WorldWideScience

Sample records for box beams

  1. Shear deformable finite beam elements for composite box beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam-Il; Choi, Dong-Ho

    2014-04-01

    The shear deformable thin-walled composite beams with closed cross-sections have been developed for coupled flexural, torsional, and buckling analyses. A theoretical model applicable to the thin-walled laminated composite box beams is presented by taking into account all the structural couplings coming from the material anisotropy and the shear deformation effects. The current composite beam includes the transverse shear and the restrained warping induced shear deformation by using the first-order shear deformation beam theory. Seven governing equations are derived for the coupled axial-flexural-torsional-shearing buckling based on the principle of minimum total potential energy. Based on the present analytical model, three different types of finite composite beam elements, namely, linear, quadratic and cubic elements are developed to analyze the flexural, torsional, and buckling problems. In order to demonstrate the accuracy and superiority of the beam theory and the finite beam elements developed by this study, numerical solutions are presented and compared with the results obtained by other researchers and the detailed three-dimensional analysis results using the shell elements of ABAQUS. Especially, the influences of the modulus ratio and the simplified assumptions in stress-strain relations on the deflection, twisting angle, and critical buckling loads of composite box beams are investigated. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  2. Industrial X-ray tomography using an electron beam welding box

    CERN Document Server

    Hoppe, D; Koch, D; Zippe, C

    2002-01-01

    An existing electron beam welding box should be used with the least additional effort for X-ray tomography. Only a suitable anode, a simple device to turn the investigated object and one detector for X-rays are placed into the vacuum of the welding box. The information necessary to reconstruct tomograms should be derived only from the measurand of the detector.

  3. Field performance of timber bridges. 11, Spearfish Creek stress-laminated box-beam bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. P. Wacker; M. A. Ritter; K. Stanfill-McMillan

    The Spearfish Creek bridge was constructed in 1992 in Spearfish, South Dakota. It is a single-span, stress-laminated, box-beam superstructure. Performance of the bridge is being monitored for 5 years, beginning at installation. This report summarizes results for the first 3-1/2 years of monitoring and includes information on the design, construction, and field...

  4. Practical assessment of magnetic methods for corrosion detection in an adjacent precast, prestressed concrete box-beam bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Bertrand; Titus, Michael; Nims, Douglas Karl; Ghorbanpoor, Al; Devabhaktuni, Vijay Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Magnetic methods are progressing in the detection of corrosion in prestressing strands in adjacent precast, prestressed concrete box-beam bridges. This study is the first field trial of magnetic strand defect detection systems on an adjacent box-beam bridge. A bridge in Fayette County, Ohio, which was scheduled for demolition, was inspected. Damage to prestressed box-beams is often due to corrosion of the prestressing strands. The corroded strands show discontinuities and a reduced cross-sectional area. These changes, due to corrosion, are reflected in the magnetic signatures of the prestressing steel. Corrosion in the prestressing steel was detected using two magnetic methods, namely the 'magnetic flux leakage' (MFL) and the 'induced magnetic field'. The purpose of these tests was to demonstrate the ability of the magnetic methods to detect hidden corrosion in box-beams in the field and tackle the logistic problem of inspecting box-beams from the bottom. The inspections were validated by dissecting the bottom of the box-beams after the inspections. The results showed that the MFL method can detect hidden corrosion and strand breaks. Both magnetic field methods were also able to estimate corrosion by detecting the effective cross-sectional area of the strand in sections of the beams. Thus, it was shown that the magnetic methods can be used to predict hidden corrosion in prestressing strands of box-beams.

  5. Dynamic testing of thin-walled composite box beams in a vacuum chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Ramesh; Chopra, Inderjit

    1989-01-01

    Vibration characteristics of thin-walled composite box beams are measured in a rotating environment in a 10-ft diameter vacuum chamber. Symmetric and antisymmetric layup beams are fabricated out of graphite/epoxy prepreg material using an autoclave molding technique. These are excited using piezoelectric ceramic elements and responses are measured using strain gages and accelerometers. First three natural modes are identified using spectrum analyzer over a range of rotational speeds up to 1000 rpm. Measured frequencies and mode shapes (displacement as well as strain) are correlated satisfactorily with calculated finite element results.

  6. Field performance of timber bridges. 12, Christian Hollow stress-laminated box-beam bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. P. Wacker; S. C. Catherman; R. G. Winnett

    In January 1992, the Christian Hollow bridge was constructed in Steuben County, New York. The bridge is a single-span, stress-laminated box-beam superstructure that is 9.1 m long, 9.8 m wide, and 502 mm deep (30 ft long, 32 ft wide, and 19-3/4 in. deep). The performance of the bridge was continuously monitored for 28 months, beginning shortly after installation....

  7. Vibration Analysis of Steel-Concrete Composite Box Beams considering Shear Lag and Slip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Wangbao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate dynamic characteristics of steel-concrete composite box beams, a longitudinal warping function of beam section considering self-balancing of axial forces is established. On the basis of Hamilton principle, governing differential equations of vibration and displacement boundary conditions are deduced by taking into account coupled influencing of shear lag, interface slip, and shear deformation. The proposed method shows an improvement over previous calculations. The central difference method is applied to solve the differential equations to obtain dynamic responses of composite beams subjected to arbitrarily distributed loads. The results from the proposed method are found to be in good agreement with those from ANSYS through numerical studies. Its validity is thus verified and meaningful conclusions for engineering design can be drawn as follows. There are obvious shear lag effects in the top concrete slab and bottom plate of steel beams under dynamic excitation. This shear lag increases with the increasing degree of shear connections. However, it has little impact on the period and deflection amplitude of vibration of composite box beams. The amplitude of deflection and strains in concrete slab reduce as the degree of shear connections increases. Nevertheless, the influence of shear connections on the period of vibration is not distinct.

  8. Formulation and evaluation of an analytical model for composite box-beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Edward C.; Chopra, Inderjit

    1990-01-01

    A direct method for determining the effective elastic stiffnesses and deformation behavior of composite box-beam (BB) structures is developed analytically, validated, and demonstrated. The BB walls are modeled as orthotropic-ply laminated plates, so that the elastic properties vary both through the thickness and around the BB contour; deformation is described in terms of extension, bending, twisting, shearing, and torsion-related out-of-plane warping. Numerical results for several BB configurations are presented in tables and graphs and compared with experimental data and FEM computations (Stemple and Lee, 1989): good general agreement is obtained for cross-ply, antisymmetric, and symmetric layups, except for symmetric layups with ply orientation angles theta greater than 30 deg. Both out-of-plane warping and transverse shear coupling are found to have significant effects on BB elastic response.

  9. Optimisation of "Shoe-Box Type" Beam Position Monitors Using the Finite Element Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Kowina, P; Schölles, J; Schwickert, M

    2005-01-01

    The sensitivity and linearity of the position determination are the main goals in the optimisation of the Beam Position Monitors (BPMs) for ion synchrotrons. High position sensitivity can be achieved by the reduction of the coupling capacities and the plate-to-plate cross talks. For instance, the insertion of an additional guard ring into the gap between the active plates increases the sensitivity even by about 30% due to reduction of the cross talk. High linearity is typical for the shoe-box type BPM, however, it might be strongly influenced by discontinuities or/and imperfections of the components which are spoiling the fields homogeneity in the BPM volume. This requires a very careful design, especially in the regions close to the edges of the active plates. The BPM response has been investigated in the frequency range from 0-200MHz. It is shown that the transversal transfer impedance is frequency dependent; however, in the range up to 50MHz (typical for the BPM applications) it varies only in the order of...

  10. Analyzing the effect of carbon fiber reinforced polymer on the crashworthiness of aluminum square hollow beam for crash box application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, R.; Jayanth, K.; Sarkar, I.; Ravi, K.

    2017-11-01

    Crashworthiness of a material is a measure of its ability to absorb energy during a crash. A well-designed crash box is instrumental in protecting the costly vehicle components. A square, hollow, hybrid beam of aluminum/CFRP was subjected to dynamic axial load to analyze the effect of five different lay-up sequences on its crashworthiness. The beam was placed between two plates. Boundary conditions were imposed on them to simulate a frontal body crash test model. Modeling and dynamic analysis of composite structures was done on ABAQUS. Different orientation of carbon fibers varies the crashworthiness of the hybrid beam. Addition of CFRP layer showed clear improvement in specific energy absorption and crush force efficiency compared to pure aluminum beam. Two layers of CFRP oriented at 90° on Aluminum showed 52% increase in CFE.

  11. Structural evaluation of LIC-310-0396 and FAY-35-17-6.82 box beams with advanced strand deterioration : executive summary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Adjacent prestressed concrete box beam bridges are popular in Ohio with approximately 1,100 bridges existing that are under ODOT maintenance responsibility, amounting to approximately 9% of all Ohios bridges. However, these bridges are also very c...

  12. Structural evaluation of LIC-310-0396 and FAY-35-17-6.82 box beams with advanced strand deterioration : draft final report - phase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    This report describes the results from the testing of a full scale three span 43 year old adjacent prestressed concrete box beam bridge. This research is the second phase of the overall project entitled Structural Evaluation of LIC-310-0396 Box Be...

  13. Beam-dump/diagnostics box for a 10-kA 50-MeV, 50-ns electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, J.M.; Fessenden, T.J.; Fontaine, R.A.; Harvey, A.R.; Paul, A.C.

    1983-03-09

    We have developed a dump for the ATA beam that consists of a series of carbon plates whose collective thickness totals approximately 1.5 ranges at 50 MeV. The energy dissipated in the plates is radiated to a water-cooled wall. The dump is designed to dissipate up to 175 kW of average power. A small hole along the axis of the plates forms a beamlet that passes through an energy analyzer. The analyzer consists of a 60/sup 0/ bending magnet and two high-sensitivity beam-current/position monitors. The ratio of the beamlet current to full current is used to estimate the beam emittance.

  14. Finite element based investigation of buckling and vibration behaviour of thin walled box beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramkumar K.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Thin-walled box type conventional and composite structures are having wide applications for building the structural system which are used in advanced ships, aerospace, civil, construction equipment and etc. Often these structures are subjected to vibration and buckling due to the environmental effect such as mechanical, thermal, electrical, magnetic, and acoustic or a combination of these. Also dampingmaterial and structural stiffness plays an important role for the improvement of vibration, noise control, fatigue and bulking resistance of these structures. So it is important to know the dynamic and buckling characteristics of these structures. Pre-stress in a structure affects the stiffness, which modifies the dynamic and stability characteristics of the structure. So it is also important to know the influence of pre-stress on the vibration and buckling character. In this paper, buckling and dynamic characteristics of the thin-walled box type structures are analyzed using finite element software ANSYS.

  15. Magnetic Interference Estimation on HIE-ISOLDE’s Beam Transfer Lines Diagnostic Box Stepper Motors’ Operation

    CERN Document Server

    Farantatos, P

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the HIE-ISOLDE project is to expand the physics programme compared to that of REX-ISOLDE. In total, 13 Diagnostic Boxes shall be installed in close proximity to the horizontal/vertical corrector magnets (steerers).The steerers’ shall have a maximum integrated magnetic field of 9.1 Tmm and their stray magnetic field could potentially cause perturbations to the nominal operation of the Diagnostic Boxes’ Stepper Motors due to magnetic interference. In the present report, the maximum stray magnetic field interference numerical calculation method in the volume occupied by the stepper motors is presented, followed by estimation results.

  16. Carbon-ion beams induce production of an immune mediator protein, high mobility group box 1, at levels comparable with X-ray irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Yuya; Oike, Takahiro; Okonogi, Noriyuki; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki; Ando, Ken; Sato, Hiro; Noda, Shin-ei; Isono, Mayu; Mimura, Kousaku; Kono, Koji; Nakano, Takashi

    2015-05-01

    X-ray radiotherapy activates tumor antigen-specific T-cell responses, and increases in the serum levels of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) induced by X-ray irradiation play a pivotal role in activating anti-tumor immunity. Here, we examined whether carbon-ion beams, as well as X-rays, can induce HMGB1 release from human cancer cell lines. The study examined five human cancer cell lines: TE2, KYSE70, A549, NCI-H460 and WiDr. The proportion of cells surviving X- or carbon-ion beam irradiation was assessed in a clonogenic assay. The D10, the dose at which 10% of cells survive, was calculated using a linear-quadratic model. HMGB1 levels in the culture supernatants were assessed by an ELISA. The D10 dose for X-rays in TE2, KYSE70, A549, NCI-H460 and WiDr cells was 2.1, 6.7, 8.0, 4.8 and 7.1 Gy, respectively, whereas that for carbon-ion beams was 0.9, 2.5, 2.7, 1.8 and 3.5 Gy, respectively. X-rays and carbon-ion beams significantly increased HMGB1 levels in the culture supernatants of A549, NCI-H460 and WiDr cells at 72 h post-irradiation with a D10 dose. Furthermore, irradiation with X-rays or carbon-ion beams significantly increased HMGB1 levels in the culture supernatants of all five cell lines at 96 h post-irradiation. There was no significant difference in the amount of HMGB1 induced by X-rays and carbon-ion beams at any time-point (except at 96 h for NCI-H460 cells); thus we conclude that comparable levels of HMGB1 were detected after irradiation with iso-survival doses of X-rays and carbon-ion beams. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  17. Virtual box

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stougaard, Malthe Kirkhoff

    2007-01-01

    . This paper reports on the design, implementation and initial evaluation of Virtual Box. Virtual Box attempts to create a physical and engaging context in order to support reciprocal interactions with expressive content. An implemented version of Virtual Box is evaluated in a location-aware environment...

  18. BOX MEDIA MODEL THROUGH THE USE OF CONTEXTUAL UNDERSTANDING TO IMPROVE STUDENT LEARNING CONCEPTS IN VOLUME BEAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dede Rohaeni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This research is motivated Cilengkrang Elementary School fifth grade students in the learning of the beam volume is still experiencing difficulties. This happens because the learning process that takes place is conventional. Learning by applying a contextual model chosen researchers by reason students will know if the learning is associated with the real world of students. The method used in this research is a classroom action research methods to the design of the research procedure refers to the spiral model Kemmis and MC. Tujuanpenelitianini is to obtain an overview of the planning, implementation and improvement of students' understanding of the results of the application of the concept model of contextual learning in the classroom beam volume V Elementary School Cilengkrang. The method used in this research is a classroom action research methods to the design of the research procedure refers to the spiral model Kemmis and MC. Taggart. Based on the implementation of the actions performed by three cycles, as a whole has shown an increase from the initial data, both process and outcomes of learning. So that the application of contextual models can enhance students' understanding of class V SDN Cilengkrang Northern District of Sumedang Sumedang district of the concept of the beam volume.   Keywords: Contextual Model, Mathematics, Mathematics Learning Objectives     Abstrak. Penelitian ini dilatarbelakangi siswa kelas V SDN Cilengkrang dalam pembelajaran volume balok masih mengalami kesulitan. Ini terjadi karena proses pembelajaran yang berlangsung bersifat konvensional. Pembelajaran dengan menerapkan model kontekstual dipilih peneliti dengan alasan siswa akan paham jika pembelajaran dikaitkan dengan dunia nyata siswa. Metode penelitian yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode penelitian tindakan kelas dengan rancangan prosedur penelitiannya mengacu pada model spiral Kemmis dan MC. Tujuanpenelitianini yaitu untuk memperoleh

  19. Bento Boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasio, Cindy

    2010-01-01

    Bento boxes are common objects in Japanese culture, designed to hold enough lunch for one person. They have individual compartments and sometimes multiple tiers for rice, vegetables, and other side dishes. They are made of materials ranging from wood, cloth, aluminum, or plastic. In general, the greater the number of foods, the better the box is…

  20. Reflective Cracking between Precast Prestressed Box Girders : Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Ease of construction, favorable span-to-depth ratios, aesthetic appeal and high torsional stiffness make adjacent precast prestressed concrete box-beams a popular option for short-to-medium span bridges. However, persisting durability and performance...

  1. Reflective Cracking between Precast Prestressed Box Girders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-30

    The adjacent precast prestressed concrete box-beam bridge is the bridge of choice for short and short-to-medium span bridges. This choice is because of the ease of construction, favorable span-to-depth ratios, aesthetic appeal, and high torsional sti...

  2. Superresolution beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngcobo, S

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Ngcobo2_2012.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 3697 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Ngcobo2_2012.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 SUPERRESOLUTION BEAMS S... University of Johannesburg, PO Box 524, Auckland Park, 2006, South Africa Slide 2 ? CSIR 2011 www.csir.co.za Outline ? Introduction ? Concept of superresolution beams ? Transformation of TEM00 to TEM10 ? Resonator...

  3. Shaping 3-D boxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenholt, Rasmus; Madsen, Claus B.

    2011-01-01

    Enabling users to shape 3-D boxes in immersive virtual environments is a non-trivial problem. In this paper, a new family of techniques for creating rectangular boxes of arbitrary position, orientation, and size is presented and evaluated. These new techniques are based solely on position data......F) docking experiment against an existing technique, which requires the user to perform the rotation and scaling of the box explicitly. The precision of the users' box construction is evaluated by a novel error metric measuring the difference between two boxes. The results of the experiment strongly indicate...... that for precision docking of 9 DoF boxes, some of the proposed techniques are significantly better than ones with explicit rotation and scaling. Another interesting result is that the number of DoF simultaneously controlled by the user significantly influences the precision of the docking....

  4. Math in the Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeYoung, Mary J.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how to make an origami paper box and explores the algebra, geometry, and other mathematics that unfolds. A set of origami steps that transforms the paper into an open box can hold mathematical surprises for both students and teachers. An origami lesson can engage students in an open-ended exploration of the relationship…

  5. ALUMINUM BOX BUNDLING PRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iosif DUMITRESCU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In municipal solid waste, aluminum is the main nonferrous metal, approximately 80- 85% of the total nonferrous metals. The income per ton gained from aluminum recuperation is 20 times higher than from glass, steel boxes or paper recuperation. The object of this paper is the design of a 300 kN press for aluminum box bundling.

  6. LA VIGA HUECA HABITABLE Y OTRAS EXPERIENCIAS DE PREFABRICACIÓN EN VIVIENDA DE GO–DB / The habitable box beam and other housing prefabrication experiences in GO-DB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Cortina Maruenda

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN En los albores de la industria aplicada a la arquitectura en España, el estudio GO-DB Arquitectos Asociados, realizó 8 viviendas experimentales (1967-1969 como cierre a una primera etapa de investigación propia. Inspiradas en las dovelas de los puentes de hormigón prefabricado, haciendo suya la idea de Le Corbusier de que los ingenieros construyen en su tiempo, realizaron una serie de ensayos que concluyó con las 8 viviendas que protagonizan este artículo. Con un presupuesto muy ajustado consiguieron realizar una pequeña factoría "in situ" para por medio de una cadena de montaje, producir los Elementos Modulares que bajo el concepto de la Viga Hueca Habitable conformarían cada una de las viviendas. Cada cinco horas se podía montar una vivienda de diez módulos, casi como aparcar coches o hacer una construcción con los bloques de madera de arce de Froebel a los que Wright fue tan aficionado. Este artículo, explicará además, basándose en las publicaciones y escritos del propio estudio, cual fue el proceso y las ideas teóricas que sustentaron este proyecto que abonó el campo para posteriores investigaciones en prefabricación. SUMMARY At the dawn of the industry applied to architecture in Spain, the studio of GO-DB Associated Architects constructed eight experimental dwellings (1967-1969 as the finalization of a first stage of their research. Inspired by the sections of precast concrete bridges, adopting the idea of Le Corbusier that engineers built in his era, the studio completed a series of trials that ended with the eight dwellings featured in this article.With a very tight budget they made a small "in-situ" factory which, by means of an assembly line, produced the Modular Elements that, under the concept of The Habitable Box Beam, made up each of the homes. A dwelling of ten modules could be assembled every five hours, almost like parking cars or making a construction with the Froebel maple blocks so beloved by Wright

  7. BoxPlot++

    OpenAIRE

    Azmeh, Zeina; Hamoui, Fady; Huchard, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    We propose the BoxPlot++ as an extension of Tukey's boxplot. We improve the resulting data values distribution by removing the repeated values and by calculating distances between the points and the nearest median.

  8. Boxes and Shelves

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Dean

    2008-01-01

    The Boxes and Shelves series from 2008 are are all made from the backing card from discarded writing pads. Boxes and Shelves extended my investigation of quotidian materials and their relationship to the origins of creative toil. Since 1996 my research has sought to identify and locate instances where the 'unmeasurable' meets the measurable. I have consistently employed a range of utilitarian materials such as bus seats, bus tickets, puddles, A4 writing paper, to present a series of 'problem ...

  9. Freedom to box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, N

    1998-02-01

    The british Medical Association wants to criminalise all boxing. This article examines the logic of the arguments it uses and finds them wanting. The move from medical evidence about the risk of brain damage to the conclusion that boxing should be banned is not warranted. The BMA's arguments are a combination of inconsistent paternalism and legal moralism. Consistent application of the principles implicit in the BMA's arguments would lead to absurd consequences and to severe limitations being put on individual freedom.

  10. Cable Tester Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jason H.

    2011-01-01

    Cables are very important electrical devices that carry power and signals across multiple instruments. Any fault in a cable can easily result in a catastrophic outcome. Therefore, verifying that all cables are built to spec is a very important part of Electrical Integration Procedures. Currently, there are two methods used in lab for verifying cable connectivity. (1) Using a Break-Out Box and an ohmmeter this method is time-consuming but effective for custom cables and (2) Commercial Automated Cable Tester Boxes this method is fast, but to test custom cables often requires pre-programmed configuration files, and cables used on spacecraft are often uniquely designed for specific purposes. The idea is to develop a semi-automatic continuity tester that reduces human effort in cable testing, speeds up the electrical integration process, and ensures system safety. The JPL-Cable Tester Box is developed to check every single possible electrical connection in a cable in parallel. This system indicates connectivity through LED (light emitting diode) circuits. Users can choose to test any pin/shell (test node) with a single push of a button, and any other nodes that are shorted to the test node, even if they are in the same connector, will light up with the test node. The JPL-Cable Tester Boxes offers the following advantages: 1. Easy to use: The architecture is simple enough that it only takes 5 minutes for anyone to learn how operate the Cable Tester Box. No pre-programming and calibration are required, since this box only checks continuity. 2. Fast: The cable tester box checks all the possible electrical connections in parallel at a push of a button. If a cable normally takes half an hour to test, using the Cable Tester Box will improve the speed to as little as 60 seconds to complete. 3. Versatile: Multiple cable tester boxes can be used together. As long as all the boxes share the same electrical potential, any number of connectors can be tested together.

  11. The BOXES Methodology Black Box Dynamic Control

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, David W

    2012-01-01

    Robust control mechanisms customarily require knowledge of the system’s describing equations which may be of the high order differential type.  In order to produce these equations, mathematical models can often be derived and correlated with measured dynamic behavior.  There are two flaws in this approach one is the level of inexactness introduced by linearizations and the other when no model is apparent.  Several years ago a new genre of control systems came to light that are much less dependent on differential models such as fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms. Both of these soft computing solutions require quite considerable a priori system knowledge to create a control scheme and sometimes complicated training program before they can be implemented in a real world dynamic system. Michie and Chambers’ BOXES methodology created a black box system that was designed to control a mechanically unstable system with very little a priori system knowledge, linearization or approximation.  All the method need...

  12. Opto-Box

    CERN Document Server

    Bertsche, David; The ATLAS collaboration; Welch, Steven; Smith, Dale Shane; Che, Siinn; Gan, K.K.; Boyd, George Russell Jr

    2015-01-01

    The opto-box is a custom mini-crate for housing optical modules, which process and transfer optoelectronic data. The system tightly integrates electrical, mechanical, and thermal functionality into a small package of size 35x10x8 cm^3. Special attention was given to ensure proper shielding, grounding, cooling, high reliability, and environmental tolerance. The custom modules, which incorporate Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs), were developed through a cycle of rigorous testing and redesign. In total, fourteen opto-boxes have been installed and loaded with modules on the ATLAS detector. They are currently in operation as part of the LHC run 2 data read-out chain.

  13. Teaching with Box Tops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiser, Lynne; D'Zamko, Mary Elizabeth

    1984-01-01

    Using environmental materials (such as the phone book and placemats from fast food restaurants) can be a motivating way to teach learning disabled students skills and concepts, as shown in an approach to reading, math, science and nutrition, and social studies instruction using a JELL-O brand gelatin box. (CL)

  14. Many-box locality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuqian; Cai, Yu; Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Gao, Fei; Scarani, Valerio

    2017-11-01

    There is an ongoing search for a physical or operational definition for quantum mechanics. Several informational principles have been proposed which are satisfied by a theory less restrictive than quantum mechanics. Here, we introduce the principle of "many-box locality," which is a refined version of the previously proposed "macroscopic locality." These principles are based on coarse graining the statistics of several copies of a given box. The set of behaviors satisfying many-box locality for N boxes is denoted LNM B. We study these sets in the bipartite scenario with two binary measurements, in relation with the sets Q and Q1 +A B of quantum and "almost quantum" correlations, respectively. We find that the LNM B sets are, in general, not convex. For unbiased marginals, by working in the Fourier space we can prove analytically that LNM B⊈Q for any finite N , while L∞M B=Q . Then, with suitably developed numerical tools, we find an example of a point that belongs to L16M B but not to Q1 +A B. Among the problems that remain open is whether Q ⊂L∞M B .

  15. IN-A-BOX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 2. Claude Elwood Shannon. Priti Shankar. Article-in-a-Box Volume 7 Issue 2 February 2002 pp 2-3. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/007/02/0002-0003. Author Affiliations.

  16. Mystery Box Marvels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Joel; Centurio, Tina

    2012-01-01

    What happens in the first week of school could very well set the stage for the rest of the school year. Setting high standards for science activities based in inquiry can start on the first day of science class and develop as the year unfolds. With the use of simple, readily available, inexpensive materials, an efficient mystery box lesson can be…

  17. Operant-Box Sociology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimond, Stuart J.

    1971-01-01

    Sketches a model which considers society a teacher which instructs like an operant box..." The author contends that the family, the school, the play group, the adolescent gang, the office, the prison, the mental hospital, each reward, instruct and control the individual who learns by operant means what the institution teaches." (Author/AL)

  18. Beam-beam instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, A.W.

    1983-08-01

    The subject of beam-beam instability has been studied since the invention of the colliding beam storage rings. Today, with several colliding beam storage rings in operation, it is not yet fully understood and remains an outstanding problem for the storage ring designers. No doubt that good progress has been made over the years, but what we have at present is still rather primitive. It is perhaps possible to divide the beam-beam subject into two areas: one on luminosity optimization and another on the dynamics of the beam-beam interaction. The former area concerns mostly the design and operational features of a colliding beam storage ring, while the later concentrates on the experimental and theoretical aspects of the beam-beam interaction. Although both areas are of interest, our emphasis is on the second area only. In particular, we are most interested in the various possible mechanisms that cause the beam-beam instability.

  19. beam-beam interaction

    CERN Multimedia

    2017-01-01

    The Beam 1 (represented in blue) and the Beam 2 (represented in red) are colliding with an angle at the Interaction Point (IP). The angle is needed to avoid unwanted multiple collisions along the interaction region. Despite of the separation introduced by the angle, the two beams interact via their electromagnetic field, the so called "beam-beam" interaction.

  20. Hermit Points on a Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Richard; Grinstead, Charles; Grindstead, Marshall; Bergstrand, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    Suppose that we are given a rectangular box in 3-space. Given any two points on the surface of this box, we can define the surface distance between them to be the length of the shortest path between them on the surface of the box. This paper determines the pairs of points of maximum surface distance for all boxes. It is often the case that these…

  1. Opto-Box

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00377159; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The opto-box is a custom mini-crate for housing optical modules, which process and transfer optoelectronic data. Many novel solutions were developed for the custom design and manufacturing. The system tightly integrates electrical, mechanical, and thermal functionality into a small package of size 35x10x8 cm$^{3}$. Special attention was given to ensure proper shielding, grounding, cooling, high reliability, and environmental tolerance. The custom modules, which incorporate Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs), were developed through a cycle of rigorous testing and redesign. In total, fourteen opto-boxes have been installed and loaded with modules on the ATLAS detector. They are currently in operation as part of the LHC run 2 data read-out chain.

  2. Boxed Permutation Pattern Matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amit, Mika; Bille, Philip; Cording, Patrick Hagge

    2016-01-01

    the goal is to only find the boxed subsequences of T that are order-isomorphic to P. This problem was introduced by Bruner and Lackner who showed that it can be solved in O(n3) time. Cho et al. [CPM 2015] gave an O(n2m) time algorithm and improved it to O(n2 logm). In this paper we present a solution...

  3. A Finite Segment Method for Skewed Box Girder Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingwei Xue

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A finite segment method is presented to analyze the mechanical behavior of skewed box girders. By modeling the top and bottom plates of the segments with skew plate beam element under an inclined coordinate system and the webs with normal plate beam element, a spatial elastic displacement model for skewed box girder is constructed, which can satisfy the compatibility condition at the corners of the cross section for box girders. The formulation of the finite segment is developed based on the variational principle. The major advantage of the proposed approach, in comparison with the finite element method, is that it can simplify a three-dimensional structure into a one-dimensional structure for structural analysis, which results in significant saving in computational times. At last, the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed finite segment method are verified by a model test.

  4. review of elastic analys ew of elastic analysis of box girder bridges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Tel: +234-803-746-2228. REVIEW OF ELASTIC ANALYS. DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING. E-mail ...... concrete box girder bridge, the Lavic Road bridge in. California, monitored over a 2-year period from ..... analysis of curved steel box beams, Masters Thesis,. University of Maryland. 52. Oleinik, J. C., and Heins, ...

  5. Small, Lightweight, Collapsible Glove Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    A small, lightweight, collapsible glove box enables its user to perform small experiments and other tasks. Originally intended for use aboard a space shuttle or the International Space Station (ISS), this glove box could also be attractive for use on Earth in settings in which work space or storage space is severely limited and, possibly, in which it is desirable to minimize weight. The development of this glove box was prompted by the findings that in the original space-shuttle or ISS setting, (1) it was necessary to perform small experiments in a large general-purpose work station, so that, in effect, they occupied excessive space; and it took excessive amounts of time to set up small experiments. The design of the glove box reflects the need to minimize the space occupied by experiments and the time needed to set up experiments, plus the requirement to limit the launch weight of the box and the space needed to store the box during transport into orbit. To prepare the glove box for use, the astronaut or other user has merely to insert hands through the two fabric glove ports in the side walls of the box and move two hinges to a locking vertical position (see figure). The user could do this while seated with the glove box on the user fs lap. When stowed, the glove box is flat and has approximately the thickness of two pieces of 8-in. (.20 cm) polycarbonate.

  6. SPS beam to the West Hall

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1976-01-01

    One of the two target stations feeding the West Hall (see Annual Report 1976). After the proton beam was split into three branches, the outer two were directed on to targets in the cast iron shielding box, the centre one passing through the box to another target station downstream. Five different targets could be put in each beam, controlled by the mechanism seen on top.

  7. Numerical models and experiment of air flow in a simulation box for optical wireless communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latal Jan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the authors focused on real measurements of mechanical turbulence generated by ventilators in the simulation box for Optical Wireless Communications. The mechanical turbulences disturb the optical beam that propagates along the central axis of the simulation box. The aim of authors is to show the effect of mechanical turbulence on optical beams at different heights in the simulation box. In the Ansys Fluent, we created numerical models which were then compared with real measurements. Authors compared the real and numerical models according to statistical methods.

  8. Spirit Boxes: Expressions of Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMuro, Ted

    1984-01-01

    After studying the culture and art of the ancient civilizations of South America, Mesopotamia, Greece, and Egypt, secondary level art students made spirit boxes as expressions of the various cultures. How to make the boxes and how to prepare the face molds are described. (RM)

  9. Being Creative "Inside the Box"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomascoff, Rocky

    2011-01-01

    Artist Joseph Cornell (1903-1972) created wonderful environments inside boxes using mostly found objects. They were often Surrealistic in nature. Some boxes were designed with glass fronts, and others were meant to be interactive with the viewer, wherein the objects could be handled. With Joseph Cornell in mind, the author introduces an art…

  10. Box-and-Whisker Plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Russell D.

    1985-01-01

    Box-and-whisker plots (which give rapid visualization of batches of data) can be effectively used to present diverse collections of data used in traditional first-year chemistry courses. Construction of box-and-whisker plots and their use with bond energy data and data on heats of formation and solution are discussed. (JN)

  11. Microclimate boxes for panel paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadum, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    The use of microclimate boxes to protect vulnerable panel paintings is, therefore, not a new phenomenon of the past two or three decades. Rather, it has been a concern for conservators and curators to protect these objects of art at home and in transit since the end of the nineteenth century....... The increased number of travelling exhibitions in recent years has heightened the need to protect paintings during circulation (Thomson 1961; Mecklenburg 1991). The use and design of microclimate boxes have been evolving since 1892. These boxes may be divided into three broad groups: those using an active...

  12. Two-dimensional box plot

    OpenAIRE

    Phattrawan Tongkumchum

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we propose a two-dimensional box plot, a simple bivariate extension of the box plot and the scatter plot. This plot comprises a pair of trapeziums oriented in the direction of a fitted straight line, with symbols denoting extreme values. The choice for the fitted straight resistant line showing the relationship between the two variables is Tukey’s resistance line. The main components of the plot are an inner box containing 50% of the projection points of the observations on the ...

  13. DIRECT KICKS IN BOXING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izet Kahrović

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Hit directly, giving any impact maximum muscle strength is skill, and it is neces- sary to the exercise and learning to make it perfect. Training begins with oral statement, so that students get to know with the techni- que that works. After oral exposure, it is necessary to create a good notion on technology that is adopted. The best way for the creation of good notion is a good demonstration. In direct training kicks in the box, you need patience and gradualness and there- fore uses a large number of additional exercises. In their work with beginners, in the first class, individual elements of technology, and also direct blow, it is necessary to separate the parts and run them on multiple commands, to later come to the confluence in one command. Direct wounds, with left and right hand, can be run from the towns, on the head and body, from the movement, to step forward, step back and step aside, the remedy to the left and right side. Left direct is taking out from a running protrusion hands, but kick, which is a pro- duct of the system, ankle-knee-pelvis and shoulder forward horizontaly. Set at the time of stripes, body weight over the left leg. Right direct from the place, starting ekscentrical reflecsive impuls of a extensor muscle in ankle, knee and joint of a hip.This kind of a sud- den movement is running simultaneously with the rotation of the body around vertical (longitudinal axis, with the transfer body weight on the left leg. Further movement to the hand which serves as a lever, which is transmitted through the power stroke

  14. The Design of the Orthogonal Box Cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moretti, Alfred; /Fermilab

    2010-09-15

    The muon collider and/or the neutrino factory require large accelerating electric field gradients immersed in large (3 to 6 T) solenoidal magnetic fields for ionization cooling of muon beams. Our original vacuum breakdown study demonstrated a loss of achievable peak accelerating gradient in solenoidal magnetic fields by a factor 2 or greater. The Muon Collaboration has developed a theory of a method to suppress high electric field breakdown in vacuum cavities needed for a Muon collider or neutrino factory. It has been shown in our studies and by others that high gradient electric field emitted electrons (dark current) are the primary cause of breakdown. A DC magnetic field orthogonal to the RF electric accelerating field prevents dark current high field emitted electrons from traveling across the accelerating gap and then will prevent breakdown. We have decided to test this theory by building a special cavity in the shape of vacuum box. Figure 1 is a simplified view of the cavity design. The design is based on an 805 MHz WR975 waveguide cavity resonating in the TE{sub 101} mode. For the TE{sub 101} mode the resonant frequency f{sub 0} is given by the relationship f{sub 0} = c[(I/a){sup 2} + (m/b){sup 2} + (n/d){sup 2}]{sup 0.5}/2 where a and d are the lengths of the base sides and b is the height of the box in MKS units and c is the velocity of light.

  15. Box Plots: Basic and Advanced.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullenex, James L.

    1990-01-01

    Describes a five-number summary which is a display of the minimum value, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum value. Indicates how to draw box plots as graphical representations of a five-number summary. (YP)

  16. Implementace hry Dots and Boxes

    OpenAIRE

    Balko, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Title: Dots and Boxes implementation Author: Martin Balko Department: Department of Applied Mathematics Supervisor: RNDr. Ondřej Pangrác, Ph.D. Supervisor's email address: Abstract: The presented thesis deals with the analysis of a popular logical game Dots and Boxes and its generalized versions. It focuses on the different methods and algorithms of opponent's artificial intelligence. The result of the work is implementation of the generalized version of this game in w...

  17. Evaluation and analysis of decked bulb T beam bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    A new corrosion-free decked bulb T beam bridge system has been developed to overcome some of the problems : associated with the construction of side-by-side box beam bridges such as the lack of inspection space between : beams and the longitudinal de...

  18. Thinking Outside the Box

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Lorne [World Nuclear Transport Institute, Remo House, 310-312 Regent Street, London, W1B 3AX (United Kingdom)

    2009-06-15

    The World Nuclear Transport Institute was formed to fill a need to provide a dedicated vehicle for the radioactive transport and packaging industry sectors worldwide, to exchange information and ideas, all with a view to working toward consolidated industry positions on the key issues affecting safe, efficient and reliable transport. WNTI was also intended to be a strong voice for industry in those international and national bodies where deliberations on such transport safety issues take place. The very fact that companies, sometimes in competition with each other, were prepared to come together in this way, reflects two important points: firstly, it represents an acknowledgement on industry's part that safe, effective and reliable transport is the sine qua non, the absolute essential. And second, it is a recognition that it is enhanced to the extent that industry is able to collaborate to this end. This is thinking outside the box. Another important attribute of safety is 'stability'. Everyone likes to know where he or she stands. The radioactive materials packaging and transport industry thrives within a stable regulatory framework for safety. For a stable regulatory regime allows operators to be properly trained; it allows operators to become familiar with safety requirements, and to be at ease with them. Stability is conducive to safety and efficiency. Stability is good for business too - for stability in package and transport requirements allows sufficient time for a fair return on investment in expensive package design, manufacture, licensing and use over time. Stability should not, however, be opposed to creativity. From experience we can develop new thinking to improve efficiency as illustrated in examples of work related to the packaging and transport of Uranium Concentrates for instance.. Another example is work within WNTI on the thermal test requirements for the packaging of uranium hexafluoride. The robustness of packages is based on the

  19. Comparison of black-box, glass-box and open-box software for aiding conceptual understanding

    OpenAIRE

    Hosein, Anesa; Aczel, James; Clow, Doug; Richardson, John T E

    2008-01-01

    Three mathematical software types: black-box (no steps shown), glass-box (steps shown) and open-box (interactive steps) were used by 32 students to solve conceptual and procedural tasks on the computer via remote observation. Comparison of the three software types suggests that there is no difference in the scores that students receive for conceptual understanding tasks. Students using the black-box are more likely to explore answers than students using the glass and open-box software.

  20. 30 CFR 56.12006 - Distribution boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distribution boxes. 56.12006 Section 56.12006... Distribution boxes. Distribution boxes shall be provided with a disconnecting device for each branch circuit... visual observation when such a device is open and that the circuit is deenergized, the distribution box...

  1. 30 CFR 57.12006 - Distribution boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distribution boxes. 57.12006 Section 57.12006... and Underground § 57.12006 Distribution boxes. Distribution boxes shall be provided with a... deenergized, and the distribution box shall be labeled to show which circuit each device controls. ...

  2. First-aid boxes - Reminder

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    With a view to ensuring optimum use of the first-aid boxes on the CERN site, we should like to remind you of various changes introduced in March 2009: The TSO of the buildings concerned is responsible for the first-aid boxes, including checking their contents.   First-aid boxes may be restocked ONLY at the CERN stores (SCEM No. 54.99.80). This is no longer possible at the Infirmary. The associated cost is charged to the Departments.   First-aid boxes should be used only for mild injuries. All other cases should be referred to the Medical Service Infirmary (Bldg. 57 – ground-floor, tel. 73802) between 8.00 a.m. and 5.30 p.m. or to the Fire and Rescue Service (tel. 74444). N.B.: This information does not apply to the red emergency first-aid boxes in the underground areas or to the emergency kits for use in the event of being splashed with hydrofluoric acid.

  3. Identifying competencies of boxing coaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Tasiopoulos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to find out the management skills required by boxing coaches to administrate their clubs. For the purposes of this study a scale was constructed which was answered by 98 boxing coaches. Explanatory factor analysis revealed seven factors: Communication-public relations (5 items, event management (4 items, management techniques (4 items, new technologies (4 items, prevention-safety (2 items, sport (5 items and sports facilities (2 items. The Cronbach of the scale was 0.85. The five competencies that rated by the coaches were: Supervisors of the area of training, maintaining excellent communication with athletes, using new technologies (e-mail, internet, handling disciplinary matters, accidents, complaints and reports on some sporting games and promoted harmony among athletes. We concluded that boxing coaches understand that the competencies required for meeting their obligations, were related to sports, prevention, safety and communications-public relations.

  4. Damage Identification for Prestressed Adjacent Box-Beam Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth K. Walsh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural health monitoring (SHM has gained considerable attention as a tool for monitoring the health of civil infrastructure. For bridge infrastructure, previous methods have focused on the detection of localized damage through modal parameters extracted from the longitudinal direction of the structure. This paper investigates a new damage detection method based on the change in the first vertical mode extracted from the transverse direction of the bridge. The mode is determined through application of modal curve fitting to frequency response functions (FRFs that are formed using vertical response data obtained in the direction perpendicular to the bridge’s longitudinal axis. Using this method, both local damage and global damage in the bridge reveal themselves as having a localized effect on the bridge response. Furthermore, damage is revealed in such a way that it enables differentiation of the damage types. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the method, modal parameters were extracted from acceleration data obtained from a finite element model of a full bridge. Analysis of the modal parameters showed that the proposed approach could not only detect both local and global bridge damage, but could also differentiate between damage types using only one mode shape. The proposed method was compared to a previously developed SHM method.

  5. Expo-Box Contact Us

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA-Expo-Box is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases, mode

  6. On the Dirichlet's Box Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Kin-Keung; Shiu, Wai-Chee

    2008-01-01

    In this note, we will focus on several applications on the Dirichlet's box principle in Discrete Mathematics lesson and number theory lesson. In addition, the main result is an innovative game on a triangular board developed by the authors. The game has been used in teaching and learning mathematics in Discrete Mathematics and some high schools in…

  7. The Bird Box Survey Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    When high school students are asked what's the best part of science class, many will say it's the field trips. Students enjoy engaging in authentic, community-based science outside the classroom. To capitalize on this, Patrick Willis created the Bird Box Survey Project for his introductory field biology class. The project takes students…

  8. Light Therapy Boxes for Seasonal Affective Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seasonal affective disorder treatment: Choosing a light therapy box Light therapy boxes can offer an effective treatment for seasonal affective disorder. Features such as light intensity, safety, cost and ...

