WorldWideScience

Sample records for box beams

  1. Bending analysis of laminated composite box beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathy, A.K.; Patel, H.J.; Pang, S.S. (Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1994-01-01

    Box beams are widely used in weight reduction structures such as aircraft wings. The use of composite box beams further reduces the weight factor for such structures with the same deflection and stress as that of isotropic box beams. The difference in the behavior of composite box beam with different fiber orientation, number of plies, and number of stringers also provides a wide range of designing parameters to achieve the required performance for a given problem. A bending analysis has been carried out for the study of deflections and stresses for box beams of different material (isotropic and laminated composites), size, and number of stringers subjected to different kinds of loading conditions. A finite element model has been developed based on the strain energy principle, and the results are compared with an available commercial code COSMOS/M.'' Experiments using aluminum and scotchply composite laminates were conducted to verify the results. An optimal design for size and number of stiffeners for a given loading condition has been achieved. Investigations have also been carried out to find the effect of transverse shear on the span-wise normal stress.

  2. Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Box Beam Strengthened with CFRP U-Wrap Strips Under Torsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Shengqiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study focuses on the torsional strengthening behavior of reinforced concrete (RC box section beams that are widely used in bridges. Four RC box beams were fabricated, and three of them were wrapped by carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP U-wrap strips with or without longitudinal strips. The different wrapping configuration, cracking angle, failure pattern, and tensile strain of fibers were investigated and discussed accordingly. The experimental results addressed that U-wrap strips strengthening also can upgrade the ultimate torque of beams moderately. In particular, using U-wrap and longitudinal strips to bond the box beams increased the torsional stiffness slightly. The same equation from different codes for calculating RC specimens can accurately predict the ultimate strength of the control beam, but the calculation of the fib model overestimated the torsional strengthening improvement of the wrapped specimens. However, Ghobarah et al. assumed approximately 3000με of the average ultimate fiber strain in calculating the ultimate strength of the wrapped box beams which shows in relatively appropriate agreement with testing results.

  3. Lifa Air Secure Box method for chilled beam cleaning

    OpenAIRE

    Leppälä, Vesa-Jukka

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this Bachelor’s Thesis was to introduce a chilled beam cleaning method and to develop an improved version for the prototype introduced in 2011. This thesis was commissioned by Lifa Air Ltd. The company itself is specialized in improving Indoor Air Quality and offers a wide range of products meant for ventilation cleaning. The aim for the development work was to fill the requirements and needs set by the company based on the research done, and to construct a working and improv...

  4. Effect of polymer coatings on fatigue strength of aluminum alloy 2024 box beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordmark, G. E.; Kelsey, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    Previous investigators have shown that polymer coatings raise the fatigue strength of metals tested in air to about the same level as that of uncoated specimens tested in vacuum. The results are given of tests to determine if a polymer coating would improve the fatigue strength of built-up aluminum alloy members simulating aircraft construction. Aluminum alloy 2024-T4 riveted box beams were subjected to constant amplitude fatigue tests in air as well as in salt water fog. The coating did not improve the fatigue strength of beams tested in either environment. This is believed to result from the fact that most failures originated at rivet holes, which were isolated from both the coating and the environment.

  5. Shear Lag in a Plywood Sheet-stringer Combination Used for the Chord Member of a Box Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsari, Palamede; Yu, Ai-Ting

    1948-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations were made of the distribution of strains in a plywood sheet-stringer combination used as the chord member of a box beam acted upon by bending loads. The theoretical solution was obtained with the help of the principle of minimum potential energy and certain simplifying assumptions. Strain measurements were made on a build-up box beam by means of electrical-resistance strain gages connected with strain indicators. A very satisfactory agreement between the theoretical and experimental strains was obtained.

  6. Symmetric grey box identification and distributed beam-based controller design for free-electron lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European X-ray Free-Electron Laser (XFEL) at the Deutsches Elektronen Synchtrotron (DESY) in Hamburg will, starting in 2015, open up completely new research opportunities for scientist and industrial users by exploiting ultrashort X-ray laser pulses. Bunches of electrons are accelerated by a radio frequency field inside superconducting cavities up to an energy of 17.5 GeV. A periodic arrangement of magnets forces the accelerated electrons onto a tight slalom path leading to a process in that the electrons emit extremely short and intense X-ray flashes. The generation of equidistant X-ray flashes with a constant intensity requires an extremely high precision field control in combination with beam-based signals. FLASH, which can be seen as a pilot test facility, allows to develop and test controller concepts even before the European XFEL is in operation. In this thesis it is shown that a physical white box model structure, which describes the behavior of each subsystem within the radio frequency field control loop, obeys as first-order approximation the special orthogonal group of dimension two (SO(2)). Presented is a grey box identification approach, which combines the physical model structure with general identification methods. The accelerator modules are operated in a pulsed mode. Thus, the excitation of the system and therefore the identification of the input-output behavior is only possible within a short time period. Developed is an adaptive identification approach with a specified SO(2) symmetric model structure. The proposed controller design strategy fulfills the requirements of a high precision field performance. Adapting the feedforward signal by using an iterative learning control (ILC) algorithm reduces remaining repetitive field errors from pulse to pulse. It is shown, that exploiting the SO(2) symmetric structure and using the developed tensor based ILC representation simplifies the feedforward update computation. Magnetic chicanes, so

  7. Beam-dump/diagnostics box for a 10-kA 50-MeV, 50-ns electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a dump for the ATA beam that consists of a series of carbon plates whose collective thickness totals approximately 1.5 ranges at 50 MeV. The energy dissipated in the plates is radiated to a water-cooled wall. The dump is designed to dissipate up to 175 kW of average power. A small hole along the axis of the plates forms a beamlet that passes through an energy analyzer. The analyzer consists of a 600 bending magnet and two high-sensitivity beam-current/position monitors. The ratio of the beamlet current to full current is used to estimate the beam emittance

  8. ESA's Toolboxes for Optical Earth Observation Data: BEAM, CHRIS-Box and the Glob-Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomferra, Norman; Peters, Marco; Quast, Ralf; Zuhlke, Marco; Danne, Olaf; Storm, Thomas; Brockmann, Carsten; Regner, Peter

    2010-12-01

    With the launch of ENVISAT in 2002 ESA started the development of the Basic AATSR and MERIS toolbox BEAM [1]. With the requirement to be an open platform for scientists and operational users as well as software developers, ESA laid the foundation for this sustainable and successful open source software development project. Today BEAM is a toolbox and development platform supporting a wide range of optical sensors for Earth Observation, including SMOS, CHRIS/Proba, Landsat/TM, AVNIR, PRISM, MODIS and AVHRR, and enables importing of generic formats such as Geo-TIFF and NetCDF. Widely known is the interactive Visualisation and Analysis Tool VISAT of the BEAM toolbox. On top of the various EO data sources, a wide range of tools and data processors have meanwhile been developed for BEAM.

  9. On sixfold coupled vibrations of thin-walled composite box beams

    OpenAIRE

    Vo, Thuc; Lee, Jaehong; Ahn, Namshik

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a general analytical model for free vibration of thin-walled composite beams with arbitrary laminate stacking sequences and studies the effects of shear deformation over the natural frequencies. This model is based on the first-order shear-deformable beam theory and accounts for all the structural coupling coming from the material anisotropy. The seven governing differential equations for coupled flexural–torsional–shearing vibration are derived from the Hamilton’s princip...

  10. SU-E-T-167: Evaluation of Mobius Dose Calculation Engine Using Out of the Box Preconfigured Beam Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardan, R [UAB University of Alabama, Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Faught, A [MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Huang, M; Benhabib, S [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Brezovich, I; Popple, R [University of Alabama Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Followill, D [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Determine the dose calculation accuracy of a preconfigured Mobius server for use in secondary checks of a treatment planning system. Methods: 10 plans were created for irradiation on two of the IROC (formerly RPC) accreditation phantoms: 4 for the head and neck phantom and 6 for the lung phantom. The plans each were created using one of four different photon energies (6FFF, 10 FFF, 6X, and 15X) and were varied in treatment type including VMAT, step and shoot IMRT, dynamic MLC IMRT (DMLC), and conformal RT (CRT). The TLDs in the phantoms were contoured, and each plan was sent for calculation to Mobius software (Mobius Medical Systems, Houston, TX) with a default configuration. Each plan was then irradiated on the planned phantom 3 times to create an average reading across 56 TLDs. These readings were then compared against the corresponding Mobius calculation at each TLD location. Results: The mean difference (MD) normalized to the plan prescription dose between each TLD and Mobius calculation for all measurements was 0.5 ± 3.3%, with a maximum difference of 8.4%. The MD was 0.6 ± 3.8%, − 2.0 ± 1.9%, 1.7 ± 3.7%, and 1.9 ± 1.2% across the 6FFF, 10FFF, 6X and 15X energies respectively. The MD was −1.2 ± 2.3% for lung plans and 1.8 ± 3.5% for head/neck plans. Across treatment types, the MD ranged from − 1.8 ± 1.7% for CRT to 4.3 ± 2.4 % for DMLC. Conclusion: Out of the box and preconfigured, Mobius provides accurate dose calculations with respect to beam energy, treatment type, and treatment site.

  11. Carbon-ion beams induce production of an immune mediator protein, high mobility group box 1, at levels comparable with X-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray radiotherapy activates tumor antigen-specific T-cell responses, and increases in the serum levels of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) induced by X-ray irradiation play a pivotal role in activating anti-tumor immunity. Here, we examined whether carbon-ion beams, as well as X-rays, can induce HMGB1 release from human cancer cell lines. The study examined five human cancer cell lines: TE2, KYSE70, A549, NCI-H460 and WiDr. The proportion of cells surviving X- or carbon-ion beam irradiation was assessed in a clonogenic assay. The D10, the dose at which 10% of cells survive, was calculated using a linear–quadratic model. HMGB1 levels in the culture supernatants were assessed by an ELISA. The D10 dose for X-rays in TE2, KYSE70, A549, NCI-H460 and WiDr cells was 2.1, 6.7, 8.0, 4.8 and 7.1 Gy, respectively, whereas that for carbon-ion beams was 0.9, 2.5, 2.7, 1.8 and 3.5 Gy, respectively. X-rays and carbon-ion beams significantly increased HMGB1 levels in the culture supernatants of A549, NCI-H460 and WiDr cells at 72 h post-irradiation with a D10 dose. Furthermore, irradiation with X-rays or carbon-ion beams significantly increased HMGB1 levels in the culture supernatants of all five cell lines at 96 h post-irradiation. There was no significant difference in the amount of HMGB1 induced by X-rays and carbon-ion beams at any time-point (except at 96 h for NCI-H460 cells); thus we conclude that comparable levels of HMGB1 were detected after irradiation with iso-survival doses of X-rays and carbon-ion beams. (author)

  12. Analysis on local buckling instability at the bottom of steel-concrete composite box beams%钢-混凝土组合箱梁底板局部屈曲失稳分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭燕秋; 马立荣

    2013-01-01

    Tests have been carried out to study the mechanical property when the negative bending region of combination of steel-concrete composite box beams is under compression.This paper emphasizes the discussion of the computation model of the local stability when box beams is under compression.By comparing the local stability of box beams when under compression with the box beams which is welding studs,pouring concrete slab of certain thickness,this paper is to provide the reference for the optimization design of the bottom slabs of the negative bending region of combination of steel-concrete composite box beams.Results showed that cast-in-place concrete slab in compression state can effectively prevent the occurrence of local buckling instability ; it can reduce the stress of the concrete slab and improve the negative bending region of concrete beams of the ultimate bearing capacity.%针对钢-混凝土组合箱梁负弯矩区底板在受压状态下的力学性能,建立箱梁底板在受压作用下的局部稳定性计算模型.通过对一般箱梁底板在受压作用下的局部稳定性计算和对箱梁底板焊接栓钉并浇筑一定厚度的混凝土板的局部稳定性的计算进行对比分析.结果表明:在受压状态下现浇混凝土板可以有效防止发生局部屈曲失稳,降低箱梁底板的应力,提高弯矩区混凝土梁的极限承载能力.

  13. Einstein's Boxes

    CERN Document Server

    Norsen, T

    2005-01-01

    At the 1927 Solvay conference, Einstein presented a thought experiment intended to demonstrate the incompleteness of the quantum mechanical description of reality. In the following years, the thought experiment was picked up and modified by Einstein, de Broglie, and several other commentators into a simple scenario involving the splitting in half of the wave function of a single particle in a box. In this paper we collect together several formulations of this thought experiment from the existing literature; analyze and assess it from the point of view of the Einstein-Bohr debates, the EPR dilemma, and Bell's theorem; and generally lobby for Einstein's Boxes taking its rightful place alongside similar but historically better-known quantum mechanical thought experiments such as EPR and Schroedinger's Cat.

  14. Einstein's Boxes

    OpenAIRE

    Norsen, Travis

    2004-01-01

    At the 1927 Solvay conference, Einstein presented a thought experiment intended to demonstrate the incompleteness of the quantum mechanical description of reality. In the following years, the thought experiment was picked up and modified by Einstein, de Broglie, and several other commentators into a simple scenario involving the splitting in half of the wave function of a single particle in a box. In this paper we collect together several formulations of this thought experiment from the exist...

  15. 预应力混凝土组合箱梁扭后抗弯性能分析%Bending behavior study of prestressed composite steel-concrete box beams damaged by torsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡少伟; 胡汉林

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate the bending behavior of the prestressed composite steel-concrete box beams which have been damaged by torsion, five composite box beams are tested by symmetrical load at mid-span. Considering the history of the torsion loading on the beams, and comparing with the test about the intact beam, by tests and analysis are given some important parameters, such as the ultimate bending capacity of the composite beams, curve of moment-deflection at mid-span and curve of the increases of strain in steel beam, and a formula for calculating the bending capacity of the beams is offered in this study. The test results show that the bending capacity of the beams which have been damaged by torsion is lower than the intact beam; the history of the torsion loading would affect the bending capacity of the beams; and the prestressing force can improve the bending capacity of the beams.%为研究预应力混凝土组合箱梁扭后的抗弯性能,进行了5根预应力组合梁的先扭后弯试验.试验在梁跨中对称荷载作用下进行,考虑试验梁受扭矩作用历史,并与完整组合梁的试验进行对比得到扭后预应力组合梁的极限抗弯承载力、跨中弯矩-挠度曲线及钢梁截面应变增长曲线,并提出了预应力组合梁扭后承载力计算公式.试验结果表明:预应力组合梁扭后承弯能力将会降低;受扭历史影响预应力组合梁的抗弯能力;预应力能够提高扭后预应力组合梁的抗弯能力.

  16. 预应力组合箱梁抗弯承载能力影响参数分析%Analysis of Influential Parameters of Bending Capacity of Prestressed Composite Box Beams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡少伟; 胡汉林

    2012-01-01

    To provide reference for the design of prestressed composite box beams, the sim-plified plastic theory was used to analyze the influential parameters (e. g. the strength of concrete and steel beams, initial tensioning forces of prestressing tendons, layout of the tendons and num-bers of deviation blocks) of the completely shear connected prestressed composite box beams. The results of the analysis demonstrate that under the condition that the sectional dimensions are restricted, the improvement of the strength of the steel beams can effectively improve the bending capacity of the composite box beams and the increase of numbers the prestressing tendons can sig-nificantly increase the bending capacity as well. When the tendons are laid out in a drape way, the initial tensioning values of the tendons can be increased and consequently, the elastic bearing ca-pacity of the beams will be increased. The more the numbers of the deviation blocks are, the greater the increment of the prestress, the less the influence of the secondary effect and the high-er the bending capacity of the beams will be.%为对预应力组合箱梁的设计提供参考,利用简化塑性理论对完全剪力连接的预应力组合梁的抗弯承载力影响参数(混凝土和钢梁强度、预应力筋初始张拉力、预应力筋布筋形式、转向块数量)进行分析.分析结果表明:在截面尺寸受限制时,提高钢梁强度能够有效提高预应力组合梁的抗弯承载力;增加预应力筋的数量可较明显地提高梁体的抗弯承载力;预应力筋采用折线布筋形式时,可提高预应力初始张拉值,以提高预应力组合梁的弹性承载力;转向块布置数量越多,预应力增量越大,二次效应影响越小,预应力组合梁抗弯承载力越高.

  17. 柔性连接组合箱梁弹性阶段的弯扭效应分析%Bending-torsion effect of composite box beam with flexible connection in elastic stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彦玲; 葛巍; 李运生

    2013-01-01

    In order to elusidate the bending-tortion mechanism of steel-concrete composite box beam with flexible connection in elastic stage , a finite element analysis combined with the experiment of 4 steel-concrete composite box beams under the bending-tortion action , was conducted by ANSYS soft-ware and the decomposition method , and the influence of the shear connection , the load eccentrici-ty, and the diaphragms number on the bending-tortion effect of composite box beams were studied . The results indicate that , the flexibility of the shear connectors can increase the bending-tortion effect of the composite box beams under the eccentric loads .Compared with the fully connected composite beam , the bending stress , rigid torsional and distortional wrap stress of the composite beams with the shear connection level of 60%, increase by 0.4 , 1.5 and 4.6 times respectively , and no longer coincide with the plane-section law if slip exists at the connection surface;the load ec-centricity and number of middle diaphragms all have little effect on the bending stress , but the rigid torsional and distortional wrap stresses are proportional to the load eccentricity , while the middle dia-phragms reduces the distorsional wrap stress about 1.0 times.%为了明确采用柔性连接件的钢-混凝土组合箱梁在弹性阶段的弯扭作用机理,结合弯扭联合作用下4片组合梁的模型试验,根据荷载分解法,采用ANSYS软件对其弯扭效应进行了分析,并重点研究了剪力连接度、荷载偏心距和横隔板数量对组合箱梁弯扭效应的影响。结果显示:剪力连接件的柔性增大了偏心荷载下组合梁的弯扭效应,与完全连接时相比,剪力连接度为60%时弯曲正应力、刚性扭转正应力和畸变翘曲正应力可分别增大0.4、1.5和4.6倍,且滑移后应力不再符合平截面分布规律;荷载偏心距和横隔板数量对弯曲正应力基本无影响,刚性扭转正应力

  18. Laryngeal (Voice Box) Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Meeting Calendar Find an ENT Doctor Near You Voice Box (Laryngeal) Cancer Voice Box (Laryngeal) Cancer Patient Health Information News media ... laryngeal cancer can be severe with respect to voice, breathing, or swallowing. It is fundamentally a preventable ...

  19. Analysis of shear resistance of irregular joint between steel box columns and beams%钢结构箱形柱与梁异型节点抗剪承载力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛建阳; 胡宗波; 彭修宁; 刘祖强

    2011-01-01

    基于对钢结构箱形柱与梁异型节点形式及受力性能的分析,建立异型节点域的受剪计算模型,并推导节点域在压弯情况下的抗剪承载力计算公式。通过对箱形柱与工字梁和箱形梁异型节点模型的低周反复加载试验,研究轴压比和核心区高度对节点域抗剪承载力的影响,得到节点域的剪力.剪应变滞回曲线;从试验模型的滞回曲线可以看出,异型节点域以剪切变形为主,且具有良好的延性和抗剪承载能力。试验结果与计算分析表明,节点域在小核心区发生剪切屈服,提出的节点域抗剪承载力计算公式与试验结果比较吻合。%Based on an analysis of the form and mechanical behavior of the irregular joint between steel box columns and beams, a shear calculation model in the panel zone of the irregular joint is established and a simplified formula is presented for calculating the shear resistance of the steel cyclic reversed loading tests of the irregular irregular joint under compression and bending. Through the low joint between steel box columns and beams, the influences of the axial compression ratio and the height of the core area on the shear capacity of the panel zone are studied. The hysteretic curves of shear stress vs. shear strain are also obtained. It is shown that the shear deformation is the main part of deformation in the joint panel and the irregular joint has good ductility and high shear resistance. Both test and calculation results indicate that the failure pattern of the panel zone is shear yield of the small core area. Calculation results are in good agreement with test results.

  20. Shaping 3-D boxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenholt, Rasmus; Madsen, Claus B.

    2011-01-01

    Enabling users to shape 3-D boxes in immersive virtual environments is a non-trivial problem. In this paper, a new family of techniques for creating rectangular boxes of arbitrary position, orientation, and size is presented and evaluated. These new techniques are based solely on position data...

  1. The Maine Music Box

    OpenAIRE

    Lutz, Marilyn; Gallucci, Laura

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes the Maine Music Box and examines its potential as a tool for teaching and learning music. Pedagogical concepts are demonstrated using MIDI, Scorch, image and streaming video files.

  2. Voice box (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The larynx, or voice box, is located in the neck and performs several important functions in the body. The larynx is involved in swallowing, breathing, and voice production. Sound is produced when the air which ...

  3. 结合梁桥面系异形钢箱拱肋系杆拱桥设计%Design of Special-shaped Steel Box Arch Rib Bowstring Arched Bridge of Bonding Beam Deck System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文勃

    2009-01-01

    The main bridge of Putian Chenggang Avenue Bridge crossing Molan River is the special-shaped bowstring arched bridge of 2-span simple-supported double-rib half-through steel box arch rib bonding beam deck system. The single span is 72 m long and the bridge is 47.5 m wide with city-Class A load and double-direction of 8 lanes. Taking the preliminary design and construction drawing design of this bridge as the basis, the article introduces the scheme study of bridge type, structural design of main bridge and analysis of structural calculation of the special-shaped bowstring arched bridge, and analyzes some technical characteristics of this bridge. The design method of the main bridge inclined crossed with the curve river, the design thinks of bonding beam in the arched bridge, the temporary constructed supporting point for improving the structural bearing, and the design method of special arch rib modeling can be referred for the design of the similar bridges.%莆田城港大道跨木兰溪大桥主桥是两跨简支的双肋下承式钢箱拱肋结合梁桥面系的异形系杆拱桥,单跨跨径72m,桥宽47.5m,城一A级荷载,双向8车道.该文以该桥的初步设计和施工图设计为基础,介绍了异形系杆拱桥的桥型方案研究、主桥结构设计、结构计算分析等内容,并分析了该桥的一些技术特点.该桥的弯曲河道斜交主桥设计方法、结合梁在拱桥中的设计思想、结合梁横梁设置临时支点改善结构受力、独特拱肋造型的设计方法等内容,可供类似桥梁设计时参考.

  4. The BOXES Methodology Black Box Dynamic Control

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, David W

    2012-01-01

    Robust control mechanisms customarily require knowledge of the system’s describing equations which may be of the high order differential type.  In order to produce these equations, mathematical models can often be derived and correlated with measured dynamic behavior.  There are two flaws in this approach one is the level of inexactness introduced by linearizations and the other when no model is apparent.  Several years ago a new genre of control systems came to light that are much less dependent on differential models such as fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms. Both of these soft computing solutions require quite considerable a priori system knowledge to create a control scheme and sometimes complicated training program before they can be implemented in a real world dynamic system. Michie and Chambers’ BOXES methodology created a black box system that was designed to control a mechanically unstable system with very little a priori system knowledge, linearization or approximation.  All the method need...

  5. 考虑剪滞剪切效应的复合材料薄壁箱型连续梁理论分析%Theoretical Analysis of Composite Thin-walled Box Continuous Beam Considering Vertical Shear Deformation and Shear Lag Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩博; 吴亚平

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, four-degree parabola of cubic term is adopted to simulate axial displacement of box beam flange, considering vertical shear deformation and shear lag effect, differential equations of symmetrically laminated composite box beam under symmetrical bending have been deduced firstly, and displacement differenee functions in two-equal-span continuous beam under concentrated load P applied at mid-span respectively have been also deduced. Finally, based on a concrete example of composite thin walled box continuous beam,comparing the theoretical results of this paper with the result of the ANSYS finite element simulation and experiment results, it is demonstrated clearly that this method agrees well with the ANSYS finite element and experiment, so the results are reliableand accurate.%以含三次项的四次抛物线作为箱梁翼缘板的纵向位移函数,推导出了考虑横向剪切变形及剪力滞后效应时的双轴对称铺设的复合材料层合箱梁在对称弯曲条件下的控制微分方程,并推导出了两等跨连续梁分别在跨中受一集中力P的位移差函数,最后结合具体的复合材料箱型连续梁实例,将本文理论推导的结果与ANSYS结果以及实验结果进行了对比,结果表明,理论推导的结果与ANSYS结果和实验结果吻合较好,其结果是正确可靠的.

  6. 双斜塔钢箱梁斜拉桥抗风性能试验研究%Experimental investigation on wind-resistant behavior of double pylon cable stayed bridge with steel box beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马存明; 陈勉; 王玉柱; 高伟

    2011-01-01

    In order to evaluate wind-resistant behavior of a double pylon cable stayed bridge with steel box beam, dynamic response characteristics of the bridge were analyzed. The aerostatic force coefficient, the critical wind velocity of vibration and vortex-induced vibration response were measured using the combined method of numerical analysis and wind tunnel test, to assess wind-resistant behavior of the bridge. The results showed that the aerodynamic and flutter stability characteristics were good, but there were two obvious vertical vortex-induced resonance regions, and the peak excursion was much larger than the allowable value. Therefore, the bridge needs an aerodynamic shape optimization to reduce or control vortex-induced vibration. By comparing a variety of optimization solutions given by vortex-induced vibration experiments, the most optimized measure for vortex-induced vibration control was to add a fair water fin of 1m wide and 30° incline to the bottom slab.%为了评价某拟建大跨度双斜塔钢箱梁斜拉桥的抗风安全性能,通过数值分析与风洞试验相结合的方法研究其结构动力特性,测定静力三分力系数、颤振临界风速和涡激振动响应,据此分析评估该桥的抗风性能.结果表明,该桥具有较好的气动和颤振稳定性,但存在两个明显的竖向涡激共振区,且最大振幅远超过规定容许值.因此,该桥需要通过气动外形优化,以减小或控制涡激振动.经多种主梁涡激振动性能优化方案对比试验得出其最优措施为轨道内侧增加一条宽1m、与底板夹角成30°的导流板.

  7. Opto-Box

    CERN Document Server

    Bertsche, David; The ATLAS collaboration; Welch, Steven; Smith, Dale Shane; Che, Siinn; Gan, K.K.; Boyd, George Russell Jr

    2015-01-01

    The opto-box is a custom mini-crate for housing optical modules, which process and transfer optoelectronic data. The system tightly integrates electrical, mechanical, and thermal functionality into a small package of size 35x10x8 cm^3. Special attention was given to ensure proper shielding, grounding, cooling, high reliability, and environmental tolerance. The custom modules, which incorporate Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs), were developed through a cycle of rigorous testing and redesign. In total, fourteen opto-boxes have been installed and loaded with modules on the ATLAS detector. They are currently in operation as part of the LHC run 2 data read-out chain.

  8. Teaching with Box Tops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiser, Lynne; D'Zamko, Mary Elizabeth

    1984-01-01

    Using environmental materials (such as the phone book and placemats from fast food restaurants) can be a motivating way to teach learning disabled students skills and concepts, as shown in an approach to reading, math, science and nutrition, and social studies instruction using a JELL-O brand gelatin box. (CL)

  9. Hydrophobic, Porous Battery Boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Bobby J.; Casey, John E., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Boxes made of porous, hydrophobic polymers developed to contain aqueous potassium hydroxide electrolyte solutions of zinc/air batteries while allowing air to diffuse in as needed for operation. Used on other types of batteries for in-cabin use in which electrolytes aqueous and from which gases generated during operation must be vented without allowing electrolytes to leak out.

  10. Glove box posting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system for posting objects into closed containers, such as glove boxes, is described in which the bag used, preferably made of plastic, does not have to be fitted and sealed by the operator during each posting operation. (U.K.)

  11. Cereal Box Totems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, AnnMarie

    2002-01-01

    Presents a multicultural project used with fourth-grade students in which they created a three-dimensional totem pole using leftover cereal boxes. Discusses in detail how to create the totem pole. Explains that students learned about Northwest American Indians in class. (CMK)

  12. PHOTOCHEMICAL BOX MODEL (PBM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This magnetic tape contains the FORTRAN source code, sample input data, and sample output data for the Photochemical Box Model (PBM). The PBM is a simple stationary single-cell model with a variable height lid designed to provide volume-integrated hour averages of O3 and other ph...

  13. Decommissioning a small glove box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An account is given of dismantling a fuel fabrication glove box using simple tooling. The fissile content of the box was first measured by several non-destructive techniques. After cleaning, the box was dismantled using hand tools and finally packed for disposal. A record of operator radiation doses, the time taken for each stage of the operation and packing information is given. (author)

  14. Opto-Box

    CERN Document Server

    Bertsche, David; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The opto-box is a custom mini-crate for housing optical modules, which process and transfer optoelectronic data. Many novel solutions were developed for the custom design and manufacturing. The system tightly integrates electrical, mechanical, and thermal functionality into a small package of size 35x10x8 cm$^{3}$. Special attention was given to ensure proper shielding, grounding, cooling, high reliability, and environmental tolerance. The custom modules, which incorporate Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs), were developed through a cycle of rigorous testing and redesign. In total, fourteen opto-boxes have been installed and loaded with modules on the ATLAS detector. They are currently in operation as part of the LHC run 2 data read-out chain.

  15. The Box Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    The velocity level in a room ventilated by jet ventilation is strongly influenced by the supply conditions. The momentum flow in the supply jets controls the air movement in the room and, therefore, it is very important that the inlet conditions and the numerical method can generate a satisfactor...... description of this momentum flow. The Box Method is a practical method for the description of an Air Terminal Device which will save grid points and ensure the right level of the momentum flow....

  16. Learning with box kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melacci, Stefano; Gori, Marco

    2013-11-01

    Supervised examples and prior knowledge on regions of the input space have been profitably integrated in kernel machines to improve the performance of classifiers in different real-world contexts. The proposed solutions, which rely on the unified supervision of points and sets, have been mostly based on specific optimization schemes in which, as usual, the kernel function operates on points only. In this paper, arguments from variational calculus are used to support the choice of a special class of kernels, referred to as box kernels, which emerges directly from the choice of the kernel function associated with a regularization operator. It is proven that there is no need to search for kernels to incorporate the structure deriving from the supervision of regions of the input space, because the optimal kernel arises as a consequence of the chosen regularization operator. Although most of the given results hold for sets, we focus attention on boxes, whose labeling is associated with their propositional description. Based on different assumptions, some representer theorems are given that dictate the structure of the solution in terms of box kernel expansion. Successful results are given for problems of medical diagnosis, image, and text categorization. PMID:24051728

  17. LA VIGA HUECA HABITABLE Y OTRAS EXPERIENCIAS DE PREFABRICACIÓN EN VIVIENDA DE GO–DB / The habitable box beam and other housing prefabrication experiences in GO-DB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Cortina Maruenda

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN En los albores de la industria aplicada a la arquitectura en España, el estudio GO-DB Arquitectos Asociados, realizó 8 viviendas experimentales (1967-1969 como cierre a una primera etapa de investigación propia. Inspiradas en las dovelas de los puentes de hormigón prefabricado, haciendo suya la idea de Le Corbusier de que los ingenieros construyen en su tiempo, realizaron una serie de ensayos que concluyó con las 8 viviendas que protagonizan este artículo. Con un presupuesto muy ajustado consiguieron realizar una pequeña factoría "in situ" para por medio de una cadena de montaje, producir los Elementos Modulares que bajo el concepto de la Viga Hueca Habitable conformarían cada una de las viviendas. Cada cinco horas se podía montar una vivienda de diez módulos, casi como aparcar coches o hacer una construcción con los bloques de madera de arce de Froebel a los que Wright fue tan aficionado. Este artículo, explicará además, basándose en las publicaciones y escritos del propio estudio, cual fue el proceso y las ideas teóricas que sustentaron este proyecto que abonó el campo para posteriores investigaciones en prefabricación. SUMMARY At the dawn of the industry applied to architecture in Spain, the studio of GO-DB Associated Architects constructed eight experimental dwellings (1967-1969 as the finalization of a first stage of their research. Inspired by the sections of precast concrete bridges, adopting the idea of Le Corbusier that engineers built in his era, the studio completed a series of trials that ended with the eight dwellings featured in this article.With a very tight budget they made a small "in-situ" factory which, by means of an assembly line, produced the Modular Elements that, under the concept of The Habitable Box Beam, made up each of the homes. A dwelling of ten modules could be assembled every five hours, almost like parking cars or making a construction with the Froebel maple blocks so beloved by Wright

  18. Projection optics box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Layton C.; Malsbury, Terry; Hudyma, Russell M.; Parker, John M.

    2000-01-01

    A projection optics box or assembly for use in an optical assembly, such as in an extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) system using 10-14 nm soft x-ray photons. The projection optics box utilizes a plurality of highly reflective optics or mirrors, each mounted on a precision actuator, and which reflects an optical image, such as from a mask, in the EUVL system onto a point of use, such as a target or silicon wafer, the mask, for example, receiving an optical signal from a source assembly, such as a developed from laser system, via a series of highly reflective mirrors of the EUVL system. The plurality of highly reflective optics or mirrors are mounted in a housing assembly comprised of a series of bulkheads having wall members secured together to form a unit construction of maximum rigidity. Due to the precision actuators, the mirrors must be positioned precisely and remotely in tip, tilt, and piston (three degrees of freedom), while also providing exact constraint.

  19. Glove-box filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Description is given of a device for simply and rapidly assembling and dissassembling the filters used inside sealed enclosures, such as glove-boxes and shielded cells equipped with nippers or manipulators, said filters being of the type comprising a cylindrical casing containing a filtering member, the upper portion of said casing being open so as to allow the gases to be cleaned to flow in, whereas the casing bottom is centrally provided with a hole extended outwardly by a threaded collar on which is screwed a connecting-sleeve to be fixed to the mouth of a gas outlet pipe. To a yoke transverse bar is welded a pin which can be likened to a bent spring-blade, one arm of which welded to said transverse bar, is rectilinear whereas its other arm is provided with a boss cooperating with a cavity made in a protrusion of said pipe, right under the mouth thereof

  20. ACSYS in a box

    CERN Document Server

    Briegel, C; Hendricks, B; King, C; Lackey, S; Neswold, R; Nicklaus, D; Patrick, J; Petrov, A; Rechenmacher, R; Schumann, C; Smedinghoff, J

    2012-01-01

    The Accelerator Control System at Fermilab has evolved to enable this relatively large control system to be encapsulated into a "box" such as a laptop. The goal was to provide a platform isolated from the "online" control system. This platform can be used internally for making major upgrades and modifications without impacting operations. It also provides a standalone environment for research and development including a turnkey control system for collaborators. Over time, the code base running on Scientific Linux has enabled all the salient features of the Fermilab's control system to be captured in an off-the-shelf laptop. The anticipated additional benefits of packaging the system include improved maintenance, reliability, documentation, and future enhancements.

  1. Cardboard Boxes: Learning Concepts Galore!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Laverne; Wilmoth, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Mrs. Keenan, a preschool teacher, observed her 3-year-old granddaughter Riley pull, tug, and stack piles of holiday boxes on the floor. She remembered that her child care director had suggested using boxes as a curriculum theme, but she hadn't given much thought about the idea until now. She said to herself, "I wonder if my children would be as…

  2. Students' approaches to mathematical tasks using software as a black-box, glass-box or open-box

    OpenAIRE

    Hosein, Anesa

    2009-01-01

    Three mathematical software modes are investigated in this thesis: black-box software showing no mathematical steps; glass-box software showing the intermediate mathematical steps; and open-box software showing and allowing interaction at the intermediate mathematical steps. The glass-box and open-box software modes are often recommended over the black-box software to help understanding but there is limited research comparing all three. This research investigated students' performance and the...

  3. Numerical models and experiment of air flow in a simulation box for optical wireless communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latal, Jan; Hajek, Lukas; Bojko, Marian; Vitasek, Jan; Koudelka, Petr; Kepak, Stanislav; Vanderka, Ales; Vasinek, Vladimir

    2016-03-01

    In this article, the authors focused on real measurements of mechanical turbulence generated by ventilators in the simulation box for Optical Wireless Communications. The mechanical turbulences disturb the optical beam that propagates along the central axis of the simulation box. The aim of authors is to show the effect of mechanical turbulence on optical beams at different heights in the simulation box. In the Ansys Fluent, we created numerical models which were then compared with real measurements. Authors compared the real and numerical models according to statistical methods.

  4. Numerical models and experiment of air flow in a simulation box for optical wireless communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latal Jan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the authors focused on real measurements of mechanical turbulence generated by ventilators in the simulation box for Optical Wireless Communications. The mechanical turbulences disturb the optical beam that propagates along the central axis of the simulation box. The aim of authors is to show the effect of mechanical turbulence on optical beams at different heights in the simulation box. In the Ansys Fluent, we created numerical models which were then compared with real measurements. Authors compared the real and numerical models according to statistical methods.

  5. Method of positioning channel box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upon measuring the dimension of a channel box by disposing ultrasonic sensors to the uppermost portion of a measuring device main body, the deviation of the channel box from the center of the device main body is detected by measuring the distance betwen the sensors at the uppermost portion of the device main body and the lower end of the channel box for four surfaces simultaneously. The direction and the distance for moving the channel box to the center of the device main body are calculated based on the results to feedback tham for the operation of a fuel exchanger, thereby positioning the channel box upon insertion to the device main body. That is, a fuel assembly loaded with the channel box is gradually brought down being suspended from a crane and the position of the channel box is recognized by the ultrasonic sensors, thereafter, the position of the center is corrected and it is brought down again and the outer dimension is measured. Accurate positioning in a short periodof time is enabled and operator's burden can be mitigated to prevent the danger of indury. (N.H.)

  6. Microclimate boxes for panel paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadum, Jørgen

    The use of microclimate boxes to protect vulnerable panel paintings is, therefore, not a new phenomenon of the past two or three decades. Rather, it has been a concern for conservators and curators to protect these objects of art at home and in transit since the end of the nineteenth century. The...... increased number of travelling exhibitions in recent years has heightened the need to protect paintings during circulation (Thomson 1961; Mecklenburg 1991). The use and design of microclimate boxes have been evolving since 1892. These boxes may be divided into three broad groups: those using an active...

  7. Two-dimensional box plot

    OpenAIRE

    Phattrawan Tongkumchum

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we propose a two-dimensional box plot, a simple bivariate extension of the box plot and the scatter plot. This plot comprises a pair of trapeziums oriented in the direction of a fitted straight line, with symbols denoting extreme values. The choice for the fitted straight resistant line showing the relationship between the two variables is Tukey’s resistance line. The main components of the plot are an inner box containing 50% of the projection points of the observations on the ...

  8. Myiasis in two box turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, W J; Georgi, M E

    1991-10-15

    Two eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) were treated for myiasis caused by Sarcophaga cistudinis. The tortoises were examined because of swellings of the proximal cervical regions. Both fully recovered following surgical removal of multiple larvae. PMID:1748614

  9. Thinking Outside the Box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The World Nuclear Transport Institute was formed to fill a need to provide a dedicated vehicle for the radioactive transport and packaging industry sectors worldwide, to exchange information and ideas, all with a view to working toward consolidated industry positions on the key issues affecting safe, efficient and reliable transport. WNTI was also intended to be a strong voice for industry in those international and national bodies where deliberations on such transport safety issues take place. The very fact that companies, sometimes in competition with each other, were prepared to come together in this way, reflects two important points: firstly, it represents an acknowledgement on industry's part that safe, effective and reliable transport is the sine qua non, the absolute essential. And second, it is a recognition that it is enhanced to the extent that industry is able to collaborate to this end. This is thinking outside the box. Another important attribute of safety is 'stability'. Everyone likes to know where he or she stands. The radioactive materials packaging and transport industry thrives within a stable regulatory framework for safety. For a stable regulatory regime allows operators to be properly trained; it allows operators to become familiar with safety requirements, and to be at ease with them. Stability is conducive to safety and efficiency. Stability is good for business too - for stability in package and transport requirements allows sufficient time for a fair return on investment in expensive package design, manufacture, licensing and use over time. Stability should not, however, be opposed to creativity. From experience we can develop new thinking to improve efficiency as illustrated in examples of work related to the packaging and transport of Uranium Concentrates for instance.. Another example is work within WNTI on the thermal test requirements for the packaging of uranium hexafluoride. The robustness of packages is based on the risk factors

  10. Comparison of black-box, glass-box and open-box software for aiding conceptual understanding

    OpenAIRE

    Hosein, Anesa; Aczel, James; Clow, Doug; Richardson, John T. E.

    2008-01-01

    Three mathematical software types: black-box (no steps shown), glass-box (steps shown) and open-box (interactive steps) were used by 32 students to solve conceptual and procedural tasks on the computer via remote observation. Comparison of the three software types suggests that there is no difference in the scores that students receive for conceptual understanding tasks. Students using the black-box are more likely to explore answers than students using the glass and open-box software.

  11. Plate forming and break down pizza box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantisano, Frank; Devine, Scott M.

    1992-01-01

    A standard corrugated paper pizza box is provided with slit cuts cut through the top panel of the pizza box in a shape to form four circular serving plates with a beveled raised edge and cross slit cuts through the bottom panel of the pizza box separating the box into four essentially equal portions for easy disposal.

  12. A 23 GHz survey of GRB error boxes

    CERN Document Server

    Hewitt, J N; Barthelmy, S D; Baumgartner, W H; Cline, T L; Corey, B E; Fishman, G J; Gehrels, N; Hurley, K C; Kouveliotou, C; Meegan, C A; Moore, C B; Rutledge, R E; Trotter, C S

    1996-01-01

    The Haystack 37-meter telescope was used in a pilot project in May 1995 to observe GRB error boxes at 23~GHz. Seven BATSE error boxes and two IPN arcs were scanned by driving the beam of the telescope rapidly across their area. For the BATSE error boxes, the radio observations took place two to eighteen days after the BATSE detection and several boxes were observed more than once. Total power data were recorded continuously as the telescope was driven at a rate of 0.2~degrees/second, yielding Nyquist sampling of the beam with an integration time of 50~milliseconds, corresponding to a theoretical rms sensitivity of 0.5~Jy. Under conditions of good weather, this sensitivity was achieved. In a preliminary analysis of the data we detect only two sources, 3C273 and 0552+398, both catalogued sources that are known to be variable at 23~GHz. Neither had a flux density that was unusally high or low at the time of our observations.

  13. First-aid boxes - Reminder

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    With a view to ensuring optimum use of the first-aid boxes on the CERN site, we should like to remind you of various changes introduced in March 2009: The TSO of the buildings concerned is responsible for the first-aid boxes, including checking their contents.   First-aid boxes may be restocked ONLY at the CERN stores (SCEM No. 54.99.80). This is no longer possible at the Infirmary. The associated cost is charged to the Departments.   First-aid boxes should be used only for mild injuries. All other cases should be referred to the Medical Service Infirmary (Bldg. 57 – ground-floor, tel. 73802) between 8.00 a.m. and 5.30 p.m. or to the Fire and Rescue Service (tel. 74444). N.B.: This information does not apply to the red emergency first-aid boxes in the underground areas or to the emergency kits for use in the event of being splashed with hydrofluoric acid.

  14. Asymptotic Symmetries from finite boxes

    CERN Document Server

    Andrade, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    It is natural to regulate an infinite-sized system by imposing a boundary condition at finite distance, placing the system in a "box." This breaks symmetries, though the breaking is small when the box is large. One should thus be able to obtain the asymptotic symmetries of the infinite system by studying regulated systems. We provide concrete examples in the context of Einstein-Hilbert gravity (with negative or zero cosmological constant) by showing in 4 or more dimensions how the Anti-de Sitter and Poincar\\'e asymptotic symmetries can be extracted from gravity in a spherical box with Dirichlet boundary conditions. In 2+1 dimensions we obtain the full double-Virasoro algebra of asymptotic symmetries for AdS$_3$ and, correspondingly, the full Bondi-Metzner-Sachs (BMS) algebra for asymptotically flat space. In higher dimensions, a related approach may continue to be useful for constructing a good asymptotically flat phase space with BMS asymptotic symmetries.

  15. Asymptotic symmetries from finite boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Tomás; Marolf, Donald

    2016-01-01

    It is natural to regulate an infinite-sized system by imposing a boundary condition at finite distance, placing the system in a 'box.' This breaks symmetries, though the breaking is small when the box is large. One should thus be able to obtain the asymptotic symmetries of the infinite system by studying regulated systems. We provide concrete examples in the context of Einstein-Hilbert gravity (with negative or zero cosmological constant) by showing in 4 or more dimensions how the anti-de Sitter and Poincaré asymptotic symmetries can be extracted from gravity in a spherical box with Dirichlet boundary conditions. In 2 + 1 dimensions we obtain the full double-Virasoro algebra of asymptotic symmetries for AdS3 and, correspondingly, the full Bondi-Metzner-Sachs (BMS) algebra for asymptotically flat space. In higher dimensions, a related approach may continue to be useful for constructing a good asymptotically flat phase space with BMS asymptotic symmetries.

  16. Identifying competencies of boxing coaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Tasiopoulos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to find out the management skills required by boxing coaches to administrate their clubs. For the purposes of this study a scale was constructed which was answered by 98 boxing coaches. Explanatory factor analysis revealed seven factors: Communication-public relations (5 items, event management (4 items, management techniques (4 items, new technologies (4 items, prevention-safety (2 items, sport (5 items and sports facilities (2 items. The Cronbach of the scale was 0.85. The five competencies that rated by the coaches were: Supervisors of the area of training, maintaining excellent communication with athletes, using new technologies (e-mail, internet, handling disciplinary matters, accidents, complaints and reports on some sporting games and promoted harmony among athletes. We concluded that boxing coaches understand that the competencies required for meeting their obligations, were related to sports, prevention, safety and communications-public relations.

