WorldWideScience

Sample records for bows reappraising arousal

  1. The effects of arousal reappraisal on stress responses, performance and attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammy, Nadine; Anstiss, Paul A; Moore, Lee J; Freeman, Paul; Wilson, Mark R; Vine, Samuel J

    2017-11-01

    This study examined the effects of arousal reappraisal on cardiovascular responses, demand and resource evaluations, self-confidence, performance and attention under pressurized conditions. A recent study by Moore et al. [2015. Reappraising threat: How to optimize performance under pressure. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 37(3), 339-343. doi: 10.1123/jsep.2014-0186 ] suggested that arousal reappraisal is beneficial to the promotion of challenge states and leads to improvements in single-trial performance. This study aimed to further the work of Moore and colleagues (2015) by examining the effects of arousal reappraisal on cardiovascular responses, demand and resource evaluations, self-confidence, performance and attention in a multi-trial pressurized performance situation. Participants were randomly assigned to either an arousal reappraisal intervention or control condition, and completed a pressurized dart throwing task. The intervention encouraged participants to view their physiological arousal as facilitative rather than debilitative to performance. Measures of cardiovascular reactivity, demand and resource evaluations, self-confidence, task performance and attention were recorded. The reappraisal group displayed more favorable cardiovascular reactivity and reported higher resource evaluations and higher self-confidence than the control group but no task performance or attention effects were detected. These findings demonstrate the strength of arousal reappraisal in promoting adaptive stress responses, perceptions of resources and self-confidence.

  2. The effect of arousal on regulation of negative emotions using cognitive reappraisal: An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeslag, Sandra J E; Surti, Kruti

    2017-08-01

    Because the effectiveness of the emotion regulation strategy cognitive reappraisal may vary with emotion intensity, we investigated how stimulus arousal affects reappraisal success. Participants up- and down-regulated emotional responses using cognitive reappraisal to low and high arousing unpleasant pictures while the electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded. Up-regulation resulted in more negative self-reported valence, while down-regulation resulted in less negative self-reported valence regardless of stimulus arousal, suggesting that subjective reappraisal success does not vary with emotional intensity. Participants felt that down-regulation of emotional responses to low arousing unpleasant pictures was easiest, which is in line with previous findings that participants showed a greater preference for reappraisal in low than high arousing situations. The late positive potential (LPP) amplitude was enhanced by down-regulation of high arousing unpleasant pictures. Even though this effect was unexpected and is opposite to the typical effect of down-regulation on the LPP, it is in line with several previous studies. Potential explanations for LPP regulation effects in the unexpected direction, such as strategy selection and task design, are evaluated. Suggestions and recommendations for future research are discussed, including using trial-by-trial manipulation of regulation instructions and studying the effect of stimulus arousal on up- and down-regulation of positive emotions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Bowed Strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossing, Thomas D.; Hanson, Roger J.

    In the next eight chapters, we consider some aspects of the science of bowed string instruments, old and new. In this chapter, we present a brief discussion of bowed strings, a subject that will be developed much more thoroughly in Chap. 16. Chapters 13-15 discuss the violin, the cello, and the double bass. Chapter 17 discusses viols and other historic string instruments, and Chap. 18 discusses the Hutchins-Schelleng violin octet.

  4. The effect of cognitive reappraisal on long-term emotional experience and emotional memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hyeon Min; Kim, Shin Ah; Hwang, In Jae; Jeong, Ji Woon; Kim, Hyun Taek; Hamann, Stephan; Kim, Sang Hee

    2015-03-01

    One's ability to properly regulate emotion is critical to psychological and physical well-being. Among various strategies to regulate emotion, cognitive reappraisal has been shown to modulate both emotional experience and emotional memory. However, most studies of reappraisal have focused on reappraisal of negative situations, with reappraisal of positive emotion receiving considerably less attention. In addition, the effects of reappraisal on emotional reactions to stimuli are typically only assessed either immediately or after a short delay, and it remains unclear whether reappraisal effects persist over longer time periods. We investigated the effect of cognitive reappraisal on emotional reactions and long-term episodic memory for positive and negative stimuli. Men and women viewed emotionally negative, positive, and neutral pictures while they were instructed to either increase, decrease, or maintain the initial emotional reactions elicited by the pictures. Subjective ratings of emotional valence and arousal were assessed during the regulation task and again after 1 week. Memory for the pictures was assessed with free recall. Results indicated that pictures accompanied by instructions to increase emotion were better recalled than pictures reappraised to decrease emotion. Modulation of emotional arousal elicited by stimuli persisted over a week, but this effect was observed only for men. These findings suggest that cognitive reappraisal can have long-lasting effects on emotional reactions to stimuli. However, the sex differences observed for the effects of reappraisal on emotional reactions highlight the importance of considering individual differences in the effects of regulation. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  5. Bulbous Bow Shape Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Blanchard , Louis; Berrini , Elisa; Duvigneau , Régis; Roux , Yann; Mourrain , Bernard; Jean , Eric

    2013-01-01

    International audience; The aim of this study is to prove the usefulness of a bulbous bow for a fishing vessel, in terms of drag reduction, using an automated shape optimization procedure including hydrodynamic simulations. A bulbous bow is an appendage that is known to reduce the drag, thanks to its influence on the bow wave system. However, the definition of the geometrical parameters of the bulb, such as its length and thickness, is not intuitive, as both parameters are coupled with regard...

  6. Medicine Bow wind project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, L. L.

    1982-05-01

    The Bureau of Reclamation (Bureau) conducted studies for a wind turbine field of 100 MW at a site near Medicine Bow, WY, one of the windiest areas in the United States. The wind turbine system would be electrically interconnected to the existing Federal power grid through the substation at Medicine Bow. Power output from the wind turbines would thus be integrated with the existing hydroelectric system, which serves as the energy storage system. An analysis based on 'willingness to pay' was developed. Based on information from the Department of Energy's Western Area Power Administration (Western), it was assumed that 90 mills per kWh would represent the 'willingness to pay' for onpeak power, and 45 mills per kWh for offpeak power. The report concludes that a 100-MW wind field at Medicine Bow has economic and financial feasibility. The Bureau's construction of the Medicine Bow wind field could demonstrate to the industry the feasibility of wind energy.

  7. Fuel pin bowing in CAGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crossland, I.G.

    1982-01-01

    Some of the more important mechanisms by which pin bowing can occur in Advanced Gas Cooled Reactors are examined. These include creep relaxation of the stresses which occur when thermal bowing is restrained and asymmetric axial clad creep. The clad temperature changes which accompany such bowing are also investigated and the theoretical results briefly compared with the empirical behaviour. (author)

  8. Emotion and Cognitive Reappraisal Based on GSR Wearable Sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Minjia; XIE Lun; WANG Zhiliang; REN Fuji

    2017-01-01

    Various wearable equipment enables us to measure people behavior by physiological signals. In our research, we present one gal-vanic skin reaction (GSR) wearable sensor which can analyze human emotions based on cognition reappraisal. First, We research the factors of emotional state transition in Arousal-Valence-Stance(AVS) emotional space. Second, the influence of the cognition on emotional state transition is considered, and the reappraisal factor based on Gross regulation theory is established to correct the effectiveness from cognitive reappraisal ability to emotional state transition. Third, based on the previous work, we establish a GSR emotion sensing system for predicting emotional state transition and considering the correlation between GSR signals and emotions. Finally, an overall wearable sensor layout is built. In the experiment part, we invited 30 college students to wear our GSR sensors and watch 14 kinds of affective videos. We recorded their GSR signals while asking them to record their emotional states synchronously. The experiment results show different reappraisal factors can predict subjects'emotional state transition well and indirectly confirm the feasibility of the Gross regulation theory.

  9. Atelier Bow-Wow DELIGHTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kajita, Masashi

    2011-01-01

    Atelier Bow-Wow bruger det engelske ord 'delights' til at beskrive en arkitektonisk kvalitet, der dækker over fornøjelse, nydelse og glæde. Interviewet med Yoshiharu Tskukamoto, der sammen med Momoyo Kaijima leder Atelier Bow-Wow, udforsker baggrunden for begrebet 'delights', hvordan det spiller...

  10. Analysis of PWR assembly bow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetterman, Robert J.; Franceschini, Fausto

    2008-01-01

    Excessive out of core assembly bow has been observed during refueling outages of certain PWRs. Assembly bow can take on a rather complex S-shape, and in other cases C-shape bow is prevalent. Concerns have been raised regarding the impact of the observed assembly bow on the in-core power distribution and the safety analyses supporting the plant operations. In response to these concerns, Westinghouse has developed a comprehensive analysis process for determining the effects of assembly bow on core power distributions and plant operating margins. This methodology has been applied to a particular reactor as part of an overall safety reanalysis completed in support of plant modifications. This paper provides a brief description of the methods used and a summary of the pertinent results. (authors)

  11. Analysis of PWR assembly bow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fetterman, Robert J.; Franceschini, Fausto [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Excessive out of core assembly bow has been observed during refueling outages of certain PWRs. Assembly bow can take on a rather complex S-shape, and in other cases C-shape bow is prevalent. Concerns have been raised regarding the impact of the observed assembly bow on the in-core power distribution and the safety analyses supporting the plant operations. In response to these concerns, Westinghouse has developed a comprehensive analysis process for determining the effects of assembly bow on core power distributions and plant operating margins. This methodology has been applied to a particular reactor as part of an overall safety reanalysis completed in support of plant modifications. This paper provides a brief description of the methods used and a summary of the pertinent results. (authors)

  12. Bow shock data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipf, Edward C.; Erdman, Peeter W.

    1994-08-01

    The University of Pittsburgh Space Physics Group in collaboration with the Army Research Office (ARO) modeling team has completed a systematic organization of the shock and plume spectral data and the electron temperature and density measurements obtained during the BowShock I and II rocket flights which have been submitted to the AEDC Data Center, has verified the presence of CO Cameron band emission during the Antares engine burn and for an extended period of time in the post-burn plume, and have adapted 3-D radiation entrapment codes developed by the University of Pittsburgh to study aurora and other atmospheric phenomena that involve significant spatial effects to investigate the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) envelope surrounding the re-entry that create an extensive plasma cloud by photoionization.

  13. Introduction: Reappraising Paul Feyerabend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Matthew J; Kidd, Ian James

    2016-06-01

    This volume is devoted to a reappraisal of the philosophy of Paul Feyerabend. It has four aims. The first is to reassess his already well-known work from the 1960s and 1970s in light of contemporary developments in the history and philosophy of science. The second is to explore themes in his neglected later work, including recently published and previously unavailable writings. The third is to assess the contributions that Feyerabend can make to contemporary debate, on topics such as perspectivism, realism, and political philosophy of science. The fourth and final aim is to reconsider Feyerabend's place within the history of philosophy of science in the light of new scholarship. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Distract or reappraise? Age-related differences in emotion-regulation choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheibe, Susanne; Sheppes, Gal; Staudinger, Ursula M

    2015-12-01

    Does aging impact strategy choice with regard to regulating negative emotions? Based on the assumption that older adults are highly motivated to quickly defuse negative states, we predicted that older adults, relative to young adults, would show an increased preference for distraction (a cognitive disengagement strategy) over reappraisal (a cognitive engagement strategy) in the face of negative material. A stronger preference for distraction, in turn, should be associated with higher affective well-being at older ages, as it helps to avoid high physiological arousal. Young (19-28 years, n = 38) and older (65-75 years, n = 39) adults completed a laboratory task of emotion-regulation choice in which they viewed negative pictures of high and low intensity and chose between distraction and reappraisal to regulate their emotional response. Confirming predictions, age was associated with an increased preference to choose distraction over reappraisal. Among older but not young adults, the relative preference for distraction to reappraisal predicted higher state-affective well-being. In addition, across age groups, the preference for distraction over reappraisal was positively predicted by stimulus intensity and negatively by cognitive resources. Findings support the notion of an age-related shift toward disengagement strategies to regulate negative emotions, which maps onto older adults' prohedonic orientation and holds affective benefits. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Female sexual arousal disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giraldi, Annamaria; Rellini, Alessandra H.; Pfaus, James; Laan, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Definitions and terminology for female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) are currently being debated. While some authors have suggested that FSAD is more a subjective response rather than a genital response, others have suggested that desire and arousal disorders should be combined in one entity.

  16. Empathizing with Emotional Robot Based on Cognition Reappraisal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Liu; Lun Xie; Zhiliang Wang

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a continuous cognitive emotional regulation model for robot in the case of external emotional stimulus from interactive person's expressions. It integrates a guiding cognitive reappraisal strategy into the HMM (Hidden Markov Model) emotional interactive model for empathizing between ro-bot and person. The emotion is considered as a source in the 3D space (Arousal, Valence, and Stance). State transition and emotion intensity can be quantitatively analyzed in the continu-ous space. This cognition-emotion interactive model have been verified by the expression and behavior robot. Empathizing is the main distinguishing feature of our work, and it is realized by the emotional regulation which operated in a continuous 3D emotional space enabling a wide range of intermediate emo-tions. The experiment results provide evidence with acceptability, accuracy, richness, fluency, interestingness, friendliness and exaggeration that the robot with cognition and emotional control ability could be better accepted in the human-robot interaction (HRI).

  17. The player and the bowed string: coordination of bowing parameters in violin and viola performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonderwaldt, E

    2009-11-01

    An experiment was conducted with four violin and viola players, measuring their bowing performance using an optical motion capture system and sensors on the bow. The measurements allowed for a detailed analysis of the use and coordination of the main bowing parameters bow velocity, bow force, and bow-bridge distance. An analysis of bowing strategies in detache playing of notes of three durations (0.2, 2, and 4 s) at three dynamic levels (pp, mf, and f) on all four strings is presented, focusing on the "steady" part of the notes. The results revealed clear trends in the coordinated variations of the bowing parameters depending on the constraints of the task, reflecting a common behavior as well as individual strategies. Furthermore, there were clear indications that the players adapted the bowing parameters to the physical properties of the string and the instrument, respecting the limits of the playable control parameter space.

  18. Female Sexual Arousal Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giraldi, Annamaria; Rellini, Alessandra H; Pfaus, James

    2012-01-01

    Introduction.  Definitions and terminology for female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) are currently being debated. While some authors have suggested that FSAD is more a subjective response rather than a genital response, others have suggested that desire and arousal disorders should be combined...... and psychological disorders, as well as to discuss different medical and psychological assessment and treatment modalities. Methods.  The experts of the International Society for Sexual Medicine's Standard Committee convened to provide a survey using relevant databases, journal articles, and own clinical experience....... Results.  Female Arousal Disorders have been defined in several ways with focus on the genital or subjective response or a combination of both. The prevalence varies and increases with increasing age, especially at the time of menopause, while distress decreases with age. Arousal disorders are often...

  19. Only reappraisers profit from reappraisal instructions: Effects of instructed and habitual reappraisal on stress responses during interpersonal conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauersberger, Heidi; Hoppe, Annekatrin; Brockmann, Gudrun; Hess, Ursula

    2018-04-22

    Conflicts are an undesirable yet common aspect of daily interactions with wide-ranging negative consequences. The present research aimed to examine the buffering effect of experimentally instructed reappraisal on self-reported, physiological and behavioral stress indices during interpersonal conflicts, taking into account habitual emotion regulation strategies. For this, 145 participants experienced a standardized laboratory conflict with the instruction to either reappraise (n = 48), to suppress (n = 50), or with no instruction (n = 47) while cardiovascular and neuroendocrine measures were taken. Participants were allowed to eat sweet and salty snacks during the conflict situation. Prior to as well as after the conflict, participants reported on their subjective stress level. Reappraisal instructions were only effective for high habitual reappraisers who exhibited lower cardiovascular and cortisol reactivity and demonstrated fewer snack-eating behaviors under reappraisal instructions than under suppression or no instructions. The opposite pattern emerged for low habitual reappraisers. Neither experimentally instructed nor habitual reappraisal by itself reduced the negative effects of conflicts. Our findings complement the literature on the diverging effects of instructed reappraisal in tense social interactions. © 2018 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  20. The cognitive building blocks of emotion regulation: ability to update working memory moderates the efficacy of rumination and reappraisal on emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pe, Madeline Lee; Raes, Filip; Kuppens, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The ability to regulate emotions is a critical component of healthy emotional functioning. Therefore, it is important to determine factors that contribute to the efficacy of emotion regulation. The present article examined whether the ability to update emotional information in working memory is a predictor of the efficacy of rumination and reappraisal on affective experience both at the trait level (Study 1) and in daily life (Study 2). In both studies, results revealed that the relationship between use of reappraisal and high arousal negative emotions was moderated by updating ability. Specifically, use of reappraisal was associated with decreased high arousal negative emotions for participants with high updating ability, while no significant relationship was found for those with low updating ability. In addition, both studies also revealed that the relationship between rumination and high arousal negative emotions was moderated by updating ability. In general, use of rumination was associated with elevated high arousal negative emotions. However, this relationship was blunted for participants with high updating ability. That is, use of rumination was associated with less elevated high arousal negative emotions for participants with high updating ability. These results identify the ability to update emotional information in working memory as a crucial process modulating the efficacy of emotion regulation efforts.

  1. The Cognitive Building Blocks of Emotion Regulation: Ability to Update Working Memory Moderates the Efficacy of Rumination and Reappraisal on Emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pe, Madeline Lee; Raes, Filip; Kuppens, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The ability to regulate emotions is a critical component of healthy emotional functioning. Therefore, it is important to determine factors that contribute to the efficacy of emotion regulation. The present article examined whether the ability to update emotional information in working memory is a predictor of the efficacy of rumination and reappraisal on affective experience both at the trait level (Study 1) and in daily life (Study 2). In both studies, results revealed that the relationship between use of reappraisal and high arousal negative emotions was moderated by updating ability. Specifically, use of reappraisal was associated with decreased high arousal negative emotions for participants with high updating ability, while no significant relationship was found for those with low updating ability. In addition, both studies also revealed that the relationship between rumination and high arousal negative emotions was moderated by updating ability. In general, use of rumination was associated with elevated high arousal negative emotions. However, this relationship was blunted for participants with high updating ability. That is, use of rumination was associated with less elevated high arousal negative emotions for participants with high updating ability. These results identify the ability to update emotional information in working memory as a crucial process modulating the efficacy of emotion regulation efforts. PMID:23874872

  2. Simple analytical relations for ship bow waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noblesse, Francis; Delhommeau, G.?Rard; Guilbaud, Michel; Hendrix, Dane; Yang, Chi

    Simple analytical relations for the bow wave generated by a ship in steady motion are given. Specifically, simple expressions that define the height of a ship bow wave, the distance between the ship stem and the crest of the bow wave, the rise of water at the stem, and the bow wave profile, explicitly and without calculations, in terms of the ship speed, draught, and waterline entrance angle, are given. Another result is a simple criterion that predicts, also directly and without calculations, when a ship in steady motion cannot generate a steady bow wave. This unsteady-flow criterion predicts that a ship with a sufficiently fine waterline, specifically with waterline entrance angle 2, may generate a steady bow wave at any speed. However, a ship with a fuller waterline (25E) can only generate a steady bow wave if the ship speed is higher than a critical speed, defined in terms of αE by a simple relation. No alternative criterion for predicting when a ship in steady motion does not generate a steady bow wave appears to exist. A simple expression for the height of an unsteady ship bow wave is also given. In spite of their remarkable simplicity, the relations for ship bow waves obtained in the study (using only rudimentary physical and mathematical considerations) are consistent with experimental measurements for a number of hull forms having non-bulbous wedge-shaped bows with small flare angle, and with the authors' measurements and observations for a rectangular flat plate towed at a yaw angle.

  3. Persistent genital arousal disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eibye, Simone; Jensen, Hans Mørch

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a woman suffering from persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) after paroxetine cessation. She was admitted to a psychiatric department and diagnosed with agitated depression. Physical investigation showed no gynaecological or neurological explanation; however, a pelvic MRI...

  4. Amines, Astrocytes and Arousal

    OpenAIRE

    Bazargani, N.; Attwell, D.

    2017-01-01

    Amine neurotransmitters, such as noradrenaline, mediate arousal, attention, and reward in the CNS. New data suggest that, from flies to mammals, a major mechanism for amine transmitter action is to raise astrocyte [Ca2+]i and release gliotransmitters that modulate neuronal activity and behavior.

  5. Entropy Generation Across Earth's Bow Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, George K.; McCarthy, Michael; Fu, Suiyan; Lee E. s; Cao, Jinbin; Goldstein, Melvyn L.; Canu, Patrick; Dandouras, Iannis S.; Reme, Henri; Fazakerley, Andrew; hide

    2011-01-01

    Earth's bow shock is a transition layer that causes an irreversible change in the state of plasma that is stationary in time. Theories predict entropy increases across the bow shock but entropy has never been directly measured. Cluster and Double Star plasma experiments measure 3D plasma distributions upstream and downstream of the bow shock that allow calculation of Boltzmann's entropy function H and his famous H-theorem, dH/dt O. We present the first direct measurements of entropy density changes across Earth's bow shock. We will show that this entropy generation may be part of the processes that produce the non-thermal plasma distributions is consistent with a kinetic entropy flux model derived from the collisionless Boltzmann equation, giving strong support that solar wind's total entropy across the bow shock remains unchanged. As far as we know, our results are not explained by any existing shock models and should be of interests to theorists.

  6. Primary shield displacement and bowing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, K.V.

    1978-01-01

    The reactor primary shield is constructed of high density concrete and surrounds the reactor core. The inlet, outlet and side primary shields were constructed in-place using 2.54 cm (1 in) thick steel plates as the forms. The plates remained as an integral part of the shields. The elongation of the pressure tubes due to thermal expansion and pressurization is not moving through the inlet nozzle hardware as designed but is accommodated by outward displacement and bowing of the inlet and outlet shields. Excessive distortion of the shields may result in gas seal failures, intolerable helium gas leaks, increased argon-41 emissions, and shield cooling tube failures. The shield surveillance and testing results are presented

  7. The neurophysiology of sexual arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Justine M; Pfaff, Donald

    2007-09-01

    Our understanding of the process and initiation of sexual arousal is being enhanced by both animal and human studies, inclusive of basic science principles and research on clinical outcomes. Sexual arousal is dependent on neural (sensory and cognitive) factors, hormonal factors, genetic factors and, in the human case, the complex influences of culture and context. Sexual arousal activates the cognitive and physiologic processes that can eventually lead to sexual behavior. Sexual arousal comprises a particular subset of central nervous system arousal functions which depend on primitive, fundamental arousal mechanisms that cause generalized brain activity, but are manifest in a sociosexual context. The neurophysiology of sexual arousal is seen as a bidirectional system universal to all vertebrates. The following review includes known neural and genomic mechanisms of a hormone-dependent circuit for simple sex behavior. New information about hormone effects on causal steps related to sex hormones' nuclear receptor isoforms expressed by hypothalamic neurons continues to enrich our understanding of this neurophysiology.

  8. Energetics of the terrestrial bow shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamrin, Maria; Gunell, Herbert; Norqvist, Patrik

    2017-04-01

    The solar wind is the primary energy source for the magnetospheric energy budget. Energy can enter through the magnetopause both as kinetic energy (plasma entering via e.g. magnetic reconnection and impulsive penetration) and as electromagnetic energy (e.g. by the conversion of solar wind kinetic energy into electromagnetic energy in magnetopause generators). However, energy is extracted from the solar wind already at the bow shock, before it encounters the terrestrial magnetopause. At the bow shock the supersonic solar wind is slowed down and heated, and the region near the bow shock is known to host many complex processes, including the accelerating of particles and the generation of waves. The processes at and near the bow shock can be discussed in terms of energetics: In a generator (load) process kinetic energy is converted to (from) electromagnetic energy. Bow shock regions where the solar wind is decelerated correspond to generators, while regions where particles are energized (accelerated and heated) correspond to loads. Recently, it has been suggested that currents from the bow shock generator should flow across the magnetosheath and connect to the magnetospause current systems [Siebert and Siscoe, 2002; Lopez et al., 2011]. In this study we use data from the Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) mission to investigate the energetics of the bow shock and the current closure, and we compare with the MHD simulations of Lopez et al., 2011.

  9. Viols and Other Historic Bowed String Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Murray; Campbell, Patsy

    While plucked strings have been used for musical purposes since at least the third millennium BCE, the idea of sounding a string by bowing it is a much more recent development. Bowed string instruments seem to have originated in Asia toward the end of the first millennium CE, and were in widespread use in Western Europe by the end of the eleventh century. For the next three centuries many different types of bowed instrument, with a bewildering variety of names, were in common use throughout Europe.

  10. Comparative review of bow shocks and magnetopauses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepping, R.P.

    1984-04-01

    Bow shock and magnetopauses formation is discussed. Plasma and magnetic field environments of all the planets from Mercury to Saturn were measured. It was found that all the planets have bow shocks and almost all have a magnetopause. Venus is the only planet with no measurable intrinsic magnetic field and the solar wind interacts directly with Venus ionosphere. The bow shock characteristics depend on the changing solar wind conditions. The shape of a magnetopause or any obstacle to flow depends on the three dimensional pressure profile that it presents to the solar wind. Jupiter is unusual because of the considerable amount of plasma which is contained in its magnetosphere. Magentopause boundaries in ecliptic plane projection are modelled by segments of ellipses, matched to straight lines for the magnetotool boundaries or parabolas. Specific properties of known planetary bow shocks and magnetopauses are reviewed

  11. Bow-shaped toroidal field coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonanos, P.

    1981-05-01

    Design features of Bow-Shaped Toroidal Field Coils are described and compared with circular and D shaped coils. The results indicate that bow coils can produce higher field strengths, store more energy and be made demountable. The design offers the potential for the production of ultrahigh toroidal fields. Included are representative coil shapes and their engineering properties, a suggested structural design and an analysis of a specific case

  12. True versus apparent shapes of bow shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarango-Yong, Jorge A.; Henney, William J.

    2018-06-01

    Astrophysical bow shocks are a common result of the interaction between two supersonic plasma flows, such as winds or jets from stars or active galaxies, or streams due to the relative motion between a star and the interstellar medium. For cylindrically symmetric bow shocks, we develop a general theory for the effects of inclination angle on the apparent shape. We propose a new two-dimensional classification scheme for bow shapes, which is based on dimensionless geometric ratios that can be estimated from observational images. The two ratios are related to the flatness of the bow's apex, which we term planitude, and the openness of its wings, which we term alatude. We calculate the expected distribution in the planitude-alatude plane for a variety of simple geometrical and physical models: quadrics of revolution, wilkinoids, cantoids, and ancantoids. We further test our methods against numerical magnetohydrodynamical simulations of stellar bow shocks and find that the apparent planitude and alatude measured from infrared dust continuum maps serve as accurate diagnostics of the shape of the contact discontinuity, which can be used to discriminate between different physical models. We present an algorithm that can determine the planitude and alatude from observed bow shock emission maps with a precision of 10 to 20 per cent.

  13. Channel Bow in Boiling Water Reactors - Hot Cell Examination Results and Correlation to Measured Bow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, S.T.; Lin, Y.P.; Dubecky, M.A.; Edsinger, K.; Mader, E.V.

    2007-01-01

    An increase in frequency of fuel channel-control blade interference has been observed in Boiling Water Reactors (BWR) in recent years. Many of the channels leading to interference were found to bow towards the control blade in a manner that was inconsistent with the expected bow due to other effects. The pattern of bow appeared to indicate a new channel bow mechanism that differed from the predominant bow mechanism caused by differential growth due to fast-fluence gradients. In order to investigate this new type of channel bow, coupons from several channels with varying degrees of bow were returned to the GE Vallecitos Nuclear Center (VNC) for Post-Irradiation Examination (PIE). This paper describes the characteristics of channel corrosion and hydrogen pickup observed, and relates the observations to the channel exposure level, control history, and measured channel bow. The channels selected for PIE had exposures in the range of 36-48 GWd/MTU and covered a wide range of measured bow. The coupons were obtained at 4 elevations from opposing channel sides adjacent and away from the control blade. The PIE performed on these coupons included visual examination, metallography, and hydrogen concentration measurements. A new mechanism of control-blade shadow corrosion-induced channel bow was found to correlate with differences in the extent of corrosion and corresponding differences in the hydrogen concentration between opposite sides of the channels. The increased corrosion on the control blade sides was found to be dependent on the level of control early in the life of the channel. The contributions of other potential factors leading to increased channel bow and channel-control blade interference are also discussed in this paper. (authors)

  14. Can Arousal Modulate Response Inhibition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinbach, Noam; Kalanthroff, Eyal; Avnit, Amir; Henik, Avishai

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine if and how arousal can modulate response inhibition. Two competing hypotheses can be drawn from previous literature. One holds that alerting cues that elevate arousal should result in an impulsive response and therefore impair response inhibition. The other suggests that alerting enhances processing of…

  15. Effect of Buffer Bow Structure in Ship-Ship Collision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamada, Yasuhira; Endo, Hisayoshi; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2008-01-01

    tankers, the introduction of buffer bulbous bows has been proposed. Relatively soft buffer bows absorb part of the kinetic energy of the striking ship before penetrating the inner hull of the struck vessel. The purpose of the present paper is to verify the effectiveness of a prototype buffer bulbous bow......) and the forward velocity of the struck ship on the collapse mode of the bow of the striking vessel are investigated. Collapse modes, contact forces and energy absorption capabilities of the buffer bows are compared with those of conventional bows....

  16. Stress relaxation of thermally bowed fuel pins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crossland, I.G.; Speight, M.V.

    1983-01-01

    The presence of cross-pin temperature gradients in nuclear reactor fuel pins produces differential thermal expansion which, in turn, causes the fuel pin to bow elastically. If the pin is restrained in any way, such thermal bowing causes the pin to be stressed. At high temperatures these stresses can relax by creep and it is shown here that this causes the pin to suffer an additional permanent deflection, so that when the cross-pin temperature difference is removed the pin remains bowed. By representing the cylindrical pin by an equivalent I-beam, the present work examines this effect when it takes place by secondary creep. Two restraint systems are considered, and it is demonstrated that the rate of relaxation depends mainly upon the creep equation, and hence the temperature, and also the magnitude of the initial stresses. (author)

  17. Traumatic bowing of forearm and lower leg in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenstroem, R.; Gripenberg, L.; Bergius, A.-R.

    1978-01-01

    Traumatic bowing of the forearm or lower leg is reported in 31 children. It is a relatively rare condition. Bowing occurs most frequently in combination with fracture of the other bone in the same extremity. In a minority of cases a bowing deformity is a single lesion. Age distribution, degree of deformity, mechanism of origin and therapy are presented and discussed. (Auth.)

  18. Extraction of bowing parameters from violin performance combining motion capture and sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonderwaldt, E; Demoucron, M

    2009-11-01

    A method is described for measurement of a complete set of bowing parameters in violin performance. Optical motion capture was combined with sensors for accurate measurement of the main bowing parameters (bow position, bow velocity, bow acceleration, bow-bridge distance, and bow force) as well as secondary control parameters (skewness, inclination, and tilt of the bow). In addition, other performance features (moments of on/off in bow-string contact, string played, and bowing direction) were extracted. Detailed descriptions of the calculations of the bowing parameters, features, and calibrations are given. The described system is capable of measuring all bowing parameters without disturbing the player, allowing for detailed studies of musically relevant aspects of bow control and coordination of bowing parameters in bowed-string instrument performance.

  19. Effects of valence and divided attention on cognitive reappraisal processes

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, John A.; Leclerc, Christina M.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the neural substrates supporting cognitive reappraisal, identifying the importance of cognitive control processes implemented by prefrontal cortex (PFC). This study examined how valence and attention affect the processes used for cognitive reappraisal by asking participants to passively view or to cognitively reappraise positive and negative images with full or divided attention. When participants simply viewed these images, results revealed few effects of v...

  20. Musical Tasks and Energetic Arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hayoung A; Watson, Angela L

    2018-03-08

    Music is widely recognized as a motivating stimulus. Investigators have examined the use of music to improve a variety of motivation-related outcomes; however, these studies have focused primarily on passive music listening rather than active participation in musical activities. To examine the influence of participation in musical tasks and unique participant characteristics on energetic arousal. We used a one-way Welch's ANOVA to examine the influence of musical participation (i.e., a non-musical control and four different musical task conditions) upon energetic arousal. In addition, ancillary analyses of participant characteristics including personality, age, gender, sleep, musical training, caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol revealed their possible influence upon pretest and posttest energetic arousal scores. Musical participation yielded a significant relationship with energetic arousal, F(4, 55.62) = 44.38, p = .000, estimated ω2 = 0.60. Games-Howell post hoc pairwise comparisons revealed statistically significant differences between five conditions. Descriptive statistics revealed expected differences between introverts' and extraverts' energetic arousal scores at the pretest, F(1, 115) = 6.80, p = .010, partial η2= .06; however, mean differences failed to reach significance at the posttest following musical task participation. No other measured participant characteristics yielded meaningful results. Passive tasks (i.e., listening to a story or song) were related to decreased energetic arousal, while active musical tasks (i.e., singing, rhythm tapping, and keyboard playing) were related to increased energetic arousal. Musical task participation appeared to have a differential effect for individuals with certain personality traits (i.e., extroverts and introverts).

  1. Role of Creativity in the Effectiveness of Cognitive Reappraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofei Wu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available As a well-recognized and widely adopted emotional regulation strategy, cognitive reappraisal has generally been proven to be efficient. However, the cognitive mechanism underlying regulatory efficiency, particularly the role of creativity, in cognitive reappraisal is unclear. Although previous studies have evaluated the relationship between creativity and reappraisal from the perspectives of generation (i.e., generating cognitive reappraisals and generating creative ideas involve similar cognitive neural networks and individual differences (i.e., the ability to generate different cognitive reappraisals can be predicted by scores on creativity-related tests, how cognitive reappraisal’s efficiency can be related to creativity is still unknown. In this research, we assessed the relationship between cognitive reappraisal’s creativity and its effectiveness in regulating negative emotion. In Study 1, participants were asked to generate reappraisals of negative stimuli and then evaluate the creativity and regulatory effectiveness of these reappraisals. The results indicated positive correlation between creativity rating and regulatory effectiveness, but we found that it was difficult for the participants to generate highly creative reappraisals on their own. Therefore, in Study 2, we showed participants well-prepared reappraisal materials that varied in their creativity and asked them to evaluate their regulatory effectiveness and creativity. The results suggested that creativity and appropriateness were significant predictors of the regulating effects of the reappraisal and that creativity was the most dominant predictor. In summary, both experiments found a positive correlation between reappraisal’s creativity and effectiveness, thus implying that creativity plays an important role in reappraisal.

  2. The polarizing effect of arousal on negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ashley D; Curhan, Jared R

    2013-10-01

    In this research, we examined the impact of physiological arousal on negotiation outcomes. Conventional wisdom and the prescriptive literature suggest that arousal should be minimized given its negative effect on negotiations, whereas prior research on misattribution of arousal suggests that arousal might polarize outcomes, either negatively or positively. In two experiments, we manipulated arousal and measured its effect on subjective and objective negotiation outcomes. Our results support the polarization effect. When participants had negative prior attitudes toward negotiation, arousal had a detrimental effect on outcomes, whereas when participants had positive prior attitudes toward negotiation, arousal had a beneficial effect on outcomes. These effects occurred because of the construal of arousal as negative or positive affect, respectively. Our findings have important implications not only for negotiation, but also for research on misattribution of arousal, which previously has focused on the target of evaluation, in contrast to the current research, which focused on the critical role of the perceiver.

  3. State Mindfulness During Meditation Predicts Enhanced Cognitive Reappraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Adam; Farb, Norman A.; Froeliger, Brett E.

    2013-01-01

    Putatively, mindfulness meditation involves generation of a state of “nonappraisal”, yet, little is known about how mindfulness may influence appraisal processes. We investigated whether the state and practice of mindfulness could enhance cognitive reappraisal. Participants (N = 44; M age = 24.44, SD = 4.00, range 19 – 38, 82.2% female) were randomized to either 1) mindfulness, 2) suppression, or 3) mind-wandering induction training conditions. Cognitive reappraisal was assessed with the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ) prior to experimental induction, and state mindfulness was assessed immediately following induction using the Toronto Mindfulness Scale (TMS). Participants practiced their assigned strategy for one week and then were reassessed with the ERQ reappraisal subscale. Participants receiving mindfulness training reported significantly higher levels of state mindfulness than participants in the thought suppression and mind wandering conditions. Although brief mindfulness training did not lead to significantly greater increases in reappraisal than the other two conditions, state mindfulness during mindfulness meditation was prospectively associated with increases in reappraisal. Path analysis revealed that the indirect effect between mindfulness training and reappraisal was significant through state mindfulness. Degree of state mindfulness achieved during the act of mindfulness meditation significantly predicted increases in reappraisal over time, suggesting that mindfulness may promote emotion regulation by enhancing cognitive reappraisal. PMID:26085851

  4. Effects of valence and divided attention on cognitive reappraisal processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, John A; Leclerc, Christina M; Kensinger, Elizabeth A

    2014-12-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the neural substrates supporting cognitive reappraisal, identifying the importance of cognitive control processes implemented by prefrontal cortex (PFC). This study examined how valence and attention affect the processes used for cognitive reappraisal by asking participants to passively view or to cognitively reappraise positive and negative images with full or divided attention. When participants simply viewed these images, results revealed few effects of valence or attention. However, when participants engaged in reappraisal, there was a robust effect of valence, with the reappraisal of negative relative to positive images associated with more widespread activation, including within regions of medial and lateral PFC. There also was an effect of attention, with more lateral PFC recruitment when regulating with full attention and more medial PFC recruitment when regulating with divided attention. Within two regions of medial PFC and one region of ventrolateral PFC, there was an interaction between valence and attention: in these regions, divided attention reduced activity during reappraisal of positive but not negative images. Critically, participants continued to report reappraisal success even during the Divided Attention condition. These results suggest multiple routes to successful cognitive reappraisal, depending upon image valence and the availability of attentional resources. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Effects of valence and divided attention on cognitive reappraisal processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Christina M.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the neural substrates supporting cognitive reappraisal, identifying the importance of cognitive control processes implemented by prefrontal cortex (PFC). This study examined how valence and attention affect the processes used for cognitive reappraisal by asking participants to passively view or to cognitively reappraise positive and negative images with full or divided attention. When participants simply viewed these images, results revealed few effects of valence or attention. However, when participants engaged in reappraisal, there was a robust effect of valence, with the reappraisal of negative relative to positive images associated with more widespread activation, including within regions of medial and lateral PFC. There also was an effect of attention, with more lateral PFC recruitment when regulating with full attention and more medial PFC recruitment when regulating with divided attention. Within two regions of medial PFC and one region of ventrolateral PFC, there was an interaction between valence and attention: in these regions, divided attention reduced activity during reappraisal of positive but not negative images. Critically, participants continued to report reappraisal success even during the Divided Attention condition. These results suggest multiple routes to successful cognitive reappraisal, depending upon image valence and the availability of attentional resources. PMID:24493837

  6. The earth's foreshock, bow shock, and magnetosheath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onsager, T. G.; Thomsen, M. F.

    1991-01-01

    Studies directly pertaining to the earth's foreshock, bow shock, and magnetosheath are reviewed, and some comparisons are made with data on other planets. Topics considered in detail include the electron foreshock, the ion foreshock, the quasi-parallel shock, the quasi-perpendicular shock, and the magnetosheath. Information discussed spans a broad range of disciplines, from large-scale macroscopic plasma phenomena to small-scale microphysical interactions.

  7. The earth's foreshock, bow shock, and magnetosheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onsager, T.G.; Thomsen, M.F.

    1991-01-01

    Studies directly pertaining to the earth's foreshock, bow shock, and magnetosheath are reviewed, and some comparisons are made with data on other planets. Topics considered in detail include the electron foreshock, the ion foreshock, the quasi-parallel shock, the quasi-perpendicular shock, and the magnetosheath. Information discussed spans a broad range of disciplines, from large-scale macroscopic plasma phenomena to small-scale microphysical interactions. 184 refs

  8. The Bowed Tube : a Virtual Violin

    OpenAIRE

    Carrillo, Alfonso P.; Bonada, Jordi

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a virtual violin for real-time performances consisting of two modules: a violin spectral modeland a control interface. The interface is composed by asensing bow and a tube with drawn strings in substitutionof a real violin. The spectral model is driven by the bowingcontrols captured with the control interface and it is ableto predict spectral envelopes of the sound corresponding tothose controls. The envelopes are filled with harmonic andnoisy content and given to an addit...

  9. Plastic bowing of the ribs in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caro, P.A.; Borden, S. IV

    1988-06-01

    Four cases of plastic bowing of the ribs are presented. In three patients with Werdnig-Hoffman disease, plastic curvatures were associated with chronic pneumonia and atelectasis. We postulate that intrapulmonary retractive forces can deform ribs thinned by muscular atrophy. In turn, thoracic collapse can perpetuate lobar and segmental atelectasis. In one case of osteogenesis imperfecta without pneumonia, we believe normal muscle forces bent ribs weakened by deficiency of normal cortical architecture.

  10. Plastic bowing of the ribs in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caro, P.A.; Borden, S. IV

    1988-01-01

    Four cases of plastic bowing of the ribs are presented. In three patients with Werdnig-Hoffman disease, plastic curvatures were associated with chronic pneumonia and atelectasis. We postulate that intrapulmonary retractive forces can deform ribs thinned by muscular atrophy. In turn, thoracic collapse can perpetuate lobar and segmental atelectasis. In one case of osteogenesis imperfecta without pneumonia, we believe normal muscle forces bent ribs weakened by deficiency of normal cortical architecture. (orig.)

  11. Radiological assessment of the femoral bowing in Japanese population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelaal Ahmed Hamed Kassem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Differences in the magnitude of bowing between races are well-known characteristics of the femur. Asian races have an increased magnitude of femoral bowing but most of the orthopedic implants designed for the femur do not match this exaggerated bowing. We calculated the sagittal and coronal femoral bowing in the Japanese population at different levels of the femur and addressed its surgical significance. Material and methods: We calculated the sagittal and coronal bowing of 132 Japanese femora using CT scan of the femur. A mathematical calculation of the radius of curvature at proximal, middle, and distal regions of the femur was used to determine the degree of femoral bowing. Results: Mean sagittal bowing of the femur was 581, 188, and 161 mm for the proximal, middle, and distal thirds of the femur and mean lateral bowing was 528, 5092, and 876 mm, respectively. Mean sagittal and coronal bowing for the whole femur was 175 and 2640 mm, respectively. No correlation was found between age, gender, length of femur, and the degree of bowing. Conclusion: Our study reveals that femoral bowing in the Japanese population is 175 mm in the sagittal plane and 2640 mm in the coronal plane; these values are greater than the femoral bowing in other ethnic groups studied in the literature. This may result in varying degrees of mismatch between the western-manufactured femoral intramedullary implants and the Japanese femur. We recommend that orthopedic surgeons to accurately perform preoperative evaluation of the femoral bowing to avoid potential malalignment, rotation, and abnormal stresses between the femur and implant.

  12. Coordination in fast repetitive violin-bowing patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonderwaldt, Erwin; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2014-01-01

    We present a study of coordination behavior in complex violin-bowing patterns involving simultaneous bow changes (reversal of bowing direction) and string crossings (changing from one string to another). Twenty-two violinists (8 advanced amateurs, 8 students with violin as major subject, and 6 elite professionals) participated in the experiment. We investigated the influence of a variety of performance conditions (specific bowing patterns, dynamic level, tempo, and transposition) and level of expertise on coordination behavior (a.o., relative phase and amplitude) and stability. It was found that the general coordination behavior was highly consistent, characterized by a systematic phase lead of bow inclination over bow velocity of about 15° (i.e., string crossings were consistently timed earlier than bow changes). Within similar conditions, a high individual consistency was found, whereas the inter-individual agreement was considerably less. Furthermore, systematic influences of performance conditions on coordination behavior and stability were found, which could be partly explained in terms of particular performance constraints. Concerning level of expertise, only subtle differences were found, the student and professional groups (higher level of expertise) showing a slightly higher stability than the amateur group (lower level of expertise). The general coordination behavior as observed in the current study showed a high agreement with perceptual preferences reported in an earlier study to similar bowing patterns, implying that complex bowing trajectories for an important part emerge from auditory-motor interaction.

  13. Coordination in fast repetitive violin-bowing patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Schoonderwaldt

    Full Text Available We present a study of coordination behavior in complex violin-bowing patterns involving simultaneous bow changes (reversal of bowing direction and string crossings (changing from one string to another. Twenty-two violinists (8 advanced amateurs, 8 students with violin as major subject, and 6 elite professionals participated in the experiment. We investigated the influence of a variety of performance conditions (specific bowing patterns, dynamic level, tempo, and transposition and level of expertise on coordination behavior (a.o., relative phase and amplitude and stability. It was found that the general coordination behavior was highly consistent, characterized by a systematic phase lead of bow inclination over bow velocity of about 15° (i.e., string crossings were consistently timed earlier than bow changes. Within similar conditions, a high individual consistency was found, whereas the inter-individual agreement was considerably less. Furthermore, systematic influences of performance conditions on coordination behavior and stability were found, which could be partly explained in terms of particular performance constraints. Concerning level of expertise, only subtle differences were found, the student and professional groups (higher level of expertise showing a slightly higher stability than the amateur group (lower level of expertise. The general coordination behavior as observed in the current study showed a high agreement with perceptual preferences reported in an earlier study to similar bowing patterns, implying that complex bowing trajectories for an important part emerge from auditory-motor interaction.

  14. The sacred weapon: bow and arrow combat in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manouchehr Moshtagh Khorasani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The following article presents the development of the bow and arrow, and its important role in the history of Iran. The bow always played an important role not only on the battlefield, but also in hunting. It was also considered as a sacred weapon and additionally a royal symbol. Bow and arrow were considered as a superior weapon in comparison with other types of weapons because one could fight with them at a safer distance as one offered by swords, maces and axes. The first part of the article presents a short history of the bow in Iran. Based on historical Persian manuscripts, the next part explains the structure of the composite bow and the materials used for making it. The third part describes some types of bows based on the material, place of production, the usage, and bow type based on the length of the bow and the arrows. The following part talks about different types of arrows based on morphology of arrowheads, the type of plume/feather, the material of the shaft, the material of the arrowhead, the length of arrows, the target of arrows, the place of production of arrowheads and terms for describing its different features of an arrowhead. Then, the article talks about different types of thumb rings, bowstrings, quivers and bow cases and arrow guides for shooting short arrows. The next part discusses different principles of archery as explained in Persian manuscripts. Finally the article describes different archery targets.

  15. Subjective Sexual Arousal to Films of Masturbation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, Donald L.; Abramson, Paul R.

    1977-01-01

    A film of a male or female masturbating was viewed by 96 males and 102 females. Males reported the highest level of sexual arousal to the female film and the lowest level of arousal to the male film. Females were sexually aroused by both films. (Author)

  16. Night-to-night arousal variability and interscorer reliability of arousal measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loredo, J S; Clausen, J L; Ancoli-Israel, S; Dimsdale, J E

    1999-11-01

    Measurement of arousals from sleep is clinically important, however, their definition is not well standardized, and little data exist on reliability. The purpose of this study is to determine factors that affect arousal scoring reliability and night-to-night arousal variability. The night-to-night arousal variability and interscorer reliability was assessed in 20 subjects with and without obstructive sleep apnea undergoing attended polysomnography during two consecutive nights. Five definitions of arousal were studied, assessing duration of electroencephalographic (EEG) frequency changes, increases in electromyographic (EMG) activity and leg movement, association with respiratory events, as well as the American Sleep Disorders Association (ASDA) definition of arousals. NA. NA. NA. Interscorer reliability varied with the definition of arousal and ranged from an Intraclass correlation (ICC) of 0.19 to 0.92. Arousals that included increases in EMG activity or leg movement had the greatest reliability, especially when associated with respiratory events (ICC 0.76 to 0.92). The ASDA arousal definition had high interscorer reliability (ICC 0.84). Reliability was lowest for arousals consisting of EEG changes lasting <3 seconds (ICC 0.19 to 0.37). The within subjects night-to-night arousal variability was low for all arousal definitions In a heterogeneous population, interscorer arousal reliability is enhanced by increases in EMG activity, leg movements, and respiratory events and decreased by short duration EEG arousals. The arousal index night-to-night variability was low for all definitions.

  17. Arousal and consumer in-store behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groeppel-Klein, Andrea

    2005-11-15

    From a psychophysiological point of view, arousal is a fundamental feature of behavior. As reported in different empirical studies based on insights from theories of consumer behavior, store atmosphere should evoke phasic arousal reactions to attract consumers. Most of these empirical investigations used verbal scales to measure consumers' perceived phasic arousal at the point-of-sale (POS). However, the validity of verbal arousal measurement is questioned; self-reporting methods only allow a time-lagged measurement. Furthermore, the selection of inappropriate items to represent perceived arousal is criticized, and verbal reports require some form of cognitive evaluation of perceived arousal by the individual, who might (in a non-measurement condition) not even be aware of the arousal. By contrast, phasic electrodermal reaction (EDR) has proven to be the most appropriate and valid indicator for measuring arousal [W. Boucsein, Physiologische Grundlagen und Messmethoden der dermalen Aktivität. In: F. Rösler (Ed.), Enzyklopädie der Psychologie, Bereich Psychophysiologie, Band 1: Grundlagen and Methoden der Psychophysiologie, Kapitel, Vol. 7, Hogrefe, Göttingen, 2001, pp. 551-623] that could be relevant to behavior. EDR can be recorded simultaneously to the perception of stimuli. Furthermore, telemetric online device can be used, which enables physiological arousal measurement while participants can move freely through the store and perform the assigned task in the experiments. The present paper delivers insights on arousal theory and results from empirical studies using EDR to measure arousal at the POS.

  18. Elevated arousal levels enhance contrast perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongho; Lokey, Savannah; Ling, Sam

    2017-02-01

    Our state of arousal fluctuates from moment to moment-fluctuations that can have profound impacts on behavior. Arousal has been proposed to play a powerful, widespread role in the brain, influencing processes as far ranging as perception, memory, learning, and decision making. Although arousal clearly plays a critical role in modulating behavior, the mechanisms underlying this modulation remain poorly understood. To address this knowledge gap, we examined the modulatory role of arousal on one of the cornerstones of visual perception: contrast perception. Using a reward-driven paradigm to manipulate arousal state, we discovered that elevated arousal state substantially enhances visual sensitivity, incurring a multiplicative modulation of contrast response. Contrast defines vision, determining whether objects appear visible or invisible to us, and these results indicate that one of the consequences of decreased arousal state is an impaired ability to visually process our environment.

  19. Evolution of bow-tie architectures in biology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Friedlander

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bow-tie or hourglass structure is a common architectural feature found in many biological systems. A bow-tie in a multi-layered structure occurs when intermediate layers have much fewer components than the input and output layers. Examples include metabolism where a handful of building blocks mediate between multiple input nutrients and multiple output biomass components, and signaling networks where information from numerous receptor types passes through a small set of signaling pathways to regulate multiple output genes. Little is known, however, about how bow-tie architectures evolve. Here, we address the evolution of bow-tie architectures using simulations of multi-layered systems evolving to fulfill a given input-output goal. We find that bow-ties spontaneously evolve when the information in the evolutionary goal can be compressed. Mathematically speaking, bow-ties evolve when the rank of the input-output matrix describing the evolutionary goal is deficient. The maximal compression possible (the rank of the goal determines the size of the narrowest part of the network-that is the bow-tie. A further requirement is that a process is active to reduce the number of links in the network, such as product-rule mutations, otherwise a non-bow-tie solution is found in the evolutionary simulations. This offers a mechanism to understand a common architectural principle of biological systems, and a way to quantitate the effective rank of the goals under which they evolved.

  20. State Mindfulness During Meditation Predicts Enhanced Cognitive Reappraisal

    OpenAIRE

    Garland, Eric L.; Hanley, Adam; Farb, Norman A.; Froeliger, Brett E.

    2013-01-01

    Putatively, mindfulness meditation involves generation of a state of “nonappraisal”, yet, little is known about how mindfulness may influence appraisal processes. We investigated whether the state and practice of mindfulness could enhance cognitive reappraisal. Participants (N = 44; M age = 24.44, SD = 4.00, range 19 – 38, 82.2% female) were randomized to either 1) mindfulness, 2) suppression, or 3) mind-wandering induction training conditions. Cognitive reappraisal was assessed with the Emot...

  1. Arousal from sleep mechanisms in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Patricia; Kato, Ineko; Richardson, Heidi L; Yang, Joel S C; Montemitro, Enza; Horne, Rosemary S C

    2010-08-01

    Arousals from sleep allow sleep to continue in the face of stimuli that normally elicit responses during wakefulness and also permit awakening. Such an adaptive mechanism implies that any malfunction may have clinical importance. Inadequate control of arousal in infants and children is associated with a variety of sleep-related problems. An excessive propensity to arouse from sleep favors the development of repeated sleep disruptions and insomnia, with impairment of daytime alertness and performance. A lack of an adequate arousal response to a noxious nocturnal stimulus reduces an infant's chances of autoresuscitation, and thus survival, increasing the risk for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). The study of arousability is complicated by many factors including the definition of an arousal; the scoring methodology; the techniques used (spontaneous arousability versus arousal responses to endogenous or exogenous stimuli); and the confounding factors that complicate the determination of arousal thresholds by changing the sleeper's responses to a given stimulus such as prenatal drug, alcohol, or cigarette use. Infant age and previous sleep deprivation also modify thresholds. Other confounding factors include time of night, sleep stages, the sleeper's body position, and sleeping conditions. In this paper, we will review these different aspects for the study of arousals in infants and also report the importance of these studies for the understanding of the pathophysiology of some clinical conditions, particularly SIDS. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Einstein's strugges with quantum theory a reappraisal

    CERN Document Server

    Home, Dipankar

    2007-01-01

    Einstein’s Struggles with Quantum Theory: A Reappraisal by Dipankar Home and Andrew Whitaker provides a detailed account of Albert Einstein’s thinking in regard to quantum physics. Until recently, most of Einstein’s views on quantum physics were dismissed and even ridiculed; some critics even suggested that Einstein was not able to grasp the complexities of the formalism of quantum theory and subtleties of the standard interpretation of this theory known as the Copenhagen interpretation put forward by Niels Bohr and his colleagues. But was that true? Modern scholarship argues otherwise, insist Drs. Home and Whitaker, who painstakingly explain the questions Einstein raised as well as offer a detailed discussion of Einstein’s position and major contributions to quantum theory, connecting them with contemporary studies on fundamental aspects of this theory. This unique book presents a mathematical as well as a non-mathematical route through the theories, controversies, and investigations, making the disc...

  3. Detection of arousals in Parkinson's disease patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Gertrud Laura; Kempfner, Jacob; Jennum, Poul

    2011-01-01

    sleepiness. Manual scoring of arousals is time-consuming and the inter-score agreement is highly varying especially for patients with sleep related disorders. The aim of this study was to design an arousal detection algorithm capable of detecting arousals from sleep, in both non-REM and REM sleep in patients......Arousal from sleep are short awakenings, which can be identified in the EEG as an abrupt change in frequency. Arousals can occur in all sleep stages and the number and frequency increase with age. Frequent arousals during sleep results in sleep fragmentation and is associated with daytime...... suffering from Parkinson's disease (PD). The proposed algorithm uses features from EEG, EMG and the manual sleep stage scoring as input to a feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN). The performance of the algorithm has been assessed using polysomnographic (PSG) recordings from a total of 8 patients...

  4. Trigeminal induced arousals during human sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiser, Clemens; Baja, Jan; Lenz, Franziska; Sommer, J Ulrich; Hörmann, Karl; Herr, Raphael M; Stuck, Boris A

    2015-05-01

    Arousals caused by external stimuli during human sleep have been studied for most of the sensorial systems. It could be shown that a pure nasal trigeminal stimulus leads to arousals during sleep. The frequency of arousals increases dependent on the stimulus concentration. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of different stimulus durations on arousal frequency during different sleep stages. Ten young healthy volunteers with 20 nights of polysomnography were included in the study. Pure trigeminal stimulation with both different concentrations of CO2 (0, 10, 20, 40% v/v) and different stimulus durations (1, 3, 5, and 10 s) were applied during different sleep stages to the volunteers using an olfactometer. The application was performed during different sleep stages (light sleep, deep sleep, REM sleep). The number of arousals increased with rising stimulus duration and stimulus concentration during each sleep stage. Trigeminal stimuli during sleep led to arousals in dose- and time-dependent manner.

  5. H2 emission from non-stationary magnetized bow shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tram, L. N.; Lesaffre, P.; Cabrit, S.; Gusdorf, A.; Nhung, P. T.

    2018-01-01

    When a fast moving star or a protostellar jet hits an interstellar cloud, the surrounding gas gets heated and illuminated: a bow shock is born that delineates the wake of the impact. In such a process, the new molecules that are formed and excited in the gas phase become accessible to observations. In this paper, we revisit models of H2 emission in these bow shocks. We approximate the bow shock by a statistical distribution of planar shocks computed with a magnetized shock model. We improve on previous works by considering arbitrary bow shapes, a finite irradiation field and by including the age effect of non-stationary C-type shocks on the excitation diagram and line profiles of H2. We also examine the dependence of the line profiles on the shock velocity and on the viewing angle: we suggest that spectrally resolved observations may greatly help to probe the dynamics inside the bow shock. For reasonable bow shapes, our analysis shows that low-velocity shocks largely contribute to H2 excitation diagram. This can result in an observational bias towards low velocities when planar shocks are used to interpret H2 emission from an unresolved bow. We also report a large magnetization bias when the velocity of the planar model is set independently. Our 3D models reproduce excitation diagrams in BHR 71 and Orion bow shocks better than previous 1D models. Our 3D model is also able to reproduce the shape and width of the broad H2 1-0S(1) line profile in an Orion bow shock (Brand et al. 1989).

  6. Emotions and false memories: valence or arousal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corson, Yves; Verrier, Nadège

    2007-03-01

    The effects of mood on false memories have not been studied systematically until recently. Some results seem to indicate that negative mood may reduce false recall and thus suggest an influence of emotional valence on false memory. The present research tested the effects of both valence and arousal on recall and recognition and indicates that the effect is actually due to arousal. In fact, whether participants' mood is positive, negative, or neutral, false memories are significantly more frequent under conditions of high arousal than under conditions of low arousal.

  7. Hyper-arousal decreases human visual thresholds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J Woods

    Full Text Available Arousal has long been known to influence behavior and serves as an underlying component of cognition and consciousness. However, the consequences of hyper-arousal for visual perception remain unclear. The present study evaluates the impact of hyper-arousal on two aspects of visual sensitivity: visual stereoacuity and contrast thresholds. Sixty-eight participants participated in two experiments. Thirty-four participants were randomly divided into two groups in each experiment: Arousal Stimulation or Sham Control. The Arousal Stimulation group underwent a 50-second cold pressor stimulation (immersing the foot in 0-2° C water, a technique known to increase arousal. In contrast, the Sham Control group immersed their foot in room temperature water. Stereoacuity thresholds (Experiment 1 and contrast thresholds (Experiment 2 were measured before and after stimulation. The Arousal Stimulation groups demonstrated significantly lower stereoacuity and contrast thresholds following cold pressor stimulation, whereas the Sham Control groups showed no difference in thresholds. These results provide the first evidence that hyper-arousal from sensory stimulation can lower visual thresholds. Hyper-arousal's ability to decrease visual thresholds has important implications for survival, sports, and everyday life.

  8. Sexual arousal, is it for mammals only?

    OpenAIRE

    Ball, Gregory F.; Balthazart, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    Sexual arousal has many dimensions and has consequently been defined in various ways. In humans sexual arousal can be assessed based in part on verbal communication. In male non-human mammalian species it has been argued that arousal can only be definitively inferred if the subject exhibits a penile erection in a sexual context. In non-mammalian species that lack an intromittent organ, as is the case for most avian species, the question of how to assess sexual arousal has not been thoroughly ...

  9. Simultaneous conditioning of valence and arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawronski, Bertram; Mitchell, Derek G V

    2014-01-01

    Evaluative conditioning (EC) refers to the change in the valence of a conditioned stimulus (CS) due to its pairing with a positive or negative unconditioned stimulus (US). To the extent that core affect can be characterised by the two dimensions of valence and arousal, EC has important implications for the origin of affective responses. However, the distinction between valence and arousal is rarely considered in research on EC or conditioned responses more generally. Measuring the subjective feelings elicited by a CS, the results from two experiments showed that (1) repeated pairings of a CS with a positive or negative US of either high or low arousal led to corresponding changes in both CS valence and CS arousal, (2) changes in CS arousal, but not changes in CS valence, were significantly related to recollective memory for CS-US pairings, (3) subsequent presentations of the CS without the US reduced the conditioned valence of the CS, with conditioned arousal being less susceptible to extinction and (4) EC effects were stronger for high arousal than low arousal USs. The results indicate that the conditioning of affective responses can occur simultaneously along two independent dimensions, supporting evidence in related areas that calls for a consideration of both valence and arousal. Implications for research on EC and the acquisition of emotional dispositions are discussed.

  10. Structural changes in cuticles on violin bow hair caused by wear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tomoko; Sugiyama, Shigeru

    2010-01-01

    A bow with horse tail hair is used to play the violin. New and worn-out bow hairs were observed by atomic force microscopy. The cuticles of the new bow hair were already damaged by bleach and delipidation, however the worn-out bow hairs were much more damaged and broken off by force, which relates to wearing out.