  9. Main: BOX2PSGS2 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BOX2PSGS2 S000204 17-May-1998 (last modified) kehi Box 2 in glutamine synthetase (G...S2) gene in pea (P.s.); Repeated in tandem with a partial palindrome located between the repeats; Located at ca. -300 of pea GS2; Box

  10. The Heuristic Interpretation of Box Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lem, Stephanie; Onghena, Patrick; Verschaffel, Lieven; Van Dooren, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Box plots are frequently used, but are often misinterpreted by students. Especially the area of the box in box plots is often misinterpreted as representing number or proportion of observations, while it actually represents their density. In a first study, reaction time evidence was used to test whether heuristic reasoning underlies this…

  11. Beam Diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Raich, U

    2013-01-01

    As soon as the first particles emerge from an ion source, the source characteristics need to be determined. The total beam intensity, the transverse particle distributions, the beam divergence and emittance as well as the longitudinal parameters of the beam must be measured. This chapter provides an overview of typical measurement methods and the instruments used, and shows the results obtained.

  12. A manual beaming device: an improved method for warp winding in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Challenges with broadloom beaming that affect the weaving process and eventually the woven fabric aspect, could be as a result of the great bulk of yarns attached to the weighted box for tensioning. This project sought to construct a beaming device that maintains even tension of warp yarn at beaming by reducing the ...

  13. Lessons from the light-cone box

    CERN Document Server

    Leibbrandt, G

    2000-01-01

    Working in the noncovariant light-cone gauge, we discuss the explicit computation of the 1PI four-point function ("box diagram") in Yang- Mills theory. The complete box diagram which consists of 16 box subdiagrams, 8 lynx subdiagrams and 4 fish subdiagrams, yields both local and nonlocal UV divergent terms. The nonlocal terms are consistent with gauge symmetry and correspond to a nonlocal renormalization of the wave function. (14 refs).

  14. IMPROVED, FAVORABLE FOR ENVIRONMENT POLYURETHANE COLD-BOX-PROCESS (COLD BOX «HUTTENES-ALBERTUS» .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sergini

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the laboratory and industrial investigations, the purpose of which is improvement of the classical Cold-box-process, i.e. the process of the slugs hardening in cold boxes, are presented.

  15. Dynamic Analysis of Horizontally Curved Thin-Walled Box-Girder Bridge due to Moving Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nallasivam

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact on curved box-girder bridges due to vehicle moving across rough bridge deck have been analyzed using bridge-vehicle coupled dynamics. The bridge deck unevenness has been assumed to be a homogeneous random process in space specified by a PSD function. The analysis incorporates the effect of centrifugal forces due to vehicle moving on curved bridge. The curved box-girder bridge has been numerically modeled using computationally efficient thin-walled box-beam finite elements which take into account the torsional warping, distortion and distortional warping, that are important features of thin-walled box girders. Rigid vehicle with longitudinal and transverse input to the wheels giving rise to heave-pitch-roll degrees of freedom has been considered. The theoretical bridge model used in simulation study has been validated by a free vibration experiment using impact excitation. The impact factors for several response parameters such as bending moment, shear force, torsional moment, torsional bi-moment, distortional moment, distortional bi-moment and vertical deflections have been obtained for various bridge-vehicle parameters. Both constant velocity and forward acceleration of the vehicle have been considered to examine impact factor. The results highlighted that the impact factors of a curved box girder bridge corresponding to torsion, distortion and their corresponding bimoments have been observed to be generally very high, while those of the other responses are also relatively higher than that of corresponding straight box girder bridge.

  16. Beam Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, E

    2013-01-01

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Accelerators and Colliders' of Volume 21 'Elementary Particles' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I 'Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It contains the Chapter '2 Beam Dynamics' with the content: 2 Beam Dynamics 2.1 Linear Transverse Beam Dynamics 2.2 Coupling 2.3 Liouville's Theorem 2.4 Momentum Dependent Transverse Motion 2.5 Longitudinal Motion

  17. Effect of Construction Method on Shear Lag in Prestressed Concrete Box Girders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Jun Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the previous researches conducted on shear lag of box girders were only concerned about simple types of structures, such as simply supported and cantilever beams. The structural systems concerned in these previous researches were considered as determined and unchangeable. In this paper, a finite element method considering shear lag and creep of concrete was presented to analyze the effect of dynamic construction process on shear lag in different types of concrete box-girder bridges. The shear lag effect of the three types of a two-span continuous concrete beam classified by construction methods was analyzed in detail according to construction process. Also, a three-span prestressed concrete box-girder bridge was analyzed according to the actual construction process. The shear lag coefficients and stresses on cross sections along the beam including shear lag were obtained. The different construction methods, the changes of structural system with the construction process, the changes of loading and boundary conditions with the construction process and time, the prestressing, and creep were all imitated in the calculations. From comparisons between the results for beams using different construction methods, useful conclusions were made.

  18. 36 CFR 1192.33 - Fare box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fare box. 1192.33 Section 1192.33 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD... Systems § 1192.33 Fare box. Where provided, the farebox shall be located as far forward as practicable and...

  19. Magnetorotational dynamo action in the shearing box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Justin; Boldyrev, Stanislav

    2017-09-01

    Magnetic dynamo action caused by the magnetorotational instability is studied in the shearing-box approximation with no imposed net magnetic flux. Consistent with recent studies, the dynamo action is found to be sensitive to the aspect ratio of the box: it is much easier to obtain in tall boxes (stretched in the direction normal to the disc plane) than in long boxes (stretched in the radial direction). Our direct numerical simulations indicate that the dynamo is possible in both cases, given a large enough magnetic Reynolds number. To explain the relatively larger effort required to obtain the dynamo action in a long box, we propose that the turbulent eddies caused by the instability most efficiently fold and mix the magnetic field lines in the radial direction. As a result, in the long box the scale of the generated strong azimuthal (stream-wise directed) magnetic field is always comparable to the scale of the turbulent eddies. In contrast, in the tall box the azimuthal magnetic flux spreads in the vertical direction over a distance exceeding the scale of the turbulent eddies. As a result, different vertical sections of the tall box are permeated by large-scale non-zero azimuthal magnetic fluxes, facilitating the instability. In agreement with this picture, the cases when the dynamo is efficient are characterized by a strong intermittency of the local azimuthal magnetic fluxes.

  20. Unification of box shapes in molecular simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, H.

    1997-01-01

    In molecular simulations with periodic boundary conditions the computational box may have five different shapes: triclinic; the hexagonal prism; two types of dodecahedrons; and the truncated octahedron. In this article, we show that every molecular simulation, formulated in one of these boxes, can

  1. An effective box trap for capturing lynx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay A. Kolbe; John R. Squires; Thomas W. Parker

    2003-01-01

    We designed a box trap for capturing lynx (Lynx lynx) that is lightweight, safe, effective, and less expensive than many commercial models. It can be constructed in approximately 3-4 hours from readily available materials. We used this trap to capture 40 lynx 89 times (96% of lynx entering traps) and observed no trapping related injuries. We compare our box...

  2. Modern biotechnology Panacea or new Pandora's box?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tramper, J.; Yang Zhu, Yang

    2011-01-01

    According to Greek mythology Pandora was sent down to earth upon the orders of Zeus. She was given a mysterious box which she was not allowed to open. However, Pandora was very curious and when she arrived on earth she couldn?t help taking a peek inside the box. She saw that it was filled with gifts

  3. Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion's Pandora's Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fashion’s Pandora’s Box? A A A | Print | Share Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion’s Pandora’s Box? Foot and ankle ... extreme and imprudent as it may sound, the cosmetic surgery craze is not just for faces anymore— ...

  4. Box Plots in the Australian Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jane M.

    2012-01-01

    This article compares the definition of "box plot" as used in the "Australian Curriculum: Mathematics" with other definitions used in the education community; describes the difficulties students experience when dealing with box plots; and discusses the elaboration that is necessary to enable teachers to develop the knowledge…

  5. 49 CFR 38.33 - Fare box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fare box. 38.33 Section 38.33 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Buses, Vans and Systems § 38.33 Fare box. Where provided, the farebox...

  6. North American box turtles: A natural history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, C. Kenneth

    2002-01-01

    Once a familiar backyard visitor in many parts of the United States and Mexico, the box turtle is losing the battle against extinction. In North American Box Turtles, C. Kenneth Dodd, Jr., has written the first book-length natural history of the twelve species and subspecies of this endangered animal. This volume includes comprehensive information on the species’ evolution, behavior, courtship and reproduction, habitat use, diet, population structure, systematics, and disease. Special features include color photos of all species, subspecies, and their habitats; a simple identification guide to both living and fossil species; and a summary of information on fossil Terrapene and Native uses of box turtles. End-of-chapter sections highlight future research directions, including the need for long-term monitoring and observation of box turtles within their natural habitat and conservation applications. A glossary and a bibliography of literature on box turtles accompany the text.

  7. Beam diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Raich, U

    2006-01-01

    The instrumentation measuring beam parameters constitutes an important part of any particle accelerator. These lectures aim at giving an overview of detection and measurement techniques without going too much into details of implementation. Instruments for linear accelerators, transfer lines, and small synchrotrons are described with an emphasis on opportunities and problems specific to low-energy particle beams.

  8. Beam diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Raich, U

    2008-01-01

    Most beam measurements are based on the electro-magnetic interaction of fields induced by the beam with their environment. Beam current transformers as well as beam position monitors are based on this principle. The signals induced in the sensors must be amplified and shaped before they are converted into numerical values. These values are further treated numerically in order to extract meaningful machine parameter measurements. The lecture introduces the architecture of an instrument and shows where in the treatment chain digital signal analysis can be introduced. Then the use of digital signal processing is presented using tune measurements, orbit and trajectory measurements as well as beam loss detection and longitudinal phase space tomography as examples. The hardware as well as the treatment algorithms and their implementation on Digital Signal Processors (DSPs) or in Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) are presented.

  9. Hydro-Balanced Stuffing Box field test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giangiacomo, L.A.

    1999-05-28

    The Hydro-Balanced Stuffing Box is a seal assembly for polished rod pumping installations commonly used in oil and gas pumping well installations to contain produced well fluids. The improved stuffing box was developed and patented by Harold H. Palmour of The Palmour Group of Livingston, TX. The stuffing box is designed to reduce the incidence of seal leakage and to utilize an environmentally safe fluid, so that if there is any leakage, environmental damage is reduced or eliminated. The unit was tested on two wells at the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center. During the test period, the performance of the stuffing box was measured by monitoring the pressure on the tubing and the inner chamber with a Barton Two-pen recorder. The amount of safe fluid consumed, fluid leakage at the top of the stuffing box, pressure supplied from the nitrogen bottle, ambient temperature, and polish rod temperature was recorded. The stuffing box is capable of providing a better seal between well fluids an d the environment than conventional stuffing boxes. It allows the polished rod to operate cooler and with lubrication, extending the life of the packing elements, and reducing the amount of attention required to prevent leakage.

  10. Efficient sorting of Bessel beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available beams Angela Dudley,1,* Thandeka Mhlanga,1 Martin Lavery,2 Andre McDonald,1 Filippus S. Roux,1 Miles Padgett,2 and Andrew Forbes1 1CSIR National Laser Centre, PO Box 395, Pretoria 0001, South Africa 2Department of Physics & Astronomy, University... studies have been dedicated to optical fields that carry orbital angular momentum (OAM), where each field has an azimuthal angular dependence of exp(il?) [1?4] where l is the azimuthal index and ? is the azimuthal angle. The fact that these fields offer...

  11. Beam collimator

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    A four-block collimator installed on a control table for positioning the alignment reference marks. Designed for use with SPS secondary beams, the collimator operates under vacuum conditions. See Annual Report 1976 p. 121 and photo 7701014.

  12. [Present views on boxing--Henner's legacy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichý, J

    1997-05-29

    Fifty years ago academician Henner formulated clearly the negative view of neurologists on boxing as practised in his time. It was his merit that a protective helmet was introduced, many of his demands concerning the regime after a KO and the importance of medical examinations were no yet adequately appreciated. At the opportunity of the 100th anniversary of Henner's birth and the fiftieth anniversary of the Clinic he founded in the premises of saint Catherine the author discusses contemporary views on boxing, the risk of repeated injuries for the development of encephalopathia pugilistica and their relationship to Alzheimer's disease. Contemporary boxing is a spectacle which is a continuation of historical fights of gladiators. If the main objective is to hurt the adversary, this activity does not deserve the name of "sport" Sport should promote and maintain physical and mental health which is not the case in professional boxing.

  13. Grey Box Modelling of Hydrological Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thordarson, Fannar Ørn

    The main topic of the thesis is grey box modelling of hydrologic systems, as well as formulation and assessment of their embedded uncertainties. Grey box model is a combination of a white box model, a physically-based model that is traditionally formulated using deterministic ordinary differential...... represent a stochastic state space model. In the grey box model the total noise is divided into a measurement noise and a process noise. The process noise is due to model approximations, undiscovered input and uncertainties in the input series. Estimates of the process noise can be used to highlight...... in the model, or formulation of process noise can be considered so that it meets the physical limits of the hydrological system and give an adequate description of the embedded uncertainty in model structure. The thesis consists of two parts: a summary report and a part which contains six scientific papers...

  14. Black-Box Search by Unbiased Variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehre, Per Kristian; Witt, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    The complexity theory for black-box algorithms, introduced by Droste, Jansen, and Wegener (Theory Comput. Syst. 39:525–544, 2006), describes common limits on the efficiency of a broad class of randomised search heuristics. There is an obvious trade-off between the generality of the black-box model...... and the strength of the bounds that can be proven in such a model. In particular, the original black-box model provides for well-known benchmark problems relatively small lower bounds, which seem unrealistic in certain cases and are typically not met by popular search heuristics.In this paper, we introduce a more...... restricted black-box model for optimisation of pseudo-Boolean functions which we claim captures the working principles of many randomised search heuristics including simulated annealing, evolutionary algorithms, randomised local search, and others. The key concept worked out is an unbiased variation operator...

  15. EPA EcoBox Tools by Stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eco-Box is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases

  16. Packing a cake into a box

    KAUST Repository

    Skopenkov, Mikhail

    2011-05-01

    Given a triangular cake and a box in the shape of its mirror image, how can the cake be cut into a minimal number of pieces so that it can be put into the box? The cake has icing, so we are not allowed to put it into the box upside down. V. G. Boltyansky asked this question in 1977 and showed that three pieces always suffice. In this paper we provide examples of cakes that cannot be cut into two pieces to be put into the box. This shows that three is the answer to Boltyansky\\'s question. We also give examples of cakes which can be cut into two pieces. © THE MATHEMATICAL ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA.

  17. ENERGY STAR Certified Set Top Boxes

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 5.1 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Set-top Boxes that are effective as of January...

  18. A Lithium Vapor Box Divertor Similarity Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Robert A.; Emdee, Eric D.; Goldston, Robert J.; Jaworski, Michael A.; Schwartz, Jacob A.

    2017-10-01

    A lithium vapor box divertor offers an alternate means of managing the extreme power density of divertor plasmas by leveraging gaseous lithium to volumetrically extract power. The vapor box divertor is a baffled slot with liquid lithium coated walls held at temperatures which increase toward the divertor floor. The resulting vapor pressure differential drives gaseous lithium from hotter chambers into cooler ones, where the lithium condenses and returns. A similarity experiment was devised to investigate the advantages offered by a vapor box divertor design. We discuss the design, construction, and early findings of the vapor box divertor experiment including vapor can construction, power transfer calculations, joint integrity tests, and thermocouple data logging. Heat redistribution of an incident plasma-based heat flux from a typical linear plasma device is also presented. This work supported by DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466 and The Princeton Environmental Institute.

  19. Random Young diagrams in a Rectangular Box

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Dan; Boutillier, Cédric; Enriquez, Nathanaël

    We exhibit the limit shape of random Young diagrams having a distribution proportional to the exponential of their area, and confined in a rectangular box. The Ornstein-Uhlenbeck bridge arises from the fluctuations around the limit shape.......We exhibit the limit shape of random Young diagrams having a distribution proportional to the exponential of their area, and confined in a rectangular box. The Ornstein-Uhlenbeck bridge arises from the fluctuations around the limit shape....

  20. Tracking the Motion of Box Jellyfish

    OpenAIRE

    Kjellberg, Tobias; Palmér, Tobias; Oskarsson, Magnus; Åström, Karl

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we investigate a system for tracking the motion of box jellyfish tripedalia cystophora in a special test setup. The goal is to measure the motor response of the animal given certain visual stimuli. The approach is based on tracking the special sensory structures – the rhopalia – of the box jellyfish from high-speed video sequences. We have focused on a realtime system with simple building blocks in our system. However, using a combination of simple intensity...

  1. Box Lesion with Single Radiofrequency Clamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikhrezai, Kasra; Spadaccio, Cristiano; Hunter, Steven

    2017-04-12

    We introduce a maneuver to perform the box lesion as a part of Cox maze IV procedure with single radiofrequency clamp. The maneuver entails engaging the right pulmonary veins with the clamp, then advancing the clamp jaws underneath the superior vena cava through the transverse sinus to include the roof and the left pulmonary veins in the clamp. We regularly use this technique for box lesion with desirable transmurality. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Autoantibodies to box A of high mobility group box 1 in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaper, F; de Leeuw, K; Horst, G; Maas, F; Bootsma, H; Heeringa, P; Limburg, P C; Westra, J

    2017-06-01

    Autoantibodies to nuclear structures are a hallmark of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), including autoantibodies to nuclear protein high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1). HMGB1 consists of three separate domains: box A, box B and an acidic tail. Recombinant box A acts as a competitive antagonist for HMGB1 and might be an interesting treatment option in SLE. However, antibodies to box A might interfere. Therefore, levels of anti-box A were examined in SLE patients in association with disease activity and clinical parameters. Serum anti-box A was measured in 86 SLE patients and 44 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HC). Serum samples of 28 patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome and 32 patients with rheumatoid arthritis were included as disease controls. Anti-HMGB1 and anti-box B levels were also measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay during quiescent disease [SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) ≤ 4, n = 47] and active disease (SLEDAI ≥ 5, n = 39). Anti-box A levels in active SLE patients were higher compared to quiescent patients, and were increased significantly compared to HC and disease controls. Anti-box A levels correlated positively with SLEDAI and anti-dsDNA levels and negatively with complement C3 levels. Increased levels of anti-box A antibodies were present in the majority of patients with nephritic (73%) and non-nephritic exacerbations (71%). Antibodies to the box A domain of HMGB1 might be an interesting new biomarker, as these had a high specificity for SLE and were associated with disease activity. Longitudinal studies should be performed to evaluate whether these antibodies perform better in predicting an exacerbation, especially non-nephritic exacerbations. © 2017 British Society for Immunology.

  3. HYDROGEN AND VOC RETENTION IN WASTE BOXES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PACE ME; MARUSICH RM

    2008-11-21

    The Hanford Waste Management Project Master Documented Safety Analysis (MDSA) (HNF-14741, 2003) identifies derived safety controls to prevent or mitigate the risks of a single-container deflagration during operations requiring moving, venting or opening transuranic (TRU)-waste containers. The issue is whether these safety controls are necessary for operations involving TRU-waste boxes that are being retrieved from burial at the Hanford Site. This paper investigates the potential for a deflagration hazard within these boxes and whether safety controls identified for drum deflagration hazards should be applied to operations involving these boxes. The study evaluates the accumulation of hydrogen and VOCs within the waste box and the transport of these gases and vapors out of the waste box. To perform the analysis, there were numerous and major assumptions made regarding the generation rate and the transport pathway dimensions and their number. Since there is little actual data with regards to these assumptions, analyses of three potential configurations were performed to obtain some indication of the bounds of the issue (the concentration of hydrogen or flammable VOCs within a waste box). A brief description of each of the three cases along with the results of the analysis is summarized.

  4. Box-Cox transformation for QTL mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Runqing; Yi, Nengjun; Xu, Shizhong

    2006-01-01

    The maximum likelihood method of QTL mapping assumes that the phenotypic values of a quantitative trait follow a normal distribution. If the assumption is violated, some forms of transformation should be taken to make the assumption approximately true. The Box-Cox transformation is a general transformation method which can be applied to many different types of data. The flexibility of the Box-Cox transformation is due to a variable, called transformation factor, appearing in the Box-Cox formula. We developed a maximum likelihood method that treats the transformation factor as an unknown parameter, which is estimated from the data simultaneously along with the QTL parameters. The method makes an objective choice of data transformation and thus can be applied to QTL analysis for many different types of data. Simulation studies show that (1) Box-Cox transformation can substantially increase the power of QTL detection; (2) Box-Cox transformation can replace some specialized transformation methods that are commonly used in QTL mapping; and (3) applying the Box-Cox transformation to data already normally distributed does not harm the result.

  5. First circulating beam in the AA

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    On 3 July 1980, two years after project authorization, beam circulated for the first time in the AA. It was a 3.56 GeV/c proton test beam. We see an expecting crowd, minutes before the happy event. The persons are too numerous to name them all, but the 3 most prominent ones are at the centre (left to right): Roy Billinge (Joint AA Project Leader, with his hand on the control box), Eifionydd Jones (white shirt), Simon van der Meer (spiritus rector and Joint AA Project Leader). The first antiprotons were injected, made to circulate and cooled soon after, on 14 July 1980.

  6. Complementarity in the Einstein-Bohr photon box

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieks, D.G.B.J.; Lam, S

    2008-01-01

    The Bohr-Einstein photon box thought experiment is a forerunner of the EPR experiment: a packet of radiation escapes from a box, and the box-plus-radiation state remains entangled. Hence, a measurement on the box makes a difference for the state of the far-away radiation long after its escape. This

  7. Changes in position and quality of preferred nest box: effects on nest box use by laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Anja Brinch; Nielsen, Birte L.

    2013-01-01

    hens were housed in pens, each with five identical nest boxes in different positions: Two single (in a corner or not) and a triplet of nest boxes (one of which in a corner). The use of nest boxes was determined by the number of eggs laid daily in each box. Three experiments, each lasting 10 days, were...

  8. Superresolution beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngcobo, S

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Ngcobo3_2012.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 4467 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Ngcobo3_2012.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 SUPERRESOLUTION BEAMS S... 2011 www.csir.co.za Outline ? Introduction ? Concept of superresolution beams ? Transformation of TEM00 to TEM10 ? Resonator design and experimental setup ? Results ? Conclusions ? Future work Slide 3 ? CSIR 2011...

  9. Shielding of the NBI boxes against W7-X magnetic stray fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kick, Manfred [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)], E-mail: Kick@arcor.de; Sielanko, Juliusz [Maria Curie Sklodowska University, Pl. M. C. Sklodowskie 1, 20-031 Lublin (Poland); Heinemann, Bernd; Riedl, Rudolf; Speth, Eckehart; Staebler, Albrecht [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    Neutral Beam Injection (NBI), besides ECRH, is foreseen as one of the main heating devices at the W7-X stellarator currently under construction at IPP Greifswald, Germany. In a final stage 20 MW of NBI heating power will be installed generated by two NBI boxes of the ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) type. Since magnetic fields generally affect the trajectories of charged particles, essentially all the NBI boxes - including ion sources, acceleration sections, neutralisers and deflection magnets - must be shielded against the stray fields of W7-X. In the magnetic stray fields of W7-X there exist significant radial and toroidal components whereas at tokamaks the vertical components are dominant. The power loads on the ion dump and the protecting structures of the deflecting magnets and the beam lines caused by residual beam ions, therefore, will be strongly different. Thus the shielding concept of AUG cannot simply be taken over, but must be carefully redesigned in order to remain below the critical power limits. New modelling calculations of the magnetic shielding, the ion trajectories and the resulting power loads have been carried out for the 'high iota' and 'low shear' experimental scenarios of W7-X. The fields taken for these calculations are modelled by averaging the calculated W7-X stray fields on the one hand, and by fields generated by two-hypothetical-planar coils perpendicular to the x-y plane, on the other hand. The shielding concept for W7-X mainly consist of iron plates in the outer side regions of the boxes and as little magnetic material as possible inside the boxes.

  10. Advances in the theory of box integrals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, J.M.; Crandall, R.E.

    2009-06-25

    Box integrals - expectations <|{rvec r}|{sup s}> or <|{rvec r}-{rvec q}|{sup s}> over the unit n-cube (or n-box) - have over three decades been occasionally given closed forms for isolated n,s. By employing experimental mathematics together with a new, global analytic strategy, we prove that for n {le} 4 dimensions the box integrals are for any integer s hypergeometrically closed in a sense we clarify herein. For n = 5 dimensions, we show that a single unresolved integral we call K{sub 5} stands in the way of such hyperclosure proofs. We supply a compendium of exemplary closed forms that naturally arise algorithmically from this theory.

  11. Reassessment of the nonlocality of correlation boxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, A.P.; Parisio, Fernando, E-mail: parisio@df.ufpe.br

    2017-01-15

    Correlation boxes are hypothetical systems usually designed to produce the maximal algebraic violation of a Bell inequality, beyond the quantum bound and without superluminal signalling. The fact that these systems show stronger correlations than those presented by maximally entangled quantum states, as the spin singlet, has been regarded as a demonstration that the former are more nonlocal than the latter. By applying an alternative, consistent measure of nonlocality to a family of correlation boxes, we show that this conclusion is not necessarily true. Complementarily, we define a class of systems displaying subquantum correlations which, nevertheless, are more nonlocal than the singlet state, showing that the extent of the numeric violation of an inequality may have little to do with the degree of nonlocality, especially in the case of correlation boxes.

  12. Nine optical black-box experiments for lower-secondary students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Henning; Friege, Gunnar

    2017-05-01

    In this paper a sequence of nine, easy to manufacture optical black-box experiments with increasing levels of difficulty, and supportive frameworks for physics classes are introduced. They have been evaluated in a lower-secondary school at the end of optics lessons. A black-box is a kind of experimental task where the inner structure is not visible to the experimenter. Using mirrors, beam-splitters, and blockers in a black-box to manipulate the light beam’s direction through this specific experiment, students are instructed to vary input and observe the output of light to get an idea of the possible inner structure. The presented sequence of black-box experiments requires a basic knowledge of the linear propagation of light and is suitable for beginner physics. Furthermore a framework for concrete implementation to physics classes is given, which covers suitable structure of class, examples for helpful worksheets, and authentic students’ solutions. The difficulty of the specific black-box experiments is given by the students’ success within observing input-output correlation and conclusion of an inner structure. The experiments’ implementation to physics classes may cover elaboration, practice, and aspects of the nature of science even in a beginner’s class. Evaluation has been conducted with students of young age (11-12 years old), however they are suitable for older students also. Although dealing with a time extensive sequence of experiments, students showed a high level of motivation throughout. Overall, implementing this sequence of black-box experiments is seen as valuable and helpful for physics classes.

  13. Improved connection details for adjacent prestressed bridge beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Bridges with adjacent box beams and voided slabs are simply and rapidly constructed, and are well suited to : short to medium spans. The traditional connection between the adjacent members is a shear key lled with a : conventional non-shrink grout...

  14. A white box perspective on behavioural adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Roberto; Corradini, Andrea; Gadducci, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    We present a white-box conceptual framework for adaptation developed in the context of the EU Project ASCENS coordinated by Martin Wirsing. We called it CoDA, for Control Data Adaptation, since it is based on the notion of control data. CoDA promotes a neat separation between application and adap......We present a white-box conceptual framework for adaptation developed in the context of the EU Project ASCENS coordinated by Martin Wirsing. We called it CoDA, for Control Data Adaptation, since it is based on the notion of control data. CoDA promotes a neat separation between application...

  15. Virtualisointi VirtualBox-ohjelman avulla

    OpenAIRE

    Pakka, Markku

    2011-01-01

    Tutkielmassani käsittelen aluksi palvelimia ja niiden tietoturvaa yleisesti, koska palvelinten tietoturva on tärkeää virtualisoitujen käyttöjärjestelmien turvallisuuden ja toimivuuden kannalta. Sen jälkeen siirryn käsittelemään virtualisointia ja sen tulevaisuutta. Seuraavaksi tutkin VirtualBox-ohjelmaa. Aluksi asennan VirtualBox-ohjelman Windows Vista-koneelle. Sen jälkeen käsittelen VirtualBoxin käyttöliittymää ja asennan Ubuntun virtuaalikäyttöjärjestelmäksi VirtualBoxin avulla. ...

  16. CASAS: A Smart Home in a Box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Diane J; Crandall, Aaron S; Thomas, Brian L; Krishnan, Narayanan C

    2013-07-01

    While the potential benefits of smart home technology are widely recognized, a lightweight design is needed for the benefits to be realized at a large scale. We introduce the CASAS "smart home in a box", a lightweight smart home design that is easy to install and provides smart home capabilities out of the box with no customization or training. We discuss types of data analysis that have been performed by the CASAS group and can be pursued in the future by using this approach to designing and implementing smart home technologies.

  17. Study of WATCH GRB error boxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorosabel, J.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Lund, Niels

    1995-01-01

    We have studied the first WATCH GRB Catalogue ofγ-ray Bursts in order to find correlations between WATCH GRB error boxes and a great variety of celestial objects present in 33 different catalogues. No particular class of objects has been found to be significantly correlated with the WATCH GRBs....

  18. Expo-Box: Submit Tool Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA-Expo-Box is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases, mode

  19. Nest Boxes Artificial Homes for Woodland Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Daniel J.; Kelley, John W.

    1983-01-01

    Provides instructions for constructing artificial "homes" for squirrels, raccoons, and rabbits. These include squirrel dens constructed from discarded automobile tires and squirrel nest boxes, raccoon dens, and rabbit burrows constructed from wood. Includes a chart giving dimensions of materials needed and suggestions on where to place the…

  20. Cereal Box Design: An Interdisciplinary Graphics Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Mike; Tsosie, Teri

    2012-01-01

    The cereal box design activity is intriguing both for its simplicity and the resourcefulness that it can generate in young people. Also, it lends itself to a variety of curriculums. It covers both consumerism and Design for the Environment (DfE) concepts broadly and in depth. The activity introduces a wide range of topics. They include graphic…

  1. Comparing Box Plot Distributions: A Teacher's Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfannkuch, Maxine

    2006-01-01

    Drawing conclusions from the comparison of datasets using informal statistical inference is a challenging task since the nature and type of reasoning expected is not fully understood. In this paper a secondary teacher's reasoning from the comparison of box plot distributions during the teaching of a Year 11 (15-year-old) class is analyzed. From…

  2. Activities: Exploring Data with Box Plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Elizabeth H.

    1988-01-01

    This set of activity sheets requires students to organize and display data with a box-and-whiskers graph. Students use the plot as a summary display to detect patterns and to highlight the important features of the data for purposes of comparison. (PK)

  3. Choreographies with Secure Boxes and Compromised Principals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbone, Marco; Guttman, Joshua

    2009-01-01

      We equip choreography-level session descriptions with a simple abstraction of a security infrastruc- ture. Message components may be enclosed within (possibly nested) ”boxes” annotated with the intended source and destination of those components. The boxes are to be implemented with cryp...

  4. One-dimensional oscillator in a box

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amore, Paolo [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal DIaz del Castillo 340, Colima, Colima (Mexico); Fernandez, Francisco M [INIFTA (UNLP, CCT La Plata-CONICET), Division Quimica Teorica, Blvd 113 S/N, Sucursal 4, Casilla de Correo 16, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)], E-mail: paolo@ucol.mx, E-mail: fernande@quimica.unlp.edu.ar

    2010-01-15

    We discuss a quantum-mechanical model of two particles that interact by means of a harmonic potential and are confined to a one-dimensional box with impenetrable walls. We apply perturbation theory to the cases of different and equal masses and analyse the symmetry of the states in the latter case. We compare the approximate perturbation results with accurate numerical ones.

  5. The black box of a mysterious disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Helm, F.; Schouten, A.; De Vlugt, E.; Van der Sanden, M.

    2005-01-01

    Red and swollen limbs that feel hot or cold, a numb feeling, lack of mobility, and worst of all, pain. These are symptoms of post-traumatic dystrophy (PD). Researchers from various disciplines are working together in the TREND research consortium to open the black box of this mysterious disorder.

  6. Minimal Solutions to the Box Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Jer-Chin

    2009-01-01

    The "box problem" from introductory calculus seeks to maximize the volume of a tray formed by folding a strictly rectangular sheet from which identical squares have been cut from each corner. In posing such questions, one would like to choose integral side-lengths for the sheet so that the excised squares have rational or integral side-length.…

  7. The clinicopathological significance of forkhead box P1 and forkhead box O3a in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xin; Yang, Zhulin; Liu, Xiao; Liu, Ziru; Miao, Xiongying; Li, Daiqiang; Zou, Qiong; Yuan, Yuan

    2017-05-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is a highly malignant tumor with poor prognosis, and the biomarkers for the early diagnosis, targeting therapy, and prognosis are still not clinically available. This study investigated the expression of forkhead box P1 and forkhead box O3a proteins in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma tumor tissues and pancreatic tissues with and without benign lesions using immunohistochemical staining. Results showed that the positive rates of forkhead box P1 and forkhead box O3a protein expression were significantly lower in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma tumors compared to peritumoral tissues, benign pancreatic tissues, and normal pancreatic tissues (p box P1 and forkhead box O3a protein expression exhibited dysplasia or intraepithelial neoplasia. The positive rates of forkhead box P1 and forkhead box O3a expression were significantly lower in cases with tumor mass >5 cm, lymph node metastasis, invasion to surrounding tissues and organs, and tumor-node-metastasis III + IV stage disease compared to cases with tumor mass ⩽5 cm (p box P1 and forkhead box O3a expression survived significantly shorter than patients with positive forkhead box P1 and forkhead box O3a expression (p = 0.000). Cox multivariate analysis revealed that negative forkhead box P1 and forkhead box O3a expression was an independent poor prognosis factor in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma patients. The area under the curve of a receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.642 for forkhead box P1 (95% confidence interval: 0.553-0.730) and 0.655 for forkhead box O3a (95% confidence interval: 0.6568-0.742). Loss of forkhead box P1 and forkhead box O3a protein expression is associated with carcinogenesis, progression, and poor prognosis in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas.

  8. Influence of the least-squares phase on optical vortices in strongly scintillated beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chen, M

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available on optical vortices in strongly scintillated beams Mingzhou Chen⁄ Applied Optics, School of Physics, National University of Ireland Galway, Galway, Ireland Filippus S. Rouxy National Laser Centre, CSIR, PO Box 395, Pretoria 0001, South Africa (Dated... dipoles in strongly scintillated beams. The sim- ulations are conceptually represented by the diagram in Fig. 1. 1 km 10 km d System aperture Phase screens Least squares phase removersScintillated beam Observation plane FIG. 1: (Color online...

  9. Can the design of glove dispensing boxes influence glove contamination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assadian, O; Leaper, D J; Kramer, A; Ousey, K J

    2016-11-01

    Few studies have explored the microbial contamination of glove boxes in clinical settings. The objective of this observational study was to investigate whether a new glove packaging system in which single gloves are dispensed vertically, cuff end first, has lower levels of contamination on the gloves and on the surface around the box aperture compared with conventional glove boxes. Seven participating sites were provided with vertical glove dispensing systems (modified boxes) and conventional boxes. Before opening glove boxes, the surface around the aperture was sampled microbiologically to establish baseline levels of superficial contamination. Once the glove boxes were opened, the first pair of gloves in each box was sampled for viable bacteria. Thereafter, testing sites were visited on a weekly basis over a period of six weeks and the same microbiological assessments were made. The surface near the aperture of the modified boxes became significantly less contaminated over time compared with the conventional boxes (Pcontamination around the aperture. Overall, gloves from modified boxes showed significantly less colony-forming unit contamination than gloves from conventional boxes (Pcontamination. This simple improvement to glove box design reduces contamination of unused gloves. Such modifications could decrease the risk of microbial cross-transmission in settings that use gloves. However, such advantages do not substitute for strict hand hygiene compliance and appropriate use of non-sterile, single-use gloves. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. All rights reserved.

  10. HMG-box sequences from microbats homologous to the human SOX30 HMG-box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullejos, M; Díaz de la Guardia, R; Barragán, M J; Sánchez, A

    2000-01-01

    SOX genes are a family of genes that encode for proteins which are characterised by the presence of a HMG-domain related to that of the mammalian sex-determining gene (SRY). By definition, the DNA binding domain of SOX genes is at least 50% identical to the 79 amino acid HMG domain of the SRY gene. We report here two HMG-box sequences from two microbat species (R. ferrumequinum and P. Pipistrellus) which were PCR amplified using a primer pair specific to the mouse Sry HMG-box. The high percentage of identity of this sequences with the human and mouse SOX30 HMG-box suggests that they are the SOX30 HMG-box for these two bat species.

  11. Structural Optimization of Steel Cantilever Used in Concrete Box Girder Bridge Widening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The structural optimization method of steel cantilever used in concrete box girder bridge widening is illustrated in this paper. The structural optimization method of steel cantilever incorporates the conceptual layout design of steel cantilever beam based on the topological theory and the determination of the optimal location of the transverse external prestressed tendons which connect the steel cantilever and the box girder. The optimal design theory and the analysis process are illustrated. The mechanical model for the prestressed steel cantilever is built and the analytical expression of the optimal position of the transverse external tendon is deduced. At last the effectiveness of this method is demonstrated by the design of steel cantilevers which are used to widen an existing bridge.

  12. Reconciling White-Box and Black-Box Perspectives on Behavioral Self-adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Bruni, Roberto; Corradini, Andrea; Gadducci, Fabio; Hölzl, Matthias; Lluch Lafuente, Alberto; Vandin, Andrea; Wirsing, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes to reconcile two perspectives on behavioral adaptation commonly taken at different stages of the engineering of autonomic computing systems. Requirements engineering activities often take a black-box perspective: A system is considered to be adaptive with respect to an environment whenever the system is able to satisfy its goals irrespectively of the environment perturbations. Modeling and programming engineering activities often take a white-box perspective: A system is e...

  13. Beam Steering Devices Reduce Payload Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Scientists have long been able to shift the direction of a laser beam, steering it toward a target, but often the strength and focus of the light is altered. For precision applications, where the quality of the beam cannot be compromised, scientists have typically turned to mechanical steering methods, redirecting the source of the beam by swinging the entire laser apparatus toward the target. Just as the mechanical methods used for turning cars has evolved into simpler, lighter, power steering methods, so has the means by which researchers can direct lasers. Some of the typical contraptions used to redirect lasers are large and bulky, relying on steering gimbals pivoted, rotating supports to shift the device toward its intended target. These devices, some as large and awkward as a piece of heavy luggage, are subject to the same issues confronted by mechanical parts: Components rub, wear out, and get stuck. The poor reliability and bulk not to mention the power requirements to run one of the machines have made mechanical beam steering components less than ideal for use in applications where weight, bulk, and maneuverability are prime concerns, such as on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) or a microscope. The solution to developing reliable, lighter weight, nonmechanical steering methods to replace the hefty steering boxes was to think outside the box, and a NASA research partner did just that by developing a new beam steering method that bends and redirects the beam, as opposed to shifting the entire apparatus. The benefits include lower power requirements, a smaller footprint, reduced weight, and better control and flexibility in steering capabilities. Such benefits are realized without sacrificing aperture size, efficiency, or scanning range, and can be applied to myriad uses: propulsion systems, structures, radiation protection systems, and landing systems.

  14. Experts’ Misinterpretation of Box Plots – a Dual Processing Approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stephanie Lem; Patrick Onghena; Lieven Verschaffel; Wim Van Dooren

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that students often misinterpret the area of the box in box plots as representing the frequency or proportion of observations in that interval, while it actually represents density...

  15. Conceptual design and optimization methodology for box wing aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Jemitola, Paul Olugbeji

    2012-01-01

    A conceptual design optimization methodology was developed for a medium range box wing aircraft. A baseline conventional cantilever wing aircraft designed for the same mis- sion and payload was also optimized alongside a baseline box wing aircraft. An empirical formula for the mass estimation of the fore and aft wings of the box wing aircraft was derived by relating conventional cantilever wings to box wing aircraft wings. The results indicate that the fore and aft wings would ...

  16. Box-Cox symmetric distributions and applications to nutritional data

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrari, Silvia L. P.; Fumes, Giovana

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the Box-Cox symmetric class of distributions, which is useful for modeling positively skewed, possibly heavy-tailed, data. The new class of distributions includes the Box-Cox t, Box-Cox Cole-Gree, Box-Cox power exponential distributions, and the class of the log-symmetric distributions as special cases. It provides easy parameter interpretation, which makes it convenient for regression modeling purposes. Additionally, it provides enough flexibility to handle outliers. The usefuln...

  17. Transformative Environmental Education: Stepping Outside the Curriculum Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Julie

    2009-01-01

    Environmental education has become trapped in the curriculum box. At a time when our students' generation is becoming trapped in a global warming box, their education needs to be rapidly adaptable to the changing state of their planet. Venturing outside the curriculum box takes courage, creativity, and a willingness to let nature serve as the…

  18. 76 FR 41411 - Group E Post Office Box Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    ... 111 Group E Post Office Box Service AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM\\. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The... administration for Group E (free) Post Office\\TM\\ (PO) box service. DATES: Effective Date: September 6, 2011. FOR... facilitate uniform administration for Group E (free) PO Box\\TM\\ service. The Postal Service received several...

  19. 75 FR 71642 - Group E Post Office Box Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... 111 Group E Post Office Box Service AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM\\. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The... administration for Group E (free) Post Office\\TM\\ (PO) Box service. DATES: We must receive your comments on or..., Washington, DC between 9 a.m. and 4 p.m., Monday through Friday. E-mail comments concerning the proposed box...

  20. 21 CFR 864.9185 - Blood grouping view box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood grouping view box. 864.9185 Section 864.9185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... and Blood Products § 864.9185 Blood grouping view box. (a) Identification. A blood grouping view box...

  1. 31 CFR 515.326 - Custody of safe deposit boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Custody of safe deposit boxes. 515... Definitions § 515.326 Custody of safe deposit boxes. Safe deposit boxes shall be deemed to be in the custody... upon the meaning of the term custody. ...

  2. 31 CFR 500.326 - Custody of safe deposit boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Custody of safe deposit boxes. 500... Definitions § 500.326 Custody of safe deposit boxes. Safe deposit boxes shall be deemed to be in the custody... upon the meaning of the term custody. ...

  3. 30 CFR 18.49 - Connection boxes on machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Connection boxes on machines. 18.49 Section 18..., AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements § 18.49 Connection boxes on machines. Connection boxes used to facilitate replacement...

  4. Using Origami Boxes to Explore Concepts of Geometry and Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wares, Arsalan

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this classroom note is to provide an example of how a simple origami box can be used to explore important concepts of geometry and calculus. This article describes how an origami box can be folded, then it goes on to describe how its volume and surface area can be calculated. Finally, it describes how the box could be folded to…

  5. 49 CFR 230.102 - Tender plain bearing journal boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender plain bearing journal boxes. 230.102... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.102 Tender plain bearing journal boxes. Plain bearing journal boxes... expected to damage the bearing; or have a detrimental effect on the lubrication of the journal and bearing...

