WorldWideScience

Sample records for box beams

  1. Bending analysis of laminated composite box beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathy, A.K.; Patel, H.J.; Pang, S.S. (Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1994-01-01

    Box beams are widely used in weight reduction structures such as aircraft wings. The use of composite box beams further reduces the weight factor for such structures with the same deflection and stress as that of isotropic box beams. The difference in the behavior of composite box beam with different fiber orientation, number of plies, and number of stringers also provides a wide range of designing parameters to achieve the required performance for a given problem. A bending analysis has been carried out for the study of deflections and stresses for box beams of different material (isotropic and laminated composites), size, and number of stringers subjected to different kinds of loading conditions. A finite element model has been developed based on the strain energy principle, and the results are compared with an available commercial code COSMOS/M.'' Experiments using aluminum and scotchply composite laminates were conducted to verify the results. An optimal design for size and number of stiffeners for a given loading condition has been achieved. Investigations have also been carried out to find the effect of transverse shear on the span-wise normal stress.

  2. Technology integration box beam failure study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuart, M. J.; Ambur, Damodar R.; Davis, D. D., Jr.; Davis, R. C.; Farley, G. L.; Lotts, C. G.; Wang, J. T.

    1993-01-01

    Composite structures have the potential to be cost-effective, structurally efficient primary aircraft structures. The Advanced Composites Technology (ACT) Program has the goal to develop the technology to exploit this potential for heavily loaded aircraft structures. As part of the ACT Program, Lockheed Aeronautical Systems Company completed the design and fabrication of the Technology Integration Box Beam (TIBB). The TIBB is an advanced composite prototype structure for the center wing section of the C-130 aircraft. Lockheed subjected the TIBB to downbending, upbending, torsion and combined upbending and torsion load conditions to verify the design. The TIBB failed at 83 percent of design ultimate load for the combined upbending and torsion load condition. The objective of this paper is to describe the mechanisms that led to the failure of the TIBB. The results of a comprehensive analytical and experimental study are presented. Analytical results include strain and deflection results from both a global analysis of the TIBB and a local analysis of the failure region. These analytical results are validated by experimental results from the TIBB tests. The analytical and experimental results from the TIBB tests are used to determine a sequence of events that resulted in failure of the TIBB. A potential cause of failure is high stresses in a stiffener runout region. Analytical and experimental results are also presented for a stiffener runout specimen that was used to simulate the TIBB failure mechanisms.

  3. Industrial X-ray tomography using an electron beam welding box

    CERN Document Server

    Hoppe, D; Koch, D; Zippe, C

    2002-01-01

    An existing electron beam welding box should be used with the least additional effort for X-ray tomography. Only a suitable anode, a simple device to turn the investigated object and one detector for X-rays are placed into the vacuum of the welding box. The information necessary to reconstruct tomograms should be derived only from the measurand of the detector.

  4. Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Box Beam Strengthened with CFRP U-Wrap Strips Under Torsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Shengqiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study focuses on the torsional strengthening behavior of reinforced concrete (RC box section beams that are widely used in bridges. Four RC box beams were fabricated, and three of them were wrapped by carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP U-wrap strips with or without longitudinal strips. The different wrapping configuration, cracking angle, failure pattern, and tensile strain of fibers were investigated and discussed accordingly. The experimental results addressed that U-wrap strips strengthening also can upgrade the ultimate torque of beams moderately. In particular, using U-wrap and longitudinal strips to bond the box beams increased the torsional stiffness slightly. The same equation from different codes for calculating RC specimens can accurately predict the ultimate strength of the control beam, but the calculation of the fib model overestimated the torsional strengthening improvement of the wrapped specimens. However, Ghobarah et al. assumed approximately 3000με of the average ultimate fiber strain in calculating the ultimate strength of the wrapped box beams which shows in relatively appropriate agreement with testing results.

  5. Lifa Air Secure Box method for chilled beam cleaning

    OpenAIRE

    Leppälä, Vesa-Jukka

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this Bachelor’s Thesis was to introduce a chilled beam cleaning method and to develop an improved version for the prototype introduced in 2011. This thesis was commissioned by Lifa Air Ltd. The company itself is specialized in improving Indoor Air Quality and offers a wide range of products meant for ventilation cleaning. The aim for the development work was to fill the requirements and needs set by the company based on the research done, and to construct a working and improv...

  6. Practical assessment of magnetic methods for corrosion detection in an adjacent precast, prestressed concrete box-beam bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Bertrand; Titus, Michael; Nims, Douglas Karl; Ghorbanpoor, Al; Devabhaktuni, Vijay Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Magnetic methods are progressing in the detection of corrosion in prestressing strands in adjacent precast, prestressed concrete box-beam bridges. This study is the first field trial of magnetic strand defect detection systems on an adjacent box-beam bridge. A bridge in Fayette County, Ohio, which was scheduled for demolition, was inspected. Damage to prestressed box-beams is often due to corrosion of the prestressing strands. The corroded strands show discontinuities and a reduced cross-sectional area. These changes, due to corrosion, are reflected in the magnetic signatures of the prestressing steel. Corrosion in the prestressing steel was detected using two magnetic methods, namely the 'magnetic flux leakage' (MFL) and the 'induced magnetic field'. The purpose of these tests was to demonstrate the ability of the magnetic methods to detect hidden corrosion in box-beams in the field and tackle the logistic problem of inspecting box-beams from the bottom. The inspections were validated by dissecting the bottom of the box-beams after the inspections. The results showed that the MFL method can detect hidden corrosion and strand breaks. Both magnetic field methods were also able to estimate corrosion by detecting the effective cross-sectional area of the strand in sections of the beams. Thus, it was shown that the magnetic methods can be used to predict hidden corrosion in prestressing strands of box-beams.

  7. Vibration Analysis of Steel-Concrete Composite Box Beams considering Shear Lag and Slip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Wangbao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate dynamic characteristics of steel-concrete composite box beams, a longitudinal warping function of beam section considering self-balancing of axial forces is established. On the basis of Hamilton principle, governing differential equations of vibration and displacement boundary conditions are deduced by taking into account coupled influencing of shear lag, interface slip, and shear deformation. The proposed method shows an improvement over previous calculations. The central difference method is applied to solve the differential equations to obtain dynamic responses of composite beams subjected to arbitrarily distributed loads. The results from the proposed method are found to be in good agreement with those from ANSYS through numerical studies. Its validity is thus verified and meaningful conclusions for engineering design can be drawn as follows. There are obvious shear lag effects in the top concrete slab and bottom plate of steel beams under dynamic excitation. This shear lag increases with the increasing degree of shear connections. However, it has little impact on the period and deflection amplitude of vibration of composite box beams. The amplitude of deflection and strains in concrete slab reduce as the degree of shear connections increases. Nevertheless, the influence of shear connections on the period of vibration is not distinct.

  8. Beam-dump/diagnostics box for a 10-kA 50-MeV, 50-ns electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a dump for the ATA beam that consists of a series of carbon plates whose collective thickness totals approximately 1.5 ranges at 50 MeV. The energy dissipated in the plates is radiated to a water-cooled wall. The dump is designed to dissipate up to 175 kW of average power. A small hole along the axis of the plates forms a beamlet that passes through an energy analyzer. The analyzer consists of a 600 bending magnet and two high-sensitivity beam-current/position monitors. The ratio of the beamlet current to full current is used to estimate the beam emittance

  9. On sixfold coupled vibrations of thin-walled composite box beams

    OpenAIRE

    Vo, Thuc; Lee, Jaehong; Ahn, Namshik

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a general analytical model for free vibration of thin-walled composite beams with arbitrary laminate stacking sequences and studies the effects of shear deformation over the natural frequencies. This model is based on the first-order shear-deformable beam theory and accounts for all the structural coupling coming from the material anisotropy. The seven governing differential equations for coupled flexural–torsional–shearing vibration are derived from the Hamilton’s princip...

  10. Beam white dot prevention of box beam prefabrication%箱梁预制过程中梁体白点的防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张保敏

    2016-01-01

    Due to the rapid development of high speed railway,bridge construction has come to a stage of rapid develop-ment.Combining with mark box beam prefabrication of Hang -Yong HYZQ -3,the concrete construction technology is briefly stated,and beam white dot problem is analyzed in detail.By improving vibrating spear,the white dot problem is well solved and it brings economic benefits and social benefits.%由于高速铁路的迅速发展,桥梁建设也进入快速发展阶段。结合杭甬客运专线 HYZQ -3标的32/24 m 简支整孔箱梁预制工程,就混凝土施工工艺进行了简要介绍,并重点对梁体白点问题进行了分析研究,通过改良振动棒,有效防治了白点问题,带来了经济和社会效益。

  11. SU-E-T-167: Evaluation of Mobius Dose Calculation Engine Using Out of the Box Preconfigured Beam Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardan, R [UAB University of Alabama, Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Faught, A [MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Huang, M; Benhabib, S [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Brezovich, I; Popple, R [University of Alabama Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Followill, D [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Determine the dose calculation accuracy of a preconfigured Mobius server for use in secondary checks of a treatment planning system. Methods: 10 plans were created for irradiation on two of the IROC (formerly RPC) accreditation phantoms: 4 for the head and neck phantom and 6 for the lung phantom. The plans each were created using one of four different photon energies (6FFF, 10 FFF, 6X, and 15X) and were varied in treatment type including VMAT, step and shoot IMRT, dynamic MLC IMRT (DMLC), and conformal RT (CRT). The TLDs in the phantoms were contoured, and each plan was sent for calculation to Mobius software (Mobius Medical Systems, Houston, TX) with a default configuration. Each plan was then irradiated on the planned phantom 3 times to create an average reading across 56 TLDs. These readings were then compared against the corresponding Mobius calculation at each TLD location. Results: The mean difference (MD) normalized to the plan prescription dose between each TLD and Mobius calculation for all measurements was 0.5 ± 3.3%, with a maximum difference of 8.4%. The MD was 0.6 ± 3.8%, − 2.0 ± 1.9%, 1.7 ± 3.7%, and 1.9 ± 1.2% across the 6FFF, 10FFF, 6X and 15X energies respectively. The MD was −1.2 ± 2.3% for lung plans and 1.8 ± 3.5% for head/neck plans. Across treatment types, the MD ranged from − 1.8 ± 1.7% for CRT to 4.3 ± 2.4 % for DMLC. Conclusion: Out of the box and preconfigured, Mobius provides accurate dose calculations with respect to beam energy, treatment type, and treatment site.

  12. Carbon-ion beams induce production of an immune mediator protein, high mobility group box 1, at levels comparable with X-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray radiotherapy activates tumor antigen-specific T-cell responses, and increases in the serum levels of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) induced by X-ray irradiation play a pivotal role in activating anti-tumor immunity. Here, we examined whether carbon-ion beams, as well as X-rays, can induce HMGB1 release from human cancer cell lines. The study examined five human cancer cell lines: TE2, KYSE70, A549, NCI-H460 and WiDr. The proportion of cells surviving X- or carbon-ion beam irradiation was assessed in a clonogenic assay. The D10, the dose at which 10% of cells survive, was calculated using a linear–quadratic model. HMGB1 levels in the culture supernatants were assessed by an ELISA. The D10 dose for X-rays in TE2, KYSE70, A549, NCI-H460 and WiDr cells was 2.1, 6.7, 8.0, 4.8 and 7.1 Gy, respectively, whereas that for carbon-ion beams was 0.9, 2.5, 2.7, 1.8 and 3.5 Gy, respectively. X-rays and carbon-ion beams significantly increased HMGB1 levels in the culture supernatants of A549, NCI-H460 and WiDr cells at 72 h post-irradiation with a D10 dose. Furthermore, irradiation with X-rays or carbon-ion beams significantly increased HMGB1 levels in the culture supernatants of all five cell lines at 96 h post-irradiation. There was no significant difference in the amount of HMGB1 induced by X-rays and carbon-ion beams at any time-point (except at 96 h for NCI-H460 cells); thus we conclude that comparable levels of HMGB1 were detected after irradiation with iso-survival doses of X-rays and carbon-ion beams. (author)

  13. Analysis on local buckling instability at the bottom of steel-concrete composite box beams%钢-混凝土组合箱梁底板局部屈曲失稳分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭燕秋; 马立荣

    2013-01-01

    Tests have been carried out to study the mechanical property when the negative bending region of combination of steel-concrete composite box beams is under compression.This paper emphasizes the discussion of the computation model of the local stability when box beams is under compression.By comparing the local stability of box beams when under compression with the box beams which is welding studs,pouring concrete slab of certain thickness,this paper is to provide the reference for the optimization design of the bottom slabs of the negative bending region of combination of steel-concrete composite box beams.Results showed that cast-in-place concrete slab in compression state can effectively prevent the occurrence of local buckling instability ; it can reduce the stress of the concrete slab and improve the negative bending region of concrete beams of the ultimate bearing capacity.%针对钢-混凝土组合箱梁负弯矩区底板在受压状态下的力学性能,建立箱梁底板在受压作用下的局部稳定性计算模型.通过对一般箱梁底板在受压作用下的局部稳定性计算和对箱梁底板焊接栓钉并浇筑一定厚度的混凝土板的局部稳定性的计算进行对比分析.结果表明:在受压状态下现浇混凝土板可以有效防止发生局部屈曲失稳,降低箱梁底板的应力,提高弯矩区混凝土梁的极限承载能力.

  14. Bento Boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasio, Cindy

    2010-01-01

    Bento boxes are common objects in Japanese culture, designed to hold enough lunch for one person. They have individual compartments and sometimes multiple tiers for rice, vegetables, and other side dishes. They are made of materials ranging from wood, cloth, aluminum, or plastic. In general, the greater the number of foods, the better the box is…

  15. Virtual box

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stougaard, Malthe Kirkhoff

    2007-01-01

    Mediated intimacy is the phenomenon where humans use technologies to express, share, or communicate intimate feelings with each other. Typically, technologies supporting mediated intimacy encompass different characteristics than technologies designed to solve specific work-oriented tasks. This pa......Mediated intimacy is the phenomenon where humans use technologies to express, share, or communicate intimate feelings with each other. Typically, technologies supporting mediated intimacy encompass different characteristics than technologies designed to solve specific work-oriented tasks....... This paper reports on the design, implementation and initial evaluation of Virtual Box. Virtual Box attempts to create a physical and engaging context in order to support reciprocal interactions with expressive content. An implemented version of Virtual Box is evaluated in a location-aware environment...

  16. 基于梁格法的预制箱梁横向刚度模拟研究%Study of Transverse Stiffness Simulaton Based on Beam Grillage Method for Prefabricated Box Girder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨圣超; 夏兴佳

    2016-01-01

    To correctly simulate the transverse stiffness of the spatial beam grillage model of the prefabricated box beam ,the right deck of the Weijiacun Zhong Bridge on the Zhunxing Heavy Load Expressway was taken as the study background ,to study the influence of the type of the vir‐tual beams in the spatial beam grillage model of a prestressed box beam on the transverse stiffness . The bridge is a 4 × 20 m prestressed concrete continuous box beam bridge ,to which full loads was applied according to the static test results gained when the bridge was completed and transferred , to test the strain and deflection of the main beam .The MIDAS Civil software was used to establish the spatial beam grillage models of the main beam with three types of virtual beams ,to calculate the main beam bending moment under the design loads and testing loads ,and the strain and deflec‐tion of the main beam under the maximum positive bending moment and the related verification co‐efficients ,and the calculated results were compared with the measured ones .The results demon‐strate that the transverse stiffness of the spatial beam grillage model show s sign of increase as the increase of the length of the rigid zone of the virtual beam and the decrease of the efficient length of the virtual beam .And when the part of the virtual beam from the center of the stringers to the in‐ner edge of the stringer webs was set as the rigid zone ,the transverse stiffness simulated by the spatial beam grillage model is the closest to the transverse stiffness of the actual bridge .%为准确模拟预制箱梁空间梁格模型的横向刚度,以准兴重载高速公路魏家村中桥右幅桥为背景,研究预制箱梁空间梁格模型中虚梁形式对横向刚度的影响。该桥为4×20 m预制混凝土连续箱梁桥,按交工静载试验满载加载,测试主梁的应变和挠度;采用M IDAS Civil软件建立3种虚梁形式的主梁空间梁格模型,计算设计荷载和试验

  17. 预应力混凝土组合箱梁扭后抗弯性能分析%Bending behavior study of prestressed composite steel-concrete box beams damaged by torsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡少伟; 胡汉林

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate the bending behavior of the prestressed composite steel-concrete box beams which have been damaged by torsion, five composite box beams are tested by symmetrical load at mid-span. Considering the history of the torsion loading on the beams, and comparing with the test about the intact beam, by tests and analysis are given some important parameters, such as the ultimate bending capacity of the composite beams, curve of moment-deflection at mid-span and curve of the increases of strain in steel beam, and a formula for calculating the bending capacity of the beams is offered in this study. The test results show that the bending capacity of the beams which have been damaged by torsion is lower than the intact beam; the history of the torsion loading would affect the bending capacity of the beams; and the prestressing force can improve the bending capacity of the beams.%为研究预应力混凝土组合箱梁扭后的抗弯性能,进行了5根预应力组合梁的先扭后弯试验.试验在梁跨中对称荷载作用下进行,考虑试验梁受扭矩作用历史,并与完整组合梁的试验进行对比得到扭后预应力组合梁的极限抗弯承载力、跨中弯矩-挠度曲线及钢梁截面应变增长曲线,并提出了预应力组合梁扭后承载力计算公式.试验结果表明:预应力组合梁扭后承弯能力将会降低;受扭历史影响预应力组合梁的抗弯能力;预应力能够提高扭后预应力组合梁的抗弯能力.

  18. 预应力组合箱梁抗弯承载能力影响参数分析%Analysis of Influential Parameters of Bending Capacity of Prestressed Composite Box Beams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡少伟; 胡汉林

    2012-01-01

    To provide reference for the design of prestressed composite box beams, the sim-plified plastic theory was used to analyze the influential parameters (e. g. the strength of concrete and steel beams, initial tensioning forces of prestressing tendons, layout of the tendons and num-bers of deviation blocks) of the completely shear connected prestressed composite box beams. The results of the analysis demonstrate that under the condition that the sectional dimensions are restricted, the improvement of the strength of the steel beams can effectively improve the bending capacity of the composite box beams and the increase of numbers the prestressing tendons can sig-nificantly increase the bending capacity as well. When the tendons are laid out in a drape way, the initial tensioning values of the tendons can be increased and consequently, the elastic bearing ca-pacity of the beams will be increased. The more the numbers of the deviation blocks are, the greater the increment of the prestress, the less the influence of the secondary effect and the high-er the bending capacity of the beams will be.%为对预应力组合箱梁的设计提供参考,利用简化塑性理论对完全剪力连接的预应力组合梁的抗弯承载力影响参数(混凝土和钢梁强度、预应力筋初始张拉力、预应力筋布筋形式、转向块数量)进行分析.分析结果表明:在截面尺寸受限制时,提高钢梁强度能够有效提高预应力组合梁的抗弯承载力;增加预应力筋的数量可较明显地提高梁体的抗弯承载力;预应力筋采用折线布筋形式时,可提高预应力初始张拉值,以提高预应力组合梁的弹性承载力;转向块布置数量越多,预应力增量越大,二次效应影响越小,预应力组合梁抗弯承载力越高.

  19. Einstein's Boxes

    OpenAIRE

    Norsen, Travis

    2004-01-01

    At the 1927 Solvay conference, Einstein presented a thought experiment intended to demonstrate the incompleteness of the quantum mechanical description of reality. In the following years, the thought experiment was picked up and modified by Einstein, de Broglie, and several other commentators into a simple scenario involving the splitting in half of the wave function of a single particle in a box. In this paper we collect together several formulations of this thought experiment from the exist...

  20. Shadow boxing

    OpenAIRE

    Pulford, Donald

    2011-01-01

    Shadow Boxing continues my interest in the production/performance of gender on stage. It tells the story of a closeted, gay boxer and the devastation that ensues when he is outed. The central device is the play’s appeal to the audience’s imagined ‘bad faith’ concerning masculinity and the shock when the attendant expectations are subverted or upturned. I expressed the foundation of our enterprise in the New York programme by quoting from Calvin Thomas’s Masculinity, Psychoanalysis, Straight Q...

  1. Whole Section Erection and Combination of 64m Simple Supported Box Beam with Large Span Bridge Construction Machine%大跨度造桥机整孔拼架64m简支箱梁

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范万祥; 李述宝

    2001-01-01

    结合株六铁路复线南山河特大桥施工实例,介绍了大跨度预应力梁造桥机的构造和功能,以及利用该造桥机进行整孔节段拼架64m简支箱梁的施工工艺。%With the practical example of Nanshanhe huge bridge of Zhu-liu railway double line project,authors introduce the structure and function of stress beam bridge construction machine,and the construction method of whole section erection and combination of 64m simple supported box beam with this machine.

  2. 柔性连接组合箱梁弹性阶段的弯扭效应分析%Bending-torsion effect of composite box beam with flexible connection in elastic stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彦玲; 葛巍; 李运生

    2013-01-01

    In order to elusidate the bending-tortion mechanism of steel-concrete composite box beam with flexible connection in elastic stage , a finite element analysis combined with the experiment of 4 steel-concrete composite box beams under the bending-tortion action , was conducted by ANSYS soft-ware and the decomposition method , and the influence of the shear connection , the load eccentrici-ty, and the diaphragms number on the bending-tortion effect of composite box beams were studied . The results indicate that , the flexibility of the shear connectors can increase the bending-tortion effect of the composite box beams under the eccentric loads .Compared with the fully connected composite beam , the bending stress , rigid torsional and distortional wrap stress of the composite beams with the shear connection level of 60%, increase by 0.4 , 1.5 and 4.6 times respectively , and no longer coincide with the plane-section law if slip exists at the connection surface;the load ec-centricity and number of middle diaphragms all have little effect on the bending stress , but the rigid torsional and distortional wrap stresses are proportional to the load eccentricity , while the middle dia-phragms reduces the distorsional wrap stress about 1.0 times.%为了明确采用柔性连接件的钢-混凝土组合箱梁在弹性阶段的弯扭作用机理,结合弯扭联合作用下4片组合梁的模型试验,根据荷载分解法,采用ANSYS软件对其弯扭效应进行了分析,并重点研究了剪力连接度、荷载偏心距和横隔板数量对组合箱梁弯扭效应的影响。结果显示:剪力连接件的柔性增大了偏心荷载下组合梁的弯扭效应,与完全连接时相比,剪力连接度为60%时弯曲正应力、刚性扭转正应力和畸变翘曲正应力可分别增大0.4、1.5和4.6倍,且滑移后应力不再符合平截面分布规律;荷载偏心距和横隔板数量对弯曲正应力基本无影响,刚性扭转正应力

  3. 深部煤巷高强让压型锚索箱梁支护系统研究%Research and application of pressure relief anchor box beam support system in deep coal roadway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琦; 李术才; 李为腾; 阮国强; 李海燕; 王德超; 江贝; 张红军

    2013-01-01

    The current situation of coal roadway support, especially pressure relief support theory and technology, was summarized. The necessity and engineering significance of the support idea, which is controlling at first, pressure yielding behind and then resistance, was researched. Guided by the support idea, and considering the demand of deep high stress coal roadway support, high strength pressure relief anchor box beam support system was developed, and the high strength pressure relief performance of the system was analyzed, and the function and mechanical property of box supporting beam, yielding link and other combined members were researched. The contrastive analysis with channel steel and I-beam indicated that box supporting beam had the advantage of high strength and stiffness, high-level economical efficiency, good surface protection effect and load-transmitting performance. The result of uniaxial compression test showed that the yielding link had unique second order determinant pressure relief performance, high pressure relief point, long pressure relief distance and good pressure relief stability. The supporting system has the advantage of multiple compound mode, wide area of application and easy application. Based on geological condition of 3302 headentry in Zhaolou coal mine, high strength pressure relief anchor box beam support scheme was designed and simulated. Result shows that the new scheme is better than the original, achieving good support effect in the test section of headentry.%对现阶段煤巷支护现状,尤其是对让压支护理论及技术进行了总结分析.对“先控后让再抗”支护理念的必要性和工程意义进行了研究.以该理念为指导,针对深部高地应力煤巷支护需要,研制了高强让压型锚索箱梁支护系统,分析了系统的高强让压性能,研究了箱型支护梁及锚索让压环等组成构件的功能和力学特性.通过与槽钢、工字钢的对比分析结果可知箱型支

  4. Technology for Erecting Box Girder with Bridge Erecting Machine and Tow Beam Under Low Clearance%低净空架桥机结合扁担梁架设箱梁技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭富君

    2015-01-01

    高速公路连接线桥梁工程设计采用先简支后连续小箱梁施工,在穿越高铁时,由于高铁桥梁底部距新建公路桥梁桥面净空只有5.823 m,架桥机无法采取正常的工艺架设施工。通过方案优化,提出了架桥机结合自制扁担梁架设箱梁的施工技术,在不影响高铁运行的情况下,解决了净空不足情况下的小箱梁架设施工难题。%The design of bridge engineering for expressway connecting line uses simply-supported to continuous casket gird-er construction.During the crossing of the high-speed railway,due to the clearance between the bottom of the high-speed railway bridge and the newly built highway bridge deck is only 5.823 m,the bridge erecting machine cannot take normal process erection.Through the scheme optimization,the construction technology for erecting box girder with bridge erecting machine and self-made tow beam is proposed.It solves the problems for erecting casket beam under insufficient clearance without affecting the operation of high-speed railway.

  5. Damage Identification of Box Beam Based on Curvature Theory Method%基于曲率模态的箱梁损伤识别方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张旭; 葛继平; 李胡生; 严平

    2012-01-01

    With the rapid development of the high-speed railway, the damage identification study of high-speed railway bridges has become a hot research topic. In this paper, the feasibility study is made on damage identification of the finite element model of the reinforced concrete box girder using solid elements by curvature model theory. An analysis is made of the variation of damage factors with the changes in damage locations, damage degrees and the positions of measuring points. The results show that structure damage can be identified more accurately and comprehensively with the application of curvature model theory with solid elements. It provides a reference for the detection of high-speed railway bridges in the future.%随着我国高速铁路的快速发展,针对高速铁路中桥梁的损伤识别研究已成为热门领域。通过曲率模态理论对实体单元建立的混凝土箱梁有限元模型进行损伤识别可行性研究,分析不同损伤位置、损伤程度和测点位置条件下损伤指标的变化。结果表明,结合曲率模态理论方法和实体单元建模方法可以更加全面准确地对损伤结构进行识别,为今后高速铁路桥梁检测提供参考。

  6. Analysis of shear resistance of irregular joint between steel box columns and beams%钢结构箱形柱与梁异型节点抗剪承载力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛建阳; 胡宗波; 彭修宁; 刘祖强

    2011-01-01

    基于对钢结构箱形柱与梁异型节点形式及受力性能的分析,建立异型节点域的受剪计算模型,并推导节点域在压弯情况下的抗剪承载力计算公式。通过对箱形柱与工字梁和箱形梁异型节点模型的低周反复加载试验,研究轴压比和核心区高度对节点域抗剪承载力的影响,得到节点域的剪力.剪应变滞回曲线;从试验模型的滞回曲线可以看出,异型节点域以剪切变形为主,且具有良好的延性和抗剪承载能力。试验结果与计算分析表明,节点域在小核心区发生剪切屈服,提出的节点域抗剪承载力计算公式与试验结果比较吻合。%Based on an analysis of the form and mechanical behavior of the irregular joint between steel box columns and beams, a shear calculation model in the panel zone of the irregular joint is established and a simplified formula is presented for calculating the shear resistance of the steel cyclic reversed loading tests of the irregular irregular joint under compression and bending. Through the low joint between steel box columns and beams, the influences of the axial compression ratio and the height of the core area on the shear capacity of the panel zone are studied. The hysteretic curves of shear stress vs. shear strain are also obtained. It is shown that the shear deformation is the main part of deformation in the joint panel and the irregular joint has good ductility and high shear resistance. Both test and calculation results indicate that the failure pattern of the panel zone is shear yield of the small core area. Calculation results are in good agreement with test results.

  7. Photoluminescence and electro-optic properties of small (25-35 nm diameter) quantum boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, L.; Ko, K. K.; Li, W.-Q.; Sun, H. C.; Lam, Y.; Brock, T.; Pang, S. W.; Bhattacharya, P. K.; Rooks, M. J.

    1993-05-01

    The luminescence and electro-optic properties of buried 25-35 nm quantum boxes have been measured. The quantum boxes were defined by a combination of molecular beam epitaxial growth and regrowth, electron beam lithography, and dry etching. The photoluminescence from 35 nm boxes shows a blue shift of about 15 meV compared to the bulk luminescence and an enhancement, taking into account the fill factor. An enhanced effective linear electrooptic coefficient is observed for the quantum boxes.

  8. 部分充填混凝土窄幅钢箱组合梁抗裂性能研究%Study on crack resistance of concrete-partial-filled narrow-width steel box composite beams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    羊海林; 莫时旭; 郑艳; 李胜; 李兴科

    2014-01-01

    为了研究充填混凝土窄幅钢箱连续组合梁负弯矩区的弯曲性能,以及栓钉间距、配筋率对连续组合梁负弯矩区混凝土翼板抗裂性能、裂缝开展和宽度的影响,完成3根反向加载的简支组合梁的静力加载试验;考虑翼板混凝土收缩应力的影响,推导出连续组合梁负弯矩区翼板开裂弯矩理论计算公式。试验结果表明,在较低荷载下连续组合梁翼板负弯矩区就会开裂,而发生明显的内力重分布;箍筋间距对裂缝间距有一定的影响,且剪力连接程度和配筋率对连续组合梁负弯矩区裂缝发展以及宽度的影响较明显,适当增加配筋率可以减小组合梁负弯矩区翼板最大裂缝宽度。通过求解组合梁负弯矩区的开裂弯矩,考虑收缩应力的影响能够更准确的控制混凝土的开裂,并对计算值与试验值进行比较,证明这种理论计算式是可行的。%In order to study the bending capacity of concrete-partial-filled narrow-width steel box composite beams in negative moment regions, and the stud spacing well as the different reinforce-ment amount used to the composite beam negative moment region concrete slab the crack resistance, crack development and the width influence, three beams flexure behaviors under negative moments have been tested. A formula for calculating crack-moment relationship was established in considera-tion of the influence of concrete shrinkage stress, comparing the calculation and test results are simi-lar. Result showed, the internal force redistributes in the continuous composite beams negative mo-ment regions due to concrete cracking when the load is very small,and the crack space is influenced by the stirrup space;The factors such as connection-degree and reinforcement amount would affect the continuous composite beams crack develop and width. Appropriate increase reinforcement amount can decrease the negative moment region of the composite beams

  9. Shaping 3-D boxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenholt, Rasmus; Madsen, Claus B.

    2011-01-01

    Enabling users to shape 3-D boxes in immersive virtual environments is a non-trivial problem. In this paper, a new family of techniques for creating rectangular boxes of arbitrary position, orientation, and size is presented and evaluated. These new techniques are based solely on position data......, making them different from typical, existing box shaping techniques. The basis of the proposed techniques is a new algorithm for constructing a full box from just three of its corners. The evaluation of the new techniques compares their precision and completion times in a 9 degree-of-freedom (Do......F) docking experiment against an existing technique, which requires the user to perform the rotation and scaling of the box explicitly. The precision of the users' box construction is evaluated by a novel error metric measuring the difference between two boxes. The results of the experiment strongly indicate...

  10. ALUMINUM BOX BUNDLING PRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iosif DUMITRESCU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In municipal solid waste, aluminum is the main nonferrous metal, approximately 80- 85% of the total nonferrous metals. The income per ton gained from aluminum recuperation is 20 times higher than from glass, steel boxes or paper recuperation. The object of this paper is the design of a 300 kN press for aluminum box bundling.

  11. The mirror box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Gene; Mathieson, Don

    2001-11-01

    The mirror box is an old standby in magic shows and an impressive demonstration of the law of reflection for the physics instructor. The box creates the illusion of an object floating in space by the use of a plane mirror.

  12. 结合梁桥面系异形钢箱拱肋系杆拱桥设计%Design of Special-shaped Steel Box Arch Rib Bowstring Arched Bridge of Bonding Beam Deck System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文勃

    2009-01-01

    The main bridge of Putian Chenggang Avenue Bridge crossing Molan River is the special-shaped bowstring arched bridge of 2-span simple-supported double-rib half-through steel box arch rib bonding beam deck system. The single span is 72 m long and the bridge is 47.5 m wide with city-Class A load and double-direction of 8 lanes. Taking the preliminary design and construction drawing design of this bridge as the basis, the article introduces the scheme study of bridge type, structural design of main bridge and analysis of structural calculation of the special-shaped bowstring arched bridge, and analyzes some technical characteristics of this bridge. The design method of the main bridge inclined crossed with the curve river, the design thinks of bonding beam in the arched bridge, the temporary constructed supporting point for improving the structural bearing, and the design method of special arch rib modeling can be referred for the design of the similar bridges.%莆田城港大道跨木兰溪大桥主桥是两跨简支的双肋下承式钢箱拱肋结合梁桥面系的异形系杆拱桥,单跨跨径72m,桥宽47.5m,城一A级荷载,双向8车道.该文以该桥的初步设计和施工图设计为基础,介绍了异形系杆拱桥的桥型方案研究、主桥结构设计、结构计算分析等内容,并分析了该桥的一些技术特点.该桥的弯曲河道斜交主桥设计方法、结合梁在拱桥中的设计思想、结合梁横梁设置临时支点改善结构受力、独特拱肋造型的设计方法等内容,可供类似桥梁设计时参考.

  13. 考虑剪滞剪切效应的复合材料薄壁箱型连续梁理论分析%Theoretical Analysis of Composite Thin-walled Box Continuous Beam Considering Vertical Shear Deformation and Shear Lag Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩博; 吴亚平

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, four-degree parabola of cubic term is adopted to simulate axial displacement of box beam flange, considering vertical shear deformation and shear lag effect, differential equations of symmetrically laminated composite box beam under symmetrical bending have been deduced firstly, and displacement differenee functions in two-equal-span continuous beam under concentrated load P applied at mid-span respectively have been also deduced. Finally, based on a concrete example of composite thin walled box continuous beam,comparing the theoretical results of this paper with the result of the ANSYS finite element simulation and experiment results, it is demonstrated clearly that this method agrees well with the ANSYS finite element and experiment, so the results are reliableand accurate.%以含三次项的四次抛物线作为箱梁翼缘板的纵向位移函数,推导出了考虑横向剪切变形及剪力滞后效应时的双轴对称铺设的复合材料层合箱梁在对称弯曲条件下的控制微分方程,并推导出了两等跨连续梁分别在跨中受一集中力P的位移差函数,最后结合具体的复合材料箱型连续梁实例,将本文理论推导的结果与ANSYS结果以及实验结果进行了对比,结果表明,理论推导的结果与ANSYS结果和实验结果吻合较好,其结果是正确可靠的.

  14. 双斜塔钢箱梁斜拉桥抗风性能试验研究%Experimental investigation on wind-resistant behavior of double pylon cable stayed bridge with steel box beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马存明; 陈勉; 王玉柱; 高伟

    2011-01-01

    In order to evaluate wind-resistant behavior of a double pylon cable stayed bridge with steel box beam, dynamic response characteristics of the bridge were analyzed. The aerostatic force coefficient, the critical wind velocity of vibration and vortex-induced vibration response were measured using the combined method of numerical analysis and wind tunnel test, to assess wind-resistant behavior of the bridge. The results showed that the aerodynamic and flutter stability characteristics were good, but there were two obvious vertical vortex-induced resonance regions, and the peak excursion was much larger than the allowable value. Therefore, the bridge needs an aerodynamic shape optimization to reduce or control vortex-induced vibration. By comparing a variety of optimization solutions given by vortex-induced vibration experiments, the most optimized measure for vortex-induced vibration control was to add a fair water fin of 1m wide and 30° incline to the bottom slab.%为了评价某拟建大跨度双斜塔钢箱梁斜拉桥的抗风安全性能,通过数值分析与风洞试验相结合的方法研究其结构动力特性,测定静力三分力系数、颤振临界风速和涡激振动响应,据此分析评估该桥的抗风性能.结果表明,该桥具有较好的气动和颤振稳定性,但存在两个明显的竖向涡激共振区,且最大振幅远超过规定容许值.因此,该桥需要通过气动外形优化,以减小或控制涡激振动.经多种主梁涡激振动性能优化方案对比试验得出其最优措施为轨道内侧增加一条宽1m、与底板夹角成30°的导流板.

  15. Cable Tester Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jason H.

    2011-01-01

    Cables are very important electrical devices that carry power and signals across multiple instruments. Any fault in a cable can easily result in a catastrophic outcome. Therefore, verifying that all cables are built to spec is a very important part of Electrical Integration Procedures. Currently, there are two methods used in lab for verifying cable connectivity. (1) Using a Break-Out Box and an ohmmeter this method is time-consuming but effective for custom cables and (2) Commercial Automated Cable Tester Boxes this method is fast, but to test custom cables often requires pre-programmed configuration files, and cables used on spacecraft are often uniquely designed for specific purposes. The idea is to develop a semi-automatic continuity tester that reduces human effort in cable testing, speeds up the electrical integration process, and ensures system safety. The JPL-Cable Tester Box is developed to check every single possible electrical connection in a cable in parallel. This system indicates connectivity through LED (light emitting diode) circuits. Users can choose to test any pin/shell (test node) with a single push of a button, and any other nodes that are shorted to the test node, even if they are in the same connector, will light up with the test node. The JPL-Cable Tester Boxes offers the following advantages: 1. Easy to use: The architecture is simple enough that it only takes 5 minutes for anyone to learn how operate the Cable Tester Box. No pre-programming and calibration are required, since this box only checks continuity. 2. Fast: The cable tester box checks all the possible electrical connections in parallel at a push of a button. If a cable normally takes half an hour to test, using the Cable Tester Box will improve the speed to as little as 60 seconds to complete. 3. Versatile: Multiple cable tester boxes can be used together. As long as all the boxes share the same electrical potential, any number of connectors can be tested together.

  16. The BOXES Methodology Black Box Dynamic Control

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, David W

    2012-01-01

    Robust control mechanisms customarily require knowledge of the system’s describing equations which may be of the high order differential type.  In order to produce these equations, mathematical models can often be derived and correlated with measured dynamic behavior.  There are two flaws in this approach one is the level of inexactness introduced by linearizations and the other when no model is apparent.  Several years ago a new genre of control systems came to light that are much less dependent on differential models such as fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms. Both of these soft computing solutions require quite considerable a priori system knowledge to create a control scheme and sometimes complicated training program before they can be implemented in a real world dynamic system. Michie and Chambers’ BOXES methodology created a black box system that was designed to control a mechanically unstable system with very little a priori system knowledge, linearization or approximation.  All the method need...

  17. Depth in box spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pont, Sylvia C; Nefs, Harold T; van Doorn, Andrea J; Wijntjes, Maarten W A; Te Pas, Susan F; de Ridder, Huib; Koenderink, Jan J

    2012-01-01

    Human observers adjust the frontal view of a wireframe box on a computer screen so as to look equally deep and wide, so that in the intended setting the box looks like a cube. Perspective cues are limited to the size-distance effect, since all angles are fixed. Both the size on the screen, and the viewing distance from the observer to the screen were varied. All observers prefer a template view of a cube over a veridical rendering, independent of picture size and viewing distance. If the rendering shows greater or lesser foreshortening than the template, the box appears like a long corridor or a shallow slab, that is, like a 'deformed' cube. Thus observers ignore 'veridicality'. This does not fit an 'inverse optics' model. We discuss a model of 'vision as optical user interface'.

  18. 广珠城际铁路简支箱梁梁端半隔墙补强加固试验分析%Experimental Analysis on Semi-partition Wall Reinforcement in the End of Simply Supported Box Beam on Guangzhou-Zhuhai Intercity Railway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈守忠

    2011-01-01

    It is found during erection of the simply-supported double-cell box beam on Guangzhou-Zhuhai Intercity Railway that under the effect of loads, cracks occurred between the bottom base and web plate in beam-ends and extended along longitudinal direction caused by the erection position of bridge. For this phenomenon, semi-partition wall is set up in the section of beam-ends for reinforcing measures. Through solid beam static load and beam-end load test, the effect of reinforcement is verified very well in engineering practice.%广珠城际铁路单箱双室简支箱梁,在架设过程中发现,受支座横桥向设置位置等因素影响,在架梁荷载作用下,梁端底板支座与腹板间部位出现裂缝,并沿梁体纵向有一定延伸.针对这一现象,采用梁端截面设半隔墙补强措施进行处理.通过实体梁静载及架梁梁端荷载试验与工程实践验证,加固效果良好.

  19. Opto-Box

    CERN Document Server

    Bertsche, David; The ATLAS collaboration; Welch, Steven; Smith, Dale Shane; Che, Siinn; Gan, K.K.; Boyd, George Russell Jr

    2015-01-01

    The opto-box is a custom mini-crate for housing optical modules, which process and transfer optoelectronic data. The system tightly integrates electrical, mechanical, and thermal functionality into a small package of size 35x10x8 cm^3. Special attention was given to ensure proper shielding, grounding, cooling, high reliability, and environmental tolerance. The custom modules, which incorporate Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs), were developed through a cycle of rigorous testing and redesign. In total, fourteen opto-boxes have been installed and loaded with modules on the ATLAS detector. They are currently in operation as part of the LHC run 2 data read-out chain.

  20. LA VIGA HUECA HABITABLE Y OTRAS EXPERIENCIAS DE PREFABRICACIÓN EN VIVIENDA DE GO–DB / The habitable box beam and other housing prefabrication experiences in GO-DB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Cortina Maruenda

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN En los albores de la industria aplicada a la arquitectura en España, el estudio GO-DB Arquitectos Asociados, realizó 8 viviendas experimentales (1967-1969 como cierre a una primera etapa de investigación propia. Inspiradas en las dovelas de los puentes de hormigón prefabricado, haciendo suya la idea de Le Corbusier de que los ingenieros construyen en su tiempo, realizaron una serie de ensayos que concluyó con las 8 viviendas que protagonizan este artículo. Con un presupuesto muy ajustado consiguieron realizar una pequeña factoría "in situ" para por medio de una cadena de montaje, producir los Elementos Modulares que bajo el concepto de la Viga Hueca Habitable conformarían cada una de las viviendas. Cada cinco horas se podía montar una vivienda de diez módulos, casi como aparcar coches o hacer una construcción con los bloques de madera de arce de Froebel a los que Wright fue tan aficionado. Este artículo, explicará además, basándose en las publicaciones y escritos del propio estudio, cual fue el proceso y las ideas teóricas que sustentaron este proyecto que abonó el campo para posteriores investigaciones en prefabricación. SUMMARY At the dawn of the industry applied to architecture in Spain, the studio of GO-DB Associated Architects constructed eight experimental dwellings (1967-1969 as the finalization of a first stage of their research. Inspired by the sections of precast concrete bridges, adopting the idea of Le Corbusier that engineers built in his era, the studio completed a series of trials that ended with the eight dwellings featured in this article.With a very tight budget they made a small "in-situ" factory which, by means of an assembly line, produced the Modular Elements that, under the concept of The Habitable Box Beam, made up each of the homes. A dwelling of ten modules could be assembled every five hours, almost like parking cars or making a construction with the Froebel maple blocks so beloved by Wright

  1. Hydrophobic, Porous Battery Boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Bobby J.; Casey, John E., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Boxes made of porous, hydrophobic polymers developed to contain aqueous potassium hydroxide electrolyte solutions of zinc/air batteries while allowing air to diffuse in as needed for operation. Used on other types of batteries for in-cabin use in which electrolytes aqueous and from which gases generated during operation must be vented without allowing electrolytes to leak out.

  2. Cereal Box Totems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, AnnMarie

    2002-01-01

    Presents a multicultural project used with fourth-grade students in which they created a three-dimensional totem pole using leftover cereal boxes. Discusses in detail how to create the totem pole. Explains that students learned about Northwest American Indians in class. (CMK)

  3. Opto-Box

    CERN Document Server

    Bertsche, David; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The opto-box is a custom mini-crate for housing optical modules, which process and transfer optoelectronic data. Many novel solutions were developed for the custom design and manufacturing. The system tightly integrates electrical, mechanical, and thermal functionality into a small package of size 35x10x8 cm$^{3}$. Special attention was given to ensure proper shielding, grounding, cooling, high reliability, and environmental tolerance. The custom modules, which incorporate Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs), were developed through a cycle of rigorous testing and redesign. In total, fourteen opto-boxes have been installed and loaded with modules on the ATLAS detector. They are currently in operation as part of the LHC run 2 data read-out chain.

  4. The Box Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    The velocity level in a room ventilated by jet ventilation is strongly influenced by the supply conditions. The momentum flow in the supply jets controls the air movement in the room and, therefore, it is very important that the inlet conditions and the numerical method can generate a satisfactory...... description of this momentum flow. The Box Method is a practical method for the description of an Air Terminal Device which will save grid points and ensure the right level of the momentum flow....

