium of suspects, when they may injure themselves. Police attempts to prevent that can inevitably lead to struggle. Immediately after the struggle ends (but also during a struggle, they abruptly become unresponsive, and develop cardiopulmonary arrest and death. Presence of drugs significantly intensifies the harmful effect of such state and leads to death. Case outline. We present a case of death of a young man brought into custody during police interrogation. Autopsy showed injuries and presence of MDMA, with suspicion that death was preceded by the state of excitated delirium. After thorough analysis of the case (complete autopsy, toxicological screening, microscopic survey of all organs, circumstances of death etc., our conclusion is that death was related to drug consumption - ecstasy. Concentration of ecstasy found in kidneys is the minimum concentration possible that could lead to heart malfunction and death. Conclusion. Our opinion is that there are no medical data by which we could determine if, and in what dosage, undesirable effects of ecstasy were enhanced by the circumstances of the case. .

  8. Interrogative Utterances in Surah Al-Baqarah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aly Bayoumy AIi Oteify

    1993-11-01

    Full Text Available The Qur’an is singularly distinctive in its style compared to any human composition. Human eloquence, with its remarkable history in the composition of poetry, has failed to compose even a single verse like that of the Qur'an. The Qur'anic composition is a living challenge for human beings to imitate its miraculous style. This inimitable aspect of the Qur'an, among other things, proves that it was revealed by Allah (SWT to Prophet Muhammad (SAAS. In addition, the miracle of its linguistic composition was a means to declare the faith based on monotheism and the introduction of a new order and a theo-centric guidance that was meant to unite humanity. Adopting the monotheistic faith gave rise to a new community, the Muslim ummah that was able to bridge the differences between human beings in culture, race, colour and geographical boundaries. Consequently, the unique style of the Qur’an deserves a careful study. The present study investigates the use of interrogative utterances in surah al-Baqarah and their contribution to the Qur'an's rhetorical style. Hopefully, the results of this study will be useful in later investigations of other parts of the Qur' an...

  9. Teaching with Box Tops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiser, Lynne; D'Zamko, Mary Elizabeth

    1984-01-01

    Using environmental materials (such as the phone book and placemats from fast food restaurants) can be a motivating way to teach learning disabled students skills and concepts, as shown in an approach to reading, math, science and nutrition, and social studies instruction using a JELL-O brand gelatin box. (CL)

  10. Hydrophobic, Porous Battery Boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Bobby J.; Casey, John E., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Boxes made of porous, hydrophobic polymers developed to contain aqueous potassium hydroxide electrolyte solutions of zinc/air batteries while allowing air to diffuse in as needed for operation. Used on other types of batteries for in-cabin use in which electrolytes aqueous and from which gases generated during operation must be vented without allowing electrolytes to leak out.

  11. Cereal Box Totems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, AnnMarie

    2002-01-01

    Presents a multicultural project used with fourth-grade students in which they created a three-dimensional totem pole using leftover cereal boxes. Discusses in detail how to create the totem pole. Explains that students learned about Northwest American Indians in class. (CMK)

  12. PHOTOCHEMICAL BOX MODEL (PBM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This magnetic tape contains the FORTRAN source code, sample input data, and sample output data for the Photochemical Box Model (PBM). The PBM is a simple stationary single-cell model with a variable height lid designed to provide volume-integrated hour averages of O3 and other ph...

  13. A white-box model of S-shaped and double S-shaped single-species population growth

    OpenAIRE

    Kalmykov, Lev V.; Vyacheslav L. Kalmykov

    2015-01-01

    Complex systems may be mechanistically modelled by white-box modeling with using logical deterministic individual-based cellular automata. Mathematical models of complex systems are of three types: black-box (phenomenological), white-box (mechanistic, based on the first principles) and grey-box (mixtures of phenomenological and mechanistic models). Most basic ecological models are of black-box type, including Malthusian, Verhulst, Lotka–Volterra models. In black-box models, the individual-bas...

  14. FTIR-based airborne spectral imagery for target interrogation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithson, Tracy L.; St. Germain, Daniel; Nadeau, Denis

    2007-09-01

    DRDC Valcartier is continuing to developed infrared spectral imagery systems for a variety of military applications. Recently a hybrid airborne spectral imager / broadband imager system has been developed for ground target interrogation (AIRIS). This system employs a Fourier Transform Interferometer system coupled to two 8x8 element detector arrays to create spectral imagery in the region from 2.0 to 12 microns (830 to 5000 cm -1) at a spectral resolution of up to 1 cm -1. In addition, coupled to this sensor are three broadband imagers operating in the visible, mid-wave and long-wave infrared regions. AIRIS uses an on-board tracking capability to: dwell on a target, select multiple targets sequentially, or build a mosaic description of the environment around a specified target point. Currently AIRIS is being modified to include real-time spectral imagery calibration and application processing. In this paper the flexibility of the AIRIS system will be described, its concept of operation discussed and examples of measurements will be shown.

  15. Cold box design optimization and capacity enhancement of indigenously developed Helium Liquefier system to 40 liters/hour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cryo-Engineering and Cryo-Module Development Division at RRCAT has taken up development, construction and commissioning of medium size helium liquefier system. Helium liquefier and refrigerator system are of subject of high importance to present and future particle accelerators and related technologies. Particle accelerators based on superconducting magnet or superconducting radio frequency (SCRF) technologies are heavily dependent of cryo technology for their operation below 2K. The state of art cryo system requires massive energy to run and slight improvement translate in impressive energy saving. An overview of system with newly developed plate fin heat exchanger with significant high heat transfer performance coupled with characteristic lesser pressure drop is discussed. An attempt has been made to alleviate relatively higher loss making sub-systems through thermodynamic evaluation and their mathematical modeling. The experimental testing of system demonstrates the ability of our model in accurately predicting the overall performance of the developed system. (author)

  16. The role of abusive states of being in interrogation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Frank W

    2013-01-01

    Interrogation, the questioning of persons detained by police, military, or intelligence organizations, is designed to extract information that a subject may resist disclosing. Interrogation techniques are frequently predicated on inducing mental states of despair, dread, dependency, and debility that weaken an individual's resistance. Descriptions of techniques from 2 Central Intelligence Agency training manuals are illustrated by examples from interviews of and writings by Murat Kurnaz, who was held at Guantánamo Bay Detention Camp for 5 years. Interrogation techniques are designed to create a destabilizing sense of shock; undermine an individual's grasp on reality; and provoke internal psychological division, self-conflict, and confusion. The long-term effects of interrogation often include posttraumatic stress disorder as well as states of anxiety, depression, and depersonalization. PMID:23406220

  17. The interrogative model of inquiry and inquiry learning

    OpenAIRE

    Genot, Emmanuel; Gulz, Agneta

    2015-01-01

    Hakkarainen and Sintonen (2002) praise the descriptive adequacy of Hintikka's Interrogative Model of Inquiry (imi) to describe children's practices in an inquiry-based learning context. They further propose to use the imi as a starting point for developing new pedagogical methods and designing new didactic tools. We assess this proposal in the light of the formal results that in the imi characterize interrogative learning strategies. We nd that these results actually reveal a deep ...

  18. The Coordination of Talk and Typing in Police Interrogations

    OpenAIRE

    van Charldorp, Tessa

    2011-01-01

    In this article, I examine the conduct and coordination of two activities that are relevant in the Dutch police interrogation: talking and typing. By taking a closer look at these activities, I can see how the police record is mutually constructed by officers and suspects and begin to understand what kind of orientation is required for these dual activities. Additionally, I explore how participants orient to and coordinate talking and typing during interrogations and explicate what this tells...

  19. On a black-box preconditioner update for solving sequences of nonsymmetric linear systems in matrix-free environment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Duintjer Tebbens, Jurjen

    Marseille: Université Paul Cézanne, 2009. [Winter school "New trends in scientific computing". 09.02.2009-13.02.2009, Marseille] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : preconditioning * sequences of linear systems * matrix-free implementation * nonsymmetric linear systems * incomplete factorization http://www.latp.univ- mrs .fr/cirm09/semaine2.html

  20. Decommissioning a small glove box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An account is given of dismantling a fuel fabrication glove box using simple tooling. The fissile content of the box was first measured by several non-destructive techniques. After cleaning, the box was dismantled using hand tools and finally packed for disposal. A record of operator radiation doses, the time taken for each stage of the operation and packing information is given. (author)

  1. Interrogations, confessions, and guilty pleas among serious adolescent offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Lindsay C; Shulman, Elizabeth P; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2014-04-01

    In the present study, we examined (a) the prevalence and characteristics of youths' true and false admissions (confessions and guilty pleas), (b) youths' interrogation experiences with police and lawyers, and (c) whether youths' interrogation experiences serve as situational risk factors for true and false admissions. We interviewed 193 14- to 17-year-old males (M = 16.4) incarcerated for serious crimes. Over 1/3 of the sample (35.2%) claimed to have made a false admission to legal authorities (17.1% false confession; 18.1% false guilty plea), and 2/3 claimed to have made a true admission (28.5% true confession; 37.3% true guilty plea). The majority of youth said that they had experienced high-pressure interrogations (e.g., threats), especially with police officers. Youth who mentioned experiencing "police refusals" (e.g., of a break to rest) were more likely to report having made both true and false confessions to police, whereas only false confessions were associated with claims of long interrogations (>2 hr) and being questioned in the presence of a friend. The number of self-reported high-pressure lawyer tactics was associated with false, but not true, guilty pleas. Results suggest the importance of conducting specialized trainings for those who interrogate youth, recording interrogations, placing limits on lengthy and manipulative techniques, and exploring alternative procedures for questioning juvenile suspects. PMID:24127891

  2. A utilitarian argument against torture interrogation of terrorists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigo, Jean Maria

    2004-07-01

    Following the September 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States, much support for torture interrogation of terrorists has emerged in the public forum, largely based on the "ticking bomb" scenario. Although deontological and virtue ethics provide incisive arguments against torture, they do not speak directly to scientists and government officials responsible for national security in a utilitarian framework. Drawing from criminology, organizational theory, social psychology, the historical record, and my interviews with military professionals, I assess the potential of an official U.S. program of torture interrogation from a practical perspective. The central element of program design is a sound causal model relating input to output. I explore three principal models of how torture interrogation leads to truth: the animal instinct model, the cognitive failure model, and the data processing model. These models show why torture interrogation fails overall as a counterterrorist tactic. They also expose the processes that lead from a precision torture interrogation program to breakdowns in key institutions-health care, biomedical research, police, judiciary, and military. The breakdowns evolve from institutional dynamics that are independent of the original moral rationale. The counterargument, of course, is that in a society destroyed by terrorism there will be nothing to repair. That is why the actual causal mechanism of torture interrogation in curtailing terrorism must be elucidated by utilitarians rather than presumed PMID:15362710

  3. The Box Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    The velocity level in a room ventilated by jet ventilation is strongly influenced by the supply conditions. The momentum flow in the supply jets controls the air movement in the room and, therefore, it is very important that the inlet conditions and the numerical method can generate a satisfactor...... description of this momentum flow. The Box Method is a practical method for the description of an Air Terminal Device which will save grid points and ensure the right level of the momentum flow....

  4. Learning with box kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melacci, Stefano; Gori, Marco

    2013-11-01

    Supervised examples and prior knowledge on regions of the input space have been profitably integrated in kernel machines to improve the performance of classifiers in different real-world contexts. The proposed solutions, which rely on the unified supervision of points and sets, have been mostly based on specific optimization schemes in which, as usual, the kernel function operates on points only. In this paper, arguments from variational calculus are used to support the choice of a special class of kernels, referred to as box kernels, which emerges directly from the choice of the kernel function associated with a regularization operator. It is proven that there is no need to search for kernels to incorporate the structure deriving from the supervision of regions of the input space, because the optimal kernel arises as a consequence of the chosen regularization operator. Although most of the given results hold for sets, we focus attention on boxes, whose labeling is associated with their propositional description. Based on different assumptions, some representer theorems are given that dictate the structure of the solution in terms of box kernel expansion. Successful results are given for problems of medical diagnosis, image, and text categorization. PMID:24051728

  5. Three-dimensional system integration for HUD placement on a new tactical airlift platform: design eye point vs. HUD eye box with accommodation and perceptual implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbour, Steven D.; Hudson, Jeffery A.; Zehner, Gregory F.

    2012-06-01

    The retrofitting of a cockpit with a Head-Up-Display (HUD) raises potential accommodation and perceptual issues for pilots that must be addressed. For maximum optical efficiency, the goal is to be able to place every pilot's eye into the HUD Eye Motion Box (EMB) given a seat adjustment range. Initially, the Eye Reference Point (ERP) of the EMB should theoretically be located on the aircraft's original cockpit Design Eye Point (DEP), but human postures vary, and HUD systems may not be optimally placed. In reality, there is a distribution of pilot eyes around the DEP (which is dominant eye dependent); therefore, this must be accounted for in order to obtain appropriate visibility of all of the symbology based on photonic characteristics of the HUD. Pilot size and postural variation need to be taken into consideration when positioning the HUD system to ensure proper vision of all HUD symbology in addition to meeting the basic physical accommodation requirements of the cockpit. The innovative process and data collection methods for maximizing accommodation and pilot perception on a new "tactical airlift" platform are discussed as well as the related neurocognitive factors and the effects of information display design on cognitive phenomena.

  6. Development of Set-top Box CAS System Based on Android%基于Android的机顶盒CAS系统的开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李浩亮; 刘永飞

    2012-01-01

    This article elaborates the design process of set-top box CAS terminal subsystem in detail, puts forward a software framework of CAS subsystem and introduces NDK environment building of Android system and the seamless convergence between the application layer(JAVA) and the underlying layer(C language). CAS subsystem is successfully transplanted to Android system. Experimental results prove the CAS subsystem can stably run on Huawei H3716C platform(Android platform).%详细阐述了机顶盒CAS终端子系统的设计过程,提出一种CAS子系统软件框架,并介绍了Android系统的NDK环境搭建以及上层应用(JAVA)与底层(C语言)的无缝衔接,并成功地把CAS子系统移植到Android系统中。实验证明,此CAS子系统可以稳定地在华为H3716C平台(Android平台)上运行。

  7. A Distributed Fibre Bragg Grating Sensor Interrogator Employing a Reformative Arrayed Waveguide Grating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Jing-Tang; HUANG Xu-Guang; ZHAO Hua-Wei

    2008-01-01

    @@ We present an interrogating technique employing a reformative arrayed waveguide grating without output waveguides in combination with a linear charge coupled device. A simple and effective data processing method called area equalized point is used to improve the system resolution. The simulation results show that the wavelength shift of a fibre Bragg grating with temperature can be precisely measured by this interrogation technique. The temperature accuracy and wavelength resolution of the sensor system are smaller than 0.08℃ and 0.8 pm, respectively. If the FBG 3dB-bandwidth is 0.2nm with the wavelength spacing between two adjacent FBGs of 1.4 nm, the temperature and wavelength errors caused by croestalk are respectively 0.01℃ and 0. 1 pm.

  8. Fueling and defusing the sun confined in the box A breakthrough in feeder system development for ITER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Jianlan

    2009-01-01

    @@ Anewly made breakthrough in developing the superconducting feeder system for the ITER,the international thermonuclear experimental reactor, has directed new attention to this high-profile teamwork of seven nations in the world. On 19 Dec 2008,the first full-scale prototype experimental component for this mega-science project, a high-critical-temperature superconducting (HTSC) current lead developed by the Institute of Plasma Physics (IPP) under the CAS Hefei Institute of Physical Science successfully operates at 85 kA for 65 minutes and at a maximum steady current of 90 kA for 4 minutes. The maximum current establishes a new benchmark for related research in the world. This success marks "a big step" forward in implementing the ITER program, according to Dr. Pierre Bauer, responsible officer for the feeder system sub-project from the ITER organization.

  9. ACORD – Construction and Interrogation of Knowledge Bases Using Natural Language and Graphics – Technical Documentation

    OpenAIRE

    Bès, Gabriel G.

    1989-01-01

    International audience The Technical Documentation of the ACORD project resumes five years of work by eight European teams, industrial and academic partners, which involved more than fifty people working around the construction and interrogation of knowledge bases using natural language and graphics. The Introduction guides the reader towards the architecture of the whole system and its components. The 12 chapters include four common points: scientific background and development, technical...

  10. Design and fabrication of customized fiber gratings to improve the interrogation of optical fiber sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Ricchiuti, Amelia Lavinia

    2016-01-01

    [EN] Fiber grating sensors and devices have demonstrated outstanding capabilities in both telecommunications and sensing areas, due to their well-known advantageous characteristics. Therefore, one of the most important motivations lies in the potential of customized fiber gratings to be suitably employed for improving the interrogation process of optical fiber sensors and systems. This Ph.D. dissertation is focused on the study, design, fabrication and performance evaluation of customized...

  11. Microwave photonics filtering technique for interrogating long weak fiber Bragg grating sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Ricchiuti, Amelia Lavinia; Barrera, David; Sales, Salvador; Thévenaz, Luc; Capmany, José

    2014-01-01

    A system to interrogate photonic sensors based on long weak fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) is presented and experimentally demonstrated, dedicated to measure the precise location of several spot events. The principle of operation is based on a technique used to analyze microwave photonics (MWP) filters. The long weak FBGs are used as quasi-distributed sensors. Several events can be detected along the FBG device with a spatial accuracy under 1 mm using a modulator and a photo-detector (PD) with a...

  12. An approach to power efficiency determination in the solar energy systems using central composite design and Box-Behnken design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venegas Mendez, Juan

    We are living in an industrialized world that relies on fossil fuels. The ways, in which these fossil fuels have damaged the earth, in special the environment is worth of special attention and corrective actions. In our days, the climate change (global warming) it is becoming the number one topic. These changes are affecting our health, comfort and our way of living. Solar systems have been working among us since several years, but the truth is that most of us really don't understand how they work and more important, how they work in time in different conditions. Solar panels are one of the most promising renewable energy ways to handle electrification requirements off several isolated consumers worldwide. Because of this, it was clear which way to take. The main focus of this research is the study of solar panels; watch their behavior on different conditions to determine on which ones this kind of systems can give us more output power. The variables to deal with are going to be the temperature, the angle of the light and the color temperature of the light, all this occurs on a controlled environment following two different methods to analyze the collected data. As objectives, three different point were stated. To find out if all the variables affect our system, which one is the most significant adobe the other for this particular study and to demonstrate the importance of the color temperature of the light on solar panels electricity production.

  13. IQ math在双体船航行控制器设计中的应用%Heat-removal System of Single Phrase Power Box Inverter Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏光; 裴郡; 林宗宏; 李志宏

    2015-01-01

    The computational fluid dynamics ( CFD) was employed to study the thermal performance of the heat-removal system of some EMU ground power supply single phrase power box inverter unit when it's working steadily in IGBT module and the rectifier diode module.The structure of inverter unit was improved with the theoretical knowledge of heat transfer theory and fluid dynamics.The simulation analysis shows that the improvement can effectively enhance the heat dissipation effect.%在一个采样周期内,控制器需要完成控制信号生成、串口通信,以及网口通信等一系列任务,其中包括大量复杂的浮点运算。控制器选用了定点型DSP芯片,利用TI公司提供的IQmath函数库,可以在定点DSP上更快地完成浮点运算,以便DSP在采样周期内能够迅速完成任务。仿真结果表明,利用IQmath可以提高DSP运算速度,优化DSP控制器。

  14. Heat-removal System of Single Phrase Power Box Inverter Unit%单相电源箱逆变单元散热系统的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄继雄; 李清清; 范耀登; 尹敏; 余本钢

    2015-01-01

    利用计算流体力学( CFD),研究了某动车组地面电源单相电源箱中的逆变单元散热系统在IGBT模块与整流二极管模块稳态工作时的散热性能,运用传热学与流体力学理论知识对逆变单元的结构进行了改进。仿真分析表明,改进后的系统能有效提高散热效果。%The computational fluid dynamics ( CFD) was employed to study the thermal performance of the heat-removal system of some EMU ground power supply single phrase power box inverter unit when it's working steadily in IGBT module and the rectifier diode module.The structure of inverter unit was improved with the theoretical knowledge of heat transfer theory and fluid dynamics.The simulation analysis shows that the improvement can effectively enhance the heat dissipation effect.

  15. F-box and Leucine-rich Repeat Protein 5 (FBXL5) Is Required for Maintenance of Cellular and Systemic Iron Homeostasis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Julio C.; Walker, Scott D.; Anderson, Sheila A.; Eisenstein, Richard S.; Bruick, Richard K.

    2013-01-01

    Maintenance of cellular iron homeostasis requires post-transcriptional regulation of iron metabolism genes by iron regulatory protein 2 (IRP2). The hemerythrin-like domain of F-box and leucine-rich repeat protein 5 (FBXL5), an E3 ubiquitin ligase subunit, senses iron and oxygen availability and facilitates IRP2 degradation in iron replete cells. Disruption of the ubiquitously expressed murine Fbxl5 gene results in a failure to sense increased cellular iron availability, accompanied by constitutive IRP2 accumulation and misexpression of IRP2 target genes. FBXL5-null mice die during embryogenesis, although viability is restored by simultaneous deletion of the IRP2, but not IRP1, gene. Mice containing a single functional Fbxl5 allele behave like their wild type littermates when fed an iron-sufficient diet. However, unlike wild type mice that manifest decreased hematocrit and hemoglobin levels when fed a low-iron diet, Fbxl5 heterozygotes maintain normal hematologic values due to increased iron absorption. The responsiveness of IRP2 to low iron is specifically enhanced in the duodena of the heterozygotes and is accompanied by increased expression of the divalent metal transporter-1. These results confirm the role of FBXL5 in the in vivo maintenance of cellular and systemic iron homeostasis and reveal a privileged role for the intestine in their regulation by virtue of its unique FBXL5 iron sensitivity. PMID:23135277

  16. F-box and leucine-rich repeat protein 5 (FBXL5) is required for maintenance of cellular and systemic iron homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Julio C; Walker, Scott D; Anderson, Sheila A; Eisenstein, Richard S; Bruick, Richard K

    2013-01-01

    Maintenance of cellular iron homeostasis requires post-transcriptional regulation of iron metabolism genes by iron regulatory protein 2 (IRP2). The hemerythrin-like domain of F-box and leucine-rich repeat protein 5 (FBXL5), an E3 ubiquitin ligase subunit, senses iron and oxygen availability and facilitates IRP2 degradation in iron replete cells. Disruption of the ubiquitously expressed murine Fbxl5 gene results in a failure to sense increased cellular iron availability, accompanied by constitutive IRP2 accumulation and misexpression of IRP2 target genes. FBXL5-null mice die during embryogenesis, although viability is restored by simultaneous deletion of the IRP2, but not IRP1, gene. Mice containing a single functional Fbxl5 allele behave like their wild type littermates when fed an iron-sufficient diet. However, unlike wild type mice that manifest decreased hematocrit and hemoglobin levels when fed a low-iron diet, Fbxl5 heterozygotes maintain normal hematologic values due to increased iron absorption. The responsiveness of IRP2 to low iron is specifically enhanced in the duodena of the heterozygotes and is accompanied by increased expression of the divalent metal transporter-1. These results confirm the role of FBXL5 in the in vivo maintenance of cellular and systemic iron homeostasis and reveal a privileged role for the intestine in their regulation by virtue of its unique FBXL5 iron sensitivity. PMID:23135277

  17. New approaches to glove box design at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glove boxes provide the primary environmental containment system for plutonium processing operations at US Dept. of Energy (DOE)-owned facilities such as Rockwell Hanford. As noted in previous presentations, glove box designs and operations have evolved through stages that are a result of advances in processing techniques, new regulatory requirements, and cost escalation. These factors will continue to influence the current glove box designs and operations. The purpose of this presentation is to discuss required upgrades and changes that are being incorporated into glove boxes being installed at Rockwell Hanford and other DOE installations or are being evaluated for future upgrades

  18. No-tillage Transplanting System of Rice with Controlled Availability Fertilizer in the Nursery Box II. Improvement of the initial growth or rice in the no-tillage transplanting system

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, Md. Zahid; SHIBUYA, Kyoichi; Saigusa,Masahiko

    2001-01-01

    The effect of linear type of polyolefin coated urea (POCU) 10 or 30 in combination with sigmoid type of POCU S100 in the nursery box on the improvement of the initial growth of rice in no-tillage transplanting system was studied in light clay soil (alluvial soil) and clay loam soil (Andisol) in Miyagi prefecture, Japan. POCU-10 or POCU-30 (short release type of POCU) in combination with POCU S100 was remarkably more effective in increasing the leaf color value and the number of tillers than t...

  19. Early-time Observations of Gamma-ray Burst Error Boxes with the Livermore Optical Transient Imaging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, George Grant

    2000-08-01

    Approximately three times per day a bright flash of high energy radiation from the depths of the universe encounters the Earth. These gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) were discovered circa 1970 yet their origin remains a mystery. Traditional astronomical observations of GRBs are hindered by their transient nature. They have durations of only a few seconds and occur at random times from unpredictable directions. In recent years, precise GRB localizations and rapid coordinate dissemination have permitted sensitive follow-up observations. These observations resulted in the identification of long wavelength counterparts within distant galaxies. Despite the wealth of data now available the physical mechanism which produces these extremely energetic phenomena is still unknown. In the near future, simultaneous and early-time optical observations of GRBs will aid in constraining the theoretical models. The Livermore Optical Transient Imaging System (LOTIS) is an automated robotic wide field-of-view telescope dedicated to the search for prompt and early-time optical emission from GRBs. Since routine operations began in October 1996 LOTIS has responded to over 145 GRB triggers. LOTIS has not yet detected optical emission from a GRB but upper limits provided by the telescope constrain the theoretical emission mechanisms. Super-LOTIS, also a robotic wide field-of-view telescope, is 100 times more sensitive than LOTIS. Routine observations from Steward Observatory's Kitt Peak Station will begin in the immediate future. During engineering test runs Super-LOTIS obtained its first upper limit on the early-time optical afterglow of GRBs. An overview of the history and current state of GRBs is presented. Theoretical models are reviewed briefly. The LOTIS and Super-LOTIS hardware and operating procedures are discussed. A summary of the results from both LOTIS and Super-LOTIS and an interpretation of those results is presented. Plans for future studies with both systems are briefly stated.

  20. Time-Dependent Delayed Signatures From Energetic Photon Interrogations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pulsed photonuclear interrogation environment is rich with time-dependent, material specific, radiation signatures. Exploitation of these signatures in the delayed time regime (>1us after the photon flash) has been explored through various detection schemes to identify both shielded nuclear material and nitrogen-based explosives. Prompt emission may also be invaluable for these detection methods. Numerical and experimental results, which utilize specially modified neutron and HpGe detectors, are presented which illustrate the efficacy of utilizing these time-dependent signatures. Optimal selection of the appropriate delayed time window is essential to these pulsed inspection systems. For explosive (ANFO surrogate) detection, both numerical models and experimental results illustrate that nearly all 14N(n,y) reactions have occurred within l00 us after the flash. In contrast, however, gamma-ray and neutron signals for nuclear material detection require a delay of several milliseconds after the photon pulse. In this case, any data collected too close to the photon flash results in a spectrum dominated by high energy signals which make it difficult to discern signatures from nuclear material. Specifically, two short-lived, high-energy fission fragments (97Ag(T1/2=5.1 s) and 94Sr(T1/2=75.2 s)) were measured and identified as indicators of the presence of fissionable material. These developments demonstrate that a photon inspection environment can be exploited for time-dependent, material specific signatures through the proper operation of specially modified detectors

  1. Early-time observations of gamma-ray burst error boxes with the Livermore optical transient imaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, G G

    2000-08-01

    Despite the enormous wealth of gamma-ray burst (GRB) data collected over the past several years the physical mechanism which causes these extremely powerful phenomena is still unknown. Simultaneous and early time optical observations of GRBs will likely make an great contribution t o our understanding. LOTIS is a robotic wide field-of-view telescope dedicated to the search for prompt and early-time optical afterglows from gamma-ray bursts. LOTIS began routine operations in October 1996 and since that time has responded to over 145 gamma-ray burst triggers. Although LOTIS has not yet detected prompt optical emission from a GRB its upper limits have provided constraints on the theoretical emission mechanisms. Super-LOTIS, also a robotic wide field-of-view telescope, can detect emission 100 times fainter than LOTIS is capable of detecting. Routine observations from Steward Observatory's Kitt Peak Station will begin in the immediate future. During engineering test runs under bright skies from the grounds of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Super-LOTIS provided its first upper limits on the early-time optical afterglow of GRBs. This dissertation provides a summary of the results from LOTIS and Super-LOTIS through the time of writing. Plans for future studies with both systems are also presented.

  2. Reconciling White-Box and Black-Box Perspectives on Behavioral Self-adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Roberto; Corradini, Andrea; Gadducci, Fabio; Hölzl, Matthias; Lluch Lafuente, Alberto; Vandin, Andrea; Wirsing, Martin

    This paper proposes to reconcile two perspectives on behavioral adaptation commonly taken at different stages of the engineering of autonomic computing systems. Requirements engineering activities often take a black-box perspective: A system is considered to be adaptive with respect to an...... environment whenever the system is able to satisfy its goals irrespectively of the environment perturbations. Modeling and programming engineering activities often take a white-box perspective: A system is equipped with suitable adaptation mechanisms and its behavior is classified as adaptive depending on...... whether the adaptation mechanisms are enacted or not. The proposed approach reconciles black- and white-box perspectives by proposing several notions of coherence between the adaptivity as observed by the two perspectives: These notions provide useful criteria for the system developer to assess and...

  3. Insight into fiber Bragg sensor response at 100-MHz interrogation rates under various dynamic loading conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, George; Jaime, Marcelo; Mielke, Chuck H.; Balakirev, Fedor F.; Azad, Abul; Sandberg, Richard L.; Marshall, Bruce; La Lone, Brandon M.; Henson, Bryan F.; Smilowitz, Laura; Marr-Lyon, Mark; Sandoval, Tom

    2015-05-01

    A 100 MHz fiber Bragg grating (FBG) interrogation system is described and applied to strain, pressure, and shock position sensing. The approach relies on coherent pulse illumination of the FBG sensor with a broadband short pulse from a femtosecond modelocked erbium fiber laser. After interrogation of the FBG sensor, a long multi-kilometer run of single mode fiber was used for chromatic dispersion to temporally stretch the spectral components of the reflected pulse from the FBG sensor. Dynamic strain or pressure induced spectral shifts in the FBG sensor were detected as a pulsed time domain waveform shift after encoding by the chromatic dispersive line. Signals were recorded using a single 35 GHz photodetector and a 25 GHz bandwidth digitizing oscilloscope. Application of this approach to high-speed strain sensing of magnetic materials in pulsed magnetic fields to ~150 T is demonstrated. The FBG wavelength shifts were used to study magnetic field driven magnetostriction effects in LaCoO3. A sub-microsecond temporal shift in the FBG sensor wavelength attached to the sample under first order phase change appears as a fractional length change (strain: ΔL/L<10-4) in the material. A second application to FBG sensing of pressure dynamics to nearly 2 GPa in the thermal ignition of the high explosive PBX-9501 is also demonstrated. Then, as final demonstration, we use a chirped FBG (CFBG) to resolve shock propagation dynamics in 1-D from an explosive detonation that produces fragmentation in an inert confinement vessel. These applications demonstrate the use of this FBG interrogation system in dynamical extreme conditions that would otherwise not be possible using traditional FBG interrogation approaches that are deemed too slow to resolve such events.

  4. RELIABILITY BASED DESIGN OF A GEAR BOX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.MADHUSEKHAR

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Reliability is the probability that a system, component or device will perform without failure for a specified period of time under specified operating conditions. The concept of reliability is of great importance in the design of various machine members. Conventional engineering design uses a deterministic approach. It disregards the fact that the material properties, the dimensions of the components and the externally applied loads are statistical in nature. In conventional design this uncertainties are covered with a factor of safety, which is not always successful. The growing trend towards reducing uncertainty and increasing reliability is to use the probabilistic approach. In the present work a three shaft four speed gear box and six speed gear box are designed using reliability principles. For the specified reliability of the system (Gear box, component reliability (Gear pair is calculated by considering the system as a series system. Design is considered to be safe and adequate if the probability of failure of gear box is less than or equal to a specified quantity in each of the two failure modes. . All the parameters affecting the design are considered as random variables and all the random variables are assumed to follow normal distribution. A computer program in C++ is developed to calculate the face widths in bending and surface failure modes. The larger one out of the two values is considered. By changing the variations in the design parameters, variations in the face widths are studied.

  5. Nondestructive assay of boxed radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the problems related to the nondestructive assay (NDA) of boxed radioactive waste at the Hanford Site and how Westinghouse Hanford company (WHC) is solving the problems. The waste form and radionuclide content are described. The characteristics of the combined neutron and gamma-based measurement system are described

  6. Getting started with Oracle VM VirtualBox

    CERN Document Server

    Dash, Pradyumna

    2013-01-01

    A step-by-step guide that will show you how to install, configure, and manage VirtualBox.This book is for system administrators, technical architects, and virtualization enthusiasts who want to learn how to set up a virtual machine. Knowledge of the Linux environment is expected. Prior experience with VirtualBox or knowledge of virtualization is not required.

  7. X-ray and neutron interrogation of air cargo for mobile applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system for scanning break-bulk cargo for mobile applications is presented. This combines a 140 kV multi-view, multi-energy X-ray system with 2.5 MeV neutrons. The system uses dual energy X-ray radiography with neutron radiography. The X-ray and neutron systems were designed to be collocated in a mobile environment. Various materials were interrogated with the intent of distinguishing threat materials such as explosives from similar benign materials. In particular, the identification of threats and bengins with nearly identical effective atomic numbers has been demonstrated

  8. X-ray and neutron interrogation of air cargo for mobile applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Liew, Seth

    2015-06-01

    A system for scanning break-bulk cargo for mobile applications is presented. This combines a 140 kV multi-view, multi-energy X-ray system with 2.5 MeV neutrons. The system uses dual energy X-ray radiography with neutron radiography. The X-ray and neutron systems were designed to be collocated in a mobile environment. Various materials were interrogated with the intent of distinguishing threat materials such as explosives from similar benign materials. In particular, the identification of threats and bengins with nearly identical effective atomic numbers has been demonstrated.