  6. 49 CFR 230.103 - Tender roller bearing journal boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender roller bearing journal boxes. 230.103... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.103 Tender roller bearing journal boxes. Tender roller bearing journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition. ...

  7. Stable beams

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Stable beams: two simple words that carry so much meaning at CERN. When LHC page one switched from "squeeze" to "stable beams" at 10.40 a.m. on Wednesday, 3 June, it triggered scenes of jubilation in control rooms around the CERN sites, as the LHC experiments started to record physics data for the first time in 27 months. This is what CERN is here for, and it’s great to be back in business after such a long period of preparation for the next stage in the LHC adventure.   I’ve said it before, but I’ll say it again. This was a great achievement, and testimony to the hard and dedicated work of so many people in the global CERN community. I could start to list the teams that have contributed, but that would be a mistake. Instead, I’d simply like to say that an achievement as impressive as running the LHC – a machine of superlatives in every respect – takes the combined effort and enthusiasm of everyone ...

  8. The Central Nervous System of Box Jellyfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garm, Anders Lydik; Ekström, Peter

    2008-01-01

    of behaviors in the box jellyfish such as obstacle avoidance and navigation. The need to process the visual information and turn it into the appropriate behavior puts strong demands on the nervous system of box jellyfish, which appears more elaborate than in other cnidarians. Here, the central part...... of this nervous system is described. Each rhopalium holds a separate part of the CNS with 1,000 nerve cells and a large amount of neuropil. The rhopalial nervous system has several subsystems defined by the anatomy, location, and immunocytochemistry of the cells. Most of the subsystems connect to one or more...... of the eye types, and it is likely that the rhopalial nervous system accounts for most of the visual processing. The major part of the CNS is made up of a ring nerve encircling the bell shaped body. The ring nerve holds around 10,000 cells and is directly connected to all four rhopalial nervous systems...

  9. Fatal exit the automotive black box debate

    CERN Document Server

    Kowalick, Tom

    2005-01-01

    "Fatal Exit: The Automotive Black Box Debate cuts through thirty years of political wrangling and institutional biases to provide an argument for the Motor Vehicle Event Data Recorder (MVEDR). This automotive equivalent of an airplane's flight recorder or black box is intended to solve the mysteries of car crashes and improve the safety of our roads. The reader is taken inside the automotive industry and the government highway safety establishment to foster an understanding of the politics and the positions on all sides of this safety debate. The author takes an unbiased approach, chronologically presenting each argument and uncovering the agendas and mandates of each of the stakeholders." "This publication is essential reading for all consumers who need to have their voices heard on this critical issue, as well as for attorneys, public safety advocates, public policy administrators, engineers, automotive professionals, journalists, and insurance executives."--Jacket.

  10. Design and Optimize an Automatic Medicine Box

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Lin; Wu, Shengmin

    2010-01-01

    Our work is to design an automatic and intelligent medicine box to help most people to take the medicine easily, especially for the arthritis, the elderly, the forgetful people and the kids. First, five different structures have been designed by CAD Inventor software. One of them, which can be carried out the most easily in reality, has been chosen to complete with a dynamic system. Considering the characteristic of medicine, there are two schemes in the structure designs are ideal. Several c...

  11. Can the box plot be improved?

    OpenAIRE

    Chamnein Choonpradub; Don McNeil

    2005-01-01

    Invented by Spear in 1952 and popularized by Tukey in 1977, the box plot is widely used for displaying and comparing samples of continuous observations. Despite its popularity, it is less effective for showing shape behaviour of distributions, particularly bimodality. Using robust estimators of data skewness and kurtosis to classify the distribution into categories, we suggest a simple enhancement for indicating bimodality, central peakedness, and skewness. We also suggest a new graphical met...

  12. The Spectra of Des S-Boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Properties of Cayley Graphs Associated with S-Box 8 BFs. . . . . 132 Table 6.51 The DES Functions with Ramanujan Cayley Graphs. . . . . . . . 136 Table...interesting case occurs when this inequality is not satisfied. Alexander Lubotzky et al. [89] coined the term Ramanujan graph for an r-regular graph in which...the largest eigenvalue other than λn = r is less than or equal to the Alon-Boppana bound. Ramanujan graphs are named after Indian mathematician

  13. Avionics Box Cold Plate Damage Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambolian, Damon; Larcher, Steven; Henderson, Gena; Tran, Donald

    2011-01-01

    Over the years there have been several occurrences of damage to Space Shuttle Orbiter cold plates during removal and replacement of avionics boxes. Thus a process improvement team was put together to determine ways to prevent these kinds of damage. From this effort there were many solutions including, protective covers, training, and improved operations instructions. The focus of this paper is to explain the cold plate damage problem and the corrective actions for preventing future damage to aerospace avionics cold plate designs.

  14. Interferometric investigation of convection in plexiglas boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, J. N.

    1983-09-01

    Real-time holographic interferometry is used to study free convection in cavities heated from below and bounded by Plexiglas windows. Advantages and shortcomings of this visualization technique applied to such Plexiglas boxes are discussed. As Plexiglas has a high temperature-dependent refractive index, temperature fields in the windows and the fluid layer are visualized. These visualizations furnished proof of a pronounced thermal influence of the walls on the flow pattern based on what we call “thermal memory” of Plexiglas.

  15. Monitoring Instrument for X-Ray Box

    CERN Document Server

    Cifuentes Ospina, Alberto; Kuehn, Susanne; Schaepe, Steffen; CERN. Geneva. EP Department

    2017-01-01

    A humidity and temperature readout instrument has been designed and implemented in order to monitor the X-Ray Box used for testing the silicon detectors prototypes of the ITk. The sensors are connected to an Arduino Mega board equipped with 16 analog inputs and a serial port to a computer. A user-friendly software has been also designed in order to give an easy access to all measurements.

  16. PCB-Based Break-Out Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jason H.

    2011-01-01

    Break-out boxes (BOBs) are necessary for all electrical integration/cable checkouts and troubleshooting. Because the price of a BOB is high, and no work can be done without one, often the procedure stops, simply waiting for a BOB. A less expensive BOB would take less time in the integration, testing, and troubleshooting process. The PCB-based BOB works and looks the same as a standard JPL BOB, called Gold Boxes. The only differences between the old BOB and the new PCB-based BOB is that the new one has 80 percent of its circuitry in a printed circuit board. This process reduces the time for fabrication, thus making the BOBs less expensive. Moreover, because of its unique design, the new BOBs can be easily assembled and fixed. About 80 percent of the new PCB-based BOB is in a $22 (at the time of this reporting) custom-designed, yet commercially available PCB. This device has been used successfully to verify that BOB cables were properly made. Also, upon completion, the BOB was beeped out via a multimeter to ensure that all sockets on the connectors were properly connected to the respective banana jack. When compared to the Gold Box BOBs, the new BOB has many advantages. It is much more cost efficient, it delivers equal usability at substantially lower cost of the BOB, and the Gold Box is much heavier when compared to the new BOB. The new BOB is also a bit longer and much more versatile in that connectors are easily changeable and if a banana jack is broken, it can be replaced instead of throwing away an entire BOB.

  17. Box fractal dimension in speckle images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabal, Héctor; Grumel, Eduardo; Cap, Nelly; Buffarini, Leandro; Trivi, Marcelo

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a generalization of the box fractal dimension in images by considering the curve obtained from its value as a function of the binarization threshold. This curve can be used to describe speckle patterns. We show some examples of both objective simulated and experimental and subjective speckle in some cases of interest. The concept can be extended for all types of images.

  18. Prohibiting Headgear for Safety in Amateur Boxing? Opinion of the Canadian Boxing Community: an Online Poll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Philip; Rempel, Philip

    In 2013, the Amateur International Boxing Association (AIBA) introduced a rule banning headgear for male-senior open class boxers during competition. The AIBA has defended the rule change as motivated by safety and supported by internal unpublished studies. As a result, in 2018, the AIBA plans to universally prohibit headgear in competition: for all competitors (male and female), all ages and all levels. Within Canada, this ruling has generated controversy in the boxing community, yet there has been no overall measure of opinion. To address this, we instituted a voluntary, anonymous, online open-access poll to allow members of the boxing community to express their stance on headgear use in competition. In total, 636 responses were received. A total of 71.5 % of Canadian respondents believed headgear should be mandatory at all levels. Only 5.8 % agreed that headgear should be prohibited, as planned for 2018. Estimating results on a representative breakdown of boxing membership in Canada, a similar pattern emerged, whereby 68.2 % concurred with mandatory headgear while only 4.95 % supported its prohibition. Parents of boxers were almost unanimously against banning headgear, stating they would change sports as a result. Similarly, only 1.7 % of women believed headgear should be prohibited. The consensus of the Canadian boxing community largely opposes the rule changes that the AIBA has implemented. The results highlight risks posed to the long-term viability of the sport, if significant grassroots safety concerns are disregarded.

  19. 49 CFR 178.512 - Standards for steel or aluminum boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for steel or aluminum boxes. 178.512... aluminum boxes. (a) The following are identification codes for steel or aluminum boxes: (1) 4A for a steel box; and (2) 4B for an aluminum box. (b) Construction requirements for steel or aluminum boxes are as...

  20. Reconciling White-Box and Black-Box Perspectives on Behavioral Self-adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Roberto; Corradini, Andrea; Gadducci, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes to reconcile two perspectives on behavioral adaptation commonly taken at different stages of the engineering of autonomic computing systems. Requirements engineering activities often take a black-box perspective: A system is considered to be adaptive with respect...... to an environment whenever the system is able to satisfy its goals irrespectively of the environment perturbations. Modeling and programming engineering activities often take a white-box perspective: A system is equipped with suitable adaptation mechanisms and its behavior is classified as adaptive depending...... and possibly modify the adaptation requirements, models and programs of an autonomic system....

  1. Propagation-invariant beams with quantum pendulum spectra: from Bessel beams to Gaussian beam-beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Mark R; Ring, James D

    2013-09-01

    We describe a new class of propagation-invariant light beams with Fourier transform given by an eigenfunction of the quantum mechanical pendulum. These beams, whose spectra (restricted to a circle) are doubly periodic Mathieu functions in azimuth, depend on a field strength parameter. When the parameter is zero, pendulum beams are Bessel beams, and as the parameter approaches infinity, they resemble transversely propagating one-dimensional Gaussian wave packets (Gaussian beam-beams). Pendulum beams are the eigenfunctions of an operator that interpolates between the squared angular momentum operator and the linear momentum operator. The analysis reveals connections with Mathieu beams, and insight into the paraxial approximation.

  2. Box codes of lengths 48 and 72

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, G.; Jin, Y.

    1993-01-01

    A self-dual code length 48, dimension 24, with Hamming distance essentially equal to 12 is constructed here. There are only six code words of weight eight. All the other code words have weights that are multiples of four and have a minimum weight equal to 12. This code may be encoded systematically and arises from a strict binary representation of the (8,4;5) Reed-Solomon (RS) code over GF (64). The code may be considered as six interrelated (8,7;2) codes. The Mattson-Solomon representation of the cyclic decomposition of these codes and their parity sums are used to detect an odd number of errors in any of the six codes. These may then be used in a correction algorithm for hard or soft decision decoding. A (72,36;15) box code was constructed from a (63,35;8) cyclic code. The theoretical justification is presented herein. A second (72,36;15) code is constructed from an inner (63,27;16) Bose Chaudhuri Hocquenghem (BCH) code and expanded to length 72 using box code algorithms for extension. This code was simulated and verified to have a minimum distance of 15 with even weight words congruent to zero modulo four. The decoding for hard and soft decision is still more complex than the first code constructed above. Finally, an (8,4;5) RS code over GF (512) in the binary representation of the (72,36;15) box code gives rise to a (72,36;16*) code with nine words of weight eight, and all the rest have weights greater than or equal to 16.

  3. Can the box plot be improved?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamnein Choonpradub

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Invented by Spear in 1952 and popularized by Tukey in 1977, the box plot is widely used for displaying and comparing samples of continuous observations. Despite its popularity, it is less effective for showing shape behaviour of distributions, particularly bimodality. Using robust estimators of data skewness and kurtosis to classify the distribution into categories, we suggest a simple enhancement for indicating bimodality, central peakedness, and skewness. We also suggest a new graphical method for displaying confidence intervals when comparing several samples of continuous data.

  4. Smart Distribution Boxes, Complete Energy Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platise, Uros

    2010-09-15

    Present households demand side management implementations are turning conventional appliances into smart ones to support auto demand (AutoDR) response function. Present concept features a direct link between the power meters and appliances. In this paper new concept and example of implementation of a so-called Smart Distribution Box (SmartDB) is represented for complete energy and power management. SmartDBs, as an intermediate layer, are extending smart grid power meter functionality to support AutoDR with fast and guaranteed response times, distributed power sources, and besides provide full control over energy management and extra safety functions to the consumers.

  5. Keller-box method and its application

    CERN Document Server

    Prasad, Kerehalli V

    2014-01-01

    Most of the problems arising in science and engineering are nonlinear. They are inherently difficult to solve. Traditional analytical approximations are valid only for weakly nonlinear problems, and often break down for problems with strong nonlinearity. This book presents the current theoretical developments and applications of Keller-Box method to nonlinear problems. The first half of the bookaddresses basic concepts to understand the theoretical framework for the method. In the second half of the book, the authorsgive a number of examples of coupled nonlinear problems that have been solved

  6. Do Biomimetic Students Think Outside the Box?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker

    2017-01-01

    Biomimetics is a recognized method in ideation for getting access to new and – for the designer – novel knowledge, which hopefully will result in more novel and useful products. But do designers actually find new knowledge, i.e. think outside the box or do they stick to well-known biological...... phenomena? If they concentrate on animals and plants, which they beforehand have knowledge about, it could be expected that solutions will remind of what they would have found without using biomimetics. To investigate this question, the empirical results from a university course in biomimetics have been...

  7. LHC Crab Cavity Coupler Test Boxes

    CERN Document Server

    Mitchell, James; Burt, Graeme; Calaga, Rama; Macpherson, Alick; Montesinos, Eric; Silva, Subashini; Tutte, Adam; Xiao, Binping

    2016-01-01

    The LHC double quarter wave (DQW) crab cavities have two different types of Higher Order Mode (HOM) couplers in addition to a fundamental power coupler (FPC). The FPC requires conditioning, so to achieve this we have designed a radio-frequency (RF) quarter wave resonator to provide high transmission between two opposing FPCs. For the HOM couplers we must ensure that the stop-band filter is positioned at the cavity frequency and that peak transmission occurs at the same frequencies as the strongest HOMs. We have designed two test boxes which preserve the cavity spectral response in order to test the couplers.

  8. A (72, 36; 15) box code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, G.

    1993-01-01

    A (72,36;15) box code is constructed as a 9 x 8 matrix whose columns add to form an extended BCH-Hamming (8,4;4) code and whose rows sum to odd or even parity. The newly constructed code, due to its matrix form, is easily decodable for all seven-error and many eight-error patterns. The code comes from a slight modification in the parity (eighth) dimension of the Reed-Solomon (8,4;5) code over GF(512). Error correction uses the row sum parity information to detect errors, which then become erasures in a Reed-Solomon correction algorithm.

  9. Teaching Outside the Box: ARL Librarians' Integration of the "One- Box" into Student Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulp, Christina; McCain, Cheryl; Scrivener, Laurie

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the results of a survey that targeted reference and instruction librarians who work at libraries that are members of the Asso- ciation of Research Libraries (ARL). Respondents were asked to indicate whether or not they teach students to use the one-box tool, and why or why not. Based on the responses of the 352 librarians who…

  10. Literature in Focus Beta Beams: Neutrino Beams

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    By Mats Lindroos (CERN) and Mauro Mezzetto (INFN Padova, Italy) Imperial Press, 2009 The beta-beam concept for the generation of electron neutrino beams was first proposed by Piero Zucchelli in 2002. The idea created quite a stir, challenging the idea that intense neutrino beams only could be produced from the decay of pions or muons in classical neutrino beams facilities or in future neutrino factories. The concept initially struggled to make an impact but the hard work by many machine physicists, phenomenologists and theoreticians over the last five years has won the beta-beam a well-earned position as one of the frontrunners for a possible future world laboratory for high intensity neutrino oscillation physics. This is the first complete monograph on the beta-beam concept. The book describes both technical aspects and experimental aspects of the beta-beam, providing students and scientists with an insight into the possibilities o...

  11. Beam Techniques - Beam Control and Manipulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minty, Michiko G

    2003-04-24

    We describe commonly used strategies for the control of charged particle beams and the manipulation of their properties. Emphasis is placed on relativistic beams in linear accelerators and storage rings. After a brief review of linear optics, we discuss basic and advanced beam control techniques, such as transverse and longitudinal lattice diagnostics, matching, orbit correction and steering, beam-based alignment, and linac emittance preservation. A variety of methods for the manipulation of particle beam properties are also presented, for instance, bunch length and energy compression, bunch rotation, changes to the damping partition number, and beam collimation. The different procedures are illustrated by examples from various accelerators. Special topics include injection and extraction methods, beam cooling, spin transport and polarization.

  12. Electron beam control for barely separated beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, David R.; Ament, Lucas J. P.

    2017-04-18

    A method for achieving independent control of multiple beams in close proximity to one another, such as in a multi-pass accelerator where coaxial beams are at different energies, but moving on a common axis, and need to be split into spatially separated beams for efficient recirculation transport. The method for independent control includes placing a magnet arrangement in the path of the barely separated beams with the magnet arrangement including at least two multipole magnets spaced closely together and having a multipole distribution including at least one odd multipole and one even multipole. The magnetic fields are then tuned to cancel out for a first of the barely separated beams to allow independent control of the second beam with common magnets. The magnetic fields may be tuned to cancel out either the dipole component or tuned to cancel out the quadrupole component in order to independently control the separate beams.

  13. Research of intelligent bus coin box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Shihao

    2017-03-01

    In the energy-saving emission reduction of the social context, in response to low-carbon travel, buses become the majority of people choose. We have designed this sorting machine for the present situation that the bus company has received a large amount of mixed zero coins and employed a large amount of manpower to sort out and lower the efficiency. Its function is to separate the coins and notes mixed, and the coins sort storage, the display shows the value of the received coins, so that the whole mechanized inventory classification, reduce the cost of clearing up and improve the efficiency of zero cash recycling, use Simple mechanical principles for classification, to be efficient, accurate and practical. Really meet the current city bus companies, commerce and banking and other industries in order to zero notes, zero coins in the actual demand. The size and specification of this machine are designed according to the size of the bus coin box. It is suitable for almost all buses. It can be installed in the coin box directly, real-time sorting and real-time counting. The difficulty of clearing change.

  14. Hairy black holes in a box

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, Pallab [International Center for Theoretical Sciences,IISc Campus, Bangalore 560012 (India); Krishnan, Chethan; Subramanian, P.N. Bala [Center for High Energy Physics, Indian Institute of Science,Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2016-11-08

    We do a systematic study of the phases of gravity coupled to an electromagnetic field and charged scalar in flat space, with box boundary conditions. The scalar-less box has previously been investigated by Braden, Brown, Whiting and York (and others) before AdS/CFT and we elaborate and extend their results in a language more familiar from holography. The phase diagram of the system is analogous to that of AdS black holes, but we emphasize the differences and explain their origin. Once the scalar is added, we show that the system admits both boson stars as well as hairy black holes as solutions, providing yet another way to evade flat space no-hair theorems. Furthermore both these solutions can exist as stable phases in regions of the phase diagram. The final picture of the phases that emerges is strikingly similar to that found recently for holographic superconductors in global AdS, http://arxiv.org/abs/1602.07211. Our construction lays bare certain previously unnoticed subtleties associated to the definition quasi-local charges for gravitating scalar fields in finite regions.

  15. Flexible bulb large storage box hydrogen maser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, V.

    1973-01-01

    The principal limitation on the accuracy of the hydrogen maser as a primary frequency standard has been the irreproducibility of the frequency shift caused by collisions of the radiating atoms with the walls of the vessel containing them. The flexible bulb-large storage box hydrogen maser allows correction for this wall shift within a single device, sidestepping the reproducibility problem, and reducing the frequency error from the wall shift to the level imposed by the device's stability. The principles of the device are discussed including the flexible bulb technique and the complications caused by a multiple region storage bulb. The stability of the device is discussed including a comparison with an ordinary hydrogen maser. Data is presented from a working flexible bulb-large storage box hydrogen maser demonstrating the feasibility of the device and showing some of its operating characteristics. The flexibility of the device is demonstrated by showing how the device's added degrees of freedom allow measurement of parameters unmeasurable in an ordinary hydrogen maser.

  16. Transverse beam profile measurements with slit scanner and Faraday cup at REX-ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Cantero, E D; Lanaia, D; Sosa, A; Voulot, D

    2014-01-01

    The transverse profiles for the HIE-ISOLDE beams will be measured using a system composed of a scanning slit and a Faraday cup. A validation test of the proposed device was performed using the REX-ISOLDE stable beam and a prototype diagnostic box designed for HIE-ISOLDE. The slit used for this test was very thin (0.2 mm width), but still fairly good profiles could be obtained for beams with total current of around 20 pA (typical beam intensity during normal set-up procedures for REX-ISOLDE).

  17. A Group Action Method for Construction of Strong Substitution Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Sajjad Shaukat; Shah, Tariq; Attaullah, Atta

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, the method to develop cryptographically strong substitution box is presented which can be used in multimedia security and data hiding techniques. The algorithm of construction depends on the action of a projective general linear group over the set of units of the finite commutative ring. The strength of substitution box and ability to create confusion is assessed with different available analyses. Moreover, the ability of resistance against malicious attacks is also evaluated. The substitution box is examined by bit independent criterion, strict avalanche criterion, nonlinearity test, linear approximation probability test and differential approximation probability test. This substitution box is equated with well-recognized substitution boxes such as AES, Gray, APA, S8, prime of residue, Xyi and Skipjack. The comparison shows encouraging results about the strength of the proposed box. The majority logic criterion is also calculated to analyze the strength and its practical implementation.

  18. Visual pigments of the box jellyfish species Chiropsella bronzie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O*Connor, Megan; Garm, Anders Lydik; Marshall, Justin

    2010-01-01

    Box jellyfish (Cubomedusae) possess a unique visual system comprising 24 eyes of four morphological types. Moreover, box jellyfish display several visually guided behaviours, including obstacle avoidance and light-shaft attractance. It is largely unknown what kind of visual information box...... jellyfish use for carrying out these behaviours. Brightness contrast is almost certainly involved, but it is also possible that box jellyfish extract colour information from their surroundings. The possible presence of colour vision in box jellyfish has previously been investigated using behavioural......, electrophysiological and immunohistochemical methods. However, the results from these studies are to some degree conflicting and inconclusive. Here, we present results from an investigation into the visual system of the box jellyfish Chiropsella bronzie, using microspectrophotometry and immunohistochemistry. Our...

  19. Telecommunication using muon beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Richard C.

    1976-01-01

    Telecommunication is effected by generating a beam of mu mesons or muons, varying a property of the beam at a modulating rate to generate a modulated beam of muons, and detecting the information in the modulated beam at a remote location.

  20. Nonparaxial abruptly autofocusing beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penciu, Raluca-Sorina; Makris, Konstantinos G.; Efremidis, Nikolaos K.

    2016-03-01

    We study nonparaxial autofocusing beams with pre-engineered trajectories. We consider the case of linearly polarized electric optical beams and examine their focusing properties such as contrast, beam width, and numerical aperture. Such beams are associated with larger intensity contrasts, can focus at smaller distances, and have smaller spot sizes as compared to the paraxial regime.

  1. ISR beam scrapers

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1972-01-01

    Beam scrapers seen in the direction of the beam. The two horizontal scraper foils are near the centre of the beam pipe andthe two scrapers for protection of the vacuum chamber are further outside. In the lower part of the beam pipe is the vertical halo scraping blade.

  2. Deep Cropping via Attention Box Prediction and Aesthetics Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wenguan; Shen, Jianbing

    2017-01-01

    We model the photo cropping problem as a cascade of attention box regression and aesthetic quality classification, based on deep learning. A neural network is designed that has two branches for predicting attention bounding box and analyzing aesthetics, respectively. The predicted attention box is treated as an initial crop window where a set of cropping candidates are generated around it, without missing important information. Then, aesthetics assessment is employed to select the final crop ...

  3. Prospective Assessment of Inpatient Boxed Warning Prescriber Adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloet, Megan A; Lohr, Brian R; Smithburger, Pamela L; Seybert, Amy L; Kane-Gill, Sandra L

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate medication boxed warning nonadherence in the inpatient setting. This was a prospective cohort quality improvement project approved by our institution's Total Quality Council. General medicine and ICU patients 18 years and older were included if they were cared for by a prescriber-led multidisciplinary team that included a pharmacist. Patients were evaluated for medication orders with an actionable boxed warning; if boxed warning nonadherence occurred, the physician's reason was determined. Patients with boxed warning nonadherence were monitored for adverse drug reactions until discharge. A total of 393 patients (224 general medicine and 169 ICU) were evaluated for nonadherence to 149 actionable boxed warnings. There were 293 drugs (175 general medicine and 118 ICU) with boxed warnings prescribed, and more than 50% of these were medications restarted from home. A total of 23 boxed warning nonadherences occurred in general medicine patients, and NSAIDs accounted for 81% of these events. ICU patients experienced 11 boxed warning nonadherences, with nearly 54% from anti-infectives and immunosuppressants. Antipsychotics were the most commonly ordered boxed warning medication class in ICU patients. Reasons for nonadherence included knowledge deficit and an acceptable risk-to-benefit ratio. Two adverse drug reactions occurred from boxed warning nonadherences, both because of a drug-drug interaction. Boxed warning nonadherence is a concern in the inpatient setting, specifically with NSAID use in general medicine patients and antipsychotic use in ICU patients. More than half of boxed warning nonadherence occurred in medications restarted from home, which emphasizes the need for medication evaluation during transitions of care.

  4. Grey-box modelling of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tornøe, Christoffer Wenzel; Jacobsen, Judith L; Pedersen, Oluf

    2004-01-01

    Grey-box pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modelling is presented as a promising way of modelling PK/PD systems. The concept behind grey-box modelling is based on combining physiological knowledge along with information from data in the estimation of model parameters. Grey-box modelling con...... in order to describe the complicated in vivo system of insulin and glucose following an IVGTT....

  5. An Improved Method of Manufacturing Corrugated Boxes: Lateral Corrugator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank C. Murray Ph.D.; , Roman Popil Ph.D.; Michael Shaepe (formerly with IPST, now at Cargill. Inc)

    2008-12-18

    Paper physicists have known that a corrugated box constructed from outer liner sheets having a predominant fiber orientation aligned with the corrugating flute direction would have higher stiffness and crush resistance (per unit of fiber weight) than the conventional box construction. Such increased performance per unit of fiber weight could result in fiber reduction and energy savings for boxes having equivalent performance specifications. The goal of this project was to develop and demonstrate a commercially viable lateral corrugating process. This included designing and building a pilot lateral corrugator, testing and evaluating pilot machine made boxes, and developing a strategy for commercialization.

  6. BTF measurements with beam-beam interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Gorgen, P.; Fischer, W.

    2014-07-17

    We present considerations about the transverse beam transfer function (BTF) of beams under the influence of two effects: The strong-strong beam-beam effect and the influence of a Gaussian electron lens. The BTF are investigated using two methods: BTF excitation is simulated in a particle-in-cell (PIC) code. The BTF model is verified using a known analytic expectation. Analytic expectations for BTF of beams under a stationary electron lens are derived by extending BTF from the formalism of Berg and Ruggiero. Finally we compare the analytic BTF results for a stationary Gaussian lens to both the PIC simulation for split tune conditions and to PIC simulations for a beam influenced by an electron lens. We conclude that the formalism represents the electron lens well and can be applied to a limited extend to the beam-beam effect under split tune conditions. The analytic formalism allows us to recover the strength of an electron lens by means of fitting and can give clues regarding the strength of the beam-beam effe...

  7. The beam dump tunnels

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    In these images workers are digging the tunnels that will be used to dump the counter-circulating beams. Travelling just a fraction under the speed of light, the beams at the LHC will each carry the energy of an aircraft carrier travelling at 12 knots. In order to dispose of these beams safely, a beam dump is used to extract the beam and diffuse it before it collides with a radiation shielded graphite target.

  8. The Design of Plywood Webs for Airplane Wing Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trayer, George W

    1931-01-01

    This report deals with the design of plywood webs for wooden box beams to obtain maximum strength per unit weight. A method of arriving at the most efficient and economical web thickness, and hence the most suitable unit shear stress, is presented and working stresses in shear for various types of webs and species of plywood are given. The questions of diaphragm spacing and required glue area between the webs and flange are also discussed.

  9. Design Research: Six Views in a Box

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    This book is a report from a class on design research at the Danish Design School. Ten students had ten weeks to conduct design research based on approaches, methods and techniques from co-design focusing on the Alzheimer’s disease as experienced by people with Alzheimer’s, their relatives...... and close relations, and professional caretakers. Alzheimer's destroys brain cells, causing memory loss and problems with thinking and behavior severe enough to affect work, lifelong hobbies and social life. As Alzheimer’s is a fatal disease that affects many people, there is a strong interest in finding...... professional organizations in a user-driven approach to explore and learn what it means to identify and admit that a person has Alzheimer’s. Apart from making contributions to the common box, the students have written reports in which they reflect on their work both in relation to the design research process...

  10. Box ladders in a noninteger dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, I.; Kondrashuk, I. N.

    2013-11-01

    We construct a family of triangle-ladder diagrams that can be calculated using the Belokurov-Usyukina loop reduction technique in d= 4-2ɛ dimensions. The main idea of the approach we propose is to generalize this loop reduction technique existing in d= 4 dimensions. We derive a recurrence relation between the result for an L-loop triangle-ladder diagram of this family and the result for an (L- 1)-loop triangleladder diagram of the same family. Because the proposed method combines analytic and dimensional regularizations, we must remove the analytic regularization at the end of the calculation by taking the double uniform limit in which the parameters of the analytic regularization vanish. In the position space, we obtain a diagram in the left-hand side of the recurrence relations in which the rung indices are 1 and all other indices are 1 - ɛ in this limit. Fourier transforms of diagrams of this type give momentum space diagrams with rung indices 1 - ɛ and all other indices 1. By a conformal transformation of the dual space image of this momentum space representation, we relate such a family of triangle-ladder momentum diagrams to a family of box-ladder momentum diagrams with rung indices 1 - ɛ and all other indices 1. Because any diagram from this family is reducible to a one-loop diagram, the proposed generalization of the Belokurov-Usyukina loop reduction technique to a noninteger number of dimensions allows calculating this family of box-ladder diagrams in the momentum space explicitly in terms of Appell's hypergeometric function F 4 without expanding in powers of the parameter ɛ in an arbitrary kinematic region in the momentum space.

  11. Chironex fleckeri (Box Jellyfish) Venom Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, Diane L.; Konstantakopoulos, Nicki; McInerney, Bernie V.; Mulvenna, Jason; Seymour, Jamie E.; Isbister, Geoffrey K.; Hodgson, Wayne C.

    2014-01-01

    The box jellyfish Chironex fleckeri produces extremely potent and rapid-acting venom that is harmful to humans and lethal to prey. Here, we describe the characterization of two C. fleckeri venom proteins, CfTX-A (∼40 kDa) and CfTX-B (∼42 kDa), which were isolated from C. fleckeri venom using size exclusion chromatography and cation exchange chromatography. Full-length cDNA sequences encoding CfTX-A and -B and a third putative toxin, CfTX-Bt, were subsequently retrieved from a C. fleckeri tentacle cDNA library. Bioinformatic analyses revealed that the new toxins belong to a small family of potent cnidarian pore-forming toxins that includes two other C. fleckeri toxins, CfTX-1 and CfTX-2. Phylogenetic inferences from amino acid sequences of the toxin family grouped CfTX-A, -B, and -Bt in a separate clade from CfTX-1 and -2, suggesting that the C. fleckeri toxins have diversified structurally and functionally during evolution. Comparative bioactivity assays revealed that CfTX-1/2 (25 μg kg−1) caused profound effects on the cardiovascular system of anesthetized rats, whereas CfTX-A/B elicited only minor effects at the same dose. Conversely, the hemolytic activity of CfTX-A/B (HU50 = 5 ng ml−1) was at least 30 times greater than that of CfTX-1/2. Structural homology between the cubozoan toxins and insecticidal three-domain Cry toxins (δ-endotoxins) suggests that the toxins have a similar pore-forming mechanism of action involving α-helices of the N-terminal domain, whereas structural diversification among toxin members may modulate target specificity. Expansion of the cnidarian toxin family therefore provides new insights into the evolutionary diversification of box jellyfish toxins from a structural and functional perspective. PMID:24403082

  12. Sound radiation characteristics of a box-type structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran Lin, Tian; Pan, Jie

    2009-09-01

    The finite element and boundary element methods are employed in this study to investigate the sound radiation characteristics of a box-type structure. It has been shown [T.R. Lin, J. Pan, Vibration characteristics of a box-type structure, Journal of Vibration and Acoustics, Transactions of ASME 131 (2009) 031004-1-031004-9] that modes of natural vibration of a box-type structure can be classified into six groups according to the symmetry properties of the three panel pairs forming the box. In this paper, we demonstrate that such properties also reveal information about sound radiation effectiveness of each group of modes. The changes of radiation efficiencies and directivity patterns with the wavenumber ratio (the ratio between the acoustic and the plate bending wavenumbers) are examined for typical modes from each group. Similar characteristics of modal radiation efficiencies between a box structure and a corresponding simply supported panel are observed. The change of sound radiation patterns as a function of the wavenumber ratio is also illustrated. It is found that the sound radiation directivity of each box mode can be correlated to that of elementary sound sources (monopole, dipole, etc.) at frequencies well below the critical frequency of the plates of the box. The sound radiation pattern on the box surface also closely related to the vibration amplitude distribution of the box structure at frequencies above the critical frequency. In the medium frequency range, the radiated sound field is dominated by the edge vibration pattern of the box. The radiation efficiency of all box modes reaches a peak at frequencies above the critical frequency, and gradually approaches unity at higher frequencies.

  13. Beam diagnostics for low energy beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Harasimowicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Low-energetic ion and antimatter beams are very attractive for a number of fundamental studies. The diagnostics of such beams, however, is a challenge due to low currents down to only a few thousands of particles per second and significant fraction of energy loss in matter at keV beam energies. A modular set of particle detectors has been developed to suit the particular beam diagnostic needs of the ultralow-energy storage ring (USR at the future facility for low-energy antiproton and ion research, accommodating very low beam intensities at energies down to 20 keV. The detectors include beam-profile monitors based on scintillating screens and secondary electron emission, sensitive Faraday cups for absolute intensity measurements, and capacitive pickups for beam position monitoring. In this paper, the design of all detectors is presented in detail and results from beam measurements are shown. The resolution limits of all detectors are described and options for further improvement summarized. Whilst initially developed for the USR, the instrumentation described in this paper is also well suited for use in other low-intensity, low-energy accelerators, storage rings, and beam lines.

  14. A boost for the ISOLDE beams

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2015-01-01

    The first HIE-ISOLDE cryomodule was commissioned at the end of October. The radioactive ion beams can now be accelerated to 4.3 MeV per nucleon.   The ISOLDE beamline that supplies the Miniball array. The first HIE-ISOLDE cryomodule can be seen in the background, in its light-grey cryostat. ISOLDE is getting an energy boost. The first cryomodule of the new superconducting linear accelerator HIE-ISOLDE (High Intensity and Energy ISOLDE), located downstream of the REX-ISOLDE accelerator, increases the energy of the radioactive ion beams from 3 to 4.3 MeV per nucleon. It supplies the Miniball array, where an experiment using radioactive zinc ions (see box) began at the end of October. This is the first stage in the commissioning of HIE-ISOLDE. The facility will ultimately be equipped with four cryomodules that will accelerate the beams to 10 MeV per nucleon. Each cryomodule has five accelerating cavities and a solenoid, which focuses the beam. All of these components are superconducting. This first ...

  15. A Comparison of Energy Expenditure During "Wii Boxing" Versus Heavy Bag Boxing in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perusek, Kristen; Sparks, Kenneth; Little, Kathleen; Motley, Mary; Patterson, Sheila; Wieand, Jennifer

    2014-02-01

    Traditional computer videogames are sedentary, whereas new computer videogames, such as the Nintendo(®) (Redmond, WA) "Wii™ Sports" games, allow users to physically interact while playing the sport. Energy expenditure (EE), heart rate (HR), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during heavy bag boxing versus the Nintendo "Wii Boxing" game were compared. Fifteen males and 14 females (mean age, 25.6 years; height, 171.3 cm; weight, 71.8 kg) randomly selected (by a coin toss) heavy bag boxing or "Wii Boxing" for their first test session and completed the other protocol at their second session at least 2 days later. Each session lasted for a total duration of 30 minutes and consisted of 10 3-minute exercise bouts with measurements of HR, RPE, and EE obtained from indirect calorimetry. A paired-samples t test was used to analyze the results. Significant differences were found for HR (bag, 156 beats per minute; Wii, 138 beats per minute; P=0.001) and RPE (bag, 13.8; Wii, 11.4; P=0.0001) but not for EE (bag, 8.0 kcal/minute; Wii, 7.1 kcal/minute; bag, 241 total kcal; Wii, 213 total kcal; P=0.078). The results suggest that computer active videogames, such as the Nintendo Wii, have the potential to provide similar EE as their traditional forms of exercise and may be a sufficient replacement for traditional target HR zone activities, especially in less fit individuals. Further research is needed to compare EE for different "Wii Sports" games with those for their traditional forms of exercise.

  16. Dream Box Learning. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "DreamBox Learning" is a supplemental online mathematics program that provides adaptive instruction for students in grades K-5 and focuses on number and operations, place value, and number sense. The What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) identified one study of "DreamBox Learning" that both falls within the scope of the Elementary…

  17. 49 CFR 230.101 - Steam locomotive driving journal boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. 230.101... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.101 Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. (a) Driving journal...

  18. Creative Underachievers: Children Who Are Too out of the Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimm, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    Educators in the field of gifted education attempt to not only accelerate curriculum for their students, but also to encourage and expand their critical and creative thinking. They often explain this creative approach to students as "out-of-the-box" thinking. "The box" is an effective analogy to help children understand how to…

  19. A System for Cooling inside a Glove Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Martial

    2010-01-01

    An easy, efficient, reliable, and low-cost method of constructing a cooling system using a simple circulating pump is described. The system is employed in conjunction with an inert atmosphere glove box to achieve the synthesis of air- and moisture-sensitive compounds inside the glove box at controlled, low temperatures without contaminating the…

  20. Using Willie's Acid-Base Box for Blood Gas Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, John R.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a method developed by Dr. William T. Lipscomb for teaching blood gas analysis of acid-base status and provides three examples using Willie's acid-base box. Willie's acid-base box is constructed using three of the parameters of standard arterial blood gas analysis: (1) pH; (2) bicarbonate; and (3) CO[subscript…

  1. Faster Black-Box Algorithms Through Higher Arity Operators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doerr, Benjamin; Johannsen, Daniel; Kötzing, Timo

    2011-01-01

    We extend the work of Lehre and Witt (GECCO 2010) on the unbiased black-box model by considering higher arity variation operators. In particular, we show that already for binary operators the black-box complexity of LeadingOnes drops from (n2) for unary operators to O(n log n). For OneMax, the (n...

  2. Getting started with Oracle VM VirtualBox

    CERN Document Server

    Dash, Pradyumna

    2013-01-01

    A step-by-step guide that will show you how to install, configure, and manage VirtualBox.This book is for system administrators, technical architects, and virtualization enthusiasts who want to learn how to set up a virtual machine. Knowledge of the Linux environment is expected. Prior experience with VirtualBox or knowledge of virtualization is not required.

  3. Modelling of Box Type Solar Cooker Performance in a Tropical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thermal performance model of box type solar cooker with loaded water is presented. The model was developed using the method of Funk to estimate cooking power in terms of climatic and design parameters for box type solar cooker in a tropical environment. Coefficients for each term used in the model were determined ...

  4. Current implementation of advance encryption standard (AES) S-Box

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although the attack on cryptosystem is still not severe, the development of the scheme is still ongoing especially for the design of S-Box. Two main approach has beenused, which are heuristic method and algebraic method. Algebraic method as in current AES implementation has been proven to be the most secure S-Box ...

  5. 30 CFR 18.43 - Explosion-proof splice boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosion-proof splice boxes. 18.43 Section 18.43 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION... Design Requirements § 18.43 Explosion-proof splice boxes. Internal connections shall be rigidly held and...

  6. 30 CFR 18.42 - Explosion-proof distribution boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosion-proof distribution boxes. 18.42 Section 18.42 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING... and Design Requirements § 18.42 Explosion-proof distribution boxes. (a) A cable passing through an...

  7. Analysis of the petunia MADS-box transcription factor family

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Immink, R.G.H.; Ferrario, S.I.T.; Busscher-Lange, J.; Kooiker, M.; Busscher, M.; Angenent, G.C.

    2003-01-01

    Transcription factors are key regulators of plant development. One of the major groups of transcription factors is the MADS-box family, of which at least 80 members are encoded in the Arabidopsis genome. In this study, 23 members of the petunia MADS-box transcription factor family were investigated

  8. Lightweight S-Box Architecture for Secure Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Prathiba

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Lightweight cryptographic solutions are required to guarantee the security of Internet of Things (IoT pervasiveness. Cryptographic primitives mandate a non-linear operation. The design of a lightweight, secure, non-linear 4 × 4 substitution box (S-box suited to Internet of Things (IoT applications is proposed in this work. The structure of the 4 × 4 S-box is devised in the finite fields GF (24 and GF ((222. The finite field S-box is realized by multiplicative inversion followed by an affine transformation. The multiplicative inverse architecture employs Euclidean algorithm for inversion in the composite field GF ((222. The affine transformation is carried out in the field GF (24. The isomorphic mapping between the fields GF (24 and GF ((222 is based on the primitive element in the higher order field GF (24. The recommended finite field S-box architecture is combinational and enables sub-pipelining. The linear and differential cryptanalysis validates that the proposed S-box is within the maximal security bound. It is observed that there is 86.5% lesser gate count for the realization of sub field operations in the composite field GF ((222 compared to the GF (24 field. In the PRESENT lightweight cipher structure with the basic loop architecture, the proposed S-box demonstrates 5% reduction in the gate equivalent area over the look-up-table-based S-box with TSMC 180 nm technology.