  11. DETACHING FROM THE NEGATIVE BY REAPPRAISAL: THE ROLE OF RIGHT SUPERIOR FRONTAL GYRUS (BA9/32

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalux eFalquez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability to reappraise the emotional impact of events is related to long-term mental health. Self-focused reappraisal (REAPPself, i.e., reducing the personal relevance of the negative events, has been previously associated with neural activity in regions near right medial prefrontal cortex, but rarely investigated among brain-damaged individuals. Thus, we aimed to examine the REAPPself ability of brain-damaged patients and healthy controls considering structural atrophies and grey matter intensities, respectively. Twenty patients with well-defined cortex lesions due to an acquired circumscribed tumor or cyst and 23 healthy controls performed a REAPPself task, in which they had to either observe negative stimuli or decrease emotional responding by REAPPself. Next, they rated the impact of negative arousal and valence. REAPPself ability scores were calculated by subtracting the negative picture ratings after applying REAPPself from the ratings of the observing condition. The scores of the patients were included in a voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM analysis to identify deficit related areas (ROI. Then, a ROI group-wise comparison was performed. Additionally, a whole-brain voxel-based-morphometry (VBM analysis was run, in which healthy participant’s REAPPself ability scores were correlated with grey matter intensities. Results showed that 1 regions in the right superior frontal gyrus (SFG, comprising the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA9 and the right dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (BA32, were associated with patient’s impaired down-regulation of arousal, 2 a lesion in the depicted ROI occasioned significant REAPPself impairments, 3 REAPPself ability of controls was linked with increased grey matter intensities in the ROI regions. Our findings show for the first time that the neural integrity and the structural volume of right SFG regions (BA9/32 might be indispensable for REAPPself. Implications for neurofeedback research

  12. Detaching from the negative by reappraisal: the role of right superior frontal gyrus (BA9/32).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falquez, Rosalux; Couto, Blas; Ibanez, Agustin; Freitag, Martin T; Berger, Moritz; Arens, Elisabeth A; Lang, Simone; Barnow, Sven

    2014-01-01

    The ability to reappraise the emotional impact of events is related to long-term mental health. Self-focused reappraisal (REAPPself), i.e., reducing the personal relevance of the negative events, has been previously associated with neural activity in regions near right medial prefrontal cortex, but rarely investigated among brain-damaged individuals. Thus, we aimed to examine the REAPPself ability of brain-damaged patients and healthy controls considering structural atrophies and gray matter intensities, respectively. Twenty patients with well-defined cortex lesions due to an acquired circumscribed tumor or cyst and 23 healthy controls performed a REAPPself task, in which they had to either observe negative stimuli or decrease emotional responding by REAPPself. Next, they rated the impact of negative arousal and valence. REAPPself ability scores were calculated by subtracting the negative picture ratings after applying REAPPself from the ratings of the observing condition. The scores of the patients were included in a voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) analysis to identify deficit related areas (ROI). Then, a ROI group-wise comparison was performed. Additionally, a whole-brain voxel-based-morphometry (VBM) analysis was run, in which healthy participant's REAPPself ability scores were correlated with gray matter intensities. Results showed that (1) regions in the right superior frontal gyrus (SFG), comprising the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA9) and the right dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (BA32), were associated with patient's impaired down-regulation of arousal, (2) a lesion in the depicted ROI occasioned significant REAPPself impairments, (3) REAPPself ability of controls was linked with increased gray matter intensities in the ROI regions. Our findings show for the first time that the neural integrity and the structural volume of right SFG regions (BA9/32) might be indispensable for REAPPself. Implications for neurofeedback research are

  13. Laser vibrometry measurements of vibration and sound fields of a bowed violin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gren, Per; Tatar, Kourosh; Granström, Jan; Molin, N.-E.; Jansson, Erik V.

    2006-04-01

    Laser vibrometry measurements on a bowed violin are performed. A rotating disc apparatus, acting as a violin bow, is developed. It produces a continuous, long, repeatable, multi-frequency sound from the instrument that imitates the real bow-string interaction for a 'very long bow'. What mainly differs is that the back and forward motion of the real bow is replaced by the rotating motion with constant velocity of the disc and constant bowing force (bowing pressure). This procedure is repeatable. It is long lasting and allows laser vibrometry techniques to be used, which measure forced vibrations by bowing at all excited frequencies simultaneously. A chain of interacting parts of the played violin is studied: the string, the bridge and the plates as well as the emitted sound field. A description of the mechanics and the sound production of the bowed violin is given, i.e. the production chain from the bowed string to the produced tone.

  14. Attribution of Arousal as a Mediator of the Effectiveness of Fear-Arousing Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Norbert; And Others

    Characteristics of the situation in which a fear-arousing communication is received affect the effectiveness of the communication. The influence of situational factors affecting a recipient's interpretation of the arousal induced by communication were investigated with smokers (N=37) who were exposed to a fear-arousing anti-smoking movie. Prior to…

  15. Female sexual arousal in amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczynski, Walter; Lynch, Kathleen S

    2011-05-01

    Rather than being a static, species specific trait, reproductive behavior in female amphibians is variable within an individual during the breeding season when females are capable of reproductive activity. Changes in receptivity coincide with changes in circulating estrogen. Estrogen is highest at the point when females are ready to choose a male and lay eggs. At this time female receptivity (her probability of responding to a male vocal signal) is highest and her selectivity among conspecific calls (measured by her probability of responding to a degraded or otherwise usually unattractive male signal) is lowest. These changes occur even though females retain the ability to discriminate different acoustic characteristics of various conspecific calls. After releasing her eggs, female amphibians quickly become less receptive and more choosy in terms of their responses to male sexual advertisement signals. Male vocal signals stimulate both behavior and estrogen changes in amphibian females making mating more probable. The changes in female reproductive behavior are the same as those generally accepted as indicative of a change in female sexual arousal leading to copulation. They are situationally triggered, gated by interactions with males, and decline with the consummation of sexual reproduction with a chosen male. The changes can be triggered by either internal physiological state or by the presence of stimuli presented by males, and the same stimuli change both behavior and physiological (endocrine) state in such a way as to make acceptance of a male more likely. Thus amphibian females demonstrate many of the same general characteristics of changing female sexual state that in mammals indicate sexual arousal. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Improvements, verifications and validations of the BOW code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, S.D.; Tayal, M.; Singh, P.N.

    1995-01-01

    The BOW code calculates the lateral deflections of a fuel element consisting of sheath and pellets, due to temperature gradients, hydraulic drag and gravity. the fuel element is subjected to restraint from endplates, neighboring fuel elements and the pressure tube. Many new features have been added to the BOW code since its original release in 1985. This paper outlines the major improvements made to the code and verification/validation results. (author)

  17. Mesoscale Surface Pressure and Temperature Features Associated with Bow Echoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    contain several bowing segments. These multiple segments could occur at the same time and be located within the same bow, such as the serial derecho ...Examination of derecho environments using proximity soundings. Wea. Forecasting, 16, 329–342. Fovell, R. G., 2002: Upstream influence of numerically...Se- vere Local Storms, Hyannis, MA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 4.6. Johns, R. H., and W. D. Hirt, 1987: Derechos : Widespread con- vectively induced

  18. Sexual Arousal and Sexually Explicit Media (SEM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Gert Martin; Stulhofer, Aleksandar; Lange, Theis

    2018-01-01

    -mainstream and mainstream SEM groups, and (iii) to explore the validity and predictive accuracy of the Non-Mainstream Pornography Arousal Scale (NPAS). METHODS: Online cross-sectional survey of 2,035 regular SEM users in Croatia. MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES: Patterns of sexual arousal to 27 different SEM themes, sexual...

  19. Evoking and Measuring Arousal in Game Settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cusveller, J.; Gerritsen, C.; de Man, J.; Gobel, S.; Wiemeyer, J.

    2014-01-01

    Serious games seem to be more effective if the participant feels more involved in the game. The participant should experience a high sense of presence which can be obtained by matching the level of excitement to the level of arousal a participant experiences. The level of arousal should be measured

  20. Congruent bodily arousal promotes the constructive recognition of emotional words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kever, Anne; Grynberg, Delphine; Vermeulen, Nicolas

    2017-08-01

    Considerable research has shown that bodily states shape affect and cognition. Here, we examined whether transient states of bodily arousal influence the categorization speed of high arousal, low arousal, and neutral words. Participants realized two blocks of a constructive recognition task, once after a cycling session (increased arousal), and once after a relaxation session (reduced arousal). Results revealed overall faster response times for high arousal compared to low arousal words, and for positive compared to negative words. Importantly, low arousal words were categorized significantly faster after the relaxation than after the cycling, suggesting that a decrease in bodily arousal promotes the recognition of stimuli matching one's current arousal state. These findings highlight the importance of the arousal dimension in emotional processing, and suggest the presence of arousal-congruency effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Representation of cognitive reappraisal goals in frontal gamma oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jae-Hwan; Jeong, Ji Woon; Kim, Hyun Taek; Kim, Sang Hee; Kim, Sung-Phil

    2014-01-01

    Recently, numerous efforts have been made to understand the neural mechanisms underlying cognitive regulation of emotion, such as cognitive reappraisal. Many studies have reported that cognitive control of emotion induces increases in neural activity of the control system, including the prefrontal cortex and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, and increases or decreases (depending upon the regulation goal) in neural activity of the appraisal system, including the amygdala and the insula. It has been hypothesized that information about regulation goals needs to be processed through interactions between the control and appraisal systems in order to support cognitive reappraisal. However, how this information is represented in the dynamics of cortical activity remains largely unknown. To address this, we investigated temporal changes in gamma band activity (35-55 Hz) in human electroencephalograms during a cognitive reappraisal task that was comprised of three reappraisal goals: to decease, maintain, or increase emotional responses modulated by affect-laden pictures. We examined how the characteristics of gamma oscillations, such as spectral power and large-scale phase synchronization, represented cognitive reappraisal goals. We found that left frontal gamma power decreased, was sustained, or increased when the participants suppressed, maintained, or amplified their emotions, respectively. This change in left frontal gamma power appeared during an interval of 1926 to 2453 ms after stimulus onset. We also found that the number of phase-synchronized pairs of gamma oscillations over the entire brain increased when participants regulated their emotions compared to when they maintained their emotions. These results suggest that left frontal gamma power may reflect cortical representation of emotional states modulated by cognitive reappraisal goals and gamma phase synchronization across whole brain regions may reflect emotional regulatory efforts to achieve these goals

  2. IRC -10414: a bow-shock-producing red supergiant star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.; Menten, K. M.; Kniazev, A. Y.; Langer, N.; Mackey, J.; Kraus, A.; Meyer, D. M.-A.; Kamiński, T.

    2014-01-01

    Most runaway OB stars, like the majority of massive stars residing in their parent clusters, go through the red supergiant (RSG) phase during their lifetimes. Nonetheless, although many dozens of massive runaways were found to be associated with bow shocks, only two RSG bow-shock-producing stars, Betelgeuse and μ Cep, are known to date. In this paper, we report the discovery of an arc-like nebula around the late M-type star IRC -10414 using the SuperCOSMOS H-alpha Survey. Our spectroscopic follow-up of IRC -10414 with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) showed that it is a M7 supergiant, which supports previous claims on the RSG nature of this star based on observations of its maser emission. This was reinforced by our new radio- and (sub)millimetre-wavelength molecular line observations made with the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment 12-m telescope and the Effelsberg 100-m radio telescope, respectively. The SALT spectrum of the nebula indicates that its emission is the result of shock excitation. This finding along with the arc-like shape of the nebula and an estimate of the space velocity of IRC -10414 (≈70 ± 20 km s-1) imply the bow shock interpretation for the nebula. Thus, IRC -10414 represents the third case of a bow-shock-producing RSG and the first one with a bow shock visible at optical wavelengths. We discuss the smooth appearance of the bow shocks around IRC -10414 and Betelgeuse and propose that one of the necessary conditions for stability of bow shocks generated by RSGs is the ionization of the stellar wind. Possible ionization sources of the wind of IRC -10414 are proposed and discussed.

  3. X-ray study of bow shocks in runaway stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Becker, M.; del Valle, M. V.; Romero, G. E.; Peri, C. S.; Benaglia, P.

    2017-11-01

    Massive runaway stars produce bow shocks through the interaction of their winds with the interstellar medium, with the prospect for particle acceleration by the shocks. These objects are consequently candidates for non-thermal emission. Our aim is to investigate the X-ray emission from these sources. We observed with XMM-Newton a sample of five bow shock runaways, which constitutes a significant improvement of the sample of bow shock runaways studied in X-rays so far. A careful analysis of the data did not reveal any X-ray emission related to the bow shocks. However, X-ray emission from the stars is detected, in agreement with the expected thermal emission from stellar winds. On the basis of background measurements we derive conservative upper limits between 0.3 and 10 keV on the bow shocks emission. Using a simple radiation model, these limits together with radio upper limits allow us to constrain some of the main physical quantities involved in the non-thermal emission processes, such as the magnetic field strength and the amount of incident infrared photons. The reasons likely responsible for the non-detection of non-thermal radiation are discussed. Finally, using energy budget arguments, we investigate the detectability of inverse Compton X-rays in a more extended sample of catalogued runaway star bow shocks. From our analysis we conclude that a clear identification of non-thermal X-rays from massive runaway bow shocks requires one order of magnitude (or higher) sensitivity improvement with respect to present observatories.

  4. Numerical Study on the Effect of Buffer Bow Structure in Ship-to-ship Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamada, Yasuhira; Endo, Hisayoshi; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2005-01-01

    tankers, the introduction of buffer bulbous bows has been proposed. Relatively soft buffer bows absorb part of the kinetic energy of the striking ship before penetrating the inner hull of the struck vessel. The purpose of the present paper is to verify the effectiveness of a prototype buffer bulbous bow......) and the forward velocity of the struck ship on the collapse mode of the bow of the striking vessel are investigated. Collapse modes, contact forces and energy absorption capabilities of the buffer bows are compared with those of conventional bows....

  5. Interplay between affect and arousal in recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Ciara M; Bahri, Pooja; Soto, David

    2010-07-23

    Emotional states linked to arousal and mood are known to affect the efficiency of cognitive performance. However, the extent to which memory processes may be affected by arousal, mood or their interaction is poorly understood. Following a study phase of abstract shapes, we altered the emotional state of participants by means of exposure to music that varied in both mood and arousal dimensions, leading to four different emotional states: (i) positive mood-high arousal; (ii) positive mood-low arousal; (iii) negative mood-high arousal; (iv) negative mood-low arousal. Following the emotional induction, participants performed a memory recognition test. Critically, there was an interaction between mood and arousal on recognition performance. Memory was enhanced in the positive mood-high arousal and in the negative mood-low arousal states, relative to the other emotional conditions. Neither mood nor arousal alone but their interaction appears most critical to understanding the emotional enhancement of memory.

  6. Interplay between affect and arousal in recognition memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciara M Greene

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Emotional states linked to arousal and mood are known to affect the efficiency of cognitive performance. However, the extent to which memory processes may be affected by arousal, mood or their interaction is poorly understood.Following a study phase of abstract shapes, we altered the emotional state of participants by means of exposure to music that varied in both mood and arousal dimensions, leading to four different emotional states: (i positive mood-high arousal; (ii positive mood-low arousal; (iii negative mood-high arousal; (iv negative mood-low arousal. Following the emotional induction, participants performed a memory recognition test. Critically, there was an interaction between mood and arousal on recognition performance. Memory was enhanced in the positive mood-high arousal and in the negative mood-low arousal states, relative to the other emotional conditions.Neither mood nor arousal alone but their interaction appears most critical to understanding the emotional enhancement of memory.

  7. Bowing behavior of subassemblies in experimental fast reactor ''JOYO''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikegami, T.; Mizoo, N.; Matsuno, Y.; Watari, Y.

    1984-01-01

    In JOYO, the measured power coefficients in the beginning of the operation cycle of MK-I and MK-II cores showed power dependence, while the calculation without taking account of bowing predicted little power dependence. The bowing analysis was performed in order to investigate the power dependence observed in the measured power coefficients and the following conclusions were obtained. (1) The evaluated power coefficients taking account of bowing effect agree better with measured ones than the calculated ones without taking account of bowing effect in MK-I core. (2) In MK-II core, although the analytical results show not so good agreement quantitatively with the measured power coefficients, it is suggested that they agree better depending on the uncertain parameters such as the heat generation in the reflector region, the threshold moment for leaning and the stiffness of the inner reflector. (3) It becomes clear from these results that the power dependence observed in the measured power coefficients in JOYO is due to the bowing effect. (author)

  8. Runaways and weathervanes: The shape of stellar bow shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henney, W. J.; Tarango-Yong, J. A.

    2017-11-01

    Stellar bow shocks are the result of the supersonic interaction between a stellar wind and its environment. Some of these are "runaways": high-velocity stars that have been ejected from a star cluster. Others are "weather vanes", where it is the local interstellar medium itself that is moving, perhaps as the result of a champagne flow of ionized gas from a nearby HII region. We propose a new two-dimensional classification scheme for bow shapes, which is based on dimensionless geometric ratios that can be estimated from observational images. The two ratios are related to the flatness of the bow’s apex, which we term "planitude" and the openness of its wings, which we term "alatude". We calculate the inclination-dependent tracks on the planitude-alatude plane that are predicted by simple models for the bow shock shape. We also measure the shapes of bow shocks from three different observational datasets: mid-infrared arcs around hot main-sequence stars, far-infrared arcs around luminous cool stars, and emission-line arcs around proplyds and other young stars in the Orion Nebula. Clear differences are found between the different datasets in their distributions on the planitude-alatude plane, which can be used to constrain the physics of the bow shock interaction and emission mechanisms in the different classes of object.

  9. Arousal, mood, and the Mozart effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, W F; Schellenberg, E G; Husain, G

    2001-05-01

    The "Mozart effect" refers to claims that people perform better on tests of spatial abilities after listening to music composed by Mozart. We examined whether the Mozart effect is a consequence of between-condition differences in arousal and mood. Participants completed a test of spatial abilities after listening to music or sitting in silence. The music was a Mozart sonata (a pleasant and energetic piece) for some participants and an Albinoni adagio (a slow, sad piece) for others. We also measured enjoyment, arousal, and mood. Performance on tbe spatial task was better following the music than the silence condition but only for participants who heard Mozart. The two music selections also induced differential responding on the enjoyment, arousal and mood measures. Moreover, when such differences were held constant by statistical means, the Mozart effect disappeared. These findings provide compelling evidence that the Mozart effect is an artifact of arousal and mood.

  10. Effects of Voice on Emotional Arousal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Psyche eLoui

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Music is a powerful medium capable of eliciting a broad range of emotions. Although the relationship between language and music is well documented, relatively little is known about the effects of lyrics and the voice on the emotional processing of music and on listeners’ preferences. In the present study, we investigated the effects of vocals in music on participants’ perceived valence and arousal in songs. Participants (N = 50 made valence and arousal ratings for familiar songs that were presented with and without the voice. We observed robust effects of vocal content on perceived arousal. Furthermore, we found that the effect of the voice on enhancing arousal ratings is independent of familiarity of the song and differs across genders and age: females were more influenced by vocals than males; furthermore these gender effects were enhanced among older adults. Results highlight the effects of gender and aging in emotion perception and are discussed in terms of the social roles of music.

  11. Sexual arousal, is it for mammals only?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Gregory F.; Balthazart, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Sexual arousal has many dimensions and has consequently been defined in various ways. In humans sexual arousal can be assessed based in part on verbal communication. In male non-human mammalian species it has been argued that arousal can only be definitively inferred if the subject exhibits a penile erection in a sexual context. In non-mammalian species that lack an intromittent organ, as is the case for most avian species, the question of how to assess sexual arousal has not been thoroughly addressed. Based on studies performed in male Japanese quail, we argue that several behavioral or physiological characteristics provide suitable measures of sexual arousal in birds and probably also in other tetrapods. These indices include the performance of appetitive sexual behavior in anticipation of copulation (although anticipation and arousal are not the synonyms), the activation of specific brain areas as identified by the detection of the expression of immediate early genes (fos, egr-1) or by 2-deoxygucose quantitative autoradiography, and above all the release of dopamine in the medial preoptic areas as measured by in vivo dialysis. Based on these criteria, it is possible to assess in birds sexual arousal in its broadest sense but meeting the more restrictive definition of arousal proposed for mammals (erection in an explicit sexual context) is and will probably remain impossible in birds until refinement of in vivo imaging techniques such fMRI allow us to match in different species, with and without an intromittent organ, the brain areas that are activated in the presence of specific stimuli. PMID:21073874

  12. Sexual arousal, is it for mammals only?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Gregory F; Balthazart, Jacques

    2011-05-01

    Sexual arousal has many dimensions and has consequently been defined in various ways. In humans, sexual arousal can be assessed based in part on verbal communication. In male non-human mammalian species, it has been argued that arousal can only be definitively inferred if the subject exhibits a penile erection in a sexual context. In non-mammalian species that lack an intromittent organ, as is the case for most avian species, the question of how to assess sexual arousal has not been thoroughly addressed. Based on studies performed in male Japanese quail, we argue that several behavioral or physiological characteristics provide suitable measures of sexual arousal in birds and probably also in other tetrapods. These indices include, the performance of appetitive sexual behavior in anticipation of copulation (although anticipation and arousal are not synonymous), the activation of specific brain area as identified by the detection of the expression of immediate early genes (fos, egr-1) or by 2-deoxyglucose quantitative autoradiography, and above all, by the release of dopamine in the medial preoptic area as measured by in vivo dialysis. Based on these criteria, it is possible to assess in birds sexual arousal in its broadest sense but meeting the more restrictive definition of arousal proposed for male mammals (erection in an explicit sexual context) is and will probably remain impossible in birds until refinement of in vivo imaging techniques such fMRI allow us to match in different species, with and without an intromittent organ, the brain areas that are activated in the presence of specific stimuli. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. The early evolution of the Archegoniatae: a re-appraisal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeuse, A.D.J.

    1966-01-01

    After a re-appraisal of the alternative hypotheses concerning the origin and the early evolution of the archegoniate land plants, the postulation of a thalassiophytic group of precursors with free isomorphic alternating generations by Church, Zimmermann, and several others is rejected. Several

  14. Reappraisal of paleomagnetic data from Gargano (South Italy)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenberg, J.

    1983-01-01

    VandenBerg, J., 1983. Reappraisal of paleomagnetic data from Gargano (South Italy). In: E. McClelland Brown and J. VandenBerg (Editors), Palaeomagnetism of Orogenic Belts. Tectonophysics, 98: 29-41. The platform limestones of Apulia (Italy) outcropping in the Gargano peninsula have been

  15. Ameliorating Intrusive Memories of Distressing Experiences Using Computerized Reappraisal Training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woud, M.L.; Holmes, E.A.; Postma, P.; Dalgleish, T.; Mackintosh, B.

    2012-01-01

    The types of appraisals that follow traumatic experiences have been linked to the emergence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Could changing reappraisals following a stressful event reduce the emergence of PTSD symptoms? The present proof-of-principle study examined whether a nonexplicit,

  16. Ameliorating intrusive memories of distressing experiences using computerized reappraisal training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woud, Marcella L; Holmes, Emily A; Postma, Peggy; Dalgleish, Tim; Mackintosh, Bundy

    2012-08-01

    The types of appraisals that follow traumatic experiences have been linked to the emergence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Could changing reappraisals following a stressful event reduce the emergence of PTSD symptoms? The present proof-of-principle study examined whether a nonexplicit, systematic computerized training in reappraisal style following a stressful event (a highly distressing film) could reduce intrusive memories of the film, and symptoms associated with posttraumatic distress over the subsequent week. Participants were trained to adopt a generally positive or negative poststressor appraisal style using a series of scripted vignettes after having been exposed to highly distressing film clips. The training targeted self-efficacy beliefs and reappraisals of secondary emotions (emotions in response to the emotional reactions elicited by the film). Successful appraisal induction was verified using novel vignettes and via change scores on the post traumatic cognitions inventory. Compared with those trained negatively, those trained positively reported in a diary fewer intrusive memories of the film during the subsequent week, and lower scores on the Impact of Event Scale (a widely used measure of posttraumatic stress symptoms). Results support the use of computerized, nonexplicit, reappraisal training after a stressful event has occurred and provide a platform for future translational studies with clinical populations that have experienced significant real-world stress or trauma.

  17. Intergroup Contact and Ingroup Reappraisal: Examining the Deprovincialization Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkuyten, Maykel; Thijs, Jochem; Bekhuis, Hidde

    2010-01-01

    According to the deprovincialization thesis, interethnic contact involves a reappraisal and distancing from the ingroup. Contact can broaden one's horizon by acknowledging and recognizing the value of other cultures and thereby putting the taken-for-granted own cultural standards into perspective. The current research uses data from three surveys…

  18. Intergroup contact and ingroup reappraisal : examining the deprovincialization thesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuyten, M.J.A.M.; Thijs, J.T.; Bekhuis, H.

    2010-01-01

    According to the deprovincialization thesis, interethnic contact involves a reappraisal and distancing from the ingroup. Contact can broaden one’s horizon by acknowledging and recognizing the value of other cultures and thereby putting the taken-for-granted own cultural standards into perspective.

  19. Happiness and Arousal: Framing Happiness as Arousing Results in Lower Happiness Ratings for Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Par eBjalkebring

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Older adults have been shown to describe their happiness as lower in arousal when compared to younger adults. In addition, older adults prefer low arousal positive emotions over high arousal positive emotions in their daily lives. We experimentally investigated whether or not changing a few words in the description of happiness could influence a person’s rating of their happiness. We randomly assigned 193 participants, aged 22-92 years, to one of three conditions (high arousal, low arousal, or control. In line with previous findings, we found that older participants rated their happiness lower when framed as high in arousal (i.e., ecstatic, to be bursting with positive emotions and rated their happiness higher when framed as low in arousal (i.e., satisfied, to have a life filled with positive emotions. Younger adults remained uninfluenced by the manipulation. Our study demonstrates that arousal is essential to understanding ratings of happiness, and gives support to the notion that there are age differences in the preference for arousal.

  20. Male bisexual arousal: a matter of curiosity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Gerulf; Rosenthal, Allen M; Cash, Brian M; Linsenmeier, Joan A W; Bailey, J Michael; Savin-Williams, Ritch C

    2013-12-01

    Conflicting evidence exists regarding whether bisexual-identified men are sexually aroused to both men and women. We hypothesized that a distinct characteristic, level of curiosity about sexually diverse acts, distinguishes bisexual-identified men with and without bisexual arousal. Study 1 assessed men's (n=277) sexual arousal via pupil dilation to male and female sexual stimuli. Bisexual men were, on average, higher in their sexual curiosity than other men. Despite this general difference, only bisexual-identified men with elevated sexual curiosity showed bisexual arousal. Those lower in curiosity had responses resembling those of homosexual men. Study 2 assessed men's (n=72) sexual arousal via genital responses and replicated findings of Study 1. Study 3 provided information on the validity on our measure of sexual curiosity by relating it to general curiosity and sexual sensation seeking (n=83). Based on their sexual arousal and personality, at least two groups of men identify as bisexual. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Crushing of ship bows in head-on collision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ocakli, H.; Zhang, S.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2004-01-01

    Semi-analytical methods for analysis of plate crushing and ship bow damage in head-on collisions are developed in this paper. Existing experimental and theoretical studies for crushing analysis of plated structures are summarized and compared. Simple formulae for determining the crushing force....... The approach developed can be used easily to determine the crushing resistance and damage extent of the ship bow when ship length and collision speed are known. The method can be used in probabilistic analysis of damage extents in ship collisions where a large number of calculations are generally required....

  2. Caffeine effects on resting-state arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Robert J; Rushby, Jacqueline A; Wallace, Mark J; Clarke, Adam R; Johnstone, Stuart J; Zlojutro, Ilinka

    2005-11-01

    This study examined the use of caffeine to manipulate arousal level without the confounds associated with task-related activation. From previous work in our laboratory, an increase in skin conductance level (SCL) and EEG alpha frequency, together with a global decrease in alpha power, were used as markers of arousal increase, and we sought to identify these effects with caffeine ingestion. We examined the effect of a single oral dose of caffeine (250 mg) in a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled repeated-measures cross-over study. Eighteen healthy university students (mean age 21 years; 13/18 females) participated in two sessions 1 week apart. EEG and autonomic data (SCL, heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and respiration rate) from a 2 min eyes-closed epoch, commencing approximately 30 min after ingestion of caffeine or placebo, were examined. Caffeine was associated with increased SCL, a global reduction in EEG power in the alpha band, and a global increase in alpha frequency. There were no cardiovascular effects. The positive results are consistent with recent electrodermal and EEG studies of arousal and suggest that caffeine may be utilised as a task-free means of manipulating arousal in future investigations. Further work is necessary to clarify the absence of cardiovascular effects, and to integrate those data with emerging conceptualisations of arousal and activation. The present data support the use of caffeine as a simple tool to explore the role of arousal in both normal and atypical functioning, and this may be useful in determining the validity and importance of supposed hyper- or hypo-arousal in such syndromes as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD).

  3. Emotional arousal and memory after deep encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventon, Jacqueline S; Camacho, Gabriela L; Ramos Rojas, Maria D; Ruedas, Angelica

    2018-05-22

    Emotion often enhances long-term memory. One mechanism for this enhancement is heightened arousal during encoding. However, reducing arousal, via emotion regulation (ER) instructions, has not been associated with reduced memory. In fact, the opposite pattern has been observed: stronger memory for emotional stimuli encoded with an ER instruction to reduce arousal. This pattern may be due to deeper encoding required by ER instructions. In the current research, we examine the effects of emotional arousal and deep-encoding on memory across three studies. In Study 1, adult participants completed a writing task (deep-encoding) for encoding negative, neutral, and positive picture stimuli, whereby half the emotion stimuli had the ER instruction to reduce the emotion. Memory was strong across conditions, and no memory enhancement was observed for any condition. In Study 2, adult participants completed the same writing task as Study 1, as well as a shallow-encoding task for one-third of negative, neutral, and positive trials. Memory was strongest for deep vs. shallow encoding trials, with no effects of emotion or ER instruction. In Study 3, adult participants completed a shallow-encoding task for negative, neutral, and positive stimuli, with findings indicating enhanced memory for negative emotional stimuli. Findings suggest that deep encoding must be acknowledged as a source of memory enhancement when examining manipulations of emotion-related arousal. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Fatigue analysis of the bow structure of FPSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhi-Qiang; Gao, Zhen; Gu, Yong-Ning

    2003-06-01

    The bow structure of FPSO moored by the single mooring system is rather complicated. There are many potential hot spots in connection parts of structures between the mooring support frame and the forecastle. Mooring forces, which are induced by wave excitation and transferred by the YOKE and the mooring support frame, may cause fatigue damage to the bow structure. Different from direct wave-induced-forces, the mooring force consists of wave frequency force (WF) and 2nd draft low frequency force (LF)[3], which are represented by two sets of short-term distribution respectively. Based on two sets of short-term distribution of mooring forces obtained by the model test, the fatigue damage of the bow structure of FPSO is analyzed, with emphasis on two points. One is the procedure and position selection for fatigue check, and the other is the application of new formulae for the calculation of accumulative fatigue damage caused by two sets of short-term distribution of hot spot stress range. From the results distinguished features of fatigue damage to the FPSO’s bow structure can be observed.

  5. Application of Bow-tie methodology to improve patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Zhaleh; Ravaghi, Hamid; Abbasi, Mohsen; Delgoshaei, Bahram; Esfandiari, Somayeh

    2016-05-09

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to apply Bow-tie methodology, a proactive risk assessment technique based on systemic approach, for prospective analysis of the risks threatening patient safety in intensive care unit (ICU). Design/methodology/approach - Bow-tie methodology was used to manage clinical risks threatening patient safety by a multidisciplinary team in the ICU. The Bow-tie analysis was conducted on incidents related to high-alert medications, ventilator associated pneumonia, catheter-related blood stream infection, urinary tract infection, and unwanted extubation. Findings - In total, 48 potential adverse events were analysed. The causal factors were identified and classified into relevant categories. The number and effectiveness of existing preventive and protective barriers were examined for each potential adverse event. The adverse events were evaluated according to the risk criteria and a set of interventions were proposed with the aim of improving the existing barriers or implementing new barriers. A number of recommendations were implemented in the ICU, while considering their feasibility. Originality/value - The application of Bow-tie methodology led to practical recommendations to eliminate or control the hazards identified. It also contributed to better understanding of hazard prevention and protection required for safe operations in clinical settings.

  6. Active current sheets near the earth's bow shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, S.J.; Kessel, R.L.; Brown, C.C.; Woolliscroft, L.J.C.; Dunlop, M.W.; Farrugia, C.J.; Hall, D.S.

    1988-01-01

    The authors present here an investigation of active current sheets observed by the AMPTE UK spacecraft near the Earth's bow shock, concentrating on their macroscopic features and geometry. Events selected primarily by flow directions which deviate substantially from the Sun-Earth line show similar characteristics, including their association with an underlying macroscopic current sheet and a hot central region whose flow direction is organized, at least in part, by location relative to the inferred initial intersection point between the current sheet and the bow shock. This region is flanked by edges which, according to a Rankine-Hugoniot analysis, are often fast shocks whose orientation is consistent with that expected if a bulge on the bow shock convected past the spacecraft. They have found the magnetosheath manifestations of these events which they study in detail. They suggest that these events are the direct result of the disruption and reformation of the bow shock by the passage of an interplanetary current sheet, most probably a tangential discontinuity

  7. Giotto observations of the bow shock at Comet Halley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formisano, V.; Amata, E.; Wilken, B.

    1986-01-01

    Preliminary results from the JPA instrument on Giotto indicate that Comet Halley, even on the flanks, has a bow shock which moves backwards and forwards over the spacecraft. To understand the structure properly will require more detailed investigation of the relationships between three particle populations, cometary ions, solar wind ions and electrons

  8. The strategy does not matter: Effects of acceptance, reappraisal, and distraction on the course of anticipatory anxiety in social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbig-Lang, Sylvia; Rusch, Silke; Rief, Winfried; Lincoln, Tania M

    2015-12-01

    Anticipatory anxiety is a core feature of social anxiety disorder (SAD); however, there is a paucity of data on effective strategies for dealing with this affective state. The present study examined the effects of reappraisal, acceptance, and distraction on the course of anticipatory anxiety. The study used an experimental design, randomly assigning participants to one of three strategy groups. Participants were instructed to employ these strategies during the anticipation of an impromptu speech. Participants with SAD (n = 67) and healthy controls (n = 72) were compared with regard to their ability to adopt the prescribed strategies and with regard to the effects of strategy use on self-reported and psychophysiological markers of arousal. SAD participants reported more problems in adopting the assigned strategies than controls, although the time spent with each strategy did not differ by group. In both groups, acceptance was rated as more difficult to adopt than reappraisal and distraction. Subjective ratings of anxiety decreased during the first 10 min of anticipation regardless of diagnostic group or strategy, but anxiety increased again immediately prior to the speech. Psychophysiological parameters were largely unaffected by group or strategy. The results question whether there are differential benefits of different emotion regulation (ER) strategies in dealing with anticipatory anxiety. The observed rebound of anxiety prior to the social event calls into doubt the long-term effectiveness of these strategies, at least during the regulation of anticipatory anxiety. Coping with anticipatory anxiety is an important issue in treating SAD. Compared to healthy controls, individuals diagnosed with SAD experienced more problems in adopting prescribed ER strategies for dealing with anticipatory anxiety. We found no differences between acceptance, reappraisal, and distraction, calling into question that one strategy should be generally recommended by clinicians. © 2015

  9. Glacial Meltwater Contirbutions to the Bow River, Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bash, E. A.; Marshall, S. J.; White, E. C.

    2009-12-01

    Assessment of glacial melt is critical for water resource management in areas which rely on glacier-fed rivers for agricultural and municipal uses. Changes in precipitation patterns coupled with current glacial retreat are altering the glacial contribution to river flow in areas such as the Andes of South America and the high ranges of Asia, as well as the Rockies of Western Canada. Alberta’s Bow River has its headwaters in the eastern slopes of the Canadian Rockies and contributes to the Nelson drainage system feeding into Hudson Bay. The Bow River basin contains several population centers, including the City of Calgary, and is heavily taxed for agricultural use. The combined effects of rapid glacial retreat in the Canadian Rockies, higher drought frequency, and increased demand are likely to heighten water stress in Southern Alberta. However, there has been little focus to date on the extent and importance of glacial meltwater in the Bow River. The Bow River contains 74.5 km2 of glacier ice, which amounts to only 0.29% of the basin. While this number is not high compared to some glacierized areas, Hopkinson and Young (1998) report that in dry years, glacier melt can provide up to 50% of late summer flows at a station in the upper reaches of the river system. We extend this work with an assessment of monthly and annual glacial contributions to the Bow River farther downstream in Calgary. Our analysis is based on mass balance, meteorological, and hydrological data that has been collected at the Haig Glacier since 2001. This data is used in conjunction with glacier coverage and hypsometric data for the remainder of the basin to estimate seasonal snow and glacial meltwater contributions to the Bow River from the glacierized fraction of the catchment. The results of this study show the percentage of total flow attributed to glacial melt to be highly variable. Glacier runoff contributes up to an order of magnitude more water to the Bow River per unit area of

  10. Small Arms of the Scythians. On the Time of Sigmoid Bow Appearance in Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukyashko Sergey Ivanovich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Horse archers well-known in the ancient world used composite sigmoid bows for shooting (archery, the specific constructive features of which have been studied by the researchers. This type of a bow was convergently formed in Eastern China in the middle of the 2nd millennium B.C. and in the North Caucasus in the middle of the 4th millennium B.C. It gets transferred to the Northern Black Sea Region by the Scythians in the late 7th - early 6th centuries B.C. that resulted in the dramatic transformation of arrowheads’ types. The Greeks became aware of this weapon in the last third of the 6th century B.C. Bows can be divided into simple and complex ones. The simple bows are made from one solid bar, while the complex bows are made of several layers of different wood species. Composite bows are constructed from a few consequently connected bars. These types also include a reinforced bow – the bow springing qualities of which are reinforced by bone or tendon plates. Since the ancient masters combined different production methods, the definition of a composite reinforced bow can be found in the literature. European small arms development was focused on improving a simple bow. The strength of such bow was achieved by its size. However, massive bows are unsuitable for firing from a horse. Therefore, in cultures associated with the development of riding the search of methods of bow strength increase at the condition of reducing its size, was going on. In Asia, the focus was made on the material rather than shoulders design. As a result, complex composite bows appear in the East, which were made from several pieces of wood, connected with the central part of the handle at an angle. After the appearance of the Scythians in the middle East the angular design of bows was replaced by a sigmoid shape (scythicus acrus.

  11. Does Emotional Arousal Influence Swearing Fluency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Richard; Zile, Amy

    2017-08-01

    This study assessed the effect of experimentally manipulated emotional arousal on swearing fluency. We hypothesised that swear word generation would be increased with raised emotional arousal. The emotional arousal of 60 participants was manipulated by having them play a first-person shooter video game or, as a control, a golf video game, in a randomised order. A behavioural measure of swearing fluency based on the Controlled Oral Word Association Test was employed. Successful experimental manipulation was indicated by raised State Hostility Questionnaire scores after playing the shooter game. Swearing fluency was significantly greater after playing the shooter game compared with the golf game. Validity of the swearing fluency task was demonstrated via positive correlations with self-reported swearing fluency and daily swearing frequency. In certain instances swearing may represent a form of emotional expression. This finding will inform debates around the acceptability of using taboo language.

  12. Financial Anxiety, Physiological Arousal, and Planning Intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Grable

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Results from this exploratory clinical study indicate that financial anxiety—holding an unhealthy attitude about one’s financial situation—and physiological arousal—the physical precursor to behavior—play important roles in shaping consumer intention to engage in future financial planning activity. Findings suggest that those who are most likely to engage the services of a financial adviser exhibit low levels of financial anxiety and moderate to high levels of physiological arousal. The least likely to seek the help of a financial adviser are those who exhibit high financial anxiety and low physiological arousal. Results support findings documented in the literature that high anxiety levels often lead to a form of self-imposed helplessness. In order to move those experiencing financial anxiety towards financial solutions, financial advisers ought to take steps to simultaneously reduce financial stressors and stimulate arousal as a way to promote behavioral change and help seeking.

  13. Micro-arousals during nocturnal sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halász, P; Kundra, O; Rajna, P; Pál, I; Vargha, M

    1979-01-01

    In 8 young adult human subjects EEG- and polygraphic characteristics of transient shifts towards arousal (micro-arousal, MA) have been studied during sleep under five different experimental conditions in 40 night sessions. Out of the five applied experimental situations, two (psychostimulant application and sensory stimulation) resulted in a shift of the balance between the systems of sleep and arousal towards an increased activity of the arousal system, while an other condition (rebound following partial sleep deprivation) led to an opposite change to a rise in "sleep pressure". An inverse correlation has been found between the frequency of MA and the depth of sleep, a finding consistently observed in every subject and in every experimental situation. During the process of sleep periodic changes in the dispersity of MA could be seen; the number of MA-s decreased and increased according to the descending and ascending slope of the sleep cycles. During the ascending slope of cycles there was a coupling between the occurence of MA-s and the changes of phases. Increases in the level of activation and in sleep pressure did not influence the occurrence of MA-s. Increasing the tone of the arousal system in chemical way, or by means of enhancing the phasic sensory input resulted in a reduction of the difference between the number of MA on the descending and ascending slopes of cycles. During the phases of sleep, the spontaneous occurrence of MA-s went parallel with the possibility to evoke MA-s by sensory stimuli. These data show that MA is a regular phenomenon of nocturnal sleep; MA manifests itself as a result of phasic functioning of the reticular arousal system and plays a role in the organization of those periods of the sleep cycle, which tend toward arousal. It is suggested that MA-phenomenon is considered a standard measure of sleep and that it could represent an indicator of the function of the arousal system controlled by external or internal mechanisms during

  14. The Role of Motivation in Cognitive Reappraisal for Depressed Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoxia Wang; Xiaoyan Zhou; Qin Dai; Bing Ji; Zhengzhi Feng

    2017-01-01

    Background: People engage in emotion regulation in service of motive goals (typically, to approach a desired emotional goal or avoid an undesired emotional goal). However, how motives (goals) in emotion regulation operate to shape the regulation of emotion is rarely known. Furthermore, the modulatory role of motivation in the impaired reappraisal capacity and neural abnormalities typical of depressed patients is not clear. Our hypothesis was that (1) approach and avoidance motivation may modu...

  15. How Arousal Affects Younger and Older Adults' Memory Binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashiro, Kaoru; Mather, Mara

    2009-01-01

    A number of recent studies have shown that associative memory for within-item features is enhanced for emotionally arousing items, whereas arousal-enhanced binding is not seen for associations between distinct items (for a review see Mather, 2007). The costs and benefits of arousal in memory binding have been examined for younger adults but not for older adults. The present experiment examined whether arousal would enhance younger and older adults' within-item and between-item memory binding. The results revealed that arousal improved younger adults' within-item memory binding but not that of older adults. Arousal worsened both groups' between-item memory binding. PMID:21240821

  16. Magnetic field fluctuations across the Earth’s bow shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Czaykowska

    Full Text Available We present a statistical analysis of 132 dayside (LT 0700-1700 bow shock crossings of the AMPTE/IRM spacecraft. We perform a superposed epoch analysis of low frequency, magnetic power spectra some minutes up-stream and downstream of the bow shock. The events are devided into categories depending on the angle θBn between bow shock normal and interplanetary magnetic field, and on plasma-β. In the foreshock upstream of the quasi-parallel bow shock, the power of the magnetic fluctuations is roughly 1 order of magnitude larger (δB ~ 4 nT for frequencies 0.01–0.04 Hz than upstream of the quasi-perpendicular shock. There is no significant difference in the magnetic power spectra upstream and downstream of the quasi-parallel bow shock; only at the shock itself, is the magnetic power enhanced by a factor of 4. This enhancement may be due to either an amplification of convecting upstream waves or to wave generation at the shock interface. On the contrary, downstream of the quasi-perpendicular shock, the magnetic wave activity is considerably higher than upstream. Down-stream of the quasi-perpendicular low-β bow shock, we find a dominance of the left-hand polarized component at frequencies just below the ion-cyclotron frequency, with amplitudes of about 3 nT. These waves are identified as ion-cyclotron waves, which grow in a low-β regime due to the proton temperature anisotropy. We find a strong correlation of this anisotropy with the intensity of the left-hand polarized component. Downstream of some nearly perpendicular (θBn ≈ 90° high-β crossings, mirror waves are identified. However, there are also cases where the conditions for mirror modes are met downstream of the nearly perpendicular shock, but no mirror waves are observed.

    Key words. Interplanetary physics (plasma waves and turbulence – Magnetospheric physics (magnetosheath; plasma waves and

  17. Magnetic field fluctuations across the Earth’s bow shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Czaykowska

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a statistical analysis of 132 dayside (LT 0700-1700 bow shock crossings of the AMPTE/IRM spacecraft. We perform a superposed epoch analysis of low frequency, magnetic power spectra some minutes up-stream and downstream of the bow shock. The events are devided into categories depending on the angle θBn between bow shock normal and interplanetary magnetic field, and on plasma-β. In the foreshock upstream of the quasi-parallel bow shock, the power of the magnetic fluctuations is roughly 1 order of magnitude larger (δB ~ 4 nT for frequencies 0.01–0.04 Hz than upstream of the quasi-perpendicular shock. There is no significant difference in the magnetic power spectra upstream and downstream of the quasi-parallel bow shock; only at the shock itself, is the magnetic power enhanced by a factor of 4. This enhancement may be due to either an amplification of convecting upstream waves or to wave generation at the shock interface. On the contrary, downstream of the quasi-perpendicular shock, the magnetic wave activity is considerably higher than upstream. Down-stream of the quasi-perpendicular low-β bow shock, we find a dominance of the left-hand polarized component at frequencies just below the ion-cyclotron frequency, with amplitudes of about 3 nT. These waves are identified as ion-cyclotron waves, which grow in a low-β regime due to the proton temperature anisotropy. We find a strong correlation of this anisotropy with the intensity of the left-hand polarized component. Downstream of some nearly perpendicular (θBn ≈ 90° high-β crossings, mirror waves are identified. However, there are also cases where the conditions for mirror modes are met downstream of the nearly perpendicular shock, but no mirror waves are observed.Key words. Interplanetary physics (plasma waves and turbulence – Magnetospheric physics (magnetosheath; plasma waves and instabilities

  18. Mood and sexual arousal in women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, E.; Everaerd, W.; van Berlo, R.; Rijs, L.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a positive 'mood for sex' on genital and subjective sexual arousal in functional women, using a musical mood induction procedure. Fifty-one female Ss were randomly assigned to one of four conditions: erotic film preceded by mood induction;

  19. Performance demand and sexual arousal in women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, E.; Everaerd, W.; van Aanhold, M. T.; Rebel, M.

    1993-01-01

    Up to now, no experimental studies have inquired into the possible role of performance demand in female sexuality. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of performance demand on sexual arousal in functional women, using explicit instructions. Forty-eight female subjects were

  20. Pleasure, arousal, dominance: Mehrabian and Russell revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, I.C.; van der Voordt, Theo; de Boon, J; Vink, P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a discursive review of the dimensions pleasure, arousal and dominance that Mehrabian and Russell developed in 1974 to assess environmental perception, experience, and psychological responses. Since then numerous researchers applied these dimensions to assess the experience of the

  1. Physiological arousal in processing recognition information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Hochman

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The recognition heuristic (RH; Goldstein and Gigerenzer, 2002 suggests that, when applicable, probabilistic inferences are based on a noncompensatory examination of whether an object is recognized or not. The overall findings on the processes that underlie this fast and frugal heuristic are somewhat mixed, and many studies have expressed the need for considering a more compensatory integration of recognition information. Regardless of the mechanism involved, it is clear that recognition has a strong influence on choices, and this finding might be explained by the fact that recognition cues arouse affect and thus receive more attention than cognitive cues. To test this assumption, we investigated whether recognition results in a direct affective signal by measuring physiological arousal (i.e., peripheral arterial tone in the established city-size task. We found that recognition of cities does not directly result in increased physiological arousal. Moreover, the results show that physiological arousal increased with increasing inconsistency between recognition information and additional cue information. These findings support predictions derived by a compensatory Parallel Constraint Satisfaction model rather than predictions of noncompensatory models. Additional results concerning confidence ratings, response times, and choice proportions further demonstrated that recognition information and other cognitive cues are integrated in a compensatory manner.

  2. Video lottery: winning expectancies and arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladouceur, Robert; Sévigny, Serge; Blaszczynski, Alexander; O'Connor, Kieron; Lavoie, Marc E

    2003-06-01

    This study investigates the effects of video lottery players' expectancies of winning on physiological and subjective arousal. Participants were assigned randomly to one of two experimental conditions: high and low winning expectancies. Participants played 100 video lottery games in a laboratory setting while physiological measures were recorded. Level of risk-taking was controlled. Participants were 34 occasional or regular video lottery players. They were assigned randomly into two groups of 17, with nine men and eight women in each group. The low-expectancy group played for fun, therefore expecting to win worthless credits, while the high-expectancy group played for real money. Players' experience, demographic variables and subjective arousal were assessed. Severity of problem gambling was measured with the South Oaks Gambling Screen. In order to measure arousal, the average heart rate was recorded across eight periods. Participants exposed to high as compared to low expectations experienced faster heart rate prior to and during the gambling session. According to self-reports, it is the expectancy of winning money that is exciting, not playing the game. Regardless of the level of risk-taking, expectancy of winning is a cognitive factor influencing levels of arousal. When playing for fun, gambling becomes significantly less stimulating than when playing for money.

  3. Sexual Desire and Arousal Disorders in Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, Ellen; Both, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    According to incentive motivation theory, sexual desire is the result of the interplay between a sensitive sexual response system and stimuli that activate the system. From this notion it follows that sexual desire is not a cause but a consequence of sexual arousal. The effects of hormones, somatic

  4. The Role of Motivation in Cognitive Reappraisal for Depressed Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxia Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: People engage in emotion regulation in service of motive goals (typically, to approach a desired emotional goal or avoid an undesired emotional goal. However, how motives (goals in emotion regulation operate to shape the regulation of emotion is rarely known. Furthermore, the modulatory role of motivation in the impaired reappraisal capacity and neural abnormalities typical of depressed patients is not clear. Our hypothesis was that (1 approach and avoidance motivation may modulate emotion regulation and the underlying neural substrates; (2 approach/avoidance motivation may modulate emotion regulation neural abnormalities in depressed patients.Methods: Twelve drug-free depressed patients and fifteen matched healthy controls reappraised emotional pictures with approach/avoidant strategies and self-rated their emotional intensities during fMRI scans. Approach/avoidance motivation was measured using Behavioral Inhibition System and Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS Scale. We conducted whole-brain analyses and correlation analyses of regions of interest to identify alterations in regulatory prefrontal-amygdala circuits which were modulated by motivation.Results: Depressed patients had a higher level of BIS and lower levels of BAS-reward responsiveness and BAS-drive. BIS scores were positively correlated with depressive severity. We found the main effect of motivation as well as the interactive effect of motivation and group on the neural correlates of emotion regulation. Specifically, hypoactivation of IFG underlying the group differences in the motivation-related neural correlates during reappraisal may be partially explained by the interaction between group and reappraisal. Consistent with our prediction, dlPFC and vmPFC was differentially between groups which were modulated by motivation. Specifically, the avoidance motivation of depressed patients could predict the right dlPFC activation during decreasing positive emotion, while

  5. Reappraisal writing relieves social anxiety and may be accompanied by changes in frontal alpha asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen eWang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available It is widely reported that expressive writing can improve mental and physical health. However, to date, the neural correlates of expressive writing have not been reported. The current study examined the neural electrical correlates of expressive writing in a reappraisal approach. Three groups of participants were required to give a public speech. Before speaking, the reappraisal writing group was asked to write about the current stressful task in a reappraisal manner. The irrelevant writing group was asked to write about their weekly plan, and the non-writing group did not write anything. It was found that following the experimental writing manipulation, both reappraisal and irrelevant writing conditions decreased self-reported anxiety levels. But when re-exposed to the stressful situation, participants in the irrelevant writing group showed increased anxiety levels, while anxiety levels remained lower in the reappraisal group. During the experimental writing manipulation period, participants in the reappraisal group had lower frontal alpha asymmetry scores than those in the irrelevant writing group. However, following re-exposure to stress, participants in the reappraisal group showed higher frontal alpha asymmetry scores than those in the irrelevant writing group. Self-reported anxiety and frontal alpha asymmetry of the non-writing condition did not change significantly across these different stages. It is noteworthy that expressive writing in a reappraisal style seems not to be a fast-acting treatment but may instead take effect in the long run.

  6. One Session of Autogenic Training Increases Acute Subjective Sexual Arousal in Premenopausal Women Reporting Sexual Arousal Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Amelia M; Hixon, J Gregory; Nichols, Lindsey M; Meston, Cindy M

    2018-01-01

    Below average heart rate variability (HRV) has been associated with sexual arousal dysfunction and overall sexual dysfunction in women. Autogenic training, a psychophysiologic relaxation technique, has been shown to increase HRV. In a recent study, sexually healthy women experienced acute increases in physiologic (ie, genital) and subjective sexual arousal after 1 brief session of autogenic training. To build on these findings by testing the effects of a single session of autogenic training on sexual arousal in a sample of women who reported decreased or absent sexual arousal for at least 6 months. Genital sexual arousal, subjective sexual arousal, and perceived genital sensations were assessed in 25 women 20 to 44 years old before and after listening to a 22-minute autogenic training recording. HRV was assessed with electrocardiography. Change in genital sexual arousal, subjective sexual arousal, and perceived genital sensations from the pre-manipulation erotic film to the post-manipulation erotic film. Marginally significant increases in discrete subjective sexual arousal (P = .051) and significant increases in perceived genital sensations (P = .018) were observed. In addition, degree of change in HRV significantly moderated increases in subjective arousal measured continuously over time (P autogenic training, and other interventions that aim to increase HRV, could be a useful addition to treatment protocols for women who are reporting a lack of subjective arousal or decreased genital sensations. There are few treatment options for women with arousal problems. We report on a new psychosocial intervention that could improve arousal. Limitations include a relatively small sample and the lack of a control group. Our findings indicate that autogenic training significantly improves acute subjective arousal and increases perceived genital sensations in premenopausal women with self-reported arousal concerns. Stanton AM, Hixon JG, Nichols LM, Meston CM. One Session of

  7. Electrostatic and electromagnetic turbulence associated with the Earth's bow shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, P.

    1974-01-01

    The electric and magnetic field spectral densities of plasma waves in the earth's bow shock have been measured in the frequency range 20 Hz to 200 kHz using two 16-channel spectrum analyzers on the IMP-6 spacecraft. Electrostatic noise with a spectrum similar to the turbulence in the shock, but with lower intensities, is observed throughout the magnetosheath region, downstream of the shock. The intensity of the electrostatic component of turbulence in the bow shock increases as the upstream electron to ion temperature ratio increases, and decreases as the upstream sound velocity increases; both of these variations for the electrostatic component are consistent with ion sound wave turbulence. (U.S.)

  8. H2 profiles of C-type bow shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.D.; Brand, P.W.J.L.

    1990-01-01

    We present emission-line profiles of molecular hydrogen from curved C-shocks within molecular clouds. Shock configurations arising from the supersonic motion of jets and bullets within a dense cloud are chosen. Bow shock speeds in the range υ w = 40-200 km s -1 are investigated. Breakdown through dissociation and self-ionization restricts the C-shock section to the bow tail. We find that profiles are essentially single-peaked and narrow with full widths (at 10 per cent maximum intensity, deconvolved) of up to about 50, 40 and 30 km s -1 for cones, hemispherical caps and paraboloids, respectively. Exceptional field alignments can produce lines as wide as 75 km s -1 in the conical shock model. (author)

  9. Arctic Bowyery – The Use of Compression Wood in Bows in the Subarctic and Arctic Regions of Eurasia and America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Lepola

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a study of the traditional use of a special kind of wood in bow construction in Eurasia and North America. This special kind of wood, called compression wood and coming from coniferous trees, has unique qualities that makes it suitable for bow construction. Bows made using this special wood have been referred to as Finno-Ugric bows, Sámi bows, Two-Wood bows and Eurasia laminated bows. These bows appear to have developed from archaic forms of compression wood self bows that were made from a single piece of wood. Recently features similar to the Eurasian compression wood bows have been discovered in bows originating from Alaska, and the use of compression wood for bow manufacture has been known to some Canadian Inuit groups. This paper addresses the origin and possible diffusion pattern of this innovation in bow technology in Eurasia and suggests a timeframe and a possible source for the transfer of this knowledge to North America. This paper also discusses the role of the Asiatic composite bow in the development of bows in Eurasia.

  10. Organizing learning processes on risks by using the bow-tie representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevreau, F.R. [Ecole des Mines de Paris, 06904 Sophia-Antipolis (France)]. E-mail: chevreau@cindy.ensmp.fr; Wybo, J.L. [Ecole des Mines de Paris, 06904 Sophia-Antipolis (France)]. E-mail: wybo@cindy.ensmp.fr; Cauchois, D. [Process Safety Department, Sanofi-Aventis, Site de Production de Vitry sur Seine, 9 Quai Jules Guesdes, 94400 Vitry sur Seine (France)]. E-mail: didier.cauchois@sanofi-aventis.com

    2006-03-31

    The Aramis method proposes a complete and efficient way to manage risk analysis by using the bow-tie representation. This paper shows how the bow-tie representation can also be appropriate for experience learning. It describes how a pharmaceutical production plant uses bow-ties for incident and accident analysis. Two levels of bow-ties are constructed: standard bow-ties concern generic risks of the plant whereas local bow-ties represent accident scenarios specific to each workplace. When incidents or accidents are analyzed, knowledge that is gained is added to existing local bow-ties. Regularly, local bow-ties that have been updated are compared to standard bow-ties in order to revise them. Knowledge on safety at the global and at local levels is hence as accurate as possible and memorized in a real time framework. As it relies on the communication between safety experts and local operators, this use of the bow-ties contributes therefore to organizational learning for safety.

  11. Organizing learning processes on risks by using the bow-tie representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevreau, F.R.; Wybo, J.L.; Cauchois, D.

    2006-01-01

    The Aramis method proposes a complete and efficient way to manage risk analysis by using the bow-tie representation. This paper shows how the bow-tie representation can also be appropriate for experience learning. It describes how a pharmaceutical production plant uses bow-ties for incident and accident analysis. Two levels of bow-ties are constructed: standard bow-ties concern generic risks of the plant whereas local bow-ties represent accident scenarios specific to each workplace. When incidents or accidents are analyzed, knowledge that is gained is added to existing local bow-ties. Regularly, local bow-ties that have been updated are compared to standard bow-ties in order to revise them. Knowledge on safety at the global and at local levels is hence as accurate as possible and memorized in a real time framework. As it relies on the communication between safety experts and local operators, this use of the bow-ties contributes therefore to organizational learning for safety

  12. Thermally-induced bowing of CANDU fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suk, H.C.; Sim, K.S.; Park, J.H.; Park, G.S.

    1995-01-01

    Considering only the thermally-induced bending moments which are generated both within the sheath and between the fuel and sheath by an asymmetric temperature distribution with respect to the axis of an element, a generalized and explicit analytical formula for the thermally-induced bending is developed in this paper, based on the cases of 1) the bending of an empty tube treated by neglecting of the fuel/sheath mechanical interaction and 2) the fuel/sheath interaction due to the pellet and sheath temperature variations. In each of the cases, the temperature asymmetries in sheath are modelled to be caused by the combined effects of (i) non-uniform coolant temperature due to imperfect coolant mixing, (ii) variable sheath/coolant heat transfer coefficient, (iii) asymmetric heat generation due to neutron flux gradients across an element and so as to inclusively cover the uniform temperature distributions within the fuel and sheath with respect to the axial centerline. Investigating the relative importance of the various parameters affecting fuel element bowing, the element bowing is found to be greatly affected with the variations of element length, sheath diameter, pellet/sheath mechanical interaction and neutron flux depression factors, pellet thermal expansion coefficient, pellet/sheath heat transfer coefficient in comparison with those of other parameters such as sheath thickness, film heat transfer coefficient, sheath thermal expansion coefficient, and sheath and pellet thermal conductivities. Also, the element bowing of the standard 37-element bundle and CANFLEX 43-element bundle for the use in CANDU-6 reactors was analyzed with the formula, which could help to demonstrate the integrity of the fuel. All the required input data for the analyses were generated in terms of the reactor operation conditions on the reactor physics, thermal hydraulics and fuel performance by using various CANDU computer codes. The analysis results indicate that the CANFLEX 43-element

  13. Bowing to the Dharma: Japanese Buddhist Women Leaders & Healers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Arai

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The prodigious stream of Japanese Buddhist women in roles of leadership and healing extends the length of Japanese Buddhist history. This article will highlight the transformative power of bowing that helped galvanize Sōtō Zen nuns on the eve of the twentieth century and feature twentieth-century leaders who institutionalized their disciplined commitments. It will also offer a window into the creative healing practices that characterizes women’s activity in the home.

  14. Plasma waves in the Earth's foreshock, bow shock, and magnetosheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onsager, T.G.

    1988-01-01

    The research presented in this dissertation is a detailed analysis of electrostatic waves in the Earth's foreshock, bow shock, and magnetosheath. The wave modes measured in these regions, the possible generation mechanisms, and the process which drive the plasma to its unstable state are investigated. The measurements used in this study were obtained from the plasma wave receiver, the particle instrument, and the magnetometer on board the Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Explorer (AMPTE) Ion Release Module (IRM). Electron beam mode waves have been identified in the Earth's foreshock. A technique is developed which allows the rest frame frequency and wave number of the electron beam mode waves to be determined from the measurements. The experimentally determined values are compared with theoretical predictions, and approximate limits are put on the beam temperatures. It is demonstrated that electrostatic waves are present in the bow shock and magnetosheath with frequencies above the maximum frequency for Doppler shifted ion acoustic waves, yet below the Langmuir frequency. Waves in this frequency range are tentatively identified as electron beam mode waves. This identification is based on the measured frequencies and electric field polarization directions. Data from 45 bow shock crossings are then used to investigate possible correlations between the electron beam mode waves and the near shock plasma parameters. The best correlations are found with Alfven Mach number and electron beta. Possible mechanism which might produce electron beams in the shock and magnetosheath are discussed in terms of the correlation study results

  15. PLANETARY EMBRYO BOW SHOCKS AS A MECHANISM FOR CHONDRULE FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, Christopher R.; Boley, Aaron C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy University of British Columbia Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Morris, Melissa A. [Physics Department State University of New York at Cortland Cortland, NY 13045 (United States)

    2016-02-20

    We use radiation hydrodynamics with direct particle integration to explore the feasibility of chondrule formation in planetary embryo bow shocks. The calculations presented here are used to explore the consequences of a Mars-size planetary embryo traveling on a moderately excited orbit through the dusty, early environment of the solar system. The embryo’s eccentric orbit produces a range of supersonic relative velocities between the embryo and the circularly orbiting gas and dust, prompting the formation of bow shocks. Temporary atmospheres around these embryos, which can be created via volatile outgassing and gas capture from the surrounding nebula, can non-trivially affect thermal profiles of solids entering the shock. We explore the thermal environment of solids that traverse the bow shock at different impact radii, the effects that planetoid atmospheres have on shock morphologies, and the stripping efficiency of planetoidal atmospheres in the presence of high relative winds. Simulations are run using adiabatic and radiative conditions, with multiple treatments for the local opacities. Shock speeds of 5, 6, and 7 km s{sup −1} are explored. We find that a high-mass atmosphere and inefficient radiative conditions can produce peak temperatures and cooling rates that are consistent with the constraints set by chondrule furnace studies. For most conditions, the derived cooling rates are potentially too high to be consistent with chondrule formation.

  16. The Carotid Body and Arousal in the Fetus and Neonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Arousal from sleep is a major defense mechanism in infants against hypoxia and/or hypercapnia. Arousal failure may be an important contributor to SIDS. Areas of the brainstem that have been found to be abnormal in a majority of SIDS infants are involved in the arousal process. Arousal is sleep state dependent, being depressed during AS in most mammals, but depressed during QS in human infants. Repeated exposure to hypoxia causes a progressive blunting of arousal that may involve medullary raphe GABAergic mechanisms. Whereas CB chemoreceptors contribute heavily to arousal in response to hypoxia, serotonergic central chemoreceptors have been implicated in the arousal response to CO2. Pulmonary or chest wall mechanoreceptors also contribute to arousal in proportion to the ventilatory response and decreases in their input may contribute to depressed arousal during AS. Little is known about specific arousal pathways beyond the NTS. Whether CB chemoreceptor stimulation directly stimulates arousal centers or whether this is done indirectly through respiratory networks remains unknown. This review will focus on arousal in response to hypoxia and CO2 in the fetus and newborn and will outline what we know (and don’t know) about the involvement of the carotid body in this process. PMID:22684039

  17. Dependence of sound characteristics on the bowing position in a violin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, YuJi; Kim, Young H.

    2014-12-01

    A quantitative analysis of violin sounds produced for different bowing positions over the full length of a violin string has been carried out. An automated bowing machine was employed in order to keep the bowing parameters constant. A 3-dimensional profile of the frequency spectrum was introduced in order to characterize the violin's sound. We found that the fundamental frequency did not change for different bowing positions, whereas the frequencies of the higher harmonics were different. Bowing the string at 30 mm from the bridge produced musical sounds. The middle of the string was confirmed to be a dead zone, as reported in previous works. In addition, the quarter position was also found to be a dead zone. Bowing the string 90 mm from the bridge dominantly produces a fundamental frequency of 864 Hz and its harmonics.

  18. Pleasure, arousal, dominance: Mehrabian and Russell revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Bakker, I.C.; van der Voordt, Theo; de Boon, J; Vink, P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a discursive review of the dimensions pleasure, arousal and dominance that Mehrabian and Russell developed in 1974 to assess environmental perception, experience, and psychological responses. Since then numerous researchers applied these dimensions to assess the experience of the physical environment and its perceived qualities. Although the dimensions appeared to be useful, there is a long-lasting debate going on among environmental psychologists about the interpretation ...

  19. On the stability of bow shocks generated by red supergiants: the case of IRC -10414

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, D. M.-A.; Gvaramadze, V. V.; Langer, N.; Mackey, J.; Boumis, P.; Mohamed, S.

    2014-03-01

    In this Letter, we explore the hypothesis that the smooth appearance of bow shocks around some red supergiants (RSGs) might be caused by the ionization of their winds by external sources of radiation. Our numerical simulations of the bow shock generated by IRC -10414 (the first-ever RSG with an optically detected bow shock) show that the ionization of the wind results in its acceleration by a factor of 2, which reduces the difference between the wind and space velocities of the star and makes the contact discontinuity of the bow shock stable for a range of stellar space velocities and mass-loss rates. Our best-fitting model reproduces the overall shape and surface brightness of the observed bow shock and suggests that the space velocity and mass-loss rate of IRC -10414 are ≈50 km s-1 and ≈10-6 M⊙ yr-1, respectively, and that the number density of the local interstellar medium is ≈3 cm-3. It also shows that the bow shock emission comes mainly from the shocked stellar wind. This naturally explains the enhanced nitrogen abundance in the line-emitting material, derived from the spectroscopy of the bow shock. We found that photoionized bow shocks are ≈15-50 times brighter in optical line emission than their neutral counterparts, from which we conclude that the bow shock of IRC -10414 must be photoionized.

  20. Reappraising the ultimatum: an fMRI study of emotion regulation and decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grecucci, Alessandro; Giorgetta, Cinzia; Van't Wout, Mascha; Bonini, Nicolao; Sanfey, Alan G

    2013-02-01

    Emotion regulation strategies provide a means by which to modulate our social behavior. In this study, we investigated the effect of using reappraisal to both up- and downregulate social decision making. After being instructed on how to use reappraisal, participants played the Ultimatum Game while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging and applied the strategies of upregulation (reappraising the proposer's intentions as more negative), down-regulation (reappraising the proposer's intentions as less negative), as well as a baseline "look" condition. As hypothesized, when reappraising, decision acceptance rates were altered, with a greater number of unfair offers accepted while down-regulating and a greater number of unfair offers rejected while upregulating, both relative to the baseline condition. At the neural level, during reappraisal, significant activations were observed in the inferior and middle frontal gyrus (MFG), in addition to the medial prefrontal cortex and cingulate gyrus for unfair offers only. Regulated decisions involved left inferior frontal gyrus for upregulation and MFG for down-regulation strategies, respectively. Importantly, the effects of emotion modulation were evident in posterior insula, with less activation for down-regulation and more activation for upregulation in these areas. Notably, we show for the first time that top-down strategies such as reappraisal strongly affect our socioeconomic decisions.

  1. Effective Maxillary Protraction with Tandem Traction Bow Appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravin Kumar S Marure

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tandem traction bow appliance (TTBA promotes patient compliance, because it is more esthetic and comfortable than extraoral appliances. TTBA should be used only in case where maxillary deficiency and normal mandible is present. Advantages of it includes good oral hygiene, early treatment of any Class III malocclusion, optimal retention, distribution of the forces for protraction to all maxillary teeth, free mandibular movement. It can be used in conjunction with fixed appliances if necessary. This paper includes two case reports. The treatment results in both the cases demonstrated significant skeletal and dental response to TTBA therapy. Skeletal change was primarily a result of anterior movement of the maxilla.

  2. Electromagnetic ion beam instability upstream of the earth's bow shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gary, S.P.; Gosling, J.T.; Forslund, D.W.

    1981-01-01

    The linear theory of the electromagnetic ion beam instability for arbitrary angles of propagation has been studied. The parameters considered in the theory are typical of the solar wind upstream of the earth's bow shock when a 'reflected' proton beam is present. Maximum growth occurs for propagation parallel to the ambient field B, but this instability also displays significant growth at wave-vectors oblique to B, Oblique, unstable modes seem to be the likely source of the compressive magnetic fluctuations recently observed in conjunction with 'diffuse' ion population. An energetic ion beam does not directly give rise to linear growth of either ion acoustic or whistler mode instabilities

  3. Relative locations of the bow shocks of the terrestrial planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, C.T.

    1977-01-01

    The observed bow shock encounters at Mercury, Venus and Mars are least square fit using the same technique so that their sizes and shapes can be intercompared. The shock front of Mercury most resembles the terrestrial shock in shape, and the shock stand off distance is consistent with the observed moment. The shapes of the Venus and Mars shock fronts more resemble each other than the earth's and the stand off distances are consistent with direct interaction of the solar wind with the ionosphere on the dayside. The Venus shock is closer to the planet than the Mars shock suggesting more absorption of the solar wind at Venus

  4. Emotionally arousing pictures increase blood glucose levels and enhance recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, T M; Varnhagen, C K; Parent, M B

    2001-05-01

    Arousal enhances memory in human participants and this enhancing effect is likely due to the release of peripheral epinephrine. As epinephrine does not readily enter the brain, one way that peripheral epinephrine may enhance memory is by increasing circulating blood glucose levels. The present study investigated the possibility that emotionally arousing color pictures would improve memory and elevate blood glucose levels in human participants. Blood glucose levels were measured before, 15 min, and 30 min after male university students viewed 60 emotionally arousing or relatively neutral pictures. Participants viewed each picture for 6 s and then had 10 s to rate the arousal (emotional intensity) and valence (pleasantness) of each picture. A free-recall memory test was given 30 min after the last picture was viewed. Although the emotionally arousing and neutral picture sets were given comparable valence ratings, participants who viewed the emotionally arousing pictures rated the pictures as being more arousing, recalled more pictures, and had higher blood glucose levels after viewing the pictures than did participants who viewed the neutral pictures. These findings indicate that emotionally arousing pictures increase blood glucose levels and enhance memory, and that this effect is not due to differences in the degree of pleasantness of the stimuli. These findings support the possibility that increases in circulating blood glucose levels in response to emotional arousal may be part of the biological mechanism that allows emotional arousal to enhance memory. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  5. The scoring of arousal in sleep: reliability, validity, and alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Michael H; Doghramji, Karl; Roehrs, Timothy; Stepanski, Edward J; Sheldon, Stephen H; Walters, Arthur S; Wise, Merrill; Chesson, Andrew L

    2007-03-15

    The reliability and validity of EEG arousals and other types of arousal are reviewed. Brief arousals during sleep had been observed for many years, but the evolution of sleep medicine in the 1980s directed new attention to these events. Early studies at that time in animals and humans linked brief EEG arousals and associated fragmentation of sleep to daytime sleepiness and degraded performance. Increasing interest in scoring of EEG arousals led the ASDA to publish a scoring manual in 1992. The current review summarizes numerous studies that have examined scoring reliability for these EEG arousals. Validity of EEG arousals was explored by review of studies that empirically varied arousals and found deficits similar to those found after total sleep deprivation depending upon the rate and extent of sleep fragmentation. Additional data from patients with clinical sleep disorders prior to and after effective treatment has also shown a continuing relationship between reduction in pathology-related arousals and improved sleep and daytime function. Finally, many suggestions have been made to refine arousal scoring to include additional elements (e.g., CAP), change the time frame, or focus on other physiological responses such as heart rate or blood pressure changes. Evidence to support the reliability and validity of these measures is presented. It was concluded that the scoring of EEG arousals has added much to our understanding of the sleep process but that significant work on the neurophysiology of arousal needs to be done. Additional refinement of arousal scoring will provide improved insight into sleep pathology and recovery.

  6. The significance of ASDA arousals in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Maria-Cecilia; Marcus, Carole L

    2007-12-01

    Sleep disorders are common in children. The sleep disturbances associated with these disease processes may impact neurodevelopment and result in daytime behavioral and cognitive changes. Currently, there are no precise methods to accurately assess sleep disruption in the pediatric age group. There is evidence that American Sleep Disorders Association (ASDA) arousals are insufficient markers of sleep disruption in children. Other techniques that have been used to assess sleep disruption include unconventional means of evaluating the electroencephalogram (EEG) during sleep and evaluating subcortical or autonomic activation. The aim of this review is to discuss the application of conventional and unconventional markers of sleep disruption in children.

  7. Can sustained arousal explain the Chronic Fatigue Syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriksen Hege R

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present an integrative model of disease mechanisms in the Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS, unifying empirical findings from different research traditions. Based upon the Cognitive activation theory of stress (CATS, we argue that new data on cardiovascular and thermoregulatory regulation indicate a state of permanent arousal responses – sustained arousal – in this condition. We suggest that sustained arousal can originate from different precipitating factors (infections, psychosocial challenges interacting with predisposing factors (genetic traits, personality and learned expectancies (classical and operant conditioning. Furthermore, sustained arousal may explain documented alterations by establishing vicious circles within immunology (Th2 (humoral vs Th1 (cellular predominance, endocrinology (attenuated HPA axis, skeletal muscle function (attenuated cortical activation, increased oxidative stress and cognition (impaired memory and information processing. Finally, we propose a causal link between sustained arousal and the experience of fatigue. The model of sustained arousal embraces all main findings concerning CFS disease mechanisms within one theoretical framework.

  8. Detection of arousals in Parkinson’s disease patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Gertrud Laura; Kempfner, Jacob; Jennum, Poul

    2011-01-01

    sleepiness. Manual scoring of arousals is time-consuming and the inter-score agreement is highly varying especially for patients with sleep related disorders. The aim of this study was to design an arousal detection algorithm capable of detecting arousals from sleep, in both non-REM and REM sleep in patients......Arousal from sleep are short awakenings, which can be identified in the EEG as an abrupt change in frequency. Arousals can occur in all sleep stages and the number and frequency increase with age. Frequent arousals during sleep results in sleep fragmentation and is associated with daytime...... suffering from Parkinson’s disease (PD). The proposed algorithm uses features from EEG, EMG and the manual sleep stage scoring as input to a feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN). The performance of the algorithm has been assessed using polysomnographic (PSG) recordings from a total of 8 patients...

  9. Interobserver variability in recognizing arousal in respiratory sleep disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinnan, M J; Murray, A; Griffiths, C J; Gibson, G J

    1998-08-01

    Daytime sleepiness is a common consequence of repeated arousal in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Arousal indices are sometimes used to make decisions on treatment, but there is no evidence that arousals are detected similarly even by experienced observers. Using the American Sleep Disorders Association (ASDA) definition of arousal in terms of the accompanying electroencephalogram (EEG) changes, we have quantified interobserver agreement for arousal scoring and identified factors affecting it. Ten patients with suspected OSA were studied; three representative EEG events during each of light, slow-wave, and rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep were extracted from each record (90 events total) and evaluated by experts in 14 sleep laboratories. Observers differed (ANOVA, p ASDA definition of arousal is only moderately repeatable. Account should be taken of this variability when results from different centers are compared.

  10. The bowing potential of granitic rocks: rock fabrics, thermal properties and residual strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegesmund, S.; Mosch, S.; Scheffzük, Ch.; Nikolayev, D. I.

    2008-10-01

    The bowing of natural stone panels is especially known for marble slabs. The bowing of granite is mainly known from tombstones in subtropical humid climate. Field inspections in combination with laboratory investigations with respect to the thermal expansion and the bowing potential was performed on two different granitoids (Cezlak granodiorite and Flossenbürg granite) which differ in the composition and rock fabrics. In addition, to describe and explain the effect of bowing of granitoid facade panels, neutron time-of-flight diffraction was applied to determine residual macro- and microstrain. The measurements were combined with investigations of the crystallographic preferred orientation of quartz and biotite. Both samples show a significant bowing as a function of panel thickness and destination temperature. In comparison to marbles the effect of bowing is more pronounced in granitoids at temperatures of 120°C. The bowing as well as the thermal expansion of the Cezlak sample is also anisotropic with respect to the rock fabrics. A quantitative estimate was performed based on the observed textures. The effect of the locked-in stresses may also have a control on the bowing together with the thermal stresses related to the different volume expansion of the rock-forming minerals.

  11. Quasi-perpendicular/quasi-parallel divisions of Earth's bow shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenstadt, E.W.

    1991-01-01

    Computer-drawn diagrams of the boundaries between quasi-perpendicular and quasi-parallel areas of Earth's bow shock are displayed for a few selected cone angles of static interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). The effect on the boundary of variable IMF in the foreshock is also discussed and shown for one nominal case. The boundaries demand caution in applying them to the realistic, dynamic conditions of the solar wind and in interpreting the effects of small cone angles on the distributions of structures at the shock. However, the calculated, first-order boundaries are helpful in defining areas of the shock where contributions from active structures inherent in quasi-parallel geometry may be distinguishable from those derived secondarily from upstream reflected ion dynamics. The boundaries are also compatible with known behavior of daytime ULF geomagnetic waves and pulsations according to models postulating that cone angle-controlled, time-dependent ULF activity around the subsolar point of the bow shock provides the source of geomagnetic excitation

  12. Quasilinear simulations of interplanetary shocks and Earth's bow shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanasiev, Alexandr; Battarbee, Markus; Ganse, Urs; Vainio, Rami; Palmroth, Minna; Pfau-Kempf, Yann; Hoilijoki, Sanni; von Alfthan, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    We have developed a new self-consistent Monte Carlo simulation model for particle acceleration in shocks. The model includes a prescribed large-scale magnetic field and plasma density, temperature and velocity profiles and a self-consistently computed incompressible ULF foreshock under the quasilinear approximation. Unlike previous analytical treatments, our model is time dependent and takes full account of the anisotropic particle distributions and scattering in the wave-particle interaction process. We apply the model to the problem of particle acceleration at traveling interplanetary (IP) shocks and Earth's bow shock and compare the results with hybrid-Vlasov simulations and spacecraft observations. A qualitative agreement in terms of spectral shape of the magnetic fluctuations and the polarization of the unstable mode is found between the models and the observations. We will quantify the differences of the models and explore the region of validity of the quasilinear approach in terms of shock parameters. We will also compare the modeled IP shocks and the bow shock, identifying the similarities and differences in the spectrum of accelerated particles and waves in these scenarios. The work has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 637324 (HESPERIA). The Academy of Finland is thanked for financial support. We acknowledge the computational resources provided by CSC - IT Centre for Science Ltd., Espoo.

  13. Lunar Surface Potential Increases during Terrestrial Bow Shock Traversals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Michael R.; Stubbs, Timothy J.; Hills, H. Kent; Halekas, Jasper; Farrell, William M.; Delory, Greg T.; Espley, Jared; Freeman, John W.; Vondrak, Richard R.; Kasper, Justin

    2009-01-01

    Since the Apollo era the electric potential of the Moon has been a subject of interest and debate. Deployed by three Apollo missions, Apollo 12, Apollo 14 and Apollo 15, the Suprathermal Ion Detector Experiment (SIDE) determined the sunlit lunar surface potential to be about +10 Volts using the energy spectra of lunar ionospheric thermal ions accelerated toward the Moon. We present an analysis of Apollo 14 SIDE "resonance" events that indicate the lunar surface potential increases when the Moon traverses the dawn bow shock. By analyzing Wind spacecraft crossings of the terrestrial bow shock at approximately this location and employing current balancing models of the lunar surface, we suggest causes for the increasing potential. Determining the origin of this phenomenon will improve our ability to predict the lunar surface potential in support of human exploration as well as provide models for the behavior of other airless bodies when they traverse similar features such as interplanetary shocks, both of which are goals of the NASA Lunar Science Institute's Dynamic Response of the Environment At the Moon (DREAM) team.

  14. Electron velocity distributions near the earth's bow shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, W.C.; Anderson, R.C.; Bame, S.J.; Gary, S.P.; Gosling, J.T.; McComas, D.J.; Thomsen, M.F.; Paschmann, G.; Hoppe, M.M.

    1983-01-01

    A survey of two-dimensional electron velocity distributions, f(V), measured near the earth's bow shock using Los Alamos/Garching plasma instrumentation aboard ISEE 2 is presented. This survey provides clues to the mechanisms of electron thermalization within the shock and the relaxation of both the upsteam and downstream velocity distributions. First, near the foreshock boundary, fluxes of electrons having a power law shape at high energies backstream from the shock. Second, within the shock, cuts through f(V) along B. f(V), often show single maxima offset toward the magnetosheath by speeds comparable to, but larger than, the upstream thermal speed.Third, magnetosheath distributions generally have flat tops out to an energy, E 0 , with maxima substantially lower than that in the solar wind. Occasionally, cuts through f(V) along B show one and sometimes two small peaks at the edge of the flat tops making them appear concave upward. The electron distributions characteristic of these three regions are interpreted as arising from the effects of macroscopic (scale size comparable to or larger than the shock width) electric and magnetic fields and the subsequent effects of microscopic (scale size small in comparison with the shock width) fields. In particular, our results suggest that field-aligned instabilities are likely to be present in the earth's bow shock

  15. Dynamic risk analysis using bow-tie approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khakzad, Nima; Khan, Faisal; Amyotte, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Accident probability estimation is a common and central step to all quantitative risk assessment methods. Among many techniques available, bow-tie model (BT) is very popular because it represent the accident scenario altogether including causes and consequences. However, it suffers a static structure limiting its application in real-time monitoring and probability updating which are key factors in dynamic risk analysis. The present work is focused on using BT approach in a dynamic environment in which the occurrence probability of accident consequences changes. In this method, on one hand, failure probability of primary events of BT, leading to the top event, are developed using physical reliability models, and constantly revised as physical parameters (e.g., pressure, velocity, dimension, etc) change. And, on the other hand, the failure probability of safety barriers of the BT are periodically updated using Bayes’ theorem as new information becomes available over time. Finally, the resulting, updated BT is used to estimate the posterior probability of the consequences which in turn results in an updated risk profile. - Highlights: ► A methodology is proposed to make bow-tie method adapted for dynamic risk analysis. ► Physical reliability models are used to revise the top event. ► Bayes’ theorem is used to update the probability of safety barriers. ► The number of accidents in sequential time intervals is used to form likelihood function. ► The risk profile is updated for varying physical parameters and for different times.

  16. Dissipation Mechanisms and Particle Acceleration at the Earth's Bow Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, M. I.; Burch, J. L.; Broll, J. M.; Genestreti, K.; Torbert, R. B.; Ergun, R.; Wei, H.; Giles, B. L.; Russell, C. T.; Phan, T.; Chen, L. J.; Lai, H.; Wang, S.; Schwartz, S. J.; Allen, R. C.; Mauk, B.; Gingell, I.

    2017-12-01

    NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission has four spacecraft equipped with identical state-of-the-art instruments that acquire magnetic and electric field, plasma wave, and particle data at unprecedented temporal resolution to study the fundamental physics of magnetic reconnection in the Earth's magnetosphere. During Phase 1a, MMS also encountered and crossed the Earth's bow shock more than 300 times. We use burst data during 2 bow shock crossings to shed new light on key open questions regarding the formation, evolution, and dissipation mechanisms at collisionless shocks. Specifically, we focus on two events that exhibit clear differences in the ion and electron properties, the associated wave activity, and, therefore in the nature of the dissipation. In the case of a quasi-perpendicular, low beta shock crossing, we find that the dissipation processes are most likely associated with field-aligned electron beams that are coincident with high frequency electrostatic waves. On the other hand, the dissipation processes at an oblique, high beta shock crossing are largely governed by the quasi-static electric field and generation of magnetosonic whistler waves that result in perpendicular temperature anisotropy for the electrons. We also discuss the implications of these results for ion heating, reflection, and particle acceleration.

  17. Individual differences in dispositional mindfulness and brain activity involved in reappraisal of emotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Modinos, Gemma; Ormel, Johan; Aleman, Andre

    2010-01-01

    The regulation of negative emotion through reappraisal has been shown to induce increased prefrontal activity and decreased amygdala activity. Individual differences in dispositional mindfulness reflect differences in typical recognition, detachment and regulation of current experience, thought to

  18. Interplay between Affect and Arousal in Recognition Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Greene, Ciara M.; Bahri, Pooja; Soto, David

    2010-01-01

    Background: Emotional states linked to arousal and mood are known to affect the efficiency of cognitive performance. However, the extent to which memory processes may be affected by arousal, mood or their interaction is poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings: Following a study phase of abstract shapes, we altered the emotional state of participants by means of exposure to music that varied in both mood and arousal dimensions, leading to four different emotional states: (i) positive...

  19. Multispacecraft observations of the terrestrial bow shock and magnetopause during extreme solar wind disturbances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatrallyay, M.; Erdos, G.; Nemeth, Z.

    2012-01-01

    by the Cluster spacecraft were best predicted by the 3-D model of Lin et al. (2010). The applied empirical bow shock models and the 3-D semi-empiric bow shock model combined with magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) solution proved to be insufficient for predicting the observed unusual bow shock locations during large...... interplanetary disturbances. The results of a global 3-D MHD model were in good agreement with the Cluster observations on 17 January 2005, but they did not predict the bow shock crossings on 31 October 2003....... of three magnetopause and four bow shock models which describe them in considerably different ways using statistical methods based on observations. A new 2-D magnetopause model is introduced (based on Verigin et al., 2009) which takes into account the pressure of the compressed magnetosheath field raised...

  20. Eyes wide shopped: shopping situations trigger arousal in impulsive buyers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serfas, Benjamin G; Büttner, Oliver B; Florack, Arnd

    2014-01-01

    The present study proposes arousal as an important mechanism driving buying impulsiveness. We examined the effect of buying impulsiveness on arousal in non-shopping and shopping contexts. In an eye-tracking experiment, we measured pupil dilation while participants viewed and rated pictures of shopping scenes and non-shopping scenes. The results demonstrated that buying impulsiveness is closely associated with arousal as response to viewing pictures of shopping scenes. This pertained for hedonic shopping situations as well as for utilitarian shopping situations. Importantly, the effect did not emerge for non-shopping scenes. Furthermore, we demonstrated that arousal of impulsive buyers is independent from cognitive evaluation of scenes in the pictures.

  1. Ventilatory response to induced auditory arousals during NREM sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badr, M S; Morgan, B J; Finn, L; Toiber, F S; Crabtree, D C; Puleo, D S; Skatrud, J B

    1997-09-01

    Sleep state instability is a potential mechanism of central apnea/hypopnea during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. To investigate this postulate, we induced brief arousals by delivering transient (0.5 second) auditory stimuli during stable NREM sleep in eight normal subjects. Arousal was determined according to American Sleep Disorders Association (ASDA) criteria. A total of 96 trials were conducted; 59 resulted in cortical arousal and 37 did not result in arousal. In trials associated with arousal, minute ventilation (VE) increased from 5.1 +/- 1.24 minutes to 7.5 +/- 2.24 minutes on the first posttone breath (p = 0.001). However, no subsequent hypopnea or apnea occurred as VE decreased gradually to 4.8 +/- 1.5 l/minute (p > 0.05) on the fifth posttone breath. Trials without arousal did not result in hyperpnea on the first breath nor subsequent hypopnea. We conclude that 1) auditory stimulation resulted in transient hyperpnea only if associated with cortical arousal; 2) hypopnea or apnea did not occur following arousal-induced hyperpnea in normal subjects; 3) interaction with fluctuating chemical stimuli or upper airway resistance may be required for arousals to cause sleep-disordered breathing.

  2. 76 FR 78234 - Medicine Bow-Routt National Forests and Thunder Basin National Grassland, Campbell County, WY...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Medicine Bow-Routt National Forests and Thunder Basin... Supervisor, Medicine Bow-Routt National Forests and Thunder Basin National Grassland, 2250 East Richards.... Responsible Official Richard Cooksey, Deputy Forest Supervisor, Medicine Bow-Routt National Forests and...

  3. Suppression dampens unpleasant emotion faster than reappraisal: Neural dynamics in a Chinese sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, JiaJin; Long, QuanShan; Ding, NanXiang; Lou, YiXue; Liu, YingYing; Yang, JieMin

    2015-05-01

    The timing dynamics of regulating negative emotion with expressive suppression and cognitive reappraisal were investigated in a Chinese sample. Event-Related Potentials were recorded while subjects were required to view, suppress emotion expression to, or reappraise emotional pictures. The results showed a similar reduction in self-reported negative emotion during both strategies. Additionally, expressive suppression elicited larger amplitudes than reappraisal in central-frontal P3 component (340-480 ms). More importantly, the Late Positive Potential (LPP) amplitudes were decreased in each 200 ms of the 800-1600 ms time intervals during suppression vs. viewing conditions. In contrast, LPP amplitudes were similar for reappraisal and viewing conditions in all the time windows, except for the decreased amplitudes during reappraisal in the 1400-1600 ms. The LPP (but not P3) amplitudes were positively related to negative mood ratings, whereas the amplitudes of P3, rather than LPP, predict self-reported expressive suppression. These results suggest that expressive suppression decreases emotion responding more rapidly than reappraisal, at the cost of greater cognitive resource involvements in Chinese individuals.

  4. Individual Differences in the Habitual Use of Cognitive Reappraisal Predict the Reward-related Feedback Negativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyang eSai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that instructed cognitive reappraisal can regulate the neural processing of reward. However, it is still unclear whether the habitual use of cognitive reappraisal in everyday life can influence brain activity associated with reward processing. In the present study, participant’s neural responses to reward were measured using electroencephalography (EEG recorded during a gambling task, while their tendency to use cognitive reappraisal was assessed using the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ. Event-related potential (ERP results indicated that losses on the gambling task elicited greater negative reward-related feedback negativity (FN than gains. The differential FN between losses and gains was significantly correlated with cognitive reappraisal scores across participants, such that individuals with a higher tendency to use cognitive reappraisal showed stronger reward processing (i.e. amplified FN difference between losses and gains. This correlation remained significant after controlling for expressive suppression scores. However, expressive suppression per se was not correlated with FN differences. Taken together, these results suggest that the habitual use of cognitive reappraisal influences the neural processing of reward.

  5. Individual differences in the habitual use of cognitive reappraisal predict the reward-related processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai, Liyang; Wang, Sisi; Ward, Anne; Ku, Yixuan; Sang, Biao

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that instructed cognitive reappraisal can regulate the neural processing of reward. However, it is still unclear whether the habitual use of cognitive reappraisal in everyday life is related to brain activity involved in reward processing. In the present study, participants' neural responses to reward were measured using electroencephalography (EEG) recorded during a gambling task and their tendency to use cognitive reappraisal was assessed using the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ). Event-related potential (ERP) results indicated that losses on the gambling task elicited greater negative reward-related feedback negativity (FN) than gains. The differential FN between losses and gains was significantly correlated with cognitive reappraisal scores across participants such that individuals with a higher tendency to use cognitive reappraisal showed stronger reward processing (i.e., amplified FN difference between losses and gains). This correlation remained significant after controlling for expressive suppression scores. However, expressive suppression per se was not correlated with FN differences. Taken together, these results suggest that the habitual use of cognitive reappraisal is associated with increased neural processing of reward.

  6. Neural correlates of reappraisal considering working memory capacity and cognitive flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaehringer, Jenny; Falquez, Rosalux; Schubert, Anna-Lena; Nees, Frauke; Barnow, Sven

    2018-01-09

    Cognitive reappraisal of emotion is strongly related to long-term mental health. Therefore, the exploration of underlying cognitive and neural mechanisms has become an essential focus of research. Considering that reappraisal and executive functions rely on a similar brain network, the question arises whether behavioral differences in executive functions modulate neural activity during reappraisal. Using functional neuroimaging, the present study aimed to analyze the role of working memory capacity (WMC) and cognitive flexibility in brain activity during down-regulation of negative emotions by reappraisal in N = 20 healthy participants. Results suggests that WMC and cognitive flexibility were negatively correlated with prefrontal activity during reappraisal condition. Here, results also revealed a negative correlation between cognitive flexibility and amygdala activation. These findings provide first hints that (1) individuals with lower WMC and lower cognitive flexibility might need more higher-order cognitive neural resources in order to down-regulate negative emotions and (2) cognitive flexibility relates to emotional reactivity during reappraisal.

  7. [A reappraisal of the works of Elisabeth Kubler-Ross].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Selene Beviláqua Chaves; Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza

    2013-09-01

    This article presents a reappraisal of part of the works of Elizabeth Kubler-Ross, one of the most quoted authors addressing the end of life process, mourning and dying. Her work has contributed to a clearer understanding of these issues by health professionals, families, religious and lay people who handle and/or experience mourning. She has also been the subject of controversy related to ethical issues and the scientific rigor of her work. The books analyzed in this article are: On death and dying (1969); Questions and answers on death and dying (1971); Living with death and dying (1981); On children and death(1983); On life after death (1991) and Life lessons (2000).

  8. Relative left frontal activity in reappraisal and suppression of negative emotion: Evidence from frontal alpha asymmetry (FAA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Damee; Sekiya, Takahiro; Minote, Natsumi; Watanuki, Shigeki

    2016-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that reappraisal (changing the way that one thinks about emotional events) is an effective strategy for regulating emotion, compared with suppression (reducing emotion-expressive behavior). In the present study, we investigated relative left frontal activity when participants were instructed to use reappraisal and suppression of negative emotion, by measuring frontal alpha asymmetry (FAA). Two electroencephalography (EEG) experiments were conducted; FAA was analyzed while 102 healthy participants (59 men, 43 women) watched negative images after being instructed to perform reappraisal (Experiment 1) and suppression (Experiment 2). Habitual use of reappraisal and suppression was also assessed using the emotion regulation questionnaire (ERQ). The results of Experiment 1 showed that relative left frontal activity was greater when instructed to use reappraisal of negative images than when normally viewing negative images. In contrast, we observed no difference between conditions of instructed suppression and normal viewing in Experiment 2. In addition, in male participants, habitual use of reappraisal was positively correlated with increased relative left frontal activity for instructed reappraisal, while habitual use of suppression did not show a significant correlation with changes in relative left frontal activity for instructed suppression. These results suggest that emotional responses to negative images might be decreased for instructed reappraisal, but not suppression. These findings support previous reports that reappraisal is an effective emotion regulation strategy, compared with suppression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Quantifying the Arousal Threshold Using Polysomnography in Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, Scott A; Terrill, Philip I; Edwards, Bradley A; Taranto Montemurro, Luigi; Azarbarzin, Ali; Marques, Melania; de Melo, Camila M; Loring, Stephen H; Butler, James P; White, David P; Wellman, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Precision medicine for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) requires noninvasive estimates of each patient's pathophysiological "traits." Here, we provide the first automated technique to quantify the respiratory arousal threshold-defined as the level of ventilatory drive triggering arousal from sleep-using diagnostic polysomnographic signals in patients with OSA. Ventilatory drive preceding clinically scored arousals was estimated from polysomnographic studies by fitting a respiratory control model (Terrill et al.) to the pattern of ventilation during spontaneous respiratory events. Conceptually, the magnitude of the airflow signal immediately after arousal onset reveals information on the underlying ventilatory drive that triggered the arousal. Polysomnographic arousal threshold measures were compared with gold standard values taken from esophageal pressure and intraoesophageal diaphragm electromyography recorded simultaneously (N = 29). Comparisons were also made to arousal threshold measures using continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) dial-downs (N = 28). The validity of using (linearized) nasal pressure rather than pneumotachograph ventilation was also assessed (N = 11). Polysomnographic arousal threshold values were correlated with those measured using esophageal pressure and diaphragm EMG (R = 0.79, p < .0001; R = 0.73, p = .0001), as well as CPAP manipulation (R = 0.73, p < .0001). Arousal threshold estimates were similar using nasal pressure and pneumotachograph ventilation (R = 0.96, p < .0001). The arousal threshold in patients with OSA can be estimated using polysomnographic signals and may enable more personalized therapeutic interventions for patients with a low arousal threshold. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Emotional arousal and overeating in restrained eaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cools, J; Schotte, D E; McNally, R J

    1992-05-01

    We tested the effects of 3 mood inductions (neutral, positive, and negative) on food intake in 91 women of varying degrees of dietary restraint. Mood induction was accomplished by exposure to 1 of 3 film segments: a travelogue (neutral affect), a comedy film (positive affect), and a horror film (negative affect). In subjects exposed to the neutral film, food intake decreased with increasing levels of dietary restraint. Among subjects who viewed either the comedy film or the horror film, however, food intake increased with increasing restraint. Although the horror film appeared to be more disinhibiting than the comedy film, this effect may have resulted from a difference in the intensity of the emotions induced rather than from their valence. These results suggest that emotional arousal, regardless of valence, may trigger overeating among restrained eaters.

  11. Hybrid simulation techniques applied to the earth's bow shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winske, D.; Leroy, M. M.

    1985-01-01

    The application of a hybrid simulation model, in which the ions are treated as discrete particles and the electrons as a massless charge-neutralizing fluid, to the study of the earth's bow shock is discussed. The essentials of the numerical methods are described in detail; movement of the ions, solution of the electromagnetic fields and electron fluid equations, and imposition of appropriate boundary and initial conditions. Examples of results of calculations for perpendicular shocks are presented which demonstrate the need for a kinetic treatment of the ions to reproduce the correct ion dynamics and the corresponding shock structure. Results for oblique shocks are also presented to show how the magnetic field and ion motion differ from the perpendicular case.

  12. The bowed catheter sign: a risk for pericardial tamponade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towbin, Richard

    2008-01-01

    The use of a central venous catheter (CVC) has become commonplace in the care of children with a wide variety of medical and surgical problems. Complications resulting from the insertion of these catheters are well recognized and can be life-threatening. When a temporary CVC or other catheter is inserted into the central venous system it is secured to the skin with a combination of sutures and sterile dressing. This fixes the catheter in place and does not allow it to retract, thereby putting pressure on the right atrial wall via the catheter tip if it is too long. The probability of wall penetration is increased if a catheter or device is tapered at the point of contact. The purpose of this case report is to present the bowed catheter sign and to review the anatomy of the cavotricuspid isthmus, a possible predisposing factor to cardiac perforation and tamponade. (orig.)

  13. The bowed catheter sign: a risk for pericardial tamponade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Towbin, Richard [Phoenix Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    2008-03-15

    The use of a central venous catheter (CVC) has become commonplace in the care of children with a wide variety of medical and surgical problems. Complications resulting from the insertion of these catheters are well recognized and can be life-threatening. When a temporary CVC or other catheter is inserted into the central venous system it is secured to the skin with a combination of sutures and sterile dressing. This fixes the catheter in place and does not allow it to retract, thereby putting pressure on the right atrial wall via the catheter tip if it is too long. The probability of wall penetration is increased if a catheter or device is tapered at the point of contact. The purpose of this case report is to present the bowed catheter sign and to review the anatomy of the cavotricuspid isthmus, a possible predisposing factor to cardiac perforation and tamponade. (orig.)

  14. Reduction of the Misinformation Effect by Arousal Induced after Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Shaun M.; Nielson, Kristy A.

    2010-01-01

    Misinformation introduced after events have already occurred causes errors in later retrieval. Based on literature showing that arousal induced after learning enhances delayed retrieval, we investigated whether post-learning arousal can reduce the misinformation effect. 251 participants viewed four short film clips, each followed by a retention…

  15. No arousal-biased competition in focused visuospatial attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ásgeirsson, Árni Gunnar; Nieuwenhuis, Sander

    2017-11-01

    Arousal sometimes enhances and sometimes impairs perception and memory. A recent theory attempts to reconcile these findings by proposing that arousal amplifies the competition between stimulus representations, strengthening already strong representations and weakening already weak representations. Here, we report a stringent test of this arousal-biased competition theory in the context of focused visuospatial attention. Participants were required to identify a briefly presented target in the context of multiple distractors, which varied in the degree to which they competed for representation with the target, as revealed by psychophysics. We manipulated arousal using emotionally arousing pictures (Experiment 1), alerting tones (Experiment 2) and white-noise stimulation (Experiment 3), and validated these manipulations with electroencephalography and pupillometry. In none of the experiments did we find evidence that arousal modulated the effect of distractor competition on the accuracy of target identification. Bayesian statistics revealed moderate to strong evidence against arousal-biased competition. Modeling of the psychophysical data based on Bundesen's (1990) theory of visual attention corroborated the conclusion that arousal does not bias competition in focused visuospatial attention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Differential effects of arousal in positive and negative autobiographical memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Jaclyn Hennessey; Addis, Donna Rose; Giovanello, Kelly S

    2012-01-01

    Autobiographical memories are characterised by a range of emotions and emotional reactions. Recent research has demonstrated that differences in emotional valence (positive vs. negative emotion) and arousal (the degree of emotional intensity) differentially influence the retrieved memory narrative. Although the mnemonic effects of valence and arousal have both been heavily studied, it is currently unclear whether the effects of emotional arousal are equivalent for positive and negative autobiographical events. In the current study, multilevel models were used to examine differential effects of emotional valence and arousal on the richness of autobiographical memory retrieval both between and within subjects. Thirty-four young adults were asked to retrieve personal autobiographical memories associated with popular musical cues and to rate the valence, arousal and richness of these events. The multilevel analyses identified independent influences of valence and intensity upon retrieval characteristics at the within- and between-subject levels. In addition, the within-subject interactions between valence and arousal highlighted differential effects of arousal for positive and negative memories. These findings have important implications for future studies of emotion and memory, highlighting the importance of considering both valence and arousal when examining the role emotion plays in the richness of memory representation.

  17. Emotional Arousal Does Not Enhance Association-Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Christopher R.; Caplan, Jeremy B.; Lau, Christine S. M.; Fujiwara, Esther

    2012-01-01

    Emotionally arousing information is remembered better than neutral information. This enhancement effect has been shown for memory for items. In contrast, studies of association-memory have found both impairments and enhancements of association-memory by arousal. We aimed to resolve these conflicting results by using a cued-recall paradigm combined…

  18. Psychopathology and Deviant Sexual Arousal in Incarcerated Sexual Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serin, Ralph C.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between psychopathology and deviant sexual arousal in sexual offenders (n=65), with approximately equal numbers of rapists and child molesters. Differentiating between rapists, extrafamilial pedophiles, and incest offenders revealed that the relationship between psychopathology and arousal was most apparent for…

  19. Bidirectional interactions between the baroreceptor reflex and arousal: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvani, Alessandro; Calandra-Buonaura, Giovanna; Benarroch, Eduardo E; Dampney, Roger A L; Cortelli, Pietro

    2015-02-01

    Studies involving genetic engineering on animal models and mathematical analysis of cardiovascular signals on humans are shedding new light on the interactions between the arterial baroreceptor reflex (baroreflex) and arousal. Baroreceptor stimulation, if very mild or performed under anaesthesia, may inhibit cortical arousal. However, substantial increases or decreases in baroreflex activation cause arousal in animal models and human subjects in physiological conditions. On the other hand, cardiovascular changes during autonomic arousals and between the states of wakefulness and sleep involve changes in the baroreflex set point and balance with central autonomic commands. Neural connectivity and functional data suggest that the nucleus of the solitary tract, adrenergic C1 neurons of the medulla, and the parabrachial nucleus of the pons mediate the bidirectional interactions between the baroreflex and arousal. These interactions may constitute a positive feedback loop that facilitates sharp and coordinated brain state and autonomic transitions upon arousal: upon arousal, central autonomic commands may increase blood pressure, thereby loading baroreceptors and further increasing arousal. Anomalies of this feedback loop may play a role in the pathophysiology of disease conditions associated with cardiovascular and sleep-wake cycle alterations. These conditions include: obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome, with its association with excessive daytime sleepiness and baroreflex impairment; and insomnia, with its association with autonomic hyperarousal and hypertension. When faced with disorders associated with cardiovascular and sleep-wake cycle alterations, clinical reasoning should entertain the possibility that both conditions are strongly influenced by anomalies of baroreflex function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Depression, Fatigue, and Pre-Sleep Arousal: A Mediation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlson, Cynthia W.; Stevens, Natalie R.; Olson, Christy A.; Hamilton, Nancy A.

    2010-01-01

    Fatigue is a common and debilitating symptom of clinical depression; however, the causes are not well understood. The present study was designed to test the hypotheses that subjective sleep, objective sleep, and arousal in the pre-sleep state would mediate the relationship between depression status and fatigue. Sleep, pre-sleep arousal, and…

  1. Sexual Arousal Patterns of Autogynephilic Male Cross-Dressers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Kevin J; Rosenthal, A M; Miller, David I; Bailey, J Michael

    2017-01-01

    Men's sexual arousal patterns have been an important window into the nature of their erotic interests. Autogynephilia is a natal male's paraphilic tendency to be sexually aroused by the thought or image of being a woman. Autogynephilic arousal per se is difficult to assess objectively, because it is inwardly focused. However, assessing sexual arousal patterns of autogynephilic males in response to external stimuli is also potentially useful. For example, there is substantial association between autogynephilia and gynandromorphophilia (GAMP), or sexual attraction to gynandromorphs (GAMs), colloquially "she-males." GAMP men's sexual arousal patterns in response to GAM, female, and male stimuli have recently been characterized. In the present study, we extended this understanding by comparing the sexual arousal patterns of autogynephilic male cross-dressers, GAMP men, heterosexual men, and homosexual men. Erotic stimuli included sexually explicit videos of men, women, and GAMs. Autogynephilic men were much more similar in their arousal patterns to heterosexual and GAMP men than to homosexual men. However, similar to GAMP men, autogynephilic men showed increased arousal by GAM stimuli relative to female stimuli compared with heterosexual men.

  2. Effects of Arousal on Mouse Sensory Cortex Depend on Modality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Shimaoka

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Changes in arousal modulate the activity of mouse sensory cortex, but studies in different mice and different sensory areas disagree on whether this modulation enhances or suppresses activity. We measured this modulation simultaneously in multiple cortical areas by imaging mice expressing voltage-sensitive fluorescent proteins (VSFP. VSFP imaging estimates local membrane potential across large portions of cortex. We used temporal filters to predict local potential from running speed or from pupil dilation, two measures of arousal. The filters provided good fits and revealed that the effects of arousal depend on modality. In the primary visual cortex (V1 and auditory cortex (Au, arousal caused depolarization followed by hyperpolarization. In the barrel cortex (S1b and a secondary visual area (LM, it caused only hyperpolarization. In all areas, nonetheless, arousal reduced the phasic responses to trains of sensory stimuli. These results demonstrate diverse effects of arousal across sensory cortex but similar effects on sensory responses. : Shimaoka et al. use voltage-sensitive imaging to show that the effects of arousal on the mouse cortex are markedly different across areas and over time. In all the sensory areas studied, nonetheless, arousal reduced the phasic voltage responses to trains of sensory stimuli. Keywords: cerebral cortex, cortical state, locomotion, sensory processing, widefield imaging

  3. Brief Emotion Regulation Training Facilitates Arousal Control During Sexual Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Overveld, Mark; Borg, Charmaine

    2015-01-01

    Disgust, a negative emotion which evokes strong behavioral avoidance tendencies, has been associated with sexual dysfunction. Recently, it was postulated that healthy sexual functioning requires a balance between excitatory (increased sexual arousal) and inhibitory processes (lowered disgust levels). This suggests that amplification of excitatory processes (like sexual arousal) could be a valuable addition to treatments for affect-based sexual dysfunctions. The major aim of the present study was to establish whether up-regulation could effectively enhance arousal levels during sexual stimuli, and whether such a training would simultaneously reduce disgust. Students (N = 163, mean age = 20.73 years, SD = 2.35) were trained in up-regulation of affect using either a sexual arousal film (i.e., female-friendly erotic movie) or a threat arousal film clip (i.e., horror movie), while control groups viewed the films without training instructions. Following this, participants viewed and rated state emotions during a series of pictures (sexual, disgusting, or neutral). Up-regulation of mood successfully enhanced general arousal in both groups, yet these arousal levels were not paralleled by reductions in disgust. Overall, the findings indicate that emotion regulation training by maximizing positive affect and general arousal could be an effective instrument to facilitate affect-related disturbances in sexual dysfunctions.

  4. Violin Pedagogy and the Physics of the Bowed String

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Alexander Rhodes

    The paper describes the mechanics of violin tone production using non-specialist language, in order to present a scientific understanding of tone production accessible to a broad readership. As well as offering an objective understanding of tone production, this model provides a powerful tool for analyzing the technique of string playing. The interaction between the bow and the string is quite complex. Literature reviewed for this study reveals that scientific investigations have provided important insights into the mechanics of string playing, offering explanations for factors which both contribute to and limit the range of tone colours and dynamics that stringed instruments can produce. Also examined in the literature review are significant works of twentieth century violin pedagogy exploring tone production on the violin, based on the practical experience of generations of teachers and performers. Hermann von Helmholtz described the stick-slip cycle which drives the string in 1863, which replaced earlier ideas about the vibration of violin strings. Later, scientists such as John Schelleng and Lothar Cremer were able to demonstrate how the mechanics of the bow-string interaction can create different tone colours. Recent research by Anders Askenfelt, Knut Guettler, and Erwin Schoonderwaldt have continued to refine earlier research in this area. The writings of Lucien Capet, Leopold Auer, Carl Flesch, Paul Rolland, Kato Havas, Ivan Galamian, and Simon Fischer are examined and analyzed. Each author describes a different approach to tone production on the violin, representing a different understanding of the underlying mechanism. Analyzing these writings within the context of a scientific understanding of tone production makes it possible to compare these approaches more consistently, and to synthesize different concepts drawn from the diverse sources evaluated.

  5. SUPRATHERMAL ELECTRONS AT SATURN'S BOW SHOCK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masters, A.; Dougherty, M. K. [The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Sulaiman, A. H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Sergis, N. [Office of Space Research and Technology, Academy of Athens, Soranou Efesiou 4, 11527 Athens (Greece); Stawarz, L. [Astronomical Observatory, Jagiellonian University, ul. Orla 171, 30-244 Krakow (Poland); Fujimoto, M. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Coates, A. J., E-mail: a.masters@imperial.ac.uk [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, Department of Space and Climate Physics, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-20

    The leading explanation for the origin of galactic cosmic rays is particle acceleration at the shocks surrounding young supernova remnants (SNRs), although crucial aspects of the acceleration process are unclear. The similar collisionless plasma shocks frequently encountered by spacecraft in the solar wind are generally far weaker (lower Mach number) than these SNR shocks. However, the Cassini spacecraft has shown that the shock standing in the solar wind sunward of Saturn (Saturn's bow shock) can occasionally reach this high-Mach number astrophysical regime. In this regime Cassini has provided the first in situ evidence for electron acceleration under quasi-parallel upstream magnetic conditions. Here we present the full picture of suprathermal electrons at Saturn's bow shock revealed by Cassini . The downstream thermal electron distribution is resolved in all data taken by the low-energy electron detector (CAPS-ELS, <28 keV) during shock crossings, but the higher energy channels were at (or close to) background. The high-energy electron detector (MIMI-LEMMS, >18 keV) measured a suprathermal electron signature at 31 of 508 crossings, where typically only the lowest energy channels (<100 keV) were above background. We show that these results are consistent with the theory in which the “injection” of thermal electrons into an acceleration process involves interaction with whistler waves at the shock front, and becomes possible for all upstream magnetic field orientations at high Mach numbers like those of the strong shocks around young SNRs. A future dedicated study will analyze the rare crossings with evidence for relativistic electrons (up to ∼1 MeV).

  6. SUPRATHERMAL ELECTRONS AT SATURN'S BOW SHOCK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masters, A.; Dougherty, M. K.; Sulaiman, A. H.; Sergis, N.; Stawarz, L.; Fujimoto, M.; Coates, A. J.

    2016-01-01

    The leading explanation for the origin of galactic cosmic rays is particle acceleration at the shocks surrounding young supernova remnants (SNRs), although crucial aspects of the acceleration process are unclear. The similar collisionless plasma shocks frequently encountered by spacecraft in the solar wind are generally far weaker (lower Mach number) than these SNR shocks. However, the Cassini spacecraft has shown that the shock standing in the solar wind sunward of Saturn (Saturn's bow shock) can occasionally reach this high-Mach number astrophysical regime. In this regime Cassini has provided the first in situ evidence for electron acceleration under quasi-parallel upstream magnetic conditions. Here we present the full picture of suprathermal electrons at Saturn's bow shock revealed by Cassini . The downstream thermal electron distribution is resolved in all data taken by the low-energy electron detector (CAPS-ELS, <28 keV) during shock crossings, but the higher energy channels were at (or close to) background. The high-energy electron detector (MIMI-LEMMS, >18 keV) measured a suprathermal electron signature at 31 of 508 crossings, where typically only the lowest energy channels (<100 keV) were above background. We show that these results are consistent with the theory in which the “injection” of thermal electrons into an acceleration process involves interaction with whistler waves at the shock front, and becomes possible for all upstream magnetic field orientations at high Mach numbers like those of the strong shocks around young SNRs. A future dedicated study will analyze the rare crossings with evidence for relativistic electrons (up to ∼1 MeV).

  7. SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF BOW SHOCKS AND OUTFLOWS IN RCW 38

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winston, E. [ESA-ESTEC (SRE-SA), Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ Noordwijk ZH (Netherlands); Wolk, S. J.; Bourke, T. L.; Spitzbart, B. [Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Megeath, S. T. [Ritter Observatory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, 2801 W. Bancroft Ave., Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Gutermuth, R., E-mail: ewinston@rssd.esa.int [Five Colleges Astronomy Department, Smith College, Northampton, MA 01027 (United States)

    2012-01-10

    We report Spitzer observations of five newly identified bow shocks in the massive star-forming region RCW 38. Four are visible at Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) wavelengths, the fifth is only visible at 24 {mu}m. Chandra X-ray emission indicates that winds from the central O5.5 binary, IRS 2, have caused an outflow to the northeast and southwest of the central subcluster. The southern lobe of hot ionized gas is detected in X-rays; shocked gas and heated dust from the shock front are detected with Spitzer at 4.5 and 24 {mu}m. The northern outflow may have initiated the present generation of star formation, based on the filamentary distribution of the protostars in the central subcluster. Further, the bow-shock driving star, YSO 129, is photo-evaporating a pillar of gas and dust. No point sources are identified within this pillar at near- to mid-IR wavelengths. We also report on IRAC 3.6 and 5.8 {mu}m observations of the cluster DBS2003-124, northeast of RCW 38, where 33 candidate young stellar objects (YSOs) are identified. One star associated with the cluster drives a parsec-scale jet. Two Herbig-Haro objects associated with the jet are visible at IRAC and Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) wavelengths. The jet extends over a distance of {approx}3 pc. Assuming a velocity of 100 km s{sup -1} for the jet material gives an age of 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} yr, indicating that the star (and cluster) are likely to be very young, with a similar or possibly younger age than RCW 38, and that star formation is ongoing in the extended RCW 38 region.

  8. SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF BOW SHOCKS AND OUTFLOWS IN RCW 38

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winston, E.; Wolk, S. J.; Bourke, T. L.; Spitzbart, B.; Megeath, S. T.; Gutermuth, R.

    2012-01-01

    We report Spitzer observations of five newly identified bow shocks in the massive star-forming region RCW 38. Four are visible at Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) wavelengths, the fifth is only visible at 24 μm. Chandra X-ray emission indicates that winds from the central O5.5 binary, IRS 2, have caused an outflow to the northeast and southwest of the central subcluster. The southern lobe of hot ionized gas is detected in X-rays; shocked gas and heated dust from the shock front are detected with Spitzer at 4.5 and 24 μm. The northern outflow may have initiated the present generation of star formation, based on the filamentary distribution of the protostars in the central subcluster. Further, the bow-shock driving star, YSO 129, is photo-evaporating a pillar of gas and dust. No point sources are identified within this pillar at near- to mid-IR wavelengths. We also report on IRAC 3.6 and 5.8 μm observations of the cluster DBS2003-124, northeast of RCW 38, where 33 candidate young stellar objects (YSOs) are identified. One star associated with the cluster drives a parsec-scale jet. Two Herbig-Haro objects associated with the jet are visible at IRAC and Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) wavelengths. The jet extends over a distance of ∼3 pc. Assuming a velocity of 100 km s –1 for the jet material gives an age of 3 × 10 4 yr, indicating that the star (and cluster) are likely to be very young, with a similar or possibly younger age than RCW 38, and that star formation is ongoing in the extended RCW 38 region.

  9. Modelling the bending/bowing of composite beams such as nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tayal, M.

    1989-01-01

    Arrays of tubes are used in many engineered structures, such as in nuclear fuel bundles and in steam generators. The tubes can bend (bow) due to in-service temperatures and loads. Assessments of bowing of nuclear fuel elements can help demonstrate the integrity of fuel and of surrounding components, as a function of operating conditions such as channel power. The BOW code calculates the bending of composite beams such as fuel elements, due to gradients of temperature and due to hydraulic forces. The deflections and rotations are calculated in both lateral directions, for given conditions of temperatures. Wet and dry operation of the sheath can be simulated. BOW accounts for the following physical phenomena: circumferential and axial variations in the temperatures of the sheath and of the pellet; cracking of pellets; grip and slip between the pellets and the sheath; hydraulic drag; restraint from endplates, from neighbouring elements, and from the pressure-tube; gravity; concentric or eccentric welds between endcaps and endplate; neutron flux gradients; and variations of material properties with temperature. The code is based on fundamental principles of mechanics. The governing equations are solved numerically using the finite element method. Several comparisons with closed-form equations shoe that the solutions of BOW are accurate. BOW's predictions for initial in-reactor bow are also consistent with two post-irradiation measurements

  10. Higher motivation - greater control? The effect of arousal on judgement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemer, Hila; Viswanathan, Madhu

    2013-01-01

    This research examines control over the effect of arousal, a dimension of affect, on judgement. Past research shows that high processing motivation enhances control over the effects of affect on judgement. Isolating and studying arousal as opposed to valence, the other dimension of affect, and its effect on judgement, we identify boundary conditions for past findings. Drawing from the literature on processes by which arousal influences judgement, we demonstrate that the role of motivation is contingent upon the type of judgement task (i.e., memory- versus stimulus-based judgement). In stimulus-based judgement, individuals exert greater control over the effect of arousal on judgement under low compared to high motivation. In contrast, in memory-based judgement individuals exert greater control over the effect of arousal under high compared to low motivation. Theoretical implications and avenues for future research are discussed.

  11. Dominant acceleration processes of ambient energetic protons (E>= 50 keV) at the bow shock: conditions and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anagnostopoulos, G.C.; Sarris, E.T.

    1983-01-01

    Energetic proton (Esub(p)>= 50 keV) and magnetic field observations during crossings of the Earth's Bow Shock by the IMP-7 and 8 spacecraft are incorporated in this work in order to examine the effect of the Bow Shock on a pre-existing proton population under different ''interplanetary magnetic field-Bow Shock'' configurations, as well as the conditions for the presence of the Bow Shock associated energetic proton intensity enhancements. The presented observations indicate that the dominant process for the efficient acceleration of ambient energetic particles to energies exceeding approximately 50 keV is by ''gradient-B'' drifting parallel to the induced electric field at quasi-perpendicular Bow Shocks under certain well defined limitations deriving from the finite and curved Bow Shock surface. It is shown that the proton acceleration at the Bow Shock is most efficient for high values of the upstream magnetic field (in general B 1 > 8#betta#), high upstream plasma speed and expanded Bow Shock fronts, as well as for direction of the induced electric field oriented almost parallel to the flanks of the Bow Shock, i.e. when the drift distance of protons parallel to the electric field at the shock front is considerably smaller than the local radius of curvature of the Bow Shock. The implications of the presented observations of Bow Shock crossings as to the source of the energetic proton intensity enhancements are discussed. (author)

  12. Square and bow-tie configurations in the cyclic evasion problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, M. D.; Golich, M.; Grim, A.; Vargas, L.; Zharnitsky, V.

    2017-05-01

    Cyclic evasion of four agents on the plane is considered. There are two stationary shapes of configurations: square and degenerate bow-tie. The bow-tie is asymptotically attracting while the square is of focus-center type. Normal form analysis shows that square is nonlinearly unstable. The stable manifold consists of parallelograms that all converge to the square configuration. Based on these observations and numerical simulations, it is conjectured that any non-parallelogram non-degenerate configuration converges to the bow-tie.

  13. Bowing-reactivity trends in EBR-II assuming zero-swelling ducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneghetti, D.

    1994-01-01

    Predicted trends of duct-bowing reactivities for the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) are correlated with predicted row-wise duct deflections assuming use of idealized zero-void-swelling subassembly ducts. These assume no irradiation induced swellings of ducts but include estimates of the effects of irradiation-creep relaxation of thermally induced bowing stresses. The results illustrate the manners in which at-power creeps may affect subsequent duct deflections at zero power and thereby the trends of the bowing component of a subsequent power reactivity decrement

  14. Familial congenital bowing with short thick bones and metaphyseal changes, a distinct entity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezza, E.; Lendvai, D.; Iannaccone, G.

    1984-01-01

    The authors describe two siblings, a male and a female, with disproportionate short stature, rhizomelic-mesomelic shortening of the limb bones, marked bowing of the femora, moderate bowing of the humeri, radii and ulnae, straight tibiae and fibulae, normal hands, flared cupped metaphyses of the tibiae, ulnae, raddi and ribs, and narrow chest. There was some improvement of the bone changes with advancing age. These two patients are similar to five other cases from the literature and strongly support Hall and Spranger's view that this pseudocampomelic condition most likely represents a distinct familial bowing syndrome. The differential diagnosis and the hereditary aspects in the two patients, are also briefly discussed. (orig.)

  15. Determinants of subjective experience of sexual arousal in women: feedback from genital arousal and erotic stimulus content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, E.; Everaerd, W.; van der Velde, J.; Geer, J. H.

    1995-01-01

    Sixty-two women participated in a study designed to explore the association between genital and subjective sexual arousal. Four stimulus conditions were created, designed to evoke differential patterns of genital arousal over time. Subjects were instructed to report sensations in their genitalia

  16. Emotion and language: Valence and arousal affect word recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brysbaert, Marc; Warriner, Amy Beth

    2014-01-01

    Emotion influences most aspects of cognition and behavior, but emotional factors are conspicuously absent from current models of word recognition. The influence of emotion on word recognition has mostly been reported in prior studies on the automatic vigilance for negative stimuli, but the precise nature of this relationship is unclear. Various models of automatic vigilance have claimed that the effect of valence on response times is categorical, an inverted-U, or interactive with arousal. The present study used a sample of 12,658 words, and included many lexical and semantic control factors, to determine the precise nature of the effects of arousal and valence on word recognition. Converging empirical patterns observed in word-level and trial-level data from lexical decision and naming indicate that valence and arousal exert independent monotonic effects: Negative words are recognized more slowly than positive words, and arousing words are recognized more slowly than calming words. Valence explained about 2% of the variance in word recognition latencies, whereas the effect of arousal was smaller. Valence and arousal do not interact, but both interact with word frequency, such that valence and arousal exert larger effects among low-frequency words than among high-frequency words. These results necessitate a new model of affective word processing whereby the degree of negativity monotonically and independently predicts the speed of responding. This research also demonstrates that incorporating emotional factors, especially valence, improves the performance of models of word recognition. PMID:24490848

  17. Sexual arousal in men: a review and conceptual analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Erick

    2011-05-01

    Sexual arousal is an emotional/motivational state that can be triggered by internal and external stimuli and that can be inferred from central (including verbal), peripheral (including genital), and behavioral (including action tendencies and motor preparation) responses. This article, while focusing on sexual arousal in men, provides a conceptual analysis of this construct, reviews models of sexual arousal, and discusses the usefulness of perspectives derived from motivation and emotion research in improving our understanding of its determinants and behavioral correlates. In this, it considers the role of genital feedback in men's subjective sexual arousal and the connections between sexual arousal and sexual desire. Future research and definitions may increasingly focus on its central integrative functions (as opposed to its input and output characteristics). Yet, the study of sexual arousal can be expected to continue to benefit from the measurement of its genital, verbal, and behavioral components. Instances of discordance between response components suggest that they are, at least in part, under the control of different mechanisms, and it is proposed that a better understanding of sexual arousal will prove contingent on a better understanding of such mechanisms and the conditions under which they converge and diverge. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Barratt Impulsivity and Neural Regulation of Physiological Arousal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Zhang

    Full Text Available Theories of personality have posited an increased arousal response to external stimulation in impulsive individuals. However, there is a dearth of studies addressing the neural basis of this association.We recorded skin conductance in 26 individuals who were assessed with Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11 and performed a stop signal task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Imaging data were processed and modeled with Statistical Parametric Mapping. We used linear regressions to examine correlations between impulsivity and skin conductance response (SCR to salient events, identify the neural substrates of arousal regulation, and examine the relationship between the regulatory mechanism and impulsivity.Across subjects, higher impulsivity is associated with greater SCR to stop trials. Activity of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC negatively correlated to and Granger caused skin conductance time course. Furthermore, higher impulsivity is associated with a lesser strength of Granger causality of vmPFC activity on skin conductance, consistent with diminished control of physiological arousal to external stimulation. When men (n = 14 and women (n = 12 were examined separately, however, there was evidence suggesting association between impulsivity and vmPFC regulation of arousal only in women.Together, these findings confirmed the link between Barratt impulsivity and heightened arousal to salient stimuli in both genders and suggested the neural bases of altered regulation of arousal in impulsive women. More research is needed to explore the neural processes of arousal regulation in impulsive individuals and in clinical conditions that implicate poor impulse control.

  19. Barratt Impulsivity and Neural Regulation of Physiological Arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sheng; Hu, Sien; Hu, Jianping; Wu, Po-Lun; Chao, Herta H; Li, Chiang-shan R

    2015-01-01

    Theories of personality have posited an increased arousal response to external stimulation in impulsive individuals. However, there is a dearth of studies addressing the neural basis of this association. We recorded skin conductance in 26 individuals who were assessed with Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11) and performed a stop signal task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Imaging data were processed and modeled with Statistical Parametric Mapping. We used linear regressions to examine correlations between impulsivity and skin conductance response (SCR) to salient events, identify the neural substrates of arousal regulation, and examine the relationship between the regulatory mechanism and impulsivity. Across subjects, higher impulsivity is associated with greater SCR to stop trials. Activity of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) negatively correlated to and Granger caused skin conductance time course. Furthermore, higher impulsivity is associated with a lesser strength of Granger causality of vmPFC activity on skin conductance, consistent with diminished control of physiological arousal to external stimulation. When men (n = 14) and women (n = 12) were examined separately, however, there was evidence suggesting association between impulsivity and vmPFC regulation of arousal only in women. Together, these findings confirmed the link between Barratt impulsivity and heightened arousal to salient stimuli in both genders and suggested the neural bases of altered regulation of arousal in impulsive women. More research is needed to explore the neural processes of arousal regulation in impulsive individuals and in clinical conditions that implicate poor impulse control.

  20. Frequency of EEG arousals from nocturnal sleep in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, R; Douglas, N J

    1995-06-01

    Brief arousals are clinically important and increasingly scored during polysomnography. However, the frequency of arousals during routine polysomnography in the normal population is unknown. We performed overnight polysomnography in the 55 of 59 control subjects from a family practice list who were approached and agreed to undergo polysomnography. Awakenings were scored according to the criteria of Rechtschaffen and Kales and briefer arousals according to three different criteria, including the American Sleep Disorders Association (ASDA) definition. There was a mean of 4 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1-15) Rechtschaffen and Kales awakenings per hour, whereas the ASDA definition gave 21 (95% CI, 7-56) per hour slept. Arousal frequencies increased significantly (p < 0.001) with age in our subjects, who ranged from the late teens to early 70s. The high upper limit of the frequency of brief arousals was not altered by exclusion of patients who snored or had witnessed apneas or daytime sleepiness. It is important that those scoring arousals on routine polysomnography recognize that high arousal frequencies occur in the normal population on 1-night polysomnography.

  1. Time course of emotion-related responding during distraction and reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönfelder, Sandra; Kanske, Philipp; Heissler, Janine; Wessa, Michèle

    2014-09-01

    Theoretical accounts of emotion regulation (ER) discriminate various cognitive strategies to voluntarily modify emotional states. Amongst these, attentional deployment (i.e. distraction) and cognitive change (i.e. reappraisal), have been shown to successfully down-regulate emotions. Neuroimaging studies found that both strategies differentially engage neural structures associated with selective attention, working memory and cognitive control. The aim of this study was to further delineate similarities and differences between the ER strategies reappraisal and distraction by investigating their temporal brain dynamics using event-related potentials (ERPs) and their patterns of facial expressive behavior. Twenty-one participants completed an ER experiment in which they had to either passively view positive, neutral and negative pictures, reinterpret them to down-regulate affective responses (reappraisal), or solve a concurrently presented mathematical equation (distraction). Results demonstrate the efficacy of both strategies in the subjective control of emotion, accompanied by reductions of facial expressive activity (Corrugator supercilii and Zygomaticus major). ERP results indicated that distraction, compared with reappraisal, yielded a stronger and earlier attenuation of the late positive potential (LPP) magnitude for negative pictures. For positive pictures, only distraction but not reappraisal had significant effect on LPP attenuation. The results support the process model of ER, separating subtypes of cognitive strategies based on their specific time course. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Liberating reason from the passions: overriding intuitionist moral judgments through emotion reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Matthew; Willer, Robb; Antonenko, Olga; John, Oliver P

    2012-07-01

    A classic problem in moral psychology concerns whether and when moral judgments are driven by intuition versus deliberate reasoning. In this investigation, we explored the role of reappraisal, an emotion-regulation strategy that involves construing an emotion-eliciting situation in a way that diminishes the intensity of the emotional experience. We hypothesized that although emotional reactions evoke initial moral intuitions, reappraisal weakens the influence of these intuitions, leading to more deliberative moral judgments. Three studies of moral judgments in emotionally evocative, disgust-eliciting moral dilemmas supported our hypothesis. A greater tendency to reappraise was related to fewer intuition-based judgments (Study 1). Content analysis of open-ended descriptions of moral-reasoning processes revealed that reappraisal was associated with longer time spent in deliberation and with fewer intuitionist moral judgments (Study 2). Finally, in comparison with participants who simply watched an emotion-inducing film, participants who had been instructed to reappraise their reactions while watching the film subsequently reported less intense emotional reactions to moral dilemmas, and these dampened reactions led, in turn, to fewer intuitionist moral judgments (Study 3).

  3. BDNF Val66Met polymorphism moderates the link between child maltreatment and reappraisal ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miu, A C; Cărnuţă, M; Vulturar, R; Szekely-Copîndean, R D; Bîlc, M I; Chiş, A; Cioară, M; Fernandez, K C; Szentágotai-Tătar, A; Gross, J J

    2017-04-01

    Child maltreatment is associated with increased risk for virtually all common mental disorders, but it is not yet clear why. One possible mechanism is emotion regulation ability. The present study investigated for the first time the influence of a BDNF Val66Met genotype × child maltreatment interaction on emotion regulation, and compared differential susceptibility and diathesis-stress models. A sample of N = 254 healthy volunteers were genotyped for the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and underwent an experimental assessment of reappraisal ability (i.e. the success of using reappraisal to downregulate negative affect). A self-report instrument previously validated against a clinical interview was used to investigate child maltreatment. There was a significant BDNF Val66Met genotype × child maltreatment interaction (B = -0.31, P maltreated participants, and the highest level of reappraisal ability in non-maltreated participants. By assessing alternative models, we found that the best fitting model was in line with strong differential susceptibility. As expected, reappraisal ability was negatively correlated with depressive symptoms. Therefore, the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism moderates the link between child maltreatment and emotion regulation ability. Future studies could investigate whether improving reappraisal in maltreated BDNF Met carriers results in reduced risk for mental disorders. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  4. Attention training through gaze-contingent feedback: Effects on reappraisal and negative emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Alvaro; Everaert, Jonas; Koster, Ernst H W

    2016-10-01

    Reappraisal is central to emotion regulation but its mechanisms are unclear. This study tested the theoretical prediction that emotional attention bias is linked to reappraisal of negative emotion-eliciting stimuli and subsequent emotional responding using a novel attentional control training. Thirty-six undergraduates were randomly assigned to either the control or the attention training condition and were provided with different task instructions while they performed an interpretation task. Whereas control participants freely created interpretations, participants in the training condition were instructed to allocate attention toward positive words to efficiently create positive interpretations (i.e., recruiting attentional control) while they were provided with gaze-contingent feedback on their viewing behavior. Transfer to attention bias and reappraisal success was evaluated using a dot-probe task and an emotion regulation task which were administered before and after the training. The training condition was effective at increasing attentional control and resulted in beneficial effects on the transfer tasks. Analyses supported a serial indirect effect with larger attentional control acquisition in the training condition leading to negative attention bias reduction, in turn predicting greater reappraisal success which reduced negative emotions. Our results indicate that attentional mechanisms influence the use of reappraisal strategies and its impact on negative emotions. The novel attention training highlights the importance of tailored feedback to train attentional control. The findings provide an important step toward personalized delivery of attention training. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Uncinate fasciculus fractional anisotropy correlates with typical use of reappraisal in women but not men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuurbier, Lisette A; Nikolova, Yuliya S; Ahs, Fredrik; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2013-06-01

    Emotion regulation refers to strategies through which individuals influence their experience and expression of emotions. Two typical strategies are reappraisal, a cognitive strategy for reframing the context of an emotional experience, and suppression, a behavioral strategy for inhibiting emotional responses. Functional neuroimaging studies have revealed that regions of the prefrontal cortex modulate amygdala reactivity during both strategies, but relatively greater downregulation of the amygdala occurs during reappraisal. Moreover, these studies demonstrated that engagement of this modulatory circuitry varies as a function of gender. The uncinate fasciculus is a major structural pathway connecting regions of the anterior temporal lobe, including the amygdala to inferior frontal regions, especially the orbitofrontal cortex. The objective of the current study was to map variability in the structural integrity of the uncinate fasciculus onto individual differences in self-reported typical use of reappraisal and suppression. Diffusion tensor imaging was used in 194 young adults to derive regional fractional anisotropy values for the right and left uncinate fasciculus. All participants also completed the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire. In women but not men, self-reported typical reappraisal use was positively correlated with fractional anisotropy values in a region of the left uncinate fasciculus within the orbitofrontal cortex. In contrast, typical use of suppression was not significantly correlated with fractional anisotropy in any region of the uncinate fasciculus in either men or women. Our data suggest that in women typical reappraisal use is specifically related to the integrity of white matter pathways linking the amygdala and prefrontal cortex.

  6. An empirical model of the Earth's bow shock based on an artificial neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallocchia, Giuseppe; Ambrosino, Danila; Trenchi, Lorenzo

    2014-05-01

    All of the past empirical models of the Earth's bow shock shape were obtained by best-fitting some given surfaces to sets of observed crossings. However, the issue of bow shock modeling can be addressed by means of artificial neural networks (ANN) as well. In this regard, here it is presented a perceptron, a simple feedforward network, which computes the bow shock distance along a given direction using the two angular coordinates of that direction, the bow shock predicted distance RF79 (provided by Formisano's model (F79)) and the upstream alfvénic Mach number Ma. After a brief description of the ANN architecture and training method, we discuss the results of the statistical comparison, performed over a test set of 1140 IMP8 crossings, between the prediction accuracies of ANN and F79 models.

  7. 76 FR 13666 - Pitney Bowes, Inc., Mailing Solutions Management, Global Engineering Group, Including On-Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ...., Mailing Solutions Management, Global Engineering Group, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Guidant... workers and former workers of Pitney Bowes, Inc., Mailing Solutions Management Division, Engineering... reviewed the certification to clarify the subject worker group's identity. Additional information revealed...

  8. Arousal and exposure duration affect forward step initiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniëlle eBouman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Emotion influences parameters of goal-directed whole-body movements in several ways. For instance, previous research has shown that approaching (moving toward pleasant stimuli is easier compared to approaching unpleasant stimuli. However, some studies found that when emotional pictures are viewed for a longer time, approaching unpleasant stimuli may in fact be facilitated. The effect of viewing duration may modulate whole-body approach movement in previous research but this has not been investigated before. In the current study, participants initiated a step forward after viewing neutral, high-arousal pleasant and high-arousal unpleasant stimuli. The viewing duration of the stimuli was set to 7 different durations, varying from 100 to 4000ms. Valence and arousal scores were collected for all stimuli.The results indicate that both viewing duration and the arousal of the stimuli influence kinematic parameters in forward gait initiation. Specifically, longer viewing duration, compared to shorter viewing duration, (a diminished the step length and peak velocity in both neutral and emotional stimuli, (b increased reaction time in neutral stimuli and, (c decreased reaction time in pleasant and unpleasant stimuli. Strikingly, no differences were found between high-arousal pleasant and high-arousal unpleasant stimuli. In other words, the valence of the stimuli did not influence kinematic parameters of forward step initiation. In contrast, the arousal level (neutral: low; pleasant and unpleasant: high explained the variance found in the results. The kinematics of forward gait initiation seemed to be reflected in the subjective arousal scores, but not the valence scores. So it seems arousal affects forward gait initiation parameters more strongly than valence. In addition, longer viewing duration seemed to cause diminished alertness, affecting GI parameters. These results shed new light on the prevailing theoretical interpretations regarding approach

  9. On numerical simulation of fuel assembly bow in pressurized water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horváth, Ákos, E-mail: akoshorvath@t-online.hu [AREVA, AREVA NP GmbH, Paul-Gossen-Str. 100, 91052 Erlangen (Germany); Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Department of Aircraft and Ships, Stoczek Street 6, Building J, H-1111 Budapest (Hungary); Dressel, Bernd [AREVA, AREVA NP GmbH, Paul-Gossen-Str. 100, 91052 Erlangen (Germany)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Simulation of fuel assembly bow by coupled CFD and finite element method. • Comparison of calculated and experimentally measured bow shapes. • Investigation of boundary condition effect on bow pattern of a fuel assembly row. • Highlighting importance of consideration of fluid–structure interaction. • Assessment of flow redistribution within the fuel assembly row model. - Abstract: Fuel assembly bow in pressurized water reactor cores is largely triggered by lateral hydraulic forces together with creep processes generated by neutron flux. A detailed understanding of the flow induced bow behaviour is, therefore, an important issue. The experimental feedbacks and laboratory tests on fuel assembly bow show that it is characterized to a high degree by fluid–structure interaction (FSI) effects, therefore, consideration of FSI is essential and indispensable in full comprehension of the bow mechanism. In the present study, coupled computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and finite element simulations are introduced, calculating fuel assembly deformation under different conditions as a quasi-stationary phenomenon. The aim has been, on the one hand, to develop such a simplified fuel assembly CFD model, which allows set up of fuel assembly rows without loosing its main hydraulic characteristic; on the other hand, to investigate the bow pattern of a given fuel assembly row under different boundary conditions. The former one has been achieved by comparing bow shapes obtained with different fuel assembly (spacer grid) modelling approaches and mesh resolutions with experimental data. In the second part of the paper a row model containing 7.5 fuel assemblies is introduced, investigating the effect of flow distribution at inlet and outlet boundary regions on fuel assembly bow behaviour. The post processing has been focused on the bow pattern, lateral hydraulic forces, and horizontal flow distribution. The results have revealed importance of consideration of

  10. Addiction and arousal: the hypocretin connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutrel, Benjamin; de Lecea, Luis

    2015-01-01

    The hypocretins, also known as orexins, are two neuropeptides now commonly described as critical components to maintain and regulate the stability of arousal. Several lines of evidence have raised the hypothesis that hypocretin-producing neurons are part of the circuitries that mediate the hypothalamic response to acute stress. Intracerebral administration of hypocretin leads to a dose related reinstatement of drug and food seeking behaviors. Furthermore, stress-induced reinstatement can be blocked with hypocretin receptor 1 antagonism. These results, together with recent data showing that hypocretin is critically involved in cocaine sensitization through the recruitment of NMDA receptors in the ventral tegmental area, strongly suggest that activation of hypocretin neurons play a critical role in the development of the addiction process. The activity of hypocretin neurons may affect addictive behavior by contributing to brain sensitization or by modulating the brain reward system. Hypocretinergic cells, in coordination with brain stress systems may lead to a vulnerable state that facilitates the resumption of drug seeking behavior. Hence, the hypocretinergic system is a new drug target that may be used to prevent relapse of drug seeking. PMID:18262574

  11. Expressive Dissonance: When Emotional Inconsistency Arouses Dissonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Pelt

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the two studies was to explore a new dissonance paradigm–expressive dissonance–based on the inconsistency between what people feel and what people express behaviorally. Expressive dissonance was aroused by asking participants to watch a film with a high emotional content, either positive (joy or negative (sadness. In the no-dissonance condition, they received the instruction to naturally watch the film. In the expressive dissonance condition, they received the instruction to facially express emotions that were the opposite of what they felt. We expected that the expressive dissonance situation would: 1 require cognitive resources leading to a decrease in cognitive performance (studies 1 and 2; 2 be accompanied by emotional regulation strategies (study 1; 3 be accompanied by an increase in dissonance-related affects (study 2. Although our results (studies 1 and 2 corroborated those obtained previously in terms of performance, they also showed that participants in the expressive dissonance situation use emotional regulation strategies: exaggeration and suppression (study 1, and that they felt self-directed negative affects (study 2, just like the participants in a cognitive dissonance situation. These first results allowed us to establish a theoretical bridge between the theories of emotions–particularly those related to the emotional regulation processes–and to widen the scope of relevance of the dissonance theory.

  12. Independent effects of relevance and arousal on deductive reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caparos, Serge; Blanchette, Isabelle

    2017-08-01

    Emotional content can have either a deleterious or a beneficial impact on logicality. Using standard deductive-reasoning tasks, we tested the hypothesis that the interplay of two factors - personal relevance and arousal - determines the nature of the effect of emotional content on logicality. Arousal was assessed using measures of skin conductance. Personal relevance was manipulated by asking participants to reason about semantic contents linked to an emotional event that they had experienced or not. Findings showed that (1) personal relevance exerts a positive effect on logicality while arousal exerts a negative effect, and that (2) these effects are independent of each other.

  13. Cognitive reappraisal and secondary control coping: associations with working memory, positive and negative affect, and symptoms of anxiety/depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreotti, Charissa; Thigpen, Jennifer E; Dunn, Madeleine J; Watson, Kelly; Potts, Jennifer; Reising, Michelle M; Robinson, Kristen E; Rodriguez, Erin M; Roubinov, Danielle; Luecken, Linda; Compas, Bruce E

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the relations of measures of cognitive reappraisal and secondary control coping with working memory abilities, positive and negative affect, and symptoms of anxiety and depression in young adults (N=124). Results indicate significant relations between working memory abilities and reports of secondary control coping and between reports of secondary control coping and cognitive reappraisal. Associations were also found between measures of secondary control coping and cognitive reappraisal and positive and negative affect and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Further, the findings suggest that reports of cognitive reappraisal may be more strongly predictive of positive affect whereas secondary control coping may be more strongly predictive of negative affect and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Overall, the results suggest that current measures of secondary control coping and cognitive reappraisal capture related but distinct constructs and suggest that the assessment of working memory may be more strongly related to secondary control coping in predicting individual differences in distress.

  14. Emotion regulation and the temporal dynamics of emotions: Effects of cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression on emotional inertia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koval, Peter; Butler, Emily A; Hollenstein, Tom; Lanteigne, Dianna; Kuppens, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The tendency for emotions to be predictable over time, labelled emotional inertia, has been linked to low well-being and is thought to reflect impaired emotion regulation. However, almost no studies have examined how emotion regulation relates to emotional inertia. We examined the effects of cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression on the inertia of behavioural, subjective and physiological measures of emotion. In Study 1 (N = 111), trait suppression was associated with higher inertia of negative behaviours. We replicated this finding experimentally in Study 2 (N = 186). Furthermore, in Study 2, instructed suppressors and reappraisers both showed higher inertia of positive behaviours, and reappraisers displayed higher inertia of heart rate. Neither suppression nor reappraisal were associated with the inertia of subjective feelings in either study. Thus, the effects of suppression and reappraisal on the temporal dynamics of emotions depend on the valence and emotional response component in question.

  15. Effect of loading pattern on longitudinal bowing in flexible roll forming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Hyun; Woo, Young Yun; Hwang, Tae Woo; Han, Sang Wook; Moon, Young Hoon [School of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering Research Center for Net Shape and Die Manufacturing, Pusan National University,Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    The flexible roll forming process can be used to fabricate products with a variable cross-section profile in the longitudinal direction. Transversal nonuniformity of the longitudinal strain is one of the fundamental characteristics of blank deformation in flexible roll forming. Longitudinal bowing is a shape defect caused by transversal nonuniformity of the longitudinal strain. In this study, loading patterns in flexible roll forming are investigated in order to reduce the longitudinal bowing in a roll-formed blank. To analyze the effects of loading patterns on longitudinal bowing, two different forming schedules are implemented. In schedule 1, loading patterns with different bending angle increments are designed under fixed initial and final bending angles. In schedule 2, loading patterns with different initial bending angles under the fixed final bending angle are designed. Our results show that the bowing heights are significantly affected by the loading patterns. The bowing susceptibilities vary with blank shape such as trapezoid, convex, and concave shapes. In addition to the peak longitudinal strain at the respective roll stands, the cumulative longitudinal strain from the initial to final stands is shown to be a reliable index in predicting the tendency of longitudinal bowing.

  16. Flow performance of highly loaded axial fan with bowed rotor blades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, L; Liu, X J; Yang, A L; Dai, R

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a partial bowed rotor blade was proposed for a newly designed high loaded axial fan. The blade was positively bowed 30 degrees from hub to 30 percent spanwise position. Flows of radial blade and bowed blade fans were numerically compared for various operation conditions. Results show that the fan's performance is improved. At the designed condition with flow coefficient of 0.52, the efficiency of the bowed blade fan is increased 1.44% and the static pressure rise is increased 11%. Comparing the flow structures, it can be found that the separated flow in the bowed fan is reduced and confined within 20 percent span, which is less than the 35 percent in the radial fan. It means that the bowed blade generates negative blade force and counteracts partial centrifugal force. It is alleviates the radial movements of boundary layers in fan's hub region. Flow losses due to 3D mixing are reduced in the rotor. Inlet flow to downstream stator is also improved

  17. Flow performance of highly loaded axial fan with bowed rotor blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L.; Liu, X. J.; Yang, A. L.; Dai, R.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, a partial bowed rotor blade was proposed for a newly designed high loaded axial fan. The blade was positively bowed 30 degrees from hub to 30 percent spanwise position. Flows of radial blade and bowed blade fans were numerically compared for various operation conditions. Results show that the fan's performance is improved. At the designed condition with flow coefficient of 0.52, the efficiency of the bowed blade fan is increased 1.44% and the static pressure rise is increased 11%. Comparing the flow structures, it can be found that the separated flow in the bowed fan is reduced and confined within 20 percent span, which is less than the 35 percent in the radial fan. It means that the bowed blade generates negative blade force and counteracts partial centrifugal force. It is alleviates the radial movements of boundary layers in fan's hub region. Flow losses due to 3D mixing are reduced in the rotor. Inlet flow to downstream stator is also improved.

  18. Anterior Femoral Bow and Possible Effect on the Stifle Joint: A Comparison between Humans and Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocal, M K; Sabanci, S S; Cobanoglu, M; Enercan, M

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the anterior bow of the femur between dogs and humans in terms of the possible impact on the stifle joint. The femoral radiographs obtained retrospectively were used to determine the angles and positions of the anterior bow in both dogs (n = 135) and humans (n = 57). Descriptive statistics and Pearson's correlation analysis were used for the statistical analyses of the variables. The mean anterior bow angle (ABA) was 18.3 ± 2.02° and 4.88 ± 1.24° in dogs and humans, respectively. The bow position was at the distal shaft in dogs (64.9 ± 2.04%) and almost at the mid-shaft of the bone (46.5 ± 5.52%) in humans. The ABA was related to the bow position in both humans and dogs. Additionally, the angle correlated with age in humans, while it was correlated with weight and breed in dogs. In conclusion, it is suggested that the anterior bow should be used as a landmark on the femoral axis for the biomechanical research of stifle joint, and dog stifle could be used as a suitable model for human knee in experimental studies for clinicians, while making sure that ethical principles are fully respected. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Reappraisal of quantitative gel zymography for matrix metalloproteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescimone, Tommaso; Tognotti, Danika; Caselli, Chiara; Cabiati, Manuela; D'Amico, Andrea; Del Ry, Silvia; Giannessi, Daniela

    2014-09-01

    The determination of matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) is relevant in many pathophysiological conditions, especially if associated with extracellular matrix remodeling; however, the results obtained are closely linked to the method used and are not directly comparable. The aim of this study was to perform a reappraisal of quantitative gel zymography technique for MMPs in human plasma, to use for comparison with commercially available ELISA and in those experimental conditions where the MMP active form needs to be revealed. The critical methodological parameters of zymography were checked and a comparison with a routinely used ELISA was performed. Sensitivity and reproducibility levels of zymography are suitable for detection of MMP-9 in human plasma, providing results closely related to those obtained by ELISA. Analytical parameters of zymography were suitable for detection of MMPs in human plasma. Quantitative zymography for MMPs is an alternative method for comparing the results of ELISA widely employed for MMP determination, thus reducing the discrepancies between laboratories regarding gelatinase assay. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Taxonomic reappraisal of Antithamnion sparsum Tokida (Ceramiaceae, Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gwang Hoon; Han, He Kyong; Lim, Kook Jin

    2008-07-01

    The taxonomic criterion of Antithamnion sparsum was reappraised in comparison with A. densum and A. defectum based on crossing experiments, morphological observation, chromosome study and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. These species had a very similar morphology but were sexually isolated. The chromosome number was n = ca. 24 for A. densum, n = ca. 21 for A. defectum, and n = ca. 44 for A. sparsum. All isolates of A. sparsum and A. densum showed polysiphonia-type life history Asexual reproduction was induced by favorable environmental conditions. In A. sparsum, 1-2% of male plants developed mitotic tetrasporangia together with spermatangia. In A. densum, 5-10% of tetraspores developed into asexual tetrasporophytes. Phylogenetic relationships between these species were examined using RAPD analysis, and A. glanduliferum was used as an outgroup. A total of 167 polymorphic RAPD markers amplified from 15 different primers were analyzed. Results suggested that these species were closely related, with A. defectum placed in the middle of A. sparsum and A. densum. Chromosome study and RAPD analysis implied that A. sparsum first separated from A. defectum through polyploidization and later A. densum evolved. These species may present another example of the narrow species concept in the genus Antithamnion.

  1. Electricity reform in developing and transition countries: A reappraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.H.; Ghanadan, R.

    2006-01-01

    Since about 1990, many developing and transition countries have undertaken market-oriented reforms in their electric power sectors. Despite the widespread adoption of a standard policy model, reform processes and outcomes have often failed to meet expectations. Drawing on an extensive literature review and case studies in Asia, Africa, Latin America, and Eastern Europe, this paper describes common features of non-OECD electricity reform and reappraises reform policies and underlying assumptions. Comparison with the sector-focused policy goals of deregulation in OECD countries highlights the importance of national fiscal crises, macroeconomic reforms, and persuasion by multilateral lenders in shaping non-OECD reforms. It also makes clear reform's dependence on attracting foreign capital, and consequent vulnerability to volatile international financial conditions. Case studies of Bolivia, Ghana, India, Poland, and Thailand illustrate reform's diverse pathways and problems in different settings. A broad range of non-OECD reform experiences indicates that disappointing results have often resulted from a narrow focus on finance and cost recovery, inflexibly applied. The paper concludes that improving reform will require emphasizing a broader set of objectives, including service provision, public benefits, effective regulation, and social/political legitimacy. Above all, reforms must be based on realistic assessments of national needs and capabilities. (author)

  2. Negative attention bias and processing deficits during the cognitive reappraisal of unpleasant emotions in HIV+ women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Roger C; Tartar, Jaime L; Widmayer, Susan; Rosselli, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Deficits in emotional processing may be attributed to HIV disease or comorbid psychiatric disorders. Electrocortical markers of emotional attention, i.e., amplitude of the P2 and late positive potential (LPP), were compared between 26 HIV+ women and 25 healthy controls during an emotional regulation paradigm. HIV+ women showed early attention bias to negative stimuli indexed by greater P2 amplitude. In contrast, compared with the passive viewing of unpleasant images, HIV+ women demonstrated attenuation of the early and late LPP during positive reappraisal. This interaction remained significant after adjusting for individual differences in apathy, anxiety, and depression. Post hoc analyses implicated time since HIV diagnosis with LPP attenuation during positive reappraisal. Advancing HIV disease may disrupt neural generators associated with the cognitive reappraisal of emotions independent of psychiatric function.

  3. How to establish precise proprietary Chinese medicine in post-marketing reappraisal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Tian

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The clinical efficacy and safety of proprietary Chinese medicine has become a more prevailing public health concern. The China Food and Drug Administration has pushed drug companies to conduct post-marketing reappraisal for proprietary Chinese medicine to provide additional evidence supporting the efficacy and safety of these medicine. In this paper, we propose a reappraisal protocol called “precise proprietary Chinese medicine” to precisely i define the therapeutic aim; ii design the protocol; iii control the quality of proprietary Chinese medicine; iv implement the protocol in the trial; v study the mechanism-of-action of the proprietary Chinese medicine and vi describe the indications of the proprietary Chinese medicine. We hope that these steps facilitate the post-marketing reappraisal of proprietary Chinese medicine.

  4. Eyes Wide Shopped: Shopping Situations Trigger Arousal in Impulsive Buyers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serfas, Benjamin G.; Büttner, Oliver B.; Florack, Arnd

    2014-01-01

    The present study proposes arousal as an important mechanism driving buying impulsiveness. We examined the effect of buying impulsiveness on arousal in non-shopping and shopping contexts. In an eye-tracking experiment, we measured pupil dilation while participants viewed and rated pictures of shopping scenes and non-shopping scenes. The results demonstrated that buying impulsiveness is closely associated with arousal as response to viewing pictures of shopping scenes. This pertained for hedonic shopping situations as well as for utilitarian shopping situations. Importantly, the effect did not emerge for non-shopping scenes. Furthermore, we demonstrated that arousal of impulsive buyers is independent from cognitive evaluation of scenes in the pictures. PMID:25489955

  5. Preattentive processing, poststimulus elaboration, and memory for emotionally arousing stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migita, Mai; Otani, Hajime; Libkuman, Terry M; Sheffert, Sonya M

    2011-01-01

    Christianson (1992) proposed two mechanisms to explain emotionally enhanced memory: preattentive processing and poststimulus elaboration. Experiment 1 examined these processes by instructing participants to perform (1) a concurrent distractor task, (2) a continuous distractor task, or (3) both while viewing the negatively arousing, positively arousing, and neutral pictures. Recall of negatively arousing pictures showed a small decline in one of the distractor conditions, indicating that elaboration plays a minor role in remembering these pictures. Experiment 2 partially replicated Experiment 1 with an intentional learning instruction to investigate whether participants in Experiment 1 were anticipating a recall test. For all three picture types, recall declined in the continuous distractor task condition, indicating that elaboration played a role, even when the pictures were negatively arousing. Overall, these results were consistent with the notion that remembering negatively valenced stimuli is largely based on preattentive processing with a minor role played by poststimulus elaboration.

  6. Eyes wide shopped: shopping situations trigger arousal in impulsive buyers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin G Serfas

    Full Text Available The present study proposes arousal as an important mechanism driving buying impulsiveness. We examined the effect of buying impulsiveness on arousal in non-shopping and shopping contexts. In an eye-tracking experiment, we measured pupil dilation while participants viewed and rated pictures of shopping scenes and non-shopping scenes. The results demonstrated that buying impulsiveness is closely associated with arousal as response to viewing pictures of shopping scenes. This pertained for hedonic shopping situations as well as for utilitarian shopping situations. Importantly, the effect did not emerge for non-shopping scenes. Furthermore, we demonstrated that arousal of impulsive buyers is independent from cognitive evaluation of scenes in the pictures.

  7. Brief Emotion Regulation Training Facilitates Arousal Control During Sexual Stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Overveld, Mark; Borg, Charmaine

    2015-01-01

    Disgust, a negative emotion which evokes strong behavioral avoidance tendencies, has been associated with sexual dysfunction. Recently, it was postulated that healthy sexual functioning requires a balance between excitatory (increased sexual arousal) and inhibitory processes (lowered disgust

  8. The role of dorsal anterior cingulate cortex in the regulation of craving by reappraisal in smokers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Yan Zhao

    Full Text Available RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVE: Drug cues can induce craving for drugs of abuse. Dysfunctional regulation of emotion and motivation regarding rewarding objects appears to be an integral part of addiction. It has been found that cognitive strategies decreased the intensity of craving in addicts. Reappraisal strategy is a type of cognitive strategy that requires participants to reinterpret the meaning of an emotional situation. In addition, studies have found that activation of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC is associated with the selection and application of cognitive reappraisal. In present study, we sought to determine whether such cognitive regulation engages the dACC and improves inhibition of craving in smokers. METHODS: Sixteen smokers underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI during performance of a cigarette reward-conditioning procedure with cognitive reappraisal. We focused our analyses on the dACC as a key structure of cognitive control of craving. Cue induced craving under different conditions was obtained. Correlational analysis between the functional response in the dACC and the subjective craving was performed. RESULTS: We found that using a cognitive reappraisal was successful in decreasing the conditioned craving. Right dACC (BA 24/32 engaged in the cognitive reappraisal. In addition, the individual's subjective craving was negatively correlated with the right dACC activation. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the dACC are important substrates of Inhibition of cue induced craving in smokers. Cognitive regulation by cognitive reappraisal may help addicted individuals avoid the anticipated situations where they are exposed to conditioned cues.

  9. The common and distinct neural bases of affect labeling and reappraisal in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Jane Burklund

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Emotion regulation is commonly characterized as involving conscious and intentional attempts to change felt emotions, such as, for example, through reappraisal whereby one intentionally decreases the intensity of one’s emotional response to a particular stimulus or situation by reinterpreting it in a less threatening way. However, there is growing evidence and appreciation that some types of emotion regulation are unintentional or incidental, meaning that affective modulation is a consequence but not an explicit goal. For example, affect labeling involves simply verbally labeling the emotional content of an external stimulus or one’s own affective responses without an intentional goal of altering emotional responses, yet has been associated with reduced affective responses at the neural and experiential levels. Although both intentional and incidental emotional regulation strategies have been associated with diminished limbic responses and self-reported distress, little previous research has directly compared their underlying neural mechanisms. In this study, we examined the extent to which incidental and intentional emotion regulation, namely, affect labeling and reappraisal, produced common and divergent neural and self-report responses to aversive images relative to an observe-only control condition in a sample of healthy older adults (N=39. Affect labeling and reappraisal produced common activations in several prefrontal regulatory regions, with affect labeling producing stronger responses in direct comparisons. Affect labeling and reappraisal were also associated with similar decreases in amygdala activity. Finally, affect labeling and reappraisal were associated with correlated reductions in self-reported distress. Together these results point to common neurocognitive mechanisms involved in affect labeling and reappraisal, supporting the idea that intentional and incidental emotion regulation may utilize overlapping neural processes.

  10. Distracted by the Unthought – Suppression and Reappraisal of Mind Wandering under Stereotype Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Carolin; Martiny, Sarah E.; Schmader, Toni

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has found that subtle reminders of negative stereotypes about one’s group can lead individuals to underperform on stereotype-relevant tests (e.g., women in math, ethnic minorities on intelligence tests). This so called stereotype threat effect can contribute to systematic group differences in performance that can obscure the true abilities of certain social groups and thereby sustain social inequalities. In the present study, we examined processes underlying stereotype threat effects on women’s math performance, specifically focusing on the role of suppression of mind wandering (i.e., task-irrelevant thinking) in stereotype threat (ST) and no threat (NT) situations. Based on a process model of stereotype threat effects on performance, we hypothesized that women under stereotype threat spontaneously suppress mind wandering, and that this suppression impairs performance. An alternative regulation strategy that prevents suppression (i.e., reappraising task-irrelevant thoughts as normal) was predicted to prevent stereotype threat effects on performance. We manipulated stereotype threat (ST vs. NT) and cognitive regulation strategy (suppression, reappraisal, or no strategy) and measured women’s performance on a math and a concentration task (N = 113). We expected three groups to perform relatively more poorly: Those in ST with either no strategy or suppression and those in NT with a suppression strategy. We tested the performance of these groups against the remaining three groups hypothesized to perform relatively better: those in NT with no strategy or reappraisal and those in ST with reappraisal. The results showed the expected pattern for participants’ math performance, but not for concentration achievement. This pattern suggests that ineffective self-regulation by suppressing mind wandering can at least partly explain stereotype threat effects on performance, whereas a reappraisal strategy can prevent this impairment. We discuss

  11. Distracted by the Unthought - Suppression and Reappraisal of Mind Wandering under Stereotype Threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Carolin; Martiny, Sarah E; Schmader, Toni

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has found that subtle reminders of negative stereotypes about one's group can lead individuals to underperform on stereotype-relevant tests (e.g., women in math, ethnic minorities on intelligence tests). This so called stereotype threat effect can contribute to systematic group differences in performance that can obscure the true abilities of certain social groups and thereby sustain social inequalities. In the present study, we examined processes underlying stereotype threat effects on women's math performance, specifically focusing on the role of suppression of mind wandering (i.e., task-irrelevant thinking) in stereotype threat (ST) and no threat (NT) situations. Based on a process model of stereotype threat effects on performance, we hypothesized that women under stereotype threat spontaneously suppress mind wandering, and that this suppression impairs performance. An alternative regulation strategy that prevents suppression (i.e., reappraising task-irrelevant thoughts as normal) was predicted to prevent stereotype threat effects on performance. We manipulated stereotype threat (ST vs. NT) and cognitive regulation strategy (suppression, reappraisal, or no strategy) and measured women's performance on a math and a concentration task (N = 113). We expected three groups to perform relatively more poorly: Those in ST with either no strategy or suppression and those in NT with a suppression strategy. We tested the performance of these groups against the remaining three groups hypothesized to perform relatively better: those in NT with no strategy or reappraisal and those in ST with reappraisal. The results showed the expected pattern for participants' math performance, but not for concentration achievement. This pattern suggests that ineffective self-regulation by suppressing mind wandering can at least partly explain stereotype threat effects on performance, whereas a reappraisal strategy can prevent this impairment. We discuss implications for

  12. Age differences in liking and recall of arousing television commercials

    OpenAIRE

    van der Goot, M.; van Reijmersdal, E.; Eisend, M.; Langner, T.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines age differences in liking of arousing television commercials and recall of the advertised brands and products. Based on the activation theory of information exposure, sensation seeking theory and the limited capacity model of mediated message processing, we expect that the effects of arousing commercials on liking and recall are moderated by age. An experiment (N = 66) indeed demonstrated that older adults showed more liking of calm commercials and better recall of the bra...

  13. Valence, arousal, and task effects in emotional prosody processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke ePaulmann

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous research suggests that emotional prosody processing is a highly rapid and complex process. In particular, it has been shown that different basic emotions can be differentiated in an early event-related brain potential (ERP component, the P200. Often, the P200 is followed by later long lasting ERPs such as the late positive complex (LPC. The current experiment set out to explore in how far emotionality and arousal can modulate these previously reported ERP components. In addition, we also investigated the influence of task demands (implicit vs. explicit evaluation of stimuli. Participants listened to pseudo-sentences (sentences with no lexical content spoken in six different emotions or in a neutral tone of voice while they either rated the arousal level of the speaker or their own arousal level. Results confirm that different emotional intonations can first be differentiated in the P200 component, reflecting a first emotional encoding of the stimulus possibly including a valence tagging process. A marginal significant arousal effect was also found in this time-window with high arousing stimuli eliciting a stronger P200 than low arousing stimuli. The P200 component was followed by a long lasting positive ERP between 400 and 750 ms. In this late time-window, both emotion and arousal effects were found. No effects of task were observed in either time-window. Taken together, results suggest that emotion relevant details are robustly decoded during early processing and late processing stages while arousal information is only reliably taken into consideration at a later stage of processing.

  14. Comparison of accelerated ion populations observed upstream of the bow shocks at Venus and Mars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yamauchi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Foreshock ions are compared between Venus and Mars at energies of 0.6~20 keV using the same ion instrument, the Ion Mass Analyser, on board both Venus Express and Mars Express. Venus Express often observes accelerated protons (2~6 times the solar wind energy that travel away from the Venus bow shock when the spacecraft location is magnetically connected to the bow shock. The observed ions have a large field-aligned velocity compared to the perpendicular velocity in the solar wind frame, and are similar to the field-aligned beams and intermediate gyrating component of the foreshock ions in the terrestrial upstream region. Mars Express does not observe similar foreshock ions as does Venus Express, indicating that the Martian foreshock does not possess the intermediate gyrating component in the upstream region on the dayside of the planet. Instead, two types of gyrating protons in the solar wind frame are observed very close to the Martian quasi-perpendicular bow shock within a proton gyroradius distance. The first type is observed only within the region which is about 400 km from the bow shock and flows tailward nearly along the bow shock with a similar velocity as the solar wind. The second type is observed up to about 700 km from the bow shock and has a bundled structure in the energy domain. A traversal on 12 July 2005, in which the energy-bunching came from bundling in the magnetic field direction, is further examined. The observed velocities of the latter population are consistent with multiple specular reflections of the solar wind at the bow shock, and the ions after the second reflection have a field-aligned velocity larger than that of the de Hoffman-Teller velocity frame, i.e., their guiding center has moved toward interplanetary space out from the bow shock. To account for the observed peculiarity of the Martian upstream region, finite gyroradius effects of the solar wind protons compared to the radius of the bow shock curvature and

  15. Subjective sleep quality, unstimulated sexual arousal, and sexual frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Costa

    Full Text Available Introduction: REM sleep deprivation increases unstimulated erections in rats, and total sleep deprivation increases erections during audiovisual sexual stimulation in men, but the effects of sleep problems on human unstimulated sexual arousal are unknown. Objective: We examined the associations of subjective sleep quality with unstimulated sexual arousal, satisfaction with sex life, and sexual frequency and desire over the past month. Methods: 275 Portuguese (169 women reported their anxiety, sexual arousal and sexual desire during a resting state, and completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the sexual satisfaction subscale of the LiSat scale, the Desire dimensions of the Female Sexual Function Index (women only and International Index of Erectile Function (men only. They additionally reported how many days in the past month they engaged in penile-vaginal intercourse, noncoital sex, and masturbation. Salivary testosterone (T was assayed by luminescence immunoassays. Results: Poorer sleep quality correlated with greater unstimulated sexual arousal in men with higher T levels and in women with higher T levels not taking oral contraceptives. In women with lower T, poorer subjective sleep quality correlated with greater sexual dissatisfaction. In both sexes, sleep quality was uncorrelated with sexual desire and sexual frequency over the past month. Discussion: Consistently with other studies in humans and animals, the findings are congruent with the notion that lack of sleep can increase sexual arousal, but not sexual frequency. T might play a role in the sexual arousal caused by lack of appropriate sleep.

  16. Valence, arousal and cognitive control: A voluntary task switching study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelle eDemanet

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study focused on the interplay between arousal, valence and cognitive control. To this end, we investigated how arousal and valence associated with affective stimuli influenced cognitive flexibility when switching between tasks voluntarily. Three hypotheses were tested. First, a valence hypothesis that states that the positive valence of affective stimuli will facilitate both global and task-switching performance because of increased cognitive flexibility. Second, an arousal hypothesis that states that arousal, and not valence, will specifically impair task-switching performance by strengthening the previously executed task-set. Third, an attention hypothesis that states that both cognitive and emotional control ask for limited attentional resources, and predicts that arousal will impair both global and task-switching performance. The results showed that arousal affected task-switching but not global performance, possibly by phasic modulations of the noradrenergic system that reinforces the previously executed task. In addition, positive valence only affected global performance but not task-switching performance, possibly by phasic modulations of dopamine that stimulates the general ability to perform in a multitasking environment.

  17. Influence of Body Odors and Gender on Perceived Genital Arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-Oliveira, Patrícia; Carvalho, Joana; Ferreira, Jacqueline; Alho, Laura; Nobre, Pedro; Olsson, Mats J; Soares, Sandra C

    2018-04-01

    Olfaction is often linked to mating behavior in nonhumans. Additionally, studies in mating behavior have shown that women seem to be more affected by odor cues than men. However, the relationship between odor cues and sexual response-specifically, sexual arousal-has not been studied yet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the exposure to human body odors (from individuals of the opposite gender) on perceived genital arousal, while these were presented concomitantly to sexually explicit video clips. Eighty university students (40 women) rated their perceived genital arousal (perceived degree of erection/genital lubrication) in response to an audiovisual sexual stimulus, while simultaneously exposed to a body odor from an opposite-gender donor or no odor. Participants also rated each odor sample's (body odor and no odor) perceived pleasantness, intensity, and familiarity. Findings indicated that odor condition had an effect on women's (but not men's) perceived genital arousal, with women showing higher levels of perceived genital arousal in the no odor condition. Also, results showed that women rated body odors as less pleasant than no odor. Notwithstanding, the odor ratings do not seem to explain the association between body odor and perceived genital arousal. The current results support the hypothesis that women, rather than men, are sensitive to odors in the context of sexual response. The findings of this study have relevance for the understanding of human sexuality with respect to chemosensory communication.

  18. Polarized bow shocks reveal features of the winds and environments of massive stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Manisha

    2018-01-01

    Massive stars strongly affect their surroundings through their energetic stellar winds and deaths as supernovae. The bow shock structures created by fast-moving massive stars contain important information about the winds and ultimate fates of these stars as well as their local interstellar medium (ISM). Since bow shocks are aspherical, the light scattered in the dense shock material becomes polarized. Analyzing this polarization reveals details of the bow shock geometry as well as the composition, velocity, density, and albedo of the scattering material. With these quantities, we can constrain the properties of the stellar wind and thus the evolutionary state of the star, as well as the dust composition of the local ISM.In my dissertation research, I use a Monte Carlo radiative transfer code that I optimized to simulate the polarization signatures produced by both resolved and unresolved stellar wind bow shocks (SWBS) illuminated by a central star and by shock emission. I derive bow shock shapes and densities from published analytical calculations and smooth particle hydrodynamic (SPH) models. In the case of the analytical SWBS and electron scattering, I find that higher optical depths produce higher polarization and position angle rotations at specific viewing angles compared to theoretical predictions for low optical depths. This is due to the geometrical properties of the bow shock combined with multiple scattering effects. For dust scattering, the polarization signature is strongly affected by wavelength, dust grain properties, and viewing angle. The behavior of the polarization as a function of wavelength in these cases can distinguish among different dust models for the local ISM. In the case of SPH density structures, I investigate how the polarization changes as a function of the evolutionary phase of the SWBS. My dissertation compares these simulations with polarization data from Betelgeuse and other massive stars with bow shocks. I discuss the

  19. The existence and nature of the interstellar bow shock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Jaffel, Lotfi [UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR7095, Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, F-75014, Paris (France); Strumik, M.; Ratkiewicz, R.; Grygorczuk, J., E-mail: bjaffel@iap.fr [Space Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences, Bartycka 18A, 00-716 Warsaw (Poland)

    2013-12-20

    We report a new diagnosis of two different states of the local interstellar medium (LISM) near our solar system by using a sensitivity study constrained by several distinct and complementary observations of the LISM, solar wind, and inner heliosphere. Assuming the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) He flow parameters for the LISM, we obtain a strength of ∼2.7 ± 0.2 μG and a direction pointing away from galactic coordinates (28, 52) ± 3° for the interstellar magnetic field as a result of fitting Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 in situ plasma measurements and IBEX energetic neutral atoms ribbon. When using Ulysses parameters for the LISM He flow, we recently reported the same direction but with a strength of 2.2 ± 0.1 μG. First, we notice that with Ulysses He flow, our solution is in the expected hydrogen deflection plane (HDP). In contrast, for the IBEX He flow, the solution is ∼20° away from the corresponding HDP plane. Second, the long-term monitoring of the interplanetary H I flow speed shows a value of ∼26 km s{sup –1} measured upwind from the Doppler shift in the strong Lyα sky background emission line. All elements of the diagnosis seem therefore to support Ulysses He flow parameters for the interstellar state. In that frame, we argue that reliable discrimination between superfast, subfast, or superslow states of the interstellar flow should be based on most existing in situ and remote observations used together with global modeling of the heliosphere. For commonly accepted LISM ionization rates, we show that a fast interstellar bow shock should be standing off upstream of the heliopause.

  20. Electric field measurements at subcritical, oblique bow shock crossings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wygant, J.R.; Bensadoun, M.; Mozer, F.S.

    1987-01-01

    Electric field measurements at oblique, subcritical bow shock crossings are presented from the ISEE 1 University of California, Berkeley, double-probe electric field experiment. The measurements averaged over the 3-s spin period of the spacecraft provide the first observations of the large-scale (100 km) laminar oscillations in the longitudinal component of the electric field associated with the whistler precursor which is characteristic of these dispersive shocks. The amplitude of the oscillations increases from ∼0.5 mV/m to a maximum of 6 mV/m across the magnetic ramp of the shock (directed along the shock normal). The calculated electric potential drops across the shocks varied from 340 to 550 volts, which is 40-60% of the observed loss of kinetic energy associated with the bulk flow of the ions. These measurements suggest that at these shocks the additional deceleration of incident ions is due to the Lorentz force. The contributions to the normal component of the large-scale electric field at the shock due to the parallel and perpendicular components (relative to the magnetic field) of the electric field are evaluated. It is shown that the perpendicular component of the electric field dominates, accounting for most of the cross-shock potential, but that there is a nonnegligible parallel component. This large-scale parallel component has a magnitude of 1-2 mV/m which sometimes results in a potential well for electrons with a depth of ∼150 eV. It is experimentally demonstrated that the dominance of the perpendicular over the parallel component of the electric field resulted in a correlation between the longitudinal component of the large-scale electric field and the fluctuations in the magnetic field component perpendicular to the coplanarity plane

  1. A unifying computational framework for stability and flexibility of arousal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christin eKosse

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Arousal and consciousness flexibly adjust to salient cues, but remain stable despite noise and disturbance. Diverse, highly interconnected neural networks govern the underlying transitions of behavioural state; these networks are robust but very complex. Frameworks from systems engineering provide powerful tools for understanding functional logic behind component complexity. From a general systems viewpoint, a minimum of three communicating control modules may enable flexibility and stability to coexist. Comparators would subtract current arousal from desired arousal, producing an error signal. Regulators would compute control signals from this error. Generators would convert control signals into arousal, which is fed back to comparators, to make the system noise-proof through self-correction. Can specific neurons correspond to these control elements? To explore this, here we consider the brain-wide orexin/hypocretin network, which is experimentally established to be vital for flexible and stable arousal. We discuss whether orexin neurons may act as comparators, and their target neurons as regulators and generators. Experiments are proposed for testing such predictions, based on computational simulations showing that comparators, regulators, and generators have distinct temporal signatures of activity. If some regulators integrate orexin-communicated errors, robust arousal control may be achieved via integral feedback (a basic engineering strategy for tracking a set-point despite noise. An integral feedback view also suggests functional roles for specific molecular aspects, such as differing life-spans of orexin peptides. The proposed framework offers a unifying logic for molecular, cellular, and network details of arousal systems, and provides insight into behavioral state transitions, complex behaviour, and bases for disease.

  2. Scattering of field-aligned beam ions upstream of Earth's bow shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kis

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Field-aligned beams are known to originate from the quasi-perpendicular side of the Earth's bow shock, while the diffuse ion population consists of accelerated ions at the quasi-parallel side of the bow shock. The two distinct ion populations show typical characteristics in their velocity space distributions. By using particle and magnetic field measurements from one Cluster spacecraft we present a case study when the two ion populations are observed simultaneously in the foreshock region during a high Mach number, high solar wind velocity event. We present the spatial-temporal evolution of the field-aligned beam ion distribution in front of the Earth's bow shock, focusing on the processes in the deep foreshock region, i.e. on the quasi-parallel side. Our analysis demonstrates that the scattering of field-aligned beam (FAB ions combined with convection by the solar wind results in the presence of lower-energy, toroidal gyrating ions at positions deeper in the foreshock region which are magnetically connected to the quasi-parallel bow shock. The gyrating ions are superposed onto a higher energy diffuse ion population. It is suggested that the toroidal gyrating ion population observed deep in the foreshock region has its origins in the FAB and that its characteristics are correlated with its distance from the FAB, but is independent on distance to the bow shock along the magnetic field.

  3. Scattering of field-aligned beam ions upstream of Earth's bow shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kis

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Field-aligned beams are known to originate from the quasi-perpendicular side of the Earth's bow shock, while the diffuse ion population consists of accelerated ions at the quasi-parallel side of the bow shock. The two distinct ion populations show typical characteristics in their velocity space distributions. By using particle and magnetic field measurements from one Cluster spacecraft we present a case study when the two ion populations are observed simultaneously in the foreshock region during a high Mach number, high solar wind velocity event. We present the spatial-temporal evolution of the field-aligned beam ion distribution in front of the Earth's bow shock, focusing on the processes in the deep foreshock region, i.e. on the quasi-parallel side. Our analysis demonstrates that the scattering of field-aligned beam (FAB ions combined with convection by the solar wind results in the presence of lower-energy, toroidal gyrating ions at positions deeper in the foreshock region which are magnetically connected to the quasi-parallel bow shock. The gyrating ions are superposed onto a higher energy diffuse ion population. It is suggested that the toroidal gyrating ion population observed deep in the foreshock region has its origins in the FAB and that its characteristics are correlated with its distance from the FAB, but is independent on distance to the bow shock along the magnetic field.

  4. Blade bowing effects on radial equilibrium of inlet flow in axial compressor cascades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han XU

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The circumferentially averaged equation of the inlet flow radial equilibrium in axial compressor was deduced. It indicates that the blade inlet radial pressure gradient is closely related to the radial component of the circumferential fluctuation (CF source item. Several simplified cascades with/without aerodynamic loading were numerically studied to investigate the effects of blade bowing on the inlet flow radial equilibrium. A data reduction program was conducted to obtain the CF source from three-dimensional (3D simulation results. Flow parameters at the passage inlet were focused on and each term in the radial equilibrium equation was discussed quantitatively. Results indicate that the inviscid blade force is the inducement of the inlet CF due to geometrical asymmetry. Blade bowing induces variation of the inlet CF, thus changes the radial pressure gradient and leads to flow migration before leading edge (LE in the cascades. Positive bowing drives the inlet flow to migrate from end walls to mid-span and negative bowing turns it to the reverse direction to build a new equilibrium. In addition, comparative studies indicate that the inlet Mach number and blade loading can efficiently impact the effectiveness of blade bowing on radial equilibrium in compressor design.

  5. Multispacecraft observations of energetic ions upstream and downstream of the bow shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholer, M.; Mobius, E.; Kistler, L.M.; Klecker, B.; Ipavich, F.M.; Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park)

    1989-01-01

    We present simultaneous measurements of energetic protons and alpha particles inside and outside of the magnetopause, immediately upstream, and downstream as well as further upstream of the bow shock. A comparison between the intensity at the bow shock and further upstream results in an e-folding distance at 30 keV of similar to 6.2 R/sub E/. After transformation of the angular distribution into the solar wind frame a diffusion coefficeint of κ/sub parallel/similar to 3 R/sub E/ is obtained from the anisotropy and the intensity gradient. Immediately downstream of the bow shock the anisotropy in the shock frame is directed toward the magnetopause. After transformation into the plasma rest frame the distribution is isotropic. The intensity in the magnetosheath just outside the magnetopause is smaller than the intensity behind the bow shock. Thus, in the magnetosheath there is no gradient or streaming in the upstream direction. The spectra, intensities, and relative abundances in the magnetosheath and inside the magnetosphere are totally different. These observations are consistent with first order Fermi acceleration at the bow shock and subsequent downstream convection, and exclude a magnetospheric source for these particles. Copyright American Geophysical Union 1989

  6. BOWS (bioinformatics open web services) to centralize bioinformatics tools in web services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velloso, Henrique; Vialle, Ricardo A; Ortega, J Miguel

    2015-06-02

    Bioinformaticians face a range of difficulties to get locally-installed tools running and producing results; they would greatly benefit from a system that could centralize most of the tools, using an easy interface for input and output. Web services, due to their universal nature and widely known interface, constitute a very good option to achieve this goal. Bioinformatics open web services (BOWS) is a system based on generic web services produced to allow programmatic access to applications running on high-performance computing (HPC) clusters. BOWS intermediates the access to registered tools by providing front-end and back-end web services. Programmers can install applications in HPC clusters in any programming language and use the back-end service to check for new jobs and their parameters, and then to send the results to BOWS. Programs running in simple computers consume the BOWS front-end service to submit new processes and read results. BOWS compiles Java clients, which encapsulate the front-end web service requisitions, and automatically creates a web page that disposes the registered applications and clients. Bioinformatics open web services registered applications can be accessed from virtually any programming language through web services, or using standard java clients. The back-end can run in HPC clusters, allowing bioinformaticians to remotely run high-processing demand applications directly from their machines.

  7. BOW SHOCK FRAGMENTATION DRIVEN BY A THERMAL INSTABILITY IN LABORATORY ASTROPHYSICS EXPERIMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki-Vidal, F.; Lebedev, S. V.; Pickworth, L. A.; Swadling, G. F.; Skidmore, J.; Hall, G. N.; Bennett, M.; Bland, S. N.; Burdiak, G.; De Grouchy, P.; Music, J.; Suttle, L. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom); Ciardi, A. [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 6, UMR 8112, LERMA, F-75005, Paris (France); Rodriguez, R.; Gil, J. M.; Espinosa, G. [Departamento de Fisica de la Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, E-35017 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Hartigan, P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, 6100 S. Main, Houston, TX 77521-1892 (United States); Hansen, E.; Frank, A., E-mail: f.suzuki@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States)

    2015-12-20

    The role of radiative cooling during the evolution of a bow shock was studied in laboratory-astrophysics experiments that are scalable to bow shocks present in jets from young stellar objects. The laboratory bow shock is formed during the collision of two counterstreaming, supersonic plasma jets produced by an opposing pair of radial foil Z-pinches driven by the current pulse from the MAGPIE pulsed-power generator. The jets have different flow velocities in the laboratory frame, and the experiments are driven over many times the characteristic cooling timescale. The initially smooth bow shock rapidly develops small-scale nonuniformities over temporal and spatial scales that are consistent with a thermal instability triggered by strong radiative cooling in the shock. The growth of these perturbations eventually results in a global fragmentation of the bow shock front. The formation of a thermal instability is supported by analysis of the plasma cooling function calculated for the experimental conditions with the radiative packages ABAKO/RAPCAL.

  8. The Milky Way Project: A Citizen Science Catalog of Infrared Bow Shock Nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Don; Jayasinghe, Tharindu; Povich, Matthew S.

    2017-01-01

    We present preliminary results from the first citizen-science search for infrared stellar-wind bow shock candidates. This search uses the Milky Way project, hosted by the Zooniverse, an online platform with over 1 million volunteer citizen scientists. Milky Way Project volunteers examine 77,000 randomly-distributed Spitzer image cutouts at varying zoom levels. Volunteers mark the infrared arc of potential bow shock candidates as well as the star likely driving the nebula. We produce lists of candidates from bow shocks flagged by multiple volunteers, which after merging and final visual review form the basis for our catalog. Comparing our new catalog to a recently-published catalog of 709 infrared bow shock candidates identified by a small team of (primarily undergraduate) researchers will allow us to assess the effectiveness of citizen science for this type of search and should yield a more complete catalog. Planned studies using these large catalogs will improve constraints on the mass-loss rates for the massive stars that create these bow shock nebulae. Mass-loss rates are highly uncertain but are a critical component of evolutionary models for massive stars. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation under grants CAREER-1454334, AST-1411851 (RUI) and AST-1412845.

  9. Effects of mindfulness, reappraisal, and suppression on sad mood and cognitive resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keng, Shian-Ling; Tan, Elysia Li Yan; Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory A; Smoski, Moria J

    2017-04-01

    The present study investigated the relative effects of mindfulness, reappraisal and suppression in reducing sadness, and the extent to which implementation of these strategies affects cognitive resources in a laboratory context. A total of 171 Singaporean undergraduate participants were randomly assigned to receive brief training in mindfulness, reappraisal, or suppression prior to undergoing a sad mood induction. Individual adherence to Asian cultural values was assessed as a potential moderator of strategy effectiveness. Participants rated their mood and completed a Color-Word Stroop task before and after mood regulation instructions. Analyses using multi-level modelling showed that the suppression condition caused less robust declines in sadness over time compared to mindfulness. There was also a nonsignificant trend in which mindfulness was associated with greater sadness recovery compared to reappraisal. Suppression resulted in lower average sadness compared to mindfulness among those high on Asian cultural values, but not those low on Asian cultural values. Both mindfulness and reappraisal buffered against increases in Stroop interference from pre-to post-regulation compared to suppression. The findings highlight the advantage of mindfulness as a strategy effective not only in the regulation of sad mood, but also in the preservation of cognitive resources in the context of mood regulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Attentional deployment is not necessary for successful emotion regulation via cognitive reappraisal or expressive suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebko, Genna M; Franconeri, Steven L; Ochsner, Kevin N; Chiao, Joan Y

    2014-06-01

    According to appraisal theories of emotion, cognitive reappraisal is a successful emotion regulation strategy because it involves cognitively changing our thoughts, which, in turn, change our emotions. However, recent evidence has challenged the importance of cognitive change and, instead, has suggested that attentional deployment may at least partly explain the emotion regulation success of cognitive reappraisal. The purpose of the current study was to examine the causal relationship between attentional deployment and emotion regulation success. We examined 2 commonly used emotion regulation strategies--cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression-because both depend on attention but have divergent behavioral, experiential, and physiological outcomes. Participants were either instructed to regulate emotions during free-viewing (unrestricted image viewing) or gaze-controlled (restricted image viewing) conditions and to self-report negative emotional experience. For both emotion regulation strategies, emotion regulation success was not altered by changes in participant control over the (a) direction of attention (free-viewing vs. gaze-controlled) during image viewing and (b) valence (negative vs. neutral) of visual stimuli viewed when gaze was controlled. Taken together, these findings provide convergent evidence that attentional deployment does not alter subjective negative emotional experience during either cognitive reappraisal or expressive suppression, suggesting that strategy-specific processes, such as cognitive appraisal and response modulation, respectively, may have a greater impact on emotional regulation success than processes common to both strategies, such as attention.

  11. Value Reappraisal as a Conceptual Model for Task-Value Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acee, Taylor W.; Weinstein, Claire Ellen; Hoang, Theresa V.; Flaggs, Darolyn A.

    2018-01-01

    We discuss task-value interventions as one type of relevance intervention and propose a process model of value reappraisal whereby task-value interventions elicit cognitive-affective responses that lead to attitude change and in turn affect academic outcomes. The model incorporates a metacognitive component showing that students can intentionally…

  12. John Dewey, William Wirt and the Gary Schools Plan: A Centennial Reappraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorburn, Malcolm

    2017-01-01

    A century on from the height of John Dewey's educational writings and the reputation of the Gary Schools Plan as a model of progressive education, the paper reappraises two key matters: the relationship between John Dewey and William Wirt, the first superintendent of the Gary Schools in Gary Indiana, and the coherence between John Dewey's…

  13. Habitual exercise is associated with cognitive control and cognitive reappraisal success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Grace E; Cantelon, Julie A; Eddy, Marianna D; Brunyé, Tad T; Urry, Heather L; Mahoney, Caroline R; Kanarek, Robin B

    2017-12-01

    Habitual exercise is associated with enhanced domain-general cognitive control, such as inhibitory control, selective attention, and working memory, all of which rely on the frontal cortex. However, whether regular exercise is associated with more specific aspects of cognitive control, such as the cognitive control of emotion, remains relatively unexplored. The present study employed a correlational design to determine whether level of habitual exercise was related to performance on the Stroop test measuring selective attention and response inhibition, the cognitive reappraisal task measuring cognitive reappraisal success, and associated changes in prefrontal cortex (PFC) oxygenation using functional near-infrared spectroscopy. 74 individuals (24 men, 50 women, age 18-32 years) participated. Higher habitual physical activity was associated with lower Stroop interference (indicating greater inhibitory control) and enhanced cognitive reappraisal success. Higher habitual exercise was also associated with lower oxygenated hemoglobin (O 2 Hb) in the PFC in response to emotional information. However, NIRS data indicated that exercise was not associated with cognitive control-associated O 2 Hb in the PFC. Behaviorally, the findings support and extend the previous findings that habitual exercise relates to more successful cognitive control of neutral information and cognitive reappraisal of emotional information. Future research should explore whether habitual exercise exerts causal benefits to cognitive control and PFC oxygenation, as well as isolate specific cognitive control processes sensitive to change through habitual exercise.

  14. Re-Appraising the Role of Sonography in Pediatric Acute Abdominal Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Wei-Ching; Lin, Chien-Heng

    2013-01-01

    Objective Most pediatric emergency department (ED) visits are due to acute abdominal pain. Sonography is a reliable technique for differential diagnosis. The objective of this study was to re-appraise the role of sonography in evaluating acute abdominal pain in children. Methods Retrospective chart review of children aged

  15. Re-appraisal of the P, T-odd interaction constant Wd in YbF ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 73; Issue 3. Re-appraisal of the , -odd interaction constant d in YbF: Relativistic configuration interaction approach. Malaya K Nayak Rajat K Chaudhuri. Volume 73 Issue 3 September 2009 ...

  16. Functional overlap of top-down emotion regulation and generation: an fMRI study identifying common neural substrates between cognitive reappraisal and cognitively generated emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Benjamin; Misra, Supriya; Prasad, Aditya; McRae, Kateri

    2014-09-01

    One factor that influences the success of emotion regulation is the manner in which the regulated emotion was generated. Recent research has suggested that reappraisal, a top-down emotion regulation strategy, is more effective in decreasing self-reported negative affect when emotions were generated from the top-down, versus the bottom-up. On the basis of a process overlap framework, we hypothesized that the neural regions active during reappraisal would overlap more with emotions that were generated from the top-down, rather than from the bottom-up. In addition, we hypothesized that increased neural overlap between reappraisal and the history effects of top-down emotion generation would be associated with increased reappraisal success. The results of several analyses suggested that reappraisal and emotions that were generated from the top-down share a core network of prefrontal, temporal, and cingulate regions. This overlap is specific; no such overlap was observed between reappraisal and emotions that were generated in a bottom-up fashion. This network consists of regions previously implicated in linguistic processing, cognitive control, and self-relevant appraisals, which are processes thought to be crucial to both reappraisal and top-down emotion generation. Furthermore, individuals with high reappraisal success demonstrated greater neural overlap between reappraisal and the history of top-down emotion generation than did those with low reappraisal success. The overlap of these key regions, reflecting overlapping processes, provides an initial insight into the mechanism by which generation history may facilitate emotion regulation.

  17. Affective picture modulation: valence, arousal, attention allocation and motivational significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Jorge; Carvalho, Sandra; Galdo-Alvarez, Santiago; Alves, Jorge; Sampaio, Adriana; Gonçalves, Oscar F

    2012-03-01

    The present study analyses the modulatory effects of affective pictures in the early posterior negativity (EPN), the late positive potential (LPP) and the human startle response on both the peripheral (eye blink EMG) and central neurophysiological levels (Probe P3), during passive affective pictures viewing. The affective pictures categories were balanced in terms of valence (pleasant; unpleasant) and arousal (high; low). The data shows that EPN may be sensitive to specific stimulus characteristics (affective relevant pictures versus neutral pictures) associated with early stages of attentional processing. In later stages, the heightened attentional resource allocation as well as the motivated significance of the affective stimuli was found to elicit enhanced amplitudes of slow wave processes thought to be related to enhanced encoding, namely LPP,. Although pleasant low arousing pictures were effective in engaging the resources involved in the slow wave processes, the highly arousing affective stimuli (pleasant and unpleasant) were found to produce the largest enhancement of the LPP, suggesting that high arousing stimuli may are associated with increased motivational significance. Additionally the response to high arousing stimuli may be suggestive of increased motivational attention, given the heightened attentional allocation, as expressed in the P3 probe, especially for the pleasant pictures. The hedonic valence may then serve as a mediator of the attentional inhibition to the affective priming, potentiating or inhibiting a shift towards defensive activation, as measured by the startle reflex. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Emotional Arousal and Multiple Memory Systems in the Mammalian Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark G. Packard

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Emotional arousal induced by stress and/or anxiety can exert complex effects on learning and memory processes in mammals. Recent studies have begun to link study of the influence of emotional arousal on memory with earlier research indicating that memory is organized in multiple systems in the brain that differ in terms of the type of memory they mediate. Specifically, these studies have examined whether emotional arousal may have a differential effect on the cognitive and stimulus-response habit memory processes subserved by the hippocampus and dorsal striatum, respectively. Evidence indicates that stress or the peripheral injection of anxiogenic drugs can bias animals and humans towards the use of striatal-dependent habit memory in dual-solution tasks in which both hippocampal and stritatal-based strategies can provide an adequate solution. A bias towards the use of habit memory can also be produced by intra-basolateral amygdala administration of anxiogenic drugs, consistent with the well documented role of efferent projections of this brain region in mediating the modulatory influence of emotional arousal on memory. In some learning situations, the bias towards the use of habit memory produced by emotional arousal appears to result from an impairing effect on hippocampus-dependent cognitive memory. Further research examining the neural mechanisms linking emotion and the relative use of multiple memory systems should prove useful in view of the potential role for maladaptive habitual behaviors in various human psychopathologies.

  19. The sound of arousal in music is context-dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumstein, Daniel T; Bryant, Gregory A; Kaye, Peter

    2012-10-23

    Humans, and many non-human animals, produce and respond to harsh, unpredictable, nonlinear sounds when alarmed, possibly because these are produced when acoustic production systems (vocal cords and syrinxes) are overblown in stressful, dangerous situations. Humans can simulate nonlinearities in music and soundtracks through the use of technological manipulations. Recent work found that film soundtracks from different genres differentially contain such sounds. We designed two experiments to determine specifically how simulated nonlinearities in soundtracks influence perceptions of arousal and valence. Subjects were presented with emotionally neutral musical exemplars that had neither noise nor abrupt frequency transitions, or versions of these musical exemplars that had noise or abrupt frequency upshifts or downshifts experimentally added. In a second experiment, these acoustic exemplars were paired with benign videos. Judgements of both arousal and valence were altered by the addition of these simulated nonlinearities in the first, music-only, experiment. In the second, multi-modal, experiment, valence (but not arousal) decreased with the addition of noise or frequency downshifts. Thus, the presence of a video image suppressed the ability of simulated nonlinearities to modify arousal. This is the first study examining how nonlinear simulations in music affect emotional judgements. These results demonstrate that the perception of potentially fearful or arousing sounds is influenced by the perceptual context and that the addition of a visual modality can antagonistically suppress the response to an acoustic stimulus.

  20. Elevated amygdala activity during reappraisal anticipation predicts anxiety in avoidant personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Bryan T; Fan, Jin; Liu, Xun; Ochsner, Kevin N; Guerreri, Stephanie; Mayson, Sarah Jo; Rimsky, Liza; McMaster, Antonia; New, Antonia S; Goodman, Marianne; Siever, Larry J; Koenigsberg, Harold W

    2015-02-01

    Avoidant personality disorder is characterized by pervasive anxiety, fear of criticism, disapproval, and rejection, particularly in anticipation of exposure to social situations. An important but underexplored question concerns whether anxiety in avoidant patients is associated with an impaired ability to engage emotion regulatory strategies in anticipation of and during appraisal of negative social stimuli. We examined the use of an adaptive emotion regulation strategy, cognitive reappraisal, in avoidant patients. In addition to assessing individual differences in state and trait anxiety levels, self-reported affect as well as measures of neural activity were compared between 17 avoidant patients and 21 healthy control participants both in anticipation of and during performance of a reappraisal task. Avoidant patients showed greater state and trait-related anxiety relative to healthy participants. In addition, relative to healthy participants, avoidant patients showed pronounced amygdala hyper-reactivity during reappraisal anticipation, and this hyper-reactivity effect was positively associated with increasing self-reported anxiety levels. Our finding of exaggerated amygdala activity during reappraisal anticipation could reflect anxiety about the impending need to reappraise, anxiety about the certainty of an upcoming negative image, or anxiety relating to anticipated scrutiny of task responses by the experimenters. While we believe that all of these possibilities are consistent with the phenomenology of avoidant personality disorder, future research may clarify this ambiguity. These results suggest that amygdala reactivity in anticipation of receiving negative social information may represent a key component of the neural mechanisms underlying the heightened anxiety present in avoidant patients. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. A matched Bow-tie antenna at 433MHz for use in underwater wireless sensor networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, A A; Shaw, A; Mason, A; Al-Shamma'a, A; Cullen, J; Wylie, S; Diallo, M

    2013-01-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation underwater is been disregarded because of attenuation at high frequencies, however the theory predicts that propagation is possible at some useful distance in the lower Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) band. Common transceivers rely on narrowband antennas and matching circuit. The aim of this paper is to design a broadband 433MHz bow-tie antenna and experiment it in air and water without a matching circuit. This antenna could be attached to wireless transceivers and form a Wireless Sensor Network for deployment in various underwater applications. The bow-tie antennas were designed, simulated and constructed in laboratory. Experiments were setup carefully by using a completely isolated transmitter from electronics to avoid airborne transmission. The 433MHz. bow-tie proved its suitability for use in Underwater.

  2. Sedentism, social change, warfare, and the bow in the ancient Pueblo Southwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Paul F; Geib, Phil R

    2013-01-01

    In the ancient American Southwest, use of the bow developed relatively rapidly among Pueblo people by the fifth century AD. This new technology replaced the millennia-old atlatl and dart weaponry system. Roughly 150 years later in the AD 600s, Pueblo socioeconomic organization began to evolve rapidly, as many groups adopted a much more sedentary life. Multiple factors converged to allow this sedentary pattern to emerge, but the role of the bow in this process has not been fully explored. In this paper, we trace the development of the bow and discuss its role as sedentism emerged and social changes occurred in ancient Puebloan society from the fifth through seventh centuries AD. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Reliability of the input admittance of bowed-string instruments measured by the hammer method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ailin; Woodhouse, Jim

    2014-12-01

    The input admittance at the bridge, measured by hammer testing, is often regarded as the most useful and convenient measurement of the vibrational behavior of a bowed string instrument. However, this method has been questioned, due especially to differences between human bowing and hammer impact. The goal of the research presented here is to investigate the reliability and accuracy of this classic hammer method. Experimental studies were carried out on cellos, with three different driving conditions and three different boundary conditions. Results suggest that there is nothing fundamentally different about the hammer method, compared to other kinds of excitation. The third series of experiments offers an opportunity to explore the difference between the input admittance measuring from one bridge corner to another and that of single strings. The classic measurement is found to give a reasonable approximation to that of all four strings. Some possible differences between the hammer method and normal bowing and implications of the acoustical results are also discussed.

  4. A numerical study on bow shocks around the lightning return stroke channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Qiang; Chen, Bin; Yi, Yun; Chen, P. F.; Mao, Yunfei; Xiong, Run

    2015-01-01

    Bow shock structures are important to various hydrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) phenomena in geophysics and astrophysics. The formation and propagation of bow shocks around the lightning return stroke channel are investigated based on the self-similar motion theory and simulated with a two-dimensional Eulerian finite volume resistive radiation MHD code. In this framework, as verification of theoretical models, the evolving structures of many quantities, such as the plasma density, temperature, pressure, shock velocity, and magnetic field, can be obtained, which present all the characteristics of bow shocks in the lightning return stroke processes. The evolution characteristics and the configuration of the curved return stroke channels, e.g., the non-ideal effects and the scaling laws, are discussed in detail. The results may have applications for some observed features of the return stroke channels and other phenomena in the lightning discharge plasmas

  5. An IRAS/ISSA Survey of Bow Shocks Around Runaway Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buren, David Van

    1995-01-01

    We searched for bow shock-like objects like those known around Oph and a Cam near the positions of 183 runaway stars. Based primarily on the presence and morphology of excess 60 micron emission we identify 56 new candidate bow shocks, for which we determine photometric and morphological parameters. Previously only a dozen or so were known. Well resolved structures are present around 25 stars. A comparison of the distribution of symmetry axes of the infrared nebulae with that of their proper motion vectors indicates that these two directions are very significantly aligned. The observed alignment strongly suggests that the structures we see arise from the interaction of stellar winds with the interstellar medium, justifying the identification of these far-infrared objects as stellar wind bow shocks.

  6. Prenatal diagnosis of metatropic dysplasia: beware of the pseudo-bowing sign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garel, Catherine; Dhouib, Amira; Sileo, Chiara; Ducou le Pointe, Hubert; Cormier-Daire, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    Metatropic dysplasia is a very rare form of osteochondrodysplasia with only one case of prenatal diagnosis described in the literature. It is characterized by marked shortening of the long bones with severe platyspondyly and dumbbell-shape metaphyses. We report a case of metatropic dysplasia that was diagnosed prenatally and describe the findings on US and CT. The pregnancy was terminated and the post-mortem radiographs are shown. The woman had been referred for short and bowed long bones. Severe metaphyseal enlargement was a misleading finding because it had been misinterpreted as limb bowing. Thus when abnormal curvature of the long bones is observed at prenatal US, attention should be drawn not only to the diaphyses but also to the metaphyses because severe metaphyseal enlargement might be responsible for pseudo-bowing. (orig.)

  7. Prenatal diagnosis of metatropic dysplasia: beware of the pseudo-bowing sign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garel, Catherine [Trousseau Hospital, University Hospitals of the East of Paris, Department of Radiology, Paris (France); Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, Department of Radiology, Paris (France); Dhouib, Amira; Sileo, Chiara; Ducou le Pointe, Hubert [Trousseau Hospital, University Hospitals of the East of Paris, Department of Radiology, Paris (France); Cormier-Daire, Valerie [Paris Descartes University, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Necker-Enfants-Malades Hospital, Department of Genetics, Paris (France)

    2014-03-15

    Metatropic dysplasia is a very rare form of osteochondrodysplasia with only one case of prenatal diagnosis described in the literature. It is characterized by marked shortening of the long bones with severe platyspondyly and dumbbell-shape metaphyses. We report a case of metatropic dysplasia that was diagnosed prenatally and describe the findings on US and CT. The pregnancy was terminated and the post-mortem radiographs are shown. The woman had been referred for short and bowed long bones. Severe metaphyseal enlargement was a misleading finding because it had been misinterpreted as limb bowing. Thus when abnormal curvature of the long bones is observed at prenatal US, attention should be drawn not only to the diaphyses but also to the metaphyses because severe metaphyseal enlargement might be responsible for pseudo-bowing. (orig.)

  8. Improved bow shock models for Herbig-Haro objects - application to HH 2A-prime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, J.C.; Hartmann, L.; Hartigan, P.

    1988-01-01

    An improved version of the bow shock theory previously applied to Herbig-Haro objects is presented. The modifications provide a more accurate calculation of the ionization state of material entering the bow shock. The revised preionization does not drastically affect the emission-line predictions for a 200 km/s bow shock model, though the effects will be more severe for slower shock velocities. The line profiles of the new models resemble the observed profiles somewhat more closely, and the relative emission-line intensities typically differ by 30 percent from those predicted by the older models. The models agree well with new IUE spectra and existing optical data for HH 2A-prime. 32 references

  9. A Possible Buried Impact Structure Near Bow City, Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, W.; Glombick, P.; Schmitt, D. R.; Bown, T. D.

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, improved exploration techniques have resulted in the serendipitous discoveries of increasing numbers of extraterrestrial impact structures in sedimentary basins around the world. Following in this tradition, a new potential impact structure centered near 50.4°N, 112.35°N in SE Alberta has been identified. The first indications of this structure appeared in careful systematic mapping of Cretaceous age sediments using public domain well log information that showed overturned and missing components in what regionally is a simple layered stratigraphy. This motivated the examination of legacy 2D seismic profiles over the area that confirmed the stratigraphic anomalies and provided new details that further supported interpretation of a potential impact structure. Further, the existence of unexpected faults through the Cretaceous Bearpaw formation had been noted as early as the 1940's in the limited outcrop available in coulees, and these as well as other complex fault structures along the Bow River outcrops were confirmed in recent field visits to the site. The 2D seismic data displays a number of listric and rose-petal faulting consistent with late stage collapse of the impact crater. Further, a seismically transparent central uplift peak is visible. Based on the results, the structure is recognized as a complex crater with a diameter of approximately 8 kilometers and, today, bottoming at a depth of 900 meters from the current surface. Currently, the age of the feature is grossly estimated to be less than 70 my on the basis of underlying undisturbed seismic reflectors. The structure may be somewhat unique in that weak coals surrounding the feature are clearly thickened indicating outward lateral sliding along shear planes through weaker layers. Work in progress includes acquisition of a high resolution seismic profile and detailed mapping of the magnetic and gravity potential fields. More detailed mapping will include searches for shock metamorphism

  10. Preliminary support for a generalized arousal model of political conservatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tritt, Shona M; Inzlicht, Michael; Peterson, Jordan B

    2013-01-01

    It is widely held that negative emotions such as threat, anxiety, and disgust represent the core psychological factors that enhance conservative political beliefs. We put forward an alternative hypothesis: that conservatism is fundamentally motivated by arousal, and that, in this context, the effect of negative emotion is due to engaging intensely arousing states. Here we show that study participants agreed more with right but not left-wing political speeches after being exposed to positive as well as negative emotion-inducing film-clips. No such effect emerged for neutral-content videos. A follow-up study replicated and extended this effect. These results are consistent with the idea that emotional arousal, in general, and not negative valence, specifically, may underlie political conservatism.

  11. Preliminary Support for a Generalized Arousal Model of Political Conservatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tritt, Shona M.; Inzlicht, Michael; Peterson, Jordan B.

    2013-01-01

    It is widely held that negative emotions such as threat, anxiety, and disgust represent the core psychological factors that enhance conservative political beliefs. We put forward an alternative hypothesis: that conservatism is fundamentally motivated by arousal, and that, in this context, the effect of negative emotion is due to engaging intensely arousing states. Here we show that study participants agreed more with right but not left-wing political speeches after being exposed to positive as well as negative emotion-inducing film-clips. No such effect emerged for neutral-content videos. A follow-up study replicated and extended this effect. These results are consistent with the idea that emotional arousal, in general, and not negative valence, specifically, may underlie political conservatism. PMID:24376687

  12. Magnetic field fluctuations across the Earth's bow shock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czaykowska, A.; Bauer, T.M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Garching (Germany); Treumann, R.A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Garching (Germany); Centre for Interdisciplinary Plasma Science, Garching (Germany); International Space Science Inst. (ISSI), Bern (Switzerland); Baumjohann, W. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Garching (Germany); Inst. fuer Weltraumforschung der Oesterreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Graz (Austria)

    2001-03-01

    We present a statistical analysis of 132 dayside (LT 0700-1700) bow shock crossings of the AMPTE/IRM spacecraft. We perform a superposed epoch analysis of low frequency, magnetic power spectra some minutes upstream and downstream of the bow shock. The events are devided into categories depending on the angle {theta}{sub Bn} between bow shock normal and interplanetary magnetic field, and on plasma-{beta}. In the foreshock upstream of the quasi-parallel bow shock, the power of the magnetic fluctuations is roughly 1 order of magnitude larger ({delta}B {proportional_to} 4 nT for frequencies 0.01-0.04 Hz) than upstream of the quasi-perpendicular shock. There is no significant difference in the magnetic power spectra upstream and downstream of the quasi-parallel bow shock; only at the shock itself, is the magnetic power enhanced by a factor of 4. This enhancement may be due to either an amplification of convecting upstream waves or to wave generation at the shock interface. On the contrary, downstream of the quasi-perpendicular shock, the magnetic wave activity is considerably higher than upstream. Downstream of the quasi-perpendicular low-{beta} bow shock, we find a dominance of the left-hand polarized component at frequencies just below the ion-cyclotron frequency, with amplitudes of about 3 nT. These waves are identified as ion-cyclotron waves, which grow in a low-{beta} regime due to the proton temperature anisotropy. We find a strong correlation of this anisotropy with the intensity of the left-hand polarized component. Downstream of some nearly perpendicular ({theta}{sub Bn} {approx} 90 ) high-{beta} crossings, mirror waves are identified. However, there are also cases where the conditions for mirror modes are met downstream of the nearly perpendicular shock, but no mirror waves are observed. (orig.)

  13. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF THE SVS 13 MICROJET AND BOW SHOCK BUBBLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, Carl L.; Jones, Jeremiah R.; Hodapp, Klaus W.

    2016-01-01

    Numerical simulations of the SVS 13 microjet and bow shock bubble are performed using the WENO method that reproduces the main features and dynamics of data from the Keck Telescope/OSIRIS velocity-resolved integral field spectrograph: an expanding, cooler bow shock bubble, with the bubble center moving at approximately 50 km s −1 with a radial expansion velocity of 11 km s −1 , surrounding the fast, hotter jet, which is propagating at 156 km s −1 . Contact and bow shock waves are visible in the simulations both from the initial short jet pulse that creates the nearly spherical bow shock bubble and from the fast microjet, while a terminal Mach disk shock is visible near the tip of the continuous microjet, which reduces the velocity of the jet gas down to the flow velocity of the contact discontinuity at the leading edge of the jet. At 21.1 years after the launch of the initial bubble pulse, the jet has caught up with and penetrated almost all the way across the bow shock bubble of the slower initial pulse. At times later than about 22 years, the jet has penetrated through the bubble and thereafter begins to subsume its spherical form. Emission maps from the simulations of the jet—traced by the emission of the shock-excited 1.644 μ m [Fe ii] line—and the bow shock bubble—traced in the lower excitation 2.122 μ m H 2 1–0 S(1) line—projected onto the plane of the sky are presented, and are in good agreement with the Keck observations.

  14. Numerical Simulation of the SVS 13 Microjet and Bow Shock Bubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Carl L.; Jones, Jeremiah R.; Hodapp, Klaus W.

    2016-10-01

    Numerical simulations of the SVS 13 microjet and bow shock bubble are performed using the WENO method that reproduces the main features and dynamics of data from the Keck Telescope/OSIRIS velocity-resolved integral field spectrograph: an expanding, cooler bow shock bubble, with the bubble center moving at approximately 50 km s-1 with a radial expansion velocity of 11 km s-1, surrounding the fast, hotter jet, which is propagating at 156 km s-1. Contact and bow shock waves are visible in the simulations both from the initial short jet pulse that creates the nearly spherical bow shock bubble and from the fast microjet, while a terminal Mach disk shock is visible near the tip of the continuous microjet, which reduces the velocity of the jet gas down to the flow velocity of the contact discontinuity at the leading edge of the jet. At 21.1 years after the launch of the initial bubble pulse, the jet has caught up with and penetrated almost all the way across the bow shock bubble of the slower initial pulse. At times later than about 22 years, the jet has penetrated through the bubble and thereafter begins to subsume its spherical form. Emission maps from the simulations of the jet—traced by the emission of the shock-excited 1.644 μm [Fe II] line—and the bow shock bubble—traced in the lower excitation 2.122 μm H2 1-0 S(1) line—projected onto the plane of the sky are presented, and are in good agreement with the Keck observations.

  15. Accuracy of two face-bow/semi-adjustable articulator systems in transferring the maxillary occlusal cant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazia Nazir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The precision of an arbitrary face-bow in accurately transferring the orientation of the maxillary cast to the articulator has been questioned because the maxillary cast is mounted in relation to arbitrary measurements and anatomic landmarks that vary among individuals. Aim: This study was intended to evaluate the sagittal inclination of mounted maxillary casts on two semi-adjustable articulator/face-bow systems in comparison to the occlusal cant on lateral cephalograms. Materials and Methods: Maxillary casts were mounted on the Hanau and Girrbach semi-adjustable articulators following face-bow transfer with their respective face-bows. The sagittal inclination of these casts was measured in relation to the fixed horizontal reference plane using physical measurements. Occlusal cant was measured on lateral cephalograms. SPSS software (version 11.0, Chicago, IL, USA was used for statistical analysis. Repeated measures analysis of variance and Tukey′s tests were used to evaluate the results (P < 0.05. Results: Comparison of the occlusal cant on the articulators and cephalogram revealed statistically significant differences. Occlusal plane was steeper on Girrbach Artex articulator in comparison to the Hanau articulator. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it was found that the sagittal inclination of the mounted maxillary cast achieved with Hanau articulator was closer to the cephalometric occlusal cant as compared to that of the Girrbach articulator. Among the two articulators and face-bow systems, the steepness of sagittal inclination was greater on Girrbach semi-adjustable articulator. Different face-bow/articulator systems could result in different orientation of the maxillary cast, resulting in variation in stability, cuspal inclines and cuspal heights.

  16. Accuracy of two face-bow/semi-adjustable articulator systems in transferring the maxillary occlusal cant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazir, Nazia; Sujesh, M; Kumar, Ravi; Sreenivas, P

    2012-01-01

    The precision of an arbitrary face-bow in accurately transferring the orientation of the maxillary cast to the articulator has been questioned because the maxillary cast is mounted in relation to arbitrary measurements and anatomic landmarks that vary among individuals. This study was intended to evaluate the sagittal inclination of mounted maxillary casts on two semi-adjustable articulator/face-bow systems in comparison to the occlusal cant on lateral cephalograms. Maxillary casts were mounted on the Hanau and Girrbach semi-adjustable articulators following face-bow transfer with their respective face-bows. The sagittal inclination of these casts was measured in relation to the fixed horizontal reference plane using physical measurements. Occlusal cant was measured on lateral cephalograms. SPSS software (version 11.0, Chicago, IL, USA) was used for statistical analysis. Repeated measures analysis of variance and Tukey's tests were used to evaluate the results (P occlusal cant on the articulators and cephalogram revealed statistically significant differences. Occlusal plane was steeper on Girrbach Artex articulator in comparison to the Hanau articulator. Within the limitations of this study, it was found that the sagittal inclination of the mounted maxillary cast achieved with Hanau articulator was closer to the cephalometric occlusal cant as compared to that of the Girrbach articulator. Among the two articulators and face-bow systems, the steepness of sagittal inclination was greater on Girrbach semi-adjustable articulator. Different face-bow/articulator systems could result in different orientation of the maxillary cast, resulting in variation in stability, cuspal inclines and cuspal heights.

  17. The ubiquitous interleukin-6: a time for reappraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisman Enrique Z

    2010-10-01

    . Interleukins were termed "good" or "bad", probably due to a tendency to see things in black and white, with no gray area in between. Calling IL-6 "a molecule with both beneficial and destructive potentials" would be a more equitable approach. In the literary creatures of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, a good and an evil personality are found in the same individual. IL-6 playing the role of Dr. Jekyll is emerging; the time for IL-6 reappraisal is coming.

  18. Regulating Anger under Stress via Cognitive Reappraisal and Sadness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Jun; Wu, Xiaofei; Fan, Jin; Guo, Jianyou; Zhou, Jianshe; Ren, Jun; Liu, Chang; Luo, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have reported the failure of cognitive emotion regulation (CER), especially in regulating unpleasant emotions under stress. The underlying reason for this failure was the application of CER depends heavily on the executive function of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), but this function can be impaired by stress-related neuroendocrine hormones. This observation highlights the necessity of developing self-regulatory strategies that require less top-down cognitive control. Based on traditional Chinese philosophy and medicine, which examine how different types of emotions promote or counteract one another, we have developed a novel emotion regulation strategy whereby one emotion is used to alter another. For example, our previous experiment showed that sadness induction (after watching a sad film) could reduce aggressive behavior associated with anger [i.e., "sadness counteracts anger" (SCA)] (Zhan et al., 2015). Relative to the CER strategy requiring someone to think about certain cognitive reappraisals to reinterpret the meaning of an unpleasant situation, watching a film or listening to music and experiencing the emotion contained therein seemingly requires less cognitive effort and control; therefore, this SCA strategy may be an alternative strategy that compensates for the limitations of cognitive regulation strategies, especially in stressful situations. The present study was designed to directly compare the effects of the CER and SCA strategy in regulating anger and anger-related aggression in stressful and non-stressful conditions. Participants' subjective feeling of anger, anger-related aggressive behavior, skin conductance, and salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase levels were measured. Our findings revealed that acute stress impaired one's ability to use CR to control angry responses provoked by others, whereas stress did not influence the efficiency of the SCA strategy. Compared with sadness or neutral emotion induction, CER induction was found to

  19. Regulating Anger under Stress via Cognitive Reappraisal and Sadness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported the failure of cognitive emotion regulation (CER, especially in regulating unpleasant emotions under stress. The underlying reason for this failure was the application of CER depends heavily on the executive function of the prefrontal cortex (PFC, but this function can be impaired by stress-related neuroendocrine hormones. This observation highlights the necessity of developing self-regulatory strategies that require less top-down cognitive control. Based on traditional Chinese philosophy and medicine, which examine how different types of emotions promote or counteract one another, we have developed a novel emotion regulation strategy whereby one emotion is used to alter another. For example, our previous experiment showed that sadness induction (after watching a sad film could reduce aggressive behavior associated with anger [i.e., “sadness counteracts anger” (SCA] (Zhan et al., 2015. Relative to the CER strategy requiring someone to think about certain cognitive reappraisals to reinterpret the meaning of an unpleasant situation, watching a film or listening to music and experiencing the emotion contained therein seemingly requires less cognitive effort and control; therefore, this SCA strategy may be an alternative strategy that compensates for the limitations of cognitive regulation strategies, especially in stressful situations. The present study was designed to directly compare the effects of the CER and SCA strategy in regulating anger and anger-related aggression in stressful and non-stressful conditions. Participants’ subjective feeling of anger, anger-related aggressive behavior, skin conductance, and salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase levels were measured. Our findings revealed that acute stress impaired one’s ability to use CR to control angry responses provoked by others, whereas stress did not influence the efficiency of the SCA strategy. Compared with sadness or neutral emotion induction, CER

  20. False physiological feedback and persuasion: effect of fear arousal vs. fear reduction on attitude change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrick, C; Giesen, M; Borden, R

    1975-06-01

    Two experiments tested the hypothesis that increases in false physiological feedback of fear arousal will enhance persuasion and that reduction in the arousal feedback is unnecessary for increased persuasion to occur. Prior research has usually found a positive relation between level of arousal and persuasion, but support for the drive reduction hypothesis is tenuous. However, Harris and Jellison (1971) claimed support for such a hypothesis. They manipulated subjects' fear arousal cognitively via false physiological feedback while the subjects listened to a persuasive communication. The present experiments used a similar procedure in an attempt to test an "arousal only" against an "arousal reduction" hypothesis. Subjects listened to a persuasive speech while receiving false feedback via a meter concerning their fear arousal. In Experiment I half of the subjects received high arousal and half received moderate arousal information. Within each of these conditions half of the subjects had their arousal reduced, and the other half did not. In Experiment II subjects received either low arousal, high arousal, or high then low arousal feedback while listening. The results of the two studies generally provided support for the "arousal only" hypothesis. An interpretation in terms of Bem's attribution theory was tentatively suggested.

  1. Threat Reappraisal as a Mediator of Symptom Change in Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of Anxiety Disorders: A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.A.J.; Julian, K.; Rosenfield, D.; Powers, M.B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Identifying mediators of therapeutic change is important to the development of interventions and augmentation strategies. Threat reappraisal is considered a key mediator underlying the effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders. The present study systematically

  2. 76 FR 2710 - Pitney Bowes, Inc., Mailing Solutions Management Division Including On-Site Leased Workers of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ...., Mailing Solutions Management Division Including On-Site Leased Workers of Guidant Group, and Teleworkers... Bowes, Inc., Mailing Solutions Management Division, Engineering Quality Assurance, Shelton, Connecticut... identity of the subject worker group. The worker group consists of workers of Pitney Bowes, Inc., the...

  3. Wrist muscle activity of khatrah approach in Mameluke technique using traditional bow archery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariffin, Muhammad Shahimi; Rambely, Azmin Sham; Ariff, Noratiqah Mohd

    2018-04-01

    An investigation of khatrah technique in archery was carried out. An electromyography (EMG) experiment was conducted towards six wrist muscles which are flexor carpi radialis, extensor carpi ulnaris and extensor digitorum communis for both arms. The maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) and activity data were recorded. The bow arm produced a higher muscle force compared to draw arm muscles during release phase. However, the muscle forces produced by bow arm had a consistency in term of pattern throughout the phases. In conclusion, the forces generated by the professional archer produced a force benchmark at the wrist joint to alleviate the risk of injury.

  4. ASYMPTOTIC STEADY-STATE SOLUTION TO A BOW SHOCK WITH AN INFINITE MACH NUMBER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yalinewich, Almog; Sari, Re’em [Racah Institute of Physics, the Hebrew University, 91904, Jerusalem (Israel)

    2016-08-01

    The problem of a cold gas flowing past a stationary obstacle is considered. We study the bow shock that forms around the obstacle and show that at large distances from the obstacle the shock front forms a parabolic solid of revolution. The profiles of the hydrodynamic variables in the interior of the shock are obtained by solution of the hydrodynamic equations in parabolic coordinates. The results are verified with a hydrodynamic simulation. The drag force on the obstacle is also calculated. Finally, we use these results to model the bow shock around an isolated neutron star.

  5. Sexual arousal and rhythmic synchronization: A possible effect of vasopressin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miani, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Music is ubiquitous. Yet, its biological relevance is still an ongoing debate. Supporting the view that music had an ancestral role in courtship displays, a pilot study presented here provides preliminary evidence on the link between music and sexual selection. The underlying hypothesis is based...... by vasopressin and its genes. Hence, to test this hypothesis, a rhythmic synchronization task was employed here on one male subject during sexual arousal. Results revealed a significant effect of sexual arousal on rhythm synchronization. This is the first report that empirically supports the hypothesis...

  6. Reappraisal deficits promote craving and emotional distress among chronic pain patients at risk for prescription opioid misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Eric L; Hanley, Adam W; Bedford, Carter E; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Howard, Matthew O; Nakamura, Yoshio; Donaldson, Gary W; Froeliger, Brett

    2018-06-04

    A subset of chronic pain patients misuse prescription opioids as a means of regulating negative emotions. However, opioid misuse may result in deficits in emotion regulation strategies like reappraisal by virtue of the deleterious effects of chronic opioid exposure. The aim of this study was to characterize differences in reappraisal use among chronic pain patients at risk for opioid misuse and those who report taking opioids as prescribed. A sample of 127 pain patients receiving chronic opioid analgesic pharmacotherapy were classified as at risk for opioid misuse (n = 62) or taking opioids as prescribed (n = 65) using the Current Opioid Misuse Measure (COMM). The Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ) characterized use of emotion regulation strategies including reappraisal and expressive suppression. Participants also reported levels of opioid craving, emotional distress, and pain severity. Patients at risk for opioid misuse reported significantly less reappraisal use (M = 25.31, SD = 7.33) than those who reportedly took opioids as prescribed (M = 30.28, SD = 7.50), p<.001, but did differ with regard to suppression strategies. Reduced reappraisal use was associated with higher opioid craving and emotional distress that mediated the association between reappraisal deficits and opioid misuse risk. Further, there was a significant indirect effect of opioid misuse on emotional distress via reappraisal use. Opioid misuse risk was associated with reduced use of reappraisal, which in turn was associated with dysregulated negative emotions and increased appetitive drive towards consuming opioids. Studying individual differences in emotion regulation may yield efficacious intervention and prevention approaches to stem the rising tide of the prescription opioid crisis.

  7. Sex differences in patterns of genital sexual arousal: measurement artifacts or true phenomena?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suschinsky, Kelly D; Lalumière, Martin L; Chivers, Meredith L

    2009-08-01

    Sex differences in patterns of sexual arousal have been reported recently. Men's genital arousal is typically more category-specific than women's, such that men experience their greatest genital arousal to stimuli depicting their preferred sex partners whereas women experience significant genital arousal to stimuli depicting both their preferred and non-preferred sex partners. In addition, men's genital and subjective sexual arousal patterns are more concordant than women's: The correlation between genital and subjective sexual arousal is much larger in men than in women. These sex differences could be due to low response-specificity in the measurement of genital arousal in women. The most commonly used measure of female sexual arousal, vaginal photoplethysmography, has not been fully validated and may not measure sexual arousal specifically. A total of 20 men and 20 women were presented with various sexual and non-sexual emotionally laden short film clips while their genital and subjective sexual arousal were measured. Results suggest that vaginal photoplethysmography is a measure of sexual arousal exclusively. Women's genital responses were highest during sexual stimuli and absent during all non-sexual stimuli. Sex differences in degree of category-specificity and concordance were replicated: Men's genital responses were more category-specific than women's and men's genital and subjective sexual arousal were more strongly correlated than women's. The results from the current study support the continued use of vaginal photoplethysmography in investigating sex differences in patterns of sexual arousal.

  8. Emotional intelligence buffers the effect of physiological arousal on dishonesty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pittarello, Andrea; Conte, Beatrice; Caserotti, Marta; Scrimin, Sara; Rubaltelli, Enrico

    We studied the emotional processes that allow people to balance two competing desires: benefitting from dishonesty and keeping a positive self-image. We recorded physiological arousal (skin conductance and heart rate) during a computer card game in which participants could cheat and fail to report a

  9. Cognitive Factors in Sexual Arousal: The Role of Distraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geer, James H.; Fuhr, Robert

    1976-01-01

    Four groups of male undergraduates were instructed to perform complex cognitive operations when randomly presented single digits of a dichotic listening paradigm. An erotic tape recording was played into the nonattended ear. Sexual arousal varied directly as a function of the complexity of the distracting cognitive operations. (Author)

  10. Age differences in liking and recall of arousing television commercials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Goot, M.; van Reijmersdal, E.; Eisend, M.; Langner, T.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines age differences in liking of arousing television commercials and recall of the advertised brands and products. Based on the activation theory of information exposure, sensation seeking theory and the limited capacity model of mediated message processing, we expect that the

  11. A Model of Anxious Arousal for Public Speaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Amber N.; Sawyer, Chris R.; Behnke, Ralph R.

    2009-01-01

    With the goal of identifying the characteristics or traits students bring to the classroom that predispose them to panic when faced with the threat of presenting in front of an audience, this study introduced a subtype of public-speaking state anxiety--anxious arousal. Specifically, this study examined the extent to which trait anxiety and…

  12. EEG arousal prediction via hypoxemia indicator in patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a sleep breathing disorder characterized by recurrent airflow obstruction caused by a total or partial collapse of the upper airway. OSAS is a common affliction suffered by millions. The arousal index (ArI) is the best predictor of daytime somnolence for patients with OSAS, ...

  13. Prediction of valence and arousal from music features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Brinker, A.C.; Van Dinther, C.H.B.A.; Skowronek, J.

    2011-01-01

    Mood is an important attribute of music and knowledge on mood can beused as a basic ingredient in music recommender and retrieval systems. Moods are assumed to be dominantly determined by two dimensions:valence and arousal. An experiment was conducted to attain data forsong-based ratings of valence

  14. Driving with music : Effects on arousal and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unal, Ayca Berfu; de Waard, Dick; Epstude, Kai; Steg, Linda

    2013-01-01

    In the current study, we aimed at exploring the influence of music on driving performance, arousal and mental effort while carrying out a monotonous car-following task in a low-complexity traffic setting. Participants (N = 47) were randomly assigned to loud and moderate volume music groups, and

  15. Emotional Valence and Arousal Effects on Memory and Hemispheric Asymmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mneimne, Malek; Powers, Alice S.; Walton, Kate E.; Kosson, David S.; Fonda, Samantha; Simonetti, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    This study examined predictions based upon the right hemisphere (RH) model, the valence-arousal model, and a recently proposed integrated model (Killgore & Yurgelun-Todd, 2007) of emotion processing by testing immediate recall and recognition memory for positive, negative, and neutral verbal stimuli among 35 right-handed women. Building upon…

  16. Exposure to arousal-inducing sounds facilitates visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asutay, Erkin; Västfjäll, Daniel

    2017-09-04

    Exposure to affective stimuli could enhance perception and facilitate attention via increasing alertness, vigilance, and by decreasing attentional thresholds. However, evidence on the impact of affective sounds on perception and attention is scant. Here, a novel aspect of affective facilitation of attention is studied: whether arousal induced by task-irrelevant auditory stimuli could modulate attention in a visual search. In two experiments, participants performed a visual search task with and without auditory-cues that preceded the search. Participants were faster in locating high-salient targets compared to low-salient targets. Critically, search times and search slopes decreased with increasing auditory-induced arousal while searching for low-salient targets. Taken together, these findings suggest that arousal induced by sounds can facilitate attention in a subsequent visual search. This novel finding provides support for the alerting function of the auditory system by showing an auditory-phasic alerting effect in visual attention. The results also indicate that stimulus arousal modulates the alerting effect. Attention and perception are our everyday tools to navigate our surrounding world and the current findings showing that affective sounds could influence visual attention provide evidence that we make use of affective information during perceptual processing.

  17. Tracking arousal state and mind wandering with pupillometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, Nash; Robison, Matthew K

    2018-04-13

    In four experiments, the association between arousal state and different mind-wandering states was examined. Participants performed a sustained attention task while pupil responses were continuously recorded. Periodically during the task, participants were presented with thought probes to determine if they were on task or mind wandering. Across the four experiments, the results suggested that in situations that promoted on-task behaviors and focused external attention, mind wandering was associated with lowered arousal, as seen by smaller tonic pupil diameters and smaller phasic pupillary responses. However, in situations that promoted a more internal focus of attention, there were no differences between on-task states and mind wandering in tonic pupil diameter (although differences emerged for phasic pupillary responses), suggesting similar arousal levels. Furthermore, across the four experiments, mind blanking and mind wandering dissociated in terms of whether the situation promoted focused external attention or focused internal attention. These results are broadly consistent with the notion that mind wandering is a heterogeneous construct, with different forms of mind wandering being associated with different arousal states, and suggest that a combination of behavioral and pupillary measures can be used to track these various states.

  18. Arousal, exploration and the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jepma, Marieke

    2011-01-01

    The studies described in this thesis address a range of topics related to arousal, exploration, temporal attention, and the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE) system. Chapters 2 and 3 report two studies that investigated a recent theory about the role of the LC-NE system in the regulation of the

  19. Paroxysmal arousal in epilepsy associated with cingulate hyperperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetrugno, R; Mascalchi, M; Vella, A; Della Nave, R; Provini, F; Plazzi, G; Volterrani, D; Bertelli, P; Vattimo, A; Lugaresi, E; Montagna, P

    2005-01-25

    A patient with nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy characterized by paroxysmal motor attacks during sleep had brief paroxysmal arousals (PAs), complex episodes of nocturnal paroxysmal dystonia, and epileptic nocturnal wandering since childhood. Ictal SPECT during an episode of PA demonstrated increased blood flow in the right anterior cingulate gyrus and cerebellar cortex with hypoperfusion in the right temporal and frontal associative cortices.

  20. Disconnection of the Ascending Arousal System in Traumatic Coma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlow, Brian L.; Haynes, Robin L.; Takahashi, Emi; Klein, Joshua P.; Cummings, Peter; Benner, Thomas; Greer, David M.; Greenberg, Steven M.; Wu, Ona; Kinney, Hannah C.; Folkerth, Rebecca D.

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic coma is associated with disruption of axonal pathways throughout the brain but the specific pathways involved in humans are incompletely understood. In this study, we used high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) to map the connectivity of axonal pathways that mediate the 2 critical components of consciousness – arousal and awareness – in the postmortem brain of a 62-year-old woman with acute traumatic coma and in 2 control brains. HARDI tractography guided tissue sampling in the neuropathological analysis. HARDI tractography demonstrated complete disruption of white matter pathways connecting brainstem arousal nuclei to the basal forebrain and thalamic intralaminar and reticular nuclei. In contrast, hemispheric arousal pathways connecting the thalamus and basal forebrain to the cerebral cortex were only partially disrupted, as were the cortical “awareness pathways.” Neuropathologic examination, which utilized β-amyloid precursor protein and fractin immunomarkers, revealed axonal injury in the white matter of the brainstem and cerebral hemispheres that corresponded to sites of HARDI tract disruption. Axonal injury was also present within the grey matter of the hypothalamus, thalamus, basal forebrain, and cerebral cortex. We propose that traumatic coma may be a subcortical disconnection syndrome related to the disconnection of specific brainstem arousal nuclei from the thalamus and basal forebrain. PMID:23656993

  1. Arousal Modulation in Females with Fragile X or Turner Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jane; Mazzocco, Michele M. M.; Murphy, Melissa M.; Hoehn-Saric, Rudolf

    2008-01-01

    The present study was carried out to examine physiological arousal modulation (heart activity and skin conductance), across baseline and cognitive tasks, in females with fragile X or Turner syndrome and a comparison group of females with neither syndrome. Relative to the comparison group, for whom a greater increase in skin conductance was…

  2. Memory recall in arousing situations - an emotional von Restorff effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiswede, Daniel; Rüsseler, Jascha; Hasselbach, Simone; Münte, Thomas F

    2006-07-24

    Previous research has demonstrated a relationship between memory recall and P300 amplitude in list learning tasks, but the variables mediating this P300-recall relationship are not well understood. In the present study, subjects were required to recall items from lists consisting of 12 words, which were presented in front of pictures taken from the IAPS collection. One word per list is made distinct either by font color or by a highly arousing background IAPS picture. This isolation procedure was first used by von Restorff. Brain potentials were recorded during list presentation. Recall performance was enhanced for color but not for emotional isolates. Event-related brain potentials (ERP) showed a more positive P300-component for recalled non-isolated words and color-isolated words, compared to the respective non-remembered words, but not for words isolated by arousing background. Our findings indicate that it is crucial to take emotional mediator variables into account, when using the P300 to predict later recall. Highly arousing environments might force the cognitive system to interrupt rehearsal processes in working memory, which might benefit transfer into other, more stable memory systems. The impact of attention-capturing properties of arousing background stimuli is also discussed.

  3. Cognitive Processing of Fear-Arousing Message Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Jerold L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Investigates two models (the Elaboration Likelihood Model and the Heuristic-Systematic Model) of the cognitive processing of fear-arousing messages in undergraduate students. Finds in three of the four conditions (low fear, high fear, high trait anxiety) that cognitive processing appears to be antagonistic. Finds some evidence of concurrent…

  4. Reconsidering the process for bow-stave removal from juniper trees in the Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance I. Millar; Kevin T. Smith

    2017-01-01

    We question the growth arrestment hypothesis for bow stave removal used by indigenous people in the western Great Basin. Using modern understanding of tree growth and wound response, we suggest that growth would not be arrested by one or two transverse notches along a juniper stem. Rather these would trigger compartmentalization, which limits cambial death to within 10...

  5. Beacon: A three-dimensional structural analysis code for bowing history of fast breeder reactor cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miki, K.

    1979-01-01

    The core elements of an LMFBR are bowed due to radial gradients of both temperature and neutron flux in the core. Since all hexagonal elements are multiply supported by adjacent elements or the restraint system, restraint forces and bending stresses are induced. In turn, these forces and stresses are relaxed by irradiation enhanced creep of the material. The analysis of the core bowing behavior requires a three-dimensional consideration of the mechanical interactions among the core elements, because the core consists of different kinds of elements and of fuel assemblies with various burnup histories. A new computational code BEACON has been developed for analyzing the bowing behavior of an LMFBR's core in three dimensions. To evaluate mechanical interactions among core elements, the code uses the analytical method of the earlier SHADOW code. BEACON analyzes the mechanical interactions in three directions, which form angles of 60 0 with one another. BEACON is applied to the 60 0 sector of a typical LMFBR's core for analyzing the bowing history during one equilibrium cycle. 120 core elements are treated, assuming the boundary condition of rotational symmetry. The application confirms that the code can be an effective tool for parametric studies as well as for detailed structural analysis of LMFBR's core. (orig.)

  6. 26 CFR 48.4161(b)-1 - Imposition and rates of tax; bows and arrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Imposition and rates of tax; bows and arrows. 48.4161(b)-1 Section 48.4161(b)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Sporting Goods § 48.4161(b)-1...

  7. Computing the Dust Distribution in the Bow Shock of a Fast-moving, Evolved Star

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Marle, A. -J; Meliani, Z.; Keppens, R.; Decin, L.

    2011-01-01

    We study the hydrodynamical behavior occurring in the turbulent interaction zone of a fast-moving red supergiant star, where the circumstellar and interstellar material collide. In this wind–interstellar-medium collision, the familiar bow shock, contact discontinuity, and wind termination shock

  8. The role of the umrhubhe bow as transmitter of cultural knowledge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The focus is also on Madosini's responses to several questions regarding her method of playing umrhubhe, with a view to understanding the indigenous use of technical language in its description of the process of producing musical sound on an unbraced,4 mouth-resonated bow. Journal of Musical Arts in Africa Vol.

  9. Historic range of variability for upland vegetation in the Medicine Bow National Forest, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory K. Dillon; Dennis H. Knight; Carolyn B. Meyer

    2005-01-01

    An approach for synthesizing the results of ecological research pertinent to land management is the analysis of the historic range of variability (HRV) for key ecosystem variables that are affected by management activities. This report provides an HRV analysis for the upland vegetation of the Medicine Bow National Forest in southeastern Wyoming. The variables include...

  10. Photo series for quantifying forest residues in managed lands of the Medicine Bow National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    John B. Popp; John E. Lundquist

    2006-01-01

    This photo series presents a visual representation of a range of fuel loading conditions specifically found on the Medicine Bow National Forest. The photos are grouped by forest type and past management practices. This field guide describes the distribution of different types of woody fuels and includes some vegetation data.

  11. Transient bowing of core assemblies in advanced liquid metal fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, S.A.; Orechwa, Y.

    1986-01-01

    Two alternative core restraint concepts are considered for a conceptual design of a 900 MWth liquid metal fast reactor core with a heterogeneous layout. The two concepts, known as limited free bowing and free flowering, are evaluated based on core bowing criteria that emphasize the enhancement of inherent reactor safety. The core reactivity change during a postulated loss of flow transient is calculated in terms of the lateral displacements and displacement-reactivity-worths of the individual assemblies. The NUBOW-3D computer code is utilized to determine the assembly deformations and interassembly forces that arise when the assemblies are subjected to temperature gradients and irradiation induced creep and swelling during the reactor operation. The assembly ducts are made of the ferritic steel HT-9 and remain in the reactor core for four-years at full power condition. Whereas both restraint systems meet the bowing criteria, a properly designed limited free bowing system appears to be more advantageous than a free flowering system from the point of view of enhancing the reactor inherent safety

  12. Modelling of bow-tie microstrip antennas using modified locally conformal FDTD method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    George, J.

    2000-01-01

    An analysis of bow-tie microstrip antennas is presented based on the use of the modified locally conformal finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. This approach enables the number of cells along the antenna length and width to be chosen independently of the antenna central width, which helps to

  13. Application of the Bow Tie method for evaluation of safety in the procedure of logging wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfonso Pallares, C; Perez Reyes, Y.; Sarabia Molina, I.I.

    2013-01-01

    This work consists of an assessment of security in the practice of logging of oil wells, using the method of Bow Tie for being a simple method of evaluation of the risk, which makes it possible in a structured way to set priorities to manage risk

  14. Calculation modelling of the RCCA movement through bowed FA guide tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razoumovsky, D.V.; Lihkachev, Yu.I.; Troyanov, V.M.

    2000-01-01

    Rod control cluster assembly movement through the bowed guide tubes is considered. The movement equation is presented with some of the assumptions and special attention is paid to the determination of the mechanical friction force. The numerical algorithm is described and some results of parametric studies are presented. (author)

  15. A benchmark study of procedures for analysis of axial crushing of bulbous bows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamada, Yasuhira; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2008-01-01

    Simplified methods to estimate mean axial crushing forces of plated structures are reviewed and applied to a series of experimental results for axial crushing of large-scale bulbous bow models. Methods based on intersection unit elements such as L-, T- and X-type elements as well as methods based...

  16. Time-dependent bow shocks and the condensation structure of Herbig-Haro objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raga, A.C.; Bohm, K.H.

    1987-01-01

    Some Herbig-Haro objects show a structure which appears to look like a bow shock, but also show a number of condensations superposed on this bow-shaped structure. In the case of HH 1 and HH 2 considerably different proper motions have been measured for the individual condensations. It is, however, very hard to explain why the condensations remain so close to each other if they are indeed separate entities. In this paper it is shown that an interpretation of the whole Herbig-Haro object as a single, time-dependent bow shock provides a natural explanation for the occurrence of condensations (which in numerical calculations appear to be associated with thermal instabilities in the postshock flow) with different proper motions. To this effect, time-dependent, axisymmetric, nonadiabatic bow shock models have been developed from which predictions were obtained for spatially resolved H-alpha intensity maps, and then these predictions are compared qualitatively with observations of a few Herbig-Haro objects. 57 references

  17. Modification of the ANC Nodal Code for analysis of PWR assembly bow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franceschini, Fausto; Fetterman, Robert J.; Little, David C.

    2008-01-01

    Refueling operations at certain PWR cores have revealed fuel assemblies with assembly bow that was higher than expected. As the fuel assemblies bow, the gaps between assemblies change from the uniform nominal configuration. This causes a change in the water volume which affects neutron moderation and thereby power distribution, fuel depletion history, rod internal pressure, etc., with non-trivial impacts on the safety analysis. Westinghouse has developed a new methodology for incorporation of assembly bow in its reload safety analysis package. As part of the new process, the standard Westinghouse reactor physics tool for core analysis, the Advanced Nodal Code ANC, has been modified. The modified ANC, ANCGAP, enables explicit treatment of three-dimensional gap distributions in its neutronic calculations; its accuracy is similar to that of the standard ANC, as demonstrated through an extensive benchmark campaign conducted over a variety of fuel compositions and challenging gap configurations. These features make ANCGAP a crucial tool in the Westinghouse assembly bow package. (authors)

  18. Modification of the ANC Nodal Code for analysis of PWR assembly bow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franceschini, Fausto; Fetterman, Robert J.; Little, David C. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Pittsburgh PA (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Refueling operations at certain PWR cores have revealed fuel assemblies with assembly bow that was higher than expected. As the fuel assemblies bow, the gaps between assemblies change from the uniform nominal configuration. This causes a change in the water volume which affects neutron moderation and thereby power distribution, fuel depletion history, rod internal pressure, etc., with non-trivial impacts on the safety analysis. Westinghouse has developed a new methodology for incorporation of assembly bow in its reload safety analysis package. As part of the new process, the standard Westinghouse reactor physics tool for core analysis, the Advanced Nodal Code ANC, has been modified. The modified ANC, ANCGAP, enables explicit treatment of three-dimensional gap distributions in its neutronic calculations; its accuracy is similar to that of the standard ANC, as demonstrated through an extensive benchmark campaign conducted over a variety of fuel compositions and challenging gap configurations. These features make ANCGAP a crucial tool in the Westinghouse assembly bow package. (authors)

  19. Genital responsiveness in healthy women with and without sexual arousal disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, Ellen; van Driel, Esther M.; van Lunsen, Rik H. W.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Most pharmacological treatments that are currently being developed for women with sexual arousal disorder are aimed at remedying a vasculogenic deficit. AIM: This study investigated whether pre- and postmenopausal women with sexual arousal disorder are less genitally responsive to

  20. The value of the absent bow tie sign in MRI of bucket-handle tears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watt, Andrew J.B.; Halliday, Tonya; Raby, Nigel

    2000-01-01

    AIM: To assess the accuracy of the absent bow tie sign in diagnosing bucket handle meniscal tears (BHT) of the knee menisci. MATERIALS AND METHODS: During a 3-year period, we correlated the MRI and arthroscopic findings and the presence of the various signs. One hundred and seven knees were reviewed: 74 where either MRI or arthroscopy had identified a BHT and 33 which were either normal (31), or a simple tear was identified (2). All cases were reviewed by a single radiologist with a musculoskeletal interest blinded to the original results. Each was assessed for the presence of (1) a central meniscal fragment, (2) the double posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) sign, (3) the bow tie sign and (4) the contribution of a 3D-volume sequence. RESULTS: Optimal results were obtained using standard sequences and a 3D-volume sequence, giving a sensitivity of 74% and positive predictive value of 89%. The bow tie sign gave a sensitivity of 71% and positive predictive value of 76%, significantly less than previous reports. The 18 BHTs diagnosed by arthroscopy but missed by MRI showed other abnormal findings at MRI and were not reported as normal. CONCLUSION: We were not able to reproduce the previously reported high sensitivity and specificity of the absent bow tie sign. Despite optimization of all factors, the accurate diagnosis of a bucket handle tear remains difficult, and is most reliably made by identifying a central meniscal fragment, rather than relying on secondary signs such as the absent bow tie sign. Watt, A.J.B. (2000)

  1. THEMIS satellite observations of hot flow anomalies at Earth's bow shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Chu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Hot flow anomalies (HFAs at Earth's bow shock were identified in Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions During Substorms (THEMIS satellite data from 2007 to 2009. The events were classified as young or mature and also as regular or spontaneous hot flow anomalies (SHFAs. The dataset has 17 young SHFAs, 49 mature SHFAs, 15 young HFAs, and 55 mature HFAs. They span a wide range of magnetic local times (MLTs from approximately 7 to 16.5 MLT. The largest ratio of solar wind to HFA core density occurred near dusk and at larger distances from the bow shock. In this study, HFAs and SHFAs were observed up to 6.3 RE and 6.1 RE (Earth radii, respectively, upstream from the model bow shock. HFA–SHFA occurrence decreases with distance upstream from the bow shock. HFAs of the highest event core ion temperatures were not seen at the flanks. The ratio of HFA ion temperature increase to HFA electron temperature increase is highest around 12 MLT and slightly duskward. For SHFAs, (Tihfa∕Tisw/(Tehfa∕Tesw generally increased with distance from the bow shock. Both mature and young HFAs are more prevalent when there is an approximately radial interplanetary magnetic field. HFAs occur most preferentially for solar wind speeds from 550 to 600 km s−1. The correlation coefficient between the HFA increase in thermal energy density from solar wind values and the decrease in kinetic energy density from solar wind values is 0.62. SHFAs and HFAs do not show major differences in this study.

  2. Approach and withdrawal tendencies during written word processing: effects of task, emotional valence and emotional arousal

    OpenAIRE

    Citron, Francesca Maria Marina; Abugaber, David; Herbert, Cornelia

    2016-01-01

    The affective dimensions of emotional valence and emotional arousal affect processing of verbal and pictorial stimuli. Traditional emotional theories assume a linear relationship between these dimensions, with valence determining the direction of a behaviour (approach vs. withdrawal) and arousal its intensity or strength. In contrast, according to the valence-arousal conflict theory, both dimensions are interactively related: positive valence and low arousal (PL) are associated with an implic...

  3. The effects of valence and arousal on the neural activity leading to subsequent memory

    OpenAIRE

    Mickley Steinmetz, Katherine R.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined how valence and arousal affect the processes linked to subsequent memory for emotional information. While undergoing an fMRI scan, participants viewed neutral pictures and emotional pictures varying by valence and arousal. After the scan, participants performed a recognition test. Subsequent memory for negative or high arousal information was associated with occipital and temporal activity, while memory for positive or low arousal information was associated with frontal ac...

  4. The common and distinct neural bases of affect labeling and reappraisal in healthy adults

    OpenAIRE

    Burklund, Lisa J.; Creswell, J. David; Irwin, Michael R.; Lieberman, Matthew D.

    2014-01-01

    Emotion regulation is commonly characterized as involving conscious and intentional attempts to change felt emotions, such as, for example, through reappraisal whereby one intentionally decreases the intensity of one's emotional response to a particular stimulus or situation by reinterpreting it in a less threatening way. However, there is growing evidence and appreciation that some types of emotion regulation are unintentional or incidental, meaning that affective modulation is a consequence...

  5. The effects of distraction and reappraisal on children's parasympathetic regulation of sadness and fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elizabeth L; Quiñones-Camacho, Laura E; Buss, Kristin A

    2016-02-01

    Children commonly experience negative emotions like sadness and fear, and much recent empirical attention has been devoted to understanding the factors supporting and predicting effective emotion regulation. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a cardiac index of parasympathetic function, has emerged as a key physiological correlate of children's self-regulation. But little is known about how children's use of specific cognitive emotion regulation strategies corresponds to concurrent parasympathetic regulation (i.e., RSA reactivity while watching an emotion-eliciting video). The current study describes an experimental paradigm in which 101 5- and 6-year-olds were randomly assigned to one of three different emotion regulation conditions: Control, Distraction, or Reappraisal. All children watched a sad film and a scary film (order counterbalanced), and children in the Distraction and Reappraisal conditions received instructions to deploy the target strategy to manage sadness/fear while they watched. Consistent with predictions, children assigned to use either emotion regulation strategy showed greater RSA augmentation from baseline than children in the Control condition (all children showed an overall increase in RSA levels from baseline), suggesting enhanced parasympathetic calming when children used distraction or reappraisal to regulate sadness and fear. But this pattern was found only among children who viewed the sad film before the scary film. Among children who viewed the scary film first, reappraisal promoted marginally better parasympathetic regulation of fear (no condition differences emerged for parasympathetic regulation of sadness when the sad film was viewed second). Results are discussed in terms of their implications for our understanding of children's emotion regulation and affective physiology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Prayer and pain: the mediating role of positive re-appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezutter, Jessie; Wachholtz, Amy; Corveleyn, Jozef

    2011-12-01

    The present study explored in a sample of Flemish pain patients the role of prayer as a possible individual factor in pain management. The focus on prayer as a personal religious factor fits with the current religious landscape in Western-Europe where personal religious factors are more important than organizational dimensions of religion. Our study is framed in the transactional theory of stress and coping by testing first, whether prayer was related with pain severity and pain tolerance and second, whether cognitive positive re-appraisal was a mediating mechanism in the association between prayer and pain. We expected that prayer would be related to pain tolerance in reducing the impact of the pain on patient's daily life, but not necessarily to pain severity. A cross-sectional questionnaire design was adopted in order to measure demographics, prayer, pain outcomes (i.e., pain severity and pain tolerance), and cognitive positive re-appraisal. Two hundred and two chronic pain (CP) patients, all members of a Flemish national patients association, completed the questionnaires. Correlational analyses showed that prayer was significantly related with pain tolerance, but not with pain severity. However, ancillary analyses revealed a moderational effect of religious affiliation in the relationship between prayer and pain severity as well as pain tolerance. Furthermore, mediation analysis revealed that cognitive positive re-appraisal was indeed an underlying mechanism in the relationship between prayer and pain tolerance. This study affirms the importance to distinguish between pain severity and pain tolerance, and indicates that prayer can play a role in pain management, especially for religious pain patients. Further, the findings can be framed within the transactional theory of stress and coping as the results indicate that positive re-appraisal might be an important underlying mechanism in the association between prayer and pain.

  7. Developmental Reversals in False Memory: Effects of Emotional Valence and Arousal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainerd, C. J.; Holliday, R. E.; Reyna, V. F.; Yang, Y.; Toglia, M. P.

    2010-01-01

    Do the emotional valence and arousal of events distort children's memories? Do valence and arousal modulate counterintuitive age increases in false memory? We investigated those questions in children, adolescents, and adults using the Cornell/Cortland Emotion Lists, a word list pool that induces false memories and in which valence and arousal can…

  8. Nipple/Breast stimulation and sexual arousal in young men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Roy; Meston, Cindy

    2006-05-01

    The role of nipple/breast stimulation in influencing sexual arousal in men and women during lovemaking has only been the subject of opinion-based comment rather than evidence-based study. No attempt to question people about such sexual behavior has ever been undertaken. The study was designed to ascertain the effects of nipple/breast manipulation in young men and women on their sexual arousal. A short questionnaire about nipple/breast stimulation during sexual activity was administered to 301 (148 men; 153 women) sexually experienced undergraduates (age range 17-29 years, 95% between 18 and 22). Replies to questions in questionnaire. The major findings in regard to the women were that 81.5% reported that stimulation of their nipples/breasts caused or enhanced their sexual arousal, 78.2% agreed that when sexually aroused such manipulation increased their arousal, 59.1% had asked to have their nipples stimulated during lovemaking, and only 7.2% found that the manipulation decreased their arousal. In regard to the men, 51.7% reported that nipple stimulation caused or enhanced their sexual arousal, 39% agreed that when sexually aroused such manipulation increased their arousal, only 17.1% had asked to have their nipples stimulated, and only 7.5% found that such stimulation decreased their arousal. Manipulation of the nipples/breasts causes or enhances sexual arousal in approximately 82% of young women and 52% of young men with only 7-8% reporting that it decreased their arousal.

  9. The neural correlates of cognitive reappraisal during emotional autobiographical memory recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Alisha C; Kensinger, Elizabeth A

    2013-01-01

    We used fMRI to investigate the neural processes engaged as individuals down- and up-regulated the emotions associated with negative autobiographical memories (AMs) using cognitive reappraisal strategies. Our analyses examined neural activity during three separate phases, as participants (a) viewed a reappraisal instruction (i.e., Decrease, Increase, Maintain), (b) searched for an AM referenced by a self-generated cue, and (c) elaborated upon the details of the AM being held in mind. Decreasing emotional intensity primarily engaged activity in regions previously implicated in cognitive control (e.g., dorsal and ventral lateral pFC), emotion generation and processing (e.g., amygdala, insula), and visual imagery (e.g., precuneus) as participants searched for and retrieved events. In contrast, increasing emotional intensity engaged similar regions during the instruction phase (i.e., before a memory cue was presented) and again as individuals later elaborated upon the details of the events they had recalled. These findings confirm that reappraisal can modulate neural activity during the recall of personally relevant events, although the time course of this modulation appears to depend on whether individuals are attempting to down- or up-regulate their emotions.

  10. Visual attention and emotional reactions to negative stimuli: The role of age and cognitive reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Maria; Isaacowitz, Derek M; Kunzmann, Ute

    2017-09-01

    Prominent life span theories of emotion propose that older adults attend less to negative emotional information and report less negative emotional reactions to the same information than younger adults do. Although parallel age differences in affective information processing and age differences in emotional reactivity have been proposed, they have rarely been investigated within the same study. In this eye-tracking study, we tested age differences in visual attention and emotional reactivity, using standardized emotionally negative stimuli. Additionally, we investigated age differences in the association between visual attention and emotional reactivity, and whether these are moderated by cognitive reappraisal. Older as compared with younger adults showed fixation patterns away from negative image content, while they reacted with greater negative emotions. The association between visual attention and emotional reactivity differed by age group and positive reappraisal. Younger adults felt better when they attended more to negative content rather than less, but this relationship only held for younger adults who did not attach a positive meaning to the negative situation. For older adults, overall, there was no significant association between visual attention and emotional reactivity. However, for older adults who did not use positive reappraisal, decreases in attention to negative information were associated with less negative emotions. The present findings point to a complex relationship between younger and older adults' visual attention and emotional reactions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Emotion regulation as the foundation of political attitudes: does reappraisal decrease support for conservative policies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jooa Julia Lee

    Full Text Available Cognitive scientists, behavior geneticists, and political scientists have identified several ways in which emotions influence political attitudes, and psychologists have shown that emotion regulation can have an important causal effect on physiology, cognition, and subjective experience. However, no work to date explores the possibility that emotion regulation may shape political ideology and attitudes toward policies. Here, we conduct four studies that investigate the role of a particular emotion regulation strategy--reappraisal in particular. Two observational studies show that individual differences in emotion regulation styles predict variation in political orientations and support for conservative policies. In the third study, we experimentally induce disgust as the target emotion to be regulated and show that use of reappraisal reduces the experience of disgust, thereby decreasing moral concerns associated with conservatism. In the final experimental study, we show that use of reappraisal successfully attenuates the relationship between trait-level disgust sensitivity and support for conservative policies. Our findings provide the first evidence of a critical link between emotion regulation and political attitudes.

  12. Emotion Regulation as the Foundation of Political Attitudes: Does Reappraisal Decrease Support for Conservative Policies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jooa Julia; Sohn, Yunkyu; Fowler, James H.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive scientists, behavior geneticists, and political scientists have identified several ways in which emotions influence political attitudes, and psychologists have shown that emotion regulation can have an important causal effect on physiology, cognition, and subjective experience. However, no work to date explores the possibility that emotion regulation may shape political ideology and attitudes toward policies. Here, we conduct four studies that investigate the role of a particular emotion regulation strategy – reappraisal in particular. Two observational studies show that individual differences in emotion regulation styles predict variation in political orientations and support for conservative policies. In the third study, we experimentally induce disgust as the target emotion to be regulated and show that use of reappraisal reduces the experience of disgust, thereby decreasing moral concerns associated with conservatism. In the final experimental study, we show that use of reappraisal successfully attenuates the relationship between trait-level disgust sensitivity and support for conservative policies. Our findings provide the first evidence of a critical link between emotion regulation and political attitudes. PMID:24367583

  13. Habitual Cognitive Reappraisal Was Negatively Related to Perceived Immorality in the Harm and Fairness Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongquan Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Emotion plays an important role in moral judgment, and people always use emotion regulation strategies to modulate emotion, consciously or unconsciously. Previous studies had investigated only the relationship between emotion regulation strategies and moral judgment in the Harm domain, and revealed divergent results. Based on Moral Foundations Theory, the present study extended the investigation into moral judgment in all five moral domains and used a set of standardized moral vignettes. Two hundred and six college students filled in the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire and completed emotional ratings and moral judgment on moral vignettes from Moral Foundations Vignettes. Correlation analysis indicated that habitual cognitive reappraisal was negatively related to immorality rating in Harm, Fairness, and Loyalty domains. Regression analysis revealed that after controlling the effect of other variables, cognitive reappraisal negatively predicted immorality ratings in the Harm and Fairness domains. Further mediation analysis showed that emotional valence only partially explained the association between cognitive reappraisal and moral judgment in Harm area. Some other factors beyond emotional valence were suggested for future studies.

  14. Laboratory and Self-Report Methods to Assess Reappraisal and Distraction in Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettis, Alexandra H; Henry, Lauren; Prussien, Kemar V; Vreeland, Allison; Smith, Michele; Adery, Laura H; Compas, Bruce E

    2018-06-07

    Coping and emotion regulation are central features of risk and resilience in childhood and adolescence, but research on these constructs has relied on different methods of assessment. The current study aimed to bridge the gap between questionnaire and experimental methods of measuring secondary control coping strategies, specifically distraction and cognitive reappraisal, and examine associations with symptoms of anxiety and depression in youth. A community sample of 70 youth (ages 9-15) completed a novel experimental coping and emotion regulation paradigm and self-report measures of coping and emotion regulation and symptoms. Findings indicate that use of distraction and reappraisal during the laboratory paradigm was associated with lower levels of negative emotion during the task. Youth emotion ratings while implementing distraction, but not reappraisal, during the laboratory task were associated with youth self-reported use of secondary control coping in response to family stress. Youth symptoms of anxiety and depression were also significantly positively associated with negative emotion ratings during the laboratory task, and both laboratory task and self-reported coping and emotion regulation accounted for significant variance in symptoms in youth. Both questionnaire and laboratory methods to assess coping and emotion regulation in youth are important for understanding these processes as possible mechanisms of risk and resilience and continued integration of these methods is a priority for future research.

  15. Habitual Cognitive Reappraisal Was Negatively Related to Perceived Immorality in the Harm and Fairness Domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongquan; Wu, Xiaoyuan; Zhang, Lisong; Zhang, Ziyuan

    2017-01-01

    Emotion plays an important role in moral judgment, and people always use emotion regulation strategies to modulate emotion, consciously or unconsciously. Previous studies had investigated only the relationship between emotion regulation strategies and moral judgment in the Harm domain, and revealed divergent results. Based on Moral Foundations Theory, the present study extended the investigation into moral judgment in all five moral domains and used a set of standardized moral vignettes. Two hundred and six college students filled in the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire and completed emotional ratings and moral judgment on moral vignettes from Moral Foundations Vignettes. Correlation analysis indicated that habitual cognitive reappraisal was negatively related to immorality rating in Harm, Fairness, and Loyalty domains. Regression analysis revealed that after controlling the effect of other variables, cognitive reappraisal negatively predicted immorality ratings in the Harm and Fairness domains. Further mediation analysis showed that emotional valence only partially explained the association between cognitive reappraisal and moral judgment in Harm area. Some other factors beyond emotional valence were suggested for future studies.

  16. Gender Differences in Emotion Regulation: An fMRI Study of Cognitive Reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Kateri; Ochsner, Kevin N; Mauss, Iris B; Gabrieli, John J D; Gross, James J

    2008-04-01

    Despite strong popular conceptions of gender differences in emotionality and striking gender differences in the prevalence of disorders thought to involve emotion dysregulation, the literature on the neural bases of emotion regulation is nearly silent regarding gender differences (Gross, 2007; Ochsner & Gross, in press). The purpose of the present study was to address this gap in the literature. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we asked male and female participants to use a cognitive emotion regulation strategy (reappraisal) to down-regulate their emotional responses to negatively valenced pictures. Behaviorally, men and women evidenced comparable decreases in negative emotion experience. Neurally, however, gender differences emerged. Compared with women, men showed (a) lesser increases in prefrontal regions that are associated with reappraisal, (b) greater decreases in the amygdala, which is associated with emotional responding, and (c) lesser engagement of ventral striatal regions, which are associated with reward processing. We consider two non-competing explanations for these differences. First, men may expend less effort when using cognitive regulation, perhaps due to greater use of automatic emotion regulation. Second, women may use positive emotions in the service of reappraising negative emotions to a greater degree. We then consider the implications of gender differences in emotion regulation for understanding gender differences in emotional processing in general, and gender differences in affective disorders.

  17. Automatic, ECG-based detection of autonomic arousals and their association with cortical arousals, leg movements, and respiratory events in sleep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Mads; Schneider, Logan Douglas; Cheung, Joseph

    2018-01-01

    The current definition of sleep arousals neglects to address the diversity of arousals and their systemic cohesion. Autonomic arousals (AA) are autonomic activations often associated with cortical arousals (CA), but they may also occur in isolation in relation to a respiratory event, a leg movement...... event or spontaneously, without any other physiological associations. AA should be acknowledged as essential events to understand and explore the systemic implications of arousals. We developed an automatic AA detection algorithm based on intelligent feature selection and advanced machine learning using...... or respiratory events. This indicates that most FP constitute autonomic activations that are indistinguishable from those with cortical cohesion. The proposed algorithm provides an automatic system trained in a clinical environment, which can be utilized to analyse the systemic and clinical impacts of arousals....

  18. Termination of respiratory events with and without cortical arousal in obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Amy S; Eckert, Danny J; Wellman, Andrew; Trinder, John A; Malhotra, Atul; White, David P

    2011-11-15

    A total of 20-30% of respiratory events in obstructive sleep apnea are terminated without clear arousal. Arousals are thought to predispose to further events by promoting hyperventilation, hypocapnia, and upper-airway dilator muscle hypotonia. Therefore, events terminated without arousal may promote stable breathing. To compare physiologic changes at respiratory event termination with American Sleep Disorders Association (ASDA) Arousal to No Arousal, and determine whether secondary respiratory events are less common and have higher dilator muscle activity after No Arousal compared with ASDA Arousal. Patients with obstructive sleep apnea wore sleep staging, genioglossus (EMG(GG)), and tensor palatini (EMG(TP)) electrodes plus a nasal mask and pneumotachograph. During stable sleep, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) was lowered for 3-minute periods to induce respiratory events. Physiologic variables were compared between events terminated with (1) ASDA Arousal, (2) No Arousal, or (3) sudden CPAP increase (CPAPinc, control). Sixteen subjects had adequate data. EMG(GG), EMG(TP), and heart rate increased after ASDA Arousal (340 ± 57%, 215 ± 28%, and 110.7 ± 2.3%) and No Arousal (185 ± 32%, 167 ± 15%, and 108.5 ± 1.6%) but not CPAPinc (90 ± 10%, 94 ± 11%, and 102.1 ± 1%). Ventilation increased more after ASDA Arousal than No Arousal and CPAPinc, but not after accounting for the severity of respiratory event. Fewer No Arousals were followed by secondary events than ASDA Arousals. However, low dilator muscle activity did not occur after ASDA Arousal or No Arousal (EMG(GG) rose from 75 ± 5 to 125 ± 7%) and secondary events were less severe than initial events (ventilation rose 4 ± 0.4 to 5.5 ± 0.51 L/min). Respiratory events that were terminated with ASDA Arousal were more severely flow-limited, had enhanced hyperventilation after event termination, and were more often followed by secondary events than No arousal. However, secondary events were not

  19. THE ROLE OF PICKUP IONS ON THE STRUCTURE OF THE VENUSIAN BOW SHOCK AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR THE TERMINATION SHOCK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Quanming; Shan Lican; Zhang Tielong; Wu Mingyu; Wang Shui; Zank, Gary P.; Yang Zhongwei; Du Aimin

    2013-01-01

    The recent crossing of the termination shock by Voyager 2 has demonstrated the important role of pickup ions (PUIs) in the physics of collisionless shocks. The Venus Express (VEX) spacecraft orbits Venus in a 24 hr elliptical orbit that crosses the bow shock twice a day. VEX provides a unique opportunity to investigate the role of PUIs on the structure of collisionless shocks more generally. Using VEX observations, we find that the strength of the Venusian bow shock is weaker when solar activity is strong. We demonstrate that this surprising anti-correlation is due to PUIs mediating the Venusian bow shock

  20. Hypocretin as a Hub for Arousal and Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M. Tyree

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The lateral hypothalamus is comprised of a heterogeneous mix of neurons that serve to integrate and regulate sleep, feeding, stress, energy balance, reward, and motivated behavior. Within these populations, the hypocretin/orexin neurons are among the most well studied. Here, we provide an overview on how these neurons act as a central hub integrating sensory and physiological information to tune arousal and motivated behavior accordingly. We give special attention to their role in sleep-wake states and conditions of hyper-arousal, as is the case with stress-induced anxiety. We further discuss their roles in feeding, drug-seeking, and sexual behavior, which are all dependent on the motivational state of the animal. We further emphasize the application of powerful techniques, such as optogenetics, chemogenetics, and fiber photometry, to delineate the role these neurons play in lateral hypothalamic functions.

  1. Hypnotherapy for persistent genital arousal disorder: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, Gary R; Ramsey, Derek; Yu, Yimin

    2014-01-01

    Persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) is characterized by intrusive sexual arousal that is unresolvable via sexual activity and persists for an extended period of time. PGAD's etiology is unknown, and it has no established treatments. This case study reports on a 71-year-old female patient diagnosed with PGAD who received 9 sessions of hypnotherapy. The following measures were administered at baseline and follow-up: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and visual analogue measurements of quality of life, intensity of symptoms, and marital interference. At follow-up, there were significant improvements in all measures. Given the currently limited alternatives for treatment, this case study suggests that hypnotherapy may be beneficial for some patients with PGAD.

  2. Bi-directional associations between psychological arousal, cortisol, and sleep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Anne Helene; Albertsen, Karen; Persson, Roger

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to elucidate the possible bi-directional relation between daytime psychological arousal, cortisol, and self-reported sleep in a group of healthy employees in active employment. Logbook ratings of sleep (Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire), stress, and energy, as well as positive...... and negative experiences in work and private life, were collected together with salivary cortisol over 3 days (n = 265). Higher bedtime ratings of stress and problems during the day were associated with morning ratings of poor sleep. Poorer morning ratings of sleep were associated with higher ratings of stress...... and problems during the day. The results underpin the possibility that arousal and poor sleep might create a self-reinforcing vicious circle that negatively affects a person's well-being....

  3. Heart Rate Variability in Male Sexual Arousal and Erectile Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-22

    research and practice to assess cardiac autonomic tone with patients presenting with ED symptoms. However, HRV patterns during sexual arousal and activity... masturbation or 18 other sexual activities, was associated with greater levels of HRV among cohabitating individuals [F(1,38) = 8.4, p < 0.01...respectively. The key issue for clinical practice is whether the ANS disturbances predicted in Hypotheses 2 limit tumescence or whether tumescence

  4. Negative Academic Emotion and Psychological Well-being in Chinese Rural-to-Urban Migrant Adolescents: Examining the Moderating Role of Cognitive Reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Daoyang; Li, Shuting; Hu, Mingming; Dong, Dan; Tao, Sha

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to explore the relationship among negative academic emotions (e.g., anxiety, shame, anger, boredom, hopelessness, disappointment, and hatred), psychological well-being (including life vitality, health concern, altruism commitment, self-value, friendly relationship, and personal development), and cognitive reappraisal in rural-to-urban migrant adolescents in China. Specifically, it was hypothesized that the relationship between psychological well-being and negative academic emotions is moderated by cognitive reappraisal. A total of 311 migrant adolescents aged 14-20 years were selected, including 132 boys and 179 girls. Results of a regression analysis showed that cognitive reappraisal (positive) and negative academic emotions were significant predictors of psychological well-being. The interaction effect between cognitive reappraisal and negative academic emotion was also a significant predictor of psychological well-being. In the simple slope analysis the group with a below average cognitive reappraisal score the negative academic emotions were associated with lower psychological well-being, whereas in the group with above average cognitive reappraisal the effect of negative academic emotions on psychological well-being was not significant. However, for those with a cognitive reappraisal score of 1 standard deviation above the average, the effect of negative academic emotions on psychological well-being was not significant. These results suggest that cognitive reappraisal was a significant moderator in the relationship between negative academic emotion and psychological well-being.

  5. High working memory load impairs the effect of cognitive reappraisal on emotional response: Evidence from an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Shuzhen; Yang, Jianfeng; Chen, Xuhai; Zhang, Xiuping; Yang, Yufang

    2017-02-03

    This study investigates how the working memory (WM) load influenced the efficacy of cognitive reappraisal, a frequently used strategy for emotion regulation. In a dual-task paradigm, the participants were required to perform a high-load or a low-load memory task and simultaneously reappraise aversive pictures with a negative or a neutral meaning. In the low-load condition, we found that the amplitude of emotion-enhanced late positive potential (LPP) was significantly decreased by neutral reappraisal compared to negative reappraisal. In the high-load condition, this regulatory effect of reappraisal disappeared. These results suggest that successful reappraisal relies on cognitive resources and WM processes. If the necessary resources involved in reappraisal are over-depleted by a concurrent memory task, the reappraisal effect will be impaired. Moreover, we found that emotion-enhanced LPP was significant in both of the high-load and low-load tasks, which suggests that emotional electrocortical response may not be susceptible to the available resources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Negative Academic Emotion and Psychological Well-being in Chinese Rural-to-Urban Migrant Adolescents: Examining the Moderating Role of Cognitive Reappraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daoyang Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to explore the relationship among negative academic emotions (e.g., anxiety, shame, anger, boredom, hopelessness, disappointment, and hatred, psychological well-being (including life vitality, health concern, altruism commitment, self-value, friendly relationship, and personal development, and cognitive reappraisal in rural-to-urban migrant adolescents in China. Specifically, it was hypothesized that the relationship between psychological well-being and negative academic emotions is moderated by cognitive reappraisal. A total of 311 migrant adolescents aged 14–20 years were selected, including 132 boys and 179 girls. Results of a regression analysis showed that cognitive reappraisal (positive and negative academic emotions were significant predictors of psychological well-being. The interaction effect between cognitive reappraisal and negative academic emotion was also a significant predictor of psychological well-being. In the simple slope analysis the group with a below average cognitive reappraisal score the negative academic emotions were associated with lower psychological well-being, whereas in the group with above average cognitive reappraisal the effect of negative academic emotions on psychological well-being was not significant. However, for those with a cognitive reappraisal score of 1 standard deviation above the average, the effect of negative academic emotions on psychological well-being was not significant. These results suggest that cognitive reappraisal was a significant moderator in the relationship between negative academic emotion and psychological well-being.

  7. Early brain-body impact of emotional arousal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien D'Hondt

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Current research in affective neuroscience suggests that the emotional content of visual stimuli activates brain–body responses that could be critical to general health and physical disease. The aim of this study was to develop an integrated neurophysiological approach linking central and peripheral markers of nervous activity during the presentation of natural scenes in order to determine the temporal stages of brain processing related to the bodily impact of emotions. More specifically, whole head magnetoencephalogram (MEG data and skin conductance response (SCR, a reliable autonomic marker of central activation, were recorded in healthy volunteers during the presentation of emotional (unpleasant and pleasant and neutral pictures selected from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS. Analyses of event-related magnetic fields (ERFs revealed greater activity at 180 ms in an occipitotemporal component for emotional pictures than for neutral counterparts. More importantly, these early effects of emotional arousal on cerebral activity were significantly correlated with later increases in SCR magnitude. For the first time, a neuromagnetic cortical component linked to a well-documented marker of bodily arousal expression of emotion, namely, the skin conductance response, was identified and located. This finding sheds light on the time course of the brain–body interaction with emotional arousal and provides new insights into the neural bases of complex and reciprocal mind–body links.

  8. Development and Preliminary Validation of the Coma Arousal Communication Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garin, Julie; Reina, Margot; DeiCas, Paula; Rousseaux, Marc

    To develop a Coma Arousal Communication Scale and perform preliminary validation. A group of experts developed a questionnaire to assess communication between patients emerging from coma and caregiver (participation, communication modes, and themes) and the strategies used to facilitate communication. To assess the scale's psychometric characteristics, it was presented to the caregivers of 40 inpatients admitted to 5 coma units and (to obtain reference data) to 29 control participants. The Coma Arousal Communication Scale displayed good intra- and interrater reliability as judged by intraclass correlation coefficients (between 0.76 and 0.98) and Bland and Altman plots. Cohen κ coefficient revealed moderate to almost perfect levels of agreement for most individual items and slight levels for a few items dealing with compensatory strategies. We observed good internal consistency, relations with the Wessex Head Injury Matrix, and sensitivity to change for patients who had sustained brain injury in the previous 6 months. The Coma Arousal Communication Scale provides accurate information about communication skills of individuals emerging from coma. However, some compensatory strategies adopted by caregivers are difficult to characterize.

  9. Cognitive emotion regulation in children: Reappraisal of emotional faces modulates neural source activity in a frontoparietal network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessing, Ida; Rehbein, Maimu A; Romer, Georg; Achtergarde, Sandra; Dobel, Christian; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Fürniss, Tilman; Junghöfer, Markus

    2015-06-01

    Emotion regulation has an important role in child development and psychopathology. Reappraisal as cognitive regulation technique can be used effectively by children. Moreover, an ERP component known to reflect emotional processing called late positive potential (LPP) can be modulated by children using reappraisal and this modulation is also related to children's emotional adjustment. The present study seeks to elucidate the neural generators of such LPP effects. To this end, children aged 8-14 years reappraised emotional faces, while neural activity in an LPP time window was estimated using magnetoencephalography-based source localization. Additionally, neural activity was correlated with two indexes of emotional adjustment and age. Reappraisal reduced activity in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during down-regulation and enhanced activity in the right parietal cortex during up-regulation. Activity in the visual cortex decreased with increasing age, more adaptive emotion regulation and less anxiety. Results demonstrate that reappraisal changed activity within a frontoparietal network in children. Decreasing activity in the visual cortex with increasing age is suggested to reflect neural maturation. A similar decrease with adaptive emotion regulation and less anxiety implies that better emotional adjustment may be associated with an advance in neural maturation. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Optimism and benefit finding in parents of children with developmental disabilities: The role of positive reappraisal and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Éadaoin; McMahon, Jennifer; Gallagher, Stephen

    2017-06-01

    Researchers have consistently documented the relationship between optimism and benefit finding; however, there is a dearth of research on the psychological mechanisms mediating their association. This cross-sectional study sought to elucidate the mediating role of positive reappraisal and social support in the optimism-benefit finding relationship in parents caring for children with developmental disabilities by testing a parallel multiple mediation model. One hundred and forty-six parents caring for children with developmental disabilities completed an online survey assessing optimism, positive reappraisal, social support and benefit finding. Optimism was not directly related to benefit finding but rather influenced it indirectly through positive reappraisal and social support. Specifically, higher levels of optimism predicted greater positive reappraisal and social support, which in turn led to greater benefit finding in parents. These results underscore the importance of targeting parents' perceptions of benefits through both positive reappraisal and social support in order to help them cope with the demands of the caregiving context. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Evidence of successful modulation of brain activation and subjective experience during reappraisal of negative emotion in unmedicated depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Daniel Gerard; Pizzagalli, Diego Andrea

    2013-05-30

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to examine cognitive regulation of negative emotion in 12 unmedicated patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 24 controls. The participants used reappraisal to increase (real condition) and reduce (photo condition) the personal relevance of negative and neutral pictures during fMRI as valence ratings were collected; passive viewing (look condition) served as a baseline. Reappraisal was not strongly affected by MDD. Ratings indicated that both groups successfully reappraised negative emotional experience. Both groups also showed better memory for negative vs. neutral pictures 2 weeks later. Across groups, increased brain activation was observed on negative/real vs. negative/look and negative/photo trials in left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), rostral anterior cingulate, left parietal cortex, caudate, and right amygdala. Depressive severity was inversely correlated with activation modulation in the left DLPFC, right amygdala, and right cerebellum during negative reappraisal. The lack of group differences suggests that depressed adults can modulate the brain activation and subjective experience elicited by negative pictures when given clear instructions. However, the negative relationship between depression severity and effects of reappraisal on brain activation indicates that group differences may be detectable in larger samples of more severely depressed participants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cultural differences in emotion: differences in emotional arousal level between the East and the West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nangyeon Lim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Whether emotion is universal or social is a recurrent issue in the history of emotion study among psychologists. Some researchers view emotion as a universal construct, and that a large part of emotional experience is biologically based. However, emotion is not only biologically determined, but is also influenced by the environment. Therefore, cultural differences exist in some aspects of emotions, one such important aspect of emotion being emotional arousal level. All affective states are systematically represented as two bipolar dimensions, valence and arousal. Arousal level of actual and ideal emotions has consistently been found to have cross-cultural differences. In Western or individualist culture, high arousal emotions are valued and promoted more than low arousal emotions. Moreover, Westerners experience high arousal emotions more than low arousal emotions. By contrast, in Eastern or collectivist culture, low arousal emotions are valued more than high arousal emotions. Moreover, people in the East actually experience and prefer to experience low arousal emotions more than high arousal emotions. Mechanism of these cross-cultural differences and implications are also discussed.

  13. The influence of valence and arousal on reasoning: Affective priming in the semantic verification task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlić Ana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of affective valence and arousal on the reasoning process. Reasoning was measured using a semantic verification task and the influence of valence and arousal was tracked using the affective priming paradigm. Primes were photographs varied on two dimensions - emotional valence (positive, neutral, negative and arousal (high, low. Forty-nine psychology students participated in the experiment. Results showed that reaction time needed for semantic verification was significantly faster for positive-high arousing in comparison to positive-low arousing condition and for neutral high arousing in comparison to neutral-low arousing condition, but there were no significant differences in negative low and high arousing conditions. Also, significant differences were found among all three valences in high arousing conditions and there were no such differences in low arousing conditions. These results reveal the importance of both arousal and valence in the research on the influence of emotions on the reasoning process. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179033

  14. Increasing arousal enhances inhibitory control in calm but not excitable dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Emily E.; MacLean, Evan L.; Hare, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    The emotional-reactivity hypothesis proposes that problem-solving abilities can be constrained by temperament, within and across species. One way to test this hypothesis is with the predictions of the Yerkes-Dodson law. The law posits that arousal level, a component of temperament, affects problem solving in an inverted U-shaped relationship: optimal performance is reached at intermediate levels of arousal and impeded by high and low levels. Thus, a powerful test of the emotional-reactivity hypothesis is to compare cognitive performance in dog populations that have been bred and trained based in part on their arousal levels. We therefore compared a group of pet dogs to a group of assistance dogs bred and trained for low arousal (N = 106) on a task of inhibitory control involving a detour response. Consistent with the Yerkes-Dodson law, assistance dogs, which began the test with lower levels of baseline arousal, showed improvements when arousal was artificially increased. In contrast, pet dogs, which began the test with higher levels of baseline arousal, were negatively affected when their arousal was increased. Furthermore, the dogs’ baseline levels of arousal, as measured in their rate of tail wagging, differed by population in the expected directions. Low-arousal assistance dogs showed the most inhibition in a detour task when humans eagerly encouraged them while more highly aroused pet dogs performed worst on the same task with strong encouragement. Our findings support the hypothesis that selection on temperament can have important implications for cognitive performance. PMID:26169659

  15. Cultural differences in emotion: differences in emotional arousal level between the East and the West.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Nangyeon

    2016-06-01

    Whether emotion is universal or social is a recurrent issue in the history of emotion study among psychologists. Some researchers view emotion as a universal construct, and that a large part of emotional experience is biologically based. However, emotion is not only biologically determined, but is also influenced by the environment. Therefore, cultural differences exist in some aspects of emotions, one such important aspect of emotion being emotional arousal level. All affective states are systematically represented as two bipolar dimensions, valence and arousal. Arousal level of actual and ideal emotions has consistently been found to have cross-cultural differences. In Western or individualist culture, high arousal emotions are valued and promoted more than low arousal emotions. Moreover, Westerners experience high arousal emotions more than low arousal emotions. By contrast, in Eastern or collectivist culture, low arousal emotions are valued more than high arousal emotions. Moreover, people in the East actually experience and prefer to experience low arousal emotions more than high arousal emotions. Mechanism of these cross-cultural differences and implications are also discussed.

  16. Valence evaluation with approaching or withdrawing cues: directly testing valence-arousal conflict theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan Mei; Li, Ting; Li, Lin

    2017-07-19

    The valence-arousal conflict theory assumes that both valence and arousal will trigger approaching or withdrawing tendencies. It also predicts that the speed of processing emotional stimuli will depend on whether valence and arousal trigger conflicting or congruent motivational tendencies. However, most previous studies have provided evidence of the interaction between valence and arousal only, and have not provided direct proof of the interactive links between valence, arousal and motivational tendencies. The present study provides direct evidence for the relationship between approach-withdrawal tendencies and the valence-arousal conflict. In an empirical test, participants were instructed to judge the valence of emotional words after visual-spatial cues that appeared to be either approaching or withdrawing from participants. A three-way interaction (valence, arousal, and approach-withdrawal tendency) was observed such that the response time was shorter if participants responded to a negative high-arousal stimulus after a withdrawing cue, or to a positive low-arousal stimulus after an approaching cue. These findings suggest that the approach-withdrawal tendency indeed plays a crucial role in valence-arousal conflict, and that the effect depends on the congruency of valence, arousal and tendency at an early stage of processing.

  17. Increasing arousal enhances inhibitory control in calm but not excitable dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Emily E; MacLean, Evan L; Hare, Brian A

    2015-11-01

    The emotional-reactivity hypothesis proposes that problem-solving abilities can be constrained by temperament, within and across species. One way to test this hypothesis is with the predictions of the Yerkes-Dodson law. The law posits that arousal level, a component of temperament, affects problem solving in an inverted U-shaped relationship: Optimal performance is reached at intermediate levels of arousal and impeded by high and low levels. Thus, a powerful test of the emotional-reactivity hypothesis is to compare cognitive performance in dog populations that have been bred and trained based in part on their arousal levels. We therefore compared a group of pet dogs to a group of assistance dogs bred and trained for low arousal (N = 106) on a task of inhibitory control involving a detour response. Consistent with the Yerkes-Dodson law, assistance dogs, which began the test with lower levels of baseline arousal, showed improvements when arousal was artificially increased. In contrast, pet dogs, which began the test with higher levels of baseline arousal, were negatively affected when their arousal was increased. Furthermore, the dogs' baseline levels of arousal, as measured in their rate of tail wagging, differed by population in the expected directions. Low-arousal assistance dogs showed the most inhibition in a detour task when humans eagerly encouraged them, while more highly aroused pet dogs performed worst on the same task with strong encouragement. Our findings support the hypothesis that selection on temperament can have important implications for cognitive performance.

  18. Effects of music on arousal during imagery in elite shooters: A pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Kuan

    Full Text Available Beneficial effects of music on several performance-related aspects of sport have been reported, but the processes involved are not well understood. The purpose of the present study was to investigate effects of relaxing and arousing classical music on physiological indicators and subjective perceptions of arousal during imagery of a sport task. First, appropriate music excerpts were selected. Then, 12 skilled shooters performed shooting imagery while listening to the three preselected music excerpts in randomized order. Participants' galvanic skin response, peripheral temperature, and electromyography were monitored during music played concurrently with imagery. Subjective music ratings and physiological measures showed, as hypothesized, that unfamiliar relaxing music was the most relaxing and unfamiliar arousing music was the most arousing. Researchers should examine the impact of unfamiliar relaxing and arousing music played during imagery on subsequent performance in diverse sports. Practitioners can apply unfamiliar relaxing and arousing music with imagery to manipulate arousal level.

  19. Effects of music on arousal during imagery in elite shooters: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Garry; Morris, Tony; Terry, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Beneficial effects of music on several performance-related aspects of sport have been reported, but the processes involved are not well understood. The purpose of the present study was to investigate effects of relaxing and arousing classical music on physiological indicators and subjective perceptions of arousal during imagery of a sport task. First, appropriate music excerpts were selected. Then, 12 skilled shooters performed shooting imagery while listening to the three preselected music excerpts in randomized order. Participants' galvanic skin response, peripheral temperature, and electromyography were monitored during music played concurrently with imagery. Subjective music ratings and physiological measures showed, as hypothesized, that unfamiliar relaxing music was the most relaxing and unfamiliar arousing music was the most arousing. Researchers should examine the impact of unfamiliar relaxing and arousing music played during imagery on subsequent performance in diverse sports. Practitioners can apply unfamiliar relaxing and arousing music with imagery to manipulate arousal level.

  20. Distinct parietal sites mediate the influences of mood, arousal, and their interaction on human recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Ciara M; Flannery, Oliver; Soto, David

    2014-12-01

    The two dimensions of emotion, mood valence and arousal, have independent effects on recognition memory. At present, however, it is not clear how those effects are reflected in the human brain. Previous research in this area has generally dealt with memory for emotionally valenced or arousing stimuli, but the manner in which interacting mood and arousal states modulate responses in memory substrates remains poorly understood. We investigated memory for emotionally neutral items while independently manipulating mood valence and arousal state by means of music exposure. Four emotional conditions were created: positive mood/high arousal, positive mood/low arousal, negative mood/high arousal, and negative mood/low arousal. We observed distinct effects of mood valence and arousal in parietal substrates of recognition memory. Positive mood increased activity in ventral posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and orbitofrontal cortex, whereas arousal condition modulated activity in dorsal PPC and the posterior cingulate. An interaction between valence and arousal was observed in left ventral PPC, notably in a parietal area distinct from the those identified for the main effects, with a stronger effect of mood on recognition memory responses here under conditions of relative high versus low arousal. We interpreted the PPC activations in terms of the attention-to-memory hypothesis: Increased arousal may lead to increased top-down control of memory, and hence dorsal PPC activation, whereas positive mood valence may result in increased activity in ventral PPC regions associated with bottom-up attention to memory. These findings indicate that distinct parietal sites mediate the influences of mood, arousal, and their interplay during recognition memory.

  1. Systematic search for very-high-energy gamma-ray emission from bow shocks of runaway stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    H.E.S.S. Collaboration; Abdalla, H.; Abramowski, A.; Aharonian, F.; Ait Benkhali, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Andersson, T.; Angüner, E. O.; Arakawa, M.; Arrieta, M.; Aubert, P.; Backes, M.; Balzer, A.; Barnard, M.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Berge, D.; Bernhard, S.; Bernlöhr, K.; Blackwell, R.; Böttcher, M.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Bregeon, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bryan, M.; Büchele, M.; Bulik, T.; Capasso, M.; Carr, J.; Casanova, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chakraborty, N.; Chalme-Calvet, R.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chen, A.; Chevalier, J.; Chrétien, M.; Coffaro, M.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Condon, B.; Conrad, J.; Cui, Y.; Davids, I. D.; Decock, J.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; Devin, J.; deWilt, P.; Dirson, L.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Donath, A.; Drury, L. O.'C.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Eschbach, S.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Funk, S.; Füßling, M.; Gabici, S.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Gottschall, D.; Goyal, A.; Grondin, M.-H.; Hahn, J.; Haupt, M.; Hawkes, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hervet, O.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hoischen, C.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Ivascenko, A.; Iwasaki, H.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, D.; Jankowsky, F.; Jingo, M.; Jogler, T.; Jouvin, L.; Jung-Richardt, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katsuragawa, M.; Katz, U.; Kerszberg, D.; Khangulyan, D.; Khélifi, B.; Kieffer, M.; King, J.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Kraus, M.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lau, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lefranc, V.; Lemière, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Leser, E.; Lohse, T.; Lorentz, M.; Liu, R.; López-Coto, R.; Lypova, I.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Mariaud, C.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; Meintjes, P. J.; Meyer, M.; Mitchell, A. M. W.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Mohrmann, L.; Morå, K.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; Nakashima, S.; de Naurois, M.; Niederwanger, F.; Niemiec, J.; Oakes, L.; O'Brien, P.; Odaka, H.; Öttl, S.; Ohm, S.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Padovani, M.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perennes, C.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Piel, Q.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Prokhorov, D.; Prokoph, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Richter, S.; Rieger, F.; Romoli, C.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Saito, S.; Salek, D.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Sasaki, M.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwemmer, S.; Seglar-Arroyo, M.; Settimo, M.; Seyffert, A. S.; Shafi, N.; Shilon, I.; Simoni, R.; Sol, H.; Spanier, F.; Spengler, G.; Spies, F.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Takahashi, T.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tavernier, T.; Taylor, A. M.; Terrier, R.; Tibaldo, L.; Tiziani, D.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Tsuji, N.; Tuffs, R.; Uchiyama, Y.; van der Walt, D. J.; van Eldik, C.; van Rensburg, C.; van Soelen, B.; Vasileiadis, G.; Veh, J.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Vink, J.; Voisin, F.; Völk, H. J.; Vuillaume, T.; Wadiasingh, Z.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, R. M.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Yang, R.; Zabalza, V.; Zaborov, D.; Zacharias, M.; Zanin, R.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zefi, F.; Ziegler, A.; Żywucka, N.

    2018-04-01

    Context. Runaway stars form bow shocks by ploughing through the interstellar medium at supersonic speeds and are promising sources of non-thermal emission of photons. One of these objects has been found to emit non-thermal radiation in the radio band. This triggered the development of theoretical models predicting non-thermal photons from radio up to very-high-energy (VHE, E ≥ 0.1 TeV) gamma rays. Subsequently, one bow shock was also detected in X-ray observations. However, the data did not allow discrimination between a hot thermal and a non-thermal origin. Further observations of different candidates at X-ray energies showed no evidence for emission at the position of the bow shocks either. A systematic search in the Fermi-LAT energy regime resulted in flux upper limits for 27 candidates listed in the E-BOSS catalogue. Aim. Here we perform the first systematic search for VHE gamma-ray emission from bow shocks of runaway stars. Methods: Using all available archival H.E.S.S. data we search for very-high-energy gamma-ray emission at the positions of bow shock candidates listed in the second E-BOSS catalogue release. Out of the 73 bow shock candidates in this catalogue, 32 have been observed with H.E.S.S. Results: None of the observed 32 bow shock candidates in this population study show significant emission in the H.E.S.S. energy range. Therefore, flux upper limits are calculated in five energy bins and the fraction of the kinetic wind power that is converted into VHE gamma rays is constrained. Conclusions: Emission from stellar bow shocks is not detected in the energy range between 0.14 and 18 TeV.The resulting upper limits constrain the level of VHE gamma-ray emission from these objects down to 0.1-1% of the kinetic wind energy.

  2. Ion distributions in the Earth's foreshock upstream from the bow shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuselier, S. A.

    1995-01-01

    A variety of suprathermal and energetic ion distributions are found upstream from shocks. Some distributions, such as field-aligned beams, are generated directly at the shock either through reflection processes or through leakage from the hotter downstream region. Other distributions, such as intermediate distributions, evolve from these parent distributions through wave-particle interactions. This paper reviews our current understanding of the creation and evolution of suprathermal distributions at shocks. Examples of suprathermal ion distributions are taken from observations at the Earth's bow shock. Particular emphasis is placed on the creation of field-aligned beams and specularly reflected ion distributions and on the evolution of these distributions in the Earth's ion foreshock. However, the results from this heavily studied region are applicable to interplanetary shocks, bow shocks at other planets, and comets.

  3. Ion distributions upstream and downstream of the Earth's bow shock: first results from Vlasiator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pokhotelov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel hybrid-Vlasov code, Vlasiator, is developed for global simulations of magnetospheric plasma kinetics. The code is applied to model the collisionless bow shock on scales of the Earth's magnetosphere in two spatial dimensions and three dimensions in velocity space retrieving ion distribution functions over the entire foreshock and magnetosheath regions with unprecedented detail. The hybrid-Vlasov approach produces noise-free uniformly discretized ion distribution functions comparable to those measured in situ by spacecraft. Vlasiator can reproduce features of the ion foreshock and magnetosheath well known from spacecraft observations, such as compressional magnetosonic waves generated by backstreaming ion populations in the foreshock and mirror modes in the magnetosheath. An overview of ion distributions from various regions of the bow shock is presented, demonstrating the great opportunities for comparison with multi-spacecraft observations.

  4. Analysis of Silver Ink Bow-Tie RFID Tag Antennas Printed on Paper Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Merilampi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, polymeric silver inks, paper substrates, and screen printing were used to produce prototype Bow-Tie tags. Because of increasing interest in applying passive UHF-RFID systems in paper industry, the Bow-Tie antenna used in this study was designed to work through paper. The maximum reliable read ranges of the tags were measured thorough stacked paper and also in air. The analysis and functioning of the antenna design are also discussed. All inks and paper substrates were suitable as antenna material and the prototype tag antennas had good reading performance. The maximum reliable read ranges were quite the same as for copper and aluminum tags studied elsewhere. This means that printed UHF tags are competitive solutions for the identification of simple mass products.

  5. Predictions of lithium interactions with earth's bow shock in the presence of wave activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, R. B.; Lui, A. T. Y.; Vlahos, L.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a test-particle simulation studying the movement of a lithium tracer ion injected upstream of the bow shock are reported. Wave activity consists of parallel and antiparallel propagating Alfven waves characterized by a frequency power spectrum within a frequency or range of amplitudes defined separately in the upstream and downstream regions. The results show that even a moderate level of wave activity can substantially change the results obtained in the absence of waves. Among the effects observed are: (1) increased ion transmission; (2) both the average energy gain and spread about the average are increased for transmitted and reflected particles; (3) the average final pitch angle for transmitted particles tends to 90 deg, and the spread of reflected particles is reduced; and (4) the spatial dispersion of the ions on the bow shock after a single encounter is increased.

  6. Sensitivity of reactivity feedback due to core bowing in a metallic-fueled core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Masatoshi; Kawashima, Masatoshi; Endo, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Tomohiro

    1991-01-01

    A sensitivity study has been carried out on negative reactivity feedback caused by core bowing to assess the potential effectiveness of FBR passive safety features in regard to withstanding an anticipated transient without scram (ATWS). In the present study, an analysis has been carried to obtain the best material and geometrical conditions concerning the core restraint system out for several power to flow rates (P/F), up to 2.0 for a 300 MWe metallic-fueled core. From this study, it was clarified that the pad stiffness at an above core loading pads (ACLP) needs to be large enough to ensure negative reactivity feedback against ATWS. It was also clarified that there is an upper limit for the clearances between ducts at ACLP. A new concept, in regard to increasing the absolute value for negative reactivity feedback due to core bowing at ATWS, is proposed and discussed. (author)

  7. Nonthermal ions and associated magnetic field behavior at a quasi-parallel earth's bow shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, W. P.; Pardaens, A. K.; Schwartz, S. J.; Burgess, D.; Luehr, H.; Kessel, R. L.; Dunlop, M.; Farrugia, C. J.

    1993-01-01

    Attention is given to ion and magnetic field measurements at the earth's bow shock from the AMPTE-UKS and -IRM spacecraft, which were examined in high time resolution during a 45-min interval when the field remained closely aligned with the model bow shock normal. Dense ion beams were detected almost exclusively in the midst of short-duration periods of turbulent magnetic field wave activity. Many examples of propagation at large elevation angles relative to the ecliptic plane, which is inconsistent with reflection in the standard model shock configuration, were discovered. The associated waves are elliptically polarized and are preferentially left-handed in the observer's frame of reference, but are less confined to the maximum variance plane than other previously studied foreshock waves. The association of the wave activity with the ion beams suggests that the former may be triggered by an ion-driven instability, and possible candidates are discussed.

  8. Bimanual coordination of bowing and fingering in violinists--effects of position changes and string changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazennikov, Oleg; Wiesendanger, Mario

    2009-07-01

    Music performance is based on demanding motor control with much practice from young age onward. We have chosen to investigate basic bimanual movements played by violin amateurs and professionals. We posed the question whether position and string changes, two frequent mechanisms, may influence the time interval bowing (right)-fingering (left) coordination. The objective was to measure bimanual coordination, i.e., with or without position changes and string changes. The tendency was that the bimanual coordination was statistically only slightly increased or even unchanged but not perceptible. We conclude that the coordination index is limited up to 100 ms intervals, without any erroneous perception. Although the mentioned position changes and string changes are movements with their timing, they are executed in parallel rather than in series with the bow-fingering coordination.

  9. Observations of two distinct populations of bow shock ions in the upstream solar wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosling, J.T.; Asbridge, J.; Bame, S.J.; Paschmann, G.; Sckopke, N.

    1978-01-01

    Observations upstream of the earth's bow shock with the LASL/MPI fast plasma experiments on ISEE 1 and 2 reveal the presence of two distinct and mutually exclusive populations of low energy (< or approx. =40keV) ions apparently accelerated at the bow shock. The first of these, the ''reflected'' population, is characterized by 1) sharply peaked spectra seldom extending much above approx. 10 keV/ion and 2) relatively collimated flow coming from the direction of the shock. On the other hand, the ''diffuse'' ions are distinguished by relatively flat energy spectra above approx. 10 keV and broad angular distributions. They are by far the most commonly observed upstream ion event. A close causal association is suggested between the diffuse ion population in the upstream solar wind and energetic plasma ions observed within the magnetosheath

  10. MMS Observation of Shock-Reflected He++ at Earth's Quasi-Perpendicular Bow Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broll, Jeffrey Michael; Fuselier, S. A.; Trattner, K. J.; Schwartz, S. J.; Burch, J. L.; Giles, B. L.; Anderson, B. J.

    2018-01-01

    Specular reflection of protons at Earth's supercritical quasi-perpendicular bow shock has long been known to lead to the thermalization of solar wind particles by velocity-space dispersion. The same process has been proposed for He++ but could not be confirmed previously due to insufficient time resolution for velocity distribution measurements. We present observations and simulations of a bow shock crossing by the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission on 20 November 2015 indicating that a very similar reflection process for He++ is possible, and further that the part of the incoming distribution with the highest probability of reflecting is the same for H+ and He++. However, the reflection process for He++ is accomplished by deeper penetration into the downstream magnetic fields.

  11. The electron density and temperature distributions predicted by bow shock models of Herbig-Haro objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noriega-Crespo, A.; Bohm, K.H.; Raga, A.C.

    1990-01-01

    The observable spatial electron density and temperature distributions for series of simple bow shock models, which are of special interest in the study of Herbig-Haro (H-H) objects are computed. The spatial electron density and temperature distributions are derived from forbidden line ratios. It should be possible to use these results to recognize whether an observed electron density or temperature distribution can be attributed to a bow shock, as is the case in some Herbig-Haro objects. As an example, the empirical and predicted distributions for H-H 1 are compared. The predicted electron temperature distributions give the correct temperature range and they show very good diagnostic possibilities if the forbidden O III (4959 + 5007)/4363 wavelength ratio is used. 44 refs

  12. Risk assessment in gas and oil pipelines based on the fuzzy Bow-tie technique

    OpenAIRE

    P. Heyrani; A. Baghaei

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Nowadays, gas and oil account for 60 percent of world energy resources. Transporting crude oil and its products are accomplished through a number of ways among which pipelines are of the utmost significance. Considering the extent of pipelines in installation and residential areas and also high potential for damage, the safety of these pipes and application of risk management principles have undeniable importance. Bow-tie risk assessment method is one of the ways to determine sa...

  13. Coupled hydromagnetic wave excitation and ion acceleration upstream of the earth's bow shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    A self-consistent theory is presented for the excitation of hydromagnetic waves and the acceleration of diffuse ions upstream of the earth's bow shock in the quasi-equilibrium that results when the solar wind velocity and the interplanetary magnetic field are nearly parallel. For the waves the quasi-equilibrium results from a balance between excitation by the ions, which stream relative to the solar wind plasma, and convective loss to the magnetosheath. For the diffuse ions the quasi-equilibrium results from a balance between injection at the shock front, confinement to the foreshock by pitch angle scattering on the waves, acceleration by compression at the shock front, loss to the magnetosheath, loss due to escape upstream of the foreshock, and loss via diffusion perpendicular to the average magnetic field onto field lines that do not connect to the shock front. Diffusion equations describing the ion transport and wave kinetic equations describing the hydromagnetic wave transport are solved self-consistently to yield analytical expressions for the differential wave intensity spectrum as a function of frequency and distance from the bow shock z and for the ion omnidirectional distribution functions and anisotropies as functions of energy and z, In quantitative agreement with observations, the theory predicts (1) exponential spectra at the bow shock in energy per charge, (2) a decrease in intensity and hardening of the ion spectra with increasing z, (3) a 30-keV proton anisotropy parallel to z increasing from -0.28 at the bow shock to +0.51 as z→infinity (4) a linearly polarized wave intensity spectrum with a minimum at approx.6 x 10 -3 Hz and a maximum at approx.2--3 x 10 -2 Hz, (5) a decrease in the wave intensity spectrum with increasing z, (6) a total energy density in protons with energies >15 keV about eight times that in the hydromagnetic waves

  14. Observation of Motion of Bowed Strings and Resonant Strings in Violin Performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsutani, Akihiro

    2013-10-01

    The motion of a bowed string and a resonant string of a violin were simultaneously observed for the first time. The results of the direct observation of string motion in double stops and harmonics are also presented. The importance of the resonance was experimentally demonstrated from these observations. It is suggested that players should take account of the resonance and ideal Helmholtz motion in violin performances.

  15. The Fruits of Adversity: Technical Refinements of the Turkish Composite Bow during the Crusading Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    period. Depictions of these two bows are found in the detailed reproductions of sculptures, architectural reliefs, metalworkings, bone carvings, ivory...34 Ecclesiastical History of 12 In European battles at this time, heavy cavalry was unchallenged as the offensive arm in battle.4 Since the time of...Marzial, Great Britain: Aldine Press, 1965. Vitalis, Ordericus, The Ecclesiastical History of England and Normandy, trans. by Thomas Forester, London

  16. Laboratory studies of stagnating plasma flows with applications to inner solar system and stellar bow shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, T. E.; Smith, R. J.; Hsu, S. C.

    2016-10-01

    Supercritical magnetized collisionless shocks are thought to play a dominant role in the overall partition of energy throughout the universe by converting flow kinetic energy to other forms such as thermal and supra-thermal populations, magnetic field enhancement, turbulence, and energetic particles. The Magnetized Shock Experiment (MSX) at LANL creates conditions similar to those of inner solar system and stellar bow shocks by accelerating hot (100s of eV during translation) dense (1022 - 1023 m-3) Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) plasmoids to 100s of km/s; resulting in β 1, collisionless plasma flows with Msonic and MAlfvén 10. The drifting FRC can be made to impinge upon a variety of static obstacles including: a strong mirror or cusp magnetic field (mimicking magnetically excited shocks such as the Earth's bow shock), plasma pileup from a solid obstacle (similar to the bow shocks of Mercury and the Moon), and a neural gas puff (bow shocks of Venus or the comets). Characteristic shock length and time scales that are both large enough to observe yet small enough to fit within the experiment, enabling study of the complex interplay of kinetic and fluid processes that mediate cosmic shocks and can generate non-thermal distributions, produce density and magnetic field enhancements much greater than predicted by fluid theory, and accelerate particles. An overview of the experimental program will be presented, including recent results. This work is supported by the U.S. DOE, Office of Science, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25369.

  17. Serendipitous discovery of an infrared bow shock near PSR J1549–4848 with Spitzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhongxiang [Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Kaplan, David L. [Physics Department, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); Slane, Patrick [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Morrell, Nidia [Las Campanas Observatory, Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, La Serena (Chile); Kaspi, Victoria M. [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 University Street, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada)

    2013-06-01

    We report on the discovery of an infrared cometary nebula around PSR J1549–4848 in our Spitzer survey of a few middle-aged radio pulsars. Following the discovery, multi-wavelength imaging and spectroscopic observations of the nebula were carried out. We detected the nebula in Spitzer Infrared Array Camera 8.0, Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer 24 and 70 μm imaging, and in Spitzer IRS 7.5-14.4 μm spectroscopic observations, and also in the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer all-sky survey at 12 and 22 μm. These data were analyzed in detail, and we find that the nebula can be described with a standard bow shock shape, and that its spectrum contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and H{sub 2} emission features. However, it is not certain which object drives the nebula. We analyze the field stars and conclude that none of them can be the associated object because stars with a strong wind or mass ejection that usually produce bow shocks are much brighter than the field stars. The pulsar is approximately 15'' away from the region in which the associated object is expected to be located. In order to resolve the discrepancy, we suggest that a highly collimated wind could be emitted from the pulsar and produce the bow shock. X-ray imaging to detect the interaction of the wind with the ambient medium- and high-spatial resolution radio imaging to determine the proper motion of the pulsar should be carried out, which will help verify the association of the pulsar with the bow shock nebula.

  18. Wafer bowing control of free-standing heteroepitaxial diamond (100) films grown on Ir(100) substrates via patterned nucleation growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Taro; Kodama, Hideyuki; Kono, Shozo; Suzuki, Kazuhiro; Sawabe, Atsuhito

    2015-01-01

    The potential of patterned nucleation growth (PNG) technique to control the wafer bowing of free-standing heteroepitaxial diamond films was investigated. The heteroepitaxial diamond (100) films were grown on an Ir(100) substrate via PNG technique with different patterns of nucleation regions (NRs), which were dot-arrays with 8 or 13 μm pitch aligned to < 100 > or < 110 > direction of the Ir(100) substrate. The wafer bows and the local stress distributions of the free-standing films were measured using a confocal micro-Raman spectrometer. For each NR pattern, the stress evolutions within the early stage of diamond growth were also studied together with a scanning electron microscopic observation of the coalescing diamond particles. These investigations revealed that the NR pattern, in terms of pitch and direction of dot-array, strongly affects the compressive stress on the nucleation side of the diamond film and dominantly contributes to the elastic deformation of the free-standing film. This indicates that the PNG technique with an appropriate NR pattern is a promising solution to fabricate free-standing heteroepitaxial diamond films with extremely small bows. - Highlights: • Wafer bowing control of free-standing heteroepitaxial diamond (100) films • Effect of patterned nucleation and growth (PNG) technique on wafer bowing reduction • Influence of nucleation region patterns of PNG on wafer bowing • Internal stress analysis of PNG films via confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy

  19. The Procedure for Determination of Special Margin Factors to Account for a Bow of the VVER-1000 Fuel Assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsyganov, Sergey V.; Marin, Stanislav V.; Shishkov, Lev K.

    2008-01-01

    Starting from 1980's, the problem of bow of the VVER-1000 reactor FAs and the effect of that on the operational safety is being discussed. At the initial period of time, the extension of time for dropping control rods of the control and protection system associated with this bow posed the highest threat. Later on, new more rigid structures were developed for FAs that eliminated the problems of control rods. However, bow of the VVER-1000 reactor FAs is observed up to now. The scale of this bow reduced significantly but it still effects safety. Even a minor bow available may lead to the noticeable increase of power of individual fuel pins associated with the local variation of the coolant amount. This effect must be taken into account on designing fuel loadings to eliminate the exceeding of set limitations. The introduction of additional special margins is the standard method for taking this effect into account. The present paper describes the conservative technique for the assessment of additional margins for bow of FAs of state-of-the-art designs. This technique is employed in the VVER-1000 reactor designing. The chosen conservatism degree is discussed as well as the method for its assurance and acceptable ways for its slackening. The example of the margin evaluation for the up-to-date fuel loading is given. (authors)

  20. The procedure for determination of special margin factors to account for a bow of the WWER-1000 fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsyganov, S. V.; Marin, S. V.; Shishkov, L. K.

    2008-01-01

    Starting from 1980s, the problem of bow of the WWER-1000 reactor fuel assemblies and the effect of that on the operational safety is being discussed. At the initial period of time, the extension of time for dropping control rods of the control and protection system associated with this bow posed the highest threat. Later on, new more rigid structures were developed for fuel assemblies that eliminated the problems of control rods. However, bow of the WWER-1000 reactor fuel assemblies is observed up to now. The scale of this bow reduced significantly but it still effects safety. Even a minor bow available may lead to the noticeable increase of power of individual fuel pins associated with the local variation of the coolant amount. This effect must be taken into account on designing fuel loadings to eliminate the exceeding of set limitations. The introduction of additional special margins is the standard method for taking this effect into account. The present paper describes the conservative technique for the assessment of additional margins for bow of fuel assemblies of state-of-the-art designs. This technique is employed in the WWER-1000 reactor designing. The chosen conservatism degree is discussed as well as the method for its assurance and acceptable ways for its slackening. The example of the margin evaluation for the up-to-date fuel loading is given. (authors)

  1. The Procedure for Determination of Special Margin Factors to Account for a Bow of the VVER-1000 Fuel Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsyganov, Sergey V.; Marin, Stanislav V.; Shishkov, Lev K. [Russian Research Center ' Kurchatov Institute' , 1., Kurchatov sq., 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2008-07-01

    Starting from 1980's, the problem of bow of the VVER-1000 reactor FAs and the effect of that on the operational safety is being discussed. At the initial period of time, the extension of time for dropping control rods of the control and protection system associated with this bow posed the highest threat. Later on, new more rigid structures were developed for FAs that eliminated the problems of control rods. However, bow of the VVER-1000 reactor FAs is observed up to now. The scale of this bow reduced significantly but it still effects safety. Even a minor bow available may lead to the noticeable increase of power of individual fuel pins associated with the local variation of the coolant amount. This effect must be taken into account on designing fuel loadings to eliminate the exceeding of set limitations. The introduction of additional special margins is the standard method for taking this effect into account. The present paper describes the conservative technique for the assessment of additional margins for bow of FAs of state-of-the-art designs. This technique is employed in the VVER-1000 reactor designing. The chosen conservatism degree is discussed as well as the method for its assurance and acceptable ways for its slackening. The example of the margin evaluation for the up-to-date fuel loading is given. (authors)

  2. Risk analysis of urban gas pipeline network based on improved bow-tie model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, M. J.; You, Q. J.; Yue, Z.

    2017-11-01

    Gas pipeline network is a major hazard source in urban areas. In the event of an accident, there could be grave consequences. In order to understand more clearly the causes and consequences of gas pipeline network accidents, and to develop prevention and mitigation measures, the author puts forward the application of improved bow-tie model to analyze risks of urban gas pipeline network. The improved bow-tie model analyzes accident causes from four aspects: human, materials, environment and management; it also analyzes the consequences from four aspects: casualty, property loss, environment and society. Then it quantifies the causes and consequences. Risk identification, risk analysis, risk assessment, risk control, and risk management will be clearly shown in the model figures. Then it can suggest prevention and mitigation measures accordingly to help reduce accident rate of gas pipeline network. The results show that the whole process of an accident can be visually investigated using the bow-tie model. It can also provide reasons for and predict consequences of an unfortunate event. It is of great significance in order to analyze leakage failure of gas pipeline network.

  3. Upstream pressure variations associated with the bow shock and their effects on the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairfield, D.H.; Baumjohann, W.; Paschmann, G.; Luehr, H.; Sibeck, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    Magnetic field enhancements and depressions on the time scales of minutes were frequently observed simultaneously by the AMPTE CCE, GOES 5, and GOES 6 spacecraft in the subsolar magnetosphere. The source of these perturbations has been detected in the high time resolution AMPTE IRM measurements of the kinetic pressure of the solar wind upstream of the bow shock. It is argued that these upstream pressure variations are not inherent in the solar wind but rather are associated with the bow shock. This conclusion follows from the facts that (1) the upstream field strength and the density associated with the perturbations are highly correlated with each other whereas these quantities tend to be anticorrelated in the undisturbed solar wind, and (2) the upstream perturbations occur within the foreshock or at its boundary. The results imply a mode of interaction between the solar wind and the magnetosphere whereby density changes produced in the foreshock subsequently convect through the bow shock and impinge on the magnetosphere. Also velocity decreases deep within the foreshock sometimes reach many tens of kilometers per second and may be associated with further pressure variations as a changing interplanetary field direction changes the foreshock geometry. Upstream pressure perturbations should create significant effects on the magnetopause and at the foot of nearby field lines that lead to the polar cusp ionosphere

  4. Upstream region, foreshock and bow shock wave at Halley's Comet from plasma electron measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, K.A.; Carlson, C.W.; Curtis, D.W.

    1986-01-01

    Halley plasma electron parameters from 2.7 million km from the comet nucleus to the bow shock wave at 1.1 million km and beyond are surveyed. The features of the electron foreshock lying outside the shock to a distance of 230,000 km are described. It is a region of intense solar wind-comet plasma interaction in which energetic electrons are prominent. Several spikes of electrons whose energies extend to 2.5 keV appear in front of the shock. These energetic electrons may be accelerated in the same way electrons are accelerated at the Earth's bow shock to energies of 1 to 10 keV. The direction of the electron bulk flow direction changes abruptly between 1920 and 1922 UT, and the flow speed begins a sharp decline at the same time. It is suggested that the spacecraft entered the bow shock wave between 1920 and 1922 UT. Electron density variations at Halley are very much smaller than those at Giacobini-Zinner

  5. Interaction of single-pulse laser energy with bow shock in hypersonic flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Yanji

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Pressure sensing and schlieren imaging with high resolution and sensitivity are applied to the study of the interaction of single-pulse laser energy with bow shock at Mach 5. An Nd:YAG laser operated at 1.06 μm, 100 mJ pulse energy is used to break down the hypersonic flow in a shock tunnel. Three-dimensional Navier–Stokes equations are solved with an upwind scheme to simulate the interaction. The pressure at the stagnation point on the blunt body is measured and calculated to examine the pressure variation during the interaction. Schlieren imaging is used in conjunction with the calculated density gradients to examine the process of the interaction. The results show that the experimental pressure at the stagnation point on the blunt body and schlieren imaging fit well with the simulation. The pressure at the stagnation point on the blunt body will increase when the transmission shock approaches the blunt body and decrease with the formation of the rarefied wave. Bow shock is deformed during the interaction. Quasi-stationary waves are formed by high rate laser energy deposition to control the bow shock. The pressure and temperature at the stagnation point on the blunt body and the wave drag are reduced to 50%, 75% and 81% respectively according to the simulation. Schlieren imaging has provided important information for the investigation of the mechanism of the interaction.

  6. Recoil and Vibration in an Archery Bow Equipped with a Multi-Rod Stabilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Zaniewski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to create a mechanical and mathematical model of a multi-rod stabilizer for the sport archery bow and to analyze its capability to damp disagreeable recoil and vibration of the bow during internal ballistic motion. The research methods are based on the Euler-Bernoulli theory of beam bending, Lagrange equations of the second kind, the Cauchy problem, and the Runge-Kutta method. A mathematical software package was used to analyze the problem. The approach to the problem of sport-bow stabilization in the vertical plane that is proposed in this paper addresses the practical needs both of applied engineering mechanics and of the sport of archery. Numerical results from computer simulation are presented in both tabular and graphical form. The common motion of the string and arrow (internal ballistic motion is accompanied by intense vibration which is caused by disruption of the static force balance at the moment of string release.

  7. PSR J2124-3358: A Bow Shock Nebula with an X-ray Tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, S.; Gaensler, B. M.; Vigelius, M.; Cordes, J. M.; Arzoumanian, Z.; Stappers, B.; Ghavamian, P.; Melatos, A.

    2005-12-01

    As neutron stars move supersonically through the interstellar medium, their relativistic winds are confined by the ram pressure of the interstellar medium. The outer shocked layers may emit in Hα , producing a visible bow shock nebula, while the confined relativistic wind may produce radio or X-ray emission. The Hα bow shock nebula powered by the recycled pulsar J2124-3358 is asymmetric about the velocity vector and shows a marked kink. In recent observations with the Chandra X-ray Observatory, we have detected a long, curved X-ray tail associated with the pulsar. The tail is not aligned with the pulsar velocity, but is confined within the optical bow shock. The X-ray spectrum of the tail is well-fit by a power law, consistent with synchrotron emission from the wind termination shock and the post-shock flow. The presence of Hα and X-ray emission allows us to trace both the external ambient medium and the confined wind. In magnetohydrodynamic simulations, we verify that a bulk flow and non-uniformities in the ambient medium can produce the observed shape of the nebula, possibly in combination with an anisotropic pulsar wind. Support for this work was provided by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration through Chandra Award Number GO5-6075X issued by the Chandra X-ray Observatory Center, which is operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory for and on behalf of the National Aeronautics Space Administration under contract NAS8-03060.

  8. New test of bow-shock models of Herbig-Haro objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raga, A.C.; Bohm, K.H.; Solf, J.; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Heidelberg, West Germany)

    1986-01-01

    Long-slit, high-resolution spectroscopy of the Herbig-Haro oject HH 32 has shown that the emission-line profiles in all four condensations A, B, C, and D show high- and low-velocity components. The spatial maxima of these two components are always arranged in a double-layer pattern, with the maximum of the high-velocity component 0.6-1.0 arcsecs closer to the central star (AS 353A) than the low-velocity maximum. A study of the emission-line profiles predicted from a model of a radiating bow shock shows that such a double-layer structure appears naturally for this type of flow. In this case both the high-velocity and the low-velocity components come from the post-shock gas, in agreement with the theoretical prediction that it should be very difficult to detect the pre-shock gas observationally. The present results agree qualitatively well with observations of HH 32, strengthening the case for a bow-shock interpretation of this Herbig-Haro object. It is shown that the double-layer effect will be more easily observable for bow shocks which move at a relatively large angle with respect to the plane of the sky (i.e., for Herbig-Haro objects which have large radial velocities). 31 references

  9. Successful emotion regulation requires both conviction and skill: beliefs about the controllability of emotions, reappraisal, and regulation success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutentag, Tony; Halperin, Eran; Porat, Roni; Bigman, Yochanan E; Tamir, Maya

    2017-09-01

    To succeed in self-regulation, people need to believe that it is possible to change behaviour and they also need to use effective means to enable such a change. We propose that this also applies to emotion regulation. In two studies, we found that people were most successful in emotion regulation, the more they believed emotions can be controlled and the more they used an effective emotion regulation strategy - namely, cognitive reappraisal. Cognitive reappraisal moderated the link between beliefs about the controllability of emotion and success in emotion regulation, when reappraisal was measured as a trait (Study 1) or manipulated (Study 2). Such moderation was found when examining the regulation of disgust elicited by emotion-inducing films (Study 1), and the regulation of anger elicited by real political events (Study 2). We discuss the implications of our findings for research and practice in emotion regulation.

  10. Differences in emotion modulation using cognitive reappraisal in individuals with and without suicidal ideation: An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudinova, Anastacia Y; Owens, Max; Burkhouse, Katie L; Barretto, Kenneth M; Bonanno, George A; Gibb, Brandon E

    2016-08-01

    Difficulties in emotion regulation have been associated with increased suicidal thoughts and behaviours. The majority of studies have examined self-reported use of emotion regulation strategies. In contrast, the current study focused on a direct measure of individuals' ability to use a specific emotion regulation strategy, cognitive reappraisal, using the late positive potential (LPP), an event-related potential component that reflects attention to emotional stimuli. Specifically, the cognitive reappraisal ability of 33 undergraduate students was assessed via an image-viewing task during which the participants had to passively view, increase or reduce their emotions in response to looking at neutral, positive or dysphoric images. We found that participants with a history of suicidal ideation (SI) had significantly higher LPP when asked to reduce negative emotion in response to dysphoric images, compared to individuals with no history of SI. These findings suggest that difficulties with using cognitive reappraisal, specifically to decrease negative affect, might be linked to suicide risk.

  11. Sexual Arousal and Sexually Explicit Media (SEM: Comparing Patterns of Sexual Arousal to SEM and Sexual Self-Evaluations and Satisfaction Across Gender and Sexual Orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Martin Hald, PhD

    2018-03-01

    Hald GM, Stulhofer A, Lange T, et al. Sexual Arousal and Sexually Explicit Media (SEM: Comparing Patterns of Sexual Arousal to SEM and Sexual Self-Evaluations and Satisfaction Across Gender and Sexual Orientation. Sex Med 2018;6:30–38.

  12. Reappraising social emotions: the role of inferior frontal gyrus, temporo-parietal junction and insula in interpersonal emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grecucci, Alessandro; Giorgetta, Cinzia; Bonini, Nicolao; Sanfey, Alan G

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have reported the effect of emotion regulation (ER) strategies on both individual and social decision-making, however, the effect of regulation on socially driven emotions independent of decisions is still unclear. In the present study, we investigated the neural effects of using reappraisal to both up- and down-regulate socially driven emotions. Participants played the Dictator Game (DG) in the role of recipient while undergoing fMRI, and concurrently applied the strategies of either up-regulation (reappraising the proposer's intentions as more negative), down-regulation (reappraising the proposer's intentions as less negative), as well as a baseline "look" condition. Results showed that regions responding to the implementation of reappraisal (effect of strategy, that is, "regulating regions") were the inferior and middle frontal gyrus, temporo parietal junction and insula bilaterally. Importantly, the middle frontal gyrus activation correlated with the frequency of regulatory strategies in daily life, with the insula activation correlating with the perceived ability to reappraise the emotions elicited by the social situation. Regions regulated by reappraisal (effect of regulation, that is, "regulated regions") were the striatum, the posterior cingulate and the insula, showing increased activation for the up-regulation and reduced activation for down-regulation, both compared to the baseline condition. When analyzing the separate effects of partners' behavior, selfish behavior produced an activation of the insula, not observed when subjects were treated altruistically. Here we show for the first time that interpersonal ER strategies can strongly affect neural responses when experiencing socially driven emotions. Clinical implications of these findings are also discussed to understand how the way we interpret others' intentions may affect the way we emotionally react.

  13. Reappraising social emotions: the role of inferior frontal gyrus, temporo-parietal junction and insula in interpersonal emotion regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro eGrecucci

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported the effect of emotion regulation strategies on both individual and social decision making, however the effect of regulation on socially driven emotions independent of decisions is still unclear. In the present study, we investigated the neural effects of using reappraisal to both up- and down-regulate socially driven emotions. Participants played the Dictator Game in the role of recipient while undergoing fMRI, and concurrently applied the strategies of either up-regulation (reappraising the proposer’s intentions as more negative, down-regulation (reappraising the proposer’s intentions as less negative, as well as a baseline ‘look’ condition. Results showed that regions responding to the implementation of reappraisal (effect of strategy, that is, regulating regions were the inferior and middle frontal gyrus, temporo parietal junction and insula bilaterally. Importantly, the middle frontal gyrus activation correlated with the frequency of regulatory strategies in daily life, with the insula activation correlating with the perceived ability to reappraise the emotions elicited by the social situation. Regions regulated by reappraisal (effect of regulation, that is, regulated regions were the striatum, the posterior cingulate and the insula, showing increased activation for the up-regulation and reduced activation for down-regulation, both compared to the baseline condition. When analyzing the separate effects of partners’ behavior, selfish behavior produced an activation of the insula, not observed when subjects were treated altruistically. Here we show for the first time that interpersonal emotion regulation strategies can strongly affect neural responses when experiencing socially driven emotions. Clinical implications of these findings are also discussed to understand how the way we interpret others’ intentions may affect the way we emotionally react.

  14. Reappraising social emotions: the role of inferior frontal gyrus, temporo-parietal junction and insula in interpersonal emotion regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grecucci, Alessandro; Giorgetta, Cinzia; Bonini, Nicolao; Sanfey, Alan G.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have reported the effect of emotion regulation (ER) strategies on both individual and social decision-making, however, the effect of regulation on socially driven emotions independent of decisions is still unclear. In the present study, we investigated the neural effects of using reappraisal to both up- and down-regulate socially driven emotions. Participants played the Dictator Game (DG) in the role of recipient while undergoing fMRI, and concurrently applied the strategies of either up-regulation (reappraising the proposer's intentions as more negative), down-regulation (reappraising the proposer's intentions as less negative), as well as a baseline “look” condition. Results showed that regions responding to the implementation of reappraisal (effect of strategy, that is, “regulating regions”) were the inferior and middle frontal gyrus, temporo parietal junction and insula bilaterally. Importantly, the middle frontal gyrus activation correlated with the frequency of regulatory strategies in daily life, with the insula activation correlating with the perceived ability to reappraise the emotions elicited by the social situation. Regions regulated by reappraisal (effect of regulation, that is, “regulated regions”) were the striatum, the posterior cingulate and the insula, showing increased activation for the up-regulation and reduced activation for down-regulation, both compared to the baseline condition. When analyzing the separate effects of partners' behavior, selfish behavior produced an activation of the insula, not observed when subjects were treated altruistically. Here we show for the first time that interpersonal ER strategies can strongly affect neural responses when experiencing socially driven emotions. Clinical implications of these findings are also discussed to understand how the way we interpret others' intentions may affect the way we emotionally react. PMID:24027512

  15. Memory enhancement by a semantically unrelated emotional arousal source induced after learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Kristy A; Yee, Douglas; Erickson, Kirk I

    2005-07-01

    It has been well established that moderate physiological or emotional arousal modulates memory. However, there is some controversy about whether the source of arousal must be semantically related to the information to be remembered. To test this idea, 35 healthy young adult participants learned a list of common nouns and afterward viewed a semantically unrelated, neutral or emotionally arousing videotape. The tape was shown after learning to prevent arousal effects on encoding or attention, instead influencing memory consolidation. Heart rate increase was significantly greater in the arousal group, and negative affect was significantly less reported in the non-arousal group after the video. The arousal group remembered significantly more words than the non-arousal group at both 30 min and 24 h delays, despite comparable group memory performance prior to the arousal manipulation. These results demonstrate that emotional arousal, even from an unrelated source, is capable of modulating memory consolidation. Potential reasons for contradictory findings in some previous studies, such as the timing of "delayed" memory tests, are discussed.

  16. Respiratory and spontaneous arousals in patients with Sleep Apnea Hypopnea Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, J; Porée, F; Carrault, G; Fiz, J A; Abad, J; Jané, R

    2012-01-01

    Sleep in patients with Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome (SAHS) is frequently interrupted with arousals. Increased amounts of arousals result in shortening total sleep time and repeated sleep-arousal change can result in sleep fragmentation. According to the American Sleep Disorders Association (ASDA) an arousal is a marker of sleep disruption representing a detrimental and harmful feature for sleep. The nature of arousals and its role on the regulation of the sleep process raises controversy and has sparked the debate in the last years. In this work, we analyzed and compared the EEG spectral content of respiratory and spontaneous arousals on a database of 45 SAHS subjects. A total of 3980 arousals (1996 respiratory and 1984 spontaneous) were analyzed. The results showed no differences between the spectral content of the two kinds of arousals. Our findings raise doubt as to whether these two kinds of arousals are truly triggered by different organic mechanisms. Furthermore, they may also challenge the current beliefs regarding the underestimation of the importance of spontaneous arousals and their contribution to sleep fragmentation in patients suffering from SAHS.

  17. Discharge patterns of human genioglossus motor units during arousal from sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Vanessa; Malhotra, Atul; Nicholas, Christian L; Worsnop, Christopher; Jordan, Amy S; Butler, Jane E; Saboisky, Julian P; Gandevia, Simon C; White, David P; Trinder, John

    2010-03-01

    Single motor unit recordings of the human genioglossus muscle reveal motor units with a variety of discharge patterns. Integrated multiunit electromyographic recordings of genioglossus have demonstrated an abrupt increase in the muscle's activity at arousal from sleep. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of arousal from sleep on the activity of individual motor units as a function of their particular discharge pattern. Genioglossus activity was measured using intramuscular fine-wire electrodes inserted via a percutaneous approach. Arousals from sleep were identified using the ASDA criterion and the genioglossus electromyogram recordings analyzed for single motor unit activity. Sleep research laboratory. Sleep and respiratory data were collected in 8 healthy subjects (6 men). 138 motor units were identified during prearousalarousal sleep: 25% inspiratory phasic, 33% inspiratory tonic, 4% expiratory phasic, 3% expiratory tonic, and 35% tonic. At arousal from sleep inspiratory phasic units significantly increased the proportion of a breath over which they were active, but did not appreciably increase their rate of firing. 80 new units were identified at arousals, 75% were inspiratory, many of which were active for only 1 or 2 breaths. 22% of units active before arousal, particularly expiratory and tonic units, stopped at the arousal. Increased genioglossus muscle activity at arousal from sleep is primarily due to recruitment of inspiratory phasic motor units. Further, activity within the genioglossus motoneuron pool is reorganized at arousal as, in addition to recruitment, approximately 20% of units active before arousals stopped firing.

  18. Sympathetic arousal increases a negative memory bias in young women with low sex hormone levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Shawn E.; Barber, Sarah J.; Chai, Audrey; Clewett, David V.; Mather, Mara

    2015-01-01

    Emotionally arousing events are typically better attended to and remembered than neutral ones. Current theories propose that arousal-induced increases in norepinephrine during encoding bias attention and memory in favor of affectively salient stimuli. Here, we tested this hypothesis by manipulating levels of physiological arousal prior to encoding and examining how it influenced memory for emotionally salient images, particularly those that are negative rather than positive in valence. We also tested whether sex steroid hormones interact with noradrenergic activity to influence these emotional memory biases in women. Healthy naturally cycling women and women on hormonal contraception completed one of the following physiological arousal manipulations prior to viewing a series of negative, positive and neutral images: 1) Immediate handgrip arousal – isometric handgrip immediately prior to encoding, 2) Residual handgrip arousal – isometric handgrip 15 min prior to encoding, or 3) No handgrip. Sympathetic arousal was measured throughout the session via pupil diameter changes. Levels of 17β-estradiol and progesterone were measured via salivary samples. Memory performance was assessed approximately 10 minutes after encoding using a surprise free recall test. The results indicated that handgrip successfully increased sympathetic arousal compared to the control task. Under immediate handgrip arousal, women showed enhanced memory for negative images over positive images; this pattern was not observed in women assigned to the residual and no-handgrip arousal conditions. Additionally, under immediate handgrip arousal, both high estradiol and progesterone levels attenuated the memory bias for negative over positive images. Follow-up hierarchical linear models revealed consistent effects when accounting for trial-by-trial variability in normative International Affective Picture System valence and arousal ratings. These findings suggest that heightened sympathetic arousal

  19. Worrying about the future: An episodic specificity induction impacts problem solving, reappraisal, and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Helen G; Madore, Kevin P; Schacter, Daniel L

    2016-04-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that an episodic specificity induction--brief training in recollecting details of a recent experience--enhances performance on various subsequent tasks thought to draw upon episodic memory processes. Existing work has also shown that mental simulation can be beneficial for emotion regulation and coping with stressors. Here we focus on understanding how episodic detail can affect problem solving, reappraisal, and psychological well-being regarding worrisome future events. In Experiment 1, an episodic specificity induction significantly improved participants' performance on a subsequent means-end problem solving task (i.e., more relevant steps) and an episodic reappraisal task (i.e., more episodic details) involving personally worrisome future events compared with a control induction not focused on episodic specificity. Imagining constructive behaviors with increased episodic detail via the specificity induction was also related to significantly larger decreases in anxiety, perceived likelihood of a bad outcome, and perceived difficulty to cope with a bad outcome, as well as larger increases in perceived likelihood of a good outcome and indicated use of active coping behaviors compared with the control. In Experiment 2, we extended these findings using a more stringent control induction, and found preliminary evidence that the specificity induction was related to an increase in positive affect and decrease in negative affect compared with the control. Our findings support the idea that episodic memory processes are involved in means-end problem solving and episodic reappraisal, and that increasing the episodic specificity of imagining constructive behaviors regarding worrisome events may be related to improved psychological well-being. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Light and Cognition: Roles for Circadian Rhythms, Sleep, and Arousal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, Angus S.; Tam, Shu K. E.; Brown, Laurence A.; Vyazovskiy, Vladyslav V.; Bannerman, David M.; Peirson, Stuart N.

    2018-01-01

    Light exerts a wide range of effects on mammalian physiology and behavior. As well as synchronizing circadian rhythms to the external environment, light has been shown to modulate autonomic and neuroendocrine responses as well as regulating sleep and influencing cognitive processes such as attention, arousal, and performance. The last two decades have seen major advances in our understanding of the retinal photoreceptors that mediate these non-image forming responses to light, as well as the neural pathways and molecular mechanisms by which circadian rhythms are generated and entrained to the external light/dark (LD) cycle. By contrast, our understanding of the mechanisms by which lighting influences cognitive processes is more equivocal. The effects of light on different cognitive processes are complex. As well as the direct effects of light on alertness, indirect effects may also occur due to disrupted circadian entrainment. Despite the widespread use of disrupted LD cycles to study the role circadian rhythms on cognition, the different experimental protocols used have subtly different effects on circadian function which are not always comparable. Moreover, these protocols will also disrupt sleep and alter physiological arousal, both of which are known to modulate cognition. Studies have used different assays that are dependent on different cognitive and sensory processes, which may also contribute to their variable findings. Here, we propose that studies addressing the effects of different lighting conditions on cognitive processes must also account for their effects on circadian rhythms, sleep, and arousal if we are to fully understand the physiological basis of these responses. PMID:29479335

  1. Sympathetic arousal as a marker of chronicity in childhood stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengin-Bolatkale, Hatun; Conture, Edward G; Walden, Tedra A; Jones, Robin M

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated whether sympathetic activity during a stressful speaking task was an early marker for stuttering chronicity. Participants were 9 children with persisting stuttering, 23 children who recovered, and 17 children who do not stutter. Participants performed a stress-inducing picture-naming task and skin conductance was measured across three time points. Findings indicated that at the initial time point, children with persisting stuttering exhibited higher sympathetic arousal during the stressful speaking task than children whose stuttering recovered. Findings are taken to suggest that sympathetic activity may be an early marker of heightened risk for chronic stuttering.

  2. Sexual Arousal and Sexually Explicit Media (SEM): Comparing Patterns of Sexual Arousal to SEM and Sexual Self-Evaluations and Satisfaction Across Gender and Sexual Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hald, Gert Martin; Stulhofer, Aleksandar; Lange, Theis

    2018-03-01

    Investigations of patterns of sexual arousal to certain groups of sexually explicit media (SEM) in the general population in non-laboratory settings are rare. Such knowledge could be important to understand more about the relative specificity of sexual arousal in different SEM users. (i) To investigate whether sexual arousal to non-mainstream vs mainstream SEM contents could be categorized across gender and sexual orientation, (ii) to compare levels of SEM-induced sexual arousal, sexual satisfaction, and self-evaluated sexual interests and fantasies between non-mainstream and mainstream SEM groups, and (iii) to explore the validity and predictive accuracy of the Non-Mainstream Pornography Arousal Scale (NPAS). Online cross-sectional survey of 2,035 regular SEM users in Croatia. Patterns of sexual arousal to 27 different SEM themes, sexual satisfaction, and self-evaluations of sexual interests and sexual fantasies. Groups characterized by sexual arousal to non-mainstream SEM could be identified across gender and sexual orientation. These non-mainstream SEM groups reported more SEM use and higher average levels of sexual arousal across the 27 SEM themes assessed compared with mainstream SEM groups. Only few differences were found between non-mainstream and mainstream SEM groups in self-evaluative judgements of sexual interests, sexual fantasies, and sexual satisfaction. The internal validity and predictive accuracy of the NPAS was good across most user groups investigated. The findings suggest that in classified non-mainstream SEM groups, patterns of sexual arousal might be less fixated and category specific than previously assumed. Further, these groups are not more judgmental of their SEM-related sexual arousal patterns than groups characterized by patterns of sexual arousal to more mainstream SEM content. Moreover, accurate identification of non-mainstream SEM group membership is generally possible across gender and sexual orientation using the NPAS. Hald GM

  3. Martian Bow Shock and Magnetic Pile-Up Barrier Formation Due to the Exosphere Ion Mass-Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eojin Kim

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Bow shock, formed by the interaction between the solar wind and a planet, is generated in different patterns depending on the conditions of the planet. In the case of the earth, its own strong magnetic field plays a critical role in determining the position of the bow shock. However, in the case of Mars of which has very a small intrinsic magnetic field, the bow shock is formed by the direct interaction between the solar wind and the Martian ionosphere. It is known that the position of the Martian bow shock is affected by the mass loading-effect by which the supersonic solar wind velocity becomes subsonic as the heavy ions originating from the planet are loaded on the solar wind. We simulated the Martian magnetosphere depending on the changes of the density and velocity of the solar wind by using the three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic model built by modifying the comet code that includes the mass loading effect. The Martian exosphere model of was employed as the Martian atmosphere model, and only the photoionization by the solar radiation was considered in the ionization process of the neutral atmosphere. In the simulation result under the normal solar wind conditions, the Martian bow shock position in the subsolar point direction was consistent with the result of the previous studies. The three-dimensional simulation results produced by varying the solar wind density and velocity were all included in the range of the Martian bow shock position observed by Mariner 4, Mars 2, 3, 5, and Phobos 2. Additionally, the simulation result also showed that the change of the solar wind density had a greater effect on the Martian bow shock position than the change of the solar wind velocity. Our result may be useful in analyzing the future observation data by Martian probes.

  4. Influence of emotional valence and arousal on the spread of activation in memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhean-Larose, Sandra; Leveau, Nicolas; Denhière, Guy

    2014-11-01

    Controversy still persists on whether emotional valence and arousal influence cognitive activities. Our study sought to compare how these two factors foster the spread of activation within the semantic network. In a lexical decision task, prime words were varied depending on the valence (pleasant or unpleasant) or on the level of emotional arousal (high or low). Target words were carefully selected to avoid semantic priming effects, as well as to avoid arousing specific emotions (neutral). Three SOA durations (220, 420 and 720 ms) were applied across three independent groups. Results indicate that at 220 ms, the effect of arousal is significantly higher than the effect of valence in facilitating spreading activation while at 420 ms, the effect of valence is significantly higher than the effect of arousal in facilitating spreading activation. These findings suggest that affect is a sequential process involving the successive intervention of arousal and valence.

  5. The effects of valence and arousal on the neural activity leading to subsequent memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickley Steinmetz, Katherine R; Kensinger, Elizabeth A

    2009-11-01

    This study examined how valence and arousal affect the processes linked to subsequent memory for emotional information. While undergoing an fMRI scan, participants viewed neutral pictures and emotional pictures varying by valence and arousal. After the scan, participants performed a recognition test. Subsequent memory for negative or high arousal information was associated with occipital and temporal activity, whereas memory for positive or low arousal information was associated with frontal activity. Regression analyses confirmed that for negative or high arousal items, temporal lobe activity was the strongest predictor of later memory whereas for positive or low arousal items, frontal activity corresponded most strongly with later memory. These results suggest that the types of encoding processes relating to memory (e.g., sensory vs. elaborative processing) can differ based on the affective qualities of emotional information.

  6. Developmental Reversals in False Memory: Effects of Emotional Valence and Arousal

    OpenAIRE

    Brainerd, C. J.; Holliday, R. E.; Reyna, V. F.; Yang, Y.; Toglia, M. P.

    2010-01-01

    Do the emotional valence and arousal of events distort children’s memories? Do valence and arousal modulate counterintuitive age increases in false memory? We investigated those questions in children, adolescents, and adults using the Cornell/Cortland Emotion Lists, a word list pool that induces false memories and in which valence and arousal can be manipulated factorially. False memories increased with age for unpresented semantic associates of word lists, and net accuracy (the ratio of true...

  7. The effect of exercise-induced arousal on chosen tempi for familiar melodies

    OpenAIRE

    Jakubowski, Kelly; Halpern, Andrea; Grierson, Mick; Stewart, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Many previous studies have shown that arousal affects time perception, suggesting a direct influence of arousal on the speed of the pacemaker of the internal clock. However, it is unknown whether arousal influences the mental representation of tempo (speed) for highly familiar and complex stimuli, such as well-known melodies, that have long-term representations in memory. Previous research suggests that mental representations of the tempo of familiar melodies are stable over time; the aim of ...

  8. Emotion regulation and emotional distress: The mediating role of hope on reappraisal and anxiety/depression in newly diagnosed cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peh, Chao Xu; Liu, Jianlin; Bishop, George D; Chan, Hui Yu; Chua, Shi Min; Kua, Ee Heok; Mahendran, Rathi

    2017-08-01

    A proportion of newly diagnosed cancer patients may experience anxiety and depression. Emotion suppression has been associated with poorer psychoemotional outcomes, whereas reappraisal may be an adaptive emotion regulation strategy. Few studies have examined potential mechanisms linking reappraisal to psychoemotional outcomes in cancer patients. This study aims to replicate findings on reappraisal and suppression and further examines if hope mediates the association between reappraisal and anxiety/depression in patients newly diagnosed with cancer. Participants were 144 adult cancer patients (65.3% female, mean age = 48.96 years, SD = 9.23). Patients completed a set of study questionnaires, including the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, Adult Hope Scale, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Path analysis was used to examine if hope mediated the association between reappraisal and anxiety/depression. Prevalence of anxiety was 39.6% and depression was 25.0%. Reappraisal and hope were correlated with lower anxiety and depression, whereas suppression was correlated with higher anxiety and depression. The hypothesized mediation model provided fit to the data, comparative fit index = 0.95, Tucker-Lewis index = 0.94, root-mean-square-error of approximation = 0.05. There was a significant indirect effect of reappraisal on anxiety and depression via hope, b = -0.95, SE = 0.42, 95% confidence interval = -1.77 to -0.12, whereas the direct effect of reappraisal was nonsignificant. The study findings suggest that hope mediated the association between reappraisal and anxiety/depression outcomes. Moreover, the high prevalence of anxiety and depression implies a need for healthcare providers to attend to the psychoemotional needs of newly diagnosed cancer patients. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Migraine, arousal and sleep deprivation: comment on: "sleep quality, arousal and pain thresholds in migraineurs: a blinded controlled polysomnographic study".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollono, Catello; Testani, Elisa; Losurdo, Anna; Mazza, Salvatore; Della Marca, Giacomo

    2013-06-10

    We discuss the hypothesis proposed by Engstrom and coworkers that Migraineurs have a relative sleep deprivation, which lowers the pain threshold and predispose to attacks. Previous data indicate that Migraineurs have a reduction of Cyclic Alternating Pattern (CAP), an essential mechanism of NREM sleep regulation which allows to dump the effect of incoming disruptive stimuli, and to protect sleep. The modifications of CAP observed in Migraineurs are similar to those observed in patients with impaired arousal (narcolepsy) and after sleep deprivation. The impairment of this mechanism makes Migraineurs more vulnerable to stimuli triggering attacks during sleep, and represents part of a more general vulnerability to incoming stimuli.

  10. The effect of personality type and musical task on self-perceived arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hayoung A

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to measure the level of arousal influenced by 4 different musical experiences classified by task difficulty and to examine the relationship between music-induced arousal level and personality type. Participants included 32 university students who were neither musicians nor music majors. The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (Eysenck & Eysenck, 1975) was used to identify participants as either extravert or introvert. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 types of musical tasks: listening, singing, rhythm tapping, or keyboard playing. Arousal level was measured using the Activation-Deactivation Adjective Check List (ADACL) (Thayer, 1978) before and after the musical task. The ADACL is a self-report scale consisting of a list of 20 adjectives which describe various transitory arousal states, including energy, tiredness, tension, and calmness. Results showed no significant difference between personality types and the changes in arousal level. Result indicated a significant effect of listening on decreased tension arousal. Singing and rhythm tapping, which are regarded as having a relatively moderate task difficulty, increased energy arousal significantly and decreased tiredness arousal significantly. Participants' tiredness arousal levels also decreased significantly after keyboard playing. These findings suggest that engaging in musical experience that has a moderate level of task difficulty makes individuals more energetic and less tired.

  11. A computerized algorithm for arousal detection in healthy adults and patients with Parkinson disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Gertrud Laura; Jennum, Poul; Kempfner, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    arousals from non-rapid eye movement (REM) and REM sleep, independent of the subject's age and disease. The proposed algorithm uses features from EEG, EMG, and the manual sleep stage scoring as input to a feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN). The performance of the algorithm has been assessed using......Arousals occur from all sleep stages and can be identified as abrupt electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram (EMG) changes. Manual scoring of arousals is time consuming with low interscore agreement. The aim of this study was to design an arousal detection algorithm capable of detecting...

  12. Enhanced auditory arousal increases intake of less palatable and healthier foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privitera, Gregory J; Diaz, Melissa; Haas, Meagan C

    2014-01-23

    Two experiments were conducted to test a prediction of the arousal hypothesis that increased arousal will increase intake of less palatable and healthy foods. In both experiments, arousal was manipulated by adjusting the volume of a movie (soft, loud volume) while participants consumed foods. In Experiment 1, participants ate fresh (palatable) or stale (less palatable) popcorn during a 9-minute movie played at a soft or loud volume. Experiment 2 used the same procedures with healthier foods (carrot sticks and apple slices). Partial support for the arousal hypothesis in Experiment 1 showed that participants consumed more stale but not fresh popcorn in the loud (high arousal) versus soft (low arousal) volume group. These findings suggest that low but not high palatable foods are susceptible to manipulations of arousal. Consistent with this interpretation, Experiment 2 showed that high but not low environmental arousal increased intake of the fruits and vegetables, which are typically rated as lower in palatability compared to high fat foods. These results show that high arousal in an eating-typical environment increases intake of less palatable foods, and healthy foods (i.e., fruits and vegetables). Increasing the availability of healthier foods in a loud food environment can have a positive impact on increasing intake of fruits and vegetables in that environment.

  13. AffectCam : arousal- augmented sensecam for richer recall of episodic memories

    OpenAIRE

    Sas, Corina; Fratczak, Thomasz; Rees, Matthew; Gellersen, Hans; Kalnikaitė, Vaiva; Coman, Alina; Höök, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the design and evaluation of AffectCam, a wearable system integrating SenseCam and BodyMedia SenseWear for capturing galvanic skin response as a measure of bodily arousal. AffectCam’s algorithms use arousal as a filtering mechanism for selecting the most personally relevant photos captured during people’s ordinary daily life, i.e. high arousal photos. We discuss initial findings showing that emotional arousal does improve the quality of memory recall associated with emoti...

  14. CAP, epilepsy and motor events during sleep: the unifying role of arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrino, Liborio; Halasz, Peter; Tassinari, Carlo Alberto; Terzano, Mario Giovanni

    2006-08-01

    Arousal systems play a topical neurophysiologic role in protecting and tailoring sleep duration and depth. When they appear in NREM sleep, arousal responses are not limited to a single EEG pattern but are part of a continuous spectrum of EEG modifications ranging from high-voltage slow rhythms to low amplitude fast activities. The hierarchic features of arousal responses are reflected in the phase A subtypes of CAP (cyclic alternating pattern) including both slow arousals (dominated by the ASDA arousals). CAP is an infraslow oscillation with a periodicity of 20-40s that participates in the dynamic organization of sleep and in the activation of motor events. Physiologic, paraphysiologic and pathologic motor activities during NREM sleep are always associated with a stereotyped arousal pattern characterized by an initial increase in EEG delta power and heart rate, followed by a progressive activation of faster EEG frequencies. These findings suggest that motor patterns are already written in the brain codes (central pattern generators) embraced with an automatic sequence of EEG-vegetative events, but require a certain degree of activation (arousal) to become visibly apparent. Arousal can appear either spontaneously or be elicited by internal (epileptic burst) or external (noise, respiratory disturbance) stimuli. Whether the outcome is a physiologic movement, a muscle jerk or a major epileptic attack will depend on a number of ongoing factors (sleep stage, delta power, neuro-motor network) but all events share the common trait of arousal-activated phenomena.

  15. Reappraisal, Suppression and Reactions to Affect-Inducing Images: The Moderating Role of Gender in Different Emotion Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Mai Bjørnskov; Mehlsen, Mimi Yung; OToole, Mia Skytte

    The present study explored the moderating effect of gender on the relationship between emotion regulation and affective states following exposure to emotion inducing images. Results revealed that gender moderated the association between reappraisal and affect. In addition, the moderating effect...... of gender varied according to category of emotion....

  16. Cognitive Reappraisal Self-Efficacy Mediates the Effects of Individual Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldin, Philippe R.; Ziv, Michal; Jazaieri, Hooria; Werner, Kelly; Kraemer, Helena; Heimberg, Richard G.; Gross, James J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether changes in cognitive reappraisal self-efficacy (CR-SE) mediate the effects of individually administered cognitive-behavioral therapy (I-CBT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD) on severity of social anxiety symptoms. Method: A randomized controlled trial in which 75 adult patients (21-55 years of age; 53% male; 57%…

  17. Age-Related Differences in Neural Recruitment During the Use of Cognitive Reappraisal and Selective Attention as Emotion Regulation Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric S Allard

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined age differences in the timing and neural recruitment within lateral and medial PFC while younger and older adults hedonically regulated their responses to unpleasant film clips. When analyses focused on activity during the emotional peak of the film clip (the most emotionally salient portion of the film, several age differences emerged. When comparing regulation to passive viewing (combined effects of selective attention and reappraisal younger adults showed greater regulation related activity in lateral PFC (DLPFC, VLPFC, OFC and medial PFC (ACC while older adults showed greater activation within a region DLPFC. When assessing distinct effects of the regulation conditions, an ANOVA revealed a significant Age X Regulation Condition interaction within bilateral DLPFC and ACC; older adults but not young adults showed greater recruitment within these regions for reappraisal than selective attention. When examining activity at the onset of the film clip and at its emotional peak, the timing of reappraisal-related activity within VLPFC differed between age groups: Younger adults showed greater activity at film onset while older adults showed heightened activity during the peak. Our results suggest that older adults rely more heavily on PFC recruitment when engaging cognitively demanding reappraisal strategies while PFC-mediated regulation might not be as task-specific for younger adults. Older adults’ greater reliance on cognitive control processing during emotion regulation may also be reflected in the time needed to implement these strategies.

  18. Should I Stop Thinking About It: A Computational Exploration of Reappraisal Based Emotion Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Si

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Agent-based simulation of people’s behaviors and minds has become increasingly popular in recent years. It provides a research platform to simulate and compare alternative psychological and social theories, as well as to create virtual characters that can interact with people or among each other to provide pedagogical or entertainment effects. In this paper, we investigate computationally modeling people’s coping behaviors and in particular in relation to depression, in decision-theoretic agents. Recent studies have suggested that depression can result from failed emotion regulation under limited cognitive resources. In this work, we demonstrate how reappraisal can fail under high levels of stress and limited cognitive resources using an agent-based simulation. Further, we explored the effectiveness of reappraisal under different conditions. Our experiments suggest that for people who are more likely to recall positive memories, it is more beneficial to think about the recalled events from multiple perspectives. However, for people who are more likely to recall negative memories, the better strategy is to not evaluate the recalled events against multiple goals.

  19. Neural systems for cognitive reappraisal in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi B. Pitskel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite substantial clinical and anecdotal evidence for emotion dysregulation in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD, little is known about the neural substrates underlying this phenomenon. We sought to explore neural mechanisms for cognitive reappraisal in children and adolescents with ASD using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. We studied 16 youth with ASD and 15 age- and IQ-matched typically developing (TD comparison youth. Participants were instructed in the use of cognitive reappraisal strategies to increase and decrease their emotional responses to disgusting images. Participants in both groups displayed distinct patterns of brain activity for increasing versus decreasing their emotions. TD participants showed downregulation of bilateral insula and left amygdala on decrease trials, whereas ASD participants showed no modulation of insula and upregulation of left amygdala. Furthermore, TD youth exhibited increased functional connectivity between amygdala and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex compared to ASD participants when downregulating disgust, as well as decreased functional connectivity between amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex. These findings have important implications for our understanding of emotion dysregulation and its treatment in ASD. In particular, the relative lack of prefrontal-amygdala connectivity provides a potential target for treatment-related outcome measurements.

  20. Kept in His Care: The Role of Perceived Divine Control in Positive Reappraisal Coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reed T. DeAngelis

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A formidable body of literature suggests that numerous dimensions of religious involvement can facilitate productive coping. One common assumption in this field is that religious worldviews provide overarching frameworks of meaning by which to positively reinterpret stressors. The current study explicitly tests this assumption by examining whether perceived divine control—i.e., the notion that God controls the course and direction of one’s life—buffers the adverse effects of recent traumatic life events on one’s capacity for positive reappraisal coping. We analyze cross-sectional survey data from Vanderbilt University’s Nashville Stress and Health Study (2011–2014, a probability sample of non-Hispanic black and white adults aged 22 to 69 living in Davidson County, Tennessee (n = 1252. Findings from multivariate regression models confirm: (1 there was an inverse association between past-year traumatic life events and positive reappraisals; but (2 perceived divine control significantly attenuated this inverse association. Substantively, our findings suggest that people who believe God controls their life outcomes are better suited for positively reinterpreting traumatic experiences. Implications, limitations, and avenues for future research are discussed.

  1. Observational test of shock drift and Fermi acceleration on a seed particle population upstream of earth's bow shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostopoulos, G. C.; Sarris, E. T.; Krimigis, S. M.

    1988-01-01

    The efficiency of proposed shock acceleration mechanisms as they operate at the bow shock in the presence of a seed energetic particle population was examined using data from simultaneous observations of energetic solar-origin protons, carried out by the IMP 7 and 8 spacecraft in the vicinity of the quasi-parallel (dawn) and quasi-perpendicular (dusk) regions of the earth's bow shock, respectively. The results of observations (which include acceleration effects in the intensities of the energetic protons with energies as high as 4 MeV observed at the vicinity of the dusk bow shock, but no evidence for any particle acceleration at the energy equal to or above 50 keV at the dawn side of the bow shock) indicate that the acceleration of a seed particle population occurs only at the quasi-perpendicular bow shock through shock drift acceleration and that the major source of observed upstream ion populations is the leakage of magnetospheric ions of energies not less than 50 keV, rather than in situ acceleration.

  2. Ionospheric Bow Wave Induced by the Moon Shadow Ship Over the Continent of United States on 21 August 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yang-Yi; Liu, Jann-Yenq; Lin, Charles Chien-Hung; Lin, Chi-Yen; Shen, Ming-Hsueh; Chen, Chieh-Hung; Chen, Chia-Hung; Chou, Min-Yang

    2018-01-01

    A moon shadow of the total solar eclipse swept through the continent of United States (CONUS) from west to east on 21 August 2017. Massive total electron content (integration of electron density from 0 km to 20,200 km altitude) observations from 2,255 ground-based Global Navigation Satellite System receivers show that the moon shadow ship generates a great ionospheric bow wave front which extends 1,500 km away from the totality path covering the entire CONUS. The bow wave front consists of the acoustic shock wave due to the supersonic/near-supersonic moon shadow ship and the significant plasma recombination due to the reduction in solar irradiation within the shadow area. The deep bow wave trough (-0.02 total electron content unit (1 TECU = 1016 el m-2) area) nearly coincides with the 100% obscuration moving along the totality path over the CONUS through the entire eclipse period. The supersonic moon shadow ship induces a bow wave crest in front of the ship ( 80% obscuration). It is the first time to find the acoustic shock wave-formed bow wave trough and crest near the totality.

  3. Thermal/hydraulic bowing stability analysis of grid-supported multi-pin bundles with differential swelling and irradiation creep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAreavey, G.

    1977-01-01

    Azimuthal variations of clad temperature in fuel pin bundles leads to pin bowing by differential thermal expansion. During irradiation in a fast flux further possibly more severe bowing is caused by differential neutron induced voidage swelling, which, being temperature sensitive, will also vary azimuthally. The problem of pin bowing in a fuel element cluster involves consideration of the thermal/hydraulic behaviour, allowing for both inherent and induced clad temperature non-uniformities, coupled with the restrained bowing behaviour, including differential thermal expansion, differential swelling, and irradiation creep. All pins must be considered simultaneously. In the temperature and stress ranges of interest thermal creep may be neglected. An existing computer code, IAMBIC solves the zero time thermal bowing problem for a cluster of up to 61 pins on hexagonal pitch, with up to 21 supports at arbitrary axial spacing. The present paper describes the basis of TRIAMBIC, a time dependent code which analyses the irradiation induced effects in fuel pin bunbles due to fast neutrons. (Auth.)

  4. On the failure behaviour to striking bow penetration of impacted marine-steel structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabowo, Aditya Rio; Muttaqie, Teguh; Sohn, Jung Min; Bae, Dong Myung; Setiyawan, Agus

    2018-04-01

    Demands for water transportation modes are continuously increasing as rapid economic and industrial growths in the recent decade. Ship as representative of the water transportation is generally needed to carry various products from one location to another. Besides as product carrier, ship also acts as public facility to transport human across islands for number of reasons, such as tourism and vehicle. Considering its importance, structural damage due to accidental loads or so-called impact can cause unacceptable casualties which threat ship passenger, shipping industry and maritime environment in same time. The most frequent impact phenomena occur in forms of collision and grounding, which are targeting side structure and double bottom consecutively. However, since responses of the impacts on structure are highly nonlinear and vary due to development of ship structures, sustainable analysis as an update of pioneer calculation can be beneficial as rational reference for improving safety and navigational instruments. This work aims to assess failures of the side structures subjected to penetration of striking bow in ship-ship collision scenario. Locations of impact are idealized to happen on after-end, midsection and fore-end to provide complete assessment. Striking bow is to be deployed by varying input velocity to observe significance of the fractures on the side structure. This configuration is implemented on the designed collision scenario, and later calculated using nonlinear finite element method (NLFEM). Summary of the solution indicated that the midsection produced the highest resistance against side collision. Breaching of the inner shell was successfully avoided on the fore-end, but the critical damage to the cargo was observed during bow penetration to the after-end region. This location was recommended to be added by longitudinal framing to increase its resistance against ship collision.

  5. On the failure behaviour to striking bow penetration of impacted marine-steel structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabowo Aditya Rio

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Demands for water transportation modes are continuously increasing as rapid economic and industrial growths in the recent decade. Ship as representative of the water transportation is generally needed to carry various products from one location to another. Besides as product carrier, ship also acts as public facility to transport human across islands for number of reasons, such as tourism and vehicle. Considering its importance, structural damage due to accidental loads or so-called impact can cause unacceptable casualties which threat ship passenger, shipping industry and maritime environment in same time. The most frequent impact phenomena occur in forms of collision and grounding, which are targeting side structure and double bottom consecutively. However, since responses of the impacts on structure are highly nonlinear and vary due to development of ship structures, sustainable analysis as an update of pioneer calculation can be beneficial as rational reference for improving safety and navigational instruments. This work aims to assess failures of the side structures subjected to penetration of striking bow in ship-ship collision scenario. Locations of impact are idealized to happen on after-end, midsection and fore-end to provide complete assessment. Striking bow is to be deployed by varying input velocity to observe significance of the fractures on the side structure. This configuration is implemented on the designed collision scenario, and later calculated using nonlinear finite element method (NLFEM. Summary of the solution indicated that the midsection produced the highest resistance against side collision. Breaching of the inner shell was successfully avoided on the fore-end, but the critical damage to the cargo was observed during bow penetration to the after-end region. This location was recommended to be added by longitudinal framing to increase its resistance against ship collision.

  6. Plasma electron signature of magnetic connection to the earth's bow shock: ISEE 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, W.C.; Anderson, R.C.; Asbridge, J.R.; Bame, S.J.; Gosling, J.T.; Zwickl, R.D.

    1982-01-01

    Enhanced fluxes of low-energy electrons backstreaming from the earth's bow shock have been identified at ISEE 3. When present, these fluxes modify ambient solar wind electron velocity distributions f(v) in characteristic ways that depends on whether ISEE 3 is near the edge, or within the interior of the earth's electron foreshock. Near the edge, energy peaks in f(v) are observed. Such distributions should be locally unstable to electron plasma oscillations. Well within the interior of the foreshock, enhanced fluxes of electrons with energies up to the maximum detected by the Los Alamos electron analyzer (approx.1 keV) are observed over the full backward hemisphere. These electrons can be modelled with an asymptotic power law distribution having index in the range 4< or approx. =p/sub b/s< or approx. =6. At intermediate energies (approx.20--50 eV), twin angular peaks are observed centered on the magnetic field direction B. Also observed at these times are depressions in f(v) at energies less than approx.20 eV that are centered on B. Such distributions having a perpendicular temperature greater than their parallel temperature may be locally unstable to the generation of whistler waves. Analysis of a particularly clean example of connection to the bow shock is consistent with the possiblility that the observed electron fluxes emerge from the forward foot of the electron heating region within bow shock where the electron density and temperature are larger than that of the uperturbed upstream solar wind by a factor of approx.1.2. This analysis also indicates that the electrostatic potential within the forward foot of the shock is between approx.5 and 50 V more positive than that within plasma far upstream at ISEE 3. However, these interpretations depend on the assumption of nearly scatter-free propagation, which may not hold

  7. Anomalous band-gap bowing of AlN1−xPx alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winiarski, M.J.; Polak, M.; Scharoch, P.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Structural and electronic properties of AlN 1−x P x from first principles. •The supercell and the virtual crystall approximation methods applied and compared. •Anomalously high band-gap bowing found. •Similarities of band-gap behavior to that in BN 1−x P x noticed. •Performance of MBJLDA with the pseudopotential approach discussed. -- Abstract: Electronic structure of zinc blende AlN 1−x P x alloy has been calculated from first principles. Structural optimization has been performed within the framework of LDA and the band-gaps calculated with the modified Becke–Jonson (MBJLDA) method. Two approaches have been examined: the virtual crystal approximation (VCA) and the supercell-based calculations (SC). The composition dependence of the lattice parameter obtained from the SC obeys Vegard’s law whereas the volume optimization in the VCA leads to an anomalous bowing of the lattice constant. A strong correlation between the band-gaps and the structural parameter in the VCA method has been observed. On the other hand, in the SC method the supercell size and atoms arrangement (clustered vs. uniform) appear to have a great influence on the computed band-gaps. In particular, an anomalously big band-gap bowing has been found in the case of a clustered configuration with relaxed geometry. Based on the performed tests and obtained results some general features of MBJLDA are discussed and its performance for similar systems predicted

  8. Reflection of the solar wind ions at the earth's bow shock: energization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonifazi, C.; Moreno, G.; Russell, C.T.

    1983-01-01

    The energies of the field-aligned proton beams observed upstream of the earth's bow shock are tested, on a statistical basis, against a simple reflection model. The comparison is carried out using both plasma and magnetic field data collected by the ISEE 2 spacecraft. The observations refer to the period from November 5 to December 20, 1977. According to this model, some of the solar wind protons incident upon the earth's shock front when reflected upstream gain energy by displacement parallel to the interplanetary electric field. The energy gained in the reflection can be described as a function of the angles between the interplanetary magnetic field, the solar wind bulk velocity, and the local shock normal. The task of finding these angles, i.e., the expected source point of the reflected ions at the earth's shock front, has been resolved using both the measured magnetic field direction and actual beam trajectory. The latter method, which takes into account the ion drift velocity, leads to a better agreement between theory and observations when far from the shock. In particular, it allows us to check the energies of the field-aligned beams even when they are observed far from the earth's bow shock (at distances up to 10-15 R/sub E/). We confirm, on a statistical basis, the test of the model recently carried out using the Los Alamos National Laboratory/Max-Planck-extraterrestrische observations on ISEE 1 and 2. We infer that reflected beams can sometimes propagate far upstream of the earth's bow shock without changing their energy properties

  9. Astrophysically relevant radiatively cooled hypersonic bow shocks in nested wire arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampleford, David

    2009-11-01

    We have performed laboratory experiments which introduce obstructions into hypersonic plasma flows to study the formation of shocks. Astrophysical observations have demonstrated many examples of equivalent radiatively cooled bow shocks, for example the head of protostellar jets or supernova remnants passing through the interstellar medium or between discrete clumps in jets. Wire array z-pinches allow us to study quasi-planar radiatively cooled flows in the laboratory. The early stage of a wire array z-pinch implosion consists of a steady flow of the wire material towards the axis. Given a high rate of radiative cooling, these flows reach high sonic- Mach numbers, typically up to 5. The 2D nature of this configuration allows the insertion of obstacles into the flow, such as a concentric ``inner'' wire array, as has previously been studied for ICF research. Here we study the application of such a nested array to laboratory astrophysics where the inner wires act as obstructions perpendicular to the flow, and induce bow shocks. By varying the wire array material (W/Al), the significance of radiative cooling on these shocks can be controlled, and is shown to change the shock opening angle. As multiple obstructions are present, the experiments show the interaction of multiple bow shocks. It is also possible to introduce a magnetic field around the static object, increasing the opening angle of the shocks. Further experiments can be designed to control the flow density, magnetic field structure and obstruction locations. In collaboration with: S.V. Lebedev, M.E. Cuneo, C.A. Jennings, S.N. Bland, J.P. Chittenden, A. Ciardi, G.N. Hall, S.C. Bott, M. Sherlock, A. Frank, E. Blackman

  10. Survey of coherent ion reflection at the quasi-parallel bow shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onsager, T.G.; Thomsen, M.F.; Gosling, J.T.; Bame, S.J.; Russell, C.T.

    1990-01-01

    Ions coherently reflected off the Earth's bow shock have previously been observed both when the upstream geometry is quasi-perpendicular and when it is quasi-parallel. In the case of quasiperpendicular geometry, the ions are reflected in a nearly specular manner and are quickly carried back into the shock by the convecting magnetic field. In the quasi-parallel geometry, however, near-specularly reflected ions' guiding center velocities would on the average be directed away from the shock, allowing the ions to escape into the upstream region. The conditions under which coherent reflection occurs and the subsequent coupling of the reflected ions to the incoming solar wind plasma are important factors when assessing the contribution of the reflected ions to the downstream temperature increase and the shock structure. The survey presented in this paper, along with previously reported observations, suggests that near-specularly reflected ions are indeed an important aspect of energy dissipation at the Earth's quasi-parallel bow shock. The authors find that (1) cool, coherent, near-specularly reflected ion beams are detected over nearly the full range of upstream plasma paraameters commonly found at the Earth's bow shock; (2) the beams are typically observed only near the shock ramp or some shock-like feature; and (3) the observed beam velocities are almost always consistent with what one would expect for near-specularly reflected ions after only a small fraction of a gyroperiod following reflection. The second and third points indicate that the beams spread very quickly in velocity space. This spread in velocities could be due either to interactions between the beam and incoming solar wind ions or to some initially small velocity spread in the beam

  11. GYROSURFING ACCELERATION OF IONS IN FRONT OF EARTH's QUASI-PARALLEL BOW SHOCK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kis, Arpad; Lemperger, Istvan; Wesztergom, Viktor; Agapitov, Oleksiy; Krasnoselskikh, Vladimir; Khotyaintsev, Yuri V.; Dandouras, Iannis

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that shocks in space plasmas can accelerate particles to high energies. However, many details of the shock acceleration mechanism are still unknown. A critical element of shock acceleration is the injection problem; i.e., the presence of the so called seed particle population that is needed for the acceleration to work efficiently. In our case study, we present for the first time observational evidence of gyroresonant surfing acceleration in front of Earth's quasi-parallel bow shock resulting in the appearance of the long-suspected seed particle population. For our analysis, we use simultaneous multi-spacecraft measurements provided by the Cluster spacecraft ion (CIS), magnetic (FGM), and electric field and wave instrument (EFW) during a time period of large inter-spacecraft separation distance. The spacecraft were moving toward the bow shock and were situated in the foreshock region. The results show that the gyroresonance surfing acceleration takes place as a consequence of interaction between circularly polarized monochromatic (or quasi-monochromatic) transversal electromagnetic plasma waves and short large amplitude magnetic structures (SLAMSs). The magnetic mirror force of the SLAMS provides the resonant conditions for the ions trapped by the waves and results in the acceleration of ions. Since wave packets with circular polarization and different kinds of magnetic structures are very commonly observed in front of Earth's quasi-parallel bow shock, the gyroresonant surfing acceleration proves to be an important particle injection mechanism. We also show that seed ions are accelerated directly from the solar wind ion population.

  12. GYROSURFING ACCELERATION OF IONS IN FRONT OF EARTH's QUASI-PARALLEL BOW SHOCK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kis, Arpad; Lemperger, Istvan; Wesztergom, Viktor [Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Geodetic and Geophysical Institute, Sopron (Hungary); Agapitov, Oleksiy; Krasnoselskikh, Vladimir [LPC2E/CNRS, F-45071 Orleans (France); Khotyaintsev, Yuri V. [Swedish Institute of Space Physics, SE- 751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Dandouras, Iannis, E-mail: akis@ggki.hu, E-mail: Kis.Arpad@csfk.mta.hu [CESR, F-31028 Toulouse (France)

    2013-07-01

    It is well known that shocks in space plasmas can accelerate particles to high energies. However, many details of the shock acceleration mechanism are still unknown. A critical element of shock acceleration is the injection problem; i.e., the presence of the so called seed particle population that is needed for the acceleration to work efficiently. In our case study, we present for the first time observational evidence of gyroresonant surfing acceleration in front of Earth's quasi-parallel bow shock resulting in the appearance of the long-suspected seed particle population. For our analysis, we use simultaneous multi-spacecraft measurements provided by the Cluster spacecraft ion (CIS), magnetic (FGM), and electric field and wave instrument (EFW) during a time period of large inter-spacecraft separation distance. The spacecraft were moving toward the bow shock and were situated in the foreshock region. The results show that the gyroresonance surfing acceleration takes place as a consequence of interaction between circularly polarized monochromatic (or quasi-monochromatic) transversal electromagnetic plasma waves and short large amplitude magnetic structures (SLAMSs). The magnetic mirror force of the SLAMS provides the resonant conditions for the ions trapped by the waves and results in the acceleration of ions. Since wave packets with circular polarization and different kinds of magnetic structures are very commonly observed in front of Earth's quasi-parallel bow shock, the gyroresonant surfing acceleration proves to be an important particle injection mechanism. We also show that seed ions are accelerated directly from the solar wind ion population.

  13. 3-D Hybrid Simulation of Quasi-Parallel Bow Shock and Its Effects on the Magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Y.; Wang, X.Y.

    2005-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) global-scale hybrid simulation is carried out for the structure of the quasi-parallel bow shock, in particular the foreshock waves and pressure pulses. The wave evolution and interaction with the dayside magnetosphere are discussed. It is shown that diamagnetic cavities are generated in the turbulent foreshock due to the ion beam plasma interaction, and these compressional pulses lead to strong surface perturbations at the magnetopause and Alfven waves/field line resonance in the magnetosphere

  14. Analytic MHD Theory for Earth's Bow Shock at Low Mach Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabbe, Crockett L.; Cairns, Iver H.

    1995-01-01

    A previous MHD theory for the density jump at the Earth's bow shock, which assumed the Alfven M(A) and sonic M(s) Mach numbers are both much greater than 1, is reanalyzed and generalized. It is shown that the MHD jump equation can be analytically solved much more directly using perturbation theory, with the ordering determined by M(A) and M(s), and that the first-order perturbation solution is identical to the solution found in the earlier theory. The second-order perturbation solution is calculated, whereas the earlier approach cannot be used to obtain it. The second-order terms generally are important over most of the range of M(A) and M(s) in the solar wind when the angle theta between the normal to the bow shock and magnetic field is not close to 0 deg or 180 deg (the solutions are symmetric about 90 deg). This new perturbation solution is generally accurate under most solar wind conditions at 1 AU, with the exception of low Mach numbers when theta is close to 90 deg. In this exceptional case the new solution does not improve on the first-order solutions obtained earlier, and the predicted density ratio can vary by 10-20% from the exact numerical MHD solutions. For theta approx. = 90 deg another perturbation solution is derived that predicts the density ratio much more accurately. This second solution is typically accurate for quasi-perpendicular conditions. Taken together, these two analytical solutions are generally accurate for the Earth's bow shock, except in the rare circumstance that M(A) is less than or = 2. MHD and gasdynamic simulations have produced empirical models in which the shock's standoff distance a(s) is linearly related to the density jump ratio X at the subsolar point. Using an empirical relationship between a(s) and X obtained from MHD simulations, a(s) values predicted using the MHD solutions for X are compared with the predictions of phenomenological models commonly used for modeling observational data, and with the predictions of a

  15. Critical experiment tests of bowing and expansion reactivity calculations for LMRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    Experiments done in several LMR-type critical assemblies simulated core axial expansion, core radial expansion and bowing, coolant expansion, and control driveline expansion. For the most part new experimental techniques were developed to do these experiments. Calculations of the experiments basically used design-level methods, except when it was necessary to investigate complexities peculiar to the experiments. It was found that these feedback reactivities generally are overpredicted, but the predictions are within 30% of the experimental values. 14 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  16. Beam-Steerable Microstrip-Fed Bow-Tie Antenna Array for Fifth Generation Cellular Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ojaroudiparchin, Naser; Shen, Ming; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2016-01-01

    The design and performance of mm-wave phased array antenna for 5G mobile broadband communication systems has been provided in this manuscript. The antenna is designed on a N9000 PTFE substrate with 0.787 mm thickness and 2.2 dielectric constant and 65×130 mm2 overall dimension. Eight elements...... of bow-tie antennas have been used at the top-edge region of mobile phone PCB. The antenna elements fed by microstrip lines are designed to operate at 17 GHz. The simulated results give good performances in terms of different antenna parameters. In addition, an investigation on the distance between...

  17. Estimation of violin bowing features from Audio recordings with Convolutional Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez-Carillo, Alfonso; Purwins, Hendrik

    The acquisition of musical gestures and particularly of instrument controls from a musical performance is a field of increasing interest with applications in many research areas. In the last years, the development of novel sensing technologies has allowed the fine measurement of such controls...... and low-cost of the acquisition and its nonintrusive nature. The main challenge is designing robust detection algorithms to be as accurate as the direct approaches. In this paper, we present an indirect acquisition method to estimate violin bowing controls from audio signal analysis based on training...

  18. Do we really observe a bow shock in N157B...?

    OpenAIRE

    van der Swaluw, Eric

    2003-01-01

    I present a model of a pulsar wind interacting with its associated supernova remnant. I will use the model to argue that one can explain the morphology of the pulsar wind nebula inside N157B, a supernova remnant in the Large Magellanic Cloud, without the need for a bow shock interpretation. The model uses a hydrodynamics code which simulates the evolution of a pulsar wind nebula, when the pulsar is moving at a high velocity (1000 km/sec) through the expanding supernova remnant. The simulation...

  19. Discovery of an optical bow-shock around pulsar B0740-28

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, D.H.; Stappers, B.W.; Gaensler, B.M.

    2002-01-01

    We report the discovery of a faint H-alpha pulsar wind nebula (PWN) powered by the radio pulsar B0740-28. The characteristic bow-shock morphology of the PWN implies a direction of motion consistent with the previously measured velocity vector for the pulsar. The PWN has a flux density more than an order of magnitude lower than for the PWNe seen around other pulsars, but, for a distance 2 kpc, it is consistent with propagation through a medium of atomic density n_H ~ 0.25 cm^{-3}, and neutral ...

  20. Liquid Crystal Bow-Tie Microstrip antenna for Wireless Communication Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.T.P.Madhav

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we presented the design and analysis of Bow-Tie antenna on liquid crystal substrate, which is suitable for the Bluetooth/WLAN-2.4/WiBree/ZigBee applications. The Omni-directional radiation patterns along with moderate gain make the proposed antenna suitable for above mentioned applications. Details of the antenna design and simulated results Return loss, Input impedance, Radiation Patterns, E-Field, H-Field and Current Distributions, VSWR are presented and discussed. The proposed antenna is simulated at 2.4 GHz using Ansoft HFSS-11.

  1. Differences in Perceived and Physiologic Genital Arousal Between Women With and Without Sexual Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handy, Ariel B; Stanton, Amelia M; Pulverman, Carey S; Meston, Cindy M

    2018-01-01

    Many sexual psychophysiologic studies have failed to find differences in physiologic genital arousal between women with and those without sexual dysfunction. However, differences in self-reported (ie, perceived) measures of genital responses between these 2 groups of women have been noted. To determine whether women with and without sexual dysfunction differ on measures of physiologic and perceived genital arousal based on type of analytic technique used, to explore differences in perceived genital arousal, and to assess the relation between physiologic and perceived genital arousal. Data from 5 studies (N = 214) were used in this analysis. Women were categorized into 3 groups: women with arousal-specific sexual dysfunction (n = 40), women with decreased sexual function (n = 72), and women who were sexually functional (n = 102). Women viewed an erotic film while their physiologic genital arousal was measured using a vaginal photoplethysmograph. After watching the film, women completed a self-report measure of perceived genital arousal. There were differences in vaginal pulse amplitude (VPA) levels and association of VPA with perceived genital sensations based on level of sexual function. Commonly used methods of analysis failed to identify significant differences in VPA among these groups of women. When VPA data were analyzed with hierarchical linear modeling, significant differences emerged. Notably, women with arousal-specific dysfunction exhibited lower VPA than sexually functional women at the beginning of the assessment. As the erotic film progressed, women with arousal-specific dysfunction became aroused at a faster rate than sexually functional women, and these 2 groups ultimately reached a similar level of VPA. Sexually functional women reported the highest levels of perceived genital responses among the 3 groups of women. No significant relation between VPA and perceived genital arousal emerged. Women's perception of their genital responses could play

  2. Arousal responses in babies at risk of sudden infant death syndrome at different postnatal ages.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dunne, K P

    1992-03-01

    Hypercarbic and hypoxic arousal responses during sleep were measured in healthy term infants, infants where a previous sibling died from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and infants suffering a clearly defined apparent life threatening event (ALTE) requiring vigorous or mouth to mouth resuscitation. Groups of infants were tested at approximately one, six and 13 weeks postnatally. Arousal was defined as gross body movement with eyes opening and moving or crying. Hypercarbic arousal was by step increases in F1 Co2 until arousal occurred or until endtidal (PETCO2) reached 8.7 KpA (65 mm Hg) Hypoxic arousal was by step decreases in FIO2 until arousal occurred or until an FIO2 of 0.15 had been maintained for 20 minutes. There was no difference in hypercaribic arousal threshold with age in any group. Hypercarbic arousal threshold was significantly higher in siblings (mean 53.4, 53.6, 54.7 mmHg. [7.12, 7.14, 7.29 KPA] at 0, 6, 13 postnatal weeks) compared to controls (mean 50.9, 52.3, 53.0mm Hg. [6.78, 6.97, 7.29 KPS respectively). ALTE infants differed only at 12 weeks having a significantly lower threshold (51.0mmHg. [6.80 KPA] V 53.0mm Hg. (7.06 KPA]) compared to controls. There was no difference in hypoxic arousal response with age in any group. An arousal response to hypoxia occurred in only 22% of ALTE infants and 40% of siblings compared to 67% of normal infants. Deficient sleep arousal, especially to hypoxia, is common in infants and especially those considered at increased risk from SIDS. This deficiency is present in the first postnatal week and did not vary overy the first three months of postnatal life.

  3. Reappraise the Situation but Express Your Emotions: Impact of Emotion Regulation Strategies on ad libitum Food Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taut, Diana; Renner, Britta; Baban, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    Research investigating the role of maladaptive emotion regulation (ER) on food intake has exclusively focused on food intake in a forced consumption situation. In contrast, the present study examined the effect of negative emotions (fear, negative affect) and ER strategies (suppression, reappraisal) on food intake in a non-forced, free eating setting where participants (N = 165) could choose whether and how much they ate. This free (ad libitum) eating approach enabled, for the first time, the testing of (1) whether eating (yes/no) is used as a secondary ER strategy and (2) whether the amount of food intake differed, depending on the ER strategy. In order to produce a more ecologically valid design, ER strategy manipulation was realized while exposing participants to emotion induction procedures. To induce an initial negative emotional state, a movie clip was presented without ER instruction. The instructions to regulate emotions (suppression, reappraisal, no ER instruction) then preceded a second clip. The results show that whereas about two-thirds of the control (no ER instruction) and suppression groups began to eat, only one-third of the reappraisal group did. However, when reappraisers began to eat, they ate as much as participants in the suppression and control groups. Accordingly, the results suggest that when people are confronted with a negative event, eating is used as a secondary coping strategy when the enacted ER is ineffective. Conversely, an adaptive ER such as reappraisal decreases the likelihood of eating in the first place, even when ER is employed during rather than before the unfolding of the negative event. Consequently, the way we deal with negative emotions might be more relevant for explaining emotional eating than the distress itself.

  4. Reappraise the situation but express your emotions:Impact of emotion regulation strategies on ad libitum food intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana eTaut

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Research investigating the role of maladaptive emotion regulation on food intake has exclusively focused on food intake in a forced consumption situation. In contrast, the present study examined the effect of negative emotions (fear, negative affect and emotion regulation strategies (suppression, reappraisal on food intake in a non-forced, free eating setting where participants (N = 165 could choose whether and how much they ate. This free (ad libitum eating approach enabled, for the first time, the testing of 1 whether eating (yes/no is used as a secondary emotion regulation strategy and 2 whether the amount of food intake differed, depending on the emotion regulation strategy. In order to produce a more ecologically valid design, emotion regulation strategy manipulation was realized while exposing participants to emotion-induction procedures. To induce an initial negative emotional state, a movie clip was presented without emotion regulation instruction. The instructions to regulate emotions (suppression, reappraisal, no emotion regulation instruction then preceded a second clip. The results show that whereas about two-thirds of the control (no emotion regulation instruction and suppression groups began to eat, only one-third of the reappraisal group did. However, when reappraisers began to eat, they ate as much as participants in the suppression and control groups. Accordingly, the results suggest that when people are confronted with a negative event, eating is used as a secondary coping strategy when the enacted emotion regulation is ineffective. Conversely, an adaptive emotion regulation such as reappraisal decreases the likelihood of eating in the first place, even when emotion regulation is employed during rather than before the unfolding of the negative event. Consequently, the way we deal with negative emotions might be more relevant for explaining emotional eating than the distress itself.

  5. Comparison of theory with atomic oxygen 130.4 nm radiation data from the Bow Shock ultraviolet 2 rocket flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Deborah A.; Candler, Graham V.; Collins, Robert J.; Howlett, Carl L.; Espy, Patrick; Whiting, Ellis; Park, Chul

    1993-01-01

    Comparison is made between the results obtained from a state-of-the-art flow and radiative model and bow shock vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) data obtained the recent Bow Shock 2 Flight Experiment. An extensive data set was obtained from onboard rocket measurements at a reentry speed of 5 km/sec between the altitudes of approximately 65-85 km. A description of the NO photoionization cell used, the data, and the interpretation of the data will be presented. The primary purpose of the analyses is to assess the utility of the data and to propose a radiation model appropriate to the flight conditions of Bow Shock 2. Theoretical predictions based on flow modeling discussed in earlier work and a new radiation model are compared with data.

  6. Terahertz-wave near-field imaging with subwavelength resolution using surface-wave-assisted bow-tie aperture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Kunihiko; Ohashi, Keishi; Ikari, Tomofumi; Minamide, Hiroaki; Yokoyama, Hiroyuki; Shikata, Jun-ichi; Ito, Hiromasa

    2006-11-01

    We demonstrate the terahertz-wave near-field imaging with subwavelength resolution using a bow-tie shaped aperture surrounded by concentric periodic structures in a metal film. A subwavelength aperture with concentric periodic grooves, which are known as a bull's eye structure, shows extremely large enhanced transmission beyond the diffraction limit caused by the resonant excitation of surface waves. Additionally, a bow-tie aperture exhibits extraordinary field enhancement at the sharp tips of the metal, which enhances the transmission and the subwavelength spatial resolution. We introduced a bow-tie aperture to the bull's eye structure and achieved high spatial resolution (˜λ/17) in the near-field region. The terahertz-wave near-field image of the subwavelength metal pattern (pattern width=20μm) was obtained for the wavelength of 207μm.

  7. [Development Of 25-Year Imp 8 Bow Shock Crossing "List, Ingestion Of This List To Cdaweb, & Enhancement"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merka, J.; Szabo, A.; Narock, T. W.; King, J. H.; Paularena, K. I.; Richardson, J. D.

    2003-01-01

    The MIT portion of this project was to use the plasma data from IMP 8 to identify bow shock crossings for construction of a bow shock data base. In collaboration with Goddard, we determined which shock parameters would be included in the catalog and developed a set of flags for characterizing the data. IMP 8 data from 1973-2001 were surveyed for bow shock crossings; the crossings apparent in the plasma data were compared to a list of crossing chosen in the magnetometer data by Goddard. Differences were reconciled to produce a single list. The data were then provided to the NSSDC for archiving. All the work ascribed to MIT in the proposal was completed.

  8. Emotion Processing for Arousal and Neutral Content in Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Satler

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the ability of Alzheimer's disease (AD patients to perceive emotional information and to assign subjective emotional rating scores to audiovisual presentations. Materials and Methods. 24 subjects (14 with AD, matched to controls for age and educational levels were studied. After neuropsychological assessment, they watched a Neutral story and then a story with Emotional content. Results. Recall scores for both stories were significantly lower in AD (Neutral and Emotional: P=.001. CG assigned different emotional scores for each version of the test, P=.001, while ratings of AD did not differ, P=.32. Linear regression analyses determined the best predictors of emotional rating and recognition memory for each group among neuropsychological tests battery. Conclusions. AD patients show changes in emotional processing on declarative memory and a preserved ability to express emotions in face of arousal content. The present findings suggest that these impairments are due to general cognitive decline.

  9. Emotion processing for arousal and neutral content in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satler, Corina; Uribe, Carlos; Conde, Carlos; Da-Silva, Sergio Leme; Tomaz, Carlos

    2010-02-01

    Objective. To assess the ability of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients to perceive emotional information and to assign subjective emotional rating scores to audiovisual presentations. Materials and Methods. 24 subjects (14 with AD, matched to controls for age and educational levels) were studied. After neuropsychological assessment, they watched a Neutral story and then a story with Emotional content. Results. Recall scores for both stories were significantly lower in AD (Neutral and Emotional: P = .001). CG assigned different emotional scores for each version of the test, P = .001, while ratings of AD did not differ, P = .32. Linear regression analyses determined the best predictors of emotional rating and recognition memory for each group among neuropsychological tests battery. Conclusions. AD patients show changes in emotional processing on declarative memory and a preserved ability to express emotions in face of arousal content. The present findings suggest that these impairments are due to general cognitive decline.

  10. Music and Emotion: the Dispositional or Arousal theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Buccella

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the ways of analysing the relationship between music and emotions in through musical expressiveness.As the theory I discuss in this paper puts it, expressiveness in a particular kind of music's secondary quality or, to use the term which gives the theory its name, a disposition of music to arouse a certain emotional response in listeners.The most accurate version of the dispositional theory is provided by Derek Matravers in his book Art and Emotion and in other papers: what I will try to do, then, is to illustrate Matravers theory and claim that it is a good solution to many problems concerning music and its capacity to affect our inner states.

  11. Increased sexual arousal in patients with movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teive, Hélio A G; Moro, Adriana; Moscovich, Mariana; Munhoz, Renato P

    2016-04-01

    Increased of sexual arousal (ISA) has been described in different neurological diseases. The purpose of this study was present a case series of ISA in patients with movement disorders. Fifteen patients with different forms of movement disorders (Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, Tourette's syndrome, spinocerebellar ataxia type 3), were evaluated in the Movement Disorders Unit of the Federal University of Paraná. Among Parkinson's disease patients there were seven cases with different forms of ISA due to dopaminergic agonist use, levodopa abuse, and deep brain stimulation (DBS). In the group with hyperkinetic disorders, two patients with Huntington's disease, two with Tourette's syndrome, and four with spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 presented with ISA. ISA in this group of patients had different etiologies, predominantly related to dopaminergic treatment or DBS in Parkinson's disease, part of the background clinical picture in Huntington's disease and Tourette's syndrome, and probably associated with cultural aspects in patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 3.

  12. Personality change at the intersection of autonomic arousal and stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Daniel; Eisenberg, Nancy; Valiente, Carlos

    2007-06-01

    We hypothesized that personality change in children can be predicted by the interaction of family risk with susceptibility to autonomic arousal and that children characterized by both high-risk families and highly reactive autonomic nervous systems tend to show maladaptive change. This hypothesis was tested in a 6-year longitudinal study in which personality-type prototypicality, problem behavior, and negative emotional intensity were measured at 2-year intervals. The results indicated that children who both had exaggerated skin conductance responses (a measure of autonomic reactivity) and were living in families with multiple risk factors were most likely to develop an undercontrolled personality type and to exhibit increases in problem behavior and negative emotional intensity. The implications of the results for understanding personality change are discussed.

  13. The Mozart effect: evidence for the arousal hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Edward A; Smith, Kenneth H

    2008-10-01

    This study investigated the effect of music listening for performance on a 25-question portion of the analytical section of the Graduate Record Exam by 72 undergraduate students (M age 21.9 yr.). Five levels of an auditory condition were based on Mozart Piano Sonata No. 3 (K. 281), Movement I (Allegro); a rhythm excerpt; a melody excerpt; traffic sounds; and silence. Participants were randomly assigned to one of the stimuli. After a 5-min., 43-sec. (length of the first Allegro movement) listening period, participants answered the questions. Analysis indicated participants achieved significantly higher mean scores after all auditory conditions than those in the silent condition. No statistically significant pairwise mean difference appeared between scores for the auditory conditions. Findings were interpreted in terms of an arousal framework, suggesting the higher means in all auditory conditions may reflect immediate exposure to auditory stimuli.

  14. Multicentre randomised double bind crossover trial on contamination of conventional ties and bow ties in routine obstetric and gynaecological practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biljan, M M; Hart, C A; Sunderland, D; Manasse, P R; Kingsland, C R

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess level of contamination of neckwear worn by gynaecologists and obstetricians during routine working week. DESIGN--Multicentre randomised double blind crossover trial. Participants wore the same conventional ties for three days in one week and bow ties for the same period in second week. SETTING--Two teaching and three district general hospitals in the midlands, Wales, and north England. SUBJECTS--15 registrars and senior registrars. INTERVENTIONS--A swab soaked in sterile saline was taken from specific area on ties at end of first and third working days and sent in transport medium for culture on chocolatised blood and MacConkey agar for 48 hours. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Level of bacteriological growth assessed semiquantitatively (0 for no contamination; for heavy contamination) after swabs had been cultured. At end of study the participants completed a questionnaire to assess their attitude toward wearing different types of necktie. RESULTS--12 doctors (80%) completed the study. Although bow ties were significantly less contaminated at end of first working day (z = -2.354, p = 0.019), this difference was not maintained; there was no difference in level of contamination on third day. Level of contamination did not increase between first and third day of wearing the same garment. One of the 10 doctors who returned the questionnaire found the bow tie very uncomfortable. All participants would consider wearing a bow tie if it proved to be less contaminated than a conventional tie. CONCLUSIONS--Although a significant difference in contamination was established between conventional and bow ties on first day of study, this difference was not confirmed on third day and there is unlikely to be any real association between tie type and bacterial contamination. Because of its negative image and difficulty to tie, the bow tie will probably remain a minority fashion. Images p1583-a PMID:8292945

  15. A new technique to characterize CT scanner bow-tie filter attenuation and applications in human cadaver dosimetry simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinhua; Shi, Jim Q.; Zhang, Da; Singh, Sarabjeet; Padole, Atul; Otrakji, Alexi; Kalra, Mannudeep K.; Xu, X. George; Liu, Bob

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To present a noninvasive technique for directly measuring the CT bow-tie filter attenuation with a linear array x-ray detector. Methods: A scintillator based x-ray detector of 384 pixels, 307 mm active length, and fast data acquisition (model X-Scan 0.8c4-307, Detection Technology, FI-91100 Ii, Finland) was used to simultaneously detect radiation levels across a scan field-of-view. The sampling time was as short as 0.24 ms. To measure the body bow-tie attenuation on a GE Lightspeed Pro 16 CT scanner, the x-ray tube was parked at the 12 o’clock position, and the detector was centered in the scan field at the isocenter height. Two radiation exposures were made with and without the bow-tie in the beam path. Each readout signal was corrected for the detector background offset and signal-level related nonlinear gain, and the ratio of the two exposures gave the bow-tie attenuation. The results were used in the geant4 based simulations of the point doses measured using six thimble chambers placed in a human cadaver with abdomen/pelvis CT scans at 100 or 120 kV, helical pitch at 1.375, constant or variable tube current, and distinct x-ray tube starting angles. Results: Absolute attenuation was measured with the body bow-tie scanned at 80–140 kV. For 24 doses measured in six organs of the cadaver, the median or maximum difference between the simulation results and the measurements on the CT scanner was 8.9% or 25.9%, respectively. Conclusions: The described method allows fast and accurate bow-tie filter characterization. PMID:26520720

  16. Electroencephalographic brain dynamics of memory encoding in emotionally arousing context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Enrique eUribe

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Emotional content/context enhances declarative memory through modulation of encoding and retrieval mechanisms. At encoding, neurophysiological data have consistently demonstrated the subsequent memory effect in theta and gamma oscillations. Yet, the existing studies were focused on the emotional content effect and let the emotional context effect unexplored. We hypothesized that theta and gamma oscillations show higher evoked/induced activity during the encoding of visual stimuli when delivered in an emotionally arousing context. Twenty-five healthy volunteers underwent evoked potentials recordings using a 21 scalp electrodes montage. They attended to an audiovisual test of emotional declarative memory being randomly assigned to either emotionally arousing or neutral context. Visual stimulus presentation was used as the time-locking event. Grand-averages of the evoked potentials and evoked spectral perturbations were calculated for each volunteer. Evoked potentials showed a higher negative deflection from 80 to 140 ms for the emotional condition. Such effect was observed over central, frontal and prefrontal locations bilaterally. Evoked theta power was higher in left parietal, central, frontal and prefrontal electrodes from -50 to 300 ms in the emotional condition. Evoked gamma power was higher in the emotional condition with a spatial distribution that overlapped at some points with the theta topography. The early theta power increase could be related to expectancy induced by auditory information processing that facilitates visual encoding in emotional contexts. Together, our results suggest that declarative memory enhancement for both emotional content and emotional context are supported by similar neural mechanisms at encoding, and offer new evidence about the brain processing of relevant environmental stimuli.

  17. Deliberate Rumination and Positive Reappraisal as Serial Mediators Between Life Impact and Posttraumatic Growth in Victims of State Terrorism in Chile (1973-1990).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas Castro, Manuel; Arnoso Martínez, Maitane; Faúndez Abarca, Ximena

    2016-04-06

    This study examines the role of coping strategies related to positive reappraisal versus other cognitive strategies (deliberate rumination) as mediators between life impact and posttraumatic growth in survivors of the military dictatorship in Chile between 1973 and 1990 (tortured political prisoners and family members of political prisoners executed and missing). Survey data from 251 political violence survivors were analyzed using the SPSS PROCESS macro for bootstrapping indirect effects (Hayes, 2013). Results indicated that positive reappraisal (or reframing) coping mediated the relationship between life impact and posttraumatic growth. A serial multiple mediation model indicates that in the life impact to growth moderation process, rumination must be followed by positive reappraisal to drive this growth. These findings suggest that positive reappraisal of the traumatic experience is essential to achieve growth reports. Implications of these more complex relations are discussed for both counseling interventions and further research. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Pre-Sleep Arousal and Sleep Problems of Anxiety-Disordered Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfano, Candice A.; Pina, Armando A.; Zerr, Argero A.; Villalta, Ian K.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined sleep problems and pre-sleep arousal among 52 anxious children and adolescents, aged 7-14 years, in relation to age, sex, ethnicity, and primary anxiety disorder. Assessment included structured diagnostic interviews and parent and child completed measures of sleep problems and pre-sleep arousal. Overall, 85% of parents…

  19. The Influence of Presession Factors in the Assessment of Deviant Arousal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Jorge R.; Vollmer, Timothy R.; Hall, Astrid

    2011-01-01

    Three adult male sex offenders with developmental disabilities participated in an evaluation of presession factors that may influence levels of sexual arousal measured with a penile plethysmograph. We evaluated the effects of presession masturbation (1 participant) and arousal-suppression strategies (2 participants). Results showed that presession…

  20. Physiologic Arousal to Social Stress in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Todd P.; Sheinkopf, Stephen J.; Pescosolido, Matthew; Rodino, Alison; Elia, Gregory; Lester, Barry

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about arousal to socially stressful situations in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. This preliminary study investigates physiologic arousal in children with high functioning autism (HFA, n = 19) compared to a comparison group (n = 11) before, during, and after the Trier Social Stress Test. The HFA group was more likely to…

  1. Alexithymia and empathy predict changes in autonomic arousal during affective stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, Volodymyr B; Bogdanova, Olena V; Gorlov, Dmytro S; Gorgo, Yuriy P; Dirckx, Joris J J; Makarchuk, Mykola Y; Schoenen, Jean; Critchley, Hugo

    2013-09-01

    Alexithymia, the inability to describe one's own emotions, is linked to deficits in empathy, manifesting as a diminished capacity to recognize or understand the emotions and mental states of others. Several brain centers of autonomic control and interoception that are activated in empathy are thought to misfunction in alexithymia. We hypothesized that individual differences in autonomic changes under affective stimulation might be associated with differences in alexithymia and empathy. We studied 21 healthy volunteers, comparing their alexithymia and empathy scores with changes in their sympathetic autonomic arousal, indexed by the palmar skin potential level, during 3 tasks: playing a computer game, performing mental arithmetic, and watching a negative emotional valence video. Both autonomic and subjective sense of arousal increased at the beginning of each task and then gradually subsided over the course of the task. Higher autonomic arousal at the onset of the computer game was associated with higher empathy scores, and at the onset of the negative video with higher scores for both empathy and alexithymia. Alexithymia delayed the habituation of autonomic arousal during the computer game, while the empathy score was related to a faster decline in arousal during the negative video task. High alexithymia and high empathy scores were linked to increased autonomic arousal at the onset of emotional stimulation, but were distinguishable in the rates of habituation of the evoked arousal. Our data provide insight into the relationships among interacting psychological traits, physiologic regulation, and the arousal dimension of emotional experience.

  2. WARMING UP FOR SLEEP - GROUND-SQUIRRELS SLEEP DURING AROUSALS FROM HIBERNATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DAAN, S; BARNES, BM; STRIJKSTRA, AM

    1991-01-01

    Hypothermia during mammalian hibernation is periodically interrupted by arousals to euthermy, the function of which is unknown. We report that arctic ground squirrels (Spermophilus parryii) consistently sleep during these arousals, and that their EEG shows the decrease in slow wave activity

  3. Experimental Evidence of the Knowledge Gap: Message Arousal, Motivation, and Time Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabe, Maria Elizabeth; Yegiyan, Narine; Kamhawi, Rasha

    2008-01-01

    This study experimentally tested the knowledge gap from an information processing perspective. Specifically, knowledge acquisition was investigated under conditions of medium and low news message arousal, with time delay. Results show the persistence of a knowledge gap, particularly for low arousing messages. In fact, at low levels of message…

  4. Low-Arousal Speech Noise Improves Performance in N-Back Task: An ERP Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dandan; Jin, Yi; Luo, Yuejia

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between noise and human performance is a crucial topic in ergonomic research. However, the brain dynamics of the emotional arousal effects of background noises are still unclear. The current study employed meaningless speech noises in the n-back working memory task to explore the changes of event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by the noises with low arousal level vs. high arousal level. We found that the memory performance in low arousal condition were improved compared with the silent and the high arousal conditions; participants responded more quickly and had larger P2 and P3 amplitudes in low arousal condition while the performance and ERP components showed no significant difference between high arousal and silent conditions. These findings suggested that the emotional arousal dimension of background noises had a significant influence on human working memory performance, and that this effect was independent of the acoustic characteristics of noises (e.g., intensity) and the meaning of speech materials. The current findings improve our understanding of background noise effects on human performance and lay the ground for the investigation of patients with attention deficits. PMID:24204607

  5. Disorders in sexual desire and sexual arousal in women, a 2010 state of the art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Both, Stephanie; Laan, Ellen; Schultz, Willibrord Weijmar

    2010-01-01

    In this contribution, female sexual desire and arousal disorders are viewed from the perspective of incentive motivation and information processing models of sexual response. The effects of hormones, somatic disease, and medication on sexual arousability are discussed, as well as the influence of

  6. Pupil-linked arousal is driven by decision uncertainty and alters serial choice bias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urai, A.E.; Braun, A.; Donner, T.H.

    2017-01-01

    While judging their sensory environments, decision-makers seem to use the uncertainty about their choices to guide adjustments of their subsequent behaviour. One possible source of these behavioural adjustments is arousal: decision uncertainty might drive the brain's arousal systems, which control

  7. Low-arousal speech noise improves performance in N-back task: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Longzhu; Liu, Yunzhe; Zhang, Dandan; Jin, Yi; Luo, Yuejia

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between noise and human performance is a crucial topic in ergonomic research. However, the brain dynamics of the emotional arousal effects of background noises are still unclear. The current study employed meaningless speech noises in the n-back working memory task to explore the changes of event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by the noises with low arousal level vs. high arousal level. We found that the memory performance in low arousal condition were improved compared with the silent and the high arousal conditions; participants responded more quickly and had larger P2 and P3 amplitudes in low arousal condition while the performance and ERP components showed no significant difference between high arousal and silent conditions. These findings suggested that the emotional arousal dimension of background noises had a significant influence on human working memory performance, and that this effect was independent of the acoustic characteristics of noises (e.g., intensity) and the meaning of speech materials. The current findings improve our understanding of background noise effects on human performance and lay the ground for the investigation of patients with attention deficits.

  8. Arousal from sleep: implications for obstructive sleep apnea pathogenesis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Danny J; Younes, Magdy K

    2014-02-01

    Historically, brief awakenings from sleep (cortical arousals) have been assumed to be vitally important in restoring airflow and blood-gas disturbances at the end of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) breathing events. Indeed, in patients with blunted chemical drive (e.g., obesity hypoventilation syndrome) and in instances when other defensive mechanisms fail, cortical arousal likely serves an important protective role. However, recent insight into the pathogenesis of OSA indicates that a substantial proportion of respiratory events do not terminate with a cortical arousal from sleep. In many cases, cortical arousals may actually perpetuate blood-gas disturbances, breathing instability, and subsequent upper airway closure during sleep. This brief review summarizes the current understanding of the mechanisms mediating respiratory-induced cortical arousal, the physiological factors that influence the propensity for cortical arousal, and the potential dual roles that cortical arousal may play in OSA pathogenesis. Finally, the extent to which existing sedative agents decrease the propensity for cortical arousal and their potential to be therapeutically beneficial for certain OSA patients are highlighted.

  9. Low-arousal speech noise improves performance in N-back task: an ERP study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longzhu Han

    Full Text Available The relationship between noise and human performance is a crucial topic in ergonomic research. However, the brain dynamics of the emotional arousal effects of background noises are still unclear. The current study employed meaningless speech noises in the n-back working memory task to explore the changes of event-related potentials (ERPs elicited by the noises with low arousal level vs. high arousal level. We found that the memory performance in low arousal condition were improved compared with the silent and the high arousal conditions; participants responded more quickly and had larger P2 and P3 amplitudes in low arousal condition while the performance and ERP components showed no significant difference between high arousal and silent conditions. These findings suggested that the emotional arousal dimension of background noises had a significant influence on human working memory performance, and that this effect was independent of the acoustic characteristics of noises (e.g., intensity and the meaning of speech materials. The current findings improve our understanding of background noise effects on human performance and lay the ground for the investigation of patients with attention deficits.

  10. Concerned, responsible and guilty? Testing a model of guilt arousal and effects in environmental campaigns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wonneberger, A.

    2014-01-01

    Guilt has been identified as a crucial factor mediating the effects of social campaigns, for instance, on charity giving. So far, however, knowledge regarding the process of guilt arousal is limited. Who is especially susceptible to guilt arousal and how does guilt influence campaign effects? This

  11. BOW. A computer code to predict lateral deflections of composite beams. A computer code to predict lateral deflections of composite beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tayal, M.

    1987-08-15

    Arrays of tubes are used in many engineered structures, such as in nuclear fuel bundles and in steam generators. The tubes can bend (bow) due to in-service temperatures and loads. Assessments of bowing of nuclear fuel elements can help demonstrate the integrity of fuel and of surrounding components, as a function of operating conditions such as channel power. The BOW code calculates the bending of composite beams such as fuel elements, due to gradients of temperature and due to hydraulic forces. The deflections and rotations are calculated in both lateral directions, for given conditions of temperatures. Wet and dry operation of the sheath can be simulated. Bow accounts for the following physical phenomena: circumferential and axial variations in the temperatures of the sheath and of the pellet; cracking of pellets; grip and slip between the pellets and the sheath; hydraulic drag; restraints from endplates, from neighbouring elements, and from the pressure-tube; gravity; concentric or eccentric welds between endcap and endplate; neutron flux gradients; and variations of material properties with temperature. The code is based on fundamental principles of mechanics. The governing equations are solved numerically using the finite element method. Several comparisons with closed-form equations show that the solutions of BOW are accurate. BOW`s predictions for initial in-reactor bow are also consistent with two post-irradiation measurements.

  12. TH-CD-207B-05: Measurement of CT Bow-Tie Profiles Using a Linear Array Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, K; Li, X; Liu, B [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To accurately measure CT bow-tie profiles from various manufacturers and to provide non-proprietary information for CT system modeling. Methods: A GOS-based linear detector (0.8 mm per pixel and 51.2 cm in length) with a fast data sampling speed (0.24 ms/sample) was used to measure the relative profiles of bow-tie filters from a collection of eight CT scanners by three different vendors, GE (LS Xtra, LS VCT, Discovery HD750), Siemens (Sensation 64, Edge, Flash, Force), and Philips (iBrilliance 256). The linear detector was first calibrated for its energy response within typical CT beam quality ranges and compared with an ion chamber and analytical modeling (SPECTRA and TASMIP). A geometrical calibration process was developed to determine key parameters including the distance from the focal spot to the linear detector, the angular increment of the gantry at each data sampling, the location of the central x-ray on the linear detector, and the angular response of the detector pixel. Measurements were performed under axial-scan modes for most representative bow-tie filters and kV selections from each scanner. Bow-tie profiles were determined by re-binning the measured rotational data with an angular accuracy of 0.1 degree using the calibrated geometrical parameters. Results: The linear detector demonstrated an energy response as a solid state detector, which is close to the CT imaging detector. The geometrical calibration was proven to be sufficiently accurate (< 1mm in error for distances >550 mm) and the bow-tie profiles measured from rotational mode matched closely to those from the gantry-stationary mode. Accurate profiles were determined for a total of 21 bow-tie filters and 83 filter/kV combinations from the abovementioned scanner models. Conclusion: A new improved approach of CT bow-tie measurement was proposed and accurate bow-tie profiles were provided for a broad list of CT scanner models.

  13. Detailed study of electron plasma waves upstream of the earth's bow shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etcheto, J.; Faucheux, M.

    1984-01-01

    A detailed study of electron plasma waves observed upstream of the earth's bow shock and of their relationships to the position of the satellite in the foreshock and to the electron measurements has been carried out. The wave characteristics depend on the position in the electron foreshock: a narrow-bnd (a few percent) and intense (a few millivolts per meter) noise is observed at the plasma frequency at the edge of the foreshock while the spectrum widens (Δf/fapprox. =0.3) at the same time as the power decreases (hundreds of microvolts per meter) deeper (a few earth radii) inside the foreshock. Signals below the plasma frequency are also observed. These waves are polarized along the magnetic field, with long wavelengths below and at the plasma frequency and short wavelengths above it. They appear as short bursts, the duration of which depends on the frequency: longer close to the plasma frequency (50 ms), they shorten with increasing separation from the plasma frequency, the usual duration being 15 ms. While the correlation of the wave characteristics with the reflected electrons is good as the satellite moves inside the foreshock, no evolution is found with the distance to the bow shock, neither for the noise nor for the particles. These results are discussed in the frame of various mechanisms which have been proposed to explain these upstream waves but no satisfactory agreement is found with any of them

  14. Structure of oblique subcritical bow shocks: ISEE 1 and 2 observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellott, M.M.; Greenstadt, E.W.

    1984-01-01

    We have studied the structural elements, including shock ramps and precursor wave trains, of a series of oblique low-Mach number terrestrial bow shocks. We used magnetic field data from the dual ISEE 1 and 2 spacecraft to determine the scale lengths of various elements of shock structure as well as wavelengths and wave polarizations. Bow shocks structure under these conditions is esstentially that of a large-amplitude damped whistler mode wave which extends upstream in the form of a precursor wave train. Shock thicknesses, which are determined by the dispersive properties of the ambient plasma, are too broad to support current-driven electrostatic waves, ruling out such turbulence as the source of dissipation in these shocks. Dissipative processes are reflected in the damping of the precursors, and dissipative scale lengths are approx.200--800 km (several times greater than shock thicknesses). Precursor damping is not related to shock normal angle or Mach number, but is correlated with T/sub e//T/sub t/. The source of the dissipation in the shocks does not appear to be wave-wave decay of the whistlers, for which no evidence is found. We cannot rule out the possibility of contribution to the dissipation from ion acoustic and, or lower hybrid mode turbulence, but interaction of the whistler itself with upstream electrons offers a simpler and more self-consistent explanation for the observed wave train damping

  15. COMPUTING THE DUST DISTRIBUTION IN THE BOW SHOCK OF A FAST-MOVING, EVOLVED STAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Marle, A. J.; Meliani, Z.; Keppens, R.; Decin, L.

    2011-01-01

    We study the hydrodynamical behavior occurring in the turbulent interaction zone of a fast-moving red supergiant star, where the circumstellar and interstellar material collide. In this wind-interstellar-medium collision, the familiar bow shock, contact discontinuity, and wind termination shock morphology form, with localized instability development. Our model includes a detailed treatment of dust grains in the stellar wind and takes into account the drag forces between dust and gas. The dust is treated as pressureless gas components binned per grain size, for which we use 10 representative grain size bins. Our simulations allow us to deduce how dust grains of varying sizes become distributed throughout the circumstellar medium. We show that smaller dust grains (radius <0.045 μm) tend to be strongly bound to the gas and therefore follow the gas density distribution closely, with intricate fine structure due to essentially hydrodynamical instabilities at the wind-related contact discontinuity. Larger grains which are more resistant to drag forces are shown to have their own unique dust distribution, with progressive deviations from the gas morphology. Specifically, small dust grains stay entirely within the zone bound by shocked wind material. The large grains are capable of leaving the shocked wind layer and can penetrate into the shocked or even unshocked interstellar medium. Depending on how the number of dust grains varies with grain size, this should leave a clear imprint in infrared observations of bow shocks of red supergiants and other evolved stars.

  16. The upstream escape of energized solar wind protons from the bow shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenstadt, E.W.

    1975-01-01

    Recently, there have been some systematic observations of backstreaming protons at the Earth's bow shock with parallel velocity components and total energies much too high to be associated with the usual long-period upstream waves or to be produced by Sonnerup's simple reflection process (Lin et al., 1974), and these protons (30-100keV) were attributed to some unknown acceleration mechanism in the upstream region. The observations of Lof et al. involved protons in high pitch angle, and, although their reasons for favoring an upstream acceleration were quite different, it may seem intuitive that high pitch angle particles would have difficulty escaping the shock, especially at large field-normal angles. Such an inference would superficially support the notion of energization outside the bow shock. It seems worthwhile therefore to examine the extent to which the geometry of individual particle motion alone might select among reflected particles those that can escape upstream and those that cannot. In this paper the geometry of escape is described and some simple numerical examples are worked out for a few special cases. It is found that protons with rather high energies and pitch angles can escape the shock at only marginally quasi-parallel field orientations (i.e., thetasub(nB) approximately 50 0 ), even if they have quite moderate speeds parallel to B. (Auth.)

  17. Ionospheric Bow Waves and Perturbations Induced by the 21 August 2017 Solar Eclipse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shun-Rong; Erickson, Philip J.; Goncharenko, Larisa P.; Coster, Anthea J.; Rideout, William; Vierinen, Juha

    2017-12-01

    During solar eclipses, the Moon's shadow causes a large reduction in atmospheric energy input, including not only the stratosphere but also the thermosphere and ionosphere. The eclipse shadow has a supersonic motion which is theoretically expected to generate atmospheric bow waves, similar to a fast-moving river boat, with waves starting in the lower atmosphere and propagating into the ionosphere. However, previous geographically limited observations have had difficulty detecting these weak waves within the natural background atmospheric variability, and the existence of eclipse-induced ionospheric waves and their evolution in a complex coupling system remain controversial. During the 21 August 2017 eclipse, high fidelity and wide coverage ionospheric observations provided for the first time an oversampled set of eclipse data, using a dense network of Global Navigation Satellite System receivers at ˜2,000 sites in North America. We show the first unambiguous evidence of ionospheric bow waves as electron content disturbances over central/eastern United States, with ˜1 h duration, 300-400 km wavelength and 280 m/s phase speed emanating from and tailing the totality region. We also identify large ionospheric perturbations moving at the supersonic speed of the maximum solar obscuration which are too fast to be associated with known gravity wave or large-scale traveling ionospheric disturbance processes. This study reveals complex interconnections between the Sun, Moon, and Earth's neutral atmosphere and ionosphere and demonstrates persistent coupling processes between different components of the Earth's atmosphere, a topic of significant community interest.

  18. High-order harmonics from bow wave caustics driven by a high-intensity laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirozhkov, A.S.; Kando, M.; Esirkepov, T.Zh.

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new mechanism of high-order harmonic generation during an interaction of a high-intensity laser pulse with underdense plasma. A tightly focused laser pulse creates a cavity in plasma pushing electrons aside and exciting the wake wave and the bow wave. At the joint of the cavity wall and the bow wave boundary, an annular spike of electron density is formed. This spike surrounds the cavity and moves together with the laser pulse. Collective motion of electrons in the spike driven by the laser field generates high-order harmonics. A strong localization of the electron spike, its robustness to oscillations imposed by the laser field and, consequently, its ability to produce high-order harmonics is explained by catastrophe theory. The proposed mechanism explains the experimental observations of high-order harmonics with the 9 TW J-KAREN laser (JAEA, Japan) and the 120 TW Astra Gemini laser (CLF RAL, UK) [A. S. Pirozhkov, et al., arXiv:1004.4514 (2010); A. S. Pirozhkov et al, AIP Proceedings, this volume]. The theory is corroborated by high-resolution two-and three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations.

  19. Bow Shock Generator Current Systems: MMS Observations of Possible Current Closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamrin, M.; Gunell, H.; Lindkvist, J.; Lindqvist, P.-A.; Ergun, R. E.; Giles, B. L.

    2018-01-01

    We use data from the first two dayside seasons of the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission to study current systems associated with quasi-perpendicular bow shocks of generator type. We have analyzed 154 MMS bow shock crossings near the equatorial plane. We compute the current density during the crossings and conclude that the component perpendicular to the shock normal (J⊥) is consistent with a pileup of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) inside the magnetosheath. For predominantly southward IMF, we observe a component Jn parallel (antiparallel) to the normal for GSM Y > 0 (MMS probing region. For IMF clock angles near 90∘, we find indications of the current system being tilted toward the north-south direction, obtaining a significant Jz component, and we suggest that the current closes off the equatorial plane at higher latitudes where the spacecraft are not probing. The observations are complicated for several reasons. For example, variations in the solar wind and the magnetospheric currents and loads affect the closure, and Jn is distributed over large regions, making it difficult to resolve inside the magnetosheath proper.

  20. The cometary H II regions of DR 21: Bow shocks or champagne flows or both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immer, K.; Cyganowski, C.; Reid, M. J.; Menten, K. M.

    2014-03-01

    We present deep Very Large Array H66α radio recombination line (RRL) observations of the two cometary H II regions in DR 21. With these sensitive data, we test the "hybrid" bow shock/champagne flow model previously proposed for the DR 21 H II regions. The ionized gas down the tail of the southern H II region is redshifted by up to ~30 km s-1 with respect to the ambient molecular gas, as expected in the hybrid scenario. The RRL velocity structure, however, reveals the presence of two velocity components in both the northern and southern H II regions. This suggests that the ionized gas is flowing along cone-like shells, swept-up by stellar winds. The observed velocity structure of the well-resolved southern H II region is most consistent with a picture that combines a stellar wind with stellar motion (as in bow shock models) along a density gradient (as in champagne flow models). The direction of the implied density gradient is consistent with that suggested by maps of dust continuum and molecular line emission in the DR 21 region. The image cubes are only available as a FITS file at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/563/A39Table 2, Fig. 4, and Appendices A and B are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  1. Approach and withdrawal tendencies during written word processing: effects of task, emotional valence and emotional arousal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca M. M. Citron

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The affective dimensions of emotional valence and emotional arousal affect processing of verbal and pictorial stimuli. Traditional emotional theories assume a linear relationship between these dimensions, with valence determining the direction of a behaviour (approach vs. withdrawal and arousal its intensity or strength. In contrast, according to the valence-arousal conflict theory, both dimensions are interactively related: positive valence and low arousal (PL are associated with an implicit tendency to approach a stimulus, whereas negative valence and high arousal (NH are associated with withdrawal. Hence, positive, high-arousal (PH and negative, low-arousal (NL stimuli elicit conflicting action tendencies. By extending previous research that used several tasks and methods, the present study investigated whether and how emotional valence and arousal affect subjective approach vs. withdrawal tendencies towards emotional words during two novel tasks. In Study 1, participants had to decide whether they would approach or withdraw from concepts expressed by written words. In Studies 2 and 3 participants had to respond to each word by pressing one of two keys labelled with an arrow pointing upward or downward. Across experiments, positive and negative words, high or low in arousal, were presented. In Study 1 (explicit task, in line with the valence-arousal conflict theory, PH and NL words were responded to more slowly than PL and NH words. In addition, participants decided to approach positive words more often than negative words. In Studies 2 and 3, participants responded faster to positive than negative words, irrespective of their level of arousal. Furthermore, positive words were significantly more often associated with up responses than negative words, thus supporting the existence of implicit associations between stimulus valence and response coding (positive is up and negative is down. Hence, in contexts in which participants’ spontaneous

  2. Approach and Withdrawal Tendencies during Written Word Processing: Effects of Task, Emotional Valence, and Emotional Arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citron, Francesca M M; Abugaber, David; Herbert, Cornelia

    2015-01-01

    The affective dimensions of emotional valence and emotional arousal affect processing of verbal and pictorial stimuli. Traditional emotional theories assume a linear relationship between these dimensions, with valence determining the direction of a behavior (approach vs. withdrawal) and arousal its intensity or strength. In contrast, according to the valence-arousal conflict theory, both dimensions are interactively related: positive valence and low arousal (PL) are associated with an implicit tendency to approach a stimulus, whereas negative valence and high arousal (NH) are associated with withdrawal. Hence, positive, high-arousal (PH) and negative, low-arousal (NL) stimuli elicit conflicting action tendencies. By extending previous research that used several tasks and methods, the present study investigated whether and how emotional valence and arousal affect subjective approach vs. withdrawal tendencies toward emotional words during two novel tasks. In Study 1, participants had to decide whether they would approach or withdraw from concepts expressed by written words. In Studies 2 and 3 participants had to respond to each word by pressing one of two keys labeled with an arrow pointing upward or downward. Across experiments, positive and negative words, high or low in arousal, were presented. In Study 1 (explicit task), in line with the valence-arousal conflict theory, PH and NL words were responded to more slowly than PL and NH words. In addition, participants decided to approach positive words more often than negative words. In Studies 2 and 3, participants responded faster to positive than negative words, irrespective of their level of arousal. Furthermore, positive words were significantly more often associated with "up" responses than negative words, thus supporting the existence of implicit associations between stimulus valence and response coding (positive is up and negative is down). Hence, in contexts in which participants' spontaneous responses are

  3. Pupil-linked arousal is driven by decision uncertainty and alters serial choice bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urai, Anne E.; Braun, Anke; Donner, Tobias H.

    2017-03-01

    While judging their sensory environments, decision-makers seem to use the uncertainty about their choices to guide adjustments of their subsequent behaviour. One possible source of these behavioural adjustments is arousal: decision uncertainty might drive the brain's arousal systems, which control global brain state and might thereby shape subsequent decision-making. Here, we measure pupil diameter, a proxy for central arousal state, in human observers performing a perceptual choice task of varying difficulty. Pupil dilation, after choice but before external feedback, reflects three hallmark signatures of decision uncertainty derived from a computational model. This increase in pupil-linked arousal boosts observers' tendency to alternate their choice on the subsequent trial. We conclude that decision uncertainty drives rapid changes in pupil-linked arousal state, which shape the serial correlation structure of ongoing choice behaviour.

  4. Threat but not arousal narrows attention: Evidence from pupil dilation and saccade control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henk eVan Steenbergen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that negative affect causes attentional narrowing. According to Easterbrook’s (1959 influential hypothesis this effect is driven by the withdrawal motivation inherent to negative emotions and might be related to increases in arousal. We investigated whether valence-unspecific increases in physiological arousal, as measured by pupil dilation, could account for attentional narrowing effects in a cognitive control task. Following the presentation of a negative, positive, or neutral picture, participants performed a saccade task with a prosaccade versus an antisaccade instruction. The reaction time difference between pro- and antisaccades was used to index attentional selectivity, and while pupil diameter was used as an index of physiological arousal. Pupil dilation was observed for both negative and positive pictures, which indicates increased physiological arousal. However, increased attentional selectivity was only observed following negative pictures. Our data show that motivational intensity effects on attentional narrowing can occur independently of physiological arousal effects.

  5. Upbeat and happy: arousal as an important factor in studying attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Meghan M; Shore, David I

    2011-11-01

    The present study examined the effects of music-induced mood changes on different components of visual attention. Affective valence (positive vs. negative) and arousal (high vs. low) were manipulated by having participants listen to one of four versions of a Mozart Sonata that varied in mode (major or minor) and tempo (fast or slow). Attention was measured in three domains-alerting, orienting, and executive control. Affective valence and arousal had an effect on executive control, but not on alerting or orienting. Individuals who experienced positive valence had less efficient control over their responses than those who experienced negative valence, but only when arousal levels were high. Positive and negative valence did not influence executive control measures when arousal levels were low. These findings demonstrate that affective valence and arousal interact with one another to influence the processing of items in visual attention.

  6. Emotionally enhanced memory for negatively arousing words: storage or retrieval advantage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadarevic, Lena

    2017-12-01

    People typically remember emotionally negative words better than neutral words. Two experiments are reported that investigate whether emotionally enhanced memory (EEM) for negatively arousing words is based on a storage or retrieval advantage. Participants studied non-word-word pairs that either involved negatively arousing or neutral target words. Memory for these target words was tested by means of a recognition test and a cued-recall test. Data were analysed with a multinomial model that allows the disentanglement of storage and retrieval processes in the present recognition-then-cued-recall paradigm. In both experiments the multinomial analyses revealed no storage differences between negatively arousing and neutral words but a clear retrieval advantage for negatively arousing words in the cued-recall test. These findings suggest that EEM for negatively arousing words is driven by associative processes.

  7. Non-monotonic relationships between emotional arousal and memory for color and location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boywitt, C Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Recent research points to the decreased diagnostic value of subjective retrieval experience for memory accuracy for emotional stimuli. While for neutral stimuli rich recollective experiences are associated with better context memory than merely familiar memories this association appears questionable for emotional stimuli. The present research tested the implicit assumption that the effect of emotional arousal on memory is monotonic, that is, steadily increasing (or decreasing) with increasing arousal. In two experiments emotional arousal was manipulated in three steps using emotional pictures and subjective retrieval experience as well as context memory were assessed. The results show an inverted U-shape relationship between arousal and recognition memory but for context memory and retrieval experience the relationship was more complex. For frame colour, context memory decreased linearly while for spatial location it followed the inverted U-shape function. The complex, non-monotonic relationships between arousal and memory are discussed as possible explanations for earlier divergent findings.

  8. Woods with physical, mechanical and acoustic properties similar to those of Caesalpinia echinata have high potential as alternative woods for bow makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Luiz Longui

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available For nearly two hundred years, Caesalpinia echinata wood has been the standard for modern bows. However, the threat of extinction and the enforcement of trade bans have required bow makers to seek alternative woods. The hypothesis tested was that woods with physical, mechanical and acoustic properties similar to those of C. echinata would have high potential as alternative woods for bows. Accordingly, were investigated Handroanthus spp., Mezilaurus itauba, Hymenaea spp., Dipteryx spp., Diplotropis spp. and Astronium lecointei. Handroanthus and Diplotropis have the greatest number of similarities with C. echinata, but only Handroanthus spp. showed significant results in actual bow manufacture, suggesting the importance of such key properties as specific gravity, speed of sound propagation and modulus of elasticity. In practice, Handroanthus and Dipteryx produced bows of quality similar to that of C. echinata.

  9. Uncovering category specificity of genital sexual arousal in women: The critical role of analytic technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulverman, Carey S; Hixon, J Gregory; Meston, Cindy M

    2015-10-01

    Based on analytic techniques that collapse data into a single average value, it has been reported that women lack category specificity and show genital sexual arousal to a large range of sexual stimuli including those that both match and do not match their self-reported sexual interests. These findings may be a methodological artifact of the way in which data are analyzed. This study examined whether using an analytic technique that models data over time would yield different results. Across two studies, heterosexual (N = 19) and lesbian (N = 14) women viewed erotic films featuring heterosexual, lesbian, and gay male couples, respectively, as their physiological sexual arousal was assessed with vaginal photoplethysmography. Data analysis with traditional methods comparing average genital arousal between films failed to detect specificity of genital arousal for either group. When data were analyzed with smoothing regression splines and a within-subjects approach, both heterosexual and lesbian women demonstrated different patterns of genital sexual arousal to the different types of erotic films, suggesting that sophisticated statistical techniques may be necessary to more fully understand women's genital sexual arousal response. Heterosexual women showed category-specific genital sexual arousal. Lesbian women showed higher arousal to the heterosexual film than the other films. However, within subjects, lesbian women showed significantly different arousal responses suggesting that lesbian women's genital arousal discriminates between different categories of stimuli at the individual level. Implications for the future use of vaginal photoplethysmography as a diagnostic tool of sexual preferences in clinical and forensic settings are discussed. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  10. Temporal associations between arousal and body/limb movement in children with suspected obstructed sleep apnoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamprecht, Marnie L; Bradley, Andrew P; Williams, Gordon; Terrill, Philip I

    2016-01-01

    The inter-relationship between arousal events and body and/or limb movements during sleep may significantly impact the performance and clinical interpretation of actigraphy. As such, the objective of this study was to quantify the temporal association between arousals and body/limb movement. From this, we aim to determine whether actigraphy can predict arousal events in children, and identify the impact of arousal-related movements on estimates of sleep/wake periods. Thirty otherwise healthy children (5-16 years, median 9 years, 21 male) with suspected sleep apnoea were studied using full polysomnography and customised raw tri-axial accelerometry measured at the left fingertip, left wrist, upper thorax, left ankle and left great toe. Raw data were synchronised to within 0.1 s of the polysomnogram. Movements were then identified using a custom algorithm. On average 67.5% of arousals were associated with wrist movement. Arousals associated with movement were longer than those without movement (mean duration: 12.2 s versus 7.9 s respectively, p  <  0.01); movements during wake and arousal were longer than other sleep movements (wrist duration: 6.26 s and 9.89 s versus 2.35 s respectively, p  <  0.01); and the movement index (movements/h) did not predict apnoea-hypopnoea index (ρ  =  -0.11). Movements associated with arousals are likely to unavoidably contribute to actigraphy's poor sensitivity for wake. However, as sleep-related movements tend to be shorter than those during wake or arousal, incorporating movement duration into the actigraphy scoring algorithm may improve sleep staging performance. Although actigraphy-based measurements cannot reliably predict all arousal events, actigraphy can likely identify longer events that may have the greatest impact on sleep quality.

  11. Reliability of scoring arousals in normal children and children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Tat Kong; Galster, Patricia; Lau, Tai Shing; Lutz, Janita M; Marcus, Carole L

    2004-09-15

    Scoring of arousals in children is based on an extension of adult criteria, as defined by the American Sleep Disorders Association (ASDA). By this, a minimum duration of 3 seconds is required. A few recent studies utilized modified criteria for the study of children, with durations as short as 1 second. However, the validity and reliability of scoring these shorter arousals have never been verified. Based on studies in adults, we hypothesized that interscorer agreement for scoring arousals shorter than 3 seconds was poor. Retrospective review of polysomnograms by 2 experienced sleep practitioners who independently scored arousals according to the ASDA 3-second criteria and modified duration criteria of 1 and 2 seconds. Academic hospital. 20 polysomnographic studies from children aged 3 to 8 years with mild to severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, and 16 polysomnographic studies from normal children. None. The intraclass correlation coefficient for scoring ASDA arousals was 0.90 (95% confidence interval: 0.81-0.95), indicating excellent interscorer agreement. The intraclass correlation coefficient for scoring modified 1-second and 2-second arousals were 0.35 (95% confidence interval: 0.02-0.61) and 0.42 (95% confidence interval: 0.12-0.65) respectively, indicating poor to fair interscorer agreement. Furthermore, modified 1-second and 2-second arousals accounted for less than 15% of all arousals scored. We conclude that there is much poorer interscorer agreement for scoring arousals shorter than 3 seconds, when compared to the standard ASDA criteria. We propose that scoring of arousals in children should follow the standard ASDA criteria.

  12. Changes in blood glucose and salivary cortisol are not necessary for arousal to enhance memory in young or older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Jane B; Krebs, Desiree L; Parent, Marise B

    2006-06-01

    Emotional arousal enhances memory, and this memory-enhancing effect may involve neurochemicals released by arousal, such as glucose and cortisol. Physiological consequences of arousal change with age, and these changes may contribute to age-related memory decline. The present study examined whether emotionally arousing pictures would affect glucose and cortisol levels and enhance memory in young and older adults. Blood glucose and salivary cortisol were measured once before and six times after young and old adults viewed either 60 highly arousing or 60 relatively neutral pictures. Recall for the stimuli was measured 75 min later. The results indicated that recall was impaired in older adults. Arousal as measured by self-report enhanced recall in both young and older adults. However, arousal did not affect glucose or cortisol levels in either group. These findings demonstrate that changes in blood glucose or salivary cortisol levels are not necessary for arousal to enhance memory.

  13. Application of the Bow Tie method for evaluation of safety in the procedure of logging wells; Aplicacion del metodo de Bow Tie para la evaluacion de seguridad en la practica de perfilaje de pozos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfonso Pallares, C; Perez Reyes, Y.; Sarabia Molina, I.I. [Centro Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear (CNSN), La Habana (Cuba)

    2013-07-01

    This work consists of an assessment of security in the practice of logging of oil wells, using the method of Bow Tie for being a simple method of evaluation of the risk, which makes it possible in a structured way to set priorities to manage risk.

  14. The essential role of t cells in multiple sclerosis: A reappraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cris S Constantinescu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system in which destruction of myelin and nerve axons has been shown to be mediated by immune mechanisms. Although the focus of research has been traditionally on T cells as key mediators of the immunopathology, more recent efforts at understanding this complex disorder have been directed increasingly at other cellular and humoral elements of the immune response. This review is a reappraisal of the crucial role of T cells, in particular the CD4+ helper T-cell subset, in multiple sclerosis. Recent evidence is discussed underlining the predominant contribution of T-cell-associated genes to the genome-wide association study results of multiple sclerosis susceptibility, the loss of T-cell quiescence in the conversion from clinically isolated syndrome to clinically definite multiple sclerosis, and the fact that T cells represent the main target of effective immunomodulatory and immunosuppressive treatments in multiple sclerosis.

  15. A reappraisal of some Cigar Lake issues of importance to performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smellie, J. [Conterra AB (Sweden); Karlsson, Fred [Swedish Nucelear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1996-07-01

    The AECL/SKB Cigar Lake Analogue Study was published in 1994. Data from this study, relevant for repository performance assessments, have been reappraised in the light of greater exposure to analogue studies and the development of more realistic models used in performance assessment. Several of the areas proved to have been adequately addressed in the original study, but one of the areas that particularly benefited from the renewed analysis concerned radiolysis. In this case a model for radiolysis was developed and tested, significantly narrowing the gap between calculated and predicted oxidant production. Considerable progress was also made in understanding and modelling the initial formation of the deposit under hydrothermal conditions, and using this conceptual model to evaluate the changes that have subsequently occurred under `ambient` repository conditions over geological timescales. Moreover, the physical properties of clay as a potential buffer to groundwater flow and radionuclide migration were addressed with some success. 99 refs.

  16. Inflation, unemployment and the Central Bank: Themes for a critical reappraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. SYLOS LABINI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Two propositions are discussed, the first to be attributed to the monetarists (“the variations of the monetary base determine those of prices”, the second to certain Keynesian economists (“the variations of prices ultimately depend on the rate of unemployment”. The author argues that both propositions are wrong. As for the former, it is maintained that inflationary impulses do not originate from the quantity of money but from the activity of firms, which, however, can be influenced by the policy of the central bank. As for the latter, the rate of unemployment appears to be only one of several variables affecting the behaviour of wages and prices. A critical reappraisal of the explanation of inflation is now particularly important since the European Central Bank will become operative at the beginning of the next year.  

  17. A reappraisal of some Cigar Lake issues of importance to performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smellie, J.; Karlsson, Fred

    1996-07-01

    The AECL/SKB Cigar Lake Analogue Study was published in 1994. Data from this study, relevant for repository performance assessments, have been reappraised in the light of greater exposure to analogue studies and the development of more realistic models used in performance assessment. Several of the areas proved to have been adequately addressed in the original study, but one of the areas that particularly benefited from the renewed analysis concerned radiolysis. In this case a model for radiolysis was developed and tested, significantly narrowing the gap between calculated and predicted oxidant production. Considerable progress was also made in understanding and modelling the initial formation of the deposit under hydrothermal conditions, and using this conceptual model to evaluate the changes that have subsequently occurred under 'ambient' repository conditions over geological timescales. Moreover, the physical properties of clay as a potential buffer to groundwater flow and radionuclide migration were addressed with some success. 99 refs

  18. The Effects of Cognitive Reappraisal and Expressive Suppression on Memory of Emotional Pictures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Mei Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the field of emotion research, the influence of emotion regulation strategies on memory with emotional materials has been widely discussed in recent years. However, existing studies have focused exclusively on regulating negative emotion but not positive emotion. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the influence of emotion regulation strategies for positive emotion on memory. One hundred and twenty college students were selected as participants. Emotional pictures (positive, negative and neutral were selected from Chinese Affective Picture System (CAPS as experimental materials. We employed a mixed, 4 (emotion regulation strategies: cognitive up-regulation, cognitive down-regulation, expressive suppression, passive viewing × 3 (emotional pictures: positive, neutral, negative experimental design. We investigated the influences of different emotion regulation strategies on memory performance, using free recall and recognition tasks with pictures varying in emotional content. The results showed that recognition and free recall memory performance of the cognitive reappraisal groups (up-regulation and down-regulation were both better than that of the passive viewing group for all emotional pictures. No significant differences were reported in the two kinds of memory scores between the expressive suppression and passive viewing groups. The results also showed that the memory performance with the emotional pictures differed according to the form of memory test. For the recognition test, participants performed better with positive images than with neutral images. Free recall scores with negative images were higher than those with neutral images. These results suggest that both cognitive reappraisal regulation strategies (up-regulation and down-regulation promoted explicit memories of the emotional content of stimuli, and the form of memory test influenced performance with emotional pictures.

  19. The Effects of Cognitive Reappraisal and Expressive Suppression on Memory of Emotional Pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan Mei; Chen, Jie; Han, Ben Yue

    2017-01-01

    In the field of emotion research, the influence of emotion regulation strategies on memory with emotional materials has been widely discussed in recent years. However, existing studies have focused exclusively on regulating negative emotion but not positive emotion. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the influence of emotion regulation strategies for positive emotion on memory. One hundred and twenty college students were selected as participants. Emotional pictures (positive, negative and neutral) were selected from Chinese Affective Picture System (CAPS) as experimental materials. We employed a mixed, 4 (emotion regulation strategies: cognitive up-regulation, cognitive down-regulation, expressive suppression, passive viewing) × 3 (emotional pictures: positive, neutral, negative) experimental design. We investigated the influences of different emotion regulation strategies on memory performance, using free recall and recognition tasks with pictures varying in emotional content. The results showed that recognition and free recall memory performance of the cognitive reappraisal groups (up-regulation and down-regulation) were both better than that of the passive viewing group for all emotional pictures. No significant differences were reported in the two kinds of memory scores between the expressive suppression and passive viewing groups. The results also showed that the memory performance with the emotional pictures differed according to the form of memory test. For the recognition test, participants performed better with positive images than with neutral images. Free recall scores with negative images were higher than those with neutral images. These results suggest that both cognitive reappraisal regulation strategies (up-regulation and down-regulation) promoted explicit memories of the emotional content of stimuli, and the form of memory test influenced performance with emotional pictures.

  20. Machiavellian emotion regulation in a cognitive reappraisal task: An fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deak, Anita; Bodrogi, Barbara; Biro, Brigitte; Perlaki, Gabor; Orsi, Gergely; Bereczkei, Tamas

    2017-06-01

    Affective coldness is one of the main features of Machiavellianism. Recent studies have revealed that Machiavellians are emotionally detached and that this "affective blunting" is associated with intense feelings, emotional instability, negative emotions, and difficulty in enduring distress. We used brain-imaging techniques to investigate emotion regulation in Machiavellianism at a neuropsychological level. We used situations in which participants were required to demonstrate emotional flexibility to explore the controversy surrounding the fact that Machiavellianism is associated with both cold-mindedness and emotional instability. Participants performed a reappraisal task in which emotionally evocative pictures (from the International Affective Picture System) were presented in different contexts (negative, positive, and neutral). They were asked to interpret a scenario according to its title and to reinterpret it according to another context created by a new title (e.g., negatively labeled pictures shifted to positively labeled ones). During task performance, Machiavellians showed increased activation of brain regions associated with emotion generation-for example, the amygdala and insula. This indicates that Machiavellian individuals are able to be involved emotionally in social situations. Increased activation in the temporal and parahippocampal regions during reappraisal suggests that Machiavellians use semantic-perceptual processes to construct alternative interpretations of the same situation and have enhanced memory for emotional stimuli. Furthermore, they seem to possess an intense awareness that leads them to shift attention from external to internal information to detect environmental changes. These cognitive processes may enable them to adjust their behavior quickly. This study supports the flexibility hypothesis of Machiavellianism and suggests that Machiavellians' approach to emotion regulation is linked to their rational mode of thinking.