  9. Using a hybrid system (Cooper pair box plus nanomechanical resonator) in the presence of Kerr nonlinearities and losses to control the entropy of the subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, C.; Castro, A. N.; Baseia, B.

    2016-05-01

    We consider the Jaynes-Cummings model to describe the interaction of a Cooper pair box and a nanomechanical resonator in the presence of a Kerr medium and losses. The evolution of the entropy of both subsystems and the Cooper pair box population inversion were calculated numerically. It was found that population inversion and entropy increase when the frequency of the nanoresonator is time-dependent, even in the presence of losses; the effect is very sensitive to detuning and disappears in resonant regime. We also compare effects of the losses on each subsystem.

  10. Technology Solutions Case Study: New Insights for Improving the Designs of Flexible Duct Junction Boxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-01-01

    In this project, IBACOS explored the relationships between pressure and physical configurations of flexible duct junction boxes by using computational fluid dynamics simulations to predict individual box parameters and total system pressure, thereby ensuring improved HVAC performance.

  11. A review of conventional explosives detection using active neutron interrogation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional explosives are relatively easy to obtain and may cause massive harm to people and property. There are several tools employed by law enforcement to detect explosives, but these can be subverted. Active neutron interrogation is a viable alternative to those techniques, and includes: fast neutron analysis, thermal neutron analysis, pulsed fast/thermal neutron analysis, neutron elastic scatter, and fast neutron radiography. These methods vary based on neutron energy and radiation detected. A thorough review of the principles behind, advantages, and disadvantages of the different types of active neutron interrogation is presented. (author)

  12. Design, integration, and testing of a compact FBG interrogator, based on an AWG spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trita, Andrea; Vickers, Garrie; Mayordomo, Iker; van Thourhout, Dries; Vermeiren, Jan

    2014-05-01

    Fiber Bragg Grating or FBG sensors are gaining more and more interest in structural health monitoring of composite materials. Often, the weakest point in such a system is the ingress point of the fiber sensing chain into the composite material. For this reason we have developed a strongly miniaturized FBG interrogator unit with wireless power and data transmission, which can be incorporated in the composite structure. The interrogator is based on an arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) filter fabricated in a SOI technology, which is tailored in such a way to give large cross-talk between neighboring channels. The AWG signals are read by a linear 128 pixel InGaAs array flip-chipped on top of the Photonic Circuit (PIC). The spectrometer unit is completed with a ROIC mounted on the same substrate. The SLED and remaining electronics are integrated on a small and thin substrate and surrounded by the wireless antenna. The interrogator has an overall dimension of 100 mm diameter by max 7 mm height. The power dissipation of the electronics unit is limited to 1.5 W. The unit is capable of measuring strain values as low as 5 micro-strain.

  13. Active Interrogation using Photofission Technique for Nuclear Materials Control and Accountability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Haori [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2016-03-31

    Innovative systems with increased sensitivity and resolution are in great demand to detect diversion and to prevent misuse in support of nuclear materials management for the U.S. fuel cycle. Nuclear fission is the most important multiplicative process involved in non-destructive active interrogation. This process produces the most easily recognizable signature for nuclear materials. In addition to thermal or high-energy neutrons, high-energy gamma rays can also excite a nucleus and cause fission through a process known as photofission. Electron linear accelerators (linac) are widely used as the interrogating photon sources for inspection methods involving photofission technique. After photofission reactions, prompt signals are much stronger than the delayed signals, but it is difficult to quantify them in practical measurements. Delayed signals are easily distinguishable from the interrogating radiation. linac-based, advanced inspection techniques utilizing the delayed signals after photofission have been extensively studied for homeland security applications. Previous research also showed that a unique delayed gamma ray energy spectrum exists for each fissionable isotope.

  14. Removal of xylenol orange from its aqueous solution using SDS self-microemulsifying systems: optimization by Box-Behnken statistical design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeel, Faiyaz; Haq, Nazrul; Alanazi, Fars K; Alsarra, Ibrahim A

    2014-04-01

    The aim of present study was to develop and evaluate sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) self-microemulsifying systems (SMES) for the removal of an anionic dye xylenol orange (XO) from its bulk aqueous media via liquid-liquid adsorption. The composition of SDS SMES was optimized by Box-Behnken statistical design for the maximum removal of XO from its aqueous solution. Various SDS formulations were prepared by spontaneous emulsification method and characterized for thermodynamic stability, self-microemulsification efficiency, droplet size, and viscosity. Adsorption studies were conducted at 8, 16, and 24 h by mixing small amounts of SDS formulations with relatively large amounts of bulk aqueous solution of XO. Droplet size and viscosity of SDS formulations were significantly influenced by oil phase concentration (triacetin), while surfactant concentration had little impact on droplet size and viscosity. However, the percentage of removal of XO was influenced by triacetin concentration, surfactant concentration, and adsorption time. Based on lowest droplet size (35.97 nm), lowest viscosity (29.62 cp), and highest percentage of removal efficiency (89.77 %), formulation F14, containing 2 % w/w of triacetin and 40 % w/w of surfactant mixture (20 % w/w of SDS and 20 % w/w of polyethylene glycol 400), was selected as an optimized formulation for the removal of XO from its bulk aqueous media after 16 h. These results indicated that SDS SMES could be suitable alternates of solid-liquid adsorption for the removal of toxic dyes such as XO from its aqueous solution through liquid-liquid adsorption. PMID:24390112

  15. Glove-box filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Description is given of a device for simply and rapidly assembling and dissassembling the filters used inside sealed enclosures, such as glove-boxes and shielded cells equipped with nippers or manipulators, said filters being of the type comprising a cylindrical casing containing a filtering member, the upper portion of said casing being open so as to allow the gases to be cleaned to flow in, whereas the casing bottom is centrally provided with a hole extended outwardly by a threaded collar on which is screwed a connecting-sleeve to be fixed to the mouth of a gas outlet pipe. To a yoke transverse bar is welded a pin which can be likened to a bent spring-blade, one arm of which welded to said transverse bar, is rectilinear whereas its other arm is provided with a boss cooperating with a cavity made in a protrusion of said pipe, right under the mouth thereof

  16. Interrogating resilience: toward a typology to improve its operationalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie L. Davidson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the context of accelerated global change, the concept of resilience, with its roots in ecological theory and complex adaptive systems, has emerged as the favored framework for understanding and responding to the dynamics of change. Its transfer from ecological to social contexts, however, has led to the concept being interpreted in multiple ways across numerous disciplines causing significant challenges for its practical application. The aim of this paper is to improve conceptual clarity within resilience thinking so that resilience can be interpreted and articulated in ways that enhance its utility and explanatory power, not only theoretically but also operationally. We argue that the current confusion and ambiguity within resilience thinking is problematic for operationalizing the concept within policy making. To achieve our aim, we interrogate resilience interpretations used within a number of academic and practice domains in the forefront of contending with the disruptive and sometimes catastrophic effects of global change (primarily due to climate change on ecological and human-nature systems. We demonstrate evolution and convergence among disciplines in the interpretations and theoretical underpinnings of resilience and in engagement with cross-scale considerations. From our analysis, we identify core conceptual elements to be considered in policy responses if resilience is to fulfill its potential in improving decision making for change. We offer an original classification of resilience definitions in current use and a typology of resilience interpretations. We conclude that resilience thinking must be open to alternative traditions and interpretations if it is to become a theoretically and operationally powerful paradigm.

  17. Cardboard Boxes: Learning Concepts Galore!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Laverne; Wilmoth, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Mrs. Keenan, a preschool teacher, observed her 3-year-old granddaughter Riley pull, tug, and stack piles of holiday boxes on the floor. She remembered that her child care director had suggested using boxes as a curriculum theme, but she hadn't given much thought about the idea until now. She said to herself, "I wonder if my children would be as…

  18. Microwave interrogation cavity for the rubidium space cold atom clock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ren; Yuan-Ci, Gao; Tang, Li; De-Sheng, Lü; Liang, Liu

    2016-06-01

    The performance of space cold atom clocks (SCACs) should be improved thanks to the microgravity environment in space. The microwave interrogation cavity is a key element in a SCAC. In this paper, we develop a microwave interrogation cavity especially for the rubidium SCAC. The interrogation cavity has two microwave interaction zones with a single feed-in source, which is located at the center of the cavity for symmetric coupling excitation and to ensure that the two interaction zones are in phase. The interrogation cavity has a measured resonance frequency of 6.835056471 GHz with a loaded quality factor of nearly 4200, which shows good agreement with simulation results. We measure the Rabi frequency of the clock transition of the rubidium atom in each microwave interaction zone, and subsequently demonstrate that the distributions of the magnetic field in the two interaction zones are the same and meet all requirements of the rubidium SCAC. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11034008), the Fund from the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (Grant No. 2013YQ09094304), and the Youth Innovation Promotion Association, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  19. Interview and Interrogation Training using a Computer-Simulated Subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Dale E.

    Interactive, multimedia software involving a simulated subject has been created to help trainees develop interview and interrogation techniques using personal computers, because practice interviews are not always realistic and are too expensive. New and experienced law enforcement agents, among others, need such extensive training in techniques…

  20. Interrogating Our Practices of Integrating Spirituality into Workplace Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Leona M.; Fenwick, Tara J.; Parsons, Jim

    2005-01-01

    Workplace education's interest in spirituality is examined, with an emphasis placed on why this interest might be increasing and what challenges it presents. This article interrogates commonplace strategies to integrate spirituality in workplace education,--providing holistic education, creating sacred spaces and mentoring--questions each approach…

  1. "Enhanced" interrogation of detainees: do psychologists and psychiatrists participate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Abraham L; Halpern, John H; Doherty, Sean B

    2008-01-01

    After revelations of participation by psychiatrists and psychologists in interrogation of prisoners at Guantánamo Bay and Central Intelligence Agency secret detention centers, the American Psychiatric Association and the American Psychological Association adopted Position Statements absolutely prohibiting their members from participating in torture under any and all circumstances, and, to a limited degree, forbidding involvement in interrogations. Some interrogations utilize very aggressive techniques determined to be torture by many nations and organizations throughout the world. This paper explains why psychiatrists and psychologists involved in coercive interrogations violate the Geneva Conventions and the laws of the United States. Whether done with ignorance of professional ethical obligations or not, these psychiatrists and psychologists have crossed an ethical barrier that may best be averted from re-occurring by teaching medical students and residents in all medical specialties about the ethics principles stemming from the 1946-1947 Nuremberg trials and the Geneva Conventions, together with the Ethics Codes of the World Medical Association and the American Medical Association; and, with regard to psychiatric residents and psychological trainees, by the teaching about The Principles of Medical Ethics With Annotations Especially Applicable to Psychiatry and the Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct, respectively. In this way, all physicians and psychologists will clearly understand that they have an absolute moral obligation to "First, do no harm" to the human beings they professionally encounter. PMID:18817568

  2. "Enhanced" interrogation of detainees: do psychologists and psychiatrists participate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halpern John H

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract After revelations of participation by psychiatrists and psychologists in interrogation of prisoners at Guantánamo Bay and Central Intelligence Agency secret detention centers, the American Psychiatric Association and the American Psychological Association adopted Position Statements absolutely prohibiting their members from participating in torture under any and all circumstances, and, to a limited degree, forbidding involvement in interrogations. Some interrogations utilize very aggressive techniques determined to be torture by many nations and organizations throughout the world. This paper explains why psychiatrists and psychologists involved in coercive interrogations violate the Geneva Conventions and the laws of the United States. Whether done with ignorance of professional ethical obligations or not, these psychiatrists and psychologists have crossed an ethical barrier that may best be averted from re-occurring by teaching medical students and residents in all medical specialties about the ethics principles stemming from the 1946–1947 Nuremberg trials and the Geneva Conventions, together with the Ethics Codes of the World Medical Association and the American Medical Association; and, with regard to psychiatric residents and psychological trainees, by the teaching about The Principles of Medical Ethics With Annotations Especially Applicable to Psychiatry and the Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct, respectively. In this way, all physicians and psychologists will clearly understand that they have an absolute moral obligation to "First, do no harm" to the human beings they professionally encounter.

  3. Integrated Nanoscale Tools for Interrogating Living Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Jorgolli, Marsela

    2015-01-01

    The development of next-generation, nanoscale technologies that interface biological systems will pave the way towards new understanding of such complex systems. Nanowires – one-dimensional nanoscale structures – have shown unique potential as an ideal physical interface to biological systems. Herein, we focus on the development of nanowire-based devices that can enable a wide variety of biological studies. First, we built upon standard nanofabrication techniques to optimize nanowire devices,...

  4. Measure Guideline: Optimizing the Configuration of Flexible Duct Junction Boxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beach, R.; Burdick, A.

    2014-03-01

    This measure guideline offers additional recommendations to heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system designers for optimizing flexible duct, constant-volume HVAC systems using junction boxes within Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA) Manual D guidance (Rutkowski, H. Manual D -- Residential Duct Systems, 3rd edition, Version 1.00. Arlington, VA: Air Conditioning Contractors of America, 2009.). IBACOS used computational fluid dynamics software to explore and develop guidance to better control the airflow effects of factors that may impact pressure losses within junction boxes among various design configurations (Beach, R., Prahl, D., and Lange, R. CFD Analysis of Flexible Duct Junction Box Design. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, submitted for publication 2013). These recommendations can help to ensure that a system aligns more closely with the design and the occupants' comfort expectations. Specifically, the recommendations described herein show how to configure a rectangular box with four outlets, a triangular box with three outlets, metal wyes with two outlets, and multiple configurations for more than four outlets. Designers of HVAC systems, contractors who are fabricating junction boxes on site, and anyone using the ACCA Manual D process for sizing duct runs will find this measure guideline invaluable for more accurately minimizing pressure losses when using junction boxes with flexible ducts.

  5. Students' approaches to mathematical tasks using software as a black-box, glass-box or open-box

    OpenAIRE

    Hosein, Anesa

    2009-01-01

    Three mathematical software modes are investigated in this thesis: black-box software showing no mathematical steps; glass-box software showing the intermediate mathematical steps; and open-box software showing and allowing interaction at the intermediate mathematical steps. The glass-box and open-box software modes are often recommended over the black-box software to help understanding but there is limited research comparing all three. This research investigated students' performance and the...

  6. Experimental Research and Numerical Simulation of Wing Boxes under Pure Bending Load

    OpenAIRE

    Peiyan Wang; Shile Yao; Xinmei Wang; Zhufeng Yue

    2014-01-01

    Two full-scale wing boxes with different types of butt joints were investigated under pure bending load, and numerical methods, including global analysis and detailed analysis, were proposed to determine the reasons for failure of the wing boxes. Wing boxes were tested under bending loads applied by a multichannel force control system. The experimental results showed that the region of the butt joint was the weakest location of the wing boxes, and the damage loads were far less than the desig...

  7. Method of positioning channel box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upon measuring the dimension of a channel box by disposing ultrasonic sensors to the uppermost portion of a measuring device main body, the deviation of the channel box from the center of the device main body is detected by measuring the distance betwen the sensors at the uppermost portion of the device main body and the lower end of the channel box for four surfaces simultaneously. The direction and the distance for moving the channel box to the center of the device main body are calculated based on the results to feedback tham for the operation of a fuel exchanger, thereby positioning the channel box upon insertion to the device main body. That is, a fuel assembly loaded with the channel box is gradually brought down being suspended from a crane and the position of the channel box is recognized by the ultrasonic sensors, thereafter, the position of the center is corrected and it is brought down again and the outer dimension is measured. Accurate positioning in a short periodof time is enabled and operator's burden can be mitigated to prevent the danger of indury. (N.H.)

  8. Projected Applications of a "Weather in a Box" Computing System at the NASA Short-Term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.; Molthan, Andrew; Zavodsky, Bradley T.; Case, Jonathan L.; LaFontaine, Frank J.; Srikishen, Jayanthi

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition Center (SPoRT)'s new "Weather in a Box" resources will provide weather research and forecast modeling capabilities for real-time application. Model output will provide additional forecast guidance and research into the impacts of new NASA satellite data sets and software capabilities. By combining several research tools and satellite products, SPoRT can generate model guidance that is strongly influenced by unique NASA contributions.

  9. Recognition of a wide-range of S-RNases by S locus F-box like 2, a general-inhibitor candidate in the Prunus-specific S-RNase-based self-incompatibility system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Daiki; Tao, Ryutaro

    2016-07-01

    Many species in the Rosaceae, the Solanaceae, and the Plantaginaceae exhibit S-RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI). This system comprises S-ribonucleases (S-RNases) as the pistil S determinant and a single or multiple F-box proteins as the pollen S determinants. In Prunus, pollen specificity is determined by a single S haplotype-specific F-box protein (SFB). The results of several studies suggested that SFB exerts cognate S-RNase cytotoxicity, and a hypothetical general inhibitor (GI) is assumed to detoxify S-RNases in non-specific manner unless it is affected by SFB. Although the identity of the GI is unknown, phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses have indicated that S locus F-box like 1-3 (or S locus F-box with low allelic sequence polymorphism 1-3; SLFL1-3), which are encoded by a region of the Prunus genome linked to the S locus, are good GI candidates. Here, we examined the biochemical characteristics of SLFL1-3 to determine whether they have appropriate GI characteristics. Pull-down assays and quantitative expression analyses indicated that Prunus avium SLFL1-3 mainly formed a canonical SCF complex with PavSSK1 and PavCul1A. Binding assays with PavS(1,3,4,6)-RNases showed that PavSLFL1, PavSLFL2, and PavSLFL3 bound to PavS(3)-RNase, all PavS-RNases tested, and none of the PavS-RNases tested, respectively. Together, these results suggested that SLFL2 has the appropriate characteristics to be the GI in sweet cherry pollen, while SLFL1 may redundantly work with SLFL2 to detoxify all S-RNases. We discuss the possible roles of SLFL1-3 as the GI in the Prunus-specific S-RNase-based GSI mechanism. PMID:27071402

  10. 船用变风量末端装置的应用分析%Analysis of the application of VAV terminal boxes in the ships air conditioning system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周根明; 厉盼盼

    2014-01-01

    Types of variable air volume air conditioning system terminal boxes are various, but whether all of them can be used in ships and can save energy is the industry concerns. This article studies the using of terminal boxes in the ships air conditioning. The model takes into account of k-e model with using of Fluent, temperate fields and velocity fields in the crew cabin are obtained. By the cabin temperature distribution and no significant air fall, jet cold feeling. As a result ,come inducible VAV and the new style of fan powered box with air heat exchanger solutions can meet thermal comfort of cabin environment ,which provide a theoretical basis for all kinds of VAV terminal boxes to better use on the ships.%变风量空调系统末端装置型式多样,能否在舰船上使用并达到相应效果是业内人士关心的问题。因此对舰船空调末端装置进行分析,采用k-e湍流模型对舱室空气流动进行数值模拟,并运用Fluent软件进行模拟计算,得出了船员舱室的温度场和速度场的分布。由舱室温度分布均匀和无明显送风下坠和射流冷风感,得出诱导型变风量末端和带热交换器动力型末端送风方案都能满足舱室舒适性要求,为变风量末端装置在舰船上更好地使用提供了理论依据。

  11. Microclimate boxes for panel paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadum, Jørgen

    The use of microclimate boxes to protect vulnerable panel paintings is, therefore, not a new phenomenon of the past two or three decades. Rather, it has been a concern for conservators and curators to protect these objects of art at home and in transit since the end of the nineteenth century. The...... increased number of travelling exhibitions in recent years has heightened the need to protect paintings during circulation (Thomson 1961; Mecklenburg 1991). The use and design of microclimate boxes have been evolving since 1892. These boxes may be divided into three broad groups: those using an active...

  12. Two-dimensional box plot

    OpenAIRE

    Phattrawan Tongkumchum

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we propose a two-dimensional box plot, a simple bivariate extension of the box plot and the scatter plot. This plot comprises a pair of trapeziums oriented in the direction of a fitted straight line, with symbols denoting extreme values. The choice for the fitted straight resistant line showing the relationship between the two variables is Tukey’s resistance line. The main components of the plot are an inner box containing 50% of the projection points of the observations on the ...

  13. 29 CFR 18.611 - Mode and order of interrogation and presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Mode and order of interrogation and presentation. 18.611... of interrogation and presentation. (a) Control by judge. The judge shall exercise reasonable control... interrogation and presentation effective for the ascertainment of the truth, (2) Avoid needless consumption...

  14. Phase Interrogation Used for a Wireless Passive Pressure Sensor in an 800 °C High-Temperature Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Huixin Zhang; Yingping Hong; Ting Liang; Hairui Zhang; Qiulin Tan; Chenyang Xue; Jun Liu; Wendong Zhang; Jijun Xiong

    2015-01-01

    A wireless passive pressure measurement system for an 800 °C high-temperature environment is proposed and the impedance variation caused by the mutual coupling between a read antenna and a LC resonant sensor is analyzed. The system consists of a ceramic-based LC resonant sensor, a readout device for impedance phase interrogation, heat insulating material, and a composite temperature-pressure test platform. Performances of the pressure sensor are measured by the measurement system sufficiently...

  15. Gray-box modelling approach for description of storage tunnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harremoës, Poul; Carstensen, Jacob

    1999-01-01

    The dynamics of a storage tunnel is examined using a model based on on-line measured data and a combination of simple deterministic and black-box stochastic elements. This approach, called gray-box modeling, is a new promising methodology for giving an on-line state description of sewer systems. ...... and implemented in a SCADA system because the most important information on the specific system is provided on-line......The dynamics of a storage tunnel is examined using a model based on on-line measured data and a combination of simple deterministic and black-box stochastic elements. This approach, called gray-box modeling, is a new promising methodology for giving an on-line state description of sewer systems...

  16. Interrogating selectivity in catalysis using molecular vibrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milo, Anat; Bess, Elizabeth N; Sigman, Matthew S

    2014-03-13

    The delineation of molecular properties that underlie reactivity and selectivity is at the core of physical organic chemistry, and this knowledge can be used to inform the design of improved synthetic methods or identify new chemical transformations. For this reason, the mathematical representation of properties affecting reactivity and selectivity trends, that is, molecular parameters, is paramount. Correlations produced by equating these molecular parameters with experimental outcomes are often defined as free-energy relationships and can be used to evaluate the origin of selectivity and to generate new, experimentally testable hypotheses. The premise behind successful correlations of this type is that a systematically perturbed molecular property affects a transition-state interaction between the catalyst, substrate and any reaction components involved in the determination of selectivity. Classic physical organic molecular descriptors, such as Hammett, Taft or Charton parameters, seek to independently probe isolated electronic or steric effects. However, these parameters cannot address simultaneous, non-additive variations to more than one molecular property, which limits their utility. Here we report a parameter system based on the vibrational response of a molecule to infrared radiation that can be used to mathematically model and predict selectivity trends for reactions with interlinked steric and electronic effects at positions of interest. The disclosed parameter system is mechanistically derived and should find broad use in the study of chemical and biological systems. PMID:24622199

  17. No-tillage Transplanting System of Rice with Controlled Availability Fertilizer in a Nursery Box : Nitrogen Use Efficiency of Controlled Availability Fertilizer of Rice Plant in Three Different Paddy Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Saigusa,Masahiko; Hossain, Zahid; SHIBUYA, Kyoichi

    2004-01-01

    The fate of polyolefin ^N coated urea (POCU S-100) in a nursery box for the no-tillage transplanting system as compared with ^N ammonium sulfate (AS) in the conventional tillage system had been investigated in light clay alluvial soil, sandy loam alluvial soil, and clay loam soil (Andisol) in 1994 and 1995. Rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Hitomebore) was used as the test plant. The nitrogen concentration of the leaf blade of the rice plant in the no-tillage without rice straw (NT) and no-tillage wi...

  18. Myiasis in two box turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, W J; Georgi, M E

    1991-10-15

    Two eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) were treated for myiasis caused by Sarcophaga cistudinis. The tortoises were examined because of swellings of the proximal cervical regions. Both fully recovered following surgical removal of multiple larvae. PMID:1748614

  19. Microwave photonics filtering technique for interrogating a very-weak fiber Bragg grating cascade sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Ricchiuti, Amelia Lavinia; Hervás Peralta, Javier; Barrera Vilar, David; Sales Maicas, Salvador; Capmany Francoy, José

    2014-01-01

    A system to interrogate photonic sensors based on a very weak fiber Bragg grating cascade fiber is presented and experimentally validated and dedicated to detecting the presence and location of a spot event. The distributed sensor proposed consists of a 5-m-long fiber, containing 500 9-mm-long Bragg gratings with a grating separation of 10.21 mm. The principle of operation is based on a technique used to analyze microwave photonics filters. The detection of spot events along the sensor is ...

  20. A MHz speed wavelength sweeping for ultra-high speed FBG interrogation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gyeong Hun; Lee, Hwi Don; Eom, Tae Joong; Jeong, Myung Yung; Kim, Chang-Seok

    2015-09-01

    We demonstrated a MHz speed wavelength-swept fiber laser based on the active mode locking (AML) technique and applied to interrogation system of an array of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors. MHz speed wavelength sweeping of wavelength-swept fiber laser can be obtained by programmable frequency modulation of the semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) without any wavelength tunable filter. Both static and dynamic strain measurement of FBG sensors were successfully characterized with high linearity of an R-square value of 0.9999 at sweeping speed of 50 kHz.

  1. Interrogational Neuroimaging: The Missing Element in Counter-Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhan Hyder Sahito

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Following the September 2001 terrorist attacks in New York, governments have waged a global campaign against terrorists groups in order to ensure national security. A crucial part of this campaign has been intelligence gathering with different methods of interrogation in order to extract allegedly necessary information from suspected terrorists. Similarly, it is not surprising that intelligence personnel have started recognizing that neuroimaging technologies—in particular, functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI addresses this fundamental lack within the realm of scientific scrutiny. The current research introduces a first step towards developing a novel experimental interrogation paradigm that aims to apply a number of reliable and practical applications of fMRI within a rule of law and human rights framework. This prototype is applied in such a way that implications of interrogative methodologies will become a reality for mining of knowledge from potential suspects. The ultimate goal of our innovative methodology is the implementation of fMRI in real life situations that may serve the cause of human rights by providing an innocent person the means to scientifically prove his/her innocence. This truth verification tool has potential to replace torture and aggressive existing interrogation strategies. However, we discuss that there are still human rights and privacy concerns that must be addressed prior to moving this technology to real-world application. Similarly, this paper will recommend best practices and guidelines to address scientific, social, ethical, privacy and general public concerns. The future of law enforcement agencies may very well be under construction with this new line of attack that could revolutionize police work and likely to provide significant benefits to society.

  2. Time dependent measurements of induced fission for SNM interrogation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, A.; Israelashvili, I.; Wengrowicz, U.; Caspi, E. N.; Yaar, I.; Osovizki, A.; Ocherashvili, A.; Rennhofer, H.; Pedersen, B.; Crochemore, J.-M.; Roesgen, E.

    2013-08-01

    Gammas from induced fissions were measured and separated into prompt and delayed particles. To this end, a dedicated detector was realized, based on a plastic scintillator, a wavelength shifter fiber and a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM). Results are presented from the interrogation of Special Nuclear Materials (SNM), employing a pulsed neutron generator in the PUNITA graphite moderator incorporating the above detector assembly. The detector response is presented, as well as the sensitivities for prompt and delayed processes within the same experimental setup.

  3. Fissile mass estimation by pulsed neutron source interrogation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Israelashvili, I., E-mail: israelashvili@gmail.com [Nuclear Research Center of the Negev, P.O.B 9001, Beer Sheva 84190 (Israel); Dubi, C.; Ettedgui, H.; Ocherashvili, A. [Nuclear Research Center of the Negev, P.O.B 9001, Beer Sheva 84190 (Israel); Pedersen, B. [Nuclear Security Unit, Institute for Transuranium Elements, Joint Research Centre, Via E. Fermi, 2749, 21027 Ispra (Italy); Beck, A. [Nuclear Research Center of the Negev, P.O.B 9001, Beer Sheva 84190 (Israel); Roesgen, E.; Crochmore, J.M. [Nuclear Security Unit, Institute for Transuranium Elements, Joint Research Centre, Via E. Fermi, 2749, 21027 Ispra (Italy); Ridnik, T.; Yaar, I. [Nuclear Research Center of the Negev, P.O.B 9001, Beer Sheva 84190 (Israel)

    2015-06-11

    Passive methods for detecting correlated neutrons from spontaneous fissions (e.g. multiplicity and SVM) are widely used for fissile mass estimations. These methods can be used for fissile materials that emit a significant amount of fission neutrons (like plutonium). Active interrogation, in which fissions are induced in the tested material by an external continuous source or by a pulsed neutron source, has the potential advantages of fast measurement, alongside independence of the spontaneous fissions of the tested fissile material, thus enabling uranium measurement. Until recently, using the multiplicity method, for uranium mass estimation, was possible only for active interrogation made with continues neutron source. Pulsed active neutron interrogation measurements were analyzed with techniques, e.g. differential die away analysis (DDA), which ignore or implicitly include the multiplicity effect (self-induced fission chains). Recently, both, the multiplicity and the SVM techniques, were theoretically extended for analyzing active fissile mass measurements, made by a pulsed neutron source. In this study the SVM technique for pulsed neutron source is experimentally examined, for the first time. The measurements were conducted at the PUNITA facility of the Joint Research Centre in Ispra, Italy. First promising results, of mass estimation by the SVM technique using a pulsed neutron source, are presented.

  4. Active Interrogation Using Electronic Neutron Generators for Nuclear Safeguards Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David L. Chichester; Edward H. Seabury

    2008-08-01

    Active interrogation, a measurement technique which uses a radiation source to probe materials and generate unique signatures useful for characterizing those materials, is a powerful tool for assaying special nuclear material. The most commonly used technique for performing active interrogation is to use an electronic neutron generator as the probe radiation source. Exploiting the unique operating characteristics of these devices, including their monoenergetic neutron emissions and their ability to operate in pulsed modes, presents a number of options for performing prompt and delayed signature analyses using both photon and neutron sensors. A review of literature in this area shows multiple applications of the active neutron interrogation technique for performing nuclear nonproliferation measurements. Some examples include measuring the plutonium content of spent fuel, assaying plutonium residue in spent fuel hull claddings, assaying plutonium in aqueous fuel reprocessing process streams, and assaying nuclear fuel reprocessing facility waste streams to detect and quantify fissile material. This paper discusses the historical use of this technique and examines its context within the scope and challenges of next-generation nuclear fuel cycles and advanced concept nuclear fuel cycle facilities.

  5. Active Interrogation Using Electronic Neutron Generators for Nuclear Safeguards Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichester, D. L.; Seabury, E. H.

    2009-03-01

    Active interrogation, a measurement technique which uses a radiation source to probe materials and generate unique signatures useful for characterizing those materials, is a powerful tool for assaying special nuclear material. The most commonly used technique for performing active interrogation is to use an electronic neutron generator as the probe radiation source. Exploiting the unique operating characteristics of these devices, including their monoenergetic neutron emissions and their ability to operate in pulsed modes, presents a number of options for performing prompt and delayed signature analyses using both photon and neutron sensors. A review of literature in this area shows multiple applications of the active neutron interrogation technique for performing nuclear nonproliferation measurements. Some examples include measuring the plutonium content of spent fuel, assaying plutonium residue in spent fuel hull claddings, assaying plutonium in aqueous fuel reprocessing process streams, and assaying nuclear fuel reprocessing facility waste streams to detect and quantify fissile material. This paper discusses the historical use of this technique and examines its context within the scope and challenges of next-generation nuclear fuel cycles and advanced concept nuclear fuel cycle facilities.