  9. Heart Rate and Liking During "Kinect Boxing" Versus "Wii Boxing": The Potential for Enjoyable Vigorous Physical Activity Videogames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Gabriel J; Peacock, Corey A; Barkley, Jacob E; Gish, Brian; Brock, Scott; Volpenhein, Josh

    2015-08-01

    Nintendo(®) (Kyoto, Japan) "Wii™ Sports Boxing" ("Wii Boxing") and Xbox(®) (Microsoft, Redmond, WA) "Kinect(®) Sports Boxing" ("Kinect Boxing") are both boxing simulation videogames that are available for two different active videogame (AVG) systems. Although these AVGs are similar, the style of gameplay required is different (i.e., upper body only versus total body movements) and may alter physical activity intensity and one's preference for playing one game over the other. AVGs that elicit the greatest physiologic challenge and are preferred by users should be identified in an effort to enhance the efficacy of physical activity interventions and programs that include AVGs. The mean heart rate (HRmean) and peak heart rate (HRpeak) for 27 adults (22.7±4.2 years old) were recorded during four 10-minute conditions: seated rest, treadmill walking at 3 miles/hour, "Wii Boxing," and "Kinect Boxing." Upon completion of all four conditions, participants indicated which condition they preferred, and HRmean and HRpeak were calculated as a percentage of age-predicted maximum heart rate to classify physical activity intensity for the three activity conditions (treadmill, "Wii Boxing," and "Kinect Boxing"). "Kinect Boxing" significantly (P<0.001) increased percentage HRmean (64.1±1.6 percent of age-predicted maximum) and percentage HRpeak (76.5±1.9 percent) above all other conditions: Wii HRmean, 53.0±1.2 percent; Wii HRpeak, 61.8±1.5 percent; treadmill HRmean, 52.4±1.2 percent; treadmill HRpeak, 55.2±2.2 percent. Percentage HRpeak for "Kinect Boxing" was great enough to be considered a vigorous-intensity physical activity. There was no difference (P=0.55) in percentage HRmean between "Wii Boxing" and treadmill walking. Participants also preferred "Kinect Boxing" (P<0.001; n=26) to all other conditions ("Wii Boxing," n=1; treadmill n=0). "Kinect Boxing" was the most preferred and the only condition that was physiologically challenging enough to be classified as a

  10. External Beam Therapy (EBT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type your comment or suggestion into the following text box: Comment: E-mail: Area code: Phone no: ... Colorectal Cancer Treatment Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) Brain ...

  11. Low current beam techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint, A.; Laird, J.S.; Bardos, R.A.; Legge, G.J.F. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Nishijima, T.; Sekiguchi, H. [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan).

    1993-12-31

    Since the development of Scanning Transmission Microscopy (STIM) imaging in 1983 many low current beam techniques have been developed for the scanning (ion) microprobe. These include STIM tomography, Ion Beam Induced Current, Ion Beam Micromachining and Microlithography and Ionoluminense. Most of these techniques utilise beam currents of 10{sup -15} A down to single ions controlled by beam switching techniques This paper will discuss some of the low beam current techniques mentioned above, and indicate, some of their recent applications at MARC. A new STIM technique will be introduced that can be used to obtain Z-contrast with STIM resolution. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  12. Getting started with Citrix VDI-in-a-Box

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Stuart Arthur

    2013-01-01

    A practical and fast-paced guide that gives you all the information you need to simplify and streamline virtual desktops so you get a production-quality solution while instantly lowering your costs and improving security.Getting Started with Citrix VDI-in-a-Box is great for IT professionals who are new to VDI-in-a-Box and who are looking for a good grounding in the product. You may be planning to research VDI-in-a-Box in more detail, or you may be tasked with researching how VDI-in-a-Box could improve the productivity of your organization. No prior knowledge of VDI-in-a-Box is required, just a

  13. Integrated Box Interrogation System (IBIS) Preliminary Design Study

    CERN Document Server

    Croft, S; Chard-Mj, P; Estop, J R; Martancik, D; Sheila-Melton; Young, B

    2003-01-01

    Canberra Industries has won the tendered solicitation, INEEL/EST-99-00121 for boxed waste Nondestructive Assay Development and Demonstration. Canberra will provide the Integrated Box Interrogation System (IBIS) which is a suite of assay instrumentation and a data reduction system that addresses the measurement needs for Boxed Wastes identified in the solicitation and facilitates the associated experimental program and demonstration of system capability. The IBIS system will consist of the next generation CWAM system, i.e. CWAM II, which is a Scanning Passive/Active Neutron interrogation system which we will call a Box Segmented Neutron Scanner (BSNS), combined with a physically separate Box Segmented Gamma-ray Scanning (BSGS) system. These systems are based on existing hardware designs but will be tailored to the large sample size and enhanced to allow the program to evaluate the following measurement criteria:Characterization and correction for matrix heterogeneity Characterization of non-uniform radio-nucli...

  14. Electron beam welding and beam positioning

    OpenAIRE

    MOROZOV M.Y.; BRAVERMAN V.Y.; MEDNIKOV D.M.

    2015-01-01

    Programs for control of mutual movements of the welded parts and EB gun are written in the unified language ISO-7bit. Beam settings control uses electronic charts or optional languages, sometimes self-designed. Operator coordinates movements and beam settings manually.

  15. T10 Beam Studies & Beam Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Bergmann, Michael Georges; Van Dijk, Maarten; CERN. Geneva. EN Department

    2017-01-01

    In order to test detector components before their installation in actual experiments, one uses test beams in which one can control particle typ, momentum and size to high degree. For this project the focus of a secondary beam at T10 in the East Area at CERN was analysed using an AZALEA telescope from DESY.

  16. Beam Dynamics and Beam Losses - Circular Machines

    CERN Document Server

    Kain, V

    2016-01-01

    A basic introduction to transverse and longitudinal beam dynamics as well as the most relevant beam loss mechanisms in circular machines will be presented in this lecture. This lecture is intended for physicists and engineers with little or no knowledge of this subject.

  17. IEA Common Exercise 4: ARX, ARMAX and grey-box models for thermal performance characterization of the test box

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder; Andersen, Philip Hvidthøft Delff

    In this report results of applying time series models for assessing the thermal performance of the IEA Annex 58 test box based on data given in the Common Exercise 4 (CE4), which was measured in Almeria, Spain. Both ARX, ARMAX and grey-box models are applied. Finally, the same models are fitted...

  18. Successful Beam-Beam Tuneshift Compensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishofberger, Kip Aaron [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The performance of synchrotron colliders has been limited by the beam-beam limit, a maximum tuneshift that colliding bunches could sustain. Due to bunch-to-bunch tune variation and intra-bunch tune spread, larger tuneshifts produce severe emittance growth. Breaking through this constraint has been viewed as impossible for several decades. This dissertation introduces the physics of ultra-relativistic synchrotrons and low-energy electron beams, with emphasis placed on the limits of the Tevatron and the needs of a tuneshift-compensation device. A detailed analysis of the Tevatron Electron Lens (TEL) is given, comparing theoretical models to experimental data whenever possible. Finally, results of Tevatron operations with inclusion of the TEL are presented and analyzed. It is shown that the TEL provides a way to shatter the previously inescapable beam-beam limit.

  19. Beam Loss in Linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Plum, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Beam loss is a critical issue in high-intensity accelerators, and much effort is expended during both the design and operation phases to minimize the loss and to keep it to manageable levels. As new accelerators become ever more powerful, beam loss becomes even more critical. Linacs for H- ion beams, such as the one at the Oak Ridge Spallation Neutron Source, have many more loss mechanisms compared to H+ (proton) linacs, such as the one being designed for the European Spallation Neutron Source. Interesting H- beam loss mechanisms include residual gas stripping, H+ capture and acceleration, field stripping, black-body radiation and the recently discovered intra-beam stripping mechanism. Beam halo formation, and ion source or RF turn on/off transients, are examples of beam loss mechanisms that are common for both H+ and H- accelerators. Machine protection systems play an important role in limiting the beam loss.

  20. Ion sources with arc-discharge plasma box driven by directly heated LaB(6) electron emitter or cold cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Alexander A; Davydenko, Vladimir I; Deichuli, Petr P; Shulzhenko, Grigori I; Stupishin, Nikolay V

    2008-02-01

    In the Budker Institute, Novosibirsk, an ion source with arc-discharge plasma box has been developed in the recent years for application in thermonuclear devices for plasma diagnostics. Several modifications of the ion source were provided with extracted current ranging from 1 to 7 A and pulse duration of up to 4 s. Initially, the arc-discharge plasma box with cold cathode was used, with which pulse duration is limited to 2 s by the cathode overheating and sputtering in local arc spots. Recently, a directly heated LaB(6) electron emitter was employed instead, which has extended lifetime compared to the cold cathode. In the paper, characteristics of the beam produced with both arrangements of the plasma box are presented.

  1. Beam Dynamics for ARIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekdahl, Carl August Jr. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-10-14

    Beam dynamics issues are assessed for a new linear induction electron accelerator being designed for flash radiography of large explosively driven hydrodynamic experiments. Special attention is paid to equilibrium beam transport, possible emittance growth, and beam stability. It is concluded that a radiographic quality beam will be produced possible if engineering standards and construction details are equivalent to those on the present radiography accelerators at Los Alamos.

  2. An Electromagnetic Beam Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to an electromagnetic beam converter and a method for conversion of an input beam of electromagnetic radiation having a bell shaped intensity profile a(x,y) into an output beam having a prescribed target intensity profile l(x',y') based on a further development...

  3. Rethinking sanitation: panacea or Pandora's box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esrey, S A

    2000-01-01

    In the 19th century, sanitation solutions were designed and built on the premises that human excreta was a waste suitable only for disposal and that the environment was capable of assimilating the waste. The prevailing view last century was that vapors from smells caused disease, and the best way to deal with excreta was to convey it to rivers and streams where it could be diluted and cleansed. Times have changed, the premises are outdated, and current solutions contribute, either directly or indirectly, to many of the problems faced by society today: water pollution, scarcity of fresh water, food insecurity, destruction and loss of soil fertility, loss of biodiversity, depletion of the ozone layer, and global warming. A common denominator of all these problems is how society deals with its wastes, specifically how it deals with human excrement. We have to rethink past premises, design and build new systems, and contribute to the solving of society's most pressing problems. The panacea of the 19th century is turning out to be the pandora's box of the 21st century.

  4. Box Cello Middle School Science Clubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandegrift, Guy

    1998-10-01

    The Box Cello is a middle school science club which is attempting to (1) understand the cello and (2) design a low-cost starter instrument. We can support and justify this research by adding a third goal: (3) to help supply local science classes with equipment. My policy of spending one entire day each week away from the university, out in a local school is essential to this project. This schedule also permits me to conduct lessons on optics and music in the schools. And, it permits circulation of tools and equipment. A simple calculation demonstrates the great economy achieved by combining science clubs with academic year school visits. Consider the cost of letting 10,000 students in 10 middle schools each learn about and play with a pair of "upside-down" glasses for one hour. A visit to each school for three consecutive weeks would easily permit such a circulation if only 30 pairs were constructed. Assume rhetorically, that the construction of 30 pairs of glasses were to consume the entire estimated annual budget of $100,000. The cost per student would be only ten dollars! The visits, guest lectures, and equipment loans permit informal networking (including lunch) with math, science and music teachers in 10 schools. For more information, visit the http://www.utep.edu/boxcello/

  5. Opening up a Colourful Cosmic Jewel Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    The combination of images taken by three exceptional telescopes, the ESO Very Large Telescope on Cerro Paranal , the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla observatory and the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, has allowed the stunning Jewel Box star cluster to be seen in a whole new light. Star clusters are among the most visually alluring and astrophysically fascinating objects in the sky. One of the most spectacular nestles deep in the southern skies near the Southern Cross in the constellation of Crux. The Kappa Crucis Cluster, also known as NGC 4755 or simply the "Jewel Box" is just bright enough to be seen with the unaided eye. It was given its nickname by the English astronomer John Herschel in the 1830s because the striking colour contrasts of its pale blue and orange stars seen through a telescope reminded Herschel of a piece of exotic jewellery. Open clusters [1] such as NGC 4755 typically contain anything from a few to thousands of stars that are loosely bound together by gravity. Because the stars all formed together from the same cloud of gas and dust their ages and chemical makeup are similar, which makes them ideal laboratories for studying how stars evolve. The position of the cluster amongst the rich star fields and dust clouds of the southern Milky Way is shown in the very wide field view generated from the Digitized Sky Survey 2 data. This image also includes one of the stars of the Southern Cross as well as part of the huge dark cloud of the Coal Sack [2]. A new image taken with the Wide Field Imager (WFI) on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile shows the cluster and its rich surroundings in all their multicoloured glory. The large field of view of the WFI shows a vast number of stars. Many are located behind the dusty clouds of the Milky Way and therefore appear red [3]. The FORS1 instrument on the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) allows a much closer look at the cluster itself. The telescope's huge mirror

  6. A Grey-Box Dynamic Model of Plate Heat Exchangers Used in an Urban Heating System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Qingwei Miao; Shijun You; Wandong Zheng; Xuejing Zheng; Huan Zhang; Yaran Wang

    2017-01-01

    .... In the grey-box method, a newly developed parameter identification method was established. The simulation results of two outlet temperatures by the grey-box and white-box method, respectively, are compared with the test data...

  7. Box 11: Tissue Engineering and Bioscience Methods Using Proton Beam Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kan, J. A.

    Tissue engineering is a rapidly developing and highly interdisciplinary field that applies the principles of cell biology, engineering, and materials science to the culture of biological tissue. The artificially grown tissue then can be implanted directly into the body, or it can form part of a device that replaces organ functionality.

  8. Aggregate distribution investigation in box beams fabricated with self consolidating concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    In 2004, the Texas Department of Transportation initiated Project 0-5197 to investigate the feasibility of : increasing the allowable compressive stress limit at prestress transfer. Initially, the live load performance of 36 : specimens was evaluated...

  9. THE FLEXURAL STRENGTH AND RIGIDITY OF ALBASIA NAIL-LAMINATED BEAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Tjondro

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The horizontally and vertically nail-laminated beams were tested in this experimental study. Twelve specimens of horizontally nail-laminated beam with the same cross section and variation of four nail spacings were tested.  Nine specimens of vertically nail-laminated beam with the same nail spacing and three variations of cross sections, namely rectangular, I and box also were investigated. The hardwood fast growing species, Albasia (Albizia Falcata was used. All specimens were made from four Albasia wood planks with approximately has the same cross section area. The flexural strength, rigidity and ductility of beams were investigated. The vertically nail-laminated beam has greater strength and rigidity than horizontally nail-laminated beam, but less in ductility.

  10. SUPERSTITIOUS BEHAVIOR AMONG JUDO, TAEKWONDO AND BOXING PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dureja Gaurav

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The present study was designed to measure superstitious behavior among Judo, Taekwondo and Boxing players. Material: Thirty (N=30 male inter-college level players with the age group of 19-25 years were selected through purposive sampling technique to act as subjects from affiliated colleges of Panjab University, Chandigarh. They were further divided into three groups: Group-A [Judo (n=10], Group-B [Taekwondo (n=10] and Group-C [Boxing (n=10]. One Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA was applied to find out the differences among judo, taekwondo and boxing players. Where F values found significant, Least Significant Differences (LSD Post-hoc test was applied to find out the direction and degree of difference. Results: The level of significance was set at 0.05. The result revealed significant differences among judo, taekwondo and boxing players on the sub parameters: clothing and appearance, preparation, team ritual and coach. However, no significant differences have been observed on the sub-parameters fetish, game/competition, prayer and parameter superstitious (Total. Conclusions: The obtained results showed significant differences on the sub-parameter Coach among Judo, Taekwondo and Boxing players. While calculating the mean values of entire groups, it has been observed that Boxing players demonstrate significantly better on the sub-parameter Coach. Therefore, it can be ascertained that Boxing players are more confident that coach bring a lucky charm to our game.

  11. SUPERSTITIOUS BEHAVIOR AMONG JUDO, TAEKWONDO AND BOXING PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Dureja

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The present study was designed to measure superstitious behavior among Judo, Taekwondo and Boxing players. Material: Thirty (N=30 male inter-college level players with the age group of 19-25 years were selected through purposive sampling technique to act as subjects from affiliated colleges of Panjab University, Chandigarh. They were further divided into three groups: Group-A [Judo (n=10], Group-B [Taekwondo (n=10] and Group-C [Boxing (n=10]. One Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA was applied to find out the differences among judo, taekwondo and boxing players. Where ‘F’ values found significant, Least Significant Differences (LSD Post-hoc test was applied to find out the direction and degree of difference. Results: The level of significance was set at 0.05. The result revealed significant differences among judo, taekwondo and boxing players on the sub parameters: clothing and appearance, preparation, team ritual and coach. However, no significant differences have been observed on the sub-parameters fetish, game/competition, prayer and parameter superstitious (Total. Conclusions: The obtained results showed significant differences on the sub-parameter Coach among Judo, Taekwondo and Boxing players. While calculating the mean values of entire groups, it has been observed that Boxing players demonstrate significantly better on the sub-parameter Coach. Therefore, it can be ascertained that Boxing players are more confident that coach bring a lucky charm to our game.

  12. Halo formation from mismatched beam-beam interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiang, Ji

    2003-05-23

    In this paper, we report on the halo formation and emittance growth driven by a parametric resonance during mismatched beam-beam collisions. In the regime of the weak-strong beam-beam interaction, if two beams have the same machine tunes, on-axis head-on collisions between a mismatched strong beam and a weak beam will not cause the formation of halo. However, if the two beams collide with an initial offset, the beam-beam force from the mismatched strong beam can cause halo formation and emittance growth in the weak beam. Meanwhile, if two beams have different machine tunes, for opposite charged colliding beams, when the machine tune of the weak beam is smaller than that of strong beam, there is emittance growth in the weak beam. When the machine tune of the weak beam is larger than that of the strong beam, there is little emittance growth. In the regime of strong-strong beam-beam interaction, halo is formed in both beams even when the two beams collide head-on on the axis with equal machine tunes. This puts a strong requirement for a good beam match during the injection to colliders in order to avoid the emittance growth.

  13. Security of the AES with a Secret S-Box

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiessen, Tyge; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde; Kölbl, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    How does the security of the AES change when the S-box is replaced by a secret S-box, about which the adversary has no knowledge? Would it be safe to reduce the number of encryption rounds? In this paper, we demonstrate attacks based on integral cryptanalysis which allow to recover both the secret...... key and the secret S-box for respectively four, five, and six rounds of the AES. Despite the significantly larger amount of secret information which an adversary needs to recover, the attacks are very efficient with time/data complexities of 217/216, 238/240 and 290/264, respectively. Another...

  14. Utilization of Boxes for Pesticide Storage in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pieris, Ravi; Weerasinghe, Manjula; Abeywickrama, Tharaka

    2017-01-01

    Pesticide self-poisoning is now considered one of the two most common methods of suicide worldwide. Encouraging safe storage of pesticides is one particular approach aimed at reducing pesticide self-poisoning. CropLife Sri Lanka (the local association of pesticide manufacturers), with the aid...... of the Department of Agriculture, distributed lockable in-house pesticide storage boxes free of charge to a farming community in a rural district of Sri Lanka. Padlocks were not provided with the boxes. These storage boxes were distributed to the farmers without prior education. The authors carried out a cross...

  15. Quartic Box-Spline Reconstruction on the BCC Lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minho

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents an alternative box-spline filter for the body-centered cubic (BCC) lattice, the seven-direction quartic box-spline M7 that has the same approximation order as the eight-direction quintic box-spline M8 but a lower polynomial degree, smaller support, and is computationally more efficient. When applied to reconstruction with quasi-interpolation prefilters, M7 shows less aliasing, which is verified quantitatively by integral filter metrics and frequency error kernels. To visualize and analyze distributional aliasing characteristics, each spectrum is evaluated on the planes and lines with various orientations.

  16. Exponential beams of electromagnetic radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Bialynicki-Birula, Iwo; Bialynicka-Birula, Zofia

    2006-01-01

    We show that in addition to well known Bessel, Hermite-Gauss, and Laguerre-Gauss beams of electromagnetic radiation, one may also construct exponential beams. These beams are characterized by a fall-off in the transverse direction described by an exponential function of rho. Exponential beams, like Bessel beams, carry definite angular momentum and are periodic along the direction of propagation, but unlike Bessel beams they have a finite energy per unit beam length. The analysis of these beam...

  17. CυBE: Coherent υ Beam Educator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureshkumar, Vivian Amos; Richardson, M.

    2017-03-01

    Holography has advanced rapidly over the years due to technical melioration in the field of optics. Three-dimensional imaging has gained importance to upgrade the existing imaging and display system. Holography has become one of the branches of optics gaining significant importance with a vast number of technical and industrial applications. When we address holography the first thing that comes to mind is projecting a three dimensional object on thin air. The word holography has always been confused between peppers ghost effect. The famous English phrase "A picture is worth a thousand words", means a complex idea can be conveyed by a single picture. The basic principle of holography sounds complex with all its technical terms. This paper aims to explain the concept of the CυBE: Coherent υ Beam Educator that contains a transmission hologram illuminated with a laser diode. This paper summarizes the construction details of the CυBE and the optical setup to record the transmission hologram. It also briefs the circuit connections for the laser diode that's works with an aid of a push button. When viewer presses the push button the original scene is reconstructed. It provides details regarding the angle of reference beam at recording and how the reference beam is compensated at reconstruction. Also this paper highlights how the magnification of the recorded image is affected with respect to the path length of the laser diode inside the box during reconstruction of the recorded hologram.

  18. Trial manufacture of portable type `WISH BOX`; Kahangata WISH BOX no shisaku kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushiyama, I.; Sakuma, H.; Qin, W. [Ashikaga Institute of Technology, Tochigi (Japan); Onai, Y.

    1996-10-27

    This paper proposes the small portable type power source `WISH BOX` (wind and solar hybrid) composed of a small wind power generator and solar cell panels. Since solar radiation and wind power are complementary to each other in seasons, day and night, and fine and cloudy weather, WISH BOX is useful for standalone power source in non-power areas of developing countries, life spot in disasters, and outdoor leisure. The most small light-weight high-performance AIR303 produced by Southwest Windpower Co., USA is used as wind power generator, and two 50W solar cell panels HSC-5010-S produced by Daido Hokusan Co. is used. Sealed lead storage batteries (12V, 20Ah each) are also connected to cope with load fluctuation. In comparison with conventional portable gasoline engine generators, this environment-friendly generator is featured by fuel-free, no emission of gases, no noises and no fire occurrence, and can also supply stable power with small batteries even in the nighttime and cloudy weather by combining wind power. The generator of 400,000 yen is now in field experiment. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  19. 47 CFR 90.241 - Radio call box operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... transmitter can be only manually reactivated. (9) Frequency selection must be made with regard to reception of... effective radiated power (ERP). (3) The height of a call box antenna may not exceed 6.1 meters (20 feet...

  20. FDA boxed warnings: how to prescribe drugs safely.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Nina R

    2010-02-01

    Boxed warnings, commonly referred to as "black box" warnings, are issued by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and featured in the labeling of drugs associated with serious adverse reactions. These safety concerns are typically identified through the Adverse Event Reporting System and the Office of Surveillance and Epidemiology, which evaluates postmarket safety findings. The most common type of warning is issued when there is a potentially serious adverse effect that must be carefully weighed against the potential benefit of the drug. Warnings are also issued to draw attention to dosing, monitoring requirements, and potential drug interactions. Boxed warnings have been issued recently for oral sodium phosphate bowel preparations, fluoroquinolone antibiotics, and salmeterol. Despite these highly publicized warnings, all of these medications remain viable treatment options with appropriate patient selection. Ultimately, physicians must decide whether to prescribe drugs with boxed warnings. Copyright (c) 2010 American Academy of Family Physicians.

  1. T-Box Genes in Human Development and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, T K; Brook, J D; Wilsdon, A

    2017-01-01

    T-box genes are important development regulators in vertebrates with specific patterns of expression and precise roles during embryogenesis. They encode transcription factors that regulate gene transcription, often in the early stages of development. The hallmark of this family of proteins is the presence of a conserved DNA binding motif, the "T-domain." Mutations in T-box genes can cause developmental disorders in humans, mostly due to functional deficiency of the relevant proteins. Recent studies have also highlighted the role of some T-box genes in cancer and in cardiomyopathy, extending their role in human disease. In this review, we focus on ten T-box genes with a special emphasis on their roles in human disease. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cryogenic distribution box for Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svehla, M. R.; Bonnema, E. C.; Cunningham, E. K.

    2017-12-01

    Meyer Tool & Mfg., Inc (Meyer Tool) of Oak Lawn, Illinois is manufacturing a cryogenic distribution box for Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL). The distribution box will be used for the Muon-to-electron conversion (Mu2e) experiment. The box includes twenty-seven cryogenic valves, two heat exchangers, a thermal shield, and an internal nitrogen separator vessel, all contained within a six-foot diameter ASME coded vacuum vessel. This paper discusses the design and manufacturing processes that were implemented to meet the unique fabrication requirements of this distribution box. Design and manufacturing features discussed include: 1) Thermal strap design and fabrication, 2) Evolution of piping connections to heat exchangers, 3) Nitrogen phase separator design, 4) ASME code design of vacuum vessel, and 5) Cryogenic valve installation.

  3. Generalized box-plot for root growth ensembles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vad, Viktor; Cedrim, Douglas; Busch, Wolfgang; Filzmoser, Peter; Viola, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    .... We use the generalized box plot concept with a new formulation of data depth. In addition to spatial distributions, we created a visual representation to encode temporal distributions associated with the development of root individuals...

  4. Injury and injury rates in Muay Thai kick boxing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gartland, S; Malik, M H; Lovell, M E

    2001-01-01

    To determine the type and number of injuries that occur during the training and practice of Muay Thai kick boxing and to compare the data obtained with those from previous studies of karate and taekwondo...

  5. Box photosynthesis modeling results for WRF/CMAQ LSM

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Box Photosynthesis model simulations for latent heat and ozone at 6 different FLUXNET sites. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Ran, L., J....

  6. EPA EcoBox Tools by Stressors - Physical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eco-Box is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases

  7. EPA EcoBox Tools by Stressors - Stressors in ERA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eco-Box is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases

  8. EPA EcoBox Tools by Stressors - Chemical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eco-Box is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases

  9. EPA EcoBox Tools by Stressors - Biological

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eco-Box is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases

  10. Venom proteome of the box jellyfish Chironex fleckeri

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brinkman, Diane L; Aziz, Ammar; Loukas, Alex; Potriquet, Jeremy; Seymour, Jamie; Mulvenna, Jason

    2012-01-01

    .... The box jellyfish, Chironex fleckeri, produces exceptionally potent and rapid-acting venom and its stings to humans cause severe localized and systemic effects that are potentially life-threatening...

  11. Design and development of a freezer and chiller delivery box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Mohd Zakimi; Hung, Goh Chung; Dawi, Mohd Syedi Imran Mohd; Hussin, Radhwan; Khalil, Ahmad Nabil Mohd; Naim, Muhammad Khairy Md; Hilmi, Ahmad Humaizi

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents an action research of designed and fabricated using well insulating materials in order to ensure the coolness inside the freezer and chiller delivery box is as good minimize temperature raised. The main purpose of this study is to develop freeze and chiller delivery box that will be able to keep fresh meat during travelling long delivery. A range of freeze and chill solutions exists for that must be kept within a specific temperature range throughout the supply-and-distribution chain. This will help to minimize the activeness of bacteria to spoil the meats, at the same time it can linger the duration for meats to spoil. All affecting parameter such as temperature inside the delivery box, heat transfer rate, and natural convection flow pattern has been studied to design and development of the delivery box. Finally, temperature distribution analysis has been conducted which showed that in operating condition inside temperature are suitable to keep the fresh meats condition.

  12. Matter-wave dark solitons in box-like traps

    CERN Document Server

    Sciacca, M; Parker, N G

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the experimental development of quasi-homogeneous Bose-Einstein condensates confined in box-like traps, we study numerically the dynamics of dark solitons in such traps at zero temperature. We consider the cases where the side walls of the box potential rise either as a power-law or a Gaussian. While the soliton propagates through the homogeneous interior of the box without dissipation, it typically dissipates energy during a reflection from a wall through the emission of sound waves, causing a slight increase in the soliton's speed. We characterise this energy loss as a function of the wall parameters. Moreover, over multiple oscillations and reflections in the box-like trap, the energy loss and speed increase of the soliton can be significant, although the decay eventually becomes stabilized when the soliton equilibrates with the ambient sound field.

  13. Injury and injury rates in Muay Thai kick boxing

    OpenAIRE

    Gartland, S; Malik, M; Lovell, M.

    2001-01-01

    Objective—To determine the type and number of injuries that occur during the training and practice of Muay Thai kick boxing and to compare the data obtained with those from previous studies of karate and taekwondo.

  14. EPA EcoBox Tools by Exposure Pathways - Food Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eco-Box is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases

  15. Overlap Areas of a Square Box on a Square Mesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    ARL-TN-0818 ● APR 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Overlap Areas of a Square Box on a Square Mesh by James U Cazamias...originator. ARL-TN-0818 ● APR 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Overlap Areas of a Square Box on a Square Mesh by James U Cazamias...no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control

  16. The DEAD-box helicase eIF4A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreou, Alexandra Z.; Klostermeier, Dagmar

    2013-01-01

    DEAD-box helicases catalyze the ATP-dependent unwinding of RNA duplexes. They share a helicase core formed by two RecA-like domains that carries a set of conserved motifs contributing to ATP binding and hydrolysis, RNA binding and duplex unwinding. The translation initiation factor eIF4A is the founding member of the DEAD-box protein family, and one of the few examples of DEAD-box proteins that consist of a helicase core only. It is an RNA-stimulated ATPase and a non-processive helicase that unwinds short RNA duplexes. In the catalytic cycle, a series of conformational changes couples the nucleotide cycle to RNA unwinding. eIF4A has been considered a paradigm for DEAD-box proteins, and studies of its function have revealed the governing principles underlying the DEAD-box helicase mechanism. However, as an isolated helicase core, eIF4A is rather the exception, not the rule. Most helicase modules in other DEAD-box proteins are modified, some by insertions into the RecA-like domains, and the majority by N- and C-terminal appendages. While the basic catalytic function resides within the helicase core, its modulation by insertions, additional domains or a network of interaction partners generates the diversity of DEAD-box protein functions in the cell. This review summarizes the current knowledge on eIF4A and its regulation, and discusses to what extent eIF4A serves as a model DEAD-box protein. PMID:22995829

  17. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) depleted uranium waste boxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, W.A.

    1997-08-27

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) allows the one-time shipment of ten metal boxes and one wooden box containing depleted uranium material from the Fast Flux Test Facility to the burial grounds in the 200 West Area for disposal. This SEP provides the analyses and operational controls necessary to demonstrate that the shipment will be safe for the onsite worker and the public.

  18. Oriented Spatial Box Plot, a New Pattern for Points Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Etienne, Laurent; Devogele, Thomas; McArdle, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, an abundance of sensors are used to collect very large datasets containing spatial points which can be mined and analyzed to extract meaningful patterns and information. This article examines patterns which describe the dispersion of 2D data around a central tendency. Several state of the art patterns for point cluster analysis are presented and critiqued before a new pattern, the Oriented Spatial Box Plot, is defined. The Oriented Spatial Box Plot extends the clas...

  19. A pharmacological and biochemical characterisation of Australian box jellyfish venoms

    OpenAIRE

    Winter, Kelly Lee

    2017-01-01

    Box jellyfish are found throughout the northern tropical waters of Australia and are responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality. Chironex fleckeri is arguably the most venomous creature in the world and has been responsible for over 70 deaths. Despite considerable research, the mechanisms of action of these venoms have yet to be elucidated. The current study investigated the pharmacological and biochemical characteristics of venom from the following species of box jellyfish: C. flec...

  20. Coupling polariton quantum boxes in sub-wavelength grating microcavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Bo; Wang, Zhaorong; Deng, Hui, E-mail: dengh@umich.edu [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Brodbeck, Sebastian; Kamp, Martin; Schneider, Christian [Technische Physik, Physikalisches Institut and Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen-Research Center for Complex Material Systems, Universität Würzburg, Am Hubland, D-97074 Würzburg (Germany); Höfling, Sven [Technische Physik, Physikalisches Institut and Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen-Research Center for Complex Material Systems, Universität Würzburg, Am Hubland, D-97074 Würzburg (Germany); SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, St Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-02

    We report the construction of decoupled, coupled, and quasi-one dimensional polariton systems from zero dimensional polariton quantum boxes using microcavities with sub-wavelength gratings as the top mirror. By designing the tethering patterns around the suspended sub-wavelength gratings, we control the coupling between individual quantum boxes through different optical potentials. Energy levels and real-space or momentum space distributions of the confined modes were measured, which agreed well with simulations.

  1. Gray-box modelling approach for description of storage tunnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harremoës, Poul; Carstensen, Jacob

    1999-01-01

    The dynamics of a storage tunnel is examined using a model based on on-line measured data and a combination of simple deterministic and black-box stochastic elements. This approach, called gray-box modeling, is a new promising methodology for giving an on-line state description of sewer systems. ...... in a SCADA system because the most important information on the specific system is provided on-line...

  2. Optimal design of beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samala, Shivakumar

    Beams are basic structural components that are capable of withstanding load primarily by resisting bending. Unlike Euler-Bernoulli beams, Timoshenko beams undergo both shear deformation and rotational effects, making it suitable for analyzing the behavior of thick or short beams, composite beams and beams that are subjected to high frequency excitation when their wave length becomes shorter. This thesis work focuses on optimal design of straight and tapered Timoshenko beams under static and dynamic constraints for rectangular and circular cross sections. In this work Timoshenko beam static and dynamic equations were studied. The finite element method was used for static and dynamic analysis of the beam. In finite element method to overcome the numerical problem in shear locking, cubic interpolation of displacement and an interdependent quadratic approximation of rotation has been considered. In order to optimize the weight of the beam with static and dynamic constraints three sets of optimizations were done. The design variables are length, cross sectional width and height, with objective function as mass, static deflection constraints were used. The second optimization set was using dynamic constraints and the last set was using both static and dynamic constraints.

  3. Resistance of steel beams with web openings and castellated beams

    OpenAIRE

    Kovačič, Darko

    2010-01-01

    In Diploma demonstration of bending and shear resistance of steel beams with openings in web and for castellated beams is being presented. Dimensioning of such beams is performed in compliance with general rules by Eurocode for dimensioning of beams by considering speciality of beams with openings or by non-linear analysis with consideration of imperfections. For delimit of beams with openings from castellated beams, geometric criteria are being used. Further approach to the dimensioning of t...

  4. Beam-Based Alignment in CTF3 Test Beam Line

    OpenAIRE

    Sterbini, G; Dӧbert, S; Marín, E.; Lillestol, RL; Schulte, D.; Adli, E.

    2012-01-01

    The CLIC linear collider is based on the two beams acceleration scheme. During acceleration of the colliding beams, the drive beam suffers a large build up on its energy spread. In order to efficiently transport such a beam, beam-based alignment techniques together with tight prealignment tolerances are crucial. To evaluate the performance of these steering algorithms, a beam-based steering campaign has been conducted at the Test Beam Line of the CLIC Test Facility. In the following we presen...

  5. Striking dynamics and kinetic properties of boxing and MMA gloves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Lee

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available With the growing popularity of Mixed Martial Arts (MMA as a competitive sport, questions regarding the dynamic response and properties of MMA gloves arise. High-energy impacts from punches are very similar to boxing yet MMA competition requires the use of 4 oz fingerless glove, compared to the larger full enclosure boxing glove. This work assessed the kinetic properties and strike dynamics of MMA gloves and compared findings with traditional boxing gloves. Gloves mounted on a molded fist were impacted repetitively on an instrumental anvil designed for impact, over a 5 hour period resulting in 10,000 continuous and consistent strikes. Kinetic data from impacts were sampled at the beginning of the data collection and subsequently every 30 minutes (every 1,000 strikes. MMA gloves produced 4-5 times greater peak force and 5 times faster load rate compared to the boxing glove. However, MMA gloves also showed signs of material fatigue, with peak force increasing by 35% and rate of loading increasing by 60% over the duration of the test. Boxing glove characteristics did deteriorate but to a lesser extent. In summary, the kinetic properties of MMA glove differed substantially from the boxing glove resulting in impacts characterized by higher peak forces and more rapid development of force. Material properties including stiffness and thickness play a role in the kinetic characteristics upon impact, and can be inferred to alter injury mechanisms of blunt force trauma.

  6. The G-Box Transcriptional Regulatory Code in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezer, Daphne; Shepherd, Samuel J K; Brestovitsky, Anna; Dickinson, Patrick; Cortijo, Sandra; Charoensawan, Varodom; Box, Mathew S; Biswas, Surojit; Jaeger, Katja E; Wigge, Philip A

    2017-10-01

    Plants have significantly more transcription factor (TF) families than animals and fungi, and plant TF families tend to contain more genes; these expansions are linked to adaptation to environmental stressors. Many TF family members bind to similar or identical sequence motifs, such as G-boxes (CACGTG), so it is difficult to predict regulatory relationships. We determined that the flanking sequences near G-boxes help determine in vitro specificity but that this is insufficient to predict the transcription pattern of genes near G-boxes. Therefore, we constructed a gene regulatory network that identifies the set of bZIPs and bHLHs that are most predictive of the expression of genes downstream of perfect G-boxes. This network accurately predicts transcriptional patterns and reconstructs known regulatory subnetworks. Finally, we present Ara-BOX-cis (araboxcis.org), a Web site that provides interactive visualizations of the G-box regulatory network, a useful resource for generating predictions for gene regulatory relations. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  7. RNAa Induced by TATA Box-Targeting MicroRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yijun; Zhang, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies reveal that some nuclear microRNAs (miRNA) and synthesized siRNAs target gene promoters to activate gene transcription (RNAa). Interestingly, our group identified a novel HIV-1-encoded miRNA, miR-H3, which targets specifically the core promoter TATA box of HIV-1 and activates viral gene expression. Depletion of miR-H3 significantly impaired the replication of HIV-1. miR-H3 mimics could activate viruses from CD4(+) T cells isolated from patients receiving suppressive highly active antiretroviral therapy, which is very intriguing for reducing HIV-1 latent reservoir. Further study revealed that many cellular miRNAs also function like miR-H3. For instance, let-7i targets the TATA box of the interleukin-2 (IL-2) promoter and upregulates IL-2 expression in T-lymphocytes. In RNAa induced by TATA box-targeting miRNAs, Argonaute (AGO) proteins are needed, but there is no evidence for the involvement of promoter-associated transcripts or epigenetic modifications. We propose that the binding of small RNA-AGO complex to TATA box could facilitate the assembly of RNA Polymerase II transcription preinitiation complex. In addition, synthesized small RNAs targeting TATA box can also efficiently activate transcription of interested genes, such as insulin, IL-2, and c-Myc. The discovery of RNAa induced by TATA box-targeting miRNA provides an easy-to-use tool for activating gene expression.

  8. Unconventional Bearing Capacity Analysis and Optimization of Multicell Box Girders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovan Tepic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with unconventional bearing capacity analysis and the procedure of optimizing a two-cell box girder. The generalized model which enables the local stress-strain analysis of multicell girders was developed based on the principle of cross-sectional decomposition. The applied methodology is verified using the experimental data (Djelosevic et al., 2012 for traditionally formed box girders. The qualitative and quantitative evaluation of results obtained for the two-cell box girder is realized based on comparative analysis using the finite element method (FEM and the ANSYS v12 software. The deflection function obtained by analytical and numerical methods was found consistent provided that the maximum deviation does not exceed 4%. Multicell box girders are rationally designed support structures characterized by much lower susceptibility of their cross-sectional elements to buckling and higher specific capacity than traditionally formed box girders. The developed local stress model is applied for optimizing the cross section of a two-cell box carrier. The author points to the advantages of implementing the model of local stresses in the optimization process and concludes that the technological reserve of bearing capacity amounts to 20% at the same girder weight and constant load conditions.

  9. Unravelling Bessel beams: Presentation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mhlanga, T

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Mhlanga1,3, Angela Dudley1, Martin Lavery2, Miles Padgett2 and Andrew Forbes1,3 1CSIR National Laser Centre, PO Box 395, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa 2Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK 3College of Agriculture...,* Thandeka Mhlanga,1Martin Lavery,2 Andre McDonald,1 Filippus S. Roux,1 Miles Padgett,2 and Andrew Forbes1 1CSIR National Laser Centre, PO Box 395, Pretoria 0001, South Africa 2 Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK *adudley...

  10. Meal box schemes a convenient way to avoid convenience food? Uses and understandings of meal box schemes among Danish consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Frej Daniel; Halkier, Bente

    2017-07-01

    The term convenience food is subject to diversification, lack of clarity and moral ambiguity. In this paper we address these issues and critically discuss convenience food by using empirical findings from a Danish study that deals with practitioners' uses of meal box schemes. The methodological design consists of thirteen individual interviews, four focus groups and some observations of cooking practices. We combine the empirical findings with a particular definition of convenience food by Brunner et al. (2010) and selected practice theoretical concepts. This particular combination enables us to categorize meal box schemes as a new form of convenience food called convenient food. In addition, results suggest that meal box schemes reduce leftovers from dinner. Meal boxes also influence dinner related activities such as planning ahead in time and grocery shopping, which require less physical and mental effort. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Beam induced RF heating

    CERN Document Server

    Salvant, B; Arduini, G; Assmann, R; Baglin, V; Barnes, M J; Bartmann, W; Baudrenghien, P; Berrig, O; Bracco, C; Bravin, E; Bregliozzi, G; Bruce, R; Bertarelli, A; Carra, F; Cattenoz, G; Caspers, F; Claudet, S; Day, H; Garlasche, M; Gentini, L; Goddard, B; Grudiev, A; Henrist, B; Jones, R; Kononenko, O; Lanza, G; Lari, L; Mastoridis, T; Mertens, V; Métral, E; Mounet, N; Muller, J E; Nosych, A A; Nougaret, J L; Persichelli, S; Piguiet, A M; Redaelli, S; Roncarolo, F; Rumolo, G; Salvachua, B; Sapinski, M; Schmidt, R; Shaposhnikova, E; Tavian, L; Timmins, M; Uythoven, J; Vidal, A; Wenninger, J; Wollmann, D; Zerlauth, M

    2012-01-01

    After the 2011 run, actions were put in place during the 2011/2012 winter stop to limit beam induced radio frequency (RF) heating of LHC components. However, some components could not be changed during this short stop and continued to represent a limitation throughout 2012. In addition, the stored beam intensity increased in 2012 and the temperature of certain components became critical. In this contribution, the beam induced heating limitations for 2012 and the expected beam induced heating limitations for the restart after the Long Shutdown 1 (LS1) will be compiled. The expected consequences of running with 25 ns or 50 ns bunch spacing will be detailed, as well as the consequences of running with shorter bunch length. Finally, actions on hardware or beam parameters to monitor and mitigate the impact of beam induced heating to LHC operation after LS1 will be discussed.

  12. Laser beam shaping techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DICKEY,FRED M.; WEICHMAN,LOUIS S.; SHAGAM,RICHARD N.

    2000-03-16

    Industrial, military, medical, and research and development applications of lasers frequently require a beam with a specified irradiance distribution in some plane. A common requirement is a laser profile that is uniform over some cross-section. Such applications include laser/material processing, laser material interaction studies, fiber injection systems, optical data image processing, lithography, medical applications, and military applications. Laser beam shaping techniques can be divided into three areas: apertured beams, field mappers, and multi-aperture beam integrators. An uncertainty relation exists for laser beam shaping that puts constraints on system design. In this paper the authors review the basics of laser beam shaping and present applications and limitations of various techniques.