  17. Beam-Beam Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Herr, W; Pieloni, T.

    2016-01-01

    One of the most severe limitations in high-intensity particle colliders is the beam-beam interaction, i.e. the perturbation of the beams as they cross the opposing beams. This introduction to beam-beam effects concentrates on a description of the phenomena that are present in modern colliding beam facilities.

  18. Beam-Beam Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Herr, W

    2014-01-01

    One of the most severe limitations in high-intensity particle colliders is the beam-beam interaction, i.e. the perturbation of the beams as they cross the opposing beams. This introduction to beam-beam effects concentrates on a description of the phenomena that are present in modern colliding beam facilities.

  19. POD Model Reconstruction for Gray-Box Fault Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Han; Zak, Michail

    2007-01-01

    Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) is the mathematical basis of a method of constructing low-order mathematical models for the "gray-box" fault-detection algorithm that is a component of a diagnostic system known as beacon-based exception analysis for multi-missions (BEAM). POD has been successfully applied in reducing computational complexity by generating simple models that can be used for control and simulation for complex systems such as fluid flows. In the present application to BEAM, POD brings the same benefits to automated diagnosis. BEAM is a method of real-time or offline, automated diagnosis of a complex dynamic system.The gray-box approach makes it possible to utilize incomplete or approximate knowledge of the dynamics of the system that one seeks to diagnose. In the gray-box approach, a deterministic model of the system is used to filter a time series of system sensor data to remove the deterministic components of the time series from further examination. What is left after the filtering operation is a time series of residual quantities that represent the unknown (or at least unmodeled) aspects of the behavior of the system. Stochastic modeling techniques are then applied to the residual time series. The procedure for detecting abnormal behavior of the system then becomes one of looking for statistical differences between the residual time series and the predictions of the stochastic model.

  20. Innovations in Los Alamos alpha box design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Destructive examinations of irradiated fuel pins containing plutonium fuel must be performed in shielded hot cells with strict provisions for containing the plutonium. Alpha boxes provide containment for the plutonium, toxic fission products, and other hazardous highly radioactive materials. The alpha box contains windows for viewing and a variety of transfer systems specially designed to allow transfers in and out of the alpha box without spread of the hazardous materials that are contained in the box. Alpha boxes have been in use in the Wing 9 hot cells at Los Alamos National Laboratory for more than 20 years. Features of the newly designed alpha boxes are presented

  1. Innovations in Los Alamos alpha box design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledbetter, J.M.; Dowler, K.E.; Cook, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    Destructive examinations of irradiated fuel pins containing plutonium fuel must be performed in shielded hot cells with strict provisions for containing the plutonium. Alpha boxes provide containment for the plutonium, toxic fission products, and other hazardous highly radioactive materials. The alpha box contains windows for viewing and a variety of transfer systems specially designed to allow transfers in and out of the alpha box without spread of the hazardous materials that are contained in the box. Alpha boxes have been in use in the Wing 9 hot cells at Los Alamos National Laboratory for more than 20 years. Features of the newly designed alpha boxes are presented.

  2. Partons of a spherical box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculation of parton distributions in the 'cavity approximation' to the MIT bag model gives a divergent sum of positive terms. In this version of the model the flexible movable bag is replaced by an inflexible immovable box. This suggests that Bjorken scaling does not hold for the deep inelastic scattering in this version of the model. (K.A.)

  3. On the Dirichlet's Box Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Kin-Keung; Shiu, Wai-Chee

    2008-01-01

    In this note, we will focus on several applications on the Dirichlet's box principle in Discrete Mathematics lesson and number theory lesson. In addition, the main result is an innovative game on a triangular board developed by the authors. The game has been used in teaching and learning mathematics in Discrete Mathematics and some high schools in…

  4. A Box Full of Kisses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔增印

    2008-01-01

    The story goes that some time ago,a man pun- ished his 3-year-old daughter for wasting a roll of gold wrapping paper.Money was tight and he became infuriated when the child tried to decorate a box to put under the Christmas tree.Nevertheless,the little girl brought the gift to

  5. Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion's Pandora's Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News, Videos & Podcasts » Articles » Text Size Print Bookmark Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion’s Pandora’s Box? Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion’s Pandora’s Box? Foot and Ankle Surgeons Warn ...

  6. SPS beam to the West Hall

    CERN Multimedia

    1976-01-01

    One of the two target stations feeding the West Hall (see Annual Report 1976). After the proton beam was split into three branches, the outer two were directed on to targets in the cast iron shielding box, the centre one passing through the box to another target station downstream. Five different targets could be put in each beam, controlled by the mechanism seen on top.

  7. The Heuristic Interpretation of Box Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lem, Stephanie; Onghena, Patrick; Verschaffel, Lieven; Van Dooren, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Box plots are frequently used, but are often misinterpreted by students. Especially the area of the box in box plots is often misinterpreted as representing number or proportion of observations, while it actually represents their density. In a first study, reaction time evidence was used to test whether heuristic reasoning underlies this…

  8. Box-shaped halophilic bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Javor, B; Requadt, C; Stoeckenius, W

    1982-01-01

    Three morphologically similar strains of halophilic, box-shaped procaryotes have been isolated from brines collected in the Sinai, Baja California (Mexico), and southern California (United States). Although the isolates in their morphology resemble Walsby's square bacteria, which are a dominant morphological type in the Red Sea and Baja California brines, they are probably not identical to them. The cells show the general characteristics of extreme halophiles and archaebacteria. They contain ...

  9. Broken links and black boxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindbæk, Søren Michael

    2013-01-01

    Long-distance communication has emerged as a particular focus for archaeological exploration using network theory, analysis, and modelling. Initial attempts to adapt methods from social network analysis to archaeological data have, however, struggled to produce decisive results. This paper argues...... ruined network from observable distributions and patterns of association in the archaeological record. In formal terms this is not a problem of network analysis, but network synthesis: the classic problem of cracking codes or reconstructing black-box circuits....

  10. Das k-Box-Produkt

    OpenAIRE

    Elser, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Ziel dieser Doktorarbeit ist es, bekannte und oft verwendete Eigenschaften des Tychonow-Produkts in analoger Form für das k-Box-Produkt zu beweisen, was bisher noch nicht geschehen ist, und die Verbindung zwischen der Infinitären Kombinatorik und der Topologie zu vertiefen. In der Infinitären Kombinatorik, ein Zweig der modernen Mengenlehre, bedient man sich gerne topologischer Begriffe, um einerseits Ergebnisse zu verdeutlichen und um andererseits den sehr abstrakten kombinatorischen Be...

  11. Ionization box type radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ionization box for monitoring radiation rays, a first amplification circuit of a multi-stage amplification circuit employing a MOS type FET as an initial stage amplification device, a second amplification circuit employing a junction type FET as an initial stage amplification device, a first change-over switch for switching ionization current depending on input signals, a second change-over switch for switching output signals, and a signal level discrimination circuit are constituted integrally. When radiation dose rate is low, the ionization current is inputted to the first amplification circuit and outputted as a radiation ray monitor signal and, when the radiation dose rate is increased to higher than a predetermined value, the ionization current is inputted to the second amplification circuit and outputted as a radiation ray monitor signal. That is, monitoring accuracy is high when the ionization current is low since the MOS type FET of high input impedance is used. If the ionization current is higher than a predetermined value, there is no worry that the detection becomes impossible since the junction type FET having less worry of causing characteristic change due to high radiation dose rate is used. Accordingly, ionization box type monitor at a high monitoring reliability can be obtained. (N.H.)

  12. F-box proteins in flowering plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In eukaryotes, the ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation pathway has been shown to control several key biological processes such as cell division, development, metabolism and immune response. F-box proteins, as a part of SCF (Skp1-Cullin (or Cdc53)-F-box) complex, functioned by interacting with substrate proteins, leading to their subsequent degradation by the 26S proteasome. To date, several F-box proteins identified in Arabidopsis and Antirrhinum have been shown to play important roles in auxin signal transduction, floral organ formation, flowering and leaf senescence. Arabidopsis genome sequence analysis revealed that it encodes over 1000 predicted F-box proteins accounting for about 5% of total predicted proteins. These results indicate that the ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation involving the F-box proteins is an important mechanism controlling plant gene expression. Here, we review the known F-box proteins and their functionsin flowering plants.

  13. Understanding Recommender Dynamics driving Box Office Revenues

    CERN Document Server

    Yeung, C H; Jin, C -H

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a simple model to investigate the underlying dynamics driving movie box office. Without an explicit reliance on time, the box office of movies evolves naturally by movie-movie competition through reviews listed on a centralized recommender system. A simple mean-field approximation is employed which assumes an average interaction between the competing movies, and describes the interesting box office dynamics. Box office hits are found for movies with quality beyond a critical value, leading to booms in gross box office. Such critical value is dependent on the reviewing behaviors, intention of movie goers for new movies, and the quality of the peer competing movies. Finally we compare our analytical results with simulations and real system and obtain qualitative agreements, suggesting the present model in describing the fundamental dynamics of box office.

  14. SMOS User Support Tools: SMOS-Box and Cal/Val Data Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quast, Ralf; Fomferra, Norman; Block, Thomas; Delwart, Steven; Goryl, Philippe; Regner, Peter

    2010-12-01

    The SMOS Toolbox for BEAM (SMOS-Box) consists of a collection of BEAM compliant software modules for decoding, visualization and basic inspection and analysis of operational products from ESA's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission. Since March 2010 the SMOS Data Distribution Facility of the CEOS Cal/Val Portal is delivering mission data to principle investigators coordinating the calibration and validation of the SMOS instrumentation.

  15. Metod of black box and their us

    OpenAIRE

    Novotný, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This thesis on a topic "black-box method and its use" deals with the description of the method of solving problematic tasks as a black box and its use in teaching. Using the theory of systems and cybernetics disciplines, especially cybernetic-pedagogy attempts to describe this method so that it is as efficient as possible and to maximize the benefits for students. Besides, the implementation of selected black box that will be suitable and used for teaching subjects electrotechnics, automatiza...

  16. Beam-beam effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zholents, A.

    1994-12-01

    The term beam-beam effects is usually used to designate different phenomena associated with interactions of counter-rotating beams in storage rings. Typically, the authors speak about beam-beam effects when such interactions lead to an increase of the beam core size or to a reduction of the beam lifetime or to a growth of particle`s population in the beam halo and a correspondent increase of the background. Although observations of beam-beam effects are very similar in most storage rings, it is very likely that every particular case is largely unique and machine-dependent. This constitutes one of the problems in studying the beam-beam effects, because the experimental results are often obtained without characterizing a machine at the time of the experiment. Such machine parameters as a dynamic aperture, tune dependencies on amplitude of particle oscillations and energy, betatron phase advance between the interaction points and some others are not well known, thus making later analysis uncertain. The authors begin their discussion with demonstrations that beam-beam effects are closely related to non linear resonances. Then, they will show that a non linearity of the space charge field is responsible for the excitation of these resonances. After that, they will consider how beam-beam effects could be intensified by machine imperfections. Then, they will discuss a leading mechanism for the formation of the beam halo and will describe a new technique for beam tails and lifetime simulations. They will finish with a brief discussion of the coherent beam-beam effects.

  17. Repackaging SRS Black Box TRU Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historically, large items of TRU Waste, which were too large to be packaged in drums for disposal have been packaged in various sizes of custom made plywood boxes at the Savannah River Site (SRS), for many years. These boxes were subsequently packaged into large steel ''Black Boxes'' for storage at SRS, pending availability of Characterization and Certification capability, to facilitate disposal of larger items of TRU Waste. There are approximately 107 Black Boxes in inventory at SRS, each measuring some 18' x 12' x 7', and weighing up to 45,000 lbs. These Black Boxes have been stored since the early 1980s. The project to repackage this waste into Standard Large Boxes (SLBs), Standard Waste Boxes (SWB) and Ten Drum Overpacks (TDOP), for subsequent characterization and WIPP disposal, commenced in FY04. To date, 10 Black Boxes have been repackaged, resulting in 40 SLB-2's, and 37 B25 overpack boxes, these B25's will be overpacked in SLB-2's prior to shipping to WIPP. This paper will describe experience to date from this project

  18. Interchangeable breech lock for glove boxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemonds, David Preston

    2015-11-24

    A breech lock for a glove box is provided that may be used to transfer one or more items into the glove box. The breech lock can be interchangeably installed in place of a plug, glove, or other device in a port or opening of a glove box. Features are provided to aid the removal of items from the breech lock by a gloved operator. The breech lock can be reused or, if needed, can be replaced with a plug, glove, or other device at the port or opening of the glove box.

  19. Model Equations: "Black Box" Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezruchko, Boris P.; Smirnov, Dmitry A.

    Black box reconstruction is both the most difficult and the most tempting modelling problem when any prior information about an appropriate model structure is lacking. An intriguing thing is that a model capable of reproducing an observed behaviour or predicting further evolution should be obtained only from an observed time series, i.e. "from nothing" at first sight. Chances for a success are not large. Even more so, a "good" model would become a valuable tool to characterise an object and understand its dynamics. Lack of prior information causes one to utilise universal model structures, e.g. artificial neural networks, radial basis functions and algebraic polynomials are included in the right-hand sides of dynamical model equations. Such models are often multi-dimensional and involve quite many free parameters.

  20. Unification of box shapes in molecular simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, H.

    1997-01-01

    In molecular simulations with periodic boundary conditions the computational box may have five different shapes: triclinic; the hexagonal prism; two types of dodecahedrons; and the truncated octahedron. In this article, we show that every molecular simulation, formulated in one of these boxes, can b

  1. Black-Box Search by Unbiased Variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehre, Per Kristian; Witt, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    The complexity theory for black-box algorithms, introduced by Droste, Jansen, and Wegener (Theory Comput. Syst. 39:525–544, 2006), describes common limits on the efficiency of a broad class of randomised search heuristics. There is an obvious trade-off between the generality of the black-box model...

  2. Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion's Pandora's Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fashion’s Pandora’s Box? A A A | Print | Share Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion’s Pandora’s Box? Foot and ankle ... extreme and imprudent as it may sound, the cosmetic surgery craze isn't just for faces anymore- ...

  3. Modern biotechnology Panacea or new Pandora's box?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tramper, J.; Yang Zhu, Yang

    2011-01-01

    According to Greek mythology Pandora was sent down to earth upon the orders of Zeus. She was given a mysterious box which she was not allowed to open. However, Pandora was very curious and when she arrived on earth she couldn?t help taking a peek inside the box. She saw that it was filled with gifts

  4. Box Plots in the Australian Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jane M.

    2012-01-01

    This article compares the definition of "box plot" as used in the "Australian Curriculum: Mathematics" with other definitions used in the education community; describes the difficulties students experience when dealing with box plots; and discusses the elaboration that is necessary to enable teachers to develop the knowledge necessary to use them…

  5. Effect of Interfacial Debonding on the Strength of Composite Structure-Similarity Scale Model for the Wing-Box

    OpenAIRE

    Shiyong Sun; Rui Yang; Zibin Yan; Wei Qian

    2015-01-01

    Based on the wing-box structure, a model was established to analyze the strength of the scale model for the composite wing. Firstly, different failure criteria were set to determine damage onset of the components. The continuum damage variables were adopted in the stiffness degradation rule. Secondly, the interface elements were placed along the interface between the beam flange and the skin to investigate the effects of bonding strength on the ultimate load-carrying capacity of the wing-box....

  6. 49 CFR 178.515 - Standards for reconstituted wood boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for reconstituted wood boxes. 178.515... wood boxes. (a) The identification code for a reconstituted wood box is 4F. (b) Construction requirements for reconstituted wood boxes are as follows: (1) The walls of boxes must be made of...

  7. Dynamic Analysis of Horizontally Curved Thin-Walled Box-Girder Bridge due to Moving Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nallasivam

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact on curved box-girder bridges due to vehicle moving across rough bridge deck have been analyzed using bridge-vehicle coupled dynamics. The bridge deck unevenness has been assumed to be a homogeneous random process in space specified by a PSD function. The analysis incorporates the effect of centrifugal forces due to vehicle moving on curved bridge. The curved box-girder bridge has been numerically modeled using computationally efficient thin-walled box-beam finite elements which take into account the torsional warping, distortion and distortional warping, that are important features of thin-walled box girders. Rigid vehicle with longitudinal and transverse input to the wheels giving rise to heave-pitch-roll degrees of freedom has been considered. The theoretical bridge model used in simulation study has been validated by a free vibration experiment using impact excitation. The impact factors for several response parameters such as bending moment, shear force, torsional moment, torsional bi-moment, distortional moment, distortional bi-moment and vertical deflections have been obtained for various bridge-vehicle parameters. Both constant velocity and forward acceleration of the vehicle have been considered to examine impact factor. The results highlighted that the impact factors of a curved box girder bridge corresponding to torsion, distortion and their corresponding bimoments have been observed to be generally very high, while those of the other responses are also relatively higher than that of corresponding straight box girder bridge.

  8. Improvements relating to glove boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is stated that radiation problems with glove boxes can only be partly overcome by adding shielding to their working faces, since about 25% of the working face may be taken up with glove ports at which the only shielding provided is that of the glove. A glove port cover is here described, mountable above the port, comprising a number of flaps of lead-loaded flexible material. The flaps can be pushed aside by hand to permit access to a glove fixed in the port, but overlap to close off the port when the hand is withdrawn. The lead loaded flexible material preferably has a natural or synthetic rubber base. Constructional details are given. Only the flaps need to be lead-loaded, and to facilitate manufacture and handling the surfaces of the cover are preferably lead-free. Three flaps can suffice, but five or six are preferred. For mounting purposes a cover may have beading at its periphery for clamped location in a groove round the glove port. (U.K.)

  9. Packing a cake into a box

    KAUST Repository

    Skopenkov, Mikhail

    2011-05-01

    Given a triangular cake and a box in the shape of its mirror image, how can the cake be cut into a minimal number of pieces so that it can be put into the box? The cake has icing, so we are not allowed to put it into the box upside down. V. G. Boltyansky asked this question in 1977 and showed that three pieces always suffice. In this paper we provide examples of cakes that cannot be cut into two pieces to be put into the box. This shows that three is the answer to Boltyansky\\'s question. We also give examples of cakes which can be cut into two pieces. © THE MATHEMATICAL ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA.

  10. Spacer for supporting fuel element boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A spacer plate unit arranged externally on each side and at a predetermined level of a polygonal fuel element box for mutually supporting, with respect to one another, a plurality of the fuel element boxes forming a fuel element bundle, is formed of a first and a second spacer plate part each having the same length and the same width and being constituted of unlike first and second materials, respectively. The first and second spacer plate parts of the several spacer plate units situated at the predetermined level are arranged in an alternating continuous series when viewed in the peripheral direction of the fuel element box, so that any two spacer plate units belonging to face-to-face oriented sides of two adjoining fuel element boxes in the fuel element bundle define interfaces of unlike materials

  11. Mystery Boxes, X Rays, and Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Norman

    2000-01-01

    Indicates the difficulties of teaching concepts beyond light and color and creating memorable learning experiences. Recommends sequential activities using the mystery box approach to explain how scientists and doctors use photon applications. (YDS)

  12. Packing a cake into a box

    CERN Document Server

    Skopenkov, Mikhail

    2010-01-01

    Given a cake in form of a triangle and a box that fits the mirror image of the cake, how to cut the cake into a minimal number of pieces so that it can be put into the box? The cake has an icing, so that we are not allowed to put it into the box upside down. V.G. Boltyansky asked this question in 1977 and showed that three pieces always suffice. In this paper we provide examples of cakes that cannot be cut into two pieces to put into the box. This shows that three is the answer to V.G. Boltyansky's question. Also we give examples of cakes which can be cut into two pieces.

  13. Decommissioning a tritium glove-box facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folkers, C.L.; Homann, S.G.; Nicolosi, A.S.; Hanel, S.L.; King, W.C.

    1979-08-08

    A large glove-box facility for handling reactive metal tritides was decommissioned. Major sections of the glove box were decontaminated and disassembled for reuse at another tritium facility. To achieve the desired results, decontamnation required repeated washing, first with organic liquids, then with water and detergents. Worker protection was provided by simple ventilation combined with careful monitoring of the work areas and employees. Several innovative techniques are described.

  14. Decommissioning a tritium glove-box facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large glove-box facility for handling reactive metal tritides was decommissioned. Major sections of the glove box were decontaminated and disassembled for reuse at another tritium facility. To achieve the desired results, decontamnation required repeated washing, first with organic liquids, then with water and detergents. Worker protection was provided by simple ventilation combined with careful monitoring of the work areas and employees. Several innovative techniques are described

  15. SET Backaction on the Single Electron Box

    OpenAIRE

    Turek, B. A.; Lehnert, K. W.; Clerk, A.; Gunnarsson, D.; Bladh, K.; Delsing, P.; Schoelkopf, R. J.

    2005-01-01

    We report an experimental observation of the backaction of a Single Electron Transistor (SET) measuring the Coulomb staircase of a single electron box. As current flows through the SET, the charge state of the SET island fluctuates. These fluctuations capacitively couple to the box and cause changes in the position, width, and asymmetry of the Coulomb staircase. A sequential tunnelling model accurately recreates these effects, confirming this mechanism of the backaction of an SET. This is a f...

  16. Random Young diagrams in a Rectangular Box

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Dan; Boutillier, Cédric; Enriquez, Nathanaël

    We exhibit the limit shape of random Young diagrams having a distribution proportional to the exponential of their area, and confined in a rectangular box. The Ornstein-Uhlenbeck bridge arises from the fluctuations around the limit shape.......We exhibit the limit shape of random Young diagrams having a distribution proportional to the exponential of their area, and confined in a rectangular box. The Ornstein-Uhlenbeck bridge arises from the fluctuations around the limit shape....

  17. A comparison of classical mechanics models and finite element simulation of elastically tailored wing boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehfield, Lawrence W.; Pickings, Richard D.; Chang, Stephen; Holl, Michael

    1991-01-01

    Structural tailoring concepts were developed to create wings with elastically produced camber for the purpose of increasing lift during takeoff conditions. Simple models based upon enhancements to the thin walled composite beam theory of Rehfield were developed to investigate prospects for elastic tailoring of the chordwise deformation of wing structures. The purpose here is to provide a comparison of the theoretical results with a finite element model for the bending method of producing camber. Finite element correlation studies were completed for two cases: a bonded unstiffened structural box, and a bolted unstiffened structural box. Results from these studies show an error of less than one percent for the bonded case and less than six percent for the bolted case in predicting camber curvature for the structural box. Examination of the results shows that the theory is very accurate for the cases studied and will provide an excellent basis for conducting further tailoring studies.

  18. HYDROGEN AND VOC RETENTION IN WASTE BOXES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PACE ME; MARUSICH RM

    2008-11-21

    The Hanford Waste Management Project Master Documented Safety Analysis (MDSA) (HNF-14741, 2003) identifies derived safety controls to prevent or mitigate the risks of a single-container deflagration during operations requiring moving, venting or opening transuranic (TRU)-waste containers. The issue is whether these safety controls are necessary for operations involving TRU-waste boxes that are being retrieved from burial at the Hanford Site. This paper investigates the potential for a deflagration hazard within these boxes and whether safety controls identified for drum deflagration hazards should be applied to operations involving these boxes. The study evaluates the accumulation of hydrogen and VOCs within the waste box and the transport of these gases and vapors out of the waste box. To perform the analysis, there were numerous and major assumptions made regarding the generation rate and the transport pathway dimensions and their number. Since there is little actual data with regards to these assumptions, analyses of three potential configurations were performed to obtain some indication of the bounds of the issue (the concentration of hydrogen or flammable VOCs within a waste box). A brief description of each of the three cases along with the results of the analysis is summarized.

  19. 49 CFR 178.517 - Standards for plastic boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for plastic boxes. 178.517 Section 178... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.517 Standards for plastic boxes. (a) The following are identification codes for plastic boxes: (1) 4H1 for an expanded plastic box; and (2) 4H2 for...

  20. 49 CFR 230.101 - Steam locomotive driving journal boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. 230.101... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.101 Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. (a) Driving journal boxes. Driving journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service. Not...

  1. Effect of an odor eliminator on feline litter box behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottam, Nicole; Dodman, Nicholas H

    2007-02-01

    Decreasing litter box odor may be an important treatment component in addressing feline inappropriate elimination. A three-phase study was conducted to determine if the use of Zero Odor litter box spray increases the preference of litter boxes to cats, presumably by its odor-eliminating quality. In the first phase, cats were given a litter box preference test between a litter box sprayed with Zero Odor and one without. In the second phase, the number of occurrences of behaviors indicative of a cat's dissatisfaction with the litter box (scratching at the sides of the box, floor or wall, hesitating when entering the litter box, balancing on the side of the box and eliminating outside of the litter box) was compared before and after the use of Zero Odor. Last, the frequency of eliminations that occurred outside the litter box was measured during a baseline phase and a test phase, in which Zero Odor was sprayed into all litter boxes in the home. Significantly fewer behaviors associated with feline litter box dissatisfaction and fewer undesirable eliminations were observed in phases 2 and 3, respectively. These findings suggest that use of Zero Odor litter box spray appears to decrease litter box odor and increases the attractiveness of litter box to cats. PMID:17049291

  2. 49 CFR 178.514 - Standards for plywood boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for plywood boxes. 178.514 Section 178... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.514 Standards for plywood boxes. (a) The identification code for a plywood box is 4D. (b) Construction requirements for plywood boxes are as follows:...

  3. Design of visually and remotely controlled mirror box platform in BSRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we report a mirror box platform for controlling the beamline mirrors in visual and remote mode at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF). The platform is based on Client/Device Server structure and, to ensure the safety, only the clients examined by Server can access the devices. The 3D mirror adjustments and simple ASCII message protocol are designed for implement of the platform control in visual and remote mode. Test results show that the time to update the position status is 0.2 s and the position error in visual control is less than 5%. The performance meets requirements of the mirror box control in BSRF beam lines. By increasing the device drivers in the server and developing programs in the clients, the platform can be used to control the whole beam line. (authors)

  4. Pharmacy Students’ Knowledge of Black Box Warnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shireman, Theresa I.; Generali, Joyce; Rigler, Sally; Mayorga, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the progression of pharmacy students’ knowledge of black box warnings across 3 years of didactic training, and to determine how they stay current with new warnings. Methods A cross-sectional survey instrument was administered to pharmacy students in their first (P1), second (P2), and third (P3) professional years. The survey assessed student awareness of medications possessing a black box warning and familiarity with the warning content for 20 medications (15 with and 5 without warnings). Results Mean number of correct responses identifying the presence or absence of a black box warning among the 20 medications were 5.8 ± 3.3, 9.6 ± 4.0, and 14.8 ± 2.8 for the P1, P2, and P3 students, respectively. Knowledge of black box warning content was variable. Students were least aware of the warning content for stavudine and enoxaparin. Students were most familiar with the warning content for paroxetine and estrogen. Conclusion Students’ awareness and understanding of black box warnings was proportional to their educational progression, but their knowledge level was inconsistent across drug groups. PMID:20221356

  5. Nearly Seamless Vacuum-Insulated Boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanian, Christopher J.; Ou, Danny; Hu, Xiangjun

    2010-01-01

    A design concept, and a fabrication process that would implement the design concept, have been proposed for nearly seamless vacuum-insulated boxes that could be the main structural components of a variety of controlled-temperature containers, including common household refrigerators and insulating containers for shipping foods. In a typical case, a vacuum-insulated box would be shaped like a rectangular parallelepiped conventional refrigerator box having five fully closed sides and a hinged door on the sixth side. Although it is possible to construct the five-closed-side portion of the box as an assembly of five unitary vacuum-insulated panels, it is not desirable to do so because the relatively high thermal conductances of the seams between the panels would contribute significant amounts of heat leakage, relative to the leakage through the panels themselves. In contrast, the proposal would make it possible to reduce heat leakage by constructing the five-closed-side portion of the box plus the stationary portion (if any) of the sixth side as a single, seamless unit; the only remaining seam would be the edge seal around the door. The basic cross-sectional configuration of each side of a vacuum-insulated box according to the proposal would be that of a conventional vacuum-insulated panel: a low-density, porous core material filling a partially evacuated space between face sheets. However, neither the face sheets nor the core would be conventional. The face sheets would be opposite sides of a vacuum bag. The core material would be a flexible polymer-modified silica aerogel of the type described in Silica/Polymer and Silica/Polymer/Fiber Composite Aero - gels (MSC-23736) in this issue of NASA Tech Briefs. As noted in that article, the stiffness of this core material against compression is greater than that of prior aerogels. This is an important advantage because it translates to greater retention of thickness and, hence, of insulation performance when pressure is

  6. Advances in the theory of box integrals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, J.M.; Crandall, R.E.

    2009-06-25

    Box integrals - expectations <|{rvec r}|{sup s}> or <|{rvec r}-{rvec q}|{sup s}> over the unit n-cube (or n-box) - have over three decades been occasionally given closed forms for isolated n,s. By employing experimental mathematics together with a new, global analytic strategy, we prove that for n {le} 4 dimensions the box integrals are for any integer s hypergeometrically closed in a sense we clarify herein. For n = 5 dimensions, we show that a single unresolved integral we call K{sub 5} stands in the way of such hyperclosure proofs. We supply a compendium of exemplary closed forms that naturally arise algorithmically from this theory.

  7. Nonlinear beam-beam resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Head-on collisions of bunched beams are considered, assuming the two colliding beams have opposite charges. A few experimental observations are described. The single resonance analysis is developed that is applicable to the strong-weak case of the beam-beam interaction. In this case, the strong beam is unperturbed by the beam-beam interaction; motions of the weak beam particles are then analyzed in the presence of the nonlinear electromagnetic force produced by the strong beam at the collision points. The coherent motions of the two coupled strong beams are shown to exhibit distinct nonlinear resonance behavior. 16 refs., 22 figs

  8. Fire test of DOT 7A Boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary objective of conducting the full-scale fire tests of the DOT (Department of Transportation) 7A FRP Boxes was to provide information to assist in quantifying the fire hazard of the storage located at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC), and to learn if changing the storage array will decrease the fire risk. Also, the level of fire fighting and fire protection required to maintain the risk at the RWMC within acceptable DOE guidelines was investigated. Two full-scale fire tests were conducted at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) in June 1978, using the DOE 7A FRP Plywood Storage Containers. The fire tests showed that when subjected to a substantial ignition source, the boxes will propagate fire as long as no fire-suppression measures are taken. Fire will breach the boxes and spread the radioactive contaminated waste if it is not extinguished. As the fire progresses, additional boxes will become involved, and eventually the entire storage array will ignite. It is recommended that the use of DOT 7A Boxes be discontinued and replaced with noncombustible storage containers. In the event this is not practicable, guidance recommendations are presented to minimize the large fire loss potential. It is also recommended that an investigation be conducted into the number of boxes that can be destroyed and still maintain a safe environment for employees and the public. This investigation should include how far radioactive contamination will spread, what cleanup will be required, anticipated exposure of the people within the area, and the public impact of such a fire

  9. Ground state cooling of a nanomechanical resonator via a Cooper pair box qubit

    OpenAIRE

    Jaehne, Konstanze; Hammerer, Klemens; Wallquist, Margareta

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present a scheme for ground state cooling of a flexural mode of a nanomechanical beam incorporated in a loop-shaped Cooper-pair box (CPB) circuit. Via the Lorentz force coupling of the beam motion to circulating CPB-circuit currents, energy is transferred to the CPB qubit which acts as a dissipative two-level system. The cooling process is driven by a detuned gate-voltage drive acting on the CPB. We analyze the cooling force spectrum and present analytical expressions for the...

  10. Testing of packings for stuffing boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stuffing box packings function when they are sealed tight and do not obstruct the movement of the spindle. Characteristic values are necessary to characterise the materials properties of stuffing box packings. Essentially, the definitions of the characteristic values are known and can be calculated in experimental setups. It is absolutely necessary to standardise the characteristic values as well as the testing procedures in order to be able to provide comparable and reproduceable characteristic values. Depending upon the importance of the fittings, it is necessary to guarantee sufficiently exact and reliable assembly for defined operating conditions. (orig.)

  11. Cereal Box Design: An Interdisciplinary Graphics Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Mike; Tsosie, Teri

    2012-01-01

    The cereal box design activity is intriguing both for its simplicity and the resourcefulness that it can generate in young people. Also, it lends itself to a variety of curriculums. It covers both consumerism and Design for the Environment (DfE) concepts broadly and in depth. The activity introduces a wide range of topics. They include graphic…

  12. Study of WATCH GRB error boxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorosabel, J.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Lund, Niels;

    1995-01-01

    We have studied the first WATCH GRB Catalogue ofγ-ray Bursts in order to find correlations between WATCH GRB error boxes and a great variety of celestial objects present in 33 different catalogues. No particular class of objects has been found to be significantly correlated with the WATCH GRBs....

  13. Black hole formation in a box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evidence is presented for Hawking's viewpoint that in an insulated box in thermal equilibrium, black holes should form and evaporate in a statistically time-symmetric way. In particular, it is shown that if a black hole can evaporate adiabatically, it is much more likely to form adiabatically than by Jeans instability. (author)

  14. Safety evaluation for packaging CPC metal boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP) provides authorization for the use of Container Products Corporation (CPC) metal boxes, as described in this document, for the interarea shipment of radioactive contaminated equipment and debris for storage in the Central Waste Complex (CWC) or T Plant located in the 200 West Area. Authorization is granted until November 30, 1995. The CPC boxes included in this SEP were originally procured as US Department of Transportation (DOT) Specification 7A Type A boxes. A review of the documentation provided by the manufacturer revealed the documentation did not adequately demonstrate compliance to the 4 ft drop test requirement of 49 CFR 173.465(c). Preparation of a SEP is necessary to document the equivalent safety of the onsite shipment in lieu of meeting DOT packaging requirements until adequate documentation is received. The equivalent safety of the shipment is based on the fact that the radioactive contents consist of contaminated equipment and debris which are not dispersible. Each piece is wrapped in two layers of no less than 4 mil plastic prior to being placed in the box which has an additional 10 mil liner. Pointed objects and sharp edges are padded to prevent puncture of the plastic liner and wrapping

  15. Choreographies with Secure Boxes and Compromised Principals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbone, Marco; Guttman, Joshua

      We equip choreography-level session descriptions with a simple abstraction of a security infrastruc- ture. Message components may be enclosed within (possibly nested) ”boxes” annotated with the intended source and destination of those components. The boxes are to be implemented with cryp...

  16. RELIABILITY BASED DESIGN OF A GEAR BOX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.MADHUSEKHAR

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Reliability is the probability that a system, component or device will perform without failure for a specified period of time under specified operating conditions. The concept of reliability is of great importance in the design of various machine members. Conventional engineering design uses a deterministic approach. It disregards the fact that the material properties, the dimensions of the components and the externally applied loads are statistical in nature. In conventional design this uncertainties are covered with a factor of safety, which is not always successful. The growing trend towards reducing uncertainty and increasing reliability is to use the probabilistic approach. In the present work a three shaft four speed gear box and six speed gear box are designed using reliability principles. For the specified reliability of the system (Gear box, component reliability (Gear pair is calculated by considering the system as a series system. Design is considered to be safe and adequate if the probability of failure of gear box is less than or equal to a specified quantity in each of the two failure modes. . All the parameters affecting the design are considered as random variables and all the random variables are assumed to follow normal distribution. A computer program in C++ is developed to calculate the face widths in bending and surface failure modes. The larger one out of the two values is considered. By changing the variations in the design parameters, variations in the face widths are studied.

  17. Nondestructive assay of boxed radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the problems related to the nondestructive assay (NDA) of boxed radioactive waste at the Hanford Site and how Westinghouse Hanford company (WHC) is solving the problems. The waste form and radionuclide content are described. The characteristics of the combined neutron and gamma-based measurement system are described

  18. A white box perspective on behavioural adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Roberto; Corradini, Andrea; Gadducci, Fabio; Lluch Lafuente, Alberto; Vandin, Andrea

    We present a white-box conceptual framework for adaptation developed in the context of the EU Project ASCENS coordinated by Martin Wirsing. We called it CoDA, for Control Data Adaptation, since it is based on the notion of control data. CoDA promotes a neat separation between application and...

  19. PVC posting bags for glove boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This specification covers the materials, measurements and manufacture of unpigmented PVC posting bags for use on glove boxes, together with methods of testing the materials. These bags are used in the handling of radioactive and toxic materials of a hazardous nature and therefore must be of the highest standard of mechanical strength, leak tightness and general finish. (author)

  20. Bessel Beams

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, Kirk T

    2000-01-01

    Scalar Bessel beams are derived both via the wave equation and via diffraction theory. While such beams have a group velocity that exceeds the speed of light, this is a manifestation of the "scissors paradox" of special relativty. The signal velocity of a modulated Bessel beam is less than the speed of light. Forms of Bessel beams that satisfy Maxwell's equations are also given.

  1. Beam removal block and shielding resign for the MARS neutron therapy reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The beam removal block and shielding design for the MARS neutron therapy reactor are described. The requirements to the beams' characteristics, filters, collimator and reactor shielding are formulated. Radiation field levels in medical box are analyzed for beams' different operation conditions. It is stated that the removal block and shutter compositions meet necessary conditions in radiation treatment and emergency evacuation

  2. Grey-box modelling of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tornøe, Christoffer Wenzel; Jacobsen, Judith L; Pedersen, Oluf;

    2004-01-01

    Grey-box pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modelling is presented as a promising way of modelling PK/PD systems. The concept behind grey-box modelling is based on combining physiological knowledge along with information from data in the estimation of model parameters. Grey-box modelling...

  3. 49 CFR 230.103 - Tender roller bearing journal boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender roller bearing journal boxes. 230.103... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.103 Tender roller bearing journal boxes. Tender roller bearing journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition....

  4. 49 CFR 230.102 - Tender plain bearing journal boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender plain bearing journal boxes. 230.102... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.102 Tender plain bearing journal boxes. Plain bearing journal boxes... expected to damage the bearing; or have a detrimental effect on the lubrication of the journal and...

  5. Application of Defense Technology Commonly Used in Boxing Match

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhixiao Li[1; Jianjun Liu[2

    2015-01-01

    Boxing defense technology is a kind of techniques to prevent the opponent from attacking successfully. Boxing is a kind of sports that needs close cooperation between attack and defense. Attack is used for defense, where there is no attack, there will be no defense, and vice versa. Defense technology is the foundation of attack technology, therefore, defense is of vital importance in boxing match.

  6. Diagnostic neutral beams for plasma studies in magnetic fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays, low-divergent, quasi-stationary neutral beams are widely used in magnetic fusion devices as a diagnostic tool providing unique information about plasma parameters. Essentially, a diagnostic determines the requirements for the beams, which in many cases consist in sufficiently large current density and energy of the particles so that the beam can penetrate to the plasma core. At the same time, the duration of the beams should overlap that of a plasma shot (∼10 s or longer for large machines). We have developed a number of diagnostic hydrogen beams with a maximum beam energy of 55kV, extracted ion current varying up to 6 A, and pulse duration from several milliseconds to 10 s. The beams are formed by a four electrode ion optical system which makes it possible to provide a low divergent (0.5-0.7 deg.) beam. Additionally, a beam can be focused onto a desired point by proper choice of the curvature radius of the grids. The beams can be modulated with a frequency variable up to 500 Hz. The plasma emitter in the injector is provided by a radiofrequency discharge in hydrogen (deuterium) for long duration beams and, alternatively, by an arc-discharge plasma box for the beams with a duration of up to ∼0.5 s. The arc discharge plasma box provides a higher proton fraction (∼90%) than the RF discharge version (∼60%). The parameters for the different beams developed are presented. (author)

  7. Grey Box Modelling of Hydrological Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thordarson, Fannar Ørn

    intervals. The thesis illustrates three performance measures for this performance evaluations: reliability, sharpness and resolution. For decision making, a performance criterion is preferred that quantifies all of these measures in a single number, and for that the quantile skill score criterion is...... equations, and a black box model, which relates to models that are obtained statistically from input-output relations. Grey box model consists of a system description, defined by a finite set of stochastic differential equations, and an observation equation. Together, system and observation equations...... lack of fit in state space formulation, and further support decisions for a model expansion. By using stochastic differential equations to formulate the dynamics of the hydrological system, either the complexity of the model can be increased by including the necessary hydrological processes in the...

  8. Fatal exit the automotive black box debate

    CERN Document Server

    Kowalick, Tom

    2005-01-01

    "Fatal Exit: The Automotive Black Box Debate cuts through thirty years of political wrangling and institutional biases to provide an argument for the Motor Vehicle Event Data Recorder (MVEDR). This automotive equivalent of an airplane's flight recorder or black box is intended to solve the mysteries of car crashes and improve the safety of our roads. The reader is taken inside the automotive industry and the government highway safety establishment to foster an understanding of the politics and the positions on all sides of this safety debate. The author takes an unbiased approach, chronologically presenting each argument and uncovering the agendas and mandates of each of the stakeholders." "This publication is essential reading for all consumers who need to have their voices heard on this critical issue, as well as for attorneys, public safety advocates, public policy administrators, engineers, automotive professionals, journalists, and insurance executives."--Jacket.

  9. The Central Nervous System of Box Jellyfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garm, Anders Lydik; Ekström, Peter

    2008-01-01

    nervous system is described. Each rhopalium holds a separate part of the CNS with 1,000 nerve cells and a large amount of neuropil. The rhopalial nervous system has several subsystems defined by the anatomy, location, and immunocytochemistry of the cells. Most of the subsystems connect to one or more of...... behaviors in the box jellyfish such as obstacle avoidance and navigation. The need to process the visual information and turn it into the appropriate behavior puts strong demands on the nervous system of box jellyfish, which appears more elaborate than in other cnidarians. Here, the central part of this...... the eye types, and it is likely that the rhopalial nervous system accounts for most of the visual processing. The major part of the CNS is made up of a ring nerve encircling the bell shaped body. The ring nerve holds around 10,000 cells and is directly connected to all four rhopalial nervous systems...

  10. The gradient flow in a twisted box

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Alberto [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC

    2013-08-15

    We study the perturbative behavior of the gradient flow in a twisted box. We apply this information to define a running coupling using the energy density of the flow field. We study the step-scaling function and the size of cutoff effects in SU(2) pure gauge theory. We conclude that the twisted gradient flow running coupling scheme is a valid strategy for step-scaling purposes due to the relatively mild cutoff effects and high precision.

  11. Dry boxes and inert atmosphere techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Practitioners need to conduct experiments with molten salts in an inert atmosphere owing to the chemical reactivity of these media. Most fused salt solvent systems show reactivity to water and/or oxygen, which results in significant chemical changes in the properties of these solvents. Although several studies on the nature of an oxygen/oxide electrode in this melt have been reported, the reactions have not been fully understood because of apparent water contamination in many cases. Nitrate melt systems are also hygroscopic; for example, the LiNO3-KNO3 eutectic (1770C) absorbs water to at least 0.2% by weight. The result is that the electrochemistry of heavier, electropositive metal ions has been significantly altered. In addition, trace amounts of water have been shown to significantly affect the oxygen-oxide redox chemistry in NaNO3-KNO3 melts (2500C). The haloaluminates, which include AlCl3-NaCl (1750C), as well as AlCl3-organic salt binaries are particularly sensitive to the presence of both oxygen and moisture. Oxygen is a strong oxidant in the fused hydroxide systems with formation of superoxide ion from either oxide or water. This chapter describes general, inert atmosphere techniques which can be used by the molten salt experimentalist. Because of the limitations of volatility, vacuum manipulations are not considered. Rather, the use of glove boxes, glove bags, and inert bench-top techniques are discussed. The areas covered are: glove box and bag equipment, operation and maintenance of glove boxes and glove bags, and common operations conducted inside glove boxes

  12. Adaptive Techniques to find Optimal Planar Boxes

    CERN Document Server

    Barbay, J; Pérez-Lantero, P

    2012-01-01

    Given a set $P$ of $n$ planar points, two axes and a real-valued score function $f()$ on subsets of $P$, the Optimal Planar Box problem consists in finding a box (i.e. axis-aligned rectangle) $H$ maximizing $f(H\\cap P)$. We consider the case where $f()$ is monotone decomposable, i.e. there exists a composition function $g()$ monotone in its two arguments such that $f(A)=g(f(A_1),f(A_2))$ for every subset $A\\subseteq P$ and every partition $\\{A_1,A_2\\}$ of $A$. In this context we propose a solution for the Optimal Planar Box problem which performs in the worst case $O(n^2\\lg n)$ score compositions and coordinate comparisons, and much less on other classes of instances defined by various measures of difficulty. A side result of its own interest is a fully dynamic \\textit{MCS Splay tree} data structure supporting insertions and deletions with the \\emph{dynamic finger} property, improving upon previous results [Cort\\'es et al., J.Alg. 2009].

  13. Changes in position and quality of preferred nest box: effects on nest box use by laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Anja Brinch; Nielsen, Birte L.

    2013-01-01

    Using laying hens, we investigated whether position of a nest box, both within the pen and relative to other nest boxes, influenced the preference for a nest box, and how a sudden and marked change to the preferred box influenced the use of nest boxes by the hens. Groups (n=12) of 15 Isa Warren...... hens were housed in pens, each with five identical nest boxes in different positions: Two single (in a corner or not) and a triplet of nest boxes (one of which in a corner). The use of nest boxes was determined by the number of eggs laid daily in each box. Three experiments, each lasting 10 days, were...... carried out. First, the undisturbed use of each of the nest box types was investigated, and a strong preference (P<0.001) was found for single nest boxes in a corner, with 62% of the nest box eggs laid there. Second, each of the hen groups was moved to another pen allocated at random, and where the...

  14. Business plan PME.Box: internationalization to Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Diogo José Gomes Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    The document herein described, provides detailed information of the development of PME.BOX Business Plan regarding the expansion to a detailed overview of the business model and strategies that PME.BOX looks to implement in order to maximize its business reach and in turn generate revenue. PME.BOX (firm) is an IT start up firm based in Madan Par the commercial rights of pme.box (software). Pme.box is a touch management solution intended to help small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in ...