  6. Fissile mass estimation by pulsed neutron source interrogation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passive methods for detecting correlated neutrons from spontaneous fissions (e.g. multiplicity and SVM) are widely used for fissile mass estimations. These methods can be used for fissile materials that emit a significant amount of fission neutrons (like plutonium). Active interrogation, in which fissions are induced in the tested material by an external continuous source or by a pulsed neutron source, has the potential advantages of fast measurement, alongside independence of the spontaneous fissions of the tested fissile material, thus enabling uranium measurement. Until recently, using the multiplicity method, for uranium mass estimation, was possible only for active interrogation made with continues neutron source. Pulsed active neutron interrogation measurements were analyzed with techniques, e.g. differential die away analysis (DDA), which ignore or implicitly include the multiplicity effect (self-induced fission chains). Recently, both, the multiplicity and the SVM techniques, were theoretically extended for analyzing active fissile mass measurements, made by a pulsed neutron source. In this study the SVM technique for pulsed neutron source is experimentally examined, for the first time. The measurements were conducted at the PUNITA facility of the Joint Research Centre in Ispra, Italy. First promising results, of mass estimation by the SVM technique using a pulsed neutron source, are presented

  7. Scanning electrochemical microscopy: surface interrogation of adsorbed hydrogen and the open circuit catalytic decomposition of formic acid at platinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-López, Joaquín; Bard, Allen J

    2010-04-14

    The surface interrogation mode of scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) is extended to the in situ quantification of adsorbed hydrogen, H(ads), at polycrystalline platinum. The methodology consists of the production, at an interrogator electrode, of an oxidized species that is able to react with H(ads) on the Pt surface and report the amounts of this adsorbate through the SECM feedback response. The technique is validated by comparison to the electrochemical underpotential deposition (UPD) of hydrogen on Pt. We include an evaluation of electrochemical mediators for their use as oxidizing reporters for adsorbed species at platinum; a notable finding is the ability of tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine (TMPD) to oxidize (interrogate) H(ads) on Pt at low pH (0.5 M H(2)SO(4) or 1 M HClO(4)) and with minimal background effects. As a case study, the decomposition of formic acid (HCOOH) in acidic media at open circuit on Pt was investigated. Our results suggest that formic acid decomposes at the surface of unbiased Pt through a dehydrogenation route to yield H(ads) at the Pt surface. The amount of H(ads) depended on the open circuit potential (OCP) of the Pt electrode at the time of interrogation; at a fixed concentration of HCOOH, a more negative OCP yielded larger amounts of H(ads) until reaching a coulomb limiting coverage close to 1 UPD monolayer of H(ads). The introduction of oxygen into the cell shifted the OCP to more positive potentials and reduced the quantified H(ads); furthermore, the system was shown to be chemically reversible, as several interrogations could be run consecutively and reproducibly regardless of the path taken to reach a given OCP. PMID:20225806

  8. Dry boxes and inert atmosphere techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Practitioners need to conduct experiments with molten salts in an inert atmosphere owing to the chemical reactivity of these media. Most fused salt solvent systems show reactivity to water and/or oxygen, which results in significant chemical changes in the properties of these solvents. Although several studies on the nature of an oxygen/oxide electrode in this melt have been reported, the reactions have not been fully understood because of apparent water contamination in many cases. Nitrate melt systems are also hygroscopic; for example, the LiNO3-KNO3 eutectic (1770C) absorbs water to at least 0.2% by weight. The result is that the electrochemistry of heavier, electropositive metal ions has been significantly altered. In addition, trace amounts of water have been shown to significantly affect the oxygen-oxide redox chemistry in NaNO3-KNO3 melts (2500C). The haloaluminates, which include AlCl3-NaCl (1750C), as well as AlCl3-organic salt binaries are particularly sensitive to the presence of both oxygen and moisture. Oxygen is a strong oxidant in the fused hydroxide systems with formation of superoxide ion from either oxide or water. This chapter describes general, inert atmosphere techniques which can be used by the molten salt experimentalist. Because of the limitations of volatility, vacuum manipulations are not considered. Rather, the use of glove boxes, glove bags, and inert bench-top techniques are discussed. The areas covered are: glove box and bag equipment, operation and maintenance of glove boxes and glove bags, and common operations conducted inside glove boxes

  9. Thinking Outside the Box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The World Nuclear Transport Institute was formed to fill a need to provide a dedicated vehicle for the radioactive transport and packaging industry sectors worldwide, to exchange information and ideas, all with a view to working toward consolidated industry positions on the key issues affecting safe, efficient and reliable transport. WNTI was also intended to be a strong voice for industry in those international and national bodies where deliberations on such transport safety issues take place. The very fact that companies, sometimes in competition with each other, were prepared to come together in this way, reflects two important points: firstly, it represents an acknowledgement on industry's part that safe, effective and reliable transport is the sine qua non, the absolute essential. And second, it is a recognition that it is enhanced to the extent that industry is able to collaborate to this end. This is thinking outside the box. Another important attribute of safety is 'stability'. Everyone likes to know where he or she stands. The radioactive materials packaging and transport industry thrives within a stable regulatory framework for safety. For a stable regulatory regime allows operators to be properly trained; it allows operators to become familiar with safety requirements, and to be at ease with them. Stability is conducive to safety and efficiency. Stability is good for business too - for stability in package and transport requirements allows sufficient time for a fair return on investment in expensive package design, manufacture, licensing and use over time. Stability should not, however, be opposed to creativity. From experience we can develop new thinking to improve efficiency as illustrated in examples of work related to the packaging and transport of Uranium Concentrates for instance.. Another example is work within WNTI on the thermal test requirements for the packaging of uranium hexafluoride. The robustness of packages is based on the risk factors

  10. Comparison of black-box, glass-box and open-box software for aiding conceptual understanding

    OpenAIRE

    Hosein, Anesa; Aczel, James; Clow, Doug; Richardson, John T. E.

    2008-01-01

    Three mathematical software types: black-box (no steps shown), glass-box (steps shown) and open-box (interactive steps) were used by 32 students to solve conceptual and procedural tasks on the computer via remote observation. Comparison of the three software types suggests that there is no difference in the scores that students receive for conceptual understanding tasks. Students using the black-box are more likely to explore answers than students using the glass and open-box software.

  11. Plate forming and break down pizza box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantisano, Frank; Devine, Scott M.

    1992-01-01

    A standard corrugated paper pizza box is provided with slit cuts cut through the top panel of the pizza box in a shape to form four circular serving plates with a beveled raised edge and cross slit cuts through the bottom panel of the pizza box separating the box into four essentially equal portions for easy disposal.

  12. Reliability Based Optimum Design of a Gear Box

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Madhusekhar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The gear box represents an important mechanical sub system. In machine tools, the propose of a gear box is to provide a series of useful output speeds so that the machining operation can be carried out at its most optimum operating conditions high spindle speeds with low feed rate for roughing operations. An important aspect in the design of machine tool transmission is to keep the cost and volume of the gear box to a minimum. The probabilistic approach to design has been considered to be more rational compared to the conventional design approach based on the factor of safety. The existence of uncertainties in either engineering simulations or manufacturing processes calls for a reliability-based design optimization (RBDO model for robust and cost-effective designs. In the present work a three shaft four speed gear box is designed using reliability principles. For the specified reliability of the system (Gear box, component reliability (Gear pair is calculated by considering the system as a series system. Design is considered to be safe and adequate if the probability of failure of gear box is less than or equal to a specified quantity in each of the two failure modes. A FORTRAN program has been developed to calculate the mean values of face widths of gears for the minimum mass of gear box. By changing the probability of failure of system variations in the face widths are studied. The reliability based optimum design results are compared with those obtained by deterministic optimum design. The minimum mass of the gear box is increase as the specified values of the reliability is increased.

  13. Measure Guideline: Optimizing the Configuration of Flexible Duct Junction Boxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beach, R. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Burdick, A. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2014-03-01

    This measure guideline offers additional recommendations to heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system designers for optimizing flexible duct, constant-volume HVAC systems using junction boxes within Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA) Manual D guidance. IBACOS used computational fluid dynamics software to explore and develop guidance to better control the airflow effects of factors that may impact pressure losses within junction boxes among various design configurations. These recommendations can help to ensure that a system aligns more closely with the design and the occupants' comfort expectations. Specifically, the recommendations described herein show how to configure a rectangular box with four outlets, a triangular box with three outlets, metal wyes with two outlets, and multiple configurations for more than four outlets. Designers of HVAC systems, contractors who are fabricating junction boxes on site, and anyone using the ACCA Manual D process for sizing duct runs will find this measure guideline invaluable for more accurately minimizing pressure losses when using junction boxes with flexible ducts.

  14. Coupling polariton quantum boxes in sub-wavelength grating microcavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the construction of decoupled, coupled, and quasi-one dimensional polariton systems from zero dimensional polariton quantum boxes using microcavities with sub-wavelength gratings as the top mirror. By designing the tethering patterns around the suspended sub-wavelength gratings, we control the coupling between individual quantum boxes through different optical potentials. Energy levels and real-space or momentum space distributions of the confined modes were measured, which agreed well with simulations

  15. First-aid boxes - Reminder

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    With a view to ensuring optimum use of the first-aid boxes on the CERN site, we should like to remind you of various changes introduced in March 2009: The TSO of the buildings concerned is responsible for the first-aid boxes, including checking their contents.   First-aid boxes may be restocked ONLY at the CERN stores (SCEM No. 54.99.80). This is no longer possible at the Infirmary. The associated cost is charged to the Departments.   First-aid boxes should be used only for mild injuries. All other cases should be referred to the Medical Service Infirmary (Bldg. 57 – ground-floor, tel. 73802) between 8.00 a.m. and 5.30 p.m. or to the Fire and Rescue Service (tel. 74444). N.B.: This information does not apply to the red emergency first-aid boxes in the underground areas or to the emergency kits for use in the event of being splashed with hydrofluoric acid.

  16. Identifying competencies of boxing coaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Tasiopoulos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to find out the management skills required by boxing coaches to administrate their clubs. For the purposes of this study a scale was constructed which was answered by 98 boxing coaches. Explanatory factor analysis revealed seven factors: Communication-public relations (5 items, event management (4 items, management techniques (4 items, new technologies (4 items, prevention-safety (2 items, sport (5 items and sports facilities (2 items. The Cronbach of the scale was 0.85. The five competencies that rated by the coaches were: Supervisors of the area of training, maintaining excellent communication with athletes, using new technologies (e-mail, internet, handling disciplinary matters, accidents, complaints and reports on some sporting games and promoted harmony among athletes. We concluded that boxing coaches understand that the competencies required for meeting their obligations, were related to sports, prevention, safety and communications-public relations.

  17. BoxLib with Tiling: An AMR Software Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Weiqun; Day, Marcus; Nguyen, Tan; Shalf, John; Unat, Didem

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a block-structured adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) software framework that incorporates tiling, a well-known loop transformation. Because the multiscale, multiphysics codes built in BoxLib are designed to solve complex systems at high resolution, performance on current and next generation architectures is essential. With the expectation of many more cores per node on next generation architectures, the ability to effectively utilize threads within a node is essential, and the current model for parallelization will not be sufficient. We describe a new version of BoxLib in which the tiling constructs are embedded so that BoxLib-based applications can easily realize expected performance gains without extra effort on the part of the application developer. We also discuss a path forward to enable future versions of BoxLib to take advantage of NUMA-aware optimizations using the TiDA portable library.

  18. 网络电视机顶盒GUI系统的设计与实现%Design and Implementation of Web TV Set Top Box GUI System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒国丽; 金韬; 任秀丽

    2002-01-01

    网络电视机顶盒(Web TV Set Top Box)是一种典型的嵌入式应用,其人机交互界面和Web浏览器等应用均需要GUI系统的支持.本文提出了一个网络电视机顶盒GUI系统的设计方案,并详细阐述了其中最重要的两部分-驱动程序与窗口系统的具体实现.本GUI系统结构简单、占用资源少、可靠性高、配置灵活,具有良好的可移植性.该系统已推广应用,满足了应用要求.

  19. Benchmark for Peak Detection Algorithms in Fiber Bragg Grating Interrogation and a New Neural Network for its Performance Improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksander Paterno; Hypolito Kalinowski; Lucas Negri; Ademir Nied

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a benchmark for peak detection algorithms employed in fiber Bragg grating spectrometric interrogation systems. The accuracy, precision, and computational performance of currently used algorithms and those of a new proposed artificial neural network algorithm are compared. Centroid and gaussian fitting algorithms are shown to have the highest precision but produce systematic errors that depend on the FBG refractive index modulation profile. The proposed neural network displ...

  20. Intonation and Duration Curve in Persian Interrogative Sentences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Keyhani

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: prosody is a very important factor in communication and includes such parameters as: duration, intonation, pitch, stress, rhythm etc. Intonation is the pitch variation in one sentence. Duration is the time taken to utter a voice. The aim of the present study was to evaluate some parameters of prosody such as duration and intonation curve in interrogative sentences among normal Farsi speaking adults in order to determine the characteristics of this aspect of language with an emphasis on laboratory testing.Methods: This study was performed as a cross-sectional one. The participants included 134 male and female Farsi speaking individuals aging between 18-30 years. In this study two interrogative sentences with open and closed answers were used. The voice samples were analyzed by Dr.speech -real analysis software. Data analysis incorporated unilateral analysis of variance and an intonation curve was drawn for each sentence.Results: The parameter of duration among men and women was significantly different (p≤0.001. Duration in open questions was significantly longer than yes/no questions (p≤0.001. The intonation curve of the two groups were similar.Conclusion: Men and women use duration changes, for making difference in prosody. On the whole, duration among women is longer than men. In open questions, the duration of sentences is mostly due to the question word. The intonation curve in open questions has more amplitude. Women show much more changes in basic frequency for transferring interrogative state in their expressions.

  1. Large area liquid argon detectors for interrogation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of the efficiency, pulse shape, and energy and time resolution of liquid argon (LAr) detectors are presented. Liquefied noble gas-based (LNbG) detectors have been developed for the detection of dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay. However, the same qualities that make LNbG detectors ideal for these applications, namely their size, cost, efficiency, pulse shape discrimination and resolution, make them promising for portal screening and the detection of Special Nuclear Materials (SNM). Two 18-liter prototype detectors were designed, fabricated, and tested, one with pure LAr and the other doped with liquid Xe (LArXe). The LArXe detector presented the better time and energy resolution of 3.3 ns and 20% at 662 KeV, respectively. The total efficiency of the detector was measured to be 35% with 4.5% of the total photons detected in the photopeak.

  2. Linearity enhancement of scale factor in an optical interrogated micromechanical accelerometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Feng, Lishuang; Wang, Xiao; Wang, Yang

    2016-08-01

    A method to reduce the residual stress of support arms in an optical interrogated micromechanical accelerometer is proposed in order to enhance the linearity of the scale factor of the accelerometer. First, the behavior of residual stress in support arms is analyzed in detail, and the simulation of shape curvature caused by residual stress in aluminum-made support arms is completed using finite element analysis. Then, by comparing two different materials of support arms (aluminum-made and silicon-made support arms), a modified fabrication is introduced in order to reduce the unexpected residual stress in support arms. Finally, based on contrast experiments, the linearity of the scale factor of accelerometers with aluminum-made and silicon-made support arms is measured using the force feedback test system, respectively. Results show that the linearity of the scale factor of the accelerometer with silicon-made support arms is 0.85%, which is reduced about an order of magnitude compared to that of the accelerometer with aluminum-made support arms with the linearity of scale factor of 7.48%; linearity enhancement of the scale factor is validated. This allows accuracy improvement of the optical interrogated micromechanical accelerometer in the application of inertial navigation and positioning. PMID:27505396

  3. [INVITED] Cascade FBGs distributed sensors interrogation using microwave photonics filtering techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricchiuti, Amelia L.; Hervás, Javier; Sales, Salvador

    2016-03-01

    Systems to interrogate photonic sensors based on long fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) are illustrated and experimentally validated. The FBGs-based devices are used as quasi-distributed sensors and have demonstrated their ability to detect and measure the precise location of several spot events. The principle of operation is based on a technique used to analyze microwave photonics (MWP) filters. The overall idea beyond this work has been borne out and demonstrated step by step starting from preliminary test that have led to the development of a very-long distributed sensor based on an array of 500 equal and weak FBGs. Firstly, we have demonstrated the feasibility of the MWP filtering technique to interrogate a 10 cm-long high reflectivity (≈99%) FBG. Then, a pair of low-reflectivity (<6%) FBGs has been employed as sensing device. The latter has laid the foundation for the development and implementation of a 5 m-long fiber optic sensor based on 500 very weak FBGs. Spot events have been detected with a good spatial accuracy of less than 1 mm using a modulator and a photo-detector (PD) with a modest bandwidth of only 500 MHz. The simple proposed schemes result cost effective, intrinsically robust against environmental changes and easy to reconfigure.

  4. Interrogating scarcity: how to think about ‘resource-scarce settings’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrecker, Ted

    2013-01-01

    The idea of resource scarcity permeates health ethics and health policy analysis in various contexts. However, health ethics inquiry seldom asks—as it should—why some settings are ‘resource-scarce’ and others not. In this article I describe interrogating scarcity as a strategy for inquiry into questions of resource allocation within a single political jurisdiction and, in particular, as an approach to the issue of global health justice in an interconnected world. I demonstrate its relevance to the situation of low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) with brief descriptions of four elements of contemporary globalization: trade agreements; the worldwide financial marketplace and capital flight; structural adjustment; imperial geopolitics and foreign policy. This demonstration involves not only health care, but also social determinants of health. Finally, I argue that interrogating scarcity provides the basis for a new, critical approach to health policy at the interface of ethics and the social sciences, with specific reference to market fundamentalism as the value system underlying contemporary globalization. PMID:22899597

  5. Assembly and interrogation of Alzheimer's disease genetic networks reveal novel regulators of progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubry, Soline; Shin, William; Crary, John F; Lefort, Roger; Qureshi, Yasir H; Lefebvre, Celine; Califano, Andrea; Shelanski, Michael L

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complex multifactorial disorder with poorly characterized pathogenesis. Our understanding of this disease would thus benefit from an approach that addresses this complexity by elucidating the regulatory networks that are dysregulated in the neural compartment of AD patients, across distinct brain regions. Here, we use a Systems Biology (SB) approach, which has been highly successful in the dissection of cancer related phenotypes, to reverse engineer the transcriptional regulation layer of human neuronal cells and interrogate it to infer candidate Master Regulators (MRs) responsible for disease progression. Analysis of gene expression profiles from laser-captured neurons from AD and controls subjects, using the Algorithm for the Reconstruction of Accurate Cellular Networks (ARACNe), yielded an interactome consisting of 488,353 transcription-factor/target interactions. Interrogation of this interactome, using the Master Regulator INference algorithm (MARINa), identified an unbiased set of candidate MRs causally responsible for regulating the transcriptional signature of AD progression. Experimental assays in autopsy-derived human brain tissue showed that three of the top candidate MRs (YY1, p300 and ZMYM3) are indeed biochemically and histopathologically dysregulated in AD brains compared to controls. Our results additionally implicate p53 and loss of acetylation homeostasis in the neurodegenerative process. This study suggests that an integrative, SB approach can be applied to AD and other neurodegenerative diseases, and provide significant novel insight on the disease progression. PMID:25781952

  6. Assembly and interrogation of Alzheimer's disease genetic networks reveal novel regulators of progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soline Aubry

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is a complex multifactorial disorder with poorly characterized pathogenesis. Our understanding of this disease would thus benefit from an approach that addresses this complexity by elucidating the regulatory networks that are dysregulated in the neural compartment of AD patients, across distinct brain regions. Here, we use a Systems Biology (SB approach, which has been highly successful in the dissection of cancer related phenotypes, to reverse engineer the transcriptional regulation layer of human neuronal cells and interrogate it to infer candidate Master Regulators (MRs responsible for disease progression. Analysis of gene expression profiles from laser-captured neurons from AD and controls subjects, using the Algorithm for the Reconstruction of Accurate Cellular Networks (ARACNe, yielded an interactome consisting of 488,353 transcription-factor/target interactions. Interrogation of this interactome, using the Master Regulator INference algorithm (MARINa, identified an unbiased set of candidate MRs causally responsible for regulating the transcriptional signature of AD progression. Experimental assays in autopsy-derived human brain tissue showed that three of the top candidate MRs (YY1, p300 and ZMYM3 are indeed biochemically and histopathologically dysregulated in AD brains compared to controls. Our results additionally implicate p53 and loss of acetylation homeostasis in the neurodegenerative process. This study suggests that an integrative, SB approach can be applied to AD and other neurodegenerative diseases, and provide significant novel insight on the disease progression.

  7. Principal investigator in a box: Version 1.2 documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolph, Jurine; Bhatnagar, Rajiv; Colombano, Silvano P.; Compton, Michael; Frainer, Richard; Groleau, Nicolas; Holden, Kritina; Lai, Sen-Hao; Lam, Chih-Chao; Manahan, Meera

    1990-01-01

    Principal Investigator (PI) in a box is a computer system designed to help optimize the scientific results of experiments that are performed in space. The system will assist the astronaut experimenters in the collection and analysis of experimental data, recognition and pursuit of 'interesting' results, optimal use of the time allocated to the experiment, and troubleshooting of the experiment apparatus. This document discusses the problems that motivate development of 'PI-in-a-box', and presents a high- level system overview and a detailed description of each of the modules that comprise the current version of the system.

  8. Partons of a spherical box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculation of parton distributions in the 'cavity approximation' to the MIT bag model gives a divergent sum of positive terms. In this version of the model the flexible movable bag is replaced by an inflexible immovable box. This suggests that Bjorken scaling does not hold for the deep inelastic scattering in this version of the model. (K.A.)

  9. On the Dirichlet's Box Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Kin-Keung; Shiu, Wai-Chee

    2008-01-01

    In this note, we will focus on several applications on the Dirichlet's box principle in Discrete Mathematics lesson and number theory lesson. In addition, the main result is an innovative game on a triangular board developed by the authors. The game has been used in teaching and learning mathematics in Discrete Mathematics and some high schools in…

  10. A Box Full of Kisses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔增印

    2008-01-01

    The story goes that some time ago,a man pun- ished his 3-year-old daughter for wasting a roll of gold wrapping paper.Money was tight and he became infuriated when the child tried to decorate a box to put under the Christmas tree.Nevertheless,the little girl brought the gift to

  11. Active Neutron Interrogation and Delayed Neutron Counting (AIDNEC) for assay of 235U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method has been developed for non destructive assay of 235U using active neutron interrogation followed by delayed neutron counting (AIDNEC) system. The neutrons from a plasma focus (PF) device were used to bombard the samples containing low enriched uranium ranging from 13 mg to 5 g. The PF device generates (1.2±0.3) x109 D-D fusion neutrons per shot with a pulse width of 46±5 ns. The delayed neutrons were monitored using a bank of six 3He detectors. The sensitivity of the system was found to be about 1000 cps per gram over the accumulation time of 25 seconds per neutron pulse of ∼109. The detection limit of the system is estimated to be 18 mg of 235U. (author)

  12. 基于 Loader的机顶盒升级的设计与实现%The Design and Implementation of Set-top Boxes to Upgrade based on A Loader System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张格

    2015-01-01

    This paper from the set -top box software system structure layer analysis , to explore the feasibility of Loader upgrade , this paper introduces the link descriptor , upgrade the production specification and broadcast rules, emphasize the necessity of the implementation steps of STB Loade upgrades , and has made the analysis in this paper, the process on receiving client set -top box, and finally gives several Suggestions on the prob-lems arising from the upgrade .%分析机顶盒软件系统的结构,探讨了Loader升级的可行性,介绍了链接描述符、升级流的制作规范及播出规则,强调了机顶盒Loade升级按步骤实施的必要性,分析用户端机顶盒的接收过程,并对升级中出现的问题提出几点建议。

  13. Remotely Interrogated Passive Polarizing Dosimeter (RIPPeD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conductive polymers have become an extremely useful class of materials for many optical applications. We have developed an electrochemical growth method for depositing highly conductive (∼100 S/cm) polypyrrole. Additionally, we have adapted advanced fabrication methods for use with the polypyrrole resulting in gratings with submicron features. This conductive polymer micro-wire grid provides an optical polarizer with unique properties. When the polymer is exposed to ionizing radiation, its conductivity is affected and the polarization properties of the device, specifically the extinction ratio, change in a corresponding manner. This change in polarization properties can be determined by optically interrogating the device, possibly from a remote location. The result is a passive radiation-sensitive sensor with very low optical visibility. The ability to interrogate the device from a safe standoff distance provides a device useful in potentially dangerous environments. Also, the passive nature of the device make it applicable in applications where external power is not available. We will review the polymer deposition, fabrication methods and device design and modeling. The characterization of the polymer's sensitivity to ionizing radiation and optical testing of infrared polarizers before and after irradiation will also be presented. These experimental results will highlight the usefulness of the conductive infrared polarizer to many security and monitoring applications

  14. Remotely Interrogated Passive Polarizing Dosimeter (RIPPeD).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemme, Shanalyn A.; Buller, Daniel L.; Dirk, Shawn M.; Boye, Robert R.; Samora, Sally; Washburn, Cody M.; Wheeler, David Roger

    2008-09-01

    Conductive polymers have become an extremely useful class of materials for many optical applications. We have developed an electrochemical growth method for depositing highly conductive ({approx}100 S/cm) polypyrrole. Additionally, we have adapted advanced fabrication methods for use with the polypyrrole resulting in gratings with submicron features. This conductive polymer micro-wire grid provides an optical polarizer with unique properties. When the polymer is exposed to ionizing radiation, its conductivity is affected and the polarization properties of the device, specifically the extinction ratio, change in a corresponding manner. This change in polarization properties can be determined by optically interrogating the device, possibly from a remote location. The result is a passive radiation-sensitive sensor with very low optical visibility. The ability to interrogate the device from a safe standoff distance provides a device useful in potentially dangerous environments. Also, the passive nature of the device make it applicable in applications where external power is not available. We will review the polymer deposition, fabrication methods and device design and modeling. The characterization of the polymer's sensitivity to ionizing radiation and optical testing of infrared polarizers before and after irradiation will also be presented. These experimental results will highlight the usefulness of the conductive infrared polarizer to many security and monitoring applications.

  15. Beyond the Methanogenic Black-Box: Greenhouse Gas Fluxes (CO2, CH4, N2O) as Evidence for Wetlands as Dynamic Redox Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcnicol, G.; Knox, S. H.; Sturtevant, C. S.; Baldocchi, D. D.; Silver, W. L.

    2015-12-01

    Seminal wetland research in the 1990s demonstrated that annual methane (CH4) fluxes scaled positively with ecosystem production across distinctive wetlands globally. This relationship implies a model of flooded wetland ecosystems as 'methanogenic black-boxes'; poised at a low redox state, and tending to release a fixed fraction of incoming annual productivity as CH4. In contrast, recent studies have reported high ratios of carbon dioxide (CO2) to CH4 emissions, and are adding to a body of evidence suggesting wetlands can vary more widely in their redox state. To explore this apparent incongruence we used principles of redox thermodynamics and laboratory experiments to develop predictions of wetland greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes under different redox regimes. We then used a field study to test the hypothesis that ecosystem seasonality in gross primary productivity (GPP) and temperature would drive changes in GHG emissions, mediated by a dynamic - as opposed to static - redox regime. We estimated wetland GHG emissions from an emergent marsh in the Sacramento Delta, CA from March 2014-2015. We measured CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions via diffusion and ebullition with manual sampling, and whole-ecosystem fluxes of CO2 and CH4 using eddy-covariance. Ebullition and diffusive CH4 fluxes were strongly seasonal, with minimum rates (0.86 and 0.35 mg C-CH­­4 m-2 yr-1, respectively) during winter, and maximum rates (1.3 and 1.8 g C-CH­­4 m-2 yr-1, respectively) during the summer growing season. In contrast, winter diffusive CO2 fluxes (494 g C-CO2 m-2 yr-1) and fall bubble CO2 concentrations (1.49%) were highest, despite being seasons of lower GPP, temperature, and CH4 flux. Further, diffusive and ebullition fluxes of N2O showed zero net flux only during spring and summer months, whereas the wetland was a significant source of N2O during winter (81.2 ± 24.4 mg N-N2O m-2 yr-1). These seasonal flux dynamics contradict a 'methanogenic black box' model of wetland redox, which

  16. Remote fiber optic switch powered by light for robust interrogation of fiber Bragg grating sensor networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, a remote fiber optic switch powered by light is demonstrated experimentally. This fiber optic switch is powered by a photovoltaic power converter illuminated by a Raman laser. The switch can operate at distances up to 100 km. This switch is used to develop a remote resilient fiber Bragg grating (FBG) multiplexing network interrogated by a commercial FBG interrogator. In the proposed set-up the switch selects the branch of the FBG network located 50 km away from the interrogation unit in order to enable a two-way interrogation path for each sensor to prevent connection failures or fiber breakages. (paper)

  17. Design of Terminal Box Dehumidiifcation System Based on Internet of Things%基于物联网技术的端子箱驱潮系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周锦宏; 刘星

    2015-01-01

    通过分析端子箱驱潮系统现状及需求,提出了一种基于物联网技术的驱潮系统,以达到有效提升驱潮质量的目的。该系统主要由工业除湿机、温湿度监控成套装置、无线模块、工业控制计算机、后台服务器等设备组成,使用ZigBee无线技术、Web Service技术进行通信和控制。通过现场勘查分析可知,该驱潮系统可以保持良好的箱体内部环境,有效地降低人工劳动工作量,满足时代对物联网技术的应用需求,为探索智能电网的应用和管理提供可靠依据。%Based on the status and requirement of dehumidification system in terminal box, a dehumidification system based on Internet of Things was proposed to effectively improve the dehumidification quality. The system adopts ZigBee wireless technique and Web Service Technique to realize communication and control, which is mainly composed of industrial dehumidifier, temperature and humidity monitoring equipment, wireless module, industrial control computer and backend server. The field investigation and analysis demonstrate, the system can maintain good inner environment inside the box, effectively reduce the manual labor, satisfy the application requirement on Internet of Things and provide a reliable reference to the application and management of smart grid.

  18. Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion's Pandora's Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News, Videos & Podcasts » Articles » Text Size Print Bookmark Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion’s Pandora’s Box? Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion’s Pandora’s Box? Foot and Ankle Surgeons Warn ...

  19. The Heuristic Interpretation of Box Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lem, Stephanie; Onghena, Patrick; Verschaffel, Lieven; Van Dooren, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Box plots are frequently used, but are often misinterpreted by students. Especially the area of the box in box plots is often misinterpreted as representing number or proportion of observations, while it actually represents their density. In a first study, reaction time evidence was used to test whether heuristic reasoning underlies this…

  20. Box-shaped halophilic bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Javor, B; Requadt, C; Stoeckenius, W

    1982-01-01

    Three morphologically similar strains of halophilic, box-shaped procaryotes have been isolated from brines collected in the Sinai, Baja California (Mexico), and southern California (United States). Although the isolates in their morphology resemble Walsby's square bacteria, which are a dominant morphological type in the Red Sea and Baja California brines, they are probably not identical to them. The cells show the general characteristics of extreme halophiles and archaebacteria. They contain ...

  1. Broken links and black boxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindbæk, Søren Michael

    2013-01-01

    Long-distance communication has emerged as a particular focus for archaeological exploration using network theory, analysis, and modelling. Initial attempts to adapt methods from social network analysis to archaeological data have, however, struggled to produce decisive results. This paper argues...... ruined network from observable distributions and patterns of association in the archaeological record. In formal terms this is not a problem of network analysis, but network synthesis: the classic problem of cracking codes or reconstructing black-box circuits....

  2. Das k-Box-Produkt

    OpenAIRE

    Elser, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Ziel dieser Doktorarbeit ist es, bekannte und oft verwendete Eigenschaften des Tychonow-Produkts in analoger Form für das k-Box-Produkt zu beweisen, was bisher noch nicht geschehen ist, und die Verbindung zwischen der Infinitären Kombinatorik und der Topologie zu vertiefen. In der Infinitären Kombinatorik, ein Zweig der modernen Mengenlehre, bedient man sich gerne topologischer Begriffe, um einerseits Ergebnisse zu verdeutlichen und um andererseits den sehr abstrakten kombinatorischen Be...

  3. Scoping studies - photon and low energy neutron interrogation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, G.; Harker, Y.; Jones, J. [LMITCo, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Harmon, F. [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States)

    1997-11-01

    High energy photon interrogation of waste containers, with the aim of producing photo nuclear reactions, in specific materials, holds the potential of good penetration and rapid analysis. Compact high energy ({le} 10 MeV) photon sources in the form of electron linacs producing bremstrahlung radiation are readily available. Work with the Varitron variable energy accelerator at ISU will be described. Advantages and limitations of the technique will be discussed. Using positive ion induced neutron producing reactions, it is possible to generate neutrons in a specific energy range. By this means, variable penetration and specific reactions can be excited in the assayed material. Examples using the {sup 3}H(p,n) and {sup 7}Li(p,n) reactions as neutron sources will be discussed. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  4. Time-dependent delayed signatures from energetic photon interrogations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulsed photonuclear interrogation environments generated by 8-24 MeV electron linac are rich with time-dependent, material-specific, radiation signatures. Nitrogen-based explosives and nuclear materials can be detected by exploiting these signatures in different delayed-time regions. Numerical and experimental results presented in this paper show the unique time and energy dependence of these signatures. It is shown that appropriate delayed-time windows are essential to acquire material-specific signatures in pulsed photonuclear assessment environments. These developments demonstrate that pulsed, high-energy, photon-inspection environments can be exploited for time-dependent, material-specific signatures through the proper operation of specialized detectors and detection methods

  5. Time-Dependent Delayed Signatures from Energetic Photon Interrogations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulsed photonuclear interrogation environments generated by 8-24 MeV electron linac are rich with time-dependent, material-specific, radiation signatures. Nitrogen-based explosives and nuclear materials can be detected by exploiting these signatures in different delayed-time regions. Numerical and experimental results presented in this paper show the unique time and energy dependence of these signatures. It is shown that appropriate delayed-time windows are essential to acquire material-specific signatures in the pulsed photonuclear assessment (PPA) environments. These developments demonstrate that pulsed, high-energy, photon- inspection environments can be exploited for time-dependent, material-specific signatures through the proper operation of specialized detectors and detection methods

  6. Smart Call Box Field Operation Test Evaluation: Summary Report (revised Draft 5-1-97)

    OpenAIRE

    Banks, James H.; Powell, Patrick A. D.

    1997-01-01

    The Smart Call Box Field Operational Test evaluated the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of using smart call boxes for five data processing and transmission tasks: traffic census, incident detection, hazardous weather reporting, changeable message sign control, and video surveillance. Evaluation focused on assessing the cost-effectiveness of smart call boxes as compared with a baseline system using hardwire telephone communications. The evaluation was primarily based on functional adequacy ...

  7. 77 FR 29718 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BOX Options Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... the order. Additionally, the Exchange is making a voluntary decision to make this data available...\\ The automated electronic trading system that is currently operated by BOX Group as a facility of... automated electronic trading system that is currently operated by BOX Group as a facility of NASDAQ OMX...

  8. Adaptation of Black-Box Software Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Andreas Rasenack

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The globalization of the software market leads to crucial problems for software companies. More competition between software companies arises and leads to the force on companies to develop ever newer software products in ever shortened time interval. Therefore the time to market for software systems is shortened and obviously the product life cycle is shortened too. Thus software companies shortened the time interval for research and development. Due to the fact of competition between software companies software products have to develop low-priced and this leads to a smaller return on investment. A big challenge for software companies is the use of an effective research and development process to have these problems under control. A way to control these problems can be the reuse of existing software components and adapt those software components to new functionality or accommodate mismatched interfaces. Complete redevelopment of software products is more expensive and time consuming than to develop software components. The approach introduced here presents novel technique together with a supportive environment that enables developers to cope with the adaptability of black-box software components. A supportive environment will be designed that checks the compatibility of black-box software components with the assistance of their specifications. Generated adapter software components can take over the part of adaptation and advance the functionality. Besides, a pool of software components can be used to compose an application to satisfy customer needs. Certainly this pool of software components consists of black-box software components and adapter software components which can be connected on demand.

  9. Using Elaborative Interrogation Enhanced Worked Examples to Improve Chemistry Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pease, Rebecca Simpson

    2012-01-01

    Elaborative interrogation, which prompts students to answer why-questions placed strategically within informational text, has been shown to increase learning comprehension through reading. In this study, elaborative interrogation why-questions requested readers to explain why paraphrased statements taken from a reading were "true."…

  10. And I Want to Thank You Barbie: Barbie as a Site for Cultural Interrogation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Claudia; Reid-Walsh, Jacqueline

    1995-01-01

    Barbie is presented as the perfect cultural site for interrogating margins, borders, and contradictions in females' lives. This article illuminates such issues by interrogating the "cumulative cultural text of Barbie." Texts criticized are: Barbie collector cards; "Barbie" and "Barbie Fashion" comic books; "Barbie, The Magazine for Girls"; and the…

  11. Hairy Black Holes in a Box

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Pallab; Subramanian, P N Bala

    2016-01-01

    We do a systematic study of the phases of gravity coupled to an electromagnetic field and charged scalar in flat space, with box boundary conditions. The scalar-less box has previously been investigated by Braden, Brown, Whiting and York (and others) before AdS/CFT and we elaborate and extend their results in a language more familiar from holography. The phase diagram of the system is analogous to that of AdS black holes, but we emphasize the differences and explain their origin. Once the scalar is added, we show that the system admits both boson stars as well as hairy black holes as solutions, providing yet another way to evade flat space no-hair theorems. Furthermore both these solutions can exist as stable phases in regions of the phase diagram. The final picture of the phases that emerges is strikingly similar to that found recently for holographic superconductors in global AdS, arXiv: 1602.07211. Our construction lays bare certain previously unnoticed subtleties associated to the definition quasi-local c...