  13. Laser Beam Focus Analyser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Carøe; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    2007-01-01

    The quantitative and qualitative description of laser beam characteristics is important for process implementation and optimisation. In particular, a need for quantitative characterisation of beam diameter was identified when using fibre lasers for micro manufacturing. Here the beam diameter limits...... the obtainable features in direct laser machining as well as heat affected zones in welding processes. This paper describes the development of a measuring unit capable of analysing beam shape and diameter of lasers to be used in manufacturing processes. The analyser is based on the principle of a rotating...... mechanical wire being swept through the laser beam at varying Z-heights. The reflected signal is analysed and the resulting beam profile determined. The development comprised the design of a flexible fixture capable of providing both rotation and Z-axis movement, control software including data capture...

  14. Comparative Human and Automatic Evaluation of Glass-Box and Black-Box Approaches to Interactive Translation Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Torregrosa Daniel; Pérez-Ortiz Juan Antonio; Forcada Mikel L.

    2017-01-01

    Interactive translation prediction (ITP) is a modality of computer-aided translation that assists professional translators by offering context-based computer-generated continuation suggestions as they type. While most state-of-the-art ITP systems follow a glass-box approach, meaning that they are tightly coupled to an adapted machine translation system, a black-box approach which does not need access to the inner workings of the bilingual resources used to generate the suggestions has been re...

  15. Comparative Human and Automatic Evaluation of Glass-Box and Black-Box Approaches to Interactive Translation Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torregrosa Daniel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Interactive translation prediction (ITP is a modality of computer-aided translation that assists professional translators by offering context-based computer-generated continuation suggestions as they type. While most state-of-the-art ITP systems follow a glass-box approach, meaning that they are tightly coupled to an adapted machine translation system, a black-box approach which does not need access to the inner workings of the bilingual resources used to generate the suggestions has been recently proposed in the literature: this new approach allows new sources of bilingual information to be included almost seamlessly. In this paper, we compare for the first time the glass-box and the black-box approaches by means of an automatic evaluation of translation tasks between related languages such as English–Spanish and unrelated ones such as Arabic–English and English–Chinese, showing that, with our setup, 20%–50% of keystrokes could be saved using either method and that the black-box approach outperformed the glass-box one in five out of six scenarios operating under similar conditions. We also performed a preliminary human evaluation of English to Spanish translation for both approaches. On average, the evaluators saved 10% keystrokes and were 4% faster with the black-box approach, and saved 15% keystrokes and were 12% slower with the glass-box one; but they could have saved 51% and 69% keystrokes respectively if they had used all the compatible suggestions. Users felt the suggestions helped them to translate faster and easier. All the tools used to perform the evaluation are available as free/open–source software.

  16. Design of the torus interface for the neutral beam injectors of Wendelstein 7-X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nocentini, R., E-mail: riccardo.nocentini@ipp.mpg.de; Heinemann, B.; Riedl, R.; Rust, N.; Orozco, G.

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Two NBI injectors are installed in W7-X, each capable of hosting four ion sources. • The NBI boxes and their NBI ports in W7-X are connected by NBI–torus interfaces. • Each NBI–torus interface includes a DN800 bellow, copper scrapers and diagnostics. • The design of the NBI–torus interface has been challenging due to the shape of W7-X. • The design includes the numerical shape optimization of one of the beam scrapers. - Abstract: A neutral beam injection (NBI) heating system for the stellarator project Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) is currently under construction at the Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics (IPP) Greifswald, Germany. The NBI at W7-X is based on the similar system in operation on the tokamak ASDEX Upgrade at IPP in Garching, Germany, and makes use of radio-frequency-driven positive ion sources. Two NBI injectors are going to be installed in W7-X, each being capable of hosting four ion sources. Initially each injector is being equipped with two ion sources of 1.8 (2.5) MW beam power each in H (D). Accelerated positive ions are going to be neutralized and transported inside an NBI-box, which also hosts a residual ion dump, titanium sublimation pumps and a calorimeter. The beams are focused at a point 6.5 m downstream of the ion sources and are injected into the plasma vessel of W7-X through two ports. The NBI boxes and their NBI ports are connected by NBI–torus interfaces, which are made of several components that minimize beam losses while protecting the port walls and bellows from energetic re-ionized particles and beam intersection. This paper describes the design of the NBI–torus interface, including the shape optimization of a beam scraper and the integration of beam diagnostics.

  17. Chilled beam application guidebook

    CERN Document Server

    Butler, David; Gräslund, Jonas; Hogeling, Jaap; Lund Kristiansen, Erik; Reinikanen, Mika; Svensson, Gunnar

    2007-01-01

    Chilled beam systems are primarily used for cooling and ventilation in spaces, which appreciate good indoor environmental quality and individual space control. Active chilled beams are connected to the ventilation ductwork, high temperature cold water, and when desired, low temperature hot water system. Primary air supply induces room air to be recirculated through the heat exchanger of the chilled beam. In order to cool or heat the room either cold or warm water is cycled through the heat exchanger.

  18. Influence of dimension box differences and time differences during operations of red box for motorcycles at signalized intersection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyadi, Agah Muhammad

    2017-11-01

    Performance of signalized intersection has declined due to a large number of motorcycles. The number of motorcycles reached 98.2 million units and the composition of motorcycles has reached around 81.7% of the total composition of vehicles in Indonesia (AISI, 2017). To solve that problem, the red box for motorcycles are provided at the signalized intersection. Red box for the motorcycle at signalized intersections was developed from the concept of Advance Stop Line (ASL) for bicycles. The Red Box was developed to split the queue between motorcycles and other vehicles when waiting at red light. This paper aims to evaluate the influence of the red box dimension and red time operation differences. The survey was conducted as many as 30 cycles of traffic signals per day. The data were analyzed using software IBM SPSS Statistics 20 by using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) to obtain p-value (significant). The analysis shows that there are insignificant influences between the occupancy rates to the dimension of Red Box. Furthermore, that there is a significant difference that shows the dependency of only motorcycles in the Red Box Area towards red time operation.

  19. ALFA beam halo

    CERN Document Server

    Komarek, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    This note serves as a final report about CERN Summer Student Programme 2014 project. The beam halo is an undesired phenomenon for physics analyses on particle accelerators. It surrounds the beam core and constitutes an important part of background for signal measurements on some detectors, eg. in the forward region. In this study, the data from the ALFA detector were used, specifically from the run 191373 ($\\beta^*=90\\unit{m}$) and the run 213268 ($\\beta^*=1\\unit{km}$). Using the ROOT framework, a software for beam halo events selection was created and beam halo properties were examined. In the run 213268, excessive beam halo is suspected to be the reason for multiple beam scrapings that occurred. A kinematic reconstruction of beam halo particles is attempted in order to understand beam halo properties in the interaction point. Some further simulations are employed to find constraints for beam halo particles in order to survive in the accelerator for a longer time/many revolutions. This work represents a st...

  20. Beam cavity interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Gamp, A

    2011-01-01

    We begin by giving a description of the rf generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, rf feedback, and feed-forward are described. Examples of digital rf phase and amplitude control for the special case of superconducting cavities are also given. Finally, a dedicated phase loop for damping synchrotron oscillations is discussed.

  1. Simulation of Beam-Beam Background at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Sailer, A

    2010-01-01

    The dense beams used at CLIC to achieve a high luminosity will cause a large amount of background particles through beam-beam interactions. Generator level studies with GUINEAPIG and full detector simulation studies with an ILD based CLIC detector have been performed to evaluate the amount of beam-beam back- ground hitting the vertex detector.

  2. Intelligent trigger processor for the crystal box

    CERN Document Server

    Sanders, G H; Cooper, M D; Hart, G W; Hoffman, C M; Hogan, G E; Hughes, E B; Matis, H S; Rolfe, J; Sandberg, V D; Williams, R A; Wilson, S; Zeman, H

    1981-01-01

    A large solid angle angular modular NaI(Tl) detector with 432 phototubes and 88 trigger scintillators is being used to search simultaneously for three lepton flavor-changing decays of the muon. A beam of up to 10/sup 6/ muons stopping per second with a 6% duty factor would yield up to 1000 triggers per second from random triple coincidences. A reduction of the trigger rate to 10 Hz is required from a hardwired primary trigger processor. Further reduction to <1 Hz is achieved by a microprocessor-based secondary trigger processor. The primary trigger hardware imposes voter coincidence logic, stringent timing requirements, and a non-adjacency requirement in the trigger scintillators defined by hardwired circuits. Sophisticated geometric requirements are imposed by a PROM-based matrix logic, and energy and vector-momentum cuts are imposed by a hardwired processor using LSI flash ADC's and digital arithmetic logic. The secondary trigger employs four satellite microprocessors to do a sparse data scan, multiplex ...

  3. 76 FR 54931 - Post Office (PO) Box Fee Groups for Merged Locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... 111 Post Office (PO) Box Fee Groups for Merged Locations AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Final..., Domestic Mail Manual (DMM ) 508.4 to allow Post Office Box TM (PO Box TM ) fee groups to be merged due to... lower, and only once per calendar year. Absent this change, where a box section is merged with a...

  4. Autoantibodies Against High Mobility Group Box 1 (HMGB1) in Patients with SLE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaper, Fleur; Horst, Gerda; Henegouwen, Daan van Beijeren Bergenen; Bijzet, Johan; de Leeuw, Karina; Stel, Alja; Limburg, Pieter C.; Heeringa, Peter; Westra, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    Background/Purpose: High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a damage-associated molecular pattern and can be divided in three separate domains: the A Box, B Box and the acidic tail. Box A by itself serves as a competitive antagonist for HMGB1 and inhibits HMGB1 activity. In an earlier study we showed

  5. Box-trees and R-trees with near-optimal query time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agarwal, P.K.; Berg, M. de; Gudmundsson, J.; Hammar, M.; Haverkort, H.J.

    2001-01-01

    A box-tree is a bounding-volume hierarchy that uses axis-aligned boxes as bounding volumes. The query complexity of a box-tree with respect to a given type of query is the maximum number of nodes visited when answering such a query. We describe several new algorithms for constructing box-trees

  6. Total Radiosynthesis: Thinking outside "the box".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Steven H; Vasdev, Neil

    2015-09-01

    The logic of total synthesis transformed a stagnant state of medicinal and synthetic organic chemistry when there was a paucity of methods and reagents to synthesize drug molecules and/or natural products. Molecular imaging by positron emission tomography (PET) is now experiencing a renaissance in the way radiopharmaceuticals for molecular imaging are synthesized, however, a paradigm shift is desperately needed in the discovery pipeline to accelerate in vivo imaging studies. A significant challenge in radiochemistry is the limited choice of labeled reagents (or building blocks) available for the synthesis of novel radiopharmaceuticals with the most commonly used short-lived radionuclides carbon-11 (11C; half-life ~20 minutes) and fluorine-18 (18F; half-life ~2 hours). In fact, most drugs cannot be labeled with 11C or 18F due to a lack of efficient and diverse radiosynthetic methods. In general, routine radiopharmaceutical production relies on the incorporation of the isotope at the last or penultimate step of synthesis, ideally within one half-life of the radionuclide, to maximize radiochemical yields and specific activities thereby reducing losses due to radioactive decay. Reliance on radiochemistry conducted within the constraints of an automated synthesis unit ("box") has stifled the exploration of multi-step reactions with short-lived radionuclides. Radiopharmaceutical synthesis can be transformed by considering logic of total synthesis to develop novel approaches for 11C- and 18F-radiolabeling complex molecules via retrosynthetic analysis and multi-step reactions. As a result of such exploration, new methods, reagents and radiopharmaceuticals for in vivo imaging studies are discovered. A new avenue to develop radiotracers that were previously unattainable due to the lack of efficient radiosynthetic methods is necessary to work towards our ultimate, albeit impossible goal - the concept we term total radiosynthesis - to radiolabel virtually any molecule. As with

  7. A novel method to design S-box based on chaotic map and genetic algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yong, E-mail: wangyong_cqupt@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Power Transmission Equipment and System Security and New Technology, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Key Laboratory of Electronic Commerce and Logistics, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing 400065 (China); Wong, Kwok-Wo [Department of Electronic Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Li, Changbing [Key Laboratory of Electronic Commerce and Logistics, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing 400065 (China); Li, Yang [Department of Automatic Control and Systems Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Mapping Street, S1 3DJ (United Kingdom)

    2012-01-30

    The substitution box (S-box) is an important component in block encryption algorithms. In this Letter, the problem of constructing S-box is transformed to a Traveling Salesman Problem and a method for designing S-box based on chaos and genetic algorithm is proposed. Since the proposed method makes full use of the traits of chaotic map and evolution process, stronger S-box is obtained. The results of performance test show that the presented S-box has good cryptographic properties, which justify that the proposed algorithm is effective in generating strong S-boxes. -- Highlights: ► The problem of constructing S-box is transformed to a Traveling Salesman Problem. ► We present a new method for designing S-box based on chaos and genetic algorithm. ► The proposed algorithm is effective in generating strong S-boxes.

  8. Automated beam model optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Létourneau, Daniel; Sharpe, Michael B; Owrangi, Amir; Jaffray, David A

    2010-05-01

    The beam model in a three dimensional treatment planning system (TPS) defines virtually the mechanical and dosimetric characteristics of a treatment unit. The manual optimization of a beam model during commissioning can be a time consuming task due to its iterative nature. Furthermore, the quality of the beam model commissioning depends on the user's ability to manage multiple parameters and assess their impact on the agreement between measured and calculated dose. The objective of this work is to develop and validate the performance of an automated beam model optimization system (ABMOS) based on intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) beam measurements to improve beam model accuracy while streamlining the commissioning process. The ABMOS was developed to adjust selected TPS beam model parameters iteratively to maximize the agreement between measured and calculated 2D dose maps obtained for an IMRT beam pattern. A 2D diode array with high spatial resolution detectors was used to sample the entire IMRT beam pattern in a single dose measurement. The use of an IMRT beam pattern with large number of monitor units was selected to highlight the difference between planned and delivered dose and improve the signal to noise ratio in the low dose regions. ABMOS was applied to the optimization of a beam model for an Elekta Synergy S treatment unit. The optimized beam model was validated for two anatomical sites (25 paraspinal and 25 prostate cases) using two independent patient-specific IMRT quality control (QC) methods based on ion chamber and 2D diode array measurements, respectively. The conventional approach of comparing calculated and measured beam profiles and percent-depth dose curves was also used to assess improvement in beam model after ABMOS optimization. Elements of statistical process control were applied to the process of patient-specific QC performed with the ion chamber and the 2D array to complement the model comparison. After beam model optimization with

  9. Beam Injection into RHIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, W.; Hahn, H.; Mackay, W. W.; Tsoupas, N.

    1997-05-01

    During the RHIC sextant test in January 1997 beam was injected into a sixth of one of the rings for the first time. We describe the injection zone and its bottlenecks, the application program to steer the beam and the injection kickers. We report on the commissioning of the injection systems and on measurements of the kickers.

  10. Durnin-Whitney beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesús Cabrera-Rosas, Omar; Espíndola-Ramos, Ernesto; Alejandro Juárez-Reyes, Salvador; Julián-Macías, Israel; Ortega-Vidals, Paula; Rickenstorff-Parrao, Carolina; Silva-Ortigoza, Gilberto; Silva-Ortigoza, Ramón; Sosa-Sánchez, Citlalli Teresa

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the present work is to define a Durnin-Whitney beam as a nondiffracting beam such that its associated caustic locally only has singularities of the fold and cusp types. Since the caustic is structurally stable then the intensity pattern of this beam is also stable and this property is what makes its definition and its theoretical and experimental study worthwhile. These properties are important in applications such as uniform optical drilling in waveguides and communications through weak turbulent atmosphere. We find that in accordance with Whitney's theorem on the stability of maps from a two-dimensional manifold to a two-dimensional manifold the phase g({{Φ }}), of the complex function A({{Φ }}) characterizing the beam, locally is given by g({{Φ }})=a{{Φ }} for a fold and g({{Φ }})=b{{{Φ }}}2 for a cusp. This result implies that the Bessel beam of order zero is not stable and that any other Bessel beam is stable because locally it has a caustic of fold type. Finally, we present an example of a Durnin-Whitney beam given by g({{Φ }})=m{{Φ }}+b{{{Φ }}}2, which is a natural generalization of the Bessel beam of order m with a singularity of cusp ridge type.

  11. Beam Diagnostics for Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Koziol, Heribert

    2005-01-01

    This introductory course aims at a reasonably complete coverage of beam diagnostic devices used in linear and circular accelerators and in primary beam lines. The weight is on the concepts and the indication of variants, while for technical details the reader is referred to the literature. The present updated version replaces those from previous General Accelerator Physics Courses.

  12. Detecting Bessel beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichili, Abderrahmen; Mhlanga, Thandeka; Ismail, Yaseera; Roux, Filippus S.; McLaren, Melanie; Zghal, Mourad; Forbes, Andrew

    2014-09-01

    We propose a 2-dimensional method for Bessel Gaussian beam azimuthal and radial decomposition using digital holograms. We illustrate the reconstruction of a Bessel Gaussian beam after encountering an obstruction. From the measured decomposition we show the reconstruction of the amplitude, phase and azimuthal index of the field with high degree of accuracy.

  13. Laser Beam Scanning Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    metal mirror. Multiple thermocouple wires attached to the rear of the mirror provide temperature (and hence beam power) information at various points...on the mirror. Scanning is achieved by means of a selector switch which sequentially samples the thermocouple outputs. The thermocouple output voltages are measured and recorded as a function of laser beam power.

  14. Integrated Box Interrogation System (IBIS) Preliminary Design Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DR. Stephen Croft; Mr. David Martancik; Dr. Brian Young; Dr. Patrick MJ Chard; Dr. Robert J Estop; Sheila Melton; Gaetano J. Arnone

    2003-01-13

    Canberra Industries has won the tendered solicitation, INEEL/EST-99-00121 for boxed waste Nondestructive Assay Development and Demonstration. Canberra will provide the Integrated Box Interrogation System (IBIS) which is a suite of assay instrumentation and a data reduction system that addresses the measurement needs for Boxed Wastes identified in the solicitation and facilitates the associated experimental program and demonstration of system capability. The IBIS system will consist of the next generation CWAM system, i.e. CWAM II, which is a Scanning Passive/Active Neutron interrogation system which we will call a Box Segmented Neutron Scanner (BSNS), combined with a physically separate Box Segmented Gamma-ray Scanning (BSGS) system. These systems are based on existing hardware designs but will be tailored to the large sample size and enhanced to allow the program to evaluate the following measurement criteria:Characterization and correction for matrix heterogeneity Characterization of non-uniform radio-nuclide and isotopic compositions Assay of high density matrices (both high-Z and high moderator contents)Correction for radioactive material physical form - such as self shielding or multiplication effects due to large accumulations of radioactive materials.Calibration with a minimal set of reference standards and representative matrices.THis document summarizes the conceptual design parameters of the IBIS and indicates areas key to the success of the project where development is to be centered. The work presented here is a collaborative effort between scientific staff within Canberra and within the NIS-6 group at LANL.

  15. Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of Flexible Duct Junction Box Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beach, Robert [IBACOS Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Prahl, Duncan [IBACOS Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Lange, Rich [IBACOS Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2013-12-01

    IBACOS explored the relationships between pressure and physical configurations of flexible duct junction boxes by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations to predict individual box parameters and total system pressure, thereby ensuring improved HVAC performance. Current Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA) guidance (Group 11, Appendix 3, ACCA Manual D, Rutkowski 2009) allows for unconstrained variation in the number of takeoffs, box sizes, and takeoff locations. The only variables currently used in selecting an equivalent length (EL) are velocity of air in the duct and friction rate, given the first takeoff is located at least twice its diameter away from the inlet. This condition does not account for other factors impacting pressure loss across these types of fittings. For each simulation, the IBACOS team converted pressure loss within a box to an EL to compare variation in ACCA Manual D guidance to the simulated variation. IBACOS chose cases to represent flows reasonably correlating to flows typically encountered in the field and analyzed differences in total pressure due to increases in number and location of takeoffs, box dimensions, and velocity of air, and whether an entrance fitting is included. The team also calculated additional balancing losses for all cases due to discrepancies between intended outlet flows and natural flow splits created by the fitting. In certain asymmetrical cases, the balancing losses were significantly higher than symmetrical cases where the natural splits were close to the targets. Thus, IBACOS has shown additional design constraints that can ensure better system performance.

  16. Laparoscopic virtual reality simulator and box trainer in gynecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdemir, Ali; Sendağ, Fatih; Oztekin, Mehmet K

    2014-05-01

    To investigate whether a virtual reality simulator (LapSim) and traditional box trainer are effective tools for the acquisition of basic laparoscopic skills, and whether the LapSim is superior to the box trainer in surgical education. In a study at Ege University School of Medicine, Izmir, Turkey, between September 2008 and March 2013, 40 first- and second-year residents were randomized to train via the LapSim or box trainer for 4 weeks, and 20 senior residents were allocated to a control group. All 3 groups performed laparoscopic bilateral tubal ligation. Video records of each operation were assessed via the general rating scale of the Objective Structured Assessment of Laparoscopic Salpingectomy and by operation time in seconds. Compared with the control group, the LapSim and box trainer groups performed significantly better in total score (Peducation. Training with a virtual reality simulator or box trainer should be considered before actual laparoscopic procedures are carried out. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Motivation of students to boxing during physical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazymok V.V.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Showing survey results of students I - II courses about issues of motivation for boxing in physical education. The survey involved 100 students. Among them, 88 men and 12 women. It is established that the majority of respondents did not engage in boxing before entering the university. The main motives for classes in boxing are improving physical fitness and self-confidence. Fears of boxing cause poor physical and moral - psychological preparation, the fear to miss bounce or be injured. It is shown that the box in the technical university engaged in 5.5%, 2.8% of the fight and taekwondo 2.1% of students. Absolute leaders are athletic gymnastics and swimming 13.7% 13.3%. Also popular team sports football 8.7%, 5.5% of basketball, volleyball, 5.3%. Unfortunately, the number of students that attend due to health and exercise therapy SMG also has a fairly substantial 6.3%. Enough to visit among girls is 6.1% aerobics and shaping of 5.8.

  18. DEAD-box proteins as RNA helicases and chaperones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarmoskaite, Inga; Russell, Rick

    2010-01-01

    DEAD-box proteins are ubiquitous in RNA-mediated processes and function by coupling cycles of ATP binding and hydrolysis to changes in affinity for single-stranded RNA. Many DEAD-box proteins use this basic mechanism as the foundation for a version of RNA helicase activity, efficiently separating the strands of short RNA duplexes in a process that involves little or no translocation. This activity, coupled with mechanisms to direct different DEAD-box proteins to their physiological substrates, allows them to promote RNA folding steps and rearrangements and to accelerate remodeling of RNA-protein complexes. This review will describe the properties of DEAD-box proteins as RNA helicases and the current understanding of how the energy from ATPase activity is used to drive the separation of RNA duplex strands. It will then describe how the basic biochemical properties allow some DEAD-box proteins to function as chaperones by promoting RNA folding reactions, with a focus on the self-splicing group I and group II intron RNAs. PMID:21297876

  19. Software sensors based on the grey-box modelling approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, J.; Harremoës, P.; Strube, Rune

    1996-01-01

    -box model for the specific dynamics is identified. Similarly, an on-line software sensor for detecting the occurrence of backwater phenomena can be developed by comparing the dynamics of a flow measurement with a nearby level measurement. For treatment plants it is found that grey-box models applied to on......-line measurements. With respect to the development of software sensors, the grey-box models possess two important features. Firstly, the on-line measurements can be filtered according to the grey-box model in order to remove noise deriving from the measuring equipment and controlling devices. Secondly, the grey......-box models may contain terms which can be estimated on-line by use of the models and measurements. In this paper, it is demonstrated that many storage basins in sewer systems can be used as an on-line flow measurement provided that the basin is monitored on-line with a level transmitter and that a grey...

  20. T-Box Genes in the Kidney and Urinary Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kispert, A

    2017-01-01

    T-box (Tbx) genes encode an ancient group of transcription factors that play important roles in patterning, specification, proliferation, and differentiation programs in vertebrate organogenesis. This is testified by severe organ malformation syndromes in mice homozygous for engineered null alleles of specific T-box genes and by the large number of human inherited organ-specific diseases that have been linked to mutations in these genes. One of the organ systems that has not been associated with loss of specific T-box gene function in human disease for long is the excretory system. However, this has changed with the finding that mutations in TBX18, a member of a vertebrate-specific subgroup within the Tbx1-subfamily of T-box transcription factor genes, cause congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract, predominantly hydroureter and ureteropelvic junction obstruction. Gene expression analyses, loss-of-function studies, and lineage tracing in the mouse suggest a primary role for this transcription factor in specifying the ureteric mesenchyme in the common anlage of the kidney, the ureter, and the bladder. We review the function of Tbx18 in ureterogenesis and discuss the body of evidence that Tbx18 and other members of the T-box gene family, namely, Tbx1, Tbx2, Tbx3, and Tbx20, play additional roles in development and homeostasis of other components of the excretory system in vertebrates. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Creep behavior of precast segmental box girder bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xihua, Dai; Liangfang, Liu; Rong, Xian

    2017-08-01

    The concrete creep effect is more obvious when the box girder is assembled by segment. It is necessary to consider the influence of the loading value of the section at different time and the different age of concrete at different stages. In this paper, ACI209R-92, CEB-FIP MC90 and B3 and other concrete creep models are compared. The results show that the B3 model has many factors to consider and the calculation accuracy is high. Secondly, this paper discusses the influence of the segmental construction technology on the creep calculation, and puts forward the characteristics of the stress analysis of the segmental box girder. Finally, on the basis of the B3 model of concrete creep, the Midas software is used to establish the calculation model of segmental box girder, and the internal force and deformation of the box girder are calculated. The results show that the internal force and deformation of the box girder is too large due to the poor integrity of the segmental assembling process, which will seriously affect the normal service performance.

  2. The extra-depth toe box: a rational approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, R A

    1994-03-01

    The conservative management of foot deformities often requires the use of a modified shoe. A higher toe box is one of the most common variations required when the abnormality is located in region of the forefoot. High toe boxes are available in a variety of footgear, including athletic sneakers, comfort shoes, and prescription footwear. A rational approach to accommodating a deformed forefoot would be to first measure the maximum height of the abnormal toes in a weightbearing position. Then, by referring to a table listing shoes and available toe box space, the physician could match the foot with a shoe. The purpose of this study was to collect and tabulate measurements of toe box height for a variety of shoes. Impressions were taken from various shoes using a moldable plastic material. Toe box height was then measured and recorded. Results were tabulated for various types of men's and women's shoes. The depth of shoes at the point 5 cm from the tip of the toe was about 44 mm for most styles. The sagittal profile (i.e., vertical height available) of extra-depth shoes, comfort shoes, and athletic shoes was similar.

  3. Using a box instead of a column for process chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Raja

    2016-10-14

    Columns with relatively short bed-height to diameter ratios are frequently used for process-scale chromatography applications such as biopharmaceutical purification. Non-uniform flow distribution within such columns could result in broad and poorly resolved eluted peaks, which could in turn affect purity, recovery and productivity of the process. Different strategies centered on improved column header design have been proposed for addressing this problem. This paper describes a radically different approach, i.e. the use of a chromatography box (or chromato-box) instead of a column, for addressing the challenges posed by flow mal-distribution in process-scale, packed-bed chromatography devices. The design of the chromatography box devices used in this study is based on a laterally-fed membrane chromatography (or LFMC) device, that has been described and discussed in several recent papers. The performances of two chromatography box devices were compared with their equivalent columns in terms of sharpness and asymmetry of flow-through and eluted peaks, number of theoretical plates per metre, and peak resolution in binary and ternary protein separations. In each of the above comparisons, the chromatography box devices performed better than their equivalent columns, clearly indicating their potential as an alternative in process-scale chromatography applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Boxes and Sound Quality in AN Italian Opera House

    Science.gov (United States)

    COCCHI, A.; GARAI, M.; TAVERNELLI, C.

    2000-04-01

    The “Teatro Comunale” (City Theatre) in Bologna is an Italian opera house of the 18th century, designed by the famous architect Antonio Galli Bibiena. Largely built in masonry, it has been only partially restored and altered several times, but never destroyed and rebuilt. The study of its acoustics, while interesting for itself, offers the opportunity to investigate the role of the boxes, which constitute the most evident characteristic of Italian opera houses. The study was carried on at first by measurements, acquiring binaural impulse responses in the stalls and in the boxes, and then by computer simulation, modelling also some changes which cannot be done in the real hall. The measurements revealed clear differences between the listening quality in the boxes and in the stalls, especially regarding ITDG, clarity and IACC. Computer simulations show how the sound field in the historical theatre could be if the sound absorption of the boxes were changed, adding some velvet curtains, as was done in ancient times, and clarify the effects of the cavities which constitutes the boxes.

  5. Sheet electron beam tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spear, Alexander Grenbeaux

    The DARPA HiFIVE project uses a pulsed electron sheet beam gun to power a traveling wave tube amplifier operating at 220 GHz. Presented is a method for characterizing the high current density 0.1 mm by 1 mm sheet electron beam. A tungsten tipped probe was scanned through the cross section of the sheet electron beam inside of a vacuum vessel. The probe was controlled with sub-micron precision using stepper motors and LabView computer control while boxcar averaging hardware sampled the pulsed beam. Matlab algorithms were used to interpret the data, calculate beam dimensions and current density, and create 2-dimensional cross section images. Full characterization of two separate HiFIVE sheet electron guns was accomplished and is also presented.

  6. Mechanically reinforced glass beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Henrik; Olesen, John Forbes

    2007-01-01

    The use of glass as a load carrying material in structural elements is rarely seen even though glass is a popular material for many architects. This is owed to the unreliable and low tensile strength, which is due to surface flaws and high brittleness of the material. These properties lead...... to breakage without any warning or ductility, which can be catastrophic if no precautions are taken. One aspect of this issue is treated here by looking at the possibility of mechanically reinforcing glass beams in order to obtain ductile failure for such a structural component. A mechanically reinforced...... laminated float glass beam is constructed and tested in four-point bending. The beam consist of 4 layers of glass laminated together with a slack steel band glued onto the bottom face of the beam. The glass parts of the tested beams are \\SI{1700}{mm} long and \\SI{100}{mm} high, and the total width of one...

  7. Beam director design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younger, F.C.

    1986-08-01

    A design and fabrication effort for a beam director is documented. The conceptual design provides for the beam to pass first through a bending and focusing system (or ''achromat''), through a second achromat, through an air-to-vacuum interface (the ''beam window''), and finally through the vernier steering system. Following an initial concept study for a beam director, a prototype permanent magnet 30/sup 0/ beam-bending achromat and prototype vernier steering magnet were designed and built. In volume II, copies are included of the funding instruments, requests for quotations, purchase orders, a complete set of as-built drawings, magnetic measurement reports, the concept design report, and the final report on the design and fabrication project. (LEW)

  8. Beam monitoring at NA2

    CERN Multimedia

    1978-01-01

    Claus Goessling working on the beam Cerenkov counter of NA2. The muon beam enters from left the hall EHN2 and the last element of the beam transport. On background is the access door on the Jura side.

  9. Immunohistochemical evidence for multiple photosystems in box jellyfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekström, Peter; Garm, Anders Lydik; Pålsson, Jonas

    2008-01-01

    data demonstrate that the lens eyes of box jellyfish utilize a single opsin and are thus color-blind, and that there is probably a different photopigment in the pigment cup eyes. The results support our hypothesis that the lens eyes and the pigment cup eyes of box jellyfish are involved in different......Cubomedusae (box jellyfish) possess a remarkable visual system with 24 eyes distributed in four sensory structures termed rhopalia. Each rhopalium is equipped with six eyes: two pairs of pigment cup eyes and two unpaired lens eyes. Each eye type probably captures specific features of the visual...... environment. To investigate whether multiple types of photoreceptor cells are present in the rhopalium, and whether the different eye types possess different types of photoreceptors, we have used immunohistochemistry with a range of vertebrate opsin antibodies to label the photoreceptors...

  10. Ber analysis of the box relaxation for BPSK signal recovery

    KAUST Repository

    Thrampoulidis, Christos

    2016-06-24

    We study the problem of recovering an n-dimensional BPSK signal from m linear noise-corrupted measurements using the box relaxation method which relaxes the discrete set {±1}n to the convex set [-1,1]n to obtain a convex optimization algorithm followed by hard thresholding. When the noise and measurement matrix have iid standard normal entries, we obtain an exact expression for the bit-wise probability of error Pe in the limit of n and m growing and m/n fixed. At high SNR our result shows that the Pe of box relaxation is within 3dB of the matched filter bound (MFB) for square systems, and that it approaches the (MFB) as m grows large compared to n. Our results also indicate that as m, n → ∞, for any fixed set of size k, the error events of the corresponding k bits in the box relaxation method are independent.

  11. BOX-COX REGRESSION METHOD IN TIME SCALING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ATİLLA GÖKTAŞ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Box-Cox regression method with λj, for j = 1, 2, ..., k, power transformation can be used when dependent variable and error term of the linear regression model do not satisfy the continuity and normality assumptions. The situation obtaining the smallest mean square error  when optimum power λj, transformation for j = 1, 2, ..., k, of Y has been discussed. Box-Cox regression method is especially appropriate to adjust existence skewness or heteroscedasticity of error terms for a nonlinear functional relationship between dependent and explanatory variables. In this study, the advantage and disadvantage use of Box-Cox regression method have been discussed in differentiation and differantial analysis of time scale concept.

  12. Track plate enclosures: Box designs affecting attractiveness to riparian mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukmas, J.J.; Mayack, D.T.; Richmond, M.E.

    2003-01-01

    We examined the efficacy of four track plate enclosure designs for monitoring the abundance of small and medium-sized mammals along 10 streams in New York State. Box size and clarity of view through the box were evaluated as factors affecting visitation. We checked track plate stations weekly from September 1999 to March 2000. Eleven mammalian species or species groups visited the track plate stations. Raccoons (Procyon lotor) (P = 0.020) and feral cats (Felis catus) (P = 0.008) visited large enclosures significantly more than small enclosures. Feral cats visited clear-view enclosures significantly more than obstructed-view enclosures (P = 0.025). Enclosure size and view did not significantly affect visitation by other species; however, a large box with a clear view was the most effective design.

  13. The SRY gene HMG-box in micro- and megabats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullejos, M; Sánchez, A; Burgos, M; Jiménez, R; Díaz De La Guardia, R

    2000-01-01

    Sex determination in mammals is controlled by the Y-linked SRY gene, which encodes a transcription factor with a DNA-binding motif of the HMG type. The only conserved region in this gene is the HMG-box, whose nucleotide sequence is currently available in a number of mammalian taxa. However, nothing is known about this gene in bats. Here, we report partial sequences of the SRY HMG-box from four microbat and four megabat species. We used the SRY HMG- box sequences from micro- and megabats to test the phylogenetic relationships between microbats, megabats, and primates. In maximum parsimony and maximum-likelihood trees, mega- and microbat branches start in the same internal node, which is consistent with a monophyletic origin of this mammalian group. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

  14. Optimatization of loop heat pipe for cooling of electrotechnical box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Banovcan; Tomas, Puchor; Andrej, Kapjor; Milan, Malcho

    2017-09-01

    The paper deals with use of LOOP thermosyphon heat pipe to transfer heat from electrotechnical box and describe of construction individual types of LOOP heat pipes. The LOOP heat pipe is very good cooling device which requires no mechanical parts in their design. LOOP heat pipe use only phase change during heat transfer, without a compressor, fan or pump. LOOP heat pipe is more energy saving compared to conventional cooling systems with forced convection. The main advantage of cooling by heat pipe is that electrotechnical box can be hermetically closed (dust -free construction), because dust reduces the lifetime of electrotechnical elements in box. Lifetime of LOOP heat pipe equals to the lifetime of construction material. The paper describes mathematical model of LOOP thermosyphon heat pipe (condenser). Compares selected types of working fluids which are filled with a heat pipe and construction materials of heat pipe.

  15. Surface reflectance drives nest box temperature profiles and thermal suitability for target wildlife.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R Griffiths

    Full Text Available Thermal properties of tree hollows play a major role in survival and reproduction of hollow-dependent fauna. Artificial hollows (nest boxes are increasingly being used to supplement the loss of natural hollows; however, the factors that drive nest box thermal profiles have received surprisingly little attention. We investigated how differences in surface reflectance influenced temperature profiles of nest boxes painted three different colors (dark-green, light-green, and white: total solar reflectance 5.9%, 64.4%, and 90.3% respectively using boxes designed for three groups of mammals: insectivorous bats, marsupial gliders and brushtail possums. Across the three different box designs, dark-green (low reflectance boxes experienced the highest average and maximum daytime temperatures, had the greatest magnitude of variation in daytime temperatures within the box, and were consistently substantially warmer than light-green boxes (medium reflectance, white boxes (high reflectance, and ambient air temperatures. Results from biophysical model simulations demonstrated that variation in diurnal temperature profiles generated by painting boxes either high or low reflectance colors could have significant ecophysiological consequences for animals occupying boxes, with animals in dark-green boxes at high risk of acute heat-stress and dehydration during extreme heat events. Conversely in cold weather, our modelling indicated that there are higher cumulative energy costs for mammals, particularly smaller animals, occupying light-green boxes. Given their widespread use as a conservation tool, we suggest that before boxes are installed, consideration should be given to the effect of color on nest box temperature profiles, and the resultant thermal suitability of boxes for wildlife, particularly during extremes in weather. Managers of nest box programs should consider using several different colors and installing boxes across a range of both orientations and

  16. Surface reflectance drives nest box temperature profiles and thermal suitability for target wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Stephen R; Rowland, Jessica A; Briscoe, Natalie J; Lentini, Pia E; Handasyde, Kathrine A; Lumsden, Linda F; Robert, Kylie A

    2017-01-01

    Thermal properties of tree hollows play a major role in survival and reproduction of hollow-dependent fauna. Artificial hollows (nest boxes) are increasingly being used to supplement the loss of natural hollows; however, the factors that drive nest box thermal profiles have received surprisingly little attention. We investigated how differences in surface reflectance influenced temperature profiles of nest boxes painted three different colors (dark-green, light-green, and white: total solar reflectance 5.9%, 64.4%, and 90.3% respectively) using boxes designed for three groups of mammals: insectivorous bats, marsupial gliders and brushtail possums. Across the three different box designs, dark-green (low reflectance) boxes experienced the highest average and maximum daytime temperatures, had the greatest magnitude of variation in daytime temperatures within the box, and were consistently substantially warmer than light-green boxes (medium reflectance), white boxes (high reflectance), and ambient air temperatures. Results from biophysical model simulations demonstrated that variation in diurnal temperature profiles generated by painting boxes either high or low reflectance colors could have significant ecophysiological consequences for animals occupying boxes, with animals in dark-green boxes at high risk of acute heat-stress and dehydration during extreme heat events. Conversely in cold weather, our modelling indicated that there are higher cumulative energy costs for mammals, particularly smaller animals, occupying light-green boxes. Given their widespread use as a conservation tool, we suggest that before boxes are installed, consideration should be given to the effect of color on nest box temperature profiles, and the resultant thermal suitability of boxes for wildlife, particularly during extremes in weather. Managers of nest box programs should consider using several different colors and installing boxes across a range of both orientations and shade profiles (i

  17. Surface reflectance drives nest box temperature profiles and thermal suitability for target wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Jessica A.; Briscoe, Natalie J.; Lentini, Pia E.; Handasyde, Kathrine A.; Lumsden, Linda F.; Robert, Kylie A.

    2017-01-01

    Thermal properties of tree hollows play a major role in survival and reproduction of hollow-dependent fauna. Artificial hollows (nest boxes) are increasingly being used to supplement the loss of natural hollows; however, the factors that drive nest box thermal profiles have received surprisingly little attention. We investigated how differences in surface reflectance influenced temperature profiles of nest boxes painted three different colors (dark-green, light-green, and white: total solar reflectance 5.9%, 64.4%, and 90.3% respectively) using boxes designed for three groups of mammals: insectivorous bats, marsupial gliders and brushtail possums. Across the three different box designs, dark-green (low reflectance) boxes experienced the highest average and maximum daytime temperatures, had the greatest magnitude of variation in daytime temperatures within the box, and were consistently substantially warmer than light-green boxes (medium reflectance), white boxes (high reflectance), and ambient air temperatures. Results from biophysical model simulations demonstrated that variation in diurnal temperature profiles generated by painting boxes either high or low reflectance colors could have significant ecophysiological consequences for animals occupying boxes, with animals in dark-green boxes at high risk of acute heat-stress and dehydration during extreme heat events. Conversely in cold weather, our modelling indicated that there are higher cumulative energy costs for mammals, particularly smaller animals, occupying light-green boxes. Given their widespread use as a conservation tool, we suggest that before boxes are installed, consideration should be given to the effect of color on nest box temperature profiles, and the resultant thermal suitability of boxes for wildlife, particularly during extremes in weather. Managers of nest box programs should consider using several different colors and installing boxes across a range of both orientations and shade profiles (i

  18. Beam Imaging and Luminosity Calibration

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2081126; Klute, Markus; Medlock, Catherine Aiko

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a method to reconstruct two-dimensional proton bunch densities using vertex distributions accumulated during LHC beam-beam scans. The x-y correlations in the beam shapes are studied and an alternative luminosity calibration technique is introduced. We demonstrate the method on simulated beam-beam scans and estimate the uncertainty on the luminosity calibration associated to the beam-shape reconstruction to be below 1%.

  19. Effects of thermal insulation on electrical connections and outlet boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beausoliel, R. W.; Clifton, J. R.; Meese, W. J.

    1981-04-01

    When residential walls are retrofitted with foamed-in urea formaldehyde or blown-in cellulose thermal insulations, the insulation may enter electrical outlet and switch boxes. The effects of these thermal insulations on the durability of electrical components were studied. These studies were carried out at 44, 75, and 96 percent relative humidities with test periods between one and twelve months. Laboratory test methods were developed and tests performed to determine the electrical and corrosive effects of urea formaldehyde and cellulose thermal insulation contained in electrical outlet and switch boxes.

  20. Analysis of white box test of cyber-physical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Zhang, Lichen

    2017-05-01

    The Cyber-Physical System is a complex system in which the information system is closely integrated with the physical system. Through the environment detection and the combination of computing, communication and control process, the physical real-time perception and dynamic control function are realized. CPS is another information revolution after the Internet, and his presence will change the way people interact with the physical world. In this paper, the concept of CPS and white box testing is introduced, and then the white box test for CPS hardware, software, network and system is discussed in detail. Finally, the research on CPS is prospected.

  1. Box jellyfish use terrestrial visual cues for navigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garm, Anders; Oskarsson, Magnus; Nilsson, Dan-Eric

    2011-01-01

    Box jellyfish have an impressive set of 24 eyes of four different types, including eyes structurally similar to those of vertebrates and cephalopods [1, 2]. However, the known visual responses are restricted to simple phototaxis, shadow responses, and object avoidance responses [3-8], and it has...... been a puzzle why they need such a complex set of eyes. Here we report that medusae of the box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora are capable of visually guided navigation in mangrove swamps using terrestrial structures seen through the water surface. They detect the mangrove canopy by an eye type...