  5. The Electronic Battle Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouin, Denis; Turcotte, Guy; Lebel, Eric; Gilbert, Annie

    2000-08-01

    The Electronic Battle Box is an integrated suite of planning and decision-aid tools specially designed to facilitate Canadian Armed Force Officers during their training and during their tasks of preparing and conducting military operations. It is the result of a collaborative effort between the Defence Research Establishment Valcartier, the Directorate of Army Doctrine (DAD), the Directorate of Land Requirements (DLR), the G4 staff of 1Cdn Div HQ and CGI Information and Management Consultants Inc. Distributed on CD-ROM, the Electronic Battle Box contains efficient and user-friendly tools that significantly reduce the planning time for military operations and ensure staff officers a better focus on significant tasks. Among the tools are an OrBat Browser and an Equipment Browser allowing to view and edit military organizations, a Task Browser providing facilities to prepare plans using Gantt charts, a Logistic Planner allowing to estimate supply requirements applying complex calculations, and Road, Air and Rail Movement Planners. EBB also provides staff officers with a large set of doctrinal documents in an electronic format. This paper provides an overview of the various tools of the Electronic Battle Box.

  6. Projection optics box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Layton C.; Malsbury, Terry; Hudyma, Russell M.; Parker, John M.

    2000-01-01

    A projection optics box or assembly for use in an optical assembly, such as in an extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) system using 10-14 nm soft x-ray photons. The projection optics box utilizes a plurality of highly reflective optics or mirrors, each mounted on a precision actuator, and which reflects an optical image, such as from a mask, in the EUVL system onto a point of use, such as a target or silicon wafer, the mask, for example, receiving an optical signal from a source assembly, such as a developed from laser system, via a series of highly reflective mirrors of the EUVL system. The plurality of highly reflective optics or mirrors are mounted in a housing assembly comprised of a series of bulkheads having wall members secured together to form a unit construction of maximum rigidity. Due to the precision actuators, the mirrors must be positioned precisely and remotely in tip, tilt, and piston (three degrees of freedom), while also providing exact constraint.

  7. The Classroom Animal: Box Turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, David C.

    1986-01-01

    Provides basic information on the anatomy, physiology, behaviors, and distribution patterns of the box turtle. Offers suggestions for the turtle's care and maintenance in a classroom environment. (ML)

  8. Beam-Beam Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Herr, W

    2014-01-01

    One of the most severe limitations in high-intensity particle colliders is the beam-beam interaction, i.e. the perturbation of the beams as they cross the opposing beams. This introduction to beam-beam effects concentrates on a description of the phenomena that are present in modern colliding beam facilities.

  9. ACSYS in a box

    CERN Document Server

    Briegel, C; Hendricks, B; King, C; Lackey, S; Neswold, R; Nicklaus, D; Patrick, J; Petrov, A; Rechenmacher, R; Schumann, C; Smedinghoff, J

    2012-01-01

    The Accelerator Control System at Fermilab has evolved to enable this relatively large control system to be encapsulated into a "box" such as a laptop. The goal was to provide a platform isolated from the "online" control system. This platform can be used internally for making major upgrades and modifications without impacting operations. It also provides a standalone environment for research and development including a turnkey control system for collaborators. Over time, the code base running on Scientific Linux has enabled all the salient features of the Fermilab's control system to be captured in an off-the-shelf laptop. The anticipated additional benefits of packaging the system include improved maintenance, reliability, documentation, and future enhancements.

  10. Glove-box filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Description is given of a device for simply and rapidly assembling and dissassembling the filters used inside sealed enclosures, such as glove-boxes and shielded cells equipped with nippers or manipulators, said filters being of the type comprising a cylindrical casing containing a filtering member, the upper portion of said casing being open so as to allow the gases to be cleaned to flow in, whereas the casing bottom is centrally provided with a hole extended outwardly by a threaded collar on which is screwed a connecting-sleeve to be fixed to the mouth of a gas outlet pipe. To a yoke transverse bar is welded a pin which can be likened to a bent spring-blade, one arm of which welded to said transverse bar, is rectilinear whereas its other arm is provided with a boss cooperating with a cavity made in a protrusion of said pipe, right under the mouth thereof

  11. Polymers in Curved Boxes

    CERN Document Server

    Yaman, K; Solis, F J; Witten, T A

    1996-01-01

    We apply results derived in other contexts for the spectrum of the Laplace operator in curved geometries to the study of an ideal polymer chain confined to a spherical annulus in arbitrary space dimension D and conclude that the free energy compared to its value for an uncurved box of the same thickness and volume, is lower when $D < 3$, stays the same when $D = 3$, and is higher when lowers the effective bending elasticity of the walls, and might induce spontaneous symmetry breaking, i.e. bending. (Actually, the above mentioned results show that {\\em {any}} shell in $D = 3$ induces this effect, except for a spherical shell). We compute the contribution of this effect to the bending rigidities in the Helfrich free energy expression.

  12. Numerical models and experiment of air flow in a simulation box for optical wireless communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latal Jan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the authors focused on real measurements of mechanical turbulence generated by ventilators in the simulation box for Optical Wireless Communications. The mechanical turbulences disturb the optical beam that propagates along the central axis of the simulation box. The aim of authors is to show the effect of mechanical turbulence on optical beams at different heights in the simulation box. In the Ansys Fluent, we created numerical models which were then compared with real measurements. Authors compared the real and numerical models according to statistical methods.

  13. Numerical models and experiment of air flow in a simulation box for optical wireless communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latal, Jan; Hajek, Lukas; Bojko, Marian; Vitasek, Jan; Koudelka, Petr; Kepak, Stanislav; Vanderka, Ales; Vasinek, Vladimir

    2016-03-01

    In this article, the authors focused on real measurements of mechanical turbulence generated by ventilators in the simulation box for Optical Wireless Communications. The mechanical turbulences disturb the optical beam that propagates along the central axis of the simulation box. The aim of authors is to show the effect of mechanical turbulence on optical beams at different heights in the simulation box. In the Ansys Fluent, we created numerical models which were then compared with real measurements. Authors compared the real and numerical models according to statistical methods.

  14. The Black Box QGP

    CERN Document Server

    Tawfik, A

    2006-01-01

    According to the extensive ab initio calculations of lattice QCD, the much large energy density available in the heavy-ion collisions at SPS and now at RHIC should be enough to create the quark-gluon plasma (QGP); a new state of matter in form plasma of free quarks and gluons. The new matter discovered at RHIC is a ''nearly perfect'' fluid rather than a plasma. The shear viscosity is too small. We should then ask about the theoretical and phenomenological consequences and why we simply assumed that the deconfined hadronic matter should be an ideal gas. Finally, I will address five questions; about the properties of the new phases at high temperatures and the orders of phase transitions. Before we clarify such questions, the QGP will remain a kind of black box. One sends a signal via new experiments or simulations and gets another one out if it. Then one try to explain what is going on. I will show that some promising ideas already have been suggested long time ago, but it seems that community didn't care. Is ...

  15. Black Box QGP

    CERN Document Server

    Tawfik, A

    2006-01-01

    According to extensive ab initio calculations of lattice QCD, the very large energy density available in heavy-ion collisions at SPS and now at RHIC must be sufficient to generate quark-gluon plasma (QGP), a new state of matter in the form of plasma of free quarks and gluons. The new state of matter discovered at RHIC seems to be perfect fluid rather than free plasma. Its shear viscosity is assumed to be almost zero. In this work, I first considered the theoretical and phenomenological consequences of this discovery and finally asked questions about the nature of phase transition and properties of matter. It is important to answer these questions, otherwise QGP will remain a kind of black box; one sends a signal via new experiments or simulations or models and gets another one from it. I will show that some promising ideas have already been suggested a long time ago. I will also suggest a new phase diagram with separated deconfinement and freeze-out boundaries and a mixed state of thermal quark matter and bub...

  16. Two-dimensional box plot

    OpenAIRE

    Phattrawan Tongkumchum

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we propose a two-dimensional box plot, a simple bivariate extension of the box plot and the scatter plot. This plot comprises a pair of trapeziums oriented in the direction of a fitted straight line, with symbols denoting extreme values. The choice for the fitted straight resistant line showing the relationship between the two variables is Tukey’s resistance line. The main components of the plot are an inner box containing 50% of the projection points of the observations on the ...

  17. Computing out of the Box

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Baidu unveils "box computing/’ which it hopes will lead to a number of innovations on the InternetBaidu, China’s most popular search engine, held its Technology Innovation Conference 2009 at the China World

  18. Identifying competencies of boxing coaches

    OpenAIRE

    Ioannis Tasiopoulos; Alexandra Tripolitsiot; Apostolos Stergioula

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out the management skills required by boxing coaches to administrate their clubs. For the purposes of this study a scale was constructed which was answered by 98 boxing coaches. Explanatory factor analysis revealed seven factors: Communication-public relations (5 items), event management (4 items), management techniques (4 items), new technologies (4 items), prevention-safety (2 items), sport (5 items) and sports facilities (2 items). The Cronbach of the ...

  19. SPS beam to the West Hall

    CERN Multimedia

    1976-01-01

    One of the two target stations feeding the West Hall (see Annual Report 1976). After the proton beam was split into three branches, the outer two were directed on to targets in the cast iron shielding box, the centre one passing through the box to another target station downstream. Five different targets could be put in each beam, controlled by the mechanism seen on top.

  20. Plate forming and break down pizza box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantisano, Frank; Devine, Scott M.

    1992-01-01

    A standard corrugated paper pizza box is provided with slit cuts cut through the top panel of the pizza box in a shape to form four circular serving plates with a beveled raised edge and cross slit cuts through the bottom panel of the pizza box separating the box into four essentially equal portions for easy disposal.

  1. First-aid boxes - Reminder

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    With a view to ensuring optimum use of the first-aid boxes on the CERN site, we should like to remind you of various changes introduced in March 2009: The TSO of the buildings concerned is responsible for the first-aid boxes, including checking their contents.   First-aid boxes may be restocked ONLY at the CERN stores (SCEM No. 54.99.80). This is no longer possible at the Infirmary. The associated cost is charged to the Departments.   First-aid boxes should be used only for mild injuries. All other cases should be referred to the Medical Service Infirmary (Bldg. 57 – ground-floor, tel. 73802) between 8.00 a.m. and 5.30 p.m. or to the Fire and Rescue Service (tel. 74444). N.B.: This information does not apply to the red emergency first-aid boxes in the underground areas or to the emergency kits for use in the event of being splashed with hydrofluoric acid.

  2. Box graphs and resolutions I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas P. Braun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Box graphs succinctly and comprehensively characterize singular fibers of elliptic fibrations in codimension two and three, as well as flop transitions connecting these, in terms of representation theoretic data. We develop a framework that provides a systematic map between a box graph and a crepant algebraic resolution of the singular elliptic fibration, thus allowing an explicit construction of the fibers from a singular Weierstrass or Tate model. The key tool is what we call a fiber face diagram, which shows the relevant information of a (partial toric triangulation and allows the inclusion of more general algebraic blowups. We shown that each such diagram defines a sequence of weighted algebraic blowups, thus providing a realization of the fiber defined by the box graph in terms of an explicit resolution. We show this correspondence explicitly for the case of SU(5 by providing a map between box graphs and fiber faces, and thereby a sequence of algebraic resolutions of the Tate model, which realizes each of the box graphs.

  3. Box graphs and resolutions I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Andreas P.; Schäfer-Nameki, Sakura

    2016-04-01

    Box graphs succinctly and comprehensively characterize singular fibers of elliptic fibrations in codimension two and three, as well as flop transitions connecting these, in terms of representation theoretic data. We develop a framework that provides a systematic map between a box graph and a crepant algebraic resolution of the singular elliptic fibration, thus allowing an explicit construction of the fibers from a singular Weierstrass or Tate model. The key tool is what we call a fiber face diagram, which shows the relevant information of a (partial) toric triangulation and allows the inclusion of more general algebraic blowups. We shown that each such diagram defines a sequence of weighted algebraic blowups, thus providing a realization of the fiber defined by the box graph in terms of an explicit resolution. We show this correspondence explicitly for the case of SU (5) by providing a map between box graphs and fiber faces, and thereby a sequence of algebraic resolutions of the Tate model, which realizes each of the box graphs.

  4. Identifying competencies of boxing coaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Tasiopoulos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to find out the management skills required by boxing coaches to administrate their clubs. For the purposes of this study a scale was constructed which was answered by 98 boxing coaches. Explanatory factor analysis revealed seven factors: Communication-public relations (5 items, event management (4 items, management techniques (4 items, new technologies (4 items, prevention-safety (2 items, sport (5 items and sports facilities (2 items. The Cronbach of the scale was 0.85. The five competencies that rated by the coaches were: Supervisors of the area of training, maintaining excellent communication with athletes, using new technologies (e-mail, internet, handling disciplinary matters, accidents, complaints and reports on some sporting games and promoted harmony among athletes. We concluded that boxing coaches understand that the competencies required for meeting their obligations, were related to sports, prevention, safety and communications-public relations.

  5. Beam-beam effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zholents, A.

    1994-12-01

    The term beam-beam effects is usually used to designate different phenomena associated with interactions of counter-rotating beams in storage rings. Typically, the authors speak about beam-beam effects when such interactions lead to an increase of the beam core size or to a reduction of the beam lifetime or to a growth of particle`s population in the beam halo and a correspondent increase of the background. Although observations of beam-beam effects are very similar in most storage rings, it is very likely that every particular case is largely unique and machine-dependent. This constitutes one of the problems in studying the beam-beam effects, because the experimental results are often obtained without characterizing a machine at the time of the experiment. Such machine parameters as a dynamic aperture, tune dependencies on amplitude of particle oscillations and energy, betatron phase advance between the interaction points and some others are not well known, thus making later analysis uncertain. The authors begin their discussion with demonstrations that beam-beam effects are closely related to non linear resonances. Then, they will show that a non linearity of the space charge field is responsible for the excitation of these resonances. After that, they will consider how beam-beam effects could be intensified by machine imperfections. Then, they will discuss a leading mechanism for the formation of the beam halo and will describe a new technique for beam tails and lifetime simulations. They will finish with a brief discussion of the coherent beam-beam effects.

  6. A Box Full of Kisses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔增印

    2008-01-01

    The story goes that some time ago,a man pun- ished his 3-year-old daughter for wasting a roll of gold wrapping paper.Money was tight and he became infuriated when the child tried to decorate a box to put under the Christmas tree.Nevertheless,the little girl brought the gift to

  7. Reference: AT1BOX [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AT1BOX Ueda T, Pichersky E, Malik VS, Cashmore AR The level of expression of the to...mato rbcs-3A gene is modulated by a far-upstream promoter element in a developmentary regulated manner. Plant Cell 1:217-227 (1989) PubMed: 2535544; GenBank: S44160; ...

  8. Back office to box office

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haigh, Matthew

    sees a mounting unsecured debt where its members see practical value. Between the two, a steward who may not profit from its office delegates it to back-office agents whose fiduciary management is engendered by box office-sized bonuses. Standard theorisation has foundered. The architecture...

  9. On the Dirichlet's Box Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Kin-Keung; Shiu, Wai-Chee

    2008-01-01

    In this note, we will focus on several applications on the Dirichlet's box principle in Discrete Mathematics lesson and number theory lesson. In addition, the main result is an innovative game on a triangular board developed by the authors. The game has been used in teaching and learning mathematics in Discrete Mathematics and some high schools in…

  10. Stress Analysis of Rectangular Boxes Using Fem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.G. Lokhande

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Extensive experimental & theoretical contributions have been made to the study of open box structures, but few references dealing with closed boxes have been found. When a rectangular box structure is subjected to certain pressure, stress analysis of rectangular box is necessary to avoid the failure during working condition. In this work, it is proposed to evaluate the stresses in rectangular box by changing L/B ratios 1, 1.5, 2 for different thicknes of 2.5, 5, 7.5 mm & varying fillet radius, using finite element method.To validate finite element stresses, it is necessary to compare these stresses with analytical approach. From the FE analysis of rectangular box, it is seen that cubical box having the lesser stresses & better for stress distribution due to symmetry.The stiffners further reduces the stresses in boxes

  11. Main: BOX2PVCHS15 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BOX2PVCHS15 S000209 11-May-2006 (last modified) kehi Box 2 of bean (P.v.) chs15 pro...moter; SBF-1 binding site; For a compilation of related GT elements and factors, see Villain et al. (1996); Box 2; chs; chs1

  12. Main: BOX3PVCHS15 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BOX3PVCHS15 S000210 11-May-2006 (last modified) kehi Box 3 of bean (P.v.) chs15 pro...moter; SBF-1 binding site; For a compilation of related GT elements and factors, see Villain et al. (1996); Box 3; chs; chs1

  13. Main: BOX2PSGS2 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BOX2PSGS2 S000204 17-May-1998 (last modified) kehi Box 2 in glutamine synthetase (GS...2) gene in pea (P.s.); Repeated in tandem with a partial palindrome located between the repeats; Located at ca. -300 of pea GS...2; Box 2; glutamine synthetase; GS2; pea (Pisum sativum); TCTAAGCAAAG ...

  14. The Heuristic Interpretation of Box Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lem, Stephanie; Onghena, Patrick; Verschaffel, Lieven; Van Dooren, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Box plots are frequently used, but are often misinterpreted by students. Especially the area of the box in box plots is often misinterpreted as representing number or proportion of observations, while it actually represents their density. In a first study, reaction time evidence was used to test whether heuristic reasoning underlies this…

  15. Illumination box and camera system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Jeffrey S.; Kelly, Fredrick R.; Bushman, John F.; Wiefel, Michael H.; Jensen, Wayne A.; Klunder, Gregory L.

    2002-01-01

    A hand portable, field-deployable thin-layer chromatography (TLC) unit and a hand portable, battery-operated unit for development, illumination, and data acquisition of the TLC plates contain many miniaturized features that permit a large number of samples to be processed efficiently. The TLC unit includes a solvent tank, a holder for TLC plates, and a variety of tool chambers for storing TLC plates, solvent, and pipettes. After processing in the TLC unit, a TLC plate is positioned in a collapsible illumination box, where the box and a CCD camera are optically aligned for optimal pixel resolution of the CCD images of the TLC plate. The TLC system includes an improved development chamber for chemical development of TLC plates that prevents solvent overflow.

  16. Das k-Box-Produkt

    OpenAIRE

    Elser, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Ziel dieser Doktorarbeit ist es, bekannte und oft verwendete Eigenschaften des Tychonow-Produkts in analoger Form für das k-Box-Produkt zu beweisen, was bisher noch nicht geschehen ist, und die Verbindung zwischen der Infinitären Kombinatorik und der Topologie zu vertiefen. In der Infinitären Kombinatorik, ein Zweig der modernen Mengenlehre, bedient man sich gerne topologischer Begriffe, um einerseits Ergebnisse zu verdeutlichen und um andererseits den sehr abstrakten kombinatorischen Be...

  17. Main: BOX1PSGS2 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BOX1PSGS2 S000222 19-August-2004 (last modified) kehi Box 1 element in pea (P.s.) glutamine synthetase (GS...2) gene; An element in a 33-bp AT-rich sequence (box 1) of the 5' end of a GS2 promot...er; Located at -837 to -827 of pea GS2; Multimer of box 1 element was used to isolate a cDNA encoding an AT-...rich DNA binding protein (ATBP-1) (Tjaden & Coruzzi, 1994); Box 1; glutamine synthetase; GS2; ATBp; ATBP-1; pea (Pisum sativum) ATAGAAATCAA ...

  18. Ionization box type radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ionization box for monitoring radiation rays, a first amplification circuit of a multi-stage amplification circuit employing a MOS type FET as an initial stage amplification device, a second amplification circuit employing a junction type FET as an initial stage amplification device, a first change-over switch for switching ionization current depending on input signals, a second change-over switch for switching output signals, and a signal level discrimination circuit are constituted integrally. When radiation dose rate is low, the ionization current is inputted to the first amplification circuit and outputted as a radiation ray monitor signal and, when the radiation dose rate is increased to higher than a predetermined value, the ionization current is inputted to the second amplification circuit and outputted as a radiation ray monitor signal. That is, monitoring accuracy is high when the ionization current is low since the MOS type FET of high input impedance is used. If the ionization current is higher than a predetermined value, there is no worry that the detection becomes impossible since the junction type FET having less worry of causing characteristic change due to high radiation dose rate is used. Accordingly, ionization box type monitor at a high monitoring reliability can be obtained. (N.H.)

  19. The Lithium Vapor Box Divertor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldston, Robert; Hakim, Ammar; Hammett, Gregory; Jaworski, Michael; Myers, Rachel; Schwartz, Jacob

    2015-11-01

    Projections of scrape-off layer width to a demonstration power plant suggest an immense parallel heat flux, of order 12 GW/m2, which will necessitate nearly fully detached operation. Building on earlier work by Nagayama et al. and by Ono et al., we propose to use a series of differentially pumped boxes filled with lithium vapor to isolate the buffering vapor from the main plasma chamber, allowing stable detachment. This powerful differential pumping is only available for condensable vapors, not conventional gases. We demonstrate the properties of such a system through conservation laws for vapor mass and enthalpy, and then include plasma entrainment and ultimately an estimate of radiated power. We find that full detachment should be achievable with little leakage of lithium to the main plasma chamber. We also present progress towards solving the Navier-Stokes equation numerically for the chain of vapor boxes, including self-consistent wall boundary conditions and fully-developed shocks, as well as concepts for an initial experimental demonstration-of-concept. This work supported by DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  20. F-box proteins in flowering plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In eukaryotes, the ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation pathway has been shown to control several key biological processes such as cell division, development, metabolism and immune response. F-box proteins, as a part of SCF (Skp1-Cullin (or Cdc53)-F-box) complex, functioned by interacting with substrate proteins, leading to their subsequent degradation by the 26S proteasome. To date, several F-box proteins identified in Arabidopsis and Antirrhinum have been shown to play important roles in auxin signal transduction, floral organ formation, flowering and leaf senescence. Arabidopsis genome sequence analysis revealed that it encodes over 1000 predicted F-box proteins accounting for about 5% of total predicted proteins. These results indicate that the ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation involving the F-box proteins is an important mechanism controlling plant gene expression. Here, we review the known F-box proteins and their functionsin flowering plants.

  1. Understanding Recommender Dynamics driving Box Office Revenues

    CERN Document Server

    Yeung, C H; Jin, C -H

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a simple model to investigate the underlying dynamics driving movie box office. Without an explicit reliance on time, the box office of movies evolves naturally by movie-movie competition through reviews listed on a centralized recommender system. A simple mean-field approximation is employed which assumes an average interaction between the competing movies, and describes the interesting box office dynamics. Box office hits are found for movies with quality beyond a critical value, leading to booms in gross box office. Such critical value is dependent on the reviewing behaviors, intention of movie goers for new movies, and the quality of the peer competing movies. Finally we compare our analytical results with simulations and real system and obtain qualitative agreements, suggesting the present model in describing the fundamental dynamics of box office.

  2. Main: BOX1PVCHS15 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BOX1PVCHS15 S000208 11-May-2006 (last modified) kehi Box 1 of bean (P.v.) chs15 pro...moter; one of SBF-1 binding sites in chs15 promoter; Located at -318 to -305; Involved in organ-specific exp...e Villain et al. (1996); Box 1; chs; chs15; CHS; SBF-1; silencer; organ-specific; Gt; GT-1; GT; bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) TAAAAGTTAAAAAC ...

  3. Metod of black box and their us

    OpenAIRE

    Novotný, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This thesis on a topic "black-box method and its use" deals with the description of the method of solving problematic tasks as a black box and its use in teaching. Using the theory of systems and cybernetics disciplines, especially cybernetic-pedagogy attempts to describe this method so that it is as efficient as possible and to maximize the benefits for students. Besides, the implementation of selected black box that will be suitable and used for teaching subjects electrotechnics, automatiza...

  4. Interchangeable breech lock for glove boxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemonds, David Preston

    2015-11-24

    A breech lock for a glove box is provided that may be used to transfer one or more items into the glove box. The breech lock can be interchangeably installed in place of a plug, glove, or other device in a port or opening of a glove box. Features are provided to aid the removal of items from the breech lock by a gloved operator. The breech lock can be reused or, if needed, can be replaced with a plug, glove, or other device at the port or opening of the glove box.

  5. Effect of Interfacial Debonding on the Strength of Composite Structure-Similarity Scale Model for the Wing-Box

    OpenAIRE

    Shiyong Sun; Rui Yang; Zibin Yan; Wei Qian

    2015-01-01

    Based on the wing-box structure, a model was established to analyze the strength of the scale model for the composite wing. Firstly, different failure criteria were set to determine damage onset of the components. The continuum damage variables were adopted in the stiffness degradation rule. Secondly, the interface elements were placed along the interface between the beam flange and the skin to investigate the effects of bonding strength on the ultimate load-carrying capacity of the wing-box....

  6. Broken links and black boxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindbæk, Søren Michael

    2013-01-01

    Long-distance communication has emerged as a particular focus for archaeological exploration using network theory, analysis, and modelling. Initial attempts to adapt methods from social network analysis to archaeological data have, however, struggled to produce decisive results. This paper argues...... that the archaeological study of communication networks in the past calls for radically different analytical methods from those employed by most other forms of social network analysis. The fragmentary archaeological evidence presents researchers with the task of reconstructing the broken links of a ruined network from...... observable distributions and patterns of association in the archaeological record. In formal terms this is not a problem of network analysis, but network synthesis: the classic problem of cracking codes or reconstructing black-box circuits....

  7. Model Equations: "Black Box" Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezruchko, Boris P.; Smirnov, Dmitry A.

    Black box reconstruction is both the most difficult and the most tempting modelling problem when any prior information about an appropriate model structure is lacking. An intriguing thing is that a model capable of reproducing an observed behaviour or predicting further evolution should be obtained only from an observed time series, i.e. "from nothing" at first sight. Chances for a success are not large. Even more so, a "good" model would become a valuable tool to characterise an object and understand its dynamics. Lack of prior information causes one to utilise universal model structures, e.g. artificial neural networks, radial basis functions and algebraic polynomials are included in the right-hand sides of dynamical model equations. Such models are often multi-dimensional and involve quite many free parameters.

  8. VORONOI DIAGRAMS WITHOUT BOUNDING BOXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. T. K. Sang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a technique for presenting geographic data in Voronoi diagrams without having to specify a bounding box. The method restricts Voronoi cells to points within a user-defined distance of the data points. The mathematical foundation of the approach is presented as well. The cell clipping method is particularly useful for presenting geographic data that is spread in an irregular way over a map, as for example the Dutch dialect data displayed in Figure 2. The automatic generation of reasonable cell boundaries also makes redundant a frequently used solution to this problem that requires data owners to specify region boundaries, as in Goebl (2010 and Nerbonne et al (2011.

  9. Dynamic Analysis of Horizontally Curved Thin-Walled Box-Girder Bridge due to Moving Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nallasivam

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact on curved box-girder bridges due to vehicle moving across rough bridge deck have been analyzed using bridge-vehicle coupled dynamics. The bridge deck unevenness has been assumed to be a homogeneous random process in space specified by a PSD function. The analysis incorporates the effect of centrifugal forces due to vehicle moving on curved bridge. The curved box-girder bridge has been numerically modeled using computationally efficient thin-walled box-beam finite elements which take into account the torsional warping, distortion and distortional warping, that are important features of thin-walled box girders. Rigid vehicle with longitudinal and transverse input to the wheels giving rise to heave-pitch-roll degrees of freedom has been considered. The theoretical bridge model used in simulation study has been validated by a free vibration experiment using impact excitation. The impact factors for several response parameters such as bending moment, shear force, torsional moment, torsional bi-moment, distortional moment, distortional bi-moment and vertical deflections have been obtained for various bridge-vehicle parameters. Both constant velocity and forward acceleration of the vehicle have been considered to examine impact factor. The results highlighted that the impact factors of a curved box girder bridge corresponding to torsion, distortion and their corresponding bimoments have been observed to be generally very high, while those of the other responses are also relatively higher than that of corresponding straight box girder bridge.

  10. Unification of box shapes in molecular simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, H.

    1997-01-01

    In molecular simulations with periodic boundary conditions the computational box may have five different shapes: triclinic; the hexagonal prism; two types of dodecahedrons; and the truncated octahedron. In this article, we show that every molecular simulation, formulated in one of these boxes, can b

  11. Box Plots in the Australian Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jane M.

    2012-01-01

    This article compares the definition of "box plot" as used in the "Australian Curriculum: Mathematics" with other definitions used in the education community; describes the difficulties students experience when dealing with box plots; and discusses the elaboration that is necessary to enable teachers to develop the knowledge necessary to use them…

  12. Modern biotechnology Panacea or new Pandora's box?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tramper, J.; Yang Zhu, Yang

    2011-01-01

    According to Greek mythology Pandora was sent down to earth upon the orders of Zeus. She was given a mysterious box which she was not allowed to open. However, Pandora was very curious and when she arrived on earth she couldn?t help taking a peek inside the box. She saw that it was filled with gifts

  13. Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion's Pandora's Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fashion’s Pandora’s Box? A A A | Print | Share Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion’s Pandora’s Box? Foot and ankle ... extreme and imprudent as it may sound, the cosmetic surgery craze isn't just for faces anymore- ...

  14. MADS-box gene evolution - structure and transcription patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Bo; Pedersen, Louise Buchholt; Skipper, Martin;

    2002-01-01

    Mads-box genes, ABC model, Evolution, Phylogeny, Transcription patterns, Gene structure, Conserved motifs......Mads-box genes, ABC model, Evolution, Phylogeny, Transcription patterns, Gene structure, Conserved motifs...

  15. Bessel Beams

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, Kirk T

    2000-01-01

    Scalar Bessel beams are derived both via the wave equation and via diffraction theory. While such beams have a group velocity that exceeds the speed of light, this is a manifestation of the "scissors paradox" of special relativty. The signal velocity of a modulated Bessel beam is less than the speed of light. Forms of Bessel beams that satisfy Maxwell's equations are also given.

  16. Packing a cake into a box

    KAUST Repository

    Skopenkov, Mikhail

    2011-05-01

    Given a triangular cake and a box in the shape of its mirror image, how can the cake be cut into a minimal number of pieces so that it can be put into the box? The cake has icing, so we are not allowed to put it into the box upside down. V. G. Boltyansky asked this question in 1977 and showed that three pieces always suffice. In this paper we provide examples of cakes that cannot be cut into two pieces to be put into the box. This shows that three is the answer to Boltyansky\\'s question. We also give examples of cakes which can be cut into two pieces. © THE MATHEMATICAL ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA.

  17. Packing a cake into a box

    CERN Document Server

    Skopenkov, Mikhail

    2010-01-01

    Given a cake in form of a triangle and a box that fits the mirror image of the cake, how to cut the cake into a minimal number of pieces so that it can be put into the box? The cake has an icing, so that we are not allowed to put it into the box upside down. V.G. Boltyansky asked this question in 1977 and showed that three pieces always suffice. In this paper we provide examples of cakes that cannot be cut into two pieces to put into the box. This shows that three is the answer to V.G. Boltyansky's question. Also we give examples of cakes which can be cut into two pieces.

  18. Starling nest box monitoring [Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document described the standard operating procedures for observing and recording data collected from starling nest box monitoring at the Rocky Mountain...

  19. Black-Box Search by Unbiased Variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehre, Per Kristian; Witt, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    The complexity theory for black-box algorithms, introduced by Droste, Jansen, and Wegener (Theory Comput. Syst. 39:525–544, 2006), describes common limits on the efficiency of a broad class of randomised search heuristics. There is an obvious trade-off between the generality of the black-box model...... and the strength of the bounds that can be proven in such a model. In particular, the original black-box model provides for well-known benchmark problems relatively small lower bounds, which seem unrealistic in certain cases and are typically not met by popular search heuristics.In this paper, we introduce a more...... restricted black-box model for optimisation of pseudo-Boolean functions which we claim captures the working principles of many randomised search heuristics including simulated annealing, evolutionary algorithms, randomised local search, and others. The key concept worked out is an unbiased variation operator...

  20. Mystery Boxes, X Rays, and Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Norman

    2000-01-01

    Indicates the difficulties of teaching concepts beyond light and color and creating memorable learning experiences. Recommends sequential activities using the mystery box approach to explain how scientists and doctors use photon applications. (YDS)

  1. Spacer for supporting fuel element boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A spacer plate unit arranged externally on each side and at a predetermined level of a polygonal fuel element box for mutually supporting, with respect to one another, a plurality of the fuel element boxes forming a fuel element bundle, is formed of a first and a second spacer plate part each having the same length and the same width and being constituted of unlike first and second materials, respectively. The first and second spacer plate parts of the several spacer plate units situated at the predetermined level are arranged in an alternating continuous series when viewed in the peripheral direction of the fuel element box, so that any two spacer plate units belonging to face-to-face oriented sides of two adjoining fuel element boxes in the fuel element bundle define interfaces of unlike materials

  2. Decommissioning a tritium glove-box facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large glove-box facility for handling reactive metal tritides was decommissioned. Major sections of the glove box were decontaminated and disassembled for reuse at another tritium facility. To achieve the desired results, decontamnation required repeated washing, first with organic liquids, then with water and detergents. Worker protection was provided by simple ventilation combined with careful monitoring of the work areas and employees. Several innovative techniques are described

  3. BOX-DEATH HOLLOW ROADLESS AREA, UTAH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Gordon W.; Lane, Michael

    1984-01-01

    Geologic mapping, geochemical sampling, and a search for prospects and mineralized rock in the Box-Death Hollow Roadless Area, Utah indicate that there is little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources in the area. Additional exploratory drilling by industry seems warranted if wells elsewhere in the region find oil or gas in strata as yet untested in the Box-Death Hollow Roadless Area.

  4. Decommissioning a tritium glove-box facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folkers, C.L.; Homann, S.G.; Nicolosi, A.S.; Hanel, S.L.; King, W.C.

    1979-08-08

    A large glove-box facility for handling reactive metal tritides was decommissioned. Major sections of the glove box were decontaminated and disassembled for reuse at another tritium facility. To achieve the desired results, decontamnation required repeated washing, first with organic liquids, then with water and detergents. Worker protection was provided by simple ventilation combined with careful monitoring of the work areas and employees. Several innovative techniques are described.

  5. BOX DIMENSIONS OF α-FRACTAL FUNCTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Md. Nasim; Prasad, M. Guru Prem; Navascués, M. A.

    2016-08-01

    The box dimension of the graph of non-affine, continuous, nowhere differentiable function fα which is a fractal analogue of a continuous function f corresponding to a certain iterated function system (IFS), is investigated in the present paper. The estimates for box dimension of the graph of α-fractal function fα for equally spaced as well as arbitrary data sets are found.

  6. HYDROGEN AND VOC RETENTION IN WASTE BOXES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PACE ME; MARUSICH RM

    2008-11-21

    The Hanford Waste Management Project Master Documented Safety Analysis (MDSA) (HNF-14741, 2003) identifies derived safety controls to prevent or mitigate the risks of a single-container deflagration during operations requiring moving, venting or opening transuranic (TRU)-waste containers. The issue is whether these safety controls are necessary for operations involving TRU-waste boxes that are being retrieved from burial at the Hanford Site. This paper investigates the potential for a deflagration hazard within these boxes and whether safety controls identified for drum deflagration hazards should be applied to operations involving these boxes. The study evaluates the accumulation of hydrogen and VOCs within the waste box and the transport of these gases and vapors out of the waste box. To perform the analysis, there were numerous and major assumptions made regarding the generation rate and the transport pathway dimensions and their number. Since there is little actual data with regards to these assumptions, analyses of three potential configurations were performed to obtain some indication of the bounds of the issue (the concentration of hydrogen or flammable VOCs within a waste box). A brief description of each of the three cases along with the results of the analysis is summarized.

  7. 49 CFR 178.517 - Standards for plastic boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for plastic boxes. 178.517 Section 178... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.517 Standards for plastic boxes. (a) The following are identification codes for plastic boxes: (1) 4H1 for an expanded plastic box; and (2) 4H2 for...

  8. Complementarity in the Einstein-Bohr photon box

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieks, D.G.B.J.; Lam, S

    2008-01-01

    The Bohr-Einstein photon box thought experiment is a forerunner of the EPR experiment: a packet of radiation escapes from a box, and the box-plus-radiation state remains entangled. Hence, a measurement on the box makes a difference for the state of the far-away radiation long after its escape. This

  9. 49 CFR 230.101 - Steam locomotive driving journal boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. 230.101... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.101 Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. (a) Driving journal boxes. Driving journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service. Not...

  10. Beam removal block and shielding resign for the MARS neutron therapy reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The beam removal block and shielding design for the MARS neutron therapy reactor are described. The requirements to the beams' characteristics, filters, collimator and reactor shielding are formulated. Radiation field levels in medical box are analyzed for beams' different operation conditions. It is stated that the removal block and shutter compositions meet necessary conditions in radiation treatment and emergency evacuation

  11. Giant field enhancement by funneling effect into sub-wavelength slit-box resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Chevalier, Paul; Haidar, Riad; Pardo, Fabrice

    2014-01-01

    Inspired by the acoustic Helmholtz resonator, we propose a slit-box electromagnetic nanoantenna able to concentrate the energy of an incident beam into surfaces a thousand times smaller than with a classical lens. This design gives birth to giant field intensity enhancement in hot volume, throughout the slit. It reaches $10^4$ in the visible up to $10^8$ in the THz range even with focused beams thanks to an omnidirectional reception. These properties could target applications requiring extreme light concentration, such as SEIRA, non-linear optics and biophotonics.

  12. Advances in the theory of box integrals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, J.M.; Crandall, R.E.

    2009-06-25

    Box integrals - expectations <|{rvec r}|{sup s}> or <|{rvec r}-{rvec q}|{sup s}> over the unit n-cube (or n-box) - have over three decades been occasionally given closed forms for isolated n,s. By employing experimental mathematics together with a new, global analytic strategy, we prove that for n {le} 4 dimensions the box integrals are for any integer s hypergeometrically closed in a sense we clarify herein. For n = 5 dimensions, we show that a single unresolved integral we call K{sub 5} stands in the way of such hyperclosure proofs. We supply a compendium of exemplary closed forms that naturally arise algorithmically from this theory.

  13. Nearly Seamless Vacuum-Insulated Boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanian, Christopher J.; Ou, Danny; Hu, Xiangjun

    2010-01-01

    A design concept, and a fabrication process that would implement the design concept, have been proposed for nearly seamless vacuum-insulated boxes that could be the main structural components of a variety of controlled-temperature containers, including common household refrigerators and insulating containers for shipping foods. In a typical case, a vacuum-insulated box would be shaped like a rectangular parallelepiped conventional refrigerator box having five fully closed sides and a hinged door on the sixth side. Although it is possible to construct the five-closed-side portion of the box as an assembly of five unitary vacuum-insulated panels, it is not desirable to do so because the relatively high thermal conductances of the seams between the panels would contribute significant amounts of heat leakage, relative to the leakage through the panels themselves. In contrast, the proposal would make it possible to reduce heat leakage by constructing the five-closed-side portion of the box plus the stationary portion (if any) of the sixth side as a single, seamless unit; the only remaining seam would be the edge seal around the door. The basic cross-sectional configuration of each side of a vacuum-insulated box according to the proposal would be that of a conventional vacuum-insulated panel: a low-density, porous core material filling a partially evacuated space between face sheets. However, neither the face sheets nor the core would be conventional. The face sheets would be opposite sides of a vacuum bag. The core material would be a flexible polymer-modified silica aerogel of the type described in Silica/Polymer and Silica/Polymer/Fiber Composite Aero - gels (MSC-23736) in this issue of NASA Tech Briefs. As noted in that article, the stiffness of this core material against compression is greater than that of prior aerogels. This is an important advantage because it translates to greater retention of thickness and, hence, of insulation performance when pressure is

  14. Box truss development and its application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyner, J. V.

    1985-04-01

    Since 1977, Martin Marietta Denver Aerospace has aggressively pursued development of deployable structural systems applicable to a wide variety of Shuttle-transportable large space system requirements. This effort has focused on the deployable box truss, mechanisms and materials development, mesh reflector design and fabrication, gate frame truss design and fabrication, and offset-fed antenna design and analysis. The activities discussed are: box truss design; metal matrix composites; precision joints; enhanced passive damping design; mesh reflector development; gate frame truss for solar arrays; 15-meter spinning radio meter; and 60 x 120 meter push broom antenna.

  15. CASAS: A Smart Home in a Box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Diane J; Crandall, Aaron S; Thomas, Brian L; Krishnan, Narayanan C

    2013-07-01

    While the potential benefits of smart home technology are widely recognized, a lightweight design is needed for the benefits to be realized at a large scale. We introduce the CASAS "smart home in a box", a lightweight smart home design that is easy to install and provides smart home capabilities out of the box with no customization or training. We discuss types of data analysis that have been performed by the CASAS group and can be pursued in the future by using this approach to designing and implementing smart home technologies.

  16. EnergyBox: Tool improvement and GUI

    OpenAIRE

    Polis, Rihards

    2014-01-01

    EnergyBox is a parametrised estimation tool that uses packet traces as input to simulate the energy consumption of communication in mobile devices. This tool models the transmission behaviour of a smart phone by analysing a recorded packet trace from the device. The purpose of the thesis is to reimplement the original EnergyBox energy consumption modelling tool. The project aims to develop support for a graphical user interface (GUI) and a code base that is easier to modify and maintain. The ...

  17. Investigation on features and tendencies of axle-box heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olegas LUNYS

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Breakdown of rolling stock axle-boxes if not detected in due time may cause a rail accident or disaster. At present, a lot of advanced technologies, modern equipment and devices, which “recognizes” faulty axle-boxes when the train is in motion, have been implemented. However, the timely identification of breakdown of rolling stock axle-boxes still is an acute problem, the initial stage of damage emergence being especially problematic. Presently, rolling stock axle-box breakdown is determined according to the higher than permissible temperature of the axle-box body. The article provides statistical data of dangerously heated axle-boxes, determined train delay durations, the number of delayed trains by danger level, and dependence of damage on the season. After systematization of data on axle-box damage and heating temperatures of broken axle-boxes, heating tendencies of axle-boxes of freight wagons are described. Finally, basic conclusions are given.

  18. Beam - cavity interaction beam loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction of a beam with a cavity and a generator in cyclic accelerators or storage rings is investigated. Application of Maxwell's equations together with the nonuniform boundary condition allows one to get an equivalent circuit for a beam-loaded cavity. The general equation for beam loading is obtained on the basis of the equivalent circuit, and the beam admittance is calculated. Formulas for power consumption by a beam-loaded cavity are derived, and the optimal tuning and coupling factor are analyzed. (author)

  19. Hazard Analysis of Japanese Boxed Lunches (Bento).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Frank L.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    For the purposes of identifying contaminants, of assessing risks, and of determining critical food processing control points, hazard analyses were conducted at two "bento" (oriental boxed meals) catering operations. Time and temperature abuses during the holding period, after cooking and prior to consumption, were found to be the primary reason…

  20. A white box perspective on behavioural adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Roberto; Corradini, Andrea; Gadducci, Fabio;

    2015-01-01

    We present a white-box conceptual framework for adaptation developed in the context of the EU Project ASCENS coordinated by Martin Wirsing. We called it CoDA, for Control Data Adaptation, since it is based on the notion of control data. CoDA promotes a neat separation between application and adap...

  1. RELIABILITY BASED DESIGN OF A GEAR BOX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.MADHUSEKHAR

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Reliability is the probability that a system, component or device will perform without failure for a specified period of time under specified operating conditions. The concept of reliability is of great importance in the design of various machine members. Conventional engineering design uses a deterministic approach. It disregards the fact that the material properties, the dimensions of the components and the externally applied loads are statistical in nature. In conventional design this uncertainties are covered with a factor of safety, which is not always successful. The growing trend towards reducing uncertainty and increasing reliability is to use the probabilistic approach. In the present work a three shaft four speed gear box and six speed gear box are designed using reliability principles. For the specified reliability of the system (Gear box, component reliability (Gear pair is calculated by considering the system as a series system. Design is considered to be safe and adequate if the probability of failure of gear box is less than or equal to a specified quantity in each of the two failure modes. . All the parameters affecting the design are considered as random variables and all the random variables are assumed to follow normal distribution. A computer program in C++ is developed to calculate the face widths in bending and surface failure modes. The larger one out of the two values is considered. By changing the variations in the design parameters, variations in the face widths are studied.

  2. PVC posting bags for glove boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This specification covers the materials, measurements and manufacture of unpigmented PVC posting bags for use on glove boxes, together with methods of testing the materials. These bags are used in the handling of radioactive and toxic materials of a hazardous nature and therefore must be of the highest standard of mechanical strength, leak tightness and general finish. (author)

  3. Cereal Box Design: An Interdisciplinary Graphics Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Mike; Tsosie, Teri

    2012-01-01

    The cereal box design activity is intriguing both for its simplicity and the resourcefulness that it can generate in young people. Also, it lends itself to a variety of curriculums. It covers both consumerism and Design for the Environment (DfE) concepts broadly and in depth. The activity introduces a wide range of topics. They include graphic…

  4. Using Story Boxes in Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Rita

    2009-01-01

    Story boxes and story bags are containers for holding realia that are used to enhance reading and provide a variety of activities for encouraging language acquisition and use. Whatever the packaging, these are good ways to develop students' interest in books. Using realia, or real-life objects, to teach a foreign language is not a novel concept.…

  5. Study of WATCH GRB error boxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorosabel, J.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Lund, Niels;

    1995-01-01

    We have studied the first WATCH GRB Catalogue ofγ-ray Bursts in order to find correlations between WATCH GRB error boxes and a great variety of celestial objects present in 33 different catalogues. No particular class of objects has been found to be significantly correlated with the WATCH GRBs....

  6. One-Dimensional Oscillator in a Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amore, Paolo; Fernandez, Francisco M.