  15. Reconciling White-Box and Black-Box Perspectives on Behavioral Self-adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Roberto; Corradini, Andrea; Gadducci, Fabio; Hölzl, Matthias; Lluch Lafuente, Alberto; Vandin, Andrea; Wirsing, Martin

    This paper proposes to reconcile two perspectives on behavioral adaptation commonly taken at different stages of the engineering of autonomic computing systems. Requirements engineering activities often take a black-box perspective: A system is considered to be adaptive with respect to an...... environment whenever the system is able to satisfy its goals irrespectively of the environment perturbations. Modeling and programming engineering activities often take a white-box perspective: A system is equipped with suitable adaptation mechanisms and its behavior is classified as adaptive depending on...... whether the adaptation mechanisms are enacted or not. The proposed approach reconciles black- and white-box perspectives by proposing several notions of coherence between the adaptivity as observed by the two perspectives: These notions provide useful criteria for the system developer to assess and...

  16. 49 CFR 178.512 - Standards for steel or aluminum boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for steel or aluminum boxes. 178.512... aluminum boxes. (a) The following are identification codes for steel or aluminum boxes: (1) 4A for a steel box; and (2) 4B for an aluminum box. (b) Construction requirements for steel or aluminum boxes are...

  17. Adaptation of Black-Box Software Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Andreas Rasenack

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The globalization of the software market leads to crucial problems for software companies. More competition between software companies arises and leads to the force on companies to develop ever newer software products in ever shortened time interval. Therefore the time to market for software systems is shortened and obviously the product life cycle is shortened too. Thus software companies shortened the time interval for research and development. Due to the fact of competition between software companies software products have to develop low-priced and this leads to a smaller return on investment. A big challenge for software companies is the use of an effective research and development process to have these problems under control. A way to control these problems can be the reuse of existing software components and adapt those software components to new functionality or accommodate mismatched interfaces. Complete redevelopment of software products is more expensive and time consuming than to develop software components. The approach introduced here presents novel technique together with a supportive environment that enables developers to cope with the adaptability of black-box software components. A supportive environment will be designed that checks the compatibility of black-box software components with the assistance of their specifications. Generated adapter software components can take over the part of adaptation and advance the functionality. Besides, a pool of software components can be used to compose an application to satisfy customer needs. Certainly this pool of software components consists of black-box software components and adapter software components which can be connected on demand.

  18. Box codes of lengths 48 and 72

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, G.; Jin, Y.

    1993-11-01

    A self-dual code length 48, dimension 24, with Hamming distance essentially equal to 12 is constructed here. There are only six code words of weight eight. All the other code words have weights that are multiples of four and have a minimum weight equal to 12. This code may be encoded systematically and arises from a strict binary representation of the (8,4;5) Reed-Solomon (RS) code over GF (64). The code may be considered as six interrelated (8,7;2) codes. The Mattson-Solomon representation of the cyclic decomposition of these codes and their parity sums are used to detect an odd number of errors in any of the six codes. These may then be used in a correction algorithm for hard or soft decision decoding. A (72,36;15) box code was constructed from a (63,35;8) cyclic code. The theoretical justification is presented herein. A second (72,36;15) code is constructed from an inner (63,27;16) Bose Chaudhuri Hocquenghem (BCH) code and expanded to length 72 using box code algorithms for extension. This code was simulated and verified to have a minimum distance of 15 with even weight words congruent to zero modulo four. The decoding for hard and soft decision is still more complex than the first code constructed above. Finally, an (8,4;5) RS code over GF (512) in the binary representation of the (72,36;15) box code gives rise to a (72,36;16*) code with nine words of weight eight, and all the rest have weights greater than or equal to 16.

  19. Keller-box method and its application

    CERN Document Server

    Prasad, Kerehalli V

    2014-01-01

    Most of the problems arising in science and engineering are nonlinear. They are inherently difficult to solve. Traditional analytical approximations are valid only for weakly nonlinear problems, and often break down for problems with strong nonlinearity. This book presents the current theoretical developments and applications of Keller-Box method to nonlinear problems. The first half of the bookaddresses basic concepts to understand the theoretical framework for the method. In the second half of the book, the authorsgive a number of examples of coupled nonlinear problems that have been solved

  20. Mirror box therapy: seeing is believing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Kelly; Chin, May; Kogan, Mikhail

    2011-01-01

    Working with patients with different chronic pain syndromes can be challenging. Pharmacological therapies are often associated with variety of side effects. Mind-body modalities are thought to play a role; however, the lack of clear consensus and large body of clinical experience makes it hard to provide good evidence-based recommendation to most of our chronic pain patients. In recent years the Phantom Limb Pain (PLP) and to some degree Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) may prove to be an exception. In this review we summarize the current evidence supporting use of Mirror Box Therapy and its successor, Immersive Virtual Reality. PMID:22051561

  1. The Transformation of the "Black Box"

    OpenAIRE

    JIMENEZ DOMENECH, LUCIA

    2012-01-01

    The idea of this project is to convert an old office building downtown into an energy-neutral high-rise village. The assignment contained the office building located in the city centre of Groningen at Eendrachtskade 2, commonly called the "Black Box". It was built in 1976, and the actual technical condition is poor with inadequate insulation. When the building remains empty in 2014, the most obvious next thing to happen is the demolition. But, due to climate impact, the objective is to reuse ...

  2. Test procedure for boxed waste assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document, prepared by Los Alamos National Laboratory's NMT-4 group, details the test methodology and requirements for Acceptance/Qualification testing of a Boxed Waste Assay System (BWAS) designed and constructed by Pajarito Scientific Corporation. Testing of the BWAS at the Plutonium Facility (TA55) at Los Alamos National Laboratory will be performed to ascertain system adherence to procurement specification requirements. The test program shall include demonstration of conveyor handling capabilities, gamma ray energy analysis, and imaging passive/active neutron accuracy and sensitivity. Integral to these functions is the system's embedded operating and data reduction software

  3. Box model for channels of human migration

    CERN Document Server

    Vitanov, Nikolay K

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a mathematical model of migration channel based on the truncated Waring distribution. The truncated Waring distribution is obtained for a more general model of motion of substance through a channel containing finite number of boxes. The model is applied then for case of migrants moving through a channel consisting of finite number of countries or cities. The number of migrants in the channel strongly depends on the number of migrants that enter the channel through the country of entrance. It is shown that if the final destination country is very popular then large percentage of migrants may concentrate there.

  4. Radiometry of radiochemical processing plant box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiometry method is used to detect shielding losses in the newly designed processing plants, to control the personnel exposure handling the radioactivity. The acceptable radiation level in occupied area at the working place, as per AERB regulatory guidelines is 1 μSv/h (0.1mR/h). Hence a stringent control on the shielding is mandatory. The shielding integrity was evaluated using a sealed source of 900 mCi 60Co (1.17 MeV and 1.33 MeV g photons of 100% abundance), by radiometry at -the newly designed 100 mm lead shielded SS 6 cell -plant box used for processing 5 -10Ci of 32P, 51Cr,153Sm, 177Lu, 166Ho etc. The radiometry source introduced into plant box through the loading chamber in H2 can (Dia. 25 mm and length 40 mm) was loaded in the plant. MS stand was fabricated and used for housing the radiometry source at different elevations (300, 600 and 900 mm). The stand was kept in the center of the plant at different locations viz., 845 mm, 1445 mm and 2045 mm distance from one side. The transmitted radiation field was mapped using radiation survey meter at marked grid segments of 100 mm x 100 mm in all sides and top of the plant box. The transmitted radiation field in all sides and top of the plant box were mapped using radiation survey meter. At certain grids the radiation levels indicated shielding losses, all such cavities were filled up, the gap was plugged and the radiometry dose mapping was repeated. Due to this rectification, radiation level at most of the places was reduced and the results showed that the shielding had improved. There was higher transmitted radiation field on the plant during opening of sliding doors. Whenever doors are opened during some work, alarm of audio alarm system indicates door opening condition. Installation of the same had been made mandatory to control occupational exposure. The radiation level may not exceed the limit of 1 μ iSv/h for the permanent occupancy of lab personnel at the working place

  5. Smart Distribution Boxes, Complete Energy Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platise, Uros

    2010-09-15

    Present households demand side management implementations are turning conventional appliances into smart ones to support auto demand (AutoDR) response function. Present concept features a direct link between the power meters and appliances. In this paper new concept and example of implementation of a so-called Smart Distribution Box (SmartDB) is represented for complete energy and power management. SmartDBs, as an intermediate layer, are extending smart grid power meter functionality to support AutoDR with fast and guaranteed response times, distributed power sources, and besides provide full control over energy management and extra safety functions to the consumers.

  6. LHC Crab Cavity Coupler Test Boxes

    CERN Document Server

    Mitchell, James; Burt, Graeme; Calaga, Rama; Macpherson, Alick; Montesinos, Eric; Silva, Subashini; Tutte, Adam; Xiao, Binping

    2016-01-01

    The LHC double quarter wave (DQW) crab cavities have two different types of Higher Order Mode (HOM) couplers in addition to a fundamental power coupler (FPC). The FPC requires conditioning, so to achieve this we have designed a radio-frequency (RF) quarter wave resonator to provide high transmission between two opposing FPCs. For the HOM couplers we must ensure that the stop-band filter is positioned at the cavity frequency and that peak transmission occurs at the same frequencies as the strongest HOMs. We have designed two test boxes which preserve the cavity spectral response in order to test the couplers.

  7. Slepton pair production in the POWHEG BOX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an implementation for slepton pair production at hadron colliders in the POWHEG BOX, a framework for combining next-to-leading order QCD calculations with parton-shower Monte-Carlo programs. Our code provides a SUSY Les Houches Accord interface for setting the supersymmetric input parameters. Decays of the sleptons and parton-shower effects are simulated with PYTHIA. Our Monte-Carlo program allows the generation of events, and thus of arbitrary distributions with appropriate selection cuts. Kinematic distributions of experimentally observable quantities are shown for a representative point in the supersymmetric parameter space.

  8. Seismic response of skewed RC box-girder bridges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmed Abdel-Mohti; Gokhan Pekcan

    2008-01-01

    It is critical to ensure the functionality of highway bridges after earthquakes to provide access to important facilities.Since the 1971 San Fernando earthquake,there has been a better understanding of the seismic performance of bridges.Nonetheless,there are no detailed guidelines addressing the performance of skewed highway bridges.Several parameters affect the response of skewed highway bridges under both service and seismic loads which makes their behavior complex.Therefore,there is a need for more research to study the effect of skew angle and other related factors on the performance of highway bridges.This paper examines the seismic performance of a three-span continuous concrete box girder bridge with skew angles from 0 to 60 degrees,analytically.Finite element (FE) and simplified beam-stick (BS) models of the bridge were developed using SAP2000.Different types of analysis were considered on both models such as:nonlinear static pushover,and linear and nonlinear time history analyses.A comparison was conducted between FE and BS,different skew angles,abutment support conditions,and time history and pushover analysis.It is shown that the BS model has the capability to capture the coupling due to skew and the significant modes for moderate skew angles.Boundary conditions and pushover load profile are determined to have a major effect on pushover analysis.Pushover analysis may be used to predict the maximum deformation and hinge formation adequately.

  9. Seismic stability of a standalone glove box structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Glove box is a leak tight, safety related structure used for handling radiotoxic materials. • To study the seismic performance of a freestanding glove box, extensive shake table testing has been carried out. • Glove box maintained structural integrity and leak tightness up to design basis earthquake loading. • Detailed three-dimensional finite element model of the structure is developed and analyzed by using direct time integration methods. • Simplified numerical method is proposed and successfully applied, to quickly estimate sliding displacement and determine upper bounds for it. - Abstract: In a nuclear fuel cycle facility, radiotoxic materials are being handled in freestanding leak tight enclosures called glove boxes (GBs). These glove boxes act as a primary confinement for the radiotoxic materials. Glove boxes are designed as per codal requirements for class I component. They are designed to withstand extreme level of earthquake loading with a return period of 10,000 years. To evaluate seismic performance of the glove box, there is a need to check the stability (sliding and overturning), structural integrity (stresses and strains) and leak tightness under earthquake loading. Extensive shake table experiments were conducted on a single standalone glove box. Actual laboratory conditions were simulated during testing to check the response. After extensive shake table testing, glove box structure was also analyzed using finite element (FE) software. Detailed three-dimensional model of glove box structure was developed and analyzed using nonlinear time history method. It was observed that finite element methods could be utilized to accurately predict dynamic response of glove box structure. This paper discusses the details and results of shake table testing and methodology used for modelling and analysing freestanding glove box structure under seismic loading. In addition, simplified numerical procedure, developed using energy conservation

  10. Seismic stability of a standalone glove box structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saraswat, A., E-mail: anupams@barc.gov.in [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Reddy, G.R. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Ghosh, S. [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai (India); Ghosh, A.K.; Kumar, Arun [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Glove box is a leak tight, safety related structure used for handling radiotoxic materials. • To study the seismic performance of a freestanding glove box, extensive shake table testing has been carried out. • Glove box maintained structural integrity and leak tightness up to design basis earthquake loading. • Detailed three-dimensional finite element model of the structure is developed and analyzed by using direct time integration methods. • Simplified numerical method is proposed and successfully applied, to quickly estimate sliding displacement and determine upper bounds for it. - Abstract: In a nuclear fuel cycle facility, radiotoxic materials are being handled in freestanding leak tight enclosures called glove boxes (GBs). These glove boxes act as a primary confinement for the radiotoxic materials. Glove boxes are designed as per codal requirements for class I component. They are designed to withstand extreme level of earthquake loading with a return period of 10,000 years. To evaluate seismic performance of the glove box, there is a need to check the stability (sliding and overturning), structural integrity (stresses and strains) and leak tightness under earthquake loading. Extensive shake table experiments were conducted on a single standalone glove box. Actual laboratory conditions were simulated during testing to check the response. After extensive shake table testing, glove box structure was also analyzed using finite element (FE) software. Detailed three-dimensional model of glove box structure was developed and analyzed using nonlinear time history method. It was observed that finite element methods could be utilized to accurately predict dynamic response of glove box structure. This paper discusses the details and results of shake table testing and methodology used for modelling and analysing freestanding glove box structure under seismic loading. In addition, simplified numerical procedure, developed using energy conservation

  11. Teaching Outside the Box: ARL Librarians' Integration of the "One- Box" into Student Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulp, Christina; McCain, Cheryl; Scrivener, Laurie

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the results of a survey that targeted reference and instruction librarians who work at libraries that are members of the Asso- ciation of Research Libraries (ARL). Respondents were asked to indicate whether or not they teach students to use the one-box tool, and why or why not. Based on the responses of the 352 librarians who…

  12. Hairy Black Holes in a Box

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Pallab; Subramanian, P N Bala

    2016-01-01

    We do a systematic study of the phases of gravity coupled to an electromagnetic field and charged scalar in flat space, with box boundary conditions. The scalar-less box has previously been investigated by Braden, Brown, Whiting and York (and others) before AdS/CFT and we elaborate and extend their results in a language more familiar from holography. The phase diagram of the system is analogous to that of AdS black holes, but we emphasize the differences and explain their origin. Once the scalar is added, we show that the system admits both boson stars as well as hairy black holes as solutions, providing yet another way to evade flat space no-hair theorems. Furthermore both these solutions can exist as stable phases in regions of the phase diagram. The final picture of the phases that emerges is strikingly similar to that found recently for holographic superconductors in global AdS, arXiv: 1602.07211. Our construction lays bare certain previously unnoticed subtleties associated to the definition quasi-local c...

  13. Roles of F-box Proteins in Plant Hormone Responses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haichuan YU; Jiao WU; Nanfei XU; Ming PENG

    2007-01-01

    The F-box protein is an important component of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Skpl-Cullin-F-box protein complex. It binds specific substrates for ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. The F-box proteins contain a signature F-box motif at their amino-terminus and some protein-protein interaction motifs at their carboxyterminus, such as Trp-Asp repeats or leucine rich repeats. Many F-box proteins have been identified to be involved in plant hormone response as receptors or important medial components. These breakthrough findings shed light on our current understanding of the structure and function of the various F-box proteins,their related plant hormone signaling pathways, and their roles in regulating plant development.

  14. Software sensors based on the grey-box modelling approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, J.; Harremoës, P.; Strube, Rune

    1996-01-01

    In recent years the grey-box modelling approach has been applied to wastewater transportation and treatment Grey-box models are characterized by the combination of deterministic and stochastic terms to form a model where all the parameters are statistically identifiable from the on......-box model for the specific dynamics is identified. Similarly, an on-line software sensor for detecting the occurrence of backwater phenomena can be developed by comparing the dynamics of a flow measurement with a nearby level measurement. For treatment plants it is found that grey-box models applied to on......-line measurements. With respect to the development of software sensors, the grey-box models possess two important features. Firstly, the on-line measurements can be filtered according to the grey-box model in order to remove noise deriving from the measuring equipment and controlling devices. Secondly, the grey...

  15. Cash Flow Prediction Using a Grey-Box Model

    OpenAIRE

    Pang, Yang; Opong, Kwaku; Moutinho, Luia; Li, Yun

    2015-01-01

    This paper tackles the problem of financial forecasting by extending methods developed in automation, engineering and computing science. Current methods existing in the literature for firm-level cash flows are first analysed. Then a grey-box modelling method is developed to elevate the performance of cash-flow prediction. Linear panel data modelling is used as a benchmark model. Experiments with out-of-sample tests are used to validate the grey-box approach. Encouragingly, nonlinear grey-box ...

  16. Beam - cavity interaction beam loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction of a beam with a cavity and a generator in cyclic accelerators or storage rings is investigated. Application of Maxwell's equations together with the nonuniform boundary condition allows one to get an equivalent circuit for a beam-loaded cavity. The general equation for beam loading is obtained on the basis of the equivalent circuit, and the beam admittance is calculated. Formulas for power consumption by a beam-loaded cavity are derived, and the optimal tuning and coupling factor are analyzed. (author)

  17. Three Essays on Big-Box Retailers and Regional Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Peralta, Denis

    2016-01-01

    The big-box retail stores such as Wal-Mart and Target have become the focus of many studies researching their impacts on local economic outcomes. This dissertation studies three related topics: (i) the dynamic interrelationship among the presence of the big-box stores, retail wage, and employment, (ii) the impact of the big-box retailers on personal income growth, and (iii) the dynamic interrelationship between the presence of big-box retailers and personal income growth. The research draws i...

  18. Ion-wake Field inside a Glass Box

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Mudi; Zhang, Bo; Matthews, Lorin S; Hyde, Truell W

    2016-01-01

    The confinement provided by a glass box is proving ideal for the formation of vertically aligned structures and a convenient method for controlling the number of dust particles comprising these dust structures, as well as their size and shape. In this paper, the electronic confinement of the glass box is mapped and the particle interactions between the particle pairs inside the glass box are measured. The ion-wake field is shown to exist within the glass box and its vertical and horizontal extent is measured.

  19. New approaches to glove box design at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glove boxes provide the primary environmental containment system for plutonium processing operations at US Dept. of Energy (DOE)-owned facilities such as Rockwell Hanford. As noted in previous presentations, glove box designs and operations have evolved through stages that are a result of advances in processing techniques, new regulatory requirements, and cost escalation. These factors will continue to influence the current glove box designs and operations. The purpose of this presentation is to discuss required upgrades and changes that are being incorporated into glove boxes being installed at Rockwell Hanford and other DOE installations or are being evaluated for future upgrades

  20. Frozen Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Okamoto, Hiromi

    2005-01-01

    In general, the temperature of a charged particle beam traveling in an accelerator is very high. Seen from the rest frame of the beam, individual particles randomly oscillate about the reference orbit at high speed. This internal kinetic energy can, however, be removed by introducing dissipative interactions into the system. As a dissipative process advances, the beam becomes denser in phase space or, in other words, the emittance is more diminished. Ideally, it is possible to reach a "zero-emittance" state where the beam is Coulomb crystallized. The space-charge repulsion of a crystalline beam just balances the external restoring force provided by artificial electromagnetic elements. In this talk, general discussion is made of coasting and bunched crystalline beams circulating in a storage ring. Results of molecular dynamics simulations are presented to demonstrate the dynamic nature of various crystalline states. A possible method to approach such an ultimate state of matter is also discussed.

  1. Beam loading

    CERN Document Server

    Gamp, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We begin by giving a description of the radio-frequency generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, radio-frequency feedback and feedforward are described. Examples of digital radio-frequency phase and amplitude control for the special case of superconducting cavities are also given. Finally, a dedicated phase loop for damping synchrotron oscillations is discussed.

  2. Dream Box Learning. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "DreamBox Learning" is a supplemental online mathematics program that provides adaptive instruction for students in grades K-5 and focuses on number and operations, place value, and number sense. The What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) identified one study of "DreamBox Learning" that both falls within the scope of the Elementary…

  3. Effect of auricular acupuncture on oxygen consumption of boxing athletes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Zen-Pin; WANG Chung-Yuan; JANO Tsong-Rong; MA Tso-chiang; CHIA Fan; LIN Jaung-Geng; HSU Jen-Jeng; HO Tsung-Jung

    2009-01-01

    @@ Boxing is an official sport at the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games and the fast development of world-class high strength training and sport science has made a significant impact on scientific training. Boxing needs high cardio-respiratory function, speed, muscle strength, and anaerobic and intensive physical demands including weight control covering the grading of athlete's.

  4. Wind Speed Prediction Using Box-Jenkins Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helga Silaghi

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the Box-Jenkins method used for wind speed prediction. Box-Jenkins methodology finds the best fit of a time series to past values in order to make forecasts. This methodology uses the autocorrelation and partial autocorrelation functions.

  5. Olympic Sports(ⅩⅣ):Boxing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜全红

    2004-01-01

    Boxing has a long sporting history.The earliest evidence of boxing is found in Egypt around 3000 B.C.The sport was introduced to the Olympic Games by the Greeks in the late 7th century B.C.. Greek boxers used thongs of soft leather to bind their hands

  6. Decontamination and dismantling of large plutonium-contamined glove boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the work performed in the frame of two C.E.C. - Contracts FI1D-002400-B Decommissioning of very large glove boxes and FI1D-0058 Decommissioning of a complex glove box structure to be dismounted partially on place. Detailed information is given about each glove box. The selection of the solution Transportation of the glove boxes to a specialized dismantling plant is justified. The necessary contacts inside the BELGONUCLEAIRE MOX plant and between the latter and other organizations are explained. The problems of manipulating large gloves are listed and the retained solution of building a so called Stiffening frame around each glove box is described. Furthermore information is given concerning required operators time for cleaning, manipulating, packing and dismantling together with received doses and quantities of waste produced. Concerning the glove box unit partially to be dismounted on place, detailed information is given about the way the glove boxes have been treated prior to this partial dismantling on place and about the way this partial dismantling has been performed. From these results one can conclude that such a delicate task can be performed without major difficulties. Finally information is given of the decontamination test of a highly Pu contaminated glove box with freon with rather poor results and of the preliminary CO2 blasting tests on non active samples

  7. Faster Black-Box Algorithms Through Higher Arity Operators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doerr, Benjamin; Johannsen, Daniel; Kötzing, Timo; Lehre, Per Kristian; Wagner, Markus; Winzen, Carola

    We extend the work of Lehre and Witt (GECCO 2010) on the unbiased black-box model by considering higher arity variation operators. In particular, we show that already for binary operators the black-box complexity of LeadingOnes drops from (n2) for unary operators to O(n log n). For OneMax, the (n...

  8. Getting started with Oracle VM VirtualBox

    CERN Document Server

    Dash, Pradyumna

    2013-01-01

    A step-by-step guide that will show you how to install, configure, and manage VirtualBox.This book is for system administrators, technical architects, and virtualization enthusiasts who want to learn how to set up a virtual machine. Knowledge of the Linux environment is expected. Prior experience with VirtualBox or knowledge of virtualization is not required.

  9. A System for Cooling inside a Glove Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Martial

    2010-01-01

    An easy, efficient, reliable, and low-cost method of constructing a cooling system using a simple circulating pump is described. The system is employed in conjunction with an inert atmosphere glove box to achieve the synthesis of air- and moisture-sensitive compounds inside the glove box at controlled, low temperatures without contaminating the…

  10. Aspect ratio dependence in magnetorotational instability shearing box simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Bodo, G; Cattaneo, F; Rossi, P; Ferrari, A

    2008-01-01

    Aims: We study the changes in the properties of turbulence driven by the magnetorotational instability in a shearing box, as the computational domain size in the radial direction is varied relative to the height Methods: We perform 3D simulations in the shearing box approximation, with a net magnetic flux, and we consider computational domains with different aspect ratios Results: We find that in boxes of aspect ratio unity the transport of angular momentum is strongly intermittent and dominated by channel solutions in agreement with previous work. In contrast, in boxes with larger aspect ratio, the channel solutions and the associated intermittent behavior disappear. Conclusions: There is strong evidence that, as the aspect ratio becomes larger, the characteristics of the solution become aspect ratio independent. We conclude that shearing box calculations with aspect ratio unity or near unity may introduce spurious effects.

  11. Getting started with Citrix VDI-in-a-Box

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Stuart Arthur

    2013-01-01

    A practical and fast-paced guide that gives you all the information you need to simplify and streamline virtual desktops so you get a production-quality solution while instantly lowering your costs and improving security.Getting Started with Citrix VDI-in-a-Box is great for IT professionals who are new to VDI-in-a-Box and who are looking for a good grounding in the product. You may be planning to research VDI-in-a-Box in more detail, or you may be tasked with researching how VDI-in-a-Box could improve the productivity of your organization. No prior knowledge of VDI-in-a-Box is required, just a

  12. Beam Instabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Rumolo, G

    2014-01-01

    When a beam propagates in an accelerator, it interacts with both the external fields and the self-generated electromagnetic fields. If the latter are strong enough, the interplay between them and a perturbation in the beam distribution function can lead to an enhancement of the initial perturbation, resulting in what we call a beam instability. This unstable motion can be controlled with a feedback system, if available, or it grows, causing beam degradation and loss. Beam instabilities in particle accelerators have been studied and analysed in detail since the late 1950s. The subject owes its relevance to the fact that the onset of instabilities usually determines the performance of an accelerator. Understanding and suppressing the underlying sources and mechanisms is therefore the key to overcoming intensity limitations, thereby pushing forward the performance reach of a machine.

  13. Opening up a Colourful Cosmic Jewel Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    The combination of images taken by three exceptional telescopes, the ESO Very Large Telescope on Cerro Paranal , the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla observatory and the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, has allowed the stunning Jewel Box star cluster to be seen in a whole new light. Star clusters are among the most visually alluring and astrophysically fascinating objects in the sky. One of the most spectacular nestles deep in the southern skies near the Southern Cross in the constellation of Crux. The Kappa Crucis Cluster, also known as NGC 4755 or simply the "Jewel Box" is just bright enough to be seen with the unaided eye. It was given its nickname by the English astronomer John Herschel in the 1830s because the striking colour contrasts of its pale blue and orange stars seen through a telescope reminded Herschel of a piece of exotic jewellery. Open clusters [1] such as NGC 4755 typically contain anything from a few to thousands of stars that are loosely bound together by gravity. Because the stars all formed together from the same cloud of gas and dust their ages and chemical makeup are similar, which makes them ideal laboratories for studying how stars evolve. The position of the cluster amongst the rich star fields and dust clouds of the southern Milky Way is shown in the very wide field view generated from the Digitized Sky Survey 2 data. This image also includes one of the stars of the Southern Cross as well as part of the huge dark cloud of the Coal Sack [2]. A new image taken with the Wide Field Imager (WFI) on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile shows the cluster and its rich surroundings in all their multicoloured glory. The large field of view of the WFI shows a vast number of stars. Many are located behind the dusty clouds of the Milky Way and therefore appear red [3]. The FORS1 instrument on the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) allows a much closer look at the cluster itself. The telescope's huge mirror

  14. On (2,3)-agreeable Box Societies

    CERN Document Server

    Abrahams, Michael; Zell, Thierry

    2009-01-01

    The notion of $(k,m)$-agreeable society was introduced by Deborah Berg et al.: a family of convex subsets of $\\R^d$ is called $(k,m)$-agreeable if any subfamily of size $m$ contains at least one non-empty $k$-fold intersection. In that paper, the $(k,m)$-agreeability of a convex family was shown to imply the existence of a subfamily of size $\\beta n$ with non-empty intersection, where $n$ is the size of the original family and $\\beta\\in[0,1]$ is an explicit constant depending only on $k,m$ and $d$. The quantity $\\beta(k,m,d)$ is called the minimal \\emph{agreement proportion} for a $(k,m)$-agreeable family in $\\R^d$. If we only assume that the sets are convex, simple examples show that $\\beta=0$ for $(k,m)$-agreeable families in $\\R^d$ where $kboxes, i.e. cuboids with sides parallel to the coordinates hyperplanes. We derive explicit formulas for the first non-trivial case: the case...

  15. A formula for lubrication of journal boxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gimayev, R.N.; Aliyev, R.A.; Dolukhanov, R.Ts.; Kondrasheva, N.K.; Ol' kov, P.L.; Rogacheva, O.I.; Spivak, Ye.A.

    1982-01-01

    In order to improve lubricating properties of oils used for journal boxes, an extract that boils off at 275-470/sup 0/, 60-75, is used, with a thermal cracking residue that is ADS 25-40. The latter consists of oil fraction extracts in a mixture with a catalytically cracked heavy gasoil (low-coking). Thus, content of aromatic hydrocarbons and asphalt-tar substances determines its positive lubricating properties. Example: the lubricant derived by direct compounding of a selectively cleaned oil fraction extract (SE), having a boiling temp. of 275-470/sup 0/, thermal ADS cracking residue and density of 1.100 is prepared with a component ratio 75:25. The derived oil has a viscosity of 42.0 sSt/50/sup 0/; dynamic viscosity 110 pz/-10/sup 0/; boiling temp. in an open crucible is 140/sup 0/; congelation temp. -42/sup 0/; critical loading, determined by a four-bearing friction machine, 85 kgs; thickness of lubricating layer, determined by centrifuge, 3.35 mkm. Comparison of physicochemical properties of the given and known lubricants shows that the tested item has better viscosity and lubricating characteristics. Oil test samples satisfy all GOST 610-72 requirements for summer-type axle oils.

  16. Non-signaling boxes and quantum logics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a quantum logic approach we analyze the structure of the so-called non-signaling theories respecting relativistic causality, but allowing correlations violating bounds imposed by quantum mechanics such as CHSH inequality. We discuss the relations among such theories, quantum mechanics, and classical physics. Our main result is the construction of a probability theory adequate for the simplest instance of a non-signaling theory—the two non-signaling boxes world—in which we exhibit its differences in comparison with classical and quantum probabilities. We show that the question of whether such a theory can be treated as a kind of ‘generalization’ of the quantum theory of the two-qubit system cannot be answered positively. Some of its features put it closer to the quantum world—on the one hand, for example, the measurements are destructive, though on the other hand the Heisenberg uncertainty relations are not satisfied. Another interesting property contrasting it from quantum mechanics is that the subset of ‘classically correlated states’, i.e. the states with only classical correlations, does not reproduce the classical world of the two two-state systems. Our results establish a new link between quantum information theory and the well-developed theory of quantum logics. (paper)

  17. Probability boxes on totally preordered spaces for multivariate modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Troffaes, Matthias C M; 10.1016/j.ijar.2011.02.001

    2011-01-01

    A pair of lower and upper cumulative distribution functions, also called probability box or p-box, is among the most popular models used in imprecise probability theory. They arise naturally in expert elicitation, for instance in cases where bounds are specified on the quantiles of a random variable, or when quantiles are specified only at a finite number of points. Many practical and formal results concerning p-boxes already exist in the literature. In this paper, we provide new efficient tools to construct multivariate p-boxes and develop algorithms to draw inferences from them. For this purpose, we formalise and extend the theory of p-boxes using Walley's behavioural theory of imprecise probabilities, and heavily rely on its notion of natural extension and existing results about independence modeling. In particular, we allow p-boxes to be defined on arbitrary totally preordered spaces, hence thereby also admitting multivariate p-boxes via probability bounds over any collection of nested sets. We focus on t...

  18. Measure Guideline: Optimizing the Configuration of Flexible Duct Junction Boxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beach, R.; Burdick, A.

    2014-03-01

    This measure guideline offers additional recommendations to heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system designers for optimizing flexible duct, constant-volume HVAC systems using junction boxes within Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA) Manual D guidance (Rutkowski, H. Manual D -- Residential Duct Systems, 3rd edition, Version 1.00. Arlington, VA: Air Conditioning Contractors of America, 2009.). IBACOS used computational fluid dynamics software to explore and develop guidance to better control the airflow effects of factors that may impact pressure losses within junction boxes among various design configurations (Beach, R., Prahl, D., and Lange, R. CFD Analysis of Flexible Duct Junction Box Design. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, submitted for publication 2013). These recommendations can help to ensure that a system aligns more closely with the design and the occupants' comfort expectations. Specifically, the recommendations described herein show how to configure a rectangular box with four outlets, a triangular box with three outlets, metal wyes with two outlets, and multiple configurations for more than four outlets. Designers of HVAC systems, contractors who are fabricating junction boxes on site, and anyone using the ACCA Manual D process for sizing duct runs will find this measure guideline invaluable for more accurately minimizing pressure losses when using junction boxes with flexible ducts.

  19. Molecular beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is a timeless and rather complete theoretical and experimental treatment of electric and magnetic resonance molecular-beam experiments for studying the radio frequency spectra of atoms and molecules. The theory of interactions of the nucleus with atomic and molecular fields is extensively presented. Measurements of atomic and nuclear magnetic moments, electric multipole moments, and atomic fine and hyperfine structure are detailed. Useful but somewhat outdated chapters on gas kinetics, molecular beam design, and experimental techniques are also included

  20. Bayesian spatio-temporal kriging with misspecified black-box

    OpenAIRE

    Faye, Papa-Abdulaye; faye, Papa Abdoulaye; Druilhet, Pierre; Azzaoui, Nourddine; Yao, Anne-Françoise

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new algorithm for spatio-temporal prediction. At a given time t, we use a Bayesian kriging model for spatial prediction. The temporal evolution from t to t + 1 is given by a deterministic black-box which can be a complex numerical code or a partial differential equation. As often in practice, the black-box is misspecified, in the sense that its parameters are imprecisely known or may be varying randomly over time. At time t, we use the black-box to obtain a rough prediction at ti...

  1. Patent Boxes Design, Patents Location and Local R&D

    OpenAIRE

    Annette Alstadsæter; Salvador Barrios; Nicodème, Gaëtan J.A.; Agnieszka Skonieczna; Antonio Vezzani

    2015-01-01

    Patent boxes have been heavily debated for their role in corporate tax competition. This paper uses firm-level data for the period 2000-2011 for the top 2,000 corporate research and development (R&D) investors worldwide to consider the determinants of patent registration across a large sample of countries. Importantly, we disentangle the effects of corporate income taxation from the tax advantage of patent boxes. We also exploit a new and original dataset on patent box features such as the co...

  2. Patent Boxes Design, Patents Location and Local R&D

    OpenAIRE

    Annette Alstadsæter; Salvador Barrios; Gaëtan Nicodème; Agnieszka Maria Skonieczna; Antonio Vezzani

    2015-01-01

    Patent boxes have been heavily debated for their role in corporate tax competition.This paper uses firm-level data for the period 2000-2011 for the top 2,000 corporate R&D investors worldwide to consider the determinants of patent registration across a large sample of countries. Importantly, we disentangle the effects of corporate income taxation from the tax advantage of patent boxes. We also exploit a new and original dataset on patent box features such as the conditionality on performing r...

  3. The AirQuality SenseBox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuth, Dustin; Nuest, Daniel; Bröring, Arne; Pebesma, Edzer

    2013-04-01

    In the past year, a group of open hardware enthusiasts and citizen scientists had large success in the crowd-funding of an open hardware-based sensor platform for air quality monitoring, called the Air Quality Egg. Via the kickstarter platform, the group was able to collect triple the amount of money than needed to fulfill their goals. Data generated by the Air Quality Egg is pushed to the data logging platform cosm.com, which makes the devices a part of the Internet of Things. The project aims at increasing the participation of citizens in the collection of data, the development of sensors, the operation of sensor stations, and, as data on cosm is publicly available, the sharing, visualization and analysis of data. Air Quality Eggs can measure NO2 and CO concentrations, as well as relative humidity and temperature. The chosen sensors are low-cost and have limited precision and accurracy. The Air Quality Egg consists of a stationary outdoor and a stationary indoor unit. Each outdoor unit will wirelessly transmit air quality measurements to the indoor unit, which forwards the data to cosm. Most recent versions of the Air Quality Egg allow a rough calibration of the gas sensors and on-the-fly conversion from raw sensor readings (impedance) to meaningful air quality data expressed in units of parts per billion. Data generated by these low-cost platforms are not intended to replace well-calibrated official monitoring stations, but rather augment the density of the total monitoring network with citizen sensors. To improve the usability of the Air Quality Egg, we present a new and more advanced concept, called the AirQuality SenseBox. We made the outdoor platform more autonomous and location-aware by adding solarpanels and rechargeable batteries as a power source. The AirQuality SenseBox knows its own position from a GPS device attached to the platform. As a mobile sensor platform, it can for instance be attached to vehicles. A low-cost and low-power wireless chipset

  4. Beam emittance and beam disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beam disruption during the collision of intense relativistic bunches has been studied by R. Hollebeek. In the case of oppositely charged bunches, focussing effects occur causing a decrease in the effective bunch cross section, and thereby an increase of luminosity by an enhancement factor H. The term disruption derives from the fact that the beam emittance changes markedly during the collision. 1 ref., 1 fig., 1 tab

  5. Experts’ Misinterpretation of Box Plots – a Dual Processing Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Lem

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that students often misinterpret the area of the box in box plots as representing the frequency or proportion of observations in that interval, while it actually represents density. This misinterpretation has been shown to be based on the saliency of this area and can be explained by heuristic reasoning as defined by dual process theories. In this study we tested whether expert users of box plots also display this misinterpretation and show signs of the same heuristic reasoning as found in students. Using a reaction time test, we found signs of heuristic reasoning in experts, both with respect to accuracy and reaction times. If even experts have difficulty interpreting box plots, one can question whether these are an appropriate form of representation to use when reporting data and deserve the prominent place they currently have in the statistics curriculum.

  6. Gray-box modelling approach for description of storage tunnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harremoës, Poul; Carstensen, Jacob

    1999-01-01

    The dynamics of a storage tunnel is examined using a model based on on-line measured data and a combination of simple deterministic and black-box stochastic elements. This approach, called gray-box modeling, is a new promising methodology for giving an on-line state description of sewer systems. ...... and implemented in a SCADA system because the most important information on the specific system is provided on-line......The dynamics of a storage tunnel is examined using a model based on on-line measured data and a combination of simple deterministic and black-box stochastic elements. This approach, called gray-box modeling, is a new promising methodology for giving an on-line state description of sewer systems...

  7. BoxLib with Tiling: An AMR Software Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Weiqun; Day, Marcus; Nguyen, Tan; Shalf, John; Unat, Didem

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a block-structured adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) software framework that incorporates tiling, a well-known loop transformation. Because the multiscale, multiphysics codes built in BoxLib are designed to solve complex systems at high resolution, performance on current and next generation architectures is essential. With the expectation of many more cores per node on next generation architectures, the ability to effectively utilize threads within a node is essential, and the current model for parallelization will not be sufficient. We describe a new version of BoxLib in which the tiling constructs are embedded so that BoxLib-based applications can easily realize expected performance gains without extra effort on the part of the application developer. We also discuss a path forward to enable future versions of BoxLib to take advantage of NUMA-aware optimizations using the TiDA portable library.

  8. Confirmation test on confinement performance of improved glove box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glove boxes are used at nuclear facilities to confine radioactive materials by ensuring a high level of airtightness and negative internal pressure. The allowable rate of air leakage is 0.1% vol/hr or less at the pre-service inspection. The negative pressure value is normally maintained at about -30 mm H2 O. Structural strength and confinement reliability of glove boxes during earthquake are major concerns, and most important glove boxes are designed to withstand seismic class A events is Japan. This paper describes vibration tests done to confirm that improve large-sized glove boxes maintain their confinement performance and structural strength even during earthquake and that the design analysis methods used are appropriate. (author). 1 ref., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Sizing Procedures for a Fibre Reinforced Plastic Box

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kamal

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available A fibre-reinforced plastic (FRP box is an important class of structural component employed as the bending, torsion, or bending-torsion load bearing member in the modern light- weight structures. This paper presents various steps involved in the design of such a box beginning with preliminary analysis and optimization to the final sizing. The box made up of carbon fibre composite is a typical numerical example of such FRP construction. Numerical results obtained from the static stress analysis, the panel buckling analysis and the structural optimization as used for this sizing exercise, are presented. It is believed that the complete procedure of analysis using finite element method and then sizing of any FRP box in a comprehensive way, is reported for the first time.

  10. Fusion welded fabrication of unshielded steel glove boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Specification deals with the manufacture, testing, inspection and delivery of fabricated glove boxes, including such internal and/or external fittings as are shown on the relevant drawings. (author)

  11. Fusion welded fabrication of unshielded steel glove boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This part of the Specification together with Part 1 covers the manufacture, testing, inspection and delivery of stainless steel glove boxes including such fittings internally and externally as shown on relevant drawings. (author)

  12. 49 CFR 178.516 - Standards for fiberboard boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... wooden frame or be entirely of wood or other suitable material. Reinforcements of wooden battens or other... resistant adhesive must be used. (5) Boxes must be designed so as to provide a snug fit to the contents....

  13. Necropsy Report - Eaastern Pipistrelle Box Culvert I-55 Grenada, MS

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Necropsy report of a eastern pipisttrelle tricolored bat found dead in a box culvert along I55, near Grenada, MS provides no indication of whitenose syndrome.

  14. Black-Box Policy Search with Probabilistic Programs

    OpenAIRE

    van de Meent, Jan-Willem; Tolpin, David; Paige, Brooks; Wood, Frank

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we explore how probabilistic programs can be used to represent policies in sequential decision problems. In this formulation, a probabilistic program is a black-box stochastic simulator for both the problem domain and the agent. We relate classic policy gradient techniques to recently introduced black-box variational methods which generalize to probabilistic program inference. We present case studies in the Canadian traveler problem, Rock Sample, and a benchmark for optimal diag...

  15. Maximal unitarity for the four-mass double box

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Henrik; Kosower, David A.; Larsen, Kasper J.

    2014-01-01

    We extend the maximal-unitarity formalism at two loops to double-box integrals with four massive external legs. These are relevant for higher-point processes, as well as for heavy vector rescattering, VV -> VV. In this formalism, the two-loop amplitude is expanded over a basis of integrals. We obtain formulas for the coefficients of the double-box integrals, expressing them as products of tree-level amplitudes integrated over specific complex multidimensional contours. The contours are subjec...

  16. SOME RECURRENCE FORMULAS FOR BOX SPLINES AND CONE SPLINES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patrick J. Van Fleet

    2004-01-01

    A degree elevation formula for multivariate simplex splines was given by Micchelli[6] and extended to hold for multivariate Dirichlet splines in [8]. We report similar formulae for multivariate cone splines and box splines. To this end, we utilize a relation due to Dahmen and Micchelli[4] that connects box splines and cone splines and a degree reduction formula given by Cohen, Lyche, and Riesenfeld in [2].

  17. SOME RECURRENCE FORMULAS FOR BOX SPLINES AND CONE SPLINES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patrick J. Van Fleet

    2002-01-01

    A degree elevation formula for multivariate simplex splines was given by Micchelli [6] and extended to hold for multivariate Dirichlet splines in [8]. We report similar formulae for multivariate cone splines and box_splines. To this end, we utilize a relation due to Dahmen and Micchelli [4] that connects box splines and cone splines and a degree reduction formula given by Cohen, Lyche, and Riesenfeld in [2].

  18. Coupling polariton quantum boxes in sub-wavelength grating microcavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the construction of decoupled, coupled, and quasi-one dimensional polariton systems from zero dimensional polariton quantum boxes using microcavities with sub-wavelength gratings as the top mirror. By designing the tethering patterns around the suspended sub-wavelength gratings, we control the coupling between individual quantum boxes through different optical potentials. Energy levels and real-space or momentum space distributions of the confined modes were measured, which agreed well with simulations

  19. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) depleted uranium waste boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) allows the one-time shipment of ten metal boxes and one wooden box containing depleted uranium material from the Fast Flux Test Facility to the burial grounds in the 200 West Area for disposal. This SEP provides the analyses and operational controls necessary to demonstrate that the shipment will be safe for the onsite worker and the public

  20. Reliability Based Optimum Design of a Gear Box

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Madhusekhar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The gear box represents an important mechanical sub system. In machine tools, the propose of a gear box is to provide a series of useful output speeds so that the machining operation can be carried out at its most optimum operating conditions high spindle speeds with low feed rate for roughing operations. An important aspect in the design of machine tool transmission is to keep the cost and volume of the gear box to a minimum. The probabilistic approach to design has been considered to be more rational compared to the conventional design approach based on the factor of safety. The existence of uncertainties in either engineering simulations or manufacturing processes calls for a reliability-based design optimization (RBDO model for robust and cost-effective designs. In the present work a three shaft four speed gear box is designed using reliability principles. For the specified reliability of the system (Gear box, component reliability (Gear pair is calculated by considering the system as a series system. Design is considered to be safe and adequate if the probability of failure of gear box is less than or equal to a specified quantity in each of the two failure modes. A FORTRAN program has been developed to calculate the mean values of face widths of gears for the minimum mass of gear box. By changing the probability of failure of system variations in the face widths are studied. The reliability based optimum design results are compared with those obtained by deterministic optimum design. The minimum mass of the gear box is increase as the specified values of the reliability is increased.