  2. Low-profile self-sealing sample transfer flexure box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Kevin; Porz, Lukas; Swamy, Tushar; Chiang, Yet-Ming; Slocum, Alexander

    2017-08-01

    A flexural bearing mechanism has enabled the development of a self-sealing box for protecting air sensitive samples during transfer between glove boxes, micro-machining equipment, and microscopy equipment. The simplicity and self-actuating feature of this design makes it applicable to many devices that operate under vacuum conditions. The models used to design the flexural mechanism are presented in detail. The device has been tested in a Zeiss Merlin GEMINI II scanning electron microscope with Li 3 PS 4 samples, showing effective isolation from air and corrosion prevention.

  3. Tests of CMS Hadron Forward Calorimeter Upgrade Readout Box Prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, Sergey; Sirunyan, Albert; Tumasyan, Armen; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Cornelis, Tom; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit Florent; Staykova, Zlatka; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Alves, Gilvan Augusto; Martins, Thiago Dos Reis; Pol, Maria Elena; Vaz Da Silva Filho, Mario; Alda Junior, Walter Luiz; Carvalho, Wagner De Paula; Chinellato, Jose Augusto; De Oliveira Martins, Carley Pedro; Figueiredo, Diego Matos; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson Jose; Molina Insfran, Jorge Andres; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Rosa Lopes Zachi, Alessandro; Finger, Miroslav; Finger, Michael; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Borras, Kerstin; Gunnellini, Paolo; Jung, Hannes; Knutsson, Albert Hans; Lutz, Benjamin; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro Miguel; Sen, Niladri; Baus, Colin; Katkov, Igor; Ulrich, Ralf Matthias; Wohrmann, H; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Bencze, Gyorgy; Horvath, D; Bala, Suman; Gupta, Ruchi; Jindal, M; Lal, Manjit Kaur; Nishu, Nishu; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, S; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Sharan, Manoj Kumar; Aziz, Tariq; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Katta, Sudhakar; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dugad, Shashikant Raichand; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Jafari, Abideh; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Zeinali, Maryam; Penzo, Aldo; Afanasyev, A; Bunin, Pavel; Ershov, Yuri; Fedoseev, Oleg; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Konoplynikov, V; Malakhov, Alexander; Moisenz, Petr; Smirnov, Vitaly; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoly; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Krasnikov, Nikolay; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, A; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Erofeeva, Maria; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Kosov, Mikhail Vladimirovich; Kudinov, Ilya; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, V; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlassov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Belyaev, A; Boos, Eduard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Korotkikh, Vladimir; Lokhtin, Igor; Markina, Anastasia; Obraztsov, Stepan; Perfilov, Maxim; Petrushanko, Sergey; Popov, Andrey; Savrin, Victor; Snigirev, Alexander; Vardanyan, Irina; Andreev, V; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Vinogradov, Alexey; Bayshev, Igor; Bityukov, Sergey; Grishin, Viatcheslav; Kryshkin, Victor; Petrov, V; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrey; Turchanovich, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Uzunyan, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Santanastasio, Francesco; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Numan Mustafa; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; G�kbulut, Gul; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Karapinar, Guler; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sogut, Kenan; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Latife Nukhet; Vergili, Mehmet; Aliyev, Takhmasib; Deniz, Muhammed; Guler, Ali Murat; Ozpineci, Altug; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Deliomeroglu, Mehmet; Gulmez, Erhan; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Sonmez, Nasuf; Cankocak, Kerem; Levchuk, Leonid; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, H; Scarborough, Tara Ann; Rumerio, Paolo; Heister, Arno; Hill, C; Lawson, Philip Daniel; Lazic, Dragoslav; Rohlf, James; St. John, Jason; Sulak, Lawrence; Gennadiy, G; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Narain, Meenakshi; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Tsang, Ka Vang; Long, Owen Rosser; Nguyen, Harold; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Sturdy, Jared; Stuart, David; To, Wing; West, Christopher Alan; Apresyan, Artur; Chen, Y; Mott, Alexander Robert; Spiropulu, Maria; Winn, David; Abdoulline, Salavat; Anderson, J; Chlebana, Frank; Freeman, James; Green, Daniel; Hanlon, J; Hirschauer, James Francis; Joshi, Umeshwar; Kunori, Shuichi; Musienko, Yuri; Sharma, Seema; Spalding, William Jeffrey; Tkaczyk, Slawomir; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, W; Gaultney, Vanessa; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete Edward; Martinez, German Ruben; Gleyzer, Sergei; Hagopian, Sharon Lee; Hagopian, Vasken; Jenkins, Charles Merrill; Baarmand, Marc M; Dorney, Brian L; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren James; Duru, Firdevs; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony Richard; Nachtman, Jane; Newsom, Charles Ray; Norbeck, John Edwin; Olson, Jonathan Edward; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Sen, Sercan; Schmidt, Ianos; Tiras, Emrah; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Kenny, Raymond Patrick; Murray, Michael Joseph; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Baden, Andrew; Calvert, Brian Michael; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Gomez, Jaime Arturo; Grassi, Tullio; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard; Kolberg, Ted; Lu, Y; Marionneau, Matthieu; Mignerey, Alice Louise Cox; Peterman, Alison Marie; Skuja, Andris; Temple, Jeffrey; Tonjes, Marguerite Belt; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin Humphrey; Mans, Jeremiah Michael; Pastika, Nathaniel Joseph; Kroeger, Robert; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sanders, David; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Jain, S; Anastassov, Anton; Velasco, Mayda Marie; Won, Steven; Heering, Adriaan; Karmgard, Daniel; Pearson, Tessa Jae; Ruchti, Randal; Berry, Edmund A; Halyo, Valerie; Hebda, Philip; Hunt, Adam Paul; Lujan, Paul Joseph; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Saka, Halil; Tully, Christopher; Zuranski, Andrzej Maciej; Barnes, Virgil Everett; Laasanen, Alvin; Bodek, Arie; Chung, Yeon Sei; de Barbaro, Pawel Jan; Eshaq, Yossof; Garcia-bellido, Aran Angel; Goldenzweig, Pablo David; Han, Ji Yeon; Harel, Amnon; Miner, Daniel Carl; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Zielinski, Marek; Bhatti, Anwar; Ciesielski, Robert Adam; Flanagan, Will Hogan; Kamon, Teruki; Montalvo, Roy Joaquin; Sakuma, Tai; Akchurin, Nural; Damgov, Jordan; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Volobouev, Igor; Gurrola, Alfredo; Milstene, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    A readout box prototype for CMS Hadron Forward calorimeter upgrade is built and tested in CERN H2 beamline. The prototype is designed to enable simultaneous tests of different readout options for the four anode upgrade PMTs, new front-end electronics design and new cabling. The response of the PMTs with different readout options is uniform and the background response is minimal. Multi-channel readout options further enhance the background elimination. Passing all the electronics, mechanical and physics tests, the readout box proves to be capable of providing the forward hadron calorimeter operations requirements in the upgrade era.

  4. Simulations of beam-beam and beam-wire interactions in RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyung J.; Sen, Tanaji; /Fermilab; Abreu, Natalia P.; Fischer, Wolfram; /Brookhaven

    2009-02-01

    The beam-beam interaction is one of the dominant sources of emittance growth and luminosity lifetime deterioration. A current carrying wire has been proposed to compensate long-range beam-beam effects in the LHC and strong localized long-range beam-beam effects are experimentally investigated in the RHIC collider. Tune shift, beam transfer function, and beam loss rate are measured in dedicated experiments. In this paper, they report on simulations to study the effect of beam-wire interactions based on diffusive apertures, beam loss rates, and beam transfer function using a parallelized weak-strong beam simulation code (BBSIMC). The simulation results are compared with measurements performed in RHIC during 2007 and 2008.

  5. ICFA Beam Dynamics Newsletter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pikin, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-11-21

    Electron beam ion sources technology made significant progress since 1968 when this method of producing highly charged ions in a potential trap within electron beam was proposed by E. Donets. Better understanding of physical processes in EBIS, technological advances and better simulation tools determined significant progress in key EBIS parameters: electron beam current and current density, ion trap capacity, attainable charge states. Greatly increased the scope of EBIS and EBIT applications. An attempt is made to compile some of EBIS engineering problems and solutions and to demonstrate a present stage of understanding the processes and approaches to build a better EBIS.

  6. Beam instrumentation performance overview

    CERN Document Server

    Sapinski, M

    2012-01-01

    The 2011 run has proven that LHC can operate safely and stably with higher bunch intensity and smaller transverse emittance than foreseen in the Technical Design Report. In this presentation the performance of the Beam Position Monitoring (BPM) system is discussed. The improvements to the system, those made during the last year and those expected to be done for 2012 run are presented. The status of the three types of devices measuring the transverse beam emittance, wire scanners (BWS), synchrotron radiation monitors (BSRT) and beam gas ionization monitors (BGI), are shown. The control room applications are reviewed and a set of improvements proposed by the operation team is presented.

  7. Luminescent beam stop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, Diane; Morton, Simon A.

    2017-10-25

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to beam stops. In one aspect, a device comprises a luminescent material, a beam stop plate, and an optical fiber. The luminescent material is a parallelepiped having a first side and a second side that are squares and having a third side that is a rectangle or a square. The first side and the second side are perpendicular to the third side. The beam stop plate is attached to the first side of the luminescent material. The optical fiber has a first end and a second end, with the first end of the optical fiber attached to the third side of the luminescent material.

  8. Leda Beam Diagnostics Instrumentation Beam Position Monitors

    CERN Document Server

    Barr, D

    2000-01-01

    The Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) facility located at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) accelerates protons to an energy of 6.7-MeV and current of 100-mA operating in either a pulsed or cw mode. Of key importance to the commissioning and operations effort is the Beam Position Monitor system (BPM). The LEDA BPM system uses five micro-stripline beam position monitors processed by log ratio processing electronics with data acquisition via a series of custom TMS32OC40 Digital Signal Processing (DSP) boards. Of special interest to this paper is the operation of the system, the log ratio processing, and the system calibration technique. This paper will also cover the DSP system operations and their interaction with the main accelerator control system.

  9. Generalized beam quality factor of aberrated truncated Gaussian laser beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mafusire, C

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The authors outline a theory for the calculation of the beam quality factor of an aberrated laser beam. They provide closed form equations that show that the beam quality factor of an aberrated Gaussian beam depends on all primary aberrations except...

  10. Single kick approximations for beam-beam deflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiko Koyama

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available A six-dimensional symplectic beam-beam interaction map using finite discrete slices of a strong beam is extended to infinitesimal slices. The new map is calculated under the assumption of a longitudinal Gaussian distribution with approximations. A round Gaussian beam is simulated to demonstrate accuracies of the approximations.

  11. Final focus test beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-03-01

    This report discusses the following: the Final Focus Test Beam Project; optical design; magnets; instrumentation; magnetic measurement and BPM calibration; mechanical alignment and stabilization; vacuum system; power supplies; control system; radiation shielding and personnel protection; infrastructure; and administration.

  12. Longitudinal beam dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Tecker, F.

    2014-01-01

    The course gives a summary of longitudinal beam dynamics for both linear and circular accelerators. After discussing different types of acceleration methods and synchronism conditions, it focuses on the particle motion in synchrotrons.

  13. HIRENASD Beam FEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This contains attempts to create BEAM FEM model. I have started a Blog to discuss this... please put your comments there and I will attempt to keep everything...

  14. SPIDER beam dump as diagnostic of the particle beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaupa, M., E-mail: matteo.zaupa@igi.cnr.it; Sartori, E. [Università degli Studi di Padova, Via 8 Febbraio 2, Padova 35122 (Italy); Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, Padova 35127 (Italy); Dalla Palma, M.; Brombin, M.; Pasqualotto, R. [Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, Padova 35127 (Italy)

    2016-11-15

    The beam power produced by the negative ion source for the production of ion of deuterium extracted from RF plasma is mainly absorbed by the beam dump component which has been designed also for measuring the temperatures on the dumping panels for beam diagnostics. A finite element code has been developed to characterize, by thermo-hydraulic analysis, the sensitivity of the beam dump to the different beam parameters. The results prove the capability of diagnosing the beam divergence and the horizontal misalignment, while the entity of the halo fraction appears hardly detectable without considering the other foreseen diagnostics like tomography and beam emission spectroscopy.

  15. Test Beams and Polarized Fixed Target Beams at the NLC

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, Lewis; Pitthan, Rainer; Rokni, Sayed; Thompson, Kathleen; Kolomenski, Yury

    2001-01-01

    A conceptual program to use NLC beams for test beams and fixed target physics is described. Primary undisrupted polarized beams would be the most simple to use, but for NLC, the disrupted beams are of good enough quality that they could also be used, after collimation of the low energy tails, for test beams and fixed target physics. Pertinent issues are: what is the compelling physics, what are the requirements on beams and running time, and what is the impact on colliding beam physics runni...

  16. Beam-beam diagnostics from closed-orbit distortion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furman, M.; Chin, Y.H.; Eden, J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Kozanecki, W. [DAPNIA/SPP, CEN Saclay Gif-sur-Yvette, (FR)]|[Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Tennyson, J.; Ziemann, V. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1992-07-01

    We study the applicability of beam-beam deflection techniques as a tuning tool for asymmetric B factories, focusing on PEP-II as an example. Assuming that the closed orbits of the two beams are separated vertically at the interaction point by a local orbit bump that is nominally closed, we calculate the residual beam orbit distortions due to the beam-beam interaction. Difference orbit measurements, performed at points conveniently distant from the interaction point (IP), provide distinct signatures that can be used to maintain the beams in collision and perform detailed optical diagnostics at the IP. A proposal to test this method experimentally at the TRISTAN ring is briefly discussed.

  17. Printing of the year book, carton boxes and printed envelopes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2018-01-18

    Jan 18, 2018 ... 1. Title: PRINTING AND SUPPLY OF THE YEAR BOOK - 2018 AND CARTON BOXES ALONG WITH PRINTED. ENVELOPES. Description a) Book size: : 140 X 215 mm / 22.5 cm x 15 cm (Trim Size) b) No. of Pages. : 340 + 4 in DOUBLE COLOUR c) Inner Pages. Matt Art 100 GSM. 2) Natural shade (NS), ...

  18. Pandora's Box: Academic Perceptions of Student Plagiarism in Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland-Smith, Wendy

    2005-01-01

    Plagiarism is viewed by many academics as a kind of Pandora's box--the elements contained inside are too frightening to allow escape for fear of the havoc that may result. Reluctance by academic members of staff to discuss student plagiarism openly may contribute to the often untenable situations we, as teachers, face when dealing with student…

  19. Efficient approximation of black-box functions and Pareto sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rennen, G.

    2009-01-01

    In the case of time-consuming simulation models or other so-called black-box functions, we determine a metamodel which approximates the relation between the input- and output-variables of the simulation model. To solve multi-objective optimization problems, we approximate the Pareto set, i.e. the

  20. Fitting boxes to Manhattan scenes using linear integer programming

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Minglei

    2016-02-19

    We propose an approach for automatic generation of building models by assembling a set of boxes using a Manhattan-world assumption. The method first aligns the point cloud with a per-building local coordinate system, and then fits axis-aligned planes to the point cloud through an iterative regularization process. The refined planes partition the space of the data into a series of compact cubic cells (candidate boxes) spanning the entire 3D space of the input data. We then choose to approximate the target building by the assembly of a subset of these candidate boxes using a binary linear programming formulation. The objective function is designed to maximize the point cloud coverage and the compactness of the final model. Finally, all selected boxes are merged into a lightweight polygonal mesh model, which is suitable for interactive visualization of large scale urban scenes. Experimental results and a comparison with state-of-the-art methods demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework.

  1. 49 CFR 178.516 - Standards for fiberboard boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... are as follows: (1) Strong, solid or double-faced corrugated fiberboard (single or multi-wall) must be... suitable material may be used. (3) Manufacturing joints. (i) Manufacturing joints in the bodies of boxes must be— (A) Taped; (B) Lapped and glued; or (C) Lapped and stitched with metal staples. (ii) Lapped...

  2. Optimal Black-Box Secret Sharing over Arbitrary Abelian Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer, Ronald; Fehr, Serge

    2002-01-01

    A black-box secret sharing scheme for the threshold access structure T t,n is one which works over any finite Abelian group G. Briefly, such a scheme differs from an ordinary linear secret sharing scheme (over, say, a given finite field) in that distribution matrix and reconstruction vectors are ...

  3. The Box Model and the Acoustic Sounder, a Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Otto; Lundtang Petersen, Erik

    1979-01-01

    Concentrations of SO2 in a large city during a subsidence situation are predicted as a function of time by means of a simple box model and the predictions are compared to actual SO2 concentration measurements. The agreement between model results and measurements is found to be excellent. The model...

  4. 49 CFR 178.517 - Standards for plastic boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... carbon black or other suitable pigments or inhibitors. These additives must be compatible with the contents and remain effective throughout the life of the box. Where use is made of carbon black pigment or... carbon black content does not exceed 2 percent by mass or if the pigment content does not exceed 3...

  5. A QQ→QQ planar double box in canonical form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco S. Bianchi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We consider a planar double box with four massive external momenta and two massive internal propagators. We derive the system of differential equations for the relevant master integrals, cast it in canonical form, write it as a dlog form and solve it in terms of iterated integrals up to depth four.

  6. The energetics of semicontact 3 x 2-min amateur boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip; Leithäuser, Renate M; Beneke, Ralph

    2014-03-01

    The energy expenditure of amateur boxing is unknown. Total metabolic cost (Wtot) as an aggregate of aerobic (Waer), anaerobic lactic (W[lactate]), and anaerobic alactic (WPCr) energy of a 3 × 2-min semicontact amateur boxing bout was analyzed. Ten boxers (mean ± SD [lower/upper 95% confidence intervals]) age 23.7 ± 4.1 (20.8/26.6) y, height 180.2 ± 7.0 (175.2/185.2) cm, body mass 70.6 ± 5.7 (66.5/74.7) kg performed a semicontact bout against handheld pads created from previously analyzed video footage of competitive bouts. Net metabolic energy was calculated using respiratory gases and blood [lactate]. Waer, 526.0 ± 57.1 (485.1/566.9) kJ, was higher (P amateur boxing is predominantly aerobic. They also highlight the importance of a highly developed aerobic capacity as a prerequisite of a high activity rate during rounds and recovery of the high-energy phosphate system during breaks as interrelated requirements of successful boxing.

  7. Detection of early squats by axle box acceleration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molodova, M.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis discusses a new method for detection of short track irregularities, particularly squats, with axle box acceleration (ABA) measurements. A squat is a surface initiated short track defect, associated with high frequency vibrations of the wheel-rail system. High stresses in the contact

  8. Review of Elastic Analysis of Box Girder Bridges | Ezeokpube ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance of thin-walled box girder bridges has attracted the attention of researchers since the last five decades. A lot of literature has dealt with the analytical formulations as well as experimental investigations. Field studies have increased tremendously in the last decade. So far the agreement between the analytical ...

  9. Developing Box Plots While Navigating the Maze of Data Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Bruce; Fitzallen, Noleine

    2013-01-01

    The learning sequence described in this article was developed to provide students with a demonstration of the development of box plots from authentic data as an illustration of the advantages gained from using multiple forms of data representation. The sequence follows an authentic process that starts with a problem to which data representations…

  10. Box-and-Whisker Plots Applied to Food Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Joao E. V.; Miranda, Ricardo M.; Figueiredo, Antonio F.; Barbosa, Jardel P.; Brasil, Edykarlos M.

    2016-01-01

    Box-and-whisker plots or simply boxplots are powerful graphical representations that give an overview of a data set. In this work five different examples illustrate the applications of boxplots in food chemistry. The examples involve relative sweetness of sugars and sugar alcohols with respect to sucrose, the potassium content of fruits and…

  11. Department of Geology University of Ghana, Box LG 58, Legon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    T.M. AKABZAA", B.K. BANEONG-YAKUBO and T.E.K. ARMAH. Department of Geology University of Ghana, Box LG 58, Legon, Ghana. (Submitted: 12 March 2005; Accepted: 15 August 2005). Abstract. The distribution and sources of mercury in the Ankobra River Basin and the Bonsa River Sub-basin in the. Wassa West ...

  12. Preferences for nest boxes as environmental enrichment for laboratory mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Weerd, HA; Van Loo, PLP; Van Zutphen, LFM; Koolhaas, JM; Baumans, [No Value

    In nature, mice live in burrows with nest chambers where they breed and may hide from predators. In the laboratory, a shelter or refuge is an easily applicable form of enrichment which may enhance the welfare of laboratory mice by giving them more control over their environment. Six nest boxes made

  13. A Grey Box Model for the Hydraulics in a Creek

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsdottir, Harpa; Jacobsen, Judith L.; Madsen, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    The Saint-Venant equation of mass balance is used to derive a stochastics lumped model, describing the dynamics of a cross-sectional area in a river. The unknown parameters of the model are estimated by combining the physical equation with a set of data, a method known as grey box modelling...

  14. MADS-box gene evolution-structure and transcription patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Bo; Pedersen, Louise B; Skipper, Martin

    2002-01-01

    This study presents a phylogenetic analysis of 198 MADS-box genes based on 420 parsimony-informative characters. The analysis includes only MIKC genes; therefore several genes from gymnosperms and pteridophytes are excluded. The strict consensus tree identifies all major monophyletic groups known...

  15. Features for Exploiting Black-Box Optimization Problem Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Malitsky, Yuri; Abell, Tinus

    2013-01-01

    Black-box optimization (BBO) problems arise in numerous scientic and engineering applications and are characterized by compu- tationally intensive objective functions, which severely limit the number of evaluations that can be performed. We present a robust set of features that analyze the tness...

  16. Immunohistochemical evidence for multiple photosystems in box jellyfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekström, Peter; Garm, Anders; Pålsson, Jonas; Vihtelic, Thomas S; Nilsson, Dan-Eric

    2008-07-01

    Cubomedusae (box jellyfish) possess a remarkable visual system with 24 eyes distributed in four sensory structures termed rhopalia. Each rhopalium is equipped with six eyes: two pairs of pigment cup eyes and two unpaired lens eyes. Each eye type probably captures specific features of the visual environment. To investigate whether multiple types of photoreceptor cells are present in the rhopalium, and whether the different eye types possess different types of photoreceptors, we have used immunohistochemistry with a range of vertebrate opsin antibodies to label the photoreceptors, and electroretinograms (ERG) to determine their spectral sensitivity. All photoreceptor cells of the two lens eyes of the box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora and Carybdea marsupialis displayed immunoreactivity for an antibody directed against the zebrafish ultraviolet (UV) opsin, but not against any of eight other rhodopsin or cone opsin antibodies tested. In neither of the two species were the pigment cup eyes immunoreactive for any of the opsin antibodies. ERG analysis of the Carybdea lower lens eyes demonstrated a single spectral sensitivity maximum at 485 nm suggesting the presence of a single opsin type. Our data demonstrate that the lens eyes of box jellyfish utilize a single opsin and are thus color-blind, and that there is probably a different photopigment in the pigment cup eyes. The results support our hypothesis that the lens eyes and the pigment cup eyes of box jellyfish are involved in different and specific visual tasks.

  17. The Popcorn Box Activity and Reasoning about Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteley, Walter J.; Mamolo, Ami

    2012-01-01

    A well-known optimization problem is the Popcorn Box investigation, which involves a movie theater snack container. The problem has been tailored for classroom investigations by the Ontario Association for Mathematics Education. The exploration was designed for students in grades 9 through 12. A common strategy proposed for algebra students is to…

  18. Testing the Box-Cox Parameter for an Integrated Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Huang (Jian); M. Kobayashi (Masahito); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analyses the constant elasticity of volatility (CEV) model suggested by Chan et al. (1992). The CEV model without mean reversion is shown to be the inverse Box-Cox transformation of integrated processes asymptotically. It is demonstrated that the maximum likelihood estimator

  19. Learning unions of boxes with membership and equivalence queries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, P.W. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Goldman, S.A.; Mathias, H.D. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1994-07-01

    The authors present two algorithms that use membership and equivalence queries to exactly identify the concepts given by the union of s discretized axis-parallel boxes in d-dimensional discretized Euclidean space where there are n discrete values that each coordinate can have. The first algorithm receives at most sd counterexamples and uses time and membership queries polynomial in s and log n for d any constant. Further, all equivalence queries made can be formulated as the union of O(sd log(s)) axis-parallel boxes. Next, they introduce a new complexity measure that better captures the complexity of a union of boxes than simply the number of boxes and dimensions. Their new measure, {sigma}, is the number of segments in the target polyhedron where a segment is a maximum portion of one of the sides of the polyhedron that lies entirely inside or entirely outside each of the other halfspaces defining the polyhedron. They then present an improvement of their first algorithm that uses time and queries polynomial in {sigma} and log n. The hypothesis class used here is decision trees of height at most 2sd. Further they can show that the time and queries used by this algorithm are polynomial in d and log n for s any constant thus generalizing the exact learnability of DNF formulas with a constant number of terms. In fact, this single algorithm is efficient for either s or d constant.

  20. How Users Search the Library from a Single Search Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lown, Cory; Sierra, Tito; Boyer, Josh

    2013-01-01

    Academic libraries are turning increasingly to unified search solutions to simplify search and discovery of library resources. Unfortunately, very little research has been published on library user search behavior in single search box environments. This study examines how users search a large public university library using a prominent, single…

  1. Seismic vulnerability assessment of a continuous steel box girder ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tae-Hyung Lee

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... indicate that the bridge structures equipped with seismic isolation devices (e.g. LRBs) significantly mitigated the damages due to earthquakes. Keywords. Continuous steel box girder bridge; fragility curves; seismic vulnerability assessment; damage state; nonlinear dynamic analysis; lead rubber bearing. 1.

  2. Application of Box-Behnken Design for Optimum Citric Acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of three factors, temperature, pH and inoculum density on citric acid production was determined using a three variable Box-Behnken design (BBD). The BBD was used to develop a statistical model to describe the production of citric acid and the fermentation conditions were then optimised using RSM. The model ...

  3. Evaluating degradation at railway crossings using axle box acceleration measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, Z.; Nunez Vicencio, Alfredo; Li, Z.; Dollevoet, R.P.B.J.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the capability of an axle box acceleration (ABA) system to evaluate the degradation at railway crossings. For this purpose, information from multiple sensors, namely, ABA signals, 3D rail profiles, Global Positioning System (GPS) and tachometer recordings, was

  4. 49 CFR 178.515 - Standards for reconstituted wood boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for reconstituted wood boxes. 178.515 Section 178.515 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriente...

  5. Beam-beam effects at the Fermilab Tevatron: Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sen

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The Tevatron in Run II is operating with three trains of 12 bunches each. Long-range beam-beam interactions have been significant sources of beam loss and lifetime limitations of antiprotons. The dynamics due to the long-range beam-beam interactions depends on several beam parameters such as tunes, coupling, chromaticities, beam separations, intensities, and emittances. We have developed analytical tools to calculate, for example, amplitude dependent tune shifts and chromaticities, beam-beam induced coupling, and resonance driving terms. We report on these calculations and estimates of dynamic aperture and diffusion coefficients with long-term tracking. These theoretical results are compared with observations and used to predict performance at design values of beam parameters.

  6. Is LEP beam-beam limited at its highest energy?

    CERN Document Server

    Brandt, D; Meddahi, Malika; Verdier, A

    1999-01-01

    The operation of LEP at 45.6 GeV was limited by beam-beam effects and the vertical beam-beam parameter xy never exceeded 0.045. At the highest energy of 94.5 GeV, the increased damping allows higher beam-beam parameters xy . Values above 0.07 in the vertical plane averaged over four experiments have been obtained frequently with peak values up to 0.075 in a single experiment. Although the maximum intensity in LEP is presently limited by technical considerations, some observations indicate that the beam-beam limit is close and the question of the maximum possible values can be raised. These observations are shown in this paper and possible consequences are presented. The optimum operation of LEP in the neighbourhood of the beam-beam limit is discussed.

  7. Beam Propagation Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-01

    Kiuttu C. A. Ekdahl N. F. Roderick F49620-81-C-0016 B. A. Sabol L. A. Wright D. J. Sullivan______________ 3 P;ERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS...pulse * transmission through the atmosphere remain unresolved. The complexity of beam propagation physics and air chemistry makes the prediction of beam...higher front velocities than predicted by Eq. (27). Fessenden et al. 1 6 measured vf - 0.77 v in a detailed series of experiments utilizing the FX-25

  8. Electron Beam Materials Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Donald E.

    2012-06-01

    In electron beam processing, a well-defined beam of relatively energetic electrons produced by a high voltage acceleration gap is used to transmit thermal energy into a material in a precise manner. This controlled deposition of heat is employed in a wide variety of industrial applications for precision cutting, drilling, and welding of materials as well as annealing, glazing, and surface hardening. This chapter will describe the equipment used and the most prominent industrial applications for this process.

  9. LHC First Beam 2008

    CERN Multimedia

    Tuura, L

    2008-01-01

    The CMS Centre played a major part in the LHC First Beam Event on September 10th 2008: it was a central point for CMS, hosting journalists from all over the world and providing live link-ups to collaborating institutes as well as, of course, monitoring events as they happened at Point 5. It was also a venue for celebration as the beam completed circuits of the LHC in both directions, passing successfully through the detector (Courtesy of Lassi Tuura)

  10. Optimizing PHB and Protease Production by Box Behnken Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amro Abd al fattah Amara

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mixed culture is more suitable to adapt more flexible fermentation process and produce different product simultaneously. In this study a mixed Bacillus culture was investigated for their ability to produce the bioplastic "Polyhydroxybutyrate" and both of the mesophilic and the thermophilic proteases in one flask. Box-Behnken experimental design was used. The produced amount of PHB has been increased significantly. Meanwhile there is a competition between PHB and proteases. The maximum produced amount of PHB using Box-Behnken design was 2.82 g/l/48 h with protease activity equal to 41.9 Units/ml/48 h for thermophilic proteases and 99.65 Units/ml/48 h for mesophilic proteases. Excel solver was used for extra-optimization for the optimum conditions obtained from Box-Behnken experiments and its model. The maximum PHB obtained after using Excel solver was 2.88 g/l/48 h. The maximum mesophilic and thermophilic activities obtained at the same PHB production conditions were 175.68 and 243.38 Units/ml respectively. The model accuracy as obtained from Excel solver was 118.8%, which prove the power of the experimental design in optimizing such complicated process. The strategies used in this study are recommended for the production of PHB and different proteases simultaneously using Bacillus mixed culture. ABSTRAK: Kultur campuran adalah lebih sesuai bagi proses penapaian yang fleksibel dan ia boleh menghasilkan produk yang berbeza secara serentak. Dalam kajian ini keupayaan  menghasilkan "Polyhydroxybutyrate" bioplastik serta mesofilik dan termofilik protease dalam satu flask oleh  kultur Bacillus campuran telah disiasat. Eksperimen rekabentuk Box-Behnken telah digunakan. Jumlah PHB yang dikeluarkan meningkat dengan ketara dan terdapat persaingan antara PHB dan protease. Jumlah keluaran PHB maksima menggunakan rekabentuk Box-Behnken adalah 2.82 g/l/48 jam dengan aktiviti protease sama dengan 41.9 Unit/ml/48 jam untuk protease termofilik dan 99.65 Unit

  11. The ideal neutrino beams

    CERN Document Server

    Lindroos, Mats

    2009-01-01

    The advance in neutrino oscillation physics is driven by the availability of well characterized and high flux neutrino beams. The three present options for the next generation neutrino oscillation facility are super beams, neutrino factories and beta-beams. A super-beam is a very high intensity classical neutrino beam generated by protons impinging on a target where the neutrinos are generated by the secondary particles decaying in a tunnel down streams of the target. In a neutrino factory the neutrinos are generated from muons decaying in a storage ring with long straight sections pointing towards the detectors. In a beta-beam the neutrinos are also originating from decay in a storage ring but the decaying particles are radioactive ions rather than muons. I will in this presentation review the three options and discuss the pros and cons of each. The present joint design effort for a future high intensity neutrino oscillation in Europe within a common EU supported design study, EURONU, will also be presented....

  12. Fractional Airy beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khonina, S N; Ustinov, A V

    2017-11-01

    Airy beams possess a number of properties that ensure their multifunction and high relevance in many applications. This fact stimulates scientists to search for new modifications and generalizations of classical Airy beams. Several generalizations of the Airy functions are known, on the basis of both the modification of the differential equation and the variations in the integral representation. In this paper we propose and investigate a new type of Airy beams-fractional Airy beams (FrAiB). They are based on the generalization of the integral representation and are close to the Olver functions, but we are considering a wider range of the power-law dependence of the argument, including non-integer (fractional) values of the power. A theoretical and numerical analysis of the FrAiBs, as well as their symmetrized variants, was performed. The properties of FrAiBs, such as being non-diffracting and autofocusing, were numerically investigated by means of the fractional Fourier transform, describing the beam transformations by paraxial optical systems. We believe that new beams can be useful for laser manipulation techniques and lensless laser patterning.

  13. IBC - ION BEAM CENTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes von Borany

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Ion Beam Center (IBC, various set-ups – electrostatic accelerators, ion implanters, plasma-based ion implantation equipment, low-energy ion tools, an ion microscope etc. – are combined into a unique facility for research and applications using ion beams. Almost all ions from stable chemical nuclides are available in the ion energy range from 10 eV to about 60 MeV. In addition to broad beams, also focused (down to 1 nm and highly-charged (charge state up to 45+ ion beams, or ions extracted from a plasma can be provided. In total, the IBC operates more than 30 dedicated tools or beamline end-stations. The specific expertise of IBC is the modification and analysis of solids by energetic ions aimed to develop novel materials for information technology, electronics or energy systems. In addition, ion beam analysis techniques became of increasing importance for interdisciplinary fields like geochemistry, climate or environmental research and resources technology. Special add-on services offered ensure a successful realization of user experiments. Based on a long-term expertise, specific equipment and common commercial procedures, the IBC is strongly active in the use of ion beam techniques for industrial applications aimed to initiate valuable product innovation.

  14. Beam Loss Ion Chamber System Upgrade for Experimental Halls

    CERN Document Server

    Dotson, Danny W

    2005-01-01

    The Beam loss Ion Chamber System (BLICS) was developed to protect Jefferson Labs transport lines, targets and beam dumps from a catastrophic "burn through." Range changes and testing was accomplished manually requiring the experiment to be shut down. The new upgraded system is based around an "off the shelf" Programmable Logic Controller located in a single controll box supporting up to ten individual detectors. All functions that formerly required an entry into the experimental hall and manual adjustment can be accomplished from the Machine Control Center (MCC). A further innovation was the addition of a High Voltage "Brick" at the detector location. A single cable supplies the required voltage for the Brick and a return line for the ion chamber signal. The read back screens display range, trip point, and accumulated dose for each location. The new system is very cost effective and significantly reduces the amount of lost experimental time.

  15. Weld formation control at electron beam welding with beam oscillations

    OpenAIRE

    Trushnikov, Dmitriy; Koleva, Elena; Mladenov, Georgy; A. Shcherbakov

    2014-01-01

    Electron beam welding is used extensively to produce essential machine parts. The control of the basic beam parameters beam power or beam current at constant accelerating voltage, welding speed, current of focusing lens and distance between electron gun and welded sample surface is not enough to obtain at most of the regimes sound welds. Control of the focus position using analysis of the high frequency component of the current, collected by plasma, at periodic interactions on the beam (the o...

  16. Ion Accelerator Merges Several Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aston, G.

    1984-01-01

    Intense ion beam formed by merging multiple ion beamlets into one concentrated beam. Beamlet holes in graphite screen and focusing grids arranged in hexagonal pattern. Merged beam passes through single hole in each of aluminum accelerator and decelerator grids. Ion extraction efficiency, beam intensity, and focusing improved.

  17. The ITER neutral beam front end components integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbani, M., E-mail: marc.urbani@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul Lez Durance (France); Hemsworth, R.; Schunke, B.; Graceffa, J.; Delmas, E.; Svensson, L.; Boilson, D. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul Lez Durance (France); Krylov, A.; Panasenkov, A. [RRC Kurchatov Institute, 1, Kurchatov Square, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); Agarici, G. [Fusion For Energy, C/Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral-B3, E-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Stafford Allen, R.; Jones, C.; Kalsey, M.; Muir, A.; Milnes, J. [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Geli, F. [FGI Consulting, Le Garde d’Estienne, 4565 route du Puy Sainte Reparade, 13540 Puyricard (France); Sherlock, P. [AMEC Limited, Booths Park Chelford Road, Knutsford Cheshire WA16 8QZ (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-15

    The neutral beam (NB) system for ITER is composed of two heating neutral beam injectors (HNBs) and a diagnostic neutral beam injector (DNB). A third HNB can be installed as a future up-grade. This paper will present the design development of the components between the injectors and the tokamak; the so-called ‘front end components’: the drift duct consists of the NB bellows and the drift duct liner, the vacuum vessel pressure suppression system box (VVPSS box), the absolute valve, and the fast shutter. These components represent the key links between the ITER tokamak and the vessels of the NB injectors. The design of these components is demanding due to the different loads that these components will have to stand. The paper will describe the different design solutions which have to be implemented regarding the primary vacuum confinement, the power handling capability and the remote maintenance operations. The sizes of the components are determined by the large cross section of the neutral beam. The power handling capability is driven by the anticipated re-ionization of the neutral beam and the electromagnetic fields in this region. The drift duct bellows (with an inner diameter of 2.5 m) shall guarantee a leak tight vacuum enclosure during the vertical and radial displacements of the ITER vacuum vessel. The conductance of the VVPSS box must be maximized in the available space. The absolute valve remains a challenging development. The total leak rate through the valve must be ≤1 × 10{sup −8} Pa m{sup 3}/s when the valve is closed. Due to the radiation environment, the seals of the gate valve will be metallic. An R and D program has been launched to develop a suitable metallic seal solution with the required dimensions. The maximum allowed closing time for the fast shutter shall be less than 1 s. For all these components the leak tightness will be guaranteed by a welded lip seal and the mechanical stability by bolted structures.

  18. Analysis of S-box in Image Encryption Using Root Mean Square Error Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Iqtadar; Shah, Tariq; Gondal, Muhammad Asif; Mahmood, Hasan

    2012-07-01

    The use of substitution boxes (S-boxes) in encryption applications has proven to be an effective nonlinear component in creating confusion and randomness. The S-box is evolving and many variants appear in literature, which include advanced encryption standard (AES) S-box, affine power affine (APA) S-box, Skipjack S-box, Gray S-box, Lui J S-box, residue prime number S-box, Xyi S-box, and S8 S-box. These S-boxes have algebraic and statistical properties which distinguish them from each other in terms of encryption strength. In some circumstances, the parameters from algebraic and statistical analysis yield results which do not provide clear evidence in distinguishing an S-box for an application to a particular set of data. In image encryption applications, the use of S-boxes needs special care because the visual analysis and perception of a viewer can sometimes identify artifacts embedded in the image. In addition to existing algebraic and statistical analysis already used for image encryption applications, we propose an application of root mean square error technique, which further elaborates the results and enables the analyst to vividly distinguish between the performances of various S-boxes. While the use of the root mean square error analysis in statistics has proven to be effective in determining the difference in original data and the processed data, its use in image encryption has shown promising results in estimating the strength of the encryption method. In this paper, we show the application of the root mean square error analysis to S-box image encryption. The parameters from this analysis are used in determining the strength of S-boxes

  19. Beam Trail Tracking at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicklaus, Dennis J. [Fermilab; Carmichael, Linden Ralph [Fermilab; Neswold, Richard [Fermilab; Yuan, Zongwei [Fermilab

    2015-01-01

    We present a system for acquiring and sorting data from select devices depending on the destination of each particular beam pulse in the Fermilab accelerator chain. The 15 Hz beam that begins in the Fermilab ion source can be directed to a variety of additional accelerators, beam lines, beam dumps, and experiments. We have implemented a data acquisition system that senses the destination of each pulse and reads the appropriate beam intensity devices so that profiles of the beam can be stored and analysed for each type of beam trail. We envision utilizing this data long term to identify trends in the performance of the accelerators

  20. Simultaneous determination of the bilirubin oxidation end products Z-BOX A and Z-BOX B in human serum using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Raphael A; Kahnes, Marcel; Bauer, Michael; Pohnert, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Bilirubin oxidation end products (BOXes) appear upon endogenous heme degradation and can be found in the cerebrospinal fluid after hemorrhagic stroke. BOXes are assumed to contribute to delayed cerebral vasospasm and secondary loss of brain tissue. Here, we present a validated LC-ESI-MS/MS method for the sensitive determination of the regio-isomers Z-BOX A and Z-BOX B in human serum. We found that Z-BOX A and Z-BOX B appear in serum of healthy volunteers. The sample preparation includes the addition of 5-bromonicotinamide as internal standard and protein precipitation with acetonitrile. Baseline-separation was achieved on a C-18 column with a binary solvent gradient of formic acid in water/acetonitrile at 1 mL/min within a total analysis time of 17 min. Using single reaction monitoring in the positive ion mode, the linear working ranges were 2.74-163 pg/μL (Z-BOX A) and 2.12-162.4 pg/μL (Z-BOX B) with R(2)>0.995. Intra- and inter-day precisions were human serum were determined by standard addition. The photolability of both analytes was demonstrated. This method enables to monitor Z-BOX A and Z-BOX B as a prerequisite to systematically study the biological significance of higher order metabolites of heme degradation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. 77 FR 38705 - Draft Specification for Airport Light Bases, Transformer Housings, Junction Boxes, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Draft Specification for Airport Light Bases, Transformer Housings... comment on the Draft ``Specification for Airport Light Bases, Transformer Housings, Junction Boxes, and... recommendations for airport light bases, transformer housings, junction boxes and accessories. The FAA has posted...

  2. Beam-beam observations in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Y. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Fischer, W. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); White, S. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-06-24

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory has been operating since 2000. Over the past decade, thanks to the continuously increased bunch intensity and reduced β*s at the interaction points, the maximum peak luminosity in the polarized proton operation has been increased by more than two orders of magnitude. In this article, we first present the beam-beam observations in the previous RHIC polarized proton runs. Then we analyze the mechanisms for the beam loss and emittance growth in the presence of beam-beam interaction. The operational challenges and limitations imposed by beam-beam interaction and their remedies are also presented. In the end, we briefly introduce head-on beam-beam compensation with electron lenses in RHIC.