  12. Assessing the Feasibility of Interrogating Nuclear Waste Storage Silos using Cosmic-ray Muons

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosino, F; Cimmino, L; D'Alessandro, R; Ireland, D G; Kaiser, R; Mahon, D F; Mori, N; Noli, P; Saracino, G; Shearer, C; Viliani, L; Yang, G

    2014-01-01

    Muon radiography is a fast growing field in applied scientific research. In recent years, many detector technologies and imaging techniques using the Coulomb scattering and absorption properties of cosmic-ray muons have been developed for the non-destructive assay of various structures across a wide range of applications. This work presents the first results that assess the feasibility of using muons to interrogate waste silos within the UK Nuclear Industry. Two such approaches, using different techniques that exploit each of these properties, have previously been published, and show promising results from both simulation and experimental data for the detection of shielded high-Z materials and density variations from volcanic assay. Both detector systems are based on scintillator and photomultiplier technologies. Results from dedicated simulation studies using both these technologies and image reconstruction techniques are presented for an intermediate-sized nuclear waste storage facility filled with concrete...

  13. Novel FBG triangular filter for interrogating a FBG sensor in dynamic strain measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Li-yang; SONG Jian-fei; ZHANG A-ping; HE Sai-ling

    2006-01-01

    @@ We demonstrate the fabrication and the application of an in-fiber triangular filter (T-filter) based on a linearly chirped and apodized fiber Bragg grating (FBG).The theoretical analysis shows that this type of FBG T-filter has a good response in the demodulation of a wavelength-matched FBG sensor.For the first time to our knowledge,such an FBG T-filter has been realized in our laboratory,and utilized to interrogate the signal of dynamic strain by a specially designed measurement scheme.Experimental results have proved that the system has a good performance in the measurement of dynamic strain.Because of its compactness and passiveness,such type of the device can be integrated as a portable demodulation module.

  14. Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of Flexible Duct Junction Box Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beach, Robert [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Prahl, Duncan [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Lange, Rich [Applied Science Consultants, LLC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2013-12-01

    IBACOS explored the relationships between pressure and physical configurations of flexible duct junction boxes by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations to predict individual box parameters and total system pressure, thereby ensuring improved HVAC performance. Current Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA) guidance (Group 11, Appendix 3, ACCA Manual D, Rutkowski 2009) allows for unconstrained variation in the number of takeoffs, box sizes, and takeoff locations. The only variables currently used in selecting an equivalent length (EL) are velocity of air in the duct and friction rate, given the first takeoff is located at least twice its diameter away from the inlet. This condition does not account for other factors impacting pressure loss across these types of fittings. For each simulation, the IBACOS team converted pressure loss within a box to an EL to compare variation in ACCA Manual D guidance to the simulated variation. IBACOS chose cases to represent flows reasonably correlating to flows typically encountered in the field and analyzed differences in total pressure due to increases in number and location of takeoffs, box dimensions, and velocity of air, and whether an entrance fitting is included. The team also calculated additional balancing losses for all cases due to discrepancies between intended outlet flows and natural flow splits created by the fitting. In certain asymmetrical cases, the balancing losses were significantly higher than symmetrical cases where the natural splits were close to the targets. Thus, IBACOS has shown additional design constraints that can ensure better system performance.

  15. Proposed Junction-Box Stress Test (Using an Added Weight) for Use During the Module Qualification (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D. C.; Wohlgemuth, J. H.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2012-02-01

    Engineering robust adhesion of the junction-box (j-box) is a hurdle typically encountered by photovoltaic (PV) module manufacturers during product development. Furthermore, there are historical incidences of adverse effects (e.g., fires) caused when the j-box/adhesive/module system has failed in the field. The addition of a weight to the j-box during the 'damp heat' IEC qualification test is proposed to verify the basic robustness of the j-box adhesion system. The details of the proposed test are described, in addition to the preliminary results conducted using representative materials and components.

  16. Thinking outside the box: fluctuations and finite size effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The isothermal compressibility of an interacting or non-interacting system may be extracted from the fluctuations of the number of particles in a well-chosen control volume. Finite size effects are prevalent and should be accounted for to obtain a meaningful, thermodynamic compressibility. In the traditional computational setup, where a given simulation box is replicated with periodic boundary conditions, we study particle number fluctuations outside the box (i.e. when the control volume exceeds the box itself), which bear relevant thermodynamic information. We also investigate the related problem of extracting the compressibility from the structure factor in the small wave-vector limit (k → 0). The calculation should be restricted to the discrete set of wave-vectors k that are compatible with the periodicity of the system, and we assess the consequences of considering other k values, a widespread error among beginners. (paper)

  17. Thinking outside the box: fluctuations and finite size effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamaina, Dario; Trizac, Emmanuel

    2014-05-01

    The isothermal compressibility of an interacting or non-interacting system may be extracted from the fluctuations of the number of particles in a well-chosen control volume. Finite size effects are prevalent and should be accounted for to obtain a meaningful, thermodynamic compressibility. In the traditional computational setup, where a given simulation box is replicated with periodic boundary conditions, we study particle number fluctuations outside the box (i.e. when the control volume exceeds the box itself), which bear relevant thermodynamic information. We also investigate the related problem of extracting the compressibility from the structure factor in the small wave-vector limit (k → 0). The calculation should be restricted to the discrete set of wave-vectors k that are compatible with the periodicity of the system, and we assess the consequences of considering other k values, a widespread error among beginners.

  18. Lies and coercion: why psychiatrists should not participate in police and intelligence interrogations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janofsky, Jeffrey S

    2006-01-01

    Police interrogators routinely use deceptive techniques to obtain confessions from criminal suspects. The United States Executive Branch has attempted to justify coercive interrogation techniques in which physical or mental pain and suffering may be used during intelligence interrogations of persons labeled unlawful combatants. It may be appropriate for law enforcement, military, or intelligence personnel who are not physicians to use such techniques. However, forensic psychiatry ethical practice requires honesty, striving for objectivity, and respect for persons. Deceptive and coercive interrogation techniques violate these moral values. When a psychiatrist directly uses, works with others who use, or trains others to use deceptive or coercive techniques to obtain information in police, military, or intelligence interrogations, the psychiatrist breaches basic principles of ethics. PMID:17185476

  19. INL Neutron Interrogation R&D: FY2010 MPACT End of Year Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. L. Chichester; E. H. Seabury; J. Wharton; S. M. Watson

    2010-08-01

    Experiments have been carried out to investigate the feasibility and utility of using neutron interrogation and small-scale, portable prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) instruments for assaying uranium for safeguards applications. Prior work has shown the potential of the PGNAA technique for assaying uranium using reactor-based neutron sources and high-yield electronic neutron generators (ENGs). In this project we adapted Idaho National Laboratory's portable isotopic neutron spectroscopy (PINS) PGNAA system for measuring natural-enrichment uranium yellowcake and metallic depleted uranium and highly enriched uranium. This work used 252Cf as well as deuterium-deuterium (DD) and deuterium-tritium (DT) ENGs. For PGNAA measurements a limiting factor when assaying large objects is the detector dead time due to fast-neutron scattering off of the uranium; this limits the maximum useable neutron source strength to O(107) neutrons per second. Under these conditions the low PGNAA reaction cross sections for uranium prohibited the collection of useful uranium PGNAA signatures from either the yellowcake or metallic uranium samples. Measurement of the decay product activation in these materials following irradiation in the PGNAA geometry similarly did not produce useful uranium activation product – fission product signatures. A customized irradiation geometry tailored to optimally thermalize the interrogation neutron source, intended only for generating long-lived activation products – fission products and not intended for PGNAA measurements, might be possible using small scale ENGs but an application need and a modeling and simulation exercise would be recommended before advancing to experiments. Neutron interrogation PGNAA using a DT-ENG was found to be a quick and useful qualitative method for detecting the presence of oxygen in natural-enrichment uranium yellowcake. With a low effort of development work it would be reasonable to expect this

  20. Radiometry of radiochemical processing plant box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiometry method is used to detect shielding losses in the newly designed processing plants, to control the personnel exposure handling the radioactivity. The acceptable radiation level in occupied area at the working place, as per AERB regulatory guidelines is 1 μSv/h (0.1mR/h). Hence a stringent control on the shielding is mandatory. The shielding integrity was evaluated using a sealed source of 900 mCi 60Co (1.17 MeV and 1.33 MeV g photons of 100% abundance), by radiometry at -the newly designed 100 mm lead shielded SS 6 cell -plant box used for processing 5 -10Ci of 32P, 51Cr,153Sm, 177Lu, 166Ho etc. The radiometry source introduced into plant box through the loading chamber in H2 can (Dia. 25 mm and length 40 mm) was loaded in the plant. MS stand was fabricated and used for housing the radiometry source at different elevations (300, 600 and 900 mm). The stand was kept in the center of the plant at different locations viz., 845 mm, 1445 mm and 2045 mm distance from one side. The transmitted radiation field was mapped using radiation survey meter at marked grid segments of 100 mm x 100 mm in all sides and top of the plant box. The transmitted radiation field in all sides and top of the plant box were mapped using radiation survey meter. At certain grids the radiation levels indicated shielding losses, all such cavities were filled up, the gap was plugged and the radiometry dose mapping was repeated. Due to this rectification, radiation level at most of the places was reduced and the results showed that the shielding had improved. There was higher transmitted radiation field on the plant during opening of sliding doors. Whenever doors are opened during some work, alarm of audio alarm system indicates door opening condition. Installation of the same had been made mandatory to control occupational exposure. The radiation level may not exceed the limit of 1 μ iSv/h for the permanent occupancy of lab personnel at the working place

  1. Assessing the feasibility of interrogating nuclear waste storage silos using cosmic-ray muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muon radiography is a fast growing field in applied scientific research. In recent years, many detector technologies and imaging techniques using the Coulomb scattering and absorption properties of cosmic-ray muons have been developed for the non-destructive assay of various structures across a wide range of applications. This work presents the first results that assess the feasibility of using muon radiography to interrogate waste silos within the U.K. Nuclear Industry. Two such approaches, using different techniques that exploit each of these properties, have previously been published, and show promising results from both simulation and experimental data for the detection of shielded high-Z materials and density variations from volcanic assay. Both detection systems used are based on scintillator and photomultiplier technologies. Results from dedicated simulation studies using both these proven technologies and image reconstruction techniques are presented for an intermediate-sized legacy nuclear waste storage facility filled with concrete and an array of uranium samples. Both results highlight the potential to identify uranium objects of varying thicknesses greater than 5 cm within real-time durations of several weeks. Increased contributions from Coulomb scattering within the concrete matrix of the structure hinder the ability of both approaches to resolve similar objects of 2 cm dimensions even with increased statistics. These results are all dependent on both the position of the objects within the facility and the locations of the detectors. Results for differing thicknesses of concrete, which reflect the non-standard composition of these complex, legacy structures under interrogation, are also presented alongside studies performed for a series of data collection durations. It is anticipated that with further research and optimisation of detector technologies and geometries, muon radiography in one, or both of these forms, will play a key role in future

  2. Assessing the feasibility of interrogating nuclear waste storage silos using cosmic-ray muons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosino, F.; Bonechi, L.; Cimmino, L.; D'Alessandro, R.; Ireland, D. G.; Kaiser, R.; Mahon, D. F.; Mori, N.; Noli, P.; Saracino, G.; Shearer, C.; Viliani, L.; Yang, G.

    2015-06-01

    Muon radiography is a fast growing field in applied scientific research. In recent years, many detector technologies and imaging techniques using the Coulomb scattering and absorption properties of cosmic-ray muons have been developed for the non-destructive assay of various structures across a wide range of applications. This work presents the first results that assess the feasibility of using muon radiography to interrogate waste silos within the U.K. Nuclear Industry. Two such approaches, using different techniques that exploit each of these properties, have previously been published, and show promising results from both simulation and experimental data for the detection of shielded high-Z materials and density variations from volcanic assay. Both detection systems used are based on scintillator and photomultiplier technologies. Results from dedicated simulation studies using both these proven technologies and image reconstruction techniques are presented for an intermediate-sized legacy nuclear waste storage facility filled with concrete and an array of uranium samples. Both results highlight the potential to identify uranium objects of varying thicknesses greater than 5 cm within real-time durations of several weeks. Increased contributions from Coulomb scattering within the concrete matrix of the structure hinder the ability of both approaches to resolve similar objects of 2 cm dimensions even with increased statistics. These results are all dependent on both the position of the objects within the facility and the locations of the detectors. Results for differing thicknesses of concrete, which reflect the non-standard composition of these complex, legacy structures under interrogation, are also presented alongside studies performed for a series of data collection durations. It is anticipated that with further research and optimisation of detector technologies and geometries, muon radiography in one, or both of these forms, will play a key role in future

  3. Gray-box modelling approach for description of storage tunnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harremoës, Poul; Carstensen, Jacob

    1999-01-01

    The dynamics of a storage tunnel is examined using a model based on on-line measured data and a combination of simple deterministic and black-box stochastic elements. This approach, called gray-box modeling, is a new promising methodology for giving an on-line state description of sewer systems...... inertia of the water in the overflow structures. The capacity of a pump draining the storage tunnel is estimated for two different rain events, revealing that the pump was malfunctioning during the first rain event. The proposed modeling approach can be used in automated online surveillance and control...

  4. batiment SHM|SHM building|Control valves on top of a ´cold box´ for the 4K refrigeration system for the LHC |Valves de contrôle sur le dessus de la ´boite froide´ pour le système de refroidissement 4K du LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    Valeriane Duvivier

    2001-01-01

    batiment SHM|SHM building|Control valves on top of a ´cold box´ for the 4K refrigeration system for the LHC |Valves de contrôle sur le dessus de la ´boite froide´ pour le système de refroidissement 4K du LHC

  5. Ionization box type radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ionization box for monitoring radiation rays, a first amplification circuit of a multi-stage amplification circuit employing a MOS type FET as an initial stage amplification device, a second amplification circuit employing a junction type FET as an initial stage amplification device, a first change-over switch for switching ionization current depending on input signals, a second change-over switch for switching output signals, and a signal level discrimination circuit are constituted integrally. When radiation dose rate is low, the ionization current is inputted to the first amplification circuit and outputted as a radiation ray monitor signal and, when the radiation dose rate is increased to higher than a predetermined value, the ionization current is inputted to the second amplification circuit and outputted as a radiation ray monitor signal. That is, monitoring accuracy is high when the ionization current is low since the MOS type FET of high input impedance is used. If the ionization current is higher than a predetermined value, there is no worry that the detection becomes impossible since the junction type FET having less worry of causing characteristic change due to high radiation dose rate is used. Accordingly, ionization box type monitor at a high monitoring reliability can be obtained. (N.H.)

  6. F-box proteins in flowering plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In eukaryotes, the ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation pathway has been shown to control several key biological processes such as cell division, development, metabolism and immune response. F-box proteins, as a part of SCF (Skp1-Cullin (or Cdc53)-F-box) complex, functioned by interacting with substrate proteins, leading to their subsequent degradation by the 26S proteasome. To date, several F-box proteins identified in Arabidopsis and Antirrhinum have been shown to play important roles in auxin signal transduction, floral organ formation, flowering and leaf senescence. Arabidopsis genome sequence analysis revealed that it encodes over 1000 predicted F-box proteins accounting for about 5% of total predicted proteins. These results indicate that the ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation involving the F-box proteins is an important mechanism controlling plant gene expression. Here, we review the known F-box proteins and their functionsin flowering plants.

  7. Thermohaline circulation stability: a box model study - Part I: uncoupled model

    CERN Document Server

    Lucarini, V; Lucarini, Valerio; Stone, Peter H.

    2004-01-01

    A thorough analysis of the stability of the uncoupled Rooth interhemispheric 3-box model of thermohaline circulation (THC) is presented. The model consists of a northern high latitudes box, a tropical box, and a southern high latitudes box, which respectively correspond to the northern, tropical and southern Atlantic ocean. We adopt restoring boundary conditions for the temperature variables and flux boundary conditions for the salinity variables. We study how the strength of THC changes when the system undergoes forcings that are analogous to those of global warming conditions by applying to the equilibrium state perturbations to the moisture and heat fluxes into the three boxes. In each class of experiments, we determine, using suitably de- fined metrics, the boundary dividing the set of forcing scenarios that lead the system to equilibria characterized by a THC pattern similar to the present one, from those that drive the system to equilibria with a reversed THC. Fast increases in the moisture flux into th...

  8. Count rate studies of a box-shaped PET breast imaging system comprised of position sensitive avalanche photodiodes utilizing monte carlo simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foudray, Angela M K; Habte, Frezghi; Chinn, Garry; Zhang, Jin; Levin, Craig S

    2006-01-01

    We are investigating a high-sensitivity, high-resolution positron emission tomography (PET) system for clinical use in the detection, diagnosis and staging of breast cancer. Using conventional figures of merit, design parameters were evaluated for count rate performance, module dead time, and construction complexity. The detector system modeled comprises extremely thin position-sensitive avalanche photodiodes coupled to lutetium oxy-orthosilicate scintillation crystals. Previous investigations of detector geometries with Monte Carlo indicated that one of the largest impacts on sensitivity is local scintillation crystal density when considering systems having the same average scintillation crystal densities (same crystal packing fraction and system solid-angle coverage). Our results show the system has very good scatter and randoms rejection at clinical activity ranges ( approximately 200 muCi). PMID:17645997

  9. Geothermal investigations at selected thermal systems of the northern Wasatch Front Weber and Box Elder Counties, Utah. Report of investigation No. 141

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, P.; Gwynn, J.W.

    1979-11-01

    Numerous thermal springs are present along the Wasatch Front from Utah valley on the south to the state line on the north. These systems are just west of the Wasatch Mountains at the eastern edge of the Basin and Range physiographic province and within the active seismic zone referred to as the Intermountain Seismic Belt. This Report of Investigation is a summary of UGMS investigations at four northern Wasatch Front geothermal systems: Utah, Crystal (Madsen), and Udy hot springs; and the Little Mountain - south system. All of these resources are deep circulation systems and the water is heated by the normal heat flow of the Basin and Range Province. Heat from volcanic sources is not believed to contribute to the warming of any northern Wasatch Front springs. Data collected under the DOE/DGE state coupled program are presented for use by individuals interested in these systems.

  10. Advanced compact accelerator neutron generator technology for active neutron interrogation field work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to a need for security screening instruments capable of detecting explosives and nuclear materials there is growing interest in neutron generator systems suitable for field use for applications broadly referred to as active neutron interrogation (ANI). Over the past two years Thermo Electron Corporation has developed a suite of different compact accelerator neutron generator products specifically designed for ANI field work to meet this demand. These systems incorporate hermetically-sealed particle accelerator tubes designed to produce fast neutrons using either the deuterium-deuterium (En = 2.5 MeV) or deuterium-tritium (En = 14.1 MeV) fusion reactions. Employing next-generation features including advanced sealed-tube accelerator designs, all-digital control electronics and innovative housing configurations these systems are suitable for many different uses. A compact system weighing less than 14 kg (MP 320) with a lifetime exceeding 1000 hours has been developed for portable applications. A system for fixed installations (P 325) has been developed with an operating life exceeding 4500 hours that incorporates specific serviceability features for permanent facilities with difficult-to-access shield blocks. For associated particle imaging (API) investigations a second-generation system (API 120) with an operating life of greater than 1000 hours has been developed for field use in which a high resolution fiberoptic imaging plate is specially configured to take advantage of a neutron point-source spot size of ∼2 mm. (author)

  11. A Web Architecture to Geographically Interrogate CHIRPS Rainfall and eMODIS NDVI for Land Use Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burks, Jason E.; Limaye, Ashutosh

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring of rainfall and vegetation over the continent of Africa is important for assessing the status of crop health and agriculture, along with long-term changes in land use change. These issues can be addressed through examination of long-term precipitation (rainfall) data sets and remote sensing of land surface vegetation and land use types. Two products have been used previously to address these goals: the Climate Hazard Group Infrared Precipitation with Stations (CHIRPS) rainfall data, and multi-day composites of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from the USGS eMODIS product. Combined, these are very large data sets that require unique tools and architecture to facilitate a variety of data analysis methods or data exploration by the end user community. To address these needs, a web-enabled system has been developed to allow end-users to interrogate CHIRPS rainfall and eMODIS NDVI data over the continent of Africa. The architecture allows end-users to use custom defined geometries, or the use of predefined political boundaries in their interrogation of the data. The massive amount of data interrogated by the system allows the end-users with only a web browser to extract vital information in order to investigate land use change and its causes. The system can be used to generate daily, monthly and yearly averages over a geographical area and range of dates of interest to the user. It also provides analysis of trends in precipitation or vegetation change for times of interest. The data provided back to the end-user is displayed in graphical form and can be exported for use in other, external tools. The development of this tool has significantly decreased the investment and requirements for end-users to use these two important datasets, while also allowing the flexibility to the end-user to limit the search to the area of interest.

  12. DIRECT WH-QUESTIONS INTRODUCED BY SIMPLE INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS IN FRENCH AND ITS EQUIVALENTS IN SERBIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Radusin-Bardić

    2015-12-01

    The aim of our work was to determine the equivalent forms in Serbian of the direct WH- questions introduced by simple interrogative pronouns in French. In Serbian, the interrogative pronouns for human animates ko and for generally non-human subjects šta have six different case forms. They usually occupy the initial position in the sentence which has the neutral stylistic value. The analyse of the direct WH-questions introduced by simple interrogative pronouns in French and Serbian is based on the normative and descriptive literature, as well as on the analyse of the selected theatrical works in French and Serbian and its published translations in both of these languages.

  13. Repackaging SRS Black Box TRU Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historically, large items of TRU Waste, which were too large to be packaged in drums for disposal have been packaged in various sizes of custom made plywood boxes at the Savannah River Site (SRS), for many years. These boxes were subsequently packaged into large steel ''Black Boxes'' for storage at SRS, pending availability of Characterization and Certification capability, to facilitate disposal of larger items of TRU Waste. There are approximately 107 Black Boxes in inventory at SRS, each measuring some 18' x 12' x 7', and weighing up to 45,000 lbs. These Black Boxes have been stored since the early 1980s. The project to repackage this waste into Standard Large Boxes (SLBs), Standard Waste Boxes (SWB) and Ten Drum Overpacks (TDOP), for subsequent characterization and WIPP disposal, commenced in FY04. To date, 10 Black Boxes have been repackaged, resulting in 40 SLB-2's, and 37 B25 overpack boxes, these B25's will be overpacked in SLB-2's prior to shipping to WIPP. This paper will describe experience to date from this project

  14. Interchangeable breech lock for glove boxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemonds, David Preston

    2015-11-24

    A breech lock for a glove box is provided that may be used to transfer one or more items into the glove box. The breech lock can be interchangeably installed in place of a plug, glove, or other device in a port or opening of a glove box. Features are provided to aid the removal of items from the breech lock by a gloved operator. The breech lock can be reused or, if needed, can be replaced with a plug, glove, or other device at the port or opening of the glove box.

  15. Application of glove box robotics to hazardous waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLNL) is developing a semi-automated system for handling, characterizing, processing, sorting, and repackaging hazardous wastes containing tritium. The system combines an IBM developed gantry robot with a special glove box enclosure designed to protect the operators and minimize the potential release of tritium to the atmosphere. All hazardous waste handling and processing will be performed remotely using the robot in a telerobotic mode for one-of-a-kind functions and in an autonomous mode for repetitive type operations. The system will initially be used in conjunction with a portable gas system designed to capture any gaseous phase tritium released into the glove box. This paper presents the objectives of this program, provides background related to LLNL's robotics and waste handling program, describes the major system components, outlines system operation, and discusses current status and plans

  16. Benchmark for Peak Detection Algorithms in Fiber Bragg Grating Interrogation and a New Neural Network for its Performance Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, Lucas; Nied, Ademir; Kalinowski, Hypolito; Paterno, Aleksander

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a benchmark for peak detection algorithms employed in fiber Bragg grating spectrometric interrogation systems. The accuracy, precision, and computational performance of currently used algorithms and those of a new proposed artificial neural network algorithm are compared. Centroid and gaussian fitting algorithms are shown to have the highest precision but produce systematic errors that depend on the FBG refractive index modulation profile. The proposed neural network displays relatively good precision with reduced systematic errors and improved computational performance when compared to other networks. Additionally, suitable algorithms may be chosen with the general guidelines presented. PMID:22163806

  17. Benchmark for Peak Detection Algorithms in Fiber Bragg Grating Interrogation and a New Neural Network for its Performance Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Paterno

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a benchmark for peak detection algorithms employed in fiber Bragg grating spectrometric interrogation systems. The accuracy, precision, and computational performance of currently used algorithms and those of a new proposed artificial neural network algorithm are compared. Centroid and gaussian fitting algorithms are shown to have the highest precision but produce systematic errors that depend on the FBG refractive index modulation profile. The proposed neural network displays relatively good precision with reduced systematic errors and improved computational performance when compared to other networks. Additionally, suitable algorithms may be chosen with the general guidelines presented.

  18. Projected Applications of a ``Climate in a Box'' Computing System at the NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlovec, G.; Molthan, A.; Zavodsky, B.; Case, J.; Lafontaine, F.

    2010-12-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center focuses on the transition of unique observations and research capabilities to the operational weather community, with a goal of improving short-term forecasts on a regional scale. Advances in research computing have lead to “Climate in a Box” systems, with hardware configurations capable of producing high resolution, near real-time weather forecasts, but with footprints, power, and cooling requirements that are comparable to desktop systems. The SPoRT Center has developed several capabilities for incorporating unique NASA research capabilities and observations with real-time weather forecasts. Planned utilization includes the development of a fully-cycled data assimilation system used to drive 36-48 hour forecasts produced by the NASA Unified version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model (NU-WRF). The horsepower provided by the “Climate in a Box” system is expected to facilitate the assimilation of vertical profiles of temperature and moisture provided by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) aboard the NASA Aqua satellite. In addition, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments aboard NASA’s Aqua and Terra satellites provide high-resolution sea surface temperatures and vegetation characteristics. The development of MODIS normalized difference vegetation index (NVDI) composites for use within the NASA Land Information System (LIS) will assist in the characterization of vegetation, and subsequently the surface albedo and processes related to soil moisture. Through application of satellite simulators, NASA satellite instruments can be used to examine forecast model errors in cloud cover and other characteristics. Through the aforementioned application of the “Climate in a Box” system and NU-WRF capabilities, an end goal is the establishment of a real-time forecast system that fully integrates modeling and analysis capabilities developed

  19. Model Equations: "Black Box" Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezruchko, Boris P.; Smirnov, Dmitry A.

    Black box reconstruction is both the most difficult and the most tempting modelling problem when any prior information about an appropriate model structure is lacking. An intriguing thing is that a model capable of reproducing an observed behaviour or predicting further evolution should be obtained only from an observed time series, i.e. "from nothing" at first sight. Chances for a success are not large. Even more so, a "good" model would become a valuable tool to characterise an object and understand its dynamics. Lack of prior information causes one to utilise universal model structures, e.g. artificial neural networks, radial basis functions and algebraic polynomials are included in the right-hand sides of dynamical model equations. Such models are often multi-dimensional and involve quite many free parameters.

  20. Evaluation of Key Dependent S-Box Based Data Security Algorithm using Hamming Distance and Balanced Output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balajee Maram K.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Data security is a major issue because of rapid evolution of data communication over unsecured internetwork. Here the proposed system is concerned with the problem of randomly generated S-box. The generation of S-box depends on Pseudo-Random-Number-Generators and shared-secret-key. The process of Pseudo-Random-Number-Generator depends on large prime numbers. All Pseudo-Random-Numbers are scrambled according to shared-secret-key. After scrambling, the S-box is generated. In this research, large prime numbers are the inputs to the Pseudo-Random-Number-Generator. The proposed S-box will reduce the complexity of S-box generation. Based on S-box parameters, it experimentally investigates the quality and robustness of the proposed algorithm which was tested. It yields better results with the S-box parameters like Hamming Distance, Balanced Output and Avalanche Effect and can be embedded to popular cryptography algorithms

  1. ESF SOUTH PORTAL BOX-CUT/HIGHWALL STABILITY ANALYSIS (SCPB:N/A)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose and objective of this analysis is to design a Box-Cut at the ESF South Portal to accommodate the Tunnel Boring Machine's (TBM) exit at the conclusion of the ESF Main Loop construction. The stability of the Highwall and the sidewalls at the Box-Cut are assessed using analytical methods by numerical modeling techniques. A ground reinforcement system for the South Ramp Box-Cut slopes will be recommended. This report summarizes the results of the analyses and provides the details of the recommended ground reinforcement system for the Box-Cut slopes at the South Portal. The reinforcement design details are then incorporated into design output documents for implementation in the field. Method of excavation for the Box-Cut is also discussed and a recommendation is provided in this analysis

  2. Promotion COPERNIC Energy and Society the interrogations on the world demand evolution; Promotion COPERNIC Energie et Societe les interrogations sur l'evolution de la demande mondiale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-12-15

    In the framework of a prospective reflexion emergence on the energy demand, this document presents an analysis of the prospective approach and of recent studies: challenges, interests, limits, validity of the models and hypothesis and results relevance. With this analysis, the authors aim to identify the main interrogations bond to the world energy demand evolution. They then analyse these interrogations in the framework of a sectoral approach (agriculture, industry, transports, residential) in order to detail the demand and to forecast the evolution. Facing the consumption attitudes, they also suggest some new action avenues to favor a sustainable growth. (A.L.B.)

  3. Monte Carlo parametric studies of neutron interrogation with the Associated Particle Technique for cargo container inspections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyglun, Clément; Carasco, Cédric; Pérot, Bertrand

    2014-06-01

    The detection of Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) by neutron interrogation is extensively studied by Monte Carlo simulation at the Nuclear Measurement Laboratory of CEA Cadarache (French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission). The active inspection system is based on the Associated Particle Technique (APT). Fissions induced by tagged neutrons (i.e. correlated to an alpha particle in the DT neutron generator) in SNM produce high multiplicity coincidences which are detected with fast plastic scintillators. At least three particles are detected in a short time window following the alpha detection, whereas nonnuclear materials mainly produce single events, or pairs due to (n,2n) and (n,n'γ) reactions. To study the performances of an industrial cargo container inspection system, Monte Carlo simulations are performed with the MCNP-PoliMi transport code, which records for each neutron history the relevant information: reaction types, position and time of interactions, energy deposits, secondary particles, etc. The output files are post-processed with a specific tool developed with ROOT data analysis software. Particles not correlated with an alpha particle (random background), counting statistics, and time-energy resolutions of the data acquisition system are taken into account in the numerical model. Various matrix compositions, suspicious items, SNM shielding and positions inside the container, are simulated to assess the performances and limitations of an industrial system.

  4. Integrated FBG sensors interrogator in silicon photonic platform using active interferometer monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Y. E.; Nannipieri, T.; Di Pasquale, F.; Oton, C. J.

    2016-05-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of Fiber Bragg Grating sensors interrogation using integrated unbalanced Mach-Zehnder Interferometers (MZI) and phase sensitive detection in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform. The Phase- Generated Carrier (PGC) demodulation technique is used to detect phase changes, avoiding signal fading. Signal processing allows us to extract the wavelength shift from the signal patterns, allowing accurate dynamic FBG interrogation. High resolution and low cost chips with multiple interrogators and photodetectors on board can be realized by exploiting the advantages of large scale fabrication capabilities of well-established silicon based industrial infrastructures. Simultaneous dynamic reading of a large number of FBG sensors can lead to large volume market applications of the technology in several strategic industrial fields. The performance of the proposed integrated FBG interrogator is validated by comparing with a commercial FBG readout based on a spectrometer and used as a reference.

  5. Psycho-linguistic study of interrogation videos: problems and possible solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagina O.V.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the problems of studying the investigation video to establish credibility of the evidence, to specify emotional state, individual psychological characteristics and the psychological impact on the person being interrogated. These problems are mostly caused by the lack of a single scientifically-based methodological approach while сurrently used approaches are not developed sufficiently. We propose a fundamentally new scientifically-based psycho-linguistic approach to the study of investigation video, including the analysis of voice and sounding speech, linguistic analysis (the content and form of speech and psychological analysis. We considered value, subject, object, and objectives of interrogation videos examination. Study of interrogation videos using the current approach is significant from the point of view of criminal law because of admissibility of evidence by the investigators. The expert concept of suggestive interrogate was operationalized on the basis of linguistic and psychological classifications.

  6. Adaptive image interrogation for PIV: application to compressible flows and interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, R.

    2010-01-01

    As an experimental tool, Particle Image Velocimetry has quickly superseded traditional point-wise measurements. The inherent image processing has become standardized though the performances are strongly dependent on user experience. Moreover, the arduously selected image interrogation parameters are

  7. Modified mosquito landing boxes dispensing transfluthrin provide effective protection against Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes under simulated outdoor conditions in a semi-field system.

    OpenAIRE

    Andrés, Marta; Lorenz, Lena M; Mbeleya, Edgar; Moore, Sarah J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Efforts to control malaria vectors have primarily focused on scaling-up of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying. Although highly efficient against indoor-biting and indoor-resting vectors, these interventions have lower impact on outdoor-biting mosquitoes. Innovative vector control tools are required to prevent outdoor human–mosquito contacts. In this work, the potential of spatial repellents, delivered in an active system that requires minim...