  1. Beam instrumentation for the BNL Heavy Ion Transfer Line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Heavy Ion Transfer Line (HITL) was constructed to transport beams from the BNL Tandem Van de Graaff (TVDG) to be injected into the AGS. Because the beam line is approximately 2000 feet long and the particle rigidity is so low, 20 beam monitor boxes were placed along the line. The intensity ranges from 1 to 100 nanoAmps for the dc trace beam used for line set-up, to over 100 μA for the pulsed beam to be injected into the AGS. Profiles are measured using multiwire arrays (HARPS) while Faraday cups and beam transformers monitor the intensity. The electronics stations are operated through 3 Instrumentation Controllers networked to Apollo workstations in the TVDG and AGS control rooms. Details of the detectors and electronics designs and performance will be given

  2. Measure Guideline: Optimizing the Configuration of Flexible Duct Junction Boxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beach, R. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Burdick, A. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2014-03-01

    This measure guideline offers additional recommendations to heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system designers for optimizing flexible duct, constant-volume HVAC systems using junction boxes within Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA) Manual D guidance. IBACOS used computational fluid dynamics software to explore and develop guidance to better control the airflow effects of factors that may impact pressure losses within junction boxes among various design configurations. These recommendations can help to ensure that a system aligns more closely with the design and the occupants' comfort expectations. Specifically, the recommendations described herein show how to configure a rectangular box with four outlets, a triangular box with three outlets, metal wyes with two outlets, and multiple configurations for more than four outlets. Designers of HVAC systems, contractors who are fabricating junction boxes on site, and anyone using the ACCA Manual D process for sizing duct runs will find this measure guideline invaluable for more accurately minimizing pressure losses when using junction boxes with flexible ducts.

  3. Closure of an analytical chemistry glove box in alpha laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The works with plutonium are performed in gloves box, operated below atmospheric pressure, to protect the experimenters from this alpha-active material. After 12 years of continual processes, it was necessary the decommissioning of the chemistry glove box in our alpha-laboratory. A great deal of our attention was devoted to the working techniques because of extreme care needed to avoid activity release. The decommissioning includes the following main operations: a) Planning and documentation for the regulatory authority. b) Internal decontamination with surface cleaning and chelating agents. c) Measurement of the remainder internal radioactivity. d) Sealing of the glove ports and nozzles. e) Disconnection of the glove box from the exhaust duct. f) Design and construction of a container for the glove box. g) Transportation of the glove box from alpha-laboratory, to a transitory storage until its final disposal. The above mentioned operations are described in this paper including too: data of personal doses during the operations, characteristics and volumes of radioactive wastes and a description of the instrument used for the measurement of inside glove box activity. (Author)

  4. Unconventional Bearing Capacity Analysis and Optimization of Multicell Box Girders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovan Tepic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with unconventional bearing capacity analysis and the procedure of optimizing a two-cell box girder. The generalized model which enables the local stress-strain analysis of multicell girders was developed based on the principle of cross-sectional decomposition. The applied methodology is verified using the experimental data (Djelosevic et al., 2012 for traditionally formed box girders. The qualitative and quantitative evaluation of results obtained for the two-cell box girder is realized based on comparative analysis using the finite element method (FEM and the ANSYS v12 software. The deflection function obtained by analytical and numerical methods was found consistent provided that the maximum deviation does not exceed 4%. Multicell box girders are rationally designed support structures characterized by much lower susceptibility of their cross-sectional elements to buckling and higher specific capacity than traditionally formed box girders. The developed local stress model is applied for optimizing the cross section of a two-cell box carrier. The author points to the advantages of implementing the model of local stresses in the optimization process and concludes that the technological reserve of bearing capacity amounts to 20% at the same girder weight and constant load conditions.

  5. Principal Investigator-in-a-Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Laurence R.

    1999-01-01

    Human performance in orbit is currently limited by several factors beyond the intrinsic awkwardness of motor control in weightlessness. Cognitive functioning can be affected by such factors as cumulative sleep loss, stress and the psychological effects of long-duration small-group isolation. When an astronaut operates a scientific experiment, the performance decrement associated with such factors can lead to lost or poor quality data and even the total loss of a scientific objective, at great cost to the sponsors and to the dismay of the Principal Investigator. In long-duration flights, as anticipated on the International Space Station and on any planetary exploration, the experimental model is further complicated by long delays between training and experiment, and the large number of experiments each crew member must perform. Although no documented studies have been published on the subject, astronauts report that an unusually large number of simple errors are made in space. Whether a result of the effects of microgravity, accumulated fatigue, stress or other factors, this pattern of increased error supports the need for a computerized decision-making aid for astronauts performing experiments. Artificial intelligence and expert systems might serve as powerful tools for assisting experiments in space. Those conducting space experiments typically need assistance exactly when the planned checklist does not apply. Expert systems, which use bits of human knowledge and human methods to respond appropriately to unusual situations, have a flexibility that is highly desirable in circumstances where an invariably predictable course of action/response does not exist. Frequently the human expert on the ground is unavailable, lacking the latest information, or not consulted by the astronaut conducting the experiment. In response to these issues, we have developed "Principal Investigator-in-a-Box," or [PI], to capture the reasoning process of the real expert, the Principal

  6. Assessment of seismic performance of skew reinforced concrete box girder bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Mohti, Ahmed; Pekcan, Gokhan

    2013-12-01

    The seismic vulnerability of highway bridges remains an important problem and has received increased attention as a consequence of unprecedented damage observed during several major earthquakes. A significant number of research studies have examined the performance of skew bridges under service and seismic loads. The results of these studies are particularly sensitive to modeling assumptions in view of the interacting parameters. In the present study, three-dimensional improved beam-stick models of two-span highway bridges with skew angles varying from 0° to 60° are developed to investigate the seismic response characteristics of skew box girder bridges. The relative accuracy of beam-stick models is verified against counterpart finite element models. The effect of various parameters and conditions on the overall seismic response was examined such as skew angle, ground motion intensity, soil condition, abutment support conditions, bridge aspect ratio, and foundation-base conditions. The study shows that the improved beam-stick models can be used to conduct accurate nonlinear time history analysis of skew bridges. Skew angle and interacting parameters were found to have significant effect on the behavior of skewed highway bridges. Furthermore, the performance of shear keys may have a predominant effect on the overall seismic response of the skew bridges.

  7. Beam Steering Devices Reduce Payload Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Scientists have long been able to shift the direction of a laser beam, steering it toward a target, but often the strength and focus of the light is altered. For precision applications, where the quality of the beam cannot be compromised, scientists have typically turned to mechanical steering methods, redirecting the source of the beam by swinging the entire laser apparatus toward the target. Just as the mechanical methods used for turning cars has evolved into simpler, lighter, power steering methods, so has the means by which researchers can direct lasers. Some of the typical contraptions used to redirect lasers are large and bulky, relying on steering gimbals pivoted, rotating supports to shift the device toward its intended target. These devices, some as large and awkward as a piece of heavy luggage, are subject to the same issues confronted by mechanical parts: Components rub, wear out, and get stuck. The poor reliability and bulk not to mention the power requirements to run one of the machines have made mechanical beam steering components less than ideal for use in applications where weight, bulk, and maneuverability are prime concerns, such as on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) or a microscope. The solution to developing reliable, lighter weight, nonmechanical steering methods to replace the hefty steering boxes was to think outside the box, and a NASA research partner did just that by developing a new beam steering method that bends and redirects the beam, as opposed to shifting the entire apparatus. The benefits include lower power requirements, a smaller footprint, reduced weight, and better control and flexibility in steering capabilities. Such benefits are realized without sacrificing aperture size, efficiency, or scanning range, and can be applied to myriad uses: propulsion systems, structures, radiation protection systems, and landing systems.

  8. Electron beam characteristics in the hollow beam diode and cusped magnetic field of the Maryland ERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The University of Maryland electron ring accelerator (ERA) concept calls for the formation of an electron ring current by transmission of a hollow relativistic electron beam through a static, azimuthally symmetric, cusped magnetic field. Electron motion is approximately paraxial in the diode and pre-cusp drift region and is axis-encircling in the post-cusp region. Experiments show the electron flow in the diode to be approximately pressureless. The radial thickness of the drifting Brillouin hollow beam is derived from a radial force balance equation. Time-resolved measurements of the beam current and energy are made by measuring the extrapolated range of the beam in aluminum targets. These measurements are analyzed with a model of the diode as a terminating impedance driven by a transmission line. Beam motion in the cusped field region is analyzed. Beam dynamics in the post-cusp region are studied by examining the interaction of a hollow rotating beam with its self-induced potentials in a cylindrical box with conducting walls and ends. The energy of the self-induced electric and magnetic potentials is much less than the kinetic energy of the beam electrons for cases approximating experimental conditions

  9. Handling and analysis of ices in cryostats and glove boxes in view of cometary samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessler, K.; Eich, G.; Heyl, M.; Kochan, H.; Oehler, A.; Patnaik, A.; Schlosser, W.; Schulz, R.

    1989-01-01

    Comet nucleus sample return mission and other return missions from planets and satellites need equipment for handling and analysis of icy samples at low temperatures under vacuum or protective gas. Two methods are reported which were developed for analysis of small icy samples and which are modified for larger samples in cometary matter simulation experiments (KOSI). A conventional optical cryostat system was modified to allow for transport of samples at 5 K, ion beam irradiation, and measurement in an off-line optical spectrophotometer. The new system consists of a removable window plug containing nozzles for condensation of water and volatiles onto a cold finger. This plug can be removed in a vacuum system, changed against another plug (e.g., with other windows (IR, VIS, VUV) or other nozzles). While open, the samples can be treated under vacuum with cooling by manipulators (cut, removal, sample taking, irradiation with light, photons, or ions). After bringing the plug back, the samples can be moved to another site of analysis. For handling the 30 cm diameter mineral-ice samples from the KOSI experiments an 80x80x80 cm glove box made out of plexiglass was used. The samples were kept in a liquid nitrogen bath, which was filled from the outside. A stream a dry N2 and evaporating gas from the bath purified the glove box from impurity gases and, in particular, H2O, which otherwise would condense onto the samples.

  10. High Power Hydrogen Injector with Beam Focusing for Plasma Heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High power neutral beam injector has been developed with the atom energy of 25 keV, a current of 60 A, and several milliseconds pulse duration. Six of these injectors will be used for upgrade of the atomic injection system at central cell of a Gas Dynamic Trap (GDT) device and 2 injectors are planned for SHIP experiment.The injector ion source is based on an arc discharge plasma box. The plasma emitter is produced by a 1 kA arc discharge in hydrogen. A multipole magnetic field produced with permanent magnets at the periphery of the plasma box is used to increase its efficiency and improve homogeneity of the plasma emitter. The ion beam is extracted by a 4-electrodes ion optical system (IOS). Initial beam diameter is 200 mm. The grids of the IOS have a spherical curvature for geometrical focusing of the beam. The optimal IOS geometry and grid potentials were found with the numerical simulation to provide precise beam formation. The measured angular divergence of the beam is 0.02 rad, which corresponds to the 2.5 cm Gaussian radius of the beam profile measured at focal point

  11. A novel method to design S-box based on chaotic map and genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Wong, Kwok-Wo; Li, Changbing; Li, Yang

    2012-01-01

    The substitution box (S-box) is an important component in block encryption algorithms. In this Letter, the problem of constructing S-box is transformed to a Traveling Salesman Problem and a method for designing S-box based on chaos and genetic algorithm is proposed. Since the proposed method makes full use of the traits of chaotic map and evolution process, stronger S-box is obtained. The results of performance test show that the presented S-box has good cryptographic properties, which justify that the proposed algorithm is effective in generating strong S-boxes.

  12. A novel method to design S-box based on chaotic map and genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The substitution box (S-box) is an important component in block encryption algorithms. In this Letter, the problem of constructing S-box is transformed to a Traveling Salesman Problem and a method for designing S-box based on chaos and genetic algorithm is proposed. Since the proposed method makes full use of the traits of chaotic map and evolution process, stronger S-box is obtained. The results of performance test show that the presented S-box has good cryptographic properties, which justify that the proposed algorithm is effective in generating strong S-boxes. -- Highlights: ► The problem of constructing S-box is transformed to a Traveling Salesman Problem. ► We present a new method for designing S-box based on chaos and genetic algorithm. ► The proposed algorithm is effective in generating strong S-boxes.

  13. Implications of Big Box Retail Location on Regional Profits, Consumer Utility, and Land Rents

    OpenAIRE

    Stater, Mark; Visser, Michael S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses a monocentric city model to examine the effects of big box retailing on local retail prices, land values and utility. Relative to small local retailers, the big box offers a price discount that increases in its marginal cost advantage. Big box entry reduces local retail prices and profits, but provides an increase in household utility that depends positively on the distance between the big box location and the CBD. However, big box locations are unstable with imperfectly compe...

  14. Boxing participation by children and adolescents: A joint statement with the American Academy of Pediatrics

    OpenAIRE

    Purcell, Laura K; LeBlanc, Claire MA

    2012-01-01

    Thousands of boys and girls younger than 19 years of age participate in boxing in North America. Although boxing provides benefits for participants, including exercise, self-discipline and self-confidence, the sport of boxing encourages and rewards deliberate blows to the head and face. Participants in boxing are at risk of head, face and neck injuries, including chronic and even fatal neurological injuries. Concussions are one of the most common injuries occurring in boxing. Because of the r...

  15. Minimal components of the RNA polymerase II transcription apparatus determine the consensus TATA box

    OpenAIRE

    Bjornsdottir, Gudrun; Lawrence C Myers

    2008-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, multiple approaches have arrived at a consensus TATA box sequence of TATA(T/A)A(A/T)(A/G). TATA-binding protein (TBP) affinity alone does not determine TATA box function. To discover how a minimal set of factors required for basal and activated transcription contributed to the sequence requirements for a functional TATA box, we performed transcription reactions using highly purified proteins and CYC1 promoter TATA box mutants. The TATA box consensus sequence is a ...

  16. Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of Flexible Duct Junction Box Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beach, Robert [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Prahl, Duncan [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Lange, Rich [Applied Science Consultants, LLC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2013-12-01

    IBACOS explored the relationships between pressure and physical configurations of flexible duct junction boxes by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations to predict individual box parameters and total system pressure, thereby ensuring improved HVAC performance. Current Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA) guidance (Group 11, Appendix 3, ACCA Manual D, Rutkowski 2009) allows for unconstrained variation in the number of takeoffs, box sizes, and takeoff locations. The only variables currently used in selecting an equivalent length (EL) are velocity of air in the duct and friction rate, given the first takeoff is located at least twice its diameter away from the inlet. This condition does not account for other factors impacting pressure loss across these types of fittings. For each simulation, the IBACOS team converted pressure loss within a box to an EL to compare variation in ACCA Manual D guidance to the simulated variation. IBACOS chose cases to represent flows reasonably correlating to flows typically encountered in the field and analyzed differences in total pressure due to increases in number and location of takeoffs, box dimensions, and velocity of air, and whether an entrance fitting is included. The team also calculated additional balancing losses for all cases due to discrepancies between intended outlet flows and natural flow splits created by the fitting. In certain asymmetrical cases, the balancing losses were significantly higher than symmetrical cases where the natural splits were close to the targets. Thus, IBACOS has shown additional design constraints that can ensure better system performance.

  17. Integrated Box Interrogation System (IBIS) Preliminary Design Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DR. Stephen Croft; Mr. David Martancik; Dr. Brian Young; Dr. Patrick MJ Chard; Dr. Robert J Estop; Sheila Melton; Gaetano J. Arnone

    2003-01-13

    Canberra Industries has won the tendered solicitation, INEEL/EST-99-00121 for boxed waste Nondestructive Assay Development and Demonstration. Canberra will provide the Integrated Box Interrogation System (IBIS) which is a suite of assay instrumentation and a data reduction system that addresses the measurement needs for Boxed Wastes identified in the solicitation and facilitates the associated experimental program and demonstration of system capability. The IBIS system will consist of the next generation CWAM system, i.e. CWAM II, which is a Scanning Passive/Active Neutron interrogation system which we will call a Box Segmented Neutron Scanner (BSNS), combined with a physically separate Box Segmented Gamma-ray Scanning (BSGS) system. These systems are based on existing hardware designs but will be tailored to the large sample size and enhanced to allow the program to evaluate the following measurement criteria:Characterization and correction for matrix heterogeneity Characterization of non-uniform radio-nuclide and isotopic compositions Assay of high density matrices (both high-Z and high moderator contents)Correction for radioactive material physical form - such as self shielding or multiplication effects due to large accumulations of radioactive materials.Calibration with a minimal set of reference standards and representative matrices.THis document summarizes the conceptual design parameters of the IBIS and indicates areas key to the success of the project where development is to be centered. The work presented here is a collaborative effort between scientific staff within Canberra and within the NIS-6 group at LANL.

  18. Integrated Box Interrogation System (IBIS) Preliminary Design Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canberra Industries has won the tendered solicitation, INEEL/EST-99-00121 for boxed waste Nondestructive Assay Development and Demonstration. Canberra will provide the Integrated Box Interrogation System (IBIS) which is a suite of assay instrumentation and a data reduction system that addresses the measurement needs for Boxed Wastes identified in the solicitation and facilitates the associated experimental program and demonstration of system capability. The IBIS system will consist of the next generation CWAM system, i.e. CWAM II, which is a Scanning Passive/Active Neutron interrogation system which we will call a Box Segmented Neutron Scanner (BSNS), combined with a physically separate Box Segmented Gamma-ray Scanning (BSGS) system. These systems are based on existing hardware designs but will be tailored to the large sample size and enhanced to allow the program to evaluate the following measurement criteria:Characterization and correction for matrix heterogeneity Characterization of non-uniform radio-nuclide and isotopic compositions Assay of high density matrices (both high-Z and high moderator contents)Correction for radioactive material physical form - such as self shielding or multiplication effects due to large accumulations of radioactive materials.Calibration with a minimal set of reference standards and representative matrices.THis document summarizes the conceptual design parameters of the IBIS and indicates areas key to the success of the project where development is to be centered. The work presented here is a collaborative effort between scientific staff within Canberra and within the NIS-6 group at LANL

  19. Inferring 3D Articulated Models for Box Packaging Robot

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Heran; Cong, Matthew; Saxena, Ashutosh

    2011-01-01

    Given a point cloud, we consider inferring kinematic models of 3D articulated objects such as boxes for the purpose of manipulating them. While previous work has shown how to extract a planar kinematic model (often represented as a linear chain), such planar models do not apply to 3D objects that are composed of segments often linked to the other segments in cyclic configurations. We present an approach for building a model that captures the relation between the input point cloud features and the object segment as well as the relation between the neighboring object segments. We use a conditional random field that allows us to model the dependencies between different segments of the object. We test our approach on inferring the kinematic structure from partial and noisy point cloud data for a wide variety of boxes including cake boxes, pizza boxes, and cardboard cartons of several sizes. The inferred structure enables our robot to successfully close these boxes by manipulating the flaps.

  20. Effect of finite beam width on current separation in beam plasma system: Particle-in-Cell simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Shukla, Chandrasekhar; Patel, Kartik

    2015-01-01

    The electron beam propagation in a plasma medium is susceptible to several instabilities. In the relativistic regime typically the weibel instability leading to the current separation dominates. The linear instability analysis is carried out for a system wherein the transverse extent of the beam is infinite. Even in simulations, infinite transverse extent of the beam has been chosen. In real situations, however, beam width will always be finite. keeping this in view the role of finite beam width on the evolution of the beam plasma system has been studied here using Particle - in - Cell simulations. It is observed that the current separation between the forward and return shielding current for a beam with finite beam occurs at the scale length of the beam width itself. Consequently the magnetic field structures that form have maximum power at the scale length of the beam width. This behaviour is distinct from what happens with a beam with having an infinite extent represented by simulations in a periodic box, ...

  1. Beam transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The beam diagnostic components for both the transfer and the high-energy beamlines perform well except for some of the scanners whose noise pick-up has become a problem, especially at low beam intensities. This noise pick-up is primarily due to deterioration of the bearings in the scanner. At some locations in the high-energy beamlines, scanners were replaced by harps as the scanners proved to be practically useless for the low-intensity beams required in the experimental areas. The slits in the low-energy beamline, which are not water-cooled, have to be repaired at regular intervals because of vacuum leaks. Overheating causes the ceramic feedthroughs to deteriorate resulting in the vacuum leaks. Water-cooled slits have been ordered to replace the existing slits which will later be used in the beamlines associated with the second injector cyclotron SPC2. The current-measurement system will be slightly modified and should then be much more reliable. 3 figs

  2. External Beam Therapy (EBT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z External Beam Therapy (EBT) External beam therapy (EBT) is a ... follow-up should I expect? What is external beam therapy and how is it used? External beam ...

  3. Stress and noises of steel box girders in Sutong Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Tao; Chen Zhijian; Dong Xuewu

    2008-01-01

    Sutong Bridge is a cable-stayed bridge with a main span of 1 088 m.370 high-precision stress monitoring measured data show that in the process of hoisting the steel box girders,the stress of the main girders is in the fluctuant and complex state and many meteorological factors,such as sunshine radiation,temperature and wind,have important influence on the change of stress of the steel box girders.According to the real-time weather data,the stress data after the process of wavelet denoising from representative measuring points in different weather conditions is picked to estab-lish the stress response brought by meteorological factors with Layered Separation method,thereby basically eliminating the influence of meteorological factors on the stress of main girders,so that accurate and reliable stress data can be got for steel box girders adjustment and cable-tensioned construction control.

  4. Thinking outside the box: fluctuations and finite size effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The isothermal compressibility of an interacting or non-interacting system may be extracted from the fluctuations of the number of particles in a well-chosen control volume. Finite size effects are prevalent and should be accounted for to obtain a meaningful, thermodynamic compressibility. In the traditional computational setup, where a given simulation box is replicated with periodic boundary conditions, we study particle number fluctuations outside the box (i.e. when the control volume exceeds the box itself), which bear relevant thermodynamic information. We also investigate the related problem of extracting the compressibility from the structure factor in the small wave-vector limit (k → 0). The calculation should be restricted to the discrete set of wave-vectors k that are compatible with the periodicity of the system, and we assess the consequences of considering other k values, a widespread error among beginners. (paper)

  5. Thinking outside the box: fluctuations and finite size effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamaina, Dario; Trizac, Emmanuel

    2014-05-01

    The isothermal compressibility of an interacting or non-interacting system may be extracted from the fluctuations of the number of particles in a well-chosen control volume. Finite size effects are prevalent and should be accounted for to obtain a meaningful, thermodynamic compressibility. In the traditional computational setup, where a given simulation box is replicated with periodic boundary conditions, we study particle number fluctuations outside the box (i.e. when the control volume exceeds the box itself), which bear relevant thermodynamic information. We also investigate the related problem of extracting the compressibility from the structure factor in the small wave-vector limit (k → 0). The calculation should be restricted to the discrete set of wave-vectors k that are compatible with the periodicity of the system, and we assess the consequences of considering other k values, a widespread error among beginners.

  6. Qualification of box HEPA filters for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have successfully completed qualification tests on high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters that are encapsulated within a box and manufactured by American Air Filters. The qualification tests are required by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Standard ASME N509 and the U.S. Military Standard MIL-F-51068 for HEPA filters to be used in nuclear applications. The qualification tests specify minimum filter efficiencies following exposure to heated air, overpressure, and rough handling. Prior to this study, no box HEPA filters from any manufacturer had been qualified despite their wide-spread use in Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Box HEPA filters are not addressed in any of the existing HEPA standards and only briefly discussed in the Nuclear Air Cleaning Handbook

  7. PARAMETRIC STUDY OF SKEW ANGLE ON BOX GIRDER BRIDGE DECK

    OpenAIRE

    Shrikant D. Bobade *, Dr. Valsson Varghese

    2016-01-01

    Box girder bridge deck, is the most common type of bridges in world and India, it consists of several Slab or girders. The span in the direction of the roadway and connected across their tops and bottoms by a thin continuous structural stab, the longitudinal box girders can be made of steel or concrete. The Simple supported single span concrete bridge deck is presented in present study. Skewed bridges are suitable in highway design when the geometry of straight bridges is not possible. The sk...

  8. Fermi hypernetted chain calculations in a periodic box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fermi hypernetted chain theory is reformulated to perform calculations with a finite number of fermions in a periodic box. The proposed method is expected to be useful to estimate the finite size effects in Quantum Monte Carlo simulations. Moreover, it can deal with anisotropic correlations as well as with different shaped boxes. Results are given for the neutron matter Bethe homework Hamiltonian and for nuclear matter with spin-isospin dependent central interactions. It is found that finite size effects come from both the kinetic and the potential energy expectation values

  9. Host-Guest Interactions in ExBox4+

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Ranjita

    2014-01-01

    The host-guest interaction between benzene or azine with the newly synthesized ExBox4+ complex is studied with the help of DFT. The solvent phase interaction energy is found to decrease with gradual substitution of methine group of guest benzene ring with N atom in the resultant azine@ExBox4+ complex. The nature of bonding interaction is studied with the help of newly developed NCI plot program package along with energy decomposition analysis (EDA) and charge decomposition analysis (CDA). The interaction is mostly pi-type van der Waals interaction.

  10. Boxed skew plane partition and integrable phase model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the relation between the boxed skew plane partition and the integrable phase model. We introduce a generalization of a scalar product of the phase model and calculate it in two ways: the first one in terms of the skew Schur functions, and the other one by use of the commutation relations of operators. In both cases, a generalized scalar product is expressed as a determinant. We show that a special choice of the spectral parameters of a generalized scalar product gives the generating function of the boxed skew plane partition

  11. Principal investigator in a box: Version 1.2 documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolph, Jurine; Bhatnagar, Rajiv; Colombano, Silvano P.; Compton, Michael; Frainer, Richard; Groleau, Nicolas; Holden, Kritina; Lai, Sen-Hao; Lam, Chih-Chao; Manahan, Meera

    1990-01-01

    Principal Investigator (PI) in a box is a computer system designed to help optimize the scientific results of experiments that are performed in space. The system will assist the astronaut experimenters in the collection and analysis of experimental data, recognition and pursuit of 'interesting' results, optimal use of the time allocated to the experiment, and troubleshooting of the experiment apparatus. This document discusses the problems that motivate development of 'PI-in-a-box', and presents a high- level system overview and a detailed description of each of the modules that comprise the current version of the system.

  12. Box jellyfish use terrestrial visual cues for navigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garm, Anders; Oskarsson, Magnus; Nilsson, Dan-Eric

    2011-01-01

    Box jellyfish have an impressive set of 24 eyes of four different types, including eyes structurally similar to those of vertebrates and cephalopods [1, 2]. However, the known visual responses are restricted to simple phototaxis, shadow responses, and object avoidance responses [3-8], and it has...... been a puzzle why they need such a complex set of eyes. Here we report that medusae of the box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora are capable of visually guided navigation in mangrove swamps using terrestrial structures seen through the water surface. They detect the mangrove canopy by an eye type that is...

  13. AN ALGORITHM FOR AUTOMATICALLY GENERATING BLACK-BOX TEST CASES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Baowen; Nie Changhai; Shi Qunfeng; Lu Hong

    2003-01-01

    Selection of test cases plays a key role in improving testing efficiency. Black-box testing is an important way of testing, and its validity lies on the selection of test cases in some sense. A reasonable and effective method about the selection and generation of test cases is urgently needed. This letter first introduces some usualmethods on black-box test case generation,then proposes a new algorithm based on interface parameters and discusses its properties, finally shows the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  14. AN ALGORITHM FOR AUTOMATICALLY GENERATING BLACK-BOX TEST CASES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XuBaowen; NieChanghai; 等

    2003-01-01

    Selection of test cases plays a key role in improving testing efficiency.Black-box testing is an important way of testing,and is validity lies on the secection of test cases in some sense.A reasonable and effective method about the selection and generation of test cascs is urgently needed.This letter first introduces some usual methods on black-box test case generation,then proposes a new glgorithm based on interface parameters and discusses its properties,finally shows the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  15. Ancestry and diversity of the HMG box superfamily

    OpenAIRE

    Laudet, V; Stehelin, D.; Clevers, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    The HMG box is a novel type of DNA-binding domain found in a diverse group of proteins. The HMG box superfamily comprises a.o. the High Mobility Group proteins HMG1 and HMG2, the nucleolar transcription factor UBF, the lymphoid transcription factors TCF-1 and LEF-1, the fungal mating-type genes mat-Mc and MATA1, and the mammalian sex-determining gene SRY. The superfamily dates back to at least 1,000 million years ago, as its members appear in animals, plants and yeast. Alignment of all known ...

  16. Security of the AES with a Secret S-Box

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiessen, Tyge; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde; Kölbl, Stefan;

    2015-01-01

    How does the security of the AES change when the S-box is replaced by a secret S-box, about which the adversary has no knowledge? Would it be safe to reduce the number of encryption rounds? In this paper, we demonstrate attacks based on integral cryptanalysis which allow to recover both the secret...... interesting aspect of our attack is that it works both as chosen plaintext and as chosen ciphertext attack. Surprisingly, the chosen ciphertext variant has a significantly lower time complexity in the attacks on four and five round, compared to the respective chosen plaintext attacks....

  17. Gray-box modelling approach for description of storage tunnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harremoës, Poul; Carstensen, Jacob

    1999-01-01

    The dynamics of a storage tunnel is examined using a model based on on-line measured data and a combination of simple deterministic and black-box stochastic elements. This approach, called gray-box modeling, is a new promising methodology for giving an on-line state description of sewer systems...... inertia of the water in the overflow structures. The capacity of a pump draining the storage tunnel is estimated for two different rain events, revealing that the pump was malfunctioning during the first rain event. The proposed modeling approach can be used in automated online surveillance and control...

  18. Tests of CMS Hadron Forward Calorimeter Upgrade Readout Box Prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, Sergey; Sirunyan, Albert; Tumasyan, Armen; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Cornelis, Tom; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit Florent; Staykova, Zlatka; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Alves, Gilvan Augusto; Martins, Thiago Dos Reis; Pol, Maria Elena; Vaz Da Silva Filho, Mario; Alda Junior, Walter Luiz; Carvalho, Wagner De Paula; Chinellato, Jose Augusto; De Oliveira Martins, Carley Pedro; Figueiredo, Diego Matos; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson Jose; Molina Insfran, Jorge Andres; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Rosa Lopes Zachi, Alessandro; Finger, Miroslav; Finger, Michael; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Borras, Kerstin; Gunnellini, Paolo; Jung, Hannes; Knutsson, Albert Hans; Lutz, Benjamin; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro Miguel; Sen, Niladri; Baus, Colin; Katkov, Igor; Ulrich, Ralf Matthias; Wohrmann, H; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Bencze, Gyorgy; Horvath, D; Bala, Suman; Gupta, Ruchi; Jindal, M; Lal, Manjit Kaur; Nishu, Nishu; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, S; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Sharan, Manoj Kumar; Aziz, Tariq; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Katta, Sudhakar; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dugad, Shashikant Raichand; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Jafari, Abideh; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Zeinali, Maryam; Penzo, Aldo; Afanasyev, A; Bunin, Pavel; Ershov, Yuri; Fedoseev, Oleg; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Konoplynikov, V; Malakhov, Alexander; Moisenz, Petr; Smirnov, Vitaly; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoly; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Krasnikov, Nikolay; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, A; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Erofeeva, Maria; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Kosov, Mikhail Vladimirovich; Kudinov, Ilya; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, V; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlassov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Belyaev, A; Boos, Eduard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Korotkikh, Vladimir; Lokhtin, Igor; Markina, Anastasia; Obraztsov, Stepan; Perfilov, Maxim; Petrushanko, Sergey; Popov, Andrey; Savrin, Victor; Snigirev, Alexander; Vardanyan, Irina; Andreev, V; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Vinogradov, Alexey; Bayshev, Igor; Bityukov, Sergey; Grishin, Viatcheslav; Kryshkin, Victor; Petrov, V; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrey; Turchanovich, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Uzunyan, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Santanastasio, Francesco; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Numan Mustafa; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; G�kbulut, Gul; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Karapinar, Guler; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sogut, Kenan; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Latife Nukhet; Vergili, Mehmet; Aliyev, Takhmasib; Deniz, Muhammed; Guler, Ali Murat; Ozpineci, Altug; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Deliomeroglu, Mehmet; Gulmez, Erhan; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Sonmez, Nasuf; Cankocak, Kerem; Levchuk, Leonid; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, H; Scarborough, Tara Ann; Rumerio, Paolo; Heister, Arno; Hill, C; Lawson, Philip Daniel; Lazic, Dragoslav; Rohlf, James; St. John, Jason; Sulak, Lawrence; Gennadiy, G; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Narain, Meenakshi; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Tsang, Ka Vang; Long, Owen Rosser; Nguyen, Harold; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Sturdy, Jared; Stuart, David; To, Wing; West, Christopher Alan; Apresyan, Artur; Chen, Y; Mott, Alexander Robert; Spiropulu, Maria; Winn, David; Abdoulline, Salavat; Anderson, J; Chlebana, Frank; Freeman, James; Green, Daniel; Hanlon, J; Hirschauer, James Francis; Joshi, Umeshwar; Kunori, Shuichi; Musienko, Yuri; Sharma, Seema; Spalding, William Jeffrey; Tkaczyk, Slawomir; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, W; Gaultney, Vanessa; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete Edward; Martinez, German Ruben; Gleyzer, Sergei; Hagopian, Sharon Lee; Hagopian, Vasken; Jenkins, Charles Merrill; Baarmand, Marc M; Dorney, Brian L; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren James; Duru, Firdevs; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony Richard; Nachtman, Jane; Newsom, Charles Ray; Norbeck, John Edwin; Olson, Jonathan Edward; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Sen, Sercan; Schmidt, Ianos; Tiras, Emrah; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Kenny, Raymond Patrick; Murray, Michael Joseph; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Baden, Andrew; Calvert, Brian Michael; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Gomez, Jaime Arturo; Grassi, Tullio; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard; Kolberg, Ted; Lu, Y; Marionneau, Matthieu; Mignerey, Alice Louise Cox; Peterman, Alison Marie; Skuja, Andris; Temple, Jeffrey; Tonjes, Marguerite Belt; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin Humphrey; Mans, Jeremiah Michael; Pastika, Nathaniel Joseph; Kroeger, Robert; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sanders, David; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Jain, S; Anastassov, Anton; Velasco, Mayda Marie; Won, Steven; Heering, Adriaan; Karmgard, Daniel; Pearson, Tessa Jae; Ruchti, Randal; Berry, Edmund A; Halyo, Valerie; Hebda, Philip; Hunt, Adam Paul; Lujan, Paul Joseph; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Saka, Halil; Tully, Christopher; Zuranski, Andrzej Maciej; Barnes, Virgil Everett; Laasanen, Alvin; Bodek, Arie; Chung, Yeon Sei; de Barbaro, Pawel Jan; Eshaq, Yossof; Garcia-bellido, Aran Angel; Goldenzweig, Pablo David; Han, Ji Yeon; Harel, Amnon; Miner, Daniel Carl; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Zielinski, Marek; Bhatti, Anwar; Ciesielski, Robert Adam; Flanagan, Will Hogan; Kamon, Teruki; Montalvo, Roy Joaquin; Sakuma, Tai; Akchurin, Nural; Damgov, Jordan; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Volobouev, Igor; Gurrola, Alfredo; Milstene, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    A readout box prototype for CMS Hadron Forward calorimeter upgrade is built and tested in CERN H2 beamline. The prototype is designed to enable simultaneous tests of different readout options for the four anode upgrade PMTs, new front-end electronics design and new cabling. The response of the PMTs with different readout options is uniform and the background response is minimal. Multi-channel readout options further enhance the background elimination. Passing all the electronics, mechanical and physics tests, the readout box proves to be capable of providing the forward hadron calorimeter operations requirements in the upgrade era.

  19. JET neutral beam injection system, construction and component tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The two neutral injection systems for JET are each determined by 40 mw beam power extracted from eight sources during 10 s pulses. Under the existing spatial restrictions, this has led to a complex beam-line system design. The applied manufacturing techniques and the approach to quality assurance are discussed. The beam sources have been operated at 80 kv, 60 a, 5 s in hydrogen. Plasma source development has increased the H+ yield to approximately 84%. Beamlet steering by aperture offset has experimentally been adjusted to the values required for the restricted tokamak entrance geometry. A beam source has also been operated at 160 kv, 37 a in deuterium. At the tokamak the 7 m high injector vacuum box has been installed incorporating a fast shutter and a cryopump. This LHE cooled pump with 40 m2 entrance area and 45% pumping efficiency has successfully been tested as well as the flexible cryoliquid transfer-lines. The bakeable valve between injector box and tokamak vacuum (1.1 m x 0.5 m gate cross-section) has been operated with leak rates <10-9 mbar1/s. The sub-system commissioning is completed by short-pulse operation of the beam sources with their final power supplies in situ at the tokamak and, in parallel to this, testing of the beam-line system in the neutral injection testbed

  20. Beam quality measure for vector beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndagano, Bienvenu; Sroor, Hend; McLaren, Melanie; Rosales-Guzmán, Carmelo; Forbes, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    Vector beams have found a myriad of applications, from laser materials processing to microscopy, and are now easily produced in the laboratory. They are usually differentiated from scalar beams by qualitative measures, for example, visual inspection of beam profiles after a rotating polarizer. Here we introduce a quantitative beam quality measure for vector beams and demonstrate it on cylindrical vector vortex beams. We show how a single measure can be defined for the vector quality, from 0 (purely scalar) to 1 (purely vector). Our measure is derived from a quantum toolkit, which we show applies to classical vector beams. PMID:27472580

  1. Motivating crowding theory - opening the black box of intrinsic motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher

    2010-01-01

    . Studies have found support for the motivation crowding claim, but have neglected intrinsic motivation. This study opens the black box of intrinsic motivation and finds a meaningful distinction between task motivation and public service motivation. Among 2,772 physiotherapists in the Danish public sector...

  2. The Popcorn Box Activity and Reasoning about Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteley, Walter J.; Mamolo, Ami

    2012-01-01

    A well-known optimization problem is the Popcorn Box investigation, which involves a movie theater snack container. The problem has been tailored for classroom investigations by the Ontario Association for Mathematics Education. The exploration was designed for students in grades 9 through 12. A common strategy proposed for algebra students is to…

  3. A Grey Box Model for the Hydraulics in a Creek

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsdottir, Harpa; Jacobsen, Judith L.; Madsen, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    The Saint-Venant equation of mass balance is used to derive a stochastics lumped model, describing the dynamics of a cross-sectional area in a river. The unknown parameters of the model are estimated by combining the physical equation with a set of data, a method known as grey box modelling. The ...

  4. Approach to a correct function of stuffing boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuff boxes are often used to tighten the gaps between valve stems and the housing. The stuffing box packing material is compressed axially to achieve a radial stress value, which is necessary for tightness. Tightness is achieved, if the sealing materials are seated properly and if a sufficient stress value is acting in radial direction during all states of operation. High prestress values are necessary for tightening purposes, lower values are better for the function of the valve. As the seating and the prestressing force is applied axially (using the bolts of a gland), gasket factors must be known, that characterize the deformation behavior and the transmission (relation between radial/axial stress). Furthermore, gasket factors, that characterize the tightening behavior, are necessary. Such gasket factors give the relation between radial stress and leakage of the packing materials. A friction coefficient -- this parameter determines the function of the valve (together with the radial stress) -- is another important gasket factor. Additionally the relaxation of the stuffing box packing material between the assembly and the operating state must be known. In the paper definitions for the most important gasket factors of stuffing box materials are provided. Test procedures and test rigs for the determination of the gasket factors are discussed. Gasket factors, which have been measured with these newly developed test rigs, are related to experiences with real applications. Finally a method for a controlled prestressing of gland packings is described

  5. BMOBench: Black-Box Multi-Objective Optimization Benchmarking Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Dujaili, Abdullah; Suresh, S.

    2016-01-01

    This document briefly describes the Black-Box Multi-Objective Optimization Benchmarking (BMOBench) platform. It presents the test problems, evaluation procedure, and experimental setup. To this end, the BMOBench is demonstrated by comparing recent multi-objective solvers from the literature, namely SMS-EMOA, DMS, and MO-SOO.

  6. How Users Search the Library from a Single Search Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lown, Cory; Sierra, Tito; Boyer, Josh

    2013-01-01

    Academic libraries are turning increasingly to unified search solutions to simplify search and discovery of library resources. Unfortunately, very little research has been published on library user search behavior in single search box environments. This study examines how users search a large public university library using a prominent, single…

  7. 30 CFR 18.42 - Explosion-proof distribution boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to a distribution box. The current-carrying capacity of the specified connector shall be compatible... permanently marked to indicate its current-carrying capacity and each receptacle shall be such that it will..., EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES...

  8. Workplace statistical literacy for teachers: interpreting box plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Robyn; Chick, Helen

    2013-06-01

    As a consequence of the increased use of data in workplace environments, there is a need to understand the demands that are placed on users to make sense of such data. In education, teachers are being increasingly expected to interpret and apply complex data about student and school performance, and, yet it is not clear that they always have the appropriate knowledge and experience to interpret the graphs, tables and other data that they receive. This study examined the statistical literacy demands placed on teachers, with a particular focus on box plot representations. Although box plots summarise the data in a way that makes visual comparisons possible across sets of data, this study showed that teachers do not always have the necessary fluency with the representation to describe correctly how the data are distributed in the representation. In particular, a significant number perceived the size of the regions of the box plot to be depicting frequencies rather than density, and there were misconceptions associated with outlying data that were not displayed on the plot. As well, teachers' perceptions of box plots were found to relate to three themes: attitudes, perceived value and misconceptions.

  9. MADS-box gene evolution-structure and transcription patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Bo; Pedersen, Louise B; Skipper, Martin;

    2002-01-01

    This study presents a phylogenetic analysis of 198 MADS-box genes based on 420 parsimony-informative characters. The analysis includes only MIKC genes; therefore several genes from gymnosperms and pteridophytes are excluded. The strict consensus tree identifies all major monophyletic groups known...

  10. Features for Exploiting Black-Box Optimization Problem Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Malitsky, Yuri; Abell, Tinus

    2013-01-01

    Black-box optimization (BBO) problems arise in numerous scientic and engineering applications and are characterized by compu- tationally intensive objective functions, which severely limit the number of evaluations that can be performed. We present a robust set of features that analyze the tness...

  11. Fitting boxes to Manhattan scenes using linear integer programming

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Minglei

    2016-02-19

    We propose an approach for automatic generation of building models by assembling a set of boxes using a Manhattan-world assumption. The method first aligns the point cloud with a per-building local coordinate system, and then fits axis-aligned planes to the point cloud through an iterative regularization process. The refined planes partition the space of the data into a series of compact cubic cells (candidate boxes) spanning the entire 3D space of the input data. We then choose to approximate the target building by the assembly of a subset of these candidate boxes using a binary linear programming formulation. The objective function is designed to maximize the point cloud coverage and the compactness of the final model. Finally, all selected boxes are merged into a lightweight polygonal mesh model, which is suitable for interactive visualization of large scale urban scenes. Experimental results and a comparison with state-of-the-art methods demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework.

  12. Optimal Black-Box Secret Sharing over Arbitrary Abelian Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer, Ronald; Fehr, Serge

    A black-box secret sharing scheme for the threshold access structure T t,n is one which works over any finite Abelian group G. Briefly, such a scheme differs from an ordinary linear secret sharing scheme (over, say, a given finite field) in that distribution matrix and reconstruction vectors are ...

  13. Energy Savings Assessment for Digital-to-Analog Converter Boxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, Hoi Ying Iris; Meier, Alan; Brown, Richard

    2011-01-18

    The Digital Television (DTV) Converter Box Coupon Program was administered by the U.S. government to subsidize purchases of digital-to-analog converter boxes, with up to two $40 coupons for each eligible household. In order to qualify as Coupon Eligible Converter Boxes (CECBs), these devices had to meet a number of minimum performance specifications, including energy efficiency standards. The Energy Star Program also established voluntary energy efficiency specifications that are more stringent than the CECB requirements. In this study, we measured the power and energy consumptions for a sample of 12 CECBs (including 6 Energy Star labeled models) in-use in homes and estimated aggregate energy savings produced by the energy efficiency policies. Based on the 35 million coupons redeemed through the end of the program, our analysis indicates that between 2500 and 3700 GWh per year are saved as a result of the energy efficiency policies implemented on digital-to-analog converter boxes. The energy savings generated are equivalent to the annual electricity use of 280,000 average US homes.

  14. Developing Box Plots While Navigating the Maze of Data Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Bruce; Fitzallen, Noleine

    2013-01-01

    The learning sequence described in this article was developed to provide students with a demonstration of the development of box plots from authentic data as an illustration of the advantages gained from using multiple forms of data representation. The sequence follows an authentic process that starts with a problem to which data representations…

  15. Beam propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main part of this thesis consists of 15 published papers, in which the numerical Beam Propagating Method (BPM) is investigated, verified and used in a number of applications. In the introduction a derivation of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation is presented to connect the beginning of the soliton papers with Maxwell's equations including a nonlinear polarization. This thesis focuses on the wide use of the BPM for numerical simulations of propagating light and particle beams through different types of structures such as waveguides, fibers, tapers, Y-junctions, laser arrays and crystalline solids. We verify the BPM in the above listed problems against other numerical methods for example the Finite-element Method, perturbation methods and Runge-Kutta integration. Further, the BPM is shown to be a simple and effective way to numerically set up the Green's function in matrix form for periodic structures. The Green's function matrix can then be diagonalized with matrix methods yielding the eigensolutions of the structure. The BPM inherent transverse periodicity can be untied, if desired, by for example including an absorptive refractive index at the computational window edges. The interaction of two first-order soliton pulses is strongly dependent on the phase relationship between the individual solitons. When optical phase shift keying is used in coherent one-carrier wavelength communication, the fiber attenuation will suppress or delay the nonlinear instability. (orig.)

  16. Stable beams

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Stable beams: two simple words that carry so much meaning at CERN. When LHC page one switched from "squeeze" to "stable beams" at 10.40 a.m. on Wednesday, 3 June, it triggered scenes of jubilation in control rooms around the CERN sites, as the LHC experiments started to record physics data for the first time in 27 months. This is what CERN is here for, and it’s great to be back in business after such a long period of preparation for the next stage in the LHC adventure.   I’ve said it before, but I’ll say it again. This was a great achievement, and testimony to the hard and dedicated work of so many people in the global CERN community. I could start to list the teams that have contributed, but that would be a mistake. Instead, I’d simply like to say that an achievement as impressive as running the LHC – a machine of superlatives in every respect – takes the combined effort and enthusiasm of everyone ...

  17. Optimizing PHB and Protease Production by Box Behnken Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amro Abd al fattah Amara

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mixed culture is more suitable to adapt more flexible fermentation process and produce different product simultaneously. In this study a mixed Bacillus culture was investigated for their ability to produce the bioplastic "Polyhydroxybutyrate" and both of the mesophilic and the thermophilic proteases in one flask. Box-Behnken experimental design was used. The produced amount of PHB has been increased significantly. Meanwhile there is a competition between PHB and proteases. The maximum produced amount of PHB using Box-Behnken design was 2.82 g/l/48 h with protease activity equal to 41.9 Units/ml/48 h for thermophilic proteases and 99.65 Units/ml/48 h for mesophilic proteases. Excel solver was used for extra-optimization for the optimum conditions obtained from Box-Behnken experiments and its model. The maximum PHB obtained after using Excel solver was 2.88 g/l/48 h. The maximum mesophilic and thermophilic activities obtained at the same PHB production conditions were 175.68 and 243.38 Units/ml respectively. The model accuracy as obtained from Excel solver was 118.8%, which prove the power of the experimental design in optimizing such complicated process. The strategies used in this study are recommended for the production of PHB and different proteases simultaneously using Bacillus mixed culture. ABSTRAK: Kultur campuran adalah lebih sesuai bagi proses penapaian yang fleksibel dan ia boleh menghasilkan produk yang berbeza secara serentak. Dalam kajian ini keupayaan  menghasilkan "Polyhydroxybutyrate" bioplastik serta mesofilik dan termofilik protease dalam satu flask oleh  kultur Bacillus campuran telah disiasat. Eksperimen rekabentuk Box-Behnken telah digunakan. Jumlah PHB yang dikeluarkan meningkat dengan ketara dan terdapat persaingan antara PHB dan protease. Jumlah keluaran PHB maksima menggunakan rekabentuk Box-Behnken adalah 2.82 g/l/48 jam dengan aktiviti protease sama dengan 41.9 Unit/ml/48 jam untuk protease termofilik dan 99.65 Unit

  18. The Design of Plywood Webs for Airplane Wing Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trayer, George W

    1931-01-01

    This report deals with the design of plywood webs for wooden box beams to obtain maximum strength per unit weight. A method of arriving at the most efficient and economical web thickness, and hence the most suitable unit shear stress, is presented and working stresses in shear for various types of webs and species of plywood are given. The questions of diaphragm spacing and required glue area between the webs and flange are also discussed.

  19. Technology Solutions Case Study: New Insights for Improving the Designs of Flexible Duct Junction Boxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-01-01

    In this project, IBACOS explored the relationships between pressure and physical configurations of flexible duct junction boxes by using computational fluid dynamics simulations to predict individual box parameters and total system pressure, thereby ensuring improved HVAC performance.

  20. Enhancing Advanced Encryption Standard S-Box Generation Based on Round Key

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Juremi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new AES-like design for key- dependent AES using S-box rotation. The algorithm involves key expansion algorithm together with S-box rotation and this property can be used to make the S-box key-dependent, hence providing a better security to the block cipher. Fixed S-box allows attackers to study S- box and find weak points while by using key-dependent S-Box approach, it makes it harder for attacker to do any offline analysis of an attack of one particular set of S- boxes. The cipher structure resembles the original AES, only the S-box is made key-dependent without changing the value. This new design is tested using the NIST Statistical Test and will be further cryptanalyzed with algebraic attack in order to permit its subversion or evasion.

  1. 77 FR 38705 - Draft Specification for Airport Light Bases, Transformer Housings, Junction Boxes, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Draft Specification for Airport Light Bases, Transformer Housings... comment on the Draft ``Specification for Airport Light Bases, Transformer Housings, Junction Boxes, and... recommendations for airport light bases, transformer housings, junction boxes and accessories. The FAA has...

  2. Specific Genomic Fingerprints of Phosphate Solubilizing Pseudomonas Strains Generated by Box Elements

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Bagher Javadi Nobandegani; Halimi Mohd Saud; Wong Mui Yun

    2014-01-01

    Primers corresponding to conserved bacterial repetitive of BOX elements were used to show that BOX-DNA sequences are widely distributed in phosphate solubilizing Pseudomonas strains. Phosphate solubilizing Pseudomonas was isolated from oil palm fields (tropical soil) in Malaysia. BOX elements were used to generate genomic fingerprints of a variety of Pseudomonas isolates to identify strains that were not distinguishable by other classification methods. BOX-PCR, that derived genomic fingerprin...

  3. Comparison of Laparoscopy Training Using the Box Trainer Versus the Virtual Trainer

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi, Yousef; Lerner, Michelle A.; Sethi, Amanjot S.; Sundaram, Chandru P.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Objectives: To evaluate whether training on a virtual reality laparoscopic simulator improves the performance on a laparoscopic box trainer. Methods: Twenty-six subjects were trained using a box trainer, and 17 participants were trained using a virtual simulator. Participants in the experimental group completed 1 session of 5 exercises on the box trainer, 4 sessions on the virtual simulator, and a final session on the box trainer. Participants in the control group completed 6 s...

  4. Experimental Research and Numerical Simulation of Wing Boxes under Pure Bending Load

    OpenAIRE

    Peiyan Wang; Shile Yao; Xinmei Wang; Zhufeng Yue

    2014-01-01

    Two full-scale wing boxes with different types of butt joints were investigated under pure bending load, and numerical methods, including global analysis and detailed analysis, were proposed to determine the reasons for failure of the wing boxes. Wing boxes were tested under bending loads applied by a multichannel force control system. The experimental results showed that the region of the butt joint was the weakest location of the wing boxes, and the damage loads were far less than the desig...

  5. Frequency distribution of TATA Box and extension sequences on human promoters

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Background TATA box is one of the most important transcription factor binding sites. But the exact sequences of TATA box are still not very clear. Results In this study, we conduct a dedicated analysis on the frequency distribution of TATA Box and its extension sequences on human promoters. Sixteen TATA elements derived from the TATA Box motif, TATAWAWN, are classified into three distribution patterns: peak, bottom-peak, and bottom. Fourteen TATA extension sequences are predicted to be the ne...

  6. The progesterone receptor can regulate transcription in the absence of a functional TATA box element

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, A A; Ham, J.; Bakker, O.; Parker, M G

    1990-01-01

    We have investigated the importance of the TATA box element in the induction of transcription by the progesterone receptor. Transcription was analyzed from promoters containing a steroid response element upstream of a wild-type or mutated TATA box. Mutation of the TATA box resulted in a loss of correctly initiated transcripts and abolished binding of TATA factor to the TATA box in vitro but did not inhibit transcriptional activation by the progesterone receptor. Thus we conclude that the rece...

  7. The Role of Protein Electrostatics in Facilitating the Catalysis of DEAD-box Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Frenz, Christopher M.

    2008-01-01

    Protein electrostatic states have been demonstrated to play crucial roles in catalysis, ligand binding, protein stability, and in the modulation of allosteric effects. Electrostatic states are demonstrated to appear conserved among DEAD-box motifs and evidence is presented that the structural changes that occur to DEAD box proteins upon ligand binding alter the DEAD-box motif electrostatics in a way the facilitates the catalytic role of the DEAD-box glutatmate.

  8. 49 CFR 230.63 - Smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts. 230.63... Appurtenances Steam Pipes § 230.63 Smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts. The smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts shall be inspected at each annual inspection, or any other time that conditions warrant....

  9. 77 FR 29740 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BOX Options Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... requires greater expenditure of human and technical resources than regulating non- customer trading... Transactions (transactions executed on the BOX Book). The account types on BOX are Public Customer..., Inc. Liquidity Fees and Credits for Non-Auction Transactions Orders that add liquidity to the BOX...

  10. Entanglement and decoherence of a micromechanical resonator via coupling to a Cooper box

    OpenAIRE

    Armour, A. D.; Blencowe, M. P.; Schwab, K. C.

    2001-01-01

    We analyse the quantum dynamics of a micromechanical resonator capacitively coupled to a Cooper box. With appropriate quantum state control of the Cooper box, the resonator can be driven into a superposition of spatially separated states. The Cooper box can also be used to probe the environmentally-induced decoherence of the resonator superposition state.

  11. Justification procedure of hydrogen safety of RU BN compartments as exemplified by steam generator box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic proposals on completing calculational procedures of sodium cooled reactors hydrogen safety justification, particularly steam generator (SG) box, are presented. It is pointed out that hydrogen appearance in SG box is possible only in accidents with multiple failures. The data presented shows that hydrogen safety and explosion-proofness of fast reactor facility SG box are provided without any special complex and expensive means

  12. A white-box model of S-shaped and double S-shaped single-species population growth

    OpenAIRE

    Kalmykov, Lev V.; Vyacheslav L. Kalmykov

    2015-01-01

    Complex systems may be mechanistically modelled by white-box modeling with using logical deterministic individual-based cellular automata. Mathematical models of complex systems are of three types: black-box (phenomenological), white-box (mechanistic, based on the first principles) and grey-box (mixtures of phenomenological and mechanistic models). Most basic ecological models are of black-box type, including Malthusian, Verhulst, Lotka–Volterra models. In black-box models, the individual-bas...

  13. Beam halo in high-intensity beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In space-charge dominated beams the nonlinear space-charge forces produce a filamentation pattern, which in projection to the 2-D phase spaces results in a 2-component beam consisting of an inner core and a diffuse outer halo. The beam-halo is of concern for a next generation of cw, high-power proton linacs that could be applied to intense neutron generators for nuclear materials processing. The author describes what has been learned about beam halo and the evolution of space-charge dominated beams using numerical simulations of initial laminar beams in uniform linear focusing channels. Initial results are presented from a study of beam entropy for an intense space-charge dominated beam

  14. Box products in nilpotent normal form theory: The factoring method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, James

    2016-01-01

    Let N be a nilpotent matrix and consider vector fields x ˙ = Nx + v (x) in normal form. Then v is equivariant under the flow eN*t for the inner product normal form or eMt for the sl2 normal form. These vector equivariants can be found by finding the scalar invariants for the Jordan blocks in N* or M; taking the box product of these to obtain the invariants for N* or M itself; and then boosting the invariants to equivariants by another box product. These methods, developed by Murdock and Sanders in 2007, are here given a self-contained exposition with new foundations and new algorithms yielding improved (simpler) Stanley decompositions for the invariants and equivariants. Ideas used include transvectants (from classical invariant theory), Stanley decompositions (from commutative algebra), and integer cones (from integer programming). This approach can be extended to covariants of sl2k for k > 1, known as SLOCC in quantum computing.

  15. Observational semantics of the Prolog Resolution Box Model

    CERN Document Server

    Deransart, Pierre; Ferrand, Gérard

    2007-01-01

    This paper specifies an observational semantics and gives an original presentation of the Byrd box model. The approach accounts for the semantics of Prolog tracers independently of a particular Prolog implementation. Prolog traces are, in general, considered as rather obscure and difficult to use. The proposed formal presentation of its trace constitutes a simple and pedagogical approach for teaching Prolog or for implementing Prolog tracers. It is a form of declarative specification for the tracers. The trace model introduced here is only one example to illustrate general problems relating to tracers and observing processes. Observing processes know, from observed processes, only their traces. The issue is then to be able to reconstitute, by the sole analysis of the trace, part of the behaviour of the observed process, and if possible, without any loss of information. As a matter of fact, our approach highlights qualities of the Prolog resolution box model which made its success, but also its insufficiencies...

  16. Permanent sealing: Valve stuffing boxes in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water in nuclear powerstations contains up to 2000 ppm of boric acid. If a valve leaks, the boric acid crystallises out around the stuffing box and the packing is destroyed. Replacement is very problematical, particularly because of radiation, takes a long time and is very expensive (possible shutdown). Electricite de France has therefore developed stuffing boxes made of expanding graphite. Before E.d.F. uses a seal permanently in a nuclear powerstation, intensive tests are carried out such as the investigation of dynamic sealing for boric acid solutions at 200 bar and 3000C (JAPET experimental plant), corrosion tests (6 months life test a 3000C and 90 bar) and test of deformation characteristics under pressure and pressure transients. ''Lattygraf E1'', a packing made of expanding graphite, was selected as the best product. The construction and operation are discussed. (DOMA)

  17. Competitive markets, collective action, and the Big Box Retailer problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent D. Beal

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available I use a stylized scenario—the Big Box retailer Problem—to demonstrate that the presence of behavioural interdependence in economic markets may result in deficient outcomes that are both stable and supported by ongoing participant behaviour. I present a theoretical discussion of social dilemmas and use the Big Box retailer Problem to illustrate that these characteristics—stability and ongoing support—cannot be reliably employed as indicators of outcome efficiency. Equally important is the conclusion that upfront costs and the ongoing necessity of monitoring and encouraging contributory behaviour are not reliable indicators of the relative inefficiency of outcomes associated with collective action. Questions are raised regarding the ethical responsibilities of business educators and the implications of social dilemmas for corporate social responsibility research.

  18. Free box^k Scalar Conformal Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Brust, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    We consider the generalizations of the free U(N) and O(N) scalar conformal field theories to actions with higher powers of the Laplacian, box^k, in general dimension d. We study the spectra, Verma modules, anomalies and OPE of these theories. We argue that in certain d and k, the spectrum contains zero norm operators which are both primary and descendant, as well as extension operators which are neither primary nor descendant. In addition, we argue that in even dimensions d <= 2k, there are well-defined operator algebras which are related to the box^k theories and are novel in that they have a finite number of single-trace states.

  19. Application of glove box robotics to hazardous waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLNL) is developing a semi-automated system for handling, characterizing, processing, sorting, and repackaging hazardous wastes containing tritium. The system combines an IBM developed gantry robot with a special glove box enclosure designed to protect the operators and minimize the potential release of tritium to the atmosphere. All hazardous waste handling and processing will be performed remotely using the robot in a telerobotic mode for one-of-a-kind functions and in an autonomous mode for repetitive type operations. The system will initially be used in conjunction with a portable gas system designed to capture any gaseous phase tritium released into the glove box. This paper presents the objectives of this program, provides background related to LLNL's robotics and waste handling program, describes the major system components, outlines system operation, and discusses current status and plans

  20. Pressure regulation in the dry-boxes. Argon purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Each dry-box is equipped with an autonomous installation for circulation and purification of argon and for pressure regulation. This installation consists essentially of a ballast tank, a compressor and two valves electromagnetically controlled by a contact manometer. The compressor and the valves are enclosed in the tank to form a system as compact as possible. The argon is purified by passing it over a furnace filled with titanium-zirconium turnings brought to about 800 deg. C, branching off the main system. With this set-up as well as the automatic maintenance of a constant depression in the box, a quality of argon is obtained whose oxygen contact is undetectable by the manganous hydroxide method. (author)

  1. Study of plutonium fire extinction in glove-boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report concerns attempts to extinguish fire in uranium - chosen as a basis for comparison - and in plutonium, these being contained in glove boxes. The extinguishing powders TEC and MG 10 were tried and compared. The operator used in plastic bags. The metal was dealt with respectively in the form of billets, compact chips and finally thin shavings. In each case fire control was without difficulty. One must allow a certain time for cooling. The powder MG 10 showed very good results. Moreover, the trials proved that densely packed shavings are a very real security factor. The interior lay-out of the glove boxes ought, in order to facilitate further manipulations, be such as to render extinction as easy as possible should the need arise. (authors)

  2. The role of secondary electron collection in box IEMP coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analytical models have been developed to estimate the secondary electron current collected at a biased land during box IEMP. The simple models are intended for the use of systems designers who must estimate the threat to active electronics during box IEMP and who may not have access to the large computer codes which simulate SGEMP. Separate theories apply to the nonself-consistent regime (when the collected charge does not greatly perturb the cavity fields) and the spacecharge-limited regime (when the secondary electrons screen the potential near the land). Analytical calculations for simple test cases compare well with selfconsistent SGEMP computer simulations and with data from past experiments at an MBS facility. Underprediction of the response at biases above +100 V suggests that an undetermined physical mechanism becomes important at high biases

  3. Application Analysis of Ad Lamp-box Controller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Yuan; LU Bin

    2014-01-01

    The ad lamp-box controller is designed in consideration that ordinary urban ad lights usually remain lit through the night and a specially assigned staff needs to be on duty to control their switches. It can be automatically controlled with a photo resistance testing the day and night as well as a CD4060 chip controlling the length of time interval between switching the ad lamp-boxes on and off. In this way, both energy and labor can be saved with the controller. It is matching with the target of“constructing a conservation-minded society”in our country and deserves to be promoted in market with its practical signifi-cance.

  4. Safeguards Approaches for Black Box Processes or Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Marcano, Helly; Gitau, Ernest TN; Hockert, John; Miller, Erin; Wylie, Joann

    2013-09-25

    The objective of this study is to determine whether a safeguards approach can be developed for “black box” processes or facilities. These are facilities where a State or operator may limit IAEA access to specific processes or portions of a facility; in other cases, the IAEA may be prohibited access to the entire facility. The determination of whether a black box process or facility is safeguardable is dependent upon the details of the process type, design, and layout; the specific limitations on inspector access; and the restrictions placed upon the design information that can be provided to the IAEA. This analysis identified the necessary conditions for safeguardability of black box processes and facilities.

  5. Gas box control system for Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) uses several methods to feed gas (usually deuterium) at different energies into the plasma region of the machine. One is an arrangement of eight high-speed piezo-electric valves mounted on special manifolds (gas box) that feed cold gas directly to the plasma. This paper describes the electronic valve control and data acquisition portions of the gas box, which are controlled by a desk-top computer. Various flow profiles have been developed and stored in the control computer for ready access by the operator. The system uses two modes of operation, one that exercises and characterizes the valves and one that operates the valves with the rest of the experiment. Both the valve control signals and the pressure transducers data are recorded on the diagnostics computer so that they are available for experiment analysis

  6. Beam imaging sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAninch, Michael D.; Root, Jeffrey J.

    2016-07-05

    The present invention relates generally to the field of sensors for beam imaging and, in particular, to a new and useful beam imaging sensor for use in determining, for example, the power density distribution of a beam including, but not limited to, an electron beam or an ion beam. In one embodiment, the beam imaging sensor of the present invention comprises, among other items, a circumferential slit that is either circular, elliptical or polygonal in nature.

  7. Gray-Box Modeling of a Pneumatic Servo-Valve

    OpenAIRE

    Mojtaba Aghamirsalim; Hosein Farahmandzad; Farhad Toorani

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the evaluation as well as the combined analytical andexperimental identification (gray box identification) of a servo-valve torque motor as thedirectional valve applied in a pneumatic actuator. Based on analytical modelling, a simplelinear parametric model with transfer function and block diagram is developed. Next, thestatic and dynamic characteristics of the torque motor are obtained from experimentalobservations. The characteristics confirm the desired linear behaviour ...

  8. Stiffened flanges used in steel box girder bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Pedro; Virtuoso, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a design method for stiffened flanges used in steel box girder bridges based on a set of design curves that take into account all relevant parameters regarding the ultimate strength of stiffened flanges, including the real boundary conditions for the inplane displacements at the edges. These design curves were developed and calibrated based on the results obtained with nonlinear analysis using the semi-analytical and finite element methods and they were vali...

  9. Black-Box Algorithms for Sampling from Continuous Distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Hörmann, Wolfgang; Leydold, Josef

    2006-01-01

    For generating non-uniform random variates, black-box algorithms are powerful tools that allow drawing samples from large classes of distributions. We give an overview of the design principles of such methods and show that they have advantages compared to specialized algorithms even for standard distributions, e.g., the marginal generation times are fast and depend mainly on the chosen method and not on the distribution. Moreover these methods are suitable for specialized tasks like sampling ...

  10. Evaluation of multi-box diagrams in six dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a simple method which simplifies the evaluation of the on-shell multiple box diagrams reducing them to triangle type ones. For the L-loop diagram one gets the expression in terms of Feynman parameters with 2L-fold integration. As examples we consider the 2 and 3 loops cases, the numerical integration up to six loops is also presented. The method is valid in six dimensions where neither UV not IR divergences appear

  11. A NEW PRINCIPAL PIVOTING SCHEME FOR BOX LINEAR COMPLEMENTARITY PROBLEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGZHEMIN

    1997-01-01

    Judice and Pires developed in recent years principal pivoting methods for the solving ofthe so-called box linear complementarity problems (BLCPs) where the constraint matrices are restrictedly supposed to be of P-matrices. This paper aims at presenting a new principal pivoting scheme for BLCPs where the constraint matrices are loosely supposed to be row sufficient. This scheme can be applied to the solving of convex quadratic programs subject to linear constraints and arbitrary upper and lower bound constraints on variables.

  12. Fermionic Casimir energy in a three-dimensional box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we calculate the Casimir energy for a massless fermionic field confined inside a three-dimensional rectangular box. We use the MIT bag model boundary condition for the confinement. We use the direct mode summation method along with the Abel-Plana summation formula to compute the Casimir energy, without any use of regularization or analytic continuation techniques. We obtain a negative Casimir energy, as opposed to the previously reported result for the interior of a three-dimensional sphere.

  13. Chinese boxes: "Typhoon" and Conrad's history of the Chinese

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, D.

    2009-01-01

    This essay examines the novel "Typhoon," by Joseph Conrad, as a story about Chinamen coolies and seamen onboard a steamer transporting Chinese laborers. It argues that the Chinese boxes of the coolies represent several versions of the history of the Chinese and that the coolies are also representatives of a civilization with ideas and institutions, a law and order of nature. It also describes the images of Chinese life and their association to sociality, cooperation, nourishment, simplicity, ...

  14. Salmonella in pig lairage and in stunning box

    OpenAIRE

    Karabasil Neđeljko; Dimitrijević Mirjana; Pavlićević Nataša; Teodorović Vlado; Lončina Jasna; Nedeljković-Trailović Jelena; Baltić Milan Ž.

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella is one of the most important zoonotic pathogens and the consumption of pork meat is a major source of human infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of Salmonella on different surfaces in the pig lairage and stunning box as potential sources of cross contamination of animals and carcasses. Sampling was conducted in two abattoirs (slaughterhouse A and slaughterhouse B). Samples were taken from slaughterhouse A in two instan...

  15. Numerical cubature from Archimedes' hat-box theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Kuperberg, Greg

    2004-01-01

    Archimedes' hat-box theorem states that uniform measure on a sphere projects to uniform measure on an interval. This fact can be used to derive Simpson's rule. We present various constructions of, and lower bounds for, numerical cubature formulas using moment maps as a generalization of Archimedes' theorem. We realize some well-known cubature formulas on simplices as projections of spherical designs. We combine cubature formulas on simplices and tori to make new formulas on spheres. In partic...

  16. ArduiPod Box: a low-cost and open-source Skinner box using an iPod Touch and an Arduino microcontroller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineño, Oskar

    2014-03-01

    This article introduces the ArduiPod Box, an open-source device built using two main components (i.e., an iPod Touch and an Arduino microcontroller), developed as a low-cost alternative to the standard operant conditioning chamber, or "Skinner box." Because of its affordability, the ArduiPod Box provides an opportunity for educational institutions with small budgets seeking to set up animal laboratories for research and instructional purposes. A pilot experiment is also presented, which shows that the ArduiPod Box, in spite of its extraordinary simplicity, can be effectively used to study animal learning and behavior. PMID:23813238

  17. Wind Turbine Box - energy fluxes around a characteristic wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calaf, Marc; Cortina, Gerard; Sharma, Varun

    2015-11-01

    This research project presents a new tool, so called ``Wind Turbine Box'', that allows for the direct comparison between the flow around a single wind turbine and the flow around a characteristic wind turbine immersed within a large wind farm. The Wind Turbine Box consists of a limited control volume defined around each wind turbine that is timely co-aligned with each corresponding turbine's yaw-angle. Hence it is possible to extract flow statistics around each wind turbine, regardless of whether the turbine is fully isolated or it is plunged within a large wind farm. The Wind Turbine Box tool has been used to compute the energy fluxes around a characteristic wind turbine of a large wind farm to better understand the wake replenishment processes throughout a complete diurnal cycle. The effective loading of the wind farm has been gradually increased, ranging from quasi-isolated wind turbines to a highly packed wind farm. For this purpose, several Large Eddy Simulations have been run, forced with a constant geostrophic wind and a time varying surface temperature extracted from a selected period of the CASES-99 field experiment. Results illustrate the differences in the flow dynamics as it evolves around a characteristic wind turbine within a large wind farm and its asymptotic transition to the fully developed wind turbine array boundary layer.

  18. Packaging design criteria modified fuel spacer burial box. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various Hanford facilities must transfer large radioactively contaminated items to burial/storage. Presently, there are eighteen Fuel Spacer Burial Boxes (FSBBs) available on the Hanford Site for transport of such items. Previously, the FSBBS were transported from a rail car to the burial trench via a drag-off operation. To allow for the lifting of the boxes into the burial trench, it will be necessary to improve the packagings lifting attachments and provide structural reinforcement. Additional safety improvements to the packaging system will be provided by the addition of a positive closure system and package ventilation. FSBBs that are modified in such a manner are referred to as Modified Fuel Spacer Burial Boxes (MFSBs). The criteria provided by this PDC will be used to demonstrate that the transfer of the MFSB will provide an equivalent degree of safety as would be provided by a package meeting offsite transportation requirements. This fulfills the onsite transportation safety requirements implemented in WHC-CM-2-14, Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping. A Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) will be prepared to evaluate the safety of the transfer operation. Approval of the SARP is required to authorize transfer. Criteria are also established to ensure burial requirements are met

  19. An Introduction to Plum Blossom Boxing: History, Culture and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Zhang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Meihuaquan (“Plum Blossom Fist [Boxing]” has traditionally been practiced as vernacular (folk art practiced among the Han ethnic group residing in the Shandong, Henan and Hebei Provinces of China. Historical documentation dates Plum Blossom Boxing to the seventeenth century. The classic Chinese novel, Shuǐhǔ Zhuàn (Marsh Chronicles recounts the martial exploits of Shandong’s twelfth century outlaw heroes who may have been Mei Boxers, also. Thus, for perhaps a millennium, the region has been noted for vernacular martial arts and social banditry. The region’s rampant lawlessness promoted highly-developed martial prowess among both lawbreakers and those who were required to protect themselves against the brigands. Cultural, economic, and environmental factors in the region gave rise to heterodox political and religious beliefs that frequently served as a catalyst for martial sects, most notably the “Boxers” who at the turn of the twentieth century, came into conflict with the imperial government. These factors laid the groundwork for the “character traits” of the art while Taoism, the Five Elements theory, and a concept of predictable change shaped Plum Boxing’s strategic and mechanical principles. In the past decade, there have been efforts to globalize this vernacular martial art. Rather than driving Plum Boxing to extinction it is likely that the folk and the “larger than local” will co-exist.

  20. A boost for the ISOLDE beams

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2015-01-01

    The first HIE-ISOLDE cryomodule was commissioned at the end of October. The radioactive ion beams can now be accelerated to 4.3 MeV per nucleon.   The ISOLDE beamline that supplies the Miniball array. The first HIE-ISOLDE cryomodule can be seen in the background, in its light-grey cryostat. ISOLDE is getting an energy boost. The first cryomodule of the new superconducting linear accelerator HIE-ISOLDE (High Intensity and Energy ISOLDE), located downstream of the REX-ISOLDE accelerator, increases the energy of the radioactive ion beams from 3 to 4.3 MeV per nucleon. It supplies the Miniball array, where an experiment using radioactive zinc ions (see box) began at the end of October. This is the first stage in the commissioning of HIE-ISOLDE. The facility will ultimately be equipped with four cryomodules that will accelerate the beams to 10 MeV per nucleon. Each cryomodule has five accelerating cavities and a solenoid, which focuses the beam. All of these components are superconducting. This first ...

  1. 太阳日总辐射量的Box-Jenkins模型%BOX-JENKINS MODEL FOR DAILY SOLAR RADIATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏; 丁明

    2012-01-01

    基于天文辐射和日照率数据,采用系统辨识的方法建立了模拟太阳日总辐射量的BJ( Box-Jenkins)模型.该模型与传统的(A)ngstr(m)的日总辐射量的计算公式相比,模拟和预测效果更好.%Based on astronomical radiation and percentage of possible sunshine data, the BJ (Box-Jenkins) model for daily solar irradiation is established using system identification method. The simulation and the one-step forecast results of the BJ model are better than Angstrm formula of the calculation.

  2. Monte Carlo simulation experiments on box-type radon dosimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Khalid; Kamran, Muhammad; Illahi, Ahsan; Manzoor, Shahid

    2014-11-01

    Epidemiological studies show that inhalation of radon gas (222Rn) may be carcinogenic especially to mine workers, people living in closed indoor energy conserved environments and underground dwellers. It is, therefore, of paramount importance to measure the 222Rn concentrations (Bq/m3) in indoors environments. For this purpose, box-type passive radon dosimeters employing ion track detector like CR-39 are widely used. Fraction of the number of radon alphas emitted in the volume of the box type dosimeter resulting in latent track formation on CR-39 is the latent track registration efficiency. Latent track registration efficiency is ultimately required to evaluate the radon concentration which consequently determines the effective dose and the radiological hazards. In this research, Monte Carlo simulation experiments were carried out to study the alpha latent track registration efficiency for box type radon dosimeter as a function of dosimeter's dimensions and range of alpha particles in air. Two different self developed Monte Carlo simulation techniques were employed namely: (a) Surface ratio (SURA) method and (b) Ray hitting (RAHI) method. Monte Carlo simulation experiments revealed that there are two types of efficiencies i.e. intrinsic efficiency (ηint) and alpha hit efficiency (ηhit). The ηint depends upon only on the dimensions of the dosimeter and ηhit depends both upon dimensions of the dosimeter and range of the alpha particles. The total latent track registration efficiency is the product of both intrinsic and hit efficiencies. It has been concluded that if diagonal length of box type dosimeter is kept smaller than the range of alpha particle then hit efficiency is achieved as 100%. Nevertheless the intrinsic efficiency keeps playing its role. The Monte Carlo simulation experimental results have been found helpful to understand the intricate track registration mechanisms in the box type dosimeter. This paper explains that how radon concentration from the

  3. Monte Carlo simulation experiments on box-type radon dosimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamil, Khalid, E-mail: kjamil@comsats.edu.pk; Kamran, Muhammad; Illahi, Ahsan; Manzoor, Shahid

    2014-11-11

    Epidemiological studies show that inhalation of radon gas ({sup 222}Rn) may be carcinogenic especially to mine workers, people living in closed indoor energy conserved environments and underground dwellers. It is, therefore, of paramount importance to measure the {sup 222}Rn concentrations (Bq/m{sup 3}) in indoors environments. For this purpose, box-type passive radon dosimeters employing ion track detector like CR-39 are widely used. Fraction of the number of radon alphas emitted in the volume of the box type dosimeter resulting in latent track formation on CR-39 is the latent track registration efficiency. Latent track registration efficiency is ultimately required to evaluate the radon concentration which consequently determines the effective dose and the radiological hazards. In this research, Monte Carlo simulation experiments were carried out to study the alpha latent track registration efficiency for box type radon dosimeter as a function of dosimeter’s dimensions and range of alpha particles in air. Two different self developed Monte Carlo simulation techniques were employed namely: (a) Surface ratio (SURA) method and (b) Ray hitting (RAHI) method. Monte Carlo simulation experiments revealed that there are two types of efficiencies i.e. intrinsic efficiency (η{sub int}) and alpha hit efficiency (η{sub hit}). The η{sub int} depends upon only on the dimensions of the dosimeter and η{sub hit} depends both upon dimensions of the dosimeter and range of the alpha particles. The total latent track registration efficiency is the product of both intrinsic and hit efficiencies. It has been concluded that if diagonal length of box type dosimeter is kept smaller than the range of alpha particle then hit efficiency is achieved as 100%. Nevertheless the intrinsic efficiency keeps playing its role. The Monte Carlo simulation experimental results have been found helpful to understand the intricate track registration mechanisms in the box type dosimeter. This paper

  4. Saturation of the magnetorotational instability in the unstratified shearing box with zero net flux: convergence in taller boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ji-Ming; Stone, James M.; Huang, Chelsea X.

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies of the non-linear regime of the magnetorotational instability in one particular type of shearing box model - unstratified with no net magnetic flux - find that without explicit dissipation (viscosity and resistivity) the saturation amplitude decreases with increasing numerical resolution. We show that this result is strongly dependent on the vertical aspect ratio of the computational domain Lz/Lx. When Lz/Lx ≲ 1, we recover previous results. However, when the vertical domain is extended Lz/Lx ≳ 2.5, we find the saturation level of the stress is greatly increased (giving a ratio of stress to pressure α ≳ 0.1), and moreover the results are independent of numerical resolution. Consistent with previous results, we find that saturation of the magnetorotational (MRI) in this regime is controlled by a cyclic dynamo which generates patches of strong toroidal field that switches sign on scales of Lx in the vertical direction. We speculate that when Lz/Lx ≲ 1, the dynamo is inhibited by the small size of the vertical domain, leading to the puzzling dependence of saturation amplitude on resolution. We show that previous toy models developed to explain the MRI dynamo are consistent with our results, and that the cyclic pattern of toroidal fields observed in stratified shearing box simulations (leading to the so-called butterfly diagram) may also be related. In tall boxes the saturation amplitude is insensitive to whether or not explicit dissipation is included in the calculations, at least for large magnetic Reynolds and Prandtl number. Finally, we show MRI turbulence in tall domains has a smaller critical Pmc, and an extended lifetime compared to Lz/Lx ≲ 1 boxes.

  5. A symplectic coherent beam-beam model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider a simple one-dimensional model to study the effects of the beam-beam force on the coherent dynamics of colliding beams. The key ingredient is a linearized beam-beam kick. We study only the quadrupole modes, with the dynamical variables being the 2nd-order moments of the canonical variables q, p. Our model is self-consistent in the sense that no higher order moments are generated by the linearized beam-beam kicks, and that the only source of violation of symplecticity is the radiation. We discuss the round beam case only, in which vertical and horizontal quantities are assumed to be equal (though they may be different in the two beams). Depending on the values of the tune and beam intensity, we observe steady states in which otherwise identical bunches have sizes that are equal, or unequal, or periodic, or behave chaotically from turn to turn. Possible implications of luminosity saturation with increasing beam intensity are discussed. Finally, we present some preliminary applications to an asymmetric collider. 8 refs., 8 figs

  6. Insights into the quality of DnaA boxes and their cooperativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming G.; Christensen, Bjarke Bak; Nielsen, Christina Bang;

    2006-01-01

    Plasmids carrying the mioC promoter region with its two DnaA boxes are as efficient in titration of DnaA protein as plasmids carrying a replicationinactivated oriC region with its five DnaA boxes. The two DnaA boxes upstream of the mioC promoter were mutated in various ways to study the cooperati......Plasmids carrying the mioC promoter region with its two DnaA boxes are as efficient in titration of DnaA protein as plasmids carrying a replicationinactivated oriC region with its five DnaA boxes. The two DnaA boxes upstream of the mioC promoter were mutated in various ways to study the...... cooperativity between the DnaA boxes, and to study in vivo the in vitrodefined 9mer DnaA box consensus sequence TTA/TTNCACA). The quality and cooperativity of the DnaA oxes were determined in two complementary ways: as titration of DnaA protein leading to derepression of the dnaA promoter, and as repression of...... the mioC promoter caused by the DnaA protein binding to the DnaA boxes. Titration of DnaA protein correlated with repression of the mioC promoter. The level of titration and repression with the normal promoter-proximal box (TTTTCCACA) depends strongly on the presence and the quality of a DnaA box in...

  7. Literature in Focus Beta Beams: Neutrino Beams

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    By Mats Lindroos (CERN) and Mauro Mezzetto (INFN Padova, Italy) Imperial Press, 2009 The beta-beam concept for the generation of electron neutrino beams was first proposed by Piero Zucchelli in 2002. The idea created quite a stir, challenging the idea that intense neutrino beams only could be produced from the decay of pions or muons in classical neutrino beams facilities or in future neutrino factories. The concept initially struggled to make an impact but the hard work by many machine physicists, phenomenologists and theoreticians over the last five years has won the beta-beam a well-earned position as one of the frontrunners for a possible future world laboratory for high intensity neutrino oscillation physics. This is the first complete monograph on the beta-beam concept. The book describes both technical aspects and experimental aspects of the beta-beam, providing students and scientists with an insight into the possibilities o...

  8. Fano-Kondo and the Kondo box regimes crossover in a quantum dot coupled to a quantum box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Victor M; Orellana, Pedro A; Pacheco, Monica; Anda, Enrique V

    2013-12-18

    In this work, we study the Kondo effect of a quantum dot (QD) connected to leads and to a discrete set of one-particle states provided by a quantum box represented by a quantum ring (QR) pierced by a magnetic flux side attached to the QD. The interplay between the bulk Kondo effect and the so-called Kondo box regime is studied. In this system the QR energies can be continuously modified by the application of the magnetic field. The crossover between these two regimes is analyzed by changing the connection of the QD to the QR from the weak to the strong coupling regime. In the weak coupling regime, the differential conductance develops a sequence of Fano-Kondo anti-resonances due to destructive interference between the discrete quantum ring levels and the conducting Kondo channel provided by the leads. In the strong coupling regime the differential conductance has very sharp resonances when one of the Kondo discrete sub-levels characterizing the Kondo box is tuned by the applied potential. The conductance, the current fluctuations and the Fano coefficient result as being the relevant physical magnitudes to be analyzed to reveal the physical properties of these two Kondo regimes and the crossover region between them. The results were obtained by using the slave boson mean field theory (SBMFT). PMID:24275637

  9. Ion beam diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is an introduction to ion beam diagnosis. After a short description of the most important ion beam parameters measurements of the beam current by means of Faraday cups, calorimetry, and beam current transformers and measurements of the beam profile by means of viewing screens, profile grids and scanning devices, and residual gas ionization monitors are described. Finally measurements in the transverse and longitudinal phase space are considered. (HSI)

  10. The beam dump tunnels

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    In these images workers are digging the tunnels that will be used to dump the counter-circulating beams. Travelling just a fraction under the speed of light, the beams at the LHC will each carry the energy of an aircraft carrier travelling at 12 knots. In order to dispose of these beams safely, a beam dump is used to extract the beam and diffuse it before it collides with a radiation shielded graphite target.

  11. Evaluating the effect of fishery closures: Lessons learnt from the Plaice Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beare, Doug; Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D.; Blaesberg, Mette; Damm, Ulrich; Egekvist, Josefine; Fock, Heino; Kloppmann, Matthias; Röckmann, Christine; Schroeder, Alexander; Schulze, Torsten; Tulp, Ingrid; Ulrich, Clara; van Hal, Ralf; van Kooten, Tobias; Verweij, Marieke

    2013-11-01

    To reduce discarding of plaice Pleuronectes platessa in the North Sea flatfish fisheries, the major nursery areas were closed to large trawlers in 1995. The area closed was named the ‘Plaice Box’ (PB) and beam trawl effort fell by over 90%,while the exemption fleets of small flatfish beam trawlers, gill netters targeting sole (Solea solea) and shrimp (Crangon crangon) trawlers increased their effort. Contrary to the expectation, plaice landings and biomass declined. The initial support for the PB from the fisheries was lost, whereas other stakeholder groups claimed that any failure was due to the fact that fishing had never been completely prohibited in the area. To evaluate whether the PB has been an effective management measure, the changes in the ecosystem (plaice, demersal fish, benthos) and fisheries are analyzed to test whether the observed changes are due to the PB or to changes in the environment unrelated to the PB. Juvenile growth rate of plaice decreased and juveniles moved to deeper waters outside the PB. Demersal fish biomass decreased, whereas the abundance of epibenthic predators (Asterias rubens and Cancer pagurus) increased in the PB. Endobenthos, in particular the main food items of plaice (polychaetes and small bivalves) remained stable or decreased both inside and outside the PB. Currently catches of both plaice and sole from within the PB are lower than in the late 1980s and the exemption fleet often prefers to fish outside the Plaice Box alongside much larger competitors. It is concluded that the observed changes are most likely related to changes in the North Sea ecosystem, which may be related to changes in eutrophication and temperature. It is less likely that they are related to the change in fishing. This case study highlights the importance of setting testable objectives and an appropriate evaluation framework including both ecological and socio-economic indicators when implementing closed areas.

  12. CFRP-Strengthening and Long-Term Performance of Fatigue Critical Welds of a Steel Box Girder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland E. Koller

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Empa’s research efforts in the 1990s provided evidence that a considerable increase of the fatigue strength of welded aluminum beams can be achieved by externally bonding pultruded carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP laminates using rubber-toughened epoxies over the fatigue-weak welding zone on their tensile flange. The reinforcing effect obtained is determined by the stiffness of the unidirectional CFRP laminate which has twice the elastic modulus of aluminum. One can therefore easily follow that an unstressed CFRP laminate reinforcement of welded beams made of steel will not lead to a substantial increase in fatigue strength of the steel structure. This consideration led to the idea of prestressing an external reinforcement of the welded zone. The present investigation describes experimental studies to identify the adhesive system suitable for achieving high creep and fatigue strength of the prestressed CFRP patch. Experimental results (Wöhler-fields of shear-lap-specimens and welded steel beams reinforced with prestressed CFRP laminates are presented. The paper concludes by presenting a field application, the reinforcement of a steel pendulum by adhesively bonded prestressed CFRP laminates to the tensile flanges of the welded box girder. Inspections carried out periodically on this structure revealed neither prestress losses nor crack initiation after nine years of service.

  13. some chocolate和a box of chocolates的区别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王振元

    2012-01-01

    在《牛津小学英语》5A Unit8 A campingt rip一课中,有这么一句话:Miss Li has a box of chocolates and Mr Green has some fruit.这里出现了chocolate的复数。在平时的教学中,教师告诉学生chocolate是不可数名词,这里又出现了复数,作何解释呢?笔者认为,理解单复数还要根据不同的文化背景。

  14. Introduction to game physics with Box2D

    CERN Document Server

    Parberry, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Written by a pioneer of game development in academia, Introduction to Game Physics with Box2D covers the theory and practice of 2D game physics in a relaxed and entertaining yet instructional style. It offers a cohesive treatment of the topics and code involved in programming the physics for 2D video games. Focusing on writing elementary game physics code, the first half of the book helps you grasp the challenges of programming game physics from scratch, without libraries or outside help. It examines the mathematical foundation of game physics and illustrates how it is applied in practice thro

  15. Standard Waste Box Lid Screw Removal Option Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides results from test work conducted to resolve the removal of screws securing the standard waste box (SWB) lids that hold the remediated nitrate salt (RNS) drums. The test work evaluated equipment and process alternatives for removing the 42 screws that hold the SWB lid in place. The screws were secured with a red Loctite thread locker that makes removal very difficult because the rivets that the screw threads into would slip before the screw could be freed from the rivet, making it impossible to remove the screw and therefore the SWB lid.

  16. Standard Waste Box Lid Screw Removal Option Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anast, Kurt Roy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-11

    This report provides results from test work conducted to resolve the removal of screws securing the standard waste box (SWB) lids that hold the remediated nitrate salt (RNS) drums. The test work evaluated equipment and process alternatives for removing the 42 screws that hold the SWB lid in place. The screws were secured with a red Loctite thread locker that makes removal very difficult because the rivets that the screw threads into would slip before the screw could be freed from the rivet, making it impossible to remove the screw and therefore the SWB lid.

  17. COMPUTER MODEL AND SIMULATION OF A GLOVE BOX PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. FOSTER; ET AL

    2001-01-01

    The development of facilities to deal with the disposition of nuclear materials at an acceptable level of Occupational Radiation Exposure (ORE) is a significant issue facing the nuclear community. One solution is to minimize the worker's exposure though the use of automated systems. However, the adoption of automated systems for these tasks is hampered by the challenging requirements that these systems must meet in order to be cost effective solutions in the hazardous nuclear materials processing environment. Retrofitting current glove box technologies with automation systems represents potential near-term technology that can be applied to reduce worker ORE associated with work in nuclear materials processing facilities. Successful deployment of automation systems for these applications requires the development of testing and deployment strategies to ensure the highest level of safety and effectiveness. Historically, safety tests are conducted with glove box mock-ups around the finished design. This late detection of problems leads to expensive redesigns and costly deployment delays. With wide spread availability of computers and cost effective simulation software it is possible to discover and fix problems early in the design stages. Computer simulators can easily create a complete model of the system allowing a safe medium for testing potential failures and design shortcomings. The majority of design specification is now done on computer and moving that information to a model is relatively straightforward. With a complete model and results from a Failure Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA), redesigns can be worked early. Additional issues such as user accessibility, component replacement, and alignment problems can be tackled early in the virtual environment provided by computer simulation. In this case, a commercial simulation package is used to simulate a lathe process operation at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The Lathe process operation is

  18. Mom-and-Pops or Big Box Stores

    OpenAIRE

    Michael J. Hicks; Keil, Stanley R.; Lee C. Spector

    2012-01-01

    This article explores WalMart’s impact on the retail sector in the counties in which it is located, as well as in surrounding counties, by examining the number and size of retail outlets, by retail category. Using statewide data as well as a case study incorporating econometric modes, we find that the main impact of the entrance of a WalMart primarily falls on competitive big box stores. Furthermore, we find that the long-run adjustment to the entrance of a WalMart takes between 18 and 36 m...

  19. Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS) Technology Tool Box (TTB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Monica; ONeil, Daniel A.; Christensen, Carissa B.

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS) is a decision support tool designed to aid program managers and strategic planners in determining how to invest technology research and development dollars. It is an Excel-based modeling package that allows a user to build complex space architectures and evaluate the impact of various technology choices. ATLAS contains system models, cost and operations models, a campaign timeline and a centralized technology database. Technology data for all system models is drawn from a common database, the ATLAS Technology Tool Box (TTB). The TTB provides a comprehensive, architecture-independent technology database that is keyed to current and future timeframes.

  20. Wireless ultrasonic wavefield imaging via laser for hidden damage detection inside a steel box girder bridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a wireless ultrasonic wavefield imaging (WUWI) technique for detecting hidden damage inside a steel box girder bridge. The proposed technique allows (1) complete wireless excitation of piezoelectric transducers and noncontact sensing of the corresponding responses using laser beams, (2) autonomous damage visualization without comparing against baseline data previously accumulated from the pristine condition of a target structure and (3) robust damage diagnosis even for real structures with complex structural geometries. First, a new WUWI hardware system was developed by integrating optoelectronic-based signal transmitting and receiving devices and a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer. Next, a damage visualization algorithm, self-referencing f-k filter (SRF), was introduced to isolate and visualize only crack-induced ultrasonic modes from measured ultrasonic wavefield images. Finally, the performance of the proposed technique was validated through hidden crack visualization at a decommissioned Ramp-G Bridge in South Korea. The experimental results reveal that the proposed technique instantaneously detects and successfully visualizes hidden cracks even in the complex structure of a real bridge. (paper)

  1. Wireless ultrasonic wavefield imaging via laser for hidden damage detection inside a steel box girder bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Yun-Kyu; Song, Homin; Sohn, Hoon

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents a wireless ultrasonic wavefield imaging (WUWI) technique for detecting hidden damage inside a steel box girder bridge. The proposed technique allows (1) complete wireless excitation of piezoelectric transducers and noncontact sensing of the corresponding responses using laser beams, (2) autonomous damage visualization without comparing against baseline data previously accumulated from the pristine condition of a target structure and (3) robust damage diagnosis even for real structures with complex structural geometries. First, a new WUWI hardware system was developed by integrating optoelectronic-based signal transmitting and receiving devices and a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer. Next, a damage visualization algorithm, self-referencing f-k filter (SRF), was introduced to isolate and visualize only crack-induced ultrasonic modes from measured ultrasonic wavefield images. Finally, the performance of the proposed technique was validated through hidden crack visualization at a decommissioned Ramp-G Bridge in South Korea. The experimental results reveal that the proposed technique instantaneously detects and successfully visualizes hidden cracks even in the complex structure of a real bridge.

  2. Prediction and experimental validation of stagnation temperature attained by a solar cooker of hot box type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narasimha Rao, A. V; Srikrishna, D. V. N [Warangal (India)

    2000-07-01

    A hot box type solar cooker, having double glass covers and a plane mirror reflector, is tested for stagnation temperature. A computer code is developed based on the analytical model proposed by Vaishya et. al. The global and beam components of solar radiation measured at Warangal are made use to predict the stagnation temperature of the cooker. The observed values of stagnation temperature at Warangal are compared with those of predicted values. A good agreement of the measured and observed values of the stagnation temperature is observed during the afternoon period. The lag in the observed values during the forenoon may be due to thermal inertia of the cooker. [Spanish] Se probo una estufa solar de tipo caja caliente con cubiertas dobles de vidrio y un espejo reflector plano para medir la temperatura de estancamiento. Se desarrollo un codigo de computacion basado en el modelo analitico propuesto por Vaishya et. al. Los componentes de la radiacion solar globales y de rayo medidos en Warangal se usan para predecir la temperatura de estancamiento de la estufa. Los valores observados de la temperatura de estancamiento en Warangal se comparan con los valores predichos. Se aprecia una buena concidencia de los valores medidos y observados de la temperatura de estancamiento durante el periodo de la tarde. El retraso de los valores observados durante la manana puede ser debido a la inercia termica de la estufa.

  3. Distributed Nd-YAG laser welding and process control in inert glove boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have fabricated and assembled a fiber optic delivered ND-YAG laser welding work station that consists of three glove boxes served by a single 1kw laser. Processing considerations related to the welding of special nuclear materials, toxic materials and complex part geometry are addressed within each work cell. We are proceeding with a development effort to integrate the equipment capabilities with remote sensing, process monitoring and control systems. These systems will provide real time data acquisition during welding, monitoring and verification of weld parameters, and CAD/CAM to CNC generated positioning paths. Computerized information storage, retrieval and network methods are used for weld process documentation and data analysis. A virtual control panel is being configured to integrate the monitoring and control operation of individual subsystems, such as laser and motion control into a single graphical interface. Development work on sensors to monitor laser beam characteristics and weld depth in real time with potential for adaptive control is in progress. System capabilities and results of these development efforts are presented

  4. Vibration suppression of electronic box by a dual function piezoelectric energy harvester-tuned vibration absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past few years, remarkable developments in piezoelectric materials have motivated many researchers to work in the field of vibration energy harvesting by using piezoelectric beam like smart structures. This paper aimed to present the most recent application of a dual function piezoelectric device which can suppress vibration and harvest vibration energy simultaneously and a brief illustration of conventional mechanical and electrical TVAs (Tuned Vibration Absorber). It is shown that the proposed dual function device combines the benefits of conventional mechanical and electrical TVAs and reduces their relative disadvantages. Conversion of mechanical energy into electrical energy introduces damping and, hence, the optimal damping required by this TVA is generated by the energy harvesting effects. This paper presents the methodology of implementing the theory of electromechanical TVAs to suppress the response of any real world structure. The work also illustrates the prospect of extensive applications of such novel electromechanical TVAs in defence and industry. The results show that the optimum degree of vibration suppression of an electronic box is achieved by this dual function TVA through suitable tuning of the attached electrical circuitry. (author)

  5. Low energy, high power hydrogen neutral beam for plasma heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deichuli, P.; Davydenko, V.; Ivanov, A.; Korepanov, S.; Mishagin, V.; Smirnov, A.; Sorokin, A.; Stupishin, N.

    2015-11-01

    A high power, relatively low energy neutral beam injector was developed to upgrade of the neutral beam system of the gas dynamic trap device and C2-U experiment. The ion source of the injector produces a proton beam with the particle energy of 15 keV, current of up to 175 A, and pulse duration of a few milliseconds. The plasma emitter of the ion source is produced by superimposing highly ionized plasma jets from an array of four arc-discharge plasma generators. A multipole magnetic field produced with permanent magnets at the periphery of the plasma box is used to increase the efficiency and improve the uniformity of the plasma emitter. Multi-slit grids with 48% transparency are fabricated from bronze plates, which are spherically shaped to provide geometrical beam focusing. The focal length of the Ion Optical System (IOS) is 3.5 m and the initial beam diameter is 34 cm. The IOS geometry and grid potentials were optimized numerically to ensure accurate beam formation. The measured angular divergences of the beam are ±0.01 rad parallel to the slits and ±0.03 rad in the transverse direction.

  6. Low energy, high power hydrogen neutral beam for plasma heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deichuli, P; Davydenko, V; Ivanov, A; Korepanov, S; Mishagin, V; Smirnov, A; Sorokin, A; Stupishin, N

    2015-11-01

    A high power, relatively low energy neutral beam injector was developed to upgrade of the neutral beam system of the gas dynamic trap device and C2-U experiment. The ion source of the injector produces a proton beam with the particle energy of 15 keV, current of up to 175 A, and pulse duration of a few milliseconds. The plasma emitter of the ion source is produced by superimposing highly ionized plasma jets from an array of four arc-discharge plasma generators. A multipole magnetic field produced with permanent magnets at the periphery of the plasma box is used to increase the efficiency and improve the uniformity of the plasma emitter. Multi-slit grids with 48% transparency are fabricated from bronze plates, which are spherically shaped to provide geometrical beam focusing. The focal length of the Ion Optical System (IOS) is 3.5 m and the initial beam diameter is 34 cm. The IOS geometry and grid potentials were optimized numerically to ensure accurate beam formation. The measured angular divergences of the beam are ±0.01 rad parallel to the slits and ±0.03 rad in the transverse direction. PMID:26628137

  7. {InAs}/{GaAs} quantum boxes obtained by self-organized growth: Intrinsic electronic properties and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérard, J. M.; Marzin, J. Y.; Zimmermann, G.; Ponchet, A.; Cabrol, O.; Barrier, D.; Jusserand, B.; Sermage, B.

    Spatially or spectrally selective photoluminescence (PL) studies, as well as time-resolved PL, highlight the superior intrinsic electronic properties of {InAs}/{GaAs} quantum boxes (QBs) obtained by self-organized molecular beam epitaxy. A given QB displays a single PL line, with linewidth much smaller than the thermal energy kT. The emission of resonantly excited QBs is slightly Stokes shifted (0.7 meV) with respect to their fundamental optical transition. Ultrafast carrier capture and relaxation (≈20 ps) is observed in spite of the large energy between QB levels. Usually foreseen applications of QBs in optoelectronics are however still out of reach due to the inhomogeneous broadening induced by size fluctuations and, for the smaller QBs, thermoemission. Novel applications of such QBs in optoelectronics, such as efficient light emitting diodes on silicon, are proposed and validated experimentally.

  8. Intense positron beams: linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beams of monoenergetic positrons with energies of a few eV to many keV have been used in experiments in atomic physics, solid-state physics and materials science. The production of positron beams from a new source, an electron linac, is described. Intense, pulsed beams of low-energy positrons were produced by a high-energy beam from an electron linac. The production efficiency, moderator geometry, beam spot size and other positron beam parameters were determined for electrons with energies from 60 to 120 MeV. Low-energy positron beams produced with a high-energy electron linac can be of much higher intensity than those beams currently derived from radioactive sources. These higher intensity beams will make possible positron experiments previously infeasible. 10 references, 1 figure

  9. Tortoiseshell or Polymer? Spectroscopic Analysis to Redefine a Purported Tortoiseshell Box with Gold Decorations as a Plastic Box with Brass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, António; Caldeira, Ana Teresa; Maduro, Belmira; Vandenabeele, Peter; Candeias, António

    2016-01-01

    The study and preservation of museum collections requires complete knowledge and understanding of constituent materials that can be natural, synthetic, or semi-synthetic polymers. In former times, objects were incorporated in museum collections and classified solely by their appearance. New studies, prompted by severe degradation processes or conservation-restoration actions, help shed light on the materiality of objects that can contradict the original information or assumptions. The selected case study presented here is of a box dating from the beginning of the 20th century that belongs to the Portuguese National Ancient Art Museum. Museum curators classified it as a tortoiseshell box decorated with gold applications solely on the basis of visual inspection and the information provided by the donor. This box has visible signs of degradation with white veils, initially assumed to be the result of biological degradation of a proteinaceous matrix. This paper presents the methodological rationale behind this study and proposes a totally non-invasive methodology for the identification of polymeric materials in museum artifacts. The analysis of surface leachates using (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) complemented by in situ attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR FT-IR) allowed for full characterization of the object s substratum. The NMR technique unequivocally identified a great number of additives and ATR FT-IR provided information about the polymer structure and while also confirming the presence of additives. The pressure applied during ATR FT-IR spectroscopy did not cause any physical change in the structure of the material at the level of the surface (e.g., color, texture, brightness, etc.). In this study, variable pressure scanning electron microscopy (VP-SEM-EDS) was also used to obtain the elemental composition of the metallic decorations. Additionally, microbiologic and enzymatic assays were performed in order to identify the

  10. Broadband set-top box using MAP-CA processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, John E.; Lee, Woobin; Basoglu, Chris

    2001-12-01

    Advances in broadband access are expected to exert a profound impact in our everyday life. It will be the key to the digital convergence of communication, computer and consumer equipment. A common thread that facilitates this convergence comprises digital media and Internet. To address this market, Equator Technologies, Inc., is developing the Dolphin broadband set-top box reference platform using its MAP-CA Broadband Signal ProcessorT chip. The Dolphin reference platform is a universal media platform for display and presentation of digital contents on end-user entertainment systems. The objective of the Dolphin reference platform is to provide a complete set-top box system based on the MAP-CA processor. It includes all the necessary hardware and software components for the emerging broadcast and the broadband digital media market based on IP protocols. Such reference design requires a broadband Internet access and high-performance digital signal processing. By using the MAP-CA processor, the Dolphin reference platform is completely programmable, allowing various codecs to be implemented in software, such as MPEG-2, MPEG-4, H.263 and proprietary codecs. The software implementation also enables field upgrades to keep pace with evolving technology and industry demands.

  11. Stuffing box for a sucker rod pump assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, M.B.

    1987-03-03

    A stuffing box is described for use with a sucker rod pump assembly for a producing well including a polish rod at the upper end of the sucker rods, comprising a tubular housing for mounting on the wellhead of a producing well through which the polish rod reciprocates. Two longitudinally spaced packing assemblies are located in the tubular housing in sealing engagement with the polish rod and the housing to provide an annular chamber for a lubricating fluid to surround the polish rod. The box also comprises a lubricating fluid reservoir mounted on the tubular housing and surrounding the portion of the housing in which the annular chamber is located, upper and lower ports in the housing adjacent the upper and lower ends of the chamber connecting the annular chamber with the lubricating fluid reservoir, the housing being imperforate between the ports, and a removable annular spacer located in the annular chamber between the packing assemblies to hold the packing assemblies spaced apart. The spacer has upper and lower ports adjacent the upper and lower end of the chamber and is in substantially the same plane as the upper and lower ports in the housing.

  12. Innovation by design lessons from post box design & development

    CERN Document Server

    Chakravarthy, Battula Kalyana

    2013-01-01

    The book provides an in-depth knowledge on how a product is designed and developed by Product Designers. This has been achieved through a case study of one product – the Post Box. This product was chosen for the study primarily due to its simple and non-technical nature as that would make it easy for the readers to comprehend the design process. At the same time the Post Box posed all the challenges a designer would face while creating a new product. Through a step by step process the book gradually takes the reader through the design and development journey – right from understanding the product, identifying the user need through market research, comprehending client’s brief, generating product ideas and concepts to development of prototype, manufacturing and final performance of the product. The book illustrates the stages in the design process that lead to innovation which is applicable to all types of products. To make the book more stimulating, interesting facts, figures and pictures on related iss...

  13. Communications systems design for testability: Grey-box testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probert, Robert L.; Geldrez, Cecilia

    Large systems such as telecommunications systems may involve several million lines of executable code and tend to evolve incrementally, thus rendering testing and maintainability a very complex task. For this reason, testing and verification requirements must be defined and incorporated into the development process early in the software development cycle. Thus, design becomes a key component of these systems. An approach to assist in enhancing the testability of software designs is proposed, termed grey-box testing. One particular grey-box testing paradigm named semantic instrumentation is illustrated. Designs are represented as design machines, an extension of finite-state machines. A design-level plan for verification/test is then derived to guarantee branch coverage of the design machine for both normal behaviors and for processing of exceptions. Finally, semantic probes are defined to provide a mapping from the design machine to implemented code. These probes are used to document design decisions, implementation decisions, and execution traces during code verification and test. The process of semantic instrumentation is illustrated on communications services, more precisely, on the service of the alternating bit protocol.

  14. No Quantum Realization of Extremal No-Signaling Boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Ravishankar; Tuziemski, Jan; Horodecki, Michał; Horodecki, Paweł

    2016-07-01

    The study of quantum correlations is important for fundamental reasons as well as for quantum communication and information processing tasks. On the one hand, it is of tremendous interest to derive the correlations produced by measurements on separated composite quantum systems from within the set of all correlations obeying the no-signaling principle of relativity, by means of information-theoretic principles. On the other hand, an important ongoing research program concerns the formulation of device-independent cryptographic protocols based on quantum nonlocal correlations for the generation of secure keys, and the amplification and expansion of random bits against general no-signaling adversaries. In both these research programs, a fundamental question arises: Can any measurements on quantum states realize the correlations present in pure extremal no-signaling boxes? Here, we answer this question in full generality showing that no nontrivial (not local realistic) extremal boxes of general no-signaling theories can be realized in quantum theory. We then explore some important consequences of this fact.

  15. Mirror boxes and mirror mounts for photophysics beamline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photophysics beamline makes use of one metre Seya-Namioka monochromator and two toroidal mirrors in its fore optics. The first toroidal mirror (pre mirror) focuses light originating from the tangent point of the storage ring onto the entrance slit of the monochromator and second toroidal mirror (post mirror) collects light from the exit slit of the monochromator and focuses light onto the sample placed at a distance of about one metre away from the 2nd mirror. To steer light through monochromator and to focus it on the sample of 1mm x 1mm size require precision rotational and translational motion of the mirrors and this has been achieved with the help of precision mirror mounts. Since Indus-1 operates at pressures less than 10-9 m.bar, the mirror mounts should be manipulated under similar ultra high vacuum conditions. Considering these requirements, two mirror boxes and two mirror mounts have been designed and fabricated. The coarse movements to the mirrors are imparted from outside the mirror chamber with the help of x-y tables and precision movements to the mirrors are achieved with the help of mirror mounts. The UHV compatibility and performance of the mirror mounts connected to mirror boxes under ultra high vacuum condition is evaluated. The details of the design, fabrication and performance evaluation are discussed in this report. 5 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  16. Numerical Characterization of a Composite Bonded Wing-Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeltzer, Stanley S., III; Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Satyanarayana, Arunkumar

    2008-01-01

    The development of composite wing structures has focused on the use of mechanical fasteners to join heavily-loaded areas, while bonded joints have been used only for select locations. The focus of this paper is the examination of the adhesive layer in a generic bonded wing box that represents a "fastenerless" or unitized structure in order to characterize the general behavior and failure mechanisms. A global/local approach was applied to study the response of the adhesive layer using a global shell model and a local shell/solid model. The wing box was analyzed under load to represent a high-g up-bending condition such that the strains in the composite sandwich face sheets are comparable to an expected design allowable. The global/local analysis indicates that at these wing load levels the strains in the adhesive layer are well within the adhesive's elastic region, such that yielding would not be expected in the adhesive layer. The global/local methodology appears to be a promising approach to evaluate the structural integrity of the adhesively bonded structures.

  17. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in a split potential box

    CERN Document Server

    Shamriz, Elad; Malomed, Boris A

    2016-01-01

    We report results of the analysis of the spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB) in the basic (actually, simplest) model which is capable to produce the SSB phenomenology in the one-dimensional setting. It is based on the Gross-Pitaevskii - nonlinear Schroedinger equation with the cubic self-attractive term and a double-well-potential built as an infinitely deep potential box split by a narrow (delta-functional) barrier. The barrier's strength, epsilon, is the single free parameter of the scaled form of the model. It may be implemented in atomic Bose-Einstein condensates and nonlinear optics. The SSB bifurcation of the symmetric ground state (GS) is predicted analytically in two limit cases, viz., for deep or weak splitting of the potential box by the barrier. For the generic case, a variational approximation (VA) is elaborated. The analytical findings are presented along with systematic numerical results. Stability of stationary states is studied through the calculation of eigenvalues for small perturbations, an...

  18. The approximate scaling law of the cochlea box model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetesník, A; Nobili, R

    2006-12-01

    The hydrodynamic box-model of the cochlea is reconsidered here for the primary purpose of studying in detail the approximate scaling law that governs tonotopic responses in the frequency domain. "Scaling law" here means that any two solutions representing waveforms elicited by tones of equal amplitudes differ only by a complex factor depending on frequency. It is shown that this property holds with excellent approximation almost all along the basilar membrane (BM) length, with the exception of a small region adjacent to the BM base. The analytical expression of the approximate law is explicitly given and compared to numerical solutions carried out on a virtually exact implementation of the model. It differs significantly from that derived by Sondhi in 1978, which suffers from an inaccuracy in the hyperbolic approximation of the exact Green's function. Since the cochleae of mammals do not exhibit the scaling properties of the box model, the subject presented here may appear to be just an academic exercise. The results of our study, however, are significant in that a more general scaling law should hold for real cochleae. To support this hypothesis, an argument related to the problem of cochlear amplifier-gain stabilization is advanced. PMID:17008036

  19. Dynamics of TBP binding to the TATA box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schluesche, Peter; Heiss, Gregor; Meisterernst, Michael; Lamb, Don C.

    2008-02-01

    Gene expression is highly controlled and regulated in living cells. One of the first steps in gene transcription is recognition of the promoter site by the TATA box Binding Protein (TBP). TBP recruits other transcriptions factors and eventually the RNA polymerase II to transcribe the DNA in mRNA. We developed a single pair Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (spFRET) assay to investigate the mechanism of gene regulation. Here, we apply this assay to investigate the initial binding process of TBP to the adenovirus major late (AdML) promoter site. From the spFRET measurements, we were able to identify two conformations of the TBP-DNA complex that correspond to TBP bound in the correct and the opposite orientation. Increased incubation times or the presence of the transcription factor TFIIA improved the alignment of TBP on the promoter site. Binding of TBP to the TATA box shows a rich dynamics with abrupt transitions between multiple FRET states. A frame-wise histogram analysis revealed the presence of at least six discrete states, showing that TBP binding is more complicated than previously thought. Hence, the spFRET assay is very sensitive to the conformation of the TBP-DNA complex and is very promising tool for investigating the pathway of TBP binding in detail.

  20. Tritium stripping in a nitrogen glove box using palladium/zeolite and SAES St 198 trademark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glove box clean-up experiments were conducted in a nitrogen glove box using palladium deposited on zeolite (Pd/z) and a SAES St 198 trademark getter as tritium stripping materials. Protium/deuterium samples spiked with tritium were released into a 620 liter glove box to simulate tritium releases in a 10,500 liter glove box. The Pd/z and the SAES St 198 trademark stripper beds produced a reduction in tritium activity of approximately two to three orders of magnitude and glove box clean-up was limited by a persistent background tritium activity level. Attempts to significantly reduce the glove box activity to lower levels without purging were unsuccessful

  1. Decontamination and reconditioning of the Argonne National Laboratory-West Casting Laboratory alpha glove box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Casting Laboratory (CL) alpha glove box was used to melt and cast metallic uranium and plutonium fuels as part of the Department of Energy''s Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Program. This highly contaminated alpha glove box was decontaminated and reconditioned to allow a change in mission. The goal of reconditioning was to install experimental apparatus and to improve contamination control prior to introducing plutonium-238 into the CL glove box. Construction of a glove box containment structure and an increase in room ventilation were required. A temporary breathing air station was provided for personnel protection as well as personnel comfort. The historical contamination levels, the decontamination techniques, and the results of decontamination also are presented. The health physics aspects of the CL alpha glove box project may be applicable to other glove box refurbishment or decommissioning projects

  2. Beam Dynamics and Beam Losses - Circular Machines

    CERN Document Server

    Kain, V

    2016-01-01

    A basic introduction to transverse and longitudinal beam dynamics as well as the most relevant beam loss mechanisms in circular machines will be presented in this lecture. This lecture is intended for physicists and engineers with little or no knowledge of this subject.

  3. Electron beam instabilities in gyrotron beam tunnels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron beam instabilities occurring in a gyrotron electron beam can induce an energy spread which might significantly deteriorate the gyrotron efficiency. Three types of instabilities are considered to explain the important discrepancy found between the theoretical and experimental efficiency in the case of quasi-optical gyrotrons (QOG): the electron cyclotron maser instability, the Bernstein instability and the Langmuir instability. The low magnetic field gradient in drift tubes of QOG makes that the electron cyclotron maser instability can develop in the drift tube at very low electron beam currents. Experimental measurements show that with a proper choice of absorbing structures in the beam tunnel, this instability can be suppressed. At high beam currents, the electrostatic Bernstein instability can induce a significant energy spread at the entrance of the interaction region. The induced energy spread scales approximately linearly with the electron beam density and for QOG one observes that the beam density is significantly higher than the beam density of an equivalent cylindrical cavity gyrotron. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  4. Beam-beam issues in asymmetric colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furman, M.A.

    1992-07-01

    We discuss generic beam-beam issues for proposed asymmetric e{sup +}- e{sup -} colliders. We illustrate the issues by choosing, as examples, the proposals by Cornell University (CESR-B), KEK, and SLAC/LBL/LLNL (PEP-II).

  5. Construction of Substitution Box Based on Piecewise Linear Chaotic Map and S8 Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Iqtadar; Gondal, Muhammad Asif; Hussain, Azkar

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, a scheme for the construction of substitution boxes (S-boxes) based on chaotic map and S8 (symmetric group of permutation) is presented. The properties such as nonlinearity, strict avalanche and resistance against the differential cryptanalysis are analyzed in detail. The result shows that the criterion for designing good S-box can be met approximately. As a result, our approach is suitable for practical application in designing block cryptosystem.

  6. A new glove-box system for a high-pressure tritium pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new glove-box system that was designed around a high-pressure tritium pump is described. The system incorporates new containment ideas such as burpler passive pressure controls, valves that can be turned from outside the box, inflatable door seals, ferro-fluidic motor-shaft seals, and rapid box-to-hood conversion during cryostaging. Currently under construction, the system will contain nine separate section with automatic pressure-balancing and venting systems

  7. A new glove-box system for a high-pressure tritium pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new glove-box system that was designed around a high-pressure tritium pump is described. The system incorporates new containment ideas such as ''burpler'' passive pressure controls, valves that can be turned from outside the box, inflatable door seals, ferro-fluidic motor-shaft seals, and rapid box-to-hood conversion during cryostaging. Currently under construction, the system will contain nine separate sections with automatic pressure-balancing and venting systems. 3 refs., 5 figs

  8. Somatotype Analysis of Elite Boxing Athletes Compared with Nonathletes for Sports Physiotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Noh, Ji-Woong; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Park, Byoung-Sun; Yang, Seung-Min; Jeon, Hye-Joo; Lee, Won-Deok; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Jang, Sung-Ho; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Junghwan

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to show somatotype and physical characteristic differences between elite boxing athletes and non-athletes. [Methods] The somatotypes of 23 elite boxing athletes and 23 nonathletes were measured with the Heath-Carter method. The subjects were divided into four weight divisions as follows: lightweight, light middleweight, middleweight, and heavyweight class. [Results] The endomorphic component values of the boxing athletes were lower than those of the non...

  9. ATP hydrolysis is required for DEAD-box protein recycling but not for duplex unwinding

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Fei; Putnam, Andrea; Jankowsky, Eckhard

    2008-01-01

    DEAD-box proteins, the largest helicase family, catalyze ATP-dependent remodeling of RNA–protein complexes and the unwinding of RNA duplexes. Because DEAD-box proteins hydrolyze ATP in an RNA-dependent fashion, the energy provided by ATP hydrolysis is commonly assumed to drive the energetically unfavorable duplex unwinding. Here, we show efficient unwinding of stable duplexes by several DEAD-box proteins in the presence of the nonhydrolyzable ATP analog ADP-beryllium fluoride. Another ATP ana...

  10. SPL8, an SBP-box gene that affects pollen sac development in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Unte, Ulrike S.; Sorensen, Anna-Marie; Pesaresi, Paolo; Gandikota, Madhuri; Leister, Dario; Saedler, Heinz; Huijser, Peter

    2003-01-01

    SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-box genes (SBP-box genes) encode plant-specific proteins that share a highly conserved DNA binding domain, the SBP domain. Although likely to represent transcription factors, little is known about their role in development. In Arabidopsis, SBP-box genes constitute a structurally heterogeneous family of 16 members known as SPL genes. For one of these genes, SPL8, we isolated three independent transposon-tagged mutants, all of which exhibited a strong reduction...

  11. Smart Call Box Field Operation Test Evaluation: Summary Report (revised Draft 5-1-97)

    OpenAIRE

    Banks, James H.; Powell, Patrick A. D.

    1997-01-01

    The Smart Call Box Field Operational Test evaluated the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of using smart call boxes for five data processing and transmission tasks: traffic census, incident detection, hazardous weather reporting, changeable message sign control, and video surveillance. Evaluation focused on assessing the cost-effectiveness of smart call boxes as compared with a baseline system using hardwire telephone communications. The evaluation was primarily based on functional adequacy ...

  12. Effect of material uncertainties on dynamic response of segmental box girder bridge

    OpenAIRE

    Suchart Limkatanyu; Kittisak Kuntiyawichai

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this paper was to investigate the effect of material uncertainties on dynamic response of segmental box girder bridge subjected to a moving load, in this case a rapid passing trains. Literatures concerned with the design of segmental box girder bridge, the application of finite element analysis to model the segmental box girder bridge, and the minimum requirement for structural conditions of the bridge were described and discussed in detail. A series of finite element a...

  13. Two high-mobility group box domains act together to underwind and kink DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez-Giraldo, R.; Acosta-Reyes, F. J. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Malarkey, C. S. [University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Saperas, N. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Churchill, M. E. A., E-mail: mair.churchill@ucdenver.edu [University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Campos, J. L., E-mail: mair.churchill@ucdenver.edu [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-06-30

    The crystal structure of HMGB1 box A bound to an unmodified AT-rich DNA fragment is reported at a resolution of 2 Å. A new mode of DNA recognition for HMG box proteins is found in which two box A domains bind in an unusual configuration generating a highly kinked DNA structure. High-mobility group protein 1 (HMGB1) is an essential and ubiquitous DNA architectural factor that influences a myriad of cellular processes. HMGB1 contains two DNA-binding domains, box A and box B, which have little sequence specificity but have remarkable abilities to underwind and bend DNA. Although HMGB1 box A is thought to be responsible for the majority of HMGB1–DNA interactions with pre-bent or kinked DNA, little is known about how it recognizes unmodified DNA. Here, the crystal structure of HMGB1 box A bound to an AT-rich DNA fragment is reported at a resolution of 2 Å. Two box A domains of HMGB1 collaborate in an unusual configuration in which the Phe37 residues of both domains stack together and intercalate the same CG base pair, generating highly kinked DNA. This represents a novel mode of DNA recognition for HMGB proteins and reveals a mechanism by which structure-specific HMG boxes kink linear DNA.

  14. Crash energy absorption of two-segment crash box with holes under frontal load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choiron, Moch. Agus; Sudjito, Hidayati, Nafisah Arina

    2016-03-01

    Crash box is one of the passive safety components which designed as an impact energy absorber during collision. Crash box designs have been developed in order to obtain the optimum crashworthiness performance. Circular cross section was first investigated with one segment design, it rather influenced by its length which is being sensitive to the buckling occurrence. In this study, the two-segment crash box design with additional holes is investigated and deformation behavior and crash energy absorption are observed. The crash box modelling is performed by finite element analysis. The crash test components were impactor, crash box, and fixed rigid base. Impactor and the fixed base material are modelled as a rigid, and crash box material as bilinear isotropic hardening. Crash box length of 100 mm and frontal crash velocity of 16 km/jam are selected. Crash box material of Aluminum Alloy is used. Based on simulation results, it can be shown that holes configuration with 2 holes and ¾ length locations have the largest crash energy absorption. This condition associated with deformation pattern, this crash box model produces axisymmetric mode than other models.

  15. The Black Box Theater and AV/IT Convergence: Creating the Classroom of the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenti, Mark S.

    2002-01-01

    Describes "black box" classrooms, which incorporate audiovisual and information technologies to provide an inherently flexible learning environment. Details various technological components of such classrooms. (EV)

  16. Effect of heterogeneity of nest boxes on occurrence of gregarious nesting in laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Tina; Riber, Anja Brinch

    2012-01-01

    Gregarious nesting, where hens select already occupied nest boxes even when other nest boxes are unoccupied, is an unwanted behaviour in laying hens that may reduce animal welfare and pose a financial cost to the producer. It has been suggested that gregarious nesting is caused by the difficulties...... nesting was higher in experimental groups compared to control groups (P < 0.01). The pre-laying period did not differ between the experimental and control groups (P = 0.41). Numbers of visits to and eggs laid in nest boxes positioned either left or right were higher compared to nest boxes positioned in...

  17. Intellectual Property (IP) Box Regimes : Tax Planning, Effective Tax Burdens, and Tax Policy Options

    OpenAIRE

    Evers, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    This thesis contributes to the current debate on Intellectual Property (IP) Box regimes and IP tax planning. It provides a comprehensive survey of the 12 IP Box regimes in place in Europe by the end of 2014 and presents effective tax rates associated with the IP Box regimes and the use of popular tax planning models. Moreover, it evaluates the IP Box regimes on the basis of the EU State Aid rules and the EU Code of Conduct for business taxation and discusses options to reform the taxation of ...

  18. Box traps on an atom chip for one-dimensional quantum gases

    CERN Document Server

    van Es, J J P; van Amerongen, A H; Rétif, C; Whitlock, S; van Druten, N J

    2009-01-01

    We present the implementation of tailored trapping potentials for ultracold gases on an atom chip. We realize highly elongated traps with box-like confinement along the long, axial direction combined with conventional harmonic confinement along the two radial directions. The design, fabrication and characterization of the atom chip and the box traps is described. We load ultracold ($\\lesssim1 \\mu$K) clouds of $^{87}$Rb in a box trap, and demonstrate Bose-gas focusing as a means to characterize these atomic clouds in arbitrarily shaped potentials. Our results show that box-like axial potentials on atom chips are very promising for studies of one-dimensional quantum gases.

  19. A method for designing dynamical S-boxes based on discretized chaotic map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for obtaining dynamically cryptographically strong substitution boxes (S-boxes) based on discretized chaotic map is presented in this paper. The cryptographical properties such as bijection, nonlinearity, strict avalanche, output bits independence and equiprobable input/output XOR distribution of these S-boxes are analyzed in detail. The results of numerical analysis show that all the criteria for designing good S-box can be met approximately. As a result, our approach is suitable for practical application in designing block cryptosystem

  20. RNA polymerase II/III transcription specificity determined by TATA box orientation.

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Y.; Stumph, W E

    1995-01-01

    The TATA box sequence in eukaryotes is located about 25 bp upstream of many genes transcribed by RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and some genes transcribed by RNA polymerase III (Pol III). The TATA box is recognized in a sequence-specific manner by the TATA box-binding protein (TBP), an essential factor involved in the initiation of transcription by all three eukaryotic RNA polymerases. We have investigated the recognition of the TATA box by the Pol II and Pol III basal transcription machinery and...

  1. Ethical and Practical Considerations in Removing Black Box Warnings from Drug Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, James S; Sarpatwari, Ameet; Kesselheim, Aaron S

    2016-08-01

    Boxed warnings-also known as "black box" warnings-can be a powerful tool in communicating drug risks to physicians and patients. The overall number of boxed warnings has grown in recent years as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved more drugs on the basis of limited pre-marketing information and as new safety issues for marketed drugs have been identified. Two recent manufacturers' petitions to remove boxed warnings on the drugs rosiglitazone (Avandia) and varenicline (Chantix) have led to divergent FDA decisions and revealed different considerations involved in boxed warning imposition and removal. For ethical and practical reasons, the FDA is justified in applying a higher standard for boxed warning removal than for imposition, as removal of a boxed warning may have unintended effects on physician and patient behavior. However, no guidelines on boxed warning removal currently exist. To promote safe use of approved prescription drugs, the FDA should adopt a uniform and transparent process governing decisions to impose or remove boxed warnings. PMID:27000800

  2. Crosstalk Enhancement in 32 nm FD SOI MOSFET using HR Substrate and Multilayer BOX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Tavanazadeh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the crosstalk in 32 nm UTB SOI MOSFET is examined by using a new structure, a high resistivity substrate, and a multilayer BOX (SiO2-Diamond. The electrical and thermal characteristics of the conventional SOI and a multilayer BOX SOI are compared, and it is concluded that parasitic capacitances and crosstalk are improved by incorporating multilayer BOX to a HR Substrate. In a conventional HR FD SOI, crosstalk is approximately -121dB, while by incorporating multilayer BOX substrate and increasing the thickness of the Diamond to 100nm, crosstalk can be reduced by 20%.

  3. Beam Loss in Linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Plum, M A

    2016-01-01

    Beam loss is a critical issue in high-intensity accelerators, and much effort is expended during both the design and operation phases to minimize the loss and to keep it to manageable levels. As new accelerators become ever more powerful, beam loss becomes even more critical. Linacs for H- ion beams, such as the one at the Oak Ridge Spallation Neutron Source, have many more loss mechanisms compared to H+ (proton) linacs, such as the one being designed for the European Spallation Neutron Source. Interesting H- beam loss mechanisms include residual gas stripping, H+ capture and acceleration, field stripping, black-body radiation and the recently discovered intra-beam stripping mechanism. Beam halo formation, and ion source or RF turn on/off transients, are examples of beam loss mechanisms that are common for both H+ and H- accelerators. Machine protection systems play an important role in limiting the beam loss.

  4. Mechanically reinforced glass beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Henrik; Olesen, John Forbes

    2007-01-01

    breakage without any warning or ductility, which can be catastrophic if no precautions are taken. One aspect of this issue is treated here by looking at the possibility of mechanically reinforcing glass beams in order to obtain ductile failure for such a structural component. A mechanically reinforced...... laminated float glass beam is constructed and tested in four-point bending. The beam consist of 4 layers of glass laminated together with a slack steel band glued onto the bottom face of the beam. The glass parts of the tested beams are \\SI{1700}{mm} long and \\SI{100}{mm} high, and the total width of one...... beam is \\SI{4\\times10}{mm}. It is reinforced with a \\SI{3}{mm} high steel band covering the full width of the beam. The experimental setup is described and results for this beam are presented. Furthermore, the results for three similar experiments with a \\SI{6}{mm} steel band reinforcement are briefly...

  5. Space charge dominated beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After an introductory section on the relationship between emittance and beam Coulomb energy we discuss the properties of space charge dominated beams in progressive steps: from uniformly charged bunched beams to non-uniformly charged beams to correlation effects between particles (simulation beams or 'crystalline' beams). A practical application can be found in the beam dynamics of a high-current injector. The concept of correlation energy is of practical interest in computer simulation of high-brilliance beams, where one deals with an artificially enhanced two-particle Coulomb energy, if many real particles are combined into one simulation super-particle. This can be a source of non-physical emittance growth. (orig./HSI)

  6. Laser-Beam Separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdermid, I. S.

    1984-01-01

    Train of prisms and optical stop separate fundamental beam of laser from second and higher order harmonics of beam produced in certain crystals and by stimulated Raman scattering in gases and liquids.

  7. PARTICLE BEAM TRACKING CIRCUIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, O.A.

    1959-05-01

    >A particle-beam tracking and correcting circuit is described. Beam induction electrodes are placed on either side of the beam, and potentials induced by the beam are compared in a voltage comparator or discriminator. This comparison produces an error signal which modifies the fm curve at the voltage applied to the drift tube, thereby returning the orbit to the preferred position. The arrangement serves also to synchronize accelerating frequency and magnetic field growth. (T.R.H.)

  8. Beam Dynamics for ARIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekdahl, Carl August Jr. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-10-14

    Beam dynamics issues are assessed for a new linear induction electron accelerator being designed for flash radiography of large explosively driven hydrodynamic experiments. Special attention is paid to equilibrium beam transport, possible emittance growth, and beam stability. It is concluded that a radiographic quality beam will be produced possible if engineering standards and construction details are equivalent to those on the present radiography accelerators at Los Alamos.

  9. Slow kaon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short description is given of considerations for the design of low-momentum kaon beam lines. Relevant data for the performance of seven existing and decommissioned slow kaon beams are presented. For single-stage separated beams the observed ratio all/K- is greater than 50 for momenta less than 500 MeV/c. We recommend a two-stage separated beam with perhaps an upstream cleanup section for maximal purity

  10. Welding by laser beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A laser which does not require a vacuum and the beam from which can be projected over a distance without loss of power is sited outside a welding zone and the beam projected through a replaceable laser transparent window. The window is designed and shaped to facilitate access of the beam of workpiece items to be welded in containment. Either the workpiece or the laser beam may be moved during welding. (author)

  11. Proton beam writing

    OpenAIRE

    Frank Watt; Breese, Mark B H; Bettiol, Andrew A; Jeroen A. van Kan

    2007-01-01

    Proton beam (p-beam) writing is a new direct-writing process that uses a focused beam of MeV protons to pattern resist material at nanodimensions. The process, although similar in many ways to direct writing using electrons, nevertheless offers some interesting and unique advantages. Protons, being more massive, have deeper penetration in materials while maintaining a straight path, enabling p-beam writing to fabricate three-dimensional, high aspect ratio structures with vertical, smooth side...

  12. Electron beam focusing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dikansky, N.; Nagaitsev, S.; Parkhomchuk, V.

    1997-09-01

    The high energy electron cooling requires a very cold electron beam. Thus, the electron beam focusing system is very important for the performance of electron cooling. A system with and without longitudinal magnetic field is presented for discussion. Interaction of electron beam with the vacuum chamber as well as with the background ions and stored antiprotons can cause the coherent electron beam instabilities. Focusing system requirements needed to suppress these instabilities are presented.

  13. Beam injection into RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the RHIC sextant test in January 1997 beam was injected into a sixth of one of the rings for the first time. The authors describe the injection zone and its bottlenecks. They report on the commissioning of the injection system, on beam based measurements of the kickers and the application program to steer the beam

  14. Beams 92: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains papers on the following topics: Ion beam papers; electron beam, bremsstrahlung, and diagnostics papers; radiating Z- pinch papers; microwave papers; electron laser papers; advanced accelerator papers; beam and pulsed power applications papers; pulsed power papers; and these papers have been indexed separately elsewhere

  15. An Electromagnetic Beam Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to an electromagnetic beam converter and a method for conversion of an input beam of electromagnetic radiation having a bell shaped intensity profile a(x,y) into an output beam having a prescribed target intensity profile l(x',y') based on a further development of the...

  16. Klystron beam bunching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed description of electron-beam bunching phenomena in klystrons is presented. Beam harmonic current is defined, both space-charge and ballistic bunching are analyzed, Ramo's theorem is used to describe how a bunched beam drives a cavity, and a general cavity model including external coupling is provided. (author)

  17. Accelerating nondiffracting beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Shaohui; Li, Manman; Yao, Baoli, E-mail: yaobl@opt.ac.cn; Yu, Xianghua; Lei, Ming; Dan, Dan; Yang, Yanlong; Min, Junwei; Peng, Tong

    2015-06-05

    We present a set of beams which combine the properties of accelerating beams and (conventional) diffraction-free beams. These beams can travel along a desired trajectory while keeping an approximately invariant transverse profile, which may be (higher-order) Bessel-, Mathieu- or parabolic-nondiffracting-like beams, depending on the initial complex amplitude distribution. A possible application of these beams presented here may be found in optical trapping field. For example, a higher-order Bessel-like beam, which has a hollow (transverse) pattern, is suitable for guiding low-refractive-index or metal particles along a curve. - Highlights: • A set of beams having arbitrary trajectories of accelerating and nondiffracting behaviors are generalized and presented. • Bessel-like accelerating beams are generalized to the higher-order (hollow) version. • Mathieu-like accelerating beams and parabolic-nondiffracting-like accelerating beams are presented. • A possible application of these beams may be found in optical trapping and guiding of particles.

  18. Tantalum welding: comparison of electron beam and laser processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of the weldability of the tantalum using electron beam and pulsed Nd: YAG processes involves to some common characteristics: Necessity to optimize the chills geometry in order to avoid their heating which leads to a modification of the beam/metal interaction. Welds free of defects could only be made by precisely adjusting the welding parameters in order to obtain a penetration slightly lower than the full one. Finally, the main difficulties were met with the YAG laser, to perform a good joining: Problem of the weld pool protection which was solved by processing in a glove box with argon as a shielding gas. Choice of the porthole material through which the laser beam enters in the glove box. Suppression of the laser-induced plume. So, it is possible to weld 2 mm thick tantalum parts with the following parameters: BE: 1 m/mn - 1600 W, Nd: YAG laser: 0.98 m/mn - 1100 W (average power). (author). 4 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  19. A Quantitative Vainberg Method for Black Box Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galkowski, Jeffrey

    2016-05-01

    We give a quantitative version of Vainberg's method relating pole free regions to propagation of singularities for black box scatterers. In particular, we show that there is a logarithmic resonance free region near the real axis of size {τ} with polynomial bounds on the resolvent if and only if the wave propagator gains derivatives at rate {τ} . Next we show that if there exist singularities in the wave trace at times tending to infinity which smooth at rate {τ} , then there are resonances in logarithmic strips whose width is given by {τ} . As our main application of these results, we give sharp bounds on the size of resonance free regions in scattering on geometrically nontrapping manifolds with conic points. Moreover, these bounds are generically optimal on exteriors of nontrapping polygonal domains.

  20. Packing Boxes into Multiple Containers Using Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menghani, Deepak; Guha, Anirban

    2016-07-01

    Container loading problems have been studied extensively in the literature and various analytical, heuristic and metaheuristic methods have been proposed. This paper presents two different variants of a genetic algorithm framework for the three-dimensional container loading problem for optimally loading boxes into multiple containers with constraints. The algorithms are designed so that it is easy to incorporate various constraints found in real life problems. The algorithms are tested on data of standard test cases from literature and are found to compare well with the benchmark algorithms in terms of utilization of containers. This, along with the ability to easily incorporate a wide range of practical constraints, makes them attractive for implementation in real life scenarios.

  1. Peter Szendy, Tubes. La Philosophie dans le juke-box

    OpenAIRE

    Buch, Esteban

    2010-01-01

    Quelque part vers la fin de Tubes. La Philosophie dans le juke-box, Peter Szendy évoque la première fois où il entendit Money, de Pink Floyd. C’était sur une plage de Crète, il avait dix-huit ans et envie de fumer. Le sable étant trop chaud pour marcher, il est allé à la nage, l’argent sur la tête, vers ce stand du bord de mer qui proposait des tubes et des cigarettes. « Mes brasses, étrange convoyeur de fonds que j’étais, épousaient le rythme de la chanson des Pink Floyd… » (p. 82) Les point...

  2. Dynamic Magnification Factor in a Box-Shape Steel Girder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbar-Ranji, A.

    2014-01-01

    The dynamic effect of moving loads on structures is treated as a dynamic magnification factor when resonant is not imminent. Studies have shown that the calculated magnification factors from field measurements could be higher than the values specified in design codes. It is the main aim of present paper to investigate the applicability and accuracy of a rule-based expression for calculation of dynamic magnification factor for lifting appliances used in marine industry. A steel box shape girder of a crane is considered and transient dynamic analysis using computer code ANSYS is implemented. Dynamic magnification factor is calculated for different loading conditions and compared with rule-based equation. The effects of lifting speeds, acceleration, damping ratio and position of cargo are examined. It is found that rule-based expression underestimate dynamic magnification factor.

  3. The Planck/LFI Radiometer Electronics Box Assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Herreros, J M; Rebolo, R; Chulani, H; Rubino-Martin, J A; Hildebrandt, S R; Bersanelli, M; Butler, R C; Miccolis, M; Pena, A; Pereira, M; Torrero, F; Franceschet, C; Lopez, M; Alcala, C; 10.1088/1748-0221/4/12/T12008

    2010-01-01

    The Radiometer Electronics Box Assembly (REBA) is the control and data processing on board computer of the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) of the Planck mission (ESA). The REBA was designed and built incorporating state of the art processors, communication interfaces and real time operating system software in order to meet the scientific performance of the LFI. We present a technical summary of the REBA, including a physical, functional, electrical, mechanical and thermal description. Aspects of the design and development, the assembly, the integration and the verification of the equipment are provided. A brief description of the LFI on board software is given including the Low-Level Software and the main functionalities and architecture of the Application Software. The compressor module, which has been developed as an independent product, later integrated in the application, is also described in this paper. Two identical engineering models EM and AVM, the engineering qualification model EQM, the flight model ...

  4. A Body that Matters: Tom Kilroy's Talbot's Box

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Poulain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at Tom Kilroy’s play Talbot Box, and argues that it resorts to the tropes of the Passion narrative, revisited by ex-centric mystic Matt Talbot, to expose the homogenising, normalising and exploitative efforts of the Catholic Church, a powerful institution which is shown to work in collusion with the forces of capitalism. Using a grotesque, often farcical dramaturgy, the play displays the joint attempts of ecclesiastical and temporal powers to appropriate Matt Talbot’s private performance of the Christian Passion for their own purposes, as well as the ways in which he resists instrumentalization by submitting himself to a radical form of bodily exposure. The play thus invents its own version of a theatre of cruelty in order to accommodate a mystical experience which lies beyond the reach of realistic representation. 

  5. Accuracy of the box-counting algorithm for noisy fractals

    CERN Document Server

    Gorski, A Z; Oswiecimka, P; Skrzat, J

    2014-01-01

    The box-counting (BC) algorithm is applied to calculate fractal dimensions of four fractal sets. The sets are contaminated with an additive noise with amplitude $\\gamma = 10^{-5} \\div 10^{-1}$. The accuracy of calculated numerical values of the fractal dimensions is analyzed as a function of $\\gamma$ for different sizes of the data sample ($n_{tot}$). In particular, it has been found that a tiny ($10^{-5}$) addition of noise generates much larger (three orders of magnitude) error of the calculated fractal exponents. Natural saturation of the error for larger noise values prohibits the power-like scaling. Moreover, the noise effect cannot be cured by taking larger data samples.

  6. Investigation on processing technology for tritiated water in glove box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 0.5 nm molecular sieve absorption column and a hot decomposing magnesium bed was found to be one of the effective means to collect and decompose HTO in glove box atmosphere. The absorption characteristics of the 0.5 nm molecular sieve column and water decomposing characteristics of the hot Mg bed were obtained. The results showed that the column absorbs water vapour from air with efficiency up to 99.99%. Water in tested gases was between 3.4 x 103 to 4.2 x 103 μg·g-1 and the total water absorbed on the column was up to 162 g, under this condition no water was detected in output gases. Using the hot magnesium bed more than 99.9% desorption water from the column was decomposed

  7. Investigation on processing technology for tritiated water in glove box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 5A molecular sieve absorption column and a hot decomposing Mg bed are one of the effective means to collect and decompose HTO in glove box atmosphere. The performances of the 5A molecular sieve column and the hot Mg bed are measured. The results show that the column absorbs water vapour from air with efficiency up to 99.99%. No water in the output gases is detected even though the water content in the input gases is about 3.4 x 10-3-4.2 x 10-3, and the total water absorbed on the column is up to 162 g. In the hot bed, more than 99.9% desorption water from the column is decomposed though more than 80% magnesium in the bed is used up

  8. Experimental Grey Box Model Identification of an Active Gas Bearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theisen, Lukas Roy Svane; Pierart Vásquez, Fabián Gonzalo; Niemann, Hans Henrik;

    2014-01-01

    Gas bearings have inherent dynamics that gives rise to low damping and potential instability at certain rotational speeds. Required damping and stabilization properties can be achieved by active ow control if bearing parameters are known. This paper deals with identifacation of parameters in a...... dynamic model of an active gas bearing and subsequent control loop design. A grey box model is determined based on experiments where piezo actuated valves are used to perturb the journal and hence excite the rotor-bearing system. Such modelling from actuator to output is shown to effciently support...... controller design, in contrast to impact models that focus on resonance dynamics. The identified model is able to accurately reproduce the lateral dynamics of the rotor-bearing system in a desired operating range, in this case around the first two natural frequencies. The identified models are validated and...

  9. Pushing the limits - beam

    CERN Document Server

    Métral, E

    2011-01-01

    Many collective effects were observed in 2010, first when the intensity per bunch was increased and subsequently when the number of bunches was pushed up and the bunch spacing was reduced. After a review of the LHC performance during the 2010 run, with a particular emphasis on impedances and related single-beam coherent instabilities, but mentioning also beam-beam and electron cloud issues, the potential of the LHC for 2011 will be discussed. More specifically, the maximum bunch/beam intensity and the maximum beam brightness the LHC should be able to swallow will be compared to what the injectors can provide.

  10. Structural Behavior of Continuous Prestressed Steel Fiber Reinforced High Strength Concrete Beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The flexural behaviors of continuous fully and partially prestressed steel fiber reinforced high strength concrete beams are studied by experiment and nonlinear finite element analysis. Three levels of partial prestress ratio (PPR) are considered, and three pairs of two-span continuous beams with box sections varying in size are designed. The major parameters involved in the study include the PPR and the fiber location. It is concluded that the prestressed high strength concrete beam exhibits satisfactory ductility; the influences of steel fiber on the crack behaviors for partially prestressed beams are not as obvious as those for fully prestressed ones; steel fibers can improve the structural stiffness after cracking for fully prestressed high strength concrete beams; the moment redistribution from mid-span to intermediate support in the first stage should be mainly considered in practical design.

  11. Processing of food and agricultural commodities with electron beam from microtron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A microtron machine source installed by the Centre for Advanced Technology (CAT), Indore, at Mangalore University, was used in the study. The machine was operated at a beam power of 1.8 W, beam energy of 8.6 MeV, and a beam current of 20 mA. After initial standardization, the irradiation of commodities was carried out. The doses employed were 0.06 kGy for onion, 0.10 kGy for potato, 0.25 kGy for rawa, and 8 kGy for spices. The desired dose was delivered by exposing the samples from the two opposite sides of the box. The microbial load in spice samples was determined immediately after the experiment, as well as after six months of storage at the ambient temperature (26±2 degC). Onion and potato samples were stored for a six months period both at ambient temperature and 15 degC for observing the effect of electron beam irradiation on sprouting in these commodities. Rawa samples were stored at ambient temperature for observing the effect of electron beam irradiation on insect disinfestation. The electron beam irradiation at the recommended doses was found to be as effective as gamma radiation in bringing down the microbial load of the tested spices to the desired level, disinfestations of rawa, and inhibition of sprouting in onion. In the case of potato even four-side irradiation of the product box did not inhibit the sprouting completely. This indicated the necessity of standardization of machine parameters for uniform dose distribution in the product box for each commodity. These lab-scale studies showed that electron beam could in principle be used for processing of various food products after standardizing the machine parameters and ensuring uniform dose distribution in the product. Use of this technology on commercial scale would need standardization on larger machines

  12. Cluster ion beam evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cluster ions can be made by the supercooling due to adiabatic expansion of substances to be vaporized which are ejected from a nozzle. This paper is described on the recent progress of studies concerning the cluster beam. The technique of cluster ion beam has been applied for the studies of thermonuclear plasma, the fabrication of thin films, crystal growth and electronic devices. The density of cluster ion beam is larger than that of atomic ion beam, and the formation of thin films can be easily done in high vacuum. This method is also useful for epitaxial growth. Metallic vapour cluster beam was made by the help of jetting rare gas beam. Various beam sources were developed. The characteristics of these sources were measured and analyzed. (Kato, T.)

  13. Development and trial manufacturing of 1/2-scale partial mock-up of blanket box structure for fusion experimental reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conceptual design of breeding blanket has been discussed during the CDA (Conceptual Design Activities) of ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor). Structural concept of breeding blanket is based on box structure integrated with first wall and shield, which consists of three coolant manifolds for first wall, breeding and shield regions. The first wall must have cooling channels to remove surface heat flux and nuclear heating. The box structure includes plates to form the manifolds and stiffening ribs to withstand enormous electromagnetic load, coolant pressure and blanket internal (purge gas) pressure. A 1/2-scale partial model of the blanket box structure for the outboard side module near midplane is manufactured to estimate the fabrication technology, i.e. diffusion bonding by HIP (Hot Isostatic Pressing) and EBW (Electron Beam Welding) procedure. Fabrication accuracy is a key issue to manufacture first wall panel because bending deformation during HIP may not be small for a large size structure. Data on bending deformation during HIP was obtained by preliminary manufacturing of HIP elements. For the shield structure, it is necessary to reduce the welding strain and residual stress of the weldment to establish the fabrication procedure. Optimal shape of the parts forming the manifolds, welding locations and welding sequence have been investigated. In addition, preliminary EBW tests have been performed in order to select the EBW conditions, and fundamental data on built-up shield have been obtained. Especially, welding deformation by joining the first wall panel to the shield has been measured, and total deformation to build-up shield by EBW has been found to be smaller than 2 mm. Consequently, the feasibility of fabrication technologies has been successfully demonstrated for a 1m-scaled box structure including the first wall with cooling channels by means of HIP, EBW and TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas arc)-welding. (author)

  14. Dynamics of beam halo in mismatched beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-power proton linacs for nuclear materials transmutation and production, and new accelerator-driven neutron spallation sources must be designed to control beam-halo formation, which leads to beam loss. The study of particle-core models is leading to a better understanding of the causes and characteristics of beam halo produced by space-charge forces in rms mismatched beams. Detailed studies of the models have resulted in predictions of the dependence of the maximum amplitude of halo particles on a mismatch parameter and on the space-charge tune-depression ratio. Scaling formulas have been derived which will provide guidance for choosing the aperture radius to contain the halo without loss. (author)

  15. Word Boxes Help Children with Learning Disabilities Identify and Spell Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Laurice M.

    1999-01-01

    Describes Marie Clay's word boxes that help children attend to phonological and orthographic features of words, developing phonemic awareness and improving word recognition and spelling. Describes a study showing that the use of word boxes with several elementary school students with learning disabilities was effective for improving and…

  16. Design of a shaking table test box for a subway station structure in soft soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Linde; JI Qianqian; ZHENG Yonglai; YANG Chao; ZHANG Dongliang

    2007-01-01

    A reasonable choice of structure of a model box is significant for a shaking table test to be successful in geo- technical engineering. A model box has been designed for the shaking table test of a subway station structure in the soft soil of Shanghai in the paper. The reasonable geometric similarity scale of the subway station structure has been determined by a 3-D dynamic analysis under the action of lateral equiva- lent static loading. The shape, size and structure of the model box are chosen by considering all the involved factors comprehensively. The shape of the box is similar to that of a typical station structure, and the ratio between the plane dimension of the model ground and that of the model struc- ture is big enough to reduce the influence of boundary condi- tion effectively. The structure is strong enough to avoid being demolished by shaking during a test. The contact conditions between the model soil and box are clear to help the data gained from the test well fit that from numerical analysis. The total weight of the model soil and box is less than the bearing capacity of the shaking table apparatus and there is no reso- nance between the model soil and box. The results show that the model box can be used to simulate the dynamic response of a subway station structure very well, so it provides a firm foundation for the success of the shaking table test of a subway station structure.

  17. Specific Heat of Helium in 2 μm3 Boxes, Coupled or Uncoupled?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on recent measurements of the specific heat of helium confined in pill-boxes 2 μm across and 2 μm deep made lithographically on a silicon wafer. The experimental cells distribute liquid from a bulk reservoir to ∼ 108 boxes by an array of very shallow fill-channels (0.019 μm and 0.010 μm) which represent a negligible volume compared to that of the boxes. Since the channels are so shallow, the helium in them becomes superfluid at a much lower temperature than the liquid in the boxes. Therefore, during the course of the heat capacity measurements, the liquid in the channels in always normal, and the cell would be expected to behave as a system of uncoupled boxes. We compare these measurements with one previously made of a cell where the confinement was to 1 μm boxes with an equivalent fill arrangement. While the shift in the position of the specific heat maximum relative to the 1 μm cell is what one would expect on the basis of finite-size scaling, there are discrepancies in the specific heat amplitude between the 2 μm cell utilizing different depth fill-channels, and with the 1 μm cell. It is possible that the channels, even though normal and of negligible volume, provide a weak coupling between the boxes leading to a collective rather than single-box behavior

  18. Smocks and Jocks outside the Box: The Paradigmatic Evolution of Sport and Exercise Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vealey, Robin S.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this article is to describe the historical development of sport and exercise psychology, with a particular emphasis on the construction and evolution of the "box" through history. The box represents the dominant paradigm that serves as the model for research and application as it evolves through successive historical eras (Kuhn,…

  19. MADS-box genes in maize: Frequent targets of selection during domestication

    Science.gov (United States)

    MADS-box genes encode transcription factors that are key regulators of plant inflorescence and flower development. We examined DNA sequence variation in 32 maize MADS-box genes and 32 random loci from the maize genome and investigated their involvement in maize domestication and improvement. Using n...

  20. Development with age of nest box use and gregarious nesting in laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Anja Brinch

    2010-01-01

    position (left + corner, middle, and right). Nesting behaviour was video recorded for 5 days in each of five distinct periods: age 20, 26, 32, 38, and 44 weeks. The total number of visits and the number of gregarious visits were higher in the left nest box than in the other two nest boxes at all ages and...

  1. Estimation of Radiation Limit from a Huygens' Box under Non-Free-Space Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franek, Ondrej; Sørensen, Morten; Bonev, Ivan Bonev; Ebert, Hans; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    The recently studied Huygens' box method has difficulties when radiation of an electronic module is to be determined under non-free-space conditions, i.e. with an enclosure. We propose an estimate on radiation limit under such conditions based only on the Huygens' box data from free...

  2. Teacher's Guide to Animal Camouflage: The MATCH Box Project; Prototype Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standring, Gillian; Bernath, Robert

    The Materials and Activities for Teachers and Children (MATCH Box) project was developed in 1965 to provide for the relatively intensive treatment of a subject over a short period through materials geared to the elementary school level. Each MATCH Box contains materials, equipment, and activities that work together to foster the teaching/learning…

  3. The effect of box shape on the dynamic properties of proteins simulated under periodic boundary conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassenaar, T.A.; Mark, A.E.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of the box shape on the dynamic behavior of proteins simulated under periodic boundary conditions is evaluated. In particular, the influence of simulation boxes defined by the near-densest lattice packing (NDLP) in conjunction with rotational constraints is compared to that of standard bo

  4. 77 FR 39547 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BOX Options Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ...\\ \\5\\ See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 66871 (April 27, 2012) 77 FR 26323 (May 3, 2012) (File 10... Effectiveness of Proposed Rule To Amend the BOX Options Exchange LLC Limited Liability Company Agreement and the BOX Holdings Group LLC Limited Liability Company Agreement June 27, 2012. Pursuant to Section...

  5. Optical and near-infrared observations of the GRB 970616 error box

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorosabel, J.; Castro-Tirado, A.J.; Pedersen, Henrik;

    1999-01-01

    We report on near-infrared and optical observations of the GRB 970616 error box and of the X-ray sources discovered by ASCA and ROSAT in the region. No optical transient was found either within the IPN band or in the X-ray error boxes, similarly to other bursts, and we suggest that either...

  6. 49 CFR 178.513 - Standards for boxes of natural wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for boxes of natural wood. 178.513... natural wood. (a) The following are the identification codes for boxes of natural wood: (1) 4C1 for an... natural wood are as follows: (1) The wood used must be well-seasoned, commercially dry and free...

  7. Post-training vasopressin injections may facilitate or delay shuttle-box avoidance extinction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagan, J.J.; Bohus, B.; Wied, D. de

    1982-01-01

    After training to avoid footshock in a two-way shuttle box rats were injected with lysine vasopressin (LVP) and returned to the shuttle box 24 hr later for 10 extinction trials. Experiment 1 shows that when injected 30 min after training subsequent extinction responding varied as an inverted “U”-sha

  8. 77 FR 29718 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BOX Options Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... the order. Additionally, the Exchange is making a voluntary decision to make this data available...\\ The automated electronic trading system that is currently operated by BOX Group as a facility of... automated electronic trading system that is currently operated by BOX Group as a facility of NASDAQ OMX...

  9. Within the Box: Cross-Cultural Art Therapy with Survivors of the Rwanda Genocide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the creative making of boxes as a cross-cultural art therapy intervention in Kigali, Rwanda, with survivors of the 1994 Rwandan genocide. The box as an art form is particularly applicable with young adult survivors, given the nature of their prodigious trauma and the possibility of posttraumatic stress disorder, as well as…

  10. Characterisation of a New Joining Structure for Application to Shielding Boxes Made of Conductive Plastics

    OpenAIRE

    Catrysse, Johan; Vanhee, Filip; Pissoort, Davy; Dewitte, Rik; Hellert, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    When using shielding boxes made of conductive plastics, the main problem is how to contact both parts of the box in a conductive way. A new low-cost joining structure has been developed and characterised. Both the joining structure as the characterisation method and procedure are discussed in this paper.

  11. Stepwise bending of DNA by a single TATA box binding protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolic-Nørrelykke, Simon F; Rasmussen, Mette B; Pavone, Francesco S; Berg-Sørensen, Kirstine; Oddershede, Lene B.

    2006-01-01

    The TATA-box binding protein (TBP) is required by all three eucaryotic RNA polymerases for the initiation of transcription from most promoters. TBP recognizes, binds to, and bends promoter sequences called "TATA-boxes" in the DNA. We present results from the study of individual Saccharomyces cere...

  12. 78 FR 41174 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BOX Options Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... Back Office Trade Management Software (``TMS'') Fee under Section V.B. The Exchange proposes to rename... Management Software (``TMS'')'' from the Fee Schedule. The TMS Software is optional software to which BOX... Section V.B. and offer TMS Software to all BOX Participants at no cost. The Exchange believes...

  13. Arrival of the cold box for the cryogenic refrigeration plant and installation in building SHL5.

    CERN Multimedia

    Goran Perinic

    2002-01-01

    The pictures show the arrival of the cold box and the installation of both the cold box and the valve panel in building SHL5. The installation was achieved by lowering the components through an opening in the roof which had been specially forseen for this operation.

  14. The F-box protein MAX2 contributes to resistance to bacterial phytopathogens in Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    PiisilÀ, Maria; Keceli, Mehmet A; Brader, GÌnter; Jakobson, Liina; Jõesaar, Indrek; Sipari, Nina; Kollist, Hannes; Palva, E. T.; Kariola, Tarja

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background The Arabidopsis thaliana F-box protein MORE AXILLARY GROWTH2 (MAX2) has previously been characterized for its role in plant development. MAX2 appears essential for the perception of the newly characterized phytohormone strigolactone, a negative regulator of polar auxin transport in Arabidopsis. Results A reverse genetic screen for F-box protein ...

  15. Norm scores of the box and block test for children ages 3-10 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongbloed-Pereboom, M.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.; Steenbergen, B.

    2013-01-01

    This study provides new norm scores for the Box and Block Test for gross manual dexterity in children ages 3-10 yr. Two hundred fifteen Dutch children performed the Box and Block Test separately with each hand. We found an age effect for the scores; older children obtained higher scores than younger

  16. Norm Scores of the Box and Block Test for Children Ages 3-10 Years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongbloed-Pereboom, M.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.; Steenbergen, B.

    2013-01-01

    This study provides new norm scores for the Box and Block Test for gross manual dexterity in children ages 3-10 yr. Two hundred fifteen Dutch children performed the Box and Block Test separately with each hand. We found an age effect for the scores; older children obtained higher scores than younger

  17. Therapeutic Intervention in a Case of Ataxic Dysarthria Associated with a History of Amateur Boxing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMicken, Betty L.; Ostergren, Jennifer A.; Vento-Wilson, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    The goals of this study were to (a) describe the presenting features of ataxic dysarthria present in a participant with a long history of amateur boxing, (b) describe a novel application of behavioral principles in the treatment of this participant, and (c) discuss implications in the treatment of ataxic dysarthria secondary to boxing. The…

  18. Exploring the "Black Box" of Programming: Applying Systematic Implementation Evaluation to a Structured Camp Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainieri, Tracy L.; Anderson, Denise M.

    2015-01-01

    Camp scholars have designed structured curricula to engender specific outcomes and to break down the "black box" of programming. Implementation evaluation explores how well a program operates when delivered, further breaking down the black box. The purpose of this study was to explore the implementation of a new structured camp…

  19. Sex Differences in a Human Analogue of the Radial Arm Maze: The ''17-Box Maze Test''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Q.; Abrahams, S.; Jussab, F.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated sex differences in spatial memory using a human analogue of the Radial Arm Maze: a revision on the Nine Box Maze originally developed by Abrahams, Pickering, Polkey, and Morris (1997) called the 17-Box Maze Test herein. The task encourages allocentric spatial processing, dissociates object from spatial memory, and…

  20. Analysis of Data on Xanthan Fermentation in Stationary Phase Using Black Box and Metabolic Network Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马红武; 赵学明; 唐寅杰

    1999-01-01

    The xanthan fermentation data in the stationary phase was analyzed using the black box and the metabolic network models. The data consistency ls checked through the elemental balance in the black box model. In the metabolic network model, the metabolic flux distribution in the cell is calculated using the metabolic flux analysis method, then the maintenance coefficients is calculated.

  1. Box graphs and resolutions II: From Coulomb phases to fiber faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Andreas P.; Schäfer-Nameki, Sakura

    2016-04-01

    Box graphs, or equivalently Coulomb phases of three-dimensional N = 2 supersymmetric gauge theories with matter, give a succinct, comprehensive and elegant characterization of crepant resolutions of singular elliptically fibered varieties. Furthermore, the box graphs predict that the phases are organized in terms of a network of flop transitions. The geometric construction of the resolutions associated to the phases is, however, a difficult problem. Here, we identify a correspondence between box graphs for the gauge algebras su (2 k + 1) with resolutions obtained using toric tops and generalizations thereof. Moreover, flop transitions between different such resolutions agree with those predicted by the box graphs. Our results thereby provide explicit realizations of the box graph resolutions.

  2. ESF SOUTH PORTAL BOX-CUT/HIGHWALL STABILITY ANALYSIS (SCPB:N/A)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose and objective of this analysis is to design a Box-Cut at the ESF South Portal to accommodate the Tunnel Boring Machine's (TBM) exit at the conclusion of the ESF Main Loop construction. The stability of the Highwall and the sidewalls at the Box-Cut are assessed using analytical methods by numerical modeling techniques. A ground reinforcement system for the South Ramp Box-Cut slopes will be recommended. This report summarizes the results of the analyses and provides the details of the recommended ground reinforcement system for the Box-Cut slopes at the South Portal. The reinforcement design details are then incorporated into design output documents for implementation in the field. Method of excavation for the Box-Cut is also discussed and a recommendation is provided in this analysis

  3. Box Graphs and Resolutions II: From Coulomb Phases to Fiber Faces

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, Andreas P

    2015-01-01

    Box graphs, or equivalently Coulomb phases of three-dimensional N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories with matter, give a succinct, comprehensive and elegant characterization of crepant resolutions of singular elliptically fibered varieties. Furthermore, the box graphs predict that the phases are organized in terms of a network of flop transitions. The geometric construction of the resolutions associated to the phases is, however, a difficult problem. Here, we identify a correspondence between box graphs for the gauge algebras su(2k+1) with resolutions obtained using toric tops and generalizations thereof. Moreover, flop transitions between different such resolutions agree with those predicted by the box graphs. Our results thereby provide explicit realizations of the box graph resolutions.

  4. Thermohaline circulation stability: a box model study - Part I: uncoupled model

    CERN Document Server

    Lucarini, V; Lucarini, Valerio; Stone, Peter H.

    2004-01-01

    A thorough analysis of the stability of the uncoupled Rooth interhemispheric 3-box model of thermohaline circulation (THC) is presented. The model consists of a northern high latitudes box, a tropical box, and a southern high latitudes box, which respectively correspond to the northern, tropical and southern Atlantic ocean. We adopt restoring boundary conditions for the temperature variables and flux boundary conditions for the salinity variables. We study how the strength of THC changes when the system undergoes forcings that are analogous to those of global warming conditions by applying to the equilibrium state perturbations to the moisture and heat fluxes into the three boxes. In each class of experiments, we determine, using suitably de- fined metrics, the boundary dividing the set of forcing scenarios that lead the system to equilibria characterized by a THC pattern similar to the present one, from those that drive the system to equilibria with a reversed THC. Fast increases in the moisture flux into th...

  5. Heating Processes Of The Axle-Boxes Of Rolling-Stock On Railway Track Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olegas Lunys

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the heating process of the axle-boxes ofrolling stock when the train is in motion and discusses the forcesacting on the wheel-set when rolling stock moves along the trackcurves. The paper analyses scientific publications relevant tothe forces acting on the wheel-set of rolling stock and focuseson the axle-box heating process. The article also discusses theresults of theoretical studies on wheel-set forces that affect theheat exchange process of axle-boxes for a railway vehicle. Theresearch has determined a change in heating temperatures ofdifferent axle-boxes of rolling stock and reasons for their variationsand tendencies. The paper has estimated an effect of thetrain running along the track curves on the heating intensity ofthe axle-box. Finally, valid conclusions and recommendationshave been provided.

  6. [The design of heat dissipation of the field low temperature box for storage and transportation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jiancang; Suin, Jianjun; Wu, Jian

    2013-02-01

    Because of the compact structure of the field low temperature box for storage and transportation, which is due to the same small space where the compressor, the condenser, the control circuit, the battery and the power supply device are all placed in, the design for heat dissipation and ventilation is of critical importance for the stability and reliability of the box. Several design schemes of the heat dissipation design of the box were simulated using the FLOEFD hot fluid analysis software in this study. Different distributions of the temperature field in every design scheme were constructed intimately in the present study. It is well concluded that according to the result of the simulation analysis, the optimal heat dissipation design is decent for the field low temperature box for storage and transportation, and the box can operate smoothly for a long time using the results of the design. PMID:23488142

  7. The radiation pattern of a monopole antenna attached to a conducting box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Andrew W. C.; Long, Stuart A.; Wilton, Donald R.

    1990-01-01

    A system investigation was undertaken to determine the radiation patterns of a monopole antenna mounted on a cubical conducting box over a ground plane. The effects of the location of the monopole and the electrical size of the box were compared with similar patterns measured over a flat ground plane and with numerically predicted values obtained from a method-of-moments patch code. It was concluded that the location at which a monopole antenna is mounted on a conducting box and the electrical size of the box clearly affect the overall radiation pattern of a monopole antenna. In general, mounting the antenna away from the center of the box will increase the depth of the nulls. In particular, planes will also increase the maximum E(phi) component of the field to the extent that it can become comparable to E(theta).

  8. Design and test of box girder for a large wind turbine blade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Hørlyk; Tesauro, Angelo; Bitsche, Robert;

    This report is covering the structural design and full scale test of a box girder as a part of the project “Demonstration of new blade design using manufacturing process simulations” supported by the EUDP program. A box girder with a predetermined outer geometry was designed using new inventions......, which create an inner structure in the box girder. With a combination of advanced FEM analysis and the inventions it was possible to reduce the material thickness of the cap by up to 40%. The new design of the box girder was manufactured at SSP Technology A/S, where it was demonstrated that the...... manufacturing process could include the new inventions. Subsequently the box girder was transported to the blade test facility at DTU Wind Energy. A series of test was performed with the blade to investigate the behaviour during loading, and finally the girder was loaded to ultimate failure. The report includes...

  9. Colliding Crystalline Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The understanding of crystalline beams has advanced to the point where one can now, with reasonable confidence, undertake an analysis of the luminosity of colliding crystalline beams. Such a study is reported here. It is necessary to observe the criteria, previously stated, for the creation and stability of crystalline beams. This requires, firstly, the proper design of a lattice. Secondly, a crystal must be formed, and this can usually be done at various densities. Thirdly, the crystals in a colliding-beam machine are brought into collision. We study all of these processes using the molecular dynamics (MD) method. The work parallels what was done previously, but the new part is to study the crystal-crystal interaction in collision. We initially study the zero-temperature situation. If the beam-beam force (or equivalent tune shift) is too large then over-lapping crystals can not be created (rather two spatially separated crystals are formed). However, if the beam-beam force is less than but comparable to that of the space-charge forces between the particles, we find that overlapping crystals can be formed and the beam-beam tune shift can be of the order of unity. Operating at low but non-zero temperature can increase the luminosity by several orders of magnitude over that of a usual collider. The construction of an appropriate lattice, and the development of adequately strong coding, although theoretically achievable, is a challenge in practice

  10. Ectromelia virus encodes a family of Ankyrin/F-box proteins that regulate NFκB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burles, Kristin, E-mail: burles@ualberta.ca; Buuren, Nicholas van; Barry, Michele

    2014-11-15

    A notable feature of poxviruses is their ability to inhibit the antiviral response, including the nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) pathway. NFκB is a transcription factor that is sequestered in the cytoplasm until cell stimulation, and relies on the SCF (Skp1, culllin-1, F-box) ubiquitin ligase to target its inhibitor, IκBα, for degradation. IκBα is recruited to the SCF by the F-box domain-containing protein βTrCP. Here, we show that ectromelia virus, the causative agent of mousepox, encodes four F-box-containing proteins, EVM002, EVM005, EVM154, and EVM165, all of which contain Ankyrin (Ank) domains. The Ank/F-box proteins inhibit NFκB nuclear translocation, and this inhibition is dependent on the F-box domain. We also demonstrate that EVM002, EVM005, EVM154, and EVM165 prevent IκBα degradation, suggesting that they target the SCF. This study identifies a new mechanism by which ectromelia virus inhibits NFκB. - Highlights: • Ectromelia virus encodes four Ank/F-box proteins, EVM002, EVM005, EVM154 and EVM165. • The Ank/F-box proteins inhibit NFκB nuclear translocation, dependent on the F-box. • The Ank/F-box proteins prevent IκBα degradation, suggesting they target the SCF. • Deletion of a single Ank/F-box gene from ECTV does not prevent viral NFκB inhibition. • This study identifies a new mechanism by which ectromelia virus inhibits NFκB.

  11. Expansion, diversification, and expression of T-box family genes in Porifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstien, Kay; Rivera, Ajna; Windsor, Pam; Ding, Siyu; Leys, Sally P; Hill, Malcolm; Hill, April

    2010-12-01

    Sponges are among the earliest diverging lineage within the metazoan phyla. Although their adult morphology is distinctive, at several stages of development, they possess characteristics found in more complex animals. The T-box family of transcription factors is an evolutionarily ancient gene family known to be involved in the development of structures derived from all germ layers in the bilaterian animals. There is an incomplete understanding of the role that T-box transcription factors play in normal sponge development or whether developmental pathways using the T-box family share similarities between parazoan and eumetazoan animals. To address these questions, we present data that identify several important T-box genes in marine and freshwater sponges, place these genes in a phylogenetic context, and reveal patterns in how these genes are expressed in developing sponges. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that sponges have members of at least two of the five T-box subfamilies (Brachyury and Tbx2/3/4/5) and that the T-box genes expanded and diverged in the poriferan lineage. Our analysis of signature residues in the sponge T-box genes calls into question whether "true" Brachyury genes are found in the Porifera. Expression for a subset of the T-box genes was elucidated in larvae from the marine demosponge, Halichondria bowerbanki. Our results show that sponges regulate the timing and specificity of gene expression for T-box orthologs across larval developmental stages. In situ hybridization reveals distinct, yet sometimes overlapping expression of particular T-box genes in free-swimming larvae. Our results provide a comparative framework from which we can gain insights into the evolution of developmentally important pathways. PMID:21082201

  12. Ectromelia virus encodes a family of Ankyrin/F-box proteins that regulate NFκB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A notable feature of poxviruses is their ability to inhibit the antiviral response, including the nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) pathway. NFκB is a transcription factor that is sequestered in the cytoplasm until cell stimulation, and relies on the SCF (Skp1, culllin-1, F-box) ubiquitin ligase to target its inhibitor, IκBα, for degradation. IκBα is recruited to the SCF by the F-box domain-containing protein βTrCP. Here, we show that ectromelia virus, the causative agent of mousepox, encodes four F-box-containing proteins, EVM002, EVM005, EVM154, and EVM165, all of which contain Ankyrin (Ank) domains. The Ank/F-box proteins inhibit NFκB nuclear translocation, and this inhibition is dependent on the F-box domain. We also demonstrate that EVM002, EVM005, EVM154, and EVM165 prevent IκBα degradation, suggesting that they target the SCF. This study identifies a new mechanism by which ectromelia virus inhibits NFκB. - Highlights: • Ectromelia virus encodes four Ank/F-box proteins, EVM002, EVM005, EVM154 and EVM165. • The Ank/F-box proteins inhibit NFκB nuclear translocation, dependent on the F-box. • The Ank/F-box proteins prevent IκBα degradation, suggesting they target the SCF. • Deletion of a single Ank/F-box gene from ECTV does not prevent viral NFκB inhibition. • This study identifies a new mechanism by which ectromelia virus inhibits NFκB

  13. View of the inner part of the VO prototype box. The WLS fibers wrapped up in teflon strips are coupled to connectors which ensure the passage of the light outside the box and its transfer in optical fibers.

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    View of the inner part of the VO prototype box. The WLS fibers wrapped up in teflon strips are coupled to connectors which ensure the passage of the light outside the box and its transfer in optical fibers.

  14. Box Boxing Boxers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Meijden, Peter Alexander

    2014-01-01

    I anledning af lanceringen af Lomholt Mail Art Archive online skitserer artiklen forholdet mellem mail art og udstillingen/arkivet som formidlingsform. Udgangspunkt er spørgsmålet, hvorfor så mange mail art-kunstnere på trods af deres anti-institutionalisme alligevel valgte at organisere udstilli...

  15. Beam-beam effect seen through forced vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In electron accelerator, tune is measured by giving beam transverse forced vibration caused by RF frequency. It is well known that beam-beam parameter can be measured if beam-beam interaction exists. Generally, small value is chosen as the amplitude of forced vibration, and many researches were done in this case. In this report, we discuss effect of resonance caused by beam-beam interaction in case of amplitude of forced vibration being big. (author)

  16. Laser Beam Focus Analyser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Carøe; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Olsen, Flemming Ove;

    2007-01-01

    The quantitative and qualitative description of laser beam characteristics is important for process implementation and optimisation. In particular, a need for quantitative characterisation of beam diameter was identified when using fibre lasers for micro manufacturing. Here the beam diameter limits...... the obtainable features in direct laser machining as well as heat affected zones in welding processes. This paper describes the development of a measuring unit capable of analysing beam shape and diameter of lasers to be used in manufacturing processes. The analyser is based on the principle of a rotating...... mechanical wire being swept through the laser beam at varying Z-heights. The reflected signal is analysed and the resulting beam profile determined. The development comprised the design of a flexible fixture capable of providing both rotation and Z-axis movement, control software including data capture...

  17. Semiconductor laser beam bending

    OpenAIRE

    YILDIRIM, REMZİ; ÇELEBİ, FATİH VEHBİ

    2015-01-01

    This study is about a single-component cylindrical structured lens with a gradient curve that was used for bending laser beams. It operates under atmospheric conditions and bends the laser beam independently of temperature, pressure, polarity, polarization, magnetic field, electric field, radioactivity, and gravity. A single-piece cylindrical lens that can bend laser beams was developed. Lenses are made of transparent, tinted, or colored glass and are used to undermine or absorb the energy of...

  18. Cyclotron radiation beam control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent application describes an apparatus for attenuating a beam of particulate radiation comprising a series of modules, each module being constituted by a sphere having a passage, a cupola covering said sphere and a base supporting said sphere, and means for causing movement of the spheres for aligning said passages with an axis of a beam line and arranging said passages out of alignment so as to attenuate the beam. (author)

  19. Proton Beam Energy Characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Marus, Lauren A.; Engle, J.W.; John, K. D.; Birnbaum, E. R.; Nortier, F. M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The Los Alamos Isotope Production Facility (IPF) is actively engaged in the development of isotope production technologies that can utilize its 100 MeV proton beam. Characterization of the proton beam energy and current is vital for optimizing isotope production and accurately conducting research at the IPF. Motivation In order to monitor beam intensity during research irradiations, aluminum foils are interspersed in experimental stacks. A theoretical yield of 22Na from...

  20. Chilled beam application guidebook

    CERN Document Server

    Butler, David; Gräslund, Jonas; Hogeling, Jaap; Lund Kristiansen, Erik; Reinikanen, Mika; Svensson, Gunnar

    2007-01-01

    Chilled beam systems are primarily used for cooling and ventilation in spaces, which appreciate good indoor environmental quality and individual space control. Active chilled beams are connected to the ventilation ductwork, high temperature cold water, and when desired, low temperature hot water system. Primary air supply induces room air to be recirculated through the heat exchanger of the chilled beam. In order to cool or heat the room either cold or warm water is cycled through the heat exchanger.

  1. Quantum beam nanolithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, nanotechnology has attracted much attention. Nanotechnology-related research and development have been intensively carried out in the world. Quantum beam nanolithography such as electron beam lithography is expected as a fabrication tool for nanotechnology-related products. For the development of materials capable of fabricating nanostructures, it is important to understand beam-material interaction. We reported radiation-induced reactions in nanolithography materials studied by ISIR subpicosecond pulse radiolysis system. (author)

  2. Mechanical beam isolator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Back-reflections from a target, lenses, etc. can gain energy passing backwards through a laser just like the main beam gains energy passing forwards. Unless something blocks these back-reflections early in their path, they can seriously damage the laser. A Mechanical Beam Isolator is a device that blocks back-reflections early, relatively inexpensively, and without introducing aberrations to the laser beam

  3. Particle in cell simulations of beam plasma system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The propagation of relativistic electron beam in dense plasma is studied with the help of Particle in Cell simulations for both 2D and 3D configurations. The background plasma system provides for the return currents balancing the beam current. These two current systems are unstable to Weibel destabilization as a result of which the forward and return currents separate spatially. This leads to the generation of magnetic fields. The present paper focuses on the study of the spatial and temporal profiles of the generated magnetic fields. In the normal case of infinite and/or periodic simulation box with homogeneous plasma density the observed magnetic field dominates at the scale length of skin depth. The role of plasma density inhomogeneity and the finite transverse width of the beam electrons are investigated in the work. It is shown that when the plasma density inhomogeneity with scales sharper than the skin depth is chosen, the magnetic field structures with similar short scales form. It is also observed that when the beam width is finite magnetic fields with structures at the scale length of beam width form. (author)

  4. Electron beam welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron-beam equipment is considered along with fixed and mobile electron-beam guns, questions of weld environment, medium and nonvacuum welding, weld-joint designs, tooling, the economics of electron-beam job shops, aspects of safety, quality assurance, and repair. The application of the process in the case of individual materials is discussed, giving attention to aluminum, beryllium, copper, niobium, magnesium, molybdenum, tantalum, titanium, metal alloys, superalloys, and various types of steel. Mechanical-property test results are examined along with the areas of application of electron-beam welding

  5. Beam alignment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A patent is claimed for the invention of a beam alignment system. The aim of the invention is the obtention of an accurate monitoring of the beam position and direction. It is of great interest in the nuclear industry. The invention can be applied in an infrared laser beam for welding operations. An auxiliar radiation source is incorporated to the device. The system's configuration allows a simultaneous and separated utilisation of two beams. The description and the design of the proposed system are provided

  6. Nonlinear Bessel beams

    CERN Document Server

    Johannisson, P; Lisak, M; Marklund, M; Johannisson, Pontus; Anderson, Dan; Lisak, Mietek; Marklund, Mattias

    2003-01-01

    The effect of the Kerr nonlinearity on linear non-diffractive Bessel beams is investigated analytically and numerically using the nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation. The nonlinearity is shown to primarily affect the central parts of the Bessel beam, giving rise to radial compression or decompression depending on whether the nonlinearity is focusing or defocusing, respectively. The dynamical properties of Gaussian-truncated Bessel beams are also analysed in the presence of a Kerr nonlinearity. It is found that although a condition for width balance in the root-mean-square sense exists, the beam profile becomes strongly deformed during propagation and may exhibit the phenomena of global and partial collapse.

  7. Beam cavity interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Gamp, A

    2011-01-01

    We begin by giving a description of the rf generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, rf feedback, and feed-forward are described. Examples of digital rf phase and amplitude control for the special case of superconducting cavities are also given. Finally, a dedicated phase loop for damping synchrotron oscillations is discussed.

  8. Beam Instrumentation and Diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Strehl, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This treatise covers all aspects of the design and the daily operations of a beam diagnostic system for a large particle accelerator. A very interdisciplinary field, it involves contributions from physicists, electrical and mechanical engineers and computer experts alike so as to satisfy the ever-increasing demands for beam parameter variability for a vast range of operation modi and particles. The author draws upon 40 years of research and work, most of them spent as the head of the beam diagnostics group at GSI. He has illustrated the more theoretical aspects with many real-life examples that will provide beam instrumentation designers with ideas and tools for their work.

  9. A role of transcriptional activators as antirepressors for the autoinhibitory activity of TATA box binding of transcription factor IID

    OpenAIRE

    Kotani, Tomohiro; Banno, Ken-ichi; Ikura, Mitsuhiko; Hinnebusch, Alan G.; Nakatani, Yoshihiro; Kawaichi, Masashi; Kokubo, Tetsuro

    2000-01-01

    The TATA box-binding activity of transcription factor IID (TFIID) is autoinhibited by the N-terminal domain of the Drosophila TATA box-binding protein- (TBP) associated factor 230/yeast TBP-associated factor 145 subunit, which binds to the TATA box-binding domain of TBP by mimicking the TATA box structure. Here, we propose a mechanism of transcriptional activation that involves antirepression of this autoinhibitory activity by transcriptional activators. Like the autoinhibitory domain of TFII...

  10. Hazard Analysis for Building 34 Vacuum Glove Box Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meginnis, Ian

    2014-01-01

    One of the characteristics of an effective safety program is the recognition and control of hazards before mishaps or failures occur. Conducting potentially hazardous tests necessitates a thorough hazard analysis in order to prevent injury to personnel, and to prevent damage to facilities and equipment. The primary purpose of this hazard analysis is to define and address the potential hazards and controls associated with the Building 34 Vacuum Glove Box Assembly, and to provide the applicable team of personnel with the documented results. It is imperative that each member of the team be familiar with the hazards and controls associated with his/her particular tasks, assignments and activities while interfacing with facility test systems, equipment and hardware. In fulfillment of the stated purposes, the goal of this hazard analysis is to identify all hazards that have the potential to harm personnel, damage the facility or its test systems or equipment, test articles, Government or personal property, or the environment. This analysis may also assess the significance and risk, when applicable, of lost test objectives when substantial monetary value is involved. The hazards, causes, controls, verifications, and risk assessment codes have been documented on the hazard analysis work sheets in Appendix A of this document. The preparation and development of this report is in accordance with JPR 1700.1, "JSC Safety and Health Handbook" and JSC 17773 Rev D "Instructions for Preparation of Hazard Analysis for JSC Ground Operations".

  11. A CERN fireman becomes a world boxing champion

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    From 19 to 28 October, Sydney (Australia) welcomed thousands of firemen and women from all over the world for the 12th World Firefighters Games. Launched in 1990 in Auckland (New Zealand), this biennial celebration is – according to its organizers – “intended to be an inclusive event that celebrates the camaraderie, heroism, health, fitness and spirit of the women and men who work in one of the world’s most respected professions”.   This year, Craig Stevenson, who is member of the CERN Fire Brigade, took part in the competition. He went as far as winning the gold medal in the boxing championship, in the “under 75 kg” category. “This is my last year at CERN, and I wanted to do something special,” Craig explains. “I work with a lot of inspirational people, who have really made me want to achieve more.”  In order to compete in the “under 75 kg” category, Crai...

  12. The Virtual Solar Observatory: Still a Small Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurman, J. B.; Bogart, R. S.; Davey, A. R.; Dimitoglou, G.; Hill, F.; Hourcle, J. A.; Martens, P. C.; Surez-Sola, I.; Tian, K. Q.; Wampler, S.

    2005-01-01

    Two and a half years after a design study began, and a year and a half after development commenced, version 1.0 of the Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO) was released at the 2004 Fall AGU meeting. Although internal elements of the VSO have changed, the basic design has remained the same, reflecting the team's belief in the importance of a simple, robust mechanism for registering data provider holdings, initiating queries at the appropriate provider sites, aggregating the responses, allowing the user to iterate before making a final selection, and enabling the delivery of data directly from the providers. In order to make the VSO transparent, lightweight, and portable, the developers employed XML for the registry, SOAP for communication between a VSO instance and data services, and HTML for the graphic user interface (GUI's). We discuss the internal data model, the API, and user responses to various trial GUI's as typical design issues for any virtual observatory. We also discuss the role of the "small box" of data search, identification, and delivery services provided by the VSO in the larger, Sun-Solar System Connection virtual observatory (VxO) scheme.

  13. The Planck-LFI Radiometer Electronics Box Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radiometer Electronics Box Assembly (REBA) is the control and data processing on board computer of the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) of the Planck mission (ESA). The REBA was designed and built incorporating state of the art processors, communication interfaces and real time operating system software in order to meet the scientific performance of the LFI. We present a technical summary of the REBA, including a physical, functional, electrical, mechanical and thermal description. Aspects of the design and development, the assembly, the integration and the verification of the equipment are provided. A brief description of the LFI on board software is given including the Low-Level Software and the main functionalities and architecture of the Application Software. The compressor module, which has been developed as an independent product, later integrated in the application, is also described in this paper. Two identical engineering models EM and AVM, the engineering qualification model EQM, the flight model FM and flight spare have been manufactured and tested. Low-level and Application software have been developed. Verification activities demonstrated that the REBA hardware and software fulfil all the specifications and perform as required for flight operation.

  14. The Planck-LFI Radiometer Electronics Box Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herreros, J M; Gomez, M F; Rebolo, R; Chulani, H; Rubino-Martin, J A; Hildebrandt, S R [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), 38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Bersanelli, M; Franceschet, C [Universita di Milano, Dipartamento di Fisica, Via G. Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Butler, R C [INAF-IASF Bologna, Via P. Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Miccolis, M [Thales Alenia Space Italia S.p.A., IUEL - Scientific Instruments, S.S. Padana Superiore 290, 20090 Vimodrone (Italy); Pena, A; Pereira, M; Torrero, F; Lopez, M; Alcala, C, E-mail: rrl@iac.e [EADS Astrium CRISA, C/Torres Quevedo, 9, 28760 Tres Cantos (Spain)

    2009-12-15

    The Radiometer Electronics Box Assembly (REBA) is the control and data processing on board computer of the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) of the Planck mission (ESA). The REBA was designed and built incorporating state of the art processors, communication interfaces and real time operating system software in order to meet the scientific performance of the LFI. We present a technical summary of the REBA, including a physical, functional, electrical, mechanical and thermal description. Aspects of the design and development, the assembly, the integration and the verification of the equipment are provided. A brief description of the LFI on board software is given including the Low-Level Software and the main functionalities and architecture of the Application Software. The compressor module, which has been developed as an independent product, later integrated in the application, is also described in this paper. Two identical engineering models EM and AVM, the engineering qualification model EQM, the flight model FM and flight spare have been manufactured and tested. Low-level and Application software have been developed. Verification activities demonstrated that the REBA hardware and software fulfil all the specifications and perform as required for flight operation.

  15. A box model of the Arctic natural variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Hsien-Wang

    2013-04-01

    We consider a box model of the Arctic system to examine its natural variability pertaining to the decadal Arctic Oscillation (AO) and the multidecadal Low-Frequency Oscillation (LFO). We distinguish the hierarchical order of the winter over the summer open-areas with only the former perturbing the sea-level pressure to effect coupled balances. From such balances, we discern two feedback loops on the winter open-area: a positive ice-flux feedback that elevates its overall variance and a negative buoyancy feedback that suppresses its low-frequency variance to render a decadal AO peak when subjected to white atmospheric noise. This negative buoyancy feedback may also reproduce observed phasing among LFO signals forced by the AMV (Atlantic Multidecadal Variability), thus resolving some outstanding questions. For the summer open-area, its variance is induced mainly by the winter forcings and insensitive to the base state. Its decadal signal merely reflects the preconditioning winter open-area, but its LFO variance is induced additionally and in comparable measure by the winter SAT (surface air temperature) through the latter's effect on the melt duration and the first-year ice thickness. As such, the summer open-area signal is dominantly multidecadal, which moreover is several times its winter counterpart, consistent with the observed disparity. Although the model is extremely crude, its explicit solution allows quantitative comparison with observations and the generally positive outcome suggests that the model has isolated the essential physics of the Arctic natural variability of our concern.

  16. Shearing Box Simulations of the MRI in a Collisionless Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe local shearing box simulations of turbulence driven by the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in a collisionless plasma. Collisionless effects may be important in radiatively inefficient accretion flows, such as near the black hole in the Galactic Center. The MHD version of ZEUS is modified to evolve an anisotropic pressure tensor. A fluid closure approximation is used to calculate heat conduction along magnetic field lines. The anisotropic pressure tensor provides a qualitatively new mechanism for transporting angular momentum in accretion flows (in addition to the Maxwell and Reynolds stresses). We estimate limits on the pressure anisotropy due to pitch angle scattering by kinetic instabilities. Such instabilities provide an effective ''collision'' rate in a collisionless plasma and lead to more MHD-like dynamics. We find that the MRI leads to efficient growth of the magnetic field in a collisionless plasma, with saturation amplitudes comparable to those in MHD. In the saturated state, the anisotropic stress is comparable to the Maxwell stress, implying that the rate of angular momentum transport may be moderately enhanced in a collisionless plasma

  17. Shearing Box Simulations of the MRI in a Collisionless Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Prateek; Hammett, Gregory, W.; Quataert, Eliot; Stone, James, M.

    2005-08-31

    We describe local shearing box simulations of turbulence driven by the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in a collisionless plasma. Collisionless effects may be important in radiatively inefficient accretion flows, such as near the black hole in the Galactic Center. The MHD version of ZEUS is modified to evolve an anisotropic pressure tensor. A fluid closure approximation is used to calculate heat conduction along magnetic field lines. The anisotropic pressure tensor provides a qualitatively new mechanism for transporting angular momentum in accretion flows (in addition to the Maxwell and Reynolds stresses). We estimate limits on the pressure anisotropy due to pitch angle scattering by kinetic instabilities. Such instabilities provide an effective ''collision'' rate in a collisionless plasma and lead to more MHD-like dynamics. We find that the MRI leads to efficient growth of the magnetic field in a collisionless plasma, with saturation amplitudes comparable to those in MHD. In the saturated state, the anisotropic stress is comparable to the Maxwell stress, implying that the rate of angular momentum transport may be moderately enhanced in a collisionless plasma.

  18. Corrosion Evaluation of Tank 40 Leak Detection Box

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickalonis, J.I.

    1999-07-29

    'Leak detection from the transfer lines in the tank farm has been a concern for many years because of the need to minimize exposure of personnel and contamination of the environment. The leak detection box (LDB) is one line of defense, which must be maintained to meet this objective. The evaluation of a failed LDB was one item from an action plan aimed at minimizing the degradation of LDBs. The Tank 40 LDB, which failed in service, was dug up and shipped to SRTC for evaluation. During a video inspection while in service, this LDB was found to have black tubercles on the interior, which suggested possible microbial involvement. The failure point, however, was believed to have occurred in the drain line from the transfer line jacket. Visual, metallurgical, and biological analyses were performed on the LDB. The analysis results showed that there was not any adverse microbiological growth or significant localized corrosion. The corrosion of the LDB was caused by exposure to aqueous environments and was typical of carbon steel pipes in soil environments.'

  19. High-mobility group box-1 in sterile inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsung, A; Tohme, S; Billiar, T R

    2014-11-01

    High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) was originally defined as a ubiquitous nuclear protein, but it was later determined that the protein has different roles both inside and outside of cells. Nuclear HMGB1 regulates chromatin structure and gene transcription, whereas cytosolic HMGB1 is involved in inflammasome activation and autophagy. Extracellular HMGB1 has drawn attention because it can bind to related cell signalling transduction receptors, such as the receptor for advanced glycation end products, Toll-like receptor (TLR)2, TLR4 and TLR9. It also participates in the development and progression of a variety of diseases. HMGB1 is actively secreted by stimulation of the innate immune system, and it is passively released by ischaemia or cell injury. This review focuses on the important role of HMGB1 in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic sterile inflammatory conditions. Strategies that target HMGB1 have been shown to significantly decrease inflammation in several disease models of sterile inflammation, and this may represent a promising clinical approach for treatment of certain conditions associated with sterile inflammation. PMID:24935761

  20. Thermal design and tests for the CMS HCAL readout box

    CERN Document Server

    Baumbaugh, B; Booke, M; Karmgard, D; Los, S; Lu, Q; Marchant, J; Reidy, J; Ronzhin, A; Ruchti, R C; Wiand, D

    2000-01-01

    A method is necessary to cool the electronics contained in the readout boxes for the CMS HCAL. The electronics to pre-amplify and digitize signals from the optical detectors will generate a large amount of heat that must be removed from the CMS HCAL system. To accomplish this a thermal management system has been designed that uses metallic extrusions, liquid coolant, and thermal foam to transfer the heat from the electronics to the exterior cooling system. Because the electronics are difficult to access throughout the life of the experiment, the temperature must be kept low to extend life expectancy. In order to test the concepts before the final design is implemented a thermal test station was built. Several methods to are under study to determine the best method of making the thermal routing from source of the heat to the liquid for heat removal. The test bed for this evaluation and methods to monitor the electronics temperature in situ will be discussed. 3 Refs.

  1. Economic analysis of open space box model utilization in spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Atif F.; Straub, Jeremy

    2015-05-01

    It is a known fact that the amount of data about space that is stored is getting larger on an everyday basis. However, the utilization of Big Data and related tools to perform ETL (Extract, Transform and Load) applications will soon be pervasive in the space sciences. We have entered in a crucial time where using Big Data can be the difference (for terrestrial applications) between organizations underperforming and outperforming their peers. The same is true for NASA and other space agencies, as well as for individual missions and the highly-competitive process of mission data analysis and publication. In most industries, conventional opponents and new candidates alike will influence data-driven approaches to revolutionize and capture the value of Big Data archives. The Open Space Box Model is poised to take the proverbial "giant leap", as it provides autonomic data processing and communications for spacecraft. We can find economic value generated from such use of data processing in our earthly organizations in every sector, such as healthcare, retail. We also can easily find retailers, performing research on Big Data, by utilizing sensors driven embedded data in products within their stores and warehouses to determine how these products are actually used in the real world.

  2. Gray-Box Modeling of a Pneumatic Servo-Valve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Aghamirsalim

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the evaluation as well as the combined analytical andexperimental identification (gray box identification of a servo-valve torque motor as thedirectional valve applied in a pneumatic actuator. Based on analytical modelling, a simplelinear parametric model with transfer function and block diagram is developed. Next, thestatic and dynamic characteristics of the torque motor are obtained from experimentalobservations. The characteristics confirm the desired linear behaviour of the torque motor.Hence, linearized coefficients from a best curve fitting of static characteristics can bederived. Classical methods of identification are applied on the frequency and stepresponses obtained from a set of tests on the torque motor. Obtained tests results based onparsimony principle and model order of analytical investigations are then implemented toderive the best identified transfer function to describe the performance of the servo-valvetorque motor. Design parameters are estimated with the comparison of the experimentaland analytical models. These parameters can be implemented with acceptable accuracy forservo control studies of pneumatic actuators.

  3. Update of human and mouse forkhead box (FOX gene families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Brian C

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The forkhead box (FOX proteins are transcription factors that play complex and important roles in processes from development and organogenesis to regulation of metabolism and the immune system. There are 50 FOX genes in the human genome and 44 in the mouse, divided into 19 subfamilies. All human FOX genes have close mouse orthologues, with one exception: the mouse has a single Foxd4, whereas the human gene has undergone a recent duplication to a total of seven (FOXD4 and FOXD4L1 → FOXD4L6. Evolutionarily ancient family members can be found as far back as the fungi and metazoans. The DNA-binding domain, the forkhead domain, is an example of the winged-helix domain, and is very well conserved across the FOX family and across species, with a few notable exceptions in which divergence has created new functionality. Mutations in FOX genes have been implicated in at least four familial human diseases, and differential expression may play a role in a number of other pathologies -- ranging from metabolic disorders to autoimmunity. Furthermore, FOX genes are differentially expressed in a large number of cancers; their role can be either as an oncogene or tumour suppressor, depending on the family member and cell type. Although some drugs that target FOX gene expression or activity, notably proteasome inhibitors, appear to work well, much more basic research is needed to unlock the complex interplay of upstream and downstream interactions with FOX family transcription factors.

  4. Growth and morphometrics of the box turtle, Terrapene c. carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.; Bunck, C.M.

    1989-01-01

    Growth of box turtles in a bottomland forest in Maryland was studied over a period of years (1944-1981). A bivariate analysis of age related growth showed that between 8 and 13 yr, male turtles grew at an average rate of 6.7% per year in carapace length, whereas females grew at 5.3% per year. Both males and females grew considerably more slowly between 14 and 19 years, males at 2.3% per year and females at 3.4% per year. Growth slowed still more in the twenties. Growth in the six other dimensions that were measured provided additional comparisons. Allometric analysis of the different carapace and plastron dimensions showed that among males length increased proportionally more than either width or height and that width increased more than height. Among females, only the greater increase of length than of width was statistically significant. Fully grown males were larger than females in all dimensions except height. Differences from the normal scutal pattern occurred in 16.8% of fully grown males and 18.4% of the females

  5. Taking into account seismic risk on glove boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Built in 1981, the LEFCA is a Basic Nuclear Facility (BNF) in which experimental plutonium based fuels are produced and characterised in about a hundred Gloves Boxes (GB). Many safety rules are required, especially those concerning seismic risk. In order to prepare the December 2003 safety reconsideration, the following methodology has been proposed so that GB might resist the Safe Shutdown Earthquake. 1) The determination of a safety target: the GB static containment. 2) The realisation of an ''in situ'' assessment: the definition of several classes of GB, vibrating table tests and the modelling of the GB behaviour with seismic solicitations, 3) A strength diagnosis for equipment: filters, connecting tunnels and pipes holding. 4) A proposal for further strengthening modifications if necessary : fixing the frame, interlocking GB and the frame, taking internal or external GB missiles into account. This process has contributed to a reduction in the radiological potential seismic impact for the neighbouring populations. We shall present the implemented methodology and the strengthening works that have been approved by Safety Authorities. Reinforcement modifications will begin in 2004. (Author)

  6. Thinking Inside the Box: Simple Methods to Evaluate Complex Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Michael Menke

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We risk ignoring cheaper and safer medical treatments because they cannot be patented, lack profit potential, require too much patient-contact time, or do not have scientific results. Novel medical treatments may be difficult to evaluate for a variety of reasons such as patient selection bias, the effect of the package of care, or the lack of identifying the active elements of treatment. Whole Systems Research (WSR is an approach designed to assess the performance of complete packages of clinical management. While the WSR method is compelling, there is no standard procedure for WSR, and its implementation may be intimidating. The truth is that WSR methodological tools are neither new nor complicated. There are two sequential steps, or boxes, that guide WSR methodology: establishing system predictability, followed by an audit of system element effectiveness. We describe the implementation of WSR with a particular attention to threats to validity (Shadish, Cook, & Campbell, 2002; Shadish & Heinsman, 1997. DOI: 10.2458/azu_jmmss.v2i1.12365

  7. SOx-NOx-Rox Box trademark demonstration project review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SOx-NOx-Rox Box trademark (SNRB trademark) process is a combined SOx, NOx and particulate (Rox) emission control technology developed by Babcock ampersand Wilcox in which high removal efficiencies for all three pollutants are achieved in a high-temperature baghouse. A 5-MWe equivalent demonstration of the technology cosponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, the Ohio Department of Development/Ohio Coal Development Office and the Electric Power Research Institute has recently been completed at the Ohio Edison R.E. Burger Plant. SNRB incorporates dry sorbent injection for SOx emission control, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for reducing NOx emissions, and a pulse-jet baghouse operating at 450 to 850 degrees F for controlling particulate emissions. The unique, high-temperature baghouse/catalyst configuration provides for integrated particulate capture, SO2 removal, and NOx reduction as well as the potential for reducing emissions of selected air toxics. The simultaneous, multiple emission control performance of SNRB is summarized using operating data generated in over 2,000 hours, of operation at the demonstration site

  8. Mesoscopic Anderson Box: Connecting Weak to Strong Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong E.; Burdin, Sebastien; Baranger, Harold U.; Ullmo, Denis

    2011-03-01

    Both the weakly coupled and strong coupling Anderson impurity problem are characterized by a Fermi-liquid theory with weakly interacting quasiparticles. In an Anderson box, mesoscopic fluctuations of the effective single particle properties will be large. We study how the statistical fluctuations in these two problems are connected. We use random matrix theory and the slave boson mean field approximation (SBMF, at low temperature) to address this question, obtaining the following results. First, for a resonant level model such as results from the SBMF approximation, we find the joint distribution of energy levels with and without the resonant level present. Second, if only energy levels within the Kondo resonance are considered, the distribution of perturbed levels collapse to one universal form for both GOE and GUE for all values of the coupling V. Finally, a purely Fermi liquid method is developed for calculating the perturbed levels within the Kondo resonance. Comparing the levels that result to those of the SBMF, we find remarkable agreement.

  9. Development of bagless transfer system for standard waste boxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At several DOE site, substantial volumes of Transuranic (TRU) waste has been handled on a daily basis. Usually, the waste has been transferred from the facilities to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) or to an on site storage facility using the ''bag-out'' technique. This process begins in the most contaminated area by placing the waste in a strong plastic bag, twisting closed the neck of the bag, then taping the closed neck. This reduces the exposed TRU waste and the resulting contamination. However, even though that the contamination is reduced, it remains high enough to prevent direct transfer into the environment. In order to reduce the contamination to acceptable levels, the ''bag-out'' process is repeated until the outside contamination on the plastic bag is acceptable. This procedure has been affective, however, it also generates organic waste in the process. During the design of the Transuranic Waste Facility (TWF) at the Savannah River Site, a conceptual alternative was developed using the Standard Waste Box (SWB)

  10. WHAT'S INSIDE THE BLACK BOX - EXPLAINING PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT TO STAKEHOLDERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance assessment (PA) process is being applied to support an increasing variety of waste management decisions that involve the whole spectrum of stakeholders. As with many technical tools, the PA process can be seen as a black box, which can be difficult to understand when implemented. Recognizing the increasing use of PA and the concerns about difficulties with understanding, the Savannah River Site Citizens Advisory Board (CAB) made a recommendation that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) provide a Public Educational Forum on PAs. The DOE-Headquarters Environmental Management (DOE-EM) Office of Compliance and the DOE-Savannah River (DOE-SR) responded to this recommendation by supporting the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in developing several presentation modules that can be used to describe different aspects of the PA process. For the Public Educational Forum, the PA modules were combined with presentations on DOE perspectives, historical modeling efforts at the Savannah River Site, and review perspectives from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The overall goals are to help the public understand how PAs are implemented and the rigor that is applied, and to provide insight into the use of PAs for waste management decision-making

  11. Microbiologically influenced corrosion in condenser water boxes at Crystal River-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the spring of 1986, several welds in the lower half of the condenser inlet water boxes at Crystal River-3 (CR-3) were found to be seeping seawater. The leakage produced red-brown and black-green colored deposits on the outside surface of the water boxes. The welds in affected areas were not uniformly attacked, and the severity of attack varied between water boxes; however, there were instances of attack on each type of pressure-retaining weld in the affected regions. Weld seepage was also seen on the outside of the inlet piping to the water boxes. A few small pin holes were seen in the base metal of the water boxes not associated with welds. In this paper the authors report the results of examinations performed at both the CR-3 site and at The Babcock and Wilcox Company Lynchburt Research Center (LRC). The inside of a water box and the exterior of the condenser inlet piping were visually inspected at the Cr-3 site. Nodules inside the water box were probed and examined. Parts of nodules were collected and microscopically examined for bacteria. Two corrosion-deposit samples removed from condenser instrument piping and the condenser inlet piping were chemically analyzed at the LRC. Four pipe samples removed from the condenser instrument piping were destructively examined at the LRC. This work included visual inspection, metallographic, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) examinations performed on selected locations of the piping samples

  12. Parametric Design and Rapid Prototyping of Installation Box for Vehicle Terminal PCB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xingxing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Installation box for vehicle terminal PCB (Printed Circuit Board was took as research object, which is encountered in the process of project developing. Vehicle terminal PCB in actual development process was set as an example, point cloud data were acquired by three coordinate measuring method; Imageware software was used to reconstruct the vehicle terminal PCB model, basic size parameters of vehicle terminal PCB can be got and then design parameters of installation box for vehicle terminal PCB can be determined. Design of the installation box for vehicle terminal PCB was completed based on Solidworks software, then 3D modeling and 2D drawing of installation box for vehicle terminal PCB was gained. Up Plus 2 rapid prototype machine was used to manufacture installation box for vehicle terminal PCB rapidly based on 3D printing technology, then prototype of installation box for vehicle terminal PCB was obtained. It is of certain engineering significant for single (small amount manufacturing of installation box for general PCB.

  13. Transuranic and Low-Level Boxed Waste Form Nondestructive Assay Technology Overview and Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) identified the need to perform an assessment of the functionality and performance of existing nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques relative to the low-level and transuranic waste inventory packaged in large-volume box-type containers. The primary objectives of this assessment were to: (1) determine the capability of existing boxed waste form NDA technology to comply with applicable waste radiological characterization requirements, (2) determine deficiencies associated with existing boxed waste assay technology implementation strategies, and (3) recommend a path forward for future technology development activities, if required. Based on this assessment, it is recommended that a boxed waste NDA development and demonstration project that expands the existing boxed waste NDA capability to accommodate the indicated deficiency set be implemented. To ensure that technology will be commercially available in a timely fashion, it is recommended this development and demonstration project be directed to the private sector. It is further recommended that the box NDA technology be of an innovative design incorporating sufficient NDA modalities, e.g., passive neutron, gamma, etc., to address the majority of the boxed waste inventory. The overall design should be modular such that subsets of the overall NDA system can be combined in optimal configurations tailored to differing waste types

  14. Dismantling of alpha contaminated obsolete installations and glove boxes on the IRMM site in Geel (Belgium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (European commission, Joint Research Centre, IRMM) a dismantling campaign of obsolete installations and glove boxes has been carried out in 2005. There were various reasons for their removal. Some large installations did not meet modern safety standards, other installations were worn out and expected to cause a radioactive contamination risk in the future. The main goal was to create as less waste as possible by extensive contamination checks and by decontamination if necessary. For the glove boxes, decontamination was not possible. A controlled area was set up around the installation to be dismantled in order to prevent spreading of contamination from dust and dirt. This was only possible for the 'minor' contaminated installations. The dismantling campaign of the glove boxes was carried out by using tents of two types depending the contamination inside the glove boxes. The most common glove boxes were dismantled in a tent constructed with hard surfaced polycarbonate plates (ventilated cell). For glove boxes with higher contamination, the same principle was used but with a second 'glove box tent' inside (ventilated glove tent). The purpose of this project was to learn from the experience of this campaign which gave the ability to make estimates of future radioactive waste or classic waste that could be expected from dismantled installations. (authors)

  15. Design of steel box girder for Taizhou Yangtze River Highway Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding Lei; Shan Hongwei; Zhou Qing; Zheng Benhui

    2011-01-01

    Taizhou Yangtze River Highway Bridge is the first three-pylon two-span suspension bridge in China. The maingirder adopts flat steamline steel closed box girder which has well wind-resistant capability and is technically mature besides beautiful appearance. Straight web plates of the steel box girder in longitudinal direction are proposed in order to ensure the integrity of the steel box girder, and to keep the stress of the steel box girder continuous in the middle pylon,as well as to reduce the gradient of the middle pylon columns. The cross section of the box girder has one box with three cells. Solid-web diaphragm plate with good integrity and high torsional stiffness is adopted. The lifting lugs are utilized in the anchors of suspender cable. In this paper, selection of the cross section of the steel box girder, the general structure design, local structure design and main structure calculation results of Taizhou Yangtze River Bridge are introduced emphatically.

  16. METHODOLOGY FOR THE NUMBER OF FILTERS NEEDED IN A WASTE BOX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MARUSICH, R.M.

    2007-05-17

    Waste in large waste boxes can generate volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hydrogen. These waste boxes may or may not have flow paths out of them (although it is believed that most do). These boxes will be retrieved, sampled, and then coated with polyurea. After coating, filters will be installed in the box to keep the concentration of VOCs and hydrogen acceptably low. The MDSA requires that a vent path must be protected during application of the polyurea coating. If the box has been sampled then it is vented and the vent path must be protected. This report provides a model in which the user inputs the free volume of the waste box, sample concentration (ppm of total VOC or volume fraction hydrogen) along with the number of filters to be placed into the waste box lid. Using this information, the model provides an estimate of concentration vs. time or the number of filters needed to reduce the concentration by a specified fraction. If the equations from this report are placed into spreadsheets which are then used to demonstrate TSR compliance, the spreadsheets must come under the Software QA Plan for such documents. Chapters 2 and 3 present the theory. Chapter 4 presents the method with examples of its use found in Chapter 5. Chapter 6 provides the basis far the use of 1,000 ppm as the concentration below which the method is valid under any condition.

  17. E box motifs as mediators of proviral latency of human retroviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazzolo Louis

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The palindromic sequence motifs (CANNTG known as E boxes are considered as binding sites for the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH class of DNA-binding proteins. Their presence has been reported in the long terminal repeats (LTR of the HIV-1 and HTLV-1 proviruses. Their close proximity with the TATA region of both LTRs indicates that the bHLH proteins may act as important regulators of the function of proviral transcription. Indeed, observations on HIV-1 and recent results on HTLV-1 underline that these E boxes may be critically involved in the regulation of the proviral transcription of these human retroviruses. Indeed, of the two E boxes flanking the TATA sequences of the HIV-1 provirus, the 3' E box has been implicated in the transcriptional inhibition of viral gene expression. Such a role might also be played by the unique 5' E box present in the HTLV-1 LTR. In both cases, the expression of tissue-specfic bHLH proteins, like TAL1 might counteract the inhibitory effect exerted by E box proteins, thereby increasing proviral transcription. Finally, a phylogenetic study encompassing several subtypes of these two human retroviruses underlines that these E box motifs have recently appeared in the proviral LTRs and may be considered as potential mediators in the establishment of proviral latency.

  18. Genome-wide Analysis of Kelch Repeat-containing F-box Family

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yujin Sun; Xiaofan Zhou; Hong Ma

    2007-01-01

    The ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation pathway plays diverse roles in eukaryotes. Previous studies indicate that both F-box and Kelch motifs are common in a variety of organisms. F-box proteins are subunits of E3 ubiquitin ligase complexes called SCFs (SKP1, Cullinl, F-box protein, and Rbx1); they have an N-terminal F-box motif that binds to SKP1 (S-phase kinase associated protein), and often have C-terminal protein-protein interaction domains, which specify the protein substrates for degradation via the ubiquitin pathway. One of the most frequently found protein interaction domains in F-box proteins is the Kelch repeat domain. Although both the F-box and Kelch repeats are ancient motifs, Kelch repeats-containing F-box proteins (KFB) have only been reported for human and Arabidopsis previously. The recent sequencing of the rice genome and other plant genomes provides an opportunity to examine the possible evolution history of KFB. We carried out extensive BLAST searches to identify putative KFBs in selected organisms, and analyzed their relationships phylogenetically. We also carried out the analysis of both gene duplication and gene expression of the KFBs in rice and Arabidopsis. Our study indicates that the origin of KFBs occurs before the divergence of animals and plants, and plant KFBs underwent rapid gene duplications.

  19. Co-expression and co-purification of archaeal and eukaryal box C/D RNPs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Peng

    Full Text Available Box C/D ribonucleoprotein particles (RNPs are 2'-O-methylation enzymes required for maturation of ribosomal and small nuclear RNA. Previous biochemical and structural studies of the box C/D RNPs were limited by the unavailability of purified intact RNPs. We developed a bacterial co-expression strategy based on the combined use of a multi-gene expression system and a tRNA-scaffold construct that allowed the expression and purification of homogeneous archaeal and human box C/D RNPs. While the co-expressed and co-purified archaeal box C/D RNP was found to be fully active in a 2'-O-methylation assay, the intact human U14 box C/D RNP showed no detectable catalytic activity, consistent with the earlier findings that assembly of eukaryotic box C/D RNPs is nonspontaneous and requires additional protein factors. Our systems provide a means for further biochemical and structural characterization of box C/D RNPs and their assembly factors.

  20. Design and test of box girder for a large wind turbine blade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Per H.; Tesauro, A.; Bitsche, R. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Wind Energy, DTU Risoe Campus, Roskilde (Denmark)] [and others

    2012-09-15

    This report is covering the structural design and full scale test of a box girder as a part of the project ''Demonstration of new blade design using manufacturing process simulations'' supported by the EUDP program. A box girder with a predetermined outer geometry was designed using new inventions, which create an inner structure in the box girder. With a combination of advanced FEM analysis and the inventions it was possible to reduce the material thickness of the cap by up to 40%. The new design of the box girder was manufactured at SSP Technology A/S, where it was demonstrated that the manufacturing process could include the new inventions. Subsequently the box girder was transported to the blade test facility at DTU Wind Energy. A series of test was performed with the blade to investigate the behaviour during loading, and finally the girder was loaded to ultimate failure. The report includes the description of the test setup, the test and an overview over the results from the test performed on the box girder. During the final test the box girder failed at 58 % of the expected ultimate load. Unfortunately, no definite conclusion could be made concerning the failure mechanism. (Author)

  1. Loss of Hda activity stimulates replication initiation from I-box, but not R4 mutant origins in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Leise; Fujimitsu, K.; Katayama, T.;

    2009-01-01

    Initiation of chromosome replication in Escherichia coli is limited by the initiator protein DnaA associated with ATP. Within the replication origin, binding sites for DnaA associated with ATP or ADP (R boxes) and the DnaA(ATP) specific sites (I-boxes, tau-boxes and 6-mer sites) are found. We...

  2. Using Object Boxes to Teach the Form, Function, and Vocabulary of the Parts of the Human Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, Audrey C.; Welch, Genne

    2008-01-01

    These science activities for elementary students focus on the external structures and functions of the human eye with hands-on object box activities based on the Montessori theory (1966) of concrete learning through manipulation of objects and focus of attention through touch. Object boxes are sets of items and corresponding cards housed in a box.…

  3. 76 FR 11511 - In the Matter of Certain Set-Top Boxes, and Hardware and Software Components Thereof; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Set-Top Boxes, and Hardware and Software Components Thereof; Notice of... States after importation of certain set-top boxes, and hardware and software components thereof by reason... importation of certain set-top boxes, and hardware and software components thereof that infringe one or...

  4. The ITER neutral beam front end components integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbani, M., E-mail: marc.urbani@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul Lez Durance (France); Hemsworth, R.; Schunke, B.; Graceffa, J.; Delmas, E.; Svensson, L.; Boilson, D. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul Lez Durance (France); Krylov, A.; Panasenkov, A. [RRC Kurchatov Institute, 1, Kurchatov Square, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); Agarici, G. [Fusion For Energy, C/Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral-B3, E-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Stafford Allen, R.; Jones, C.; Kalsey, M.; Muir, A.; Milnes, J. [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Geli, F. [FGI Consulting, Le Garde d’Estienne, 4565 route du Puy Sainte Reparade, 13540 Puyricard (France); Sherlock, P. [AMEC Limited, Booths Park Chelford Road, Knutsford Cheshire WA16 8QZ (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-15

    The neutral beam (NB) system for ITER is composed of two heating neutral beam injectors (HNBs) and a diagnostic neutral beam injector (DNB). A third HNB can be installed as a future up-grade. This paper will present the design development of the components between the injectors and the tokamak; the so-called ‘front end components’: the drift duct consists of the NB bellows and the drift duct liner, the vacuum vessel pressure suppression system box (VVPSS box), the absolute valve, and the fast shutter. These components represent the key links between the ITER tokamak and the vessels of the NB injectors. The design of these components is demanding due to the different loads that these components will have to stand. The paper will describe the different design solutions which have to be implemented regarding the primary vacuum confinement, the power handling capability and the remote maintenance operations. The sizes of the components are determined by the large cross section of the neutral beam. The power handling capability is driven by the anticipated re-ionization of the neutral beam and the electromagnetic fields in this region. The drift duct bellows (with an inner diameter of 2.5 m) shall guarantee a leak tight vacuum enclosure during the vertical and radial displacements of the ITER vacuum vessel. The conductance of the VVPSS box must be maximized in the available space. The absolute valve remains a challenging development. The total leak rate through the valve must be ≤1 × 10{sup −8} Pa m{sup 3}/s when the valve is closed. Due to the radiation environment, the seals of the gate valve will be metallic. An R and D program has been launched to develop a suitable metallic seal solution with the required dimensions. The maximum allowed closing time for the fast shutter shall be less than 1 s. For all these components the leak tightness will be guaranteed by a welded lip seal and the mechanical stability by bolted structures.

  5. Streptococcus pneumoniae Genome-wide Identification and Characterization of BOX Element-binding Domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiao; Wang, Changzheng; Wan, Min; Wu, Yin; Ma, Qianli

    2015-11-01

    The BOX elements are short repetitive DNA sequences that distribute randomly in intergenic regions of the Streptococcus pneumoniae genome. The function and origin of such elements are still unknown, but they were found to modulate expression of neighboring genes. Evidences suggested that the modulation's mechanism can be fulfilled by sequence-specific interaction of BOX elements with transcription factor family proteins. However, the type and function of these BOX-binding proteins still remain largely unexplored to date. In the current study we described a synthetic protocol to investigate the recognition and interaction between a highly conserved site of BOX elements and the DNA-binding domains of a variety of putative transcription factors in the pneumococcal genome. With the protocol we were able to predict those high-affinity domain binders of the conserved BOX DNA site (BOX DNA) in a high-throughput manner, and analyzed sequence-specific interaction in the domainDNA recognition at molecular level. Consequently, a number of putative transcription factor domains with both high affinity and specificity for the BOX DNA were identified, from which the helix-turn-helix (HTH) motif of a small heat shock factor was selected as a case study and tested for its binding capability toward the double-stranded BOX DNA using fluorescence anisotropy analysis. As might be expected, a relatively high affinity was detected for the interaction of HTH motif with BOX DNA with dissociation constant at nanomolar level. Molecular dynamics simulation, atomic structure examination and binding energy analysis revealed a complicated network of intensive nonbonded interactions across the complex interface, which confers both stability and specificity for the complex architecture. PMID:27491035

  6. Wake field of electron beam accelerated in a RF-gun of free electron laser 'ELSA'

    CERN Document Server

    Salah, W

    1999-01-01

    Wake field effects driven by a coasting relativistic charged particle beam have been studied for various cavity geometries. In the particular case of a cylindrical 'pill-box' cavity, an analytical expression of the (E, B)(x, t) map has been obtained as a development on the complete base cavity normal modes. We extend this method to the case of an accelerated beam, which leaves the downstream face of the cavity with a thermal velocity, and becomes relativistic in a few cm. This situation is very different from the classical wake of an ultrarelativistic beam for two reasons: (a) in the case of an ultrarelativistic beam, the field directly generated by beam particles in their wake can be neglected, and the so-called wake field is the electromagnetic linear response of the cavity to the exciting signal which is the beam. For a transrelativistic beam, the direct field must be taken into account and added to cavity response, which is no longer linear, except for low-intensity beam; (b) causality prevents any beam's...

  7. Structural performance of notch damaged steel beams repaired with composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Taly, Boshra

    2016-03-01

    An experimental program and an analytical model using ANSYS program were employed to estimate the structural performance of repaired damaged steel beams using fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composite materials. The beams were artificially notched in the tension flanges at mid-spans and retrofitted by FRP flexible sheets on the tension flanges and the sheets were extended to cover parts of the beams webs with different heights. Eleven box steel beams, including one intact beam, one notch damaged beam and nine notches damaged beam and retrofitted with composite materials, were tested in two-point loading up to failure. The parameters considered were the FRP type (GFRP and CFRP) and number of layers. The results indicated that bonding CFRP sheets to both of the tension steel flange and part of the webs, instead of the tension flange only, enhances the ultimate load of the retrofitted beams, avoids the occurrence of the debonding and increases the beam ductility. Also the numerical models give acceptable results in comparison with the experimental results.

  8. Structural performance of notch damaged steel beams repaired with composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Taly, Boshra

    2016-06-01

    An experimental program and an analytical model using ANSYS program were employed to estimate the structural performance of repaired damaged steel beams using fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composite materials. The beams were artificially notched in the tension flanges at mid-spans and retrofitted by FRP flexible sheets on the tension flanges and the sheets were extended to cover parts of the beams webs with different heights. Eleven box steel beams, including one intact beam, one notch damaged beam and nine notches damaged beam and retrofitted with composite materials, were tested in two-point loading up to failure. The parameters considered were the FRP type (GFRP and CFRP) and number of layers. The results indicated that bonding CFRP sheets to both of the tension steel flange and part of the webs, instead of the tension flange only, enhances the ultimate load of the retrofitted beams, avoids the occurrence of the debonding and increases the beam ductility. Also the numerical models give acceptable results in comparison with the experimental results.

  9. An accidental statistician the life and memories of George E. P. Box

    CERN Document Server

    Box, George E P

    2013-01-01

    Celebrating the life of an admired pioneer in statisticsIn this captivating and inspiring memoir, world-renowned statistician George E. P. Box offers a firsthand account of his life and statistical work. Writing in an engaging, charming style, Dr. Box reveals the unlikely events that led him to a career in statistics, beginning with his job as a chemist conducting experiments for the British army during World War II. At this turning point in his life and career, Dr. Box taught himself the statistical methods necessary to analyze his own findings when there were no statist

  10. Experimental Investigation of the Internal Flow Field of Rotating Impeller Passage with Inlet Box

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WuKeqi; HuShengli

    1995-01-01

    Using PDA and its measurement system.the flow fields at the different peripheral locations of rotating impeller passage of a diagonal fan with inlet box are measured.The results are compared with the flow field of the rotating impeller passage of the same fan without inlet box.The differences of the flow characteristics of the rotating passage at the different peripheral locations are revealed.The effects of the complex flow in the inlet box on the internal folw of the rotaing impell passage are investigated.

  11. Visual pigments of the box jellyfish species Chiropsella bronzie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O*Connor, Megan; Garm, Anders Lydik; Marshall, Justin; Heart, Natan; Ekström, Peter; Skogh, Charlotta; Nilsson, Dan-E

    2010-01-01

    Box jellyfish (Cubomedusae) possess a unique visual system comprising 24 eyes of four morphological types. Moreover, box jellyfish display several visually guided behaviours, including obstacle avoidance and light-shaft attractance. It is largely unknown what kind of visual information box jellyf...... results strongly indicate that only one type of visual pigment is present in the upper and lower lens eyes with a peak absorbance of approximately 510 nm. Additionally, the visual pigment appears to undergo bleaching, similar to that of vertebrate visual pigments....

  12. A Three-Box Model of Thermohaline Circulation under the Energy Constraint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The driving mechanism of thermohaline circulation is still a controversial topic in physical oceanography. Classic theory is based on Stommel's two-box model under buoyancy constraint. Recently, Guan and Huang proposed a new viewpoint in the framework of energy constraint with a two-box model. We extend it to a three-box model, including the effect of wind-driven circulation. Using this simple model, we further study how ocean mixing impacts on thermohaline circulation under the energy constraint. (geophysics, astronomy, and astrophysics)

  13. Epidemiologic determinants of aural abscessation in free-living eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina) in Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Justin D; Sleeman, Jonathan M; Elvinger, François

    2003-10-01

    Epidemiologic determinants of 46 cases of aural abscessation in free-living eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina) admitted to the Wildlife Center of Virginia (Virginia, USA) from 1991 to 2000 were evaluated. County human population density, year and season of admission, weight, and sex did not affect the risk for box turtles to develop aural abscessation. Counties with cases of aural abscessation were not randomly distributed, but rather were clustered into two multi-county regions. Geographic location was the only risk factor associated with aural abscessation in box turtles found in this study. Possible etiologies could include chronic infectious disease, malnutrition, or chronic exposure to environmental contamination with organochlorine compounds. PMID:14733291

  14. Stepwise bending of DNA by a single TATA box binding protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolic-Nørrelykke, Simon F; Rasmussen, Mette B; Pavone, Francesco S;

    2006-01-01

    The TATA-box binding protein (TBP) is required by all three eucaryotic RNA polymerases for the initiation of transcription from most promoters. TBP recognizes, binds to, and bends promoter sequences called "TATA-boxes" in the DNA. We present results from the study of individual Saccharomyces...... cerevisiae TBPs interacting with single DNA molecules containing a TATA-box. Using video microscopy, we observed the Brownian motion of the beads tethered by short surface-bound DNA. When TBP binds to and bends the DNA, the conformation of the DNA changes and the amplitude of Brownian motion of the tehtered...

  15. An Internet content overview and implementation on an IP based set-top box

    OpenAIRE

    Widborg, Linus

    2006-01-01

    This thesis covers the investigation of different content sources on the Internet and the analysis of the requirements they put on a set-top box. It also covers the adaptation of the set-top box to one of these sources. An IP based set-top box (IP-STB) is mainly constructed for access to TV and video distributed over a high speed network. The IP-STB is also connected to the Internet and it potentially has access to all of the Internet based content. This could provide the user of the IP-STB ...

  16. Saturation of the magnetorotational instability in the unstratified shearing box with zero net flux: convergence in taller boxes

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Ji-Ming; Huang, Chelsea X

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies of the nonlinear regime of the magnetorotational instability in one particular type of shearing box model -- unstratified with no net magnetic flux -- find that without explicit dissipation (viscosity and resistivity) the saturation amplitude decreases with increasing numerical resolution. We show that this result is strongly dependent on the vertical aspect ratio of the computational domain $L_z/L_x$. When $L_z/L_x\\lesssim 1$, we recover previous results. However, when the vertical domain is extended $L_z/L_x \\gtrsim 2.5$, we find the saturation level of the stress is greatly increased (giving a ratio of stress to pressure $\\alpha \\gtrsim 0.1$), and moreover the results are independent of numerical resolution. Consistent with previous results, we find that saturation of the MRI in this regime is controlled by a cyclic dynamo which generates patches of strong toroidal field that switches sign on scales of $L_x$ in the vertical direction. We speculate that when $L_z/L_x\\lesssim 1$, the dynamo ...

  17. Damping of a vibrating beam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hietanen, Jarmo; Bomer, Johan; Jonsmann, Jacques; Olthuis, Wouter; Bergveld, Piet; Kaski, Kimmo

    2000-01-01

    This study examines the vibration in a beam with one fixed end. The set-up consisted of a beam with one end clamped and a rigid plate having the same thickness of the beam, located adjacent to the unfixed end of the beam. The gap between the beam and the plate varied from 4 to 128 μm depending on th

  18. Ionization beam scanner

    CERN Multimedia

    1973-01-01

    Inner structure of an ionization beam scanner, a rather intricate piece of apparatus which permits one to measure the density distribution of the proton beam passing through it. On the outside of the tank wall there is the coil for the longitudinal magnetic field, on the inside, one can see the arrangement of electrodes creating a highly homogeneous transverse electric field.

  19. Cavity beam position monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beam-based alignment and feedback systems are essential for the operation of future linear colliders and free electron lasers. A certain number of beam position monitors with a resolution in the submicron range are needed at selected locations. Most beam position monitors detect the electric or the magnetic field excited by a beam of charged particles at different locations around the beam pipe. In resonant monitors, however, the excitation of special field configurations by an off-center beam is detected. These structures offer a large signal per micron displacement. This paper is an attempt to summarize the fundamental characteristics of resonant monitors, their advantages and shortcomings. Emphasis will be on the design of cylindrical cavities, in particular on the estimation of expected signals, of resolution limits and the resulting beam distortion. This includes also a short introduction into numerical methods. Fabrication, tuning, and other practical problems will be reviewed briefly. Finally, some resonant devices used for beam position diagnostics will be discussed and listed

  20. VIVITRON beam transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The VIVITRON is a new 35 MV particle accelerator which presents a great number of innovations. One of the major problem is the beam transport in this electrostatic machine of 50 m length for ions with masses between 1 and 200. Our work consisted in the study of various experimental and theoretical aspects of the beam transport in Tandem accelerators from the ion source to the analysing magnet. Calculations of the beam optics were performed with a Strasbourg version of the computer code Transport. They allowed us to optimize the beam transport parameters of the VIVITRON elements. Special attention has been focused on the design of the charge state selector to be installed in the terminal of the new machine. Beam transmission measurements were carried out in the Strasbourg MP 10 Tandem accelerator for ions beams of masses between 1 and 127 and for terminal voltages from 9 to 15 MV. Partial and total transmissions were obtained and explanations of the beam losses were proposed in terms of the vacuum pressure and/or the optics of the beam accelerator system. The results have been extrapolated to the VIVITRON for which the best working conditions are now clearly defined