  3. CFRP-Strengthening and Long-Term Performance of Fatigue Critical Welds of a Steel Box Girder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland E. Koller

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Empa’s research efforts in the 1990s provided evidence that a considerable increase of the fatigue strength of welded aluminum beams can be achieved by externally bonding pultruded carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP laminates using rubber-toughened epoxies over the fatigue-weak welding zone on their tensile flange. The reinforcing effect obtained is determined by the stiffness of the unidirectional CFRP laminate which has twice the elastic modulus of aluminum. One can therefore easily follow that an unstressed CFRP laminate reinforcement of welded beams made of steel will not lead to a substantial increase in fatigue strength of the steel structure. This consideration led to the idea of prestressing an external reinforcement of the welded zone. The present investigation describes experimental studies to identify the adhesive system suitable for achieving high creep and fatigue strength of the prestressed CFRP patch. Experimental results (Wöhler-fields of shear-lap-specimens and welded steel beams reinforced with prestressed CFRP laminates are presented. The paper concludes by presenting a field application, the reinforcement of a steel pendulum by adhesively bonded prestressed CFRP laminates to the tensile flanges of the welded box girder. Inspections carried out periodically on this structure revealed neither prestress losses nor crack initiation after nine years of service.

  4. Fauna using nest boxes in four timber types in eastern Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz; D. Craig Rudolph

    1995-01-01

    Occupancy of 240 nest boxes in pure pine, pine-hardwood, upland hardwood, and bottomland hardwood forests (60 boxes in each forest type) were monitored for six years on the Stephen F. Austin Experimental Forest, Nacogdoches County in eastern Texas. Three boxes were placed at twenty sites in each forest type. Initially, each site had a box with 3.2, 4.7, or 5.7 cm...

  5. Visual pigment in the lens eyes of the box jellyfish Chiropsella bronzie

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, Megan; Garm, Anders; Marshall, Justin N.; Hart, Nathan S.; Ekström, Peter; Skogh, Charlotta; Nilsson, Dan-Eric

    2010-01-01

    Box jellyfish (Cubomedusae) possess a unique visual system comprising 24 eyes of four morphological types. Moreover, box jellyfish display several visually guided behaviours, including obstacle avoidance and light-shaft attractance. It is largely unknown what kind of visual information box jellyfish use for carrying out these behaviours. Brightness contrast is almost certainly involved, but it is also possible that box jellyfish extract colour information from their surroundings. The possible...

  6. Lightweight HPC beam OMEGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sýkora, Michal; Jedlinský, Petr; Komanec, Jan

    2017-09-01

    In the design and construction of precast bridge structures, a general goal is to achieve the maximum possible span length. Often, the weight of individual beams makes them difficult to handle, which may be a limiting factor in achieving the desired span. The design of the OMEGA beam aims to solve a part of these problems. It is a thin-walled shell made of prestressed high-performance concrete (HPC) in the shape of inverted Ω character. The concrete shell with prestressed strands is fitted with a non-stressed tendon already in the casting yard and is more easily transported and installed on the site. The shells are subsequently completed with mild steel reinforcement and cores are cast in situ together with the deck. The OMEGA beams can also be used as an alternative to steel - concrete composite bridges. Due to the higher production complexity, OMEGA beam can hardly substitute conventional prestressed beams like T or PETRA completely, but it can be a useful alternative for specific construction needs.

  7. ICFA Beam Dynamics Newsletter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Zvi I.; Kuczewski A.; Altinbas, Z.; Beavis, D.; Belomestnykh,; Dai, J. et al

    2012-07-01

    The Collider-Accelerator Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory is building a high-brightness 500 mA capable Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) as one of its main R&D thrusts towards eRHIC, the polarized electron - hadron collider as an upgrade of the operating RHIC facility. The ERL is in final assembly stages, with injection commisioning starting in October 2012. The objective of this ERL is to serve as a platform for R&D into high current ERL, in particular issues of halo generation and control, Higher-Order Mode (HOM) issues, coherent emissions for the beam and high-brightness, high-power beam generation and preservation. The R&D ERL features a superconducting laser-photocathode RF gun with a high quantum efficiency photoccathode served with a load-lock cathode delivery system, a highly damped 5-cell accelerating cavity, a highly flexible single-pass loop and a comprehensive system of beam instrumentation. In this ICFA Beam Dynamics Newsletter article we will describe the ERL in a degree of detail that is not usually found in regular publications. We will discuss the various systems of the ERL, following the electrons from the photocathode to the beam dump, cover the control system, machine protection etc and summarize with the status of the ERL systems.

  8. Paul Collier : Balancing beams

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    As former head of AB Operations, Paul Collier and his group were in the ‘cockpit’ for the LHC’s maiden voyage - piloting the first beam around the ring. But now, as Head of the Beams Department, he will need his feet firmly on the ground in order to balance all the beam activities at CERN. "As Department Head, I’ll have less direct contact with the machines," Collier says with a hint of regret. "I’ll still obviously be very involved, but they won’t actually let me loose in front of the keyboard anymore!" As the new Head of the BE Department, Collier will be in charge of nearly 400 people, and will oversee all the beam activities, including the preparations for the longest period of beam operation in the history of CERN. In the new organization, the BE, TE and EN Departments have been grouped together in the Accelerator and Technology Sector. "‘Partnership’ is a key word for the three departments," says Collier. "The n...

  9. Lecture on beam instabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, A.

    1999-12-21

    These lectures treat some of the common collective beam instability effects encountered in accelerators. In choosing the material for these lectures, it is attempted to introduce this subject with a more practical approach, instead of a more theoretical approach starting with first principles. After introducing the terminologies, emphasis will be placed on how to apply the lecture material to perform calculations and to make estimates of various instability effects. In the first half of the lectures, after briefly introducing the concepts of impedance and wake field, the authors will discuss a selected list of formulas for the impedances of various accelerator components. Detailed derivations are omitted, allowing time for the students to think through the process of how to apply the knowledge learned. The list of impedances to be covered include: space charge, resistive wall, resonator, wall roughness, and small perturbation on the vacuum chamber wall. Assuming impedances are known, the second half of the lectures addresses the question of how to calculate the power of beam heating, the growth rates, and the thresholds for a list of selected beam instability effects. Again with minimal detailed derivations, the aim is to introduce a collection of formulas, and apply them to linear as well as circular accelerators. The list of beam instability effects to be covered include: loss factor, beam break-up, BNS damping, bunch lengthening, resistive wall instability, head-tail instability, longitudinal head-tail instability, Landau damping, microwave instability, and mode coupling instability.

  10. Beam Time Accounting

    CERN Document Server

    Seitova, Diana

    2016-01-01

    ISOLDE is one of the leading research facilities in the field of nuclear physics. A proton beam with an energy 1.4 GeV coming from the Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB) hits one of the targets at ISOLDE and produces Radioactive Ion Beams (RIBs). Then, the RIBs of interest is selected and delivered to the different experimental stations. In order to deliver the beam to the certain experimental station, the positions of the devices along the beamline should satisfy certain conditions. The purpose of this project is to define the conditions for the beam to pass through the different beamlines and to store the data about device’s status for later analysis and statistics, so it would be possible to know when the beam was used for different experiments. The data with the settings of the different devices is saved in the Timber database and the first steps for making virtual devices to compile the status of the beamlines were completed.

  11. Bringing up beams

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Last month, commissioning began on CERN’s newest linear accelerator: Linac4. As the replacement machine for Linac2, Linac4 will take a negative hydrogen ion beam to a staggering 160 MeV. We check in to see how the Linac4 team is preparing its machine for its new role as the first link in the accelerator chain.   The Linac4 3 MeV beam line, with the ion source in the back, the RFQ in the middle and the chopping line in the front. On 14 November, members of the Linac4 collaboration and the CERN Operations Group were brought together for their first “real day” in the Linac4 Control Room. Together, they successfully accelerated their first hydrogen ion beam to 3 MeV. It was an exciting moment for everyone involved and marked the start of one of the most critical commissioning phases for the new accelerator. At the start of the Linac4 beam line sits the CERN-made Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ). This vital piece of machinery takes the beam from 45 keV to 3 MeV in ju...

  12. A better beam quality

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Progress has been made on two fronts, providing physics data and preparing for higher intensities. Over the Whitsun weekend of May 22 to 24, 5 fills for physics provided almost 30 hours of stable colliding beams, all with bunch intensities around 2x1010 protons and at a β* of 2m. The first three of these fills were with 6 bunches per beam, giving 3 pairs of collisions in all experiments. For the other two fills, the number of bunches per beam was increased to 13, giving 8 pairs of colliding bunches, and for the first time luminosities were pushed above 1029 cm-2s-1, 2 orders of magnitude higher than first collisions in March. In between and after these physics fills, nominal bunches of 1011 protons were successfully ramped and brought into collision in ATLAS and CMS for the first time (not in stable beam conditions and without squeeze). Event rates seen by the experiments were in the expected range for these conditions. In the middle of this work, a short fill with beams of 7 nominal bunches was ...

  13. Beam-beam studies for FCC-hh

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2068329; Pieloni, Tatiana; Buffat, Xavier; Furuseth, Sondre Vik

    2017-01-01

    The Future Circular Collider hadron-hadron (FCC-hh) design study is currently exploring different IR design possibilities including round and flat optics or different crossing schemes. The present study intends to evaluate each scenario from the beam-beam effects point of view. In particular the single particle long term stability to maximize beam lifetimes and luminosity reach is used to quantify the differences. The impact of strong head on interactions on the beam quality and lifetime is addressed by means of GPU accelerated simulations code featuring a weak-strong 6-dimensional beam-beam interaction.

  14. 76 FR 40849 - Post Office (PO) Box Fee Groups for Merged Locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-12

    ... 111 Post Office (PO) Box Fee Groups for Merged Locations AGENCY: Postal Service. TM ACTION: Proposed... Service, Domestic Mail Manual (DMM ) 508.4 to allow Post Office TM (PO) Box fee groups to be merged due to... , with a subject line of ``PO Box Fee Group for Merged Locations.'' Faxed comments are not accepted. FOR...

  15. Autoantibodies to high mobility group box 1 in patients with Incomplete and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaper, F.; De Leeuw, K.; Horst, G.; Maas, F.; Beijeren, D.V.; Bijzet, J.; Heeringa, P.; Limburg, P.C.; Westra, J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. High Mobility Group Box-1 (HMGB1) is involved in the pathogenesis of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). However, the role of autoantibodies to HMGB1 is unclear. Therefore levels of anti-HMGB1 and their reactivity to HMGB1 BoxA and BoxB were examined in association with disease

  16. Is Think Outside the Box 21st Century Code for Imagination, Innovation, Creativity, Critical Thinking, Intuition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notar, Charles E.; Padgett, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    It is the authors' contention that there is no such thing as "thinking outside the box." However, the term has become an iconic phrase for a generation. The discussion presents the authors' thoughts on why there is no box in which to think outside. If there is a box, then accidental learning would never exist for students.

  17. The Use of a Pica Box in Reducing Pica Behavior in a Student with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Nancy; Myles, Brenda Smith

    1996-01-01

    A pica box (containing items safe to chew) was used as an intervention with a 10-year-old autistic girl with pica behaviors in a special education setting. Evaluation using an ABAB design (varying in availability of the pica box) found a decrease in pica attempts when the pica box was available to the student. (DB)

  18. 49 CFR 230.63 - Smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Pipes § 230.63 Smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts. The smoke box, steam pipes and... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts. 230.63...

  19. Limit theorems for the number of occupied boxes in the Bernoulli sieve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gnedin, A.V.; Iksanov, A.; Marynych, O.

    2010-01-01

    The Bernoulli sieve is a version of the classical `balls-in-boxes' occupancy scheme, in which random frequencies of in¯nitely many boxes are produced by a multiplicative renewal process, also known as the residual allocation model or stick-breaking. We focus on the number Kn of boxes occupied by at

  20. Combining Multiple External Representations and Refutational Text: An Intervention on Learning to Interpret Box Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lem, Stephanie; Kempen, Goya; Ceulemans, Eva; Onghena, Patrick; Verschaffel, Lieven; Van Dooren, Wim

    2015-01-01

    Box plots are frequently misinterpreted and educational attempts to correct these misinterpretations have not been successful. In this study, we used two instructional techniques that seemed powerful to change the misinterpretation of the area of the box in box plots, both separately and in combination, leading to three experimental conditions,…

  1. Substructural Identification of Flexural Rigidity for Beam-Like Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Young Koo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a novel substructural identification method based on the Bernoulli-Euler beam theory with a single variable optimization scheme to estimate the flexural rigidity of a beam-like structure such as a bridge deck, which is one of the major structural integrity indices of a structure. In ordinary bridges, the boundary condition of a superstructure can be significantly altered by aging and environmental variations, and the actual boundary conditions are generally unknown or difficult to be estimated correctly. To efficiently bypass the problems related to boundary conditions, a substructural identification method is proposed to evaluate the flexural rigidity regardless of the actual boundary conditions by isolating an identification region within the internal substructure. The proposed method is very simple and effective as it utilizes the single variable optimization based on the transfer function formulated utilizing Bernoulli Euler beam theory for the inverse analysis to obtain the flexural rigidity. This novel method is also rigorously investigated by applying it for estimating the flexural rigidity of a simply supported beam model with different boundary conditions, a concrete plate-girder bridge model with different length of an internal substructure, a cantilever-type wind turbine tower structure with different type of excitation, and a steel box-girder bridge model with internal structural damages.

  2. Beam characteristics of energy-matched flattening filter free beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paynter, D; Weston, S J; Cosgrove, V P; Evans, J A; Thwaites, D I

    2014-05-01

    Flattening filter free (FFF) linear accelerators can increase treatment efficiency and plan quality. There are multiple methods of defining a FFF beam. The Elekta control system supports tuning of the delivered FFF beam energy to enable matching of the percentage depth-dose (PDD) of the flattened beam at 10 cm depth. This is compared to FFF beams where the linac control parameters are identical to those for the flattened beam. All beams were delivered on an Elekta Synergy accelerator with an Agility multi-leaf collimator installed and compared to the standard, flattened beam. The aim of this study is to compare "matched" FFF beams to both "unmatched" FFF beams and flattened beams to determine the benefits of matching beams. For the three modes of operation 6 MV flattened, 6 MV matched FFF, 6 MV unmatched FFF, 10 MV flattened, 10 MV matched FFF, and 10 MV unmatched FFF beam profiles were obtained using a plotting tank and were measured in steps of 0.1 mm in the penumbral region. Beam penumbra was defined as the distance between the 80% and 20% of the normalized dose when the inflection points of the unflattened and flattened profiles were normalized with the central axis dose of the flattened field set as 100%. PDD data was obtained at field sizes ranging from 3 cm × 3 cm to 40 cm × 40 cm. Radiation protection measurements were additionally performed to determine the head leakage and environmental monitoring through the maze and primary barriers. No significant change is made to the beam penumbra for FFF beams with and without PDD matching, the maximum change in penumbra for a 10 cm × 10 cm field was within the experimental error of the study. The changes in the profile shape with increasing field size are most significant for the matched FFF beam, and both FFF beams showed less profile shape variation with increasing depth when compared to flattened beams, due to consistency in beam energy spectra across the radiation field. The PDDs of the FFF beams showed

  3. Grazing incidence beam expander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkapeddi, P.R.; Glenn, P.; Fuschetto, A.; Appert, Q.; Viswanathan, V.K.

    1985-01-01

    A Grazing Incidence Beam Expander (GIBE) telescope is being designed and fabricated to be used as an equivalent end mirror in a long laser resonator cavity. The design requirements for this GIBE flow down from a generic Free Electron Laser (FEL) resonator. The nature of the FEL gain volume (a thin, pencil-like, on-axis region) dictates that the output beam be very small. Such a thin beam with the high power levels characteristic of FELs would have to travel perhaps hundreds of meters or more before expanding enough to allow reflection from cooled mirrors. A GIBE, on the other hand, would allow placing these optics closer to the gain region and thus reduces the cavity lengths substantially. Results are presented relating to optical and mechanical design, alignment sensitivity analysis, radius of curvature analysis, laser cavity stability analysis of a linear stable concentric laser cavity with a GIBE. Fabrication details of the GIBE are also given.

  4. Visual control of steering in the box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petie, Ronald; Garm, Anders; Nilsson, Dan-Eric

    2011-01-01

    Box jellyfish carry an elaborate visual system consisting of 24 eyes, which they use for driving a number of behaviours. However, it is not known how visual input controls the swimming behaviour. In this study we exposed the Caribbean box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora to simple visual stimuli...... and recorded changes in their swimming behaviour. Animals were tethered in a small experimental chamber, where we could control lighting conditions. The behaviour of the animals was quantified by tracking the movements of the bell, using a high-speed camera. We found that the animals respond predictably...... their bell in such a way that, if not tethered, they would turn and swim away from the dark area. We conclude that the visual system of T. cystophora has a predictable effect on swimming behaviour....

  5. Safeguards Approaches for Black Box Processes or Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Marcano, Helly; Gitau, Ernest TN; Hockert, John; Miller, Erin; Wylie, Joann

    2013-09-25

    The objective of this study is to determine whether a safeguards approach can be developed for “black box” processes or facilities. These are facilities where a State or operator may limit IAEA access to specific processes or portions of a facility; in other cases, the IAEA may be prohibited access to the entire facility. The determination of whether a black box process or facility is safeguardable is dependent upon the details of the process type, design, and layout; the specific limitations on inspector access; and the restrictions placed upon the design information that can be provided to the IAEA. This analysis identified the necessary conditions for safeguardability of black box processes and facilities.

  6. THE USE OF EVENT DATA RECORDER (EDR – BLACK BOX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Nowacki

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper refers to the registration of road events by a modern device called EDR – black box for all types of the motor vehicles. The device records data concerning vehicle’s technical condition, the way it was driven and RTS. The recorder may be used in private and commercial cars, taxies, buses and trucks. The recorder may serve the purpose of a neutral witness for the police, courts and insurance firms, for which it will facilitate making the reconstruction of the road accidents events and will provide a proof for those who caused them. The device will bring efficient driving, which will significantly contribute to decreasing the number of road accidents and limiting the environmental pollution. In the end in the last year German parliament backed a proposal to the European Commission to put black boxes, which gather information from vehicles involved in accidents, in all the new cars from 2015 on.

  7. Box jellyfish use terrestrial visual cues for navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garm, Anders; Oskarsson, Magnus; Nilsson, Dan-Eric

    2011-05-10

    Box jellyfish have an impressive set of 24 eyes of four different types, including eyes structurally similar to those of vertebrates and cephalopods [1, 2]. However, the known visual responses are restricted to simple phototaxis, shadow responses, and object avoidance responses [3-8], and it has been a puzzle why they need such a complex set of eyes. Here we report that medusae of the box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora are capable of visually guided navigation in mangrove swamps using terrestrial structures seen through the water surface. They detect the mangrove canopy by an eye type that is specialized to peer up through the water surface and that is suspended such that it is constantly looking straight up, irrespective of the orientation of the jellyfish. The visual information is used to navigate to the preferred habitat at the edge of mangrove lagoons. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A Box-Cox normal model for response times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein Entink, R H; van der Linden, W J; Fox, J-P

    2009-11-01

    The log-transform has been a convenient choice in response time modelling on test items. However, motivated by a dataset of the Medical College Admission Test where the lognormal model violated the normality assumption, the possibilities of the broader class of Box-Cox transformations for response time modelling are investigated. After an introduction and an outline of a broader framework for analysing responses and response times simultaneously, the performance of a Box-Cox normal model for describing response times is investigated using simulation studies and a real data example. A transformation-invariant implementation of the deviance information criterium (DIC) is developed that allows for comparing model fit between models with different transformation parameters. Showing an enhanced description of the shape of the response time distributions, its application in an educational measurement context is discussed at length.

  9. Evaluating the effect of fishery closures: Lessons learnt from the Plaice Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beare, Doug; Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D.; Blaesberg, Mette; Damm, Ulrich; Egekvist, Josefine; Fock, Heino; Kloppmann, Matthias; Röckmann, Christine; Schroeder, Alexander; Schulze, Torsten; Tulp, Ingrid; Ulrich, Clara; van Hal, Ralf; van Kooten, Tobias; Verweij, Marieke

    2013-11-01

    To reduce discarding of plaice Pleuronectes platessa in the North Sea flatfish fisheries, the major nursery areas were closed to large trawlers in 1995. The area closed was named the ‘Plaice Box’ (PB) and beam trawl effort fell by over 90%,while the exemption fleets of small flatfish beam trawlers, gill netters targeting sole (Solea solea) and shrimp (Crangon crangon) trawlers increased their effort. Contrary to the expectation, plaice landings and biomass declined. The initial support for the PB from the fisheries was lost, whereas other stakeholder groups claimed that any failure was due to the fact that fishing had never been completely prohibited in the area. To evaluate whether the PB has been an effective management measure, the changes in the ecosystem (plaice, demersal fish, benthos) and fisheries are analyzed to test whether the observed changes are due to the PB or to changes in the environment unrelated to the PB. Juvenile growth rate of plaice decreased and juveniles moved to deeper waters outside the PB. Demersal fish biomass decreased, whereas the abundance of epibenthic predators (Asterias rubens and Cancer pagurus) increased in the PB. Endobenthos, in particular the main food items of plaice (polychaetes and small bivalves) remained stable or decreased both inside and outside the PB. Currently catches of both plaice and sole from within the PB are lower than in the late 1980s and the exemption fleet often prefers to fish outside the Plaice Box alongside much larger competitors. It is concluded that the observed changes are most likely related to changes in the North Sea ecosystem, which may be related to changes in eutrophication and temperature. It is less likely that they are related to the change in fishing. This case study highlights the importance of setting testable objectives and an appropriate evaluation framework including both ecological and socio-economic indicators when implementing closed areas.

  10. GTK beam test 2017

    CERN Document Server

    Vostinic, Snezana

    2017-01-01

    The GTK is in operation at NA62 since 2014 and is among the few silicon pixel detectors performing 4D tracking. This summer, a beam test was conducted to study the phenomena determining the detector time resolution. The project described here contributed to the beam test preparation, data taking and data analyses. One of the main goals of the test was to understand the weight field contribution to the detector time resolution. This field is distorting the signal pulse shape at the edge of the pixel. Hence, to study this effect, the position of the hits inside the pixel has to be determined. An external telescope was therefore used for this purpose.

  11. Euroschool on Exotic Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Pfützner, Marek; The Euroschool on Exotic Beams, vol. IV

    2014-01-01

    This is the forth volume in a series of Lecture Notes based on the highly successful Euro Summer School on Exotic Beams. The aim of these notes is to provide a thorough introduction to radioactive ion-beam physics at the level of graduate students and young postdocs starting out in the field. Each volume covers a range of topics from nuclear theory to experiment and applications. Vol I has been published as LNP 651, Vol II has been published as LNP 700, and Vol. III has been published as LNP 764.

  12. Molecular beam epitaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Pamplin, Brian R

    1980-01-01

    Molecular Beam Epitaxy introduces the reader to the use of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) in the generation of III-V and IV-VI compounds and alloys and describes the semiconductor and integrated optics reasons for using the technique. Topics covered include semiconductor superlattices by MBE; design considerations for MBE systems; periodic doping structure in gallium arsenide (GaAs); nonstoichiometry and carrier concentration control in MBE of compound semiconductors; and MBE techniques for IV-VI optoelectronic devices. The use of MBE to fabricate integrated optical devices and to study semicond

  13. Beam Physics at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Lyndon R

    2003-01-01

    The design of the Large Hadron Collider incorporates the accumulated knowledge obtained from previous generations of hadron colliders. Among the well known effects limiting machine performance are intrabeam scattering, the beam-beam interaction and stability against collective motion. Simulations and recent experiments in the SPS have shown that the electron cloud effect observed in the B-factories will be present both in the LHC and in its injector. All of these phenomena are discussed together with the measure taken in the machine design to overcome them.

  14. Coherent laser beam combining

    CERN Document Server

    Brignon, Arnaud

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the improvement of diode pumping in solid state lasers and the development of double clad fiber lasers have allowed to maintain excellent laser beam quality with single mode fibers. However, the fiber output power if often limited below a power damage threshold. Coherent laser beam combining (CLBC) brings a solution to these limitations by identifying the most efficient architectures and allowing for excellent spectral and spatial quality. This knowledge will become critical for the design of the next generation high-power lasers and is of major interest to many industrial, environme

  15. Evaluation process radiological in ternopil region method of box models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І.В. Матвєєва

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available  Results of radionuclides Sr-90 flows analyses in the ecosystem of Kotsubinchiky village of Ternopolskaya oblast were analyzed. The block-scheme of ecosystem and its mathematical model using the box models method were made. It allowed us to evaluate the ways of dose’s loadings formation of internal irradiation for miscellaneous population groups – working people, retirees, children, and also to prognose the dynamic of these loadings during the years after the Chernobyl accident.

  16. Multiple-state quantum Otto engine, 1D box system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifah, E.; Purwanto, A.

    2014-03-01

    Quantum heat engines produce work using quantum matter as their working substance. We studied adiabatic and isochoric processes and defined the general force according to quantum system. The processes and general force are used to evaluate a quantum Otto engine based on multiple-state of one dimensional box system and calculate the efficiency. As a result, the efficiency depends on the ratio of initial and final width of system under adiabatic processes.

  17. Multiple-state quantum Otto engine, 1D box system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latifah, E., E-mail: enylatifah@um.ac.id [Laboratory of Theoretical Physics and Natural Philosophy, Physics Department, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, ITS, Surabaya, Indonesia and Physics Department, Malang State University (Indonesia); Purwanto, A. [Laboratory of Theoretical Physics and Natural Philosophy, Physics Department, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, ITS, Surabaya (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Quantum heat engines produce work using quantum matter as their working substance. We studied adiabatic and isochoric processes and defined the general force according to quantum system. The processes and general force are used to evaluate a quantum Otto engine based on multiple-state of one dimensional box system and calculate the efficiency. As a result, the efficiency depends on the ratio of initial and final width of system under adiabatic processes.

  18. A Note on Implementing Box-Cox Quantile Regression

    OpenAIRE

    Wilke, Ralf A.; Fitzenberger, Bernd; Zhang, Xuan

    2005-01-01

    The Box-Cox quantile regression model using the two stage method introduced by Chamberlain (1994) and Buchinsky (1995) provides an attractive extension of linear quantile regression techniques. However, a major numerical problem exists when implementing this method which has not been addressed so far in the literature. We suggest a simple solution modifying the estimator slightly. This modification is easy to implement. The modified estimator is still [square root] n-consistent and its asympt...

  19. Packing Infinite Number of Cubes in a Finite Volume Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Haishen; Wajngurt, Clara

    2006-01-01

    Packing an infinite number of cubes into a box of finite volume is the focus of this article. The results and diagrams suggest two ways of packing these cubes. Specifically suppose an infinite number of cubes; the side length of the first one is 1; the side length of the second one is 1/2 , and the side length of the nth one is 1/n. Let n approach…

  20. Two-Black Box Concept for Warhead Verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, Cameron Russell [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Frame, Katherine Chiyoko [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mckigney, Edward Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Smith, Morag Kristin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-06

    We have created a possible solution to meeting the requirements of certification/authentication while still employing complicated criteria. Technical solutions to protecting information from the host in an inspection environment needs to be assessed by those with specific expertise but, LANL can still study the verification problem. The two-black box framework developed provides another potential solution to the confidence vs. certification paradox.

  1. Box & Jenkins Model Identification:A Comparison of Methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Augusta Soares Machado

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on a presentation of a comparison of a neuro-fuzzy back propagation network and Forecast automatic model Identification to identify automatically Box & Jenkins non seasonal models.Recently some combinations of neural networks and fuzzy logic technologies have being used to deal with uncertain and subjective problems. It is concluded on the basis of the obtained results that this type of approach is very powerful to be used.

  2. ArduiPod Box: a low-cost and open-source Skinner box using an iPod Touch and an Arduino microcontroller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineño, Oskar

    2014-03-01

    This article introduces the ArduiPod Box, an open-source device built using two main components (i.e., an iPod Touch and an Arduino microcontroller), developed as a low-cost alternative to the standard operant conditioning chamber, or "Skinner box." Because of its affordability, the ArduiPod Box provides an opportunity for educational institutions with small budgets seeking to set up animal laboratories for research and instructional purposes. A pilot experiment is also presented, which shows that the ArduiPod Box, in spite of its extraordinary simplicity, can be effectively used to study animal learning and behavior.

  3. Impact attenuation of protective boxing and taekwondo headgear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, David M; Fife, Gabriel P

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to compare the impact attenuation performance of boxing and taekwondo headgear in terms of peak linear and rotational acceleration. To measure the impact attenuation of headgear, a standardized (American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) F-2397) martial arts headgear striker was used to impart impacts to a 50th Percentile Male Hybrid III Crash Test Dummy head and neck complex. Two boxing (Adidas and Greenhill) and two taekwondo (Adidas and Nike) headgear, approved by the Association Internationale de Boxe Amateur and the World Taekwondo Federation (WTF), were selected. Each of the selected headgear was fitted to the Hybrid III head and subsequently subjected to five impacts at the front and side with a maximum impact interim time of 60 seconds by the rotating striker at 8 ± 0.3 m/s. Linear and rotational acceleration were recorded at 10,000 Hz. There were significant interactions of the impact location and brand on the rotational acceleration, F(3,40) = 6.7, p headgear brand F(3,40) = 9.9, p headgear tested failed the ASTM high impact test requirement to reduce the linear acceleration to below a threshold of 150 g. Further development of headgear to reduce impact linear and rotational acceleration magnitudes should be called for by the relevant sport governing bodies and initiated by headgear manufactures.

  4. Thermo-mechanical Design Methodology for ITER Cryodistribution cold boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Vinit; Patel, Pratik; Das, Jotirmoy; Vaghela, Hitensinh; Bhattacharya, Ritendra; Shah, Nitin; Choukekar, Ketan; Chang, Hyun-Sik; Sarkar, Biswanath

    2017-04-01

    The ITER cryo-distribution (CD) system is in charge of proper distribution of the cryogen at required mass flow rate, pressure and temperature level to the users; namely the superconducting (SC) magnets and cryopumps (CPs). The CD system is also capable to use the magnet structures as a thermal buffer in order to operate the cryo-plant as much as possible at a steady state condition. A typical CD cold box is equipped with mainly liquid helium (LHe) bath, heat exchangers (HX’s), cryogenic valves, filter, heaters, cold circulator, cold compressor and process piping. The various load combinations which are likely to occur during the life cycle of the CD cold boxes are imposed on the representative model and impacts on the system are analyzed. This study shows that break of insulation vacuum during nominal operation (NO) along with seismic event (Seismic Level-2) is the most stringent load combination having maximum stress of 224 MPa. However, NO+SMHV (Séismes Maximaux Historiquement Vraisemblables = Maximum Historically Probable Earthquakes) load combination is having the least safety margin and will lead the basis of the design of the CD system and its sub components. This paper presents and compares the results of different load combinations which are likely to occur on a typical CD cold box.

  5. Analysis and Optimization of Box Girder Bridges in Curved Planform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra Mohan Rao, B. D. V.; Ramana Rao, N. V.

    2012-02-01

    This paper deals with the free vibration analysis and optimization of box girder bridges with curved planform. The finite element analysis of a box girder bridge is carried out and then optimized using ANSYS. The objectives of this paper are (i) minimization of volume subjected to the constraint that the fundamental frequency should be greater than the initial value and (ii) maximization of fundamental frequency with a constraint that total volume of the structure should remain constant. The shape of a box girder bridge is optimized and the results are validated by comparing it with a benchmark problem. The mode shapes of the initial and optimum solutions are also presented. The structural optimization variables used in Case-1 are the design variables (length variables, thickness variables), state variables (fundamental frequency), and the objective function (minimization of volume). The structural optimization variables used in Case-2 are the design variables (length variables, thickness variables), state variables (volume), and the objective function (maximization of fundamental frequency). In Case-1, the volume of the structure has been minimized by 56.4 % and in Case-2, the fundamental frequency of the structure has been increased by 141.9 %, which shows a better performance of the proposed methodology.

  6. T-Box Genes in Drosophila Mesoderm Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reim, I; Frasch, M; Schaub, C

    2017-01-01

    In Drosophila there are eight genes encoding transcription factors of the T-box family, which are known to exert a variety of crucial developmental functions during ectodermal patterning processes, neuronal cell specification, mesodermal tissue development, and the development of extraembryonic tissues. In this review, we focus on the prominent roles of Drosophila T-box genes in mesodermal tissues. First, we describe the contributions of brachyenteron (byn) and optomotor-blind-related-gene-1 (org-1) to the development of the visceral mesoderm. Second, we provide an overview on the functions of the three Dorsocross paralogs (Doc1-3) and the two Tbx20-related paralogs (midline and H15) during Drosophila heart development. Third, we portray the roles of org-1 and midline/H15 in the specification of individual body wall and organ-attached muscles, including the function of org-1 in the transdifferentiation of certain heart-attached muscles during metamorphosis. The functional analysis of these evolutionarily conserved T-box genes, along with their interactions with other types of transcription factors and various signaling pathways, has provided key insights into the regulation of Drosophila visceral mesoderm, muscle, and heart development. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The development of a reliable amateur boxing performance analysis template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Edward; Lamb, Kevin; Nicholas, Ceri

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to devise a valid performance analysis system for the assessment of the movement characteristics associated with competitive amateur boxing and assess its reliability using analysts of varying experience of the sport and performance analysis. Key performance indicators to characterise the demands of an amateur contest (offensive, defensive and feinting) were developed and notated using a computerised notational analysis system. Data were subjected to intra- and inter-observer reliability assessment using median sign tests and calculating the proportion of agreement within predetermined limits of error. For all performance indicators, intra-observer reliability revealed non-significant differences between observations (P > 0.05) and high agreement was established (80-100%) regardless of whether exact or the reference value of ±1 was applied. Inter-observer reliability was less impressive for both analysts (amateur boxer and experienced analyst), with the proportion of agreement ranging from 33-100%. Nonetheless, there was no systematic bias between observations for any indicator (P > 0.05), and the proportion of agreement within the reference range (±1) was 100%. A reliable performance analysis template has been developed for the assessment of amateur boxing performance and is available for use by researchers, coaches and athletes to classify and quantify the movement characteristics of amateur boxing.

  8. An Introduction to Plum Blossom Boxing: History, Culture and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Zhang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Meihuaquan (“Plum Blossom Fist [Boxing]” has traditionally been practiced as vernacular (folk art practiced among the Han ethnic group residing in the Shandong, Henan and Hebei Provinces of China. Historical documentation dates Plum Blossom Boxing to the seventeenth century. The classic Chinese novel, Shuǐhǔ Zhuàn (Marsh Chronicles recounts the martial exploits of Shandong’s twelfth century outlaw heroes who may have been Mei Boxers, also. Thus, for perhaps a millennium, the region has been noted for vernacular martial arts and social banditry. The region’s rampant lawlessness promoted highly-developed martial prowess among both lawbreakers and those who were required to protect themselves against the brigands. Cultural, economic, and environmental factors in the region gave rise to heterodox political and religious beliefs that frequently served as a catalyst for martial sects, most notably the “Boxers” who at the turn of the twentieth century, came into conflict with the imperial government. These factors laid the groundwork for the “character traits” of the art while Taoism, the Five Elements theory, and a concept of predictable change shaped Plum Boxing’s strategic and mechanical principles. In the past decade, there have been efforts to globalize this vernacular martial art. Rather than driving Plum Boxing to extinction it is likely that the folk and the “larger than local” will co-exist.

  9. The ring nerve of the box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garm, A; Poussart, Y; Parkefelt, L; Ekström, P; Nilsson, D-E

    2007-07-01

    Box jellyfish have the most elaborate sensory system and behavioural repertoire of all cnidarians. Sensory input largely comes from 24 eyes situated on four club-shaped sensory structures, the rhopalia, and behaviour includes obstacle avoidance, light shaft attractance and mating. To process the sensory input and convert it into the appropriate behaviour, the box jellyfish have a central nervous system (CNS) but this is still poorly understood. The CNS has two major components: the rhopalial nervous system and the ring nerve. The rhopalial nervous system is situated within the rhopalia in close connection with the eyes, whereas the ring nerve encircles the bell. We describe the morphology of the ring nerve of the box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora as ascertained by normal histological techniques, immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy. By light microscopy, we have estimated the number of cells in the ring nerve by counting their nuclei. In cross sections at the ultrastructural level, the ring nerve appears to have three types of neurites: (1) small "normal"-looking neurites, (2) medium-sized neurites almost completely filled by electron-lucent vacuoles and (3) giant neurites. In general, only one giant neurite is seen on each section; this type displays the most synapses. Epithelial cells divide the ring nerve into compartments, each having a tendency to contain neurites of similar morphology. The number and arrangement of the compartments vary along the length of the ring nerve.

  10. Vehicle Plate Detection in Car Black Box Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongjin Park

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet services that share vehicle black box videos need a way to obfuscate license plates in uploaded videos because of privacy issues. Thus, plate detection is one of the critical functions that such services rely on. Even though various types of detection methods are available, they are not suitable for black box videos because no assumption about size, number of plates, and lighting conditions can be made. We propose a method to detect Korean vehicle plates from black box videos. It works in two stages: the first stage aims to locate a set of candidate plate regions and the second stage identifies only actual plates from candidates by using a support vector machine classifier. The first stage consists of five sequential substeps. At first, it produces candidate regions by combining single character areas and then eliminates candidate regions that fail to meet plate conditions through the remaining substeps. For the second stage, we propose a feature vector that captures the characteristics of plates in texture and color. For performance evaluation, we compiled our dataset which contains 2,627 positive and negative images. The evaluation results show that the proposed method improves accuracy and sensitivity by at least 5% and is 30 times faster compared with an existing method.

  11. Observation of Coherent Beam-beam Effects in the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Buffat, X; Giachino, R; Herr, W; Papotti, G; Pieloni, T; Calaga, R; White, S M

    2011-01-01

    Early collisions in the LHC with a very limited number of bunches with high intensities indicated the presence of coherent beam-beam driven oscillations. Here we discuss the experimental results and compare with the expectations.

  12. Wireless ultrasonic wavefield imaging via laser for hidden damage detection inside a steel box girder bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Yun-Kyu; Song, Homin; Sohn, Hoon

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents a wireless ultrasonic wavefield imaging (WUWI) technique for detecting hidden damage inside a steel box girder bridge. The proposed technique allows (1) complete wireless excitation of piezoelectric transducers and noncontact sensing of the corresponding responses using laser beams, (2) autonomous damage visualization without comparing against baseline data previously accumulated from the pristine condition of a target structure and (3) robust damage diagnosis even for real structures with complex structural geometries. First, a new WUWI hardware system was developed by integrating optoelectronic-based signal transmitting and receiving devices and a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer. Next, a damage visualization algorithm, self-referencing f-k filter (SRF), was introduced to isolate and visualize only crack-induced ultrasonic modes from measured ultrasonic wavefield images. Finally, the performance of the proposed technique was validated through hidden crack visualization at a decommissioned Ramp-G Bridge in South Korea. The experimental results reveal that the proposed technique instantaneously detects and successfully visualizes hidden cracks even in the complex structure of a real bridge.

  13. Prediction and experimental validation of stagnation temperature attained by a solar cooker of hot box type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narasimha Rao, A. V; Srikrishna, D. V. N [Warangal (India)

    2000-07-01

    A hot box type solar cooker, having double glass covers and a plane mirror reflector, is tested for stagnation temperature. A computer code is developed based on the analytical model proposed by Vaishya et. al. The global and beam components of solar radiation measured at Warangal are made use to predict the stagnation temperature of the cooker. The observed values of stagnation temperature at Warangal are compared with those of predicted values. A good agreement of the measured and observed values of the stagnation temperature is observed during the afternoon period. The lag in the observed values during the forenoon may be due to thermal inertia of the cooker. [Spanish] Se probo una estufa solar de tipo caja caliente con cubiertas dobles de vidrio y un espejo reflector plano para medir la temperatura de estancamiento. Se desarrollo un codigo de computacion basado en el modelo analitico propuesto por Vaishya et. al. Los componentes de la radiacion solar globales y de rayo medidos en Warangal se usan para predecir la temperatura de estancamiento de la estufa. Los valores observados de la temperatura de estancamiento en Warangal se comparan con los valores predichos. Se aprecia una buena concidencia de los valores medidos y observados de la temperatura de estancamiento durante el periodo de la tarde. El retraso de los valores observados durante la manana puede ser debido a la inercia termica de la estufa.

  14. Structural strength analysis and fatigue life prediction of traction converter box in high-speed EMU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Qin; Li, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    The method of building the FEA model of traction converter box in high-speed EMU and analyzing the static strength and fatigue strength of traction converter box based on IEC 61373-2010 and EN 12663 standards is presented in this paper. The load-stress correlation coefficients of weak points is obtained by FEA model, applied to transfer the load history of traction converter box to stress history of each point. The fatigue damage is calculated based on Miner's rule and the fatigue life of traction converter box is predicted. According to study, the structural strength of traction converter box meets design requirements.

  15. Symmetric form-invariant dual Pearcey beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhijun; Fan, Changjiang; Shi, Yile; Chen, Bo

    2016-08-01

    We introduce another type of Pearcey beam, namely, dual Pearcey (DP) beams, based on the Pearcey function of catastrophe theory. DP beams are experimentally generated by applying Fresnel diffraction of bright elliptic rings. Form-invariant Bessel distribution beams can be regarded as a special case of DP beams. Subsequently, the basic propagation characteristics of DP beams are identified. DP beams are the result of the interference of two half DP beams instead of two classical Pearcey beams. Moreover, we also verified that half DP beams (including special-case parabolic-like beams) generated by half elliptical rings (circular rings) are a new member of the family of form-invariant beams.

  16. Noncoaxial Bessel-Gauss beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chaohong; Zheng, Yishu; Li, Hanqing

    2016-04-01

    We proposed a new family of noncoaxial Gauss-truncated Bessel beams through multiplying conventional symmetrical Bessel beams by a noncoaxial Gauss function. These beams can also be regarded as the exponential-truncated version of Bessel-Gauss beams since they can be transformed into the product of Bessel-Gauss beams and an exponential window function along a certain Cartesian axis. The closed-form solutions of the angular spectra and paraxial propagation of these beams were derived. These beams have asymmetrical intensity distributions and carry the same orbit angular momentum per photon as the corresponding Bessel-Gauss beams. While propagating along the z axis, the mth (m≠0) noncoaxial Bessel-Gauss beams rotate their intensity distributions and the mth-order vortex at the beam center has a transverse shift along the direction perpendicular to the offset axis. Depending on the product of the transverse scalar factor of the Bessel beams and the offset between the Gaussian window function and the center of the Bessel beams, the noncoaxial Bessel-Gauss beams can produce unit vortices with opposite signs in pairs during propagation.

  17. Ion-beam technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenske, G.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This compilation of figures and diagrams reviews processes for depositing diamond/diamond-like carbon films. Processes addressed are chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD, PACVD, etc.), plasma vapor deposition (plasma sputtering, ion beam sputtering, evaporation, etc.), low-energy ion implantation, and hybrid processes (biased sputtering, IBAD, biased HFCVD, etc.). The tribological performance of coatings produced by different means is discussed.