  8. Massively Parallel Interrogation of Aptamer Sequence, Structure and Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, N O; Tok, J B; Tarasow, T M

    2008-02-08

    Optimization of high affinity reagents is a significant bottleneck in medicine and the life sciences. The ability to synthetically create thousands of permutations of a lead high-affinity reagent and survey the properties of individual permutations in parallel could potentially relieve this bottleneck. Aptamers are single stranded oligonucleotides affinity reagents isolated by in vitro selection processes and as a class have been shown to bind a wide variety of target molecules. Methodology/Principal Findings. High density DNA microarray technology was used to synthesize, in situ, arrays of approximately 3,900 aptamer sequence permutations in triplicate. These sequences were interrogated on-chip for their ability to bind the fluorescently-labeled cognate target, immunoglobulin E, resulting in the parallel execution of thousands of experiments. Fluorescence intensity at each array feature was well resolved and shown to be a function of the sequence present. The data demonstrated high intra- and interchip correlation between the same features as well as among the sequence triplicates within a single array. Consistent with aptamer mediated IgE binding, fluorescence intensity correlated strongly with specific aptamer sequences and the concentration of IgE applied to the array. The massively parallel sequence-function analyses provided by this approach confirmed the importance of a consensus sequence found in all 21 of the original IgE aptamer sequences and support a common stem:loop structure as being the secondary structure underlying IgE binding. The microarray application, data and results presented illustrate an efficient, high information content approach to optimizing aptamer function. It also provides a foundation from which to better understand and manipulate this important class of high affinity biomolecules.

  9. Interrogation in Teacher-Student Interaction in Bahasa Indonesia Learning at Elementary School

    OpenAIRE

    Akmal Hamsa; Sultan Sultan

    2014-01-01

    Interrogation in Teacher-Student Interaction in Bahasa Indonesia Learning at Elementary School. This study aimed to describe the form, function, and questioning strategies teachers in teacher-student interrogation in Bahasa Indonesia learning in elementary school. Data sourced from four teacher of elementary school, SDN Tamangapa and SD Inpres Tamangapa. Data were obtained by (1) recording, (2) documentation, (3) field notes, (4) interview. The results showed that: (1) the form of questioning...

  10. Close encounters : the role of culture in interrogation and questioning in the Second World War

    OpenAIRE

    Tobia , Simona

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the role of interrogation in intelligence during the Second World War, and it focuses on the importance of culture in the collection of Human Intelligence in the European theatre of operation. It argues that cultural issues, including but not limited to language knowledge, provided an added value to interrogation, interviewing and questioning during and after the Second World War, for example through the employment of native speakers, in particular former refugees and e...

  11. Unification of box shapes in molecular simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, H.

    1997-01-01

    In molecular simulations with periodic boundary conditions the computational box may have five different shapes: triclinic; the hexagonal prism; two types of dodecahedrons; and the truncated octahedron. In this article, we show that every molecular simulation, formulated in one of these boxes, can b

  12. Black-Box Search by Unbiased Variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehre, Per Kristian; Witt, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    The complexity theory for black-box algorithms, introduced by Droste, Jansen, and Wegener (Theory Comput. Syst. 39:525–544, 2006), describes common limits on the efficiency of a broad class of randomised search heuristics. There is an obvious trade-off between the generality of the black-box model...

  13. Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion's Pandora's Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fashion’s Pandora’s Box? A A A | Print | Share Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion’s Pandora’s Box? Foot and ankle ... extreme and imprudent as it may sound, the cosmetic surgery craze isn't just for faces anymore- ...

  14. Modern biotechnology Panacea or new Pandora's box?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tramper, J.; Yang Zhu, Yang

    2011-01-01

    According to Greek mythology Pandora was sent down to earth upon the orders of Zeus. She was given a mysterious box which she was not allowed to open. However, Pandora was very curious and when she arrived on earth she couldn?t help taking a peek inside the box. She saw that it was filled with gifts

  15. Box Plots in the Australian Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jane M.

    2012-01-01

    This article compares the definition of "box plot" as used in the "Australian Curriculum: Mathematics" with other definitions used in the education community; describes the difficulties students experience when dealing with box plots; and discusses the elaboration that is necessary to enable teachers to develop the knowledge necessary to use them…

  16. POD Model Reconstruction for Gray-Box Fault Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Han; Zak, Michail

    2007-01-01

    Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) is the mathematical basis of a method of constructing low-order mathematical models for the "gray-box" fault-detection algorithm that is a component of a diagnostic system known as beacon-based exception analysis for multi-missions (BEAM). POD has been successfully applied in reducing computational complexity by generating simple models that can be used for control and simulation for complex systems such as fluid flows. In the present application to BEAM, POD brings the same benefits to automated diagnosis. BEAM is a method of real-time or offline, automated diagnosis of a complex dynamic system.The gray-box approach makes it possible to utilize incomplete or approximate knowledge of the dynamics of the system that one seeks to diagnose. In the gray-box approach, a deterministic model of the system is used to filter a time series of system sensor data to remove the deterministic components of the time series from further examination. What is left after the filtering operation is a time series of residual quantities that represent the unknown (or at least unmodeled) aspects of the behavior of the system. Stochastic modeling techniques are then applied to the residual time series. The procedure for detecting abnormal behavior of the system then becomes one of looking for statistical differences between the residual time series and the predictions of the stochastic model.

  17. A Study for University Research Team Management Based on Axiom System for Boxed Pigs%基于智猪博弈公理系统的高校科研团队管理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晓阳; 姜殿玉

    2013-01-01

    This article study the“Free Rider”phenomenon commonly exist in University research team based on axiom system for Boxed Pigs.Firstly,The article analyzed the reasons for the“free-rider”phenomenon through the establishment of the axiomatic model,And then by changing the parameters so that the game equilibrium transfer.Finally,put forward some suggestions that can improve the efficience of the University research team according to the model analysis results.In order to provide a scientific and quantitative decision-making Basis for University research team.management.%  基于智猪博弈公理化系统研究了高校科研团队中普遍存在的“搭便车”现象。首先通过建立公理化模型分析了“搭便车”现象产生的原因,继而通过改变参数使得该博弈的均衡解转移,最后依据模型分析结果提出了提高高校科研团队运作效率的方案。为高校科研团队的管理提供科学的、量化的决策依据。

  18. 一类智猪博弈公理系统与知识型员工激励问题研究%One Axiom System for Boxed Pigs and a Study for Knowledge-based Employee Incentive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王茜; 冯娟

    2014-01-01

    基于一类智猪博弈公理化系统研究企业中普遍存在的“搭便车”现象。首先对企业运作效率不高的原因进行分析,继而建立知识型员工的博弈模型,通过改变参数使得该博弈的均衡解转移,最后依据模型分析结果提出提高企业运作效率的方案。为企业中知识型员工的管理提供科学的、定量化的决策依据。%This paper studied the phenomenon of the“free-rider”prevalent in the enterprise based on the axiom system for Boxed Pigs.Firstly analysis the reason that the enterprise operational efficiency is not high,and then set up the game model of knowledge workers,by changing the parameters so that the game equilibrium transfer.Finally,according to the model analysis results to improve the operational efficiency of enterprises.To provide for the management of knowledge workers in the enterprise scientific and quantitative basis for decision making.

  19. 49 CFR 178.515 - Standards for reconstituted wood boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for reconstituted wood boxes. 178.515... wood boxes. (a) The identification code for a reconstituted wood box is 4F. (b) Construction requirements for reconstituted wood boxes are as follows: (1) The walls of boxes must be made of...

  20. 某型号制导电子箱的检测系统设计*%Design of A Certain Type of Guidance Electronic Box Detection System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尉广军; 郭希维; 吴宏伟; 王政

    2015-01-01

    In order to solve the flaws of the existing missile testing equipment ,a kind of modularization ,generalization , intelligent repair and standardized comprehensive test platform is designed .In this paper ,the system hardware and the soft‐ware development based on Labwindows/CVI are introduced .By forces practice has proved that this system has great mili‐tary and economic benefits ,and widely used .%为解决现有导弹检测设备存在的缺陷,设计了一种模块化、通用化、智能化和标准化的综合检测修理平台。论文介绍了系统的硬件组成以及基于Labwindows/CVI的软件开发。通过部队实践证明,该系统具有重大军事效益和经济效益和广泛的运用前景。

  1. APSTNG: Neutron interrogation for detection of nuclear and CW weapons, explosives, and drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhodes, E.; Dickerman, C.E.; De Volpi, A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Peters, C.W. [Nuclear Diagnostic Systems, Inc., Springfield, VA (United States)

    1992-07-01

    A recently developed neutron diagnostic probe system has the potential to satisfy a significant number of van-mobile and fixed- portal requirements for nondestructive verification of sealed munitions and detection of contraband explosives and drugs. The probe is based on a unique associated-particle sealed-tube neutron generator (APSTNG) that interrogates the object of interest with a low-intensity beam of 14-MeV neutrons generated from the deuterium-tritium reaction and that detects the alpha-particle associated with each neutron. Gamma-ray spectra of resulting neutron inelastic scattering and fission reactions identify nuclides associated with all major chemicals in chemical warfare agents, explosives, and drugs, as well as many pollutants and fissile and fertile special nuclear material. Flight times determined from determined from detection times of the gamma-rays and alpha-particles yield a separate tomographic image of each identified nuclide. The APSTNG also forms the basis for a compact fast-neutron transmission imaging system that can be used along with or instead of the emission imaging system; a collimator is not required since scattered neutrons are removed by ``electronic collimation`` (detected neutrons not having the proper flight time to be uncollided are discarded). The small and relatively inexpensive APSTNG exhibits high reliability and can be quickly replaced. Proof-of-concept experiments have been performed under laboratory conditions for simulated nuclear and chemical warfare munitions and for explosives and drugs.

  2. APSTNG: Neutron interrogation for detection of nuclear and CW weapons, explosives, and drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhodes, E.; Dickerman, C.E.; De Volpi, A. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Peters, C.W. (Nuclear Diagnostic Systems, Inc., Springfield, VA (United States))

    1992-01-01

    A recently developed neutron diagnostic probe system has the potential to satisfy a significant number of van-mobile and fixed- portal requirements for nondestructive verification of sealed munitions and detection of contraband explosives and drugs. The probe is based on a unique associated-particle sealed-tube neutron generator (APSTNG) that interrogates the object of interest with a low-intensity beam of 14-MeV neutrons generated from the deuterium-tritium reaction and that detects the alpha-particle associated with each neutron. Gamma-ray spectra of resulting neutron inelastic scattering and fission reactions identify nuclides associated with all major chemicals in chemical warfare agents, explosives, and drugs, as well as many pollutants and fissile and fertile special nuclear material. Flight times determined from determined from detection times of the gamma-rays and alpha-particles yield a separate tomographic image of each identified nuclide. The APSTNG also forms the basis for a compact fast-neutron transmission imaging system that can be used along with or instead of the emission imaging system; a collimator is not required since scattered neutrons are removed by electronic collimation'' (detected neutrons not having the proper flight time to be uncollided are discarded). The small and relatively inexpensive APSTNG exhibits high reliability and can be quickly replaced. Proof-of-concept experiments have been performed under laboratory conditions for simulated nuclear and chemical warfare munitions and for explosives and drugs.

  3. APSTNG: Neutron interrogation for detection of nuclear and CW weapons, explosives, and drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A recently developed neutron diagnostic probe system has the potential to satisfy a significant number of van-mobile and fixed- portal requirements for nondestructive verification of sealed munitions and detection of contraband explosives and drugs. The probe is based on a unique associated-particle sealed-tube neutron generator (APSTNG) that interrogates the object of interest with a low-intensity beam of 14-MeV neutrons generated from the deuterium-tritium reaction and that detects the alpha-particle associated with each neutron. Gamma-ray spectra of resulting neutron inelastic scattering and fission reactions identify nuclides associated with all major chemicals in chemical warfare agents, explosives, and drugs, as well as many pollutants and fissile and fertile special nuclear material. Flight times determined from determined from detection times of the gamma-rays and alpha-particles yield a separate tomographic image of each identified nuclide. The APSTNG also forms the basis for a compact fast-neutron transmission imaging system that can be used along with or instead of the emission imaging system; a collimator is not required since scattered neutrons are removed by ''electronic collimation'' (detected neutrons not having the proper flight time to be uncollided are discarded). The small and relatively inexpensive APSTNG exhibits high reliability and can be quickly replaced. Proof-of-concept experiments have been performed under laboratory conditions for simulated nuclear and chemical warfare munitions and for explosives and drugs

  4. The BENTO Box: Development and field-testing of a new satellite-linked data collection system for multiparameter volcano monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, D. C.; Behar, A.; Elkins-Tanton, L. T.

    2014-12-01

    Predicting volcanic activity requires continuous monitoring for signals of magmatic unrest in harsh, often remote environments. BENTO is a next-generation monitoring system, currently in prototype testing, that is highly portable, low-cost, rapidly deployable, and entirely autonomous. Such a system could be used to provide critical monitoring and data collection capabilities during rapid-onset eruptions, or to provide a crude baseline monitor at large numbers of remote volcanoes to 'flag' the onset of unrest so that costlier resources such as specialized instrumentation can be deployed in the appropriate place at the appropriate time. The BENTO 1 (low-rate data) prototype currently comprises off-the-shelf volcanic gas sensors (SO2, CO2, Fl, Cl, and Br), a weather station (temperature, wind speed, wind direction, rainfall, humidity, pressure), and telemetry via Iridium modem. In baseline mode, BENTO 1 takes a measurement from all of its sensors every two hours and automatically sends the measurements through Iridium to a server that posts them to a dedicated and customizable web page. The measurement interval and other sensor parameters (pumping time, sensor constants) can be adjusted directly or remotely (through the Iridium network) as needed. Currently, BENTO 1 is deployed at Mt. Etna, Italy; Telica Volcano, Nicaragua, Hengill Volcano, Iceland; and Hekla Volcano, Iceland. The BENTO 2 (high-rate) system is motivated by a need to avoid having to telemeter raw seismic data, which at 20-100 Hz/channel is far too voluminous for cost- and power-effective transmission through satellite networks such as Iridium. Our solution is to regularly transmit only state-of-health information and descriptions of the seismic data (e.g., 'triggered' seismic event rates and amplitudes), rather than the data itself. The latter can be accomplished through on-board data analysis and reduction at the installation site. Currently, it is possible to request specific time segments of raw

  5. The radiation pattern of a monopole antenna attached to a conducting box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Andrew W. C.; Long, Stuart A.; Wilton, Donald R.

    1990-01-01

    A system investigation was undertaken to determine the radiation patterns of a monopole antenna mounted on a cubical conducting box over a ground plane. The effects of the location of the monopole and the electrical size of the box were compared with similar patterns measured over a flat ground plane and with numerically predicted values obtained from a method-of-moments patch code. It was concluded that the location at which a monopole antenna is mounted on a conducting box and the electrical size of the box clearly affect the overall radiation pattern of a monopole antenna. In general, mounting the antenna away from the center of the box will increase the depth of the nulls. In particular, planes will also increase the maximum E(phi) component of the field to the extent that it can become comparable to E(theta).

  6. Fitting boxes to Manhattan scenes using linear integer programming

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Minglei

    2016-02-19

    We propose an approach for automatic generation of building models by assembling a set of boxes using a Manhattan-world assumption. The method first aligns the point cloud with a per-building local coordinate system, and then fits axis-aligned planes to the point cloud through an iterative regularization process. The refined planes partition the space of the data into a series of compact cubic cells (candidate boxes) spanning the entire 3D space of the input data. We then choose to approximate the target building by the assembly of a subset of these candidate boxes using a binary linear programming formulation. The objective function is designed to maximize the point cloud coverage and the compactness of the final model. Finally, all selected boxes are merged into a lightweight polygonal mesh model, which is suitable for interactive visualization of large scale urban scenes. Experimental results and a comparison with state-of-the-art methods demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework.

  7. Specific Heat of Helium in 2 μm3 Boxes, Coupled or Uncoupled?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on recent measurements of the specific heat of helium confined in pill-boxes 2 μm across and 2 μm deep made lithographically on a silicon wafer. The experimental cells distribute liquid from a bulk reservoir to ∼ 108 boxes by an array of very shallow fill-channels (0.019 μm and 0.010 μm) which represent a negligible volume compared to that of the boxes. Since the channels are so shallow, the helium in them becomes superfluid at a much lower temperature than the liquid in the boxes. Therefore, during the course of the heat capacity measurements, the liquid in the channels in always normal, and the cell would be expected to behave as a system of uncoupled boxes. We compare these measurements with one previously made of a cell where the confinement was to 1 μm boxes with an equivalent fill arrangement. While the shift in the position of the specific heat maximum relative to the 1 μm cell is what one would expect on the basis of finite-size scaling, there are discrepancies in the specific heat amplitude between the 2 μm cell utilizing different depth fill-channels, and with the 1 μm cell. It is possible that the channels, even though normal and of negligible volume, provide a weak coupling between the boxes leading to a collective rather than single-box behavior

  8. FY09 Advanced Instrumentation and Active Interrogation Research for Safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. L. Chichester; S. A. Pozzi; E. H. Seabury; J. L. Dolan; M. Flaska; J. T. Johnson; S. M. Watson; J. Wharton

    2009-08-01

    Multiple small-scale projects have been undertaken to investigate advanced instrumentation solutions for safeguard measurement challenges associated with advanced fuel cycle facilities and next-generation fuel reprocessing installations. These activities are in support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cycle Research and Development program and its Materials Protection, Accounting, and Control for Transmutation (MPACT) campaign. 1) Work was performed in a collaboration with the University of Michigan (Prof. Sara Pozzi, co-PI) to investigate the use of liquid-scintillator radiation detectors for assaying mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel, to characterize its composition and to develop advanced digital pulse-shape discrimination algorithms for performing time-correlation measurements in the MOX fuel environment. This work included both simulations and experiments and has shown that these techniques may provide a valuable approach for use within advanced safeguard measurement scenarios. 2) Work was conducted in a collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Dr. Paul Hausladen, co-PI) to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the fast-neutron coded-aperture imaging technique for locating and characterizing fissile material, and as a tool for performing hold-up measurements in fissile material handling facilities. This work involved experiments at Idaho National Laboratory, using MOX fuel and uranium metal, in both passive and active interrogation configurations. A complete analysis has not yet been completed but preliminary results suggest several potential uses for the fast neutron imaging technique. 3) Work was carried out to identify measurement approaches for determining nitric acid concentration in the range of 1 – 4 M and beyond. This work included laboratory measurements to investigate the suitability of prompt-gamma neutron activation analysis for this measurement and product reviews of other commercial solutions. Ultrasonic density analysis appears to

  9. Improvements relating to glove boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is stated that radiation problems with glove boxes can only be partly overcome by adding shielding to their working faces, since about 25% of the working face may be taken up with glove ports at which the only shielding provided is that of the glove. A glove port cover is here described, mountable above the port, comprising a number of flaps of lead-loaded flexible material. The flaps can be pushed aside by hand to permit access to a glove fixed in the port, but overlap to close off the port when the hand is withdrawn. The lead loaded flexible material preferably has a natural or synthetic rubber base. Constructional details are given. Only the flaps need to be lead-loaded, and to facilitate manufacture and handling the surfaces of the cover are preferably lead-free. Three flaps can suffice, but five or six are preferred. For mounting purposes a cover may have beading at its periphery for clamped location in a groove round the glove port. (U.K.)

  10. Nearest-neighbor non-additivity versus long-range non-additivity in TATA-box structure and its implications for TBP-binding mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Faiger, Hana; Ivanchenko, Marina; Haran, Tali E.

    2007-01-01

    TBP recognizes its target sites, TATA boxes, by recognizing their sequence-dependent structure and flexibility. Studying this mode of TATA-box recognition, termed ‘indirect readout’, is important for elucidating the binding mechanism in this system, as well as for developing methods to locate new binding sites in genomic DNA. We determined the binding stability and TBP-induced TATA-box bending for consensus-like TATA boxes. In addition, we calculated the individual information score of all st...

  11. Detection of Special Nuclear Material in Cargo Containers Using Neutron Interrogation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaughter, D; Accatino, M; Bernstein, A; Candy, J; Dougan, A; Hall, J; Loshak, A; Manatt, D; Meyer, A; Pohl, B; Prussin, S; Walling, R; Weirup, D

    2003-08-01

    The goal of the work reported here is to develop a concept for an active neutron interrogation system that can detect small targets of SNM contraband in cargo containers, roughly 5 kg HEU or 1 kg Pu, even when well shielded by a thick cargo. It is essential that the concept be reliable and have low false-positive and false-negative error rates. It also must be rapid to avoid interruption of commerce, completing the analysis in minutes. A new radiation signature unique to SNM has been identified that utilizes high-energy (E{sub {gamma}} = 3-7 MeV) fission product {gamma}-ray emission. Fortunately, this high-energy {gamma}-ray signature is robust in that it is very distinct compared to normal background radiation where there is no comparable high-energy {gamma}-ray radiation. Equally important, it has a factor of 10 higher yield than delayed neutrons that are the basis of classical interrogation technique normally used on small unshielded specimens of SNM. And it readily penetrates two meters of low-Z and high-Z cargo at the expected density of {approx} 0.5 gm/cm{sup 3}. Consequently, we expect that in most cases the signature flux at the container wall is at least 2-3 decades more intense than delayed neutron signals used historically and facilitates the detection of SNM even when shielded by thick cargo. Experiments have verified this signature and its predicted characteristics. However, they revealed an important interference due to the activation of {sup 16}O by the {sup 16}O(n,p){sup 16}N reaction that produces a 6 MeV {gamma}-ray following a 7-sec {beta}-decay of the {sup 16}N. This interference is important when irradiating with 14 MeV neutrons but is eliminated when lower energy neutron sources are utilized since the reaction threshold for {sup 16}O(n,p){sup 16}N is 10 MeV. The signature {gamma}-ray fluxes exiting a thick cargo can be detected in large arrays of scintillation detectors to produce useful signal count rates of 2-4 x 10{sup 4} cps. That is high

  12. Detection of Special Nuclear Material in Cargo Containers Using Neutron Interrogation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of the work reported here is to develop a concept for an active neutron interrogation system that can detect small targets of SNM contraband in cargo containers, roughly 5 kg HEU or 1 kg Pu, even when well shielded by a thick cargo. It is essential that the concept be reliable and have low false-positive and false-negative error rates. It also must be rapid to avoid interruption of commerce, completing the analysis in minutes. A new radiation signature unique to SNM has been identified that utilizes high-energy (Eγ = 3-7 MeV) fission product γ-ray emission. Fortunately, this high-energy γ-ray signature is robust in that it is very distinct compared to normal background radiation where there is no comparable high-energy γ-ray radiation. Equally important, it has a factor of 10 higher yield than delayed neutrons that are the basis of classical interrogation technique normally used on small unshielded specimens of SNM. And it readily penetrates two meters of low-Z and high-Z cargo at the expected density of ∼ 0.5 gm/cm3. Consequently, we expect that in most cases the signature flux at the container wall is at least 2-3 decades more intense than delayed neutron signals used historically and facilitates the detection of SNM even when shielded by thick cargo. Experiments have verified this signature and its predicted characteristics. However, they revealed an important interference due to the activation of 16O by the 16O(n,p)16N reaction that produces a 6 MeV γ-ray following a 7-sec β-decay of the 16N. This interference is important when irradiating with 14 MeV neutrons but is eliminated when lower energy neutron sources are utilized since the reaction threshold for 16O(n,p)16N is 10 MeV. The signature γ-ray fluxes exiting a thick cargo can be detected in large arrays of scintillation detectors to produce useful signal count rates of 2-4 x 104 cps. That is high enough to quickly identify SNM fission by its characteristic high energy γ-ray emission and

  13. Nuclear material interrogation via high-energy β-delayed γ rays from fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An increased urgency has been associated with the development of new and improved means for the non-destructive characterization of nuclear waste (or weapon grade materials) that might be hidden in large cargo containers or storage blocks. Passive detection methods based on measurements of neutrons and/or photons are either inapplicable or impractical in many such cases. Active interrogation with neutrons or high-energy photons in a variety of forms currently depends upon the observation of β-delayed neutrons following induced fission to provide a unique signature for fissile material. However, the shielding provided by a thick hydrogenous cargo (or waste container envelope, typically made of concrete) could be so large that this method will fail or will have a very low detection sensitivity. One of the ways to increase this detection sensitivity would be to detect the relatively high intensity of β-delayed γ rays with energies higher than ∼ 2.5 MeV that are emitted from short lived fission products. These β-delayed γ rays have yields that are nearly an order of magnitude higher than the corresponding β-delayed neutrons. In addition, these high energy gammas are likely to be transmitted through the hydrogenous material at least one order of magnitude better than β-delayed neutrons. As a result, the detection sensitivity of nuclear material could be increased by 2 or 3 orders of magnitude. Large area and low resolution plastic scintillators are potential candidates for such a detection system after the cargo is 'scanned' (irradiated) by neutrons or high energy gammas causing fission reactions. In this paper we provide quantitative estimates on the detection limits of fissile material in the case of typical nuclear waste containers surrounded by massive concrete layers with variable contents of hydrogen. Both delayed neutron and delayed gamma interrogation are examined for direct comparison. We show that β-delayed γ rays can offer an increase in

  14. Design of the Pacemaker REmote Follow-up Evaluation and Review (PREFER trial to assess the clinical value of the remote pacemaker interrogation in the management of pacemaker patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson W Ben

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although pacemakers are primarily used for the treatment of bradycardia, diagnostic data available in current pacemakers allow them to be also used as sophisticated, continuous monitoring devices. Easy access to these stored data may assist clinicians in making diagnostic and therapeutic decisions sooner, thus avoiding potential long-term sequelae due to untreated clinical disorders. Internet-based remote device interrogation systems provide clinicians with frequent and complete access to stored data in pacemakers. In addition to monitoring device function, remote monitors may be a helpful tool in assisting physicians in the management of common arrhythmia disorders. Methods The Pacemaker REmote Follow-up Evaluation and Review (PREFER trial is a prospective, randomized, parallel, unblinded, multicenter, open label clinical trial to determine the utility of remote pacemaker interrogation in the earlier diagnosis of clinically actionable events compared to the existing practice of transtelephonic monitoring. There have been 980 patients enrolled and randomized to receive pacemaker follow up with either remote interrogation using the Medtronic CareLink® Network (CareLink versus the conventional method of transtelephonic monitoring (TTM in addition to periodic in-person interrogation and programming evaluations. The purpose of this manuscript is to describe the design of the PREFER trial. The results, to be presented separately, will characterize the number of clinically actionable events as a result of pacemaker follow-up using remote interrogation instead of TTM. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00294645.

  15. Finding External Indicators of Load on a Web Server via Analysis of Black-Box Performance Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarini, Marc A.

    2010-01-01

    Traditional methods for system performance analysis have long relied on a mix of queuing theory, detailed system knowledge, intuition, and trial-and-error. These approaches often require construction of incomplete gray-box models that can be costly to build and difficult to scale or generalize. In this thesis, we present a black-box analysis…

  16. Nanoscale bio-platforms for living cell interrogation: current status and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Lingqian; Hu, Jiaming; Chen, Feng; Chen, Zhou; Shi, Junfeng; Yang, Zhaogang; Li, Yiwen; Lee, Ly James

    2016-02-01

    The living cell is a complex entity that dynamically responds to both intracellular and extracellular environments. Extensive efforts have been devoted to the understanding intracellular functions orchestrated with mRNAs and proteins in investigation of the fate of a single-cell, including proliferation, apoptosis, motility, differentiation and mutations. The rapid development of modern cellular analysis techniques (e.g. PCR, western blotting, immunochemistry, etc.) offers new opportunities in quantitative analysis of RNA/protein expression up to a single cell level. The recent entries of nanoscale platforms that include kinds of methodologies with high spatial and temporal resolution have been widely employed to probe the living cells. In this tutorial review paper, we give insight into background introduction and technical innovation of currently reported nanoscale platforms for living cell interrogation. These highlighted technologies are documented in details within four categories, including nano-biosensors for label-free detection of living cells, nanodevices for living cell probing by intracellular marker delivery, high-throughput platforms towards clinical current, and the progress of microscopic imaging platforms for cell/tissue tracking in vitro and in vivo. Perspectives for system improvement were also discussed to solve the limitations remains in current techniques, for the purpose of clinical use in future.

  17. An in-vivo model to interrogate the transition from acute to chronic inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lickorish D.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the modulation of the rodent foreign body giant cell (FBGC response to subcutaneously implanted, biodegradable poly(lactide-co-glycolide/calcium phosphate (PLGA/CaP composites by application of a thin surface coat of calcium phosphate. Macroporous PLGA/CaP composite scaffolds, with interconnecting macroporosity, were half coated with a 3mm thick layer of CaP by immersion in simulated body fluid. Half-coated scaffolds were implanted subcutaneously in the dorsum of male Wistar rats for 1, 4 and 8 weeks. Specimens were embedded in paraffin and tissue sections evaluated by light microscopy with particular reference to the FBGC response. Histomorphometry revealed that FBGCs were in contact with 6% (± 3.5% of the uncoated half, at 1 week, but no FBGCs were seen on the coated half. By 4 weeks, FBGCs were seen on both the uncoated and coated halves of the scaffolds with 87% (±10% and 36% (±4% FBGC/polymer contact respectively. By 8 weeks these FBGC contact percentages had risen to 97% (±0.45% in the case of the uncoated halves of scaffolds, but decreased to 22% (±4% in the case of the CaP-coated halves. Thus the CaP coating abrogated the FBGC response to the underlying polymer. Such a model may prove useful in providing an experimental system whereby both the mechanisms of biocompatibility and the transition from acute to chronic inflammation could be interrogated.

  18. Pressure regulation in the dry-boxes. Argon purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Each dry-box is equipped with an autonomous installation for circulation and purification of argon and for pressure regulation. This installation consists essentially of a ballast tank, a compressor and two valves electromagnetically controlled by a contact manometer. The compressor and the valves are enclosed in the tank to form a system as compact as possible. The argon is purified by passing it over a furnace filled with titanium-zirconium turnings brought to about 800 deg. C, branching off the main system. With this set-up as well as the automatic maintenance of a constant depression in the box, a quality of argon is obtained whose oxygen contact is undetectable by the manganous hydroxide method. (author)

  19. Non-signaling boxes and quantum logics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a quantum logic approach we analyze the structure of the so-called non-signaling theories respecting relativistic causality, but allowing correlations violating bounds imposed by quantum mechanics such as CHSH inequality. We discuss the relations among such theories, quantum mechanics, and classical physics. Our main result is the construction of a probability theory adequate for the simplest instance of a non-signaling theory—the two non-signaling boxes world—in which we exhibit its differences in comparison with classical and quantum probabilities. We show that the question of whether such a theory can be treated as a kind of ‘generalization’ of the quantum theory of the two-qubit system cannot be answered positively. Some of its features put it closer to the quantum world—on the one hand, for example, the measurements are destructive, though on the other hand the Heisenberg uncertainty relations are not satisfied. Another interesting property contrasting it from quantum mechanics is that the subset of ‘classically correlated states’, i.e. the states with only classical correlations, does not reproduce the classical world of the two two-state systems. Our results establish a new link between quantum information theory and the well-developed theory of quantum logics. (paper)

  20. Packing a cake into a box

    KAUST Repository

    Skopenkov, Mikhail

    2011-05-01

    Given a triangular cake and a box in the shape of its mirror image, how can the cake be cut into a minimal number of pieces so that it can be put into the box? The cake has icing, so we are not allowed to put it into the box upside down. V. G. Boltyansky asked this question in 1977 and showed that three pieces always suffice. In this paper we provide examples of cakes that cannot be cut into two pieces to be put into the box. This shows that three is the answer to Boltyansky\\'s question. We also give examples of cakes which can be cut into two pieces. © THE MATHEMATICAL ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA.

  1. Spacer for supporting fuel element boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A spacer plate unit arranged externally on each side and at a predetermined level of a polygonal fuel element box for mutually supporting, with respect to one another, a plurality of the fuel element boxes forming a fuel element bundle, is formed of a first and a second spacer plate part each having the same length and the same width and being constituted of unlike first and second materials, respectively. The first and second spacer plate parts of the several spacer plate units situated at the predetermined level are arranged in an alternating continuous series when viewed in the peripheral direction of the fuel element box, so that any two spacer plate units belonging to face-to-face oriented sides of two adjoining fuel element boxes in the fuel element bundle define interfaces of unlike materials

  2. Mystery Boxes, X Rays, and Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Norman

    2000-01-01

    Indicates the difficulties of teaching concepts beyond light and color and creating memorable learning experiences. Recommends sequential activities using the mystery box approach to explain how scientists and doctors use photon applications. (YDS)

  3. Packing a cake into a box

    CERN Document Server

    Skopenkov, Mikhail

    2010-01-01

    Given a cake in form of a triangle and a box that fits the mirror image of the cake, how to cut the cake into a minimal number of pieces so that it can be put into the box? The cake has an icing, so that we are not allowed to put it into the box upside down. V.G. Boltyansky asked this question in 1977 and showed that three pieces always suffice. In this paper we provide examples of cakes that cannot be cut into two pieces to put into the box. This shows that three is the answer to V.G. Boltyansky's question. Also we give examples of cakes which can be cut into two pieces.

  4. Co-expression and co-purification of archaeal and eukaryal box C/D RNPs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Peng

    Full Text Available Box C/D ribonucleoprotein particles (RNPs are 2'-O-methylation enzymes required for maturation of ribosomal and small nuclear RNA. Previous biochemical and structural studies of the box C/D RNPs were limited by the unavailability of purified intact RNPs. We developed a bacterial co-expression strategy based on the combined use of a multi-gene expression system and a tRNA-scaffold construct that allowed the expression and purification of homogeneous archaeal and human box C/D RNPs. While the co-expressed and co-purified archaeal box C/D RNP was found to be fully active in a 2'-O-methylation assay, the intact human U14 box C/D RNP showed no detectable catalytic activity, consistent with the earlier findings that assembly of eukaryotic box C/D RNPs is nonspontaneous and requires additional protein factors. Our systems provide a means for further biochemical and structural characterization of box C/D RNPs and their assembly factors.

  5. Decommissioning a tritium glove-box facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folkers, C.L.; Homann, S.G.; Nicolosi, A.S.; Hanel, S.L.; King, W.C.

    1979-08-08

    A large glove-box facility for handling reactive metal tritides was decommissioned. Major sections of the glove box were decontaminated and disassembled for reuse at another tritium facility. To achieve the desired results, decontamnation required repeated washing, first with organic liquids, then with water and detergents. Worker protection was provided by simple ventilation combined with careful monitoring of the work areas and employees. Several innovative techniques are described.

  6. Decommissioning a tritium glove-box facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large glove-box facility for handling reactive metal tritides was decommissioned. Major sections of the glove box were decontaminated and disassembled for reuse at another tritium facility. To achieve the desired results, decontamnation required repeated washing, first with organic liquids, then with water and detergents. Worker protection was provided by simple ventilation combined with careful monitoring of the work areas and employees. Several innovative techniques are described

  7. SET Backaction on the Single Electron Box

    OpenAIRE

    Turek, B. A.; Lehnert, K. W.; Clerk, A.; Gunnarsson, D.; Bladh, K.; Delsing, P.; Schoelkopf, R. J.

    2005-01-01

    We report an experimental observation of the backaction of a Single Electron Transistor (SET) measuring the Coulomb staircase of a single electron box. As current flows through the SET, the charge state of the SET island fluctuates. These fluctuations capacitively couple to the box and cause changes in the position, width, and asymmetry of the Coulomb staircase. A sequential tunnelling model accurately recreates these effects, confirming this mechanism of the backaction of an SET. This is a f...

  8. Random Young diagrams in a Rectangular Box

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Dan; Boutillier, Cédric; Enriquez, Nathanaël

    We exhibit the limit shape of random Young diagrams having a distribution proportional to the exponential of their area, and confined in a rectangular box. The Ornstein-Uhlenbeck bridge arises from the fluctuations around the limit shape.......We exhibit the limit shape of random Young diagrams having a distribution proportional to the exponential of their area, and confined in a rectangular box. The Ornstein-Uhlenbeck bridge arises from the fluctuations around the limit shape....

  9. HYDROGEN AND VOC RETENTION IN WASTE BOXES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PACE ME; MARUSICH RM

    2008-11-21

    The Hanford Waste Management Project Master Documented Safety Analysis (MDSA) (HNF-14741, 2003) identifies derived safety controls to prevent or mitigate the risks of a single-container deflagration during operations requiring moving, venting or opening transuranic (TRU)-waste containers. The issue is whether these safety controls are necessary for operations involving TRU-waste boxes that are being retrieved from burial at the Hanford Site. This paper investigates the potential for a deflagration hazard within these boxes and whether safety controls identified for drum deflagration hazards should be applied to operations involving these boxes. The study evaluates the accumulation of hydrogen and VOCs within the waste box and the transport of these gases and vapors out of the waste box. To perform the analysis, there were numerous and major assumptions made regarding the generation rate and the transport pathway dimensions and their number. Since there is little actual data with regards to these assumptions, analyses of three potential configurations were performed to obtain some indication of the bounds of the issue (the concentration of hydrogen or flammable VOCs within a waste box). A brief description of each of the three cases along with the results of the analysis is summarized.

  10. Comfort-box controls individual level of comfort. Domotica home network for indoor climate management; Comfort-box regelt individueel comfort-niveau. Domotica-huisnetwerk voor beheer binnenklimaat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamphuis, I.G; Warmer, C.J.; Bakker, E.J. [ECN Duurzame Energie in de Gebouwde Omgeving DEGO, Petten (Netherlands)

    2005-03-01

    The Comfort-Box (or C-Box) project is an automatic and continuous control system for energy efficient and cost-effective thermal comfort in houses. In this article detailed information is given of the design and performance of the C-Box. [Dutch] De huidige regelsystemen voor het binnenklimaat in woningen zijn voor verbetering vatbaar. Met het Comfort-boxconcept is een regeling ontwikkeld die automatisch en continu het individuele comfortniveau regelt in woningen, waarbij afwegingen worden gemaakt tussen kosten en comfort. De Comfort-box blijkt in staat te zijn het binnencomfort op energie- en kostenefficiente wijze te beheren.

  11. Experimental Investigation of the Internal Flow Field of Rotating Impeller Passage with Inlet Box

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WuKeqi; HuShengli

    1995-01-01

    Using PDA and its measurement system.the flow fields at the different peripheral locations of rotating impeller passage of a diagonal fan with inlet box are measured.The results are compared with the flow field of the rotating impeller passage of the same fan without inlet box.The differences of the flow characteristics of the rotating passage at the different peripheral locations are revealed.The effects of the complex flow in the inlet box on the internal folw of the rotaing impell passage are investigated.

  12. Visual pigments of the box jellyfish species Chiropsella bronzie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O*Connor, Megan; Garm, Anders Lydik; Marshall, Justin; Heart, Natan; Ekström, Peter; Skogh, Charlotta; Nilsson, Dan-E

    2010-01-01

    Box jellyfish (Cubomedusae) possess a unique visual system comprising 24 eyes of four morphological types. Moreover, box jellyfish display several visually guided behaviours, including obstacle avoidance and light-shaft attractance. It is largely unknown what kind of visual information box jellyf...... results strongly indicate that only one type of visual pigment is present in the upper and lower lens eyes with a peak absorbance of approximately 510 nm. Additionally, the visual pigment appears to undergo bleaching, similar to that of vertebrate visual pigments....

  13. Interrogation in Teacher-Student Interaction in Bahasa Indonesia Learning at Elementary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akmal Hamsa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Interrogation in Teacher-Student Interaction in Bahasa Indonesia Learning at Elementary School. This study aimed to describe the form, function, and questioning strategies teachers in teacher-student interrogation in Bahasa Indonesia learning in elementary school. Data sourced from four teacher of elementary school, SDN Tamangapa and SD Inpres Tamangapa. Data were obtained by (1 recording, (2 documentation, (3 field notes, (4 interview. The results showed that: (1 the form of questioning the teacher in the teacher-student interaction in Bahasa Indonesia learning in primary schools generally examined the low-level thinking skills, (2 functions of teacher questions are generally intended to check student understanding, and (3 teachers utilize a variety of strategies in addressing student answers correctly and the apparent hesitation. Some disadvantages are indicated teachers in providing interrogation.

  14. Neutron interrogation of actinides with a 17 MeV electron accelerator and first results from photon and neutron interrogation non-simultaneous measurements combination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sari, A., E-mail: adrien.sari@cea.fr [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire Capteurs et Architectures Electroniques, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Carrel, F.; Lainé, F. [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire Capteurs et Architectures Electroniques, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Lyoussi, A. [CEA, DEN, 13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance Cedex (France)

    2013-10-01

    In this article, we demonstrate the feasibility of neutron interrogation using the conversion target of a 17 MeV linear electron accelerator as a neutron generator. Signals from prompt neutrons, delayed neutrons, and delayed gamma-rays, emitted by both uranium and plutonium samples were analyzed. First results from photon and neutron interrogation non-simultaneous measurements combination are also reported in this paper. Feasibility of this technique is shown in the frame of the measurement of uranium enrichment. The latter was carried out by combining detection of prompt neutrons from thermal fission and delayed neutrons from photofission, and by combining delayed gamma-rays from thermal fission and delayed gamma-rays from photofission.

  15. INL Active Interrogation Testing In Support of the GNEP Safeguards Campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David L. Chichester

    2008-04-01

    Active interrogation, a measurement technique which uses a radiation source to probe materials and generate unique signatures useful for characterizing those materials, is a powerful tool for assaying special nuclear material. Work at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in the area of active interrogation, using neutron and photon sources, has been under way for many years to develop methods for detecting and quantifying nuclear material for national and homeland security research areas. This research knowledge base is now being extended to address nuclear safeguards and process monitoring issues related to the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP). As a first step in this area preliminary scoping studies have been performed to investigate the usefulness of using active neutron interrogation, with a low-power electronic neutron generator, to assay Department of Transportation 6M shipping drums containing uranium oxide fuel rodlets from INL’s zero power physics reactor. Using the paired-counting technique during the die-away time period of interrogation, a lower detection limit of approximately 4.2 grams of enriched uranium (40% 235U) was calculated for a 40 minute measurement using a field portable 2.5 MeV neutron source and an array of 16 moderated helium-3 neutron tubes. Future work in this area, including the use of a more powerful neutron source and a better tailored detector array, would likely improve this limit to a much lower level. Further development work at INL will explore the applicability of active interrogation in association with the nuclear safeguards and process monitoring needs of the advanced GNEP facilities under consideration. This work, which will include both analyses and field demonstrations, will be performed in collaboration with colleagues at INL and elsewhere that have expertise in nuclear fuel reprocessing as well as active interrogation and its use for nuclear material analyses.

  16. INL Active Interrogation Testing In Support of the GNEP Safeguards Campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Active interrogation, a measurement technique which uses a radiation source to probe materials and generate unique signatures useful for characterizing those materials, is a powerful tool for assaying special nuclear material. Work at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in the area of active interrogation, using neutron and photon sources, has been under way for many years to develop methods for detecting and quantifying nuclear material for national and homeland security research areas. This research knowledge base is now being extended to address nuclear safeguards and process monitoring issues related to the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP). As a first step in this area preliminary scoping studies have been performed to investigate the usefulness of using active neutron interrogation, with a low-power electronic neutron generator, to assay Department of Transportation 6M shipping drums containing uranium oxide fuel rodlets from INL's zero power physics reactor. Using the paired-counting technique during the die-away time period of interrogation, a lower detection limit of approximately 4.2 grams of enriched uranium (40% 235U) was calculated for a 40 minute measurement using a field portable 2.5 MeV neutron source and an array of 16 moderated helium-3 neutron tubes. Future work in this area, including the use of a more powerful neutron source and a better tailored detector array, would likely improve this limit to a much lower level. Further development work at INL will explore the applicability of active interrogation in association with the nuclear safeguards and process monitoring needs of the advanced GNEP facilities under consideration. This work, which will include both analyses and field demonstrations, will be performed in collaboration with colleagues at INL and elsewhere that have expertise in nuclear fuel reprocessing as well as active interrogation and its use for nuclear material analyses

  17. 49 CFR 178.517 - Standards for plastic boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for plastic boxes. 178.517 Section 178... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.517 Standards for plastic boxes. (a) The following are identification codes for plastic boxes: (1) 4H1 for an expanded plastic box; and (2) 4H2 for...

  18. 49 CFR 230.101 - Steam locomotive driving journal boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. 230.101... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.101 Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. (a) Driving journal boxes. Driving journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service. Not...

  19. Effect of an odor eliminator on feline litter box behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottam, Nicole; Dodman, Nicholas H

    2007-02-01

    Decreasing litter box odor may be an important treatment component in addressing feline inappropriate elimination. A three-phase study was conducted to determine if the use of Zero Odor litter box spray increases the preference of litter boxes to cats, presumably by its odor-eliminating quality. In the first phase, cats were given a litter box preference test between a litter box sprayed with Zero Odor and one without. In the second phase, the number of occurrences of behaviors indicative of a cat's dissatisfaction with the litter box (scratching at the sides of the box, floor or wall, hesitating when entering the litter box, balancing on the side of the box and eliminating outside of the litter box) was compared before and after the use of Zero Odor. Last, the frequency of eliminations that occurred outside the litter box was measured during a baseline phase and a test phase, in which Zero Odor was sprayed into all litter boxes in the home. Significantly fewer behaviors associated with feline litter box dissatisfaction and fewer undesirable eliminations were observed in phases 2 and 3, respectively. These findings suggest that use of Zero Odor litter box spray appears to decrease litter box odor and increases the attractiveness of litter box to cats. PMID:17049291

  20. 49 CFR 178.514 - Standards for plywood boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for plywood boxes. 178.514 Section 178... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.514 Standards for plywood boxes. (a) The identification code for a plywood box is 4D. (b) Construction requirements for plywood boxes are as follows:...

  1. Transuranic and Low-Level Boxed Waste Form Nondestructive Assay Technology Overview and Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) identified the need to perform an assessment of the functionality and performance of existing nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques relative to the low-level and transuranic waste inventory packaged in large-volume box-type containers. The primary objectives of this assessment were to: (1) determine the capability of existing boxed waste form NDA technology to comply with applicable waste radiological characterization requirements, (2) determine deficiencies associated with existing boxed waste assay technology implementation strategies, and (3) recommend a path forward for future technology development activities, if required. Based on this assessment, it is recommended that a boxed waste NDA development and demonstration project that expands the existing boxed waste NDA capability to accommodate the indicated deficiency set be implemented. To ensure that technology will be commercially available in a timely fashion, it is recommended this development and demonstration project be directed to the private sector. It is further recommended that the box NDA technology be of an innovative design incorporating sufficient NDA modalities, e.g., passive neutron, gamma, etc., to address the majority of the boxed waste inventory. The overall design should be modular such that subsets of the overall NDA system can be combined in optimal configurations tailored to differing waste types

  2. Accelerator requirements for fast-neutron interrogation of luggage and cargo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several different fast-neutron based techniques are being studied for the detection of contraband substances in luggage and cargo containers. The present work discusses the accelerator requirements for fast-neutron transmission spectroscopy (FNTS), pulsed fast-neutron analysis (PFNA), and 14-MeV neutron interrogation. These requirements are based on the results of Monte-Carlo simulations of neutron or gamma detection rates. Accelerator requirements are driven by count-rate considerations, spatial resolution and acceptable uncertainties in elemental compositions. The authors have limited their analyses to luggage inspection with FNTS and to cargo inspection with PFNA or 14-MeV neutron interrogation

  3. Promotion COPERNIC Energy and Society the interrogations on the world demand evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of a prospective reflexion emergence on the energy demand, this document presents an analysis of the prospective approach and of recent studies: challenges, interests, limits, validity of the models and hypothesis and results relevance. With this analysis, the authors aim to identify the main interrogations bond to the world energy demand evolution. They then analyse these interrogations in the framework of a sectoral approach (agriculture, industry, transports, residential) in order to detail the demand and to forecast the evolution. Facing the consumption attitudes, they also suggest some new action avenues to favor a sustainable growth. (A.L.B.)

  4. The role of secondary electron collection in box IEMP coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analytical models have been developed to estimate the secondary electron current collected at a biased land during box IEMP. The simple models are intended for the use of systems designers who must estimate the threat to active electronics during box IEMP and who may not have access to the large computer codes which simulate SGEMP. Separate theories apply to the nonself-consistent regime (when the collected charge does not greatly perturb the cavity fields) and the spacecharge-limited regime (when the secondary electrons screen the potential near the land). Analytical calculations for simple test cases compare well with selfconsistent SGEMP computer simulations and with data from past experiments at an MBS facility. Underprediction of the response at biases above +100 V suggests that an undetermined physical mechanism becomes important at high biases

  5. Packaging design criteria modified fuel spacer burial box. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various Hanford facilities must transfer large radioactively contaminated items to burial/storage. Presently, there are eighteen Fuel Spacer Burial Boxes (FSBBs) available on the Hanford Site for transport of such items. Previously, the FSBBS were transported from a rail car to the burial trench via a drag-off operation. To allow for the lifting of the boxes into the burial trench, it will be necessary to improve the packagings lifting attachments and provide structural reinforcement. Additional safety improvements to the packaging system will be provided by the addition of a positive closure system and package ventilation. FSBBs that are modified in such a manner are referred to as Modified Fuel Spacer Burial Boxes (MFSBs). The criteria provided by this PDC will be used to demonstrate that the transfer of the MFSB will provide an equivalent degree of safety as would be provided by a package meeting offsite transportation requirements. This fulfills the onsite transportation safety requirements implemented in WHC-CM-2-14, Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping. A Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) will be prepared to evaluate the safety of the transfer operation. Approval of the SARP is required to authorize transfer. Criteria are also established to ensure burial requirements are met

  6. 太阳日总辐射量的Box-Jenkins模型%BOX-JENKINS MODEL FOR DAILY SOLAR RADIATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏; 丁明

    2012-01-01

    基于天文辐射和日照率数据,采用系统辨识的方法建立了模拟太阳日总辐射量的BJ( Box-Jenkins)模型.该模型与传统的(A)ngstr(m)的日总辐射量的计算公式相比,模拟和预测效果更好.%Based on astronomical radiation and percentage of possible sunshine data, the BJ (Box-Jenkins) model for daily solar irradiation is established using system identification method. The simulation and the one-step forecast results of the BJ model are better than Angstrm formula of the calculation.

  7. Bending analysis of laminated composite box beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathy, A.K.; Patel, H.J.; Pang, S.S. (Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1994-01-01

    Box beams are widely used in weight reduction structures such as aircraft wings. The use of composite box beams further reduces the weight factor for such structures with the same deflection and stress as that of isotropic box beams. The difference in the behavior of composite box beam with different fiber orientation, number of plies, and number of stringers also provides a wide range of designing parameters to achieve the required performance for a given problem. A bending analysis has been carried out for the study of deflections and stresses for box beams of different material (isotropic and laminated composites), size, and number of stringers subjected to different kinds of loading conditions. A finite element model has been developed based on the strain energy principle, and the results are compared with an available commercial code COSMOS/M.'' Experiments using aluminum and scotchply composite laminates were conducted to verify the results. An optimal design for size and number of stiffeners for a given loading condition has been achieved. Investigations have also been carried out to find the effect of transverse shear on the span-wise normal stress.

  8. Pharmacy Students’ Knowledge of Black Box Warnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shireman, Theresa I.; Generali, Joyce; Rigler, Sally; Mayorga, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the progression of pharmacy students’ knowledge of black box warnings across 3 years of didactic training, and to determine how they stay current with new warnings. Methods A cross-sectional survey instrument was administered to pharmacy students in their first (P1), second (P2), and third (P3) professional years. The survey assessed student awareness of medications possessing a black box warning and familiarity with the warning content for 20 medications (15 with and 5 without warnings). Results Mean number of correct responses identifying the presence or absence of a black box warning among the 20 medications were 5.8 ± 3.3, 9.6 ± 4.0, and 14.8 ± 2.8 for the P1, P2, and P3 students, respectively. Knowledge of black box warning content was variable. Students were least aware of the warning content for stavudine and enoxaparin. Students were most familiar with the warning content for paroxetine and estrogen. Conclusion Students’ awareness and understanding of black box warnings was proportional to their educational progression, but their knowledge level was inconsistent across drug groups. PMID:20221356

  9. Wireless SAW Sensor Strain Gauge & Integrated Interrogator Design Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed Wireless, passive, SAW sensor system operates in a multi-sensor environment with a range in excess of 45 feet. This proposed system offers unique...

  10. 结合梁桥面系异形钢箱拱肋系杆拱桥设计%Design of Special-shaped Steel Box Arch Rib Bowstring Arched Bridge of Bonding Beam Deck System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文勃

    2009-01-01

    The main bridge of Putian Chenggang Avenue Bridge crossing Molan River is the special-shaped bowstring arched bridge of 2-span simple-supported double-rib half-through steel box arch rib bonding beam deck system. The single span is 72 m long and the bridge is 47.5 m wide with city-Class A load and double-direction of 8 lanes. Taking the preliminary design and construction drawing design of this bridge as the basis, the article introduces the scheme study of bridge type, structural design of main bridge and analysis of structural calculation of the special-shaped bowstring arched bridge, and analyzes some technical characteristics of this bridge. The design method of the main bridge inclined crossed with the curve river, the design thinks of bonding beam in the arched bridge, the temporary constructed supporting point for improving the structural bearing, and the design method of special arch rib modeling can be referred for the design of the similar bridges.%莆田城港大道跨木兰溪大桥主桥是两跨简支的双肋下承式钢箱拱肋结合梁桥面系的异形系杆拱桥,单跨跨径72m,桥宽47.5m,城一A级荷载,双向8车道.该文以该桥的初步设计和施工图设计为基础,介绍了异形系杆拱桥的桥型方案研究、主桥结构设计、结构计算分析等内容,并分析了该桥的一些技术特点.该桥的弯曲河道斜交主桥设计方法、结合梁在拱桥中的设计思想、结合梁横梁设置临时支点改善结构受力、独特拱肋造型的设计方法等内容,可供类似桥梁设计时参考.

  11. Examination of a Junction-Box Adhesion Test for Use in Photovoltaic Module Qualification: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D. C.; Wohlgemuth, J. H.

    2012-08-01

    Engineering robust adhesion of the junction-box (j-box) is a hurdle typically encountered by photovoltaic (PV) module manufacturers during product development. There are historical incidences of adverse effects (e.g., fires) caused when the j-box/adhesive/module system has failed in the field. The addition of a weight to the j-box during the 'damp heat' IEC qualification test is proposed to verify the basic robustness of its adhesion system. The details of the proposed test will be described, in addition to the preliminary results obtained using representative materials and components. The described discovery experiments examine moisture-cured silicone, foam tape, and hot-melt adhesives used in conjunction with PET or glass module 'substrates.' To be able to interpret the results, a set of material-level characterizations was performed, including thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and dynamic mechanical analysis. PV j-boxes were adhered to a substrate, loaded with a prescribed weight, and then placed inside an environmental chamber (at 85C, 85% relative humidity). Some systems did not remain attached through the discovery experiments. Observed failure modes include delamination (at the j-box/adhesive or adhesive/substrate interface) and phase change/creep. The results are discussed in the context of the application requirements, in addition to the plan for the formal experiment supporting the proposed modification to the qualification test.

  12. Examination of a Junction-Box Adhesion Test for Use in Photovoltaic Module Qualification (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D. C.; Wohlgemuth, J. H.

    2012-08-01

    Engineering robust adhesion of the junction-box (j-box) is a hurdle typically encountered by photovoltaic (PV) module manufacturers during product development. There are historical incidences of adverse effects (e.g., fires) caused when the j-box/adhesive/module system has failed in the field. The addition of a weight to the j-box during the 'damp heat' IEC qualification test is proposed to verify the basic robustness of its adhesion system. The details of the proposed test will be described, in addition to the preliminary results obtained using representative materials and components. The described discovery experiments examine moisture-cured silicone, foam tape, and hot-melt adhesives used in conjunction with PET or glass module 'substrates.' To be able to interpret the results, a set of material-level characterizations was performed, including thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and dynamic mechanical analysis. PV j-boxes were adhered to a substrate, loaded with a prescribed weight, and then placed inside an environmental chamber (at 85C, 85% relative humidity). Some systems did not remain attached through the discovery experiments. Observed failure modes include delamination (at the j-box/adhesive or adhesive/substrate interface) and phase change/creep. The results are discussed in the context of the application requirements, in addition to the plan for the formal experiment supporting the proposed modification to the qualification test.

  13. Nearly Seamless Vacuum-Insulated Boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanian, Christopher J.; Ou, Danny; Hu, Xiangjun

    2010-01-01

    A design concept, and a fabrication process that would implement the design concept, have been proposed for nearly seamless vacuum-insulated boxes that could be the main structural components of a variety of controlled-temperature containers, including common household refrigerators and insulating containers for shipping foods. In a typical case, a vacuum-insulated box would be shaped like a rectangular parallelepiped conventional refrigerator box having five fully closed sides and a hinged door on the sixth side. Although it is possible to construct the five-closed-side portion of the box as an assembly of five unitary vacuum-insulated panels, it is not desirable to do so because the relatively high thermal conductances of the seams between the panels would contribute significant amounts of heat leakage, relative to the leakage through the panels themselves. In contrast, the proposal would make it possible to reduce heat leakage by constructing the five-closed-side portion of the box plus the stationary portion (if any) of the sixth side as a single, seamless unit; the only remaining seam would be the edge seal around the door. The basic cross-sectional configuration of each side of a vacuum-insulated box according to the proposal would be that of a conventional vacuum-insulated panel: a low-density, porous core material filling a partially evacuated space between face sheets. However, neither the face sheets nor the core would be conventional. The face sheets would be opposite sides of a vacuum bag. The core material would be a flexible polymer-modified silica aerogel of the type described in Silica/Polymer and Silica/Polymer/Fiber Composite Aero - gels (MSC-23736) in this issue of NASA Tech Briefs. As noted in that article, the stiffness of this core material against compression is greater than that of prior aerogels. This is an important advantage because it translates to greater retention of thickness and, hence, of insulation performance when pressure is

  14. Advances in the theory of box integrals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, J.M.; Crandall, R.E.

    2009-06-25

    Box integrals - expectations <|{rvec r}|{sup s}> or <|{rvec r}-{rvec q}|{sup s}> over the unit n-cube (or n-box) - have over three decades been occasionally given closed forms for isolated n,s. By employing experimental mathematics together with a new, global analytic strategy, we prove that for n {le} 4 dimensions the box integrals are for any integer s hypergeometrically closed in a sense we clarify herein. For n = 5 dimensions, we show that a single unresolved integral we call K{sub 5} stands in the way of such hyperclosure proofs. We supply a compendium of exemplary closed forms that naturally arise algorithmically from this theory.

  15. Analytical investigation of a novel interrogation approach of fiber Bragg grating sensors using Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel, Kivilcim; Pala, Deniz

    2016-06-01

    This work presents a novel approach in interrogating Polarization Dependent Loss (PDL) of cascaded identical FBGs using Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometer (OFDR). The fundamentals of both polarisation properties of uniform FBGs and polarisation-sensitive OFDR are explained and the benefits of this novel approach in measuring transversal load are discussed. The numerical programs computing the spectral evolution of PDL of the FBGs in the array as a function of grating parameters (grating length and birefringence) are presented. Our simulation results show an excellent agreement with the previously reported simulation (and experimental) results in the literature obtained on a single FBG by using classical state-of-the-art measurement techniques. As an envisaged application, the proposed system shows the feasibility of measuring the residual stresses during manufacturing process of composite materials which is not straightforward by amplitude spectrum measurements and/or considering only the axial strains.

  16. Examining Adolescents' and Their Parents' Conceptual and Practical Knowledge of Police Interrogation: A Family Dyad Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolard, Jennifer L.; Cleary, Hayley M. D.; Harvell, Samantha A. S.; Chen, Rusan

    2008-01-01

    This study examines whether parents have the prerequisite knowledge about police interrogation that would allow them to compensate for youths' knowledge deficits, protect their interests, and buffer against their vulnerability to coercion. A racially diverse urban/suburban convenience sample of 77 11- to 13-year-olds, 46 14- to 15-year-olds, and…

  17. Interrogative Suggestibility among Adolescent Boys and Its Relationship with Intelligence, Memory, and Cognitive Set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Krishna K.; Gudjonsson, Gisli H.

    1992-01-01

    Investigated hypotheses generated by Gudjonsson and Clark model of interrogative suggestibility. Adolescent boys (n=40) completed Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale and measures of intellectual skills, memory, field-dependence, hostility, and attitudes toward persons in authority. Suggestibility correlated negatively with intelligence quotient and…

  18. A High-Temperature Fiber Sensor Using a Low Cost Interrogation Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Sales

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Regenerated Fibre Bragg Gratings have the potential for high-temperature monitoring. In this paper, the inscription of Fibre Bragg Gratings (FBGs and the later regeneration process to obtain Regenerated Fiber Bragg Gratings (RFBGs in high-birefringence optical fiber is reported. The obtained RFBGs show two Bragg resonances corresponding to the slow and fast axis that are characterized in temperature terms. As the temperature increases the separation between the two Bragg resonances is reduced, which can be used for low cost interrogation. The proposed interrogation setup is based in the use of optical filters in order to convert the wavelength shift of each of the Bragg resonances into optical power changes. The design of the optical filters is also studied in this article. In first place, the ideal filter is calculated using a recursive method and defining the boundary conditions. This ideal filter linearizes the output of the interrogation setup but is limited by the large wavelength shift of the RFBG with temperature and the maximum attenuation. The response of modal interferometers as optical filters is also analyzed. They can be easily tuned shifting the optical spectrum. The output of the proposed interrogation scheme is simulated in these conditions improving the sensitivity.

  19. Fire test of DOT 7A Boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary objective of conducting the full-scale fire tests of the DOT (Department of Transportation) 7A FRP Boxes was to provide information to assist in quantifying the fire hazard of the storage located at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC), and to learn if changing the storage array will decrease the fire risk. Also, the level of fire fighting and fire protection required to maintain the risk at the RWMC within acceptable DOE guidelines was investigated. Two full-scale fire tests were conducted at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) in June 1978, using the DOE 7A FRP Plywood Storage Containers. The fire tests showed that when subjected to a substantial ignition source, the boxes will propagate fire as long as no fire-suppression measures are taken. Fire will breach the boxes and spread the radioactive contaminated waste if it is not extinguished. As the fire progresses, additional boxes will become involved, and eventually the entire storage array will ignite. It is recommended that the use of DOT 7A Boxes be discontinued and replaced with noncombustible storage containers. In the event this is not practicable, guidance recommendations are presented to minimize the large fire loss potential. It is also recommended that an investigation be conducted into the number of boxes that can be destroyed and still maintain a safe environment for employees and the public. This investigation should include how far radioactive contamination will spread, what cleanup will be required, anticipated exposure of the people within the area, and the public impact of such a fire

  20. Cultivation of Modern and New Farmers from the Perspective of Black Box of Science and Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of analyzing the connotation and function of black box of science and technology,this article expounds the necessity of cultivating modern and new farmers in China at present,and points out that with incessant progress of science and technology,the modern agriculture based on black box of science and technology will continue to grow,which requires a large number of new farmers who can learn and improve black box of agricultural science and technology.Finally,the recommendations are put forward for cultivation of new farmers:improving farmers’ training system;enhancing rural financial support,so that the farmers benefit from black box of science and technology;strengthening the cultivation of the practical ability,and promoting farmers’ management capacity;strengthening the cultivation of innovative ability,and nurturing innovative farmers.

  1. A white-box model of S-shaped and double S-shaped single-species population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmykov, Lev V; Kalmykov, Vyacheslav L

    2015-01-01

    Complex systems may be mechanistically modelled by white-box modeling with using logical deterministic individual-based cellular automata. Mathematical models of complex systems are of three types: black-box (phenomenological), white-box (mechanistic, based on the first principles) and grey-box (mixtures of phenomenological and mechanistic models). Most basic ecological models are of black-box type, including Malthusian, Verhulst, Lotka-Volterra models. In black-box models, the individual-based (mechanistic) mechanisms of population dynamics remain hidden. Here we mechanistically model the S-shaped and double S-shaped population growth of vegetatively propagated rhizomatous lawn grasses. Using purely logical deterministic individual-based cellular automata we create a white-box model. From a general physical standpoint, the vegetative propagation of plants is an analogue of excitation propagation in excitable media. Using the Monte Carlo method, we investigate a role of different initial positioning of an individual in the habitat. We have investigated mechanisms of the single-species population growth limited by habitat size, intraspecific competition, regeneration time and fecundity of individuals in two types of boundary conditions and at two types of fecundity. Besides that, we have compared the S-shaped and J-shaped population growth. We consider this white-box modeling approach as a method of artificial intelligence which works as automatic hyper-logical inference from the first principles of the studied subject. This approach is perspective for direct mechanistic insights into nature of any complex systems. PMID:26038717

  2. Testing of packings for stuffing boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stuffing box packings function when they are sealed tight and do not obstruct the movement of the spindle. Characteristic values are necessary to characterise the materials properties of stuffing box packings. Essentially, the definitions of the characteristic values are known and can be calculated in experimental setups. It is absolutely necessary to standardise the characteristic values as well as the testing procedures in order to be able to provide comparable and reproduceable characteristic values. Depending upon the importance of the fittings, it is necessary to guarantee sufficiently exact and reliable assembly for defined operating conditions. (orig.)

  3. Police training in interviewing and interrogation methods: A comparison of techniques used with adult and juvenile suspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Hayley M D; Warner, Todd C

    2016-06-01

    Despite empirical progress in documenting and classifying various interrogation techniques, very little is known about how police are trained in interrogation methods, how frequently they use various techniques, and whether they employ techniques differentially with adult versus juvenile suspects. This study reports the nature and extent of formal (e.g., Reid Technique, PEACE, HUMINT) and informal interrogation training as well as self-reported technique usage in a diverse national sample (N = 340) of experienced American police officers. Officers were trained in a variety of different techniques ranging from comparatively benign pre-interrogation strategies (e.g., building rapport, observing body language or speech patterns) to more psychologically coercive techniques (e.g., blaming the victim, discouraging denials). Over half the sample reported being trained to use psychologically coercive techniques with both adults and juveniles. The majority (91%) receive informal, "on the job" interrogation training. Technique usage patterns indicate a spectrum of psychological intensity where information-gathering approaches were used most frequently and high-pressure tactics less frequently. Reid-trained officers (56%) were significantly more likely than officers without Reid training to use pre-interrogation and manipulation techniques. Across all analyses and techniques, usage patterns were identical for adult and juvenile suspects, suggesting that police interrogate youth in the same manner as adults. Overall, results suggest that training in specific interrogation methods is strongly associated with usage. Findings underscore the need for more law enforcement interrogation training in general, especially with juvenile suspects, and highlight the value of training as an avenue for reducing interrogation-induced miscarriages of justice. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26651619

  4. Classificati,Expression Patter,and E3 Ligase Activity Assay of Rice U-Box-Containing Proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Rong Zeng; Chan Ho Park; R.C.Venu; Julian Gough; Guo-Liang Wang

    2008-01-01

    Ubiquitin ligases play a central role in determining the specificity of the ubiquitination system by selecting a myriad of appropriate candidate proteins for modification.The U-box is a recently identified,ubiquitin ligase activityrelated protein domain that shows greater presence in plants than in other organisms.In this study,we identified 77 putative U-box proteins from the rice genome using a battery of whole genome analysis algorithms.Most of the U-box protein genes are expressed,as supported by the identification of their corresponding expressed sequence tags (ESTs),full-length cDNAs,or massively parallel signature sequencing(MPSS)tags.Using the same algorithms,we identified 61 U-box proteins from the Arabidopsis genome.The rice and Arabidopsis U-box proteins were classified into nine major classes based on their domain compositions.Comparison between rice and Arabidopsis U-box proteins indicates that the majority of rice and Arabidopsis U-box proteins have the same domain organizations.The inferred phylogeny established the homology between rice and Arabidopsis U-box/ARM proteins.Cell death assay using the rice protoplast system suggests that one rice U-box gene,OsPU851,might act as a negative regulator of cell death signaling.In addition,the selected U-box proteins were found to be functional E3 ubiquitin ligases.The identification and analysis of rice U-box proteins hereby at the genomic level will help functionally characterize this class of E3 ubiquitin ligase in the future.

  5. Mid-year Status of MESSENGER SciBox Science Planning and Commanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, L.; Choo, T. H.; Steele, R. J.; Lucks, M.; Nair, H.; Perry, M. E.; Anderson, B. J.; Berman, A. F.; Solomon, S. C.

    2011-12-01

    More than halfway into its primary orbital mission, MESSENGER has successfully exploited the SciBox planning and commanding system to automate science observation scheduling and command generation for its full instrument suite, as well as its radio-frequency communication and guidance and control systems. MESSENGER's SciBox software coordinates instrument observations to determine the optimal conflict-free science schedule for the entire orbital mission and generates weekly command sequences for submission to mission operations. SciBox maximizes science return by filling all available observing opportunities and fully utilizing onboard storage and downlink bandwidth. As of four months into its one-year orbital mission, MESSENGER SciBox had scheduled the acquisition and downlink of nearly 40,000 images and comparable data sets from the spacecraft's six other instruments. The flexibility of MESSENGER SciBox allows for rapid re-optimization of schedules in the event of unforeseen circumstances. It has also allowed the science and planning teams to analyze rapidly the effects of modifying operational parameters and adding new observations. Within two hours, the entire mission can be re-optimized, schedules and command sequences generated, and a full set of plots and reports produced. The effects on resource usage, observational coverage, and compliance with operational constraints may be quickly assessed. This rapid turnaround ensures that optimal schedules are produced regardless of circumstances. We present an overview of the MESSENGER SciBox design and its operation.

  6. Fano-Kondo and the Kondo box regimes crossover in a quantum dot coupled to a quantum box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Victor M; Orellana, Pedro A; Pacheco, Monica; Anda, Enrique V

    2013-12-18

    In this work, we study the Kondo effect of a quantum dot (QD) connected to leads and to a discrete set of one-particle states provided by a quantum box represented by a quantum ring (QR) pierced by a magnetic flux side attached to the QD. The interplay between the bulk Kondo effect and the so-called Kondo box regime is studied. In this system the QR energies can be continuously modified by the application of the magnetic field. The crossover between these two regimes is analyzed by changing the connection of the QD to the QR from the weak to the strong coupling regime. In the weak coupling regime, the differential conductance develops a sequence of Fano-Kondo anti-resonances due to destructive interference between the discrete quantum ring levels and the conducting Kondo channel provided by the leads. In the strong coupling regime the differential conductance has very sharp resonances when one of the Kondo discrete sub-levels characterizing the Kondo box is tuned by the applied potential. The conductance, the current fluctuations and the Fano coefficient result as being the relevant physical magnitudes to be analyzed to reveal the physical properties of these two Kondo regimes and the crossover region between them. The results were obtained by using the slave boson mean field theory (SBMFT). PMID:24275637

  7. COMPUTER MODEL AND SIMULATION OF A GLOVE BOX PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. FOSTER; ET AL

    2001-01-01

    The development of facilities to deal with the disposition of nuclear materials at an acceptable level of Occupational Radiation Exposure (ORE) is a significant issue facing the nuclear community. One solution is to minimize the worker's exposure though the use of automated systems. However, the adoption of automated systems for these tasks is hampered by the challenging requirements that these systems must meet in order to be cost effective solutions in the hazardous nuclear materials processing environment. Retrofitting current glove box technologies with automation systems represents potential near-term technology that can be applied to reduce worker ORE associated with work in nuclear materials processing facilities. Successful deployment of automation systems for these applications requires the development of testing and deployment strategies to ensure the highest level of safety and effectiveness. Historically, safety tests are conducted with glove box mock-ups around the finished design. This late detection of problems leads to expensive redesigns and costly deployment delays. With wide spread availability of computers and cost effective simulation software it is possible to discover and fix problems early in the design stages. Computer simulators can easily create a complete model of the system allowing a safe medium for testing potential failures and design shortcomings. The majority of design specification is now done on computer and moving that information to a model is relatively straightforward. With a complete model and results from a Failure Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA), redesigns can be worked early. Additional issues such as user accessibility, component replacement, and alignment problems can be tackled early in the virtual environment provided by computer simulation. In this case, a commercial simulation package is used to simulate a lathe process operation at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The Lathe process operation is

  8. Cereal Box Design: An Interdisciplinary Graphics Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Mike; Tsosie, Teri

    2012-01-01

    The cereal box design activity is intriguing both for its simplicity and the resourcefulness that it can generate in young people. Also, it lends itself to a variety of curriculums. It covers both consumerism and Design for the Environment (DfE) concepts broadly and in depth. The activity introduces a wide range of topics. They include graphic…

  9. Study of WATCH GRB error boxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorosabel, J.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Lund, Niels;

    1995-01-01

    We have studied the first WATCH GRB Catalogue ofγ-ray Bursts in order to find correlations between WATCH GRB error boxes and a great variety of celestial objects present in 33 different catalogues. No particular class of objects has been found to be significantly correlated with the WATCH GRBs....

  10. Black hole formation in a box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evidence is presented for Hawking's viewpoint that in an insulated box in thermal equilibrium, black holes should form and evaporate in a statistically time-symmetric way. In particular, it is shown that if a black hole can evaporate adiabatically, it is much more likely to form adiabatically than by Jeans instability. (author)

  11. Safety evaluation for packaging CPC metal boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP) provides authorization for the use of Container Products Corporation (CPC) metal boxes, as described in this document, for the interarea shipment of radioactive contaminated equipment and debris for storage in the Central Waste Complex (CWC) or T Plant located in the 200 West Area. Authorization is granted until November 30, 1995. The CPC boxes included in this SEP were originally procured as US Department of Transportation (DOT) Specification 7A Type A boxes. A review of the documentation provided by the manufacturer revealed the documentation did not adequately demonstrate compliance to the 4 ft drop test requirement of 49 CFR 173.465(c). Preparation of a SEP is necessary to document the equivalent safety of the onsite shipment in lieu of meeting DOT packaging requirements until adequate documentation is received. The equivalent safety of the shipment is based on the fact that the radioactive contents consist of contaminated equipment and debris which are not dispersible. Each piece is wrapped in two layers of no less than 4 mil plastic prior to being placed in the box which has an additional 10 mil liner. Pointed objects and sharp edges are padded to prevent puncture of the plastic liner and wrapping

  12. Choreographies with Secure Boxes and Compromised Principals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbone, Marco; Guttman, Joshua

      We equip choreography-level session descriptions with a simple abstraction of a security infrastruc- ture. Message components may be enclosed within (possibly nested) ”boxes” annotated with the intended source and destination of those components. The boxes are to be implemented with cryp...

  13. A white box perspective on behavioural adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Roberto; Corradini, Andrea; Gadducci, Fabio; Lluch Lafuente, Alberto; Vandin, Andrea

    We present a white-box conceptual framework for adaptation developed in the context of the EU Project ASCENS coordinated by Martin Wirsing. We called it CoDA, for Control Data Adaptation, since it is based on the notion of control data. CoDA promotes a neat separation between application and...

  14. PVC posting bags for glove boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This specification covers the materials, measurements and manufacture of unpigmented PVC posting bags for use on glove boxes, together with methods of testing the materials. These bags are used in the handling of radioactive and toxic materials of a hazardous nature and therefore must be of the highest standard of mechanical strength, leak tightness and general finish. (author)

  15. Launch Pad in a Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, J. G.; Tamasy, G. J.; Mueller, R. P.; Townsend, I. I.; Sampson, J. W.; Lane, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is developing a new deployable launch system capability to support a small class of launch vehicles for NASA and commercial space companies to test and launch their vehicles. The deployable launch pad concept was first demonstrated on a smaller scale at KSC in 2012 in support of NASA Johnson Space Center's Morpheus Lander Project. The main objective of the Morpheus Project was to test a prototype planetary lander as a vertical takeoff and landing test-bed for advanced spacecraft technologies using a hazard field that KSC had constructed at the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF). A steel pad for launch or landing was constructed using a modular design that allowed it to be reconfigurable and expandable. A steel flame trench was designed as an optional module that could be easily inserted in place of any modular steel plate component. The concept of a transportable modular launch and landing pad may also be applicable to planetary surfaces where the effects of rocket exhaust plume on surface regolith is problematic for hardware on the surface that may either be damaged by direct impact of high speed dust particles, or impaired by the accumulation of dust (e.g., solar array panels and thermal radiators). During the Morpheus free flight campaign in 2013-14, KSC performed two studies related to rocket plume effects. One study compared four different thermal ablatives that were applied to the interior of a steel flame trench that KSC had designed and built. The second study monitored the erosion of a concrete landing pad following each landing of the Morpheus vehicle on the same pad located in the hazard field. All surfaces of a portable flame trench that could be directly exposed to hot gas during launch of the Morpheus vehicle were coated with four types of ablatives. All ablative products had been tested by NASA KSC and/or the manufacturer. The ablative thicknesses were measured periodically following the twelve Morpheus free flight tests

  16. Somatotype analysis of elite boxing athletes compared with nonathletes for sports physiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Ji-Woong; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Park, Byoung-Sun; Yang, Seung-Min; Jeon, Hye-Joo; Lee, Won-Deok; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Jang, Sung-Ho; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Junghwan

    2014-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to show somatotype and physical characteristic differences between elite boxing athletes and non-athletes. [Methods] The somatotypes of 23 elite boxing athletes and 23 nonathletes were measured with the Heath-Carter method. The subjects were divided into four weight divisions as follows: lightweight, light middleweight, middleweight, and heavyweight class. [Results] The endomorphic component values of the boxing athletes were lower than those of the nonathletes. However, the mesomorphic component values of the boxing athletes were higher than those of the nonathletes. There was no significant difference in the ectomorphic component between the two groups. The higher weight divisions tended to have higher values of height, weight, and BMI than the lower weight divisions. The higher weight divisions also tended to have higher values for the endomorphic and mesomorphic components and a lower value for the ectomorphic component than the lower weight divisions. The group of nonathletes consisted of eight endomorphs, four mesomorphs, six ectomorphs, and five central types. Among the boxing athletes, there were 16 mesomorphic, four ectomorphic, and two central types and one endomorphic type. Subdividing the athletes into 13 somatotypes resulted in five balanced mesomorphs, five endomorphic mesomorphs, five mesomorph-ectomorphs, three mesomorph-endomorphs, two mesomorphic ectomorphs, two central types, and one ectomorphic mesomorph type. [Conclusion] The data from this study provides in part physical characteristics of elite boxing athletes that can be used to establish a reference for systemic study of sports physiotherapy. PMID:25202187

  17. State interrogation in nuclear magnetic resonance quantum-information processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reconstruction of a reduced density operator for weakly coupled systems of spins (1/2) from fits to nuclear magnetic resonance spectra is described in detail. Particular emphasis is placed on data treatment procedures that specify fewer than the 3n complete spectra that are implicitly prescribed in published references to state tomography on n-spin systems. It is shown that if the density operator is expanded in the so-called product-operator basis, it is always possible to estimate a desired coefficient in the expansion by measuring a single spectral multiplet. This simple observation can substantially reduce the experimental effort required for either complete density-matrix reconstruction or estimation of subsets of the coefficients in the product-operator expansion. A simple iterative algorithm can be used to produce reduced measurement procedures for experiments involving small numbers of qubits

  18. Principal Investigator-in-a-Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Laurence R.

    1999-01-01

    Human performance in orbit is currently limited by several factors beyond the intrinsic awkwardness of motor control in weightlessness. Cognitive functioning can be affected by such factors as cumulative sleep loss, stress and the psychological effects of long-duration small-group isolation. When an astronaut operates a scientific experiment, the performance decrement associated with such factors can lead to lost or poor quality data and even the total loss of a scientific objective, at great cost to the sponsors and to the dismay of the Principal Investigator. In long-duration flights, as anticipated on the International Space Station and on any planetary exploration, the experimental model is further complicated by long delays between training and experiment, and the large number of experiments each crew member must perform. Although no documented studies have been published on the subject, astronauts report that an unusually large number of simple errors are made in space. Whether a result of the effects of microgravity, accumulated fatigue, stress or other factors, this pattern of increased error supports the need for a computerized decision-making aid for astronauts performing experiments. Artificial intelligence and expert systems might serve as powerful tools for assisting experiments in space. Those conducting space experiments typically need assistance exactly when the planned checklist does not apply. Expert systems, which use bits of human knowledge and human methods to respond appropriately to unusual situations, have a flexibility that is highly desirable in circumstances where an invariably predictable course of action/response does not exist. Frequently the human expert on the ground is unavailable, lacking the latest information, or not consulted by the astronaut conducting the experiment. In response to these issues, we have developed "Principal Investigator-in-a-Box," or [PI], to capture the reasoning process of the real expert, the Principal

  19. Investigations of active interrogation techniques to detect special nuclear material in maritime environments: Standoff interrogation of small- and medium-sized cargo ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, several active interrogation (AI) sources are evaluated to determine their usefulness in detecting the presence of special nuclear material (SNM) in fishing trawlers, small cargo transport ships, and luxury yachts at large standoff distances from the AI source and detector. This evaluation is performed via computational analysis applying Monte Carlo methods with advanced variance reduction techniques. The goal is to determine the AI source strength required to detect the presence of SNM. The general conclusion of this study is that AI is not reliable when SNM is heavily shielded and not tightly coupled geometrically with the source and detector, to the point that AI should not be considered a via interrogation option in these scenarios. More specifically, when SNM is shielded by hydrogenous material large AI source strengths are required if detection is based on neutrons, which is not surprising. However, if the SNM is shielded by high-Z material the required AI source strengths are not significantly different if detection is based on neutrons or photons, which is somewhat surprising. Furthermore, some of the required AI source strengths that were calculated are very large. These results coupled with the realities of two ships moving independently at sea and other assumptions made during this analysis make the use of standoff AI in the maritime environment impractical

  20. Detection and identification of unexploded ordnance (UXO) by neutron interrogation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reviews the principle of operation and unexploded ordnance (UXO) signatures of the PINS Chemical Assay System, a prompt-gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) for the identification of recovered UXO. Two related low cost methods for buried landmine detection are also suggested. Nuclear methods may compliment existing search techniques to improve the overall probability of detection and to reduce the false positive rate of other technologies. In addition, nuclear methods are a proven method for identification of UXO such as landmines

  1. ZnO-coated SMS structure interrogated by a fiber ring laser for chemical sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, X. Y.; Huang, J.; Xiao, H.; Yang, M. H.

    2014-11-01

    A zinc oxide (ZnO)-coated single mode-multimode-single mode fiber (SMS) structure interrogated by a fiber ring laser has been developed as a chemical sensor. Response to relative humidity (RH) and ethanol volatilization was evaluated by tracking the wavelength shifts of the output laser line in different moisture environments and ethanol solutions, respectively. For humidity sensing a linear response with a measurement range of 4-96% RH, and a sensitivity of 0.06 nm per %RH were obtained. As for ethanol volatilization sensing obvious wavelength blue shift was observed for the sensor immersed in 50% and 62% ethanol solution, while no variation could be detected in pure ethanol solution (purity larger than 97%). With the advantages of low cost, ease of fabrication and sensitive response, ZnO-coated SMS interrogated with a fiber ring laser was demonstrated to be an effective sensor for humidity and ethanol volatilization sensing.

  2. ZnO-coated SMS structure interrogated by a fiber ring laser for chemical sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A zinc oxide (ZnO)-coated single mode–multimode–single mode fiber (SMS) structure interrogated by a fiber ring laser has been developed as a chemical sensor. Response to relative humidity (RH) and ethanol volatilization was evaluated by tracking the wavelength shifts of the output laser line in different moisture environments and ethanol solutions, respectively. For humidity sensing a linear response with a measurement range of 4–96% RH, and a sensitivity of 0.06 nm per %RH were obtained. As for ethanol volatilization sensing obvious wavelength blue shift was observed for the sensor immersed in 50% and 62% ethanol solution, while no variation could be detected in pure ethanol solution (purity larger than 97%). With the advantages of low cost, ease of fabrication and sensitive response, ZnO-coated SMS interrogated with a fiber ring laser was demonstrated to be an effective sensor for humidity and ethanol volatilization sensing. (paper)

  3. Enhanced-locality fiber-optic two-photon-fluorescence live-brain interrogation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two-photon excitation is shown to substantially enhance the locality of fiber-based optical interrogation of strongly scattering biotissues. In our experiments, a high-numerical-aperture, large-core-are fiber probe is used to deliver the 200-fs output of a 100-MHz mode-locked ytterbium fiber laser to samples of live mouse brain, induce two-photon fluorescence of nitrogen–vacancy centers in diamond markers in brain sample. Fiber probes with a high numerical aperture and a large core area are shown to enable locality enhancement in fiber-laser–fiber-probe two-photon brain excitation and interrogation without sacrificing the efficiency of fluorescence response collection

  4. PRESTO-Tango as an open-source resource for interrogation of the druggable human GPCRome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeze, Wesley K; Sassano, Maria F; Huang, Xi-Ping; Lansu, Katherine; McCorvy, John D; Giguère, Patrick M; Sciaky, Noah; Roth, Bryan L

    2015-05-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are essential mediators of cellular signaling and are important targets of drug action. Of the approximately 350 nonolfactory human GPCRs, more than 100 are still considered to be 'orphans' because their endogenous ligands remain unknown. Here, we describe a unique open-source resource that allows interrogation of the druggable human GPCRome via a G protein-independent β-arrestin-recruitment assay. We validate this unique platform at more than 120 nonorphan human GPCR targets, demonstrate its utility for discovering new ligands for orphan human GPCRs and describe a method (parallel receptorome expression and screening via transcriptional output, with transcriptional activation following arrestin translocation (PRESTO-Tango)) for the simultaneous and parallel interrogation of the entire human nonolfactory GPCRome. PMID:25895059

  5. Causal Interrogation of Neuronal Networks and Behavior through Virally Transduced Ivermectin Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obenhaus, Horst A.; Rozov, Andrei; Bertocchi, Ilaria; Tang, Wannan; Kirsch, Joachim; Betz, Heinrich; Sprengel, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    The causal interrogation of neuronal networks involved in specific behaviors requires the spatially and temporally controlled modulation of neuronal activity. For long-term manipulation of neuronal activity, chemogenetic tools provide a reasonable alternative to short-term optogenetic approaches. Here we show that virus mediated gene transfer of the ivermectin (IVM) activated glycine receptor mutant GlyRα1AG can be used for the selective and reversible silencing of specific neuronal networks in mice. In the striatum, dorsal hippocampus, and olfactory bulb, GlyRα1AG promoted IVM dependent effects in representative behavioral assays. Moreover, GlyRα1AG mediated silencing had a strong and reversible impact on neuronal ensemble activity and c-Fos activation in the olfactory bulb. Together our results demonstrate that long-term, reversible and re-inducible neuronal silencing via GlyRα1AG is a promising tool for the interrogation of network mechanisms underlying the control of behavior and memory formation.

  6. 49 CFR 230.103 - Tender roller bearing journal boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender roller bearing journal boxes. 230.103... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.103 Tender roller bearing journal boxes. Tender roller bearing journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition....

  7. 49 CFR 230.102 - Tender plain bearing journal boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender plain bearing journal boxes. 230.102... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.102 Tender plain bearing journal boxes. Plain bearing journal boxes... expected to damage the bearing; or have a detrimental effect on the lubrication of the journal and...

  8. Application of Defense Technology Commonly Used in Boxing Match

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhixiao Li[1; Jianjun Liu[2

    2015-01-01

    Boxing defense technology is a kind of techniques to prevent the opponent from attacking successfully. Boxing is a kind of sports that needs close cooperation between attack and defense. Attack is used for defense, where there is no attack, there will be no defense, and vice versa. Defense technology is the foundation of attack technology, therefore, defense is of vital importance in boxing match.

  9. Remote sampling and analysis of highly radioactive samples in shielded boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sampling procedure used for highly radioactive coolant water is associated with high risk of personnel irradiation and uncontrolled radioactive contamination. Remote sample manipulation with provision for proper radiation shielding is intended for safety enhancement of the sampling procedure. The sampling lines are located in an isolated compartment, a shielded box. Various equipment which enables remote or automatic sample manipulation is used for this purpose. The main issues of development of the shielded box equipment intended for a wider ranger of remote chemical analyses and manipulation techniques for highly radioactive water samples are considered in the paper. There were three principal directions of work: Transfer of chemical analysis performed in the laboratory inside the shielded box; Prevalence of computer-aided and remote techniques of highly radioactive sample manipulation inside the shielded box; and, Increase in control over sampling and determination of thermal-hydraulic parameters of the coolant water in the sampling lines. The developed equipment and solutions enable remote chemical analysis in the restricted volume of the shielded box by using ion-chromatographic, amperometrical, fluorimetric, flow injection, phototurbidimetric, conductometric and potentiometric methods. Extent of control performed in the shielded box is determined taking into account the requirements of the regulatory documents as well as feasibility and cost of the technical adaptation of various methods to the shielded box conditions. The work resulted in highly precise determination of more than 15 indexes of the coolant water quality performed in on-line mode in the shielded box. It averages to 80% of the total extent of control performed at the prototype reactor plants. The novel solutions for highly radioactive sample handling are implemented in the shielded box (for example, packaging, sample transportation to the laboratory, volume measurement). The shielded box is

  10. The Interrogative Model of inquiry as a logic of scientific reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    Mutanen, Arto

    2011-01-01

    Questioning has been understood as a general method for knowledge seeking in philosophy for thousands of years. The first systematic questioning approach in the (written) history of philosophy is the Socratic Method of Questioning (elenchus). The strategy of questioning is the central part of the Socratic Method of Questioning. Hintikka has developed a logico-philosophical model called the Interrogative Model of Inquiry, in which he systematizes the questioning method. The notion of strategy ...

  11. NeuroArray: A Universal Interface for Patterning and Interrogating Neural Circuitry with Single Cell Resolution

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Wei; Xu, Zhen; Huang, Junzhe; Lin, Xudong; Luo, Rongcong; Chen, Chia-Hung; Shi, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Recreation of neural network in vitro with designed topology is a valuable tool to decipher how neurons behave when interacting in hierarchical networks. In this study, we developed a simple and effective platform to pattern primary neurons in array formats for interrogation of neural circuitry with single cell resolution. Unlike many surface-chemistry-based patterning methods, our NeuroArray technique is specially designed to accommodate neuron's polarized morphologies to make regular arrays...

  12. Cellular Interrogation: Exploiting Cell-to-Cell Variability to Discriminate Regulatory Mechanisms in Oscillatory Signalling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Daniel; Chang, Frederick; Gnad, Florian; Gunawardena, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    The molecular complexity within a cell may be seen as an evolutionary response to the external complexity of the cell’s environment. This suggests that the external environment may be harnessed to interrogate the cell’s internal molecular architecture. Cells, however, are not only nonlinear and non-stationary, but also exhibit heterogeneous responses within a clonal, isogenic population. In effect, each cell undertakes its own experiment. Here, we develop a method of cellular interrogation using programmable microfluidic devices which exploits the additional information present in cell-to-cell variation, without requiring model parameters to be fitted to data. We focussed on Ca2+ signalling in response to hormone stimulation, which exhibits oscillatory spiking in many cell types and chose eight models of Ca2+ signalling networks which exhibit similar behaviour in simulation. We developed a nonlinear frequency analysis for non-stationary responses, which could classify models into groups under parameter variation, but found that this question alone was unable to distinguish critical feedback loops. We further developed a nonlinear amplitude analysis and found that the combination of both questions ruled out six of the models as inconsistent with the experimentally-observed dynamics and heterogeneity. The two models that survived the double interrogation were mathematically different but schematically identical and yielded the same unexpected predictions that we confirmed experimentally. Further analysis showed that subtle mathematical details can markedly influence non-stationary responses under parameter variation, emphasising the difficulty of finding a “correct” model. By developing questions for the pathway being studied, and designing more versatile microfluidics, cellular interrogation holds promise as a systematic strategy that can complement direct intervention by genetics or pharmacology. PMID:27367445

  13. Evolutionary Interrogation of Human Biology in Well-Annotated Genomic Framework of Rhesus Macaque

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Shi-Jian; Liu, Chu-Jun; Yu, Peng; Zhong, Xiaoming; Chen, Jia-Yu; Yang, Xinzhuang; Peng, Jiguang; Yan, Shouyu; Wang, Chenqu; Zhu, Xiaotong; Xiong, Jingwei; Zhang, Yong E.; Tan, Bertrand Chin-Ming; Li, Chuan-Yun

    2014-01-01

    With genome sequence and composition highly analogous to human, rhesus macaque represents a unique reference for evolutionary studies of human biology. Here, we developed a comprehensive genomic framework of rhesus macaque, the RhesusBase2, for evolutionary interrogation of human genes and the associated regulations. A total of 1,667 next-generation sequencing (NGS) data sets were processed, integrated, and evaluated, generating 51.2 million new functional annotation records. With extensive N...

  14. Interrogating public sphere and popular culture as theoretical concepts on their value in African studies

    OpenAIRE

    Willems, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Concepts such as civil society and public sphere have been frequently used both as analytical tools and as normative concepts deemed essential to a wellfunctioning liberal democracy. Because of its theoretical roots in Western liberal thinking, scholars in African studies such as Comaroffs, Mamdani and Ekeh have vigorously debated the extent to which the concept of civil society is useful in explaining and interrogating developments in Africa. However, the concept of the public sphere has ...

  15. The US Policy on Women, Peace and Security: Interrogation of the Politics of Protection

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The thesis interrogates the US policy on Women, Peace and Security. This policy is based on the UN Security Council Resolution 1325 and the subsequent resolutions that address the situation of women in conflict and post-conflict settings. The main research question is as follows: How does the US policy involve the politics of protection? The research is informed by feminist studies of international relations in general, and by the contributions of Wendy Brown (1995) and Iris Marion Young ...

  16. Assessing the Feasibility of Interrogating Nuclear Waste Storage Silos using Cosmic-ray Muons

    OpenAIRE

    Ambrosino, F.; Bonechi, L.; Cimmino, L.; D'Alessandro, R.(INFN Sezione di Firenze, Firenze, Italy); Ireland, D. G.; Kaiser, R.; Mahon, D. F.; Mori, N; Noli, P.; Saracino, G.; Shearer, C.; Viliani, L.; G. Yang

    2014-01-01

    Muon radiography is a fast growing field in applied scientific research. In recent years, many detector technologies and imaging techniques using the Coulomb scattering and absorption properties of cosmic-ray muons have been developed for the non-destructive assay of various structures across a wide range of applications. This work presents the first results that assess the feasibility of using muons to interrogate waste silos within the UK Nuclear Industry. Two such approaches, using differe...

  17. Enhanced sensitivity of surface plasmon resonance phase-interrogation biosensor by using oblique deposited silver nanorods

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Hung-Yi; Chen, Chih-Chia; Wu, Pin Chieh; Tseng, Ming Lun; Lin, Wen-Chi; Chen, Chih-Wei; Chiang, Hai-Pang

    2014-01-01

    Sensitivity of surface plasmon resonance phase-interrogation biosensor is demonstrated to be enhanced by oblique deposited silver nanorods. Silver nanorods are thermally deposited on silver nanothin film by oblique angle deposition (OAD). The length of the nanorods can be tuned by controlling the deposition parameters of thermal deposition. By measuring the phase difference between the p and s waves of surface plasmon resonance heterodyne interferometer with different wavelength of incident l...

  18. Gear-box fault detection using time-frequency based methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odgaard, Peter F.; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2015-12-31

    Gear-box fault monitoring and detection is important for optimization of power generation and availability of wind turbines. The current industrial approach is to use condition monitoring systems, which runs in parallel with the wind turbine control system, using expensive additional sensors. An alternative would be to use the existing measurements which are normally available for the wind turbine control system. The usage of these sensors instead would cut down the cost of the wind turbine by not using additional sensors. One of these available measurements is the generator speed, in which changes in the gear-box resonance frequency can be detected. Two different time-frequency based approaches are presented in this paper. One is a filter based approach and the other is based on a Karhunen-Loeve basis. Both of them detects the gear-box fault with an acceptable detection delay.

  19. Facilitating biomedical researchers' interrogation of electronic health record data: Ideas from outside of biomedical informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruby, Gregory W; Matsoukas, Konstantina; Cimino, James J; Weng, Chunhua

    2016-04-01

    Electronic health records (EHR) are a vital data resource for research uses, including cohort identification, phenotyping, pharmacovigilance, and public health surveillance. To realize the promise of EHR data for accelerating clinical research, it is imperative to enable efficient and autonomous EHR data interrogation by end users such as biomedical researchers. This paper surveys state-of-art approaches and key methodological considerations to this purpose. We adapted a previously published conceptual framework for interactive information retrieval, which defines three entities: user, channel, and source, by elaborating on channels for query formulation in the context of facilitating end users to interrogate EHR data. We show the current progress in biomedical informatics mainly lies in support for query execution and information modeling, primarily due to emphases on infrastructure development for data integration and data access via self-service query tools, but has neglected user support needed during iteratively query formulation processes, which can be costly and error-prone. In contrast, the information science literature has offered elaborate theories and methods for user modeling and query formulation support. The two bodies of literature are complementary, implying opportunities for cross-disciplinary idea exchange. On this basis, we outline the directions for future informatics research to improve our understanding of user needs and requirements for facilitating autonomous interrogation of EHR data by biomedical researchers. We suggest that cross-disciplinary translational research between biomedical informatics and information science can benefit our research in facilitating efficient data access in life sciences. PMID:26972838

  20. Calibration of Cherenkov detectors for monoenergetic photon imaging in active interrogation applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, P.B., E-mail: prose6@gatech.edu; Erickson, A.S., E-mail: anna.erickson@me.gatech.edu

    2015-11-01

    Active interrogation of cargo containers using monoenergetic photons offers a rapid and low-dose approach to search for shielded special nuclear materials. Cherenkov detectors can be used for imaging of the cargo provided that gamma ray energies used in interrogation are well resolved, as the case in {sup 11}B(d,n-γ){sup 12}C reaction resulting in 4.4 MeV and 15.1 MeV photons. While an array of Cherenkov threshold detectors reduces low energy background from scatter while providing the ability of high contrast transmission imaging, thus confirming the presence of high-Z materials, these detectors require a special approach to energy calibration due to the lack of resolution. In this paper, we discuss the utility of Cherenkov detectors for active interrogation with monoenergetic photons as well as the results of computational and experimental studies of their energy calibration. The results of the studies with sources emitting monoenergetic photons as well as complex gamma ray spectrum sources, for example {sup 232}Th, show that calibration is possible as long as the energies of photons of interest are distinct.

  1. Fatal exit the automotive black box debate

    CERN Document Server

    Kowalick, Tom

    2005-01-01

    "Fatal Exit: The Automotive Black Box Debate cuts through thirty years of political wrangling and institutional biases to provide an argument for the Motor Vehicle Event Data Recorder (MVEDR). This automotive equivalent of an airplane's flight recorder or black box is intended to solve the mysteries of car crashes and improve the safety of our roads. The reader is taken inside the automotive industry and the government highway safety establishment to foster an understanding of the politics and the positions on all sides of this safety debate. The author takes an unbiased approach, chronologically presenting each argument and uncovering the agendas and mandates of each of the stakeholders." "This publication is essential reading for all consumers who need to have their voices heard on this critical issue, as well as for attorneys, public safety advocates, public policy administrators, engineers, automotive professionals, journalists, and insurance executives."--Jacket.

  2. The gradient flow in a twisted box

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Alberto [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC

    2013-08-15

    We study the perturbative behavior of the gradient flow in a twisted box. We apply this information to define a running coupling using the energy density of the flow field. We study the step-scaling function and the size of cutoff effects in SU(2) pure gauge theory. We conclude that the twisted gradient flow running coupling scheme is a valid strategy for step-scaling purposes due to the relatively mild cutoff effects and high precision.

  3. Adaptive Techniques to find Optimal Planar Boxes

    CERN Document Server

    Barbay, J; Pérez-Lantero, P

    2012-01-01

    Given a set $P$ of $n$ planar points, two axes and a real-valued score function $f()$ on subsets of $P$, the Optimal Planar Box problem consists in finding a box (i.e. axis-aligned rectangle) $H$ maximizing $f(H\\cap P)$. We consider the case where $f()$ is monotone decomposable, i.e. there exists a composition function $g()$ monotone in its two arguments such that $f(A)=g(f(A_1),f(A_2))$ for every subset $A\\subseteq P$ and every partition $\\{A_1,A_2\\}$ of $A$. In this context we propose a solution for the Optimal Planar Box problem which performs in the worst case $O(n^2\\lg n)$ score compositions and coordinate comparisons, and much less on other classes of instances defined by various measures of difficulty. A side result of its own interest is a fully dynamic \\textit{MCS Splay tree} data structure supporting insertions and deletions with the \\emph{dynamic finger} property, improving upon previous results [Cort\\'es et al., J.Alg. 2009].

  4. Changes in position and quality of preferred nest box: effects on nest box use by laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Anja Brinch; Nielsen, Birte L.

    2013-01-01

    Using laying hens, we investigated whether position of a nest box, both within the pen and relative to other nest boxes, influenced the preference for a nest box, and how a sudden and marked change to the preferred box influenced the use of nest boxes by the hens. Groups (n=12) of 15 Isa Warren...... hens were housed in pens, each with five identical nest boxes in different positions: Two single (in a corner or not) and a triplet of nest boxes (one of which in a corner). The use of nest boxes was determined by the number of eggs laid daily in each box. Three experiments, each lasting 10 days, were...... carried out. First, the undisturbed use of each of the nest box types was investigated, and a strong preference (P<0.001) was found for single nest boxes in a corner, with 62% of the nest box eggs laid there. Second, each of the hen groups was moved to another pen allocated at random, and where the...

  5. 基于ARM7 S3C44BOX嵌入式系统GUI设计%GUI design of embedded system based on ARM7 S3C44BOX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈冰峰; 姜卓; 王剑钢

    2004-01-01

    人机界面(GUI)的设计是计算机科学的重要部分,它从系统的一个附属部分已经发展为一门独立的科学,本文所述的GUI设计是应用于嵌入式系统,介绍了硬件平台的搭建(基于ARM7 S3C44BOX),图形平台设计以及虚实屏切换,界面布局,控件设计,窗口刷新等实用技术,具有很强的实用性.

  6. Business plan PME.Box: internationalization to Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Diogo José Gomes Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    The document herein described, provides detailed information of the development of PME.BOX Business Plan regarding the expansion to a detailed overview of the business model and strategies that PME.BOX looks to implement in order to maximize its business reach and in turn generate revenue. PME.BOX (firm) is an IT start up firm based in Madan Par the commercial rights of pme.box (software). Pme.box is a touch management solution intended to help small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in ...

  7. Processing Interrogative Sentence Mood at the Semantic-Syntactic Interface: An Electrophysiological Research in Chinese, German, and Polish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Chung-Shan; Dietrich, Rainer; Sommer, Werner

    2010-01-01

    Background Languages differ in the marking of the sentence mood of a polar interrogative (yes/no question). For instance, the interrogative mood is marked at the beginning of the surface structure in Polish, whereas the marker appears at the end in Chinese. In order to generate the corresponding sentence frame, the syntactic specification of the interrogative mood is early in Polish and late in Chinese. In this respect, German belongs to an interesting intermediate class. The yes/no question is expressed by a shift of the finite verb from its final position in the underlying structure into the utterance initial position, a move affecting, hence, both the sentence's final and the sentence's initial constituents. The present study aimed to investigate whether during generation of the semantic structure of a polar interrogative, i.e., the processing preceding the grammatical formulation, the interrogative mood is encoded according to its position in the syntactic structure at distinctive time points in Chinese, German, and Polish. Methodology/Principal Findings In a two-choice go/nogo experimental design, native speakers of the three languages responded to pictures by pressing buttons and producing utterances in their native language while their brain potentials were recorded. The emergence and latency of lateralized readiness potentials (LRP) in nogo conditions, in which speakers asked a yes/no question, should indicate the time point of processing the interrogative mood. The results revealed that Chinese, German, and Polish native speakers did not differ from each other in the electrophysiological indicator. Conclusions/Significance The findings suggest that the semantic encoding of the interrogative mood is temporally consistent across languages despite its disparate syntactic specification. The consistent encoding may be ascribed to economic processing of interrogative moods at various sentential positions of the syntactic structures in languages or, more

  8. Broadband set-top box using MAP-CA processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, John E.; Lee, Woobin; Basoglu, Chris

    2001-12-01

    Advances in broadband access are expected to exert a profound impact in our everyday life. It will be the key to the digital convergence of communication, computer and consumer equipment. A common thread that facilitates this convergence comprises digital media and Internet. To address this market, Equator Technologies, Inc., is developing the Dolphin broadband set-top box reference platform using its MAP-CA Broadband Signal ProcessorT chip. The Dolphin reference platform is a universal media platform for display and presentation of digital contents on end-user entertainment systems. The objective of the Dolphin reference platform is to provide a complete set-top box system based on the MAP-CA processor. It includes all the necessary hardware and software components for the emerging broadcast and the broadband digital media market based on IP protocols. Such reference design requires a broadband Internet access and high-performance digital signal processing. By using the MAP-CA processor, the Dolphin reference platform is completely programmable, allowing various codecs to be implemented in software, such as MPEG-2, MPEG-4, H.263 and proprietary codecs. The software implementation also enables field upgrades to keep pace with evolving technology and industry demands.

  9. New Insights for Improving the Designs of Flexible Duct Junction Boxes (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-01-01

    IBACOS explored the relationships between pressure and physical configurations of flexible duct junction boxes by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations to predict individual box parameters and total system pressure, thereby ensuring improved HVAC performance. Current Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA) guidance (Group 11, Appendix 3, ACCA Manual D, Rutkowski 2009) allows for unconstrained variation in the number of takeoffs, box sizes, and takeoff locations. The only variables currently used in selecting an equivalent length (EL) are velocity of air in the duct and friction rate, given the first takeoff is located at least twice its diameter away from the inlet. This condition does not account for other factors impacting pressure loss across these types of fittings. For each simulation, the IBACOS team converted pressure loss within a box to an EL to compare variation in ACCA Manual D guidance to the simulated variation. IBACOS chose cases to represent flows reasonably correlating to flows typically encountered in the field and analyzed differences in total pressure due to increases in number and location of takeoffs, box dimensions, and velocity of air, and whether an entrance fitting is included. The team also calculated additional balancing losses for all cases due to discrepancies between intended outlet flows and natural flow splits created by the fitting. In certain asymmetrical cases, the balancing losses were significantly higher than symmetrical cases where the natural splits were close to the targets. Thus, IBACOS has shown additional design constraints that can ensure better system performance.

  10. Trial Run of a Junction-Box Attachment Test for Use in Photovoltaic Module Qualification (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D.; Deibert, S.; Wohlgemuth, J.

    2014-06-01

    Engineering robust adhesion of the junction-box (j-box) is a hurdle typically encountered by photovoltaic (PV) module manufacturers during product development and manufacturing process control. There are historical incidences of adverse effects (e.g., fires), caused when the j-box/adhesive/module system has failed in the field. The addition of a weight to the j-box during the 'damp-heat', 'thermal-cycle', or 'creep' tests within the IEC qualification protocol is proposed to verify the basic robustness of the adhesion system. The details of the proposed test are described, in addition to a trial run of the test procedure. The described experiments examine 4 moisture-cured silicones, 4 foam tapes, and a hot-melt adhesive used in conjunction with glass, KPE, THV, and TPE substrates. For the purpose of validating the experiment, j-boxes were adhered to a substrate, loaded with a prescribed weight, and then subjected to aging. The replicate mock-modules were aged in an environmental chamber (at 85 deg C/85% relative humidity for 1000 hours; then 100 degrees C/<10% relative humidity for 200 hours) or fielded in Golden, Miami, and Phoenix for 1 year. Attachment strength tests, including pluck and shear test geometries, were also performed on smaller component specimens.

  11. Refurbishment of primary coolant pump stuffing boxes for RAPS-1,2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary coolant pumps (PCPs) are the most critical equipment in PHWR and stuffing box is one of the critical parts of the PCP. The stuffing box houses the mechanical seals, radial bearings, throttle bushings and stationary part of wearing ring. During overhauling of PCPs it was observed that the cracks are developing on the inside face of the stuffing box and at the bolt holes where the lower bearing housing is fixed. Since consequence of failure of stuffing box will be a break in primary system boundary a detailed investigation was carried out to find out cause of failure. An immediate procurement of these from OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturer) was not feasible and indigenous procurement of such a large and precision-machined PCP component would have called for extensive development work. Under the circumstances, the only immediate option left was to repair and re-use these failed stuffing boxes. However, repair of these stuffing boxes was considered to be very difficult job as weld repair could cause distortion and any other option was not found suitable. Since the industry was not geared up to produce such components, a decision to carry out a heavy weld build up after removing the cracks up to root, was taken after considering various other options. Major weld repair and subsequent machining was carried out successfully on four stuffing boxes and subsequently these have been put in to service. The paper covers the investigations done, various options considered, how the weld repairs were carried out and the salient features of the indigenous development taken up. (author)

  12. Ensemble Of Blowfish With Chaos Based S Box Design For Text And Image Encryption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeyamala Chandrasekaran

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The rapid and extensive usage of Internet in the present decade has put forth information security as an utmost concern. Most of the commercial transactions taking place over the Internet involves a wide variety of data including text, images, audio and video. With the increasing use of digital techniques for transmitting and storing Multimedia data, the fundamental issue of protecting the confidentiality, integrity and authenticity of the information poses a major challenge for security professionals and hassled to the major developments in Cryptography . In cryptography, an S-Box (Substitution-box is a basic componentof symmetric key algorithms, which performs substitution and is typically used to make the relationship between the key and the cipher text non linear and most of the symmetric key algorithms like DES, Blowfish makes use of S boxes. This paper proposes a new method for design of S boxes based on chaos theory. Chaotic equations are popularly known for its randomness, extreme sensitivity to initial conditions and ergodicity. The modified design has been tested with blowfish algorithm which has no effective crypt analysis reported against its design till date because of its salient design features including the key dependant s boxes and complex key generation process. However every new key requires pre-processing equivalent to encrypting about 4 kilobytes of text, which is very slow compared to other block ciphers and it prevents its usage in memory limited applications and embedded systems. The modified design of S boxesmaintains the non linearity [3] [5] and key dependency factors of S boxes with a major reduction in time complexity of generation of S boxes and P arrays. The algorithm has been implemented and the proposed design has been analyzed for size of key space, key sensitivity and Avalanche effect. Experimental results on text and Image Encryption show that the modified design of key generation continues to offer the same

  13. Interrogating Diaspora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pærregaard, Karsten

    2010-01-01

    Kapitlet diskuterer generelt de analytiske muligheder og begrænsninger for brugen af diasporabegrebet og undersøger, hvordan det kan anvendes på et studie af peruansk migration med særlig henblik på migrationens politiske, solidariske og klassemæssige aspekter....

  14. Proposal to recirculate glove box and fabrication area air in a plutonium fuel fabrication plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recirculating glove box and fabrication area ventilation systems are proposed for a 40 Te/yr mixed plutonium--uranium oxide fuel fabrication plant. The ventilation design criteria are outlined, features of the fabricating plant relating to the ventilation system are shown and the recirculating systems are described. A method of operating and recirculating systems during unusual situations, energy conservation and system advantages are discussed. (U.S.)

  15. 49 CFR 178.512 - Standards for steel or aluminum boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for steel or aluminum boxes. 178.512... aluminum boxes. (a) The following are identification codes for steel or aluminum boxes: (1) 4A for a steel box; and (2) 4B for an aluminum box. (b) Construction requirements for steel or aluminum boxes are...

  16. No Quantum Realization of Extremal No-Signaling Boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Ravishankar; Tuziemski, Jan; Horodecki, Michał; Horodecki, Paweł

    2016-07-01

    The study of quantum correlations is important for fundamental reasons as well as for quantum communication and information processing tasks. On the one hand, it is of tremendous interest to derive the correlations produced by measurements on separated composite quantum systems from within the set of all correlations obeying the no-signaling principle of relativity, by means of information-theoretic principles. On the other hand, an important ongoing research program concerns the formulation of device-independent cryptographic protocols based on quantum nonlocal correlations for the generation of secure keys, and the amplification and expansion of random bits against general no-signaling adversaries. In both these research programs, a fundamental question arises: Can any measurements on quantum states realize the correlations present in pure extremal no-signaling boxes? Here, we answer this question in full generality showing that no nontrivial (not local realistic) extremal boxes of general no-signaling theories can be realized in quantum theory. We then explore some important consequences of this fact.

  17. Box codes of lengths 48 and 72

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, G.; Jin, Y.

    1993-11-01

    A self-dual code length 48, dimension 24, with Hamming distance essentially equal to 12 is constructed here. There are only six code words of weight eight. All the other code words have weights that are multiples of four and have a minimum weight equal to 12. This code may be encoded systematically and arises from a strict binary representation of the (8,4;5) Reed-Solomon (RS) code over GF (64). The code may be considered as six interrelated (8,7;2) codes. The Mattson-Solomon representation of the cyclic decomposition of these codes and their parity sums are used to detect an odd number of errors in any of the six codes. These may then be used in a correction algorithm for hard or soft decision decoding. A (72,36;15) box code was constructed from a (63,35;8) cyclic code. The theoretical justification is presented herein. A second (72,36;15) code is constructed from an inner (63,27;16) Bose Chaudhuri Hocquenghem (BCH) code and expanded to length 72 using box code algorithms for extension. This code was simulated and verified to have a minimum distance of 15 with even weight words congruent to zero modulo four. The decoding for hard and soft decision is still more complex than the first code constructed above. Finally, an (8,4;5) RS code over GF (512) in the binary representation of the (72,36;15) box code gives rise to a (72,36;16*) code with nine words of weight eight, and all the rest have weights greater than or equal to 16.

  18. Application of Box-Wilson experimental design method for 2,4-dinitrotoluene treatment in a sequential anaerobic migrating blanket reactor (AMBR)/aerobic completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sequential aerobic completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) following the anaerobic migrating blanket reactor (AMBR) was used to treat a synthetic wastewater containing 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT). A Box-Wilson statistical experiment design was used to determine the effects of 2,4-DNT and the hydraulic retention times (HRTs) on 2,4-DNT and COD removal efficiencies in the AMBR reactor. The 2,4-DNT concentrations in the feed (0-280 mg/L) and the HRT (0.5-10 days) were considered as the independent variables while the 2,4-DNT and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies, total and methane gas productions, methane gas percentage, pH, total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) and total volatile fatty acid/bicarbonate alkalinity (TVFA/Bic.Alk.) ratio were considered as the objective functions in the Box-Wilson statistical experiment design in the AMBR. The predicted data for the parameters given above were determined from the response functions by regression analysis of the experimental data and exhibited excellent agreement with the experimental results. The optimum HRT which gave the maximum COD (97.00%) and 2,4-DNT removal (99.90%) efficiencies was between 5 and 10 days at influent 2,4-DNT concentrations 1-280 mg/L in the AMBR. The aerobic CSTR was used for removals of residual COD remaining from the AMBR, and for metabolites of 2,4-DNT. The maximum COD removal efficiency was 99% at an HRT of 1.89 days at a 2,4-DNT concentration of 239 mg/L in the aerobic CSTR. It was found that 280 mg/L 2,4-DNT transformed to 2,4-diaminotoluene (2,4-DAT) via 2-amino-4-nitrotoluene (2-A-4-NT) and 4-amino-2-nitrotoluene (4-A-2-NT) in the AMBR. The maximum 2,4-DAT removal was 82% at an HRT of 8.61 days in the aerobic CSTR. The maximum total COD and 2,4-DNT removal efficiencies were 99.00% and 99.99%, respectively, at an influent 2,4-DNT concentration of 239 mg/L and at 1.89 days of HRT in the sequential AMBR/CSTR.

  19. A box model to estimate collective dose from reprocessing effluent into the Pacific Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An adoptable box model system (UMIBOX) has been developed to estimate collective dose from liquid effluent of reprocessing plant at coastal area of the Pacific Ocean. To evaluate the situation of the adjacent seas of Japan, reasonable definition of boxes in the Pacific Ocean is inevitable. Referring to the basis of recent oceanographic knowledge on the circulation of the Pacific water, the boxes have been defined by density structure. The volume, density, salinity, temperature and dissolved oxygen in each box are calculated using all data of the Climatologcal Atlas of the World Ocean by S. Levitus within the 5deg Square for longitudinal and latitudinal directions. Corresponding to the definition of boxes, production data of the marine organisms has been compiled. Preliminary results using the model for the population of Japan and the world are presented. The collective intakes and the collective effective dose equivalent commitments per unit release of various radionuclides into coastal waters are given for a series of integration times. (author)

  20. F-box proteins: Keeping the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in check.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Víctor M; de Herreros, Antonio García

    2016-02-01

    F-box proteins are the key recognition subunit of multimeric E3 ubiquitin ligase complexes that participate in the proteasome degradation of specific substrates. In the last years, a discrete number of F-box proteins have been shown to regulate the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process defined by a rapid change of cell phenotype, the loss of epithelial characteristics and the acquisition of a more invasive phenotype. Specific EMT transcription factors (EMT-TFs), such as Snail, Slug, Twist and Zeb, control EMT induction both during development and in cancer. These EMT-TFs are short-lived proteins that are targeted to the proteasome system by specific F-box proteins, keeping them at low levels. F-box proteins also indirectly regulate the EMT process by controlling EMT inducers, such as Notch, c-Myc or mTOR. Here we summarize the role that these F-box proteins (Fbxw1, Fbxw7, Fbxl14, Fbxl5, Fbxo11 and Fbxo45) play in controlling EMT during development and cancer progression, a process dependent on post-translational modifications that govern their interaction with target proteins. PMID:26506454

  1. 基于SIWAREX FTA称重技术的烟箱缺条检测及剔除系统设计%Design of Carton Box Absent Packets Detecting and Sorting out System Based on the Weighing Technology of SIWAREX FTA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华军

    2012-01-01

    为防止因卷烟包装过程中装封箱机烟箱缺条质量事故给烟草企业造成不良影响,通过分析烟箱缺条的原因,比较现有的烟箱缺条检测方法,设计了一种基于物联网平台的分牌号的集成化称重式烟箱缺条检测及剔除系统.采用条形码技术、西门子S7 300 PLC和SIWAREX FTA称重模块等技术,改进了传统称重式系统的漏检、误检等缺陷,烟箱缺条检出率提高至98%,误检率则降低至5‰以内.该系统可有效减少烟箱缺条事故发生,并对产品质量实现了追踪、追溯,也为烟箱缺条质量事故认定提供了真实、准确的证据.%To solve the problem of quality accident of shortage of carton box at filling and sealing machines in cigarette making and packing workshop,trace the process and product quality,a carton box absent packets detecting and sorting out system with weighing technology of SIWAREX FTA is designed in the paper. After analyzing the reason and compare the solution,Barcode,Siemens S7 300 PLC,SIWAREX FTA and weighing modules are used in the system to build an integrated weighing system which implements the quick measure on line to improve the traditional weigh solution with the disadvantage of leak and mistake detecting. This system can effectively reduce the accident of shortage of carton box and offer the true evidence for the cogni-zance of the accident. The quality of the product can also be tracked and traced.

  2. LINCS Canvas Browser: interactive web app to query, browse and interrogate LINCS L1000 gene expression signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Qiaonan; Flynn, Corey; Niepel, Mario; Hafner, Marc; Muhlich, Jeremy L; Fernandez, Nicolas F; Rouillard, Andrew D; Tan, Christopher M; Chen, Edward Y; Golub, Todd R; Sorger, Peter K; Subramanian, Aravind; Ma'ayan, Avi

    2014-07-01

    For the Library of Integrated Network-based Cellular Signatures (LINCS) project many gene expression signatures using the L1000 technology have been produced. The L1000 technology is a cost-effective method to profile gene expression in large scale. LINCS Canvas Browser (LCB) is an interactive HTML5 web-based software application that facilitates querying, browsing and interrogating many of the currently available LINCS L1000 data. LCB implements two compacted layered canvases, one to visualize clustered L1000 expression data, and the other to display enrichment analysis results using 30 different gene set libraries. Clicking on an experimental condition highlights gene-sets enriched for the differentially expressed genes from the selected experiment. A search interface allows users to input gene lists and query them against over 100 000 conditions to find the top matching experiments. The tool integrates many resources for an unprecedented potential for new discoveries in systems biology and systems pharmacology. The LCB application is available at http://www.maayanlab.net/LINCS/LCB. Customized versions will be made part of the http://lincscloud.org and http://lincs.hms.harvard.edu websites. PMID:24906883

  3. Keller-box method and its application

    CERN Document Server

    Prasad, Kerehalli V

    2014-01-01

    Most of the problems arising in science and engineering are nonlinear. They are inherently difficult to solve. Traditional analytical approximations are valid only for weakly nonlinear problems, and often break down for problems with strong nonlinearity. This book presents the current theoretical developments and applications of Keller-Box method to nonlinear problems. The first half of the bookaddresses basic concepts to understand the theoretical framework for the method. In the second half of the book, the authorsgive a number of examples of coupled nonlinear problems that have been solved

  4. Mirror box therapy: seeing is believing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Kelly; Chin, May; Kogan, Mikhail

    2011-01-01

    Working with patients with different chronic pain syndromes can be challenging. Pharmacological therapies are often associated with variety of side effects. Mind-body modalities are thought to play a role; however, the lack of clear consensus and large body of clinical experience makes it hard to provide good evidence-based recommendation to most of our chronic pain patients. In recent years the Phantom Limb Pain (PLP) and to some degree Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) may prove to be an exception. In this review we summarize the current evidence supporting use of Mirror Box Therapy and its successor, Immersive Virtual Reality. PMID:22051561

  5. The Transformation of the "Black Box"

    OpenAIRE

    JIMENEZ DOMENECH, LUCIA

    2012-01-01

    The idea of this project is to convert an old office building downtown into an energy-neutral high-rise village. The assignment contained the office building located in the city centre of Groningen at Eendrachtskade 2, commonly called the "Black Box". It was built in 1976, and the actual technical condition is poor with inadequate insulation. When the building remains empty in 2014, the most obvious next thing to happen is the demolition. But, due to climate impact, the objective is to reuse ...

  6. Box model for channels of human migration

    CERN Document Server

    Vitanov, Nikolay K

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a mathematical model of migration channel based on the truncated Waring distribution. The truncated Waring distribution is obtained for a more general model of motion of substance through a channel containing finite number of boxes. The model is applied then for case of migrants moving through a channel consisting of finite number of countries or cities. The number of migrants in the channel strongly depends on the number of migrants that enter the channel through the country of entrance. It is shown that if the final destination country is very popular then large percentage of migrants may concentrate there.

  7. Smart Distribution Boxes, Complete Energy Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platise, Uros

    2010-09-15

    Present households demand side management implementations are turning conventional appliances into smart ones to support auto demand (AutoDR) response function. Present concept features a direct link between the power meters and appliances. In this paper new concept and example of implementation of a so-called Smart Distribution Box (SmartDB) is represented for complete energy and power management. SmartDBs, as an intermediate layer, are extending smart grid power meter functionality to support AutoDR with fast and guaranteed response times, distributed power sources, and besides provide full control over energy management and extra safety functions to the consumers.

  8. LHC Crab Cavity Coupler Test Boxes

    CERN Document Server

    Mitchell, James; Burt, Graeme; Calaga, Rama; Macpherson, Alick; Montesinos, Eric; Silva, Subashini; Tutte, Adam; Xiao, Binping

    2016-01-01

    The LHC double quarter wave (DQW) crab cavities have two different types of Higher Order Mode (HOM) couplers in addition to a fundamental power coupler (FPC). The FPC requires conditioning, so to achieve this we have designed a radio-frequency (RF) quarter wave resonator to provide high transmission between two opposing FPCs. For the HOM couplers we must ensure that the stop-band filter is positioned at the cavity frequency and that peak transmission occurs at the same frequencies as the strongest HOMs. We have designed two test boxes which preserve the cavity spectral response in order to test the couplers.

  9. Slepton pair production in the POWHEG BOX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an implementation for slepton pair production at hadron colliders in the POWHEG BOX, a framework for combining next-to-leading order QCD calculations with parton-shower Monte-Carlo programs. Our code provides a SUSY Les Houches Accord interface for setting the supersymmetric input parameters. Decays of the sleptons and parton-shower effects are simulated with PYTHIA. Our Monte-Carlo program allows the generation of events, and thus of arbitrary distributions with appropriate selection cuts. Kinematic distributions of experimentally observable quantities are shown for a representative point in the supersymmetric parameter space.

  10. Seismic stability of a standalone glove box structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Glove box is a leak tight, safety related structure used for handling radiotoxic materials. • To study the seismic performance of a freestanding glove box, extensive shake table testing has been carried out. • Glove box maintained structural integrity and leak tightness up to design basis earthquake loading. • Detailed three-dimensional finite element model of the structure is developed and analyzed by using direct time integration methods. • Simplified numerical method is proposed and successfully applied, to quickly estimate sliding displacement and determine upper bounds for it. - Abstract: In a nuclear fuel cycle facility, radiotoxic materials are being handled in freestanding leak tight enclosures called glove boxes (GBs). These glove boxes act as a primary confinement for the radiotoxic materials. Glove boxes are designed as per codal requirements for class I component. They are designed to withstand extreme level of earthquake loading with a return period of 10,000 years. To evaluate seismic performance of the glove box, there is a need to check the stability (sliding and overturning), structural integrity (stresses and strains) and leak tightness under earthquake loading. Extensive shake table experiments were conducted on a single standalone glove box. Actual laboratory conditions were simulated during testing to check the response. After extensive shake table testing, glove box structure was also analyzed using finite element (FE) software. Detailed three-dimensional model of glove box structure was developed and analyzed using nonlinear time history method. It was observed that finite element methods could be utilized to accurately predict dynamic response of glove box structure. This paper discusses the details and results of shake table testing and methodology used for modelling and analysing freestanding glove box structure under seismic loading. In addition, simplified numerical procedure, developed using energy conservation

  11. Seismic stability of a standalone glove box structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saraswat, A., E-mail: anupams@barc.gov.in [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Reddy, G.R. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Ghosh, S. [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai (India); Ghosh, A.K.; Kumar, Arun [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Glove box is a leak tight, safety related structure used for handling radiotoxic materials. • To study the seismic performance of a freestanding glove box, extensive shake table testing has been carried out. • Glove box maintained structural integrity and leak tightness up to design basis earthquake loading. • Detailed three-dimensional finite element model of the structure is developed and analyzed by using direct time integration methods. • Simplified numerical method is proposed and successfully applied, to quickly estimate sliding displacement and determine upper bounds for it. - Abstract: In a nuclear fuel cycle facility, radiotoxic materials are being handled in freestanding leak tight enclosures called glove boxes (GBs). These glove boxes act as a primary confinement for the radiotoxic materials. Glove boxes are designed as per codal requirements for class I component. They are designed to withstand extreme level of earthquake loading with a return period of 10,000 years. To evaluate seismic performance of the glove box, there is a need to check the stability (sliding and overturning), structural integrity (stresses and strains) and leak tightness under earthquake loading. Extensive shake table experiments were conducted on a single standalone glove box. Actual laboratory conditions were simulated during testing to check the response. After extensive shake table testing, glove box structure was also analyzed using finite element (FE) software. Detailed three-dimensional model of glove box structure was developed and analyzed using nonlinear time history method. It was observed that finite element methods could be utilized to accurately predict dynamic response of glove box structure. This paper discusses the details and results of shake table testing and methodology used for modelling and analysing freestanding glove box structure under seismic loading. In addition, simplified numerical procedure, developed using energy conservation

  12. Achievable Performance and Effective Interrogator Design for SAW RFID Sensor Tags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    For many NASA missions, remote sensing is a critical application that supports activities such as environmental monitoring, planetary science, structural shape and health monitoring, non-destructive evaluation, etc. The utility of the remote sensing devices themselves is greatly increased if they are passive V that is, they do not require any on-board power supply such as batteries V and if they can be identified uniquely during the sensor interrogation process. Additional passive sensor characteristics that enable greater utilization in space applications are small size and weight, long read ranges with low interrogator power, ruggedness, and operability in extreme environments (vacuum, extreme high/low temperature, high radiation, etc.) In this paper, we consider one very promising passive sensor technology, called surface acoustic wave (SAW) radio-frequency identification (RFID), that satisfies all of these criteria. In general, RFID is a method of identifying items using radio waves to interrogate tags encoded with a unique identifier that are affixed to the items of interest. In the case of passive tags, only the interrogator, which transmits power to the tags in the form of radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation, requires access to a power supply. Passive RFID technologies are used today in many applications, including asset tracking and management, security and access control, and remote sensing. To date, most of the development and application in RFID technology has focused on either asset/inventory tracking and control or security and access control because these are the largest commercial application areas. Recently however, there has been growing interest in using passive RFID technology for remote sensing applications, and SAW devices are at the forefront of RFID sensing technology development. Although SAW RFID tags have great potential for use in numerous space-based remote sensing applications, the limited collision resolution capability of

  13. Experimental Grey Box Model Identification of an Active Gas Bearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theisen, Lukas Roy Svane; Pierart Vásquez, Fabián Gonzalo; Niemann, Hans Henrik;

    2014-01-01

    Gas bearings have inherent dynamics that gives rise to low damping and potential instability at certain rotational speeds. Required damping and stabilization properties can be achieved by active ow control if bearing parameters are known. This paper deals with identifacation of parameters in a...... dynamic model of an active gas bearing and subsequent control loop design. A grey box model is determined based on experiments where piezo actuated valves are used to perturb the journal and hence excite the rotor-bearing system. Such modelling from actuator to output is shown to effciently support...... controller design, in contrast to impact models that focus on resonance dynamics. The identified model is able to accurately reproduce the lateral dynamics of the rotor-bearing system in a desired operating range, in this case around the first two natural frequencies. The identified models are validated and...

  14. A hardware Gaussian noise generator using the Box-Muller method and its error analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, D.; Villasenor, J D; Luk, W; Leong, P. H. W.

    2006-01-01

    We present a hardware Gaussian noise generator based on the Box-Muller method that provides highly accurate noise samples. The noise generator can be used as a key component in a hardware-based simulation system, such as for exploring channel code behavior at very low bit error rates, as low as 10(-12) to 10(-13). The main novelties of this work are accurate analytical error analysis and bit-width optimization for the elementary functions involved in the Box-Muller method. Two 16-bit noise sa...

  15. Enhancing the resolution limits of spectral interferometric measurements with swept-wavelength interrogation by means of a reference interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushakov, Nikolai; Markvart, Alexandr; Liokumovich, Leonid

    2015-07-01

    An approach for compensating the influence of interrogator noises on the readings of interferometric sensors, interrogated by means of spectral interferometry with wavelength tuning, is proposed. Theoretical analysis and a proof-of-principle experiment were performed for the example of extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometers. Two schemes, comprised of a signal and reference interferometers, switched in different optical channels of the interrogating unit, were proposed. The approach is based on the fact that the fluctuations of some of the interrogator parameters produce correlated fluctuations of the reference and signal interferometers' optical path differences' (OPDs) measured values. The fluctuations of the reference interferometer's measured OPD can be subtracted from the measured OPD of the signal interferometer. The fluctuations of different parameters of the interrogator are considered, the correlation properties of the produced noises of the measured OPD values are demonstrated. The first scheme contains two interferometers with similar parameters and enabled a threefold resolution improvement in the performed experiments, when the difference of the interferometers OPDs was varied within about 10 nm. The second scheme contains two interferometers with OPDs difference such that all interrogator fluctuations, except for the dominating one, produce uncorrelated OPD errors. With the second scheme, a twofold resolution improvement was experimentally demonstrated when the interferometers' OPDs difference was varied within more than 1 μm. The proposed approach can be used for improving the resolution of interferometric sensors with relatively large OPDs (greater than 200-300 μm), which can be advantageous for remote materials and surface inspection. The other potential application is the use of relatively simple cheap interrogators with poor wavelength scale repeatability for high-precision measurements. PMID:26193148

  16. Enhanced sensitivity of surface plasmon resonance phase-interrogation biosensor by using oblique deposited silver nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hung-Yi; Chen, Chih-Chia; Wu, Pin Chieh; Tseng, Ming Lun; Lin, Wen-Chi; Chen, Chih-Wei; Chiang, Hai-Pang

    2014-09-01

    Sensitivity of surface plasmon resonance phase-interrogation biosensor is demonstrated to be enhanced by oblique deposited silver nanorods. Silver nanorods are thermally deposited on silver nanothin film by oblique angle deposition (OAD). The length of the nanorods can be tuned by controlling the deposition parameters of thermal deposition. By measuring the phase difference between the p and s waves of surface plasmon resonance heterodyne interferometer with different wavelength of incident light, we have demonstrated that maximum sensitivity of glucose detection down to 7.1 × 10-8 refractive index units could be achieved with optimal deposition parameters of silver nanorods.

  17. DNA interrogation by the CRISPR RNA-guided endonuclease Cas9

    OpenAIRE

    Sternberg, Samuel H.; Redding, Sy; Jinek, Martin; Greene, Eric C.; Doudna, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    The CRISPR-associated enzyme Cas9 is an RNA-guided endonuclease that uses RNA:DNA base-pairing to target foreign DNA in bacteria. Cas9:guide RNA complexes are also effective genome engineering agents in animals and plants. Here we use single-molecule and bulk biochemical experiments to determine how Cas9:RNA interrogates DNA to find specific cleavage sites. We show that both binding and cleavage of DNA by Cas9:RNA require recognition of a short trinucleotide protospacer adjacent motif (PAM). ...

  18. Fissile material measurements using the differential die-away self interrogation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schear, Melissa A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Menlove, Howard O [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tobin, Stephen J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Evans, Louise G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lee, S Y [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Currently, there is substantial research effort focused on quantifying plutonium (Pu) mass in spent fuel using non-destructive assay (NDA) techniques. Of the several techniques being investigated for this purpose, Differential Die-Away Self-Interrogation (DDSI) is a recently proposed, neutron-based NDA technique capable of quantifying the total fissile content in an assembly. Unlike the conventional Differential Die-Away (DDA) technique, DOSI does not require an external neutron source for sample interrogation, but rather, uses the spontaneous fission neutrons originating from {sup 244}Cm within the spent fuel for self-interrogation. The essence of the technique lies in the time separation between the detection of spontaneous fission neutrons from {sup 244}Cm and the detection of induced fission neutrons at a later time. The DDSI detector design imposes this time separation by optimizing the die-away times ({tau}) of the detector and sample interrogation regions to obtain an early and late neutron distribution respectively. The ratio of the count rates in the late gate to the early gate for singles, doubles, and triples is directly proportional to the fissile content present in the sample, which has already been demonstrated for simplified fuel cases using the Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) code. The current work applies the DDSI concept to more complex samples, specifically spent Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) assemblies with varying isotopics resulting from a range of initial enrichment, bumup, and cooling time. We assess the feasibility of using the late gate to early gate ratio as a reliable indicator of overall fissile mass for a range of assemblies by defining a {sup 239}Pu effective mass which indicates the mass of {sup 239}Pu that would yield the same DDSI signal as the combined mass of major fissile isotopes present in the sample. This work is important for assessing the individual capability of the DDSI instrument in quantifying fissile mass in

  19. Improvements to an explosives detection algorithm based on active neutron interrogation using statistical modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earlier efforts have identified an algorithm that uses active neutron interrogation to find explosives hidden in cargo containers. This algorithm uses flags, in the form of specific mathematical manipulations of the exiting neutron and photon radiation at different angles, to classify the cargo type, search for hidden explosives, and minimize certain false positives due to cargo heterogeneities. Statistical modeling software has now been applied to the previously identified flags in an effort to improve the detection algorithm. The new detection models have shown accurate results exceeding 95 % for simplified screening scenarios 80-90 % when more realistic conditions are considered. (author)

  20. Long fiber Bragg grating sensor interrogation using discrete-time microwave photonic filtering techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Ricchiuti, Amelia Lavinia; Barrera Vilar, David; Sales Maicas, Salvador; Thevenaz, Luc; Capmany Francoy, José

    2013-01-01

    A novel technique for interrogating photonic sensors based on long fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) is presented and experimentally demonstrated, dedicated to detect the presence and the precise location of several spot events. The principle of operation is based on a technique used to analyze microwave photonics (MWP) filters. The long FBGs are used as quasi-distributed sensors. Several hot-spots can be detected along the FBG with a spatial accuracy under 0.5 mm using a modulator and a photo-dete...