    2010-01-01

    We discuss a quantum-mechanical model of two particles that interact by means of a harmonic potential and are confined to a one-dimensional box with impenetrable walls. We apply perturbation theory to the cases of different and equal masses and analyse the symmetry of the states in the latter case. We compare the approximate perturbation results…

  7. One-dimensional oscillator in a box

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amore, Paolo [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal DIaz del Castillo 340, Colima, Colima (Mexico); Fernandez, Francisco M [INIFTA (UNLP, CCT La Plata-CONICET), Division Quimica Teorica, Blvd 113 S/N, Sucursal 4, Casilla de Correo 16, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)], E-mail: paolo@ucol.mx, E-mail: fernande@quimica.unlp.edu.ar

    2010-01-15

    We discuss a quantum-mechanical model of two particles that interact by means of a harmonic potential and are confined to a one-dimensional box with impenetrable walls. We apply perturbation theory to the cases of different and equal masses and analyse the symmetry of the states in the latter case. We compare the approximate perturbation results with accurate numerical ones.

  8. Beam loading

    CERN Document Server

    Gamp, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We begin by giving a description of the radio-frequency generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, radio-frequency feedback and feedforward are described. Examples of digital radio-frequency phase and amplitude control for the special case of superconducting cavities are also given. Finally, a dedicated phase loop for damping synchrotron oscillations is discussed.

  9. Application of Defense Technology Commonly Used in Boxing Match

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhixiao Li[1; Jianjun Liu[2

    2015-01-01

    Boxing defense technology is a kind of techniques to prevent the opponent from attacking successfully. Boxing is a kind of sports that needs close cooperation between attack and defense. Attack is used for defense, where there is no attack, there will be no defense, and vice versa. Defense technology is the foundation of attack technology, therefore, defense is of vital importance in boxing match.

  10. 76 FR 41411 - Group E Post Office Box Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    ... PO Box customers are assigned the smallest available box that reasonably accommodates their daily mail volume. b. Eligibility for Group E PO Boxes does not extend to: 1. Individual tenants, contractors... Federal Register proposed rule (75 FR 71642-71643) to clarify eligibility, simplify the standards,...

  11. 47 CFR 90.241 - Radio call box operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... remains on for a period in excess of three minutes. The automatic cutoff system must be designed so the... Safety Pool for highway call box systems subject to the following requirements: (1) Call box transmitters... effective radiated power (ERP). (3) The height of a call box antenna may not exceed 6.1 meters (20...

  12. 49 CFR 230.103 - Tender roller bearing journal boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender roller bearing journal boxes. 230.103... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.103 Tender roller bearing journal boxes. Tender roller bearing journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition....

  13. 49 CFR 230.102 - Tender plain bearing journal boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender plain bearing journal boxes. 230.102... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.102 Tender plain bearing journal boxes. Plain bearing journal boxes... expected to damage the bearing; or have a detrimental effect on the lubrication of the journal and...

  14. Fatal exit the automotive black box debate

    CERN Document Server

    Kowalick, Tom

    2005-01-01

    "Fatal Exit: The Automotive Black Box Debate cuts through thirty years of political wrangling and institutional biases to provide an argument for the Motor Vehicle Event Data Recorder (MVEDR). This automotive equivalent of an airplane's flight recorder or black box is intended to solve the mysteries of car crashes and improve the safety of our roads. The reader is taken inside the automotive industry and the government highway safety establishment to foster an understanding of the politics and the positions on all sides of this safety debate. The author takes an unbiased approach, chronologically presenting each argument and uncovering the agendas and mandates of each of the stakeholders." "This publication is essential reading for all consumers who need to have their voices heard on this critical issue, as well as for attorneys, public safety advocates, public policy administrators, engineers, automotive professionals, journalists, and insurance executives."--Jacket.

  15. The Central Nervous System of Box Jellyfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garm, Anders Lydik; Ekström, Peter

    2008-01-01

    of behaviors in the box jellyfish such as obstacle avoidance and navigation. The need to process the visual information and turn it into the appropriate behavior puts strong demands on the nervous system of box jellyfish, which appears more elaborate than in other cnidarians. Here, the central part...... of this nervous system is described. Each rhopalium holds a separate part of the CNS with 1,000 nerve cells and a large amount of neuropil. The rhopalial nervous system has several subsystems defined by the anatomy, location, and immunocytochemistry of the cells. Most of the subsystems connect to one or more...... of the eye types, and it is likely that the rhopalial nervous system accounts for most of the visual processing. The major part of the CNS is made up of a ring nerve encircling the bell shaped body. The ring nerve holds around 10,000 cells and is directly connected to all four rhopalial nervous systems...

  16. Beam Instabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Rumolo, G

    2014-01-01

    When a beam propagates in an accelerator, it interacts with both the external fields and the self-generated electromagnetic fields. If the latter are strong enough, the interplay between them and a perturbation in the beam distribution function can lead to an enhancement of the initial perturbation, resulting in what we call a beam instability. This unstable motion can be controlled with a feedback system, if available, or it grows, causing beam degradation and loss. Beam instabilities in particle accelerators have been studied and analysed in detail since the late 1950s. The subject owes its relevance to the fact that the onset of instabilities usually determines the performance of an accelerator. Understanding and suppressing the underlying sources and mechanisms is therefore the key to overcoming intensity limitations, thereby pushing forward the performance reach of a machine.

  17. The gradient flow in a twisted box

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Alberto [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC

    2013-08-15

    We study the perturbative behavior of the gradient flow in a twisted box. We apply this information to define a running coupling using the energy density of the flow field. We study the step-scaling function and the size of cutoff effects in SU(2) pure gauge theory. We conclude that the twisted gradient flow running coupling scheme is a valid strategy for step-scaling purposes due to the relatively mild cutoff effects and high precision.

  18. Adaptive Techniques to find Optimal Planar Boxes

    CERN Document Server

    Barbay, J; Pérez-Lantero, P

    2012-01-01

    Given a set $P$ of $n$ planar points, two axes and a real-valued score function $f()$ on subsets of $P$, the Optimal Planar Box problem consists in finding a box (i.e. axis-aligned rectangle) $H$ maximizing $f(H\\cap P)$. We consider the case where $f()$ is monotone decomposable, i.e. there exists a composition function $g()$ monotone in its two arguments such that $f(A)=g(f(A_1),f(A_2))$ for every subset $A\\subseteq P$ and every partition $\\{A_1,A_2\\}$ of $A$. In this context we propose a solution for the Optimal Planar Box problem which performs in the worst case $O(n^2\\lg n)$ score compositions and coordinate comparisons, and much less on other classes of instances defined by various measures of difficulty. A side result of its own interest is a fully dynamic \\textit{MCS Splay tree} data structure supporting insertions and deletions with the \\emph{dynamic finger} property, improving upon previous results [Cort\\'es et al., J.Alg. 2009].

  19. T-box factors determine cardiac design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogaars, W M H; Barnett, P; Moorman, A F M; Christoffels, V M

    2007-03-01

    The heart of higher vertebrates is a structurally complicated multi-chambered pump that contracts synchronously. For its proper function a number of distinct integrated components have to be generated, including force-generating compartments, unidirectional valves, septa and a system in charge of the initiation and coordinated propagation of the depolarizing impulse over the heart. Not surprisingly, a large number of regulating factors are involved in these processes that act in complex and intertwined pathways to regulate the activity of target genes responsible for morphogenesis and function. The finding that mutations in T-box transcription factor-encoding genes in humans lead to congenital heart defects has focused attention on the importance of this family of regulators in heart development. Functional and genetic analyses in a variety of divergent species has demonstrated the critical roles of multiple T-box factor gene family members, including Tbx11, -2, -3, -5, -18 and -20, in the patterning, recruitment, specification, differentiation and growth processes underlying formation and integration of the heart components. Insight into the roles of T-box factors in these processes will enhance our understanding of heart formation and the underlying molecular regulatory pathways. PMID:17380306

  20. Changes in position and quality of preferred nest box: effects on nest box use by laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Anja Brinch; Nielsen, Birte L.

    2013-01-01

    Using laying hens, we investigated whether position of a nest box, both within the pen and relative to other nest boxes, influenced the preference for a nest box, and how a sudden and marked change to the preferred box influenced the use of nest boxes by the hens. Groups (n=12) of 15 Isa Warren...... hens were housed in pens, each with five identical nest boxes in different positions: Two single (in a corner or not) and a triplet of nest boxes (one of which in a corner). The use of nest boxes was determined by the number of eggs laid daily in each box. Three experiments, each lasting 10 days, were...... carried out. First, the undisturbed use of each of the nest box types was investigated, and a strong preference (P<0.001) was found for single nest boxes in a corner, with 62% of the nest box eggs laid there. Second, each of the hen groups was moved to another pen allocated at random, and where the...

  1. Effectiveness of box trainers in laparoscopic training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhariwal Anender

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Rationale and Objectives: Various devices are used to aid in the education of laparoscopic skills ranging from simple box trainers to sophisticated virtual reality trainers. Virtual reality system is an advanced and effective training method, however it is yet to be adopted in India due to its cost and the advanced technology required for it. Therefore, box trainers are being used to train laparoscopic skills. Hence this study was undertaken to assess the overall effectiveness of the box-training course. Study Procedure: The study was conducted during six-day laparoscopic skills training workshops held during 2006. Twenty five surgeons; age range of 26 to 45 years, of either sex, who had not performed laparoscopic surgery before; attending the workshop were evaluated. Each participant was given a list of tasks to perform before beginning the box-training course on day one and was evaluated quantitatively by rating the successful completion of each test. Evaluation began when the subject placed the first tool into the cannula and ended with task completion. Two evaluation methods used to score the subject, including a global rating scale and a task-specific checklist. After the subject completed all sessions of the workshop, they were asked to perform the same tasks and were evaluated in the same manner. For each task completed by the subjects, the difference in the scores between the second and first runs were calculated and interpreted as an improvement as a percentage of the initial score. Statistical Analysis: Wilcoxon matched-paired signed-ranks test was applied to find out the statistical significance of the results obtained. Results: The mean percentage improvement in scores for both the tasks, using global rating scale, was 44.5% + 6.930 (Mean + SD. For task 1, using the global rating scale mean percentage improvement was 49.4% + 7.948 (Mean + SD. For task 2, mean percentage improvement using global rating scale was 39.6% + 10.4 (Mean

  2. First circulating beam in the AA

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    On 3 July 1980, two years after project authorization, beam circulated for the first time in the AA. It was a 3.56 GeV/c proton test beam. We see an expecting crowd, minutes before the happy event. The persons are too numerous to name them all, but the 3 most prominent ones are at the centre (left to right): Roy Billinge (Joint AA Project Leader, with his hand on the control box), Eifionydd Jones (white shirt), Simon van der Meer (spiritus rector and Joint AA Project Leader). The first antiprotons were injected, made to circulate and cooled soon after, on 14 July 1980.

  3. DFBX boxes - electrical and cryogenic distribution boxes for the superconducting magnets in the LHC straight sections

    CERN Document Server

    Zbasnik, J P; Gourlay, S A; Green, M A; Hafalia, A Q; Kajiyama, Y; Knolls, M J; La Mantia, R F; Rasson, J E; Reavill, D; Turner, W C

    2003-01-01

    DFBX distribution boxes provide cryogenic and electrical services to superconducting quadrupoles and to a superconducting dipole at either end of four of the long straight sections in the LHC. The DFBX boxes also provide instrumentation and quench protection to the magnets. Current for the quadrupole and the dipole magnet is delivered through leads that combine HTS and gas cooled leads. Current for the 600 A and 120 A correction magnets is provided by pure gas-cooled leads. The bus bars from the leads to the magnets pass through low leak-rate lambda plugs between 1.8 K and 4.4 K. The heat leak into the 1.9 K region from the liquid helium tank is determined by the design of the lambda plugs. This paper describes the DFBX boxes and their function of delivering current and instrumentation signals to the magnets. (2 refs).

  4. 49 CFR 178.512 - Standards for steel or aluminum boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for steel or aluminum boxes. 178.512... aluminum boxes. (a) The following are identification codes for steel or aluminum boxes: (1) 4A for a steel box; and (2) 4B for an aluminum box. (b) Construction requirements for steel or aluminum boxes are...

  5. Beam collimator

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    A four-block collimator installed on a control table for positioning the alignment reference marks. Designed for use with SPS secondary beams, the collimator operates under vacuum conditions. See Annual Report 1976 p. 121 and photo 7701014.

  6. Seismic response of skewed RC box-girder bridges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmed Abdel-Mohti; Gokhan Pekcan

    2008-01-01

    It is critical to ensure the functionality of highway bridges after earthquakes to provide access to important facilities.Since the 1971 San Fernando earthquake,there has been a better understanding of the seismic performance of bridges.Nonetheless,there are no detailed guidelines addressing the performance of skewed highway bridges.Several parameters affect the response of skewed highway bridges under both service and seismic loads which makes their behavior complex.Therefore,there is a need for more research to study the effect of skew angle and other related factors on the performance of highway bridges.This paper examines the seismic performance of a three-span continuous concrete box girder bridge with skew angles from 0 to 60 degrees,analytically.Finite element (FE) and simplified beam-stick (BS) models of the bridge were developed using SAP2000.Different types of analysis were considered on both models such as:nonlinear static pushover,and linear and nonlinear time history analyses.A comparison was conducted between FE and BS,different skew angles,abutment support conditions,and time history and pushover analysis.It is shown that the BS model has the capability to capture the coupling due to skew and the significant modes for moderate skew angles.Boundary conditions and pushover load profile are determined to have a major effect on pushover analysis.Pushover analysis may be used to predict the maximum deformation and hinge formation adequately.

  7. Construction Technology Analysis of Concrete Composite Box Net Floor%混凝土叠合箱网梁楼盖施工技术分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶雷杰

    2014-01-01

    Concrete composite box net floor is a special ribbed slab floor, from prefabricated composite box and cast nets (rib) beam combination, its characteristic is flat at the botom, saving materials and large cavity net beam structure stress. The author combining with practical experiences makes a simple analysis of the composite box net beamceiling te- chnique in this paper.%混凝土叠合箱网梁楼盖是一种特殊的密肋梁楼盖,由预制叠合箱和现浇网(肋)梁组合而成,特点是底部平整、节约耗材和大空腔网梁构造受力等。笔者结合实际经验,在本文中简单地分析了叠合箱网梁楼盖技术。

  8. Adaptation of Black-Box Software Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Andreas Rasenack

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The globalization of the software market leads to crucial problems for software companies. More competition between software companies arises and leads to the force on companies to develop ever newer software products in ever shortened time interval. Therefore the time to market for software systems is shortened and obviously the product life cycle is shortened too. Thus software companies shortened the time interval for research and development. Due to the fact of competition between software companies software products have to develop low-priced and this leads to a smaller return on investment. A big challenge for software companies is the use of an effective research and development process to have these problems under control. A way to control these problems can be the reuse of existing software components and adapt those software components to new functionality or accommodate mismatched interfaces. Complete redevelopment of software products is more expensive and time consuming than to develop software components. The approach introduced here presents novel technique together with a supportive environment that enables developers to cope with the adaptability of black-box software components. A supportive environment will be designed that checks the compatibility of black-box software components with the assistance of their specifications. Generated adapter software components can take over the part of adaptation and advance the functionality. Besides, a pool of software components can be used to compose an application to satisfy customer needs. Certainly this pool of software components consists of black-box software components and adapter software components which can be connected on demand.

  9. Experimental Study on Stability of Breakwaters with Penetrating Box Foundations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    别社安; 李伟; 李增志; 任增金; 及春宁

    2003-01-01

    The breakwater with top-sealed, shallow and wide penetrating box foundations is a new type of structure, applicable to deep water and soft seabed. The relations of horizontal and vertical bearing capacities of the box foundation structure as well as the instability-induced failure modes to its dimensions and external loads are discussed through static model tests and wave tests. The mechanical properties of the stability of the box foundation are similar to those of embedded rigid foundations, i.e. the vertical stresses at the bottom of the box are distributed in a linear pattern under the action of vertical loads, and passive and active soil pressures are developed at the front and back sides of the box under the action of horizontal loads; there are two instability-induced failure modes of the foundation structure-horizontal slide along the box base and tilting due to insufficient local vertical bearing capacity of the soil beneath the box base. The stability of box foundations can be analyzed by use of the methods applied to analysis of the embedded rigid foundations. To increase the width of the box is the most effective way to improve the stability of box foundations.

  10. Test procedure for boxed waste assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document, prepared by Los Alamos National Laboratory's NMT-4 group, details the test methodology and requirements for Acceptance/Qualification testing of a Boxed Waste Assay System (BWAS) designed and constructed by Pajarito Scientific Corporation. Testing of the BWAS at the Plutonium Facility (TA55) at Los Alamos National Laboratory will be performed to ascertain system adherence to procurement specification requirements. The test program shall include demonstration of conveyor handling capabilities, gamma ray energy analysis, and imaging passive/active neutron accuracy and sensitivity. Integral to these functions is the system's embedded operating and data reduction software

  11. MULTIFRACTAL FORMALISMS:BOXED VERSUS CENTERED INTERVALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jacques Peyriére

    2003-01-01

    There are mainly two approaches to the multifractal analysis of measures.The first one,which is used in applications and in studying problems arising from dynamical systems,uses a hierarchy of boxes.The second one,which is more satisfactory from the viewpoint of geometric measure theory, uses more intrinsic concepts.This article is an account of a work by J.Barral,F.Ben Nasr,and J.Peyriére[3] which provides a bridge between these two theories.

  12. The Transformation of the "Black Box"

    OpenAIRE

    JIMENEZ DOMENECH, LUCIA

    2012-01-01

    The idea of this project is to convert an old office building downtown into an energy-neutral high-rise village. The assignment contained the office building located in the city centre of Groningen at Eendrachtskade 2, commonly called the "Black Box". It was built in 1976, and the actual technical condition is poor with inadequate insulation. When the building remains empty in 2014, the most obvious next thing to happen is the demolition. But, due to climate impact, the objective is to reuse ...

  13. LHC Crab Cavity Coupler Test Boxes

    CERN Document Server

    Mitchell, James; Burt, Graeme; Calaga, Rama; Macpherson, Alick; Montesinos, Eric; Silva, Subashini; Tutte, Adam; Xiao, Binping

    2016-01-01

    The LHC double quarter wave (DQW) crab cavities have two different types of Higher Order Mode (HOM) couplers in addition to a fundamental power coupler (FPC). The FPC requires conditioning, so to achieve this we have designed a radio-frequency (RF) quarter wave resonator to provide high transmission between two opposing FPCs. For the HOM couplers we must ensure that the stop-band filter is positioned at the cavity frequency and that peak transmission occurs at the same frequencies as the strongest HOMs. We have designed two test boxes which preserve the cavity spectral response in order to test the couplers.

  14. Smart Distribution Boxes, Complete Energy Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platise, Uros

    2010-09-15

    Present households demand side management implementations are turning conventional appliances into smart ones to support auto demand (AutoDR) response function. Present concept features a direct link between the power meters and appliances. In this paper new concept and example of implementation of a so-called Smart Distribution Box (SmartDB) is represented for complete energy and power management. SmartDBs, as an intermediate layer, are extending smart grid power meter functionality to support AutoDR with fast and guaranteed response times, distributed power sources, and besides provide full control over energy management and extra safety functions to the consumers.

  15. Determinants of Box Products of Paths

    CERN Document Server

    Pragel, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Suppose that G is the graph obtained by taking the box product of a path of length n and a path of length m. Let M be the adjacency matrix of G. If n=m, H.M. Rara showed in 1996 that det(M)=0. We extend this result to allow n and m to be any positive integers, and show that, if gcd(n+1,m+1)>1, then det(M)=0; otherwise, if gcd(n+1,m+1)=1, then det(M)=(-1)^(nm/2).

  16. Choreographies with Secure Boxes and Compromised Principals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbone, Marco; Guttman, Joshua

    2009-01-01

      We equip choreography-level session descriptions with a simple abstraction of a security infrastruc- ture. Message components may be enclosed within (possibly nested) ”boxes” annotated with the intended source and destination of those components. The boxes are to be implemented with cryp...... regular strands so that it could actually occur, in combination with any possible activity of compromised principals. It is delivery guaranteed (DG) realized if, in addition, every message transmitted to a regular participant is also delivered. We define a novel transition system on skeletons, in which...

  17. Box model for channels of human migration

    CERN Document Server

    Vitanov, Nikolay K

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a mathematical model of migration channel based on the truncated Waring distribution. The truncated Waring distribution is obtained for a more general model of motion of substance through a channel containing finite number of boxes. The model is applied then for case of migrants moving through a channel consisting of finite number of countries or cities. The number of migrants in the channel strongly depends on the number of migrants that enter the channel through the country of entrance. It is shown that if the final destination country is very popular then large percentage of migrants may concentrate there.

  18. An Architectural Alternative to the Big Box

    OpenAIRE

    Fowler, Kristen Faye

    2008-01-01

    Wal-Mart has plans to open a store in the town of Blacksburg, Virginia. The fact that there is already a Wal-Mart store, in the town of Christiansburg, just four miles away from the proposed location makes this idea ridiculous for some. A large group of Blacksburg residents are opposed to the idea of a Wal-Mart in their town. The usual complaints are about how it will affect small businesses and traffic. The core concept of the â big boxâ store is not the problem. The idea of being abl...

  19. Teaching Outside the Box: ARL Librarians' Integration of the "One- Box" into Student Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulp, Christina; McCain, Cheryl; Scrivener, Laurie

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the results of a survey that targeted reference and instruction librarians who work at libraries that are members of the Asso- ciation of Research Libraries (ARL). Respondents were asked to indicate whether or not they teach students to use the one-box tool, and why or why not. Based on the responses of the 352 librarians who…

  20. Hairy Black Holes in a Box

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Pallab; Subramanian, P N Bala

    2016-01-01

    We do a systematic study of the phases of gravity coupled to an electromagnetic field and charged scalar in flat space, with box boundary conditions. The scalar-less box has previously been investigated by Braden, Brown, Whiting and York (and others) before AdS/CFT and we elaborate and extend their results in a language more familiar from holography. The phase diagram of the system is analogous to that of AdS black holes, but we emphasize the differences and explain their origin. Once the scalar is added, we show that the system admits both boson stars as well as hairy black holes as solutions, providing yet another way to evade flat space no-hair theorems. Furthermore both these solutions can exist as stable phases in regions of the phase diagram. The final picture of the phases that emerges is strikingly similar to that found recently for holographic superconductors in global AdS, arXiv: 1602.07211. Our construction lays bare certain previously unnoticed subtleties associated to the definition quasi-local c...

  1. Roles of F-box Proteins in Plant Hormone Responses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haichuan YU; Jiao WU; Nanfei XU; Ming PENG

    2007-01-01

    The F-box protein is an important component of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Skpl-Cullin-F-box protein complex. It binds specific substrates for ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. The F-box proteins contain a signature F-box motif at their amino-terminus and some protein-protein interaction motifs at their carboxyterminus, such as Trp-Asp repeats or leucine rich repeats. Many F-box proteins have been identified to be involved in plant hormone response as receptors or important medial components. These breakthrough findings shed light on our current understanding of the structure and function of the various F-box proteins,their related plant hormone signaling pathways, and their roles in regulating plant development.

  2. Visual pigments of the box jellyfish species Chiropsella bronzie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O*Connor, Megan; Garm, Anders Lydik; Marshall, Justin;

    2010-01-01

    Box jellyfish (Cubomedusae) possess a unique visual system comprising 24 eyes of four morphological types. Moreover, box jellyfish display several visually guided behaviours, including obstacle avoidance and light-shaft attractance. It is largely unknown what kind of visual information box...... jellyfish use for carrying out these behaviours. Brightness contrast is almost certainly involved, but it is also possible that box jellyfish extract colour information from their surroundings. The possible presence of colour vision in box jellyfish has previously been investigated using behavioural......, electrophysiological and immunohistochemical methods. However, the results from these studies are to some degree conflicting and inconclusive. Here, we present results from an investigation into the visual system of the box jellyfish Chiropsella bronzie, using microspectrophotometry and immunohistochemistry. Our...

  3. Cash Flow Prediction Using a Grey-Box Model

    OpenAIRE

    Pang, Yang; Opong, Kwaku; Moutinho, Luia; Li, Yun

    2015-01-01

    This paper tackles the problem of financial forecasting by extending methods developed in automation, engineering and computing science. Current methods existing in the literature for firm-level cash flows are first analysed. Then a grey-box modelling method is developed to elevate the performance of cash-flow prediction. Linear panel data modelling is used as a benchmark model. Experiments with out-of-sample tests are used to validate the grey-box approach. Encouragingly, nonlinear grey-box ...

  4. Average of Distribution and Remarks on Box-Splines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yue-sheng

    2001-01-01

    A class of generalized moving average operators is introduced, and the integral representations of an average function are provided. It has been shown that the average of Dirac δ-distribution is just the well known box-spline. Some remarks on box-splines, such as their smoothness and the corresponding partition of unity, are made. The factorization of average operators is derived. Then, the subdivision algorithm for efficient computing of box-splines and their linear combinations follows.

  5. Ion-wake field inside a glass box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mudi; Dropmann, Michael; Zhang, Bo; Matthews, Lorin S.; Hyde, Truell W.

    2016-09-01

    The confinement provided by a glass box is proving ideal for the formation of vertically aligned structures and a convenient method for controlling the number of dust particles comprising these dust structures as well as their sizes and shapes. In this paper, the electronic confinement of the glass box is mapped, and the particle interactions between the particle pairs inside the glass box are measured. The ion-wake field is shown to exist within the glass box, and its vertical and horizontal extents are measured.

  6. Ion-wake Field inside a Glass Box

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Mudi; Zhang, Bo; Matthews, Lorin S; Hyde, Truell W

    2016-01-01

    The confinement provided by a glass box is proving ideal for the formation of vertically aligned structures and a convenient method for controlling the number of dust particles comprising these dust structures, as well as their size and shape. In this paper, the electronic confinement of the glass box is mapped and the particle interactions between the particle pairs inside the glass box are measured. The ion-wake field is shown to exist within the glass box and its vertical and horizontal extent is measured.

  7. Counting Closed String States in a Box

    CERN Document Server

    Meana, M L; Peñalba, J P; Meana, Marco Laucelli; Peñalba, Jesús Puente

    1997-01-01

    The computation of the microcanonical density of states for a string gas in a finite volume needs a one by one count because of the discrete nature of the spectrum. We present a way to do it using geometrical arguments in phase space. We take advantage of this result in order to obtain the thermodynamical magnitudes of the system. We show that the results for an open universe exactly coincide with the infinite volume limit of the expression obtained for the gas in a box. For any finite volume the Hagedorn temperature is a maximum one, and the specific heat is always positive. We also present a definition of pressure compatible with R-duality seen as an exact symmetry, which allows us to make a study on the physical phase space of the system. Besides a maximum temperature the gas presents an asymptotic pressure.

  8. Design Research: Six Views in a Box

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    This book is a report from a class on design research at the Danish Design School. Ten students had ten weeks to conduct design research based on approaches, methods and techniques from co-design focusing on the Alzheimer’s disease as experienced by people with Alzheimer’s, their relatives...... and close relations, and professional caretakers. Alzheimer's destroys brain cells, causing memory loss and problems with thinking and behavior severe enough to affect work, lifelong hobbies and social life. As Alzheimer’s is a fatal disease that affects many people, there is a strong interest in finding...... professional organizations in a user-driven approach to explore and learn what it means to identify and admit that a person has Alzheimer’s. Apart from making contributions to the common box, the students have written reports in which they reflect on their work both in relation to the design research process...

  9. Electron beam characteristics in the hollow beam diode and cusped magnetic field of the Maryland ERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The University of Maryland electron ring accelerator (ERA) concept calls for the formation of an electron ring current by transmission of a hollow relativistic electron beam through a static, azimuthally symmetric, cusped magnetic field. Electron motion is approximately paraxial in the diode and pre-cusp drift region and is axis-encircling in the post-cusp region. Experiments show the electron flow in the diode to be approximately pressureless. The radial thickness of the drifting Brillouin hollow beam is derived from a radial force balance equation. Time-resolved measurements of the beam current and energy are made by measuring the extrapolated range of the beam in aluminum targets. These measurements are analyzed with a model of the diode as a terminating impedance driven by a transmission line. Beam motion in the cusped field region is analyzed. Beam dynamics in the post-cusp region are studied by examining the interaction of a hollow rotating beam with its self-induced potentials in a cylindrical box with conducting walls and ends. The energy of the self-induced electric and magnetic potentials is much less than the kinetic energy of the beam electrons for cases approximating experimental conditions

  10. A Comparison of Energy Expenditure During "Wii Boxing" Versus Heavy Bag Boxing in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perusek, Kristen; Sparks, Kenneth; Little, Kathleen; Motley, Mary; Patterson, Sheila; Wieand, Jennifer

    2014-02-01

    Traditional computer videogames are sedentary, whereas new computer videogames, such as the Nintendo(®) (Redmond, WA) "Wii™ Sports" games, allow users to physically interact while playing the sport. Energy expenditure (EE), heart rate (HR), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during heavy bag boxing versus the Nintendo "Wii Boxing" game were compared. Fifteen males and 14 females (mean age, 25.6 years; height, 171.3 cm; weight, 71.8 kg) randomly selected (by a coin toss) heavy bag boxing or "Wii Boxing" for their first test session and completed the other protocol at their second session at least 2 days later. Each session lasted for a total duration of 30 minutes and consisted of 10 3-minute exercise bouts with measurements of HR, RPE, and EE obtained from indirect calorimetry. A paired-samples t test was used to analyze the results. Significant differences were found for HR (bag, 156 beats per minute; Wii, 138 beats per minute; P=0.001) and RPE (bag, 13.8; Wii, 11.4; P=0.0001) but not for EE (bag, 8.0 kcal/minute; Wii, 7.1 kcal/minute; bag, 241 total kcal; Wii, 213 total kcal; P=0.078). The results suggest that computer active videogames, such as the Nintendo Wii, have the potential to provide similar EE as their traditional forms of exercise and may be a sufficient replacement for traditional target HR zone activities, especially in less fit individuals. Further research is needed to compare EE for different "Wii Sports" games with those for their traditional forms of exercise.

  11. Beam Steering Devices Reduce Payload Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Scientists have long been able to shift the direction of a laser beam, steering it toward a target, but often the strength and focus of the light is altered. For precision applications, where the quality of the beam cannot be compromised, scientists have typically turned to mechanical steering methods, redirecting the source of the beam by swinging the entire laser apparatus toward the target. Just as the mechanical methods used for turning cars has evolved into simpler, lighter, power steering methods, so has the means by which researchers can direct lasers. Some of the typical contraptions used to redirect lasers are large and bulky, relying on steering gimbals pivoted, rotating supports to shift the device toward its intended target. These devices, some as large and awkward as a piece of heavy luggage, are subject to the same issues confronted by mechanical parts: Components rub, wear out, and get stuck. The poor reliability and bulk not to mention the power requirements to run one of the machines have made mechanical beam steering components less than ideal for use in applications where weight, bulk, and maneuverability are prime concerns, such as on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) or a microscope. The solution to developing reliable, lighter weight, nonmechanical steering methods to replace the hefty steering boxes was to think outside the box, and a NASA research partner did just that by developing a new beam steering method that bends and redirects the beam, as opposed to shifting the entire apparatus. The benefits include lower power requirements, a smaller footprint, reduced weight, and better control and flexibility in steering capabilities. Such benefits are realized without sacrificing aperture size, efficiency, or scanning range, and can be applied to myriad uses: propulsion systems, structures, radiation protection systems, and landing systems.

  12. Validating SimpleBox-Computed Steady-State Concentration Ratios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker J; Brandes LJ; Hollander HA den; Meent D van de; Struijs J; SEC; IMP; LER

    2004-01-01

    The validity of the multi-media model SimpleBox version 2.0 with respect to its specific use in the procedure of testing the coherence of independently derived environmental quality objectives is evaluated. The SimpleBox procedure for testing the coherence of environmental quality objectives has bee

  13. Olympic Sports(ⅩⅣ):Boxing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜全红

    2004-01-01

    Boxing has a long sporting history.The earliest evidence of boxing is found in Egypt around 3000 B.C.The sport was introduced to the Olympic Games by the Greeks in the late 7th century B.C.. Greek boxers used thongs of soft leather to bind their hands

  14. Faster Black-Box Algorithms Through Higher Arity Operators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doerr, Benjamin; Johannsen, Daniel; Kötzing, Timo;

    2011-01-01

    We extend the work of Lehre and Witt (GECCO 2010) on the unbiased black-box model by considering higher arity variation operators. In particular, we show that already for binary operators the black-box complexity of LeadingOnes drops from (n2) for unary operators to O(n log n). For OneMax, the (n...

  15. Effect of auricular acupuncture on oxygen consumption of boxing athletes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Zen-Pin; WANG Chung-Yuan; JANO Tsong-Rong; MA Tso-chiang; CHIA Fan; LIN Jaung-Geng; HSU Jen-Jeng; HO Tsung-Jung

    2009-01-01

    @@ Boxing is an official sport at the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games and the fast development of world-class high strength training and sport science has made a significant impact on scientific training. Boxing needs high cardio-respiratory function, speed, muscle strength, and anaerobic and intensive physical demands including weight control covering the grading of athlete's.

  16. 49 CFR 215.107 - Defective plain bearing box: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.107 Defective plain bearing box: General. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if the car has— (a) A plain bearing box that does not contain visible free oil; (b) A...

  17. Empty Tissue Boxes: Considering Poverty in Diversity Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuthrell, Kristen; Ledford, Carolyn; Stapleton, Joy

    2007-01-01

    A preservice teacher doing her internship overhears some of her students asking a classmate why he regularly takes home empty tissue boxes. The boy replies that he builds cities and bridges with his empty boxes. His classmates then ask why he does not just build a city with Legos or building blocks. The preservice teacher listens intently as the…

  18. Natural Interaction Based Online Military Boxing Learning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chenglei; Wang, Lu; Sun, Bing; Yin, Xu; Wang, Xiaoting; Liu, Li; Lu, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Military boxing, a kind of Chinese martial arts, is widespread and health beneficial. In this paper, the authors introduce a military boxing learning system realized by 3D motion capture, Web3D and 3D interactive technologies. The interactions with the system are natural and intuitive. Users can observe and learn the details of each action of the…

  19. A System for Cooling inside a Glove Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Martial

    2010-01-01

    An easy, efficient, reliable, and low-cost method of constructing a cooling system using a simple circulating pump is described. The system is employed in conjunction with an inert atmosphere glove box to achieve the synthesis of air- and moisture-sensitive compounds inside the glove box at controlled, low temperatures without contaminating the…

  20. Dream Box Learning. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "DreamBox Learning" is a supplemental online mathematics program that provides adaptive instruction for students in grades K-5 and focuses on number and operations, place value, and number sense. The What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) identified one study of "DreamBox Learning" that both falls within the scope of the Elementary…

  1. Decontamination and dismantling of large plutonium-contamined glove boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the work performed in the frame of two C.E.C. - Contracts FI1D-002400-B Decommissioning of very large glove boxes and FI1D-0058 Decommissioning of a complex glove box structure to be dismounted partially on place. Detailed information is given about each glove box. The selection of the solution Transportation of the glove boxes to a specialized dismantling plant is justified. The necessary contacts inside the BELGONUCLEAIRE MOX plant and between the latter and other organizations are explained. The problems of manipulating large gloves are listed and the retained solution of building a so called Stiffening frame around each glove box is described. Furthermore information is given concerning required operators time for cleaning, manipulating, packing and dismantling together with received doses and quantities of waste produced. Concerning the glove box unit partially to be dismounted on place, detailed information is given about the way the glove boxes have been treated prior to this partial dismantling on place and about the way this partial dismantling has been performed. From these results one can conclude that such a delicate task can be performed without major difficulties. Finally information is given of the decontamination test of a highly Pu contaminated glove box with freon with rather poor results and of the preliminary CO2 blasting tests on non active samples

  2. Getting started with Oracle VM VirtualBox

    CERN Document Server

    Dash, Pradyumna

    2013-01-01

    A step-by-step guide that will show you how to install, configure, and manage VirtualBox.This book is for system administrators, technical architects, and virtualization enthusiasts who want to learn how to set up a virtual machine. Knowledge of the Linux environment is expected. Prior experience with VirtualBox or knowledge of virtualization is not required.

  3. High Power Hydrogen Injector with Beam Focusing for Plasma Heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High power neutral beam injector has been developed with the atom energy of 25 keV, a current of 60 A, and several milliseconds pulse duration. Six of these injectors will be used for upgrade of the atomic injection system at central cell of a Gas Dynamic Trap (GDT) device and 2 injectors are planned for SHIP experiment.The injector ion source is based on an arc discharge plasma box. The plasma emitter is produced by a 1 kA arc discharge in hydrogen. A multipole magnetic field produced with permanent magnets at the periphery of the plasma box is used to increase its efficiency and improve homogeneity of the plasma emitter. The ion beam is extracted by a 4-electrodes ion optical system (IOS). Initial beam diameter is 200 mm. The grids of the IOS have a spherical curvature for geometrical focusing of the beam. The optimal IOS geometry and grid potentials were found with the numerical simulation to provide precise beam formation. The measured angular divergence of the beam is 0.02 rad, which corresponds to the 2.5 cm Gaussian radius of the beam profile measured at focal point

  4. Effect of inlet box on performance of axial flow fans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingyin LI; Hua TIAN; Xiaofang YUAN

    2008-01-01

    Numerical investigations on 3D flow fields in an axial flow fan with and without an inlet box have been extensively conducted, focusing on the variation of fan performance caused by the internal flow fields and the velocity evenness at the exit of the inlet box. It is interest-ing to find that although the inlet box is well designed in accordance with basic design principles, there is a flow separation region in it. Furthermore, this flow separation and the resulting uneven velocity distribution at the exit lead to some decrease in the efficiency and an increase in the total pressure rise of the fan. This research shows that the inlet box needs further improvement and such a check on the flow fields is of value for the design of inlet boxes.

  5. Aspect ratio dependence in magnetorotational instability shearing box simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Bodo, G; Cattaneo, F; Rossi, P; Ferrari, A

    2008-01-01

    Aims: We study the changes in the properties of turbulence driven by the magnetorotational instability in a shearing box, as the computational domain size in the radial direction is varied relative to the height Methods: We perform 3D simulations in the shearing box approximation, with a net magnetic flux, and we consider computational domains with different aspect ratios Results: We find that in boxes of aspect ratio unity the transport of angular momentum is strongly intermittent and dominated by channel solutions in agreement with previous work. In contrast, in boxes with larger aspect ratio, the channel solutions and the associated intermittent behavior disappear. Conclusions: There is strong evidence that, as the aspect ratio becomes larger, the characteristics of the solution become aspect ratio independent. We conclude that shearing box calculations with aspect ratio unity or near unity may introduce spurious effects.

  6. Getting started with Citrix VDI-in-a-Box

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Stuart Arthur

    2013-01-01

    A practical and fast-paced guide that gives you all the information you need to simplify and streamline virtual desktops so you get a production-quality solution while instantly lowering your costs and improving security.Getting Started with Citrix VDI-in-a-Box is great for IT professionals who are new to VDI-in-a-Box and who are looking for a good grounding in the product. You may be planning to research VDI-in-a-Box in more detail, or you may be tasked with researching how VDI-in-a-Box could improve the productivity of your organization. No prior knowledge of VDI-in-a-Box is required, just a

  7. Grey-box modelling of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tornøe, Christoffer Wenzel; Jacobsen, Judith L; Pedersen, Oluf;

    2004-01-01

    Grey-box pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modelling is presented as a promising way of modelling PK/PD systems. The concept behind grey-box modelling is based on combining physiological knowledge along with information from data in the estimation of model parameters. Grey-box modelling...... consists of using stochastic differential equations (SDEs) where the stochastic term in the differential equations represents unknown or incorrectly modelled dynamics of the system. The methodology behind the grey-box PK/PD modelling framework for systematic model improvement is illustrated using simulated...... data and furthermore applied to Bergman's minimal model of glucose kinetics using clinical data from an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT). The grey-box estimates of the stochastic system noise parameters indicate that the glucose minimal model is too simple and should preferably be revised...

  8. External Beam Therapy (EBT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z External Beam Therapy (EBT) External beam therapy (EBT) is a ... follow-up should I expect? What is external beam therapy and how is it used? External beam ...

  9. IEA Common Exercise 4: ARX, ARMAX and grey-box models for thermal performance characterization of the test box

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder; Andersen, Philip Hvidthøft Delff

    In this report results of applying time series models for assessing the thermal performance of the IEA Annex 58 test box based on data given in the Common Exercise 4 (CE4), which was measured in Almeria, Spain. Both ARX, ARMAX and grey-box models are applied. Finally, the same models are fitted...

  10. Study in the design and manufacture process of the elastic cable anchor box in steel box girder of Taizhou Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gu Bifeng; Chen Ce; Ding Lei

    2011-01-01

    Taizhou Yangtze River Highway Bridge is a large span suspension bridge with three pylons. The elastic cables are installed to connect the steel tower and the steel box girder. The constraints can increase the safety coefficient of the middle saddle, and improve the stress conditions of the middle pylon and decrease the deflection in the middle of the main girder, as well as the longitudinal displacement of the main girder caused by live loads. The anchorage boxes of the elastic cable are installed in the wind fairing outside the vertical web plate of the box girder. Two anchor boxes form a pair and are arranged parallelly. Eight anchor boxes are installed in the bridge. In this paper, the design scheme and the technical difficulties in manufacturing are briefly discussed with the precision control techniques.

  11. On (2,3)-agreeable Box Societies

    CERN Document Server

    Abrahams, Michael; Zell, Thierry

    2009-01-01

    The notion of $(k,m)$-agreeable society was introduced by Deborah Berg et al.: a family of convex subsets of $\\R^d$ is called $(k,m)$-agreeable if any subfamily of size $m$ contains at least one non-empty $k$-fold intersection. In that paper, the $(k,m)$-agreeability of a convex family was shown to imply the existence of a subfamily of size $\\beta n$ with non-empty intersection, where $n$ is the size of the original family and $\\beta\\in[0,1]$ is an explicit constant depending only on $k,m$ and $d$. The quantity $\\beta(k,m,d)$ is called the minimal \\emph{agreement proportion} for a $(k,m)$-agreeable family in $\\R^d$. If we only assume that the sets are convex, simple examples show that $\\beta=0$ for $(k,m)$-agreeable families in $\\R^d$ where $kboxes, i.e. cuboids with sides parallel to the coordinates hyperplanes. We derive explicit formulas for the first non-trivial case: the case...

  12. Opening up a Colourful Cosmic Jewel Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    The combination of images taken by three exceptional telescopes, the ESO Very Large Telescope on Cerro Paranal , the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla observatory and the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, has allowed the stunning Jewel Box star cluster to be seen in a whole new light. Star clusters are among the most visually alluring and astrophysically fascinating objects in the sky. One of the most spectacular nestles deep in the southern skies near the Southern Cross in the constellation of Crux. The Kappa Crucis Cluster, also known as NGC 4755 or simply the "Jewel Box" is just bright enough to be seen with the unaided eye. It was given its nickname by the English astronomer John Herschel in the 1830s because the striking colour contrasts of its pale blue and orange stars seen through a telescope reminded Herschel of a piece of exotic jewellery. Open clusters [1] such as NGC 4755 typically contain anything from a few to thousands of stars that are loosely bound together by gravity. Because the stars all formed together from the same cloud of gas and dust their ages and chemical makeup are similar, which makes them ideal laboratories for studying how stars evolve. The position of the cluster amongst the rich star fields and dust clouds of the southern Milky Way is shown in the very wide field view generated from the Digitized Sky Survey 2 data. This image also includes one of the stars of the Southern Cross as well as part of the huge dark cloud of the Coal Sack [2]. A new image taken with the Wide Field Imager (WFI) on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile shows the cluster and its rich surroundings in all their multicoloured glory. The large field of view of the WFI shows a vast number of stars. Many are located behind the dusty clouds of the Milky Way and therefore appear red [3]. The FORS1 instrument on the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) allows a much closer look at the cluster itself. The telescope's huge mirror

  13. SUPERSTITIOUS BEHAVIOR AMONG JUDO, TAEKWONDO AND BOXING PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Dureja

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The present study was designed to measure superstitious behavior among Judo, Taekwondo and Boxing players. Material: Thirty (N=30 male inter-college level players with the age group of 19-25 years were selected through purposive sampling technique to act as subjects from affiliated colleges of Panjab University, Chandigarh. They were further divided into three groups: Group-A [Judo (n=10], Group-B [Taekwondo (n=10] and Group-C [Boxing (n=10]. One Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA was applied to find out the differences among judo, taekwondo and boxing players. Where ‘F’ values found significant, Least Significant Differences (LSD Post-hoc test was applied to find out the direction and degree of difference. Results: The level of significance was set at 0.05. The result revealed significant differences among judo, taekwondo and boxing players on the sub parameters: clothing and appearance, preparation, team ritual and coach. However, no significant differences have been observed on the sub-parameters fetish, game/competition, prayer and parameter superstitious (Total. Conclusions: The obtained results showed significant differences on the sub-parameter Coach among Judo, Taekwondo and Boxing players. While calculating the mean values of entire groups, it has been observed that Boxing players demonstrate significantly better on the sub-parameter Coach. Therefore, it can be ascertained that Boxing players are more confident that coach bring a lucky charm to our game.

  14. Probability boxes on totally preordered spaces for multivariate modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Troffaes, Matthias C M; 10.1016/j.ijar.2011.02.001

    2011-01-01

    A pair of lower and upper cumulative distribution functions, also called probability box or p-box, is among the most popular models used in imprecise probability theory. They arise naturally in expert elicitation, for instance in cases where bounds are specified on the quantiles of a random variable, or when quantiles are specified only at a finite number of points. Many practical and formal results concerning p-boxes already exist in the literature. In this paper, we provide new efficient tools to construct multivariate p-boxes and develop algorithms to draw inferences from them. For this purpose, we formalise and extend the theory of p-boxes using Walley's behavioural theory of imprecise probabilities, and heavily rely on its notion of natural extension and existing results about independence modeling. In particular, we allow p-boxes to be defined on arbitrary totally preordered spaces, hence thereby also admitting multivariate p-boxes via probability bounds over any collection of nested sets. We focus on t...

  15. Measure Guideline: Optimizing the Configuration of Flexible Duct Junction Boxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beach, R.; Burdick, A.

    2014-03-01

    This measure guideline offers additional recommendations to heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system designers for optimizing flexible duct, constant-volume HVAC systems using junction boxes within Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA) Manual D guidance (Rutkowski, H. Manual D -- Residential Duct Systems, 3rd edition, Version 1.00. Arlington, VA: Air Conditioning Contractors of America, 2009.). IBACOS used computational fluid dynamics software to explore and develop guidance to better control the airflow effects of factors that may impact pressure losses within junction boxes among various design configurations (Beach, R., Prahl, D., and Lange, R. CFD Analysis of Flexible Duct Junction Box Design. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, submitted for publication 2013). These recommendations can help to ensure that a system aligns more closely with the design and the occupants' comfort expectations. Specifically, the recommendations described herein show how to configure a rectangular box with four outlets, a triangular box with three outlets, metal wyes with two outlets, and multiple configurations for more than four outlets. Designers of HVAC systems, contractors who are fabricating junction boxes on site, and anyone using the ACCA Manual D process for sizing duct runs will find this measure guideline invaluable for more accurately minimizing pressure losses when using junction boxes with flexible ducts.

  16. Beam quality measure for vector beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndagano, Bienvenu; Sroor, Hend; McLaren, Melanie; Rosales-Guzmán, Carmelo; Forbes, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    Vector beams have found a myriad of applications, from laser materials processing to microscopy, and are now easily produced in the laboratory. They are usually differentiated from scalar beams by qualitative measures, for example, visual inspection of beam profiles after a rotating polarizer. Here we introduce a quantitative beam quality measure for vector beams and demonstrate it on cylindrical vector vortex beams. We show how a single measure can be defined for the vector quality, from 0 (purely scalar) to 1 (purely vector). Our measure is derived from a quantum toolkit, which we show applies to classical vector beams. PMID:27472580

  17. Reliability Based Optimum Design of a Gear Box

    OpenAIRE

    D.MADHUSEKHAR; DR.K. MADHAVA REDDY

    2014-01-01

    The gear box represents an important mechanical sub system. In machine tools, the propose of a gear box is to provide a series of useful output speeds so that the machining operation can be carried out at its most optimum operating conditions high spindle speeds with low feed rate for roughing operations. An important aspect in the design of machine tool transmission is to keep the cost and volume of the gear box to a minimum. The probabilistic approach to design has been considered to be mor...

  18. Security of the AES with a Secret S-Box

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiessen, Tyge; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde; Kölbl, Stefan;

    2015-01-01

    How does the security of the AES change when the S-box is replaced by a secret S-box, about which the adversary has no knowledge? Would it be safe to reduce the number of encryption rounds? In this paper, we demonstrate attacks based on integral cryptanalysis which allow to recover both the secret...... key and the secret S-box for respectively four, five, and six rounds of the AES. Despite the significantly larger amount of secret information which an adversary needs to recover, the attacks are very efficient with time/data complexities of 217/216, 238/240 and 290/264, respectively. Another...

  19. Stable beams

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Stable beams: two simple words that carry so much meaning at CERN. When LHC page one switched from "squeeze" to "stable beams" at 10.40 a.m. on Wednesday, 3 June, it triggered scenes of jubilation in control rooms around the CERN sites, as the LHC experiments started to record physics data for the first time in 27 months. This is what CERN is here for, and it’s great to be back in business after such a long period of preparation for the next stage in the LHC adventure.   I’ve said it before, but I’ll say it again. This was a great achievement, and testimony to the hard and dedicated work of so many people in the global CERN community. I could start to list the teams that have contributed, but that would be a mistake. Instead, I’d simply like to say that an achievement as impressive as running the LHC – a machine of superlatives in every respect – takes the combined effort and enthusiasm of everyone ...

  20. Beam propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main part of this thesis consists of 15 published papers, in which the numerical Beam Propagating Method (BPM) is investigated, verified and used in a number of applications. In the introduction a derivation of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation is presented to connect the beginning of the soliton papers with Maxwell's equations including a nonlinear polarization. This thesis focuses on the wide use of the BPM for numerical simulations of propagating light and particle beams through different types of structures such as waveguides, fibers, tapers, Y-junctions, laser arrays and crystalline solids. We verify the BPM in the above listed problems against other numerical methods for example the Finite-element Method, perturbation methods and Runge-Kutta integration. Further, the BPM is shown to be a simple and effective way to numerically set up the Green's function in matrix form for periodic structures. The Green's function matrix can then be diagonalized with matrix methods yielding the eigensolutions of the structure. The BPM inherent transverse periodicity can be untied, if desired, by for example including an absorptive refractive index at the computational window edges. The interaction of two first-order soliton pulses is strongly dependent on the phase relationship between the individual solitons. When optical phase shift keying is used in coherent one-carrier wavelength communication, the fiber attenuation will suppress or delay the nonlinear instability. (orig.)

  1. The AirQuality SenseBox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuth, Dustin; Nuest, Daniel; Bröring, Arne; Pebesma, Edzer

    2013-04-01

    In the past year, a group of open hardware enthusiasts and citizen scientists had large success in the crowd-funding of an open hardware-based sensor platform for air quality monitoring, called the Air Quality Egg. Via the kickstarter platform, the group was able to collect triple the amount of money than needed to fulfill their goals. Data generated by the Air Quality Egg is pushed to the data logging platform cosm.com, which makes the devices a part of the Internet of Things. The project aims at increasing the participation of citizens in the collection of data, the development of sensors, the operation of sensor stations, and, as data on cosm is publicly available, the sharing, visualization and analysis of data. Air Quality Eggs can measure NO2 and CO concentrations, as well as relative humidity and temperature. The chosen sensors are low-cost and have limited precision and accurracy. The Air Quality Egg consists of a stationary outdoor and a stationary indoor unit. Each outdoor unit will wirelessly transmit air quality measurements to the indoor unit, which forwards the data to cosm. Most recent versions of the Air Quality Egg allow a rough calibration of the gas sensors and on-the-fly conversion from raw sensor readings (impedance) to meaningful air quality data expressed in units of parts per billion. Data generated by these low-cost platforms are not intended to replace well-calibrated official monitoring stations, but rather augment the density of the total monitoring network with citizen sensors. To improve the usability of the Air Quality Egg, we present a new and more advanced concept, called the AirQuality SenseBox. We made the outdoor platform more autonomous and location-aware by adding solarpanels and rechargeable batteries as a power source. The AirQuality SenseBox knows its own position from a GPS device attached to the platform. As a mobile sensor platform, it can for instance be attached to vehicles. A low-cost and low-power wireless chipset

  2. GREEN SUPERCOMPUTING IN A DESKTOP BOX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HSU, CHUNG-HSING [Los Alamos National Laboratory; FENG, WU-CHUN [NON LANL; CHING, AVERY [NON LANL

    2007-01-17

    The computer workstation, introduced by Sun Microsystems in 1982, was the tool of choice for scientists and engineers as an interactive computing environment for the development of scientific codes. However, by the mid-1990s, the performance of workstations began to lag behind high-end commodity PCs. This, coupled with the disappearance of BSD-based operating systems in workstations and the emergence of Linux as an open-source operating system for PCs, arguably led to the demise of the workstation as we knew it. Around the same time, computational scientists started to leverage PCs running Linux to create a commodity-based (Beowulf) cluster that provided dedicated computer cycles, i.e., supercomputing for the rest of us, as a cost-effective alternative to large supercomputers, i.e., supercomputing for the few. However, as the cluster movement has matured, with respect to cluster hardware and open-source software, these clusters have become much more like their large-scale supercomputing brethren - a shared (and power-hungry) datacenter resource that must reside in a machine-cooled room in order to operate properly. Consequently, the above observations, when coupled with the ever-increasing performance gap between the PC and cluster supercomputer, provide the motivation for a 'green' desktop supercomputer - a turnkey solution that provides an interactive and parallel computing environment with the approximate form factor of a Sun SPARCstation 1 'pizza box' workstation. In this paper, they present the hardware and software architecture of such a solution as well as its prowess as a developmental platform for parallel codes. In short, imagine a 12-node personal desktop supercomputer that achieves 14 Gflops on Linpack but sips only 185 watts of power at load, resulting in a performance-power ratio that is over 300% better than their reference SMP platform.

  3. Necropsy Report - Eaastern Pipistrelle Box Culvert I-55 Grenada, MS

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Necropsy report of a eastern pipisttrelle tricolored bat found dead in a box culvert along I55, near Grenada, MS provides no indication of whitenose syndrome.

  4. Experts’ Misinterpretation of Box Plots – a Dual Processing Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Lem

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that students often misinterpret the area of the box in box plots as representing the frequency or proportion of observations in that interval, while it actually represents density. This misinterpretation has been shown to be based on the saliency of this area and can be explained by heuristic reasoning as defined by dual process theories. In this study we tested whether expert users of box plots also display this misinterpretation and show signs of the same heuristic reasoning as found in students. Using a reaction time test, we found signs of heuristic reasoning in experts, both with respect to accuracy and reaction times. If even experts have difficulty interpreting box plots, one can question whether these are an appropriate form of representation to use when reporting data and deserve the prominent place they currently have in the statistics curriculum.

  5. Matter-wave dark solitons in box-like traps

    CERN Document Server

    Sciacca, M; Parker, N G

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the experimental development of quasi-homogeneous Bose-Einstein condensates confined in box-like traps, we study numerically the dynamics of dark solitons in such traps at zero temperature. We consider the cases where the side walls of the box potential rise either as a power-law or a Gaussian. While the soliton propagates through the homogeneous interior of the box without dissipation, it typically dissipates energy during a reflection from a wall through the emission of sound waves, causing a slight increase in the soliton's speed. We characterise this energy loss as a function of the wall parameters. Moreover, over multiple oscillations and reflections in the box-like trap, the energy loss and speed increase of the soliton can be significant, although the decay eventually becomes stabilized when the soliton equilibrates with the ambient sound field.

  6. BoxLib with Tiling: An AMR Software Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Weiqun; Day, Marcus; Nguyen, Tan; Shalf, John; Unat, Didem

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a block-structured adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) software framework that incorporates tiling, a well-known loop transformation. Because the multiscale, multiphysics codes built in BoxLib are designed to solve complex systems at high resolution, performance on current and next generation architectures is essential. With the expectation of many more cores per node on next generation architectures, the ability to effectively utilize threads within a node is essential, and the current model for parallelization will not be sufficient. We describe a new version of BoxLib in which the tiling constructs are embedded so that BoxLib-based applications can easily realize expected performance gains without extra effort on the part of the application developer. We also discuss a path forward to enable future versions of BoxLib to take advantage of NUMA-aware optimizations using the TiDA portable library.

  7. Fusion welded fabrication of unshielded steel glove boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This part of the Specification together with Part 1 covers the manufacture, testing, inspection and delivery of stainless steel glove boxes including such fittings internally and externally as shown on relevant drawings. (author)

  8. Fusion welded fabrication of unshielded steel glove boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Specification deals with the manufacture, testing, inspection and delivery of fabricated glove boxes, including such internal and/or external fittings as are shown on the relevant drawings. (author)

  9. Immunohistochemical evidence for multiple photosystems in box jellyfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekström, Peter; Garm, Anders Lydik; Pålsson, Jonas;

    2008-01-01

    Cubomedusae (box jellyfish) possess a remarkable visual system with 24 eyes distributed in four sensory structures termed rhopalia. Each rhopalium is equipped with six eyes: two pairs of pigment cup eyes and two unpaired lens eyes. Each eye type probably captures specific features of the visual......, and electroretinograms (ERG) to determine their spectral sensitivity. All photoreceptor cells of the two lens eyes of the box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora and Carybdea marsupialis displayed immunoreactivity for an antibody directed against the zebrafish ultraviolet (UV) opsin, but not against any of eight other...... data demonstrate that the lens eyes of box jellyfish utilize a single opsin and are thus color-blind, and that there is probably a different photopigment in the pigment cup eyes. The results support our hypothesis that the lens eyes and the pigment cup eyes of box jellyfish are involved in different...

  10. Sizing Procedures for a Fibre Reinforced Plastic Box

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kamal

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available A fibre-reinforced plastic (FRP box is an important class of structural component employed as the bending, torsion, or bending-torsion load bearing member in the modern light- weight structures. This paper presents various steps involved in the design of such a box beginning with preliminary analysis and optimization to the final sizing. The box made up of carbon fibre composite is a typical numerical example of such FRP construction. Numerical results obtained from the static stress analysis, the panel buckling analysis and the structural optimization as used for this sizing exercise, are presented. It is believed that the complete procedure of analysis using finite element method and then sizing of any FRP box in a comprehensive way, is reported for the first time.

  11. Trial manufacture of portable type `WISH BOX`; Kahangata WISH BOX no shisaku kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushiyama, I.; Sakuma, H.; Qin, W. [Ashikaga Institute of Technology, Tochigi (Japan); Onai, Y.

    1996-10-27

    This paper proposes the small portable type power source `WISH BOX` (wind and solar hybrid) composed of a small wind power generator and solar cell panels. Since solar radiation and wind power are complementary to each other in seasons, day and night, and fine and cloudy weather, WISH BOX is useful for standalone power source in non-power areas of developing countries, life spot in disasters, and outdoor leisure. The most small light-weight high-performance AIR303 produced by Southwest Windpower Co., USA is used as wind power generator, and two 50W solar cell panels HSC-5010-S produced by Daido Hokusan Co. is used. Sealed lead storage batteries (12V, 20Ah each) are also connected to cope with load fluctuation. In comparison with conventional portable gasoline engine generators, this environment-friendly generator is featured by fuel-free, no emission of gases, no noises and no fire occurrence, and can also supply stable power with small batteries even in the nighttime and cloudy weather by combining wind power. The generator of 400,000 yen is now in field experiment. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  12. Assessment of seismic performance of skew reinforced concrete box girder bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Mohti, Ahmed; Pekcan, Gokhan

    2013-12-01

    The seismic vulnerability of highway bridges remains an important problem and has received increased attention as a consequence of unprecedented damage observed during several major earthquakes. A significant number of research studies have examined the performance of skew bridges under service and seismic loads. The results of these studies are particularly sensitive to modeling assumptions in view of the interacting parameters. In the present study, three-dimensional improved beam-stick models of two-span highway bridges with skew angles varying from 0° to 60° are developed to investigate the seismic response characteristics of skew box girder bridges. The relative accuracy of beam-stick models is verified against counterpart finite element models. The effect of various parameters and conditions on the overall seismic response was examined such as skew angle, ground motion intensity, soil condition, abutment support conditions, bridge aspect ratio, and foundation-base conditions. The study shows that the improved beam-stick models can be used to conduct accurate nonlinear time history analysis of skew bridges. Skew angle and interacting parameters were found to have significant effect on the behavior of skewed highway bridges. Furthermore, the performance of shear keys may have a predominant effect on the overall seismic response of the skew bridges.

  13. Maximal unitarity for the four-mass double box

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Henrik; Kosower, David A.; Larsen, Kasper J.

    2014-01-01

    We extend the maximal-unitarity formalism at two loops to double-box integrals with four massive external legs. These are relevant for higher-point processes, as well as for heavy vector rescattering, VV -> VV. In this formalism, the two-loop amplitude is expanded over a basis of integrals. We obtain formulas for the coefficients of the double-box integrals, expressing them as products of tree-level amplitudes integrated over specific complex multidimensional contours. The contours are subjec...

  14. Gray-box modelling approach for description of storage tunnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harremoës, Poul; Carstensen, Jacob

    1999-01-01

    The dynamics of a storage tunnel is examined using a model based on on-line measured data and a combination of simple deterministic and black-box stochastic elements. This approach, called gray-box modeling, is a new promising methodology for giving an on-line state description of sewer systems. ...... in a SCADA system because the most important information on the specific system is provided on-line...

  15. SOME RECURRENCE FORMULAS FOR BOX SPLINES AND CONE SPLINES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patrick J. Van Fleet

    2004-01-01

    A degree elevation formula for multivariate simplex splines was given by Micchelli[6] and extended to hold for multivariate Dirichlet splines in [8]. We report similar formulae for multivariate cone splines and box splines. To this end, we utilize a relation due to Dahmen and Micchelli[4] that connects box splines and cone splines and a degree reduction formula given by Cohen, Lyche, and Riesenfeld in [2].

  16. SOME RECURRENCE FORMULAS FOR BOX SPLINES AND CONE SPLINES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patrick J. Van Fleet

    2002-01-01

    A degree elevation formula for multivariate simplex splines was given by Micchelli [6] and extended to hold for multivariate Dirichlet splines in [8]. We report similar formulae for multivariate cone splines and box_splines. To this end, we utilize a relation due to Dahmen and Micchelli [4] that connects box splines and cone splines and a degree reduction formula given by Cohen, Lyche, and Riesenfeld in [2].

  17. Reliability Based Optimum Design of a Gear Box

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Madhusekhar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The gear box represents an important mechanical sub system. In machine tools, the propose of a gear box is to provide a series of useful output speeds so that the machining operation can be carried out at its most optimum operating conditions high spindle speeds with low feed rate for roughing operations. An important aspect in the design of machine tool transmission is to keep the cost and volume of the gear box to a minimum. The probabilistic approach to design has been considered to be more rational compared to the conventional design approach based on the factor of safety. The existence of uncertainties in either engineering simulations or manufacturing processes calls for a reliability-based design optimization (RBDO model for robust and cost-effective designs. In the present work a three shaft four speed gear box is designed using reliability principles. For the specified reliability of the system (Gear box, component reliability (Gear pair is calculated by considering the system as a series system. Design is considered to be safe and adequate if the probability of failure of gear box is less than or equal to a specified quantity in each of the two failure modes. A FORTRAN program has been developed to calculate the mean values of face widths of gears for the minimum mass of gear box. By changing the probability of failure of system variations in the face widths are studied. The reliability based optimum design results are compared with those obtained by deterministic optimum design. The minimum mass of the gear box is increase as the specified values of the reliability is increased.

  18. Beam-beam effects in the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiltsev, V.; Alexahin, Y.; Lebedev, V.; Lebrun, P.; Moore, R.S.; Sen, T.; Tollestrup, A.; Valishev, A.; Zhang, X.L.; /Fermilab

    2005-01-01

    The Tevatron in Collider Run II (2001-present) is operating with 6 times more bunches, many times higher beam intensities and luminosities than in Run I (1992-1995). Electromagnetic long-range and head-on interactions of high intensity proton and antiproton beams have been significant sources of beam loss and lifetime limitations. We present observations of the beam-beam phenomena in the Tevatron and results of relevant beam studies. We analyze the data and various methods employed in operations, predict the performance for planned luminosity upgrades, and discuss ways to improve it.

  19. Jewelry boxes contaminated by Aspergillus oryzae: an occupational health risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellanger, Anne-Pauline; Roussel, Anaïs; Millon, Laurence; Delaforge, Marcel; Reboux, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, 100,000 jewelry boxes, manufactured in China, were delivered to a jewelry manufacturer in Besançon, France. All the boxes were contaminated by mold. Because the workers refused to handle these jewelry boxes, the company contacted our laboratory to determine how to deal with the problem. Three choices were available: (1) decontaminate the boxes, (2) return the boxes to the Chinese manufacturer, or (3) destroy the entire shipment. Based on microscopic identification, the culture analysis was positive for A. oryzae. This could not be confirmed by molecular techniques because of the genetic proximity of A. oryzae and A. flavus. Because A. flavus can produce aflatoxins, we tested for them using mass spectrometry. Aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, and M1 were not detected; however, given the specifics of this situation, we could not discard the possibility of the presence of other aflatoxins, such as P1, B3, GM2, and ethoxyaflatoxin B2. We concluded that the contamination by A. oryzae was probably due to food products. However, because of the possible presence of aflatoxins, occupational health risks could not be entirely ruled out. The decision was therefore taken to destroy all the jewelry boxes by incineration. To avoid a similar situation we propose: (1) to maintain conditions limiting mold contamination during production (not eating on the work site, efficient ventilation systems); (2) to desiccate the products before sending them; and (3) to closely control the levels of dampness during storage and transport.

  20. Unconventional Bearing Capacity Analysis and Optimization of Multicell Box Girders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovan Tepic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with unconventional bearing capacity analysis and the procedure of optimizing a two-cell box girder. The generalized model which enables the local stress-strain analysis of multicell girders was developed based on the principle of cross-sectional decomposition. The applied methodology is verified using the experimental data (Djelosevic et al., 2012 for traditionally formed box girders. The qualitative and quantitative evaluation of results obtained for the two-cell box girder is realized based on comparative analysis using the finite element method (FEM and the ANSYS v12 software. The deflection function obtained by analytical and numerical methods was found consistent provided that the maximum deviation does not exceed 4%. Multicell box girders are rationally designed support structures characterized by much lower susceptibility of their cross-sectional elements to buckling and higher specific capacity than traditionally formed box girders. The developed local stress model is applied for optimizing the cross section of a two-cell box carrier. The author points to the advantages of implementing the model of local stresses in the optimization process and concludes that the technological reserve of bearing capacity amounts to 20% at the same girder weight and constant load conditions.

  1. Ultra-low power S-Boxes architecture for AES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XING Ji-peng; ZOU Xue-cheng; GUO Xu

    2008-01-01

    It is crucial to design energy-efficient advancedcncryption standard (AES) cryptography for low power embeddedsystems powered by limited battery. Since the S-Boxes consumemuch of the total AES circuit power, an efficient approach toreducing the AES power consumption consists in reducing theS-Boxes power consumption. Among various implementationsof S-Boxes, the most energy-efficient one is the decoder-switch-encoder (DSE) architecture. In this paper, we refine the DSEarchitecture and propose one faster, more compact S-Boxesarchitecture of lower power: an improved and full-balanced DSEarchitecture. This architecture achieves low power consumptionof 68 μW at 10 MHz using 0.25 μm 1.8V UMC CMOStechnology. Compared with the original DSE S-Boxes, it furtherreduces the delay, gate count and power consumption by 8%,14% and 10% respectively. At the sane time, simulation resultsshow that the improved DSE S-Boxes has the best performanceamong various S-Boxes architectures in terms of power-areaproduct and power-delay product, and it is optimal forimplementing low power AES cryptography.

  2. Measure Guideline: Optimizing the Configuration of Flexible Duct Junction Boxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beach, R. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Burdick, A. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2014-03-01

    This measure guideline offers additional recommendations to heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system designers for optimizing flexible duct, constant-volume HVAC systems using junction boxes within Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA) Manual D guidance. IBACOS used computational fluid dynamics software to explore and develop guidance to better control the airflow effects of factors that may impact pressure losses within junction boxes among various design configurations. These recommendations can help to ensure that a system aligns more closely with the design and the occupants' comfort expectations. Specifically, the recommendations described herein show how to configure a rectangular box with four outlets, a triangular box with three outlets, metal wyes with two outlets, and multiple configurations for more than four outlets. Designers of HVAC systems, contractors who are fabricating junction boxes on site, and anyone using the ACCA Manual D process for sizing duct runs will find this measure guideline invaluable for more accurately minimizing pressure losses when using junction boxes with flexible ducts.

  3. Closure of an analytical chemistry glove box in alpha laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The works with plutonium are performed in gloves box, operated below atmospheric pressure, to protect the experimenters from this alpha-active material. After 12 years of continual processes, it was necessary the decommissioning of the chemistry glove box in our alpha-laboratory. A great deal of our attention was devoted to the working techniques because of extreme care needed to avoid activity release. The decommissioning includes the following main operations: a) Planning and documentation for the regulatory authority. b) Internal decontamination with surface cleaning and chelating agents. c) Measurement of the remainder internal radioactivity. d) Sealing of the glove ports and nozzles. e) Disconnection of the glove box from the exhaust duct. f) Design and construction of a container for the glove box. g) Transportation of the glove box from alpha-laboratory, to a transitory storage until its final disposal. The above mentioned operations are described in this paper including too: data of personal doses during the operations, characteristics and volumes of radioactive wastes and a description of the instrument used for the measurement of inside glove box activity. (Author)

  4. Performance and testing of a hot box storage solar cooker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nahar, N.M. [Central Arid Zone Research Inst., Rajasthan (India)

    2003-05-01

    A hot box solar cooker with used engine oil as a storage material has been designed, fabricated and tested so that cooking can be performed even in the late evening. The performance and testing of a storage solar cooker have been investigated by measuring stagnation temperatures and conducting cooking trials. The maximum stagnation temperature inside the cooking chambers of the hot box solar cooker with storage material was the same as that of the hot box solar cooker without storage during the day time, but it was 23 deg C more in the storage solar cooker from 1700 to 2400 h. The efficiency of the hot box storage solar cooker has been found to be 27.5%. Cooking trials were also conducted. The rice and green gram washed split were kept at 1730 h, and these were cooked perfectly by 2000 h in the hot box storage solar cooker, while these were not cooked in the hot box solar cooker without storage. (Author)

  5. Transverse beam profile measurements with slit scanner and Faraday cup at REX-ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Cantero, E D; Lanaia, D; Sosa, A; Voulot, D

    2014-01-01

    The transverse profiles for the HIE-ISOLDE beams will be measured using a system composed of a scanning slit and a Faraday cup. A validation test of the proposed device was performed using the REX-ISOLDE stable beam and a prototype diagnostic box designed for HIE-ISOLDE. The slit used for this test was very thin (0.2 mm width), but still fairly good profiles could be obtained for beams with total current of around 20 pA (typical beam intensity during normal set-up procedures for REX-ISOLDE).

  6. Free vibrations of multi-girder and multi-cell box bridges with transverse deformations effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, E.; Frostig, Y.

    2005-01-01

    A general mathematical approach is developed for the free vibration behaviour analysis of multi-girder and multi-cell box bridges with a single or multi span, including the effects of the transverse deformations of the bridge cross-section. The governing equations of motion and the corresponding boundary and continuity conditions are derived via the variational principle of virtual work following Hamilton's principle. The model is general and valid for any boundary and continuity conditions, and is applicable for multi-girder bridges with longitudinal and cross beams and for multi-cell box bridges. The warping and the distortion of the bridge cross-section effects are included in the proposed model. Closed-form solutions of the governing equations are derived and the Newton-Raphson method is used to determine the eigenfrequencies. Numerical examples are presented to validate the proposed model, and are also used to examine the accuracy of other approximate models used in the analysis of bridges. The results of the proposed model are validated through comparison with three-dimensional finite element models. The results reveal that the transverse deformations decrease the magnitudes of the eigenfrequencies of the torsional mode shapes, as well as the high flexural modes.

  7. Principal Investigator-in-a-Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Laurence R.

    1999-01-01

    Human performance in orbit is currently limited by several factors beyond the intrinsic awkwardness of motor control in weightlessness. Cognitive functioning can be affected by such factors as cumulative sleep loss, stress and the psychological effects of long-duration small-group isolation. When an astronaut operates a scientific experiment, the performance decrement associated with such factors can lead to lost or poor quality data and even the total loss of a scientific objective, at great cost to the sponsors and to the dismay of the Principal Investigator. In long-duration flights, as anticipated on the International Space Station and on any planetary exploration, the experimental model is further complicated by long delays between training and experiment, and the large number of experiments each crew member must perform. Although no documented studies have been published on the subject, astronauts report that an unusually large number of simple errors are made in space. Whether a result of the effects of microgravity, accumulated fatigue, stress or other factors, this pattern of increased error supports the need for a computerized decision-making aid for astronauts performing experiments. Artificial intelligence and expert systems might serve as powerful tools for assisting experiments in space. Those conducting space experiments typically need assistance exactly when the planned checklist does not apply. Expert systems, which use bits of human knowledge and human methods to respond appropriately to unusual situations, have a flexibility that is highly desirable in circumstances where an invariably predictable course of action/response does not exist. Frequently the human expert on the ground is unavailable, lacking the latest information, or not consulted by the astronaut conducting the experiment. In response to these issues, we have developed "Principal Investigator-in-a-Box," or [PI], to capture the reasoning process of the real expert, the Principal

  8. The Design of Plywood Webs for Airplane Wing Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trayer, George W

    1931-01-01

    This report deals with the design of plywood webs for wooden box beams to obtain maximum strength per unit weight. A method of arriving at the most efficient and economical web thickness, and hence the most suitable unit shear stress, is presented and working stresses in shear for various types of webs and species of plywood are given. The questions of diaphragm spacing and required glue area between the webs and flange are also discussed.

  9. Beam halo in high-intensity beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In space-charge dominated beams the nonlinear space-charge forces produce a filamentation pattern, which in projection to the 2-D phase spaces results in a 2-component beam consisting of an inner core and a diffuse outer halo. The beam-halo is of concern for a next generation of cw, high-power proton linacs that could be applied to intense neutron generators for nuclear materials processing. The author describes what has been learned about beam halo and the evolution of space-charge dominated beams using numerical simulations of initial laminar beams in uniform linear focusing channels. Initial results are presented from a study of beam entropy for an intense space-charge dominated beam

  10. Beam imaging sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAninch, Michael D.; Root, Jeffrey J.

    2016-07-05

    The present invention relates generally to the field of sensors for beam imaging and, in particular, to a new and useful beam imaging sensor for use in determining, for example, the power density distribution of a beam including, but not limited to, an electron beam or an ion beam. In one embodiment, the beam imaging sensor of the present invention comprises, among other items, a circumferential slit that is either circular, elliptical or polygonal in nature.

  11. A novel method to design S-box based on chaotic map and genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Wong, Kwok-Wo; Li, Changbing; Li, Yang

    2012-01-01

    The substitution box (S-box) is an important component in block encryption algorithms. In this Letter, the problem of constructing S-box is transformed to a Traveling Salesman Problem and a method for designing S-box based on chaos and genetic algorithm is proposed. Since the proposed method makes full use of the traits of chaotic map and evolution process, stronger S-box is obtained. The results of performance test show that the presented S-box has good cryptographic properties, which justify that the proposed algorithm is effective in generating strong S-boxes.

  12. A novel method to design S-box based on chaotic map and genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The substitution box (S-box) is an important component in block encryption algorithms. In this Letter, the problem of constructing S-box is transformed to a Traveling Salesman Problem and a method for designing S-box based on chaos and genetic algorithm is proposed. Since the proposed method makes full use of the traits of chaotic map and evolution process, stronger S-box is obtained. The results of performance test show that the presented S-box has good cryptographic properties, which justify that the proposed algorithm is effective in generating strong S-boxes. -- Highlights: ► The problem of constructing S-box is transformed to a Traveling Salesman Problem. ► We present a new method for designing S-box based on chaos and genetic algorithm. ► The proposed algorithm is effective in generating strong S-boxes.

  13. A novel method to design S-box based on chaotic map and genetic algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yong, E-mail: wangyong_cqupt@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Power Transmission Equipment and System Security and New Technology, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Key Laboratory of Electronic Commerce and Logistics, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing 400065 (China); Wong, Kwok-Wo [Department of Electronic Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Li, Changbing [Key Laboratory of Electronic Commerce and Logistics, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing 400065 (China); Li, Yang [Department of Automatic Control and Systems Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Mapping Street, S1 3DJ (United Kingdom)

    2012-01-30

    The substitution box (S-box) is an important component in block encryption algorithms. In this Letter, the problem of constructing S-box is transformed to a Traveling Salesman Problem and a method for designing S-box based on chaos and genetic algorithm is proposed. Since the proposed method makes full use of the traits of chaotic map and evolution process, stronger S-box is obtained. The results of performance test show that the presented S-box has good cryptographic properties, which justify that the proposed algorithm is effective in generating strong S-boxes. -- Highlights: ► The problem of constructing S-box is transformed to a Traveling Salesman Problem. ► We present a new method for designing S-box based on chaos and genetic algorithm. ► The proposed algorithm is effective in generating strong S-boxes.

  14. An approach towards solving refraction problems in EM1002 multi-beam echo-sounder system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, W.A.

    box to the transceiver unit are 5 m long. The function of transducer is to execute the command given by TRB-32, which is to transmit and receive the beams. 2.3. TRANSCEIVER UNIT (TRU): The EM1002 transceiver unit contains the transmit..., the position processing module is executed. This module corrects for the positional errors caused due to uneven satellite geometry, shadow region, less number of shore station etc. And hence the positions (center beams positions) are merged...

  15. Intelligent trigger processor for the crystal box

    CERN Document Server

    Sanders, G H; Cooper, M D; Hart, G W; Hoffman, C M; Hogan, G E; Hughes, E B; Matis, H S; Rolfe, J; Sandberg, V D; Williams, R A; Wilson, S; Zeman, H

    1981-01-01

    A large solid angle angular modular NaI(Tl) detector with 432 phototubes and 88 trigger scintillators is being used to search simultaneously for three lepton flavor-changing decays of the muon. A beam of up to 10/sup 6/ muons stopping per second with a 6% duty factor would yield up to 1000 triggers per second from random triple coincidences. A reduction of the trigger rate to 10 Hz is required from a hardwired primary trigger processor. Further reduction to <1 Hz is achieved by a microprocessor-based secondary trigger processor. The primary trigger hardware imposes voter coincidence logic, stringent timing requirements, and a non-adjacency requirement in the trigger scintillators defined by hardwired circuits. Sophisticated geometric requirements are imposed by a PROM-based matrix logic, and energy and vector-momentum cuts are imposed by a hardwired processor using LSI flash ADC's and digital arithmetic logic. The secondary trigger employs four satellite microprocessors to do a sparse data scan, multiplex ...

  16. Implications of Big Box Retail Location on Regional Profits, Consumer Utility, and Land Rents

    OpenAIRE

    Stater, Mark; Visser, Michael S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses a monocentric city model to examine the effects of big box retailing on local retail prices, land values and utility. Relative to small local retailers, the big box offers a price discount that increases in its marginal cost advantage. Big box entry reduces local retail prices and profits, but provides an increase in household utility that depends positively on the distance between the big box location and the CBD. However, big box locations are unstable with imperfectly compe...

  17. Study on the Dietary Plan of Boxing Athletes during the Period of Weight Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Bo Ma

    2015-01-01

    The study combined with the principle of reasonable weight loss for the boxing athletes by stating the overview of the boxing athlete's weight loss, as well as its influence on the function index of boxing athletes as the weight loss of boxing athletes can directly affect sports performance. It discusses the nutritional supplement measures of boxing athletes during the period of the slow and rapid weight loss stage.

  18. Study on the Dietary Plan of Boxing Athletes during the Period of Weight Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Ma

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The study combined with the principle of reasonable weight loss for the boxing athletes by stating the overview of the boxing athlete's weight loss, as well as its influence on the function index of boxing athletes as the weight loss of boxing athletes can directly affect sports performance. It discusses the nutritional supplement measures of boxing athletes during the period of the slow and rapid weight loss stage.

  19. Integrated Box Interrogation System (IBIS) Preliminary Design Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DR. Stephen Croft; Mr. David Martancik; Dr. Brian Young; Dr. Patrick MJ Chard; Dr. Robert J Estop; Sheila Melton; Gaetano J. Arnone

    2003-01-13

    Canberra Industries has won the tendered solicitation, INEEL/EST-99-00121 for boxed waste Nondestructive Assay Development and Demonstration. Canberra will provide the Integrated Box Interrogation System (IBIS) which is a suite of assay instrumentation and a data reduction system that addresses the measurement needs for Boxed Wastes identified in the solicitation and facilitates the associated experimental program and demonstration of system capability. The IBIS system will consist of the next generation CWAM system, i.e. CWAM II, which is a Scanning Passive/Active Neutron interrogation system which we will call a Box Segmented Neutron Scanner (BSNS), combined with a physically separate Box Segmented Gamma-ray Scanning (BSGS) system. These systems are based on existing hardware designs but will be tailored to the large sample size and enhanced to allow the program to evaluate the following measurement criteria:Characterization and correction for matrix heterogeneity Characterization of non-uniform radio-nuclide and isotopic compositions Assay of high density matrices (both high-Z and high moderator contents)Correction for radioactive material physical form - such as self shielding or multiplication effects due to large accumulations of radioactive materials.Calibration with a minimal set of reference standards and representative matrices.THis document summarizes the conceptual design parameters of the IBIS and indicates areas key to the success of the project where development is to be centered. The work presented here is a collaborative effort between scientific staff within Canberra and within the NIS-6 group at LANL.

  20. Integrated Box Interrogation System (IBIS) Preliminary Design Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canberra Industries has won the tendered solicitation, INEEL/EST-99-00121 for boxed waste Nondestructive Assay Development and Demonstration. Canberra will provide the Integrated Box Interrogation System (IBIS) which is a suite of assay instrumentation and a data reduction system that addresses the measurement needs for Boxed Wastes identified in the solicitation and facilitates the associated experimental program and demonstration of system capability. The IBIS system will consist of the next generation CWAM system, i.e. CWAM II, which is a Scanning Passive/Active Neutron interrogation system which we will call a Box Segmented Neutron Scanner (BSNS), combined with a physically separate Box Segmented Gamma-ray Scanning (BSGS) system. These systems are based on existing hardware designs but will be tailored to the large sample size and enhanced to allow the program to evaluate the following measurement criteria:Characterization and correction for matrix heterogeneity Characterization of non-uniform radio-nuclide and isotopic compositions Assay of high density matrices (both high-Z and high moderator contents)Correction for radioactive material physical form - such as self shielding or multiplication effects due to large accumulations of radioactive materials.Calibration with a minimal set of reference standards and representative matrices.THis document summarizes the conceptual design parameters of the IBIS and indicates areas key to the success of the project where development is to be centered. The work presented here is a collaborative effort between scientific staff within Canberra and within the NIS-6 group at LANL

  1. Software sensors based on the grey-box modelling approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, J.; Harremoës, P.; Strube, Rune

    1996-01-01

    -box model for the specific dynamics is identified. Similarly, an on-line software sensor for detecting the occurrence of backwater phenomena can be developed by comparing the dynamics of a flow measurement with a nearby level measurement. For treatment plants it is found that grey-box models applied to on......-line measurements. With respect to the development of software sensors, the grey-box models possess two important features. Firstly, the on-line measurements can be filtered according to the grey-box model in order to remove noise deriving from the measuring equipment and controlling devices. Secondly, the grey......-box models may contain terms which can be estimated on-line by use of the models and measurements. In this paper, it is demonstrated that many storage basins in sewer systems can be used as an on-line flow measurement provided that the basin is monitored on-line with a level transmitter and that a grey...

  2. Boxes and Sound Quality in AN Italian Opera House

    Science.gov (United States)

    COCCHI, A.; GARAI, M.; TAVERNELLI, C.

    2000-04-01

    The “Teatro Comunale” (City Theatre) in Bologna is an Italian opera house of the 18th century, designed by the famous architect Antonio Galli Bibiena. Largely built in masonry, it has been only partially restored and altered several times, but never destroyed and rebuilt. The study of its acoustics, while interesting for itself, offers the opportunity to investigate the role of the boxes, which constitute the most evident characteristic of Italian opera houses. The study was carried on at first by measurements, acquiring binaural impulse responses in the stalls and in the boxes, and then by computer simulation, modelling also some changes which cannot be done in the real hall. The measurements revealed clear differences between the listening quality in the boxes and in the stalls, especially regarding ITDG, clarity and IACC. Computer simulations show how the sound field in the historical theatre could be if the sound absorption of the boxes were changed, adding some velvet curtains, as was done in ancient times, and clarify the effects of the cavities which constitutes the boxes.

  3. Internal Behavioral Modeling of Embedded Systems through State Box Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Chandra Prakash

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Clean Room Software Engineering (CRSE methodology is intended for the development of high quality systems. The methodology is centered on three structures which include Black Box (BB, State Box (SB and Clear Box (CB and it assures high quality through implementation of Verification and Validation models at every stage of development. The models, suggested earlier, are built using the Mathematics for implementing the formalism which is needed to assure high quality. The mathematical way of implementing the formalism has been proved to be complex, unwieldy and impracticable. The Verification and Validation methods suggested are classical and do not support formalism which is the key element of CRSE. In this paper, three UML models and the associated algorithms have been proposed that help developing state box structures in more formal way and also to automate the process of generating State Box Structures. The refined CRSE model incorporating the suggested models is also presented. The models are used to develop the internal behavior of a Pilot Project called “Temperature Monitoring and Controlling of Nuclear Reactor System” (TMCNRS which is an embedded system designed in more formal and automated way.

  4. Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of Flexible Duct Junction Box Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beach, Robert [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Prahl, Duncan [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Lange, Rich [Applied Science Consultants, LLC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2013-12-01

    IBACOS explored the relationships between pressure and physical configurations of flexible duct junction boxes by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations to predict individual box parameters and total system pressure, thereby ensuring improved HVAC performance. Current Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA) guidance (Group 11, Appendix 3, ACCA Manual D, Rutkowski 2009) allows for unconstrained variation in the number of takeoffs, box sizes, and takeoff locations. The only variables currently used in selecting an equivalent length (EL) are velocity of air in the duct and friction rate, given the first takeoff is located at least twice its diameter away from the inlet. This condition does not account for other factors impacting pressure loss across these types of fittings. For each simulation, the IBACOS team converted pressure loss within a box to an EL to compare variation in ACCA Manual D guidance to the simulated variation. IBACOS chose cases to represent flows reasonably correlating to flows typically encountered in the field and analyzed differences in total pressure due to increases in number and location of takeoffs, box dimensions, and velocity of air, and whether an entrance fitting is included. The team also calculated additional balancing losses for all cases due to discrepancies between intended outlet flows and natural flow splits created by the fitting. In certain asymmetrical cases, the balancing losses were significantly higher than symmetrical cases where the natural splits were close to the targets. Thus, IBACOS has shown additional design constraints that can ensure better system performance.

  5. Inferring 3D Articulated Models for Box Packaging Robot

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Heran; Cong, Matthew; Saxena, Ashutosh

    2011-01-01

    Given a point cloud, we consider inferring kinematic models of 3D articulated objects such as boxes for the purpose of manipulating them. While previous work has shown how to extract a planar kinematic model (often represented as a linear chain), such planar models do not apply to 3D objects that are composed of segments often linked to the other segments in cyclic configurations. We present an approach for building a model that captures the relation between the input point cloud features and the object segment as well as the relation between the neighboring object segments. We use a conditional random field that allows us to model the dependencies between different segments of the object. We test our approach on inferring the kinematic structure from partial and noisy point cloud data for a wide variety of boxes including cake boxes, pizza boxes, and cardboard cartons of several sizes. The inferred structure enables our robot to successfully close these boxes by manipulating the flaps.

  6. A symplectic coherent beam-beam model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider a simple one-dimensional model to study the effects of the beam-beam force on the coherent dynamics of colliding beams. The key ingredient is a linearized beam-beam kick. We study only the quadrupole modes, with the dynamical variables being the 2nd-order moments of the canonical variables q, p. Our model is self-consistent in the sense that no higher order moments are generated by the linearized beam-beam kicks, and that the only source of violation of symplecticity is the radiation. We discuss the round beam case only, in which vertical and horizontal quantities are assumed to be equal (though they may be different in the two beams). Depending on the values of the tune and beam intensity, we observe steady states in which otherwise identical bunches have sizes that are equal, or unequal, or periodic, or behave chaotically from turn to turn. Possible implications of luminosity saturation with increasing beam intensity are discussed. Finally, we present some preliminary applications to an asymmetric collider. 8 refs., 8 figs

  7. Literature in Focus Beta Beams: Neutrino Beams

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    By Mats Lindroos (CERN) and Mauro Mezzetto (INFN Padova, Italy) Imperial Press, 2009 The beta-beam concept for the generation of electron neutrino beams was first proposed by Piero Zucchelli in 2002. The idea created quite a stir, challenging the idea that intense neutrino beams only could be produced from the decay of pions or muons in classical neutrino beams facilities or in future neutrino factories. The concept initially struggled to make an impact but the hard work by many machine physicists, phenomenologists and theoreticians over the last five years has won the beta-beam a well-earned position as one of the frontrunners for a possible future world laboratory for high intensity neutrino oscillation physics. This is the first complete monograph on the beta-beam concept. The book describes both technical aspects and experimental aspects of the beta-beam, providing students and scientists with an insight into the possibilities o...

  8. A boost for the ISOLDE beams

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2015-01-01

    The first HIE-ISOLDE cryomodule was commissioned at the end of October. The radioactive ion beams can now be accelerated to 4.3 MeV per nucleon.   The ISOLDE beamline that supplies the Miniball array. The first HIE-ISOLDE cryomodule can be seen in the background, in its light-grey cryostat. ISOLDE is getting an energy boost. The first cryomodule of the new superconducting linear accelerator HIE-ISOLDE (High Intensity and Energy ISOLDE), located downstream of the REX-ISOLDE accelerator, increases the energy of the radioactive ion beams from 3 to 4.3 MeV per nucleon. It supplies the Miniball array, where an experiment using radioactive zinc ions (see box) began at the end of October. This is the first stage in the commissioning of HIE-ISOLDE. The facility will ultimately be equipped with four cryomodules that will accelerate the beams to 10 MeV per nucleon. Each cryomodule has five accelerating cavities and a solenoid, which focuses the beam. All of these components are superconducting. This first ...

  9. Telecommunication using muon beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Richard C.

    1976-01-01

    Telecommunication is effected by generating a beam of mu mesons or muons, varying a property of the beam at a modulating rate to generate a modulated beam of muons, and detecting the information in the modulated beam at a remote location.

  10. Stress and noises of steel box girders in Sutong Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Tao; Chen Zhijian; Dong Xuewu

    2008-01-01

    Sutong Bridge is a cable-stayed bridge with a main span of 1 088 m.370 high-precision stress monitoring measured data show that in the process of hoisting the steel box girders,the stress of the main girders is in the fluctuant and complex state and many meteorological factors,such as sunshine radiation,temperature and wind,have important influence on the change of stress of the steel box girders.According to the real-time weather data,the stress data after the process of wavelet denoising from representative measuring points in different weather conditions is picked to estab-lish the stress response brought by meteorological factors with Layered Separation method,thereby basically eliminating the influence of meteorological factors on the stress of main girders,so that accurate and reliable stress data can be got for steel box girders adjustment and cable-tensioned construction control.

  11. Thinking outside the box: fluctuations and finite size effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamaina, Dario; Trizac, Emmanuel

    2014-05-01

    The isothermal compressibility of an interacting or non-interacting system may be extracted from the fluctuations of the number of particles in a well-chosen control volume. Finite size effects are prevalent and should be accounted for to obtain a meaningful, thermodynamic compressibility. In the traditional computational setup, where a given simulation box is replicated with periodic boundary conditions, we study particle number fluctuations outside the box (i.e. when the control volume exceeds the box itself), which bear relevant thermodynamic information. We also investigate the related problem of extracting the compressibility from the structure factor in the small wave-vector limit (k → 0). The calculation should be restricted to the discrete set of wave-vectors k that are compatible with the periodicity of the system, and we assess the consequences of considering other k values, a widespread error among beginners.

  12. PARAMETRIC STUDY OF SKEW ANGLE ON BOX GIRDER BRIDGE DECK

    OpenAIRE

    Shrikant D. Bobade *, Dr. Valsson Varghese

    2016-01-01

    Box girder bridge deck, is the most common type of bridges in world and India, it consists of several Slab or girders. The span in the direction of the roadway and connected across their tops and bottoms by a thin continuous structural stab, the longitudinal box girders can be made of steel or concrete. The Simple supported single span concrete bridge deck is presented in present study. Skewed bridges are suitable in highway design when the geometry of straight bridges is not possible. The sk...

  13. Fermi hypernetted chain calculations in a periodic box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fermi hypernetted chain theory is reformulated to perform calculations with a finite number of fermions in a periodic box. The proposed method is expected to be useful to estimate the finite size effects in Quantum Monte Carlo simulations. Moreover, it can deal with anisotropic correlations as well as with different shaped boxes. Results are given for the neutron matter Bethe homework Hamiltonian and for nuclear matter with spin-isospin dependent central interactions. It is found that finite size effects come from both the kinetic and the potential energy expectation values

  14. AN ALGORITHM FOR AUTOMATICALLY GENERATING BLACK-BOX TEST CASES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XuBaowen; NieChanghai; 等

    2003-01-01

    Selection of test cases plays a key role in improving testing efficiency.Black-box testing is an important way of testing,and is validity lies on the secection of test cases in some sense.A reasonable and effective method about the selection and generation of test cascs is urgently needed.This letter first introduces some usual methods on black-box test case generation,then proposes a new glgorithm based on interface parameters and discusses its properties,finally shows the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  15. AN ALGORITHM FOR AUTOMATICALLY GENERATING BLACK-BOX TEST CASES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Baowen; Nie Changhai; Shi Qunfeng; Lu Hong

    2003-01-01

    Selection of test cases plays a key role in improving testing efficiency. Black-box testing is an important way of testing, and its validity lies on the selection of test cases in some sense. A reasonable and effective method about the selection and generation of test cases is urgently needed. This letter first introduces some usualmethods on black-box test case generation,then proposes a new algorithm based on interface parameters and discusses its properties, finally shows the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  16. Host-Guest Interactions in ExBox4+

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Ranjita

    2014-01-01

    The host-guest interaction between benzene or azine with the newly synthesized ExBox4+ complex is studied with the help of DFT. The solvent phase interaction energy is found to decrease with gradual substitution of methine group of guest benzene ring with N atom in the resultant azine@ExBox4+ complex. The nature of bonding interaction is studied with the help of newly developed NCI plot program package along with energy decomposition analysis (EDA) and charge decomposition analysis (CDA). The interaction is mostly pi-type van der Waals interaction.

  17. Principal investigator in a box: Version 1.2 documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolph, Jurine; Bhatnagar, Rajiv; Colombano, Silvano P.; Compton, Michael; Frainer, Richard; Groleau, Nicolas; Holden, Kritina; Lai, Sen-Hao; Lam, Chih-Chao; Manahan, Meera

    1990-01-01

    Principal Investigator (PI) in a box is a computer system designed to help optimize the scientific results of experiments that are performed in space. The system will assist the astronaut experimenters in the collection and analysis of experimental data, recognition and pursuit of 'interesting' results, optimal use of the time allocated to the experiment, and troubleshooting of the experiment apparatus. This document discusses the problems that motivate development of 'PI-in-a-box', and presents a high- level system overview and a detailed description of each of the modules that comprise the current version of the system.

  18. Tests of CMS Hadron Forward Calorimeter Upgrade Readout Box Prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, Sergey; Sirunyan, Albert; Tumasyan, Armen; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Cornelis, Tom; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit Florent; Staykova, Zlatka; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Alves, Gilvan Augusto; Martins, Thiago Dos Reis; Pol, Maria Elena; Vaz Da Silva Filho, Mario; Alda Junior, Walter Luiz; Carvalho, Wagner De Paula; Chinellato, Jose Augusto; De Oliveira Martins, Carley Pedro; Figueiredo, Diego Matos; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson Jose; Molina Insfran, Jorge Andres; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Rosa Lopes Zachi, Alessandro; Finger, Miroslav; Finger, Michael; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Borras, Kerstin; Gunnellini, Paolo; Jung, Hannes; Knutsson, Albert Hans; Lutz, Benjamin; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro Miguel; Sen, Niladri; Baus, Colin; Katkov, Igor; Ulrich, Ralf Matthias; Wohrmann, H; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Bencze, Gyorgy; Horvath, D; Bala, Suman; Gupta, Ruchi; Jindal, M; Lal, Manjit Kaur; Nishu, Nishu; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, S; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Sharan, Manoj Kumar; Aziz, Tariq; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Katta, Sudhakar; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dugad, Shashikant Raichand; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Jafari, Abideh; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Zeinali, Maryam; Penzo, Aldo; Afanasyev, A; Bunin, Pavel; Ershov, Yuri; Fedoseev, Oleg; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Konoplynikov, V; Malakhov, Alexander; Moisenz, Petr; Smirnov, Vitaly; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoly; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Krasnikov, Nikolay; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, A; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Erofeeva, Maria; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Kosov, Mikhail Vladimirovich; Kudinov, Ilya; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, V; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlassov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Belyaev, A; Boos, Eduard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Korotkikh, Vladimir; Lokhtin, Igor; Markina, Anastasia; Obraztsov, Stepan; Perfilov, Maxim; Petrushanko, Sergey; Popov, Andrey; Savrin, Victor; Snigirev, Alexander; Vardanyan, Irina; Andreev, V; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Vinogradov, Alexey; Bayshev, Igor; Bityukov, Sergey; Grishin, Viatcheslav; Kryshkin, Victor; Petrov, V; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrey; Turchanovich, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Uzunyan, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Santanastasio, Francesco; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Numan Mustafa; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; G�kbulut, Gul; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Karapinar, Guler; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sogut, Kenan; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Latife Nukhet; Vergili, Mehmet; Aliyev, Takhmasib; Deniz, Muhammed; Guler, Ali Murat; Ozpineci, Altug; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Deliomeroglu, Mehmet; Gulmez, Erhan; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Sonmez, Nasuf; Cankocak, Kerem; Levchuk, Leonid; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, H; Scarborough, Tara Ann; Rumerio, Paolo; Heister, Arno; Hill, C; Lawson, Philip Daniel; Lazic, Dragoslav; Rohlf, James; St. John, Jason; Sulak, Lawrence; Gennadiy, G; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Narain, Meenakshi; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Tsang, Ka Vang; Long, Owen Rosser; Nguyen, Harold; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Sturdy, Jared; Stuart, David; To, Wing; West, Christopher Alan; Apresyan, Artur; Chen, Y; Mott, Alexander Robert; Spiropulu, Maria; Winn, David; Abdoulline, Salavat; Anderson, J; Chlebana, Frank; Freeman, James; Green, Daniel; Hanlon, J; Hirschauer, James Francis; Joshi, Umeshwar; Kunori, Shuichi; Musienko, Yuri; Sharma, Seema; Spalding, William Jeffrey; Tkaczyk, Slawomir; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, W; Gaultney, Vanessa; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete Edward; Martinez, German Ruben; Gleyzer, Sergei; Hagopian, Sharon Lee; Hagopian, Vasken; Jenkins, Charles Merrill; Baarmand, Marc M; Dorney, Brian L; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren James; Duru, Firdevs; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony Richard; Nachtman, Jane; Newsom, Charles Ray; Norbeck, John Edwin; Olson, Jonathan Edward; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Sen, Sercan; Schmidt, Ianos; Tiras, Emrah; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Kenny, Raymond Patrick; Murray, Michael Joseph; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Baden, Andrew; Calvert, Brian Michael; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Gomez, Jaime Arturo; Grassi, Tullio; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard; Kolberg, Ted; Lu, Y; Marionneau, Matthieu; Mignerey, Alice Louise Cox; Peterman, Alison Marie; Skuja, Andris; Temple, Jeffrey; Tonjes, Marguerite Belt; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin Humphrey; Mans, Jeremiah Michael; Pastika, Nathaniel Joseph; Kroeger, Robert; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sanders, David; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Jain, S; Anastassov, Anton; Velasco, Mayda Marie; Won, Steven; Heering, Adriaan; Karmgard, Daniel; Pearson, Tessa Jae; Ruchti, Randal; Berry, Edmund A; Halyo, Valerie; Hebda, Philip; Hunt, Adam Paul; Lujan, Paul Joseph; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Saka, Halil; Tully, Christopher; Zuranski, Andrzej Maciej; Barnes, Virgil Everett; Laasanen, Alvin; Bodek, Arie; Chung, Yeon Sei; de Barbaro, Pawel Jan; Eshaq, Yossof; Garcia-bellido, Aran Angel; Goldenzweig, Pablo David; Han, Ji Yeon; Harel, Amnon; Miner, Daniel Carl; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Zielinski, Marek; Bhatti, Anwar; Ciesielski, Robert Adam; Flanagan, Will Hogan; Kamon, Teruki; Montalvo, Roy Joaquin; Sakuma, Tai; Akchurin, Nural; Damgov, Jordan; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Volobouev, Igor; Gurrola, Alfredo; Milstene, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    A readout box prototype for CMS Hadron Forward calorimeter upgrade is built and tested in CERN H2 beamline. The prototype is designed to enable simultaneous tests of different readout options for the four anode upgrade PMTs, new front-end electronics design and new cabling. The response of the PMTs with different readout options is uniform and the background response is minimal. Multi-channel readout options further enhance the background elimination. Passing all the electronics, mechanical and physics tests, the readout box proves to be capable of providing the forward hadron calorimeter operations requirements in the upgrade era.

  19. Ancestry and diversity of the HMG box superfamily

    OpenAIRE

    Laudet, V; Stehelin, D.; Clevers, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    The HMG box is a novel type of DNA-binding domain found in a diverse group of proteins. The HMG box superfamily comprises a.o. the High Mobility Group proteins HMG1 and HMG2, the nucleolar transcription factor UBF, the lymphoid transcription factors TCF-1 and LEF-1, the fungal mating-type genes mat-Mc and MATA1, and the mammalian sex-determining gene SRY. The superfamily dates back to at least 1,000 million years ago, as its members appear in animals, plants and yeast. Alignment of all known ...

  20. The beam dump tunnels

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    In these images workers are digging the tunnels that will be used to dump the counter-circulating beams. Travelling just a fraction under the speed of light, the beams at the LHC will each carry the energy of an aircraft carrier travelling at 12 knots. In order to dispose of these beams safely, a beam dump is used to extract the beam and diffuse it before it collides with a radiation shielded graphite target.

  1. Parabolic scaling beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Nan; Xie, Changqing

    2014-06-15

    We generalize the concept of diffraction free beams to parabolic scaling beams (PSBs), whose normalized intensity scales parabolically during propagation. These beams are nondiffracting in the circular parabolic coordinate systems, and all the diffraction free beams of Durnin's type have counterparts as PSBs. Parabolic scaling Bessel beams with Gaussian apodization are investigated in detail, their nonparaxial extrapolations are derived, and experimental results agree well with theoretical predictions.

  2. Ion beam diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is an introduction to ion beam diagnosis. After a short description of the most important ion beam parameters measurements of the beam current by means of Faraday cups, calorimetry, and beam current transformers and measurements of the beam profile by means of viewing screens, profile grids and scanning devices, and residual gas ionization monitors are described. Finally measurements in the transverse and longitudinal phase space are considered. (HSI)

  3. Beam induced heating

    CERN Document Server

    Salvant, B; Arduini, G; Assmann, R; Baglin, V; Barnes, M J; Baudrenghien, P; Bracco, C; Bruce, R; Bertarelli, A; Carra, F; Cattenoz, G; Caspers, F; Claudet, S; Day, H; Esteban Mueller, J; Gentini, L; Goddar, B; Grudiev, A; Henrist, B; Jones, R; Lanza, G; Lari, L; Mastoridis, T; Métral, E; Mounet, N; Nougaret, J L; Piguiet, A M; Redaelli, S; Roncarolo, F; Rumolo, G; Sapinski, M; Shaposhinkova, E; Tavian, L; Timmins, M; Uythoven, J; Vidal, A; Wollmann, D

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, the rapid increase of the luminosity performance of LHC came at the expense of increased temperature and pressure readings on several near-beam LHC equipments. In some cases, this beam induced heating was suspected to cause beam dumps and even degradation of the equipment. This contribution aims at gathering the observations of beam induced heating due to beam coupling impedance, their current level of understanding and possible actions that could be implemented during the winter stop 2011-2012.

  4. Dynamic inhomogeneous S-Boxes in AES: a novel countermeasure against power analysis attacks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Yicheng; Zou Xuecheng; Liu Zhenglin; Han Yu; Zheng Zhaoxia

    2008-01-01

    Substitution boxes (S-Boxes) in advanced encryption standard (AES) are vulnerable to attacks by power analysis. The general S-Boxes masking schemes in circuit level need to adjust the design flow and library databases. The masking strategies in algorithm level view each S-Box as an independent module and mask them respectively, which are costly in size and power for non-linear characteristic of S-Boxes. The new method uses dynamic inhomogeneous S-Boxes instead of traditional homogeneous S-Boxes, and arranges the S-Boxes randomly. So the power and data path delay of substitution unit become unpredictable. The experimental results demonstrate that this scheme takes advantages of the circuit characteristics of various S-Box implementations to eliminate the correlation between crypto operation and power. It needs less extra circuits and suits resource constrained applications.

  5. F-box protein FBXL2 inhibits gastric cancer proliferation by ubiquitin-mediated degradation of forkhead box M1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang-qing; Pan, Dun; Chen, Hui; Zhang, Lin; Xie, Wen-jun

    2016-02-01

    F-box/LRR-repeat protein 2 (FBXL2), a component of Skp-Cullin-F box (SCF) ubiquitin E3 ligase, has been shown to inhibit tumorigenesis by targeting and ubiquitinating several oncoproteins. However, its role in gastric cancer remains poorly understood. Here, by tandem mass spectrometry, we show that FBXL2 interacts with forkhead box M1 (FoxM1) transcription factor. As a result, FBXL2 promotes ubiquitination and degradation of FoxM1 in gastric cancer cells. Furthermore, overexpression of FBXL2 inhibits, while its deficiency promotes cell proliferation and invasion. Expression levels of cell-cycle regulators (Cdc25B and p27), which are down-stream target effectors of FoxM1, are also regulated by FBXL2. Therefore, our results uncover a previous unknown network involving FBXL2 and FoxM1 in the regulation of gastric cancer growth.

  6. Energy Savings Assessment for Digital-to-Analog Converter Boxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, Hoi Ying Iris; Meier, Alan; Brown, Richard

    2011-01-18

    The Digital Television (DTV) Converter Box Coupon Program was administered by the U.S. government to subsidize purchases of digital-to-analog converter boxes, with up to two $40 coupons for each eligible household. In order to qualify as Coupon Eligible Converter Boxes (CECBs), these devices had to meet a number of minimum performance specifications, including energy efficiency standards. The Energy Star Program also established voluntary energy efficiency specifications that are more stringent than the CECB requirements. In this study, we measured the power and energy consumptions for a sample of 12 CECBs (including 6 Energy Star labeled models) in-use in homes and estimated aggregate energy savings produced by the energy efficiency policies. Based on the 35 million coupons redeemed through the end of the program, our analysis indicates that between 2500 and 3700 GWh per year are saved as a result of the energy efficiency policies implemented on digital-to-analog converter boxes. The energy savings generated are equivalent to the annual electricity use of 280,000 average US homes.

  7. How Users Search the Library from a Single Search Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lown, Cory; Sierra, Tito; Boyer, Josh

    2013-01-01

    Academic libraries are turning increasingly to unified search solutions to simplify search and discovery of library resources. Unfortunately, very little research has been published on library user search behavior in single search box environments. This study examines how users search a large public university library using a prominent, single…

  8. The Electronic Box Office: Humanities and Arts On the Cable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Richard; Baer, Walter S.

    A series of essays examines the potential of cable television (CATV) for increasing the diversity and quality of television programing. Specifically, they explore what an electronic box office could do to encourage new production sources and develop new mechanisms for distributing programing in the humanities and performaing arts. The introduction…

  9. Features for Exploiting Black-Box Optimization Problem Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Malitsky, Yuri; Abell, Tinus

    2013-01-01

    Black-box optimization (BBO) problems arise in numerous scientic and engineering applications and are characterized by compu- tationally intensive objective functions, which severely limit the number of evaluations that can be performed. We present a robust set of features that analyze the tness...

  10. 77 FR 74513 - Folding Gift Boxes From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ...)). Background The Commission instituted this review on April 2, 2012 (77 FR 19714) and determined on July 6, 2012 that it would conduct an expedited review (77 FR 42762, July 20, 2012). The Commission transmitted... COMMISSION Folding Gift Boxes From China Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in...

  11. A Grey-Box Model for Spray Drying Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Norbert; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Niemann, Hans Henrik;

    2013-01-01

    are compared to datasets gathered at GEA Process Engineering’s test facility. The identified grey-box model parameters are identified from data and the resulting model fits the data well. The complexity of the model has been selected such that it is suitable for development of real-time optimization algorithms...

  12. Multidisciplinary Design and Optimization Framework for Aircraft Box Structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, R.E.C.; Zhao, X.; Wang, H.; Van Dalen, F.

    2012-01-01

    Competitive aircraft box structures are a perfect compromise between weight and price. The conceptual design process of these structures is a typical Multidisciplinary Design and Optimization effort, normally conducted by human engineers. The iterative nature of MDO turns development into a long and

  13. The Box Model and the Acoustic Sounder, a Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Otto; Lundtang Petersen, Erik

    1979-01-01

    Concentrations of SO2 in a large city during a subsidence situation are predicted as a function of time by means of a simple box model and the predictions are compared to actual SO2 concentration measurements. The agreement between model results and measurements is found to be excellent. The model...

  14. Downhole stuffing box aids pumping of heavy crude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, A.

    1970-09-21

    Petroleos Mexicanos (Pemex) has found a new way to produce heavy oil from pumping wells. The key component is a bottomhole stuffing box which reduces the friction of the pumping string during the downstroke. The relatively simple system, already proven successful in the Ebano-Panuco area of Mexico, could be easily applied wherever operators are faced with the task of producing highly viscous oil and coping with the problem of constant sucker-rod string breakage. Basically, Pemex' method consists of a special downhole stuffing box and polished rod anchored at the end of the pumping string. The isolated tubing is filled with water to minimize friction, and the heavy oil is produced through the annular space between the tubing and casing strings. With Pemex' new downhole stuffing box, friction is minimized. Even though the system is applicable to practically any type of completion (any size of tubing and casing), Pemex has found it to be ideally suited for wells having 8-5/8-8in. casing or larger. The accompanying line diagram of a hookup for a well with 8-5/8-in. casing and 3-in. tubing shows the necessary installations. The stuffing box features a groove bolt at the top to allow tightening of a packing element without having to remove the assembly from the hole.

  15. [Interprofessional pill box management in an ambulatory care setting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrecht, Loïc; Anchisi, Annick; Widmer, Daniel; Bugnon, Olivier; Du Pasquier, Sophie; Jotterand, Sébastien; Karlen, Martine; Herzig, Lilli

    2014-11-26

    Complex multimorbid patients are now more common in ambulatory care and the management of their medication more frequently needs interprofessional collaboration. This qualitative study explored health professional's main challenges when introducing, preparing and sharing the use of a pill box for a patient. Another objective of this study was to explore options for improving care in these situations.

  16. Ancient origin of animal U-box ubiquitin ligases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marín Ignacio

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The patterns of emergence and diversification of the families of ubiquitin ligases provide insights about the evolution of the eukaryotic ubiquitination system. U-box ubiquitin ligases (UULs are proteins characterized by containing a peculiar protein domain known as U box. In this study, the origin of the animal UUL genes is described. Results Phylogenetic and structural data indicate that six of the seven main UUL-encoding genes found in humans (UBE4A, UBE4B, UIP5, PRP19, CHIP and CYC4 were already present in the ancestor of all current metazoans and the seventh (WDSUB1 is found in placozoans, cnidarians and bilaterians. The fact that only 4 - 5 genes orthologous to the human ones are present in the choanoflagellate Monosiga brevicollis suggests that several animal-specific cooptions of the U box to generate new genes occurred. Significantly, Monosiga contains five additional UUL genes that are not present in animals. One of them is also present in distantly-related protozoans. Along animal evolution, losses of UUL-encoding genes are rare, except in nematodes, which lack three of them. These general patterns are highly congruent with those found for other two families (RBR, HECT of ubiquitin ligases. Conclusions Finding that the patterns of emergence, diversification and loss of three unrelated families of ubiquitin ligases (RBR, HECT and U-box are parallel indicates that there are underlying, linage-specific evolutionary forces shaping the complexity of the animal ubiquitin system.

  17. The Popcorn Box Activity and Reasoning about Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteley, Walter J.; Mamolo, Ami

    2012-01-01

    A well-known optimization problem is the Popcorn Box investigation, which involves a movie theater snack container. The problem has been tailored for classroom investigations by the Ontario Association for Mathematics Education. The exploration was designed for students in grades 9 through 12. A common strategy proposed for algebra students is to…

  18. Developing Box Plots While Navigating the Maze of Data Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Bruce; Fitzallen, Noleine

    2013-01-01

    The learning sequence described in this article was developed to provide students with a demonstration of the development of box plots from authentic data as an illustration of the advantages gained from using multiple forms of data representation. The sequence follows an authentic process that starts with a problem to which data representations…

  19. Immunohistochemical evidence for multiple photosystems in box jellyfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekström, Peter; Garm, Anders; Pålsson, Jonas; Vihtelic, Thomas S; Nilsson, Dan-Eric

    2008-07-01

    Cubomedusae (box jellyfish) possess a remarkable visual system with 24 eyes distributed in four sensory structures termed rhopalia. Each rhopalium is equipped with six eyes: two pairs of pigment cup eyes and two unpaired lens eyes. Each eye type probably captures specific features of the visual environment. To investigate whether multiple types of photoreceptor cells are present in the rhopalium, and whether the different eye types possess different types of photoreceptors, we have used immunohistochemistry with a range of vertebrate opsin antibodies to label the photoreceptors, and electroretinograms (ERG) to determine their spectral sensitivity. All photoreceptor cells of the two lens eyes of the box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora and Carybdea marsupialis displayed immunoreactivity for an antibody directed against the zebrafish ultraviolet (UV) opsin, but not against any of eight other rhodopsin or cone opsin antibodies tested. In neither of the two species were the pigment cup eyes immunoreactive for any of the opsin antibodies. ERG analysis of the Carybdea lower lens eyes demonstrated a single spectral sensitivity maximum at 485 nm suggesting the presence of a single opsin type. Our data demonstrate that the lens eyes of box jellyfish utilize a single opsin and are thus color-blind, and that there is probably a different photopigment in the pigment cup eyes. The results support our hypothesis that the lens eyes and the pigment cup eyes of box jellyfish are involved in different and specific visual tasks. PMID:18504619

  20. Visual control of steering in the box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petie, Ronald; Garm, Anders; Nilsson, Dan-Eric

    2011-01-01

    Box jellyfish carry an elaborate visual system consisting of 24 eyes, which they use for driving a number of behaviours. However, it is not known how visual input controls the swimming behaviour. In this study we exposed the Caribbean box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora to simple visual stimuli a...... their bell in such a way that, if not tethered, they would turn and swim away from the dark area. We conclude that the visual system of T. cystophora has a predictable effect on swimming behaviour.......Box jellyfish carry an elaborate visual system consisting of 24 eyes, which they use for driving a number of behaviours. However, it is not known how visual input controls the swimming behaviour. In this study we exposed the Caribbean box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora to simple visual stimuli...... to the darkening of one quadrant of the equatorial visual world by (1) increasing pulse frequency, (2) creating an asymmetry in the structure that constricts the outflow opening of the bell, the velarium, and (3) delaying contraction at one of the four sides of the bell. This causes the animals to orient...

  1. Testing the Box-Cox Parameter for an Integrated Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Huang (Jian); M. Kobayashi (Masahito); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analyses the constant elasticity of volatility (CEV) model suggested by Chan et al. (1992). The CEV model without mean reversion is shown to be the inverse Box-Cox transformation of integrated processes asymptotically. It is demonstrated that the maximum likelihood estimator o

  2. Fitting boxes to Manhattan scenes using linear integer programming

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Minglei

    2016-02-19

    We propose an approach for automatic generation of building models by assembling a set of boxes using a Manhattan-world assumption. The method first aligns the point cloud with a per-building local coordinate system, and then fits axis-aligned planes to the point cloud through an iterative regularization process. The refined planes partition the space of the data into a series of compact cubic cells (candidate boxes) spanning the entire 3D space of the input data. We then choose to approximate the target building by the assembly of a subset of these candidate boxes using a binary linear programming formulation. The objective function is designed to maximize the point cloud coverage and the compactness of the final model. Finally, all selected boxes are merged into a lightweight polygonal mesh model, which is suitable for interactive visualization of large scale urban scenes. Experimental results and a comparison with state-of-the-art methods demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework.

  3. Optimizing PHB and Protease Production by Box Behnken Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amro Abd al fattah Amara

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mixed culture is more suitable to adapt more flexible fermentation process and produce different product simultaneously. In this study a mixed Bacillus culture was investigated for their ability to produce the bioplastic "Polyhydroxybutyrate" and both of the mesophilic and the thermophilic proteases in one flask. Box-Behnken experimental design was used. The produced amount of PHB has been increased significantly. Meanwhile there is a competition between PHB and proteases. The maximum produced amount of PHB using Box-Behnken design was 2.82 g/l/48 h with protease activity equal to 41.9 Units/ml/48 h for thermophilic proteases and 99.65 Units/ml/48 h for mesophilic proteases. Excel solver was used for extra-optimization for the optimum conditions obtained from Box-Behnken experiments and its model. The maximum PHB obtained after using Excel solver was 2.88 g/l/48 h. The maximum mesophilic and thermophilic activities obtained at the same PHB production conditions were 175.68 and 243.38 Units/ml respectively. The model accuracy as obtained from Excel solver was 118.8%, which prove the power of the experimental design in optimizing such complicated process. The strategies used in this study are recommended for the production of PHB and different proteases simultaneously using Bacillus mixed culture. ABSTRAK: Kultur campuran adalah lebih sesuai bagi proses penapaian yang fleksibel dan ia boleh menghasilkan produk yang berbeza secara serentak. Dalam kajian ini keupayaan  menghasilkan "Polyhydroxybutyrate" bioplastik serta mesofilik dan termofilik protease dalam satu flask oleh  kultur Bacillus campuran telah disiasat. Eksperimen rekabentuk Box-Behnken telah digunakan. Jumlah PHB yang dikeluarkan meningkat dengan ketara dan terdapat persaingan antara PHB dan protease. Jumlah keluaran PHB maksima menggunakan rekabentuk Box-Behnken adalah 2.82 g/l/48 jam dengan aktiviti protease sama dengan 41.9 Unit/ml/48 jam untuk protease termofilik dan 99.65 Unit

  4. Low energy, high power hydrogen neutral beam for plasma heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deichuli, P.; Davydenko, V.; Ivanov, A.; Korepanov, S.; Mishagin, V.; Smirnov, A.; Sorokin, A.; Stupishin, N.

    2015-11-01

    A high power, relatively low energy neutral beam injector was developed to upgrade of the neutral beam system of the gas dynamic trap device and C2-U experiment. The ion source of the injector produces a proton beam with the particle energy of 15 keV, current of up to 175 A, and pulse duration of a few milliseconds. The plasma emitter of the ion source is produced by superimposing highly ionized plasma jets from an array of four arc-discharge plasma generators. A multipole magnetic field produced with permanent magnets at the periphery of the plasma box is used to increase the efficiency and improve the uniformity of the plasma emitter. Multi-slit grids with 48% transparency are fabricated from bronze plates, which are spherically shaped to provide geometrical beam focusing. The focal length of the Ion Optical System (IOS) is 3.5 m and the initial beam diameter is 34 cm. The IOS geometry and grid potentials were optimized numerically to ensure accurate beam formation. The measured angular divergences of the beam are ±0.01 rad parallel to the slits and ±0.03 rad in the transverse direction.

  5. Low energy, high power hydrogen neutral beam for plasma heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deichuli, P; Davydenko, V; Ivanov, A; Korepanov, S; Mishagin, V; Smirnov, A; Sorokin, A; Stupishin, N

    2015-11-01

    A high power, relatively low energy neutral beam injector was developed to upgrade of the neutral beam system of the gas dynamic trap device and C2-U experiment. The ion source of the injector produces a proton beam with the particle energy of 15 keV, current of up to 175 A, and pulse duration of a few milliseconds. The plasma emitter of the ion source is produced by superimposing highly ionized plasma jets from an array of four arc-discharge plasma generators. A multipole magnetic field produced with permanent magnets at the periphery of the plasma box is used to increase the efficiency and improve the uniformity of the plasma emitter. Multi-slit grids with 48% transparency are fabricated from bronze plates, which are spherically shaped to provide geometrical beam focusing. The focal length of the Ion Optical System (IOS) is 3.5 m and the initial beam diameter is 34 cm. The IOS geometry and grid potentials were optimized numerically to ensure accurate beam formation. The measured angular divergences of the beam are ±0.01 rad parallel to the slits and ±0.03 rad in the transverse direction. PMID:26628137

  6. Pyramid beam splitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, Mark H.; Beason, Steven C.; Fairer, George

    1992-01-01

    The apparatus of the present invention provides means for obtaining accurate, dependable, measurement of bearings and directions for geologic mapping in subterranean shafts, such as, for example, nuclear waste storage investigations. In operation, a laser beam is projected along a reference bearing. A pyramid is mounted such that the laser beam is parallel to the pyramid axis and can impinge on the apex of the pyramid thus splitting the beam several ways into several beams at right angles to each other and at right angles to the reference beam. The pyramid is also translatable and rotatable in a plane perpendicular to the reference beam.

  7. Low current beam techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint, A.; Laird, J.S.; Bardos, R.A.; Legge, G.J.F. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Nishijima, T.; Sekiguchi, H. [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan).

    1993-12-31

    Since the development of Scanning Transmission Microscopy (STIM) imaging in 1983 many low current beam techniques have been developed for the scanning (ion) microprobe. These include STIM tomography, Ion Beam Induced Current, Ion Beam Micromachining and Microlithography and Ionoluminense. Most of these techniques utilise beam currents of 10{sup -15} A down to single ions controlled by beam switching techniques This paper will discuss some of the low beam current techniques mentioned above, and indicate, some of their recent applications at MARC. A new STIM technique will be introduced that can be used to obtain Z-contrast with STIM resolution. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  8. Beam Dynamics and Beam Losses - Circular Machines

    CERN Document Server

    Kain, V

    2016-01-01

    A basic introduction to transverse and longitudinal beam dynamics as well as the most relevant beam loss mechanisms in circular machines will be presented in this lecture. This lecture is intended for physicists and engineers with little or no knowledge of this subject.

  9. Beam-beam issues in asymmetric colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furman, M.A.

    1992-07-01

    We discuss generic beam-beam issues for proposed asymmetric e{sup +}- e{sup -} colliders. We illustrate the issues by choosing, as examples, the proposals by Cornell University (CESR-B), KEK, and SLAC/LBL/LLNL (PEP-II).

  10. Status of cleanliness maintaining in target beam enclosures in SG III facilities and contamination sources analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meicong; Wang, Baoxu; Miao, Xinxiang; Cheng, Xiaofeng; Wu, Wenkai

    2014-09-01

    In SGIII lasers there are large number of transport mirrors in target beam enclosures. Surface contaminations could easily introduce optical damage, and increase laser energy loss under high laser influence conditions. It is significant for lasers to control contamination and maintain cleanliness. In SGIII prototype, the target beam enclosures are test to be seriously contaminated after about two years of routine operations. Volume cleanliness in mirror boxes are monitored through 24 hours before, during and after a shot. Ingredients of particle and organics are tested. Reconstructions are performed on the mirror boxes to remove debris and keep cleanliness for upward facing surface of mirrors effectively. In SGIII facility some contaminations are found in beam enclosures and on the mirrors after several months of test running. Contaminations sources are analyzed to further know about the contamination mechanisms. Some engineering countermeasures are introduced for controlling contamination and keeping cleanliness for optics.

  11. Enhancing Advanced Encryption Standard S-Box Generation Based on Round Key

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Juremi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new AES-like design for key- dependent AES using S-box rotation. The algorithm involves key expansion algorithm together with S-box rotation and this property can be used to make the S-box key-dependent, hence providing a better security to the block cipher. Fixed S-box allows attackers to study S- box and find weak points while by using key-dependent S-Box approach, it makes it harder for attacker to do any offline analysis of an attack of one particular set of S- boxes. The cipher structure resembles the original AES, only the S-box is made key-dependent without changing the value. This new design is tested using the NIST Statistical Test and will be further cryptanalyzed with algebraic attack in order to permit its subversion or evasion.

  12. Conversion of Chemical Reaction Energy into Useful Work in the Van't Hoff Equilibrium Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazhin, N. M.; Parmon, V. N.

    2007-01-01

    The ideal van't Hoff equilibrium box is described in detail. It shows that van't Hoff equilibrium box divided in two parts can simultaneously produce heat and useful work without violation of the first law of thermodynamics.

  13. 77 FR 38705 - Draft Specification for Airport Light Bases, Transformer Housings, Junction Boxes, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Draft Specification for Airport Light Bases, Transformer Housings... comment on the Draft ``Specification for Airport Light Bases, Transformer Housings, Junction Boxes, and... recommendations for airport light bases, transformer housings, junction boxes and accessories. The FAA has...

  14. Laser-Beam Separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdermid, I. S.

    1984-01-01

    Train of prisms and optical stop separate fundamental beam of laser from second and higher order harmonics of beam produced in certain crystals and by stimulated Raman scattering in gases and liquids.

  15. Beam Loss in Linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Plum, M A

    2016-01-01

    Beam loss is a critical issue in high-intensity accelerators, and much effort is expended during both the design and operation phases to minimize the loss and to keep it to manageable levels. As new accelerators become ever more powerful, beam loss becomes even more critical. Linacs for H- ion beams, such as the one at the Oak Ridge Spallation Neutron Source, have many more loss mechanisms compared to H+ (proton) linacs, such as the one being designed for the European Spallation Neutron Source. Interesting H- beam loss mechanisms include residual gas stripping, H+ capture and acceleration, field stripping, black-body radiation and the recently discovered intra-beam stripping mechanism. Beam halo formation, and ion source or RF turn on/off transients, are examples of beam loss mechanisms that are common for both H+ and H- accelerators. Machine protection systems play an important role in limiting the beam loss.

  16. Space charge dominated beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After an introductory section on the relationship between emittance and beam Coulomb energy we discuss the properties of space charge dominated beams in progressive steps: from uniformly charged bunched beams to non-uniformly charged beams to correlation effects between particles (simulation beams or 'crystalline' beams). A practical application can be found in the beam dynamics of a high-current injector. The concept of correlation energy is of practical interest in computer simulation of high-brilliance beams, where one deals with an artificially enhanced two-particle Coulomb energy, if many real particles are combined into one simulation super-particle. This can be a source of non-physical emittance growth. (orig./HSI)

  17. High energy beam lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetto, M.; Laxdal, R. E.

    2014-01-01

    The ISAC post accelerator comprises an RFQ, DTL and SC-linac. The high energy beam lines connect the linear accelerators as well as deliver the accelerated beams to two different experimental areas. The medium energy beam transport (MEBT) line connects the RFQ to the DTL. The high energy beam transport (HEBT) line connects the DTL to the ISAC-I experimental stations (DRAGON, TUDA-I, GPS). The DTL to superconducting beam (DSB) transport line connects the ISAC-I and ISAC-II linacs. The superconducting energy beam transport (SEBT) line connects the SC linac to the ISAC-II experimental station (TUDA-II, HERACLES, TIGRESS, EMMA and GPS). All these lines have the function of transporting and matching the beams to the downstream sections by manipulating the transverse and longitudinal phase space. They also contain diagnostic devices to measure the beam properties.

  18. Proton beam writing

    OpenAIRE

    Frank Watt; Breese, Mark B H; Bettiol, Andrew A; Jeroen A. van Kan

    2007-01-01

    Proton beam (p-beam) writing is a new direct-writing process that uses a focused beam of MeV protons to pattern resist material at nanodimensions. The process, although similar in many ways to direct writing using electrons, nevertheless offers some interesting and unique advantages. Protons, being more massive, have deeper penetration in materials while maintaining a straight path, enabling p-beam writing to fabricate three-dimensional, high aspect ratio structures with vertical, smooth side...

  19. Welding by laser beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A laser which does not require a vacuum and the beam from which can be projected over a distance without loss of power is sited outside a welding zone and the beam projected through a replaceable laser transparent window. The window is designed and shaped to facilitate access of the beam of workpiece items to be welded in containment. Either the workpiece or the laser beam may be moved during welding. (author)

  20. Slow kaon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short description is given of considerations for the design of low-momentum kaon beam lines. Relevant data for the performance of seven existing and decommissioned slow kaon beams are presented. For single-stage separated beams the observed ratio all/K- is greater than 50 for momenta less than 500 MeV/c. We recommend a two-stage separated beam with perhaps an upstream cleanup section for maximal purity

  1. Beam Dynamics for ARIA

    CERN Document Server

    Ekdahl, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Beam dynamics issues are assessed for a new linear induction electron accelerator being designed for flash radiography of large explosively driven hydrodynamic experiments. Special attention is paid to equilibrium beam transport, possible emittance growth, and beam stability. It is concluded that a radiographic quality beam will be produced possible if engineering standards and construction details are equivalent to those on the present radiography accelerators at Los Alamos.

  2. PARTICLE BEAM TRACKING CIRCUIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, O.A.

    1959-05-01

    >A particle-beam tracking and correcting circuit is described. Beam induction electrodes are placed on either side of the beam, and potentials induced by the beam are compared in a voltage comparator or discriminator. This comparison produces an error signal which modifies the fm curve at the voltage applied to the drift tube, thereby returning the orbit to the preferred position. The arrangement serves also to synchronize accelerating frequency and magnetic field growth. (T.R.H.)

  3. Electron beam focusing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dikansky, N.; Nagaitsev, S.; Parkhomchuk, V.

    1997-09-01

    The high energy electron cooling requires a very cold electron beam. Thus, the electron beam focusing system is very important for the performance of electron cooling. A system with and without longitudinal magnetic field is presented for discussion. Interaction of electron beam with the vacuum chamber as well as with the background ions and stored antiprotons can cause the coherent electron beam instabilities. Focusing system requirements needed to suppress these instabilities are presented.

  4. Beam Dynamics for ARIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekdahl, Carl August Jr. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-10-14

    Beam dynamics issues are assessed for a new linear induction electron accelerator being designed for flash radiography of large explosively driven hydrodynamic experiments. Special attention is paid to equilibrium beam transport, possible emittance growth, and beam stability. It is concluded that a radiographic quality beam will be produced possible if engineering standards and construction details are equivalent to those on the present radiography accelerators at Los Alamos.

  5. Experimental Research and Numerical Simulation of Wing Boxes under Pure Bending Load

    OpenAIRE

    Peiyan Wang; Shile Yao; Xinmei Wang; Zhufeng Yue

    2014-01-01

    Two full-scale wing boxes with different types of butt joints were investigated under pure bending load, and numerical methods, including global analysis and detailed analysis, were proposed to determine the reasons for failure of the wing boxes. Wing boxes were tested under bending loads applied by a multichannel force control system. The experimental results showed that the region of the butt joint was the weakest location of the wing boxes, and the damage loads were far less than the desig...

  6. Specific Genomic Fingerprints of Phosphate Solubilizing Pseudomonas Strains Generated by Box Elements

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Bagher Javadi Nobandegani; Halimi Mohd Saud; Wong Mui Yun

    2014-01-01

    Primers corresponding to conserved bacterial repetitive of BOX elements were used to show that BOX-DNA sequences are widely distributed in phosphate solubilizing Pseudomonas strains. Phosphate solubilizing Pseudomonas was isolated from oil palm fields (tropical soil) in Malaysia. BOX elements were used to generate genomic fingerprints of a variety of Pseudomonas isolates to identify strains that were not distinguishable by other classification methods. BOX-PCR, that derived genomic fingerprin...

  7. The Role of Protein Electrostatics in Facilitating the Catalysis of DEAD-box Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Frenz, Christopher M.

    2008-01-01

    Protein electrostatic states have been demonstrated to play crucial roles in catalysis, ligand binding, protein stability, and in the modulation of allosteric effects. Electrostatic states are demonstrated to appear conserved among DEAD-box motifs and evidence is presented that the structural changes that occur to DEAD box proteins upon ligand binding alter the DEAD-box motif electrostatics in a way the facilitates the catalytic role of the DEAD-box glutatmate.

  8. Comparison of Laparoscopy Training Using the Box Trainer Versus the Virtual Trainer

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi, Yousef; Lerner, Michelle A.; Sethi, Amanjot S.; Sundaram, Chandru P.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Objectives: To evaluate whether training on a virtual reality laparoscopic simulator improves the performance on a laparoscopic box trainer. Methods: Twenty-six subjects were trained using a box trainer, and 17 participants were trained using a virtual simulator. Participants in the experimental group completed 1 session of 5 exercises on the box trainer, 4 sessions on the virtual simulator, and a final session on the box trainer. Participants in the control group completed 6 s...

  9. Visual pigment in the lens eyes of the box jellyfish Chiropsella bronzie

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, Megan; Garm, Anders; Marshall, Justin N.; Hart, Nathan S.; Ekström, Peter; Skogh, Charlotta; Nilsson, Dan-Eric

    2010-01-01

    Box jellyfish (Cubomedusae) possess a unique visual system comprising 24 eyes of four morphological types. Moreover, box jellyfish display several visually guided behaviours, including obstacle avoidance and light-shaft attractance. It is largely unknown what kind of visual information box jellyfish use for carrying out these behaviours. Brightness contrast is almost certainly involved, but it is also possible that box jellyfish extract colour information from their surroundings. The possible...

  10. Beams 92: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains papers on the following topics: Ion beam papers; electron beam, bremsstrahlung, and diagnostics papers; radiating Z- pinch papers; microwave papers; electron laser papers; advanced accelerator papers; beam and pulsed power applications papers; pulsed power papers; and these papers have been indexed separately elsewhere

  11. Accelerating nondiffracting beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Shaohui; Li, Manman; Yao, Baoli, E-mail: yaobl@opt.ac.cn; Yu, Xianghua; Lei, Ming; Dan, Dan; Yang, Yanlong; Min, Junwei; Peng, Tong

    2015-06-05

    We present a set of beams which combine the properties of accelerating beams and (conventional) diffraction-free beams. These beams can travel along a desired trajectory while keeping an approximately invariant transverse profile, which may be (higher-order) Bessel-, Mathieu- or parabolic-nondiffracting-like beams, depending on the initial complex amplitude distribution. A possible application of these beams presented here may be found in optical trapping field. For example, a higher-order Bessel-like beam, which has a hollow (transverse) pattern, is suitable for guiding low-refractive-index or metal particles along a curve. - Highlights: • A set of beams having arbitrary trajectories of accelerating and nondiffracting behaviors are generalized and presented. • Bessel-like accelerating beams are generalized to the higher-order (hollow) version. • Mathieu-like accelerating beams and parabolic-nondiffracting-like accelerating beams are presented. • A possible application of these beams may be found in optical trapping and guiding of particles.

  12. An Electromagnetic Beam Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to an electromagnetic beam converter and a method for conversion of an input beam of electromagnetic radiation having a bell shaped intensity profile a(x,y) into an output beam having a prescribed target intensity profile l(x',y') based on a further development...

  13. Klystron beam bunching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed description of electron-beam bunching phenomena in klystrons is presented. Beam harmonic current is defined, both space-charge and ballistic bunching are analyzed, Ramo's theorem is used to describe how a bunched beam drives a cavity, and a general cavity model including external coupling is provided. (author)

  14. Combining Multiple External Representations and Refutational Text: An Intervention on Learning to Interpret Box Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lem, Stephanie; Kempen, Goya; Ceulemans, Eva; Onghena, Patrick; Verschaffel, Lieven; Van Dooren, Wim

    2015-01-01

    Box plots are frequently misinterpreted and educational attempts to correct these misinterpretations have not been successful. In this study, we used two instructional techniques that seemed powerful to change the misinterpretation of the area of the box in box plots, both separately and in combination, leading to three experimental conditions,…

  15. Entanglement and decoherence of a micromechanical resonator via coupling to a Cooper box

    OpenAIRE

    Armour, A. D.; Blencowe, M. P.; Schwab, K. C.

    2001-01-01

    We analyse the quantum dynamics of a micromechanical resonator capacitively coupled to a Cooper box. With appropriate quantum state control of the Cooper box, the resonator can be driven into a superposition of spatially separated states. The Cooper box can also be used to probe the environmentally-induced decoherence of the resonator superposition state.

  16. Justification procedure of hydrogen safety of RU BN compartments as exemplified by steam generator box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic proposals on completing calculational procedures of sodium cooled reactors hydrogen safety justification, particularly steam generator (SG) box, are presented. It is pointed out that hydrogen appearance in SG box is possible only in accidents with multiple failures. The data presented shows that hydrogen safety and explosion-proofness of fast reactor facility SG box are provided without any special complex and expensive means

  17. 76 FR 16350 - Medical Devices; Ovarian Adnexal Mass Assessment Score Test System; Labeling; Black Box Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... addition of this black box warning to product labeling, advertising, and marketing materials, the Agency... Assessment Score Test System; Labeling; Black Box Restrictions AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... be in a black box and must appear in all labeling, advertising, and promotional material. The...

  18. Is Think Outside the Box 21st Century Code for Imagination, Innovation, Creativity, Critical Thinking, Intuition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notar, Charles E.; Padgett, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    It is the authors' contention that there is no such thing as "thinking outside the box." However, the term has become an iconic phrase for a generation. The discussion presents the authors' thoughts on why there is no box in which to think outside. If there is a box, then accidental learning would never exist for students.

  19. Pushing the limits - beam

    CERN Document Server

    Métral, E

    2011-01-01

    Many collective effects were observed in 2010, first when the intensity per bunch was increased and subsequently when the number of bunches was pushed up and the bunch spacing was reduced. After a review of the LHC performance during the 2010 run, with a particular emphasis on impedances and related single-beam coherent instabilities, but mentioning also beam-beam and electron cloud issues, the potential of the LHC for 2011 will be discussed. More specifically, the maximum bunch/beam intensity and the maximum beam brightness the LHC should be able to swallow will be compared to what the injectors can provide.

  20. THE USE OF EVENT DATA RECORDER (EDR – BLACK BOX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Nowacki

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper refers to the registration of road events by a modern device called EDR – black box for all types of the motor vehicles. The device records data concerning vehicle’s technical condition, the way it was driven and RTS. The recorder may be used in private and commercial cars, taxies, buses and trucks. The recorder may serve the purpose of a neutral witness for the police, courts and insurance firms, for which it will facilitate making the reconstruction of the road accidents events and will provide a proof for those who caused them. The device will bring efficient driving, which will significantly contribute to decreasing the number of road accidents and limiting the environmental pollution. In the end in the last year German parliament backed a proposal to the European Commission to put black boxes, which gather information from vehicles involved in accidents, in all the new cars from 2015 on.

  1. Application of glove box robotics to hazardous waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLNL) is developing a semi-automated system for handling, characterizing, processing, sorting, and repackaging hazardous wastes containing tritium. The system combines an IBM developed gantry robot with a special glove box enclosure designed to protect the operators and minimize the potential release of tritium to the atmosphere. All hazardous waste handling and processing will be performed remotely using the robot in a telerobotic mode for one-of-a-kind functions and in an autonomous mode for repetitive type operations. The system will initially be used in conjunction with a portable gas system designed to capture any gaseous phase tritium released into the glove box. This paper presents the objectives of this program, provides background related to LLNL's robotics and waste handling program, describes the major system components, outlines system operation, and discusses current status and plans

  2. Safeguards Approaches for Black Box Processes or Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Marcano, Helly; Gitau, Ernest TN; Hockert, John; Miller, Erin; Wylie, Joann

    2013-09-25

    The objective of this study is to determine whether a safeguards approach can be developed for “black box” processes or facilities. These are facilities where a State or operator may limit IAEA access to specific processes or portions of a facility; in other cases, the IAEA may be prohibited access to the entire facility. The determination of whether a black box process or facility is safeguardable is dependent upon the details of the process type, design, and layout; the specific limitations on inspector access; and the restrictions placed upon the design information that can be provided to the IAEA. This analysis identified the necessary conditions for safeguardability of black box processes and facilities.

  3. Application Analysis of Ad Lamp-box Controller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Yuan; LU Bin

    2014-01-01

    The ad lamp-box controller is designed in consideration that ordinary urban ad lights usually remain lit through the night and a specially assigned staff needs to be on duty to control their switches. It can be automatically controlled with a photo resistance testing the day and night as well as a CD4060 chip controlling the length of time interval between switching the ad lamp-boxes on and off. In this way, both energy and labor can be saved with the controller. It is matching with the target of“constructing a conservation-minded society”in our country and deserves to be promoted in market with its practical signifi-cance.

  4. Smart Remote for the Setup Box Using Gesture Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surepally Uday Kumar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The basic purpose of this project is to provide a means to control a set top box (capable of infrared communication, in this case Hathway using hand gestures. Thus, this system will act like a remote control for operating set top box, but this will be achieved through hand gestures instead of pushing buttons. To send and receive remote control signals, this project uses an infrared LED as Transmitter. Using an infrared receiver, an Arduino can detect the bits being sent by a remote control. And to playback a remote control signal, the Arduino can flash an infrared LED at 38 kHz. With this project we can design a gesture controlled remote by using a glove, it can be fixed to the hand, we can send any signal of any length, at any related frequency, and thus we can design a universal remote.

  5. Gas box control system for Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) uses several methods to feed gas (usually deuterium) at different energies into the plasma region of the machine. One is an arrangement of eight high-speed piezo-electric valves mounted on special manifolds (gas box) that feed cold gas directly to the plasma. This paper describes the electronic valve control and data acquisition portions of the gas box, which are controlled by a desk-top computer. Various flow profiles have been developed and stored in the control computer for ready access by the operator. The system uses two modes of operation, one that exercises and characterizes the valves and one that operates the valves with the rest of the experiment. Both the valve control signals and the pressure transducers data are recorded on the diagnostics computer so that they are available for experiment analysis

  6. Competitive markets, collective action, and the Big Box Retailer problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent D. Beal

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available I use a stylized scenario—the Big Box retailer Problem—to demonstrate that the presence of behavioural interdependence in economic markets may result in deficient outcomes that are both stable and supported by ongoing participant behaviour. I present a theoretical discussion of social dilemmas and use the Big Box retailer Problem to illustrate that these characteristics—stability and ongoing support—cannot be reliably employed as indicators of outcome efficiency. Equally important is the conclusion that upfront costs and the ongoing necessity of monitoring and encouraging contributory behaviour are not reliable indicators of the relative inefficiency of outcomes associated with collective action. Questions are raised regarding the ethical responsibilities of business educators and the implications of social dilemmas for corporate social responsibility research.

  7. Observational semantics of the Prolog Resolution Box Model

    CERN Document Server

    Deransart, Pierre; Ferrand, Gérard

    2007-01-01

    This paper specifies an observational semantics and gives an original presentation of the Byrd box model. The approach accounts for the semantics of Prolog tracers independently of a particular Prolog implementation. Prolog traces are, in general, considered as rather obscure and difficult to use. The proposed formal presentation of its trace constitutes a simple and pedagogical approach for teaching Prolog or for implementing Prolog tracers. It is a form of declarative specification for the tracers. The trace model introduced here is only one example to illustrate general problems relating to tracers and observing processes. Observing processes know, from observed processes, only their traces. The issue is then to be able to reconstitute, by the sole analysis of the trace, part of the behaviour of the observed process, and if possible, without any loss of information. As a matter of fact, our approach highlights qualities of the Prolog resolution box model which made its success, but also its insufficiencies...

  8. Free box^k Scalar Conformal Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Brust, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    We consider the generalizations of the free U(N) and O(N) scalar conformal field theories to actions with higher powers of the Laplacian, box^k, in general dimension d. We study the spectra, Verma modules, anomalies and OPE of these theories. We argue that in certain d and k, the spectrum contains zero norm operators which are both primary and descendant, as well as extension operators which are neither primary nor descendant. In addition, we argue that in even dimensions d <= 2k, there are well-defined operator algebras which are related to the box^k theories and are novel in that they have a finite number of single-trace states.

  9. Box jellyfish use terrestrial visual cues for navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garm, Anders; Oskarsson, Magnus; Nilsson, Dan-Eric

    2011-05-10

    Box jellyfish have an impressive set of 24 eyes of four different types, including eyes structurally similar to those of vertebrates and cephalopods [1, 2]. However, the known visual responses are restricted to simple phototaxis, shadow responses, and object avoidance responses [3-8], and it has been a puzzle why they need such a complex set of eyes. Here we report that medusae of the box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora are capable of visually guided navigation in mangrove swamps using terrestrial structures seen through the water surface. They detect the mangrove canopy by an eye type that is specialized to peer up through the water surface and that is suspended such that it is constantly looking straight up, irrespective of the orientation of the jellyfish. The visual information is used to navigate to the preferred habitat at the edge of mangrove lagoons. PMID:21530262

  10. Box jellyfish use terrestrial visual cues for navigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garm, Anders; Oskarsson, Magnus; Nilsson, Dan-Eric

    2011-01-01

    Box jellyfish have an impressive set of 24 eyes of four different types, including eyes structurally similar to those of vertebrates and cephalopods [1, 2]. However, the known visual responses are restricted to simple phototaxis, shadow responses, and object avoidance responses [3-8], and it has...... been a puzzle why they need such a complex set of eyes. Here we report that medusae of the box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora are capable of visually guided navigation in mangrove swamps using terrestrial structures seen through the water surface. They detect the mangrove canopy by an eye type...... that is specialized to peer up through the water surface and that is suspended such that it is constantly looking straight up, irrespective of the orientation of the jellyfish. The visual information is used to navigate to the preferred habitat at the edge of mangrove lagoons....

  11. The Boxing Day Tsunami: Could the Disaster have been Anticipated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, P. R.; Burbdige, D.

    2005-05-01

    The occurrence of the 26 December, 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake and the accompanying "Boxing Day" Tsunami, which killed over 280,00, has been described as one of the most lethal natural disasters in human history. Many lives could have been saved had a tsunami warning system, similar to that which exists for the Pacific Ocean, been in operation for the Indian Ocean. The former exists because great subduction zone earthquakes have generated destructive, Pacific-wide tsunami in the Pacific Ocean with some frequency. Prior to 26 December, 2004, all of the world's earthquakes with magnitude > 9 were widely thought to have occurred in the Pacific Ocean, where they caused destructive tsunami. Could the occurrence of similar earthquakes and tsunami in the Indian Ocean been predicted prior to the 2004 Box Day Tragedy? This presentation will argue that the answer is "Yes". Almost without exception (the exception being the 1952 Kamchatka earthquake) the massive subduction zone earthquakes and tsunami of the Pacific Ocean have been associated with the subduction of relatively young ocean lithosphere (literature and were the subject of recent research. In particular, research by Zachariasen et al. (1999 and 2000) had inferred that the magnitude of the 1833 event may have been as high as 9.2. Calculations for the tsunami that might have been associated with this event had shown, prior to 26 Dec, that it would affect the entire Indian Ocean basin, although due to the earthquake's location 1000 km southeast of the Boxing day event, the effects in the Bay of Bengal would not have been as severe. Thus, it seems to this author that the Boxing Day event could and should have been anticipated. This presentation will further consider why it was not, and what steps can be taken to anticipate and mitigate the effects of future events that may occur in the Indian Ocean and elsewhere.

  12. Mutated hybrid inflation in $f(R,{\\Box}R)$-gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Iihoshi, Masao

    2010-01-01

    A new hybrid inflationary scenario in the context of $f(R,{\\Box}R)$-gravity is proposed. Demanding the waterfall field to 'support the potential from below' [unlike the original proposal by Stewart in Phys. Lett. B345, 414 (1995)], we demonstrate that the scalar potential is similar to that of the large-field chaotic inflation model proposed by Linde in Phys. Lett. B129, 177 (1983).

  13. Evaluation of multi-box diagrams in six dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a simple method which simplifies the evaluation of the on-shell multiple box diagrams reducing them to triangle type ones. For the L-loop diagram one gets the expression in terms of Feynman parameters with 2L-fold integration. As examples we consider the 2 and 3 loops cases, the numerical integration up to six loops is also presented. The method is valid in six dimensions where neither UV not IR divergences appear

  14. Black-Box Algorithms for Sampling from Continuous Distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Hörmann, Wolfgang; Leydold, Josef

    2006-01-01

    For generating non-uniform random variates, black-box algorithms are powerful tools that allow drawing samples from large classes of distributions. We give an overview of the design principles of such methods and show that they have advantages compared to specialized algorithms even for standard distributions, e.g., the marginal generation times are fast and depend mainly on the chosen method and not on the distribution. Moreover these methods are suitable for specialized tasks like sampling ...

  15. Chinese boxes: "Typhoon" and Conrad's history of the Chinese

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, D.

    2009-01-01

    This essay examines the novel "Typhoon," by Joseph Conrad, as a story about Chinamen coolies and seamen onboard a steamer transporting Chinese laborers. It argues that the Chinese boxes of the coolies represent several versions of the history of the Chinese and that the coolies are also representatives of a civilization with ideas and institutions, a law and order of nature. It also describes the images of Chinese life and their association to sociality, cooperation, nourishment, simplicity, ...

  16. Venom Proteome of the Box Jellyfish Chironex fleckeri

    OpenAIRE

    Brinkman, Diane L; Ammar Aziz; Alex Loukas; Jeremy Potriquet; Jamie Seymour; Jason Mulvenna

    2012-01-01

    The nematocyst is a complex intracellular structure unique to Cnidaria. When triggered to discharge, the nematocyst explosively releases a long spiny, tubule that delivers an often highly venomous mixture of components. The box jellyfish, Chironex fleckeri, produces exceptionally potent and rapid-acting venom and its stings to humans cause severe localized and systemic effects that are potentially life-threatening. In an effort to identify toxins that could be responsible for the serious heal...

  17. A NEW PRINCIPAL PIVOTING SCHEME FOR BOX LINEAR COMPLEMENTARITY PROBLEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGZHEMIN

    1997-01-01

    Judice and Pires developed in recent years principal pivoting methods for the solving ofthe so-called box linear complementarity problems (BLCPs) where the constraint matrices are restrictedly supposed to be of P-matrices. This paper aims at presenting a new principal pivoting scheme for BLCPs where the constraint matrices are loosely supposed to be row sufficient. This scheme can be applied to the solving of convex quadratic programs subject to linear constraints and arbitrary upper and lower bound constraints on variables.

  18. ArduiPod Box: a low-cost and open-source Skinner box using an iPod Touch and an Arduino microcontroller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineño, Oskar

    2014-03-01

    This article introduces the ArduiPod Box, an open-source device built using two main components (i.e., an iPod Touch and an Arduino microcontroller), developed as a low-cost alternative to the standard operant conditioning chamber, or "Skinner box." Because of its affordability, the ArduiPod Box provides an opportunity for educational institutions with small budgets seeking to set up animal laboratories for research and instructional purposes. A pilot experiment is also presented, which shows that the ArduiPod Box, in spite of its extraordinary simplicity, can be effectively used to study animal learning and behavior.

  19. Cluster ion beam evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cluster ions can be made by the supercooling due to adiabatic expansion of substances to be vaporized which are ejected from a nozzle. This paper is described on the recent progress of studies concerning the cluster beam. The technique of cluster ion beam has been applied for the studies of thermonuclear plasma, the fabrication of thin films, crystal growth and electronic devices. The density of cluster ion beam is larger than that of atomic ion beam, and the formation of thin films can be easily done in high vacuum. This method is also useful for epitaxial growth. Metallic vapour cluster beam was made by the help of jetting rare gas beam. Various beam sources were developed. The characteristics of these sources were measured and analyzed. (Kato, T.)

  20. An Introduction to Plum Blossom Boxing: History, Culture and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Zhang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Meihuaquan (“Plum Blossom Fist [Boxing]” has traditionally been practiced as vernacular (folk art practiced among the Han ethnic group residing in the Shandong, Henan and Hebei Provinces of China. Historical documentation dates Plum Blossom Boxing to the seventeenth century. The classic Chinese novel, Shuǐhǔ Zhuàn (Marsh Chronicles recounts the martial exploits of Shandong’s twelfth century outlaw heroes who may have been Mei Boxers, also. Thus, for perhaps a millennium, the region has been noted for vernacular martial arts and social banditry. The region’s rampant lawlessness promoted highly-developed martial prowess among both lawbreakers and those who were required to protect themselves against the brigands. Cultural, economic, and environmental factors in the region gave rise to heterodox political and religious beliefs that frequently served as a catalyst for martial sects, most notably the “Boxers” who at the turn of the twentieth century, came into conflict with the imperial government. These factors laid the groundwork for the “character traits” of the art while Taoism, the Five Elements theory, and a concept of predictable change shaped Plum Boxing’s strategic and mechanical principles. In the past decade, there have been efforts to globalize this vernacular martial art. Rather than driving Plum Boxing to extinction it is likely that the folk and the “larger than local” will co-exist.

  1. Packaging design criteria modified fuel spacer burial box. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, P.F.

    1994-09-13

    Various Hanford facilities must transfer large radioactively contaminated items to burial/storage. Presently, there are eighteen Fuel Spacer Burial Boxes (FSBBs) available on the Hanford Site for transport of such items. Previously, the FSBBS were transported from a rail car to the burial trench via a drag-off operation. To allow for the lifting of the boxes into the burial trench, it will be necessary to improve the packagings lifting attachments and provide structural reinforcement. Additional safety improvements to the packaging system will be provided by the addition of a positive closure system and package ventilation. FSBBs that are modified in such a manner are referred to as Modified Fuel Spacer Burial Boxes (MFSBs). The criteria provided by this PDC will be used to demonstrate that the transfer of the MFSB will provide an equivalent degree of safety as would be provided by a package meeting offsite transportation requirements. This fulfills the onsite transportation safety requirements implemented in WHC-CM-2-14, Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping. A Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) will be prepared to evaluate the safety of the transfer operation. Approval of the SARP is required to authorize transfer. Criteria are also established to ensure burial requirements are met.

  2. Box-Cox变换及其在STATA软件中的实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶庄

    2007-01-01

    目的:向医疗卫生领域的一线工作者介绍Box-Cox变换.方法:利用STATA软件包拟合Box-Cox回归模型.结果:通过使用示例数据库进行拟合,成功的进行了Box-Cox变换,并进行了回归分析.结论:使用Box-Cox变换是解决应变量不符合正态分布的重要方法,而STATA软件提供了进行Box-Cox变换的可行之道.

  3. 太阳日总辐射量的Box-Jenkins模型%BOX-JENKINS MODEL FOR DAILY SOLAR RADIATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏; 丁明

    2012-01-01

    基于天文辐射和日照率数据,采用系统辨识的方法建立了模拟太阳日总辐射量的BJ( Box-Jenkins)模型.该模型与传统的(A)ngstr(m)的日总辐射量的计算公式相比,模拟和预测效果更好.%Based on astronomical radiation and percentage of possible sunshine data, the BJ (Box-Jenkins) model for daily solar irradiation is established using system identification method. The simulation and the one-step forecast results of the BJ model are better than Angstrm formula of the calculation.

  4. Tantalum welding: comparison of electron beam and laser processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of the weldability of the tantalum using electron beam and pulsed Nd: YAG processes involves to some common characteristics: Necessity to optimize the chills geometry in order to avoid their heating which leads to a modification of the beam/metal interaction. Welds free of defects could only be made by precisely adjusting the welding parameters in order to obtain a penetration slightly lower than the full one. Finally, the main difficulties were met with the YAG laser, to perform a good joining: Problem of the weld pool protection which was solved by processing in a glove box with argon as a shielding gas. Choice of the porthole material through which the laser beam enters in the glove box. Suppression of the laser-induced plume. So, it is possible to weld 2 mm thick tantalum parts with the following parameters: BE: 1 m/mn - 1600 W, Nd: YAG laser: 0.98 m/mn - 1100 W (average power). (author). 4 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  5. Monte Carlo simulation experiments on box-type radon dosimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamil, Khalid, E-mail: kjamil@comsats.edu.pk; Kamran, Muhammad; Illahi, Ahsan; Manzoor, Shahid

    2014-11-11

    Epidemiological studies show that inhalation of radon gas ({sup 222}Rn) may be carcinogenic especially to mine workers, people living in closed indoor energy conserved environments and underground dwellers. It is, therefore, of paramount importance to measure the {sup 222}Rn concentrations (Bq/m{sup 3}) in indoors environments. For this purpose, box-type passive radon dosimeters employing ion track detector like CR-39 are widely used. Fraction of the number of radon alphas emitted in the volume of the box type dosimeter resulting in latent track formation on CR-39 is the latent track registration efficiency. Latent track registration efficiency is ultimately required to evaluate the radon concentration which consequently determines the effective dose and the radiological hazards. In this research, Monte Carlo simulation experiments were carried out to study the alpha latent track registration efficiency for box type radon dosimeter as a function of dosimeter’s dimensions and range of alpha particles in air. Two different self developed Monte Carlo simulation techniques were employed namely: (a) Surface ratio (SURA) method and (b) Ray hitting (RAHI) method. Monte Carlo simulation experiments revealed that there are two types of efficiencies i.e. intrinsic efficiency (η{sub int}) and alpha hit efficiency (η{sub hit}). The η{sub int} depends upon only on the dimensions of the dosimeter and η{sub hit} depends both upon dimensions of the dosimeter and range of the alpha particles. The total latent track registration efficiency is the product of both intrinsic and hit efficiencies. It has been concluded that if diagonal length of box type dosimeter is kept smaller than the range of alpha particle then hit efficiency is achieved as 100%. Nevertheless the intrinsic efficiency keeps playing its role. The Monte Carlo simulation experimental results have been found helpful to understand the intricate track registration mechanisms in the box type dosimeter. This paper

  6. Monte Carlo simulation experiments on box-type radon dosimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Khalid; Kamran, Muhammad; Illahi, Ahsan; Manzoor, Shahid

    2014-11-01

    Epidemiological studies show that inhalation of radon gas (222Rn) may be carcinogenic especially to mine workers, people living in closed indoor energy conserved environments and underground dwellers. It is, therefore, of paramount importance to measure the 222Rn concentrations (Bq/m3) in indoors environments. For this purpose, box-type passive radon dosimeters employing ion track detector like CR-39 are widely used. Fraction of the number of radon alphas emitted in the volume of the box type dosimeter resulting in latent track formation on CR-39 is the latent track registration efficiency. Latent track registration efficiency is ultimately required to evaluate the radon concentration which consequently determines the effective dose and the radiological hazards. In this research, Monte Carlo simulation experiments were carried out to study the alpha latent track registration efficiency for box type radon dosimeter as a function of dosimeter's dimensions and range of alpha particles in air. Two different self developed Monte Carlo simulation techniques were employed namely: (a) Surface ratio (SURA) method and (b) Ray hitting (RAHI) method. Monte Carlo simulation experiments revealed that there are two types of efficiencies i.e. intrinsic efficiency (ηint) and alpha hit efficiency (ηhit). The ηint depends upon only on the dimensions of the dosimeter and ηhit depends both upon dimensions of the dosimeter and range of the alpha particles. The total latent track registration efficiency is the product of both intrinsic and hit efficiencies. It has been concluded that if diagonal length of box type dosimeter is kept smaller than the range of alpha particle then hit efficiency is achieved as 100%. Nevertheless the intrinsic efficiency keeps playing its role. The Monte Carlo simulation experimental results have been found helpful to understand the intricate track registration mechanisms in the box type dosimeter. This paper explains that how radon concentration from the

  7. Saturation of the magnetorotational instability in the unstratified shearing box with zero net flux: convergence in taller boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ji-Ming; Stone, James M.; Huang, Chelsea X.

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies of the non-linear regime of the magnetorotational instability in one particular type of shearing box model - unstratified with no net magnetic flux - find that without explicit dissipation (viscosity and resistivity) the saturation amplitude decreases with increasing numerical resolution. We show that this result is strongly dependent on the vertical aspect ratio of the computational domain Lz/Lx. When Lz/Lx ≲ 1, we recover previous results. However, when the vertical domain is extended Lz/Lx ≳ 2.5, we find the saturation level of the stress is greatly increased (giving a ratio of stress to pressure α ≳ 0.1), and moreover the results are independent of numerical resolution. Consistent with previous results, we find that saturation of the magnetorotational (MRI) in this regime is controlled by a cyclic dynamo which generates patches of strong toroidal field that switches sign on scales of Lx in the vertical direction. We speculate that when Lz/Lx ≲ 1, the dynamo is inhibited by the small size of the vertical domain, leading to the puzzling dependence of saturation amplitude on resolution. We show that previous toy models developed to explain the MRI dynamo are consistent with our results, and that the cyclic pattern of toroidal fields observed in stratified shearing box simulations (leading to the so-called butterfly diagram) may also be related. In tall boxes the saturation amplitude is insensitive to whether or not explicit dissipation is included in the calculations, at least for large magnetic Reynolds and Prandtl number. Finally, we show MRI turbulence in tall domains has a smaller critical Pmc, and an extended lifetime compared to Lz/Lx ≲ 1 boxes.

  8. Structural Behavior of Continuous Prestressed Steel Fiber Reinforced High Strength Concrete Beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The flexural behaviors of continuous fully and partially prestressed steel fiber reinforced high strength concrete beams are studied by experiment and nonlinear finite element analysis. Three levels of partial prestress ratio (PPR) are considered, and three pairs of two-span continuous beams with box sections varying in size are designed. The major parameters involved in the study include the PPR and the fiber location. It is concluded that the prestressed high strength concrete beam exhibits satisfactory ductility; the influences of steel fiber on the crack behaviors for partially prestressed beams are not as obvious as those for fully prestressed ones; steel fibers can improve the structural stiffness after cracking for fully prestressed high strength concrete beams; the moment redistribution from mid-span to intermediate support in the first stage should be mainly considered in practical design.

  9. Insights into the quality of DnaA boxes and their cooperativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming G.; Christensen, Bjarke Bak; Nielsen, Christina Bang;

    2006-01-01

    Plasmids carrying the mioC promoter region with its two DnaA boxes are as efficient in titration of DnaA protein as plasmids carrying a replicationinactivated oriC region with its five DnaA boxes. The two DnaA boxes upstream of the mioC promoter were mutated in various ways to study the cooperati......Plasmids carrying the mioC promoter region with its two DnaA boxes are as efficient in titration of DnaA protein as plasmids carrying a replicationinactivated oriC region with its five DnaA boxes. The two DnaA boxes upstream of the mioC promoter were mutated in various ways to study...... the cooperativity between the DnaA boxes, and to study in vivo the in vitrodefined 9mer DnaA box consensus sequence TTA/TTNCACA). The quality and cooperativity of the DnaA oxes were determined in two complementary ways: as titration of DnaA protein leading to derepression of the dnaA promoter, and as repression...... of the mioC promoter caused by the DnaA protein binding to the DnaA boxes. Titration of DnaA protein correlated with repression of the mioC promoter. The level of titration and repression with the normal promoter-proximal box (TTTTCCACA) depends strongly on the presence and the quality of a DnaA box...

  10. CFRP-Strengthening and Long-Term Performance of Fatigue Critical Welds of a Steel Box Girder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland E. Koller

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Empa’s research efforts in the 1990s provided evidence that a considerable increase of the fatigue strength of welded aluminum beams can be achieved by externally bonding pultruded carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP laminates using rubber-toughened epoxies over the fatigue-weak welding zone on their tensile flange. The reinforcing effect obtained is determined by the stiffness of the unidirectional CFRP laminate which has twice the elastic modulus of aluminum. One can therefore easily follow that an unstressed CFRP laminate reinforcement of welded beams made of steel will not lead to a substantial increase in fatigue strength of the steel structure. This consideration led to the idea of prestressing an external reinforcement of the welded zone. The present investigation describes experimental studies to identify the adhesive system suitable for achieving high creep and fatigue strength of the prestressed CFRP patch. Experimental results (Wöhler-fields of shear-lap-specimens and welded steel beams reinforced with prestressed CFRP laminates are presented. The paper concludes by presenting a field application, the reinforcement of a steel pendulum by adhesively bonded prestressed CFRP laminates to the tensile flanges of the welded box girder. Inspections carried out periodically on this structure revealed neither prestress losses nor crack initiation after nine years of service.

  11. A neurologist's reflections on boxing. V. Conclude remarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterharnscheidt, F

    1995-01-01

    Clinical and morphological publications have shown convincingly, that participation in boxing leads to a severe permanent brain damage. The extent of the brain damage is correlated to the number of bouts fought, which correspondents in a certain way how many blows against his head a boxer received and to his weight class. The intensity of a boxing blow of a heavyweight is much more severe than those achieved by boxers of lighter weight classes. The permanent brain damage in a boxer, the amateur and the professional boxer, manifests itself in several clinical syndromes in which the pyramidal, the extrapyramidal and the cerebellar systems are involved. A traumatic Parkinsonism, in its complete or abortive form, develops as the result of the numerous boxing blows a boxer sustains in his boxing career. Especially lateral parts of the substantia nigra are affected and reveal at macroscopical and microscopical examination a severe loss of pigmented neurons. Melanin pigment is visible free in the tissue and/or is phagozytosed in macrophages and glial cells. The traumatic Parkinson syndrome, often only in an abortive form, is combined in a boxer with additional clinical and morphological findings due to traumatic lesions in other areas of the brain. It is not as pure as in a patient with a Parkinson syndrome sui generis. The permanent brain damage in a boxer is diffuse, involving all areas of the brain. Especially involved are the large neurons of different layers of the cerebral cortex, the neurons of the Ammons horn formation, the Purkinje cells of the cerebellum. In place of destroyed and lost neurons, proliferation of glial elements, especially astroglial cells, has occurred. The defects are first replaced by protoplasmatic astroglial elements, and later by fibrillary astroglia. The destroyed neurons are replaced by glial scar tissue, which cannot perform the functions of the lost neurons. It is a process which is called partial necrosis of brain tissue. There is no

  12. Colliding Crystalline Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The understanding of crystalline beams has advanced to the point where one can now, with reasonable confidence, undertake an analysis of the luminosity of colliding crystalline beams. Such a study is reported here. It is necessary to observe the criteria, previously stated, for the creation and stability of crystalline beams. This requires, firstly, the proper design of a lattice. Secondly, a crystal must be formed, and this can usually be done at various densities. Thirdly, the crystals in a colliding-beam machine are brought into collision. We study all of these processes using the molecular dynamics (MD) method. The work parallels what was done previously, but the new part is to study the crystal-crystal interaction in collision. We initially study the zero-temperature situation. If the beam-beam force (or equivalent tune shift) is too large then over-lapping crystals can not be created (rather two spatially separated crystals are formed). However, if the beam-beam force is less than but comparable to that of the space-charge forces between the particles, we find that overlapping crystals can be formed and the beam-beam tune shift can be of the order of unity. Operating at low but non-zero temperature can increase the luminosity by several orders of magnitude over that of a usual collider. The construction of an appropriate lattice, and the development of adequately strong coding, although theoretically achievable, is a challenge in practice

  13. Fano-Kondo and the Kondo box regimes crossover in a quantum dot coupled to a quantum box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Victor M; Orellana, Pedro A; Pacheco, Monica; Anda, Enrique V

    2013-12-18

    In this work, we study the Kondo effect of a quantum dot (QD) connected to leads and to a discrete set of one-particle states provided by a quantum box represented by a quantum ring (QR) pierced by a magnetic flux side attached to the QD. The interplay between the bulk Kondo effect and the so-called Kondo box regime is studied. In this system the QR energies can be continuously modified by the application of the magnetic field. The crossover between these two regimes is analyzed by changing the connection of the QD to the QR from the weak to the strong coupling regime. In the weak coupling regime, the differential conductance develops a sequence of Fano-Kondo anti-resonances due to destructive interference between the discrete quantum ring levels and the conducting Kondo channel provided by the leads. In the strong coupling regime the differential conductance has very sharp resonances when one of the Kondo discrete sub-levels characterizing the Kondo box is tuned by the applied potential. The conductance, the current fluctuations and the Fano coefficient result as being the relevant physical magnitudes to be analyzed to reveal the physical properties of these two Kondo regimes and the crossover region between them. The results were obtained by using the slave boson mean field theory (SBMFT). PMID:24275637

  14. Beam-beam effect seen through forced vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In electron accelerator, tune is measured by giving beam transverse forced vibration caused by RF frequency. It is well known that beam-beam parameter can be measured if beam-beam interaction exists. Generally, small value is chosen as the amplitude of forced vibration, and many researches were done in this case. In this report, we discuss effect of resonance caused by beam-beam interaction in case of amplitude of forced vibration being big. (author)

  15. Processing of food and agricultural commodities with electron beam from microtron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A microtron machine source installed by the Centre for Advanced Technology (CAT), Indore, at Mangalore University, was used in the study. The machine was operated at a beam power of 1.8 W, beam energy of 8.6 MeV, and a beam current of 20 mA. After initial standardization, the irradiation of commodities was carried out. The doses employed were 0.06 kGy for onion, 0.10 kGy for potato, 0.25 kGy for rawa, and 8 kGy for spices. The desired dose was delivered by exposing the samples from the two opposite sides of the box. The microbial load in spice samples was determined immediately after the experiment, as well as after six months of storage at the ambient temperature (26±2 degC). Onion and potato samples were stored for a six months period both at ambient temperature and 15 degC for observing the effect of electron beam irradiation on sprouting in these commodities. Rawa samples were stored at ambient temperature for observing the effect of electron beam irradiation on insect disinfestation. The electron beam irradiation at the recommended doses was found to be as effective as gamma radiation in bringing down the microbial load of the tested spices to the desired level, disinfestations of rawa, and inhibition of sprouting in onion. In the case of potato even four-side irradiation of the product box did not inhibit the sprouting completely. This indicated the necessity of standardization of machine parameters for uniform dose distribution in the product box for each commodity. These lab-scale studies showed that electron beam could in principle be used for processing of various food products after standardizing the machine parameters and ensuring uniform dose distribution in the product. Use of this technology on commercial scale would need standardization on larger machines

  16. KEKB beam instrumentation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arinaga, M.; Flanagan, J.; Hiramatsu, S.; Ieiri, T.; Ikeda, H.; Ishii, H.; Kikutani, E.; Mimashi, T.; Mitsuhashi, T.; Mizuno, H.; Mori, K.; Tejima, M.; Tobiyama, M.

    2003-02-01

    For the stable high-luminosity operation and luminosity increase, the electron and positron storage rings of the KEK B-Factory (KEKB) is equipped with various beam instrumentations, which have been working well since the start of the commissioning in December, 1998. Details and performance of the beam-position monitor system based on the spectrum analysis using DSPs, the turn-by-turn BPM with four-dimensional function available for measurements of the individual bunch position, phase and intensity, the parametric beam-DCCTs designed so as to avoid the magnetic-core-selection problems for the parametric flux modulation, the bunch-by-bunch feedback system indispensable to suppress the strong multibunch instabilities in KEKB, the various optical beam diagnostic systems, such as synchrotron radiation interferometers for precise beam-size measurement, the tune meters, the bunch length monitors and the beam-loss monitors are described. Delicate machine tuning of KEKB is strongly supported by these instrumentations.

  17. Laser Beam Focus Analyser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Carøe; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Olsen, Flemming Ove;

    2007-01-01

    The quantitative and qualitative description of laser beam characteristics is important for process implementation and optimisation. In particular, a need for quantitative characterisation of beam diameter was identified when using fibre lasers for micro manufacturing. Here the beam diameter limits...... the obtainable features in direct laser machining as well as heat affected zones in welding processes. This paper describes the development of a measuring unit capable of analysing beam shape and diameter of lasers to be used in manufacturing processes. The analyser is based on the principle of a rotating...... mechanical wire being swept through the laser beam at varying Z-heights. The reflected signal is analysed and the resulting beam profile determined. The development comprised the design of a flexible fixture capable of providing both rotation and Z-axis movement, control software including data capture...

  18. An optimal structure for a 34-meter millimeter-wave center-fed BWG antenna: The Cross-Box concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, K. L.

    1988-01-01

    An approach to the design of the planned NASA/JPL 34 m elevation-over-azimuth (Az-El) antenna structure at the Venus site (DSS-13) is presented. The antenna structural configuration accommodates a large (2.44 m) beam waveguide (BWG) tube centrally routed through the reflector-alidade structure, an elevation wheel design, and an optimal structural geometry. The design encompasses a cross-box elevation wheel-reflector base substructure that preserves homology while satisfying many constraints, such as structure weight, surface tolerance, stresses, natural frequency, and various functional constraints. The functional requirements are set to ensure that microwave performance at millimeter wavelengths is adequate. The cross-box configuration was modeled, optimized, and found to satisfy all DSN HEF baseline antenna specifications. In addition, the structure design was conceptualized and analyzed with an emphasis on preserving the structure envelope and keeping modifications relative to the HEF antennas to a minimum, thus enabling the transferability of the BWG technology for future retrofitting. Good performance results were obtained.

  19. Prediction and experimental validation of stagnation temperature attained by a solar cooker of hot box type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narasimha Rao, A. V; Srikrishna, D. V. N [Warangal (India)

    2000-07-01

    A hot box type solar cooker, having double glass covers and a plane mirror reflector, is tested for stagnation temperature. A computer code is developed based on the analytical model proposed by Vaishya et. al. The global and beam components of solar radiation measured at Warangal are made use to predict the stagnation temperature of the cooker. The observed values of stagnation temperature at Warangal are compared with those of predicted values. A good agreement of the measured and observed values of the stagnation temperature is observed during the afternoon period. The lag in the observed values during the forenoon may be due to thermal inertia of the cooker. [Spanish] Se probo una estufa solar de tipo caja caliente con cubiertas dobles de vidrio y un espejo reflector plano para medir la temperatura de estancamiento. Se desarrollo un codigo de computacion basado en el modelo analitico propuesto por Vaishya et. al. Los componentes de la radiacion solar globales y de rayo medidos en Warangal se usan para predecir la temperatura de estancamiento de la estufa. Los valores observados de la temperatura de estancamiento en Warangal se comparan con los valores predichos. Se aprecia una buena concidencia de los valores medidos y observados de la temperatura de estancamiento durante el periodo de la tarde. El retraso de los valores observados durante la manana puede ser debido a la inercia termica de la estufa.

  20. Distributed Nd-YAG laser welding and process control in inert glove boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have fabricated and assembled a fiber optic delivered ND-YAG laser welding work station that consists of three glove boxes served by a single 1kw laser. Processing considerations related to the welding of special nuclear materials, toxic materials and complex part geometry are addressed within each work cell. We are proceeding with a development effort to integrate the equipment capabilities with remote sensing, process monitoring and control systems. These systems will provide real time data acquisition during welding, monitoring and verification of weld parameters, and CAD/CAM to CNC generated positioning paths. Computerized information storage, retrieval and network methods are used for weld process documentation and data analysis. A virtual control panel is being configured to integrate the monitoring and control operation of individual subsystems, such as laser and motion control into a single graphical interface. Development work on sensors to monitor laser beam characteristics and weld depth in real time with potential for adaptive control is in progress. System capabilities and results of these development efforts are presented

  1. Vibration Suppression of Electronic Box by a Dual Function Piezoelectric Energy Harvester-Tuned Vibration Absorber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajid Rafique

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years, remarkable developments in piezoelectric materials have motivated many researchers to work in the field of vibration energy harvesting by using piezoelectric beam like smart structures. This paper aimed to present the most recent application of a dual function piezoelectric device which can suppress vibration and harvest vibration energy simultaneously and a brief illustration of conventional mechanical and electrical TVAs (Tuned Vibration Absorber. It is shown that the proposed dual function device combines the benefits of conventional mechanical and electrical TVAs and reduces their relative disadvantages. Conversion of mechanical energy into electrical energy introduces damping and, hence, the optimal damping required by this TVA is generated by the energy harvesting effects. This paper presents the methodology of implementing the theory of 'electromechanical' TVAs to suppress the response of any real world structure. The work also illustrates the prospect of extensive applications of such novel "electromechanical" TVAs in defence and industry. The results show that the optimum degree of vibration suppression of an electronic box is achieved by this dual function TVA through suitable tuning of the attached electrical circuitry

  2. Proton Beam Energy Characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Marus, Lauren A.; Engle, J.W.; John, K. D.; Birnbaum, E. R.; Nortier, F. M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The Los Alamos Isotope Production Facility (IPF) is actively engaged in the development of isotope production technologies that can utilize its 100 MeV proton beam. Characterization of the proton beam energy and current is vital for optimizing isotope production and accurately conducting research at the IPF. Motivation In order to monitor beam intensity during research irradiations, aluminum foils are interspersed in experimental stacks. A theoretical yield of 22Na from...

  3. Hyperon beam physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, P.S.

    1996-03-01

    This report reviews the present status and recent results in hyperon physics concentrating on results from high energy hyperon beam experiments performed at Fermilab over the past several years. The report focuses on hyperon production polarization, precision hyperon magnetic moment measurements and radiative decay studies. Modern charged hyperon beam experiments are characterized by {approx}100m long apparatus and hyperon beams with {gamma}{sub Y}{approx}100 and hyperon fluxes in the 1-100 kHz range.

  4. Chilled beam application guidebook

    CERN Document Server

    Butler, David; Gräslund, Jonas; Hogeling, Jaap; Lund Kristiansen, Erik; Reinikanen, Mika; Svensson, Gunnar

    2007-01-01

    Chilled beam systems are primarily used for cooling and ventilation in spaces, which appreciate good indoor environmental quality and individual space control. Active chilled beams are connected to the ventilation ductwork, high temperature cold water, and when desired, low temperature hot water system. Primary air supply induces room air to be recirculated through the heat exchanger of the chilled beam. In order to cool or heat the room either cold or warm water is cycled through the heat exchanger.

  5. Semiconductor laser beam bending

    OpenAIRE

    YILDIRIM, REMZİ; ÇELEBİ, FATİH VEHBİ

    2015-01-01

    This study is about a single-component cylindrical structured lens with a gradient curve that was used for bending laser beams. It operates under atmospheric conditions and bends the laser beam independently of temperature, pressure, polarity, polarization, magnetic field, electric field, radioactivity, and gravity. A single-piece cylindrical lens that can bend laser beams was developed. Lenses are made of transparent, tinted, or colored glass and are used to undermine or absorb the energy of...

  6. Mechanical beam isolator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Back-reflections from a target, lenses, etc. can gain energy passing backwards through a laser just like the main beam gains energy passing forwards. Unless something blocks these back-reflections early in their path, they can seriously damage the laser. A Mechanical Beam Isolator is a device that blocks back-reflections early, relatively inexpensively, and without introducing aberrations to the laser beam

  7. Resolving Two Beams in Beam Splitters with a Beam Position Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurennoy, Sergey

    2002-04-01

    The beam transport system for the Advanced Hydrotest Facility (AHF) anticipates multiple beam splitters. Monitoring two transversely separated beams in a common beam pipe in the splitter sections imposes certain requirements on beam diagnostics for these sections. We explore a two-beam system in a generic beam monitor and study the feasibility of resolving the transverse positions of the two beams with one diagnostics device. Effects of unequal beam currents and of finite transverse sizes of the beams are explored analytically for both the ultra relativistic case and the long-wavelength limit.

  8. Beam cavity interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Gamp, A

    2011-01-01

    We begin by giving a description of the rf generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, rf feedback, and feed-forward are described. Examples of digital rf phase and amplitude control for the special case of superconducting cavities are also given. Finally, a dedicated phase loop for damping synchrotron oscillations is discussed.

  9. Beam alignment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A patent is claimed for the invention of a beam alignment system. The aim of the invention is the obtention of an accurate monitoring of the beam position and direction. It is of great interest in the nuclear industry. The invention can be applied in an infrared laser beam for welding operations. An auxiliar radiation source is incorporated to the device. The system's configuration allows a simultaneous and separated utilisation of two beams. The description and the design of the proposed system are provided

  10. Simulation of Beam-Beam Background at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Sailer, A

    2010-01-01

    The dense beams used at CLIC to achieve a high luminosity will cause a large amount of background particles through beam-beam interactions. Generator level studies with GUINEAPIG and full detector simulation studies with an ILD based CLIC detector have been performed to evaluate the amount of beam-beam back- ground hitting the vertex detector.

  11. 49 CFR 231.1 - Box and other house cars built or placed in service before October 1, 1966.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Box and other house cars built or placed in... APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.1 Box and other house cars built or placed in service before October 1, 1966. Except for box and other house cars that comply with either § 231.27 or § 231.28, each box and...

  12. Impact attenuation of protective boxing and taekwondo headgear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, David M; Fife, Gabriel P

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to compare the impact attenuation performance of boxing and taekwondo headgear in terms of peak linear and rotational acceleration. To measure the impact attenuation of headgear, a standardized (American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) F-2397) martial arts headgear striker was used to impart impacts to a 50th Percentile Male Hybrid III Crash Test Dummy head and neck complex. Two boxing (Adidas and Greenhill) and two taekwondo (Adidas and Nike) headgear, approved by the Association Internationale de Boxe Amateur and the World Taekwondo Federation (WTF), were selected. Each of the selected headgear was fitted to the Hybrid III head and subsequently subjected to five impacts at the front and side with a maximum impact interim time of 60 seconds by the rotating striker at 8 ± 0.3 m/s. Linear and rotational acceleration were recorded at 10,000 Hz. There were significant interactions of the impact location and brand on the rotational acceleration, F(3,40) = 6.7, p < .05. There were significant main effects of both impact location F(1,40) = 9.07, p < .05 and headgear brand F(3,40) = 9.9, p < .05 on the linear acceleration. Pairwise comparisons show significant differences between the front and side for both linear and rotational acceleration. The headgear tested failed the ASTM high impact test requirement to reduce the linear acceleration to below a threshold of 150 g. Further development of headgear to reduce impact linear and rotational acceleration magnitudes should be called for by the relevant sport governing bodies and initiated by headgear manufactures.

  13. 装配箱混凝土空心楼盖结构受力性能试验研究%EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON MECHNICAL PERFORMANCE OF ASSEMBLY BOX CONCRETE HOLLOW FLOOR STRUCTURE WITH ASSEMBLY STYLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵考重; 李自然; 王莉; 孙双军; 房晓朋; 王超

    2011-01-01

    Assembly Box Concrete Hollow Floor is a new-style whole structure-with a cross section of a concrete box composed of small prefabricated components (concrete superposition box) and a cast-in-place concrete rib beam. The mechanical performance of the structure is analyzed in this paper based on the experiment with the test blocks of assembly box concrete hollow floor, and the failure mechanism affected by the load of floor is obtained. The findings prove that the prefabricated box and the cast-in-place concrete rib beam could interact, and in the calculation of floor framing design, a simplified flexural computing could be used, and each rib beam is taken as one computing unit. The top floor of the box could be used as the compressed flange, and the effective width of the compressed flange could be the sum of the two smaller figures, which are of the depth of 12 times of the box floor and the width of the cross section and the net span of a rib beam. The steel bars installed in the tensile area of the bottom floor of the box could fully exert its role, which could be taken into account in the flexural computing. The rack space and width in the bottom box floor of the tensile area are different from the cracks of the rib beam. The crack of the floor should be computed in accordance with reinforced concrete axial tension components, and that of the rib beam should be done according to the flexural member.%装配箱混凝土空心楼盖是一种新型的楼盖形式,是由小型预制构件(混凝土叠合箱)与现浇混凝土肋梁结合成具有连续箱型截面的整体结构.该文通过对装配箱混凝土空心楼板试件的试验,分析了该结构的受力性能,得到了楼盖在荷载作用下的破坏机理.通过分析得到预制箱体与现浇混凝土肋梁能够共同工作,在进行楼盖设计计算时,可简化为T型截面进行抗弯计算.抗弯计算时,每根肋梁为一个计算单元,箱体的顶板(底板)可作为肋梁的受压翼缘,

  14. Introduction to game physics with Box2D

    CERN Document Server

    Parberry, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Written by a pioneer of game development in academia, Introduction to Game Physics with Box2D covers the theory and practice of 2D game physics in a relaxed and entertaining yet instructional style. It offers a cohesive treatment of the topics and code involved in programming the physics for 2D video games. Focusing on writing elementary game physics code, the first half of the book helps you grasp the challenges of programming game physics from scratch, without libraries or outside help. It examines the mathematical foundation of game physics and illustrates how it is applied in practice thro

  15. Numerical Computation of Two-loop Box Diagrams with Masses

    CERN Document Server

    Yuasa, F; Hamaguchi, N; Ishikawa, T; Kato, K; Kurihara, Y; Fujimoto, J; Shimizu, Y

    2011-01-01

    A new approach is presented to evaluate multi-loop integrals, which appear in the calculation of cross-sections in high-energy physics. It relies on a fully numerical method and is applicable to a wide class of integrals with various mass configurations. As an example, the computation of two-loop planar and non-planar box diagrams is shown. The results are confirmed by comparisons with other techniques, including the reduction method, and by a consistency check using the dispersion relation.

  16. Box: Natural Language Processing Research Using Amazon Web Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axelrod Amittai

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a publicly-available state-of-the-art research and development platform for Machine Translation and Natural Language Processing that runs on the Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud. This provides a standardized research environment for all users, and enables perfect reproducibility and compatibility. Box also enables users to use their hardware budget to avoid the management and logistical overhead of maintaining a research lab, yet still participate in global research community with the same state-of-the-art tools.

  17. Fundamental Solutions to $\\Box_b$ on Certain Quadrics

    CERN Document Server

    Boggess, Albert

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to expand the number of examples for which the complex Green operator, that is, the fundamental solution to the Kohn Laplacian, can be computed. We use the Lie group structure of quadric submanifolds of $\\mathbb C^n\\times\\mathbb C^m$ and the group Fourier transform to reduce the $\\Box_b$ equation to ones that can be solved using modified Hermite functions. We use Mehler's formula and investigate 1) quadric hypersurfaces, where the eigenvalues of the Levi form are not identical (including possibly zero eigenvalues), and 2) the canonical quadrics in $\\mathbb C^4$ of codimension two.

  18. Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS) Technology Tool Box (TTB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Monica; ONeil, Daniel A.; Christensen, Carissa B.

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS) is a decision support tool designed to aid program managers and strategic planners in determining how to invest technology research and development dollars. It is an Excel-based modeling package that allows a user to build complex space architectures and evaluate the impact of various technology choices. ATLAS contains system models, cost and operations models, a campaign timeline and a centralized technology database. Technology data for all system models is drawn from a common database, the ATLAS Technology Tool Box (TTB). The TTB provides a comprehensive, architecture-independent technology database that is keyed to current and future timeframes.

  19. A Grey Box Model for the Hydraulics in a Creek

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsdottir, Harpa; Jacobsen, Judith L.; Madsen, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    The Saint-Venant equation of mass balance is used to derive a stochastics lumped model, describing the dynamics of a cross-sectional area in a river. The unknown parameters of the model are estimated by combining the physical equation with a set of data, a method known as grey box modelling....... The data consists of water level measurements every minute, at two locations in the river, during a period of nine days. The data was sub sampled to the frequency of 15 minutes. A maximum likelihood method is used to estimate the parameters in the model....

  20. Standard Waste Box Lid Screw Removal Option Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anast, Kurt Roy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-11

    This report provides results from test work conducted to resolve the removal of screws securing the standard waste box (SWB) lids that hold the remediated nitrate salt (RNS) drums. The test work evaluated equipment and process alternatives for removing the 42 screws that hold the SWB lid in place. The screws were secured with a red Loctite thread locker that makes removal very difficult because the rivets that the screw threads into would slip before the screw could be freed from the rivet, making it impossible to remove the screw and therefore the SWB lid.

  1. Parameter Estimation in Stochastic Grey-Box Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Rode; Madsen, Henrik; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2004-01-01

    An efficient and flexible parameter estimation scheme for grey-box models in the sense of discretely, partially observed Ito stochastic differential equations with measurement noise is presented along with a corresponding software implementation. The estimation scheme is based on the extended...... and proves to have better performance both in terms of quality of estimates for nonlinear systems with significant diffusion and in terms of reproducibility. In particular, the new tool provides more accurate and more consistent estimates of the parameters of the diffusion term....

  2. Band-pass filtered velocity statistics in decaying turbulent box

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    For homogeneous isotropic turbulence study,the acquisition of band-pass filtered velocity increments(FVI) in a non-forced turbulent box is still a challenge both experimentally and numerically.Turbulence and associated physical processes,at a given instant,are permanently contaminated by a forcing process which can seldom be universal.The situation tends to be the origin of intermittency and the non-Gaussian probability density distribution for acceleration and velocity gradients.To reveal implied mechanism...

  3. some chocolate和a box of chocolates的区别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王振元

    2012-01-01

    在《牛津小学英语》5A Unit8 A campingt rip一课中,有这么一句话:Miss Li has a box of chocolates and Mr Green has some fruit.这里出现了chocolate的复数。在平时的教学中,教师告诉学生chocolate是不可数名词,这里又出现了复数,作何解释呢?笔者认为,理解单复数还要根据不同的文化背景。

  4. MERIT FUNCTION AND GLOBAL ALGORITHM FOR BOX CONSTRAINED VARIATIONAL INEQUALITIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立平; 高自友; 赖炎连

    2002-01-01

    The authors consider optimization methods for box constrained variational inequalities. First, the authors study the KKT-conditions problem based on the original problem. A merit function for the KKT-conditions problem is proposed, and some desirable properties of the merit function are obtained. Through the merit function, the original problem is reformulated as minimization with simple constraints. Then, the authors show that any stationary point of the optimization problem is a solution of the original problem. Finally, a descent algorithm is presented for the optimization problem, and global convergence is shown.

  5. Resolving Two Beams in Beam Splitters with a Beam Position Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Kurennoy, S S

    2002-01-01

    The beam transport system for the Advanced Hydrotest Facility (AHF) anticipates multiple beam splitters [1]. Monitoring two separated beams in a common beam pipe in the splitter sections imposes certain requirements on diagnostics for these sections. In this note we explore a two-beam system in a generic beam monitor and study the feasibility of resolving the positions of the two beams with a single diagnostic device.

  6. Damping of a vibrating beam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hietanen, Jarmo; Bomer, Johan; Jonsmann, Jacques; Olthuis, Wouter; Bergveld, Piet; Kaski, Kimmo

    2000-01-01

    This study examines the vibration in a beam with one fixed end. The set-up consisted of a beam with one end clamped and a rigid plate having the same thickness of the beam, located adjacent to the unfixed end of the beam. The gap between the beam and the plate varied from 4 to 128 μm depending on th

  7. Beam distribution reconstruction simulation for electron beam probe

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Yongchun; Li, Peng; Kang, Xincai; Yin, Yan; Liu, Tong; You, Yaoyao; Chen, Yucong; Zhao, Tiecheng; Xu, Zhiguo; Wang, Yanyu; Yuan, Youjin

    2016-01-01

    Electron beam probe (EBP) is a new principle detector, which makes use of a low-intensity and low-energy electron beam to measure the transverse profile, bunch shape, beam neutralization and beam wake field of an intense beam with small dimensions. While can be applied to many aspects, we limit our analysis to beam distribution reconstruction. This kind of detector is almost non-interceptive for all of the beam and does not disturb the machine environment. In this paper, we present the theoretical aspects behind this technique for beam distribution measurement and some simulation results of the detector involved. First, a method to obtain parallel electron beam is introduced and a simulation code is developed. And then, EBP as a profile monitor for dense beam is simulated using fast scan method under various target beam profile, such as KV distribution, waterbag distribution, parabolic distribution, Gaussian distribution and halo distribution. Profile reconstruction from the deflected electron beam trajectory...

  8. Linearizing Intra-Train Beam-Beam Deflection Feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beam-beam deflection feedback acting within the crossing time of a single bunch train may be needed to keep linear collider beams colliding at high luminosity. In a short-pulse machine such as the Next Linear Collider (NLC) this feedback must converge quickly to be useful. The non-linear nature of beam-beam deflection vs. beam-beam offset in these machines precludes obtaining both rapid convergence and a stable steady-state lock to beam offsets with a linear feedback algorithm. We show that a simply realizable programmable non-linear amplifier in the feedback loop can linearize the feedback loop, approximately compensating the beam-beam deflection non-linearity. Performance of a prototype non-linear amplifier is shown. Improvement of convergence and stability of the beam-beam feedback loop is simulated

  9. Beaming teaching application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markovic, Milos; Madsen, Esben; Olesen, Søren Krarup;

    2012-01-01

    BEAMING is a telepresence research project aiming at providing a multimodal interaction between two or more participants located at distant locations. One of the BEAMING applications allows a distant teacher to give a xylophone playing lecture to the students. Therefore, rendering of the xylophon...

  10. Ionization beam scanner

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1973-01-01

    Inner structure of an ionization beam scanner, a rather intricate piece of apparatus which permits one to measure the density distribution of the proton beam passing through it. On the outside of the tank wall there is the coil for the longitudinal magnetic field, on the inside, one can see the arrangement of electrodes creating a highly homogeneous transverse electric field.

  11. Mechanically reinforced glass beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Henrik; Olesen, John Forbes

    2007-01-01

    The use of glass as a load carrying material in structural elements is rarely seen even though glass is a popular material for many architects. This is owed to the unreliable and low tensile strength, which is due to surface flaws and high brittleness of the material. These properties lead...... to breakage without any warning or ductility, which can be catastrophic if no precautions are taken. One aspect of this issue is treated here by looking at the possibility of mechanically reinforcing glass beams in order to obtain ductile failure for such a structural component. A mechanically reinforced...... laminated float glass beam is constructed and tested in four-point bending. The beam consist of 4 layers of glass laminated together with a slack steel band glued onto the bottom face of the beam. The glass parts of the tested beams are \\SI{1700}{mm} long and \\SI{100}{mm} high, and the total width of one...

  12. Beam director design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younger, F.C.

    1986-08-01

    A design and fabrication effort for a beam director is documented. The conceptual design provides for the beam to pass first through a bending and focusing system (or ''achromat''), through a second achromat, through an air-to-vacuum interface (the ''beam window''), and finally through the vernier steering system. Following an initial concept study for a beam director, a prototype permanent magnet 30/sup 0/ beam-bending achromat and prototype vernier steering magnet were designed and built. In volume II, copies are included of the funding instruments, requests for quotations, purchase orders, a complete set of as-built drawings, magnetic measurement reports, the concept design report, and the final report on the design and fabrication project. (LEW)

  13. Beam director design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A design and fabrication effort for a beam director is documented. The conceptual design provides for the beam to pass first through a bending and focusing system (or ''achromat''), through a second achromat, through an air-to-vacuum interface (the ''beam window''), and finally through the vernier steering system. Following an initial concept study for a beam director, a prototype permanent magnet 300 beam-bending achromat and prototype vernier steering magnet were designed and built. In volume II, copies are included of the funding instruments, requests for quotations, purchase orders, a complete set of as-built drawings, magnetic measurement reports, the concept design report, and the final report on the design and fabrication project

  14. Muon Beam at the Fermilab Test Beam Area

    OpenAIRE

    Denisov, Dmitri; Evdokimov, Valery; Lukić, Strahinja; Ujić, Predrag

    2016-01-01

    The intensities and profiles of the muon beam behind the beam dump of the Fermilab test beam area when the facility is running in the "pion" beam mode are measured and summarized in this note. This muon beam with momenta in the range 10 - 50 GeV/c provides an opportunity to perform various measurements in parallel with other users of the test beam area.

  15. Structural performance of notch damaged steel beams repaired with composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Taly, Boshra

    2016-06-01

    An experimental program and an analytical model using ANSYS program were employed to estimate the structural performance of repaired damaged steel beams using fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composite materials. The beams were artificially notched in the tension flanges at mid-spans and retrofitted by FRP flexible sheets on the tension flanges and the sheets were extended to cover parts of the beams webs with different heights. Eleven box steel beams, including one intact beam, one notch damaged beam and nine notches damaged beam and retrofitted with composite materials, were tested in two-point loading up to failure. The parameters considered were the FRP type (GFRP and CFRP) and number of layers. The results indicated that bonding CFRP sheets to both of the tension steel flange and part of the webs, instead of the tension flange only, enhances the ultimate load of the retrofitted beams, avoids the occurrence of the debonding and increases the beam ductility. Also the numerical models give acceptable results in comparison with the experimental results.

  16. Wake field of electron beam accelerated in a RF-gun of free electron laser 'ELSA'

    CERN Document Server

    Salah, W

    1999-01-01

    Wake field effects driven by a coasting relativistic charged particle beam have been studied for various cavity geometries. In the particular case of a cylindrical 'pill-box' cavity, an analytical expression of the (E, B)(x, t) map has been obtained as a development on the complete base cavity normal modes. We extend this method to the case of an accelerated beam, which leaves the downstream face of the cavity with a thermal velocity, and becomes relativistic in a few cm. This situation is very different from the classical wake of an ultrarelativistic beam for two reasons: (a) in the case of an ultrarelativistic beam, the field directly generated by beam particles in their wake can be neglected, and the so-called wake field is the electromagnetic linear response of the cavity to the exciting signal which is the beam. For a transrelativistic beam, the direct field must be taken into account and added to cavity response, which is no longer linear, except for low-intensity beam; (b) causality prevents any beam's...

  17. Tortoiseshell or Polymer? Spectroscopic Analysis to Redefine a Purported Tortoiseshell Box with Gold Decorations as a Plastic Box with Brass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, António; Caldeira, Ana Teresa; Maduro, Belmira; Vandenabeele, Peter; Candeias, António

    2016-01-01

    The study and preservation of museum collections requires complete knowledge and understanding of constituent materials that can be natural, synthetic, or semi-synthetic polymers. In former times, objects were incorporated in museum collections and classified solely by their appearance. New studies, prompted by severe degradation processes or conservation-restoration actions, help shed light on the materiality of objects that can contradict the original information or assumptions. The selected case study presented here is of a box dating from the beginning of the 20th century that belongs to the Portuguese National Ancient Art Museum. Museum curators classified it as a tortoiseshell box decorated with gold applications solely on the basis of visual inspection and the information provided by the donor. This box has visible signs of degradation with white veils, initially assumed to be the result of biological degradation of a proteinaceous matrix. This paper presents the methodological rationale behind this study and proposes a totally non-invasive methodology for the identification of polymeric materials in museum artifacts. The analysis of surface leachates using (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) complemented by in situ attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR FT-IR) allowed for full characterization of the object s substratum. The NMR technique unequivocally identified a great number of additives and ATR FT-IR provided information about the polymer structure and while also confirming the presence of additives. The pressure applied during ATR FT-IR spectroscopy did not cause any physical change in the structure of the material at the level of the surface (e.g., color, texture, brightness, etc.). In this study, variable pressure scanning electron microscopy (VP-SEM-EDS) was also used to obtain the elemental composition of the metallic decorations. Additionally, microbiologic and enzymatic assays were performed in order to identify the

  18. Innovation by design lessons from post box design & development

    CERN Document Server

    Chakravarthy, Battula Kalyana

    2013-01-01

    The book provides an in-depth knowledge on how a product is designed and developed by Product Designers. This has been achieved through a case study of one product – the Post Box. This product was chosen for the study primarily due to its simple and non-technical nature as that would make it easy for the readers to comprehend the design process. At the same time the Post Box posed all the challenges a designer would face while creating a new product. Through a step by step process the book gradually takes the reader through the design and development journey – right from understanding the product, identifying the user need through market research, comprehending client’s brief, generating product ideas and concepts to development of prototype, manufacturing and final performance of the product. The book illustrates the stages in the design process that lead to innovation which is applicable to all types of products. To make the book more stimulating, interesting facts, figures and pictures on related iss...

  19. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in a split potential box

    CERN Document Server

    Shamriz, Elad; Malomed, Boris A

    2016-01-01

    We report results of the analysis of the spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB) in the basic (actually, simplest) model which is capable to produce the SSB phenomenology in the one-dimensional setting. It is based on the Gross-Pitaevskii - nonlinear Schroedinger equation with the cubic self-attractive term and a double-well-potential built as an infinitely deep potential box split by a narrow (delta-functional) barrier. The barrier's strength, epsilon, is the single free parameter of the scaled form of the model. It may be implemented in atomic Bose-Einstein condensates and nonlinear optics. The SSB bifurcation of the symmetric ground state (GS) is predicted analytically in two limit cases, viz., for deep or weak splitting of the potential box by the barrier. For the generic case, a variational approximation (VA) is elaborated. The analytical findings are presented along with systematic numerical results. Stability of stationary states is studied through the calculation of eigenvalues for small perturbations, an...

  20. 金氏住宅%Golden House An Unfurled Box

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗恩·维特; 莎拉·怀特; 童彤; 范凌

    2012-01-01

    The Golden House is a design inspired by an unfurled box that links the different parts of a residence built in four different periods.The box acts as the core system of organisation,yet it slips fleetingly in and out of new and old,formal and informal regions of the residence as well as the difference of materials,embodying the coherency inscribed as a whole of the building.%文章介绍了金氏住宅的改造,设计围绕一个展开的简单棱柱体组织,以之为核心将4个不同时期建造的部分联系在一起,形成复合的、全新的建筑形和空间分隔,体现出远超各部分单纯叠加的相互关系的整体一致性。

  1. The approximate scaling law of the cochlea box model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetesník, A; Nobili, R

    2006-12-01

    The hydrodynamic box-model of the cochlea is reconsidered here for the primary purpose of studying in detail the approximate scaling law that governs tonotopic responses in the frequency domain. "Scaling law" here means that any two solutions representing waveforms elicited by tones of equal amplitudes differ only by a complex factor depending on frequency. It is shown that this property holds with excellent approximation almost all along the basilar membrane (BM) length, with the exception of a small region adjacent to the BM base. The analytical expression of the approximate law is explicitly given and compared to numerical solutions carried out on a virtually exact implementation of the model. It differs significantly from that derived by Sondhi in 1978, which suffers from an inaccuracy in the hyperbolic approximation of the exact Green's function. Since the cochleae of mammals do not exhibit the scaling properties of the box model, the subject presented here may appear to be just an academic exercise. The results of our study, however, are significant in that a more general scaling law should hold for real cochleae. To support this hypothesis, an argument related to the problem of cochlear amplifier-gain stabilization is advanced. PMID:17008036

  2. Communications systems design for testability: Grey-box testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probert, Robert L.; Geldrez, Cecilia

    Large systems such as telecommunications systems may involve several million lines of executable code and tend to evolve incrementally, thus rendering testing and maintainability a very complex task. For this reason, testing and verification requirements must be defined and incorporated into the development process early in the software development cycle. Thus, design becomes a key component of these systems. An approach to assist in enhancing the testability of software designs is proposed, termed grey-box testing. One particular grey-box testing paradigm named semantic instrumentation is illustrated. Designs are represented as design machines, an extension of finite-state machines. A design-level plan for verification/test is then derived to guarantee branch coverage of the design machine for both normal behaviors and for processing of exceptions. Finally, semantic probes are defined to provide a mapping from the design machine to implemented code. These probes are used to document design decisions, implementation decisions, and execution traces during code verification and test. The process of semantic instrumentation is illustrated on communications services, more precisely, on the service of the alternating bit protocol.

  3. Pothole Detection System Using a Black-box Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngtae Jo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aging roads and poor road-maintenance systems result a large number of potholes, whose numbers increase over time. Potholes jeopardize road safety and transportation efficiency. Moreover, they are often a contributing factor to car accidents. To address the problems associated with potholes, the locations and size of potholes must be determined quickly. Sophisticated road-maintenance strategies can be developed using a pothole database, which requires a specific pothole-detection system that can collect pothole information at low cost and over a wide area. However, pothole repair has long relied on manual detection efforts. Recent automatic detection systems, such as those based on vibrations or laser scanning, are insufficient to detect potholes correctly and inexpensively owing to the unstable detection of vibration-based methods and high costs of laser scanning-based methods. Thus, in this paper, we introduce a new pothole-detection system using a commercial black-box camera. The proposed system detects potholes over a wide area and at low cost. We have developed a novel pothole-detection algorithm specifically designed to work with the embedded computing environments of black-box cameras. Experimental results are presented with our proposed system, showing that potholes can be detected accurately in real-time.

  4. Code Generation for Embedded Software for Modeling Clear Box Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Chandra Prakash

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Cleanroom software Engineering (CRSE recommended that the code related to the Application systems be generated either manually or through code generation models or represents the same as a hierarchy of clear box structures. CRSE has even advocated that the code be developed using the State models that models the internal behavior of the systems. No framework has been recommended by any Author using which the Clear boxes are designed using the code generation methods. Code Generation is one of the important quality issues addressed in cleanroom software engineering. It has been investigated that CRSE can be used for life cycle management of the embedded systems when the hardware-software co-design is in-built as part and parcel of CRSE by way of adding suitable models to CRSE and redefining the same. The design of Embedded Systems involves code generation in respect of hardware and Embedded Software. In this paper, a framework is proposed using which the embedded software is generated. The method is unique that it considers various aspects of the code generation which includes Code Segments, Code Functions, Classes, Globalization, Variable propagation etc. The proposed Framework has been applied to a Pilot project and the experimental results are presented.

  5. No Quantum Realization of Extremal No-Signaling Boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Ravishankar; Tuziemski, Jan; Horodecki, Michał; Horodecki, Paweł

    2016-07-01

    The study of quantum correlations is important for fundamental reasons as well as for quantum communication and information processing tasks. On the one hand, it is of tremendous interest to derive the correlations produced by measurements on separated composite quantum systems from within the set of all correlations obeying the no-signaling principle of relativity, by means of information-theoretic principles. On the other hand, an important ongoing research program concerns the formulation of device-independent cryptographic protocols based on quantum nonlocal correlations for the generation of secure keys, and the amplification and expansion of random bits against general no-signaling adversaries. In both these research programs, a fundamental question arises: Can any measurements on quantum states realize the correlations present in pure extremal no-signaling boxes? Here, we answer this question in full generality showing that no nontrivial (not local realistic) extremal boxes of general no-signaling theories can be realized in quantum theory. We then explore some important consequences of this fact.

  6. Stuffing box for a sucker rod pump assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, M.B.

    1987-03-03

    A stuffing box is described for use with a sucker rod pump assembly for a producing well including a polish rod at the upper end of the sucker rods, comprising a tubular housing for mounting on the wellhead of a producing well through which the polish rod reciprocates. Two longitudinally spaced packing assemblies are located in the tubular housing in sealing engagement with the polish rod and the housing to provide an annular chamber for a lubricating fluid to surround the polish rod. The box also comprises a lubricating fluid reservoir mounted on the tubular housing and surrounding the portion of the housing in which the annular chamber is located, upper and lower ports in the housing adjacent the upper and lower ends of the chamber connecting the annular chamber with the lubricating fluid reservoir, the housing being imperforate between the ports, and a removable annular spacer located in the annular chamber between the packing assemblies to hold the packing assemblies spaced apart. The spacer has upper and lower ports adjacent the upper and lower end of the chamber and is in substantially the same plane as the upper and lower ports in the housing.

  7. Venom proteome of the box jellyfish Chironex fleckeri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane L Brinkman

    Full Text Available The nematocyst is a complex intracellular structure unique to Cnidaria. When triggered to discharge, the nematocyst explosively releases a long spiny, tubule that delivers an often highly venomous mixture of components. The box jellyfish, Chironex fleckeri, produces exceptionally potent and rapid-acting venom and its stings to humans cause severe localized and systemic effects that are potentially life-threatening. In an effort to identify toxins that could be responsible for the serious health effects caused by C. fleckeri and related species, we used a proteomic approach to profile the protein components of C. fleckeri venom. Collectively, 61 proteins were identified, including toxins and proteins important for nematocyte development and nematocyst formation (nematogenesis. The most abundant toxins identified were isoforms of a taxonomically restricted family of potent cnidarian proteins. These toxins are associated with cytolytic, nociceptive, inflammatory, dermonecrotic and lethal properties and expansion of this important protein family goes some way to explaining the destructive and potentially fatal effects of C. fleckeri venom. Venom proteins and their post-translational modifications (PTMs were further characterized using toxin-specific antibodies and phosphoprotein/glycoprotein-specific stains. Results indicated that glycosylation is a common PTM of the toxin family while a lack of cross-reactivity by toxin-specific antibodies infers there is significant divergence in structure and possibly function among family members. This study provides insight into the depth and diversity of protein toxins produced by harmful box jellyfish and represents the first description of a cubozoan jellyfish venom proteome.

  8. Visual control of steering in the box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petie, Ronald; Garm, Anders; Nilsson, Dan-Eric

    2011-09-01

    Box jellyfish carry an elaborate visual system consisting of 24 eyes, which they use for driving a number of behaviours. However, it is not known how visual input controls the swimming behaviour. In this study we exposed the Caribbean box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora to simple visual stimuli and recorded changes in their swimming behaviour. Animals were tethered in a small experimental chamber, where we could control lighting conditions. The behaviour of the animals was quantified by tracking the movements of the bell, using a high-speed camera. We found that the animals respond predictably to the darkening of one quadrant of the equatorial visual world by (1) increasing pulse frequency, (2) creating an asymmetry in the structure that constricts the outflow opening of the bell, the velarium, and (3) delaying contraction at one of the four sides of the bell. This causes the animals to orient their bell in such a way that, if not tethered, they would turn and swim away from the dark area. We conclude that the visual system of T. cystophora has a predictable effect on swimming behaviour. PMID:21832123

  9. Venom proteome of the box jellyfish Chironex fleckeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, Diane L; Aziz, Ammar; Loukas, Alex; Potriquet, Jeremy; Seymour, Jamie; Mulvenna, Jason

    2012-01-01

    The nematocyst is a complex intracellular structure unique to Cnidaria. When triggered to discharge, the nematocyst explosively releases a long spiny, tubule that delivers an often highly venomous mixture of components. The box jellyfish, Chironex fleckeri, produces exceptionally potent and rapid-acting venom and its stings to humans cause severe localized and systemic effects that are potentially life-threatening. In an effort to identify toxins that could be responsible for the serious health effects caused by C. fleckeri and related species, we used a proteomic approach to profile the protein components of C. fleckeri venom. Collectively, 61 proteins were identified, including toxins and proteins important for nematocyte development and nematocyst formation (nematogenesis). The most abundant toxins identified were isoforms of a taxonomically restricted family of potent cnidarian proteins. These toxins are associated with cytolytic, nociceptive, inflammatory, dermonecrotic and lethal properties and expansion of this important protein family goes some way to explaining the destructive and potentially fatal effects of C. fleckeri venom. Venom proteins and their post-translational modifications (PTMs) were further characterized using toxin-specific antibodies and phosphoprotein/glycoprotein-specific stains. Results indicated that glycosylation is a common PTM of the toxin family while a lack of cross-reactivity by toxin-specific antibodies infers there is significant divergence in structure and possibly function among family members. This study provides insight into the depth and diversity of protein toxins produced by harmful box jellyfish and represents the first description of a cubozoan jellyfish venom proteome. PMID:23236347

  10. Numerical Characterization of a Composite Bonded Wing-Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeltzer, Stanley S., III; Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Satyanarayana, Arunkumar

    2008-01-01

    The development of composite wing structures has focused on the use of mechanical fasteners to join heavily-loaded areas, while bonded joints have been used only for select locations. The focus of this paper is the examination of the adhesive layer in a generic bonded wing box that represents a "fastenerless" or unitized structure in order to characterize the general behavior and failure mechanisms. A global/local approach was applied to study the response of the adhesive layer using a global shell model and a local shell/solid model. The wing box was analyzed under load to represent a high-g up-bending condition such that the strains in the composite sandwich face sheets are comparable to an expected design allowable. The global/local analysis indicates that at these wing load levels the strains in the adhesive layer are well within the adhesive's elastic region, such that yielding would not be expected in the adhesive layer. The global/local methodology appears to be a promising approach to evaluate the structural integrity of the adhesively bonded structures.

  11. S-boxes generated using Affine Transformation giving Maximum Avalanche Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumara Shama

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES was published by National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST in November 2001, to replace DES (Data Encryption Standard and Triple DES. The S-box(Substitution box used in AES is designed to be resistant to known cryptanalytic attacks [1][2]. The property of the S-box is that the output cannot be described as a simple mathematical function of the input. The S-box is designed to provide good avalanche effect. The Avalanche Criteria of S-box depends on the generator matrix A used in affine transformation to construct the S-box. This paper investigates the construction of Sboxes by affine transformation which satisfy maximum Avalanche Criteria.

  12. VBSM: VCC-Based Black Box Service Model with Enhanced Data Integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Min Kang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, intelligent transport systems have been applied to vehicle cloud environments. Such technology is especially useful for the systematic management of road traffic. Moreover, automobiles are increasingly equipped with a black box for accident prevention and preservation of evidence. Vehicle black boxes have become mandatory because black box images and voice data have served as forensic evidence in courts. However, the data from black boxes can be forged or modified by man-in-the-middle (MITM attacks and message hijacking. In this paper, we propose a vehicle cloud computing-based black box service model that can provide integrity for black box data through digital signatures in vehicle cloud computing (VCC environments. Our proposed model protects against MITM attacks and message hijacking using only a hash value and digital signature. Moreover, a mirroring technique (RAID 1 provides backup and recovery to protect the data from a traffic accident.

  13. 箱梁钢筋定位自动检测装置%The automatic detection device for box girder reinforced positioning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵云

    2014-01-01

    In order to reduce or eliminate the box girder quality oroblems caused by box girder reinforced orotection layer and ore-stressed oosi-tioning network reinforced deformation and installation not in olace,this oaoer researched the reinforced oositioning of reinforced orotective layer and ore-stressed oositioning network in oost tensioned ore-stressed box beam construction orocess,designed a set of automatic detection each ten-sioned oositioning detection ooint tensioned whether accuracy oositioning or not and disolayed the tensioned oositioning automatic detection de-vice,solved the oroblem of reinforced oositioning detection.%为了减少或消除因箱梁钢筋保护层及预应力定位网钢筋形变和安装不到位而引起箱梁质量问题,对后张法预应力箱梁施工工艺中的钢筋保护层及预应力定位网的钢筋定位进行了研究,设计了一套能自动检测各检测点钢筋是否定位准确并显示的钢筋定位自动检测装置,解决了钢筋定位检测的问题。

  14. The ITER neutral beam front end components integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbani, M., E-mail: marc.urbani@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul Lez Durance (France); Hemsworth, R.; Schunke, B.; Graceffa, J.; Delmas, E.; Svensson, L.; Boilson, D. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul Lez Durance (France); Krylov, A.; Panasenkov, A. [RRC Kurchatov Institute, 1, Kurchatov Square, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); Agarici, G. [Fusion For Energy, C/Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral-B3, E-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Stafford Allen, R.; Jones, C.; Kalsey, M.; Muir, A.; Milnes, J. [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Geli, F. [FGI Consulting, Le Garde d’Estienne, 4565 route du Puy Sainte Reparade, 13540 Puyricard (France); Sherlock, P. [AMEC Limited, Booths Park Chelford Road, Knutsford Cheshire WA16 8QZ (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-15

    The neutral beam (NB) system for ITER is composed of two heating neutral beam injectors (HNBs) and a diagnostic neutral beam injector (DNB). A third HNB can be installed as a future up-grade. This paper will present the design development of the components between the injectors and the tokamak; the so-called ‘front end components’: the drift duct consists of the NB bellows and the drift duct liner, the vacuum vessel pressure suppression system box (VVPSS box), the absolute valve, and the fast shutter. These components represent the key links between the ITER tokamak and the vessels of the NB injectors. The design of these components is demanding due to the different loads that these components will have to stand. The paper will describe the different design solutions which have to be implemented regarding the primary vacuum confinement, the power handling capability and the remote maintenance operations. The sizes of the components are determined by the large cross section of the neutral beam. The power handling capability is driven by the anticipated re-ionization of the neutral beam and the electromagnetic fields in this region. The drift duct bellows (with an inner diameter of 2.5 m) shall guarantee a leak tight vacuum enclosure during the vertical and radial displacements of the ITER vacuum vessel. The conductance of the VVPSS box must be maximized in the available space. The absolute valve remains a challenging development. The total leak rate through the valve must be ≤1 × 10{sup −8} Pa m{sup 3}/s when the valve is closed. Due to the radiation environment, the seals of the gate valve will be metallic. An R and D program has been launched to develop a suitable metallic seal solution with the required dimensions. The maximum allowed closing time for the fast shutter shall be less than 1 s. For all these components the leak tightness will be guaranteed by a welded lip seal and the mechanical stability by bolted structures.

  15. Effect of heterogeneity of nest boxes on occurrence of gregarious nesting in laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Tina; Riber, Anja Brinch

    2012-01-01

    Gregarious nesting, where hens select already occupied nest boxes even when other nest boxes are unoccupied, is an unwanted behaviour in laying hens that may reduce animal welfare and pose a financial cost to the producer. It has been suggested that gregarious nesting is caused by the difficulties...... nesting was higher in experimental groups compared to control groups (P right were higher compared to nest boxes positioned...

  16. Somatotype Analysis of Elite Boxing Athletes Compared with Nonathletes for Sports Physiotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Noh, Ji-Woong; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Park, Byoung-Sun; Yang, Seung-Min; Jeon, Hye-Joo; Lee, Won-Deok; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Jang, Sung-Ho; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Junghwan

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to show somatotype and physical characteristic differences between elite boxing athletes and non-athletes. [Methods] The somatotypes of 23 elite boxing athletes and 23 nonathletes were measured with the Heath-Carter method. The subjects were divided into four weight divisions as follows: lightweight, light middleweight, middleweight, and heavyweight class. [Results] The endomorphic component values of the boxing athletes were lower than those of the non...

  17. ATP hydrolysis is required for DEAD-box protein recycling but not for duplex unwinding

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Fei; Putnam, Andrea; Jankowsky, Eckhard

    2008-01-01

    DEAD-box proteins, the largest helicase family, catalyze ATP-dependent remodeling of RNA–protein complexes and the unwinding of RNA duplexes. Because DEAD-box proteins hydrolyze ATP in an RNA-dependent fashion, the energy provided by ATP hydrolysis is commonly assumed to drive the energetically unfavorable duplex unwinding. Here, we show efficient unwinding of stable duplexes by several DEAD-box proteins in the presence of the nonhydrolyzable ATP analog ADP-beryllium fluoride. Another ATP ana...

  18. Effect of material uncertainties on dynamic response of segmental box girder bridge

    OpenAIRE

    Suchart Limkatanyu; Kittisak Kuntiyawichai

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this paper was to investigate the effect of material uncertainties on dynamic response of segmental box girder bridge subjected to a moving load, in this case a rapid passing trains. Literatures concerned with the design of segmental box girder bridge, the application of finite element analysis to model the segmental box girder bridge, and the minimum requirement for structural conditions of the bridge were described and discussed in detail. A series of finite element a...

  19. Diffraction of a Laser Beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodoin, Ronald E.

    1979-01-01

    Investigates the effect of the nonuniform irradiance across a laser beam on diffraction of the beam, specifically the Fraunhofer diffraction of a laser beam with a Gaussian irradiance profile as it passes through a circular aperture. (GA)

  20. Electron Beam Lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harriott, Lloyd R.

    1997-04-01

    Electron beams have played a significant role in semiconductor technology for more than twenty years. Early electron beam machines used a raster scanned beam spot to write patterns in electron-sensitive polymer resist materials. The main application of electron beam lithography has been in mask making. Despite the inherently high spatial resolution and wide process margins of electron beam lithography, the writing rate for semiconductor wafers has been too slow to be economically viable on a large scale. In the late 1970's, variable shape electron beam writing was developed, projecting a rectangular beam whose size can be varied for each "shot" exposure of a particular pattern, allowing some integrated circuits to be made economically where a variety of "customized" patterns are desired. In the cell or block projection electron beam exposure technique, a unit cell of a repetitive pattern is projected repeatedly to increase the level of parallelism. This can work well for highly repetitive patterns such as memory chips but is not well suited to complex varying patterns such as microprocessors. The rapid progress in the performance of integrated circuits has been largely driven by progress in optical lithography, through improvements in lens design and fabrication as well as the use of shorter wavelengths for the exposure radiation. Due to limitations from the opacity of lens and mask materials, it is unlikely that conventional optical printing methods can be used at wavelengths below 193 nm or feature sizes much below 180 nm. One candidate technology for a post-optical era is the Scattering with Angular Limitation Projection Electron-beam Lithography (SCALPEL) approach, which combines the high resolution and wide process latitude inherent in electron beam lithography with the throughput of a parallel projection system. A mask consisting of a low atomic number membrane and a high atomic number pattern layer is uniformly illuminated with high energy (100 ke

  1. The Black Box Theater and AV/IT Convergence: Creating the Classroom of the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenti, Mark S.

    2002-01-01

    Describes "black box" classrooms, which incorporate audiovisual and information technologies to provide an inherently flexible learning environment. Details various technological components of such classrooms. (EV)

  2. Ethical and Practical Considerations in Removing Black Box Warnings from Drug Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, James S; Sarpatwari, Ameet; Kesselheim, Aaron S

    2016-08-01

    Boxed warnings-also known as "black box" warnings-can be a powerful tool in communicating drug risks to physicians and patients. The overall number of boxed warnings has grown in recent years as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved more drugs on the basis of limited pre-marketing information and as new safety issues for marketed drugs have been identified. Two recent manufacturers' petitions to remove boxed warnings on the drugs rosiglitazone (Avandia) and varenicline (Chantix) have led to divergent FDA decisions and revealed different considerations involved in boxed warning imposition and removal. For ethical and practical reasons, the FDA is justified in applying a higher standard for boxed warning removal than for imposition, as removal of a boxed warning may have unintended effects on physician and patient behavior. However, no guidelines on boxed warning removal currently exist. To promote safe use of approved prescription drugs, the FDA should adopt a uniform and transparent process governing decisions to impose or remove boxed warnings. PMID:27000800

  3. Crosstalk Enhancement in 32 nm FD SOI MOSFET using HR Substrate and Multilayer BOX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Tavanazadeh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the crosstalk in 32 nm UTB SOI MOSFET is examined by using a new structure, a high resistivity substrate, and a multilayer BOX (SiO2-Diamond. The electrical and thermal characteristics of the conventional SOI and a multilayer BOX SOI are compared, and it is concluded that parasitic capacitances and crosstalk are improved by incorporating multilayer BOX to a HR Substrate. In a conventional HR FD SOI, crosstalk is approximately -121dB, while by incorporating multilayer BOX substrate and increasing the thickness of the Diamond to 100nm, crosstalk can be reduced by 20%.

  4. Two high-mobility group box domains act together to underwind and kink DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez-Giraldo, R.; Acosta-Reyes, F. J. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Malarkey, C. S. [University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Saperas, N. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Churchill, M. E. A., E-mail: mair.churchill@ucdenver.edu [University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Campos, J. L., E-mail: mair.churchill@ucdenver.edu [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-06-30

    The crystal structure of HMGB1 box A bound to an unmodified AT-rich DNA fragment is reported at a resolution of 2 Å. A new mode of DNA recognition for HMG box proteins is found in which two box A domains bind in an unusual configuration generating a highly kinked DNA structure. High-mobility group protein 1 (HMGB1) is an essential and ubiquitous DNA architectural factor that influences a myriad of cellular processes. HMGB1 contains two DNA-binding domains, box A and box B, which have little sequence specificity but have remarkable abilities to underwind and bend DNA. Although HMGB1 box A is thought to be responsible for the majority of HMGB1–DNA interactions with pre-bent or kinked DNA, little is known about how it recognizes unmodified DNA. Here, the crystal structure of HMGB1 box A bound to an AT-rich DNA fragment is reported at a resolution of 2 Å. Two box A domains of HMGB1 collaborate in an unusual configuration in which the Phe37 residues of both domains stack together and intercalate the same CG base pair, generating highly kinked DNA. This represents a novel mode of DNA recognition for HMGB proteins and reveals a mechanism by which structure-specific HMG boxes kink linear DNA.

  5. Box traps on an atom chip for one-dimensional quantum gases

    CERN Document Server

    van Es, J J P; van Amerongen, A H; Rétif, C; Whitlock, S; van Druten, N J

    2009-01-01

    We present the implementation of tailored trapping potentials for ultracold gases on an atom chip. We realize highly elongated traps with box-like confinement along the long, axial direction combined with conventional harmonic confinement along the two radial directions. The design, fabrication and characterization of the atom chip and the box traps is described. We load ultracold ($\\lesssim1 \\mu$K) clouds of $^{87}$Rb in a box trap, and demonstrate Bose-gas focusing as a means to characterize these atomic clouds in arbitrarily shaped potentials. Our results show that box-like axial potentials on atom chips are very promising for studies of one-dimensional quantum gases.

  6. Beam Imaging and Luminosity Calibration

    CERN Document Server

    Klute, Markus; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a method to reconstruct two-dimensional proton bunch densities using vertex distributions accumulated during LHC beam-beam scans. The $x$-$y$ correlations in the beam shapes are studied and an alternative luminosity calibration technique is introduced. We demonstrate the method on simulated beam-beam scans and estimate the uncertainty on the luminosity calibration associated to the beam-shape reconstruction to be below 1\\%.

  7. Simulations of beam-beam and beam-wire interactions in RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyung J.; Sen, Tanaji; /Fermilab; Abreu, Natalia P.; Fischer, Wolfram; /Brookhaven

    2009-02-01

    The beam-beam interaction is one of the dominant sources of emittance growth and luminosity lifetime deterioration. A current carrying wire has been proposed to compensate long-range beam-beam effects in the LHC and strong localized long-range beam-beam effects are experimentally investigated in the RHIC collider. Tune shift, beam transfer function, and beam loss rate are measured in dedicated experiments. In this paper, they report on simulations to study the effect of beam-wire interactions based on diffusive apertures, beam loss rates, and beam transfer function using a parallelized weak-strong beam simulation code (BBSIMC). The simulation results are compared with measurements performed in RHIC during 2007 and 2008.

  8. Polarized atomic hydrogen beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, N.; Crowe, D.M.; Lubell, M.S.; Tang, F.C.; Vasilakis, A.; Mulligan, F.J.; Slevin, J.

    1988-12-01

    We describe the design and operating characteristics of a simple polarized atomic hydrogen beam particularly suitable for applications to crossed beams experiments. In addition to experimental measurements, we present the results of detailed computer models, using Monte-Carlo ray tracing techniques, optical analogs, and phase-space methods, that not only provide us with a confirmation of our measurement, but also allow us to characterize the density, polarization, and atomic fraction of the beam at all points along its path. As a subsidiary result, we also present measurements of the relative and absolute efficiencies of the V/G Supavac mass analyzer for masses 1 and 2.

  9. Laser beam quality metrics

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, T Sean

    2013-01-01

    This book is geared toward engineers and laser physicists involved in the development of laser-based systems, especially laser systems for directed energy applications. It begins with a review of basic laser properties and moves to definitions and implications of the various standard beam quality metrics such as [i]M[/i][sup]2[/sup], power in the bucket, brightness, beam parameter product, and Strehl ratio. The practical aspects of beam metrology, which have not been sufficiently addressed in the literature, are amply covered here.

  10. Beam instrumentation performance overview

    CERN Document Server

    Sapinski, M

    2012-01-01

    The 2011 run has proven that LHC can operate safely and stably with higher bunch intensity and smaller transverse emittance than foreseen in the Technical Design Report. In this presentation the performance of the Beam Position Monitoring (BPM) system is discussed. The improvements to the system, those made during the last year and those expected to be done for 2012 run are presented. The status of the three types of devices measuring the transverse beam emittance, wire scanners (BWS), synchrotron radiation monitors (BSRT) and beam gas ionization monitors (BGI), are shown. The control room applications are reviewed and a set of improvements proposed by the operation team is presented.

  11. Electron Beam for LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Krasny, M W

    2005-01-01

    A method of delivering a monochromatic electron beam to the LHC interaction points is proposed. In this method, heavy ions are used as carriers of the projectile electrons. Acceleration, storage and collision-stability aspects of such a hybrid beam is discussed and a new beam-cooling method is presented. This discussion is followed by a proposal of the Parasitic Ion-Electron collider at LHC (PIE@LHC). The PIE@LHC provides an opportunity, for the present LHC detectors, to enlarge the scope of their research program by including the program of electron-proton and electron-nucleuscollisions with minor machine and detector investments.

  12. The feasibility and safety of high-intensity focused ultrasound combined with low-dose external beam radiotherapy as supplemental therapy for advanced prostate cancer following hormonal therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Rui-Yi; Wang, Guo-Min; Xu, Lei; ZHANG, BO-HENG; Xu, Ye-Qing; Zeng, Zhao-Chong; Chen, Bing

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility and safety of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) combined with (+) low-dose external beam radiotherapy (LRT) as supplemental therapy for advanced prostate cancer (PCa) following hormonal therapy (HT). Our definition of HIFU+LRT refers to treating primary tumour lesions with HIFU in place of reduced field boost irradiation to the prostate, while retaining four-field box irradiation to the pelvis in conventional-dose external beam r...

  13. LEDA BEAM DIAGNOSTICS INSTRUMENTATION: BEAM POSITION MONITORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) facility located at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) accelerates protons to an energy of 6.7-MeV and current of 100-mA operating in either a pulsed or cw mode. Of key importance to the commissioning and operations effort is the Beam Position Monitor system (BPM). The LEDA BPM system uses five micro-stripline beam position monitors processed by log ratio processing electronics with data acquisition via a series of custom TMS32OC40 Digital Signal Processing (DSP) boards. Of special interest to this paper is the operation of the system, the log ratio processing, and the system calibration technique. This paper will also cover the DSP system operations and their interaction with the main accelerator control system

  14. Development and trial manufacturing of 1/2-scale partial mock-up of blanket box structure for fusion experimental reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Toshiyuki; Takatsu, Hideyuki; Sato, Satoshi

    1994-07-01

    Conceptual design of breeding blanket has been discussed during the CDA (Conceptual Design Activities) of ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor). Structural concept of breeding blanket is based on box structure integrated with first wall and shield, which consists of three coolant manifolds for first wall, breeding and shield regions. The first wall must have cooling channels to remove surface heat flux and nuclear heating. The box structure includes plates to form the manifolds and stiffening ribs to withstand enormous electromagnetic load, coolant pressure and blanket internal (purge gas) pressure. A 1/2-scale partial model of the blanket box structure for the outboard side module near midplane is manufactured to estimate the fabrication technology, i.e. diffusion bonding by HIP (Hot Isostatic Pressing) and EBW (Electron Beam Welding) procedure. Fabrication accuracy is a key issue to manufacture first wall panel because bending deformation during HIP may not be small for a large size structure. Data on bending deformation during HIP was obtained by preliminary manufacturing of HIP elements. For the shield structure, it is necessary to reduce the welding strain and residual stress of the weldment to establish the fabrication procedure. Optimal shape of the parts forming the manifolds, welding locations and welding sequence have been investigated. In addition, preliminary EBW tests have been performed in order to select the EBW conditions, and fundamental data on built-up shield have been obtained. Especially, welding deformation by joining the first wall panel to the shield has been measured, and total deformation to build-up shield by EBW has been found to be smaller than 2 mm. Consequently, the feasibility of fabrication technologies has been successfully demonstrated for a 1m-scaled box structure including the first wall with cooling channels by means of HIP, EBW and TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas arc)-welding.

  15. Cooking Food in Bogota Using a Box Cooker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Alejandro Jiménez Castellanos

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present the transient temperature field of a basic box type solar cooker (without attachments such as double glazing, internal reflectors, external reflectors, steam relief line, etc. for Bogotá – Colombia climate conditions, in order to determine if this device can cook on its town. The methodology consisted of three main stages: the development of a physical – mathematical model for heating process, based on energy balances for each of its components: glass container lid, container, absorber wall and fluid, the development of a computational experiment in the software Autodesk Algor Simulation and the comparison of the results. The final water temperature obtained by the physical - mathematical model was 81.85 ℃, and the maximum obtained with the thermal simulation was 79.60 ℃. From the results, it can be concluded that conditions in Bogotá DC are not appropriate to cook with a device of this kind.

  16. Column Reordering for Box-Constrained Integer Least Squares Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Breen, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The box-constrained integer least squares problem (BILS) arises in MIMO wireless communications applications. Typically a sphere decoding algorithm (a tree search algorithm) is used to solve the problem. In order to make the search algorithm more efficient, the columns of the channel matrix in the BILS problem have to be reordered. To our knowledge, there are currently two algorithms for column reordering that provide the best known results. Both use all available information, but they were derived respectively from geometric and algebraic points of view and look different. In this paper we modify one to make it more computationally efficient and easier to comprehend. Then we prove the modified one and the other actually give the same column reordering in theory. Finally we propose a new mathematically equivalent algorithm, which is more computationally efficient and is still easy to understand.

  17. Packing Boxes into Multiple Containers Using Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menghani, Deepak; Guha, Anirban

    2016-07-01

    Container loading problems have been studied extensively in the literature and various analytical, heuristic and metaheuristic methods have been proposed. This paper presents two different variants of a genetic algorithm framework for the three-dimensional container loading problem for optimally loading boxes into multiple containers with constraints. The algorithms are designed so that it is easy to incorporate various constraints found in real life problems. The algorithms are tested on data of standard test cases from literature and are found to compare well with the benchmark algorithms in terms of utilization of containers. This, along with the ability to easily incorporate a wide range of practical constraints, makes them attractive for implementation in real life scenarios.

  18. The Planck/LFI Radiometer Electronics Box Assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Herreros, J M; Rebolo, R; Chulani, H; Rubino-Martin, J A; Hildebrandt, S R; Bersanelli, M; Butler, R C; Miccolis, M; Pena, A; Pereira, M; Torrero, F; Franceschet, C; Lopez, M; Alcala, C; 10.1088/1748-0221/4/12/T12008

    2010-01-01

    The Radiometer Electronics Box Assembly (REBA) is the control and data processing on board computer of the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) of the Planck mission (ESA). The REBA was designed and built incorporating state of the art processors, communication interfaces and real time operating system software in order to meet the scientific performance of the LFI. We present a technical summary of the REBA, including a physical, functional, electrical, mechanical and thermal description. Aspects of the design and development, the assembly, the integration and the verification of the equipment are provided. A brief description of the LFI on board software is given including the Low-Level Software and the main functionalities and architecture of the Application Software. The compressor module, which has been developed as an independent product, later integrated in the application, is also described in this paper. Two identical engineering models EM and AVM, the engineering qualification model EQM, the flight model ...

  19. Motivating crowding theory - opening the black box of intrinsic motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher

    2010-01-01

    employees. Motivation crowding theory claims that this may be at the expense of intrinsic motivation, if the extrinsic motivation factor is perceived to be controlling. On the other hand, intrinsic motivation will be enhanced (crowded in), if the extrinsic motivation factor is perceived to be supportive....... Studies have found support for the motivation crowding claim, but have neglected intrinsic motivation. This study opens the black box of intrinsic motivation and finds a meaningful distinction between task motivation and public service motivation. Among 2,772 physiotherapists in the Danish public sector......, monetary incentives are found to cause different crowding effects for these different types of intrinsic motivation. The results call for more theoretical work on the drivers of motivation crowding effects and for practitioners to pay more attention to what type of intrinsic motivation is at stake, when...

  20. Workshop energy-efficiency of set-top boxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grieder, T.

    2005-07-01

    This short final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents a review of the findings of two workshops held on the subject of the power consumption of 'set-top boxes' used for the reception of digitally transmitted media. The report estimates that these could cause an up to 1% increase in electricity consumption. The conclusions of the workshops, which were attended by representatives of importers and service providers active in this sector, are presented in graphical form. The main results include recommendations that the European Code of Conduct should be adopted and that retailers should be involved in any actions taken. The situation in Europe is commented on and the importance of customer information is stressed.

  1. Dynamic Magnification Factor in a Box-Shape Steel Girder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbar-Ranji, A.

    2014-01-01

    The dynamic effect of moving loads on structures is treated as a dynamic magnification factor when resonant is not imminent. Studies have shown that the calculated magnification factors from field measurements could be higher than the values specified in design codes. It is the main aim of present paper to investigate the applicability and accuracy of a rule-based expression for calculation of dynamic magnification factor for lifting appliances used in marine industry. A steel box shape girder of a crane is considered and transient dynamic analysis using computer code ANSYS is implemented. Dynamic magnification factor is calculated for different loading conditions and compared with rule-based equation. The effects of lifting speeds, acceleration, damping ratio and position of cargo are examined. It is found that rule-based expression underestimate dynamic magnification factor.

  2. One-dimensional quasi-relativistic particle in the box

    CERN Document Server

    Kaleta, Kamil; Malecki, Jacek

    2011-01-01

    Two-term Weyl-type asymptotic law for the eigenvalues of one-dimensional quasi-relativistic Hamiltonian (-h^2 c^2 d^2/dx^2 + m^2 c^4)^(1/2) + V_well(x) (the Klein-Gordon square-root operator with electrostatic potential) with the infinite square well potential V_well(x) is given: the n-th eigenvalue is equal to (n pi/2 - pi/8) h c/a + O(1/n), where 2a is the width of the potential well. Simplicity of eigenvalues is proved. Some L^2 and L^infinity properties of eigenfunctions are also studied. Eigenvalues represent energies of a `massive particle in the box' quasi-relativistic model.

  3. Experimental Grey Box Model Identification of an Active Gas Bearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theisen, Lukas Roy Svane; Pierart Vásquez, Fabián Gonzalo; Niemann, Hans Henrik;

    2014-01-01

    Gas bearings have inherent dynamics that gives rise to low damping and potential instability at certain rotational speeds. Required damping and stabilization properties can be achieved by active ow control if bearing parameters are known. This paper deals with identifacation of parameters...... in a dynamic model of an active gas bearing and subsequent control loop design. A grey box model is determined based on experiments where piezo actuated valves are used to perturb the journal and hence excite the rotor-bearing system. Such modelling from actuator to output is shown to effciently support...... controller design, in contrast to impact models that focus on resonance dynamics. The identified model is able to accurately reproduce the lateral dynamics of the rotor-bearing system in a desired operating range, in this case around the first two natural frequencies. The identified models are validated...

  4. Accuracy of the box-counting algorithm for noisy fractals

    CERN Document Server

    Gorski, A Z; Oswiecimka, P; Skrzat, J

    2014-01-01

    The box-counting (BC) algorithm is applied to calculate fractal dimensions of four fractal sets. The sets are contaminated with an additive noise with amplitude $\\gamma = 10^{-5} \\div 10^{-1}$. The accuracy of calculated numerical values of the fractal dimensions is analyzed as a function of $\\gamma$ for different sizes of the data sample ($n_{tot}$). In particular, it has been found that a tiny ($10^{-5}$) addition of noise generates much larger (three orders of magnitude) error of the calculated fractal exponents. Natural saturation of the error for larger noise values prohibits the power-like scaling. Moreover, the noise effect cannot be cured by taking larger data samples.

  5. Bunched beam stochastic cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Jie

    1992-09-01

    The scaling laws for bunched-beam stochastic cooling has been derived in terms of the optimum cooling rate and the mixing condition. In the case that particles occupy the entire sinusoidal rf bucket, the optimum cooling rate of the bunched beam is shown to be similar to that predicted from the coasting-beam theory using a beam of the same average density and mixing factor. However, in the case that particles occupy only the center of the bucket, the optimum rate decrease in proportion to the ratio of the bunch area to the bucket area. The cooling efficiency can be significantly improved if the synchrotron side-band spectrum is effectively broadened, e.g. by the transverse tune spread or by using a double rf system.

  6. Bunched beam stochastic cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Jie.

    1992-01-01

    The scaling laws for bunched-beam stochastic cooling has been derived in terms of the optimum cooling rate and the mixing condition. In the case that particles occupy the entire sinusoidal rf bucket, the optimum cooling rate of the bunched beam is shown to be similar to that predicted from the coasting-beam theory using a beam of the same average density and mixing factor. However, in the case that particles occupy only the center of the bucket, the optimum rate decrease in proportion to the ratio of the bunch area to the bucket area. The cooling efficiency can be significantly improved if the synchrotron side-band spectrum is effectively broadened, e.g. by the transverse tune spread or by using a double rf system.

  7. Neutrino beams and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a brief review of the early history of neutrino experiments, the principle of neutrino beams at proton accelerators is described and a survey of neutrino experiments since 1963 is given. ((orig.))

  8. HIRENASD Beam FEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This contains attempts to create BEAM FEM model. I have started a Blog to discuss this... please put your comments there and I will attempt to keep everything...

  9. Pulsed electron beam precharger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finney, W.C. (ed.); Shelton, W.N.

    1989-01-01

    This is the fifth in a series of contracts and grants exploring the advanced particulate pollution control technology of electron beam precipitation. The chief goal of the current contract is to develop a laboratory scale electron beam precharger using a pulsed electric field to the proof-of-concept stage. Contract tasks leading to the achievement of this goal are generally divided up into two categories: tasks required to bring the Electron Beam Precipitator (EBP) test system up to an operational level for the contract work, and tasks concerning the actual experimental and analytical phase of the study. Not unexpectedly, the early portion of the contract duration will be devoted to the commissioning of the EBP and its many subsystems, while the latter portion will devote itself to testing the new pulsed electron beam precharger.

  10. Longitudinal beam dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Tecker, F

    2014-01-01

    The course gives a summary of longitudinal beam dynamics for both linear and circular accelerators. After discussing different types of acceleration methods and synchronism conditions, it focuses on the particle motion in synchrotrons.

  11. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in a split potential box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamriz, Elad; Dror, Nir; Malomed, Boris A.

    2016-08-01

    We report results of an analysis of the spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB) in a basic (actually, simplest) model that is capable of producing the SSB phenomenology in a one-dimensional setting. It is based on the Gross-Pitaevskii-nonlinear Schrödinger equation with the cubic self-attractive term and a double-well potential built as an infinitely deep potential box split by a narrow (δ functional) barrier. The barrier's strength ɛ is the single free parameter of the scaled form of the model. It may be implemented in atomic Bose-Einstein condensates and nonlinear optics. The SSB bifurcation of the symmetric ground state (g.s.) is predicted analytically in two limit cases, viz., for deep or weak splitting of the potential box by the barrier (ɛ ≫1 or ɛ ≪1 , respectively). For the generic case, a variational approximation (VA) is elaborated. The analytical findings are presented along with systematic numerical results. The stability of stationary states is studied through the calculation of eigenvalues for small perturbations and by means of direct simulations. The g.s. always undergoes the SSB bifurcation of the supercritical type, as predicted by the VA at moderate values of ɛ , although the VA fails at small ɛ , due to inapplicability of the underlying ansatz in that case. However, the latter case is correctly treated by the approximation based on a soliton ansatz. On top of the g.s., the first and second excited states are studied too. The antisymmetric mode (the first excited state) is destabilized at a critical value of its norm. The second excited state undergoes SSB bifurcation, like the g.s., but, unlike it, the bifurcation produces an unstable asymmetric mode. All unstable modes tend to spontaneously reshape into the asymmetric g.s.

  12. Making the weight: a case study from professional boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, James P; Robertson, Colin; Sutton, Laura; MacLaren, Don P M

    2010-02-01

    Professional boxing is a combat sport categorized into a series of weight classes. Given the sport's underpinning culture, boxers' typical approach to "making weight" is usually via severe acute and/or chronic energy restriction and dehydration. Such practices have implications for physical performance and also carry health risks. This article provides a case-study account outlining a more structured and gradual approach to helping a professional male boxer make weight for the 59-kg superfeatherweight division. Over a 12-week period, the client athlete adhered to a daily diet approximately equivalent to his resting metabolic rate (6-7 MJ; 40% carbohydrate, 38% protein, 22% fat). Average body-mass loss was 0.9 + or - 0.4 kg/wk, equating to a total loss of 9.4 kg. This weight loss resulted in a decrease in percent body fat from 12.1% to 7.0%. In the 30 hr between weigh-in and competition, the client consumed a high-carbohydrate diet (12 g/kg body mass) supported by appropriate hydration strategies and subsequently entered the ring at a fighting weight of 63.2 kg. This nutritional strategy represented a major change in the client's habitual weight-making practices and did not rely on any form of intended dehydration during the training period or before weighing in. The intervention demonstrates that a more gradual approach to making weight in professional boxing can be successfully achieved via a combination of restricted energy intake and increased energy expenditure, providing there is willingness on the part of the athlete and coaches involved to adopt novel practices.

  13. LHCb: Beam Pipe portrait

    CERN Multimedia

    LHCb, Collaboration

    2005-01-01

    The proton beams circulate in the accelerator in Ultra High Vacuum to make them interact only with each other when colliding at the interaction point. A special beam pipe "holds" the vacuum where they pass through the LHCb detector: it has to be mechanically very strong to stand the difference in pressure between the vacuum inside it and the air in the cavern but also be as transparent as possible for the particles originating in the proton−proton collisions.

  14. LHCb: Beam Pipe

    CERN Multimedia

    LHCb, Collaboration

    2005-01-01

    The proton beams circulate in the accelerator in Ultra High Vacuum to make them interact only with each other when colliding at the interaction point. A special beam pipe "holds" the vacuum where they pass through the LHCb detector:it has to be mechanically very strong to stand the difference in pressure between the vacuum inside it and the air in the cavern but also be as transparent as possible for the particles originating in the proton−proton collisions.

  15. Neutral beams for mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important demonstration of negative ion technology is proposed for FY92 in the MFTF-α+T, an upgrade of the Mirror Fusion Test Facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This facility calls for 200-keV negative ions to form neutral beams that generate sloshing ions in the reactor end plugs. Three different beam lines are considered for this application. Their advantages and disadvantages are discussed

  16. Transverse Beam Size Effects in Beam Position Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurennoy, Sergey

    2001-04-01

    The fields produced by a long beam with a given transverse charge distribution in a homogeneous vacuum chamber are studied. Signals induced by the displaced finite-size beam on electrodes of a beam position monitor (BPM) are calculated and compared to those from a pencil beam. The corrections to BPM signals due to a finite beam size are found analytically for a few particular transverse distributions of the beam current. The results for fields can also be directly applied for calculating the beam coupling impedances of small discontinuities.

  17. Beam-beam studies for the High-Energy LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Ohmi, K; Zimmermann, F

    2011-01-01

    LHC upgrades are being considered both towards higher luminosity (HL-LHC) and towards higher energy (HE-LHC). In this paper we report initial studies of the beam-beam effects in the HE-LHC [1]. The HE-LHC aims at beam energies of 16.5 TeV, where the transverse emittance decreases due to synchrotron radiation with a 2-hour damping time. As a result of this emittance, shrinkage the beam-beam parameter increases with time, during a physics store. The beam-beam limit in the HE-LHC is explored using computer simulations.

  18. LSST optical beam simulator

    CERN Document Server

    Tyson, J A; Gilmore, K; Bradshaw, A; Claver, C; Klint, M; Muller, G; Poczulp, G; Resseguie, E

    2014-01-01

    We describe a camera beam simulator for the LSST which is capable of illuminating a 60mm field at f/1.2 with realistic astronomical scenes, enabling studies of CCD astrometric and photometric performance. The goal is to fully simulate LSST observing, in order to characterize charge transport and other features in the thick fully depleted CCDs and to probe low level systematics under realistic conditions. The automated system simulates the centrally obscured LSST beam and sky scenes, including the spectral shape of the night sky. The doubly telecentric design uses a nearly unit magnification design consisting of a spherical mirror, three BK7 lenses, and one beam-splitter window. To achieve the relatively large field the beam-splitter window is used twice. The motivation for this LSST beam test facility was driven by the need to fully characterize a new generation of thick fully-depleted CCDs, and assess their suitability for the broad range of science which is planned for LSST. Due to the fast beam illuminatio...

  19. Opal neutron beams shutters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Opal Reactor has five beam tubes for neutron beams. Of these 5 tubes, two come from a cold neutron source, another two from thermal sources, and a fifth is ready for a future hot neutron source. Neutron guides come from the cold and thermal beam tubes. Neutron beams are enabled/disabled through shutters located inside the reactor pool's radial shield. These shutters were specially designed by INVAP for the OPAL reactor. They comprise fixed and movable shields. The movable part allows neutron beam enabling or disabling. The design of these shutters demanded the construction of prototypes that were further submitted to comprehensive tests to be qualified in light of the strict movement precision and high reliability requirements involved. The shielding material - a plastic and steel mix - was also specifically designed for this facility. The design required great efforts as to shield calculation and energy deposition. A heat removal system was designed to dissipate the energy absorbed by the shields. The cold and thermal beam shutters are built following a single vertical axis design. The hot shutter, due to different requirements, was designed with a horizontal axis

  20. High power beam analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharon, Oren

    2014-02-01

    In various modern scientific and industrial laser applications, beam-shaping optics manipulates the laser spot size and its intensity distribution. However the designed laser spot frequently deviates from the design goal due to real life imperfections and effects, such as: input laser distortions, optical distortion, heating, overall instabilities, and non-linear effects. Lasers provide the ability to accurately deliver large amounts of energy to a target area with very high accuracy. Thus monitoring beam size power and beam location is of high importance for high quality results and repeatability. Depending on the combination of wavelength, beam size and pulse duration , laser energy is absorbed by the material surface, yielding into processes such as cutting, welding, surface treatment, brazing and many other applications. This article will cover the aspect of laser beam measurements, especially at the focal point where it matters the most. A brief introduction to the material processing interactions will be covered, followed by fundamentals of laser beam propagation, novel measurement techniques, actual measurement and brief conclusions.

  1. WELD FORMATION CONTROL AT ELECTRON BEAM WELDING WITH BEAM OSCILLATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Trushnikov, Dmitriy; Koleva, Elena; Mladenov, Georgy; Shcherbakov, A.

    2014-01-01

    Electron beam welding is used extensively to produce essential machine parts. The control of the basic beam parameters beam power or beam current at constant accelerating voltage, welding speed, current of focusing lens and distance between electron gun and welded sample surface is not enough to obtain at most of the regimes sound welds. Control of the focus position using analysis of the high frequency component of the current, collected by plasma, at periodic interactions on the beam (the o...

  2. Substructural Identification of Flexural Rigidity for Beam-Like Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Young Koo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a novel substructural identification method based on the Bernoulli-Euler beam theory with a single variable optimization scheme to estimate the flexural rigidity of a beam-like structure such as a bridge deck, which is one of the major structural integrity indices of a structure. In ordinary bridges, the boundary condition of a superstructure can be significantly altered by aging and environmental variations, and the actual boundary conditions are generally unknown or difficult to be estimated correctly. To efficiently bypass the problems related to boundary conditions, a substructural identification method is proposed to evaluate the flexural rigidity regardless of the actual boundary conditions by isolating an identification region within the internal substructure. The proposed method is very simple and effective as it utilizes the single variable optimization based on the transfer function formulated utilizing Bernoulli Euler beam theory for the inverse analysis to obtain the flexural rigidity. This novel method is also rigorously investigated by applying it for estimating the flexural rigidity of a simply supported beam model with different boundary conditions, a concrete plate-girder bridge model with different length of an internal substructure, a cantilever-type wind turbine tower structure with different type of excitation, and a steel box-girder bridge model with internal structural damages.

  3. Serum induced degradation of 3D DNA box origami observed by high speed atomic force microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Zaixing; Zhang, Shuai; Yang, Chuanxu;

    2015-01-01

    DNA box origami in serum using high-speed atomic force microscope optimized for imaging 3D DNA origami in real time. The time resolution allows characterizing the stages of serum effects on individual 3D DNA box origami with nanometer resolution. Our results indicate that the whole digest process...

  4. Development with age of nest box use and gregarious nesting in laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Anja Brinch

    2010-01-01

    in position (left + corner, middle, and right). Nesting behaviour was video recorded for 5 days in each of five distinct periods: age 20, 26, 32, 38, and 44 weeks. The total number of visits and the number of gregarious visits were higher in the left nest box than in the other two nest boxes at all ages...

  5. The Inside-Out Box: An Analysis of Structures and Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Marilyn L.

    1996-01-01

    Describes an activity for children of any age to develop spatial sense and explore the effects of transforming, combining, subdividing, and changing geometric figures. Students analyze empty cereal boxes opened flat to determine the specific shape, how it opens and closes, to check maps or sketches against the actual geometry of the box, and write…

  6. Teacher's Guide to Animal Camouflage: The MATCH Box Project; Prototype Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standring, Gillian; Bernath, Robert

    The Materials and Activities for Teachers and Children (MATCH Box) project was developed in 1965 to provide for the relatively intensive treatment of a subject over a short period through materials geared to the elementary school level. Each MATCH Box contains materials, equipment, and activities that work together to foster the teaching/learning…

  7. The effect of box shape on the dynamic properties of proteins simulated under periodic boundary conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassenaar, T.A.; Mark, A.E.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of the box shape on the dynamic behavior of proteins simulated under periodic boundary conditions is evaluated. In particular, the influence of simulation boxes defined by the near-densest lattice packing (NDLP) in conjunction with rotational constraints is compared to that of standard bo

  8. 77 FR 39547 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BOX Options Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ...\\ \\5\\ See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 66871 (April 27, 2012) 77 FR 26323 (May 3, 2012) (File 10... Effectiveness of Proposed Rule To Amend the BOX Options Exchange LLC Limited Liability Company Agreement and the BOX Holdings Group LLC Limited Liability Company Agreement June 27, 2012. Pursuant to Section...

  9. Functional and evolutionary studies of type I MADS box genes in Petunia hybrida and arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemer, Marian

    2008-01-01

    MADS-box genes are very important for plant development and especially for the formation of the flower. The MADS box family of transcription factors in plants can be subdivided into two classes: the MIKC-type genes, which play essential roles in flower formation, and the type I genes, which are func

  10. 49 CFR 215.109 - Defective plain bearing box: Journal lubrication system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective plain bearing box: Journal lubrication... Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.109 Defective plain bearing box: Journal lubrication system...) Metal parts contacting the journal; or (e) Is— (1) Missing; or (2) Not in contact with the journal....

  11. Forkhead box transcription factors in embryonic heart development and congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic heart development is a very complicated process regulated precisely by a network composed of many genes and signaling pathways in time and space. Forkhead box (Fox, FOX) proteins are a family of transcription factors characterized by the presence of an evolutionary conserved "forkhead"or "winged-helix" DNA-binding domain and able to organize temporal and spatial gene expression during development. They are involved in a wide variety of cellular processes, such as cell cycle progression, proliferation, differentiation, migration, metabolism and DNA damage response. An abundance of studies in model organisms and systems has established that Foxa2, Foxc1/c2, Foxh1 and Foxm1, Foxos and Foxps are important components of the signaling pathways that instruct cardiogenesis and embryonic heart development, playing paramount roles in heart development. The previous studies also have demonstrated that mutations in some of the forkhead box genes and the aberrant expression of forkhead box gene are heavily implicated in the congenital heart disease (CHD) of humans. This review primarily focuses on the current understanding of heart development regulated by forkhead box transcription factors and molecular genetic mechanisms by which forkhead box factors modulate heart development during embryogenesis and organogenesis. This review also summarizes human CHD related mutations in forkhead box genes as well as the abnormal expression of forkhead box gene, and discusses additional possible regulatory mechanisms of the forkhead box genes during embryonic heart development that warrant further investigation.

  12. Optical and near-infrared observations of the GRB 970616 error box

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorosabel, J.; Castro-Tirado, A.J.; Pedersen, Henrik;

    1999-01-01

    We report on near-infrared and optical observations of the GRB 970616 error box and of the X-ray sources discovered by ASCA and ROSAT in the region. No optical transient was found either within the IPN band or in the X-ray error boxes, similarly to other bursts, and we suggest that either...

  13. Quasi-static vapor pressure measurements on reactive systems in inert atmosphere box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, A. K.

    1968-01-01

    Apparatus makes vapor pressure measurements on air-sensitive systems in an inert atmosphere glove box. Once the apparatus is loaded with the sample and all connections made, all measuring operations may be performed outside the box. The apparatus is a single-tube adaptation of the double-tube quasi-static technique.

  14. A Smoothing Newton Method for the Box Constrained Variational Inequality Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Ya-jun; MA Chang-feng

    2012-01-01

    The box constrained variational inequality problem can be reformulated as a nonsmooth equation by using median operator.In this paper,we present a smoothing Newton method for solving the box constrained variational inequality problem based on a new smoothing approximation function.The proposed algorithm is proved to be well defined and convergent globally under weaker conditions.

  15. Sex Differences in a Human Analogue of the Radial Arm Maze: The ''17-Box Maze Test''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Q.; Abrahams, S.; Jussab, F.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated sex differences in spatial memory using a human analogue of the Radial Arm Maze: a revision on the Nine Box Maze originally developed by Abrahams, Pickering, Polkey, and Morris (1997) called the 17-Box Maze Test herein. The task encourages allocentric spatial processing, dissociates object from spatial memory, and…

  16. Structure and biochemical function of a prototypical Arabidopsis U-box domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Pernille; Kragelund, Birthe B; Olsen, Addie N;

    2004-01-01

    U-box proteins, as well as other proteins involved in regulated protein degradation, are apparently over-represented in Arabidopsis compared with other model eukaryotes. The Arabidopsis protein AtPUB14 contains a typical U-box domain followed by an Armadillo repeat region, a domain organization...

  17. Smocks and Jocks outside the Box: The Paradigmatic Evolution of Sport and Exercise Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vealey, Robin S.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this article is to describe the historical development of sport and exercise psychology, with a particular emphasis on the construction and evolution of the "box" through history. The box represents the dominant paradigm that serves as the model for research and application as it evolves through successive historical eras (Kuhn,…

  18. Post-training vasopressin injections may facilitate or delay shuttle-box avoidance extinction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagan, J.J.; Bohus, B.; Wied, D. de

    1982-01-01

    After training to avoid footshock in a two-way shuttle box rats were injected with lysine vasopressin (LVP) and returned to the shuttle box 24 hr later for 10 extinction trials. Experiment 1 shows that when injected 30 min after training subsequent extinction responding varied as an inverted “U”-sha

  19. Specific Heat of Helium in 2 μm3 Boxes, Coupled or Uncoupled?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on recent measurements of the specific heat of helium confined in pill-boxes 2 μm across and 2 μm deep made lithographically on a silicon wafer. The experimental cells distribute liquid from a bulk reservoir to ∼ 108 boxes by an array of very shallow fill-channels (0.019 μm and 0.010 μm) which represent a negligible volume compared to that of the boxes. Since the channels are so shallow, the helium in them becomes superfluid at a much lower temperature than the liquid in the boxes. Therefore, during the course of the heat capacity measurements, the liquid in the channels in always normal, and the cell would be expected to behave as a system of uncoupled boxes. We compare these measurements with one previously made of a cell where the confinement was to 1 μm boxes with an equivalent fill arrangement. While the shift in the position of the specific heat maximum relative to the 1 μm cell is what one would expect on the basis of finite-size scaling, there are discrepancies in the specific heat amplitude between the 2 μm cell utilizing different depth fill-channels, and with the 1 μm cell. It is possible that the channels, even though normal and of negligible volume, provide a weak coupling between the boxes leading to a collective rather than single-box behavior

  20. Characterisation of a New Joining Structure for Application to Shielding Boxes Made of Conductive Plastics

    OpenAIRE

    Catrysse, Johan; Vanhee, Filip; Pissoort, Davy; Dewitte, Rik; Hellert, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    When using shielding boxes made of conductive plastics, the main problem is how to contact both parts of the box in a conductive way. A new low-cost joining structure has been developed and characterised. Both the joining structure as the characterisation method and procedure are discussed in this paper.

  1. Design of a shaking table test box for a subway station structure in soft soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Linde; JI Qianqian; ZHENG Yonglai; YANG Chao; ZHANG Dongliang

    2007-01-01

    A reasonable choice of structure of a model box is significant for a shaking table test to be successful in geo- technical engineering. A model box has been designed for the shaking table test of a subway station structure in the soft soil of Shanghai in the paper. The reasonable geometric similarity scale of the subway station structure has been determined by a 3-D dynamic analysis under the action of lateral equiva- lent static loading. The shape, size and structure of the model box are chosen by considering all the involved factors comprehensively. The shape of the box is similar to that of a typical station structure, and the ratio between the plane dimension of the model ground and that of the model struc- ture is big enough to reduce the influence of boundary condi- tion effectively. The structure is strong enough to avoid being demolished by shaking during a test. The contact conditions between the model soil and box are clear to help the data gained from the test well fit that from numerical analysis. The total weight of the model soil and box is less than the bearing capacity of the shaking table apparatus and there is no reso- nance between the model soil and box. The results show that the model box can be used to simulate the dynamic response of a subway station structure very well, so it provides a firm foundation for the success of the shaking table test of a subway station structure.

  2. Norm scores of the box and block test for children ages 3-10 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongbloed-Pereboom, M.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.; Steenbergen, B.

    2013-01-01

    This study provides new norm scores for the Box and Block Test for gross manual dexterity in children ages 3-10 yr. Two hundred fifteen Dutch children performed the Box and Block Test separately with each hand. We found an age effect for the scores; older children obtained higher scores than younger

  3. Norm Scores of the Box and Block Test for Children Ages 3-10 Years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongbloed-Pereboom, M.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.; Steenbergen, B.

    2013-01-01

    This study provides new norm scores for the Box and Block Test for gross manual dexterity in children ages 3-10 yr. Two hundred fifteen Dutch children performed the Box and Block Test separately with each hand. We found an age effect for the scores; older children obtained higher scores than younger

  4. Arrival of the cold box for the cryogenic refrigeration plant and installation in building SHL5.

    CERN Multimedia

    Goran Perinic

    2002-01-01

    The pictures show the arrival of the cold box and the installation of both the cold box and the valve panel in building SHL5. The installation was achieved by lowering the components through an opening in the roof which had been specially forseen for this operation.

  5. Word Boxes Help Children with Learning Disabilities Identify and Spell Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Laurice M.

    1999-01-01

    Describes Marie Clay's word boxes that help children attend to phonological and orthographic features of words, developing phonemic awareness and improving word recognition and spelling. Describes a study showing that the use of word boxes with several elementary school students with learning disabilities was effective for improving and…

  6. Exploring the "Black Box" of Programming: Applying Systematic Implementation Evaluation to a Structured Camp Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainieri, Tracy L.; Anderson, Denise M.

    2015-01-01

    Camp scholars have designed structured curricula to engender specific outcomes and to break down the "black box" of programming. Implementation evaluation explores how well a program operates when delivered, further breaking down the black box. The purpose of this study was to explore the implementation of a new structured camp…

  7. Analysis of Data on Xanthan Fermentation in Stationary Phase Using Black Box and Metabolic Network Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马红武; 赵学明; 唐寅杰

    1999-01-01

    The xanthan fermentation data in the stationary phase was analyzed using the black box and the metabolic network models. The data consistency ls checked through the elemental balance in the black box model. In the metabolic network model, the metabolic flux distribution in the cell is calculated using the metabolic flux analysis method, then the maintenance coefficients is calculated.

  8. Dual-Cantilever-Beam Accelerometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Emmitt A.; Speckhart, Frank H.

    1988-01-01

    Sensitivity to velocity changes along beam axis reduced. Weighted-end cantilever beams of accelerometer deflected equally by acceleration in y direction. When acceleration to right as well as up or down, right beam deflected more, while left beam deflected less. Bridge circuit averages outputs of strain gauges measuring deflections, so cross-axis sensitivity of accelerometer reduced. New device simple and inexpensive.

  9. Multi-Beam Optical Tweezers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    A set of multi-beam electromagnetic tweezers is provided comprising a multi-beam generator for emission of a plurality of electromagnetic beams, at least some of the electromagnetic beams intersecting each other, or, having an individually controlled polarization whereby the position and/or angul...

  10. Holographic memory using beam steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor); Hanan, Jay C. (Inventor); Reyes, George F. (Inventor); Zhou, Hanying (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A method, apparatus, and system provide the ability for storing holograms at high speed. A single laser diode emits a collimated laser beam to both write to and read from a photorefractice crystal. One or more liquid crystal beam steering spatial light modulators (BSSLMs) steer a reference beam, split from the collimated laser beam, at high speed to the photorefractive crystal.

  11. 3D terahertz beam profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pernille Klarskov; Strikwerda, Andrew; Wang, Tianwu;

    2013-01-01

    We present a characterization of THz beams generated in both a two-color air plasma and in a LiNbO3 crystal. Using a commercial THz camera, we record intensity images as a function of distance through the beam waist, from which we extract 2D beam profiles and visualize our measurements into 3D beam...

  12. Perturbation of the energy loss spectra for an accelerated electron beam due to the photo injector exit

    CERN Document Server

    Salah, W

    2003-01-01

    The influence of the photo-injector exit hall on the energy loss for an accelerated electron beam is investigated, by calculating the total energy transferred from the electrons to the wakefields, which are driven by the beam. The obtained energy loss is compared to those previously obtained for a 'pill-box' cavity. This comparison shows that the influence of this hall, in terms of energy loss, varies over the beam length. It is strongest in the middle of the beam and decreases towards both ends. In consequence of this perturbation, the center of the beam is displaced from its initial position during the first phase (t < 200 ps) where the exit aperture has no effect to a new equilibrium position which takes place at 200 < t < 250 ps. (author)

  13. Beam Trail Tracking at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicklaus, Dennis J. [Fermilab; Carmichael, Linden Ralph [Fermilab; Neswold, Richard [Fermilab; Yuan, Zongwei [Fermilab

    2015-01-01

    We present a system for acquiring and sorting data from select devices depending on the destination of each particular beam pulse in the Fermilab accelerator chain. The 15 Hz beam that begins in the Fermilab ion source can be directed to a variety of additional accelerators, beam lines, beam dumps, and experiments. We have implemented a data acquisition system that senses the destination of each pulse and reads the appropriate beam intensity devices so that profiles of the beam can be stored and analysed for each type of beam trail. We envision utilizing this data long term to identify trends in the performance of the accelerators

  14. Augmented twin-nonlinear two-box behavioral models for multicarrier LTE power amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammi, Oualid

    2014-01-01

    A novel class of behavioral models is proposed for LTE-driven Doherty power amplifiers with strong memory effects. The proposed models, labeled augmented twin-nonlinear two-box models, are built by cascading a highly nonlinear memoryless function with a mildly nonlinear memory polynomial with cross terms. Experimental validation on gallium nitride based Doherty power amplifiers illustrates the accuracy enhancement and complexity reduction achieved by the proposed models. When strong memory effects are observed, the augmented twin-nonlinear two-box models can improve the normalized mean square error by up to 3 dB for the same number of coefficients when compared to state-of-the-art twin-nonlinear two-box models. Furthermore, the augmented twin-nonlinear two-box models lead to the same performance as previously reported twin-nonlinear two-box models while requiring up to 80% less coefficients.

  15. [The design of heat dissipation of the field low temperature box for storage and transportation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jiancang; Suin, Jianjun; Wu, Jian

    2013-02-01

    Because of the compact structure of the field low temperature box for storage and transportation, which is due to the same small space where the compressor, the condenser, the control circuit, the battery and the power supply device are all placed in, the design for heat dissipation and ventilation is of critical importance for the stability and reliability of the box. Several design schemes of the heat dissipation design of the box were simulated using the FLOEFD hot fluid analysis software in this study. Different distributions of the temperature field in every design scheme were constructed intimately in the present study. It is well concluded that according to the result of the simulation analysis, the optimal heat dissipation design is decent for the field low temperature box for storage and transportation, and the box can operate smoothly for a long time using the results of the design. PMID:23488142

  16. Box Graphs and Resolutions II: From Coulomb Phases to Fiber Faces

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, Andreas P

    2015-01-01

    Box graphs, or equivalently Coulomb phases of three-dimensional N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories with matter, give a succinct, comprehensive and elegant characterization of crepant resolutions of singular elliptically fibered varieties. Furthermore, the box graphs predict that the phases are organized in terms of a network of flop transitions. The geometric construction of the resolutions associated to the phases is, however, a difficult problem. Here, we identify a correspondence between box graphs for the gauge algebras su(2k+1) with resolutions obtained using toric tops and generalizations thereof. Moreover, flop transitions between different such resolutions agree with those predicted by the box graphs. Our results thereby provide explicit realizations of the box graph resolutions.

  17. Thermohaline circulation stability: a box model study - Part I: uncoupled model

    CERN Document Server

    Lucarini, V; Lucarini, Valerio; Stone, Peter H.

    2004-01-01

    A thorough analysis of the stability of the uncoupled Rooth interhemispheric 3-box model of thermohaline circulation (THC) is presented. The model consists of a northern high latitudes box, a tropical box, and a southern high latitudes box, which respectively correspond to the northern, tropical and southern Atlantic ocean. We adopt restoring boundary conditions for the temperature variables and flux boundary conditions for the salinity variables. We study how the strength of THC changes when the system undergoes forcings that are analogous to those of global warming conditions by applying to the equilibrium state perturbations to the moisture and heat fluxes into the three boxes. In each class of experiments, we determine, using suitably de- fined metrics, the boundary dividing the set of forcing scenarios that lead the system to equilibria characterized by a THC pattern similar to the present one, from those that drive the system to equilibria with a reversed THC. Fast increases in the moisture flux into th...

  18. Heating Processes Of The Axle-Boxes Of Rolling-Stock On Railway Track Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olegas Lunys

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the heating process of the axle-boxes ofrolling stock when the train is in motion and discusses the forcesacting on the wheel-set when rolling stock moves along the trackcurves. The paper analyses scientific publications relevant tothe forces acting on the wheel-set of rolling stock and focuseson the axle-box heating process. The article also discusses theresults of theoretical studies on wheel-set forces that affect theheat exchange process of axle-boxes for a railway vehicle. Theresearch has determined a change in heating temperatures ofdifferent axle-boxes of rolling stock and reasons for their variationsand tendencies. The paper has estimated an effect of thetrain running along the track curves on the heating intensity ofthe axle-box. Finally, valid conclusions and recommendationshave been provided.

  19. Design and test of box girder for a large wind turbine blade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Hørlyk; Tesauro, Angelo; Bitsche, Robert;

    This report is covering the structural design and full scale test of a box girder as a part of the project “Demonstration of new blade design using manufacturing process simulations” supported by the EUDP program. A box girder with a predetermined outer geometry was designed using new inventions...... that the manufacturing process could include the new inventions. Subsequently the box girder was transported to the blade test facility at DTU Wind Energy. A series of test was performed with the blade to investigate the behaviour during loading, and finally the girder was loaded to ultimate failure. The report includes......, which create an inner structure in the box girder. With a combination of advanced FEM analysis and the inventions it was possible to reduce the material thickness of the cap by up to 40%. The new design of the box girder was manufactured at SSP Technology A/S, where it was demonstrated...

  20. Box graphs and resolutions II: From Coulomb phases to fiber faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas P. Braun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Box graphs, or equivalently Coulomb phases of three-dimensional N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories with matter, give a succinct, comprehensive and elegant characterization of crepant resolutions of singular elliptically fibered varieties. Furthermore, the box graphs predict that the phases are organized in terms of a network of flop transitions. The geometric construction of the resolutions associated to the phases is, however, a difficult problem. Here, we identify a correspondence between box graphs for the gauge algebras su(2k+1 with resolutions obtained using toric tops and generalizations thereof. Moreover, flop transitions between different such resolutions agree with those predicted by the box graphs. Our results thereby provide explicit realizations of the box graph resolutions.