  18. Convergent beam neutron crystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Walter M.; Schultz, Arthur J.; Richardson, James W.; Carpenter, John M.; Mildner, David F. R.; Chen-Mayer, Heather H.; Miller, M. E.; Maxey, E.; Prask, Henry J.; Gnaeupel-Herold, Thomas H.; Youngman, Russell

    2004-01-01

    Applications of neutron diffraction for small samples (small fiducial areas are limited by the available neutron flux density. Recent demonstrations of convergent beam electron and x-ray diffraction and focusing of cold (λ>1 Å) neutrons suggest the possibility to use convergent beam neutron diffraction for small sample crystallography. We have carried out a systematic study of diffraction of both monoenergetic and broad bandwidth neutrons at the NIST Research Reactor and at the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) at Argonne National Laboratory. Combining convergent beams with time-of-flight Laue diffraction is particularly attractive for high efficiency small sample diffraction studies. We have studied single crystal and powder diffraction of neutrons with convergence angles as large as 15° and have observed diffracted peak intensity gains greater than 20. The convergent beam method (CBM) shows promise for crystallography on small samples of small to medium size molecules (potentially even for proteins), ultra-high pressure samples, and for mapping of strain and texture distributions in larger samples.

  19. Vortices in Gaussian beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, FS

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available distributions at locations on trajectory CSIR National Laser Centre – p.27/30 Morphology evolusion example 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 Orientation [pi radians] A n i s o t r o p y [ pi r a d i a n s ] A B' B H C C' D... . Gaussian beams with vortex dipoles CSIR National Laser Centre – p.2/30 Gaussian beam notation Gaussian beam in normalised coordinates: g(u, v, t) = exp ( −u 2 + v2 1− it ) u = xω0 v = yω0 t = zρ ρ = piω20 λ ω0 — 1/e2 beam waist radius; ρ— Rayleigh range ω ω...

  20. Nonlinear beam mechanics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, H.J.R.

    2012-01-01

    In this Thesis, nonlinear dynamics and nonlinear interactions are studied from a micromechanical point of view. Single and doubly clamped beams are used as model systems where nonlinearity plays an important role. The nonlinearity also gives rise to rich dynamic behavior with phenomena like

  1. Mode Gaussian beam tracing

    CERN Document Server

    Trofimov, M Yu; Kozitskiy, S B

    2015-01-01

    An adiabatic mode Helmholtz equation for 3D underwater sound propagation is developed. The Gaussian beam tracing in this case is constructed. The test calculations are carried out for the crosswedge benchmark and proved an excellent agreement with the source images method.

  2. Neutrino beam plasma instability

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We derive relativistic fluid set of equations for neutrinos and electrons from relativistic. Vlasov equations with Fermi weak interaction force. Using these fluid equations, we obtain a dis- persion relation describing neutrino beam plasma instability, which is little different from normal dispersion relation of streaming ...

  3. Neutrino beam plasma instability

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We derive relativistic fluid set of equations for neutrinos and electrons from relativistic Vlasov equations with Fermi weak interaction force. Using these fluid equations, we obtain a dispersion relation describing neutrino beam plasma instability, which is little different from normal dispersion relation of streaming instability.

  4. Beam transport elements

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1965-01-01

    Two of the beam transport elements for the slow ejection system. On the left, a quadrupole 1.2 m long with a 5 cm aperture, capable of producing a gradient of 5000 gauss. On the right, a 1 m bending magnet with a 4 cm gap; its field is 20 000 gauss.

  5. Continuous Reinforced Concrete Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoang, Cao Linh; Nielsen, Mogens Peter

    1996-01-01

    This report deals with stress and stiffness estimates of continuous reinforced concrete beams with different stiffnesses for negative and positive moments e.g. corresponding to different reinforcement areas in top and bottom. Such conditions are often met in practice.The moment distribution...

  6. Gaussian Beam Intensity Flattener

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, DeVon W.

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this investigation was to use commercial elements and extend the correction to a 1/e(sup 2) diameter of 3 mm over long propagation distances. Shafer discussed the use of spherical elements to generate a uniform beam to the 1/e diameter.

  7. LHC Report: Beam on

    CERN Multimedia

    Rossano Giachino for the LHC Team

    2012-01-01

    The powering tests described in the last edition of the Bulletin were successfully finished at the end of the first week of March opening the way for 4 TeV operations this year. The beam was back in the machine on Wednesday 14 March. The first collisions at 4 TeV are scheduled for the first week of April.   The first beam of 2012 is dumped after making a few rounds in the LHC. The magnet powering tests were followed by the machine checkout phase. Here the operations team in collaboration with the equipment groups performs a sequence of tests to ensure the readiness of the LHC for beam. The tests include driving all the LHC systems – beam dump, injection, collimation, RF, power converters, magnet circuits, vacuum, interlocks, controls, timing and synchronization – through the operational cycle. The “checkout phase” is really a massive de-bugging exercise, which is performed with the objective of ensuring the proper functioning of the whole machine and t...

  8. Charged particle beams

    CERN Document Server

    Humphries, Stanley

    2013-01-01

    Detailed enough for a text and sufficiently comprehensive for a reference, this volume addresses topics vital to understanding high-power accelerators and high-brightness-charged particle beams. Subjects include stochastic cooling, high-brightness injectors, and the free electron laser. Humphries provides students with the critical skills necessary for the problem-solving insights unique to collective physics problems. 1990 edition.

  9. Power box: an energy workshop in ten lessons; Power Box: ein Energie-Workshop in 10 Lektionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasser, S.; Bush, E. [Amstein + Walthert AG, Zurich (Switzerland); Lainsecq, M. de; Humm, O. [Oerlikon Journalisten AG, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1995-12-31

    The teaching medium Power Box was created within the framework of the impulse program RAVEL by energy experts working together with teachers. It is oriented primarily towards non-technical groups and is specially suitable for business schools, technical colleges, high schools and the highest level of intermediate schools. This teaching medium summarises the current knowledge of experts for rational use of energy compactly for the teacher. figs., tabs., refs.

  10. BATMAN beam properties characterization by the beam emission spectroscopy diagnostic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonomo, F.; Ruf, B.; Barbisan, M.; Cristofaro, S.; Schiesko, L.; Fantz, U.; Franzen, P.; Pasqualotto, R.; Riedl, R.; Serianni, G.; Wünderlich, D.

    2015-04-01

    The ITER neutral beam heating systems are based on the production and acceleration of negative ions (H/D) up to 1 MV. The requirements for the beam properties are strict: a low core beam divergence (BATMAN (BAvarian Test MAchine for Negative ions) allows for deepening the knowledge of the determination of the beam properties. One of the diagnostics routinely used to this purpose is the Beam Emission Spectroscopy (BES): the Hα light emitted in the beam is detected and the corresponding spectra are evaluated to estimate the beam divergence and the stripping losses. The BES number of lines of sight in BATMAN has been recently increased: five horizontal lines of sight providing a vertical profile of the beam permit to characterize the negative ion beam properties in relation to the source parameters. Different methods of Hα spectra analysis are here taken into account and compared for the estimation of the beam divergence and the amount of stripping. In particular, to thoroughly study the effect of the space charge compensation on the beam divergence, an additional hydrogen injection line has been added in the tank, which allows for setting different background pressure values (one order of magnitude, from about 0.04 Pa up to the source pressure) in the beam drift region.

  11. Single Gradientless Light Beam Drags Particles as Tractor Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novitsky, Andrey; Qiu, Cheng-Wei; Wang, Haifeng

    2011-01-01

    is the strong nonparaxiality of the light beam, which contributes to the pulling force owing to momentum conservation. The nonparaxiality of the Bessel beam can be manipulated to possess a dragging force along both the radial longitudinal directions, i.e., a "tractor beam" with stable trajectories is achieved...

  12. Evolution and Classification of the T-Box Transcription Factor Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebé-Pedrós, A; Ruiz-Trillo, I

    2017-01-01

    T-box proteins are key developmental transcription factors in Metazoa. Until recently they were thought to be animal specific and many T-box classes were considered bilaterian specific. Recent genome data from both early-branching animals and their closest unicellular relatives have radically changed this scenario. Thus, we now know that T-box genes originated in premetazoans, being present in the genomes of some extant early-branching fungi and unicellular holozoans. Here, we update the evolutionary classification of T-box families and review the evolution of T-box function in early-branching animals (sponges, ctenophores, placozoans, and cnidarians) and nonmodel bilaterians. We show that concomitant with the origin of Metazoa, the T-box family radiated into the major known T-box classes. On the other hand, while functional studies are still missing for many T-box classes, the emerging picture is that T-box genes have key roles in multiple aspects of development and in adult terminal cell-type differentiation in different animal lineages. A paradigmatic example is that of Brachyury, the founding member of the T-box family, for which several studies indicate a widely conserved role in regulating cell motility in different animal lineages and probably even before the advent of animal multicellularity. Overall, we here review the evolutionary history of T-box genes from holozoans to animals and discuss both their functional diversity and conservation. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Insights into the quality of DnaA boxes and their cooperativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming G.; Christensen, Bjarke Bak; Nielsen, Christina Bang

    2006-01-01

    Plasmids carrying the mioC promoter region with its two DnaA boxes are as efficient in titration of DnaA protein as plasmids carrying a replicationinactivated oriC region with its five DnaA boxes. The two DnaA boxes upstream of the mioC promoter were mutated in various ways to study the cooperati......Plasmids carrying the mioC promoter region with its two DnaA boxes are as efficient in titration of DnaA protein as plasmids carrying a replicationinactivated oriC region with its five DnaA boxes. The two DnaA boxes upstream of the mioC promoter were mutated in various ways to study...... the cooperativity between the DnaA boxes, and to study in vivo the in vitrodefined 9mer DnaA box consensus sequence TTA/TTNCACA). The quality and cooperativity of the DnaA oxes were determined in two complementary ways: as titration of DnaA protein leading to derepression of the dnaA promoter, and as repression...... of the mioC promoter caused by the DnaA protein binding to the DnaA boxes. Titration of DnaA protein correlated with repression of the mioC promoter. The level of titration and repression with the normal promoter-proximal box (TTTTCCACA) depends strongly on the presence and the quality of a DnaA box...

  14. Occupancy rates and nesting success of European storm-petrels breeding inside artificial nest-boxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana de León

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available We report on occupancy rates and nesting success of European storm-petrels Hydrobates pelagicus breeding in artificial nest-boxes for five years. Plastic nest-boxes were installed inside two natural caves on the island of Benidorm (western Mediterranean, where breeding colonies of the species occur. The location of nest-boxes was (a over exposed natural nests or (b at sites without nests, but usually close to them. Nest-boxes were visited during the breeding season following installation, when only nest-boxes over old nests were occupied. Occupancy rates in both types of nest-box increased gradually year after year, reaching 29% in the fifth year. Nesting success of pairs breeding inside boxes was higher than nesting success of pairs breeding at natural sites.

  15. Beam Injection in Recirculator SALO

    CERN Document Server

    Guk, Ivan S; Dovbnya, Anatoly N; Kononenko, Stanislav; Peev, Fedor; Tarasenko, Alexander; Van der Wiel, Marnix

    2005-01-01

    Possible antetypes of injectors for electron recirculator SALO,* intended for nuclear-physical research, are analyzed. The plan injection of beams in recirculator is offered. Expected parameters of beams are designed.

  16. Depth-controlled Bessel beams

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Angelina; Wallrabe, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    We present a ring aperture with independently switchable segments for the three-dimensional control of quasi propagation invariant beams. We demonstrate that our liquid crystal design concept preserves coherence and generates the Bessel beam structure.

  17. Splash events First Beams 2008

    CERN Multimedia

    Collaboration, CMS

    2008-01-01

    First beam through the detector: images showing the debris, or "splash", of particles picked up in the detector's calorimeters and muon chambers after the beam was steered into the collimator (tungsten blocks) at Point 5.

  18. Computer simulation of electron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabchevski, S.P.; Mladenov, G.M. (Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia (Bulgaria). Inst. po Elektronika)

    1994-04-14

    Self-fields and forces as well as the local degree of space-charge neutralization in overcompensated electron beams are considered. The radial variation of the local degree of space-charge neutralization is analysed. A novel model which describes the equilibrium potential distribution in overcompensated beams is proposed and a method for computer simulation of the beam propagation is described. Results from numerical experiments which illustrate the propagation of finite emittance overneutralized beams are presented. (Author).

  19. Genome-wide identification and analysis of the MADS-box gene family in sesame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xin; Wang, Linhai; Yu, Jingyin; Zhang, Yanxin; Li, Donghua; Zhang, Xiurong

    2015-09-10

    MADS-box genes encode transcription factors that play crucial roles in plant growth and development. Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is an oil crop that contributes to the daily oil and protein requirements of almost half of the world's population; therefore, a genome-wide analysis of the MADS-box gene family is needed. Fifty-seven MADS-box genes were identified from 14 linkage groups of the sesame genome. Analysis of phylogenetic relationships with Arabidopsis thaliana, Utricularia gibba and Solanum lycopersicum MADS-box genes was performed. Sesame MADS-box genes were clustered into four groups: 28 MIKC(c)-type, 5 MIKC(⁎)-type, 14 Mα-type and 10 Mγ-type. Gene structure analysis revealed from 1 to 22 exons of sesame MADS-box genes. The number of exons in type II MADS-box genes greatly exceeded the number in type I genes. Motif distribution analysis of sesame MADS-box genes also indicated that type II MADS-box genes contained more motifs than type I genes. These results suggested that type II sesame MADS-box genes had more complex structures. By analyzing expression profiles of MADS-box genes in seven sesame transcriptomes, we determined that MIKC(C)-type MADS-box genes played significant roles in sesame flower and seed development. Although most MADS-box genes in the same clade showed similar expression features, some gene functions were diversified from the orthologous Arabidopsis genes. This research will contribute to uncovering the role of MADS-box genes in sesame development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Study of beam-beam long range compensation with octupoles

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2068329; Pieloni, Tatiana; Buffat, Xavier; Tambasco, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Long range beam-beam effects are responsible for particle losses and define fundamental operational parameters of colliders (i.e. crossing angles, intensities, emittances, ${\\beta}$${^∗}$). In this study we propose octuple magnets as a possible scheme to efficiently compensate long-range beam-beam interactions with a global correction scheme. The impact and improvements on the dynamic aperture of colliding beams together with estimates of the luminosity potentials are dis- cussed for the HL-LHC upgrade and extrapolations made for the FCC project.

  1. Study of Beam-Beam Effects at PEP-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narsky, I

    2004-06-29

    Using a self-consistent three-dimensional simulation running on parallel supercomputers, we have modeled the beam-beam interaction at the PEP-II asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -}collider. To provide guidance for luminosity improvement, we scanned the tunes and currents in both rings and computed their impact on the luminosity and transverse beam sizes. We also studied the effects of colliding the beams with a small crossing angle. Where possible, the code was benchmarked against experimental measurements of luminosity and beam sizes, yielding an acceptable agreement.

  2. Use of Movable Beam Position Monitors for Beam Size Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Assmann, R W; Matheson, J

    2000-01-01

    The use of beam position monitors (BPMs) as non-intercepting emittance monitors has been proposed in 1983 by Miller et al. The emittance measurement relies on the beam size dependency of the BPM signals. It is shown that the original proposal can be improved by using movable BPMs. Changing the BPM position with a stepping motor allows accurately calibrating the beam size measurement. The absolute scale on the beam size measurement is given by the scale of the stepping motor and can be determined in the laboratory and measured in situ. Uncontrolled changes of the beam position can be monitored through the use of a BPM triplet.

  3. Characterization of colloid thruster beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamero-Castano, M.; Ziemer, J.

    2005-01-01

    In this article we use retarding potential, time of flight, and a Faraday cup, to measure the energy and specific charge distributions of the electrospray particles as a function of the position within the beam, as well as beam profiles. This information is then used, together with a model of the beam, to calculate its spreading.

  4. A compact molecular beam machine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, P.; Chandler, D.W.; Strecker, K.E.

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a compact, low cost, modular, crossed molecular beam machine. The new apparatus utilizes several technological advancements in molecular beams valves, ion detection, and vacuum pumping to reduce the size, cost, and complexity of a molecular beam apparatus. We apply these

  5. Flat profile laser beam shaper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Todd R.

    2017-09-12

    A system for shaping a beam comprises an emitter for emitting coherent electromagnetic radiation. Birefringent displacers are configured between the emitter and a target wherein the at least two birefringent displacers split the coherent electromagnetic radiation into a plurality of coherent parallel beams of electromagnetic radiation thereby producing a shaped wave front of the coherent parallel beams of electromagnetic radiation.

  6. Accelerator-Based Neutrino Beams

    OpenAIRE

    Hübner, K

    2003-01-01

    The design principles of accelerator-based neutrino beams are outlined and the beams currently in operation or under construction are briefly described. The concepts and basic features of the different types of advanced neutrino beams which are under study are summarized.

  7. 3D terahertz beam profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pernille Klarskov; Strikwerda, Andrew; Wang, Tianwu

    2013-01-01

    We present a characterization of THz beams generated in both a two-color air plasma and in a LiNbO3 crystal. Using a commercial THz camera, we record intensity images as a function of distance through the beam waist, from which we extract 2D beam profiles and visualize our measurements into 3D be...

  8. Illuminating e-beam processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    This month's Processing column will explore electronic beam (e-beam) processing. E-beam processing uses a low energy form of irradiation and has emerged as a highly promising treatment for both food safety and quarantine purposes. It is also used to extend food shelf life. This column will review...

  9. Spatial superpositions of Gaussian beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, Darryl

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available . At the plane of the lens we obtain a multi-ringed beam with a central intensity maximum which develops into a multi-ringed beam with a central null at the focal plane of the lens. The interesting feature of this beam is that it possesses two focal spots...

  10. Definition of Beam Diameter for Electron Beam Welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgardt, Paul [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pierce, Stanley W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dvornak, Matthew John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-11

    It is useful to characterize the dimensions of the electron beam during process development for electron beam welding applications. Analysis of the behavior of electron beam welds is simplest when a single number can be assigned to the beam properties that describes the size of the beam spot; this value we generically call the “beam diameter”. This approach has worked well for most applications and electron beam welding machines with the weld dimensions (width and depth) correlating well with the beam diameter. However, in recent weld development for a refractory alloy, Ta-10W, welded with a low voltage electron beam machine (LVEB), it was found that the weld dimensions (weld penetration and weld width) did not correlate well with the beam diameter and especially with the experimentally determined sharp focus point. These data suggest that the presently used definition of beam diameter may not be optimal for all applications. The possible reasons for this discrepancy and a suggested possible alternative diameter definition is the subject of this paper.

  11. Experimental Evidence for Beam-Beam Disruption at the SLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phinney, Nan

    1999-05-21

    A significant enhancement from beam-beam disruption was observed for the first time during the 1997-98 run of the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC). Disruption, or pinch effect, is due to the decrease in effective beam size during collisions as each beam is focused by the field of the other beam. With beam intensities of 4.0 10{sup 10} per bunch, bunch lengths of 1.1 mm, and horizontal and vertical beam sizes of {sigma}{sub x} = 1.5 {micro}m and {sigma}{sub y} = 0.65 {micro}m, the luminosity increase from disruption was more than 100%. Measured data rates as recorded by the SLD detector were in agreement with the theoretically calculated disruption enhancement.

  12. Beam distribution reconstruction simulation for electron beam probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yong-Chun; Mao, Rui-Shi; Li, Peng; Kang, Xin-Cai; Yin, Yan; Liu, Tong; You, Yao-Yao; Chen, Yu-Cong; Zhao, Tie-Cheng; Xu, Zhi-Guo; Wang, Yan-Yu; Yuan, You-Jin

    2017-07-01

    An electron beam probe (EBP) is a detector which makes use of a low-intensity and low-energy electron beam to measure the transverse profile, bunch shape, beam neutralization and beam wake field of an intense beam with small dimensions. While it can be applied to many aspects, we limit our analysis to beam distribution reconstruction. This kind of detector is almost non-interceptive for all of the beam and does not disturb the machine environment. In this paper, we present the theoretical aspects behind this technique for beam distribution measurement and some simulation results of the detector involved. First, a method to obtain a parallel electron beam is introduced and a simulation code is developed. An EBP as a profile monitor for dense beams is then simulated using the fast scan method for various target beam profiles, including KV distribution, waterbag distribution, parabolic distribution, Gaussian distribution and halo distribution. Profile reconstruction from the deflected electron beam trajectory is implemented and compared with the actual profile, and the expected agreement is achieved. Furthermore, as well as fast scan, a slow scan, i.e. step-by-step scan, is considered, which lowers the requirement for hardware, i.e. Radio Frequency deflector. We calculate the three-dimensional electric field of a Gaussian distribution and simulate the electron motion in this field. In addition, a fast scan along the target beam direction and slow scan across the beam are also presented, and can provide a measurement of longitudinal distribution as well as transverse profile simultaneously. As an example, simulation results for the China Accelerator Driven Sub-critical System (CADS) and High Intensity Heavy Ion Accelerator Facility (HIAF) are given. Finally, a potential system design for an EBP is described.

  13. Square shaped flat-top beam in refractive beam shapers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Vadim; Ostrun, Aleksei

    2015-08-01

    Lossless transformation of round Gaussian to square shaped flat-top collimated beam is important in building highpower solid state laser systems to improve optical pumping or amplification. There are industrial micromachining applications like scribing, display repair, which performance is improved when a square shaped spot with uniform intensity is created. Proved beam shaping solutions to these techniques are refractive field mapping beam shapers having some important features: flatness of output phase front, small output divergence, high transmittance, extended depth of field, operation with TEM00 and multimode lasers. Usual approach to design refractive beam shapers implies that input and output beams have round cross-section, therefore the only way to create a square shaped output beam is using a square mask, which leads to essential losses. When an input laser beam is linearly polarized it is suggested to generate square shaped flat-top output by applying beam shaper lenses from birefringent materials or by using additional birefringent components. Due to birefringence there is introduced phase retardation in beam parts and is realized a square shaped interference pattern at the beam shaper output. Realization of this approach requires small phase retardation, therefore weak birefringence effect is enough and birefringent optical components, operating in convergent or divergent beams, can be made from refractive materials, which crystal optical axis is parallel to optical axis of entire beam shaper optical system. There will be considered design features of beam shapers creating square shaped flat-top beams. Examples of real implementations and experimental results will be presented as well.

  14. Silicon microfabricated beam expander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, A., E-mail: aliman@ppinang.uitm.edu.my; Ibrahim, M. N.; Hamzah, I. H.; Sulaiman, A. A. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia, 40450, Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Ain, M. F. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Seri Ampangan, 14300,Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2015-03-30

    The feasibility design and development methods of silicon microfabricated beam expander are described. Silicon bulk micromachining fabrication technology is used in producing features of the structure. A high-precision complex 3-D shape of the expander can be formed by exploiting the predictable anisotropic wet etching characteristics of single-crystal silicon in aqueous Potassium-Hydroxide (KOH) solution. The beam-expander consist of two elements, a micromachined silicon reflector chamber and micro-Fresnel zone plate. The micro-Fresnel element is patterned using lithographic methods. The reflector chamber element has a depth of 40 µm, a diameter of 15 mm and gold-coated surfaces. The impact on the depth, diameter of the chamber and absorption for improved performance are discussed.

  15. Light Beam Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a method and a system for synthesizing a set of controllable light beams by provision of a system for synthesizing a set of light beams, comprising a spatially modulated light source for generation of electromagnetic radiation with a set of replicas of a predetermined...... symbol, s, positioned at respective desired positions (xs, ys) in an object plane o(x, y) intersecting, preferably perpendicular to, the direction of propagation of the electromagnetic radiation, and having spatial amplitudes a(x-xs, y-ys), spatial phases f(x-xs, y-ys)> and spatial polarisation vectors p......(x-xs, y-ys), a Fourier transforming lens for Fourier transforming the electromagnetic radiation, a first spatial light modulator for phase shifting the Fourier transformed electromagnetic radiation with the phase -F(u, v) of S*, S* is the complex conjugate of the Fourier transformed symbol s, a Fourier...

  16. The nonequilibrium beam plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skvortsov, V. A.

    1996-10-01

    The kinetics and the heating of nonequilibrium plasma, formed as a result of injection of intensive relativistic (or subrelativistic) electron or proton beams in the atomic-molecular gas (nitrogen or air with water vapor) at different pressures (from 0.1-10 atm) have been investigated numerically by using the mathematical model “SKIF” which was developed by the author 15 years ago. More than 200 plasma-chemical reactions and elementary processes are taken into consideration, including the action of “non-Maxwell” electrons of the cascade, formed in the ionization of the molecules by the beam particles. For the description of the deviation of energy distribution of such electrons from the equilibrium distribution, a simplified analytical model was used, with the help of which one can calculate the energy spectrum of the cascade electrons with satisfactory precision. This essentially reduces the calculating expenditure.

  17. Dose and time dependence of box jellyfish antivenom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreosso, Athena; Smout, Michael J; Seymour, Jamie E

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of the currently available box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri) antivenom has been subject of debate for many years. To assess whether the box jellyfish antivenom has the ability to attenuate venom-induced damage at cellular level, the present study analyzed the dose and time dependence of the antivenom in a cell-based assay. Different doses of antivenom were added to venom and subsequently administered to cells and the cell index was measured using xCelligence Technology (ACEA Biosciences). Similarly, antivenom and venom were incubated over different time periods and cell survival measured as stated above. For both experiments, the cell index was plotted as a measure of cell survival against the dose or incubation time and significance was determined with the use of a one-way ANOVA with a LSD post hoc test. Increasing concentrations of antivenom significantly augmented cell survival, with a concentration of approximately five times the currently recommended dose for human envenomation, causing the first significant increase in cell survival compared venom alone. Further, cell survival improved with increasing incubation time of venom and antivenom prior to addition to the cells, indicating that box jellyfish antivenom requires approximately 70 minutes to neutralize C. fleckeri venom. The presented results suggest that the currently recommended dose of antivenom requires adjustment, and more importantly, a human trial to test the effects of higher concentrations is also necessary. Further, antivenom has delayed neutralizing effects (i.e. after 70 minutes) which underlines the eminence of immediate and prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation in victims suffering from a C. fleckeri venom-induced cardiovascular collapse.

  18. Transcriptome and venom proteome of the box jellyfish Chironex fleckeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, Diane L; Jia, Xinying; Potriquet, Jeremy; Kumar, Dhirendra; Dash, Debasis; Kvaskoff, David; Mulvenna, Jason

    2015-05-27

    The box jellyfish, Chironex fleckeri, is the largest and most dangerous cubozoan jellyfish to humans. It produces potent and rapid-acting venom and its sting causes severe localized and systemic effects that are potentially life-threatening. In this study, a combined transcriptomic and proteomic approach was used to identify C. fleckeri proteins that elicit toxic effects in envenoming. More than 40,000,000 Illumina reads were used to de novo assemble ∼ 34,000 contiguous cDNA sequences and ∼ 20,000 proteins were predicted based on homology searches, protein motifs, gene ontology and biological pathway mapping. More than 170 potential toxin proteins were identified from the transcriptome on the basis of homology to known toxins in publicly available sequence databases. MS/MS analysis of C. fleckeri venom identified over 250 proteins, including a subset of the toxins predicted from analysis of the transcriptome. Potential toxins identified using MS/MS included metalloproteinases, an alpha-macroglobulin domain containing protein, two CRISP proteins and a turripeptide-like protease inhibitor. Nine novel examples of a taxonomically restricted family of potent cnidarian pore-forming toxins were also identified. Members of this toxin family are potently haemolytic and cause pain, inflammation, dermonecrosis, cardiovascular collapse and death in experimental animals, suggesting that these toxins are responsible for many of the symptoms of C. fleckeri envenomation. This study provides the first overview of a box jellyfish transcriptome which, coupled with venom proteomics data, enhances our current understanding of box jellyfish venom composition and the molecular structure and function of cnidarian toxins. The generated data represent a useful resource to guide future comparative studies, novel protein/peptide discovery and the development of more effective treatments for jellyfish stings in humans. (Length: 300).

  19. Targets and Secondary Beam Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noah, Etam

    2014-02-01

    Several applications make use of secondary beams of particles generated by the interaction of a primary beam of particles with a target. Spallation neutrons, bremsstrahlung photon-produced neutrons, radioactive ions and neutrinos are available to users at state-of-the-art facilities worldwide. Plans for even higher secondary beam intensities place severe constraints on the design of targets. This article reports on the main targetry challenges and highlights a variety of solutions for targetry and secondary beam extraction. Issues related to target station layout, instrumentation at the beam-target interface, safety and radioprotection are also discussed.

  20. Beam-Material Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Mokhov, N.V.

    2016-01-01

    Th is paper is motivated by the growing importance of better understanding of the phenomena and consequences of high- intensity energetic particle beam interactions with accelerator, generic target , and detector components. It reviews the principal physical processes of fast-particle interactions with matter, effects in materials under irradiation, materials response, related to component lifetime and performance, simulation techniques, and methods of mitigating the impact of radiation on the components and envir onment in challenging current and future application

  1. Mode Gaussian beam tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofimov, M. Yu.; Zakharenko, A. D.; Kozitskiy, S. B.

    2016-10-01

    A mode parabolic equation in the ray centered coordinates for 3D underwater sound propagation is developed. The Gaussian beam tracing in this case is constructed. The test calculations are carried out for the ASA wedge benchmark and proved an excellent agreement with the source images method in the case of cross-slope propagation. But in the cases of wave propagation at some angles to the cross-slope direction an account of mode interaction becomes necessary.

  2. Accelerating regular polygon beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barwick, Shane

    2010-12-15

    Beams that possess high-intensity peaks that follow curved paths of propagation under linear diffraction have recently been shown to have a multitude of interesting uses. In this Letter, a family of phase-only masks is derived, and each mask gives rise to multiple accelerating intensity maxima. The curved paths of the peaks can be described by the vertices of a regular polygon that is centered on the optic axis and expands with propagation.

  3. Beam-Material Interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhov, N. V. [Fermilab; Cerutti, F. [CERN

    2016-01-01

    Th is paper is motivated by the growing importance of better understanding of the phenomena and consequences of high-intensity energetic particle beam interactions with accelerator, generic target, and detector components. It reviews the principal physical processes of fast-particle interactions with matter, effects in materials under irradiation, materials response, related to component lifetime and performance, simulation techniques, and methods of mitigating the impact of radiation on the components and environment in challenging current and future applications.

  4. Implementation of qq-production in the POWHEG-BOX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hangst, Christian; Muehlleitner, Margarete; Popenda, Eva [KIT - Institut fuer Theoretische Physik (Germany); Kraemer, Michael [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik und Kosmologie; Spira, Michael [Paul Scherrer Institut - Theory Group LTP (Switzerland)

    2012-07-01

    Precise predictions for the production of SUSY-particles at the LHC in the framework of the MSSM make the combination of fixed-order NLO-calculations and parton-showers indispensable. The POWHEG-method is one of several existing possibilities to avoid in this step of the simulation the occurrence of the so called double-counting problem. I present the implementation of qq-production into the existing program POWHEG-BOX, which provides the process-independent steps of this method automatically.

  5. Analysis of the COS/NUV Extraction Box Heights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synder, Elaine M.; Sonnentrucker, Paule

    2017-08-01

    We present a diagnostic test of the extraction box heights (EBHs) used when extracting NUV spectroscopic data. This study was motivated by a discrepancy between the EBH used by the COS Exposure Time Calculator during observation planning (8 pixels) and the COS calibration pipeline (CALCOS) during the creation of the final spectra (57 pixels). In this Instrument Science Report, we study the effects of decreasing the EBH on the net counts and signal-to-noise ratio for CALCOS-reduced spectra of many different targets. We also provide detailed instructions for users who wish to perform a custom extraction for their data

  6. A Matrix PRNG with S-Box Output Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Alvarez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a modification to a previously published pseudorandom number generator improving security while maintaining high performance. The proposed generator is based on the powers of a word-packed block upper triangular matrix and it is designed to be fast and easy to implement in software since it mainly involves bitwise operations between machine registers and, in our tests, it presents excellent security and statistical characteristics. The modifications include a new, key-derived s-box based nonlinear output filter and improved seeding and extraction mechanisms. This output filter can also be applied to other generators.

  7. Assessing household health expenditure with Box-Cox censoring models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaze, Jean-Paul

    2005-09-01

    In order to assess the combined presence of zero expenditures and a heavily skewed distribution of positive expenditures, the Box-Cox transformation with location parameter is used to define a set of models generalising the standard Tobit, Heckman selection and double-hurdle models. Extended flexibility with respect to previous specifications is introduced, notably regarding negative transformation parameters, which may prove necessary for medical expenditures, and corner-solution outcomes. An illustration is provided by the analysis of household health expenditure in Switzerland. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Introduction to game physics with Box2D

    CERN Document Server

    Parberry, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Written by a pioneer of game development in academia, Introduction to Game Physics with Box2D covers the theory and practice of 2D game physics in a relaxed and entertaining yet instructional style. It offers a cohesive treatment of the topics and code involved in programming the physics for 2D video games. Focusing on writing elementary game physics code, the first half of the book helps you grasp the challenges of programming game physics from scratch, without libraries or outside help. It examines the mathematical foundation of game physics and illustrates how it is applied in practice thro

  9. How to handle a Huygens' box inside an enclosure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten; Bonev, Ivan Bonev; Franek, Ondrej

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that it is possible to replace printed circuit boards with a Huygens' box (HB) representation obtained from a near-field scan in simulation of far-fields from an apparatus. However, the surface equivalence theorem requires that the environment outside HB is the same in the n...... caused by violating the surface equivalence theorem can be lower than 2 dB. It is also demonstrated that if the printed circuit board is galvanically connected to the enclosure, the near-field scan must be performed under same conditions....

  10. Standard Waste Box Lid Screw Removal Option Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anast, Kurt Roy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-11

    This report provides results from test work conducted to resolve the removal of screws securing the standard waste box (SWB) lids that hold the remediated nitrate salt (RNS) drums. The test work evaluated equipment and process alternatives for removing the 42 screws that hold the SWB lid in place. The screws were secured with a red Loctite thread locker that makes removal very difficult because the rivets that the screw threads into would slip before the screw could be freed from the rivet, making it impossible to remove the screw and therefore the SWB lid.

  11. Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS) Technology Tool Box (TTB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Monica; ONeil, Daniel A.; Christensen, Carissa B.

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS) is a decision support tool designed to aid program managers and strategic planners in determining how to invest technology research and development dollars. It is an Excel-based modeling package that allows a user to build complex space architectures and evaluate the impact of various technology choices. ATLAS contains system models, cost and operations models, a campaign timeline and a centralized technology database. Technology data for all system models is drawn from a common database, the ATLAS Technology Tool Box (TTB). The TTB provides a comprehensive, architecture-independent technology database that is keyed to current and future timeframes.

  12. Experimental study on buckling and ultimate strength of thin-walled box stub columns; Usuniku hakogata danmen buzai no zakutsu / shukyoku kyodo tokusei ni kansuru jikkenteki kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakai, H.; Kitada, T. [Osaka City Univ. (Japan); Oryu, T. [Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1998-10-21

    Thin-walled box stub columns such as beams of cable-stayed bridge, suspension bridge tower, arch rib of arch bridge and steel piers and so forth can also bear torsion at the same time besides compression and bending. These thin-walled box stub columns may achieve ultimate condition before reaching to plastic condition due to the effect of local buckling and so forth. Accordingly, it is the important topic to study the properties regarding ultimate strength of thin-walled box members in order to evaluate correctly the effect on load bearing resistance of local buckling. In this report, validity of load bearing resistance curve and ultimate strength interaction curve proposed by authors was studied using load bearing capacity experiment results. As a result, all ultimate strengths obtained by the experiment were higher than the ultimate strengths estimated by load bearing capacity curve and ultimate strength interaction curve. Further, it was revealed that the specimens subjected to torsion or subjected to bending and torsion and so forth exceeded the plastic strength due to the effect of strain hardening. 12 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Hyperon Beam Experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The experiment WA89 uses the upgraded Omega facility together with a hyperon beam installed at the end of the H1 beamline. The beam can deliver 2~10$ ^{5} \\% Sigma ^- $ per machine burst at 330 GeV/c with a background of 5 10$ ^{5} \\% \\pi ^- $. \\\\ \\\\ The goals of the experiment are: observation of charmed particles, mainly the charmed-strange baryons and measurements of their production in the kinematical range x$ _{F} $~$>$~0.2, and their decay properties, a search for exotic states such as U(3100) observed in the previous CERN hyperon beam experiment WA62, measurements of hyperon polarization and production properties. \\\\ \\\\ A vertex detector consisting of 24 silicon microstrip planes with 25~$\\mu$m pitch and 6~planes with 50~$\\mu$m pitch provides track measurements of sufficient accuracy to identify the decays of short living charmed particles and measure their lifetimes. A RICH detector provides good $\\pi$/K separation for momenta up to 100~GeV/c and $\\pi$/p separation up to 150~GeV/c. Photons are detecte...

  14. Fixed target beams

    CERN Document Server

    Kain, V; Cettour-Cave, S; Cornelis, K; Fraser, M A; Gatignon, L; Goddard, B; Velotti, F

    2017-01-01

    The CERN SPS (Super Proton Synchrotron) serves asLHC injector and provides beam for the North Area fixedtarget experiments. At low energy, the vertical acceptancebecomes critical with high intensity large emittance fixed tar-get beams. Optimizing the vertical available aperture is a keyingredient to optimize transmission and reduce activationaround the ring. During the 2016 run a tool was developed toprovide an automated local aperture scan around the entirering.The flux of particles slow extracted with the1/3inte-ger resonance from the Super Proton Synchrotron at CERNshould ideally be constant over the length of the extractionplateau, for optimum use of the beam by the fixed target ex-periments in the North Area. The extracted intensity is con-trolled in feed-forward correction of the horizontal tune viathe main SPS quadrupoles. The Mains power supply noiseat 50 Hz and harmonics is also corrected in feed-forwardby small amplitude tune modulation at the respective fre-quencies with a dedicated additional quad...

  15. Beam screen issues

    CERN Document Server

    Métral, E

    2011-01-01

    In the High Energy LHC (HE-LHC), a beam energy of about 16.5 TeV is currently contemplated. The beam screen issues linked to the use of 20 T dipole magnets instead of 8.33 T are discussed, with a particular emphasis on two mechanisms, the magneto-resistance and the anomalous skin effect, assuming the nominal machine and beam parameters. The magneto-resistance effect always leads to an increase of the material resistivity (as the mean free path in the presence of a transverse magnetic field becomes smaller). As concerns the anomalous skin effect, the anomalous increase of surface resistance of metals at low temperatures and high frequencies is attributed to the long mean free path of the conduction electrons: when the skin depth becomes much smaller than the mean free path, only a fraction of the conduction electrons moving almost parallel to the metal surface is effective in carrying the current and the classical theory breaks down.

  16. Evolution of the F-Box Gene Family in Euarchontoglires: Gene Number Variation and Selection Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ailan; Fu, Mingchuan; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Mao, Yuanhui; Li, Xiangchen; Tao, Shiheng

    2014-01-01

    F-box proteins are substrate adaptors used by the SKP1–CUL1–F-box protein (SCF) complex, a type of E3 ubiquitin ligase complex in the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS). SCF-mediated ubiquitylation regulates proteolysis of hundreds of cellular proteins involved in key signaling and disease systems. However, our knowledge of the evolution of the F-box gene family in Euarchontoglires is limited. In the present study, 559 F-box genes and nine related pseudogenes were identified in eight genomes. Lineage-specific gene gain and loss events occurred during the evolution of Euarchontoglires, resulting in varying F-box gene numbers ranging from 66 to 81 among the eight species. Both tandem duplication and retrotransposition were found to have contributed to the increase of F-box gene number, whereas mutation in the F-box domain was the main mechanism responsible for reduction in the number of F-box genes, resulting in a balance of expansion and contraction in the F-box gene family. Thus, the Euarchontoglire F-box gene family evolved under a birth-and-death model. Signatures of positive selection were detected in substrate-recognizing domains of multiple F-box proteins, and adaptive changes played a role in evolution of the Euarchontoglire F-box gene family. In addition, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) distributions were found to be highly non-random among different regions of F-box genes in 1092 human individuals, with domain regions having a significantly lower number of non-synonymous SNPs. PMID:24727786

  17. Premature beam dumps in 2011

    CERN Document Server

    Albert, Markus

    2012-01-01

    The statistical analysis of all non-programmed beam dumps during the 2011 proton run is presented. The selection criteria of fills that got considered were that the beam intensity of each of the two beams exceeded at least 1e12 particles per beam in order to exclude all probe beam dumps and most of the MPS test dumps. A distribution of beam dump causes by system is shown, as well as the time it took to re-establish injection after a non-programmed dump for fills which made it into STABLE BEAMS. This was done in an attempt to evaluate the cost of those non-programmed dumps in terms of time.

  18. A compact molecular beam machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Paul; Chandler, David W; Strecker, Kevin E

    2009-08-01

    We have developed a compact, low cost, modular, crossed molecular beam machine. The new apparatus utilizes several technological advancements in molecular beams valves, ion detection, and vacuum pumping to reduce the size, cost, and complexity of a molecular beam apparatus. We apply these simplifications to construct a linear molecular beam machine as well as a crossed-atomic and molecular beam machine. The new apparatus measures almost 50 cm in length, with a total laboratory footprint less than 0.25 m(2) for the crossed-atomic and molecular beam machine. We demonstrate the performance of the apparatus by measuring the rotational temperature of nitric oxide from three common molecular beam valves and by observing collisional energy transfer in nitric oxide from a collision with argon.

  19. CLIC Drive Beam Phase Stabilisation

    CERN Document Server

    Gerbershagen, Alexander; Schulte, Daniel

    The thesis presents phase stability studies for the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) and focuses in particular on CLIC Drive Beam longitudinal phase stabilisation. This topic constitutes one of the main feasibility challenges for CLIC construction and is an essential component of the current CLIC stabilisation campaign. The studies are divided into two large interrelated sections: the simulation studies for the CLIC Drive Beam stability, and measurements, data analysis and simulations of the CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) Drive Beam phase errors. A dedicated software tool has been developed for a step-by-step analysis of the error propagation through the CLIC Drive Beam. It uses realistic RF potential and beam loading amplitude functions for the Drive and Main Beam accelerating structures, complete models of the recombination scheme and compressor chicane as well as of further CLIC Drive Beam modules. The tool has been tested extensively and its functionality has been verified. The phase error propagation at CLIC h...

  20. Relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Füellekrug, M.; Roussel-Dupre, R.; Symbalisty, E. M. D.

    2011-01-01

    Non-luminous relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds have been detected by the radio signals of low frequency similar to 40-400 kHz which they radiate. The electron beams occur similar to 2-9 ms after positive cloud-to-ground lightning discharges at heights between similar to 22-72 km above...... thunderclouds. Intense positive lightning discharges can also cause sprites which occur either above or prior to the electron beam. One electron beam was detected without any luminous sprite which suggests that electron beams may also occur independently of sprites. Numerical simulations show that beams...... of electrons partially discharge the lightning electric field above thunderclouds and thereby gain a mean energy of similar to 7MeV to transport a total charge of similar to-10mC upwards. The impulsive current similar to 3 x 10(-3) Am-2 associated with relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds...