WorldWideScience

Sample records for bowel cancer screening

  1. Participation in bowel cancer screening: a qualitative exploration of the factors influencing participation and uptake

    OpenAIRE

    Azodo, Ijeoma

    2013-01-01

    Bowel cancer is major global public health problem. In the United Kingdom, it is the third most common cancer in men and women and second major cause of cancer deaths. It has been suggested that the risk of bowel cancer deaths can be reduced by 16% through regular bowel screening. However, screening uptake remains low. This research explored factors influencing participation in the NHS bowel cancer screening programme, specifically ‘the faecal occult blood test (FOBt)’ in the North East, York...

  2. An ongoing case–control study to evaluate the NHS Bowel Cancer Screening Programme

    OpenAIRE

    Massat, Nathalie J; Sasieni, Peter D; Parmar, Dharmishta; Duffy, Stephen W

    2014-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer is the third most common cause of cancer death in both males and females in England. A national bowel cancer screening programme was rolled out in England between 2006 and 2010. In the post-randomised controlled trials epoch, assessment of the impact of the programme using observational studies is needed. This study protocol was set up at the request of the UK Policy Research Unit in Cancer Awareness, Screening and Early Diagnosis to evaluate the effect of the cur...

  3. Comparison of breast and bowel cancer screening uptake patterns in a common cohort of South Asian women in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gumber Anil K

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inequalities in uptake of cancer screening by ethnic minority populations are well documented in a number of international studies. However, most studies to date have explored screening uptake for a single cancer only. This paper compares breast and bowel cancer screening uptake for a cohort of South Asian women invited to undertake both, and similarly investigates these women's breast cancer screening behaviour over a period of fifteen years. Methods Screening data for rounds 1, 2 and 5 (1989-2004 of the NHS breast cancer screening programme and for round 1 of the NHS bowel screening pilot (2000-2002 were obtained for women aged 50-69 resident in the English bowel screening pilot site, Coventry and Warwickshire, who had been invited to undertake breast and bowel cancer screening in the period 2000-2002. Breast and bowel cancer screening uptake levels were calculated and compared using the chi-squared test. Results 72,566 women were invited to breast and bowel cancer screening after exclusions. Of these, 3,539 were South Asian and 69,027 non-Asian; 18,730 had been invited to mammography over the previous fifteen years (rounds 1 to 5. South Asian women were significantly less likely to undertake both breast and bowel cancer screening; 29.9% (n = 1,057 compared to 59.4% (n = 40,969 for non-Asians (p Conclusions Culturally appropriate targeted interventions are required to reduce observed disparities in cancer screening uptakes.

  4. Australia's National Bowel Cancer Screening Program: does it work for Indigenous Australians?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katzenellenbogen Judith M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite a lower incidence of bowel cancer overall, Indigenous Australians are more likely to be diagnosed at an advanced stage when prognosis is poor. Bowel cancer screening is an effective means of reducing incidence and mortality from bowel cancer through early identification and prompt treatment. In 2006, Australia began rolling out a population-based National Bowel Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP using the Faecal Occult Blood Test. Initial evaluation of the program revealed substantial disparities in bowel cancer screening uptake with Indigenous Australians significantly less likely to participate in screening than the non-Indigenous population. This paper critically reviews characteristics of the program which may contribute to the discrepancy in screening uptake, and includes an analysis of organisational, structural, and socio-cultural barriers that play a part in the poorer participation of Indigenous and other disadvantaged and minority groups. Methods A search was undertaken of peer-reviewed journal articles, government reports, and other grey literature using electronic databases and citation snowballing. Articles were critically evaluated for relevance to themes that addressed the research questions. Results The NBCSP is not reaching many Indigenous Australians in the target group, with factors contributing to sub-optimal participation including how participants are selected, the way the screening kit is distributed, the nature of the test and comprehensiveness of its contents, cultural perceptions of cancer and prevailing low levels of knowledge and awareness of bowel cancer and the importance of screening. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the population-based approach to implementing bowel cancer screening to the Australian population unintentionally excludes vulnerable minorities, particularly Indigenous and other culturally and linguistically diverse groups. This potentially contributes to exacerbating

  5. Hemoccult II Screening for Bowel Cancer: Will Family Practice Patients Accept It?

    OpenAIRE

    Sangster, J. F.; Gerace, T. M.; Bass, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    Acceptability to patients of Hemoccult II® screening for bowel cancer will be a major determinant of whether such screening programs can be successfully implemented. In order to evaluate the screening test's acceptability to patients, compliance rates were assessed in 17 family practices in London, Ontario. Patients' reactions to the test were assessed by both a retrospective questionnaire and a similar prospective questionnaire. Respondents indicated the test's unpleasantness, dietary prepar...

  6. Cancer in inflammatory bowel disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianlin Xie; Steven H Itzkowitz

    2008-01-01

    Patients with long-standing inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC). Many of the molecular alterations responsible for sporadic colorectal cancer, namely chromosomal instability, microsatellite instability, and hypermethylation, also play a role in colitis-associated colon carcinogenesis. Colon cancer risk in inflammatory bowel disease increases with longer duration of colitis, greater anatomic extent of colitis, the presence of primary sclerosing cholangitis, family history of CRC and degree of inflammation of the bowel. Chemoprevention includes aminosalicylates, ursodeoxycholic acid, and possibly folic acid and statins. To reduce CRC mortality in IBD, colonoscopic surveillance with random biopsies remains the major way to detect early mucosal dysplasia. When dysplasia is confirmed, proctocolectomy is considered for these patients. Patients with small intestinal Crohn's disease are at increased risk of small bowel adenocarcinoma. Ulcerative colitis patients with total proctocolectomy and ileal pouch anal- anastomosis have a rather low risk of dysplasia in the ileal pouch, but the anal transition zone should be monitored periodically. Other extra intestinal cancers, such as hepatobiliary and hematopoietic cancer, have shown variable incidence rates. New endoscopic and molecular screening approaches may further refine our current surveillance guidelines and our understanding of the natural history of dysplasia.

  7. A cross-sectional analysis of participation in National Bowel Cancer Screening Program in Adelaide by age, gender and geographical location of residence.

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Javanparast; Ward, Paul R.; Stephen Cole; Tiffany Gill; Michelle Ah Matt; Paul Aylward; Genevieve Baratiny; Moyez Jiwa; Angelita Martini; Gary Misan; George Tsourtos; Carlene Wilson; Graeme Young

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundThe National Bowel Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP) is apopulation-based screening program based on a mailedscreening invitation and immunochemical faecal occult bloodtest. Initial published evidence from the NBCSP concurs withinternational evidence on similar colorectal cancer screeningprograms about the unequal participation by differentpopulation sub-groups. The aim of the paper is to present across-sectional analysis of participation in the NBCSP forAdelaide, in order to identif...

  8. Cancer screening

    OpenAIRE

    Krishna Prasad

    1987-01-01

    Cancer screening is a means to detect cancer early with the goal of decreasing morbidity and mortality. At present, there is a reasonable consensus regarding screening for breast, cervical and colorectal cances and the role of screening is under trial in case of cancers of the lung,  ovaries and prostate. On the other hand, good screening tests are not available for some of the commonest cancers in India like the oral, pharyngeal, esophageal and stomach cancers.

  9. Breast and bowel cancer screening uptake patterns over 15 years for UK south Asian ethnic minority populations, corrected for differences in socio-demographic characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Price Charlotte

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of studies have reported low uptake of cancer screening programmes by South Asian populations in the UK. However, studies to date have not adjusted findings for differences in demographics and socio-economic status of these populations. Methods Subjects: All residents in Coventry and Warwickshire, UK, eligible for screening. Uptakes compared for round 1 (2000–02 and round 2 (2003–05 of a national bowel cancer screening pilot, and for rounds 1, 2 and 5 of the established NHS breast cancer screening programme (commenced 1989. Data: Bowel screening data were analysed for 123,367 invitees in round 1 and 116,773 in round 2 (total 240,140 cases. Breast screening data were analysed for 61,934, 62,829 and 86,749 invitees in rounds 1, 2 and 5 respectively (total 211,512 cases. Analysis: Screening uptake was compared for two broad meta-categories (South Asian and non-Asian and for five Asian subgroups (Hindu-Gujarati; Hindu-Other; Muslim; Sikh; South Asian Other. Univariate and multivariate analyses examined screening uptake and various demographic attributes of invitees, including age, gender, deprivation and ethnic group. Results South Asians demonstrated significantly lower (p For Muslims registered with an Asian (vs. non-Asian GP, bowel screening uptake was significantly lower (p p = 0.12 in the same period. Colonoscopy and breast assessment uptakes were similar for both meta-categories, but Asian response time appeared slower for colonoscopy. The percentage of abnormal FOBT results was significantly higher for South Asian invitees. A slight increase in abnormal mammograms was observed for Muslims over time (2.7% to 4.2% in rounds 1 and 5 respectively. Conclusion The lower cancer screening uptakes observed for the South Asian population cannot be attributed to socio-economic, age or gender population differences. Although breast screening disparities have reduced over time, significant differences remain. We conclude

  10. Breast Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Screening ... cancer screening: Cancer Screening Overview General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...

  11. Assessment of patient organ dose in CT virtual colonoscopy for bowel cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Justification and optimisation form the basic elements for the radiological protection of individuals for medical exposures. Justification includes the assessment of patient organ doses from which radiation risks are deduced. Medical radiation exposures are justified only in the case of a sufficient net benefit. For screening examinations, such as CT virtual colonoscopy, this implies that patient organ doses should be relatively low to minimise the radiation detriment. Image quality should be sufficient to maximise the potential diagnostic benefits. The Medical Exposures Directive places special attention on medical exposures as part of health screening programmes and examinations involving high individual doses to the patient, both of which apply to CT virtual colonoscopy. Technical factors were recorded for a series of patients having virtual colonoscopy on a CT scanner. In addition, the dose-length product was assessed. Patient organ doses were deduced using a CT dose calculation program. The typical effective dose was 7.5 mSv for male patients and 10.2 mSv for female patients. The effective dose is higher for female patients, as some gender-specific organs are irradiated during virtual colonoscopy. Each patient has two series of scans resulting in doses of 15 mSv for male patients and 20 mSv for female patients. (authors)

  12. A cross-sectional analysis of participation in National Bowel Cancer Screening Program in Adelaide by age, gender and geographical location of residence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Javanparast

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe National Bowel Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP is apopulation-based screening program based on a mailedscreening invitation and immunochemical faecal occult bloodtest. Initial published evidence from the NBCSP concurs withinternational evidence on similar colorectal cancer screeningprograms about the unequal participation by differentpopulation sub-groups. The aim of the paper is to present across-sectional analysis of participation in the NBCSP forAdelaide, in order to identify geographical areas andpopulation groups which may benefit from targetedapproaches to increase participation rates in colorectal cancerscreening.MethodDe-identified data from the NBCSP (February 2007 to July2008 were provided by Medicare Australia. Mapping andanalysis of the NBCSP data was performed using ESRI ArcGISsoftware, MapInfo, Microsoft Access and Microsoft Excel.Data was aggregated to postcode and participation was thenmapped according to overall participation rates, sex and age.ResultsThe overall participation rate was 46.9%, although thisdiffered by age, gender and geographical location. Mapsprovided in the paper reveal a socio-economic patterningof participation in the NBCSP, whereby areas with higherparticipation rates are also more affluent, whereas areaswith lower participation rates tend to be moredisadvantaged.ConclusionFindings from this study suggest inequities in participationin the NBCSP on the basis of gender, geographicallocation, and socio-economic status.

  13. Colorectal cancer screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Frederico Ferreira Novaes de

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common cancer in the world, and mortality has remained the same for the past 50 years, despite advances in diagnosis and treatment. Because significant numbers of patients present with advanced or incurable stages, patients with pre-malignant lesions (adenomatous polyps that occur as result of genetic inheritance or age should be screened, and patients with long-standing inflammatory bowel disease should undergo surveillance. There are different risk groups for CRC, as well as different screening strategies. It remains to be determined which screening protocol is the most cost-effective for each risk catagory. The objective of screening is to reduce morbidity and mortality in a target population. The purpose of this review is to analyze the results of the published CRC screening studies, with regard to the measured reduction of morbidity and mortality, due to CRC in the studied populations, following various screening procedures. The main screening techniques, used in combination or alone, include fecal occult blood tests, flexible sigmoidoscopy, and colonoscopy. Evidence from the published literature on screening methods for specific risk groups is scanty and frequently does not arise from controlled studies. Nevertheless, data from these studies, combined with recent advances in molecular genetics, certainly lead the way to greater efficacy and lower cost of CRC screening.

  14. Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Lung Cancer Key Points Lung cancer is a disease in ...

  15. Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease in ...

  16. How do people interpret information about colorectal cancer screening: observations from a think-aloud study

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, S. G.; Vart, G.; Wolf, M. S.; Obichere, A; Baker, H. J.; Raine, R; Wardle, J.; Von Wagner, C.

    2013-01-01

    The English NHS Bowel Cancer Screening Programme biennially invites individuals aged 60-74 to participate in screening. The booklet, 'Bowel Cancer Screening: The Facts' accompanies this invitation. Its primary aim is to inform potential participants about the aims, advantages and disadvantages of colorectal cancer screening.

  17. Mouth cancer in inflammatory bowel diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giagkou, E; Christodoulou, D K; Katsanos, K H

    2016-05-01

    Mouth cancer is a major health problem. Multiple risk factors for developing mouth cancer have been studied and include history of tobacco and alcohol abuse, age over 40, exposure to ultraviolet radiation, human papilloma virus infection (HPV), nutritional deficiencies, chronic irritation, and existence or oral potentially malignant lesions such as leukoplakia and lichen planus. An important risk factor for mouth cancer is chronic immunosuppression and has been extensively reported after solid organ transplantation as well as HIV-infected patients. Diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is not yet considered as a risk factor for oral cancer development. However, a significant number of patients with IBD are receiving immunosuppressants and biological therapies which could represent potential oral oncogenic factors either by direct oncogenic effect or by continuous immunosuppression favoring carcinogenesis, especially in patients with HPV(+) IBD. Education on modifiable risk behaviors in patients with IBD is the cornerstone of prevention of mouth cancer. Oral screening should be performed for all patients with IBD, especially those who are about to start an immunosuppressant or a biologic. PMID:26671147

  18. Prostate cancer screenings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000846.htm Prostate cancer screenings To use the sharing features on this ... Intern Med . 2011;155(11):762-71. National Cancer Institute. Prostate Cancer Screening -- for health professionals. Revised April 2, ...

  19. Breast cancer screenings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000837.htm Breast cancer screenings To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Breast cancer screenings can help find breast cancer early, before ...

  20. Prostate Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... man's bladder that produces fluid for semen. Cancer screening is looking for cancer before you have any ... be easier to treat. There is no standard screening test for prostate cancer. Researchers are studying different ...

  1. Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer found early may be easier to treat. Cervical cancer screening is usually part of a woman's health ... may do more tests, such as a biopsy. Cervical cancer screening has risks. The results can sometimes be ...

  2. Risks of Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Cervical Cancer Prevention Cervical Cancer Screening Research Cervical Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Screening ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Cervical Cancer Key Points Cervical cancer is a disease in ...

  3. Screening for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Internal Medicine Summaries for Patients Screening for Prostate Cancer: A Guidance Statement From the Clinical Guidelines Committee ... Physicians The full report is titled “Screening for Prostate Cancer: A Guidance Statement From the Clinical Guidelines Committee ...

  4. Screening for Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Ovarian Cancer The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final recommendation on Screening for Ovarian Cancer . This recommendation is ...

  5. Risks of Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease in ...

  6. Continuous quality improvement of colorectal cancer screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mariusz; Madalinski

    2013-01-01

    Quality assurance is a key issue in colorectal cancer screening, because effective screening is able to improve primary prevention of the cancer. The quality measure may be described in terms:how well the screening test tells who truly has a disease (sensitivity) and who truly does not have a disease (specificity). This paper raises concerns about identification of the optimal screening test for colorectal cancer. Colonoscopy vs flexible sigmoidoscopy in colorectal cancer screening has been a source of ongoing debate. A multicentre randomised controlled trial comparing flexible sigmoidoscopy with usual care showed that flexible sigmoidoscopy screening is able to diminish the incidence of distal and proximal colorectal cancer, and also mortality related to the distal colorectal cancer. However, colonoscopy provides a more complete examination and remains the more sensitive exam than flexible sigmoidoscopy. Moreover, colonoscopy with polypectomy significantly reduces colorectal cancer incidence and colorectal cancer-related mortality in the general population. The article considers the relative merits of both methods and stresses an ethical aspect of patient’s involvement in decision-making. Patients should be informed not only about tests tolerability and risk of endoscopy complications, but also that different screening tests for bowel cancer have different strength to exclude colonic cancer and polyps. The authorities calculate effectiveness and costs of the screening tests, but patients may not be interested in statistics regarding flexible sigmoidoscopy screening and from an ethical point of view, they have the right to chose colonoscopy, which is able to exclude a cancer and precancerous lesions in the whole large bowel.

  7. Colorectal cancer and dysplasia in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zisman, Timothy L; Rubin, David T

    2008-05-01

    Both ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease carry an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer. Established risk factors for cancer among patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) include the younger age at diagnosis, greater extent and duration of disease, increased severity of inflammation, family history of colorectal cancer and coexisting primary sclerosing cholangitis. Recent evidence suggests that current medical therapies and surgical techniques for inflammatory bowel disease may be reducing the incidence of this complication. Nonetheless heightened vigilance and a careful, comprehensive approach to prevent or minimize the complications of invasive cancer are warranted in this unique cohort of patients. Current guidelines for the prevention and early detection of cancer in this high risk population are grounded in the concept of an inflammation-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence. A thorough understanding of the definition and natural history of dysplasia in IBD, as well as the challenges associated with detection and interpretation of dysplasia are fundamental to developing an effective strategy for surveillance and prevention, and understanding the limitations of the current approach to prevention. This article reviews the current consensus guidelines for screening and surveillance of cancer in IBD, as well as presenting the evidence and rationale for chemoprevention of cancer and a discussion of emerging technologies for the detection of dysplasia. PMID:18461651

  8. Colorectal cancer and dysplasia in inflammatory bowel disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Timothy L Zisman; David T Rubin

    2008-01-01

    Both ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease carry an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer.Established risk factors for cancer among patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) include the younger age at diagnosis,greater extent and duration of disease,increased severity of inflammation,family history of colorectal cancer and coexisting primary sclerosing cholangitis.Recent evidence suggests that current medical therapies and surgical techniques for inflammatory bowel disease may be reducing the incidence of this complication.Nonetheless heightened vigilance and a careful,comprehensive approach to prevent or minimize the complications of invasive cancer are warranted in this unique cohort of patients.Current guidelines for the prevention and early detection of cancer in this high risk population are grounded in the concept of an inflammation-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence.A thorough understanding of the definition and natural history of dysplasia in IBD,as well as the challenges associated with detection and interpretation of dysplasia are fundamental to developing an effective strategy for surveillance and prevention,and understanding the limitations of the current approach to prevention.This article reviews the current consensus guidelines for screening and surveillance of cancer in IBD,as well as presenting the evidence and rationale for chemoprevention of cancer and a discussion of emerging technologies for the detection of dysplasia.

  9. Cervical cancer - screening and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer cervix - screening; HPV - cervical cancer screening; Dysplasia - cervical cancer screening ... Almost all cervical cancers are caused by HPV (human papilloma virus). HPV is a common virus that spreads through sexual contact. Certain ...

  10. Screening for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jin; Efron, Jonathan E

    2011-01-01

    March is national colorectal cancer awareness month. It is estimated that as many as 60% of colorectal cancer deaths could be prevented if all men and women aged 50 years or older were screened routinely. In 2000, Katie Couric's televised colonoscopy led to a 20% increase in screening colonoscopies across America, a stunning rise called the "Katie Couric Effect". This event demonstrated how celebrity endorsement affects health behavior. Currently, discussion is ongoing about the optimal strategy for CRC screening, particularly the costs of screening colonoscopy. The current CRC screening guidelines are summarized in Table 2. Debates over the optimum CRC screening test continue in the face of evidence that 22 million Americans aged 50 to 75 years are not screened for CRC by any modality and 25,000 of those lives may have been saved if they had been screened for CRC. It is clear that improving screening rates and reducing disparities in underscreened communities and population subgroups could further reduce colorectal cancer morbidity and mortality. National Institutes of Health consensus identified the following priority areas to enhance the use and quality of colorectal cancer screening: Eliminate financial barriers to colorectal cancer screening and appropriate follow-up of positive results of colorectal cancer screening. Develop systems to ensure the high quality of colorectal cancer screening programs. Conduct studies to determine the comparative effectiveness of the various colorectal cancer screening methods in usual practice settings. Encouraging population adherence to screening tests and allowing patients to select the tests they prefer may do more good (as long as they choose something) than whatever procedure is chosen by the medical profession as the preferred test. PMID:21954677

  11. Prostate Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treat. There is no standard screening test for prostate cancer. Researchers are studying different tests to find those ... PSA level may be high if you have prostate cancer. It can also be high if you have ...

  12. Lung Cancer Screening Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchalski, Kathleen L; Brown, Kathleen

    2016-07-01

    Since the release of the US Preventive Services Task Force and Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services recommendations for lung cancer screening, low-dose chest computed tomography screening has moved from the research arena to clinical practice. Lung cancer screening programs must reach beyond image acquisition and interpretation and engage in a multidisciplinary effort of clinical shared decision-making, standardization of imaging and nodule management, smoking cessation, and patient follow-up. Standardization of radiologic reports and nodule management will systematize patient care, provide quality assurance, further reduce harm, and contain health care costs. Although the National Lung Screening Trial results and eligibility criteria of a heavy smoking history are the foundation for the standard guidelines for low-dose chest computed tomography screening in the United States, currently only 27% of patients diagnosed with lung cancer would meet US lung cancer screening recommendations. Current and future efforts must be directed to better delineate those patients who would most benefit from screening and to ensure that the benefits of screening reach all socioeconomic strata and racial and ethnic minorities. Further optimization of lung cancer screening program design and patient eligibility will assure that lung cancer screening benefits will outweigh the potential risks to our patients. PMID:27306387

  13. Screening for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans J; Jakobsen, Karen V; Christensen, Ib J;

    2011-01-01

    Emerging results indicate that screening improves survival of patients with colorectal cancer. Therefore, screening programs are already implemented or are being considered for implementation in Asia, Europe and North America. At present, a great variety of screening methods are available including...... into improvements of screening for colorectal cancer includes blood-based biological markers, such as proteins, DNA and RNA in combination with various demographically and clinically parameters into a "risk assessment evaluation" (RAE) test. It is assumed that such a test may lead to higher acceptance among...... procedures for colorectal cancer. Therefore, results of present research, validating RAE tests, are awaited with interest....

  14. Audit of the introduction of CT colonography for detection of colorectal carcinoma in a non-academic environment and its implications for the national bowel cancer screening programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, S. [Department of Radiology, Queen Alexandra Hospital, Southwick Hill Road, Cosham, Portsmouth PO3 6AD (United Kingdom)], E-mail: Susan.Thomas@porthosp.nhs.uk; Atchley, J.; Higginson, A. [Department of Radiology, Queen Alexandra Hospital, Southwick Hill Road, Cosham, Portsmouth PO3 6AD (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-15

    Aim: To compare the sensitivity of double-contrast barium enema (DCBE) with computed tomography colonography (CTC) to determine whether CTC is superior for the detection of colorectal cancer (CRC) locally, and to compare the results to those of a national barium enema audit. Materials and methods: All patients undergoing diagnostic DCBE or CTC between January 2003 and December 2005 were identified from the picture archiving communication system (PACS). Patients with a confirmed diagnosis of CRC were identified from the local cancer registry. Patients who were not diagnosed as having CRC on imaging were assumed true negatives if they were not listed in the cancer registry by December 2007, giving a minimum of 2 years follow-up. DCBE and CTC reports of all patients with CRC were analysed, and cancer detection was considered to have occurred (positive test result) if the report stated the definite presence of CRC or possible CRC requiring further investigation. Results: 2520 DCBEs and 604 CTCs were included. Twenty-one of 33 patients with CRC were detected using DCBE (incidence 1.31%, sensitivity 63.7%). Thirty-two of 33 patients with CRC were -detected using CTC (incidence 5.46%, sensitivity 97.7%). Conclusion: CTC is more sensitive for the detection of CRC, and its introduction in a district general hospital is justified. However, there has been a consequent decline in DCBE sensitivity, which, if reflected nationally, suggests CTC is the preferential screening test for CRC.

  15. Audit of the introduction of CT colonography for detection of colorectal carcinoma in a non-academic environment and its implications for the national bowel cancer screening programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To compare the sensitivity of double-contrast barium enema (DCBE) with computed tomography colonography (CTC) to determine whether CTC is superior for the detection of colorectal cancer (CRC) locally, and to compare the results to those of a national barium enema audit. Materials and methods: All patients undergoing diagnostic DCBE or CTC between January 2003 and December 2005 were identified from the picture archiving communication system (PACS). Patients with a confirmed diagnosis of CRC were identified from the local cancer registry. Patients who were not diagnosed as having CRC on imaging were assumed true negatives if they were not listed in the cancer registry by December 2007, giving a minimum of 2 years follow-up. DCBE and CTC reports of all patients with CRC were analysed, and cancer detection was considered to have occurred (positive test result) if the report stated the definite presence of CRC or possible CRC requiring further investigation. Results: 2520 DCBEs and 604 CTCs were included. Twenty-one of 33 patients with CRC were detected using DCBE (incidence 1.31%, sensitivity 63.7%). Thirty-two of 33 patients with CRC were -detected using CTC (incidence 5.46%, sensitivity 97.7%). Conclusion: CTC is more sensitive for the detection of CRC, and its introduction in a district general hospital is justified. However, there has been a consequent decline in DCBE sensitivity, which, if reflected nationally, suggests CTC is the preferential screening test for CRC

  16. Breast cancer screening

    OpenAIRE

    Skrabanek, P

    1988-01-01

    Consensus is still lacking on guidelines for breast-cancer screening with mammography: who should be screened, how frequently at what age, to what benefits and at what risks. American, Dutch, Swedish and Italian studies spanning the 1960s to the 1980s reveal a benefit from screening (reduced mortality from breast cancer) that occurs unambiguously only in women 50 years of age and over. Physicians who choose to screen mammographically their over-49-year-old female patients must do so with the ...

  17. Screening for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... absolute reduction in mortal- ity. Preliminary results from PIVOT (Prostate Cancer In- tervention Versus Observation Trial), in ... early PSA screening era, prelim- inary findings from PIVOT show that, after 12 years, in- tention to ...

  18. Endometrial Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may detect (find) endometrial cancer are being studied: Pap test A Pap test is a procedure to collect cells from ... are abnormal . This procedure is also called a Pap smear. Pap tests are not used to screen ...

  19. Screening for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cervical cancer: • Cytology: This test, also called a Pap test or Pap smear, looks for abnormal changes in cells in ... women ages 21 to 65, screening with a Pap test every 3 years has the highest benefits ...

  20. Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... laxatives to clear the colon, shows polyps clearly. DNA stool test This test checks DNA in stool cells for genetic changes that may be a sign of colorectal cancer. Screening clinical trials are taking place in many parts of the ... Screening tests have risks. False-negative test results can occur. ...

  1. Colorectal cancer screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramona M McLoughlin; Colm A O'Morain

    2006-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a major public health burden worldwide.There is clear-cut evidence that screening will reduce colorectal cancer mortality and the only contentious issue is which screening tool to use.Most evidence points towards screening with fecal occult blood testing.The immunochemical fecal occult blood tests have a higher sensitivity than the guaiac-based tests.In addition,their automation and haemoglobin quantification allows a threshold for colonoscopy to be selected that can be accommodated within individual health care systems.

  2. Screening for lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Infante, Maurizio V; Pedersen, Jesper H

    2010-01-01

    In lung cancer screening with low-dose spiral computed tomography (LDCT), the proportion of stage I disease is 50-85%, and the survival rate for resected stage I disease can exceed 90%, but proof of real benefit in terms of lung cancer mortality reduction must come from the several randomized...

  3. Lung cancer screening: Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide as well as in Korea. A recent National Lung Screening Trial in U.S. revealed that low-dose CT (LDCT) screening reduced lung cancer specific mortality by 20% in high risk individuals as compared to chest radiograph screening. Based on this evidence, several expert societies in U.S. and Korean multisociety collaborative committee developed guidelines for recommendation of lung cancer screening using annual LDCT in high risk populations. In most of the societies high risk groups are defined as persons aged 55 to 74 years, who are current smokers with history of smoking of more than 30 packs per year or ex-smokers, who quit smoking up to 15 or more years ago. The benefits of LDCT screening are modestly higher than the harms in high risk individuals. The harms included a high rate of false-positive findings, over-diagnosis and radiation-related deaths. Invasive diagnostic procedure due to false positive findings may lead to complications. LDCT should be performed in qualified hospitals and interpreted by expert radiologists. Recently, the American College of Radiology released the current version of Lung cancer CT screening Reporting and Data Systems. Education and actions to stop smoking must be offered to current smokers

  4. Lung cancer screening: Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyea Young [Dept. of Radiology, Center for Lung Cancer, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide as well as in Korea. A recent National Lung Screening Trial in U.S. revealed that low-dose CT (LDCT) screening reduced lung cancer specific mortality by 20% in high risk individuals as compared to chest radiograph screening. Based on this evidence, several expert societies in U.S. and Korean multisociety collaborative committee developed guidelines for recommendation of lung cancer screening using annual LDCT in high risk populations. In most of the societies high risk groups are defined as persons aged 55 to 74 years, who are current smokers with history of smoking of more than 30 packs per year or ex-smokers, who quit smoking up to 15 or more years ago. The benefits of LDCT screening are modestly higher than the harms in high risk individuals. The harms included a high rate of false-positive findings, over-diagnosis and radiation-related deaths. Invasive diagnostic procedure due to false positive findings may lead to complications. LDCT should be performed in qualified hospitals and interpreted by expert radiologists. Recently, the American College of Radiology released the current version of Lung cancer CT screening Reporting and Data Systems. Education and actions to stop smoking must be offered to current smokers.

  5. Developments in Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on. Feature: Colorectal Cancer Developments in Colorectal Cancer Screening Summer 2016 Table of Contents Dr. Asad Umar, ... know to help determine the best colon cancer screening test for them? Colonoscopy is considered the gold ...

  6. Gastrointestinal cancers in inflammatory bowel disease: An update with emphasis on imaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barral, Matthias; Dohan, Anthony; Allez, Matthieu; Boudiaf, Mourad; Camus, Marine; Laurent, Valérie; Hoeffel, Christine; Soyer, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are associated with an increased risk of gastrointestinal cancers depending on the specific type of IBD, the extent of the disease and its location. Patients with IBD and extensive colonic involvement are at increased risk of colorectal cancer whereas patients with Crohn disease have an increased risk for small-bowel and anal carcinoma. These cancers preferentially develop on sites of longstanding inflammation. In regards to colon cancer, several key pathogenic events are involved, including chromosomal instability, microsatellite instability and hypermethylation. The risk for colon cancer in IBD patients correlates with longer disease duration, presence of sclerosing cholangitis, pancolitis, family history of colorectal cancer, early onset of the disease and severity of bowel inflammation. Identification of increased colorectal cancer risk in individual IBD patients has led to formal surveillance guidelines. Conversely, although an increased risk for other types of cancer has been well identified, no specific formal screening recommendations exist. Consequently, the role of the radiologist is crucial to alert the referring gastroenterologist when a patient with IBD presents with unusual imaging findings at either computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. This review provides an update on demographics, molecular, clinical and histopathological features of gastrointestinal cancers in IBD patients including colorectal carcinoma, small bowel adenocarcinoma, neuroendocrine tumors and anal carcinoma, along with a special emphasis on the current role of CT and MR imaging. PMID:26315381

  7. Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ187 GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results • What is cervical cancer screening? • What causes abnormal cervical cancer screening test ...

  8. Screening for Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, Brendon M; Pua, Bradley; Altorki, Nasser K

    2016-07-01

    Lung cancer is a global health burden and is among the most common and deadliest of all malignancies worldwide. The goal of screening programs is to detect tumors in earlier, curable stages, consequently reducing disease-specific mortality. The issue of screening has great relevance to thoracic surgeons, who should play a leading role in the debate over screening and its consequences. The burden is on thoracic surgeons to work in a multidisciplinary setting to guide and treat these patients safely and responsibly, ensuring low morbidity and mortality of potential diagnostic or therapeutic interventions. PMID:27261909

  9. SCREENING FOR COLORECTAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bărbulescu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is a review of the main procedures for early diagnosis of colorectal cancer, especially for the asymptomatic individuals with high risk to develop this neoplasm, devise the risk groups to develop this cancer and to study the management of these. The advantages and disadvantages or limitations of screening modalities for colorectal cancer, such as faecal occult blood testing with old guaiac-based tests or the new tests for detecting faecal deoxyribonucleic acid of tumor cells, endoscopic screening by flexible sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, or CT-colonography and double contrast barium enema examination, are evaluated. The most accurate diagnosed sensibility (95-97% belong to total colonoscopy with biopsy, barium enema having a lower sensibility (83%; the easiest and cheaper screening method represent guaiac-based faecal occult blood tests but with a global predictive positive value of only 5-10%. In our country, as it’s known, most of the colorectal cancer patients presents to the doctor in an advanced local stage or with distant metastases or in other situations like perforation, obstructive or hemorrhaged complications. In all these cases the therapeutic resources are limited and the survival is much diminished. The situation would be different if in the precocious diagnosis in the incipient stage of the colorectal neoplasm, proper treatment resources may assure to these patients a higher life hope. A proper national healthy political program that will promote some fesabile screening programs could diagnose and treat patients with colorectal neoplasm in incipient stages, with the result of prolonged survival and disease-free interval and complete socio-professional reinstatement. These national screening programs may absolve the expensiveness on the patients care with the colorectal neoplasm cancer in the advanced stages that have a poor prognosis.

  10. Revisiting the potential signs of colorectal cancer on contrast-enhanced computed tomography without bowel preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Jawad; Hosmane, Sharath; Lapsia, Snehal

    2015-10-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common cause of cancer death in the US. Earlier detection can allow treatment with curative intent and improve prognosis. Optical and virtual colonoscopy are widely used in screening for colonic polyps and in the investigation of suspected CRC. However, contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) is still performed to investigate various non-specific abdominal complaints. Hence, a significant number of CRC are identified on contrast-enhanced CT without bowel preparation. We describe several signs, which when present in tandem, raise suspicion of CRC, and may warrant further investigation with optical colonoscopy. These include an intraluminal mass, eccentric or circumferential wall thickening >3 mm, focal wall enhancement, pericolic fat stranding, a cluster of >3 local lymph nodes, and enlarged lymph nodes >10 mm in short axis. Multiplanar evaluation of the bowel should be performed on all CT abdominal studies, including those without bowel preparation, to identify subtle features of CRC. PMID:26194811

  11. German Bowel Cancer Center: An Attempt to Improve Treatment Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Olof Jannasch; Andrej Udelnow; Stefanie Wolff; Hans Lippert; Pawel Mroczkowski

    2015-01-01

    Background. Colorectal cancer remains the second most common cause of death from malignancies, but treatment results show high diversity. Certified bowel cancer centres (BCC) are the basis of a German project for improvement of treatment. The aim of this study was to analyze if certification would enhance short-term outcome in rectal cancer surgery. Material and Methods. This quality assurance study included 8197 patients with rectal cancer treated between 1 January 2008 and 31 December 2010....

  12. Risk factors for small bowel cancer in Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashner, B A

    1992-08-01

    Suspected risk factors for adenocarcinoma of the small bowel in Crohn's disease include surgically excluded small bowel loops, chronic fistulous disease, and male sex. Review of all seven University of Chicago cases failed to confirm any suspected risk factor. A case-control study was performed to identify possible alternatives. Each case was matched to four randomly selected controls from an inflammatory bowel disease registry matched for year of birth, sex, and confirmed small bowel Crohn's disease. Three factors were significantly associated with the development of cancer: (1) Four cancers developed in the jejunum, and jejunal Crohn's disease was associated with the development of cancer [odds ratio (OR) 8.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6-39.3]. (2) There was an association between the development of cancer and occupations known to be associated with an increased colorectal cancer risk (OR 20.3, CI 2.7-150.5). Three cases (a chemist with exposure to halogenated aromatic compounds and aliphatic amines, a pipefitter with exposure to asbestos, and a machinist with exposures to cutting oils, solvents, and abrasives) and one of 28 controls (a fireman with multiple hazardous exposures) had an occupational risk factor. (3) Among medications taken for at least six months, only 6-mercaptopurine use was associated with cancer (OR 10.8, CI 1.1-108.7). In conclusion, proximal small bowel disease, 6-mercaptopurine use, and hazardous occupations are associated with cancer of the small bowel in patients with Crohn's disease and can be added to the list of suspected risk factors. PMID:1499440

  13. Pharmacological treatment of bowel obstruction in cancer patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Brenda

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: Malignant bowel obstruction (MBO) is a common complication of advanced cancer, occurring most frequently in gynaecological and colorectal cancer. Its management remains complex and variable. This is in part due to the lack of evidence-based guidelines for the clinicians involved. Although surgery should be considered the primary treatment, this may not be feasible in patients with a poor performance status or advanced disease. Advances have been made in the medical management of MBO which can lead to a considerable improvement in symptom management and overall quality of life. AREAS COVERED: This review emphasizes the importance of a prompt diagnosis of MBO with early introduction of pharmacological agents to optimize symptom control. The authors summarize the treatment options available for bowel obstruction in those patients for whom surgical intervention is not a feasible option. The authors also explore the complexities involved in the introduction of parenteral hydration and total parenteral nutrition in this group of patients. EXPERT OPINION: It is not always easy to distinguish reversible from irreversible bowel obstruction. Early and aggressive management with the introduction of pharmacological agents including corticosteroids, octreotide and anti-cholinergic agents have the potential to maintain bowel patency, and allow for more rapid recovery of bowel transit. A combination of analgesics, anti-emetics and anti-cholinergics with or without anti-secretory agents can successfully improve symptom control in patients with irreversible bowel obstruction.

  14. Oral Cancer and Oral Precancerous Lesions in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsanos, Konstantinos H; Roda, Giulia; Brygo, Alexandre; Delaporte, Emmanuel; Colombel, Jean-Frédéric

    2015-11-01

    Oral cancer is historically linked to well-known behavioural risk factors such as tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption. Other risk factors include age over 40, male sex, several dietary factors, nutritional deficiencies, viruses, sexually transmitted infections, human papillomavirus, chronic irritation, and possibly genetic predisposition. Precancerous lesions in the oral cavity include leukoplakia, erythroplakia, and lichen planus. Histology of oral cancer varies widely but the great majority are squamous cell carcinomas.Epidemiological studies and cancer registries have shown a consistently increased risk of oral malignancies in kidney, bone marrow, heart, or liver transplantation, in graft vs host disease, and in patients with HIV infection. Because of the increasing use of immunosuppressive drugs in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, it is useful to more accurately delineate the consequences of chronic immunosuppression to the oral cavity. Oral cancer and precancerous oral lesions in patients with inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] have been scarcely reported and reviews on the topic are lacking.We conducted a literature search using the terms and variants of all cancerous and precancerous oral manifestations of inflammatory bowel diseases. By retrieving the existing literature, it is evident that patients with IBD belong to the high-risk group of developing these lesions, a phenomenon amplified by the increasing HPV prevalence. Education on modifiable risk behaviours in patients with oral cancer is the cornerstone of prevention.Oral screening should be performed for all IBD patients, especially those who are about to start an immunosuppressant or biological drug. PMID:26163301

  15. Controversies in Lung Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Ritu R; Jaklitsch, Michael T; Jacobson, Francine L

    2016-02-01

    There remains an extensive debate over lung cancer screening, with lobbying for and against screening for very compelling reasons. The National Lung Screening Trial, International Early Lung Cancer Program, and other major screening studies favor screening with low-dose CT scans and have shown a reduction in lung cancer-specific mortality. The increasing incidence of lung cancer and the dismal survival rate for advanced disease despite improved multimodality therapy have sparked an interest in the implementation of national lung cancer screening. Concerns over imaging workflow, radiation dose, management of small nodules, overdiagnosis bias, lead-time and length-time bias, emerging new technologies, and cost-effectiveness continue to be debated. The authors address each of these issues as they relate to radiologic practice. PMID:26846531

  16. Risks of Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and former heavy smokers. Current smokers whose LDCT scan results show possible signs of cancer may be more likely to quit smoking. A Guide is available for patients and doctors to learn more about the benefits and harms of low-dose helical CT screening for lung cancer. Screening with chest x- ...

  17. Influences on uptake of cancer screening in mental health service users: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Clifton, Abigail; Burgess, Caroline; Clement, Sarah; Ohlsen, Ruth; Ramluggun, Pras; Sturt, Jackie; Walters, Paul; Barley, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cancers are a leading cause of death worldwide. People with mental illness are 30 % more likely to die from cancer than the general population. One reason for this may be low uptake of nationally offered cancer screening tests by people with mental illness. We aimed to identify barriers and facilitators for breast, cervical and bowel cancer screening uptake by people with mental illness in order to inform interventions to promote equal access. Methods The interview study was conduc...

  18. Cervical cancer screening at crossroads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Rygaard, Carsten; Baillet, Miguel Vazquez-Prada;

    2014-01-01

    Cervical screening has been one of the most successful public health prevention programmes. For 50 years, cytology formed the basis for screening, and detected cervical intraepithelial lesions (CIN) were treated surgically to prevent progression to cancer. In a high-risk country as Denmark......, screening decreased the incidence of cervical cancer from 34 to 11 per 100,000, age-standardized rate (World Standard Population). Screening is, however, also expensive; Denmark (population: 5.6 million) undertakes close to half a million tests per year, and has 6-8 CIN-treated women for each prevented...... cancer case. The discovery of human papillomavirus (HPV) as the cause of cervical cancer dramatically changed perspectives for disease control. Screening with HPV testing was launched around 1990, and preventive HPV vaccination was licensed in 2006. Long-term randomized controlled trials (RCT...

  19. CDC Vital Signs: Cancer Screenings: Colorectal Cancer and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... aged 50–75 need to be screened for colorectal cancer, and 7 million women aged 50–74 need ... aged 50–75 are up-to-date with colorectal cancer screening. 56% Only 56% of uninsured women aged ...

  20. Influence of perception of colorectal cancer risk and patient bowel preparation behaviors: a study in minority populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaduputi V

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vinaya Gaduputi, Chaitanya Chandrala, Hassan Tariq, Sailaja Sakam, Anil Dev, Sridhar Chilimuri Bronx Lebanon Hospital Center, Department of Medicine, Bronx, New York, NY, USA Background: Large disparities exist in the utilization rates of screening modalities for colorectal cancer (CRC in different socioeconomic areas. In this study, we evaluated whether the quality of bowel preparation differed significantly among populations with a high risk of CRC compared with that among the general population after matching for potential confounding factors.Methods: Hispanic and African American patients who underwent routine screening or surveillance colonoscopies in an outpatient setting between 2003 and 2013 were included in this retrospective study. Patients who underwent colonoscopies for emergent indications and repeat routine screening colonoscopies because of prior history of inadequate bowel preparation were excluded from this study. The patients were divided into three groups: patients having an average risk of being diagnosed with CRC (group 1; patients having a high risk of being diagnosed with CRC because of a personal history of adenomatous polyps (group 2; and patients having a high risk of being diagnosed with CRC because of a family history of CRC in first-degree relatives (group 3. All the patients were given preprocedural counseling and written instructions for bowel preparation. Data on demographic information, method of bowel preparation, quality of bowel preparation, comorbidities, and prescription medications were collected.Results: In all, 834 patients had a "high-risk for CRC" surveillance colonoscopy in view of their personal history of adenomatous polyps and were included in group 2. In total, 250 patients had a "high-risk for CRC" screening colonoscopy in view of their family history of CRC in first-degree relatives and were included in group 3. Further, 1,000 patients were selected to serve as controls (after matching for age

  1. Inflammatory bowel disease, cancer and medication: Cancer risk in the Dutch population-based IBDSL cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel, Tim R A; Wintjens, Dion S J; Jeuring, Steven F G; Wassink, Maartje H H; Romberg-Camps, Marielle J L; Oostenbrug, Liekele E; Sanduleanu, Silvia; Hameeteman, Wim H; Zeegers, Maurice P; Masclee, Ad A; Jonkers, Daisy M; Pierik, Marie J

    2016-09-15

    The management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has changed since the mid-1990s (e.g., use of thiopurines/anti-TNFα agents, improved surveillance programs), possibly affecting cancer risk. To establish current cancer risk in IBD, updates are warranted from cohorts covering this time span, and detailed enough to study associations with phenotype and medication. We studied intestinal-, extra-intestinal- and overall cancer risk in the Dutch population-based IBDSL cohort. In total, 1,157 Crohn's disease (CD) and 1,644 ulcerative colitis (UC) patients were diagnosed between 1991 and 2011, and followed until 2013. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated for CD and UC separately, as well as for gender-, phenotype-, disease duration-, diagnosis era- and medication groups. We found an increased risk for colorectal cancer in CD patients with colon involvement (SIR 2.97; 95% CI 1.08-6.46), but not in the total CD or UC population. In addition, CD patients were at increased risk for hematologic- (2.41; 1.04-4.76), overall skin- (1.55; 1.06-2.19), skin squamous cell- (SCC; 3.83; 1.83-7.04) and overall cancer (1.28; 1.01-1.60), whereas UC patients had no increased risk for extra-intestinal- and overall cancer. Finally, in a medication analysis on CD and UC together, long-term immunosuppression exposure (>12 months) was associated with an increased risk for hematologic cancer, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, SCC and overall cancer, and this increase was mainly attributed to thiopurines. IBD patients with long-term immunosuppression exposure can be considered as having a higher cancer risk, and our data support the advice in recent IBD guidelines to consider skin cancer screening in these patients. PMID:27170593

  2. Colon cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... screening; Virtual colonoscopy - screening; Fecal immunochemical test; Stool DNA test; sDNA test ... called the fecal immunochemical test (FIT) and stool DNA test (sDNA). Sigmoidoscopy : This test uses a small flexible ...

  3. Risks of Endometrial Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may detect (find) endometrial cancer are being studied: Pap test A Pap test is a procedure to collect cells from ... are abnormal . This procedure is also called a Pap smear. Pap tests are not used to screen ...

  4. Risks of Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... laxatives to clear the colon, shows polyps clearly. DNA stool test This test checks DNA in stool cells for genetic changes that may be a sign of colorectal cancer. Screening clinical trials are taking place in many parts of the ... Screening tests have risks. False-negative test results can occur. ...

  5. Risk Profiling May Improve Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new modeling study suggests that individualized, risk-based selection of ever-smokers for lung cancer screening may prevent more lung cancer deaths and improve the effectiveness and efficiency of screening compared with current screening recommendations

  6. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer is present in the body. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is the most widely used tumor marker for ... and other types of cancer, may also increase AFP levels. Specific tumor markers that may lead to ...

  7. Mammographic screening for breast cancer: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Warwick; Peters, Gudrun

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, BreastScreen Australia celebrated 20 years of mammographic screening for breast cancer in Australia. There has been a reduction in mortality from breast cancer over the last two decades, coincident with mammographic screening. However, there are concerns that mammographic screening may result in overdiagnosis of breast cancer and that the reduction in mortality from breast cancer is the result of better treatment rather than screening. This article reviews the evidence on which mammo...

  8. Impact of bowel dysfunction on quality of life after sphincter-preserving resection for rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmertsen, Katrine; Laurberg, Solveig; Jess, Per

    2013-01-01

    Bowel dysfunction after sphincter-preserving surgery for rectal cancer is a common complication, with the potential to affect quality of life (QoL) strongly. The aim of this study was to examine the extent of bowel dysfunction and impact on health-related QoL after curative sphincter-preserving r......Bowel dysfunction after sphincter-preserving surgery for rectal cancer is a common complication, with the potential to affect quality of life (QoL) strongly. The aim of this study was to examine the extent of bowel dysfunction and impact on health-related QoL after curative sphincter......-preserving resection for rectal cancer....

  9. Methods for Cervical Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Vargas-Revilla

    2014-12-01

    This article is divided in three sections: the first one focuses on the general impact of cervical cancer has hadin CostaRica, these condsection gathers information about different methodologies used around the world to detect this cancer and the third one makes reference to the current development of the screening devise in Mexico that works as a monitoring system and can used by women without external assistance.

  10. Comparison of three strategies to delineate the bowel for whole pelvis IMRT of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To compare three different contouring approaches of the bowel before and during whole pelvis IMRT of localized prostate cancer. Materials: Nine patients were randomly selected among those treated for localized prostate cancer at UTMB from March 2004 to August 2006. On the planning CT, besides the usual organs at risk (OAR), for each patient we contoured the bowel according to three different definitions: each bowel segment ('BS'); 'BS+1', BS uniformly expanded by 1 cm; intestinal cavity ('IC') or the 'container' of the bowel loops up to the pelvic/abdominal walls. For each patient we generated three rival plans each considering a different bowel definition, otherwise identical. Provided that the same target coverage and other OAR spare had been achieved, plans were compared for their ability to minimize bowel dose at planning. Furthermore, after co-registering 6 weekly CT to the initial planning CT for each patient, we investigated which of the three definitions would allow the best bowel protection also during treatment. Results: All definitions provided a very similar average bowel DVH at planning. During treatment BS allowed an average ∼20 cc more of bowel to receive at least 45 Gy over BS+1 and IC (p = 0.008 and 0.029, respectively); on the contrary bowel V45 between IC and BS+1 were not significantly different (p = 0.65). Conclusion: A definition that takes into account internal organ motion is warranted to maximize bowel protection during treatment

  11. Most bowel cancer symptoms do not indicate colorectal cancer and polyps: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Siew F

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bowel symptoms are often considered an indication to perform colonoscopy to identify or rule out colorectal cancer or precancerous polyps. Investigation of bowel symptoms for this purpose is recommended by numerous clinical guidelines. However, the evidence for this practice is unclear. The objective of this study is to systematically review the evidence about the association between bowel symptoms and colorectal cancer or polyps. Methods We searched the literature extensively up to December 2008, using MEDLINE and EMBASE and following references. For inclusion in the review, papers from cross sectional, case control and cohort studies had to provide a 2×2 table of symptoms by diagnosis (colorectal cancer or polyps or sufficient data from which that table could be constructed. The search procedure, quality appraisal, and data extraction was done twice, with disagreements resolved with another reviewer. Summary ROC analysis was used to assess the diagnostic performance of symptoms to detect colorectal cancer and polyps. Results Colorectal cancer was associated with rectal bleeding (AUC 0.66; LR+ 1.9; LR- 0.7 and weight loss (AUC 0.67, LR+ 2.5, LR- 0.9. Neither of these symptoms was associated with the presence of polyps. There was no significant association of colorectal cancer or polyps with change in bowel habit, constipation, diarrhoea or abdominal pain. Neither the clinical setting (primary or specialist care nor study type was associated with accuracy. Most studies had methodological flaws. There was no consistency in the way symptoms were elicited or interpreted in the studies. Conclusions Current evidence suggests that the common practice of performing colonoscopies to identify cancers in people with bowel symptoms is warranted only for rectal bleeding and the general symptom of weight loss. Bodies preparing guidelines for clinicians and consumers to improve early detection of colorectal cancer need to take into

  12. Predictors of Endoscopic Colorectal Cancer Screening Over Time in 11 States

    OpenAIRE

    L Mobley; Kuo, T M; Urato, M.; Boos, J.; Lozano-Gracia, N.; Anselin, L.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives We study a cohort of Medicare-insured men and women aged 65+ in the year 2000, who lived in 11 states covered by Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) cancer registries, to better understand various predictors of endoscopic colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. Methods We use multilevel probit regression on two cross-sectional periods (2000-2002, 2003-2005) and include people diagnosed with breast cancer, CRC, or inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and a reference sample wit...

  13. Predictors of endoscopic colorectal cancer screening over time in 11 states

    OpenAIRE

    Mobley, Lee; KUO, TZY-MEY; Urato, Matthew; Boos, John; Lozano-Gracia, Nancy; Anselin, Luc

    2009-01-01

    Objectives We study a cohort of Medicare-insured men and women aged 65+ in the year 2000, who lived in 11 states covered by Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) cancer registries, to better understand various predictors of endoscopic colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. Methods We use multilevel probit regression on two cross-sectional periods (2000–2002, 2003–2005) and include people diagnosed with breast cancer, CRC, or inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and a reference sample wit...

  14. German Bowel Cancer Center: An Attempt to Improve Treatment Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olof Jannasch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Colorectal cancer remains the second most common cause of death from malignancies, but treatment results show high diversity. Certified bowel cancer centres (BCC are the basis of a German project for improvement of treatment. The aim of this study was to analyze if certification would enhance short-term outcome in rectal cancer surgery. Material and Methods. This quality assurance study included 8197 patients with rectal cancer treated between 1 January 2008 and 31 December 2010. We compared cohorts treated in certified and noncertified hospitals regarding preoperative variables and perioperative outcomes. Outcomes were verified by matched-pair analysis. Results. Patients of noncertified hospitals had higher ASA-scores, higher prevalence of risk factors, more distant metastases, lower tumour localization, lower frequency of pelvic MRI, and higher frequencies of missing values and undetermined TNM classifications (significant differences only. Outcome analysis revealed more general complications in certified hospitals (20.3% versus 17.4%, p=0.03. Both cohorts did not differ significantly in percentage of R0-resections, intraoperative complications, anastomotic leakage, in-hospital death, and abdominal wall dehiscence. Conclusions. The concept of BCC is a step towards improving the structural and procedural quality. This is a good basis for improving outcome quality but cannot replace it. For a primary surgical disease like rectal cancer a specific, surgery-targeted program is still needed.

  15. Celebrity endorsements of cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Robin J; Woloshin, Steven; Schwartz, Lisa M; Welch, H Gilbert

    2005-05-01

    Celebrities often promote cancer screening by relating personal anecdotes about their own diagnosis or that of a loved one. We used data obtained from a random-digit dialing survey conducted in the United States from December 2001 through July 2002 to examine the extent to which adults of screening age without a history of cancer had seen or heard or been influenced by celebrity endorsements of screening mammography, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing, or sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy. The survey response rate was 72% among those known to be eligible and 51% among potentially eligible people accounting for those who could not be contacted. A total of 360 women aged 40 years or older and 140 men aged 50 years or older participated in the survey. Most respondents reported they "had seen or heard a celebrity talk about" mammography (73% of women aged 40 years or older), PSA testing (63% of men aged 50 years or older), or sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy (52% of adults aged 50 years or older). At least one-fourth of respondents who had seen or heard a celebrity endorsement said that the endorsement made them more likely to undergo mammography (25%), PSA testing (31%), or sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy (37%). PMID:15870440

  16. Screening for Breast Cancer: Staging and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Screening For Breast Cancer Staging and Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2014 Table ... oncology nurse and a registered dietitian. Read More "Screening For Breast Cancer" Articles #BeBrave: A life-saving test / Breast Cancer ...

  17. Ethnic disparities in knowledge of cancer screening programmes in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Robb, K; Wardle, J.; Stubbings, S.; Ramirez, A.; Austoker, J.; Macleod, U; Hiom, S; Waller, J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to examine awareness of the three National Cancer Screening Programmes (breast, cervical, bowel) among white and ethnic minority groups in the UK.Setting Data were from two surveys in which the screening questions were added: (i) the Office of National Statistics (ONS) Opinions Survey, carried out in September and October 2008; and (ii) the Ethnibus (TM) survey of the main ethnic minority groups in England, conducted in October and November 2008.Methods The ...

  18. Cancer Screening: How Do Screening Tests Become Standard Tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have grown and spread. This can make the cancer harder to treat or cure. It is important to remember that when your ... Finds cancer before symptoms appear. Screens for a cancer that is easier to treat and cure when found early. Has few false-negative test ...

  19. Screening for Breast Cancer: Detection and Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Screening For Breast Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Past Issues / Summer 2014 Table of Contents Screening Mammography In November 2009, the United States Preventive ...

  20. Screening for Psychosocial Risk in Pediatric Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kazak, Anne E.; Brier, Moriah; Alderfer, Melissa A.; Reilly, Anne; Parker, Stephanie Fooks; Rogerwick, Stephanie; Ditaranto, Susan; Barakat, Lamia P.

    2012-01-01

    Major professional organizations have called for psychosocial risk screening to identify specific psychosocial needs of children with cancer and their families and facilitate the delivery of appropriate evidence-based care to address these concerns. However, systematic screening of risk factors at diagnosis is rare in pediatric oncology practice. Subsequent to a brief summary of psychosocial risks in pediatric cancer and the rationale for screening, this review identified three screening mode...

  1. Pyometra presenting in conjunction with bowel cancer in a post-menopausal women: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Soleymani majd, Hooman; Watermeyer, Sean; Ismail, Lamiese

    2008-01-01

    This case describes a 71 year old, post-menopausal woman who developed vaginal discharge. This complaint ultimately led to the discovery of bowel cancer in conjunction with a large sterile pyometra. The pyometra was not due to genital malignancy. The most likely conclusion is that the pyometra may have arisen as an inflammatory response to the adjacent bowel pathology. This case report highlights the need for clinicians to consider non-gynaecological cancer as a possible cause for otherwise u...

  2. Vibrational Microspectroscopy for Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona M. Lyng

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Vibrational spectroscopy analyses vibrations within a molecule and can be used to characterise a molecular structure. Raman spectroscopy is one of the vibrational spectroscopic techniques, in which incident radiation is used to induce vibrations in the molecules of a sample, and the scattered radiation may be used to characterise the sample in a rapid and non-destructive manner. Infrared (IR spectroscopy is a complementary vibrational spectroscopic technique based on the absorption of IR radiation by the sample. Molecules absorb specific frequencies of the incident light which are characteristic of their structure. IR and Raman spectroscopy are sensitive to subtle biochemical changes occurring at the molecular level allowing spectral variations corresponding to disease onset to be detected. Over the past 15 years, there have been numerous reports demonstrating the potential of IR and Raman spectroscopy together with multivariate statistical analysis techniques for the detection of a variety of cancers including, breast, lung, brain, colon, oral, oesophageal, prostate and cervical cancer. This paper discusses the recent advances and the future perspectives in relation to cancer screening applications, focussing on cervical and oral cancer.

  3. Colorectal cancer surveillance in inflammatory bowel disease: The search continues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anis Ahmadi; Steven Polyak; Peter V Draganov

    2009-01-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at increased risk for colorectal cancer (CRC). Risk factors for the development of CRC in the setting of IBD include disease duration, anatomic extent of disease,age at time of diagnosis, severity of inflammation,family history of colon cancer, and concomitant primary sclerosing cholangitis. The current surveillance strategy of surveillance colonoscopy with multiple random biopsies most likely reduces morbidity and mortality associated with IBD-related CRC. Unfortunately,surveillance colonoscopy also has severe limitations including high cost, sampling error at time of biopsy,and interobserver disagreement in histologically grading dysplasia. Furthermore, once dysplasia is detected there is disagreement about its management.Advances in endoscopic imaging techniques are already underway, and may potentially aid in dysplasia detection and improve overall surveillance outcomes.Management of dysplasia depends predominantly on the degree and focality of dysplasia, with the mainstay of management involving either proctocolectomy or continued colonoscopic surveillance. Lastly, continued research into additional chemopreventive agents may increase our arsenal in attempting to reduce the incidence of IBD-associated CRC.

  4. Computer screens and brain cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Australia, both in the media and at the federal government level, over possible links between screen-based computer use and cancer, brain tumour in particular. The screen emissions assumed to be the sources of the putative hazard are the magnetic fields responsible for horizontal and vertical scanning of the display. Time-varying fluctuations in these magnetic fields induce electrical current flows in exposed tissues. This paper estimates that the induced current densities in the brain of the computer user are up to 1 mA/m2 (due to the vertical flyback). Corresponding values for other electrical appliances or installations are in general much less than this. The epidemiological literature shows no obvious signs of a sudden increase in brain tumour incidence, but the widespread use of computers is a relatively recent phenomenon. The occupational use of other equipment based on cathode ray tubes (such as TV repair) has a much longer history and has been statistically linked to brain tumour in some studies. A number of factors make this an unreliable indicator of the risk from computer screens, however. 42 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  5. What we have learned from randomized trials of prostate cancer screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Richard M Hoffman; Anthony Y Smith

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) for prostate cancer screening in the late 1980s led to an epidemic of prostate cancer, particularly in developed countries. However, the first valid reports from randomized controlled trials on the efficacy of screening were not published until 2009. Men in the screening group in the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer were 20% less likely than those in the control group to die from prostate cancer. The absolute difference was only 0.7/1000, implying that over 1400 men needed to be screened to prevent one prostate cancer death. Screening was also associated with a 70% increased risk for being diagnosed with prostate cancer. The American Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial found no survival benefit for screening. Results were not conclusive because a substantial proportion of study subjects had previously undergone PSA testing, over half of the control group had PSA testing, follow-up was relatively short, and fewer than 100 subjects died from prostate cancer. Balancing the potential survival benefit from screening is the risk of overdiagnosis-finding cancers that would not otherwise cause clinical problems-and the risk of treatment complications, including urinary, sexual and bowel dysfunction. Prostate cancer screening efforts would benefit from improved biomarkers, which more readily identify clinically important cancers. Cancer control efforts might also need to include chemoprevention, though currently available agents are controversial. In the meantime, patients need to be supported in achieving informed decisions on whether to be screened for prostate cancer.

  6. Assessment of a cancer screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabeneck, Linda; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris

    2015-12-01

    Several Asian countries are implementing nationwide cancer screening programs. Assessment of the effectiveness of these programs is critical to their success as this is the only way to ensure that the benefits of screening outweigh the harms. In this paper we focus on colorectal cancer (CRC) screening to illustrate the principles of screening program assessment. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has defined organized screening, distinguishing it from opportunistic screening. The key advantage of organized screening is that it provides greater protection against the possible harms of screening. Since screening is a process, not simply a test, the effectiveness of a program depends on the quality of each step in the cancer screening process. The evaluation of long-term screening program outcomes (CRC incidence and mortality) will not be observable for many years, given the time it takes to plan, pilot and implement a program. However, early performance indicators of the impact of screening should be monitored to give an early indication whether the program is on track. The European Union (EU) has recommended a minimum dataset to be collected and reported regularly by a screening program. Using information from these data tables, early performance indicators can be generated (e.g., participation rate, proportion of screen-detected cancers that are early-stage). Subsequently, modeling the natural history of the disease can be very helpful to estimate long-term outcomes, making use of these directly measured early performance indicators. Modeling can also be used to estimate the cost-effectiveness of a screening program and the potential impact of changes in policy, as illustrated by its recent use in the Netherlands to change the definition of a positive fecal immunochemical test (FIT) for the CRC screening program. Programs should consider modeling as an important component of screening program evaluation. PMID:26651258

  7. Screening for breast cancer with mammography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C; Nielsen, Margrethe

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A variety of estimates of the benefits and harms of mammographic screening for breast cancer have been published and national policies vary. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of screening for breast cancer with mammography on mortality and morbidity. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched Pub...

  8. Screening for breast cancer with mammography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C; Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl

    2013-01-01

    A variety of estimates of the benefits and harms of mammographic screening for breast cancer have been published and national policies vary.......A variety of estimates of the benefits and harms of mammographic screening for breast cancer have been published and national policies vary....

  9. Tailored Telephone Counseling Increases Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawl, Susan M.; Christy, Shannon M.; Monahan, Patrick O.; Ding, Yan; Krier, Connie; Champion, Victoria L.; Rex, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of two interventions to promote colorectal cancer screening participation and forward stage movement of colorectal cancer screening adoption among first-degree relatives of individuals diagnosed with adenomatous polyps. One hundred fifty-eight first-degree relatives of individuals diagnosed with adenomatous polyps were…

  10. Patient-initiated breast cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the results of a breast cancer screening program sponsored by organizations at workplace or community locations. A comprehensive mobile breast cancer screening program, including education, breast physical examination, and mammography, was provided to 89 local organizations at $50.00 per examination over an 18-month period. The examination was patient initiated, following the ACS screening guidelines. Estimates of eligible women were provided by each organization. A total of 5,030 women at 89 organizations were screened for breast cancer. Approximately 25,727 women were eligible

  11. Barriers to colorectal cancer screening: A case-control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan-Rong Cai; Su-Zhan Zhang; Shu Zheng; Hong-Hong Zhu

    2009-01-01

    AIM:To investigate barriers to colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in a community population. METHODS:We conducted a community-based case-control study in an urban Chinese population by questionnaire. Cases were selected from those completing both a fecal occult blood test (FOBT) case and colonoscopy in a CRC screening program in 2004. Control groups were matched by gender, age group and community. Control 1 included those having a positive FOBT but refusing a colonoscopy. Control 2 included those who refused both an FOBT and colonoscopy. RESULTS:The impact of occupation on willingness to attend a colorectal screening program differed by gender. P for heterogeneity was 0.009 for case vs control group 1, 0.01 for case versus control group 2, and 0.80 for control group 1 vs 2. Poor awareness of CRC and its screening program, characteristics of screening tests, and lack of time affected the screening rate. Financial support, fear of pain and bowel preparation were barriers to a colonoscopy as a screening test. Eighty-two percent of control group 1 and 87.1% of control group 2 were willing attend if the colonoscopy was free, but only 56.3% and 53.1%,respectively, if it was self-paid. Multivariate odds ratios for case vs control group 1 were 0.10 among those unwilling to attend a free colonoscopy and 0.50 among those unwilling to attend a self-paid colonoscopy. CONCLUSION:Raising the public awareness of CRC and its screening, integrating CRC screening into the health care system, and using a painless colonoscopy would increase its screening rate.

  12. Cervical cancer screening in the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Turið; Lynge, Elsebeth; Djurhuus, Gisela W;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Faroe Islands have had nationally organised cervical cancer screening since 1995. Women aged 25-60 years are invited every third year. Participation is free of charge. Although several European overviews on cervical screening are available, none have included the Faroe Islands. Our...... aim was to provide the first description of cervical cancer screening, and to determine the screening history of women diagnosed with cervical cancer in the Faroe Islands. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Screening data from 1996 to 2012 were obtained from the Diagnostic Centre at the National Hospital...... 1999. At present, 7.0% of samples have abnormal cytology. Of all ASCUS samples, 76-95% were tested for HPV. A total of 58% of women diagnosed with cervical cancer did not participate in screening prior to their diagnosis, and 32% had normal cytology in the previous four years. CONCLUSION: Despite...

  13. Ovarian cancer screening in the general population.

    OpenAIRE

    Menon, U

    2007-01-01

    Despite significant improvements in therapy, ovarian cancer continues to be a leading cause of death amongst women with gynaecological malignancies. Advanced stage at diagnosis is thought to be a major contributor to mortality. Hence, there is considerable interest in early detection through screening. In the 1990s, Professor Jacobs pioneered the development of a multimodal ovarian cancer screening (OCS) strategy using serum CA125 as the first line screen and pelvic ultrasound as the second l...

  14. Screening methods of ovarian cancer in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Vera

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is associated with high mortality rate which has improved a little despite therapeutic advances. It causes more deaths than combined cervical and uterine cancer. High mortality is believed to be a direct result of already advanced stage at the time of diagnosis. Survival is excellent in case of early stage disease but poor in late stage disease, regardless of histology. The goal of screening for ovarian cancer is restricted to detection of asymptomatic early stage disease, as precursor lesions of ovarian cancer have not been identified. At present, there is no reliable method of ovarian cancer screening which has been shown to reduce mortality from ovarian cancer. Therefore, routine screening of women in general population can not be currently advised. Screening should be limited to high-risk population and subjects participating in research projects as long as the results of current studies are available.

  15. Cancer screening with CT: dose controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomographic (CT) cancer screening has seen a steady increase in interest with the introduction of multislice scanners. While the potential benefits of screening are obvious, radiation dose may pose a long-term risk for the screened individual. This article will discuss the basis for radiation risk estimation and give an overview of the current dose controversy surrounding CT screening. Given the current evidence, a non-negligible radiation risk has to be postulated even at very low doses, but estimates depend heavily on the chosen mathematical model. Lung cancer risk is the most important factor in a screening population because it peaks in the time interval between 40 and 70 years of age. Substantial risks for lung cancer development from yearly screening CT examinations are currently discussed in the literature. Risks for colon cancer screening are less because of less frequent screening intervals. For both indications substantial dose reduction up to factors of 5-10 may be possible. Full-body screening remains critical when performed at regular intervals because of the large doses required and the direct exposure of the lungs. If performed in a dose-conscious fashion, individual risks with lung and colon cancer screening are very small, but estimated population risks are non-negligible. (orig.)

  16. Cancer screening: Should cancer screening be essential component of primary health care in developing countries?

    OpenAIRE

    Saurabh Bobdey; Ganesh Balasubramanium; Abhinendra Kumar; Aanchal Jain

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cancer is a fatal disease and is on the rise across the globe. In India, breast, cervix and the oral cavity are the leading cancer sites, but, unfortunately, in-spite of availability of screening tools, there is no organized cancer screening program in India. The main objective of this study was to review the performance of various cancer screening modalities in a resource poor setting. Methods: MEDLINE and web of science electronic database was searched from January 1990 to D...

  17. Screening for breast cancer post reduction mammoplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To investigate whether remodelling of the breast after breast reduction surgery has an effect on mammographic cancer detection. Methods and materials: For women who attended population-based screening between January 1998 to December 2007, data were extracted on their age, history of previous breast reduction, and the result of screening (recall for further assessment, cancer, or no cancer). The number of cancers detected, recalls per 1000 screens and the characteristics of the cancers detected in the two groups was compared. Results: In total 244,147 women with 736,219 screening episodes were reviewed. In the 4743 women who had a breast reduction, 51 breast cancers were detected [age standardized rate (ASR) of 4.28 per 1000 screening episodes; 95% CI 3.11-5.46], compared with 4342 breast cancers in 239 404 women screened in the non-reduction group (ASR of 5.99 per 1000 screening episodes; 95% CI 5.81-6.16). There were fewer cancers in the breast reduction group with a relative risk of 0.71. There was no significant difference in the rate of recall between the two groups, with a crude recall rate of 46.1 per 1000 screening episodes post-breast reduction compared with 50.7 per 1000 screening episodes for women without breast reduction. There was no significant difference in the pathological type or location of the cancer between the two groups of women. Conclusion: Postoperative breast changes following reduction mammoplasty do not significantly hinder analysis of the screening mammogram.

  18. Lung cancer screening overdiagnosis: reports of overdiagnosis in screening for lung cancer are grossly exaggerated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortani Barbosa, Eduardo J

    2015-08-01

    The National Lung Cancer Screening Trial (NLST) demonstrated a mortality reduction benefit associated with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening for lung cancer. There has been considerable debate regarding the benefits and harms of LDCT lung cancer screening, including the challenges related to its practical implementation. One of the controversies regards overdiagnosis, which conceptually denotes diagnosing a cancer that, either because of its indolent, low-aggressiveness biologic behavior or because of limited life expectancy, is unlikely to result in significant morbidity during the patient's remainder lifetime. In theory, diagnosing and treating these cancers offer no measurable benefit while incurring costs and risks. Therefore, if a screening test detects a substantial number of overdiagnosed cancers, it is less likely to be effective. It has been argued that LDCT screening for lung cancer results in an unacceptably high rate of overdiagnosis. This article aims to defend the opposite stance. Overdiagnosis does exist and to a certain extent is inherent to any cancer-screening test. Nonetheless, the concept is less dualistic and more nuanced than it has been suggested. Furthermore, the average estimates of overdiagnosis in LDCT lung cancer screening based on the totality of published data are likely much lower than the highest published estimates, if a careful definition of a positive screening test reflecting our current understanding of lung cancer biology is utilized. This article presents evidence on why reports of overdiagnosis in lung cancer screening have been exaggerated. PMID:25772581

  19. Canadian cancer screening disparities: a recent historical perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Kerner, J.; Liu, J; Wang, K.; Fung, S; Landry, C; Lockwood, G.; Zitzelsberger, L; Mai, V

    2015-01-01

    Across Canada, introduction of the Pap test for cervical cancer screening, followed by mammography for breast cancer screening and, more recently, the fecal occult blood test for colorectal cancer screening, has contributed to a reduction in cancer mortality. However, another contribution of screening has been disparities in cancer mortality between certain populations. Here, we explore the disparities associated with breast and cervical cancer screening and preliminary data concerning dispar...

  20. Diagnostic performance of CT colonography with limited cathartic preparation in colorectal cancer screening; comparison with conventional colonoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Farghally Amin

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: This study proved that CTC with limited cathartic bowel preparation and iodinated agents for fecal tagging can obtain high sensitivity and PPV values results for <5 mm polyps comparable to those obtained with conventional preparation with laxatives. Furthermore, this method could really improve the acceptance of CTC for colorectal cancer screening.

  1. Cervical cancer - screening and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervical cancer is cancer that starts in the cervix. The cervix is the lower part of the uterus ( ... can do to decrease your chance of having cervical cancer. Also, tests done by your health care provider ...

  2. Breast cancer screening implementation and reassurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerø, J; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Brodersen, John

    2013-01-01

    difference in reported psychosocial aspects had disappeared or been reduced because of the nationwide screening implementation. METHODS: The 1000 women included in the previous survey were posted part I of the questionnaire Consequences of Screening in Breast Cancer (COS-BC1) in August 2011, nearly 5 years...

  3. Extramedullary plasmacytoma of small bowel mesentery in associated with cecal cancer: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Kyu; Kim, Yong Soo; Kim, Young Sun; Cho, On Koo; Koh, Byung Hee; Rhim, Hyun Chul; Park, Choog Ki; Park, Dong Woo [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yong Wook; Oh, Young Ha [Hanyang University Guri Hospital, Guri (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-15

    Extramedullary plasmacytoma is a rare disease that is histopathologically defined as a solitary tumor composed of a monoclonal proliferation of cells with plasmacytic differentiation in an extramedullary site. Most of these tumors occur in the submucosa of the upper aerodigestive tract, and they rarely occur in the small bowel mesentery. We report here on a case of extramedullary plasmacytoma of the small bowel mesentery that was in association with a cecal cancer. Abdominal ultrasound and CT revealed a lobulated soft tissue mass with a cystic portion and peripheral calcification. In this case, the preoperative radiological diagnosis was difficult due to accompanying cecal cancer.

  4. Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Skin Cancer: An Assessment of Patient Risk Factors, Knowledge, and Skin Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Kimmel, Jessica N.; Taft, Tiffany H.; Laurie Keefer

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at increased risk from skin cancer. Aims include assessing IBD patients' risk factors and knowledge of skin cancer and current skin protection practices to identify gaps in patient education regarding skin cancer prevention in IBD. Methods. IBD patients ≥ 18 years were recruited to complete an online survey. Results. 164 patients (mean age 43.5 years, 63% female) with IBD (67% Crohn's disease, 31% ulcerative colitis, and 2% indeter...

  5. Screening for colorectal cancer: what fits best?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lee, Chun Seng

    2012-06-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening has been shown to be effective in reducing CRC incidence and mortality. There are currently a number of screening modalities available for implementation into a population-based CRC screening program. Each screening method offers different strengths but also possesses its own limitations as a population-based screening strategy. We review the current evidence base for accepted CRC screening tools and evaluate their merits alongside their challenges in fulfilling their role in the detection of CRC. We also aim to provide an outlook on the demands of a low-risk population-based CRC screening program with a view to providing insight as to which modality would best suit current and future needs.

  6. Screening for Lynch syndrome in colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓红

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the application of mismatch repair(MMR)genes proteins expression to screen for Lynch syndrome in colorectal cancer patients.Methods One hundred consecutive colorectal cancers cases collected from 2012 to 2013 were tested immunohistochemically for the protein expression of MLH1,MSH2,MSH6 and PMS2,and also by the ARMS method for the mutation

  7. Improving Screening Strategies for Prostate Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Wolters (Tineke)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractTh is thesis describes research on screening for prostate cancer. To improve understanding of the thesis, some background information will be provided in this introduction. First, a short description of the prostate and of prostate cancer will be given in Chapter 1, followed by more deta

  8. Oral cancer screening: serum Raman spectroscopic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Aditi K.; Dhoot, Suyash; Singh, Amandeep; Sawant, Sharada S.; Nandakumar, Nikhila; Talathi-Desai, Sneha; Garud, Mandavi; Pagare, Sandeep; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Nair, Sudhir; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Murali Krishna, C.

    2015-11-01

    Serum Raman spectroscopy (RS) has previously shown potential in oral cancer diagnosis and recurrence prediction. To evaluate the potential of serum RS in oral cancer screening, premalignant and cancer-specific detection was explored in the present study using 328 subjects belonging to healthy controls, premalignant, disease controls, and oral cancer groups. Spectra were acquired using a Raman microprobe. Spectral findings suggest changes in amino acids, lipids, protein, DNA, and β-carotene across the groups. A patient-wise approach was employed for data analysis using principal component linear discriminant analysis. In the first step, the classification among premalignant, disease control (nonoral cancer), oral cancer, and normal samples was evaluated in binary classification models. Thereafter, two screening-friendly classification approaches were explored to further evaluate the clinical utility of serum RS: a single four-group model and normal versus abnormal followed by determining the type of abnormality model. Results demonstrate the feasibility of premalignant and specific cancer detection. The normal versus abnormal model yields better sensitivity and specificity rates of 64 and 80% these rates are comparable to standard screening approaches. Prospectively, as the current screening procedure of visual inspection is useful mainly for high-risk populations, serum RS may serve as a useful adjunct for early and specific detection of oral precancers and cancer.

  9. What Women Need to Know about Colon Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you love): What Women Need to Know about Colon Cancer Screening March is National Colorectal Cancer Awareness Month ... the United States. Tests used for screening for colon cancer include digital rectal exam, stool blood test, barium ...

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging for lung cancer screen

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yi-Xiang J.; Lo, Gladys G.; Yuan, Jing; Larson, Peder E.Z.; Zhang, Xiaoliang

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer related death throughout the world. Lung cancer is an example of a disease for which a large percentage of the high-risk population can be easily identified via a smoking history. This has led to the investigation of lung cancer screening with low-dose helical/multi-detector CT. Evidences suggest that early detection of lung cancer allow more timely therapeutic intervention and thus a more favorable prognosis for the patient. The positive relationshi...

  11. Screening for prostatic cancer. Investigational models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P; Torp-Pedersen, S T

    1991-01-01

    Prostatic cancer has a long natural history and a significant preclinical period, during which the disease is detectable. Thus, this common malignancy in males fulfills some of the most important criteria for initiating screening programs. However, the still enigmatic epidemiology also includes...... features of the disease, which make the possible gain from screening programs questionable. Thus, before embarking on expensive community or national screening programs, the beneficial effect of such an effort on morbidity and mortality must be demonstrated in large-scale trials comparing a screened...

  12. Cervical Cancer Screening with HPV Test

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Stewart Massad, a professor in the Division of Gynecologic Oncology at Washington University in Saint Louis and a board member of the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Cancer Prevention (ASCCP), talks about cotesting with human papillomavirus (HPV) as part of a cervical cancer screening program.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  13. Evaluating patients' preferences for type of bowel preparation prior to screening CT colonography: Convenience and comfort versus sensitivity and specificity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aims: To explore the relative value patients place on comfort and convenience versus test sensitivity and specificity in the context of computed tomographic colonography (CTC) screening. Materials and methods: Twenty semi-structured interviews were carried out with patients attending hospital for radiological tests unrelated to CTC. Preferences for CTC with different types of bowel preparation for CTC screening were examined and interviews were analysed thematically. The discussion guide included separate sections on CTC, bowel preparation methods (non-, reduced- and full-laxative), and sensitivity and specificity. Patients were given information on each topic in turn and asked about their views and preferences during each section. Results: Following information about the test, patients' attitudes towards CTC were positive. Following information on bowel preparation, full-laxative purgation was anticipated to cause more adverse physical and lifestyle effects than using reduced- or non-laxative preparation. However, stated preferences were approximately equally divided, largely due to patients anticipating that non-laxative preparations would reduce test accuracy (because the bowel was not thoroughly cleansed). Following information on sensitivity and specificity (which supported patients' expectations), the predominant stated preference was for full-laxative preparation. Conclusions: Patients are likely to value test sensitivity and specificity over a more comfortable and convenient preparation. Future research should test this hypothesis on a larger sample

  14. Attendance in cancer screening programmes in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Grazzini

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The European Community recommends mammography, cervical and colorectal cancer screening programmes. In Italy, cancer screening programmes have been included in the Basic Healthcare Parameters (Livelli Essenziali di Assistenza since 2001. Full national coverage of a population-based organized screening programme has been planned for in Italy and is being implemented. Since 2005, the Ministry of Health - Department of Prevention has formally charged The National Centre for Screening Monitoring (Osservatorio Nazionale Screening –ONS- with monitoring and promoting screening programmes nationwide. Participation of target populations is a key indicator of the impact and efficacy of a screening programme in reducing cancer mortality.

    Methods: Attendance of invitees is one of the indicators calculated every year in the quality control of Italian screening programmes. Data collection is organized by means of a structured questionnaire, sent by ONS to the referent for data collection in each Region, who then returns the completed questionnaires to the Regional Centre. Questionnaires are then sent to the National Centre. Logical and epidemiologic checks are performed at both levels. Every year ONS publishes reports on the results of the surveys. A feasibility study for a National data warehouse based on individual records is in progress. The national survey “Multiscopo sulle famiglie” and the Passi Study (Progetti delle Aziende Sanitarie per la Salute in Italia provided additional information regarding spontaneous preventive health care activities in the Italian population.

    Results: Mammography screening: In 2006, 78.2% of Italian women aged 50-69 lived in areas where organised screening was in place (theoretical extension, however, the distribution of the screening activity is not uniform (higher in Northern/Central Italy compared with Southern

  15. Screening for breast cancer with mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mammography is generally accepted as a useful problem-solving clinical tool in characterizing known breast lesions, so that appropriate and timely treatment can be given. However, it remains grossly underutilized at what it does best: screening. The major strengths of mammography are (a) its ability to detect breast cancer at a smaller, potentially more curable stage than any other examination, and (b) its proved efficacy in reducing breast cancer mortality in asymptomatic women aged 40-74. If, as has recently been estimated, screening with mammography and physical examination can be expected to lower breast cancer deaths by 40%-50% among those actually examined (13), then the lives of almost 20,000 U.S. women might be saved each year if screening were to become very widely used. The challenges of the next decade are clear, to mount much more effective campaigns to educate physicians and lay women about the life-saving benefits of breast cancer screening, to devise increasingly effective and lower cost screening strategies, to further improve the current high quality of mammographic imaging despite its increasing proliferation, and to train large numbers of breast imaging specialists to guarantee that the growing case load of screening and problem-solving mammograms is interpreted with a very high level of skill

  16. Breast cancer screening in Canada: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organized screening for breast cancer in Canada began in 1988 and has been implemented in all provinces and 2 of the 3 territories. Quality initiatives are promoted through national guidelines which detail best practices in various areas, including achieving quality through a client-service approach, recruitment and capacity, retention, quality of mammography, reporting, communication of results, follow-up and diagnostic workup, and program evaluation; it also offers detailed guidelines for the pathological examination and reporting of breast specimens. The Canadian Breast Cancer Data Base is a national breast cancer screening surveillance system whose objective is to collect information from provincial-screening programs. These data are used to monitor and evaluate the performance of programs and allow comparison with national and international results. A series of standardized performance indicators and targets for the evaluation of performance and quality of organized breast cancer screening programs have been developed from the data base. Although health care is a provincial responsibility in Canada, the collective reporting and comparison of results both nationally and internationally is beneficial in evaluating and refining both screening programs and individual radiologist performance. The results of Canadian performance indicators compare favourably with those of other well-established international screening programs. There are variations in performance indicators across the provinces and territories, but these differences are not extreme. (author)

  17. Who wants cancer screening with PET?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: Cancer screening using whole-body fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) has gradually become popular in Japan. Although some studies have reported high cancer detection rates with PET screening, the justification for such an approach is still unclear, and no evidence has been provided to indicate that PET screening reduces cancer mortality. We measured the general public's willingness to pay (WTP) for this service using a contingent valuation method, after providing them with sufficient information regarding the efficacy and limitations of the service. Methods: A computer-assisted questionnaire survey was conducted on males and females in Japan aged between 40 and 59 years. The study participants (n = 390) were provided with sufficient information about the PET procedure, the high cancer detection rate, false-negatives/false-positives and the fact that the mortality-reducing effect of PET screening has not yet been demonstrated. The participants' WTP was ascertained by a double-bound dichotomous choice approach. Results: The average WTP among all the participants was $68.0 (95% confidence interval: $56.9-79.2). A Weibull regression analysis showed that income, degree of concern about health, and family history of cancer were significant factors affecting WTP. Conclusions: The actual charge for PET screening in Japan is approximately $1000 on average, which is significantly higher than the participants' WTP for the actual benefit obtained from the service. If the Japanese healthcare consumers are well-informed, most of them would avoid purchasing such a costly service.

  18. Regret on choice of colorectal cancer screening modality was associated with poorer screening compliance: a 4-year prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin C S Wong

    Full Text Available Very few studies examined the issue of regret on choosing colorectal cancer (CRC screening tests. We evaluated the determinants of regret and tested the hypothesis that regret over screening choices was associated with poorer screening compliance.A bowel cancer screening centre invited all Hong Kong citizens aged 50-70 years who were asymptomatic of CRC to participate in free-of-charge screening programmes. Upon attendance they attended health seminars on CRC and its screening, and were offered an option to choose yearly faecal immunochemical test (FIT for up to four years vs. one direct colonoscopy. They were not allowed to switch the screening option after decision. A self-administered, four-item validated survey was used to assess whether they regretted over their choice (> 2 = regretful from a scale of 0 [no regret]-5 [extreme regret]. A binary logistic regression model evaluated if initial regret over their choice was associated with poorer programme compliance.From 4,341 screening participants who have chosen FIT or colonoscopy, 120 (2.8% regretted over their decision and 1,029 (23.7% were non-compliant with the screening programme. Younger subjects and people who felt pressure when making their decision were associated with regret. People who regretted their decision were 2.189 (95% C.I. 1.361-3.521, p = 0.001 times more likely to be non-compliant with the programme.This study is the first to show that regret over the initial CRC screening choice was associated with later non-compliance. Screening participants who expressed regret over their choice should receive additional reminders to improve their programmatic compliance.

  19. Breast and cervical cancer screening programme implementation in 16 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dowling, Emily C; Klabunde, Carrie; Patnick, Julietta;

    2010-01-01

    There is a continuing need to monitor and evaluate the impact of organized screening programmes on cancer incidence and mortality. We report results from a programme assessment conducted within the International Cancer Screening Network (ICSN) to understand the characteristics of cervical screening...... programmes within countries that have established population-based breast cancer screening programmes....

  20. Is Radical Bowel Cancer Resection Under Local Anaesthesia and Sedation Feasible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, J; Sran, H; Marzouk, D

    2015-08-01

    Some patients with bowel cancer have significant comorbidities, making them unfit for major surgery under general anaesthesia. However, treatment without surgery offers no possibility of cure, and furthermore, symptom control may be poor. We investigated the possibility of performing these resections under local anaesthesia in patients with a slim body habitus in a cohort of patients rejected for general anaesthesia. Eight patients (4 M, 4 F) aged 77-89 were included in this study. All had significant comorbidities and were deemed unfit for general anaesthesia by the consultant anaesthetist in charge of pre assessing high-risk patients. All patients had undergone a thorough assessment, which included P-POSSUM scoring. The recruited patients underwent a careful and fully informed consenting process, leading to standard cancer resections. These resections occurred between 2005 and 2012, under combined local anaesthesia and sedation. The operations undertaken were four right hemicolectomies (for caecal cancer), two Hartmann's procedures (for sigmoid cancer), one Hartmann's procedure with en bloc small bowel resection (for sigmoid cancer invading small bowel) and one transverse colectomy (for mid transverse colon cancer). Seven patients survived radical surgery without complications, although one died from an unrelated cause 8 months after surgery. One of these surviving patients subsequently underwent CABG and further bowel surgery under GA 2 years later for a metachronous sigmoid cancer. There was one postoperative death due to cardiogenic shock on the third postoperative day. Radical cancer resections under local anaesthesia are feasible in suitably selected high-risk patients with acceptable mortality and comparable medium- to long-term results. PMID:26702231

  1. Contributions of the European trials (European randomized screening group) in computed tomography lung cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelmans, Marjolein A; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. In 2011, the largest lung cancer screening trial worldwide, the US National Lung Screening Trial, published a 20% decrease in lung cancer-specific mortality in the computed tomography (CT)-screened group, compared with the group scr

  2. Using hair to screen for breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Veronica; Kearsley, John; Irving, Tom; Amemiya, Yoshiyuki; Cookson, David

    1999-03-01

    We have studied hair using fibre X-ray diffraction studies with synchrotron radiation and find that hair from breast-cancer patients has a different intermolecular structure to hair from healthy subjects. These changes are seen in all samples of scalp and pubic hair taken from women diagnosed with breast cancer. All the hair samples from women who tested positive for a mutation of the BRCA1 gene, which is associated with a higher risk of breast cancer, also show these changes. Because our results are so consistent, we propose that such hair analyses may be used as a simple, non-invasive screening method for breast cancer.

  3. Human papillomavirus testing in cervical cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Philip E; Cremer, Miriam

    2013-06-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is more reliable and sensitive but less specific than Papanicolaou (Pap) testing/cervical cytology for the detection of cervical precancer and cancer. HPV-negative women are at lower risk of cervical cancer than Pap-negative women. In high-resource settings, HPV testing can be used to make cervical cancer prevention programs more efficient by focusing clinical attention on women who have HPV. In lower-resource settings, where Pap testing has not been sustained or widespread, new, lower-cost HPV tests may make cervical cancer screening feasible. PMID:23732037

  4. Imaging and screening in lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Giaj Levra

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the main cause of death for neoplasia in the world. Hence it’s growing the necessity to investigate screening tests to detect tumoral lesions at the early stages: several trials have been performed to establish the best method, target and frequence of the screening to offer. CT, X-ray, PET, sputum citology and CAD software are here analyzed, together with the associated statistics and bias.

  5. Effect of pelvic radiotherapy for prostrate cancer on bowel, bladder and sexual functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the effects of pelvic radiotherapy for prostate cancer on sexual, bowel and urinary functions. Study Design: a prospective cohort study. Place and duration of study: The study was conducted at Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital, Lahore from July 1998 to January 2000. Patients and Method: This study included 52 patients with diagnosis of prostate cancer who were given external beam pelvic radiotherapy. The effects of pelvic radiotherapy on their sexual, bowel and bladder functions were calculated at 6, 12 and 18 months and mean composite scores for each entity were examined. Results: Decrease in sexual function (up to 35%) was most significant observation followed by bowel dysfunction (10-12%). Bladder function deranged early during radiotherapy but there was no remarkable bladder dysfunction, overall a good proportion of patients (70 - 72%) felt satisfied with their treatment by external beam radiotherapy. By lapse of time there was gradual worsening of erectile function especially after a couple of months of pelvic radiotherapy, while bowel and bladder functions improved 8-12 months post radiotherapy. Conclusion: Proper counselling of patients regarding potential side effects of pelvic radiotherapy can make them understand the outcome of treatment. (author)

  6. Evolving Recommendations on Prostate Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawley, Otis W; Thompson, Ian M; Grönberg, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Results of a number of studies demonstrate that the serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in and of itself is an inadequate screening test. Today, one of the most pressing questions in prostate cancer medicine is how can screening be honed to identify those who have life-threatening disease and need aggressive treatment. A number of efforts are underway. One such effort is the assessment of men in the landmark Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial that has led to a prostate cancer risk calculator (PCPTRC), which is available online. PCPTRC version 2.0 predicts the probability of the diagnosis of no cancer, low-grade cancer, or high-grade cancer when variables such as PSA, age, race, family history, and physical findings are input. Modern biomarker development promises to provide tests with fewer false positives and improved ability to find high-grade cancers. Stockholm III (STHLM3) is a prospective, population-based, paired, screen-positive, prostate cancer diagnostic study assessing a combination of plasma protein biomarkers along with age, family history, previous biopsy, and prostate examination for prediction of prostate cancer. Multiparametric MRI incorporates anatomic and functional imaging to better characterize and predict future behavior of tumors within the prostate. After diagnosis of cancer, several genomic tests promise to better distinguish the cancers that need treatment versus those that need observation. Although the new technologies are promising, there is an urgent need for evaluation of these new tests in high-quality, large population-based studies. Until these technologies are proven, most professional organizations have evolved to a recommendation of informed or shared decision making in which there is a discussion between the doctor and patient. PMID:27249774

  7. European Breast Cancer Service Screening Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paci, Eugenio; Broeders, Mireille; Hofvind, Solveig;

    2014-01-01

    A recent comprehensive review has been carried out to quantify the benefits and harms of the European population-based mammographic screening programs. Five literature reviews were conducted on the basis of the observational published studies evaluating breast cancer mortality reduction, breast...... seven to nine breast cancer deaths are avoided, four cases are overdiagnosed, 170 women have at least one recall followed by noninvasive assessment with a negative result, and 30 women have at least one recall followed by invasive procedures yielding a negative result. The chance of a breast cancer...... cancer overdiagnosis, and false-positive results. On the basis of the studies reviewed, the authors present a first estimate of the benefit and harm balance sheet. For every 1,000 women screened biennially from ages 50 to 51 years until ages 68 to 69 years and followed up until age 79 years, an estimated...

  8. Bowel exposure in rectal cancer IMRT using prone, supine, or a belly board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate bowel exposure using prone, supine, or two different belly boards for rectal cancer intensity modulated RT plans using a full bladder protocol. Methods and materials: For 11 volunteers four MR scans were acquired, on a flat table in prone, supine, and on two different belly boards (IT-V Medizintechnik GmbH® (BB1) and CIVCO® (BB2)), using a full bladder protocol. On each scan a 25 × 2 Gy IMRT plan was calculated. Results: BB2 led to an average bowel area volume reduction of 20–30% at any dose level compared to prone. BB1 showed a smaller dose reduction effect, while no differences between prone and supine were found. Differences between BB2 and prone, supine or BB1 were significant up to a level of respectively, 45, 35, and 30 Gy. The reducing effect varied among individuals, except for the 50 Gy region, where no effect was found. An increase in bladder volume of 100 cc led to a significant bowel area V15 reduction of 16% independent of scan type. Conclusions: In the low and intermediate dose region a belly board still attributes to a significant bowel dose reduction when using IMRT and a full bladder protocol. A larger bladder volume resulted in a significant decreased bowel area dose.

  9. Cervical Cancer Screening in Underserved Populations

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Lisa Flowers, a specialist in human papillovarius (HPV)-related diseases and Director of Colposcopy at Emory University School of Medicine, talks about cervical cancer screening in underinsured or uninsured women.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  10. Costs Associated with Cervical Cancer Screening

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Tom Cox, a practicing gynecologist and president of the American Society of Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, provides a brief introduction to cervical cancer screening guidelines and human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  11. Colorectal cancer development and advances in screening

    OpenAIRE

    Simon K

    2016-01-01

    Karen Simon Ventura County Gastroenterology Medical Group, Inc., Camarillo, CA, USA Abstract: Most colon tumors develop via a multistep process involving a series of histological, morphological, and genetic changes that accumulate over time. This has allowed for screening and detection of early-stage precancerous polyps before they become cancerous in individuals at average risk for colorectal cancer (CRC), which may lead to substantial decreases in the incidence of CRC. Despite the known b...

  12. Age at diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease influences early development of colorectal cancer in inflammatory bowel disease patients: A nationwide, long-term survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E. Baars (Judith); E.J. Kuipers (Ernst); M. van Haastert (M.); J.J. Nicolai (Jan); A.C. Poen (Alexander); C.J. van der Woude (Janneke)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Data on clinical characteristics of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-related colorectal cancer (CRC) are scarce and mainly originate from tertiary referral centres. We studied patient and disease characteristics of IBD-related CRC in a nationwide IBD cohort in g

  13. Screening for prostatic cancer. Investigational models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P; Torp-Pedersen, S T

    1991-01-01

    Prostatic cancer has a long natural history and a significant preclinical period, during which the disease is detectable. Thus, this common malignancy in males fulfills some of the most important criteria for initiating screening programs. However, the still enigmatic epidemiology also includes...

  14. Cervical Cancer Screening and Perceived Information Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whynes, David K.; Clarke, Katherine; Philips, Zoe; Avis, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To identify women's sources of information about cervical cancer screening, information which women report receiving during Pap consultations, information they would like to receive, and the relationships between perceived information needs, personal characteristics and information sources. Design/methodology/approach: Logistic regression…

  15. Risk-based prostate cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    X.D. Zhu (Xiaoye); P.C. Albertsen (Peter); G.L. Andriole (Gerald); M.J. Roobol-Bouts (Monique); F.H. Schröder (Fritz); A.J. Vickers (Andrew)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractContext: Widespread mass screening of prostate cancer (PCa) is not recommended because the balance between benefits and harms is still not well established. The achieved mortality reduction comes with considerable harm such as unnecessary biopsies, overdiagnoses, and overtreatment. There

  16. Knowledge of Breast Cancer and Screening Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabi, Mandana

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess young women's breast health knowledge and explore its relation to the use of screening mammography. Methods: A convenience sample of 180 women aged 25-45 residing in Toronto, Canada, with no history of breast cancer and mammography received an information brochure and four questionnaires which assessed their knowledge of…

  17. Breast cancer screening: ''reassuring'' the worried well?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, John; Siersma, Volkert; Ryle, Mette

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: One of the suggested benefits of cancer screening is the peace of mind and reassurance experienced by those women who are given negative results. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether there was a difference in the expression of psychosocial aspects in a population of...

  18. Screening for distress in cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grassi, Luigi; Johansen, Christoffer; Annunziata, Maria Antonietta;

    2013-01-01

    Routine screening for distress is internationally recommended as a necessary standard for good cancer care, given its high prevalence and negative consequences on quality of life. The objective of the current study was to contribute to the Italian validation of the Distress Thermometer (DT) to...

  19. [Sharing uncertainties of prostate cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selby, Kevin; Auer, Reto; Valerio, Massimo; Jichlinski, Patrice; Cornuz, Jacques

    2015-11-25

    The decision of whether our patients should undergo prostate cancer screening with the prostate specifc antigen (PSA) test remains daunting. The role of the primary care doctor is to help men decide between a potential decrease in mortality from a slow evolving but sometimes lethal cancer, and the risk of diagnosing and treating cancers that would have otherwise been indolent and asymptomatic. We can structure our discussions with three steps: choice, option, and decision making. A decision aid, such as the one that we have adapted and simplifed from the Collège des médecins du Québec, can help with this complex decision. PMID:26742351

  20. Reducing Barriers to Use of Breast Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Investigation to determine whether a telephone counseling intervention aimed at women who are known to underuse breast cancer screening can with, or without, an accompanying educational intervention for their physicians, increase use of breast cancer screening.

  1. Lethal Prostate Cancer in the PLCO Cancer Screening Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoag, Jonathan; Mittal, Sameer; Halpern, Joshua A; Scherr, Douglas; Hu, Jim C; Barbieri, Christopher E

    2016-07-01

    The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial randomized men to usual care or annual prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening for 6 yr and digital rectal examination for 4 yr. This trial found no difference between the intervention and usual care arms of the study in the primary end point of prostate cancer (PCa)-specific mortality. The PLCO trial results have had a major impact on health policy and the rate of PSA screening in the United States. We analyzed the 13-yr screening and outcomes data from the 151 participants who died of PCa in the screening arm of the trial to better understand how randomization to screening failed to prevent PCa death in these men. We found that of these men, 81 (53.6%) either were never screened as part of the trial or had an initial positive screen. Only 17 (11.3%) of those who died reached year 6 of the trial with a PSA <4.0 ng/ml. The men who died in the screening arm were also older at study entry than the average PLCO participant (66 vs 62 yr; p < 0.001). Our analysis should inform the interpretation of the PLCO trial and provide insight into future trial design. PMID:27166670

  2. Prostate Cancer – To screen, or not to screen, is that the question?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosser Charles J

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There continues to be controversy regarding serum Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA and prostate cancer screening. We anxiously await the results of two large prospective randomized clinical trials (Prostate, Lung, Colon, and Ovary-PCLO screening trial in the US and European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer-ERSPC in Europe assessing the benefits of prostate cancer screening. However the true question to answer may be which cancer to treat and when should we treat it.

  3. Screening history in women with cervical cancer in a Danish population-based screening program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirschner, Benny; Poll, Susanne; Rygaard, Carsten;

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the screening histories of all cervical cancers in a Danish screening population. The intention was to decide suboptimal sides of the screening program and to evaluate the significance of routine screening in the development of cervical cancer....

  4. Screening spectroscopy of prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yermolenko, S. B.; Voloshynskyy, D. I.; Fedoruk, O. S.

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the study was to establish objective parameters of the field of laser and incoherent radiation of different spectral ranges (UV, visible, IR) as a non-invasive optical method of interaction with different samples of biological tissues and fluids of patients to determine the state of prostate cancer and choosing the best personal treatment. The objects of study were selected venous blood plasma of patient with prostate cancer, histological sections of rat prostate gland in the postoperative period. As diagnostic methods have been used ultraviolet spectrometry samples of blood plasma in the liquid state, infrared spectroscopy middle range (2,5-25 microns) dry residue of plasma by spectral diagnostic technique of thin histological sections of biological tissues.

  5. Cancer screening: Should cancer screening be essential component of primary health care in developing countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Bobdey

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Our study highlights the availability and success of visual screening tools in early detection and mortality reduction of major neoplasia in resource-poor health care settings and recommends implementation of oral and cervical cancer screening as part of assured primary health care package in developing countries.

  6. Serological Screening for Celiac Disease in Adult Chinese Patients With Diarrhea Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongling; Zhou, Guoying; Luo, Linjie; Crusius, J Bart A; Yuan, Anlong; Kou, Jiguang; Yang, Guifang; Wang, Min; Wu, Jing; von Blomberg, B Mary E; Morré, Servaas A; Peña, A Salvador; Xia, Bing

    2015-10-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is common in Caucasians, but thought to be rare in Asians. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of CD in Chinese patients with chronic diarrhea predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D).From July 2010 to August 2012, 395 adult patients with IBS-D and 363 age and sex-matched healthy controls were recruited in Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University and Xiaogan Central Hospital in Hubei province, central China. Patients with IBS-D were diagnosed according to the Rome III criteria. Serum Immunoglobulin (IgA/IgG) anti-human tissue transglutaminase (anti-htTG)-deamidated gliadin peptide (DGP) antibodies were measured in a single ELISA (QUANTA Lite h-tTG/DGP Screen). Upper endoscopy with duodenal biopsies and HLA-DQA1 and HLA-DQB1 genotyping were performed in seropositive subjects and a gluten-free diet was prescribed.Seven IBS-D patients (7/395, 1.77%) and 2 healthy controls (2/363, 0.55%), were positive for anti-htTG/DGP antibodies. Of these 9 cases, 1 was lost to follow-up, 3 were suspected to have CD and 5 were eventually diagnosed as CD with intestinal histological lesions classified as Marsh Type II in 2 and Type III in 3. Of these 5 diagnosed CD patients, 4 (4/395, 1.01%) were from the IBS-D group and 1 (1/363, 0.28%) from the healthy control had asymptomatic CD. Two Type III CD patients with relatively high titers in the serologic assay were homozygous and heterozygous for haplotype HLA-DQA1*03-DQB1*03:03 (HLA-DQ9.3), respectively.In the present study, CD was present in 1.01% of patients with IBS-D and in 0.28% of the control group. We like to suggest that the haplotype HLA-DQA1*03-DQB1*03:03 (HLA-DQ9.3), which is common in Chinese, is a new susceptibility factor for CD in China. Larger screening and genetic studies are needed in the Chinese population of different regions. PMID:26496305

  7. Genetic Screening for Familial Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Carla

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Approximately 10% of gastric cancer cases show familial clustering but only 1-3% of gastric carcinomas arise as a result of inherited gastric cancer predisposition syndromes. Direct proof that Hereditary Gastric Cancer a genetic disease with a germline gene defect has come from the demonstration of co-segregation of germline E-cadherin (CDH1 mutations with early onset diffuse gastric cancer in families with an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance (HDGC. E-cadherin is a transmembrane calcium-dependent cell-adhesion molecule involved in cell-junction formation and the maintenance of epithelial integrity. In this review, we describe frequency and type of CDH1 mutations in sporadic and familial gastric cancer. Further we demonstrate the functional significance of some CDH1 germline missense mutations found in HDGC. We also discuss the CDH1 polymorphisms that have been associated to gastric cancer. We report other types of malignancies associated to HDGC, besides diffuse gastric cancer. Moreover, we review the data available on putative alternative candidate genes screened in familial gastric cancer. Finally, we briefly discuss the role of low-penetrance genes and Helicobacter pylori in gastric cancer. This knowledge is a fundamental step towards accurate genetic counselling, in which a highly specialised pre-symptomatic therapeutic intervention should be offered.

  8. Survival in Danish patients with breast cancer and inflammatory bowel disease: A nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Kirstine Kobberøe; Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre P; Pedersen, Lars;

    2008-01-01

    Background: Incidences of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and of breast cancer have increased over the last decades. The influence of IBD on breast cancer prognosis, however, is unknown. We therefore examined the impact of IBD on treatment receipt and survival in breast cancer patients...... colitis (UC). Patients with CD had more advanced stage and received radiotherapy less, and chemotherapy more, frequently than patients without IBD. In the adjusted analyses there was no substantial survival difference in breast cancer patients with and without IBD (MRR(CD) = 1.22; 95% confidence interval...... [CI] = 0.85-1.75; MRR(UC) = 1.09; 95% CI = 0.86-1.38). In a stratified analysis, chemotherapy was associated with poorer survival in patients with CD (MRR(CD) = 1.93; 95% CI = 1.00-3.72).Conclusions: Breast cancer patients with UC receive the same treatment and have similar survival to breast cancer...

  9. Impact of Job Status on Accessibility of Cancer Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seung Ju; Han, Kyu-Tae; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide with approximately 75,000 cancer deaths in Korea alone in 2013. Cancer screening is an important method of prevention; however, only 63.4% of Koreans sought cancer screening in 2012 even though it was widely offered at no cost. We focused on part time workers because they often experience job instability and relative discrimination. Therefore, we investigated the correlation between job status and cancer screening. Materials and Methods Dat...

  10. Screening for thyroid cancer in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the screening of the thyroid diseases in the radiation exposed cohort, it is essential to make correct diagnosis and to measure radiation dose in every subjects in the cohort and to analyze the dose response relationship by the most appropriate statistical method. Thus, thyroid cancer, thyroid adenoma and autoimmune hypothyroidism were confirmed to be radiation-induced thyroid diseases among atomic bomb survivors. A group of investigators from Nagasaki university have been working in the thyroid part of Chernobyl Sasakawa Health and Medical Cooperation Project, and more than 80000 children were screened in 5 diagnostic centers (Mogilev, Gomel, Kiev, Korosten and Klincy). In order to make correct diagnosis, thyroid echo-tomography, measurements of serum levels of free thyroxine, TSH, titers of anti-thyroid antibodies were performed in every children in the cohort and aspiration biopsy was performed when necessary. Whole body Cs137 radioactivity was also determined in every subjects. Children with thyroid cancer confirmed by histology (biopsy or operation) were 2 in Mogilev, 19 in Gomel, 6 in Kiev, 5 in Korosten and 4 in Klincy (until 1994). Since children screened in each center were less than 20000, prevalence of thyroid cancer was remarkably high (lowest 100 and highest 1000/million children) when compared to the other parts of the world (0.2 to 5/million/year). However, there was no dose response relationship between the prevalence of cancer or nodule and whole body Cs137 radioactivity. Although a significant correlation between thyroid cancer and reconstructed thyroid I131 dose was presented, there are no previous reports to prove that I131 produces thyroid cancer in human. Investigation on external radiation and short lived isotopes along with I131 may be important to elucidate the cause of thyroid cancer

  11. Antineoplastic Effects of 5-Aminosalicylates and Potential Cancer Preventive Role in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Early studies from tertiary referral centers in the United States and Europe showed that patients with long-standing and extensive inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have an increased risk of colon cancer. It was subsequently appreciated that the degree of risk depended on the population being studied and on both genetic and environmental factors (eg diet, drugs and prior surgical treatment). Indeed, over the past decade or so, the effects of chronically administered medications, including 5-am...

  12. Inflammatory Bowel Disease Treatment and Non-melanoma Skin Cancer: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    De Luca, Jacqueline F; Lee, Yun Sun; Johnson, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    Immunosuppressant medications for Inflammatory Bowel Disease can help with both symptoms and disease progression. However, like immunosuppressants used in transplant patients, they are now suspect of contributing to nonmelenoma skin cancer (NMSC). Presented is a case of a 57-year-old Jewish man with Crohn's Disease who was diagnosed with a total of 84 NMSCs. We hope to elucidate the risk of immunosuppressants, particularly the thiopurines, on the development of NMSC.

  13. Vitamin D and gastrointestinal diseases: inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Raman, Maitreyi; Milestone, Andrew N.; Walters, Julian R.F.; Hart, Ailsa L.; Ghosh, Subrata

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 5 years, there has been a rapid resurgence of interest in vitamin D outside of its traditional role in metabolic bone disease. Some nontraditional roles ascribed to vitamin D include anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating effects. These effects have led to possible implications in the pathophysiology of immune-mediated diseases including multiple sclerosis and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In addition, vitamin D insufficiency has been linked to higher rates of cancers inclu...

  14. Bowel symptom experiences and management following sphincter saving surgery for rectal cancer: A qualitative perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Landers, Margaret; McCarthy, Geraldine; Savage, Eileen

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to explore participants’ qualitative perspectives on bowel symptom experiences and management strategies following sphincter saving surgery for rectal cancer. Methods and sample The data presented in this paper were gleaned from a semi-structured question that formed part of a larger multi-site quantitative correlational study. From a sample of 143 participants, a total of 77 (62.6%) males and 46 (37.3%) females provided qualitative comments. Participants were age...

  15. The effect of obesity levels on irradiated small bowel volume in belly board with small bowel displacement device for rectal cancer radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Se Young; Kim, Joo Ho; Park, Hyo Kuk; Cho, Jeong Hee [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei Cancer Center, Yonsei University Health System, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    For radiotherapy in rectal cancer patients treated with small bowel displacement device (SBDD) and belly board, We will suggest new indication of using SBDD depending on obesity index by analyzing correlation between obesity and irradiated small bowel volume. In this study, We reviewed 29 rectal cancer patients who received pelvic radiation therapy with belly board and SBDD from January to April in 2012. We only analyzed those patients treated with three-field technique (PA and both LAT) on 45 Gy (1.8 Gy/fx). We measured patients' height, weight, body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR) and divided BMI into two groups.(≥23:BMI=group 1, <23:BMI=group 2) We performed a statistical analysis to evaluate correlation between total volume of bladder (TV{sub bldder}), obesity index and high dose volume of small bowel (small bowel volume irradiated at 90% of prescribed dose, HDV{sub sb}), low dose volume of small bowel (small bowel volume irradiated at 33% of prescribed dose, LDV{sub sb}). The result shows, gender, WHR and status of pre operative or post operative do not greatly affect HDV{sub sb} and LDV{sub sb}. Statistical result shows, there are significant correlation between HDV{sub sb} and BMI (p<0.04), HDV{sub sb} and TV{sub bladder} (p<0.01), LDV{sub sb} and TV{sub bladder} (p<0.01). BMI seems to correlate with HDV{sub sb} but does not with LDV{sub sb} (p>0.05). There are negative correlation between HDV{sub sb} and BMI, TV{sub bladder} and HDV{sub sb}, TV{sub bladder} and LDV{sub sb} . Especially, BMI group1 has more effective and negative correlation with HDV{sub sb} (p=0.027) than in BMI group 2. In the case of BMI group 1, TV{sub bladder} has significant negative correlation with HDV{sub sb} and LDV{sub sb} (p<0.04). In conclusions, we confirmed that Using SBDD with belly board in BMI group 1 could more effectively reduce irradiated small bowel volume in radiation therapy for rectal cancer. Therefore, We suggest using belly board with SBDD in order

  16. The effect of obesity levels on irradiated small bowel volume in belly board with small bowel displacement device for rectal cancer radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For radiotherapy in rectal cancer patients treated with small bowel displacement device (SBDD) and belly board, We will suggest new indication of using SBDD depending on obesity index by analyzing correlation between obesity and irradiated small bowel volume. In this study, We reviewed 29 rectal cancer patients who received pelvic radiation therapy with belly board and SBDD from January to April in 2012. We only analyzed those patients treated with three-field technique (PA and both LAT) on 45 Gy (1.8 Gy/fx). We measured patients' height, weight, body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR) and divided BMI into two groups.(≥23:BMI=group 1, <23:BMI=group 2) We performed a statistical analysis to evaluate correlation between total volume of bladder (TVbldder), obesity index and high dose volume of small bowel (small bowel volume irradiated at 90% of prescribed dose, HDVsb), low dose volume of small bowel (small bowel volume irradiated at 33% of prescribed dose, LDVsb). The result shows, gender, WHR and status of pre operative or post operative do not greatly affect HDVsb and LDVsb. Statistical result shows, there are significant correlation between HDVsb and BMI (p<0.04), HDVsb and TVbladder (p<0.01), LDVsb and TVbladder (p<0.01). BMI seems to correlate with HDVsb but does not with LDVsb (p>0.05). There are negative correlation between HDVsb and BMI, TVbladder and HDVsb, TVbladder and LDVsb . Especially, BMI group1 has more effective and negative correlation with HDVsb (p=0.027) than in BMI group 2. In the case of BMI group 1, TVbladder has significant negative correlation with HDVsb and LDVsb (p<0.04). In conclusions, we confirmed that Using SBDD with belly board in BMI group 1 could more effectively reduce irradiated small bowel volume in radiation therapy for rectal cancer. Therefore, We suggest using belly board with SBDD in order to reduce the small bowel toxicity in rectal radiotherapy, if patients' BMI is above 23

  17. Improving colorectal cancer screening: fact and fantasy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dam, Jacques

    2008-02-01

    Premalignant diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, such as Barrett's esophagus, long-standing ulcerative colitis, and adenomatous polyps, have a significantly increased risk for development of adenocarcinoma, most often through an intermediate stage of dysplasia. Adenocarcinoma of the colon is the second most common cancer in the United States. Because patients with colorectal cancer often present with advanced disease, the outcomes are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Effective methods of early detection are essential. As non-polypoid dysplasia is not visible using conventional endoscopy, surveillance of patients with Barrett's esophagus and ulcerative colitis is performed via a system in which multiple random biopsies are obtained at prescribed intervals. Sampling error and missed diagnoses occur frequently and render current screening methods inadequate. Also, the examination of a tissue biopsy is time consuming and costly, and significant intra- and inter-observer variation may occur. The newer methods discussed herein demonstrate the potential to solve these problems by early detection of disease with high sensitivity and specificity. Conventional endoscopy is based on the observation of white light reflected off the tissue surface. Subtle changes in color and shadow reveal structural changes. New developments in optical imaging go beyond white light, exploiting other properties of light. Several promising methods will be discussed at this meeting and shall be briefly discussed below. However, few such imaging modalities have arrived at our clinical practice. Some much more practical methods to improve colorectal cancer screening are currently being evaluated for their clinical impact. These methods seek to overcome limitations other than those of detecting dysplasia not visible under white light endoscopy. The current standard practice of colorectal cancer screening utilizes colonoscopy, an uncomfortable, sometimes difficult medical

  18. Early diagnosis and screening for colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The barium enema has been a neglected tool in the diagnosis of early colon cancer. With appropriate attention to technical detail, the double contrast enema is capable of detecting the smallest malignant and pre-malignant lesions. Many of these early colon cancers are found in asymptomatic patients and these lesions are curable. The goal of a screening program should be to identify by history or by fecal occult blood testing patients at high risk for the development of colon cancer. These patients should be examined by high-quality double contrast enema in the search for these potentially lethal but curable lesions. In addition, we believe that any patient undergoing radiologic examination of the colon for whatever reason, should receive an examination of adequate quality to rule out an early colon cancer. (Author)

  19. Round one of the Adelaide and Meath Hospital/Trinity College Colorectal Cancer Screening Programme: programme report and analysis based on established international key performance indices.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNamara, D

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: In Ireland, colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most frequently diagnosed cancer in men, after prostate cancer, and the second most frequently diagnosed cancer in women, after breast cancer. By 2020, the number of new cases diagnosed annually in Ireland is projected to have increased by 79% in men and 56% in women. Organised screening for CRC is already underway or is in the process of being rolled out in several European countries, either at a regional or national level. The Adelaide and Meath Hospital\\/ Trinity College Dublin Colorectal Cancer Screening Programme (TTC-CRC-SP) is Ireland\\'s first pilot population based bowel screening programme. METHOD: Based on a biennial test model the pilot aimed to assess the accuracy of FIT and to evaluate the whole programme based on established international key performance indices. RESULTS: To date 9,993 individuals aged 50-74 years have been invited to participate in the TTC-CRC-SP with over 5,000 FIT\\'s analysed. Overall uptake was 51% and FIT positivity was 10%. The programme has undertaken over 400 screening colonoscopies and detected 154 precancerous adenomas and 38 cancerous lesions. CONCLUSIONS: The first round of The Adelaide and Meath Hospital Tallaght\\/Trinity College Dublin Colorectal Cancer Screening Programme has been highly successful and confirmed that there is an advantage for FIT based two stage bowel cancer screening programmes.

  20. Meat consumption and cancer of the large bowel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truswell, A S

    2002-03-01

    Since the major reviews on diet and cancer by the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) and by the British Department of Health's Committee on Medical Aspects of Food Policy (COMA) in 1997 and 1998, additional epidemiological studies relating (red) meat consumption and colorectal cancer have been published or found by search. These are collected here. Thirty adequate case-control studies have been published up to 1999 (from 16 different countries). Twenty of them found no significant association of (red) meat with colorectal cancer. Of the remaining 10 studies reporting an association, some obtained statistical significance only in rectal or colon cancers, another only in men, not women, or found a stronger association with pasta and rice, or used an inadequate food list in the food frequency questionnaire. Fifteen cohort studies have now been published. Only in three were significant associations of (red) meat found with colorectal cancer. Two of these positive studies were from the same group in the USA (relative risk 1.7). The results of the third positive study appear to conflict with data from part of the vegetarians follow up mortality study. Here, five groups of vegetarians (in three different countries) with socially matched controls were followed up (total 76 000 people). Mortality from colorectal cancer was not distinguishable between vegetarians and controls. While it is still possible that certain processed meats or sausages (with a variety of added ingredients) or meats cooked at very high temperature carry some risk, the relationship between meats in general and colorectal cancer now looks weaker than the 'probable' status it was judged to have by the WCRF in 1997. PMID:11965518

  1. Toward Restored Bowel Health in Rectal Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steineck, Gunnar; Schmidt, Heike; Alevronta, Eleftheria; Sjöberg, Fei; Bull, Cecilia Magdalena; Vordermark, Dirk

    2016-07-01

    As technology gets better and better, and as clinical research provides more and more knowledge, we can extend our ambition to cure patients from cancer with restored physical health among the survivors. This increased ambition requires attention to grade 1 toxicity that decreases quality of life. It forces us to document the details of grade 1 toxicity and improve our understanding of the mechanisms. Long-term toxicity scores, or adverse events as documented during clinical trials, may be regarded as symptoms or signs of underlying survivorship diseases. However, we lack a survivorship nosology for rectal cancer survivors. Primarily focusing on radiation-induced side effects, we highlight some important observations concerning late toxicity among rectal cancer survivors. With that and other data, we searched for a preliminary survivorship-disease nosology for rectal cancer survivors. We disentangled the following survivorship diseases among rectal cancer survivors: low anterior resection syndrome, radiation-induced anal sphincter dysfunction, gut wall inflammation and fibrosis, blood discharge, excessive gas discharge, excessive mucus discharge, constipation, bacterial overgrowth, and aberrant anatomical structures. The suggested survivorship nosology may form the basis for new instruments capturing long-term symptoms (patient-reported outcomes) and professional-reported signs. For some of the diseases, we can search for animal models. As an end result, the suggested survivorship nosology may accelerate our understanding on how to prevent, ameliorate, or eliminate manifestations of treatment-induced diseases among rectal cancer survivors. PMID:27238476

  2. Breast cancer screening: the underuse of mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The early detection of breast cancer is promoted by the American Cancer Society (ACS) and the American College of Radiology (ACR) by encouraging the regular use of three types of screening: breast self-examination (BSE), the clinical breast examination, and mammography. In August 1983, the ACS publicized seven recommendations pertaining to screening, including a revised statement about the routine use of mammography for women between the ages of 40 and 49 years. In response to the ACS statement, the present study assessed compliance with the updated recommendations for all three types of screening. The results show reasonable rates of compliance for the BSE (53%-69%) and clinical examination (70%-78%). In contrast, only 19% of the women between the ages of 35 and 49 and 25% of the women older than 50 reported complying with the recommendation to undergo one baseline screening mammogram. Some implications for health education by physicians and the professional education of physicians in the use of mammography are discussed

  3. Fecal Molecular Markers for Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani Kanthan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite multiple screening techniques, including colonoscopy, flexible sigmoidoscopy, radiological imaging, and fecal occult blood testing, colorectal cancer remains a leading cause of death. As these techniques improve, their sensitivity to detect malignant lesions is increasing; however, detection of precursor lesions remains problematic and has generated a lack of general acceptance for their widespread usage. Early detection by an accurate, noninvasive, cost-effective, simple-to-use screening technique is central to decreasing the incidence and mortality of this disease. Recent advances in the development of molecular markers in faecal specimens are encouraging for its use as a screening tool. Genetic mutations and epigenetic alterations that result from the carcinogenetic process can be detected by coprocytobiology in the colonocytes exfoliated from the lesion into the fecal matter. These markers have shown promising sensitivity and specificity in the detection of both malignant and premalignant lesions and are gaining popularity as a noninvasive technique that is representative of the entire colon. In this paper, we summarize the genetic and epigenetic fecal molecular markers that have been identified as potential targets in the screening of colorectal cancer.

  4. Screening of coeliac disease in undetected adults and patients diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ajlan, Abdulrahman S

    2016-07-01

    The present study is to determine the prevalence and implication of coeliac disease (CD) among adult Saudis and compared to those with diagnosed irritable bowel syndrome. This prospective study was conducted among 980 adults. Out of that, 482 subjects (staff and students of Riyadh Health Science College) were designated as control cohorts for undetected coeliac disease. Furthermore, another contingent of 498 subjects diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) at Prince Salman Hospital and Al-Iman General Hospital also constituted a segment of the overall initial 1020 subjects. Both cases and control were tested for serological markers of coeliac disease (tissues transglutaminase (tTGAs) and endomysial autoantibody (EMAs) and were confirmed by histopathology test. All the positive for cases of coeliac disease were screened for iron deficiency anaemia, Vitamin D deficiency, and osteoporosis and weight assessment. The percentage of coeliac disease in control subjects and patients diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) were found to be 1.9% and 9.6% respectively, about 38% of the total coeliac disease patients are among females of middle age (20-39-years) and 16% of the males in the same age range. Whereas, 20% and 25% of all coeliac disease cases with ages of 40-59 were remarked as females and males respectively. The identical nature and overlap of symptoms of the two conditions could possibly result in misdiagnosis of coeliac diseases or over-diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome. The findings of the study might also give considerable implications of the disease in the nutritional level which is noticeable. PMID:27298578

  5. Using lessons from breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening to inform the development of lung cancer screening programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Katrina; Kim, Jane J; Halm, Ethan A; Ballard, Rachel M; Schnall, Mitchell D

    2016-05-01

    Multiple advisory groups now recommend that high-risk smokers be screened for lung cancer by low-dose computed tomography. Given that the development of lung cancer screening programs will face many of the same issues that have challenged other cancer screening programs, the National Cancer Institute-funded Population-based Research Optimizing Screening through Personalized Regimens (PROSPR) consortium was used to identify lessons learned from the implementation of breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening that should inform the introduction of lung cancer screening. These lessons include the importance of developing systems for identifying and recruiting eligible individuals in primary care, ensuring that screening centers are qualified and performance is monitored, creating clear communication standards for reporting screening results to referring physicians and patients, ensuring follow-up is available for individuals with abnormal test results, avoiding overscreening, remembering primary prevention, and leveraging advances in cancer genetics and immunology. Overall, this experience emphasizes that effective cancer screening is a multistep activity that requires robust strategies to initiate, report, follow up, and track each step as well as a dynamic and ongoing oversight process to revise current screening practices as new evidence regarding screening is created, new screening technologies are developed, new biological markers are identified, and new approaches to health care delivery are disseminated. Cancer 2016;122:1338-1342. © 2016 American Cancer Society. PMID:26929386

  6. Anal cancer and intraepithelial neoplasia screening: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Leeds, Ira L.; Fang, Sandy H

    2016-01-01

    This review focuses on the early diagnosis of anal cancer and its precursor lesions through routine screening. A number of risk-stratification strategies as well as screening techniques have been suggested, and currently little consensus exists among national societies. Much of the current clinical rationale for the prevention of anal cancer derives from the similar tumor biology of cervical cancer and the successful use of routine screening to identify cervical cancer and its precursors earl...

  7. Malignant bowel obstruction in advanced cancer patients: epidemiology, management, and factors influencing spontaneous resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuca A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Albert Tuca1, Ernest Guell2, Emilio Martinez-Losada3, Nuria Codorniu41Cancer and Hematological Diseases Institute, Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; 2Palliative Care Unit, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain; 3Palliative Care Unit, Institut Català Oncologia Badalona, Barcelona, Spain; 4Medical Oncology Department, Institut Català Oncologia L'Hospitalet, Barcelona, SpainAbstract: Malignant bowel obstruction (MBO is a frequent complication in advanced cancer patients, especially in those with abdominal tumors. Clinical management of MBO requires a specific and individualized approach that is based on disease prognosis and the objectives of care. The global prevalence of MBO is estimated to be 3% to 15% of cancer patients. Surgery should always be considered for patients in the initial stages of the disease with a preserved general status and a single level of occlusion. Less invasive approaches such as duodenal or colonic stenting should be considered when surgery is contraindicated in obstructions at the single level. The priority of care for inoperable and consolidated MBO is to control symptoms and promote the maximum level of comfort possible. The spontaneous resolution of an inoperable obstructive process is observed in more than one third of patients. The mean survival is of no longer than 4–5 weeks in patients with consolidated MBO. Polymodal medical treatment based on a combination of glucocorticoids, strong opioids, antiemetics, and antisecretory drugs achieves very high symptomatic control. This review focuses on the epidemiological aspects, diagnosis, surgical criteria, medical management, and factors influencing the spontaneous resolution of MBO in advanced cancer patients.Keywords: malignant bowel obstruction, cancer, intestinal obstruction, bowel occlusion

  8. Large bowel obstruction resulting from bladder transitional cell carcinoma metastasis: a common cancer presenting in an uncommon manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohloff, Matthew; VandenBerg, Todd; MacMath, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) and large bowel obstructions are both common disease processes typically considered unrelated. Presented below is the case of a 49-year-old male with a large bowel obstruction caused by a bladder TCC metastasis. One year prior to large bowel obstruction presentation, the patient had a T2, Grade III TCC of the bladder with no nodal involvement or metastasis, which was removed via radical cystoprostatectomy. This case serves as a reminder that cancer, despite common pathogenesis patterns, can present in atypical ways. PMID:26197806

  9. Correlates of Cervical Cancer Screening among Vietnamese American Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace X. Ma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Vietnamese American women are at the greatest risk for cervical cancer but have the lowest cervical cancer screening rates. This study was to determine whether demographic and acculturation, healthcare access, and knowledge and beliefs are associated with a prior history of cervical cancer screening among Vietnamese women. Methods. Vietnamese women (n=1450 from 30 Vietnamese community-based organizations located in Pennsylvania and New Jersey participated in the study and completed baseline assessments. Logistic regression analyses were performed. Results. Overall levels of knowledge about cervical cancer screening and human papillomavirus (HPV are low. Factors in knowledge, attitude, and beliefs domains were significantly associated with Pap test behavior. In multivariate analyses, physician recommendation for screening and having health insurance were positively associated with prior screening. Conclusion. Understanding the factors that are associated with cervical cancer screening will inform the development of culturally appropriate intervention strategies that would potentially lead to increasing cervical cancer screening rates among Vietnamese women.

  10. Obesity and Cancer Screening according to Race and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Bittner Fagan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between obesity and cancer screening varies by screening test, race, and gender. Most studies on cervical cancer screening found a negative association between increasing weight and screening, and this negative association was most consistent in white women. Recent literature on mammography reports no association with weight. However, some studies show a negative association in white, but not black, women. In contrast, obese/overweight men reported higher rates of prostate-specific antigen (PSA testing. Comparison of prostate cancer screening, mammography, and Pap smears implies a gender difference in the relationship between screening behavior and weight. In colorectal cancer (CRC screening, the relationship between weight and screening in men is inconsistent, while there is a trend towards lower CRC screening in higher weight women.

  11. Overdiagnosis in mammographic screening for breast cancer in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puliti, Donella; Duffy, Stephen W; Miccinesi, Guido;

    2012-01-01

    Overdiagnosis, the detection through screening of a breast cancer that would never have been identified in the lifetime of the woman, is an adverse outcome of screening. We aimed to determine an estimate range for overdiagnosis of breast cancer in European mammographic service screening programmes....

  12. Prostate cancer screening with PSA: new data, old debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Sciallero

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Two prostate cancer screening randomised controlled trials from Europe (European Randomised Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer—ERSPC and U.S. (Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Program— PLCO have been published earlier this year...

  13. Randomization to screening for prostate, lung, colorectal and ovarian cancers and thyroid cancer incidence in two large cancer screening trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J O'Grady

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer incidence has increased significantly over the past three decades due, in part, to incidental detection. We examined the association between randomization to screening for lung, prostate, colorectal and/or ovarian cancers and thyroid cancer incidence in two large prospective randomized screening trials.We assessed the association between randomization to low-dose helical CT scan versus chest x-ray for lung cancer screening and risk of thyroid cancer in the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST. In the Prostate Lung Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO, we assessed the association between randomization to regular screening for said cancers versus usual medical care and thyroid cancer risk. Over a median 6 and 11 years of follow-up in NLST and PLCO, respectively, we identified 60 incident and 234 incident thyroid cancer cases. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate the cause specific hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals (CI for thyroid cancer.In NLST, randomization to lung CT scan was associated with a non-significant increase in thyroid cancer risk (HR = 1.61; 95% CI: 0.96-2.71. This association was stronger during the first 3 years of follow-up, during which participants were actively screened (HR = 2.19; 95% CI: 1.07-4.47, but not subsequently (HR = 1.08; 95% CI: 0.49-2.37. In PLCO, randomization to cancer screening compared with usual care was associated with a significant decrease in thyroid cancer risk for men (HR = 0.61; 95% CI: 0.49-0.95 but not women (HR = 0.91; 95% CI: 0.66-1.26. Similar results were observed when restricting to papillary thyroid cancer in both NLST and PLCO.Our study suggests that certain medical encounters, such as those using low-dose helical CT scan for lung cancer screening, may increase the detection of incidental thyroid cancer.

  14. Randomization to Screening for Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancers and Thyroid Cancer Incidence in Two Large Cancer Screening Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, Thomas J.; Kitahara, Cari M.; DiRienzo, A. Gregory; Boscoe, Francis P.; Gates, Margaret A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Thyroid cancer incidence has increased significantly over the past three decades due, in part, to incidental detection. We examined the association between randomization to screening for lung, prostate, colorectal and/or ovarian cancers and thyroid cancer incidence in two large prospective randomized screening trials. Methods We assessed the association between randomization to low-dose helical CT scan versus chest x-ray for lung cancer screening and risk of thyroid cancer in the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST). In the Prostate Lung Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO), we assessed the association between randomization to regular screening for said cancers versus usual medical care and thyroid cancer risk. Over a median 6 and 11 years of follow-up in NLST and PLCO, respectively, we identified 60 incident and 234 incident thyroid cancer cases. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate the cause specific hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for thyroid cancer. Results In NLST, randomization to lung CT scan was associated with a non-significant increase in thyroid cancer risk (HR  = 1.61; 95% CI: 0.96–2.71). This association was stronger during the first 3 years of follow-up, during which participants were actively screened (HR  = 2.19; 95% CI: 1.07–4.47), but not subsequently (HR  = 1.08; 95% CI: 0.49–2.37). In PLCO, randomization to cancer screening compared with usual care was associated with a significant decrease in thyroid cancer risk for men (HR  = 0.61; 95% CI: 0.49–0.95) but not women (HR  = 0.91; 95% CI: 0.66–1.26). Similar results were observed when restricting to papillary thyroid cancer in both NLST and PLCO. Conclusion Our study suggests that certain medical encounters, such as those using low-dose helical CT scan for lung cancer screening, may increase the detection of incidental thyroid cancer. PMID:25192282

  15. Sociodemographic gradients in breast and cervical cancer screening in Korea: the Korean National Cancer Screening Survey (KNCSS 2005-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Jae

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer screening rates in Korea for five cancer types have increased steadily since 2002. With regard to the life-time cancer screening rates in 2009 according to cancer sites, the second highest was breast cancer (78.1% and the third highest was cervical cancer (76.1%. Despite overall increases in the screening rate, disparities in breast and cervical cancer screening, based on sociodemographic characteristics, still exist. Methods Data from 4,139 women aged 40 to74 years from the 2005 to 2009 Korea National Cancer Screening Survey were used to analyze the relationship between sociodemographic characteristics and receiving mammograms and Pap smears. The main outcome measures were ever having had a mammogram and ever having had a Pap smear. Using these items of information, we classified women into those who had had both types of screening, only one screening type, and neither screening type. We used logistic regression to investigate relationships between screening history and sociodemographic characteristics of the women. Results Being married, having a higher education, a rural residence, and private health insurance were significantly associated with higher rates of breast and cervical cancer screening after adjusting for age and sociodemographic factors. Household income was not significantly associated with mammograms or Pap smears after adjusting for age and sociodemographic factors. Conclusions Disparities in breast and cervical cancer screening associated with low sociodemographic status persist in Korea.

  16. Faecal calprotectin for screening of patients with suspected inflammatory bowel disease : diagnostic meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rheenen, Patrick F; Van de Vijver, Els; Fidler, Vaclav

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether including a test for faecal calprotectin, a sensitive marker of intestinal inflammation, in the investigation of suspected inflammatory bowel disease reduces the number of unnecessary endoscopic procedures. Design Meta-analysis of diagnostic accuracy studies. Data sourc

  17. Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer: not just a barium enema! Radiographic manifestations and screening tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is an autosomal dominant trait characterized by presentation of colorectal cancer (CRC) at an early age and by an increased risk of other primary malignancies, including those of the endometrium. ovaries, stomach, small bowel, upper biliary tract, skin, and brain, as well as by transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) that especially involves the renal pelvis and ureter. Because specific genetic mutations causing HNPCC have been recently discovered, genetic screening options have been developed for some families. Subsequently, radiology has an increasing role in surveillance for and management of these HNPCC-associated tumours. Although colonoscopy is the mainstay of a screening regimen for colon cancer, the barium enema has been a standard radiologic investigation. Further, computed tomography (CT) colonography (now practised in various centres) will, with further refinement, prove to be of increasing value. Ultrasonography is a standard investigation for endometrial and ovarian cancer, with CT and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging often playing a central role. As for TCC, intravenous urography (IVU) had been a standard investigation tool. However, with continued evolution of multidetector row CT with postprocessing manipulation (CT urography [CTU]), the role of IVU is diminishing in most centres. Newfoundland has a high prevalence of HNPCC exhibiting a broad range of manifestations. In this article, radiologic images of various tumours from individuals with HNPCC demonstrate a radiologic spectrum of this fascinating hereditary disease. Screening implications and specific screening methods are reviewed. (author)

  18. Bowel, Urinary, and Sexual Problems Among Long-Term Prostate Cancer Survivors: A Population-Based Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To obtain insight into the long-term (5- to 10-year) effects of prostate cancer and treatment on bowel, urinary, and sexual function, we performed a population-based study. Prostate-specific function was compared with an age-matched normative population without prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Through the population-based Eindhoven Cancer Registry, we selected all men diagnosed with prostate cancer between 1994 and 1998 in the southern Netherlands. In total, 964 patients, alive in November 2004, received questionnaire; 780 (81%) responded. Results: Urinary problems were most common after a prostatectomy; bowel problems were most common after radiotherapy. Compared with an age-matched normative population both urinary and bowel functioning and bother were significantly worse among survivors. Urinary incontinence was reported by 23-48% of survivors compared with 4% of the normative population. Bowel leakage occurred in 5-14% of patients compared with 2% of norms. Erection problems occurred in 40-74% of patients compared with 18% of norms. Conclusions: These results form an important contribution to the limited information available on prostate-specific problems in the growing group of long-term prostate cancer survivors. Bowel, urinary, and sexual problems occur more often among long-term survivors compared with a reference group and cannot be explained merely by age. Because these problems persist for many years, urologists should provide patients with adequate information before treatment. After treatment, there should be an appropriate focus on these problems

  19. Breast cancer mortality in mammographic screening in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njor, Sisse Helle; Nyström, Lennarth; Moss, Sue;

    2012-01-01

    To estimate the impact of service mammography screening on breast cancer mortality using European incidence-based mortality (IBM) studies (or refined mortality studies). IBM studies include only breast cancer deaths occurring in women with breast cancer diagnosed after their first invitation to...... screening....

  20. Promoting Quality of Cervical Cancer Screening and Treatment in India

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnan, S.; Madsen, E.; Porterfield, D.; Varghese, B.

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer screening is highly cost effective, feasible, and culturally acceptable in higher and lower income settings across the world. According to the World Health Organization and the World Economic Forum, screening for cervical cancer is an evidence-based best buy prevention intervention (1). However, to be effective in reducing cervical cancer incidence and mortality, screenin...

  1. To screen or not to screen: ongoing debate in the early detection of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marroquin, Joanna Marie

    2011-02-01

    Debate about the use of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests to screen prostate cancer in men is ongoing. Prostate cancer is the most common cancer after skin cancer in men and the second most deadly after lung cancer. An elevated PSA level can lead to this cancer's diagnosis and treatment even before the onset of symptoms. However, other causes also can create a high PSA level, which may lead to men being unnecessarily treated for prostate cancer. This article will shed some light on the issue and discuss prostate cancer screening. PMID:21278045

  2. Radiation doses to screened women in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program in 2005 and 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiographers report exposure data for approximately 50 women annually to the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority. Based on reported data from all laboratories involved in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program average glandular dose (AGD) to the screened. (author)

  3. [Cervical cancer screening: past--present--future].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitenecker, G

    2009-12-01

    Despite the undisputed and impressive success which has been achieved since the 1960s by cervical cytology in the fight against cervical cancer and its precursor stages, during which the mortality rate in industrialized countries over the last 40 years has been reduced by two-thirds to three-quarters, a perfect and error-free screening procedure is still a long way off and will probably never be reached. There are two main reasons for this, the lack of adequate coverage and suboptimal quality and assessment of smears. Two screening procedures are in use Europe, an opportunistic and an organized system. Both systems have many advantages but also disadvantages. In organized programs the coverage is higher (up to 80%), although similar numbers are also achieved by non-organized programs over a 3-year cycle, even if they cannot be so exactly documented. The decision on which system is used depends on the health system of the country, public or non-public, and many other national circumstances. However, in both systems prerequisites for a satisfactory result is a high quality in the sampling technique, the processing and the assessment. Therefore, several guidelines have been introduced by state and medical societies for internal and external quality assurance. New technologies, such as thin-layer cytology or automation for replacement or support of conventional cytology liquid-based cytology proved not to be superior enough to justify the high costs of these systems. The recognition of the strong causal relationship between persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types and cervical cancer and its precursors has resulted in the development of comparably simple tests. Primary screening using HPV typing alone is not recommended in opportunistic screening due to the low specificity but high sensitivity because it leads to many clinically irrelevant results which place women under stress. In organized screening HPV testing is always and only possible

  4. Most Breast Cancer Screening Trials Have a Flawed Design

    OpenAIRE

    Gurnani, Nishant; Srivastava, Anurag

    2011-01-01

    In the present article, we discuss that why most breast cancer screening trials have a flawed origin. We suggest some solutions to correct these flaws so that more valid and reliable screening trials can be conducted in the future.

  5. Data on Medicare eligibility and cancer screening utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian P. Meyer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Health insurance is associated with increased utilization of cancer screening services. Data on breast, prostate and colorectal cancer screening were abstracted from the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor and Surveillance System. This data in brief includes two sets of analyses: (i the use of cancer screening in individuals within the low-income bracket and (ii determinants for each of the three approaches to colorectal cancer screening (fecal occult blood test, colonoscopy and sigmoidoscopy+fecal occult blood test. Covariates included education attainment, residency, and access to health care provider. The data supplement our original research article on the effect of Medicare eligibility on cancer screening utilization “The impact of Medicare eligibility on cancer screening behaviors” [1].

  6. Access to cancer screening for women with mobility disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus, Jan; Seto, Lisa; Barry, Nancy; Cechetto, Naomi; Chandani, Samira; Devaney, Julie; Fernando, Sharmini; Muraca, Linda; Odette, Fran

    2012-03-01

    Women with mobility disabilities are less likely to access cancer screening, even when they have a primary care provider. The Gateways to Cancer Screening project was initiated to document the challenges for women with disabilities in their access and experiences of screening for breast, cervical and colorectal cancer. The study followed the tenets of participatory action research. Five peer-led focus groups were held with 24 women with mobility disabilities. Study participants identified multiple and interacting institutional barriers to cancer screening. Their discussions highlighted the complex work of (1) arranging and attending health-related appointments, (2) confronting normative assumptions about women's bodies and (3) securing reliable health care and information. These overlapping, mutually reinforcing issues interact to shape how women with disabilities access and experience cancer screening. We explore implications for redesign of cancer screening services and education of health providers, providing specific recommendations suggested by our participants and the findings. PMID:21927868

  7. Recurrent or residual pelvic bowel cancer: Accuracy of MRI local extent before salvage surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Philip; Carrington, Bernadette M.; Swindell, Ric; Shanks, Johnathan H.; O' Dwyer, Sarah T

    2002-06-01

    PURPOSE: To determine pre-operative MRI accuracy in assessing local disease extent in recurrent/residual pelvic bowel cancer by comparing MRI assessment and staging examination under anaesthesia (EUA), with laparotomy/histopathological findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-seven consecutive patients with recurrent (n = 21) or residual (n = 6) pelvic bowel cancer (13 of the rectum, eleven of the anus and three of the colon) underwent EUA and pelvic MRI (1T) using a phased array pelvic coil. Retrospective analysis of eight specific anatomical regions for tumour involvement on MRI was performed. Findings at EUA and biopsy were recorded. The MRI and EUA findings were correlated with findings at surgery and histopathology. Statistical comparison between MRI and EUA results was performed using the chi-squared test . RESULTS: Overall MRI accuracy in determining tumour invasion for all sites assessed was 452/499 (91%), sensitivity was 95/109 (87%), specificity was 357/390 (92%), positive predictive value (PPV) was 95/128 (74%) and negative predictive value (NPV) was 357/371 (96%). PPV and NPV for specific areas were 21/38 (55%) and 134/136 (99%) for genitourinary tract, 4/6 (67%) and 61/65 (94%) for pelvic side wall, 21/26 (81%) and 40/41 (98%) for pelvic floor, 1/6 (17%) and 40/43 (93%) for the posterior pelvis pre-sacrum/sacrum. For those anatomical sites evaluated by both EUA and MRI, MRI was superior to EUA, with an accuracy of 89% vs 73%(P < 0.05) . CONCLUSION: MRI is an accurate technique for assessing disease extent in recurrent/residual pelvic bowel cancer. Robinson, P. et al. (2002)

  8. Two cases of bowel perforation in patients with metastatic renal cancer treated with molecular target drug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An 82-year-old man started immunotherapy with interferon because of lung metastasis 5 years after he had undergone radical nephrectomy. Three years later, he developed multiple metastases, and was started on sorafenib (400 mg/day) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) orally. As his cancer-related pain worsened with time, he was administered 30 Gy radiation therapy for bone metastasis of L4. He was then admitted to our hospital for pain control because of ineffective radiation therapy. One day, he suddenly had abdominal pain and vomiting, and was diagnosed as bowel perforation based on computed tomography. He was managed conservatively by nasogastric suction and antibiotic course. A 62-year-old man diagnosed as metastatic renal cell cancer began immunotherapy soon after undergoing radical nephrectomy in Dec., 2006. Although he was started on oral sorafenib (800 mg/day) in July, 2008, metastatic foci enlarged after 18 months. He was then changed to sunitinib (50 mg/day). Sunitinib had immediate and long-lasting effect on the cancer for about 10 months, but he was then admitted to our hospital for pleural effusion. While under treatment for thoracic cavity drainage, he experienced upper abdominal pain and was diagnosis as bowel perforation based on computed tomography. He underwent emergency laparotomy. Molecular target drugs such as sorafenib and sunitinib have serious adverse effects. Bowel perforation is rare, but among those adverse effects. It should be remembered that caution is required for long-term use or combined radiation therapy and NSAIDs with molecular target drug. (author)

  9. European randomized lung cancer screening trials: Post NLST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Field, JK; Klaveren, R; Pedersen, JH;

    2013-01-01

    Overview of the European randomized lung cancer CT screening trials (EUCT) is presented with regard to the implementation of CT screening in Europe; post NLST. All seven principal investigators completed a questionnaire on the epidemiological, radiological, and nodule management aspects of their ......Overview of the European randomized lung cancer CT screening trials (EUCT) is presented with regard to the implementation of CT screening in Europe; post NLST. All seven principal investigators completed a questionnaire on the epidemiological, radiological, and nodule management aspects...

  10. Public Awareness of Colorectal Cancer Screening: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Interventions for Increasing Screening Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno Garcia, Antonio Z.; Hernandez Alvarez Buylla, Noemi; Nicolas-Perez, David; Quintero, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer ranks as one of the most incidental and death malignancies worldwide. Colorectal cancer screening has proven its benefit in terms of incidence and mortality reduction in randomized controlled trials. In fact, it has been recommended by medical organizations either in average-risk or family-risk populations. Success of a screening campaign highly depends on how compliant the target population is. Several factors influence colorectal cancer screening uptake including sociodemographics, provider and healthcare system factors, and psychosocial factors. Awareness of the target population of colorectal cancer and screening is crucial in order to increase screening participation rates. Knowledge about this disease and its prevention has been used across studies as a measurement of public awareness. Some studies found a positive relationship between knowledge about colorectal cancer, risk perception, and attitudes (perceived benefits and barriers against screening) and willingness to participate in a colorectal cancer screening campaign. The mentioned factors are modifiable and therefore susceptible of intervention. In fact, interventional studies focused on average-risk population have tried to increase colorectal cancer screening uptake by improving public knowledge and modifying attitudes. In the present paper, we reviewed the factors impacting adherence to colorectal cancer screening and interventions targeting participants for increasing screening uptake. PMID:24729896

  11. Intermittent attendance at breast cancer screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padraic Fleming

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. To determine why women skip rounds and factors influencing return of previous non attenders (PNAs to breast screening. Design and methods. Retrospective, quantitative, structured questionnaire posted to 2500 women. First PNAs did not attend their first screening appointment in 2007/2008 but then attended in 2010; First Controls first attended in 2010 without missed previous appointments. Women who attended screening in 2006 or earlier then skipped a round but returned in 2010 were Subsequent PNAs; Subsequent Controls attended all appointments.Results. More First Controls than First PNAs had family history of cancer (72.7% vs 63.2%; P=0.003; breast cancer (31.3% vs 24.8%; P=0.04. More PNAs lived rurally; more First PNAs had 3rd level education (33.2% vs 23.6%; P=0.002 and fewer had private insurance than First Controls (57.7% vs 64.8%; P=0.04. Excellent/good health was reported in First PNAs and First Controls (82.9% vs 83.2%, but fewer Subsequent PNAs than Subsequent Controls (72.7% vs 84.9%; P=0.000. Common considerations at time of missed appointment were had mammogram elsewhere (33% First PNA and postponed to next round (16% First PNA, 18.8% Subsequent PNA. Considerations when returning to screening were similar for First PNAs and Subsequent PNAs: I am older (35.4%, 29.6%, I made sure I remembered (29%, 23.6%, could reschedule (17.6%, 20.6%, illness of more concern (16.5%, 19%. More First PNAs stated my family/friends advised (22.3% vs 15.2% or my GP (12.6% vs 4.6% advised me to attend, heard good things about BreastCheck (28.8% vs 13.6%.Conclusions. Intermittent attenders do not fit socio-demographic patterns of non-attenders; GP recommendation and word of mouth were important in women’s return to screening. Fear and anxiety seem to act as a screening facilitator rather than an inhibitor.

  12. What dentists should know about oral cancer screening?

    OpenAIRE

    Omar B Kujan

    2013-01-01

    Although the advances in the diagnosis and treatment of oral cancer, it remains one of the most devastating malignancies. Early detection and prevention is a major key in combating policy of cancer. Screening offers an important opportunity for early detection. Several screening methods, visual examination, toluidine blue, fluorescence imaging, and brush biopsy, were used in oral cancer screening programs. General dental practitioner plays an important role in such programs. Therefore, this r...

  13. Environmental scan of anal cancer screening practices: worldwide survey results

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Jigisha; Salit, Irving E.; Berry, Michael J.; de Pokomandy, Alexandra; Nathan, Mayura; Fishman, Fred; Palefsky, Joel; Tinmouth, Jill

    2014-01-01

    Anal squamous cell carcinoma is rare in the general population but certain populations, such as persons with HIV, are at increased risk. High-risk populations can be screened for anal cancer using strategies similar to those used for cervical cancer. However, little is known about the use of such screening practices across jurisdictions. Data were collected using an online survey. Health care professionals currently providing anal cancer screening services were invited to complete the survey ...

  14. Improving the quality of colonoscopy bowel preparation using an educational video

    OpenAIRE

    Prakash, Sateesh R; Verma, Siddharth; McGowan, John; Betsy E. Smith; Shroff, Anjali; Gibson, Gregory H; Cheng, Michael; Lowe, DouglasII; Gopal, Kavitha; Smruti R. Mohanty

    2013-01-01

    Colonoscopy is the preferred modality for colon cancer screening. A successful colonoscopy requires proper bowel preparation. Adequate bowel preparation continues to remain a limiting factor. One hundred thirty-three patients scheduled for an outpatient colonoscopy were prospectively randomized in a single-blinded manner to video or nonvideo group. In addition to written bowel preparation instructions, patients in the video group viewed a brief instructional video. Quality of colon preparatio...

  15. Review article: the incidence and prevalence of colorectal cancer in inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, P

    2003-01-01

    Although colorectal cancer (CRC), complicating ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, only accounts for 1-2% of all cases of CRC in the general population, it is considered a serious complication of the disease and accounts for approximately 15% of all deaths in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD...... of symptoms, and extent of the disease, with pancolitis having a more severe inflammation burden and risk of the dysplasia-carcinoma cascade. Considering the chronic nature of the disease, it is remarkable that there is such a low incidence of CRC in some of the population-based studies, and possible...... Crohn's disease, the number was significantly increased in relation to the expected number....

  16. Colorectal cancer screening awareness among physicians in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatzimichalis Georgios

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data comparison between SEER and EUROCARE database provided evidence that colorectal cancer survival in USA is higher than in European countries. Since adjustment for stage at diagnosis markedly reduces the survival differences, a screening bias was hypothesized. Considering the important role of primary care in screening activities, the purpose of the study was to investigate the colorectal cancer screening awareness among Hellenic physicians. Methods 211 primary care physicians were surveyed by mean of a self-reported prescription-habits questionnaire. Both physicians' colorectal cancer screening behaviors and colorectal cancer screening recommendations during usual check-up visits were analyzed. Results Only 50% of physicians were found to recommend screening for colorectal cancer during usual check-up visits, and only 25% prescribed cost-effective procedures. The percentage of physicians recommending stool occult blood test and sigmoidoscopy was 24% and 4% respectively. Only 48% and 23% of physicians recognized a cancer screening value for stool occult blood test and sigmoidoscopy. Colorectal screening recommendations were statistically lower among physicians aged 30 or less (p = 0.012. No differences were found when gender, level and type of specialization were analyzed, even though specialists in general practice showed a trend for better prescription (p = 0.054. Conclusion Contemporary recommendations for colorectal cancer screening are not followed by implementation in primary care setting. Education on presymptomatic control and screening practice monitoring are required if primary care is to make a major impact on colorectal cancer mortality.

  17. Colorectal cancer screening awareness among physicians in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xilomenos, Apostolos; Mauri, Davide; Kamposioras, Konstantinos; Gkinosati, Athanasia; Zacharias, Georgios; Sidiropoulou, Varvara; Papadopoulos, Panagiotis; Chatzimichalis, Georgios; Golfinopoulos, Vassilis; Peponi, Christina

    2006-01-01

    Background Data comparison between SEER and EUROCARE database provided evidence that colorectal cancer survival in USA is higher than in European countries. Since adjustment for stage at diagnosis markedly reduces the survival differences, a screening bias was hypothesized. Considering the important role of primary care in screening activities, the purpose of the study was to investigate the colorectal cancer screening awareness among Hellenic physicians. Methods 211 primary care physicians were surveyed by mean of a self-reported prescription-habits questionnaire. Both physicians' colorectal cancer screening behaviors and colorectal cancer screening recommendations during usual check-up visits were analyzed. Results Only 50% of physicians were found to recommend screening for colorectal cancer during usual check-up visits, and only 25% prescribed cost-effective procedures. The percentage of physicians recommending stool occult blood test and sigmoidoscopy was 24% and 4% respectively. Only 48% and 23% of physicians recognized a cancer screening value for stool occult blood test and sigmoidoscopy. Colorectal screening recommendations were statistically lower among physicians aged 30 or less (p = 0.012). No differences were found when gender, level and type of specialization were analyzed, even though specialists in general practice showed a trend for better prescription (p = 0.054). Conclusion Contemporary recommendations for colorectal cancer screening are not followed by implementation in primary care setting. Education on presymptomatic control and screening practice monitoring are required if primary care is to make a major impact on colorectal cancer mortality. PMID:16756674

  18. A simple way to measure the burden of interval cancers in breast cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sune Bangsbøll; Törnberg, Sven; Lynge, Elsebeth;

    2014-01-01

    . This resulted in 5 papers describing 12 mammography screening programs. RESULTS: Covering initial screens only, the ICR varied from 0.10 to 0.28 while the PICR varied from 0.22 to 0.51. For subsequent screens only, the ICR varied from 0.22 to 0.37 and the PICR from 0.28 to 0.51. There was a strong......BACKGROUND: The sensitivity of a mammography program is normally evaluated by comparing the interval cancer rate to the expected breast cancer incidence without screening, i.e. the proportional interval cancer rate (PICR). The expected breast cancer incidence in absence of screening is, however...... systematic review and included studies: 1) covering a service screening program, 2) women aged 50-69 years, 3) observed data, 4) interval cancers, women screened, or interval cancer rate, screen detected cases, or screen detection rate, and 5) estimated breast cancer incidence rate of background population...

  19. Understanding of a negative bowel screening result and potential impact on future symptom appraisal and help-seeking behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnett, Karen N; Weller, David; Smith, Steve;

    2016-01-01

    ) emotional response to a negative FOBt, (ii) understanding the limitations of FOBt screening, (iii) symptom knowledge and interpretation and (iv) over-reassurance from a negative FOBt. Participants were reassured by a negative FOBt, but there was variability in the extent to which the result was interpreted......BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening using a faecal occult blood test (FOBt) has the potential to reduce cancer-related mortality. Symptom vigilance remains crucial as a proportion of cancers will be diagnosed between screening rounds. A negative FOBt has the potential to influence how...... participants respond to future symptoms of CRC. OBJECTIVE: To explore (i) understanding of a negative FOBt and (ii) the potential impact of a negative FOBt upon future symptom appraisal and help-seeking behaviour. DESIGN: Qualitative methodology utilizing focus groups with participants who received a negative...

  20. Trust, choice and obligation: a qualitative study of enablers of colorectal cancer screening in South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Paul R; Coffey, Cushla; Meyer, Samantha

    2015-09-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) has the second highest cancer prevalence and mortality rates in Australia. The Australian National Bowel Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP) aims to increase early detection of CRC by offering free faecal occult blood testing. The NBCSP aims to offer choice to consumers about whether or not to participate in screening. This article presents data on trust, choice and perceived obligation to participate in the NBCSP by population groups with low uptake. A qualitative study was undertaken in South Australia. We interviewed 94 people from four culturally distinct groups: Greek, Iranian, Anglo-Australian and Indigenous peoples. This article demonstrates the complexity of factors shaping the choice, or lack thereof, to participate in the NBCSP. Informed choice is based on adequate knowledge, although this varied among our participants, highlighting the need for more health education in appropriate languages. An obligation to participate was found in the Iranian and Anglo-Australian groups and resulted from an established personal relationship with the doctor, a sense of duty, the acknowledgement of government investment and appreciation. Overall, this article makes a link between trust, choice and obligation, adding to literature on the sociology of trust and medical screening and highlighting important issues in the need of a policy and practice to improve CRC screening rates. PMID:25912247

  1. Pancreatic Cancer and Cancer Screening Programs: From Nihilism to Hope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Pezzilli

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The most common incipit of papers published regarding exocrine pancreatic neoplasms is that pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal cancers, with a rate of incidence equal to that of mortality. Pancreatic cancer is a heterogeneous group of neoplasms in which pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is the most common. For the most part, the problems related to the early diagnosis of pancreatic adenocarcinoma are three: 1 to better understand the biology of this tumor; 2 to better investigate the precursors of this tumor; and 3 to plan projects for pancreatic cancer screening in high-risk individuals. Recently, Yachida et al. [1] performed rapid autopsies on seven individuals with Stage IV pancreatic cancer and they found that the clonal populations which give rise to distant metastases are represented within the primary carcinoma, but these clones are genetically evolved from the original parental, non-metastatic clone. Thus, the genetic heterogeneity of the metastases reflects that of the primary carcinoma. Most important, when the authors performed a quantitative analysis of the timing of the genetic evolution of pancreatic cancer, they found that there was at least a decade between the occurrence of the initial mutation and the birth of the parental, non-metastatic founder cell. At least five more years are required for the acquisition of metastatic ability and patients die an average two years thereafter. As underscored by the authors, these data have an important implication in planning population screening for the purpose of preventing pancreatic cancer deaths: in fact, quantitative analysis indicated a large window, of at least a decade, in which the disease could be diagnosed while it is still in the curative stage. This model also predicts an average of 6.8 years between the birth of the cell giving rise to the parental clone and the seeding of the index metastasis.

  2. Epidemiology, aetiology, diagnosis and screening of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death globally. Smoking causes about 90 % of all lung cancer cases. Passive, i.e. involuntary smoking has been confirmed to enhance the risk of lung cancer in exposed people. Individual susceptibility is one of important factors in lung cancer formation. New knowledge in epidemiology and aetiology of lung cancer gives new possibilities in diagnostic and screening of this disease. Results of large randomised trials aimed at new technologies in lung cancer screening will be available in a few years. (author)

  3. Results and analysis of screening for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer is the most frequent cause of death in most countries of the world. Screening of asymptomatic women can detect a large percentage of cancers at an early stage. This is the basis for a possible cure or at least a prolongation of the survival time. The percentage of minimal cancers (smaller than 1 cm without dissemination) may be as high as 48% depending on the screening modality (10% without screening), axillary lymph node involvement can be reduced to 20% (40% without screening), and the percentage of stage II to IV cancers can be reduced to 8-20% (60% without screening). Mortality in the study group over age 50 years was reduced by 30%. Disadvantages of screening are: high cost; biopsies prompted by false positive results; psychological stress for the patients; radiation hazards which have, however, become almost negligible thanks to improved technique (2 cancers in 1 million mammographies and year). (Author)

  4. Breast cancer screening in British Columbia: implications of diagnostic trajectories

    OpenAIRE

    McKay, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    Despite reductions in mortality rates, breast cancer remains the most common cancer and the second most common cause of cancer death in Canadian women. Organized screening programs have contributed to the decrease in breast cancer mortality by allowing for early diagnosis and treatment. The diagnostic phase following an abnormal screen has implications for patient well-being, clinical practice, and resource management in health care. We present data from British Columbia that show that improv...

  5. Importance of Smoking Cessation in a Lung Cancer Screening Program

    OpenAIRE

    Munshi, Vidit; McMahon, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Early detection of lung cancer and smoking cessation interventions can decrease lung cancer mortality, but information on the effectiveness and interaction between smoking cessation and lung cancer screening is sparse and inconsistent. This review aims to synthesize recent studies in two major areas of interest. First, we explore the interactions and potential for synergies between lung cancer screening programs and smoking cessation by summarizing reported changes in smoking behavior observe...

  6. Optimal breast cancer screening strategies for older women: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braithwaite D

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Dejana Braithwaite,1 Joshua Demb,1 Louise M Henderson2 1Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, CA, 2Department of Radiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA Abstract: Breast cancer is a major cause of cancer-related deaths among older women, aged 65 years or older. Screening mammography has been shown to be effective in reducing breast cancer mortality in women aged 50–74 years but not among those aged 75 years or older. Given the large heterogeneity in comorbidity status and life expectancy among older women, controversy remains over screening mammography in this population. Diminished life expectancy with aging may decrease the potential screening benefit and increase the risk of harms. In this review, we summarize the evidence on screening mammography utilization, performance, and outcomes and highlight evidence gaps. Optimizing the screening strategy will involve separating older women who will benefit from screening from those who will not benefit by using information on comorbidity status and life expectancy. This review has identified areas related to screening mammography in older women that warrant additional research, including the need to evaluate emerging screening technologies, such as tomosynthesis among older women and precision cancer screening. In the absence of randomized controlled trials, the benefits and harms of continued screening mammography in older women need to be estimated using both population-based cohort data and simulation models. Keywords: aging, breast cancer, precision cancer screening

  7. The Effects of New Screening Tests in the Dutch Cervical Cancer Screening Programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Rozemeijer (Kirsten)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractCervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women all over the world, mainly affecting young women. As cervical cancer is easy to prevent by early detection and treatment of the disease, screening was introduced in the Netherlands in the 1970s. The number of cervical cancer c

  8. Trends in adherence to recommended cancer screening: The US population and working cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TainyaC.Clarke

    2012-12-01

    Conclusions: Cancer survivors report higher screening rates than the general population. Nevertheless, national screening rates are lower than desired, and disparities exist by cancer history and occupation. Understanding existing disparities, and the impact of cancer screening on survivors is crucial as the number of working survivors increases.

  9. Screening for familial and hereditary prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Henry T; Kosoko-Lasaki, Omofolasade; Leslie, Stephen W; Rendell, Marc; Shaw, Trudy; Snyder, Carrie; D'Amico, Anthony V; Buxbaum, Sarah; Isaacs, William B; Loeb, Stacy; Moul, Judd W; Powell, Isaac

    2016-06-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) has the highest degree of genetic transmission of any form of malignancy. In some families, the hereditary pattern is so strong as to mimic an autosomal dominance trait. We reviewed the known predisposing genetic markers to assess possible strategies for screening of families at risk. We carried out a systematic literature search using the Pubmed service of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and several gene libraries, including the NCBI SNP Library, the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man® Catalog of Human Genes and Genetic Disorders (OMIM) and SNPedia to obtain known gene loci, SNPs and satellite markers associated with PC. We further cross referenced information on identified loci comparing data from different articles and gene reference sites. Whenever possible, we recorded the odds ratio (OR) for the allele associated with PC. In multiple different linkage studies, many independent PC associated loci have been identified on separate chromosomes. Genome-wide association studies have added many more markers to the set derived from linkage investigations. A subset of the alleles is associated with early onset and aggressive cancer. Due to the great heterogeneity, the OR for any one allele predicting future development of this malignancy is low. The strongest predictors are the BRCA2 mutations, and the highly penetrant G84E mutation in HOXB13. The presence of multiple risk alleles is more highly predictive than a single allele. Technical limitations on screening large panels of alleles are being overcome. It is appropriate to begin supplementing prostate specific antigen testing with alleles, such as BRCA2 and HOXB13, disclosed by targeted genomic analysis in families with an unfavorable family cancer history. Future population studies of PC should include genomic sequencing protocols, particularly in families with a history of PC and other malignancies. PMID:26638190

  10. Targeted Cancer Screening in Average-Risk Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Pamela M; Freedman, Andrew N; Khoury, Muin J

    2015-11-01

    Targeted cancer screening refers to use of disease risk information to identify those most likely to benefit from screening. Researchers have begun to explore the possibility of refining screening regimens for average-risk individuals using genetic and non-genetic risk factors and previous screening experience. Average-risk individuals are those not known to be at substantially elevated risk, including those without known inherited predisposition, without comorbidities known to increase cancer risk, and without previous diagnosis of cancer or pre-cancer. In this paper, we describe the goals of targeted cancer screening in average-risk individuals, present factors on which cancer screening has been targeted, discuss inclusion of targeting in screening guidelines issued by major U.S. professional organizations, and present evidence to support or question such inclusion. Screening guidelines for average-risk individuals currently target age; smoking (lung cancer only); and, in some instances, race; family history of cancer; and previous negative screening history (cervical cancer only). No guidelines include common genomic polymorphisms. RCTs suggest that targeting certain ages and smoking histories reduces disease-specific cancer mortality, although some guidelines extend ages and smoking histories based on statistical modeling. Guidelines that are based on modestly elevated disease risk typically have either no or little evidence of an ability to affect a mortality benefit. In time, targeted cancer screening is likely to include genetic factors and past screening experience as well as non-genetic factors other than age, smoking, and race, but it is of utmost importance that clinical implementation be evidence-based. PMID:26165196

  11. Diabetes and cancer I: risk, survival, and implications for screening

    OpenAIRE

    Onitilo, Adedayo A.; Engel, Jessica M.; Glurich, Ingrid; Stankowski, Rachel V.; Williams, Gail M.; Doi, Suhail A.

    2012-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and cancer are common diseases that are frequently diagnosed in the same individual. An association between the two conditions has long been postulated. Here, we review the epidemiological evidence for increased risk of cancer, decreased cancer survival, and decreased rates of cancer screening in diabetic patients. The risk for several cancers, including cancers of the pancreas, liver, colorectum, breast, urinary tract, and endometrium, is increased in patients w...

  12. The patient's subjective attitude towards screening for breast cancer. Should screening be extended to other forms of cancer?

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, T V; Rimmer, S.; Forrest, A P

    1980-01-01

    A sample of 500 consecutive women without symptoms of breast disease attending a breast screening clinic were investigated regarding their attitude to breast screening and to the extension of the screening programme to other forms of cancer. Attendance at the screening clinic was found to be reassuring by 94.2%, and 96.4% felt that the screening programme should be extended to include other forms of malignancy. There was a history of either respiratory or alimentary tract symptoms, and of smo...

  13. Establishing the added benefit of measuring MMP9 in FOB positive patients as a part of the Wolverhampton colorectal cancer screening programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakelam Michael

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bowel cancer is common and a major cause of death. The NHS is currently rolling out a national bowel cancer screening programme that aims to cover the entire population by 2010. The programme will be based on the Faecal Occult Blood test (FOBt that reduces mortality from colon cancer by 16%. However, FOB testing has a relatively low positive predictive value, with associated unnecessary cost, risk and anxiety from subsequent investigation, and is unacceptable to a proportion of the target population. Increased levels of an enzyme called matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9 have been found to be associated with colorectal cancer, and this can be measured from a blood sample. MMP9 has potential for detecting those at risk of having colorectal cancer. The aim of this study is to assess whether MMP9 estimation enhances the predictive value of a positive FOBt. Methods and design FOBt positive people aged 60–69 years attending the Wolverhampton NHS Bowel Cancer Screening Unit and providing consent for colonoscopy will be recruited. Participants will provide a blood sample prior to colonoscopy and permission for collection of the clinical outcome from screening unit records. Multivariate logistic regression analyses will determine the independent factors (patient and disease related, MMP9 associated with the prediction of neoplasia. Discussion Colorectal cancer is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Pilot studies have confirmed the feasibility of the national cancer screening programme that is based on FOBt. However, the test has high false positive rates. MMP9 has significant potential as a marker for both adenomas and cancers. This study is to examine whether using MMP9 as an adjunct to FOBt improves the accuracy of screening and reduces the number of false positive tests that cause anxiety and require invasive and potentially harmful investigation.

  14. New Screening Proposals: the Federal Joint Commission Defines the Parameters for Cervical Cancer Screening from 2018

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillemanns, P.; Mallmann, P.; Beckmann, M. W.

    2016-01-01

    The Gynecology Oncology Working Group (AGO e. V.) unequivocally welcomes the decision taken by the German Federal Joint Commission (Gemeinsamer Bundesausschuss, G-BA) on March 19, 2015 regarding screening for cervical cancer. AGO is convinced that, in view of recent medical advances, this evidence-based decision will improve screening for cervical cancer. PMID:26941445

  15. Big screens with small RNAs : loss of function genetic screens to identify novel cancer genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mullenders, J.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis described the construction and screening of one of the first large scale RNAi libraries for use in human cells. Functional genetic screens with this library have led to the identification of novel cancer genes. These cancer genes function in several pathways including the p53 tumor suppr

  16. Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Screening, Diagnosis, and Staging

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, J; Magalhães, M; Rocha, E; Marques, F

    2012-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Tobacco consumption is the primary cause of lung cancer, accounting for more than 85% 90% of all lung cancer deaths. Non-small cell lung cancer accounts for about 85% of all lung cancers. Several studies have shown that low-dose helical CT of the lung detects more nodules and lung cancers, including early-stage cancers, than does chest radiography. The National Lung Cancer Screening Trial results show that three annual roun...

  17. Screening for breast cancer in England: past and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The NHS Breast Screening Programme (NHSBSP) began in 1988. It aims to invite all women aged 50-70 years for mammographic screening once every three years. The programme now screens 1.3 million women each year, about 75% of those invited, and diagnoses about 10,000 breast cancers annually. Although some have questioned the value of screening for breast cancer, the scientific evidence demonstrates clearly that regular mammographic screening between the ages of 50 and 70 years reduces mortality from the malignancy. Screened women are slightly more likely than unscreened women to be diagnosed with breast cancer. The cancers in screened women are smaller and are less likely to be treated with mastectomy than they would have been if diagnosed without screening. For every 400 women screened regularly by the NHSBSP over a 10-year period, one woman fewer will die from breast cancer than would have died without screening. The current NHSBSP saves an estimated 1400 lives each year in England. The screening programme spends about pound sterling 3000 for every year of life saved. PMID:16792825

  18. Communicating the balance sheet in breast cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giordano, Livia; Cogo, Carla; Patnick, Julietta;

    2012-01-01

    Despite the difficulties, there is a moral responsibility to provide the public with the best estimates of benefits and harms of breast cancer screening.......Despite the difficulties, there is a moral responsibility to provide the public with the best estimates of benefits and harms of breast cancer screening....

  19. The Danish randomized lung cancer CT screening trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper H; Ashraf, Haseem; Dirksen, Asger;

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Lung cancer screening with low dose computed tomography (CT) has not yet been evaluated in randomized clinical trials, although several are underway. METHODS: In The Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial, 4104 smokers and previous smokers from 2004 to 2006 were randomized to either...

  20. European cervical cancer screening:experiences and results

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Europe has devoted great efforts to cervical cancer screening over 30 years.The mortality was generally declining although incidence rates of cervical cancer among young women have been increasing in many countries of Europe.The efficiency of screening,however,needs to be addressed by planners for an improved cost-effectiveness in the future.

  1. Anal cancer and intraepithelial neoplasia screening: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeds, Ira L; Fang, Sandy H

    2016-01-27

    This review focuses on the early diagnosis of anal cancer and its precursor lesions through routine screening. A number of risk-stratification strategies as well as screening techniques have been suggested, and currently little consensus exists among national societies. Much of the current clinical rationale for the prevention of anal cancer derives from the similar tumor biology of cervical cancer and the successful use of routine screening to identify cervical cancer and its precursors early in the disease process. It is thought that such a strategy of identifying early anal intraepithelial neoplasia will reduce the incidence of invasive anal cancer. The low prevalence of anal cancer in the general population prevents the use of routine screening. However, routine screening of selected populations has been shown to be a more promising strategy. Potential screening modalities include digital anorectal exam, anal Papanicolaou testing, human papilloma virus co-testing, and high-resolution anoscopy. Additional research associating high-grade dysplasia treatment with anal cancer prevention as well as direct comparisons of screening regimens is necessary to develop further anal cancer screening recommendations. PMID:26843912

  2. Colorectal cancer screening: Time for action in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is now the third most common cause of cancer-related deaths in the world. According to the Iranian Annual National Cancer Registration Report, CRC is the third most common cancer in Iranian women and fifth in men. The incidence of CRC has increased during the last 25 years. CRC screening is an efficient way to reduce the burden of CRC through detection of precursor lesions of cancer or early stage cancer. Iran may benefit even more from screening programs. According to...

  3. Perceived obstacles of colorectal cancer screening and their associated factors among 10,078 Chinese participants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin C S Wong

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: to evaluate the proportion of self-referred screening participants having various psychological barriers and the factors associated with these barriers. METHODS: A territory-wide bowel cancer screening centre sent an invitation via the media to all Hong Kong residents aged 50-70 years who were asymptomatic of CRC to join a free screening programme. Upon attendance they were requested to complete self-administered surveys on their perceived barriers of screening. Binary logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the factors associated with these barriers. RESULTS: From 10,078 consecutive screening participants (mean age 57.5 years; female 56.4% completed the surveys between May 2008 to September 2012. There were high proportions who agreed or strongly agreed with the following barriers: financial difficulty (86.0%, limited service accessibility (58.2%, screening-induced bodily discomfort (55.2%, physical harm (44.4%, embarrassment (40.1%, apprehension (38.8% and time constraints (13.9%. From regression models, older participants (aged ≥ 56 were less likely to have these barriers (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR] ranged from 0.738 to 0.952 but they encountered more difficulties to access to screening services (AOR ranged from 1.141 to 1.371. Female subjects were more likely to encounter most of these barriers (AOR ranged from 1.188 to 2.179. Participants who were uncertain of the necessity of CRC screening for people aged ≥ 50 were more likely to report these barriers (AOR ranged from 1.151 to 1.671. CONCLUSION: The proportions of perceptual barriers of CRC screening were high among these participants. Those with these associated factors should receive more thorough explanation of the screening test procedures.

  4. Sociocultural Barriers to Lung Cancer Screening Among Korean Immigrant Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Mo-Kyung; Ha, Ara; Taylor, Vicky

    2016-08-01

    Lung cancer is a commonly occurring cancer among Korean American men. Korean Americans have lower rates of cancer screening participation than other Asian American sub-groups. However, little is known about factors that influence the cancer screening behavior of Korean immigrants. The purpose of this study was to explore facilitators of and barriers to lung cancer screening (i.e., low dose CT of the chest) among Korean immigrant men, using qualitative individual interviews and focus groups. A convenience sample of 24 Korean men who were immigrants, Washington State residents, able to speak Korean, aged 55-79, and eligible for lung cancer screening (based on current guidelines) were recruited from Korean churches and senior centers. Five focus groups (that included between two and five men) and nine individual interviews were conducted. Content analysis was used to analyze the qualitative data. Facilitators of lung cancer screening included perceptions about positive aspects of the health care system in South Korea, recommendations from others (physicians, family members, and community organizations), existing health problems and respiratory symptoms, interest in health, and the health consequences of aging. Barriers included costs of health care in the US, lack of time, lack of knowledge (about lung cancer and screening), attitudes about prevention, and lack of physician recommendation. This study adds new knowledge to a field where little information is available. It also lays the groundwork for developing culturally relevant lung cancer screening interventions for Korean Americans and the health care providers who serve them. PMID:26846627

  5. PRESSING MORTALITY RATE THROUGH SCREENING oral cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. K. Widnyani Wulan Laksmi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Based on World Health Organization (WHO data, oral cancer is one of malignancy with the highest mortality. In USA, there are more than 30.000 new cases every year. We can find many risk factors of oral cancer in our daily living. Moreover, it’s easy to find the main risk factors in our society, they are smoking, alcohol consumption, tobacco consumtion, viral infection, and bad oral hygiene. For the early stadium, Five-years survival rate is about 82% and 61% for all stadium. But, more than 50% of oral cancer has been distributed (metastatic regionally and also into the other organ far away from the oral itself when it’s detected. It will decrease 5-years survival rate to be less than 50%. So that, it’s really important to detect the oral cancer at the earlier stadium. Screening is the way to find the earlier stadium. Screening is done by some methods, start from the anamnesis, physical examination, toluidine blue staining, endoscopy, cytology, telomerase examination, and also PET-scan if it’s possible (because of the financial reasons. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  6. Prostate Cancer Screening (Beyond the Basics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... best in your individual situation. WHAT IS PROSTATE CANCER? — Prostate cancer is a cancer of the prostate, a ... most of them do not die from their cancer. Prostate cancer often grows so slowly that many men ...

  7. Temporal Trends in Colorectal Cancer Screening among Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedewa, Stacey A; Sauer, Ann Goding; Siegel, Rebecca L; Smith, Robert A; Torre, Lindsey A; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2016-06-01

    Asian Americans (AA) are less likely to be screened for colorectal cancer compared with non-Hispanic Whites (NHW), with a widening disparity for some AA subgroups in the early 2000s. Whether these patterns have continued in more recent years is unknown. We examined temporal trends in colorectal cancer screening among AA overall compared with NHWs and by AA subgroup (Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Filipino, South Asian, Vietnamese) using data from the 2003, 2005, 2007, and 2009 California Health Interview Surveys. Unadjusted (PR) and adjusted (aPR) prevalence ratios for colorectal cancer screening, accounting for sociodemographic, health care, and acculturation factors, were calculated for respondents ages 50 to 75 years (NHW n = 60,125; AA n = 6,630). Between 2003 and 2009, colorectal cancer screening prevalence increased from 43.3% to 64.6% in AA (P ≤ 0.001) and from 58.1% to 71.4% in NHW (P ≤ 0.001). Unadjusted colorectal cancer screening was significantly lower among AA compared with NHW in 2003 [PR = 0.74; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.68-0.82], 2005 (PR = 0.78; 95% CI, 0.72-0.84), 2007 (PR = 0.91; 95% CI, 0.85-0.96), and 2009 (PR = 0.90; 95% CI, 0.84-0.97), though disparities narrowed over time. After adjustment, there were no significant differences in colorectal cancer screening between the two groups, except in 2003. In subgroup analyses, between 2003 and 2009, colorectal cancer screening significantly increased by 22% in Japanese, 56% in Chinese, 47% in Filipino, and 94% in Koreans. In our study of California residents, colorectal cancer screening disparities between AA and NHW narrowed, but were not eliminated and screening prevalence among AA remains below nationwide goals, including the Healthy People 2020 goal of increasing colorectal cancer screening prevalence to 70.5%. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(6); 995-1000. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27197273

  8. Risk of extra-intestinal cancer in inflammatory bowel disease: meta-analysis of population-based cohort studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Eva Natalia G.; Duricova, Dana; Elkjaer, Margarita;

    2010-01-01

    Extra-intestinal manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are relatively common, whereas the risk of extra-intestinal cancer (EIC) remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to obtain a reliable estimate of the risk of EIC in Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) by perform...

  9. Protocol for population testing of an Internet-based Personalised Decision Support system for colorectal cancer screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Carlene J

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Australia has a comparatively high incidence of colorectal (bowel cancer; however, population screening uptake using faecal occult blood test (FOBT remains low. This study will determine the impact on screening participation of a novel, Internet-based Personalised Decision Support (PDS package. The PDS is designed to measure attitudes and cognitive concerns and provide people with individually tailored information, in real time, that will assist them with making a decision to screen. The hypothesis is that exposure to (tailored PDS will result in greater participation in screening than participation following exposure to non-tailored PDS or resulting from the current non-tailored, paper-based approach. Methods/design A randomised parallel trial comprising three arms will be conducted. Men and women aged 50-74 years (N = 3240 will be recruited. They must have access to the Internet; have not had an FOBT within the previous 12 months, or sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy within the previous 5 years; have had no clinical diagnosis of bowel cancer. Groups 1 and 2 (PDS arms will access a website and complete a baseline survey measuring decision-to-screen stage, attitudes and cognitive concerns and will receive immediate feedback; Group 1 will receive information 'tailored' to their responses in the baseline survey and group 2 will received 'non-tailored' bowel cancer information. Respondents in both groups will subsequently receive an FOBT kit. Group 3 (usual practice arm will complete a paper-based version of the baseline survey and respondents will subsequently receive 'non-tailored' paper-based bowel cancer information with accompanying FOBT kit. Following despatch of FOBTs, all respondents will be requested to complete an endpoint survey. Main outcome measures are (1 completion of FOBT and (2 change in decision-to-screen stage. Secondary outcomes include satisfaction with decision and change in attitudinal scores from baseline to

  10. Lung Cancer Screening and clinical implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.C. van 't Westeinde (Susan)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractLung cancer is the most frequently diagnosed major cancer worldwide and the leading cause of death from cancer. Lung cancer is divided into two subgroups: small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), accounting for 10-20% and 75% of lung cancer cases, respectivel

  11. Population based screening for prostate cancer : tumor characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Cruijsen, Ingrid W

    2008-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The European Randomized study of Screening for Prostate Cancer is a multi-centre randomized controlled trial to examine whether screening for prostate cancer has an effect on prostate cancer mortality. The total study cohort consists of 268.000 men in eight different European Countries. In the Netherlands the study is being conducted in the region of Rotterdam by the study group of the Erasmus Medical Centre Rotterdam. Between 1993 and 2000 a total of 42,376 men (...

  12. Metoder til screening for kolorektal cancer kan forbedres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Louise; Jørgensen, Lars Nannestad; Madsen, Mogens Rørbæk; Vilandt, Jesper; Klærke, Michael; Andersen, Jens; Nielsen, Knud T; Khalid, Ali; Laurberg, Søren; Andersen, Claus Lindbjerg; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Brünner, Nils; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    Screening programmes for colorectal cancer (CRC) are being implemented in various countries worldwide including Denmark. The majority of programmes rely on faecal occult blood testing with subsequent colonoscopy. This approach is challenged by limited compliance, which reduces the efficiency of the...... screening programme. Current research into improve-ments of screening of CRC includes biological markers identified in blood. Combining blood-based biological markers with clinical and demographical parameters have shown promising results, which may improve the present approach to screening....

  13. Effectiveness of ultrasound for breast cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the effectiveness of ultrasound (US) for breast cancer screening, we conducted a retrospective survey of 856 breast cancer patients who were preoperatively examined by mammography (MMG) and US. Their average age was 54.7 years, with a range of 24 to 92 years. MMG revealed positive findings in 771 patients (90.1%), and negative findings in the remaining 85 patients (9.9%). Likewise, US revealed positive findings in 835 patients (97.5%), and negative findings in the remaining 21 patients (2.5%). Accordingly, the proportion of positive finding in US was significantly higher than that in MMG (chi-square test, p<0.0001). The incidence of negative findings with MMG was inversely related to age: 5.8% for patients in their 70s, 5.7% for those in their 60s, 8.3% for those in their 50s, 11.1% for those in their 40s, and 26.2% for those in their 30s or younger, because of the higher breast density in younger women (chi-square test, p<0.0001). The incidence of positive findings was 99.4% for tumors 2.1 to 3.0 cm in size, 96.3% for those measuring 1.6 to 2.0 cm, 94.3% for those measuring 1.1 to 1.5 cm, and 75.4% for those less than or equal to 1.0 cm (chi-square test, p<0.0001). Among the 85 patients with negative findings by MMG, 70(82.4%) were positive and 15 (17.6%) were negative by US. As findings of calcification by US, high echo spots plus a tumor lesion were observed in 59 patients (71.1%), high echo spots only were noted in 22 patients (26.5%), and high echo spots were not seen in 2 patients (2.4%). In conclusion, parallel use of MMG and US is recommended for breast cancer screening, especially for women in their 50s or younger, to reduce the incidence of misdiagnosis. (author)

  14. Small Bowel Dose Parameters Predicting Grade ≥3 Acute Toxicity in Rectal Cancer Patients Treated With Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation: An Independent Validation Study Comparing Peritoneal Space Versus Small Bowel Loop Contouring Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine whether volumes based on contours of the peritoneal space can be used instead of individual small bowel loops to predict for grade ≥3 acute small bowel toxicity in patients with rectal cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy. Methods and Materials: A standardized contouring method was developed for the peritoneal space and retrospectively applied to the radiation treatment plans of 67 patients treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy for rectal cancer. Dose-volume histogram (DVH) data were extracted and analyzed against patient toxicity. Receiver operating characteristic analysis and logistic regression were carried out for both contouring methods. Results: Grade ≥3 small bowel toxicity occurred in 16% (11/67) of patients in the study. A highly significant dose-volume relationship between small bowel irradiation and acute small bowel toxicity was supported by the use of both small bowel loop and peritoneal space contouring techniques. Receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated that, for both contouring methods, the greatest sensitivity for predicting toxicity was associated with the volume receiving between 15 and 25 Gy. Conclusion: DVH analysis of peritoneal space volumes accurately predicts grade ≥3 small bowel toxicity in patients with rectal cancer receiving neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy, suggesting that the contours of the peritoneal space provide a reasonable surrogate for the contours of individual small bowel loops. The study finds that a small bowel V15 less than 275 cc and a peritoneal space V15 less than 830 cc are associated with a less than 10% risk of grade ≥3 acute toxicity

  15. The benefits and harms of screening for cancer with a focus on breast screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, John; Juhl Jørgensen, Karsten; Gøtzsche, Peter C.

    2010-01-01

    The balance between benefits and harms is delicate for cancer screening programs. By attending screening with mammography some women will avoid dying from breast cancer or receive less aggressive treatment. But many more women will be overdiagnosed, receive needless treatment, have a false......-positive result, or live more years as a patient with breast cancer. Systematic reviews of the randomized trials have shown that for every 2000 women invited for mammography screening throughout 10 years, only 1 will have her life prolonged. In addition, 10 healthy women will be overdiagnosed with breast cancer...... whether screening with mammography does more good than harm. Women invited to screening should be informed according to the best available evidence, data should be reported in absolute numbers, and benefits and harms should be reported using the same denominator so that they can be readily compared....

  16. Computed tomographic characteristics of interval and post screen carcinomas in lung cancer screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholten, Ernst T. [University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Kennemer Gasthuis, Department of Radiology, Haarlem (Netherlands); Horeweg, Nanda [Erasmus University Medical Centre, Department of Public Health, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus University Medical Centre, Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Koning, Harry J. de [Erasmus University Medical Centre, Department of Public Health, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn [University of Groningen, University Medical Centre Groningen, Department of Radiology, Groningen (Netherlands); University of Groningen, University Medical Centre Groningen, Center for Medical Imaging-North East Netherlands, Groningen (Netherlands); Oudkerk, Matthijs [University of Groningen, University Medical Centre Groningen, Center for Medical Imaging-North East Netherlands, Groningen (Netherlands); Mali, Willem P.T.M.; Jong, Pim A. de [University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2015-01-15

    To analyse computed tomography (CT) findings of interval and post-screen carcinomas in lung cancer screening. Consecutive interval and post-screen carcinomas from the Dutch-Belgium lung cancer screening trial were included. The prior screening and the diagnostic chest CT were reviewed by two experienced radiologists in consensus with knowledge of the tumour location on the diagnostic CT. Sixty-one participants (53 men) were diagnosed with an interval or post-screen carcinoma. Twenty-two (36 %) were in retrospect visible on the prior screening CT. Detection error occurred in 20 cancers and interpretation error in two cancers. Errors involved intrabronchial tumour (n = 5), bulla with wall thickening (n = 5), lymphadenopathy (n = 3), pleural effusion (n = 1) and intraparenchymal solid nodules (n = 8). These were missed because of a broad pleural attachment (n = 4), extensive reticulation surrounding a nodule (n = 1) and extensive scarring (n = 1). No definite explanation other than human error was found in two cases. None of the interval or post-screen carcinomas involved a subsolid nodule. Interval or post-screen carcinomas that were visible in retrospect were mostly due to detection errors of solid nodules, bulla wall thickening or endobronchial lesions. Interval or post-screen carcinomas without explanation other than human errors are rare. (orig.)

  17. Development of lung cancer CT screening operating support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishigaki, Rikuta; Hanai, Kozou; Suzuki, Masahiro; Kawata, Yoshiki; Niki, Noboru; Eguchi, Kenji; Kakinuma, Ryutaro; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2009-02-01

    In Japan, lung cancer death ranks first among men and third among women. Lung cancer death is increasing yearly, thus early detection and treatment are needed. For this reason, CT screening for lung cancer has been introduced. The CT screening services are roughly divided into three sections: office, radiology and diagnosis sections. These operations have been performed through paper-based or a combination of paper-based and an existing electronic health recording system. This paper describes an operating support system for lung cancer CT screening in order to make the screening services efficient. This operating support system is developed on the basis of 1) analysis of operating processes, 2) digitalization of operating information, and 3) visualization of operating information. The utilization of the system is evaluated through an actual application and users' survey questionnaire obtained from CT screening centers.

  18.   Personal invitations for population-based breast cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saalasti-Koskinen, Ulla; Mäkelä, Marjukka; Saarenmaa, Irma;

    2010-01-01

    objective of this study was to evaluate the information breast cancer screening units send to women invited for screening in Finland. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A questionnaire was sent to all breast cancer screening units in Finland in 2005 and 2008, and the information (eg, invitations, results letters......, leaflets) the units sent to women was collected. Results from 2005 were sent as feedback to the units. Data were analyzed descriptively, and results from the 2 years were compared. RESULTS: Screening units sent personal invitation letters usually providing fixed appointment times. Most units informed about...... participation free of charge and the benefits of detecting breast cancer early. Harm associated with screening was seldom mentioned; no unit mentioned the possibility of false-negative results or overtreatment. CONCLUSION: The screening units provided very variable information, which often was biased toward...

  19. Colon and Rectal Cancer Screening (Beyond the Basics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Colorectal Cancer, and the American College of Radiology. CA Cancer J Clin 2008; 58:130. Whitlock EP, Lin JS, Liles E, et al. Screening for colorectal cancer: a targeted, updated systematic review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med 2008; 149:638. ...

  20. The association between general practitioners’ attitudes towards breast cancer screening and women’s screening participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Line

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer screening in Denmark is organised by the health services in the five regions. Although general practitioners (GPs are not directly involved in the screening process, they are often the first point of contact to the health care system and thus play an important advisory role. No previous studies, in a health care setting like the Danish system, have investigated the association between GPs’ attitudes towards breast cancer screening and women’s participation in the screening programme. Methods Data on women’s screening participation was obtained from the regional screening authorities. Data on GPs’ attitudes towards breast cancer screening was taken from a previous survey among GPs in the Central Denmark Region. This study included women aged 50-69 years who were registered with a singlehanded GP who had participated in the survey. Results The survey involved 67 singlehanded GPs with a total of 13,288 women on their lists. Five GPs (7% had a negative attitude towards breast cancer screening. Among registered women, 81% participated in the first screening round. Multivariate analyses revealed that women registered with a GP with a negative attitude towards breast cancer screening were 17% (95% CI: 2-34% more likely to be non-participants compared with women registered with a GP with a positive attitude towards breast cancer screening. Conclusion The GPs' attitudes may influence the participation rate even in a system where GPs are not directly involved in the screening process. However, further studies are needed to investigate this association.

  1. Breast Cancer Screening: What are the Last Changes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selda Secginli

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Mammography, clinical breast-examination (CBE and breast self-examination (BSE are the mainly recommended screening methods for early diagnosis of breast cancer. In recent years, guidelines concerning screening methods were revised. To date, CBE and BSE are not routinely recommended for early diagnosis of breast cancer in western countries. Due to important value in decreasing breast cancer mortality rate, mammography, is the recommended breast cancer screening method; but the changes related with the time of mammography screening is rised to notice. In 2010, the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF which is one of the important health authority, guidelines concerning screening mammography were revised. Accordingly, while the mammography that is recommended for women starting aged 40 years by many health authorities, the USPSTF no longer advises routine screening mammography for women aged 40–49 and for those aged ≥75.; and biennial screening is advised for those aged 50–74. It is necessary for health professionals working in breast health area to learn the last changes concerning about breast cancer screening methods. Together with CBE and BSE, it is also important to encourage women to participate mammography screening with an understanding of its benefits and risks. In this article, it is aimed to critique new guidelines about breast cancer screening methods. It is also critiqued the potential benefits and risks of mammography that is currently considered the ‘‘gold standard’’ for breast cancer screening for women. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(2.000: 193-200

  2. Transvaginal ultrasonography in ovarian cancer screening: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Nagell Jr JR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available John R van Nagell Jr, John T HoffDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Kentucky Chandler Medical Center/Markey Cancer Center, Lexington, KY, USAAbstract: Transvaginal ultrasonography (TVS is an integral part of all major ovarian cancer screening trials. TVS is accurate in detecting abnormalities in ovarian volume and morphology, but is less reliable in differentiating benign from malignant ovarian tumors. When used as the only screening test, TVS is sensitive, but has a low positive predictive value. Therefore, serum biomarkers and tumor morphology indexing are used together with TVS to identify ovarian tumors at high risk for malignancy. This allows preoperative triage of high-risk cases to major cancer centers for therapy while decreasing unnecessary surgery for benign disease. Ovarian cancer screening has been associated with a decrease in stage at detection in most trials, thereby allowing treatment to be initiated when the disease is most curable.Keywords: ovarian cancer, ultrasound, screening, serum Ca-125

  3. The cumulative risk of false-positive screening results across screening centres in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roman, M., E-mail: Marta.Roman@kreftregisteret.no [Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo (Norway); Department of Women and Children’s Health, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Skaane, P., E-mail: PERSK@ous-hf.no [Department of Radiology, Oslo University Hospital Ullevaal, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Hofvind, S., E-mail: Solveig.Hofvind@kreftregisteret.no [Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo (Norway); Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Faculty of Health Science, Oslo (Norway)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • We found variation in early performance measures across screening centres. • Radiologists’ performance may play a key role in the variability. • Potential to improve the effectiveness of breast cancer screening programs. • Continuous surveillance of screening centres and radiologists is essential. - Abstract: Background: Recall for assessment in mammographic screening entails an inevitable number of false-positive screening results. This study aimed to investigate the variation in the cumulative risk of a false positive screening result and the positive predictive value across the screening centres in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program. Methods: We studied 618,636 women aged 50–69 years who underwent 2,090,575 screening exams (1996–2010. Recall rate, positive predictive value, rate of screen-detected cancer, and the cumulative risk of a false positive screening result, without and with invasive procedures across the screening centres were calculated. Generalized linear models were used to estimate the probability of a false positive screening result and to compute the cumulative false-positive risk for up to ten biennial screening examinations. Results: The cumulative risk of a false-positive screening exam varied from 10.7% (95% CI: 9.4–12.0%) to 41.5% (95% CI: 34.1–48.9%) across screening centres, with a highest to lowest ratio of 3.9 (95% CI: 3.7–4.0). The highest to lowest ratio for the cumulative risk of undergoing an invasive procedure with a benign outcome was 4.3 (95% CI: 4.0–4.6). The positive predictive value of recall varied between 12.0% (95% CI: 11.0–12.9%) and 19.9% (95% CI: 18.3–21.5%), with a highest to lowest ratio of 1.7 (95% CI: 1.5–1.9). Conclusions: A substantial variation in the performance measures across the screening centres in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program was identified, despite of similar administration, procedures, and quality assurance requirements. Differences in the

  4. The cumulative risk of false-positive screening results across screening centres in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We found variation in early performance measures across screening centres. • Radiologists’ performance may play a key role in the variability. • Potential to improve the effectiveness of breast cancer screening programs. • Continuous surveillance of screening centres and radiologists is essential. - Abstract: Background: Recall for assessment in mammographic screening entails an inevitable number of false-positive screening results. This study aimed to investigate the variation in the cumulative risk of a false positive screening result and the positive predictive value across the screening centres in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program. Methods: We studied 618,636 women aged 50–69 years who underwent 2,090,575 screening exams (1996–2010. Recall rate, positive predictive value, rate of screen-detected cancer, and the cumulative risk of a false positive screening result, without and with invasive procedures across the screening centres were calculated. Generalized linear models were used to estimate the probability of a false positive screening result and to compute the cumulative false-positive risk for up to ten biennial screening examinations. Results: The cumulative risk of a false-positive screening exam varied from 10.7% (95% CI: 9.4–12.0%) to 41.5% (95% CI: 34.1–48.9%) across screening centres, with a highest to lowest ratio of 3.9 (95% CI: 3.7–4.0). The highest to lowest ratio for the cumulative risk of undergoing an invasive procedure with a benign outcome was 4.3 (95% CI: 4.0–4.6). The positive predictive value of recall varied between 12.0% (95% CI: 11.0–12.9%) and 19.9% (95% CI: 18.3–21.5%), with a highest to lowest ratio of 1.7 (95% CI: 1.5–1.9). Conclusions: A substantial variation in the performance measures across the screening centres in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program was identified, despite of similar administration, procedures, and quality assurance requirements. Differences in the

  5. Early hematologic changes during prostate cancer radiotherapy predictive for late urinary and bowel toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinkawa, Michael; Djukic, Victoria; Klotz, Jens; Holy, Richard; Eble, Michael J. [RWTH Aachen University, Department of Radiation Oncology, Aachen (Germany); Ribbing, Carolina [RWTH Aachen University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Aachen (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    The primary objective of the study was to identify early hematologic changes predictive for radiotherapy (RT)-associated genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicity. In a group of 91 prostate cancer patients presenting for primary (n = 51) or postoperative (n = 40) curative RT, blood samples (blood count, acute phase proteins, and cytokines) were analyzed before (T1), three times during (T2-T4), and 6-8 weeks after (T5) radiotherapy. Before RT (baseline), on the last day (acute toxicity), a median of 2 months and 16 months (late toxicity) after RT, patients responded to a validated questionnaire (Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite). Acute score changes > 20 points and late changes > 10 points were considered clinically relevant. Radiotherapy resulted in significant changes of hematologic parameters, with the largest effect on lymphocytes (mean decrease of 31-45 %) and significant dependence on target volume. C-reactive protein (CRP) elevation > 5 mg/l and hemoglobin level decrease ≥ 5 G/1 at T2 were found to be independently predictive for acute urinary toxicity (p < 0.01, respectively). CRP elevation was predominantly detected in primary prostate RT (p = 0.02). Early lymphocyte level elevation ≥ 0.3G/l at T2 was protective against late urinary and bowel toxicity (p = 0.02, respectively). Other significant predictive factors for late bowel toxicity were decreasing hemoglobin levels (cut-off ≥ 5 G/l) at T2 (p = 0.04); changes of TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor; p = 0.03) and ferritin levels (p = 0.02) at T5. All patients with late bowel toxicity had interleukin (IL)-6 levels < 1.5 ng/l at T2 (63 % without; p = 0.01). Early hematologic changes during prostate cancer radiotherapy are predictive for late urinary and bowel toxicity. (orig.) [German] Das primaere Ziel der Studie war die Identifikation von fruehen haematologischen Veraenderungen mit praediktiver Bedeutung fuer radiotherapieassoziierte genitourinale und gastrointestinale Toxizitaet. In einer

  6. The benefits and harms of screening for cancer with a focus on breast screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, John; Juhl Jørgensen, Karsten; Gøtzsche, Peter C.

    2010-01-01

    The balance between benefits and harms is delicate for cancer screening programs. By attending screening with mammography some women will avoid dying from breast cancer or receive less aggressive treatment. But many more women will be overdiagnosed, receive needless treatment, have a false...... recommended. The effects of routine clinical breast examination are unknown, but considering the results of the breast self-examination trials, it is likely that it is harmful. The effects of screening for breast cancer with thermography, ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging are unknown. It is not clear...

  7. Rectal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease: natural history and implications for radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: There exists little information concerning the natural history of rectal cancer in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In addition, the tolerance of pelvic irradiation in these patients is unknown. We analyzed the largest series of patients with IBD and rectal cancer in order to determine the natural history of the disease as well as the effect and tolerance of pelvic irradiation. Methods and Materials: A retrospective analysis of 47 patients with IBD and rectal cancer treated over a 34-year period (1960-1994) was performed. Thirty-five patients had ulcerative colitis and 12 patients had Crohn's disease. There were 31 male patients and 16 female patients. The stage (AJC) distribution was as follows: stage 0 in 5 patients, stage I in 13 patients, stage II in 7 patients, stage III in 13 patients, and stage IV in 9 patients. Surgical resection was performed in 44 patients. In two of these patients, preoperative pelvic irradiation was given followed by surgery. Twenty of these patients underwent postoperative adjuvant therapy (12 were treated with chemotherapy and pelvic irradiation and 8 with chemotherapy alone). Three patients were found to have unresectable disease and were treated with chemotherapy alone (2 patients) or chemotherapy and radiation therapy (RT) (1 patient). Radiation complications were graded using the RTOG acute and late effects scoring criteria. Follow-up ranged from 4 to 250 months (median 24 months). Results: The 5-year actuarial results revealed an overall survival (OS) of 42%, a disease-free survival (DFS) of 43%, a pelvic control rate (PC) of 67% and a freedom from distant failure (FFDF) of 47%. DFS decreased with increasing T stage with a 5-year rate of 86% for patients with Tis-T2 disease compared to 10% for patients with T3-T4 disease (p ) were noted in three patients (20%) receiving pelvic irradiation ± chemotherapy and these included two cases of grade 3 skin reactions and one case of grade 4 gastrointestinal

  8. Screening study on new tumor marker periplakin for lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuqin Dai; Wei Li; Mian Kong; Yuzhen Zheng; Shuying Chen; Junye Wang; Linquan Zang

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to use lung cancer targeting binding polypeptide ZS-9 to screen cDNA library of human lung cancer and obtain ZS-9 specific ligand to confirm tumor marker of non small-cell lung cancer. Methods: Artificially synthesize biotin labeled peptide ZS-9, anchored ZS-9 in the enzyme label plate coupled by avidin, used ZS-9 as probe to screen cDNA library of human lung cancer, after screening, obtained bacteriophage clone specifically binding with anchored polypeptide ZS-9. Extracted plasmid of bacteriophage and performed sequencing after amplified by PCR. Results: It was demonstrated by bioinformatic analysis on the sequence of ligand binded by lung cancer specific peptide ZS-9 that the ligand was the cytoskeletal protein periplakin on the surface of lung cancer cells, suggesting that periplakin might be a new marker for non-small-cell lung cancer in lung cancer. Conclusion: Use specific lung cancer binding peptide to screen new tumor marker periplakin in lung cancer and further studies on its biologic functions in genesis and development of lung cancer are still needed.

  9. Study of mammography in mass screening for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to examine the rate of correct diagnosis by mammography at initial mass screening for breast cancer, we carried out a retrospective study of mammography findings in 267 cases of breast cancer detected at Asahikawa Cancer Screening Center. The screening was performed by physical examination, and in cases where disease was suspected, mammography, ultrasonography, and needle biopsy were done. Mammographically, 172 cases (64.4%) were cancer-positive, 58 cases (21.7%) were suspicious for cancer, and 37 cases (13.9%) were cancer-negative. Patients below 50 years of age and those with tumors of small diameter (<20 mm) showed a significantly lower rate of cancer positivity than patients aged 50 years or more and those with tumors 20 mm or more in diameter. Mammographic abnormalities were not specific, since these changes were also found in normal subjects and patients with benign diseases. Therefore, we concluded that mammography without physical examination at initial mass screening has a high risk of missing breast cancer. Mass screening for breast cancer should be performed by physical examination involving inspection and palpation at the first instance. If any suspicious findings are obtained, mammography, ultrasonography, and needle biopsy should be done. (author)

  10. Is “pelvic radiation disease” always the cause of bowel symptoms following prostate cancer intensity-modulated radiotherapy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Pelvic radiation disease (PRD) also widely known as “radiation proctopathy” is a well recognised late side-effect following conventional prostate radiotherapy. However, endoscopic evaluation and/or specialist referral for new or persistent post-prostate radiotherapy bowel symptoms is not routine and serious diagnoses may potentially be missed. Here we report a policy of endoscopic evaluation of bowel symptoms persisting >90 days post radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Methods and materials: A consecutive series of 102 patients who had radical prostate intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT)/image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) and who had new or ongoing bowel symptoms or positive faecal occult blood tests (FOBT) on follow up visits more than three months after treatment, were referred for endoscopic examination. All but one (99%) had full colonoscopic investigation. Results: Endoscopic findings included gastric/colonic/rectal polyps (56%), diverticular disease (49%), haemorrhoids (38%), radiation proctopathy (29%), gastritis/oesophagitis (8%) and rarer diagnoses, including bowel cancer which was found in 3%. Only four patients (4%) had radiation proctopathy without associated pathology and 65 patients (63%) had more than one diagnosis. If flexible sigmoidoscopy alone were used, 36.6% of patients and 46.6% patients with polyp(s) would have had their diagnoses missed. Conclusions: Our study has shown that bowel symptoms following prostate IMRT/IGRT are due to numerous diagnoses other than PRD, including malignancy. Routine referral pathways should be developed for endoscopic evaluation/specialist review for patients with new or persistent bowel symptoms (or positive FOBT) following prostate radiotherapy. This recommendation should be considered for incorporation into national guidelines

  11. Awareness of endometrial cancer risk and compliance with screening in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ketabi, Zohreh; Mosgaard, Berit J; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Ladelund, Steen; Bernstein, Inge T

    2012-01-01

    Women with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) have a 40-60% lifetime risk for endometrial cancer. Guidelines in Denmark recommend gynecologic screening for female members of families with HNPCC. We estimated the knowledge of endometrial cancer risk and identified possible predictors...... of compliance with the screening among women from families with HNPCC....

  12. Screening for breast cancer in a high-risk series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A unique cohort of women at increased risk of breast cancer because of prior X-ray treatment of acute mastitis and their selected high-risk siblings were offered periodic breast cancer screening including physical examination of the breasts, mammography, and thermography. Twelve breast cancers were detected when fewer than four would have been expected based on age-specific breast cancer detection rates from the National Cancer Institute/American Cancer Society Breast Cancer Demonstration Detection Projects. Mammography was positive in all cases but physical examination was positive in only three cases. Thermography was an unreliable indicator of disease. Given the concern over radiation-induced risk, use of low-dose technique and of criteria for participation that select women at high risk of breast cancer will maximize the benefit/risk ratio for mammography screening

  13. Breast Cancer Screening in Black and Hispanic Subpopulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J. Miller

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The primary objective was to examine and compare the breast cancer screening adherence rates between black (African American and Afro-Caribbean and Hispanic (foreign born Hispanic and US-born Hispanic subpopulations. Methods: Study data was collected in community settings in New York City between the years of 2011-2012. Participants (N=592 were black and Hispanic individuals who attended a breast cancer screening community outreach program. Breast cancer screening rates as well as demographic data were collected. Results: Results revealed that Afro-Caribbean and foreign-born Hispanics are at a greater risk for non-adherence in breast cancer screening compared with African Americans and US-born Hispanics. Conclusions: The majority of breast screening research and community outreach programs categorize people into broad racial and ethnic groups (e.g., black and Hispanic. The results revealed significant variability within these broader racial/ethnic categories with regard to breast cancer screening. Community outreach programs and future research efforts should target the subpopulations that are at particular risk for breast cancer screening non-adherence.

  14. Androgen Deprivation Therapy and the Incidence of Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Patients With Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klil-Drori, Adi J; Tascilar, Koray; Yin, Hui; Aprikian, Armen; Bitton, Alain; Azoulay, Laurent

    2016-07-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is the mainstay treatment for advanced prostate cancer. By lowering androgen levels, ADT inhibits the progression of prostate cancer, but it may also affect gut autoimmunity. We investigated the association between ADT and the incidence of inflammatory bowel disease using a cohort of 31,842 men newly diagnosed with prostate cancer between 1988 and 2014, identified in the United Kingdom Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Exposure to ADT was treated as a time-varying variable and lagged by 1 year to account for diagnostic delays, with nonuse as the reference category. During 133,018 person-years of follow-up, 48 men were newly diagnosed with ulcerative colitis (incidence rate (IR) = 36/100,000 person-years (PY)) and 12 were diagnosed with Crohn's disease (IR = 9/100,000 PY). In Cox proportional hazards models, ADT was associated with a decreased risk of ulcerative colitis (IR = 24/100,000 PY vs. IR = 50/100,000 PY; hazard ratio = 0.52, 95% confidence interval: 0.28, 0.99) and a nonsignificant decreased risk of Crohn's disease (hazard ratio = 0.38, 95% confidence interval: 0.11, 1.37). These findings indicate that the use of ADT may be associated with intestinal autoimmunity. Further research is warranted to replicate these findings and assess their clinical significance. PMID:27268031

  15. Lung Cancer Screening: The Radiologist's Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prokop, M.

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide and accounts for more deaths than breast, prostate, colon, and pancreatic cancers combined. A distinct minority (15\\%) of lung cancers are diagnosed at an early stage; 5-year survival (all lung cancers) approximates 15\\%. Randomized, control

  16. Skin cancer screening in Okinawa, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, T; Ueda, M; Suzuki, T; Naruse, K; Nakamura, T; Taguchi, M; Araki, K; Nakagawa, K; Nagai, H; Hayashi, K; Watanabe, S; Ichihashi, M

    1999-04-01

    Depletion of the ozone layer has been observed on a global scale. Ozone depletion increases the amount of biologically harmful solar ultraviolet radiation (UV) that reaches the surface of the Earth, leading to an increased incidence of skin cancer. We previously reported the prevalence and incidence of actinic keratosis (AK) in Kasai City, which is located almost at the center of Japan. To evaluate the effects of different ambient annual UV doses on the prevalence and incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer and AK in Japan, we screened for skin cancer on Ie Island in Okinawa at the southern end of Japan, where the annual cumulative dose of UV is assumed to be the highest in Japan. The island had a population of 5562 in 1993. A prospective 4-year population-based study on the prevalence and incidence of cutaneous neoplasms was conducted by examining the sun-exposed skin of people over 40 years of age living on Ie Island. In 1993 1996, 86 cases of AK, nine of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), and two of squamous cell carcinoma were identified. The annual prevalence of AK on Ie Island was 1159.4 in 1993, 572.8 in 1994, 1014.3 in 1995 and 988.9 per 100000 Japanese in 1996. These values were significantly higher than those in Kasai City. The annual age-adjusted odds ratios for AK of Ie Island to Kasai City were 2.79, 1.38, 2.45 and 2.39, respectively. The incidences of AK on Ie Island per 100,000 were 637.0 in 1995 and 625.5 in 1996, which were also significantly higher than those in Kasai City (223.6 in 1993 and 171.2 in 1994). The prevalence of BCC was 123.6 and the incidence was 26.1. Together with our previous reports, the present results show a possible inverse relationship between the prevalence and incidence of AK and latitude among Japanese people. PMID:10215187

  17. Comprehensive mutation screening for 10 genes in Chinese patients suffering very early onset inflammatory bowel disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yuan; Wang, Xin-Qiong; Yu, Yi; Guo, Yan; Xu, Xu; Gong, Ling; Zhou, Tong; Li, Xiao-Qin; Xu, Chun-Di

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To perform sequencing analysis in patients with very early-onset inflammatory bowel disease (VEO-IBD) to determine the genetic basis for VEO-IBD in Chinese pediatric patients. METHODS: A total of 13 Chinese pediatric patients with VEO-IBD were diagnosed from May 2012 and August 2014. The relevant clinical characteristics of these patients were analyzed. Then DNA in the peripheral blood from patients was extracted. Next generation sequencing (NGS) based on an Illumina-Miseq platform was used to analyze the exons in the coding regions of 10 candidate genes: IL-10, IL-10RA, IL-10RB, NOD2, FUT2, IL23R, GPR35, GPR65, TNFSF15, and ADAM30. The Sanger sequencing was used to verify the variations detected in NGS. RESULTS: Out of the 13 pediatric patients, ten were diagnosed with Crohn’s disease, and three diagnosed with ulcerative colitis. Mutations in IL-10RA and IL-10RB were detected in five patients. There were four patients who had single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with IBD. Two patients had IL-10RA and FUT2 polymorphisms, and two patients had IL-10RB and FUT2 polymorphisms. Gene variations were not found in the rest four patients. Children with mutations had lower percentile body weight (1.0% vs 27.5%, P = 0.002) and hemoglobin (87.4 g/L vs 108.5 g/L, P = 0.040) when compared with children without mutations. Although the age of onset was earlier, height was shorter, and the response to treatment was poorer in the mutation group, there was no significant difference in these factors between groups. CONCLUSION: IL-10RA and IL-10RB mutations are common in Chinese children with VEO-IBD. Patients with mutations have an earlier disease onset, lower body weight and hemoglobin, and poorer prognosis. PMID:27350736

  18. Screening for colorectal cancer: possible improvements by risk assessment evaluation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Hans J; Jakobsen, Karen V; Christensen, Ib J; Brünner, Nils

    2011-11-01

    Emerging results indicate that screening improves survival of patients with colorectal cancer. Therefore, screening programs are already implemented or are being considered for implementation in Asia, Europe and North America. At present, a great variety of screening methods are available including colono- and sigmoidoscopy, CT- and MR-colonography, capsule endoscopy, DNA and occult blood in feces, and so on. The pros and cons of the various tests, including economic issues, are debated. Although a plethora of evaluated and validated tests even with high specificities and reasonable sensitivities are available, an international consensus on screening procedures is still not established. The rather limited compliance in present screening procedures is a significant drawback. Furthermore, some of the procedures are costly and, therefore, selection methods for these procedures are needed. Current research into improvements of screening for colorectal cancer includes blood-based biological markers, such as proteins, DNA and RNA in combination with various demographically and clinically parameters into a "risk assessment evaluation" (RAE) test. It is assumed that such a test may lead to higher acceptance among the screening populations, and thereby improve the compliances. Furthermore, the involvement of the media, including social media, may add even more individuals to the screening programs. Implementation of validated RAE and progressively improved screening methods may reform the cost/benefit of screening procedures for colorectal cancer. Therefore, results of present research, validating RAE tests, are awaited with interest. PMID:21854094

  19. Social support and non-participation in breast cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Line Flytkjær; Pedersen, Anette Fischer; Andersen, Berit;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Social support may have an impact on screening participation. We studied the association between social support in 2006, defined as frequencies of contacts, instrumental support and emotional support and participation in breast cancer screening in 2008-09. METHODS: This population......-based cohort study included 4512 women who had participated in a Health Survey in 2006 and who also were in the target group for the first round of organized breast cancer screening in the Central Denmark region in 2008-09. RESULTS: Women with infrequent contacts with friends and family in 2006 were more...... non-participation in breast cancer screening in 2008-09. Targeted social interventions may, therefore, have an impact on future screening behaviour, which calls for further research....

  20. Reasons why patients fail screening in Indian breast cancer trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Mahajan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: An increased number of screen failure patients in a clinical trial increases time and cost required for the recruitment. Assessment of reasons for screen failure can help reduce screen failure rates and improve recruitment. Materials and Methods: We collected retrospective data of human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER2 positive Indian breast cancer patients, who failed screening for phase 3 clinical trials and ascertained their reasons for screen failure from screening logs. Statistical comparison was done to ascertain if there are any differences between private and public sites. Results: Of 727 patients screened at 14 sites, 408 (56.1% failed screening. The data on the specific reasons for screen failures was not available at one of the public sites (38 screen failures out of 83 screened patients. Hence, after excluding that site, further analysis is based on 644 patients, of which 370 failed screening. Of these, 296 (80% screen failure patients did not meet selection criteria. The majority -266 were HER2 negative. Among logistical issues, 39 patients had inadequate breast tissue sample. Sixteen patients withdrew their consent at private sites as compared to six at public sites. The difference between private and public sites for the above three reasons was statistically significant. Conclusion: Use of prescreening logs to reduce the number of patients not meeting selection criteria and protocol logistics, and patient counseling to reduce consent withdrawals could be used to reduce screen failure rate.

  1. Discovery – Lung Cancer Screening Saves Lives: The NLST

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI funded the National Lung Screening Trial, an eight-year study that used new technology to detect small, aggressive tumors early enough to surgically remove them. This approach reduced lung cancer deaths among participants by 20 percent.

  2. Grantee Spotlight: Dr. Kolawole Okuyemi - Improving Cervical Cancer Screening Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Kolawole Okuyumi is studying cervical cancer screening attitudes and behaviors of African immigrants and refugees in Minnesota, and introducing “cancer” and “cervix” to their everyday vocabulary.

  3. Low adherence to cervical cancer screening after subtotal hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lea Laird; Møller, Lars Mikael Alling; Gimbel, Helga Margrethe

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: A reason for not recommending subtotal hysterectomy is the risk of cervical pathology. We aimed to evaluate cervical cancer screening and to describe cervical pathology after subtotal and total hysterectomy for benign indications. METHODS: Data regarding adherence to screening.......7% were not screened. We found a minimum of one abnormal test in 28 (10.8%) after subtotal hysterectomy and one after total hysterectomy. No cervical cancers were found. CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to cervical cancer screening after subtotal hysterectomy in a Danish population is suboptimal and some patients...... have unnecessary tests performed after total hysterectomy. Clarification of the use of cervical/vaginal smears after hysterectomy is needed to identify women at risk of cervical dysplasia or cancer. FUNDING: Research Foundation of Region Zealand, University of Southern Denmark, Nykøbing Falster...

  4. Family Support and Colorectal Cancer Screening among Urban African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Brittain, Kelly; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y.; Loveland-Cherry, Carol; Northouse, Laurel; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cause of cancer death among African Americans. Less than 50% of African Americans have had CRC screening. This study examined the relationships between family support and influence, cultural identity, CRC beliefs, and a screening informed decision among 129 urban African Americans. Family support (p < .01) significantly predicted CRC beliefs and CRC beliefs significantly predicted informed decision (p < .01). Based on study results, practitioners s...

  5. New Molecular Tools for Efficient Screening of Cervical Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Magnus von Knebel Doeberitz

    2001-01-01

    Cytological screening using the Pap-smear led to a remarkable reduction of the mortality of cervical cancer. However, due to subjective test criteria it is hampered by poor inter- and intra-observer agreement. More reproducible assays are expected to improve the current screening and avoid unnecessary medical intervention and psychological distress for the affected women. Cervical cancer arises as consequence of persistent high risk papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infections. Expression of two viral ...

  6. Socioeconomic Disparities across Ethnicities: An Application to Cervical Cancer Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, B.; O'Neill, C

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Our aim is to investigate socioeconomic disparities in cervical cancer screening utilization among and between ethnic groups in the United States. Study Design: Observational study. Methods: Data on 26,338 women aged 21 to 64 years were obtained from the 2007 to 2011 years of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Data on cervical cancer screening utilization in the preceding 12 months and 3 years, and a range of sociodemographic characteristics were included. Analyses were...

  7. Colorectal cancer screening with odour material by canine scent detection

    OpenAIRE

    Sonoda, Hideto; Kohnoe, Shunji; Yamazato, Tetsuro; Satoh, Yuji; Morizono, Gouki; Shikata, Kentaro; Morita, Makoto; Watanabe, Akihiro; Morita, Masaru; Kakeji, Yoshihiro; Inoue, Fumio; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2011-01-01

    Objective Early detection and early treatment are of vital importance to the successful treatment of various cancers. The development of a novel screening method that is as economical and non-invasive as the faecal occult blood test (FOBT) for early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC) is needed. A study was undertaken using canine scent detection to determine whether odour material can become an effective tool in CRC screening. Design Exhaled breath and watery stool samples were obtained fro...

  8. Screening and cervical cancer cure: population based cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Andrae, B.; Andersson, T. M.-L.; Lambert, P C; Kemetli, L.; Silfverdal, L.; Strander, B.; Ryd, W; Dillner, J; Tornberg, S; Sparen, P

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine whether detection of invasive cervical cancer by screening results in better prognosis or merely increases the lead time until death. Design Nationwide population based cohort study. Setting Sweden. Participants All 1230 women with cervical cancer diagnosed during 1999-2001 in Sweden prospectively followed up for an average of 8.5 years. Main outcome measures Cure proportions and five year relative survival ratios, stratified by screening history, mode of detection, age...

  9. Environmental scan of anal cancer screening practices: worldwide survey results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anal squamous cell carcinoma is rare in the general population but certain populations, such as persons with HIV, are at increased risk. High-risk populations can be screened for anal cancer using strategies similar to those used for cervical cancer. However, little is known about the use of such screening practices across jurisdictions. Data were collected using an online survey. Health care professionals currently providing anal cancer screening services were invited to complete the survey via email and/or fax. Information was collected on populations screened, services and treatments offered, and personnel. Over 300 invitations were sent; 82 providers from 80 clinics around the world completed the survey. Fourteen clinics have each examined more than 1000 patients. Over a third of clinics do not restrict access to screening; in the rest, eligibility is most commonly based on HIV status and abnormal anal cytology results. Fifty-three percent of clinics require abnormal anal cytology prior to performing high-resolution anoscopy (HRA) in asymptomatic patients. Almost all clinics offer both anal cytology and HRA. Internal high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) is most often treated with infrared coagulation (61%), whereas external high-grade AIN is most commonly treated with imiquimod (49%). Most procedures are performed by physicians, followed by nurse practitioners. Our study is the first description of global anal cancer screening practices. Our findings may be used to inform practice and health policy in jurisdictions considering anal cancer screening

  10. Environmental scan of anal cancer screening practices: worldwide survey results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jigisha; Salit, Irving E; Berry, Michael J; de Pokomandy, Alexandra; Nathan, Mayura; Fishman, Fred; Palefsky, Joel; Tinmouth, Jill

    2014-08-01

    Anal squamous cell carcinoma is rare in the general population but certain populations, such as persons with HIV, are at increased risk. High-risk populations can be screened for anal cancer using strategies similar to those used for cervical cancer. However, little is known about the use of such screening practices across jurisdictions. Data were collected using an online survey. Health care professionals currently providing anal cancer screening services were invited to complete the survey via email and/or fax. Information was collected on populations screened, services and treatments offered, and personnel. Over 300 invitations were sent; 82 providers from 80 clinics around the world completed the survey. Fourteen clinics have each examined more than 1000 patients. Over a third of clinics do not restrict access to screening; in the rest, eligibility is most commonly based on HIV status and abnormal anal cytology results. Fifty-three percent of clinics require abnormal anal cytology prior to performing high-resolution anoscopy (HRA) in asymptomatic patients. Almost all clinics offer both anal cytology and HRA. Internal high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) is most often treated with infrared coagulation (61%), whereas external high-grade AIN is most commonly treated with imiquimod (49%). Most procedures are performed by physicians, followed by nurse practitioners. Our study is the first description of global anal cancer screening practices. Our findings may be used to inform practice and health policy in jurisdictions considering anal cancer screening. PMID:24740973

  11. Korean Guidelines for Colorectal Cancer Screening and Polyp Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Bo In [The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sung Pil [Yensei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seong Eun [Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-04-15

    Colorectal cancer is currently the second most common cancer among Korean males and the fourth most common among females. Since the majority of colorectal cancer case present following the prolonged transformation of adenomas into carcinomas, early detection and removal of colorectal adenomas are vital methods in its prevention. Considering the increasing incidence of colorectal cancer and polyps in Korea, it is very important to establish national guidelines for colorectal cancer screening and polyp detection. The proposed guidelines have been developed by the Korean Multi-Society Task Force using evidence-based methods. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses have been used to form the statements contained in the guidelines. This paper discusses the epidemiology of colorectal cancers and adenomas in Korea as well as optimal methods for screening of colorectal cancer and detection of adenomas including fecal occult blood tests, radiologic tests, and endoscopic examinations.

  12. Korean Guidelines for Colorectal Cancer Screening and Polyp Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colorectal cancer is currently the second most common cancer among Korean males and the fourth most common among females. Since the majority of colorectal cancer case present following the prolonged transformation of adenomas into carcinomas, early detection and removal of colorectal adenomas are vital methods in its prevention. Considering the increasing incidence of colorectal cancer and polyps in Korea, it is very important to establish national guidelines for colorectal cancer screening and polyp detection. The proposed guidelines have been developed by the Korean Multi-Society Task Force using evidence-based methods. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses have been used to form the statements contained in the guidelines. This paper discusses the epidemiology of colorectal cancers and adenomas in Korea as well as optimal methods for screening of colorectal cancer and detection of adenomas including fecal occult blood tests, radiologic tests, and endoscopic examinations.

  13. Value of audits in breast cancer screening quality assurance programmes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geertse, Tanya D.; Holland, Roland; Timmers, Janine M. H.; Paap, Ellen; Pijnappel, Ruud M.; Broeders, Mireille J. M.; den Heeten, Gerard J.

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to retrospectively evaluate the results of all audits performed in the past and to assess their value in the quality assurance of the Dutch breast cancer screening programme. The audit team of the Dutch Reference Centre for Screening (LRCB) conducts triennial audits of all 17 reading uni

  14. Prospects for population screening and diagnosis of lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Field, John K; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Pedersen, Jesper Holst;

    2013-01-01

    Deaths from lung cancer exceed those from any other type of malignancy, with 1·5 million deaths in 2010. Prevention and smoking cessation are still the main methods to reduce the death toll. The US National Lung Screening Trial, which compared CT screening with chest radiograph, yielded a mortality...

  15. A Social Marketing Approach To Increasing Breast Cancer Screening Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Carol A.; Forthofer, Melinda S.; McCormack Brown, Kelli; Alfonso, Moya Lynn; Quinn, Gwen

    2000-01-01

    Used social marketing to identify factors influencing women's breast cancer screening behaviors. Data from focus groups and interviews with diverse women highlighted women's attitudes, knowledge, and barriers regarding screening. Results were used to develop a comprehensive social marketing plan to motivate irregular users of breast cancer…

  16. Attitudes of women about breast cancer and cervical cancern screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ilknur Aydin Avci

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: This research revealed that the women had moderate knowlege about breast and cervical cancer screening and artcipation in screening is low. Beside, the women who had BSE and mammography had more PAP smear. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(3.000: 235-239

  17. Lung cancer screening: history, current perspectives, and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Divakar; Newman, Thomas G.

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer has remained the leading cause of death worldwide among all cancers. The dismal 5-year survival rate of 16% is in part due to the lack of symptoms during early stages and lack of an effective screening test until recently. Chest X-ray and sputum cytology were studied extensively as potential screening tests for lung cancer and were conclusively proven to be of no value. Subsequently, a number of studies compared computed tomography (CT) with the chest X-ray. These studies did identify lung cancer in earlier stages. However, they were not designed to prove a reduction in mortality. Later trials have focused on low-dose CT (LDCT) as a screening tool. The largest US trial – the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) – enrolled approximately 54,000 patients and revealed a 20% reduction in mortality. While a role for LDCT in lung cancer screening has been established, the issues of high false positive rates, radiation risk, and cost effectiveness still need to be addressed. The guidelines of the international organizations that now include LDCT in lung cancer screening are reviewed. Other methods that may improve earlier detection such as positron emission tomography, autofluorescence bronchoscopy, and molecular biomarkers are also discussed. PMID:26528348

  18. Analysis of previous screening examinations for patients with breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We wanted to improve the quality of subsequent screening by reviewing the previous screening of breast cancer patients. Twenty-four breast cancer patients who underwent previous screening were enrolled. All 24 took mammograms and 15 patients also took sonograms. We reviewed the screening retrospectively according to the BI-RADS criteria and we categorized the results into false negative, true negative, true positive and occult cancers. We also categorized the causes of false negative cancers into misperception, misinterpretation and technical factors and then we analyzed the attributing factors. Review of the previous screening revealed 66.7% (16/24) false negative, 25.0% (6/24) true negative, and 8.3% (2/24) true positive cancers. False negative cancers were caused by the mammogram in 56.3% (9/16) and by the sonogram in 43.7% (7/16). For the false negative cases, all of misperception were related with mammograms and this was attributed to dense breast, a lesion located at the edge of glandular tissue or the image, and findings seen on one view only. Almost all misinterpretations were related with sonograms and attributed to loose application of the final assessment. To improve the quality of breast screening, it is essential to overcome the main causes of false negative examinations, including misperception and misinterpretation. We need systematic education and strict application of final assessment categories of BI-RADS. For effective communication among physicians, it is also necessary to properly educate them about BI-RADS

  19. Secondary solid cancer screening following hematopoietic cell transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamoto, Y; Shah, NN; Savani, BN; Shaw, BE; Abraham, AA; Ahmed, IA; Akpek, G; Atsuta, Y; Baker, KS; Basak, GW; Bitan, M; DeFilipp, Z; Gregory, TK; Greinix, HT; Hamadani, M; Hamilton, BK; Hayashi, RJ; Jacobsohn, DA; Kamble, RT; Kasow, KA; Khera, N; Lazarus, HM; Malone, AK; Lupo-Stanghellini, MT; Margossian, SP; Muffly, LS; Norkin, M; Ramanathan, M; Salooja, N; Schoemans, H; Wingard, JR; Wirk, B; Wood, WA; Yong, A; Duncan, CN; Flowers, MED; Majhail, NS

    2016-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT) recipients have a substantial risk of developing secondary solid cancers, particularly beyond 5 years after HCT and without reaching a plateau overtime. A working group was established through the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research and the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation with the goal to facilitate implementation of cancer screening appropriate to HCT recipients. The working group reviewed guidelines and methods for cancer screening applicable to the general population and reviewed the incidence and risk factors for secondary cancers after HCT. A consensus approach was used to establish recommendations for individual secondary cancers. The most common sites include oral cavity, skin, breast and thyroid. Risks of cancers are increased after HCT compared with the general population in skin, thyroid, oral cavity, esophagus, liver, nervous system, bone and connective tissues. Myeloablative TBI, young age at HCT, chronic GVHD and prolonged immunosuppressive treatment beyond 24 months were well-documented risk factors for many types of secondary cancers. All HCT recipients should be advised of the risks of secondary cancers annually and encouraged to undergo recommended screening based on their predisposition. Here we propose guidelines to help clinicians in providing screening and preventive care for secondary cancers among HCT recipients. PMID:25822223

  20. Screening in breast cancer: a view from the front line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mammography screning presents the only real breakthrough in breast cancer in this century. Twenty-five percent of all cancer in women is breast cancer. About 50 percent of these women die from their disease. It has not been possible to reduce breast cancer mortality more than marginally by any mode of treatment. Single view mammography screening can do so, however, at the rate of 30 to 40 percent. Screening has many detractors, especially in the treatment camp. These detractors do not always act in the patients' best interests. Considering the vast resources used up until now in trying to improve on breast cancer treatment, and to little avail, it is time to divert some of these efforts to set up screening programmes wherever possible. Well handled, these are able to reduce suffering and health care costs and save lines

  1. The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) compared two ways of detecting lung cancer: low-dose helical computed tomography (CT) and standard chest X-ray. Both chest X-rays and low-dose helical CT scans have been used to find lung cancer early, but the effects of these screening techniques on lung cancer mortality rates had not been determined. NLST enrolled 53,454 current or former heavy smokers from 33 sites and coordinating centers across the United States. | The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) compared two ways of detecting lung cancer: participants who received low-dose helical CT scans had a 20% lower risk of dying from lung cancer than participants who received standard chest X-rays.

  2. Development of computer aided diagnosis for lung cancer CT screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The introduction of low dose lung cancer helical CT screening to the clinical site has been the fundamental basis of research on Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) using thoracic CT images. Our purpose is the early detection of lung cancer leading to its early treatment, in order to reduce the mortality of lung cancer. From multi-slice CT, lung cancer screening has been activated more. Since CT screening contains a lot of images compared with the conventional X-ray, research and development on the utilization of computer and network using the new diagnosis support technology is required. Due to the demand from actual clinical site, the research group from The University of Tokushima has started the research and development of CAD using lung cancer CT images. We report the result and the future works. (author)

  3. Effects of Prostate Cancer Screening and Treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Wever (Elisabeth)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractProstate cancer is the second most frequently diagnosed cancer of men worldwide. The number of new cases worldwide was estimated at 899,000 and accounted for 13.6% of all cancers in men in 2008. With an estimated 258,000 deaths in 2008, prostate cancer is the sixth leading cause of death

  4. Screening history of cervical cancers in Emilia-Romagna, Italy: defining priorities to improve cervical cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Paolo Giorgi; Caroli, Stefania; Mancini, Silvia; de' Bianchi, Priscilla Sassoli; Finarelli, Alba C; Naldoni, Carlo; Bucchi, Lauro; Falcini, Fabio

    2015-03-01

    Most invasive cervical cancers in industrialized countries are due to the lack of Pap test coverage, very few are due to screening failures. This study aimed at quantifying the proportion of invasive cancers occurring in nonscreened or underscreened women and that in women with a previous negative screening, that is, screening failure, during the first two screening rounds (1996-2002) and in the following rounds (2003-2008) in the Emilia-Romagna region. All cases of invasive cancers registered in the regional cancer registry between 1996 and 2008 were classified according to screening history through a record linkage with the screening programme registry. The incidence significantly decreased from 11.6/100 000 to 8.7/100 000; this decrease is due to a reduction in squamous cell cancers (annual percentage change -6.2; confidence interval: -7.8, -4.6) and advanced cancers (annual percentage change -6.6; confidence interval: -8.8, -4.3), whereas adenocarcinomas and microinvasive cancers were essentially stable. The proportion of cancers among women not yet invited and among nonresponders decreased over the two periods, from 45.5 to 33.3%. In contrast, the proportion of women with a previous negative Pap test less than 5 years and 5 years or more before cancer incidence increased from 5.7 to 13.3% and from 0.3 to 5.5%, respectively. Although nonattendance of the screening programme remains the main barrier to cervical cancer control, the introduction of a more sensitive test, such as the human papillomavirus DNA test, could significantly reduce the burden of disease. PMID:24787379

  5. Imaging screening of breast cancer: primary results in 5307 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To discuss the values of three screening methods for the detection of early breast cancer, and to analyze the features of the screening cancer. Methods: The first screening of breast cancer were performed in 5307 women who aged from 20 to 76 years with median age of 49 years. The three screening methods included physical examination with ultrasound and mammography, physical examination with mammography and mammography only. The rate of recall, biopsy, cancer detection of three methods were analyzed and the mammographic findings were reviewed. Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test were used for the statistics. Results: The recall rates were 4.90% (49/1001), 6.90% (166/2407) and 4. 48% (85/1899) in three methods respectively, the biopsy rates were 1.60% (16/1001), 1.04% (25/2407) and 0.63% (12/1899), the cancer detection rates were 0.50% (5/1001), 0.17% (4/2407) and 0 (0/1899). There were statistical differences among the three groups (χ2=12.99,6.264,8.764, P<0.05). Physical examination with ultrasound and mammography had the highest cancer detection rate, ten breast cancers were detected and 8 were early stage breast cancer. Of seven cancers detected by mammography, only two were found by ultrasound. A cluster of calcifications were found in 2 cases, linear calcifications in 2 cases. One case presented as a asymmetric density, one as a asymmetric density with calcifications, one as multiple nodules with a cluster of calcifications. Two breast cancers presented as asymmetric density were missed on mammography and diagnosed correctly after retrospective review. Conclusion: Physical examination with ultrasound and mammography is the best method for breast cancer screening. The breast cancer can be detected by mammography earlier than other methods. (authors)

  6. Reduced Acute Bowel Toxicity in Patients Treated With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Rectal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuelian, Jason M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Callister, Matthew D., E-mail: Callister.matthew@mayo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Ashman, Jonathan B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Young-Fadok, Tonia M. [Division of Colorectal Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Borad, Mitesh J. [Division of Hematology-Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Gunderson, Leonard L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: We have previously shown that intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) can reduce dose to small bowel, bladder, and bone marrow compared with three-field conventional radiotherapy (CRT) technique in the treatment of rectal cancer. The purpose of this study was to review our experience using IMRT to treat rectal cancer and report patient clinical outcomes. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review was conducted of patients with rectal cancer who were treated at Mayo Clinic Arizona with pelvic radiotherapy (RT). Data regarding patient and tumor characteristics, treatment, acute toxicity according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v 3.0, tumor response, and perioperative morbidity were collected. Results: From 2004 to August 2009, 92 consecutive patients were treated. Sixty-one (66%) patients were treated with CRT, and 31 (34%) patients were treated with IMRT. All but 2 patients received concurrent chemotherapy. There was no significant difference in median dose (50.4 Gy, CRT; 50 Gy, IMRT), preoperative vs. postoperative treatment, type of concurrent chemotherapy, or history of previous pelvic RT between the CRT and IMRT patient groups. Patients who received IMRT had significantly less gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity. Sixty-two percent of patients undergoing CRT experienced {>=}Grade 2 acute GI side effects, compared with 32% among IMRT patients (p = 0.006). The reduction in overall GI toxicity was attributable to fewer symptoms from the lower GI tract. Among CRT patients, {>=}Grade 2 diarrhea and enteritis was experienced among 48% and 30% of patients, respectively, compared with 23% (p = 0.02) and 10% (p = 0.015) among IMRT patients. There was no significant difference in hematologic or genitourinary acute toxicity between groups. In addition, pathologic complete response rates and postoperative morbidity between treatment groups did not differ significantly. Conclusions: In the management of rectal cancer, IMRT is associated with a

  7. How to Optimize Colon Cancer Surveillance in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaidos, Jill K J; Bickston, Stephen J

    2016-05-01

    Colitis-associated colorectal neoplasia (CRN) is a well-known complication of chronic inflammation of the colon either with ulcerative colitis (UC) or colonic Crohn's disease (CD). Studies have shown that inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients have an overall higher risk for colorectal dysplasia and cancer compared to the general population and this risk is further increased by certain associated factors, including extent of disease, duration of disease, and age at onset. In addition, other risk factors not related to IBD can also further increase the risk for CRN, such as a family history of sporadic colon cancer and a concomitant diagnosis of primary sclerosing cholangitis. The society guidelines mostly agree on the appropriate time to begin CRN surveillance but vary somewhat on the appropriate intervals between surveillance colonoscopies. In addition, there is not yet a consensus on the appropriate method for surveillance. In this review, we discuss the risk for CRN in colonic IBD, the associated factors that further increase the risk for CRN, the current surveillance guidelines and the current methods available for CRN surveillance. PMID:26926040

  8. Pathways of cervical cancer screening among Chinese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma GX

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Grace X Ma,1 Min Qi Wang,2 Xiang S Ma,3 Steven E Shive,4 Yin Tan,5 Jamil I Toubbeh51Department of Public Health, College of Health Professions, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, 2Department of Public and Community Health, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 3College of Health Professions and School of Medicine, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, 4Center for Asian Health, Temple University, and Department of Health, East Stroudsburg University, East Stroudsburg, PA, 5Center for Asian Health, Department of Public Health, College of Health Professions, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USABackground: The purpose of this community-based study was to develop a structural equation model for factors contributing to cervical cancer screening among Chinese American women.Methods: A cross-sectional design included a sample of 573 Chinese American women aged 18 years and older. The initial step involved use of confirmatory factor analysis, that included the following variables: access to and satisfaction with health care, and enabling and predisposing cultural and health beliefs. Structural equation model analyses were conducted on factors related to cervical cancer screening.Results: Age, marital status, employment, household income, and having health insurance, but not educational level, were significantly related to cervical screening status. Predisposing and enabling factors were positively associated with cervical cancer screening. The cultural factor was significantly related to the enabling factor or the satisfaction with health care factor.Conclusion: This model highlights the significance of sociocultural factors in relation to cervical cancer screening. These factors were significant, with cultural, predisposing, enabling, and health belief factors and access to and satisfaction with health care reinforcing the need to assist Chinese American women with poor English fluency in translation and awareness of the importance of cervical

  9. Cervical cancer screening: on the way to a shift from cytology to full molecular screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, M G; Snijders, P J F; Arbyn, M; Rijkaart, D C; Berkhof, J; Meijer, C J L M

    2014-05-01

    Cytology-based nation-wide cervical screening has led to a substantial reduction of the incidence of cervical cancer in western countries. However, the sensitivity of cytology for the detection of high-grade precursor lesions or cervical cancer is limited; therefore, repeated testing is necessary to achieve program effectiveness. Additionally, adenocarcinomas and its precursors are often missed by cytology. Consequently, there is a need for a better screening test. The insight that infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) is the causal agent of cervical cancer and its precursors has led to the development of molecular tests for the detection of hrHPV. Strong evidence now supports the use of hrHPV testing in the prevention of cervical cancer. In this review, we will discuss the arguments in favor of, and concerns on aspects of implementation of hrHPV testing in primary cervical cancer screening, such as the age to start hrHPV-based screening, ways to increase screening attendance, requirements for candidate hrHPV tests to be used, and triage algorithms for screen-positive women. PMID:24445150

  10. Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer: not just a barium enema{exclamation_point} Radiographic manifestations and screening tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, L.; Jeon, P. [Health Sciences Center, Diagnostic Imaging, St. John' s, Newfoundland (Canada)]. E-mail: u43dlb@mun.ca; Green, J. [Health Sciences Center, Discipline of Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, St. John' s, Newfoundland (Canada)

    2007-10-15

    Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is an autosomal dominant trait characterized by presentation of colorectal cancer (CRC) at an early age and by an increased risk of other primary malignancies, including those of the endometrium. ovaries, stomach, small bowel, upper biliary tract, skin, and brain, as well as by transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) that especially involves the renal pelvis and ureter. Because specific genetic mutations causing HNPCC have been recently discovered, genetic screening options have been developed for some families. Subsequently, radiology has an increasing role in surveillance for and management of these HNPCC-associated tumours. Although colonoscopy is the mainstay of a screening regimen for colon cancer, the barium enema has been a standard radiologic investigation. Further, computed tomography (CT) colonography (now practised in various centres) will, with further refinement, prove to be of increasing value. Ultrasonography is a standard investigation for endometrial and ovarian cancer, with CT and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging often playing a central role. As for TCC, intravenous urography (IVU) had been a standard investigation tool. However, with continued evolution of multidetector row CT with postprocessing manipulation (CT urography [CTU]), the role of IVU is diminishing in most centres. Newfoundland has a high prevalence of HNPCC exhibiting a broad range of manifestations. In this article, radiologic images of various tumours from individuals with HNPCC demonstrate a radiologic spectrum of this fascinating hereditary disease. Screening implications and specific screening methods are reviewed. (author)

  11. Social Construction of Cervical Cancer Screening among Panamanian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Arlene; Brown, Kelli McCormack; McDermott, Robert J.; Bryant, Carol A.; Coreil, Jeanine; Loseke, Donileen

    2012-01-01

    Background: Understanding how "health issues" are socially constructed may be useful for creating culturally relevant programs for Hispanic/Latino populations. Purpose: We explored the constructed meanings of cervical cancer and cervical cancer screening among Panamanian women, as well as socio-cultural factors that deter or encourage screening…

  12. PSA Screening Has Led to Overtreatment of Many Prostate Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screening for prostate cancer with the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test has led to overtreatment of many prostate cancers, including aggressive treatments in older men considered to be at low risk for progression of the disease according to a study published in the July 26, 2010 Archives of Internal Medicine.

  13. The Actin-Cytoskeleton Pathway and Its Potential Role in Inflammatory Bowel Disease-Associated Human Colorectal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kanaan, Ziad; Qadan, Motaz; Eichenberger, Maurice Robert; Galandiuk, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: To improve our understanding of the various clinical phenotypes in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-associated colorectal cancer (CRC) and provide potential targets for early diagnosis and future therapy, we sought to identify new candidate genes and molecular pathways involved in the pathogenesis and progression of this disorder. Recent evidence has implicated the actin-cytoskeleton pathway in the development of metastatic sporadic CRC through cytoskeletal proteins such as fasc...

  14. The impact of radiologists' expertise on screen results decisions in a CT lung cancer screening trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the impact of radiological expertise on screen result decisions in a CT lung cancer screening trial. In the NELSON lung cancer screening trial, the baseline CT result was based on the largest lung nodule's volume. The protocol allowed radiologists to manually adjust screen results in cases of high suspicion of benign or malignant nodule nature. Participants whose baseline CT result was based on a solid or part-solid nodule were included in this study. Adjustments by radiologists at baseline were evaluated. Histology was the reference for diagnosis or to confirm benignity and stability on subsequent CT examinations. A total of 3,318 participants (2,796 male, median age 58.0 years) were included. In 195 participants (5.9 %) the initial baseline screen result was adjusted by the radiologist. Adjustment was downwards from positive or indeterminate to negative in two and 119 participants, respectively, and from positive to indeterminate in 65 participants. None of these nodules turned out to be malignant. In 9/195 participants (4.6 %) the screen result was adjusted upwards from negative to indeterminate or indeterminate to positive; two nodules were malignant. In one in 20 cases of baseline lung cancer screening, nodules were reclassified by the radiologist, leading to a reduction of false-positive screen results. (orig.)

  15. A qualitative exploration of Malaysian cancer patients’ perceptions of cancer screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farooqui Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the existence of different screening methods, the response to cancer screening is poor among Malaysians. The current study aims to examine cancer patients’ perceptions of cancer screening and early diagnosis. Methods A qualitative methodology was used to collect in-depth information from cancer patients. After obtaining institutional ethical approval, patients with different types and stages of cancer from the three major ethnic groups (Malay, Chinese and Indian were approached. Twenty semi-structured interviews were conducted. All interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, and translated into English for thematic content analysis. Results Thematic content analysis yielded four major themes: awareness of cancer screening, perceived benefits of cancer screening, perceived barriers to cancer screening, and cues to action. The majority of respondents had never heard of cancer screening before their diagnosis. Some participants reported hearing about mammogram and Pap smear tests but did not undergo screening due to a lack of belief in personal susceptibility. Those who had negative results from screening prior to diagnosis perceived such tests as untrustworthy. Lack of knowledge and financial constraints were reported as barriers to cancer screening. Finally, numerous suggestions were given to improve screening behaviour among healthy individuals, including the role of mass media in disseminating the message ‘prevention is better than cure’. Conclusions Patients’ narratives revealed some significant issues that were in line with the Health Belief Model which could explain negative health behaviour. The description of the personal experiences of people with cancer could provide many cues to action for those who have never encountered this potentially deadly disease, if incorporated into health promotion activities.

  16. A qualitative exploration of Malaysian cancer patients’ perceptions of cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the existence of different screening methods, the response to cancer screening is poor among Malaysians. The current study aims to examine cancer patients’ perceptions of cancer screening and early diagnosis. Methods A qualitative methodology was used to collect in-depth information from cancer patients. After obtaining institutional ethical approval, patients with different types and stages of cancer from the three major ethnic groups (Malay, Chinese and Indian) were approached. Twenty semi-structured interviews were conducted. All interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, and translated into English for thematic content analysis. Results Thematic content analysis yielded four major themes: awareness of cancer screening, perceived benefits of cancer screening, perceived barriers to cancer screening, and cues to action. The majority of respondents had never heard of cancer screening before their diagnosis. Some participants reported hearing about mammogram and Pap smear tests but did not undergo screening due to a lack of belief in personal susceptibility. Those who had negative results from screening prior to diagnosis perceived such tests as untrustworthy. Lack of knowledge and financial constraints were reported as barriers to cancer screening. Finally, numerous suggestions were given to improve screening behaviour among healthy individuals, including the role of mass media in disseminating the message ‘prevention is better than cure’. Conclusions Patients’ narratives revealed some significant issues that were in line with the Health Belief Model which could explain negative health behaviour. The description of the personal experiences of people with cancer could provide many cues to action for those who have never encountered this potentially deadly disease, if incorporated into health promotion activities. PMID:23331785

  17. Quality control in screening programs for cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The malignancy of the cervix is one of the few locations avoidable cancers, if detected before it progresses to the infiltration. The most efficient way of early detection is through a screening program to provide women undertaking a regular and quality Pap smear. If this test results abnormal, the program offers easier access to specialized care, effective treatment, and follow-up. The objective of this article is to present usefulness of methods for quality control used in screening programs for cervical cancer to detect their inadequacies. Here are some factors and conditions that must be considered in each of the steps to take, for a cervical cancer screening program to be successful and to meet the objectives proposed in reducing mortality due to this cause. This document contains some useful indexes calculated to ensure quality throughout the process. There should be the measurement of quality throughout the screening process that allows collecting of reliable data as well as correcting deficiencies

  18. Transillumination in breast cancer detection: screening failures and potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This prospective study of 1265 women referred to a multimodality breast diagnostic center compares the sensitivity for breast cancer detection of state-of-the-art transillumination light scanning and film-screen mammography. Of 33 biopsy-proven cancers, transillumination light scanning detected 58%, while mammography detected 97% of the cancers. Light scanning did detect 55% of the nonpalpable breast cancers, and 30% of those tumors smaller than 1 cm. Detection of breast cancer by light scanning was affected by breast size, but not architecture, and was directly related to tumor size. Although transillumination light scanning can detect some small curable breast cancers (smaller than 1 cm), it does not do so at a sensitivity adequate for screening

  19. Small Bowel Bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ACG on Facebook About ACG ACG Store ACG Patient Education & Resource Center Home GI Health and Disease Recursos en Español What is a Gastroenterologist? Podcasts and Videos GI Health Centers Colorectal Cancer Hepatitis C Inflammatory Bowel Disease Irritable Bowel Syndrome Obesity © ...

  20. Risks of Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer is present in the body. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is the most widely used tumor marker for ... and other types of cancer, may also increase AFP levels. Specific tumor markers that may lead to ...

  1. Cancer Information Summaries: Screening/Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type Progress Annual Report to the Nation Cancer Portfolio Snapshots Milestones in Cancer Research & Discovery Stories of ... Editorial Board Integrative Therapies Editorial Board Levels of Evidence Levels of Evidence: Treatment Levels of Evidence: Supportive & ...

  2. Register-based studies of cancer screening effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Von Euler-Chelpin, My; Lynge, Elsebeth; Rebolj, Matejka

    INTRODUCTION: There are two organised cancer screening programmes in Denmark, against cervical and breast cancers. The aim with this study was to give an overview of the available register-based research regarding these two programmes, to demonstrate the usefulness of data from the national...... registers. RESEARCH TOPICS: The register-based studies on cancer screening in Denmark could be grouped into research concerning effectiveness, in terms of mortality and incidence reduction, short-term indicators, e.g. in relation to recommended quality assurance indicators, and side effects, e.g. as false...

  3. Cervical cancer screening policies and coverage in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anttila, Ahti; von Karsa, Lawrence; Aasmaa, Auni;

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare current policy, organisation and coverage of cervical cancer screening programmes in the European Union (EU) member states with European and other international recommendations. According to the questionnaire-based survey, there are large variations in cervical...... with education, training and communication among women, medical professionals and authorities are required, accordingly. The study indicates that, despite substantial efforts, the recommendations of the Council of the EU on organised population-based screening for cervical cancer are not yet fulfilled. Decision......-makers and health service providers should consider stronger measures or incentives in order to improve cervical cancer control in Europe....

  4. Chemical genetics and drug screening in Drosophila cancer models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mara Gladstone; Tin Tin Su

    2011-01-01

    Drug candidates often fail in preclinical and clinical testing because of reasons of efficacy and/or safety.It would be time- and cost-efficient to have screening models that reduce the rate of such false positive candidates that appear promising at first but fail later.In this regard,it would be particularly useful to have a rapid and inexpensive whole animal model that can pre-select hits from high-throughput screens but before testing in costly rodent assays.Drosophila melanogaster has emerged as a potential whole animal model for drug screening.Of particular interest have been drugs that must act in the context of multi-cellularity such as those for neurological disorders and cancer.A recent review provides a comprehensive summary of drug screening in Drosophila,but with an emphasis on neurodegenerative disorders.Here,we review Drosophila screens in the literature aimed at cancer therapeutics.

  5. Potential of casein kinase I in digestive cancer screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Modak

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Casein kinase I is a group of ubiquitous Serine/Threonine kinases that have been implicated in both normal cellular functions and several pathological conditions including Alzheimer’ s disease and cancer. Recent findings in colon and pancreatic cancer have brought tremendous attention to these molecules as potential therapeutic targets in treatment of digestive cancers. In this review, we summarize up to date what is known about this family of kinases and their involvement in carcinogenesis and other pathological conditions. Our emphasis is on their implications in digestive cancers and their potential for cancer screening and therapy.

  6. December 2013 Phoenix pulmonary journal club: lung cancer screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Mathew

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. During this month’s pulmonary journal club we reviewed several of the sentinel studies looking at lung cancer screening. Since the National Lung Screening Research Team (NLSRT (1 published the impressive results showing a 20% reduction in lung cancer mortality, the debate on when and if to initiate a national lung cancer screening program has been at the forefront of debate. The American Lung Association and American Cancer Society have issued statements that are not guidelines, but did offer insight on the price we pay for earlier lung cancer detection and reduction in mortality…which is the increased rates of false positives detected and increased rates of biopsies. The US Task Force on Lung Cancer Screening has yet to decide on a screening program and have yielded a statement that neither supports nor refutes the current level of evidence. Prior to the NLSRT study there were others that showed conflicting results on …

  7. Lung cancer screening: from imaging to biomarker

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang, Dong; Zhang, Bicheng; Doll, Donald; Shen, Kui; Kloecker, Goetz; Freter, Carl

    2013-01-01

    Despite several decades of intensive effort to improve the imaging techniques for lung cancer diagnosis and treatment, primary lung cancer is still the number one cause of cancer death in the United States and worldwide. The major causes of this high mortality rate are distant metastasis evident at diagnosis and ineffective treatment for locally advanced disease. Indeed, approximately forty percent of newly diagnosed lung cancer patients have distant metastasis. Currently, the only potential ...

  8. Evaluation of complement proteins as screening markers for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Line; Christensen, Ib J; Jensenius, Jens C;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Lack of symptoms results in late detection and increased mortality. Inflammation, including complement activation, plays an important role in tumorigenesis. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The concentrations of nine proteins of....... CONCLUSION: CL-L1, M-ficolin and MAp44 in combination discriminate between CRC and patients without cancer. The markers did not have sufficient discriminatory value for CRC detection, but may prove useful for screening when combined with other markers....

  9. Gastric Cancer: Descriptive Epidemiology, Risk Factors, Screening, and Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Karimi, Parisa; Islami, Farhad; Anandasabapathy, Sharmila; Neal D Freedman; Kamangar, Farin

    2014-01-01

    Less than a century ago, gastric cancer (GC) was the most common cancer in the United States and perhaps throughout the world. Despite its worldwide decline in incidence over the past century, GC remains a major killer across the globe. This article reviews the epidemiology, screening, and prevention of gastric cancer. We first discuss the descriptive epidemiology of GC, including its incidence, survival, and mortality, including trends over time. Next, we characterize the risk factors for ga...

  10. Diagnostic aids in the screening of oral cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Fedele, S.

    2009-01-01

    The World Health Organization has clearly indentified prevention and early detection as major objectives in the control of the oral cancer burden worldwide. At the present time, screening of oral cancer and its pre-invasive intra-epithelial stages, as well as its early detection, is still largely based on visual examination of the mouth. There is strong available evidence to suggest that visual inspection of the oral mucosa is effective in reducing mortality from oral cancer in individuals ex...

  11. Joint breast and colorectal cancer screenings in medically underserved women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Terry C; Arnold, Connie L; Wolf, Michael S; Bennett, Charles L; Liu, Dachao; Rademaker, Alfred

    2016-01-01

    Background Breast and colon cancer screening in rural community clinics is underused. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of alternative interventions designed to promote simultaneous screening for breast and colon cancer in community clinics. Methods A 3-arm, quasi-experimental evaluation was conducted during May 2008-August 2011 in 8 federally qualifed health clinics in predominately rural Louisiana. Baseline screening rates reported by the clinics was <10% for breast cancer (using mammography) and 1%-2% for colon cancer (using the fecal occult blood test [FOBT]). 744 women aged 50 years or older who were eligible for routine mammography and an FOBT were recruited. The combined screening efforts included: enhanced care; health literacy-informed education (education alone), or health literacy-informed education with nurse support (nurse support). Results Postintervention screening rates for completing both tests were 28.1% with enhanced care, 23.7% with education alone, and 38.7% with nurse support. After adjusting for age, race, and literacy, patients who received nurse support were 2.21 times more likely to complete both screenings than were those who received the education alone (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12-4.38; P = .023). The incremental cost per additional woman completing both screenings was $3,987 for education with nurse support over education alone, and $5,987 over enhanced care. Limitations There were differences between the 3 arms in sociodemographic characteristics, literacy, and previous screening history. Not all variables that were significantly different between arms were adjusted for, therefore adjustments for key variables (age, race, literacy) were made in statistical analyses. Other limitations related generalizability of results. Conclusions Although joint breast and colon cancer screening rates were increased substantially over existing baseline rates in all 3 arms, the completion rate for both tests was

  12. Colorectal cancer in inflammatory bowel disease: What is the real magnitude of the risk?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jessica K Dyson; Matthew D Rutter

    2012-01-01

    The association between inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and colorectal cancer (CRC) has been recognised since 1925 and still accounts for 10%-15% of deaths in IBD.IBD-associated CRC (IBD-CRC) affects patients at a younger age than sporadic CRC.The prognosis for sporadic CRC and IBD-CRC is similar,with a 5-year survival of approximately 50%.Identifying at risk patients and implementing appropriate surveillance for these patients is central to managing the CRC risk in IBD.The increased risk of colorectal cancer in association with IBD is thought to be due to genetic and acquired factors.The link between inflammation and cancer is well recognised but the molecular biology,immune pathobiology and genetics of IBD-CRC are areas of much ongoing research.This review examines the literature relating to IBD-CRC,focusing on the incidence of IBD-CRC and examining potential risk factors including age at diagnosis,gender,duration and extent of colitis,severity of inflammation,family history of sporadic CRC and co-existent primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC).Confirmed risk factors for IBD-CRC are duration,severity and extent of colitis,the presence of co-existent PSC and a family history of CRC.There is insufficient evidence currently to support an increased frequency of surveillance for patients diagnosed with IBD at a younger age.Evidence-based guidelines advise surveillance colonoscopy for patients with colitis 8 to 10 years after diagnosis,with the interval for further surveillance guided by risk factors (extent of disease,family history of CRC,post-inflammatory polyps,concomitant PSC,personal history of colonic dysplasia,coIonic strictures).There is a move away from using random colonic biopsies towards targeted biopsies aimed at abnormal areas identified by newer colonoscopic techniques (narrow band imaging,chromoendoscopy,confocal microendoscopy).

  13. Disease activity and cancer risk in inflammatory bowel disease associated with primary sclerosing cholangitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Harry Sokol; Jacques Cosnes; Olivier Chazouilleres; Laurent Beaugerie; Emmanuel Tiret; Raoul Poupon; Philippe Seksik

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the phenotype of inflammatory bowel disease associated with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC-IBD).METHODS: Data from 75 PSC-]BD patients evaluated in our tertiary center between 1963 and 2006 were collected and compared to 150 IBD patients without PSC, matched for sex, birth date, IBD diagnosis date and initial disease location regarding ileal, different colonic segments, and rectum, respectively.RESULTS: While PSC-IBD patients received more 5-aminosalicylates (8.7 years/patient vs 2.9 years/patient, P<0.001), they required less immunosuppressors (24% vs 46% at 10 years; P<0.001) and less intestinal resection (10% vs 44% at 10 years, P<0.001). The 25-year cumulative rate of colectomy was 25.1% in PSC-IBD and 37.3% in controls (P=0.004). The 25-year cumulative rate of colorectal cancer was 23.4% in PSC-IBD vs 0% in controls (P=0.002). PSC was the only independent risk factor for the development of colorectal cancer (OR=10.8; 95%CI, 3.7-31.3). Overall survival rate without liver transplantation was reduced in PSC-IBD patients (67% vs 91% in controls at 25 years, P=0.001).CONCLUSION: This study confirms that patients with PSC-IBD have a particular disease phenotype independent of the initial disease location. Although their disease is less active and they use more 5-aminosalicylates, they present a higher risk of colorectal cancer.

  14. Role of prevention and screening in epithelial ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peddireddi Reddi Rani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial ovarian carcinoma is a disease with poor prognosis and high mortality among gynaecological cancers due to inaccessibility of ovary for inspection or sampling and lack of proper screening methods. Strategies to detect early ovarian cancer include estimation of serum CA-125 and transvaginal ultrasound (TVS for morphological index. Studies have shown that screening of asymptomatic average risk post-menopausal women did not show any benefit and are associated with false positive results which may lead to unnecessary surgery and resultant morbidity. The risks outweigh benefits. Present recommendation is to screen high risk women especially hereditary cancers and offer risk reducing surgery when needed. Prophylactic salpingectomy/oophorectomy may offer the opportunity to prevent ovarian cancer. More trials and more research in newer biomarkers are needed. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(4.000: 941-946

  15. Women's perspectives on illness in being screened for cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Lise; Augustussen, Mikaela; Møller, Helle;

    2013-01-01

    Background In Greenland, the incidence of cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) is 25 per 100,000 women; 2.5 times the Danish rate. In Greenland, the disease is most frequent among women aged 30–40. Systematic screening can identify women with cervical cell changes, which...... if untreated may cause cervical cancer. In 2007, less than 40% of eligible women in Greenland participated in screening. Objective To examine Greenlandic women's perception of disease, their understanding of the connection between HPV and cervical cancer, and the knowledge that they deem necessary to decide...... whether to participate in cervical cancer screening. Study design The methods used to perform this research were 2 focus-group interviews with 5 Danish-speaking women and 2 individual interviews with Greenlandic-speaking women. The analysis involved a phenomenological-hermeneutic approach with 3 levels...

  16. Women's perspectives on illness when being screened for cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Lise; Augustussen, Mikaela; Møller, Helle;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Greenland, the incidence of cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) is 25 per 100,000 women; 2.5 times the Danish rate. In Greenland, the disease is most frequent among women aged 30-40. Systematic screening can identify women with cervical cell changes, which...... if untreated may cause cervical cancer. In 2007, less than 40% of eligible women in Greenland participated in screening. OBJECTIVE: To examine Greenlandic women's perception of disease, their understanding of the connection between HPV and cervical cancer, and the knowledge that they deem necessary to decide...... whether to participate in cervical cancer screening. STUDY DESIGN: The methods used to perform this research were 2 focus-group interviews with 5 Danish-speaking women and 2 individual interviews with Greenlandic-speaking women. The analysis involved a phenomenological-hermeneutic approach with 3 levels...

  17. Oral Cancer Screening in Dental Set Up

    OpenAIRE

    Saini, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a major public health problem in the United States and many other parts of the world. One in 4 deaths in the United States is due to cancer. Oral cancer (OC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide. Oral cancer can be divided into three clinic-pathological categories: carcinoma of the lip vermillion, carcinoma of the oral cavity proper, and carcinoma of the oropharynx. The chief predisposing factors are tobacco use, alcohol consumption, and persistent viral infections such as HPV ...

  18. Radiologic aspects of breast cancers detected through a breast cancer screening program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early detection in breast cancer and reduced mortality in women with this disease is today attributed to widespread use of mammography. High-quality performance is essential in all steps of breast cancer screening programs in order to avoid unnecessary anxiety and surgery in the women concerned. This report presents radiologic aspects of screening cancers. A total of 8370 asymptomatic women aged 50-69 years were screened with 2-view mammography, of which only 70 (0.84 percent) were selected for surgery after a thorough work-up. Cancers were verified histologically in 61 women and 9 showed non-malignant histology, giving a cancer detection rate of 7.3 cancers per thousand screened asymptomatic women. The benign/malignant ratio in the operated cases is thus approximately 1:7. The cancers detected showed all existing types of mammographic features where 77 percent (47 cases) showed rather typical findings, such as spiculated densities both with and without microcalcifications. The results indicate that surgery can be minimized without impairing the breast cancer detection rate. Radiologists in screening programs should be aware that a large proportion of non-palpable breast cancers present in rather unconventional forms. This point is important in order to maintain a high cancer detection rate and thereby justify the widespread use of mammography as a screening tool for breast cancer in asymptomatic women. (author). 20 refs.; 1 tab

  19. The PLCO Cancer Screening Trial: Background, Goals, Organization, Operations, Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohagan, John K; Prorok, Philip C; Greenwald, Peter; Kramer, Barnett S

    2015-01-01

    The randomized PLCO trial was designed to answer four primary questions: does screening for these cancers using often promoted tests reduce cancer-specific mortality? Nearly 155,000 men and women were allocated to screening or usual care arms in a 1:1 ratio under a centralized, secure randomization algorithm at ten competitively selected screening centers nationwide. Screened men received PSA blood tests and digital rectal examinations. Screened women received CA125 blood tests and trans-vaginal ultrasound. Both men and women in the screened arm received anterolateral view chest x-ray and 60 cm flexible sigmoidoscopy. Blood specimens were collected at each screening visit and buccal cell DNA was collected once from the usual care participants. Histology slides were collected for cancer cases. Participants completed a baseline questionnaire covering health and risk factors and a dietary questionnaire. Data collected on standardized machine-readable forms were scanned remotely at screening and laboratory sites utilizing PLCO dedicated, NCI provided and configured computer systems for quality checks, archiving, and analysis. Comprehensive quality assurance was implemented over recruitment, consenting, randomization, screening, data management, records keeping, patient-specific screening results reporting, follow-up, and data analysis. Performance and data quality were monitored on-site and remotely by data edits, site visits, and random record audits. Specially trained and certified professionals performed screening procedures and medical record abstracting. An independent committee of medical specialists reviewed and certified case-specific cause of death. Scientific leadership was provided by NCI Project Officers, PLCO principal investigators, external consultants, and an independent data and safety monitoring board. PMID:26238115

  20. Ovarian Cancer Screening Method Fails to Reduce Deaths from the Disease | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    New results from the NCI-sponsored Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial show that screening for ovarian cancer with transvaginal ultrasound (TVU) and the CA-125 blood test did not result in fewer deaths from the disease compared with usual care. |

  1. Risk-benefit analysis for mass screening of breast cancer utilizing mammography as a screening test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incidence of breast cancers in Japanese women is increasing steadily. Mass screening of breast cancer was started in Japan under auspices of Adult Health Promotion Act of the Japanese Government from 1987. As the first screening method, the palpation of breasts is employed at present, but it is expected to be replaced by the mammography. In this report, the risk-benefit analysis is presented between risk of breast carcinogenesis due to radiation and benefit of mass screening of breast cancer. The benefit of mass screening is taken as the net elongation of average life expectancy of women due to survival from breast cancers. The risk of mammography is taken as the net loss of average life expectancy of women due to breast carcinogenesis. In the latter, the latency time and plateau period of radiation carcinogenesis were taken into consideration in the calculation. The results show that the ages at which the benefit and risk become equal are between 30 and 35 years old when dose equivalent of mammography is between 10 and 20 mSv, that are conventionally used. However, the critical age will be reduced to 20 years old if the dose equivalent becomes 1 mSv. Therefore, it is strongly recommended that a low dose mammographic system should be developed in order to achieve 1 mSv for the mass screening of breast cancer of Japanese women. In author's opinion, this is quite feasible by employing a new digital radiography with imaging plate. (author)

  2. Screening for cervical cancer in French Guiana: screening rates from 2006 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douine, M; Roué, T; Lelarge, C; Adenis, A; Thomas, N; Nacher, M

    2015-12-01

    In French Guiana, the age-standardized incidence rate of cervical cancer is four times higher than in France and the mortality rate 5.5 times higher. A survival study revealed that stage at diagnosis was the main factor influencing the prognosis, showing that early detection is crucial to increase cervical cancer survival. The present study aimed at evaluating the cervical cancer screening rate between 2006 and 2011 by age and for a 3-year period in French Guiana. All pap smears realised in French Guiana were analysed in two laboratories allowing exhaustive review of screening data. The screening rate was estimated at about 54% from 2006 to 2011, with a statistical difference between coastal and rural area (56.3% versus 18.7%). Although the methodological difference did not allow comparisons with metropolitan France, these results could be used to evaluate the impact of organised cervical cancer screening by the French Guiana Association for Organized Screening of Cancers which has been implemented in French Guiana since 2012. PMID:26608273

  3. Race/Ethnicity, Gender, Weight Status, and Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Bittner Fagan

    2011-01-01

    The literature on colorectal cancer (CRC screening is contradictory regarding the impact of weight status on CRC screening. This study was intended to determine if CRC screening rates among 2005 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS respondent racial/ethnic and gender subgroups were influenced by weight status. Methods. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to determine if CRC screening use differed significantly among obese, overweight, and normal-weight individuals in race/ethnic and gender subgroups. Results. Multivariable analyses showed that CRC screening rates did not differ significantly for individuals within these subgroups who were obese or overweight as compared to their normal-weight peers. Conclusion. Weight status does not contribute to disparities in CRC screening in race/ethnicity and gender subgroups.

  4. Reducing inequities in colorectal cancer screening in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen M Decker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in North America. Screening using a fecal occult blood test, flexible sigmoidoscopy, or colonoscopy reduces CRC mortality through the detection and treatment of precancerous polyps and early stage CRC. Although CRC screening participation has increased in recent years, large inequities still exist. Minorities, new immigrants, and those with lower levels of education or income are much less likely to be screened. This review provides an overview of the commonly used tests for CRC screening, disparities in CRC screening, and promising methods at the individual, provider, and system levels to reduce these disparities. Overall, to achieve high CRC participation rates and reduce the burden of CRC in the population, a multi-faceted approach that uses strategies at all levels to reduce CRC screening disparities is urgently required.

  5. Cancer literacy as a mediator for cancer screening behaviour in Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Yun; Rhee, Taeho Greg; Kim, Nam Keol

    2016-09-01

    This study investigates the cancer literacy level in Korean adults and examines whether cancer literacy plays a mediating role in the relationship between population characteristics and cancer screening behaviours. We collected data from 585 community-dwelling adults in Korea using self-administered surveys and face-to-face interviews from October to December in 2009. Guided by Andersen's behavioural model, we used a structural equation model to estimate the effect of cancer literacy as a mediator and found that cancer literacy mediated cancer screening behaviour. In the individual path analysis models, cancer literacy played a significant mediating role for the use of eastern medicine, fatalism, health status and the number of chronic diseases. When controlling for other relevant covariates, we found that in the optimal path model, cancer literacy played a mediating role in the relationship between the use of eastern medicine and self-rated health status as well as cancer screening behaviour. Thus, developing community-based cancer education programmes and training clinical practitioners in eastern medicine clinics about the importance of informing their patients about regular cancer screening may be an option to boost cancer literacy and screening behaviour in Korea. PMID:25975449

  6. Panel Reviews Benefits and Harms of CT Scans for Lung Cancer Screening | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    A panel of experts has reviewed the evidence regarding the benefits and harms of screening for lung cancer with low-dose computed tomography (CT) and concluded that the technology may benefit some individuals at high risk for lung cancer. But the panel cautioned that many questions remain about the potential harms of screening and how to translate screening into clinical practice. |

  7. Breast cancer screening interventions for Arabic women: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Tam Truong; Hwang, Jasmine

    2015-06-01

    Similar to other Middle Eastern countries, breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in Qatar with increasing incidence and mortality rates. High mortality rates of breast cancer in the Middle Eastern countries are primarily due to delayed diagnosis of the disease. Thus screening and early detection of breast cancer are important in reducing cancer morbidity and mortality. With the aim of updating knowledge on existing interventions and developing effective intervention programs to promote breast cancer screening in Arabic populations in Qatar, this review addresses the question: What interventions are effective in increasing breast cancer knowledge and breast cancer screening rates in Arabic populations in Arabic countries and North America? Systematic literature review was performed to answer the proposed question. As the result of the search, six research studies were identified and appraised. From the findings, we infer several insights: (a) a language-appropriate and culturally sensitive educational program is the most important component of a successful intervention regardless of the study setting, (b) multi-level interventions that target both women, men, health care professionals, and/or larger health care system are more likely to be successful than single educational interventions or public awareness campaigns, and (c) more vigorous, personal and cognitive interventions that address psychosocial factors are likely to be more effective than less personal and informative interventions. This review has important implications for health care providers, intervention planners, and researchers. PMID:23975014

  8. Patient Test Preference for Colorectal Cancer Screening and Screening Uptake in an Insured Urban Minority Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Randi L; Basch, Charles E; Zybert, Patricia; Basch, Corey H; Ullman, Ralph; Shmukler, Celia; King, Fionnuala; Neugut, Alfred I

    2016-06-01

    The study examines the role of patient colorectal cancer (CRC) screening test preference and CRC screening uptake in an insured, urban minority population. Study subjects were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial to promote CRC screening. The interventions were educational, with an emphasis on colonoscopy screening. Subjects were 50+ years of age, fully insured for CRC screening, and out of compliance with current CRC screening recommendations. This paper includes those who answered a question about CRC screening test preference and indicated that they intended to receive such a test in the coming year (n = 453). CRC screening uptake was ascertained from medical claims data. Regardless of test preference, few received CRC screening (22.3 %). Those preferring the home stool test (HST) were less likely to get tested than those preferring a colonoscopy (16.6 vs 29.9 %, χ(2) = 9.9, p = .002). Preference for HST was more strongly associated with beliefs about colonoscopy than with knowledge about colonoscopy. In the context of an RCT emphasizing colonoscopy screening for CRC, patients expressing a preference for HST are at heightened risk of remaining unscreened. Colonoscopy should be recommended as the preferred CRC test, but HSTs should be accessible and encouraged for patients who are averse to colonoscopy.Clinical trials.gov: Identifier: NCT02392143. PMID:26585609

  9. Screening Technologies for Target Identification in Pancreatic Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michl, Patrick, E-mail: michlp@med.uni-marburg.de; Ripka, Stefanie; Gress, Thomas; Buchholz, Malte [Department of Gastroenterology and Endocrinology, University Hospital, Philipps-University Marburg, Baldinger Strasse, D-35043 Marburg (Germany)

    2010-12-29

    Pancreatic cancer exhibits an extraordinarily high level of resistance to almost any kind of systemic therapy evaluated in clinical trials so far. Therefore, the identification of novel therapeutic targets is urgently required. High-throughput screens have emerged as an important tool to identify putative targets for diagnosis and therapy in an unbiased manner. More than a decade ago, microarray technology was introduced to identify differentially expressed genes in pancreatic cancer as compared to normal pancreas, chronic pancreatitis and other cancer types located in close proximity to the pancreas. In addition, proteomic screens have facilitated the identification of differentially secreted proteins in body fluids of pancreatic cancer patients, serving as possible biomarkers. Recently, RNA interference-based loss-of-function screens have been used to identify functionally relevant genes, whose knock-down has impact on pancreatic cancer cell viability, thereby representing potential new targets for therapeutic intervention. This review summarizes recent results of transcriptional, proteomic and functional screens in pancreatic cancer and discusses potentials and limitations of the respective technologies as well as their impact on future therapeutic developments.

  10. Screening Technologies for Target Identification in Pancreatic Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pancreatic cancer exhibits an extraordinarily high level of resistance to almost any kind of systemic therapy evaluated in clinical trials so far. Therefore, the identification of novel therapeutic targets is urgently required. High-throughput screens have emerged as an important tool to identify putative targets for diagnosis and therapy in an unbiased manner. More than a decade ago, microarray technology was introduced to identify differentially expressed genes in pancreatic cancer as compared to normal pancreas, chronic pancreatitis and other cancer types located in close proximity to the pancreas. In addition, proteomic screens have facilitated the identification of differentially secreted proteins in body fluids of pancreatic cancer patients, serving as possible biomarkers. Recently, RNA interference-based loss-of-function screens have been used to identify functionally relevant genes, whose knock-down has impact on pancreatic cancer cell viability, thereby representing potential new targets for therapeutic intervention. This review summarizes recent results of transcriptional, proteomic and functional screens in pancreatic cancer and discusses potentials and limitations of the respective technologies as well as their impact on future therapeutic developments

  11. Experience with breast cancer, pre-screening perceived susceptibility and the psychological impact of screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Absetz, Pilvikki; Aro, Arja R; Sutton, Stephen R

    2003-01-01

    This prospective study examined whether the psychological impact of organized mammography screening is influenced by women's pre-existing experience with breast cancer and perceived susceptibility (PS) to the disease. From a target population of 16,886, a random sample of women with a normal...... screening finding and all women with a false positive or a benign biopsy finding were included (N=1942). Data were collected with postal questionnaires 1-month before screening invitation and 2 and 12 months after screening. Response rate was 63% at baseline; 86, and 80% of the baseline participants...... responded to the follow-ups. Psychological impact was measured as anxiety (STAI-S), depression (BDI), health-related concerns (IAS), and breast cancer-specific beliefs and concerns. Data was analyzed with repeated measures analyses of variance, with estimates of effect size based on Eta-squared. Women with...

  12. Acute small bowel toxicity and preoperative chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer: Investigating dose-volume relationships and role for inverse planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The relationship between volume of irradiated small bowel (VSB) and acute toxicity in rectal cancer radiotherapy is poorly quantified, particularly in patients receiving concurrent preoperative chemoradiotherapy. Using treatment planning data, we studied a series of such patients. Methods and Materials: Details of 41 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer were reviewed. All received 45 Gy in 25 fractions over 5 weeks, 3-4 fields three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy with daily 5-fluorouracil and folinic acid during Weeks 1 and 5. Toxicity was assessed prospectively in a weekly clinic. Using computed tomography planning software, the VSB was determined at 5 Gy dose intervals (V5, V1, etc.). Eight patients with maximal VSB had dosimetry and radiobiological modeling outcomes compared between inverse and conformal three-dimensional planning. Results: VSB correlated strongly with diarrheal severity at every dose level (p 5 and V15. Conclusions: A strong dose-volume relationship exists between VSB and acute diarrhea at all dose levels during preoperative chemoradiotherapy. Our constructed model may be useful in predicting toxicity, and this has been derived without the confounding influence of surgical excision on bowel function. Inverse planning can reduce calculated dose to small bowel and late NTCP, and its clinical role warrants further investigation

  13. Risk Stratification System for Oral Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Lutécia H Mateus; Reis, Isildinha M; Reategui, Erika P; Gordon, Claudia; Saint-Victor, Sandra; Duncan, Robert; Gomez, Carmen; Bayers, Stephanie; Fisher, Penelope; Perez, Aymee; Goodwin, W Jarrard; Hu, Jennifer J; Franzmann, Elizabeth J

    2016-06-01

    Oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer (oral cancer) is a deadly disease that is increasing in incidence. Worldwide 5-year survival is only 50% due to delayed intervention with more than half of the diagnoses at stage III and IV, whereas earlier detection (stage I and II) yields survival rates up to 80% to 90%. Salivary soluble CD44 (CD44), a tumor-initiating marker, and total protein levels may facilitate oral cancer risk assessment and early intervention. This study used a hospital-based design with 150 cases and 150 frequency-matched controls to determine whether CD44 and total protein levels in oral rinses were associated with oral cancer independent of age, gender, race, ethnicity, tobacco and alcohol use, and socioeconomic status (SES). High-risk subjects receiving oral cancer prevention interventions as part of a community-based program (n = 150) were followed over 1 year to determine marker specificity and variation. CD44 ≥5.33 ng/mL was highly associated with case status [adjusted OR 14.489; 95% confidence interval (CI), 5.973-35.145; P cancer. In contrast, specificity in the high-risk community was 74% and reached 95% after annual retesting. Simple and inexpensive salivary CD44 and total protein measurements may help identify individuals at heightened risk for oral cancer from the millions who partake in risky behaviors. Cancer Prev Res; 9(6); 445-55. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27020654

  14. [Cigarette smoking among women attending cervical cancer screening program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walentowicz-Sadłecka, Małgorzata; Sadłecki, Paweł; Marszałek, Andrzej; Grabiec, Marek

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is recognized as tobacco-related malignancy. HPV vaccination and introducing screening protocols were found as the best way to decrease cervical cancer related mortality. Besides the cytological screening programs of the uterine cervix smear, nowadays co-factors of carcinogenesis are taken into consideration, also. The aim of our study was to analyse data included in questionnaire of 310 women who underwent cytological examination wi thin cervical cancer screening program in our Department in 2011. There were no differences found between studied groups on rate of oral contraceptive or hormonal therapy use, as well as age and tobacco smoking. However, taking into account education and smoking, there was a significant correlation observed. Patients with higher education level smoked less often. The special attention should be paid to promote smoking cessation in the group of women who finished education on elementary level. PMID:23421059

  15. Germ line mutations of mismatch repair genes in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer patients with small bowel cancer: International Society for Gastrointestinal Hereditary Tumours Collaborative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Jae-Gahb; Kim, Duck-Woo; Hong, Chang Won;

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of study was to determine the clinical characteristics and mutational profiles of the mismatch repair genes in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) patients with small bowel cancer (SBC). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A questionnaire was mailed to 55 members of the Internatio.......8%, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In HNPCC patients, SBC can be the first and only cancer and may develop as soon as the early teens. The distribution of MSH2 mutations found in patients with HNPCC-associated SBCs significantly differed from that found in the control group (P < 0.001)....

  16. Telenovela: an innovative colorectal cancer screening health messaging tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melany Cueva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Alaska Native people have nearly twice the rate of colorectal cancer (CRC incidence and mortality as the US White population. Objective. Building upon storytelling as a culturally respectful way to share information among Alaska Native people, a 25-minute telenovela-style movie, What's the Big Deal?, was developed to increase CRC screening awareness and knowledge, role-model CRC conversations, and support wellness choices. Design. Alaska Native cultural values of family, community, storytelling, and humor were woven into seven, 3–4 minute movie vignettes. Written post-movie viewing evaluations completed by 71.3% of viewers (305/428 were collected at several venues, including the premiere of the movie in the urban city of Anchorage at a local movie theater, seven rural Alaska community movie nights, and five cancer education trainings with Community Health Workers. Paper and pencil evaluations included check box and open-ended questions to learn participants' response to a telenovela-style movie. Results. On written-post movie viewing evaluations, viewers reported an increase in CRC knowledge and comfort with talking about recommended CRC screening exams. Notably, 81.6% of respondents (249/305 wrote positive intent to change behavior. Multiple responses included: 65% talking with family and friends about colon screening (162, 24% talking with their provider about colon screening (59, 31% having a colon screening (76, and 44% increasing physical activity (110. Conclusions. Written evaluations revealed the telenovela genre to be an innovative way to communicate colorectal cancer health messages with Alaska Native, American Indian, and Caucasian people both in an urban and rural setting to empower conversations and action related to colorectal cancer screening. Telenovela is a promising health communication tool to shift community norms by generating enthusiasm and conversations about the importance of having recommended colorectal

  17. Overcoming Barriers to Cervical Cancer Screening Among Asian American Women

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Carolyn Y.; Ma, Grace X.; Tan, Yin

    2011-01-01

    Significant disparities in cervical cancer incidence and mortality exist among ethnic minority women, and in particular, among Asian American women. These disparities have been attributed primarily to differences in screening rates across ethnic/racial groups. Asian American women have one of the lowest rates of screening compared to other ethnic/racial groups. Yet Asian Americans, who comprise one of the fastest growing populations in the United States, have received the least attention in c...

  18. Socioeconomic position and participation in colorectal cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, B L; Jørgensen, Torben; Brasso, K;

    2010-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening with faecal occult blood test (FOBT) has the potential to reduce the incidence and mortality of CRC. Screening uptake is known to be inferior in people with low socioeconomic position (SEP) when compared with those with high position; however, the results of most...... information on education, employment, and income to encompass different but related aspects of socioeconomic stratification. Also, the impact of ethnicity and cohabiting status was analysed....

  19. Mammography - importance, possibilities, current screening situation of the breast cancer and further expansion possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer still remains the most frequent cancer in women population. Incidence of breast cancer is increasing, but mortality is decreasing. The most important for decreasing of breast cancer mortality is early diagnostic, especially screening. Screening is a form of secondary prevention. Although many screening studies have shown that mammography decreases of the breast cancer death, there are still many controversies. The published recommendations for the breast screening are sometimes very different. (author)

  20. Cancer screening, prevention, and treatment in people with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Lara C; Stefancic, Ana; Cunningham, Amy T; Hurley, Katelyn E; Cabassa, Leopodo J; Wender, Richard C

    2016-03-01

    Answer questions and earn CME/CNE People with mental illness die decades earlier in the United States compared with the general population. Most of this disparity is related to preventable and treatable chronic conditions, with many studies finding cancer as the second leading cause of death. Individual lifestyle factors, such as smoking or limited adherence to treatment, are often cited as highly significant issues in shaping risk among persons with mental illness. However, many contextual or systems-level factors exacerbate these individual factors and may fundamentally drive health disparities among people with mental illness. The authors conducted an integrative review to summarize the empirical literature on cancer prevention, screening, and treatment for people with mental illness. Although multiple interventions are being developed and tested to address tobacco dependence and obesity in these populations, the evidence for effectiveness is quite limited, and essentially all prevention interventions focus at the individual level. This review identified only one published article describing evidence-based interventions to promote cancer screening and improve cancer treatment in people with mental illness. On the basis of a literature review and the experience and expertise of the authors, each section in this article concludes with suggestions at the individual, interpersonal, organizational, community, and policy levels that may improve cancer prevention, screening, and treatment in people with mental illness. CA Cancer J Clin 2016;66:133-151. © 2015 American Cancer Society. PMID:26663383

  1. The Effect of National Cancer Screening on Disparity Reduction in Cancer Stage at Diagnosis by Income Level

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Hye-Min; Lee, Jin-Seok; Lairson, David R.; Kim, Yoon

    2015-01-01

    Background Early detection of cancer is an effective and efficient cancer management strategy. In South Korea, the National Health Insurance administers the National Cancer Screening Program to its beneficiaries. We examined the impact of the National Cancer Screening Program on socioeconomic disparities in cancer stage at diagnosis. Methods Cancer patients registered in the Korean Central Cancer Registry from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2010 with a diagnosis of gastric cancer (n = 22,470...

  2. Equity and practice issues in colorectal cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchman, Sandy; Rozmovits, Linda; Glazier, Richard H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate overall colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates, patterns in the use of types of CRC screening, and sociodemographic characteristics associated with CRC screening; and to gain insight into physicians’ perceptions about and use of fecal occult blood testing [FOBT] and colonoscopy for patients at average risk of CRC. Design Mixed-methods study using cross-sectional administrative data on patient sociodemographic characteristics and semistructured telephone interviews with physicians. Setting Toronto, Ont. Participants Patients aged 50 to 74 years and physicians in family health teams in the Toronto Central Local Health Integration Network. Main outcome measures Rates of CRC screening by type; sociodemographic characteristics associated with CRC screening; thematic analysis using constant comparative method for semistructured interviews. Main findings Ontario administrative data on CRC screening showed lower overall screening rates among those who were younger, male patients, those who had lower income, and recent immigrants. Colonoscopy rates were especially low among those with lower income and those who were recent immigrants. Semistructured interviews revealed that physician opinions about CRC screening for average-risk patients were divided: one group of physicians accepted the evidence and recommendations for FOBT and the other group of physicians strongly supported colonoscopy for these patients, believing that the FOBT was an inferior screening method. Physicians identified specialist recommendations and patient expectations as factors that influenced their decisions regarding CRC screening type. Conclusion There was considerable variation in CRC screening by sociodemographic characteristics. A key theme that emerged from the interviews was that physicians were divided in their preference for FOBT or colonoscopy; factors that influenced physician preference included the health care system, recommendations by other

  3. Cancer Screening Among Peer-Led Community Wellness Center Enrollees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockson, Lois E; Swarbrick, Margaret A; Pratt, Carlos

    2016-03-01

    Growing evidence suggests health disparities exist in services for individuals with mental disorders served by the public mental health system. The current study assessed the use of cancer screening services among New Jersey residents in publicly funded mental health programs. Self-administered written surveys were completed by 148 adults using peer-led community wellness centers throughout New Jersey. Information was collected on (a) the use of breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening services; (b) barriers to receiving preventive services; and (c) perceptions of overall health. More males than females participated in the study, with equal participation among White and African American individuals. Schizophrenia spectrum disorders were the most common self-reported psychiatric condition. Colorectal cancers had lower screening levels compared to those of the general population. Physicians not advising patients to complete tests emerged as a main cause of low screening rates. Wellness initiatives designed by peers collaborating with health care providers may improve adherence to preventive cancer screening measures. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 54(3), 36-40.]. PMID:26935189

  4. Optoelectronic image processing for cervical cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanswamy, Ramkumar; Sharpe, John P.; Johnson, Kristina M.

    1994-05-01

    Automation of the Pap-smear cervical screening method is highly desirable as it relieves tedium for the human operators, reduces cost and should increase accuracy and provide repeatability. We present here the design for a high-throughput optoelectronic system which forms the first stage of a two stage system to automate pap-smear screening. We use a mathematical morphological technique called the hit-or-miss transform to identify the suspicious areas on a pap-smear slide. This algorithm is implemented using a VanderLugt architecture and a time-sequential ANDing smart pixel array.

  5. Preferences and acceptance of colorectal cancer screening in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saengow, Udomsak; Chongsuwiwatvong, Virasakdi; Geater, Alan; Birch, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is now common in Thailand with an increase in incidence over time. Health authorities are planning to implement a nationwide CRC screening program using fecal immunochemical test (FIT) as a primary screening tool. This study aimed to estimate preferences and acceptance of FIT and colonoscopy, explore factors influencing the acceptance, and investigate reasons behind choosing and rejecting to screen before the program was implemented. Patients aged 50-69, visiting the primary care unit during the study period, were invited to join this study. Patients with a history of cancer or past CRC screening were excluded. Face-to-face interviews were conducted. Subjects were informed about CRC and the screening tests: FIT and colonoscopy. Then, they were asked for their opinions regarding the screening. The total number of subjects was 437 (86.7% response rate). Fifty-eight percent were females. The median age was 58 years. FIT was accepted by 74.1% of subjects compared to 55.6% for colonoscopy. The acceptance of colonoscopy was associated with perceived susceptibility to CRC and family history of cancer. No symptoms, unwilling to screen, healthy, too busy and anxious about diagnosis were reasons for refusing to screen. FIT was preferred for its simplicity and non-invasiveness compared with colonoscopy. Those rejecting FIT expressed a strong preference for colonoscopy. Subjects chose colonoscopy because of its accuracy; it was refused for the process and complications. If the screening program is implemented for the entire target population in Thailand, we estimate that 106,546 will have a positive FIT, between 8,618 and 12,749 identified with advanced adenoma and between 2,645 and 3,912 identified with CRC in the first round of the program. PMID:25824749

  6. Is prostate cancer screening responsible for the negative results of prostate cancer treatment trials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Vinay

    2016-08-01

    Clinical guidelines continue to move away from routine prostate specific antigen screening (PSA), once a widespread medical practice. A curious difference exists between early prostate cancer and early breast cancer. While randomized trials of therapy in early breast cancer continue to show overall survival benefit, this is not the case in prostate cancer, where prostatectomy was no better than observation in a recent trial, and where early androgen deprivation is no better than late androgen deprivation. Here, I make the case that prostate cancer screening contributes so greatly to over diagnosis that even treatment trials yield null results due to contamination with non-life threatening disease. PMID:27372859

  7. Decision aid for women considering breast cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasternack, Iris; Saalasti-Koskinen, Ulla; Mäkelä, Marjukka

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to describe the process and challenges of developing a decision aid for the national public breast cancer screening program in Finland. METHODS: An expert team with stakeholder representation used European guidelines and other literature as basis for selecting...... balanced information for women invited to breast cancer screening is demanding and requires careful planning. Professionals and service providers need to be engaged in the HTA process to ensure proper dissemination and implementation of the information. End user participation is essential in the...

  8. Breast cancer screening; cost-effective in practice?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main aim of national breast screening is a reduction in breast cancer mortality. The data on the reduction in breast cancer mortality from three (of the five) Swedish trials in particular gave rise to the expectation that the Dutch programme of 2-yearly screening for women aged 50-70 would produce a 16% reduction in the total population. In all likelihood, many of the years of life gained as a result of screening are enjoyed in good health. According to its critics the actual benefit that can be achieved from the national breast cancer screening programmes is overstated. Considerable benefits have recently been demonstrated in England and Wales. However, the fall was so considerable in such a relatively short space of time that screening (started in 1987) was thought to only have played a small part. As far as the Dutch screening programme is concerned it is still too early to reach any conclusions about a possible reduction in mortality. The first short-term results of the screening are favourable and as good as (or better than) expectations. In Swedish regions where mammographic screening was introduced, a 19% reduction in breast cancer mortality can be estimated at population level, and recently a 20% reduction was presented in the UK. In countries where women are expected to make appointments for screening themselves, the attendance figures are significantly lower and the quality of the process as a whole is sometimes poorer. The benefits of breast cancer screening need to be carefully balanced against the burden to women and to the health care system. Mass breast screening requires many resources and will be a costly service. Cost-effectiveness of a breast cancer screening programme can be estimated using a computer model. Published cost-effectiveness ratios may differ tremendously, but are often the result of different types of calculation, time periods considered, including or excluding downstream cost. The approach of simulation and estimation is here

  9. ESR/ERS white paper on lung cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Bonomo, Lorenzo; Gaga, Mina; Nackaerts, Kristiaan; Peled, Nir; Prokop, Mathias; Remy-Jardin, Martine; von Stackelberg, Oyunbileg; Sculier, Jean-Paul

    2015-07-01

    Lung cancer is the most frequently fatal cancer, with poor survival once the disease is advanced. Annual low dose computed tomography has shown a survival benefit in screening individuals at high risk for lung cancer. Based on the available evidence, the European Society of Radiology and the European Respiratory Society recommend lung cancer screening in comprehensive, quality-assured, longitudinal programmes within a clinical trial or in routine clinical practice at certified multidisciplinary medical centres. Minimum requirements include: standardised operating procedures for low dose image acquisition, computer-assisted nodule evaluation, and positive screening results and their management; inclusion/exclusion criteria; expectation management; and smoking cessation programmes. Further refinements are recommended to increase quality, outcome and cost-effectiveness of lung cancer screening: inclusion of risk models, reduction of effective radiation dose, computer-assisted volumetric measurements and assessment of comorbidities (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and vascular calcification). All these requirements should be adjusted to the regional infrastructure and healthcare system, in order to exactly define eligibility using a risk model, nodule management and quality assurance plan. The establishment of a central registry, including biobank and image bank, and preferably on a European level, is strongly encouraged. PMID:25929956

  10. New Molecular Tools for Efficient Screening of Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus von Knebel Doeberitz

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytological screening using the Pap-smear led to a remarkable reduction of the mortality of cervical cancer. However, due to subjective test criteria it is hampered by poor inter- and intra-observer agreement. More reproducible assays are expected to improve the current screening and avoid unnecessary medical intervention and psychological distress for the affected women. Cervical cancer arises as consequence of persistent high risk papillomavirus (HR-HPV infections. Expression of two viral oncogenes, E6 and E7, in epithelial stem cells is required to initiate and maintain cervical carcinogenesis and results in significant overexpression of the cellular p16INK4a protein. Since this protein is not expressed in normal cervical squamous epithelia, screening for p16INK4a over-expressing cells allows to specifically identify dysplastic lesions, and significantly reduces the inter-observer disagreement of the conventional cytological or histological tests. Progression of preneoplastic lesions to invasive cancers is associated with extensive recombination of viral and cellular genomes which can be monitored by detection of papillomavirus oncogene transcripts (APOT assay derived from integrated viral genome copies. Detection of integrated type oncogene transcripts points to far advanced dysplasia or invasive cancers and thus represents a progression marker for cervical lesions. These new assays discussed here will help to improve current limitations in cervical cancer screening, diagnosis, and therapy control.

  11. ESR/ERS white paper on lung cancer screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Stackelberg, Oyunbileg von [University Hospital Heidelberg, Dept of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Member of the German Lung Research Center, Translational Lung Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Bonomo, Lorenzo [A. Gemelli University Hospital, Institute of Radiology, Rome (Italy); Gaga, Mina [Athens Chest Hospital, 7th Resp. Med. Dept and Asthma Center, Athens (Greece); Nackaerts, Kristiaan [KU Leuven-University of Leuven, University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Respiratory Diseases/Respiratory Oncology Unit, Leuven (Belgium); Peled, Nir [Tel Aviv University, Davidoff Cancer Center, Rabin Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); Prokop, Mathias [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Remy-Jardin, Martine [Department of Thoracic Imaging, Hospital Calmette (EA 2694), CHRU et Universite de Lille, Lille (France); Sculier, Jean-Paul [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Thoracic oncology, Institut Jules Bordet, Brussels (Belgium); Collaboration: on behalf of the European Society of Radiology (ESR) and the European Respiratory Society (ERS)

    2015-09-15

    Lung cancer is the most frequently fatal cancer, with poor survival once the disease is advanced. Annual low-dose computed tomography has shown a survival benefit in screening individuals at high risk for lung cancer. Based on the available evidence, the European Society of Radiology and the European Respiratory Society recommend lung cancer screening in comprehensive, quality-assured, longitudinal programmes within a clinical trial or in routine clinical practice at certified multidisciplinary medical centres. Minimum requirements include: standardised operating procedures for low-dose image acquisition, computer-assisted nodule evaluation, and positive screening results and their management; inclusion/exclusion criteria; expectation management; and smoking cessation programmes. Further refinements are recommended to increase quality, outcome and cost-effectiveness of lung cancer screening: inclusion of risk models, reduction of effective radiation dose, computer-assisted volumetric measurements and assessment of comorbidities (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and vascular calcification). All these requirements should be adjusted to the regional infrastructure and healthcare system, in order to exactly define eligibility using a risk model, nodule management and a quality assurance plan. The establishment of a central registry, including a biobank and an image bank, and preferably on a European level, is strongly encouraged. (orig.)

  12. ESR/ERS white paper on lung cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung cancer is the most frequently fatal cancer, with poor survival once the disease is advanced. Annual low-dose computed tomography has shown a survival benefit in screening individuals at high risk for lung cancer. Based on the available evidence, the European Society of Radiology and the European Respiratory Society recommend lung cancer screening in comprehensive, quality-assured, longitudinal programmes within a clinical trial or in routine clinical practice at certified multidisciplinary medical centres. Minimum requirements include: standardised operating procedures for low-dose image acquisition, computer-assisted nodule evaluation, and positive screening results and their management; inclusion/exclusion criteria; expectation management; and smoking cessation programmes. Further refinements are recommended to increase quality, outcome and cost-effectiveness of lung cancer screening: inclusion of risk models, reduction of effective radiation dose, computer-assisted volumetric measurements and assessment of comorbidities (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and vascular calcification). All these requirements should be adjusted to the regional infrastructure and healthcare system, in order to exactly define eligibility using a risk model, nodule management and a quality assurance plan. The establishment of a central registry, including a biobank and an image bank, and preferably on a European level, is strongly encouraged. (orig.)

  13. Prostate Cancer Screening : The effect on prostate cancer mortality and incidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. van Leeuwen (Pim)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAt first glance, deciding whether to get the PSA screening test for prostate cancer seems to be pretty straightforward and attractive. It’s a simple blood test that can pick up the prostate cancer long before your symptoms appear. After all, your prostate cancer is earlier treated result

  14. Colorectal cancer screening:The role of CT colonography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrea; Laghi; Franco; Iafrate; Marco; Rengo; Cesare; Hassan

    2010-01-01

    Computed tomography colonography(CTC) in colorectal cancer(CRC) screening has two roles:one present and the other potential.The present role is,without any further discussion,the integration into established screening programs as a replacement for barium enema in the case of incomplete colonoscopy.The potential role is the use of CTC as a first-line screening method together with Fecal Occult Blood Test,sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy.However,despite the fact that CTC has been officially endorsed for CRC scre...

  15. Lung cancer screening: Computed tomography or chest radiographs?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Edwin; JR; van; Beek; Saeed; Mirsadraee; John; T; Murchison

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, lung cancer is the leading cause of mortalitydue to malignancy. The vast majority of cases of lung cancer are smoking related and the most effective way of reducing lung cancer incidence and mortality is by smoking cessation. In the Western world, smoking cessation policies have met with limited success. The other major means of reducing lung cancer deaths is to diagnose cases at an earlier more treatable stage employing screening programmes using chest radiographs or low dose computed tomography. In many countries smoking is still on the increase, and the sheer scale of the problem limits the affordability of such screening programmes. This short review article will evaluate the current evidence and potential areas of research which may benefit policy making across the world.

  16. Risk of cancer radioinduced by mammographic screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work aims to estimate the risk benefit of mammography, in terms of the number of lives saved/number of lives lost, in the female population of the State of Goias, Brazil, depending on the age range indicated for screening and the type of technology available

  17. Are Religious Women More Likely to Have Breast Cancer Screening?

    OpenAIRE

    Van Ness, Peter H.; Kasl, Stanislav V; Jones, Beth A.

    2002-01-01

    The study objective was to investigate whether women who frequently attend religious services are more likely to have breast cancer screening—mammography and clinical breast examinations—than other women. Multivariate logistic regression models show that white women who attended religious services frequently had more than twice the odds of breast cancer screening than white women who attended less frequently (Odds Ratio (OR) = 2.61; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.12, 6.06). The behavior of ...

  18. Hereditary Colorectal Cancer: Registration, Screening and Prognostic Biomarker Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Barrow, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The purpose of the research was to investigate the benefits of a hereditary colorectal cancer registry in the management of patients and families with Lynch syndrome. In study one, a systematic review was performed to quantify the impact of registration and screening on colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality, with comparison between familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and Lynch syndrome (LS). In study two, a regional Lynch syndrome registry was utilised to evaluate the uptake ...

  19. Filipina American women's breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and screening behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Ryujin Lisa; Sadler Georgia; Ko Celine M; Dong Adam

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background Filipino Americans are the fastest growing Asian minority group in the United States. There is limited knowledge about their breast cancer knowledge, screening practices and attitudes. Methods As part of the evaluation of the Asian Grocery Store-Based Cancer Education Program, 248 Filipino American women completed baseline and follow-up surveys, while an additional 58 took part in focus groups. Results Compliance with annual clinical breast exam guidelines among women 40 t...

  20. Lung cancer screening in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Jessica; Marín, Marta; Sánchez-Salcedo, Pablo; Zulueta, Javier J.

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are two intimately related diseases, with great impact on public health. Annual screening using low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) of the chest significantly reduces mortality due to lung cancer, and several scientific societies now recommend this technique. COPD, defined by the presence of airflow obstruction [forced expiratory volume and forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio less than 0.70], and their clinical phenotypes, namely emph...

  1. ACOG Recommendations and Guidelines for Cervical Cancer Screening and Management

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about ACOG's recommendations for cervical cancer screening and management.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  2. BREAST CANCER SCREENING KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICE AMONG WOMEN IN SOUTHEAST OF IRAN

    OpenAIRE

    Z Heidari; H. R Mahmoudzadeh-Sagheb; N. Sakhavar

    2008-01-01

    "nBreast cancer is the most common cancer occurring among women. The mortality rate of breast cancer can be reduced by regular breast cancer screening program. This study was carried out to identify the knowledge and practice of women about breast cancer screening in Zahedan, southeast of Iran. In this cross- sectional study, 384 women were selected as an improbability sample of women referring to Qouds maternity hospital. Knowledge and practice of them about breast cancer screening were...

  3. Reporting small bowel dose in cervix cancer high-dose-rate brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yixiang; Dandekar, Virag; Chu, James C H; Turian, Julius; Bernard, Damian; Kiel, Krystyna

    2016-01-01

    Small bowel (SB) is an organ at risk (OAR) that may potentially develop toxicity after radiotherapy for cervix cancer. However, its dose from brachytherapy (BT) is not systematically reported as in other OARs, even with image-guided brachytherapy (IGBT). This study aims to introduce consideration of quantified objectives for SB in BT plan optimization and to evaluate the feasibility of sparing SB while maintaining adequate target coverage. In all, 13 patients were included in this retrospective study. All patients were treated with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) 45Gy in 25 fractions followed by high dose rate (HDR)-BT boost of 28Gy in 4 fractions using tandem/ring applicator. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomographic (CT) images were obtained to define the gross tumor volume (GTV), high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV) and OARs (rectum, bladder, sigmoid colon, and SB). Treatment plans were generated for each patient using GEC-ESTRO recommendations based on the first CT/MRI. Treatment plans were revised to reduce SB dose when the [Formula: see text] dose to SB was > 5Gy, while maintaining other OAR constraints. For the 7 patients with 2 sets of CT and MRI studies, the interfraction variation of the most exposed SB was analyzed. Plan revisions were done in 6 of 13 cases owing to high [Formula: see text] of SB. An average reduction of 19% in [Formula: see text] was achieved. Meeting SB and other OAR constraints resulted in less than optimal target coverage in 2 patients (D90 of HR-CTV < 77Gyαβ10). The highest interfraction variation was observed for SB at 16 ± 59%, as opposed to 28 ± 27% for rectum and 21 ± 16% for bladder. Prospective reporting of SB dose could provide data required to establish a potential correlation with radiation-induced late complication for SB. PMID:26235549

  4. Morphological feature detection for cervical cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanswamy, Ramkumar; Sharpe, John P.; Duke, Heather J.; Stewart, Rosemary J.; Johnson, Kristina M.

    1995-03-01

    An optoelectronic system has been designed to pre-screen pap-smear slides and detect the suspicious cells using the hit/miss transform. Computer simulation of the algorithm tested on 184 pap-smear images detected 95% of the suspicious region as suspect while tagging just 5% of the normal regions as suspect. An optoelectronic implementation of the hit/miss transform using a 4f Vander-Lugt correlator architecture is proposed and demonstrated with experimental results.

  5. Cancer Worry, Perceived Risk and Cancer Screening in First-Degree Relatives of Patients with Familial Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jenny; Hart, Tae L; Aronson, Melyssa; Crangle, Cassandra; Govindarajan, Anand

    2016-06-01

    Currently, there is a lack of evidence evaluating the psychological impact of cancer-related risk perception and worry in individuals at high risk for gastric cancer. We examined the relationships between perceived risk, cancer worry and screening behaviors among first-degree relatives (FDRs) of patients with familial gastric cancer. FDRs of patients diagnosed with familial gastric cancer with a non-informative genetic analysis were identified and contacted. Participants completed a telephone interview that assessed socio-demographic information, cancer risk perception, cancer worry, impact of worry on daily functioning, and screening behaviors. Twenty-five FDRs completed the telephone interview. Participants reported high levels of comparative and absolute cancer risk perception, with an average perceived lifetime risk of 54 %. On the other hand, cancer-related worry scores were low, with a significant minority (12 %) experiencing high levels of worry. Study participants exhibited high levels of confidence (median = 70 %) in the effectiveness of screening at detecting a curable cancer. Participants that had undergone screening in the past showed significantly lower levels of cancer-related worry compared to those that had never undergone screening. In conclusion, individuals at high-risk for gastric cancer perceived a very high personal risk of cancer, but reported low levels of cancer worry. This paradoxical result may be attributed to participants' high levels of confidence in the effectiveness of screening. These findings highlight the importance for clinicians to discuss realistic risk appraisals and expectations towards screening with unaffected members of families at risk for gastric cancer, in an effort to help mitigate anxiety and help with coping. PMID:26493173

  6. Cervical cancer screening in Belgium and overscreening of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kerrebroeck, Helena; Makar, Amin

    2016-03-01

    There has been a marked decrease in the incidence of cervical cancer thanks to cytological screening with the Pap smear test. In Belgium, this screening is rather opportunistic. Over 39% of Belgian women between 25 and 64 years of age are never or only rarely screened by cytological tests. Moreover, there is an excess use of Pap smears because of women who rely on their yearly cervical smear and because many Pap smears are obtained from women beyond the target age range of 25 to 64 years. Sexually active adolescents are increasingly being recognized as a population distinct from adult women. They are at a high risk of acquiring the human papillomavirus (HPV), but most infections and cervical intraepithelial lesions caused by HPV are efficiently cleared by the immune system. We present a description of cervical cancer screening in Belgium using the database of the National Health Insurance Institute (RIZIV/INAMI) and the Belgian Health Care Knowledge Centre (KCE). We describe why elimination of Pap testing in the adolescent population reduces costs and harms without increasing cervical cancer rates. Expectant management, education on the risk factors for cervical cancer and HPV persistence, and HPV vaccination are very important in adolescents and young adults. PMID:25812038

  7. Breast Cancer Screening: Cultural Beliefs and Diverse Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Cassandra E.

    2006-01-01

    This article addresses the role of culture in breast cancer screening behavior among African American, American Indian/Alaskan Native, Asian American/Pacific Islander, and Hispanic/Latina women. It reviews cultural beliefs, attitudes, and knowledge and their relative influence on women's decisions regarding health tests. The article explores how…

  8. Knowledge and Attitudes about Colon Cancer Screening among African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Aimee S.; Daley, Christine M.; Greiner, K. Allen

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To explore knowledge and attitudes about colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among African American patients age 45 and older at a community health center serving low-income and uninsured patients. Methods: We conducted 7 focus groups and 17 additional semistructured interviews. Sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed…

  9. Message from Terrence Howard: Screening for Colorectal Cancer PSA (:20)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-04-13

    A message from the actor/musician Terrence Howard about the importance of screening for colorectal cancer.  Created: 4/13/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/13/2010.

  10. Message from Terrence Howard: Screening for Colorectal Cancer PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-04-13

    A message from the actor/musician Terrence Howard about the importance of screening for colorectal cancer.  Created: 4/13/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/13/2010.

  11. Electrical Bioimpedance Analysis: A New Method in Cervical Cancer Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Lopamudra Das; Soumen Das; Jyotirmoy Chatterjee

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common female cancer worldwide and a disease of concern due to its high rate of incidence of about 500,000 women annually and is responsible for about 280,000 deaths in a year. The mortality and morbidity of cervical cancer are reduced through mass screening via Pap smear, but this technique suffers from very high false negativity of around 30% to 40% and hence the sensitivity of this technique is not more than 60%. Electrical bioimpedance study employing cy...

  12. Ovarian Cancer Screening Method Fails to Reduce Deaths from the Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    New results from the NCI-sponsored PLCO Cancer Screening Trial show that screening for ovarian cancer with transvaginal ultrasound (TVU) and the CA-125 blood test did not result in fewer deaths from the disease compared with usual care.

  13. Effects of screening for psychological distress on patient outcomes in cancer : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Anna; Roseman, Michelle; Delisle, Vanessa C.; Milette, Katherine; Levis, Brooke; Syamchandra, Achyuth; Stefanek, Michael E.; Stewart, Donna E.; de Jonge, Peter; Coyne, James C.; Thombs, Brett D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Several practice guidelines recommend routine screening for psychological distress in cancer care. The objective was to evaluate the effect of screening cancer patients for psychological distress by assessing the (1) effectiveness of interventions to reduce distress among patients identif

  14. Screening for Breast Cancer: #BeBrave: A Life-Saving Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Screening For Breast Cancer #BeBrave: A Life-Saving Test ... cancer survivor, you may not have gotten your screening mammogram. What is your message to other women ...

  15. Racial and ethnic disparities in U.S. cancer screening rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The percentage of U.S. citizens screened for cancer remains below national targets, with significant disparities among racial and ethnic populations, according to the first federal study to identify cancer screening disparities among Asian and Hispanic gr

  16. Screening for Bladder and Other Urothelial Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Using tobacco , especially smoking cigarettes. Having a family history of bladder cancer. Having certain changes in the genes . Being exposed to paints, dyes, metals or petroleum products in the workplace. Past treatment with radiation therapy to the pelvis or with certain anticancer drugs, ...

  17. An update in breast cancer screening and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrier, Sanjay; Tapia, Grace; Goltsman, David; Beith, Jane

    2016-03-01

    This article provides an overview of the main controversies in a number of key areas of breast cancer management. Relevant studies that have contributed to guide the treatment of this heterogeneous disease in the field of breast screening, surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are highlighted. Mammography and ultrasound are the main methods of breast screening. MRI and tomosynthesis are emerging as new screening tools for a selected group of breast cancer patients. From a surgical perspective, oncoplastic techniques and neoadjuvant chemotherapy are improving cosmetic results in breast-conserving surgery. For high-risk patients, controversies still remain regarding prophylactic mastectomies. Finally, the appropriate management of the axilla continues evolving with the increasing role of radiotherapy as an alternative treatment to axillary dissection. PMID:26689336

  18. Two cytological methods for screening for cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirschner, B.; Simonsen, K.; Junge, J.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Denmark has had an organized screening programme for cervical cancer since the 1960s. In spite of this, almost 150 Danish women die from the disease each year. There are currently two different methods for preparation of cervical samples: conventional Papanicolaou smear and liquid......-based cytology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 2002, the Department of Pathology, Hvidovre Hospital changed over from the conventional Papanicolaou smear screening method to SurePath liquid-based cytology. This article is based on a retrospective comparison on data from the population screening programme for cervical...... cancer in the Municipality of Copenhagen. RESULTS: The number of tests with the diagnosis of "normal cells" decreased 1% after the conversion to liquid-based cytology, whilst the number of tests with "atypical cells" and "cells suspicious for malignancy" increased by 64.3% and 41.2% respectively...

  19. CT Lung Cancer Screening Program Development: Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Teri

    2015-01-01

    Radiology administrators must use innovative strategies around clinical collaboration and marketing to ensure that patients access the service in sufficient numbers. Radiology Associates of South Florida in collaboration with Baptist Health South Florida have developed a successful lung cancer screening program. The biggest factors in their success have been the affordability of their service and the quality of the program. Like mammography, lung cancer screening programs serve as an entry point to other services that generate revenue for the hospital. Patients may require further evaluation in the form of more imaging or surgical services for biopsy. Part 1 provided background and laid out fundamentals for starting a program. Part 2 focuses on building patient volume, marketing, and issues related to patient management after the screen is performed. PMID:26314180

  20. Barriers and Motivators Related to Cervical and Breast Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Bokaee

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: modern knowledge could protect against cancer for individuals in community with early stage and premalignat state. Screening of cancer is best instrument for early detection of malignancy. Between women’s cancers breast and cervical cancer have more incidence and mortality than other cancers . But could be prevented by simple and cheep screening programs. Despite specific statistics in Iran evidence shows that women’s participation in screening program is poor , so cancers are diagnosed in advanced stage. The purpose of this study was to identify major barriers and motivators for breast and cervical screening . Methods: This survey was a descriptive study in which 400 women participated in health and treatment centers in Yazd. Sampling method was done in two simple and random stages. Data was collected by inventory and questionnaire . Then data were analyzed by SPSS soft ware . Results: Findings showed that 80% of them never refereed to a health provider for clinical breast exam (C B E and only 3% of them did regularly C B E . 46% of them had never done pap smear and only 14.5 % of them did regularly pap smear. The findings showed that major motivators were as follow: advice of health’s personnel , using of contraceptive methods , and awareness of media. Also the major barriers were as follow : Not having knowledge of these exams , not having knowledge of the existence of these centers of education and practice , not having precious health problems , fear of examination , Embarrassment of examination and health providers not to teach them . to consider the most important barriers were propounded which showed that health education role to eliminate barriers for referring women for screening . Discussion: Based on the results of this sample , screening was the least expected . considering barriers and motivators observed it was revealed that health education was required for prevention of common women’s cancers. Also

  1. Ultrasound screening of contralateral breast after surgery for breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Ja [Department of Radiology, Seoul Metropolitan Government Seoul National University, Boramae Medical Center (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Se-Yeong; Chang, Jung Min; Cho, Nariya [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Han, Wonshik [Department of Surgery, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Woo Kyung, E-mail: moonwk@snu.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • The addition of supplemental US to mammography depicted additional 5.0 cancers per 1000 postoperative women. • Positive biopsy rate of mammography-detected lesions was 66.7% (4 of 6) and that of US-detected lesions was 40.0% (6 of 15). • US can be helpful to detect mammographically occult breast cancer in the contralateral breast in women with previous history of cancer and dense breast. - Abstract: Objective: To determine whether supplemental screening ultrasound (US) to mammography could improve cancer detection rate of the contralateral breast in patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts. Materials and methods: During a one-year study period, 1314 screening patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts simultaneously underwent mammography and breast US. BI-RADS categories were given for mammography or US-detected lesions in the contralateral breast. The reference standard was histology and/or 1-year imaging follow-up, and the cancer rate according to BI-RADS categories and cancer detection rate and positive biopsy rate according to detection modality were analyzed. Results: Of 1314 patients, 84 patients (6.4%) were categorized as category 3 with one interval cancer and one cancer which was upgraded to category 4A after 6-month follow-up US (2.5% cancer rate, 95% CIs 1.5–9.1%). Fifteen patients (1.1%) had category 4A or 4B lesions in the contralateral breast. Four lesions were detected on mammography (two lesions were also visible on US) and 11 lesions were detected on US and 5 cancers were confirmed (33.3%, 95% CIs 15.0–58.5%). Six patients (0.5%) had category 4C lesions, 2 detected on mammography and 4 on US and 4 cancers were confirmed (66.7%, 95% CIs 29.6–90.8%). No lesions were categorized as category 5 in the contralateral breast. Cancer detection rate by mammography was 3.3 per 1000 patients and that by US was 5.0 per 1000 patients, therefore overall cancer detection rate by

  2. Ultrasound screening of contralateral breast after surgery for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The addition of supplemental US to mammography depicted additional 5.0 cancers per 1000 postoperative women. • Positive biopsy rate of mammography-detected lesions was 66.7% (4 of 6) and that of US-detected lesions was 40.0% (6 of 15). • US can be helpful to detect mammographically occult breast cancer in the contralateral breast in women with previous history of cancer and dense breast. - Abstract: Objective: To determine whether supplemental screening ultrasound (US) to mammography could improve cancer detection rate of the contralateral breast in patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts. Materials and methods: During a one-year study period, 1314 screening patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts simultaneously underwent mammography and breast US. BI-RADS categories were given for mammography or US-detected lesions in the contralateral breast. The reference standard was histology and/or 1-year imaging follow-up, and the cancer rate according to BI-RADS categories and cancer detection rate and positive biopsy rate according to detection modality were analyzed. Results: Of 1314 patients, 84 patients (6.4%) were categorized as category 3 with one interval cancer and one cancer which was upgraded to category 4A after 6-month follow-up US (2.5% cancer rate, 95% CIs 1.5–9.1%). Fifteen patients (1.1%) had category 4A or 4B lesions in the contralateral breast. Four lesions were detected on mammography (two lesions were also visible on US) and 11 lesions were detected on US and 5 cancers were confirmed (33.3%, 95% CIs 15.0–58.5%). Six patients (0.5%) had category 4C lesions, 2 detected on mammography and 4 on US and 4 cancers were confirmed (66.7%, 95% CIs 29.6–90.8%). No lesions were categorized as category 5 in the contralateral breast. Cancer detection rate by mammography was 3.3 per 1000 patients and that by US was 5.0 per 1000 patients, therefore overall cancer detection rate by

  3. Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Cervical Neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rungoe, Christine; Simonsen, Jacob; Riis, Lene; Frisch, Morten; Langholz, Ebbe; Jess, Tine

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: We examined the risk of cervical neoplasia (dysplasia or cancer) in women with ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn's disease (CD). We also calculated the reverse, the risk for diagnosis with cervical neoplasia before development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS: We...... with IBD were assessed by Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Odds ratios (ORs) of cervical neoplasia before diagnosis of IBD were calculated by using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Women with CD underwent cervical cancer screening as often as women in the general population (IRR...

  4. Population screening for breast cancer in the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although our understanding of the causes of breast cancer is increasing, it is as yet not possible to recommend measures to decrease its occurrence. Therefore we have to resort to a substitute called secondary prevention which aims at preventing the occurrence of metastatic breast cancer and death by detecting the primary cancer in the breast at an earlier point in its natural history. The question whether this can be achieved can only be answered by scientific study. Such studies are being called: population-based screening programmes. Screening requires one or more tests by which one can partition a population in those who probably have a cancer and those who have not. Since an early breast cancer does not produce symptoms like pain the test has to be some sort of objective assessment. In the field of detecting breast cancer we have been greatly helped by the development of a radiologic technique called mammography. Mammography basically is not an easy technique since there is little contrast between structures in the breast compared with e.g. bone. The quality of mammograms, therefore, was not very high in the pioneering era during the nineteen-fifties and -sixties. This presentation discusses a move of a few doctors in New York city: a radiologist, a surgeon and epidemiologist, to design a scientific study which could answer the question whether mammography, added to a standard clinical examination of the breast would decrease mortality from breast cancer

  5. Breast cancer mortality in organised mammography screening in Denmark: comparative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl Jørgensen, Karsten; Zahl, Per-Henrik; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether the previously observed 25% reduction in breast cancer mortality in Copenhagen following the introduction of mammography screening was indeed due to screening, by using an additional screening region and five years additional follow-up....

  6. Health literacy and meeting breast and cervical cancer screening guidelines among Asians and whites in California

    OpenAIRE

    Sentell, Tetine; Braun, Kathryn L; Davis, James; Davis, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Empirical evidence regarding cancer screening and health literacy is mixed. Cancer is the leading cause of death in Asian Americans, yet screening rates are notably low. Using a population-based sample, we determined if health literacy: (1) was associated with breast and cervical cancer screening, and (2) helped to explain Asian cancer screening disparities. Methods We analyzed the 2007 California Health Interview Survey for Asian (Japanese, Chinese, Filipino, Korean, Vietnamese, o...

  7. Development and Validation of the Assessment of Health Literacy in Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Hae-Ra; Huh, Boyun; Kim, Miyong T.; Kim, Jiyun; Nguyen, Tam

    2014-01-01

    For many people limited health literacy is a major barrier to effective preventive health behavior such as cancer screening, yet a comprehensive health literacy measure that is specific to breast and cervical cancer screening is not readily available. The purpose of this paper is to describe the development and testing of a new instrument to measure health literacy in the context of breast and cervical cancer screening, the Assessment of Health Literacy in Cancer Screening (AHL-C). The AHL-C ...

  8. Melanoma skin cancer screenings. A how-to approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobes, W L

    1995-01-15

    Development of a workshop on skin cancer screening should begin with physicians who are able to best diagnose and treat skin cancer, that is, dermatologists who are board certified or board eligible. Local societies should then be involved as well as organizations that can offer ancillary help such as screening, clinics' location and assisting with personnel financial aid, and exposure to the public, such as advertising. Support groups then become essential to a good screening. The help of the American Cancer Society, local churches, clubs, and others is beneficial. The organization should have a central organizing body that sets the dates and locations for the clinics and that helps get supplies, such as tables, screens for privacy, and literature. Volunteers can help with sign-in and sign-out sheets for the screening and can act as traffic directors and assist the physicians. Media exposure then becomes important. A TV or radio show can get the public's attention, for example, by releasing the latest data on skin cancer or by presenting a solar meter project showing the local risk of ultraviolet radiation. The workshop itself should begin on time. Additionally, a cutoff time is also needed. In the final stage, the forms should be processed and a follow-up evaluation should be done on the number of patients seen, precancerous and cancerous lesions found, and the potential for future functions. Popular ancillary aids are good literature on the subjects discussed, and samples of sunscreens (SPF 15 or better) that are donated by pharmaceutical companies. PMID:7804998

  9. Contrary to Evidence, Some Doctors Recommend Ovarian Cancer Screening | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    One in three doctors believes that screening for ovarian cancer is effective, according to a recently published survey of practicing physicians, even though substantial evidence to the contrary exists. |

  10. Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The PLCO Cancer Screening Trial was a population-based randomized trial to determine the effects of screening on cancer-related mortality and secondary endpoints in more than 150,000 men and women aged 55 to 74.  The PLCO Biorepository, accessible by the Cancer Data Access System (CDAS) web portal, contains about 2.7 million biologic specimens from intervention participants during their six trial screening years, and buccal cell specimens from control participants. The Etiology and Early Marker Studies (EEMS) component has biologic materials and risk factor information from trial participants before diagnosis of disease.  | A repository of data from a large randomized trial on the effects of screening on cancer-related mortality and secondary endpoints in men and women aged 55 to 74.

  11. International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer Computed Tomography Screening Workshop 2011 report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, John K; Smith, Robert A; Aberle, Denise R; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Baldwin, David R; Yankelevitz, David; Pedersen, Jesper Holst; Swanson, Scott James; Travis, William D; Wisbuba, Ignacio I; Noguchi, Masayuki; Mulshine, Jim L

    2012-01-01

    The International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) Board of Directors convened a computed tomography (CT) Screening Task Force to develop an IASLC position statement, after the National Cancer Institute press statement from the National Lung Screening Trial showed that lung cancer deaths fell by 20%. The Task Force's Position Statement outlined a number of the major opportunities to further improve the CT screening in lung cancer approach, based on experience with cancer screening from other organ sites.The IASLC CT Screening Workshop 2011 further developed these discussions, which are summarized in this report. The recommendation from the workshop, and supported by the IASLC Board of Directors, was to set up the Strategic CT Screening Advisory Committee (IASLC-SSAC). The Strategic CT Screening Advisory Committee is currently engaging professional societies and organizations who are stakeholders in lung cancer CT screening implementation across the globe, to focus on delivering guidelines and recommendations in six specific areas: (i) identification of high-risk individuals for lung cancer CT screening programs; (ii) develop radiological guidelines for use in developing national screening programs; (iii) develop guidelines for the clinical work-up of "indeterminate nodules" resulting from CT screening programmers; (iv) guidelines for pathology reporting of nodules from lung cancer CT screening programs; (v) recommendations for surgical and therapeutic interventions of suspicious nodules identified through lung cancer CT screening programs; and (vi) integration of smoking cessation practices into future national lung cancer CT screening programs. PMID:22173661

  12. [Why reconsider the recommendation of breast cancer screening?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesser, Charles Dalcanale; d'Ávila, Thiago Luiz de Campos

    2016-05-31

    The aim of this article was to discuss the recommendation of mammogram screening for breast cancer and its technical basis. The first part discusses criteria for the decision, which should be consistent with high-quality scientific evidence. The second part discusses over-diagnosis (the greatest harm of screening) and its meaning in questioning the natural history of disease model. The third part summarizes studies on the efficacy, effectiveness, and harms of screening, showing that the latter (especially over-diagnosis and false-positives) are significant, shedding doubt on the balance between harms and benefits. In conclusion, the recommendation of mammogram screening at any age should be reconsidered by Brazilian health authorities. PMID:27253456

  13. Breast cancer mortality in organised mammography screening in Denmark: comparative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl Jørgensen, Karsten; Zahl, Per-Henrik; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether the previously observed 25% reduction in breast cancer mortality in Copenhagen following the introduction of mammography screening was indeed due to screening, by using an additional screening region and five years additional follow-up.......To determine whether the previously observed 25% reduction in breast cancer mortality in Copenhagen following the introduction of mammography screening was indeed due to screening, by using an additional screening region and five years additional follow-up....

  14. 42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and... Medical and Other Health Services § 410.39 Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations... of early detection of prostate cancer: (i) A screening digital rectal examination. (ii) A...

  15. Population Based Screening for Prostate Cancer: assessment of diagnostic tools and cancers detected

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.B.W. Rietbergen (John)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractOver the past decade, considerable debate has occurred over the question whether or not to screen asymptomatic men for prostate cancer. It is unknown whether early detection and treatment of the disease will decrease the disease specific mortality. On theoretical grounds screening may pr

  16. Cancer Screening on the Hopi Reservation: A Model for Success in a Native American Community

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Sylvia R.; Joshweseoma, Lori; Saboda, Kathylynn; Sanderson, Priscilla; Ami, Delores; Harris, Robin

    2015-01-01

    American Indian women have lower cancer survival rates compared to non-Hispanic White women. Increased cancer screening fostered by culturally sensitive education and community programs may help decrease this disparity. This study assesses the effectiveness of Hopi Cancer Support Services (HCSS) in maintaining high rates of breast and cervical cancer screening among Hopi women and evaluates the impact of participation in HCSS programs on colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. A population-based s...

  17. A favorable view: progress in cancer prevention and screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwald, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Clifton Leaf, in his article "Why We're Losing the War on Cancer," presents criticisms of past research approaches and the small impact of this research thus far on producing cures or substantially extending the life of many cancer patients. It is true that gains in long-term survival for people with advanced cancers have been modest, hindered in part by the heterogeneity of tumors, which allows the cancers to persist using alternate molecular pathways and so evade many cancer therapeutics. In contrast, clinical trials have demonstrated that it is possible to reduce the incidence or improve cancer survival through prevention and early detection. Strides have been made in preventing or detecting early the four deadliest cancers in the United States (i.e., lung, breast, prostate, and colorectal). For example, 7-year follow-up data from the Breast Cancer Prevention Trial (BCPT) provides evidence that tamoxifen reduces the occurrence of invasive breast tumors by more than 40%; recent studies using aromatase inhibitors and raloxifene are also promising. The Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) showed that finasteride reduced prostate cancer incidence by 25%, and the ongoing Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) is investigating selenium and vitamin E for prostate cancer prevention based on encouraging results from earlier studies. Living a healthy lifestyle, including regular physical activity, avoiding obesity, and eating primarily a plant-based diet has been associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer. In addition, noninvasive stool DNA tests for early detection are being studied, which may lessen the reluctance of people to be screened for colorectal polyps and cancer. Behavioral and medical approaches for smoking prevention are ways to reduce the incidence of lung cancer, with antinicotine vaccines on the horizon that may help former smokers to avoid relapse. The US National Lung Screening Trial is testing whether early detection via

  18. Breast cancer screening in Japan. Present status and recent movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the incidence of breast cancer and deaths from breast cancer have been increasing, the Ministry of Public Welfare and Labor has been promoting breast cancer screening. Mammography screening began in fiscal year 2000 for those women 50 years of age or over, but attendance has not been increasing. This year (2004), the Ministry determined that mammography would be applicable to those 40 years of age or over and that screening with palpation alone would be abolished. To determine the effectiveness of the measures, mammography equipment, technologists, and readers were calculated. If the attendance were 50% of the 35,497 thousand women in this biennial screening, 40 persons would be examined by one apparatus per day, and, as there are 200 working days in a year, 1,109 apparatus would be needed. In the same way, if a technologist can examine 5,000 women, and a doctor can read 10,000 cases a year, both are apparently deficient in some prefectures. The standards of quality control for digital mammography have been determined by the Japan Radiological Society, and a ''step phantom for mammography'' has been developed. Qualitative evaluation of hard-copy clinical images has also started. All of the standards are presented in ''Mammography Guidelines, Second Edition,'' published by Igakushoin, Tokyo, Japan, 2004. (author)

  19. Cervical cancer screening coverage in a high-incidence region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibelli Navarro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the coverage of a cervical cancer screening program in a city with a high incidence of the disease in addition to the factors associated with non-adherence to the current preventive program. METHODS A cross-sectional study based on household surveys was conducted. The sample was composed of women between 25 and 59 years of age of the city of Boa Vista, RR, Northern Brazil who were covered by the cervical cancer screening program. The cluster sampling method was used. The dependent variable was participation in a women’s health program, defined as undergoing at least one Pap smear in the 36 months prior to the interview; the explanatory variables were extracted from individual data. A generalized linear model was used. RESULTS 603 women were analyzed, with an mean age of 38.2 years (SD = 10.2. Five hundred and seventeen women underwent the screening test, and the prevalence of adherence in the last three years was up to 85.7% (95%CI 82.5;88.5. A high per capita household income and recent medical consultation were associated with the lower rate of not being tested in multivariate analysis. Disease ignorance, causes, and prevention methods were correlated with chances of non-adherence to the screening system; 20.0% of the women were reported to have undergone opportunistic and non-routine screening. CONCLUSIONS The informed level of coverage is high, exceeding the level recommended for the control of cervical cancer. The preventive program appears to be opportunistic in nature, particularly for the most vulnerable women (with low income and little information on the disease. Studies on the diagnostic quality of cervicovaginal cytology and therapeutic schedules for positive cases are necessary for understanding the barriers to the control of cervical cancer.

  20. Cancer screening behaviours among South Asian immigrants in the UK, US and Canada: a scoping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Joanne; Ahmad, Farah; Beaton, Dorcas; Bierman, Arlene S

    2016-03-01

    South Asian (SA) immigrants settled in the United Kingdom (UK) and North America [United States (US) and Canada] have low screening rates for breast, cervical and colorectal cancers. Incidence rates of these cancers increase among SA immigrants after migration, becoming similar to rates in non-Asian native populations. However, there are disparities in cancer screening, with low cancer screening uptake in this population. We conducted a scoping study using Arksey & O'Malley's framework to examine cancer screening literature on SA immigrants residing in the UK, US and Canada. Eight electronic databases, key journals and reference lists were searched for English language studies and reports. Of 1465 identified references, 70 studies from 1994 to November 2014 were included: 63% on breast or cervical cancer screening or both; 10% examined colorectal cancer screening only; 16% explored health promotion/service provision; 8% studied breast, cervical and colorectal cancer screening; and 3% examined breast and colorectal cancer screening. A thematic analysis uncovered four dominant themes: (i) beliefs and attitudes towards cancer and screening included centrality of family, holistic healthcare, fatalism, screening as unnecessary and emotion-laden perceptions; (ii) lack of knowledge of cancer and screening related to not having heard about cancer and its causes, or lack of awareness of screening, its rationale and/or how to access services; (iii) barriers to access including individual and structural barriers; and (iv) gender differences in screening uptake and their associated factors. Findings offer insights that can be used to develop culturally sensitive interventions to minimise barriers and increase cancer screening uptake in these communities, while recognising the diversity within the SA culture. Further research is required to address the gap in colorectal cancer screening literature to more fully understand SA immigrants' perspectives, as well as research to

  1. Effects of repeated mammographic screening on breast cancer stage distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A randomised controlled trial of mass screening for breast cancer by single-view mammography was begun in Sweden in 1977. All women aged 40 and older and resident in the counties of Koppaberg and Oestergoetland were enrolled. The present report is confined to the Oestergoetland study, which started in 1978 and comprised 92934 women. After randomisation, which was done on the basis of communities rather than individuals, 47001 women were allocated to the study group and offered repeated mammographic screening; 45933 were allocated to the control group. As compliance among women over 74 years of age was poor these were excluded from the present report. The yearly incidence of stage II or more advanced breast cancers after the initial screening round up to and including the second was reduced by 40 per cent in the study group compared with the controls. This effect was less marked in the age group 40-49. After 5.5 years average from the date of entry the absolute number of women with stage II-IV disease in the control group exceeded that for the study group by 44, whereas there was a large excess of cancer in situ and stage I cancer in the study group. (orig.)

  2. Inflammatory bowel disease, colorectal cancer and type 2 diabetes mellitus: The links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurjus, Abdo; Eid, Assad; Al Kattar, Sahar; Zeenny, Marie Noel; Gerges-Geagea, Alice; Haydar, Hanine; Hilal, Anis; Oueidat, Doreid; Matar, Michel; Tawilah, Jihane; Hussein, Inaya Hajj; Schembri-Wismayer, Pierre; Cappello, Francesco; Tomasello, Giovanni; Leone, Angelo; Jurjus, Rosalyn A

    2016-06-01

    The co-occurrence of the three disease entities, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), colorectal cancer (CRC), type 2diabetes mellitus (T2DM) along with inflammation and dismicrobism has been frequently reported. Some authors have even suggested that dysbiosis could be the link through a molecular crosstalk of multiple inflammatory loops including TGFβ, NFKB, TNFα and ROS among others. This review focuses on the inflammatory process along with the role of microbiota in the pathophysiology of the three diseases. The etiology of IBD is multifactorial, and like CRC and T2DM, it is associated with a widespread and sustained GI inflammation and dismicrobism, whereby an array of pro-inflammatory mediators and other related biomolecules are up-regulated, both locally and systematically. Such a persistent or an inadequately resolved chronic inflammation may be a causative agent, in the presence other factors, leading to several pathologies such as IBD, CRC and T2DM. TGFβ plays a crucial role in pancreatic β cell malfunctioning as glucotoxicity stimulates its signaling cascade through smad 3, IL-6 and epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Such a cascade could lead to macrophages and other cells recruitment, inflammation, then IBD and CRC. NFkB is also another key regulator in the crosstalk among the pathways leading to the three disease entities. It plays a major role in linking inflammation to cancer development through its ability to up regulate several inflammatory and tumor promoting cytokines like: IL-6, IL-1 α and TNF α, as well as genes like BCL2 and BCLXL. It activates JAK/STAT signaling network via STAT3 transcription factors and promotes epithelial to mesenchymal transition. It also increases the risk for T2DM in obese people. In brief, NFKB is a matchmaker between inflammation, IBD, cancer and diabetes. In addition, TNFα plays a pivotal role in systemic inflammation. It is increased in the mucosa of IBD patients and has a central role in its pathogenesis. It

  3. Screening for prostate cancer: How to manage in 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobel B.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available National Societies usually recommend screening for Prostate Cancer (PC with Serum Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA and digital rectal examination annually beginning at age 50. In high risk population including men with a family history of PC or African population screening should start at age of 45 years. PSA has been widely used to detect PC despite the fact that PSA is not specific for PC. Over the years serum PSA level of greater than 4,0ng/ml was considered the threshold to perform prostate biopsy, searching for PC. In 2005 the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT demonstrated that the cut-off of 4,0ng/ml for PSA is not anymore adapted1 due to the fact that this survey found in 15% of men with PSA < or = 4,0ng/ml a prostate cancer on sextant biopsies. Today the value of PSA and the cut-off for Prostate biopsy is questioned suggesting that PSA level higher than 2,6ng/ml must be the case to propose Prostate Biopsy. Catalona confirms that approximately 25% to 30% of men with PSA 2,6 to 4,0ng/ml have prostate cancer2. Schröder and Gosselaar3 assert that screening for PC at low PSA levels (<4,0ng/ml risks to detect clinically insignificant cancers which are no threat to man. So far in the year 2006 screening for PC demonstrates accumulating evidences of efficacy but persistent uncertainty4. The major question for an urologist at work when facing a young men searching early diagnosis of PC is: at which level of PSA do we have to perform rectal biopsy ?.

  4. Are U.S. cancer screening test patterns consistent with guideline recommendations with respect to the age of screening initiation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadiyala Srikanth

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background U.S. cancer screening guidelines communicate important information regarding the ages for which screening tests are appropriate. Little attention has been given to whether breast, colorectal and prostate cancer screening test use is responsive to guideline age information regarding the age of screening initiation. Methods The 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Social Survey and the 2003 National Health Interview Surveys were used to compute breast, colorectal and prostate cancer screening test rates by single year of age. Graphical and logistic regression analyses were used to compare screening rates for individuals close to and on either side of the guideline recommended screening initiation ages. Results We identified large discrete shifts in the use of screening tests precisely at the ages where guidelines recommend that screening begin. Mammography screening in the last year increased from 22% [95% CI = 20, 25] at age 39 to 36% [95% CI = 33, 39] at age 40 and 47% [95% CI = 44, 51] at age 41. Adherence to the colorectal cancer screening guidelines within the last year increased from 18% [95% CI = 15, 22] at age 49 to 19% [95% CI = 15, 23] at age 50 and 34% [95% CI = 28, 39] at age 51. Prostate specific antigen screening in the last year increased from 28% [95% CI = 25, 31] at age 49 to 33% [95% CI = 29, 36] and 42% [95% CI = 38, 46] at ages 50 and 51. These results are robust to multivariate analyses that adjust for age, sex, income, education, marital status and health insurance status. Conclusion The results from this study suggest that cancer screening test utilization is consistent with guideline age information regarding the age of screening initiation. Screening test and adherence rates increased by approximately 100% at the breast and colorectal cancer guideline recommended ages compared to only a 50% increase in the screening test rate for prostate cancer screening. Since information regarding the age of cancer screening

  5. A practical approach to radiological evaluation of CT lung cancer screening examinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Xueqian; Heuvelmans, Marjolein A.; van Ooijen, Peter M. A.; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related death in the world. The Dutch-Belgian Randomized Lung Cancer Screening Trial (Dutch acronym: NELSON) was launched to investigate whether screening for lung cancer by low-dose multidetector computed tomography (CT) in high-risk patients will lead

  6. Personalized prostate cancer care: from screening to treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conran, Carly A; Brendler, Charles B; Xu, Jianfeng

    2016-01-01

    Unprecedented progress has been made in genomic personalized medicine in the last several years, allowing for more individualized healthcare assessments and recommendations than ever before. However, most of this progress in prostate cancer (PCa) care has focused on developing and selecting therapies for late-stage disease. To address this issue of limited focus, we propose a model for incorporating genomic-based personalized medicine into all levels of PCa care, from prevention and screening to diagnosis, and ultimately to the treatment of both early-stage and late-stage cancers. We have termed this strategy the "Pyramid Model" of personalized cancer care. In this perspective paper, our objective is to demonstrate the potential application of the Pyramid Model to PCa care. This proactive and comprehensive personalized cancer care approach has the potential to achieve three important medical goals: reducing mortality, improving quality of life and decreasing both individual and societal healthcare costs. PMID:27184548

  7. Screening of human bocavirus in surgically excised cancer specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Moneim, Ahmed S; El-Fol, Hosam A; Kamel, Mahmoud M; Soliman, Ahmed S A; Mahdi, Emad A; El-Gammal, Ahmed S; Mahran, Taha Z M

    2016-08-01

    Human bocavirus (HBoV) is a prevalent virus worldwide and is mainly associated with respiratory disorders. Recently, it was detected in several disease conditions, including cancers. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third main cause of cancers worldwide. Risk factors that initiate cell transformation include nutritional, hereditary and infectious causes. The aim of the current study was to screen for the presence of HBoV in solid tumors of colorectal cancer and to determine the genotypes of the detected strains. Surgically excised and paraffin-embedded colorectal cancer tissue specimens from 101 male and female patients with and without metastasis were collected over the last four years. Pathological analysis and tumor stages were determined. The presence of HBoV was screened by polymerase chain reaction, and the genotype of the detected HBoV was determined by direct gene sequencing. Most of the examined specimens were adenocarcinoma with mucinous activity in many of them. Twenty-four out of 101 (23.8 %) CRC tissue specimens were found to contain HBoV-1. Low sequence diversity was recorded in the detected strains. The virus was detected in both male and female patients with an age range of 30-75 years. It is proposed that HBoV-1 could play a potential role in the induction of CRC. PMID:27155943

  8. Reducing Cancer Screening Disparities in Medicare Beneficiaries Through Cancer Patient Navigation

    OpenAIRE

    Braun, Kathryn L; Thomas, William L.; Domingo, Jermy-Leigh B.; Allison, Amanda L; Ponce, Avette; Kamakana, P. Haunani; Brazzel, Sandra S.; Aluli, N. Emmett; Tsark, JoAnn U.

    2015-01-01

    Significant racial disparities in cancer mortality are seen between Medicare beneficiaries. A randomized controlled trial tested the use of lay navigators (care managers) to increase cancer screening of Asian and Pacific Islander Medicare beneficiaries. The study setting was Moloka‘i General Hospital on the island of Moloka‘i, Hawai‘i, which was one of six sites participating in the Cancer Prevention and Treatment Demonstration sponsored by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Betw...

  9. 5-aminosalicylic acid is an attractive candidate agent for chemoprevention of colon cancer in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Cheng; Pierre Desreumaux

    2005-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is classically subdivided into ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). Patients with IBD have increased risk for colorectal cancer. Because the pathogenesis of colorectal carcinoma has not been entirely defined yet and there is no ideal treatment for colon cancer, cancer prevention has become increasingly important in patients with IBD. The two adopted methods to prevent the development of colon cancer in clinical practice include the prophylactic colectomy and colonoscopic surveillance.But patients and physicians seldom accept colectomy as a routine preventive method and most patients do not undergo appropriate colonoscopic surveillance. Chemoprevention refers to the use of natural or synthetic chemical agents to reverse, suppress, or to delay the process of carcinogenesis.Chemoprevention is a particularly useful method in the management of patients at high risk for the development of specific cancers based on inborn genetic susceptibility, the presence of cancer-associated disease, or other known risk factors. Prevention of colorectal cancer by administration of chemopreventive agents is one of the most promising options for IBD patients who are at increased risks of the disease. The chemopreventive efficacy of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) against intestinal tumors has been well established. But with reports that NSAIDs aggravated the symptoms of colitis, their sustained use for the purpose of cancer chemoprevention has been relatively contraindicated in IBD patients. Another hopeful candidate chemoprevention drug for IBD patients is 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), which is well tolerated by most patients and has limited systemic adverse effects, and no gastrointestinal toxicity. 5-ASA lacks the well-known side effects of longterm NSAIDs use. Retrospective correlative studies have suggested that the long-term use of 5-ASA in IBD patients may significantly reduce the risk of development of colorectal cancer

  10. Cervical cancer screening in primary health care setting in Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed; Aro, Arja R.; Rasch, Vibeke;

    2012-01-01

    of this study showed that VIA has higher sensitivity and lower specificity compared to Pap smear, but a combination of both tests has greater sensitivity and specificity than each test independently. It indicates that VIA is useful for screening of cervical cancer in the primary health care setting in Sudan......OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility of visual inspection with the use of acetic acid (VIA) as a screening method for cervical cancer, an alternative to the Pap smear used in primary health care setting in Sudan, and to compare sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values......, and histological diagnosis of positive cases of both tests. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 934 asymptomatic women living in Khartoum, Sudan, was conducted during 2009-2010. A semi-structured questionnaire containing socio-economic and reproductive variables was used to collect data from each participant...

  11. Distinct breast cancer characteristics between screen- and self-detected breast cancers recorded in the Japanese Breast Cancer Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Takayuki; Kumamaru, Hiraku; Miyata, Hiroaki; Tomotaki, Ai; Niikura, Naoki; Kawai, Masaaki; Anan, Keisei; Hayashi, Naoki; Masuda, Shinobu; Tsugawa, Koichiro; Aogi, Kenjiro; Ishida, Takanori; Masuoka, Hideji; Iijima, Kotaro; Matsuoka, Junji; Doihara, Hiroyoshi; Kinoshita, Takayuki; Nakamura, Seigo; Tokuda, Yutaka

    2016-04-01

    The rate of breast cancer screening for women of all ages in Japan is increasing. However, little is known about the biological differences between screen- and self-detected tumors. We used data from the Japanese Breast Cancer Registry (JBCR), a nationwide registry of newly diagnosed breast cancer cases in Japan, to investigate patients diagnosed between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2011. We compared the clinicopathological features of tumors and assessed yearly trends regarding the proportion of screen-detected cases during the study period. We found that 31.8 % (65,358/205,544) of cancers were detected by screening. Asymptomatic tumors detected by screening (asymptomatic) were more likely to have favorable prognostic features than those that were self-detected (ductal carcinoma in situ [DCIS]: 19.8 versus 4.1 %, node-negative: 77.0 versus 61.6 %, and estrogen receptor-positive [ER+]: 82.0 versus 72.9 %, respectively). All these findings were statistically significant (p DCIS increased from 41.5 to 66.0 % and that of ER+ cancers increased from 23.2 to 39.7 %. This study demonstrated that low-risk tumors, including DCIS, ER+, and lower TNM stage, account for a substantial proportion of clinical screening-detected cancers. The differences in biological characteristics between screen- and self-detected cancers may account in part for the limited efficacy of breast cancer screening programs aimed at improving breast cancer mortality. PMID:27048417

  12. Reducing Colorectal Cancer Incidence and Disparities: Performance and Outcomes of a Screening Colonoscopy Program in South Carolina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Xirasagar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the efficiency, effectiveness, and racial disparities reduction potential of Screening Colonoscopies for People Everywhere in South Carolina (SCOPE SC, a state-funded program for indigent persons aged 50–64 years (45–64 years for African American (AA with a medical home in community health centers. Patients were referred to existing referral network providers, and the centers were compensated for patient navigation. Data on procedures and patient demographics were analyzed. Of 782 individuals recruited (71.2% AA, 85% (665 completed the procedure (71.1% AA. The adenoma detection rate was 27.8% (males 34.6% and females 25.1%, advanced neoplasm rate 7.7% (including 3 cancers, cecum intubation rate 98.9%, inadequate bowel preparation rate 7.9%, and adverse event rate 0.9%. All indicators met the national quality benchmarks. The adenoma rate of 26.0% among AAs aged 45–49 years was similar to that of older Whites and AAs. We found that patient navigation and a medical home setting resulted in a successful and high-quality screening program. The observed high adenoma rate among younger AAs calls for more research with larger cohorts to evaluate the appropriateness of the current screening guidelines for AAs, given that they suffer 47% higher colorectal cancer mortality than Whites.

  13. CT screening for lung cancer: Is the evidence strong enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, J K; Devaraj, A; Duffy, S W; Baldwin, D R

    2016-01-01

    The prevailing questions at this time in both the public mind and the clinical establishment is, do we have sufficient evidence to implement lung cancer Computed Tomography (CT) screening in Europe? If not, what is outstanding? This review addresses the twelve major areas, which are critical to any decision to implement CT screening and where we need to assess whether we have sufficient evidence to proceed to a recommendation for implementation in Europe. The readiness level of these twelve categories in 2015 have been with colour coded, where green indicates we have sufficient evidence, amber is borderline evidence and red requires further evidence. Recruitment from the 'Hard to Reach' community still remains at red, while mortality data, cost effectiveness and screening interval are all categorised as amber. The integration of smoking cessation into CT screening programmes is still considered to be category amber. The US Preventive Services Task Force have recommended that CT screening is implemented in the USA utilising the NLST criteria, apart from continuing screening to 80 years of age. The cost effectiveness of the NLST was calculated to be $81,000/QALY, however, its well recognised that the costs of medical care in the USA, is far higher than that of Europe. Medicare have agreed to cover the cost of screening but have stipulated a number of stringent requirements for inclusion. To date we do not have good CT screening mortality data available in Europe and eagerly await the publication of the NELSON trial data in 2016 and then the pooled UKLS and NELSON data thereafter. However in the meantime we should start planning for implementation in Europe, especially in the areas of the radiological service provision and accreditation, as well as identifying novel mechanisms to recruit from the hardest to reach communities. PMID:26711931

  14. Results of lung cancer screening in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risk of lung cancer in A-bomb survivors is reportedly increased. The screening in the title has been conducted since 1988 and this report summarizes its results of the latest 6-year term (2004-2009). The total number of subjects who visited authors' facility for the screening in the period was 39,147 men (average age 70.6 y) and 45,351 women (71.8 y), of the age range of 60-89 y. The screening results of the cancer were examined concerning with sex, age and exposure situation. As well, the relationship between the found cancer incidence and exposure in never, formerly and currently smoking subjects were also examined. Exposure situation was divided in 3 groups of the exposure by entrance in the city/by other reasons, within 2 km close (Close, C) to, and out of 2.1 km afar (Distant, D) from, the city. Statistic analysis was performed by Chi-squire and/or Fisher's exact test. The index of positive finding in the screening of the lung cancer per 1,000 subjects was the highest in C men of ages 70s, 2.88 subjects, which was statistically significant from 0.85 in D men of the same generation. In current smokers, the index 5.40 in C men of ages 70s was significantly higher than 0.90 in D men of the same generation. Overall, positive results tended to be high in survivors of C regardless to sex and smoking, and was significantly high in current smokers of C as above, both implying the particular necessity of promotion to stop smoking in survivors. (T.T.)

  15. Behavioral Theory in the Context of Applied Cancer Screening Research

    OpenAIRE

    Zapka, Jane; Cranos, Caroline

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. health care system is indeed challenged to provide effective, equitable, and efficient care for its citizens (Aday, Begley, Lairson, & Balkrishnan, 2004). The past decades have witnessed profound concern about the quality of care Americans receive, the equality of care across racial ethnic communities, and the escalating costs of private and public coverage. These concerns apply to the cancer care continuum, including screening. This commentary reflects on the methods, findings, and ...

  16. Comment on ‘Psychological distress in patients with cancer: is screening the effective solution?'

    OpenAIRE

    Dekker, J.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Boenink, A D; Bomhof-Roordink, H; Braamse, A.M.; Collette, E.H.; Huijgens, P.C.; Linden, M.H.M. van der; van Meijel, Berno; F. J. Snoek; Visser, O; Verheul, H. M.

    2013-01-01

    Screening for psychological distress in patients with cancer is currently being debated in the British Journal of Cancer. Screening has been recommended, as elevated levels of distress have been consistently observed and clinicians tend to overlook the need of psychological support (Carlson et al, 2012; Carlson et al, 2013; National Comprehensive Cancer Network, 2013). On the other hand, it has been argued that screening should not be implemented, as the true benefit of screening and subseque...

  17. Feasibility of breast cancer screening by PIXE analysis of hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholizadeh, N; Kabiri, Z; Kakuee, O; Saleh-Kotahi, M; Changizi, V; Fathollahi, V; Oliaiy, P; Omranipour, R

    2013-06-01

    To reveal the role of key elements present in the hair of breast cancer patients on cancer development, the levels of a number of elements in scalp hair samples of 82 people including healthy individuals, people suffering from benign breast disease, and breast cancer patients were measured by PIXE analysis. Pellets of hair samples were prepared and bombarded by 2.2 MeV proton beam of a 3-MV Van de Graaff accelerator. The number of incident ions hitting the sample was indirectly measured using the RBS spectrum of a thin Ag film placed in the beam path. The concentrations of S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, and Cu in the hair of healthy individuals were in agreement with those observed in the hair of hyperplasia and cancer patients within standard deviations. However, a lower average level of zinc was found in samples from hyperplasia and breast cancer patients. Strong positive correlations were found between iron and potassium as well as between calcium and potassium in the cancer patients. These results could be of significance in the screening for breast cancer. PMID:23625730

  18. Start-Up of the Colorectal Cancer Screening Demonstration Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy DeGroff, MPH

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionIn 2005, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention funded five sites to implement the Colorectal Cancer Screening Demonstration Program (CRCSDP. An evaluation is being conducted that includes a multiple case study. Case study results for the start-up period, the time between initial funding and screening initiation, provide details about the program models and start-up process and reveal important lessons learned.MethodsThe multiple case study includes all five CRCSDP sites, each representing a unique case. Data were collected from August 2005 through September 2006 from documents, observations, and more than 70 interviews with program staff and stakeholders.ResultsSites differed by geographic service area, screening modality selected, and service delivery structure. Program models were influenced by two factors: preexisting infrastructure and the need to adapt programs to fit local service delivery structures. Several sites modeled program components after their National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program. Medical advisory boards convened by all sites provided clinical support for developing program policies and quality assurance plans. Partnerships with comprehensive cancer control programs facilitated access to financial and in-kind resources.ConclusionThe program models developed by the CRCSDP sites offer a range of prototypes. Case study results suggest benefits in employing a multidisciplinary staff team, assembling a medical advisory board, collaborating with local partners, using preexisting resources, designing programs that are easily incorporated into existing service delivery systems, and planning for adequate start-up time.

  19. Dose-volume relationships between enteritis and irradiated bowel volumes during 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin based chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunnlaugsson, Adalsteinn; Kjellen, Elisabeth; Bendahl, Paer-Ola; Johnsson, A nders [Dept. of Oncology, Lund Univ. Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Nilsson, Per [Dept. o f Radiation Physics, Lund Univ. Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Willner, Julian [Dept. of Radiology, Lund Univ. Hospital, Lund (Sweden)

    2007-10-15

    Purpose. Radiation enteritis is the main acute side-effect during pelvic irradiation. The aim of this study was to quantify the dose-volume relationship between irradiated bowel volumes and acute enteritis during combined chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer. Material and methods. Twenty-eight patients with locally advanced rectal cancer received chemoradiotherapy. The radiation therapy was given with a traditional multi-field technique to a total dose of 50 Gy, with concurrent 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) and oxaliplatin (OXA) based chemotherapy. All patients underwent three-dimensional CT-based treatment planning. Individual loops of small and large bowel as well as a volume defined as 'whole abdomen' were systematically contoured on each CT slice, and dose-volume histograms were generated. Diarrhea during treatment was scored retrospectively according to the NCI Common Toxicity Criteria scale. Results. There was a strong correlation between the occurrence of grade 2+diarrhea and irradiated small bowel volume, most notably at doses >15 Gy. Neither irradiated large bowel volume, nor irradiated 'whole abdomen' volume correlated significantly with diarrhea. Clinical or treatment related factors such as age, gender, hypertension, previous surgery, enterostomy, or dose fractionation (1.8 vs. 2.0 Gy/fraction) did not correlate with grade 2+diarrhea. Discussion. This study indicates a strong dose-volume relationship between small bowel volume and radiation enteritis during 5-FU-OXA-based chemoradiotherapy. These findings support the application of maneuvers to minimize small bowel irradiation, such as using a 'belly board' or the use of IMRT technique aiming at keeping the small bowel volume receiving more than 15 Gy under 150 cc.

  20. Dose-volume relationships between enteritis and irradiated bowel volumes during 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin based chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose. Radiation enteritis is the main acute side-effect during pelvic irradiation. The aim of this study was to quantify the dose-volume relationship between irradiated bowel volumes and acute enteritis during combined chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer. Material and methods. Twenty-eight patients with locally advanced rectal cancer received chemoradiotherapy. The radiation therapy was given with a traditional multi-field technique to a total dose of 50 Gy, with concurrent 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) and oxaliplatin (OXA) based chemotherapy. All patients underwent three-dimensional CT-based treatment planning. Individual loops of small and large bowel as well as a volume defined as 'whole abdomen' were systematically contoured on each CT slice, and dose-volume histograms were generated. Diarrhea during treatment was scored retrospectively according to the NCI Common Toxicity Criteria scale. Results. There was a strong correlation between the occurrence of grade 2+diarrhea and irradiated small bowel volume, most notably at doses >15 Gy. Neither irradiated large bowel volume, nor irradiated 'whole abdomen' volume correlated significantly with diarrhea. Clinical or treatment related factors such as age, gender, hypertension, previous surgery, enterostomy, or dose fractionation (1.8 vs. 2.0 Gy/fraction) did not correlate with grade 2+diarrhea. Discussion. This study indicates a strong dose-volume relationship between small bowel volume and radiation enteritis during 5-FU-OXA-based chemoradiotherapy. These findings support the application of maneuvers to minimize small bowel irradiation, such as using a 'belly board' or the use of IMRT technique aiming at keeping the small bowel volume receiving more than 15 Gy under 150 cc

  1. Assessment of Breast Cancer Risk and Belief in Breast Cancer Screening Among the Primary Healthcare Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İz, Fatma Başalan; Tümer, Adile

    2016-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women. Early detection of breast cancer is known to increase survival rates significantly after diagnosis. This research was carried out to determine the level of breast cancer risk among primary healthcare nurses and their belief in breast cancer screening. In this descriptive research, the data were collected in face-to-face interviews with the participants. The researchers contacted all primary healthcare nurses currently working in the province. The data collection tools included a questionnaire form on sociodemographic characteristics, breast cancer risk assessment form, and Champion's Health Belief Model Scale (CHBMS) for breast cancer screening. In data analysis, descriptive statistics, t test, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used. The mean age of nurses was 35 ± 3.6. The mean score for the breast cancer risk assessment form was calculated as 82.9 ± 18.7. The subscale scores for the CHBMS for breast cancer screening were as follows: susceptibility 7.3 ± 1.8, seriousness 19.5 ± 4.1, benefits of breast self-exam 15.5 ± 2.6, barriers to breast self-exam 15.1 ± 2.8, self-efficacy 40.3 ± 7.0, and motivation 19.5 ± 4.1. The risk of breast cancer was found to be low in the study group. The analysis of the subscale scores for the CHBMS for breast cancer screening revealed that nurses had a below-average susceptibility perception, a somewhat lower perception of seriousness, an above-average mean score for perceived benefits, a moderate barrier perception, a relatively high perceived self-efficacy, and motivation above average. PMID:26758047

  2. Dose to the inferior rectum is strongly associated with patient reported bowel quality of life after radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate rectal dose and post-treatment patient-reported bowel quality of life (QOL) following radiation therapy for prostate cancer. Methods: Patient-reported QOL was measured at baseline and 2-years via the expanded prostate cancer index composite (EPIC) for 90 patients. Linear regression modeling was performed using the baseline score for the QUANTEC normal tissue complication probability model and dose volume histogram (DVH) parameters for the whole and segmented rectum (superior, middle, and inferior). Results: At 2-years the mean summary score declined from a baseline of 96.0–91.8. The median volume of rectum treated to ⩾70 Gy (V70) was 11.7% for the whole rectum and 7.0%, 24.4%, and 1.3% for the inferior, middle, and superior rectum, respectively. Mean dose to the whole and inferior rectum correlated with declines in bowel QOL while dose to the mid and superior rectum did not. Low (V25–V40), intermediate (V50–V60) and high (V70–V80) doses to the inferior rectum influenced bleeding, incontinence, urgency, and overall bowel problems. Only the highest dose (V80) to the mid-rectum correlated with rectal bleeding and overall bowel problems. Conclusions: Segmental DVH analysis of the rectum reveals associations between bowel QOL and inferior rectal dose that could significantly influence radiation planning and prognostic models

  3. Improved detection of breast cancer on FDG-PET cancer screening using breast positioning device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the detection rate of breast cancer by positron emission tomography cancer screening using a breast positioning device. Between January 2004 and January 2006, 1,498 healthy asymptomatic individuals underwent cancer screening by fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) at our institution; 660 of 1498 asymptomatic healthy women underwent breast PET imaging in the prone position using the breast positioning device to examine the mammary glands in addition to whole-body PET imaging. All subjects that showed abnormal 18F-FDG uptake in the mammary glands were referred for further examination or surgery at our institution or a local hospital. Our data were compared with the histopathological findings or findings of other imaging modalities in our institution and replies from the doctors at another hospital. Of the 660 participants, 7 (1.06%) were found to have breast cancers at a curable stage. All the seven cancers were detected by breast PET imaging, but only five of these were detected by whole-body PET imaging; the other two were detected by breast PET imaging using the breast positioning device. In cancer screening, prone breast imaging using a positioning device may help to improve the detection rate of breast cancer. However, overall cancer including mammography and ultrasonography screening should be performed to investigate the false-negative cases and reduce false-positive cases. The effectiveness of prone breast PET imaging in cancer screening should be investigated using a much larger number of cases in the near future. (author)

  4. Sociodemographic Characteristics, Distance to the Clinic, and Breast Cancer Screening Results

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seijeoung; Chukwudozie, Beverly; Calhoun, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Timely detection and follow-up of abnormal cellular changes can aid in early diagnosis of breast cancer, thus leading to better treatment outcomes. However, despite substantial breast cancer screening initiatives, the proportion of female breast cancer cases diagnosed at late stages remains high. Distance to screening clinics may affect access to care, particularly for women living in impoverished areas with limited means of reliable transportation. Utilizing breast cancer screening data coll...

  5. Prostate Cancer Screening, Yes or No? the Current Controversy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Razi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Purpose: The increasing incidence of prostate cancer and different viewpoints of medical authorities to it, has lead to conversion of preliminary plan of screening test to a requisite. The objective of this study is to clarify the obscure aspects of this subject using the literature review.

    Materials and Methods: We reviewed the following items in the literature: prostate cancer screening, introduction of relevant tests, screening criteria according to World Health Organization, screening experience in different countries, community notification, specialists training in order to establish an integrated approach and treatment, anxiety relief, and promotion of patient awareness in this field.

    Results: It has been shown that, except in China, programmed and official screening of prostatic cancer has not been accepted by concordant responsible authorities, neither in developed countries nor in developing ones. However, it is performed informally in different parts of the world.

    Conclusion: There is no unanimous consensus about performance of screening for prostate cancer. Continuing

  6. Screening for breast cancer: the three traffic lights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Agostinho Santos

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The interpretation of breast cancer screening as three different traffic lights invites the reader for a quick review of the scientific evidence and the retention of the main points that this procedure reveals. The recommendations for the screening are produced by authors that give a green light for the screening advance, because they believe that the risk/benefit balance is favorable to its application in women at the target ages and average risk. However, as the expression “risk/benefit” implies, there is a risk that must be taken into account at the time of starting the screening, which assumes an alert for the red light. It is clear, from the evidence evaluated by independent authors, that there is a balance of pros and cons (yellow light. The role of ensuring the balance of this scale belongs perhaps to the General Practitioner and the role of putting the last weight on one of the two plates belongs to the women at the target-ages to screening.

  7. Electrical Bioimpedance Analysis: A New Method in Cervical Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopamudra Das

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the second most common female cancer worldwide and a disease of concern due to its high rate of incidence of about 500,000 women annually and is responsible for about 280,000 deaths in a year. The mortality and morbidity of cervical cancer are reduced through mass screening via Pap smear, but this technique suffers from very high false negativity of around 30% to 40% and hence the sensitivity of this technique is not more than 60%. Electrical bioimpedance study employing cytosensors over a frequency range offers instantaneous and quantitative means to monitor cellular events and is an upcoming technique in real time to classify cells as normal and abnormal ones. This technology is exploited for label-free detection of diseases by identifying and measuring nonbiological parameters of the cell which may carry the disease signature.

  8. Mass Spectrometric Screening of Ovarian Cancer with Serum Glycans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Han Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes of glycosylation pattern in serum proteins have been linked to various diseases including cancer, suggesting possible development of novel biomarkers based on the glycomic analysis. In this study, N-linked glycans from human serum were quantitatively profiled by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS and compared between healthy controls and ovarian cancer patients. A training set consisting of 40 healthy controls and 40 ovarian cancer cases demonstrated an inverse correlation between P value of ANOVA and area under the curve (AUC of each candidate biomarker peak from MALDI-TOF MS, providing standards for the classification. A multibiomarker panel composed of 15 MALDI-TOF MS peaks resulted in AUC of 0.89, 80~90% sensitivity, and 70~83% specificity in the training set. The performance of the biomarker panel was validated in a separate blind test set composed of 23 healthy controls and 37 ovarian cancer patients, leading to 81~84% sensitivity and 83% specificity with cut-off values determined by the training set. Sensitivity of CA-125, the most widely used ovarian cancer marker, was 74% in the training set and 78% in the test set, respectively. These results indicate that MALDI-TOF MS-mediated serum N-glycan analysis could provide critical information for the screening of ovarian cancer.

  9. Measuring the burden of interval cancers in long-standing screening mammography programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sune Bangsbøll; Törnberg, Sven; Kilpeläinen, Sini;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Mammography screening programme sensitivity is evaluated by comparing the interval cancer rate (ICR) with the expected breast cancer incidence without screening, ie. the proportional interval cancer rate (PICR). The PICR is usually found by extrapolating pre-screening incidence rates......, whereas ICR is calculated from data available in the screening programmes. As there is no consensus regarding estimation of background incidence, we seek to validate the ICR measure against the PICR. METHODS: Screening data from the three mammography screening programmes of Stockholm, Copenhagen, and...

  10. Quality Assessment of Colonoscopy Reporting: Results from a Statewide Cancer Screening Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to assess quality of colonoscopy reports and determine if physicians in practice were already documenting recommended quality indicators, prior to the publication of a standardized Colonoscopy Reporting and Data System (CO-RADS in 2007. We examined 110 colonoscopy reports from 2005-2006 through Maryland Colorectal Cancer Screening Program. We evaluated 25 key data elements recommended by CO-RADS, including procedure indications, risk/comorbidity assessments, procedure technical descriptions, colonoscopy findings, specimen retrieval/pathology. Among 110 reports, 73% documented the bowel preparation quality and 82% documented specific cecal landmarks. For the 177 individual polyps identified, information on size and morphology was documented for 87% and 53%, respectively. Colonoscopy reporting varied considerately in the pre-CO-RADS period. The absence of key data elements may impact the ability to make recommendations for recall intervals. This paper provides baseline data to assess if CO-RADS has an impact on reporting and how best to improve the quality of reporting.

  11. Is mammography screening history a predictor of future breast cancer risk?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sune Bangsbøll; Törnberg, Sven; Kilpeläinen, Sini;

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by the model by Walter and Day for risk of cervical cancer following negative screens, one might hypothesize that women in a mammography screening programme with a certain number of negative screens had a lower remaining breast cancer risk than that of women in general. We studied whether...... number of negative screens was a predictor for a low remaining breast cancer risk in women participating in the mammography screening programmes in Stockholm, Copenhagen and Funen. Data were collected from the mammography screening programmes in Stockholm, Sweden (1989-2012), Copenhagen, Denmark (1991...... was not a predictor of a low remaining breast cancer risk in women participating in the mammography screening programmes in Stockholm, Sweden, Copenhagen and Funen, Denmark. The history of previous negative screens is therefore not suitable for personalisation of mammography screening....

  12. Systematic review of 3D mammography for breast cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Robert; Heywang-Köbrunner, Sylvia H; Harvey, Susan C; Edwards, Mary; Shaikh, Javed; Arber, Mick; Glanville, Julie

    2016-06-01

    This review investigated the relative performance of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) (alone or with full field digital mammography (FFDM) or synthetic digital mammography) compared with FFDM alone for detecting breast cancer lesions in asymptomatic women. A systematic review was carried out according to systematic reviewing principles provided in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Diagnostic Test Accuracy. A protocol was developed a priori. The review was registered with PROSPERO (number CRD42014013949). Searches were undertaken in October 2014. Following selection, five studies were eligible. Higher cancer detection rates were observed when comparing DBT + FFDM with FFDM in two European studies: the summary difference per 1000 screens was 2.43 (95% CI: 1.8 to 3.1). Both European studies found lower false positive rates for individual readers. One found a lower recall rate based on conditional recall. The second study was not designed to compare post-arbitration recall rates between FFDM and DBT + FFDM. One European study presented data on interval cancer rates; sensitivity and specificity for DBT + FFDM were both higher compared to FFDM. One large multicentre US study showed a higher cancer detection rate for DBT + FFDM, while two smaller US studies did not find statistically significant differences. Reductions in recall and false positive rates were observed in the US studies in favour of DBT + FFDM. In comparison to FFDM, DBT, as an adjunct to FFDM, has a higher cancer detection rate, increasing the effectiveness of breast cancer screening. Additional benefits of DBT may also include reduced recalls and, consequently, reduced costs and distress caused to women who would have been recalled. PMID:27212700

  13. WNT-pathway components as predictive markers useful for diagnosis, prevention and therapy in inflammatory bowel disease and sporadic colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Serafino, Annalucia; Moroni, Noemi; Zonfrillo, Manuela; Andreola, Federica; Mercuri, Luana; Nicotera, Giuseppe; Nunziata, Joseph; Ricci, Riccardo; Antinori, Armando; Rasi, Guido; Pierimarchi, Pasquale

    2014-01-01

    The key role of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling in colorectal cancer (CRC) insurgence and progression is now recognized and several therapeutic strategies targeting this pathway are currently in developing. Wnt/β-catenin signaling not only dominates the early stages of sporadic colorectal cancer (SCC), but could also represent the connection between inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and increased risk of developing SCC. The knowledge on the sequential molecular events of Wnt-signaling cascade in ...

  14. Anastomotic integrity after operations for large-bowel cancer: a multicentre study.

    OpenAIRE

    Fielding, L P; Stewart-Brown, S; Blesovsky, L; Kearney, G.

    1980-01-01

    Clinically evident anastomotic dehiscence was studied in 1466 patients who had undergone resection of a large-bowel adenocarcinoma. The overall incidence of anastomotic leakage was 13%, but the incidence varied between surgeons (range 0.5% to over 30%). Morbidity and mortality were significantly higher in those patients in whom the anastomosis failed to heal primarily. If these results are extrapolated to the national level, it should be possible by achieving results closer to those in patien...

  15. Animal Models of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: Illuminating the Pathogenesis of Colitis, Ileitis and Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Neurath, Markus F

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic relapsing diseases of unknown origin. In spite of improved options for therapy, many patients with IBD have an impaired quality of life and require hospitalization or surgery. Animal models of IBD might help to obtain new insights into the pathogenesis of these diseases and may be used to test innovative approaches for therapy. Methods: Review of the literature using PubMed. Results: Numerous new animal mod...

  16. A comparison of two methods of palliation of large bowel obstruction due to irremovable colon cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Richard; Marsh, Ralph; Corson, John; Seymour, Keith

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Untreated malignant large bowel obstruction is rapidly fatal. Short-term palliation of symptoms can be achieved by formation of a stoma in those patients for whom resection surgery is inappropriate. In the final months of life, a stoma represents a significant burden for both patients and carers. Palliative endoluminal stenting may therefore be an attractive alternative option for this poor prognostic group. PATIENTS: Thirty-six patients were studied of whom 18 had obstructing l...

  17. Volumetric computed tomography screening for lung cancer : three rounds of the NELSON trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horeweg, Nanda; van der Aalst, Carlijn M.; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Zhao, Yingru; Xie, Xueqian; Scholten, Ernst Th; Mali, Willem; Thunnissen, Erik; Weenink, Carla; Groen, Harry J. M.; Lammers, Jan-Willem J.; Nackaerts, Kristiaan; van Rosmalen, Joost; Oudkerk, Matthijs; de Koning, Harry J.

    2013-01-01

    Several medical associations recommended lung cancer screening by low-dose computed tomography scanning for high-risk groups. Counselling of the candidates on the potential harms and benefits and their lung cancer risk is a prerequisite for screening. In the NELSON trial, screenings are considered p

  18. Natural history of breast cancers detected in the Swedish mammography screening programme: a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahl, Per-Henrik; Gøtzsche, Peter C; Mæhlen, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The natural history of screen-detected breast cancers is not well understood. A previous analysis of the incidence change during the introduction of the Norwegian screening programme in the late 1990s suggested that the natural history of many screen-detected invasive breast cancers is to regress...

  19. Annual Screening with Chest X-Ray Does Not Reduce Lung Cancer Deaths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annual screening for lung cancer using a standard chest x-ray does not reduce the risk of dying from lung cancer when compared with no annual screening, according to findings from the NCI-led Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) screening trial.

  20. Seventeen-years overview of breast cancer inside and outside screening in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domingo, Laia; Jacobsen, Katja Kemp; von Euler-Chelpin, My Catarina;

    2013-01-01

    Background. Long-term data on breast cancer detection in mammography screening programs are warranted to better understand the mechanisms by which screening changes the breast cancer pattern in the population. We aimed to analyze 17 years of breast cancer detection rates inside and outside...... to women aged 50-69 years. We identified targeted, eligible, invited and participating women. We calculated screening detection and interval cancer rates for participants, and breast cancer incidence in non-screened women (= targeted women excluding participants) by biennial invitation rounds. Tumor...... characteristics were tabulated for each of the three groups of cancers. Results. Start of screening resulted in a prevalence peak in participants, followed by a decrease to a fairly stable detection rate in subsequent invitation rounds. A similar pattern was found for breast cancer incidence in non-screened women...

  1. Breast and cervical cancer screening in Great Britain: Dynamic interrelated processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labeit, Alexander; Peinemann, Frank

    2015-12-01

    No previous analysis has investigated the determinants of screening uptake for breast and cervical cancer screening for possible spillover effects from one type of screening examination to the other type of screening examination with a dynamic bivariate panel probit model. For our analysis, we used a dynamic random effects bivariate panel probit model with initial conditions (Wooldridge-type estimator) and dependent variables were the participation of breast and cervical cancer screening in the recent year. The balanced panel sample consisted of 844 women from the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS) from the time period 1992 to 2008. Our analysis showed the high relevance of past screening behaviour and the importance of state dependency for the same and the other type of cancer screening examinations even after controlling for covariates and unobserved heterogeneity. The uptake for breast and cervical cancer screening was higher when the same screening examination was done one or three years earlier. This result is in accordance with the medical screening programmes in Great Britain. With regard to breast and cervical cancer screening positive spillover effects existed between screening examinations in the third order lags. Women with a previous visit to a general practitioner and individuals in the recommended age groups had a higher uptake for breast and cervical cancer screening. Other socioeconomic and health related variables had non-uniform results in both screening examinations. Promoting the uptake of one female prevention activity could also enhance the uptake of the other prevention activity. PMID:26487452

  2. Network-based reading system for lung cancer screening CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujino, Yuichi; Fujimura, Kaori; Nomura, Shin-ichiro; Kawashima, Harumi; Tsuchikawa, Megumu; Matsumoto, Toru; Nagao, Kei-ichi; Uruma, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Shinji; Takizawa, Hotaka; Kuroda, Chikazumi; Nakayama, Tomio

    2006-03-01

    This research aims to support chest computed tomography (CT) medical checkups to decrease the death rate by lung cancer. We have developed a remote cooperative reading system for lung cancer screening over the Internet, a secure transmission function, and a cooperative reading environment. It is called the Network-based Reading System. A telemedicine system involves many issues, such as network costs and data security if we use it over the Internet, which is an open network. In Japan, broadband access is widespread and its cost is the lowest in the world. We developed our system considering human machine interface and security. It consists of data entry terminals, a database server, a computer aided diagnosis (CAD) system, and some reading terminals. It uses a secure Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) encrypting method and Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) based secure DICOM image data distribution. We carried out an experimental trial over the Japan Gigabit Network (JGN), which is the testbed for the Japanese next-generation network, and conducted verification experiments of secure screening image distribution, some kinds of data addition, and remote cooperative reading. We found that network bandwidth of about 1.5 Mbps enabled distribution of screening images and cooperative reading and that the encryption and image distribution methods we proposed were applicable to the encryption and distribution of general DICOM images via the Internet.

  3. Effect of adding screening ultrasonography to screening mammography on patient recall and cancer detection rates: A retrospective study in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tohno, Eriko, E-mail: tohno@tmch.or.jp [Total Health Evaluation Center Tsukuba, 1-2, Amakubo, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0005 (Japan); Umemoto, Takeshi, E-mail: umemoto@tmch.or.jp [Tsukuba Medical Center Hospital, 1-3-1, Amakubo, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0005 (Japan); Sasaki, Kyoko, E-mail: kdon@za.cyberhome.ne.jp [Tsukuba Medical Center Hospital, 1-3-1, Amakubo, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0005 (Japan); Morishima, Isamu, E-mail: morishima@tmch.or.jp [Tsukuba Medical Center Hospital, 1-3-1, Amakubo, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0005 (Japan); Ueno, Ei, E-mail: e-ueno@tmch.or.jp [Tsukuba Medical Center Hospital, 1-3-1, Amakubo, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0005 (Japan)

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: To determine whether adding screening ultrasonography to screening mammography can reduce patient recall rates and increase cancer detection rates. Materials and methods: We analyzed the results of mammography and ultrasonography breast screenings performed at the Total Health Evaluation Center Tsukuba, Japan, between April 2011 and March 2012. We also reviewed the modalities and results of diagnostic examinations from women with mammographic abnormalities who visited the Tsukuba Medical Center Hospital for further testing. Results: Of 11,753 women screened, cancer was diagnosed in 10 (0.22%) of the 4529 participants who underwent mammography alone, 23 (0.37%) of the 6250 participants who underwent ultrasonography alone, and 5 (0.51%) of the 974 participants who underwent mammography and ultrasonography. The recall rate due to mammographic abnormalities was 4.9% for women screened only with mammography and 2.6% for those screened with both modalities. The cancer detection rate was 0.22% for women screened only with mammography (positive predictive value, 4.5%) and 0.31% for those screened with both modalities (positive predictive value, 12.0%). Of the 211 lesions presenting as mammographic abnormalities investigated further, diagnostic ultrasonography found no abnormalities in 63 (29.9%) and benign findings in 69 (33.7%). The rest 36.4% needed mammography, cytological or histological examinations or follow-up in addition to diagnostic ultrasonography. Conclusions: It is possible to reduce the recall rate in screening mammography by combining mammography and ultrasonography for breast screening.

  4. Effect of adding screening ultrasonography to screening mammography on patient recall and cancer detection rates: A retrospective study in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine whether adding screening ultrasonography to screening mammography can reduce patient recall rates and increase cancer detection rates. Materials and methods: We analyzed the results of mammography and ultrasonography breast screenings performed at the Total Health Evaluation Center Tsukuba, Japan, between April 2011 and March 2012. We also reviewed the modalities and results of diagnostic examinations from women with mammographic abnormalities who visited the Tsukuba Medical Center Hospital for further testing. Results: Of 11,753 women screened, cancer was diagnosed in 10 (0.22%) of the 4529 participants who underwent mammography alone, 23 (0.37%) of the 6250 participants who underwent ultrasonography alone, and 5 (0.51%) of the 974 participants who underwent mammography and ultrasonography. The recall rate due to mammographic abnormalities was 4.9% for women screened only with mammography and 2.6% for those screened with both modalities. The cancer detection rate was 0.22% for women screened only with mammography (positive predictive value, 4.5%) and 0.31% for those screened with both modalities (positive predictive value, 12.0%). Of the 211 lesions presenting as mammographic abnormalities investigated further, diagnostic ultrasonography found no abnormalities in 63 (29.9%) and benign findings in 69 (33.7%). The rest 36.4% needed mammography, cytological or histological examinations or follow-up in addition to diagnostic ultrasonography. Conclusions: It is possible to reduce the recall rate in screening mammography by combining mammography and ultrasonography for breast screening

  5. Healthcare costs in the Danish randomised controlled lung cancer CT-screening trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, J.F.; Siersma, V.; Pedersen, Jesper H.;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Low dose computerised tomography (CT) screening for lung cancer can reduce lung-cancer-specific mortality. The objective of this study was to analyse healthcare costs and healthcare utilisation of participants in the Danish lung cancer CT-screening trial (DLCST). MATERIALS AND METHODS...

  6. International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer Computed Tomography Screening Workshop 2011 Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Field, John K.; Smith, Robert A.; Aberle, Denise R.; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Baldwin, David R.; Yankelevitz, David; Pedersen, Jesper Holst; Swanson, Scott James; Travis, William D.; Wisbuba, Ignacio I.; Noguchi, Masayuki; Mulshine, Jim L.

    2012-01-01

    The International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) Board of Directors convened a computed tomography (CT) Screening Task Force to develop an IASLC position statement, after the National Cancer Institute press statement from the National Lung Screening Trial showed that lung cancer de

  7. Clinical Perspectives on Colorectal Cancer Screening at Latino-Serving Federally Qualified Health Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado, Gloria D.; Petrik, Amanda F.; Spofford, Mark; Talbot, Jocelyn; Do, Huyen Hoai; Taylor, Victoria M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Colorectal cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death in the United States, and rates of screening for colorectal cancer are low. We sought to gather the perceptions of clinic personnel at Latino-serving Federally Qualified Health Centers (operating 17 clinics) about barriers to utilization of screening services for colorectal…

  8. Stage and survival in breast cancer patients in screened and non-screened Danish and Swedish populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anni R; Garne, Jens P; Storm, Hans H;

    2003-01-01

    Comparisons between the Danish and Swedish Cancer Registry revealed a 9% difference in 5-year survival for breast cancer patients diagnosed between 1983 and 1989. The purpose of this study was to determine whether previous differences in survival and stage still exist or whether the Danish figures...... approach those of the Swedish registry. Complete population-based cohorts of patients with breast cancer in the years 1996-1997 from well-defined areas in Denmark and Sweden were compared. The study regions were a Danish (Funen) and a Swedish (Malmö) county with mammography screening and two Danish...... counties without screening. No difference in extent of disease or survival was observed between screening areas regardless of country. However, there were significant differences in stage distribution and survival between screening populations and Danish non-screening populations, to the benefit of...

  9. Opinion of nurses regarding breast cancer screening programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Venkatramana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Found to be effective in its treatment. The increased incidence of breast cancer supports the implementation of breast cancer screening programs. The present study evaluates the opinion among nurses regarding breast cancer screening programs in United Arab Emirates (UAE. Materials and Methods: The study population included 154 nurses practicing at different hospitals in United Arab Emirates (UAE, all nurses who participated in the breast cancer awareness programme organized by Gulf Medical University, Ajman, UAE. A self-administered, pretested, structured, close-ended questionnaire was used for data collection. Statistical Analysis was performed using Predictive Analytic Software (PASW 17. Results: The participants′ age ranged between 20 and 59 years. Fifty percent of the participants strongly agreed with the early detection of breast cancer by performing breast self examination. Thirty-nine percent were of the opinion that women aged 40 years and older should have a mammogram every year and continue to do so and 25.3% strongly felt that women in their 20s and 30s should have clinical breast examination as part of their periodic health examination by health professionals. 33.8% of the respondents strongly agree on providing information on the benefits and limitations of BSE to the female population. Twenty-six percent of the participants strongly agree that women at high risk should get magnetic resonance imaging and mammogram done every year. Conclusion: The present study indicates the need for providing workplace training programs thus equipping them with better knowledge and enhancing their service among the general population.

  10. Functional health literacy in Spanish-speaking Latinas seeking breast cancer screening through the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening Program

    OpenAIRE

    Samantha Garbers; Karen Schmitt; Anne Marie Rappa; Mary Ann Chiasson

    2010-01-01

    Samantha Garbers1, Karen Schmitt2, Anne Marie Rappa2, Mary Ann Chiasson11Public Health Solutions, New York, NY, USA; 2Columbia University Breast Cancer Screening Program, New York, NY, USABackground: This analysis examines the association between functional health literacy and follow-up after mammography among women receiving breast cancer screening at a National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program site in New York City that provides universal bilingual case management.Methods:...

  11. Metronomic chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin for inoperable malignant bowel obstruction because of peritoneal dissemination from gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S.; Li, S.; Yu, H.; Li, S.; Liu, W.; Liu, X.; Ma, H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Gastric cancer is the 2nd leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Malignant bowel obstruction (mbo) is a common complication in advanced gastric cancer because of peritoneal dissemination. A multicentre prospective study reported that patients with peritoneal dissemination of gastric origin survive for a median of 3.1 months. The aim of the present study was therefore to evaluate the efficacy and safety of metronomic combination chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin in inoperable mbo from peritoneal dissemination in gastric cancer. Methods Gastric cancer patients diagnosed with inoperable mbo because of peritoneal dissemination were treated with infusional 5-fluorouracil 300 mg/m2 daily on days 1–5 and 8–12, and cisplatin 5 mg/m2 daily on days 1–4 and 8–11 every 3 weeks. The primary endpoint was symptom control (remission of obstruction); the secondary endpoint was symptom control time and survival; the tertiary endpoint was adverse effects. Results Between January 2013 and December 2014, 26 patients received the study treatment. Before treatment, 18 patients (69.2%) were nil per os, and 8 (30.8%) could consume liquids. After a mean of 3.3 cycles of the study treatment, just 4 patients (15.4%) was still nil per os. Of the remaining 22 patients, 3 (11.5%) could consume liquids, 7 (26.9%) could consume soft solids, and 12 (46.2%) ate a full diet. The improved ability to eat was statistically significant (p cancer. Metronomic combination chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin provides a rationale for exploring this medical problem in the future.

  12. Filipina American women's breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and screening behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryujin Lisa

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Filipino Americans are the fastest growing Asian minority group in the United States. There is limited knowledge about their breast cancer knowledge, screening practices and attitudes. Methods As part of the evaluation of the Asian Grocery Store-Based Cancer Education Program, 248 Filipino American women completed baseline and follow-up surveys, while an additional 58 took part in focus groups. Results Compliance with annual clinical breast exam guidelines among women 40 to 49 years old was 43%, and annual mammography use among women 50 and over was 56%. The Asian Grocery Store-Based Cancer Education Program and complementary focus group study identified multiple barriers that hindered women from attending education programs, with time as the most frequently reported barrier. Conclusion The Asian Grocery Store-Based Cancer Education Program was reported to be a culturally acceptable and effective way of disseminating breast cancer information and one that addressed the women's most frequently reported barrier, lack of time.

  13. Helicobacter pylori Antibody Titer and Gastric Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Kishikawa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The “ABC method” is a serum gastric cancer screening method, and the subjects were divided based on H. pylori serology and atrophic gastritis as detected by serum pepsinogen (PG: Group A [H. pylori (− PG (−], Group B [H. pylori (+ PG (−], Group C [H. pylori (+ PG (+], and Group D [H. pylori (− PG (+]. The risk of gastric cancer is highest in Group D, followed by Groups C, B, and A. Groups B, C, and D are advised to undergo endoscopy, and the recommended surveillance is every three years, every two years, and annually, respectively. In this report, the reported results with respect to further risk stratification by anti-H. pylori antibody titer in each subgroup are reviewed: (1 high-negative antibody titer subjects in Group A, representing posteradicated individuals with high risk for intestinal-type cancer; (2 high-positive antibody titer subjects in Group B, representing active inflammation with high risk for diffuse-type cancer; and (3 low-positive antibody titer subjects in Group C, representing advanced atrophy with increased risk for intestinal-type cancer. In these subjects, careful follow-up with intervals of surveillance of every three years in (1, every two years in (2, and annually in (3 should be considered.

  14. Designing Colorectal Cancer Screening Decision Support: A Cognitive Engineering Enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Militello, Laura G.; Saleem, Jason J.; Borders, Morgan R.; Sushereba, Christen E.; Haverkamp, Donald; Wolf, Steven P.; Doebbeling, Bradley N.

    2016-01-01

    Adoption of clinical decision support has been limited. Important barriers include an emphasis on algorithmic approaches to decision support that do not align well with clinical work flow and human decision strategies, and the expense and challenge of developing, implementing, and refining decision support features in existing electronic health records (EHRs). We applied decision-centered design to create a modular software application to support physicians in managing and tracking colorectal cancer screening. Using decision-centered design facilitates a thorough understanding of cognitive support requirements from an end user perspective as a foundation for design. In this project, we used an iterative design process, including ethnographic observation and cognitive task analysis, to move from an initial design concept to a working modular software application called the Screening & Surveillance App. The beta version is tailored to work with the Veterans Health Administration’s EHR Computerized Patient Record System (CPRS). Primary care providers using the beta version Screening & Surveillance App more accurately answered questions about patients and found relevant information more quickly compared to those using CPRS alone. Primary care providers also reported reduced mental effort and rated the Screening & Surveillance App positively for usability. PMID:26973441

  15. Medical exposure in lung cancer screening by helical computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The object of this study was to clarify the medical exposure in lung cancer Screening CT (LSCT) using helical scan focusing on the dose characteristics of helical scanning, comparisons with conventional chest mass screening, and risk benefit analysis. Radiation dose was measured at both the center and surface of chest and abdominal standard phantoms using a thermoluminescene dosimeter. Scanning parameters employed were 120 kV, 50 mA, 10 mm X-ray beam width, 1 s/rotation scanning speed, 20 mm/s couch top movement speed, and 260 mm scanning range. The dose at the center of the phantom using LSCT was 2.6 mGy, ten times higher than that for conventional mass chest fluorography. On the other hand, the dose was almost the same as that for mass screening fluorography of the upper gastrointestinal tract, only 1.3 times higher. Balance ages in risk benefit analysis were 33 years old for men and 38 years old for women. Clarification of the characteristics of LSCT has demonstrated that LSCT is suitable for mass chest screening examinations. (author)

  16. Psychological research and the prostate-cancer screening controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkes, Hal R; Gaissmaier, Wolfgang

    2012-06-01

    In October of 2011, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force released a draft report in which they recommended against using the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test to screen for prostate cancer. We attempt to show that four factors documented by psychological research can help explain the furor that followed the release of the task force's report. These factors are the persuasive power of anecdotal (as opposed to statistical) evidence, the influence of personal experience, the improper evaluation of data, and the influence of low base rates on the efficacy of screening tests. We suggest that augmenting statistics with facts boxes or pictographs might help such committees communicate more effectively with the public and with the U.S. Congress. PMID:22555966

  17. Psychological barriers and facilitators of colorectal cancer screening: a French qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgiane Bridou

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the psychological barriers to and facilitators of undergoing the Hemoccult-II® colorectal cancer screening test in France. Sixty-nine French people aged 50 to 74 years were divided into seven qualitative focus groups. Three issues were discussed with participants: knowledge and beliefs about colorectal cancer screening; facilitators of colorectal cancer screening by Hemoccult-II®; barriers to colorectal cancer screening by Hemoccult-II®. All the discussions were led by two psychologists and were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using qualitative data analysis software. Correspondence factor analyses identified three dimensions for each topic. The main psychological facilitators of colorectal cancer screening were: information about colorectal cancer screening, perceived simplicity of using Hemoccult-II®, and perception of risk. Uncertainty about the reliability of Hemoccult-II®, health anxiety, and embarrassment emerged as the main barriers to colorectal cancer screening. Cross-sectional analyses identified the differences between the views expressed by women and men. Women appeared more embarrassed about Hemoccult-II® and men seemed to be more worried about colorectal cancer. This preliminary study suggests that psychological factors play an important role in colorectal cancer screening by Hemoccult-II®. This finding may help health organizations to conceive better awareness campaigns to promote colorectal cancer screening in order to reduce the related mortality rate by taking into account psychological determinants.

  18. Consequences of screening in lung cancer: development and dimensionality of a questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, John; Thorsen, Hanne; Kreiner, Svend

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to extend the Consequences of Screening (COS) Questionnaire for use in a lung cancer screening by testing for comprehension, content coverage, dimensionality, and reliability....

  19. Simulation of reduced breast cancer mortality in breast cancer screening programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The breast cancer screening programs are an essential tool in the fight against breast cancer. Currently, many questions concerning the setup of these programs are open, namely: age range of women who undergo the same, frequency of mammography, ... The effectiveness of a program should be evaluated in terms of mortality reduction is its systematic implementation in the population. In this sense, we performed Monte Carlo simulations to assess that these reductions.

  20. Image Quality Assurance in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial Network of the National Lung Screening Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Stephen M.; Gierada, David S.; Clark, Kenneth W.; Blaine, G. James

    2005-01-01

    The National Lung Screening Trial is evaluating the effectiveness of low-dose spiral CT and conventional chest X-ray as screening tests for persons who are at high risk for developing lung cancer. This multicenter trial requires quality assurance (QA) for the image quality and technical parameters of the scans. The electronic system described here helps manage the QA process. The system includes a workstation at each screening center that de-identifies the data, a DICOM storage service at the...

  1. Attitudes towards Lung Cancer Screening in an Australian High-Risk Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra E. Flynn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To determine whether persons at high risk of lung cancer would participate in lung cancer screening test if available in Australia and to elicit general attitudes towards cancer screening and factors that might affect participation in a screening program. Methods. We developed a 20-item written questionnaire, based on two published telephone interview scripts, addressing attitudes towards cancer screening, perceived risk of lung cancer, and willingness to be screened for lung cancer and to undertake surgery if lung cancer were detected. The questionnaire was given to 102 current and former smokers attending the respiratory clinic and pulmonary rehabilitation programmes. Results. We gained 90 eligible responses (M:F, 69:21. Mean [SD] age was 63 [11] and smoking history was 32 [21] pack years. 95% of subjects would participate in a lung cancer screening test, and 91% of these would consider surgery if lung cancer was detected. 44% of subjects considered that they were at risk of lung cancer. This was lower in ex-smokers than in current smokers. Conclusions. There is high willingness for lung cancer screening and surgical treatment. There is underrecognition of risk among ex-smokers. This misperception could be a barrier to a successful screening or case-finding programme in Australia.

  2. Characteristics of colorectal cancer diagnosed with screening abdominal ultrasonography

    OpenAIRE

    TOMIZAWA, MINORU; Shinozaki, Fuminobu; HASEGAWA, RUMIKO; Fugo, Kazunori; Shirai, Yoshinori; Motoyoshi, Yasufumi; Sugiyama, Takao; YAMAMOTO, SHIGENORI; Kishimoto, Takashi; ISHIGE, NAOKI

    2016-01-01

    Patient records were retrospectively analyzed to elucidate the characteristics of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnosed with screening abdominal ultrasound (US). Patients diagnosed with CRC using abdominal US [localized irregular wall thickening (W) or a hypoechoic mass with a hyperechoic mass (M)] were enrolled. The patients were subjected to colonoscopy and treated surgically between March, 2010 and January, 2015. A total of 5 men (aged 74.0±0.8 years) and 10 women (aged 73.0±12.0...

  3. Attitudes to colorectal cancer screening among ethnic minority groups in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Atkin Wendy; Power Emily; Solarin Ijeoma; Robb Kathryn A; Wardle Jane

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Colorectal screening by Flexible Sigmoidoscopy (FS) is under evaluation in the UK. Evidence from existing cancer screening programmes indicates lower participation among minority ethnic groups than the white-British population. To ensure equality of access, it is important to understand attitudes towards screening in all ethnic groups so that barriers to screening acceptance can be addressed. Methods Open- and closed-ended questions on knowledge about colorectal cancer and...

  4. Persistent demographic differences in colorectal cancer screening utilization despite Medicare reimbursement

    OpenAIRE

    Kreuter William; Ko Cynthia W; Baldwin Laura-Mae

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Colorectal cancer screening is widely recommended, but often under-utilized. In addition, significant demographic differences in screening utilization exist. Insurance coverage may be one factor influencing utilization of colorectal cancer screening tests. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of claims for outpatient services for Washington state Medicare beneficiaries in calendar year 2000. We determined the proportion of beneficiaries utilizing screening fecal o...

  5. The impact of mammographic screening on breast cancer mortality in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moss, S M; Nyström, L; Jonsson, H.;

    2012-01-01

    Analysing trends in population breast cancer mortality statistics appears a simple method of estimating the effectiveness of mammographic screening programmes. We reviewed such studies of population-based screening in Europe to assess their value.......Analysing trends in population breast cancer mortality statistics appears a simple method of estimating the effectiveness of mammographic screening programmes. We reviewed such studies of population-based screening in Europe to assess their value....

  6. Who and when should we screen for prostate cancer? Interviews with key opinion leaders

    OpenAIRE

    Carlsson, Sigrid; Leapman, Michael; Carroll, Peter; Schröder, Fritz; Albertsen, Peter; Ilic, Dragan; Barry, Michael; Frosch, Dominick L.; Vickers, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    textabstractProstate cancer screening using prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is highly controversial. In this Q & A, Guest Editors for BMC Medicine's 'Spotlight on Prostate Cancer' article collection, Sigrid Carlsson and Andrew Vickers, invite some of the world's key opinion leaders to discuss who, and when, to screen for prostate cancer. In response to the points of view from the invited experts, the Guest Editors summarize the experts' views and give their own personal opinions on PSA screen...

  7. Stage distribution of breast cancer diagnosed before and after implementation of population-based mammographic screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The German mammographic screening program is very similar to the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP), which started about 10 years earlier. This study analyzes the stage distribution of invasive breast cancers diagnosed in the pre-screening and screening period, and evaluates the overall mortality in women aged 55 - 74 in the pilot and non-pilot counties of the NBCSP. Materials and Methods: The NBCSP invites women aged 50 - 69 to participate in two-view mammography biennially. Chi-square statistics were used to compare percentages of the stage and treatment of invasive breast cancers diagnosed in women residing in the four pilot counties in the pre-screening (1984 - 1995) and screening (1996 - 2007) period. An ecological approach was used to analyze the age-specific mortality in the pilot and non-pilot counties for the period 1970 - 2007. Results: 50 % of the breast cancers diagnosed in the pre-screening period, 70 % of the cases detected with screening, 43 % of the interval cancers, and 52 % of the cancers diagnosed outside the NBCSP were stage I. Stage III + was present in 11 % of the cancers in the pre-screening period, and in 1 % of the cancers detected with screening. In the screening period, the breast cancer mortality rate decreased substantially more in the pilot counties than in the non-pilot counties. Conclusion: The stage distribution of breast cancer diagnosed in the NBCSP is prognostically favorable compared to cancers diagnosed outside the screening program. The reduction in the breast cancer mortality rate was more pronounced in the four pilot counties compared to the non-pilot counties. It is necessary to evaluate the program based on individual data. (orig.)

  8. Screen-detected vs symptomatic breast cancer: is improved survival due to stage migration alone?

    OpenAIRE

    Wishart, G. C.; Greenberg, D. C.; Britton, P D; Chou, P; Brown, C.H.; Purushotham, A. D.; Duffy, S W

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines whether screen-detected breast cancer confers additional prognostic benefit to the patient, over and above that expected by any shift in stage at presentation. In all, 5604 women (aged 50–70 years) diagnosed with invasive breast cancer between 1998 and 2003 were identified by the Eastern Cancer Registration and Information Centre (ECRIC) and mammographic screening status was determined. Using proportional hazards regression, we estimated the effect of screen detection comp...

  9. The performance of NLST screening criteria in Asian lung cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Vivek; Becker, Kevin; Zheng, Huo Xiang; Huang, Yiwu; Xu, Yiqing

    2015-01-01

    Background Screening high-risk individuals with low dose CT decreased lung cancer mortality in the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST), but the validity of directly extrapolating these results to an Asian population is unclear. Using statistical models on Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Result (SEER) data, 27 % of lung cancer patients in the United States were estimated to meet the screening criteria. This study aims to evaluate the performance of the NLST criteria in Asian lung cancer pa...

  10. Efficacy of an educational material on second primary cancer screening practice for cancer survivors: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wook Shin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cancer surivors have limited knowledge about second primary cancer (SPC screening and suboptimal rates of completion of screening practices for SPC. Our objective was to test the efficacy of an educational material on the knowledge, attitudes, and screening practices for SPC among cancer survivors. METHODS: Randomized, controlled trial among 326 cancer survivors from 6 oncology care outpatient clinics in Korea. Patients were randomized to an intervention or an attention control group. The intervention was a photo-novel, culturally tailored to increase knowledge about SPC screening. Knowledge and attitudes regarding SPC screening were assessed two weeks after the intervention, and screening practices were assessed after one year. RESULTS: At two weeks post-intervention, the average knowledge score was significantly higher in the intervention compared to the control group (0.81 vs. 0.75, P<0.01, with no significant difference in their attitude scores (2.64 vs. 2.57, P = 0.18. After 1 year of follow-up, the completion rate of all appropriate cancer screening was 47.2% in both intervention and control groups. CONCLUSION: While the educational material was effective for increasing knowledge of SPC screening, it did not promote cancer screening practice among cancer survivors. More effective interventions are needed to increase SPC screening rates in this population. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrial.gov NCT00948337.

  11. Effective screening for early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanada, Keiji; Okazaki, Akihito; Hirano, Naomichi; Izumi, Yoshihiro; Minami, Tomoyuki; Ikemoto, Juri; Kanemitsu, Kozue; Hino, Fumiaki

    2015-12-01

    Diagnosis of pancreatic cancer (PC) at an early stage with curative surgery should improve long-term patient outcome. At present, improving survival should lie in identifying those cases with high-risk factors or precursor lesions through an effective screening including ultrasonography, some biological markers, or national familial pancreatic cancer registration. Recently, cases with PC detection was higher on endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) than on CT or other modalities, and EUS-guided fine needle aspiration was helpful in confirming the histologic diagnosis. Additionally, for the diagnosis of cases with PC in situ, EUS and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) may play important roles in detecting the local irregular stenosis of the pancreatic duct. Cytodiagnosis of pancreatic juice using endoscopic nasopancreatic drainage multiple times may be useful in the final diagnosis. PMID:26651254

  12. An ingestible, NIR-fluorometric, cancer-screening capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demosthenous, Panayiota; Georgiou, Julius

    2015-08-01

    Asymptomatic, early-stage, cancer detection is a problem in the small intestine, that is largely inaccessible. This paper presents a cost-effective screening capsule prototype, which is able to detect infrared (IR) fluorescence emitted by indocyanine green (ICG) fluorophore dye. The presented mixed-signal system has a small size, consumes little power and works as a high-sensitivity fluorometer that records fluorescence levels throughout the small intestine, rather than collecting images that need labour intensive video analysis. Ex-vivo experiments, on ICG-impregnated swine intestine, have shown that the prototype system is able to detect low concentrations of ICG in the nanomolar and micromolar region, which is required to detect early cancer in the small intestine. PMID:26736713

  13. Age appropriate screening for cancer: Evidence-based practice in the United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T S Pandey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer screening is a well established and integral part of routine care in the Western world including United States. Men and women are recommended to get age-specific screening for common cancers like breast, cervical, prostate, and colon. The goal of screening is primary and secondary prevention. Cancer prevention and early detection of cancers has been shown to improve survival rates and decrease mortality by prompt appropriate treatment. This article serves to outline the current guidelines in the United States for cancer screening and the evidence for them as well as discusses the possibility of a similar model of care in India as well as barriers to such a screening program for cancer. The evidence was mostly obtained from systematic reviews done by the United States Preventive Services Task Force guidelines and other peer institutions like American Cancer Society and Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.

  14. Perceived Neighborhood Quality and Cancer Screening Behavior: Evidence from the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Kirsten M M; Malecki, Kristen M; Hoormann, Kelly A; Szabo, Aniko; Nattinger, Ann B

    2016-02-01

    Socioeconomic disparities in colorectal and breast cancer screening persist, partially accounting for disparities in cancer outcomes. Some neighborhood characteristics--particularly area level socioeconomic factors--have been linked to cancer screening behavior, but few studies have examined the relationship between perceived neighborhood quality and screening behavior, which may provide more insight into the ways in which neighborhood environments shape cancer related behaviors. This study examines the relationship between several aspects of the perceived neighborhood environment and breast and colorectal cancer screening behavior among a population-based sample of Wisconsin residents. A sub-goal was to compare the relevance of different perceived neighborhood factors for different screening tests. This is a cross-sectional study of 2008-2012 data from the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin, a population-based annual survey of Wisconsin residents. An average risk sample of Black, Hispanic and White women age 50 and older (n = 1265) were selected. Survey regression analyses examined predictors of screening, as well as adherence to screening guidelines. Models controlled for individual socio-demographic information and insurance status. Perceptions of social and physical disorder, including fear of crime and visible garbage, were associated with screening rates. Findings emphasize the particular importance of these factors for colorectal cancer screening, indicating the necessity of improving screening rates in areas characterized by social disorganization, crime, and physical disorder. Additional work should be done to further investigate the pathways that explain the linkage between neighborhood conditions, perceived neighborhood risks and cancer screening behavior. PMID:26275881

  15. A comparative study of breast cancer mass screening using ultrasonography and mammography at a single institution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to evaluate the effectiveness of ultrasonic screening for breast cancer (US group) in comparison with mammographic screening (MMG group), we analyzed 78,214 breast screening examinees presenting between 2007 and 2008 at our institution. The cancer detection rate in the US group was lower than that in the MMG group. However, the average age in the US group was significantly younger than that in the MMG group, and the rate of annual screening was significantly higher in the former than in the latter. In the US subgroup who underwent annual screening, the recall rate and the cancer detection rate were significantly lower, and the rate of detection of early breast cancers was significantly higher than that in the subgroup who underwent screening biennially or at longer intervals, and there was no significant inter-group difference in the cancer detection rate between women in their 40s and those aged 50 or above who underwent annual screening. The proportion of early breast cancers detected was almost the same in the both groups. In summary, US screening as well as MMG screening seems to be useful for detection of early breast cancer. Although a high recall rate for US screening has been reported previously, annual screening and sufficient quality control based on the guidelines proposed by the Japan Association of Breast and Thyroid Sonology (JABTS) are considered to reduce the recall rate. (author)

  16. Determinants of participation in colorectal cancer screening with faecal occult blood testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Euler-Chelpin, My; Brasso, Klaus; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers in men and women. Participation rates in faecal occult blood testing (FOBT) screening activities are, however, relatively low. In terms of lowering the colorectal cancer mortality, high participation rates are essential, and therefor...... screening. This stresses the need for monitoring of individual screening programmes and developing information strategies targeted to the local participation pattern....... it is important to understand the barriers to FOBT screening. METHODS: We undertook a systematic search through PUBMED, Medline, EMBASE and PsycINFO in order to identify studies that provide information on socio-demographic determinants of participation in FOBT screening. RESULTS: FOBT participation...

  17. Women’s perceived susceptibility to and utilisation of cervical cancer screening services in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Y. Hami

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malawi provides cervical cancer screening services free of charge at some public health facilities. Few women make use of these cancer screening services in Malawi and many women continue to be diagnosed with cervical cancer only during the late inoperable stages of the condition. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to discover whether the perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer, amongst Malawian women aged 42 and older, influenced their intentions to utilise the available free cervical cancer screening services. Method: A quantitative, cross-sectional descriptive study design was adopted. Structured interviews were conducted with 381 women who visited 3 health centres in the Blantyre District of Malawi. Results: A statistically-significant association existed between women’s intentions to be screened for cervical cancer and their knowledge about cervical cancer (X² = 8.9; df = 1; p = 0.003 and with having heard about HPV infection (X² = 4.2; df = 1; p = 0.041 at the 5% significance level. Cervical cancer screening services are provided free of charge in government health institutions in Malawi. Nevertheless, low perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer amongst women, aged 42 and older, might contribute to limited utilisation of cervical screening services, explaining why 80% of cervical cancer patients in Malawi were diagnosed during the late inoperable stages. Conclusion: Malawian women lacked awareness regarding their susceptibility to cervical cancer and required information about the available cervical cancer screening services. Malawi’s women, aged 42 and older, must be informed about the advantages of cervical cancer screening and about the importance of effective treatment if an early diagnosis has been made. Women aged 42 and older rarely attend antenatal, post-natal, well baby or family-planning clinics, where health education about cervical cancer screening is often provided. Consequently, these women

  18. Stage of breast cancer at diagnosis in New Zealand: impacts of socio-demographic factors, breast cancer screening and biology

    OpenAIRE

    Seneviratne, Sanjeewa; Lawrenson, Ross; Harvey, Vernon; Ramsaroop, Reena; Elwood, Mark; Scott, Nina; Sarfati, Diana; Campbell, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Background Examination of factors associated with late stage diagnosis of breast cancer is useful to identify areas which are amenable to intervention. This study analyses trends in cancer stage at diagnosis and impact of socio-demographic, cancer biological and screening characteristics on cancer stage in a population-based series of women with invasive breast cancer in New Zealand. Methods All women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer between 2000 and 2013 were identified from two regiona...

  19. Use of azathioprine and the risk of cancer in inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasternak, Björn; Svanström, Henrik; Schmiegelow, Kjeld;

    2013-01-01

    %) used azathioprine) in Denmark from 1997 to 2008. We linked registry data on filled drug prescriptions, cancer diagnoses, and covariates and compared rates of overall incident cancer and cancer subgroups between users and nonusers of azathioprine, adjusting for propensity scores. During a median 7...

  20. African American Men and Prostate Cancer: Be Your Own Advocate and Understand Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    AFRICAN AMERICAN MEN AND PROSTATE CANCER: BE YOUR OWN ADVOCATE AND UNDERSTAND SCREENING By the National Cancer ... American men. For reasons that are still unknown, African American men are more likely to get prostate ...

  1. Inadequate cervical cancer screening among mid-aged Australian women who have experienced partner violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loxton, Deborah; Powers, Jennifer; Schofield, Margot; Hussain, Rafat; Hosking, Stacey

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. Partner violence is linked to cervical cancer and other gynaecological conditions. However, results of current research into associations between partner violence and cervical cancer screening have been inconclusive. Therefore, the current research investigates the association between pa

  2. U.S. Panel Says Evidence 'Insufficient' to Recommend Skin Cancer Screenings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html U.S. Panel Says Evidence 'Insufficient' to Recommend Skin Cancer Screenings But dermatology experts disagree and worry opportunities ... proof to recommend regular full-body exams for skin cancer as a means of preventing deaths from these ...

  3. Exploration of knowledge of cervical cancer and cervical cancer screening amongst HIV-positive women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna E. Maree

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although preventable, cervical cancer, an AIDS-related disease, is the second most common cancer amongst South African women and the most common cancer amongst black women. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine what women being treated for HIV and AIDS at a specific healthcare centre in Johannesburg knew about cervical cancer and cervical screening. Method: A survey design was used, with data gathered by means of a self-administered questionnaire. Convenience sampling selected 315 women to participate (n = 315. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data and chi-square testing found associations between categorical variables. Results: The majority of respondents (78.7%; n = 248 indicated that they had heard of cervical cancer and 62.9% (n = 198 knew about the Pap smear, with nurses and doctors being the primary source of information. Of the women who knew about the Pap smear, less than one-third had had a smear done, the main reason being fear of the procedure. Conclusion: The study provided evidence that women attending the specific HIV clinic were more knowledgeable about cervical cancer and screening than those of unknown HIV status involved in previous studies. Knowledge was still at a low level, especially when their exceptionally high risk was taken into account. Once again it was found that having knowledge did not necessarily mean having had a Pap smear, which remains a huge challenge in the prevention of cervical cancer.

  4. A potential association between exposure to hepatitis B virus and small bowel adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFilippis, Ersilia M; Mehta, Mamta; Ludwig, Emmy

    2016-06-01

    Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) has never been described as a risk factor for small bowel adenocarcinoma, although infection is a known risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma. From May 2009 to December 2014, we implemented an institution-wide screening program for hepatitis B viral serologies prior to starting chemotherapy. Evidence of exposure [hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) positivity in the absence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positivity] was highest in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (21.1%), followed by small bowel cancer (12.5%). The small bowel adenocarcinoma cases with anti-HBc positivity were reviewed. Special attention was paid to known risk factors for small bowel cancers. One patient had a diagnosis of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). However, the other patients had no genetic syndromes, history of inflammatory bowel disease or other chronic inflammation to explain their risk. We postulate exposure to bile acids, tumorigenesis of hepatocytes and cholangiocytes, and/or damage to the intestinal mucosa secondary to HBV exposure/infection as potential mechanisms for development of small bowel adenocarcinoma. More research is warranted to further elucidate this association. PMID:27284484

  5. Socioeconomic Disparities in Breast Cancer Screening in Hawaii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Halliday, PhD

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionDespite evidence that breast cancer screening reduces morbidity and mortality, many women do not obtain mammograms. Our objective was to analyze the relationship between income and mammography screening for members enrolled in a large health plan in Hawaii.MethodsWe analyzed claims data for women (N = 46,328 aged 50 to 70 years during 2003 and 2004. We used parametric and nonparametric regression techniques. We used probit estimation to conduct multivariate analysis.ResultsAt the 5th percentile of the earnings distribution, the probability of mammography is 57.1%, and at the 95th percentile, it is 67.7%. Movement from the 5th percentile to the 35th percentile of the earnings distribution increases the probability of mammography by 0.0378 percentage points. A similar movement from the 65th percentile to the 95th percentile increases the probability by 0.0394 percentage points. Also, we observed an income gradient within narrowly defined geographic regions where physical access to medical care providers is not an issue.ConclusionWe observed a steep income gradient in mammography screening in Hawaii. Because of the prevalence of measurement error, this gradient is probably far greater than our estimate. We cannot plausibly attribute our findings to disparities in coverage because 100% of our sample had health insurance coverage. The gradient also does not appear to result from poorer people residing in areas that are geographically isolated from providers of medical care.

  6. Geographic variation and effect of area-level poverty rate on colorectal cancer screening

    OpenAIRE

    Schootman Mario; Lian Min; Yun Shumei

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background With a secular trend of increasing colorectal cancer (CRC) screening, concerns about disparities in CRC screening also have been rising. It is unclear if CRC screening varies geographically, if area-level poverty rate affects CRC screening, and if individual-level characteristics mediate the area-level effects on CRC screening. Methods Using 2006 Missouri Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data, a multilevel study was conducted to examine geographic variati...

  7. Relation between breast cancer mortality and screening effectiveness: systematic review of the mammography trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2011-01-01

    The mammography screening trials have shown varying results. This could be because screening was better in some trials than in others at advancing the time of diagnosis. If so, more cancers would be identified in such trials relative to the control group, and fewer of the cancers would have reached...... an advanced stage. I performed a systematic review of the mammography screening trials using metaregression. Finding many cancers was not related to the size of the reduction in breast cancer mortality (p = 0.19 after seven and p = 0.73 after 13 years of follow-up). In contrast, finding few cancers...

  8. Oral Cancer Screening at Workplace in India—One-year Follow-up

    OpenAIRE

    P A Uplap; G A Mishra; Majumdar, P.; S D Gupta; P S Rane; P K Sadalge; A M Avasare; S S Goswami; V A Dhar; S S Shastri

    2011-01-01

    Background: Oral cancer remains the commonest form of cancer and cancer-related deaths among Indian males due to popularity of avoidable risk factors such as tobacco and alcohol use. A workplace oral cancer screening and tobacco cessation study was commenced on World No Tobacco Day 2007 at a chemical industry in rural Maharashtra. Aims: The objectives were to screen the employees for oral neoplasia and to correlate it with their tobacco consumption pattern. In addition, the objective was to p...

  9. The `Ohana Day Project: A Community Approach to Increasing Cancer Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Gellert, Kapuaola; Braun, Kathryn L.; Morris, Robert; Starkey, Valerie

    2006-01-01

    Background Native Hawaiians have higher cancer mortality rates and lower cancer screening rates compared with non-Hawaiians in Hawaii. People living in rural areas have particularly limited options for cancer services, especially for services that are culturally attractive and convenient. Context `Ohana Day, offered in a small, rural, and predominantly Hawaiian community, was designed to attract underserved Hawaiians to cancer screening. Methods The year-long project involved a 1-day ho`olaul...

  10. Hepatitis B vaccinations among Koreans: Results from 2005 Korea National Cancer Screening Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Kwak Min-Son; Park Eun-Cheol; Choi Kui; Juon Hee-Soon; Lee Sunmin

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Liver cancer is one of most commonly diagnosed cancers among Koreans. Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major risk factor for liver cancer. HBV infection can be prevented by effective screening and vaccination programs. The purpose of this study is to examine the status of HBV infection and the predictors associated with HBV vaccination. Methods The study population was derived from the 2005 Korea National Cancer Screening Survey (KNCSS). The KNCSS is an annua...

  11. The first national public breast cancer screening program in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Abulkhair, Omalkhair A.; Al Tahan, Fatina M.; Young, Susan E.; Musaad, Salma MA.; Jazieh, Abdul-Rahman M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Despite its relatively low incidence in Saudi Arabia, breast cancer has been the most common cancer among Saudi females for the past 12 consecutive years. The objective of this study was to report the results of the first national public breast cancer screening program in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: Women 40 years of age or older underwent breast cancer screening. Mammograms were scored using the Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS). Correlations between im...

  12. Yield of claims data and surveys for determining colon cancer screening among health plan members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignone, Michael; Scott, Tracy L; Schild, Laura A; Lewis, Carmen; Vázquez, Raquel; Glanz, Karen

    2009-03-01

    Screening can reduce incidence and mortality from colorectal cancer but has been underutilized. Efforts to increase screening depend on accurate data about screening status. We sought to evaluate the independent and combined yield of claims and direct survey for identifying colorectal cancer screening among average-risk health plan beneficiaries. Participants were Aetna members ages between 52 and 80 years from 32 primary care practices in Florida and Georgia participating in the Communicating Health Options through Information and Cancer Education study. Main outcomes were the proportion of average-risk patients who were up-to-date with colorectal cancer screening based on claims data and the estimated additional yield of survey data for patients with no evidence of screening in their claims history. Of 4,020 average-risk members identified, claims data indicated that 1,066 (27%) had recent colorectal cancer screening. Among the 1,269 average-risk members with no evidence of screening by claims data who returned surveys, 498 (39%) reported being up-to-date with screening. Combining claims data and survey data and accounting for survey nonresponse, we estimate that 47% to 59% of member patients were actually up-to-date with screening, an additional yield of 20 to 32 percentage points. We conclude that, among health plan members, the combination of claims data and survey information had substantially higher yield than claims data alone for identifying colorectal cancer screening. PMID:19273480

  13. A history of breast cancer screening and future problems in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Europe and the United States, mortality due to breast cancer is decreasing. There are various reasons for this trend, including an increase in the detection of early-stage breast cancers due to the increased use of mammographic screening, and the establishment of standardized systemic treatments derived from evidence-based medicine (EBM). On the other hand, in Japanese women, both morbidity and mortality due to breast cancer are increasing. This paper describes the process of breast cancer screening in the past, its current status, and the quality control system for mammographic screening in Japan, as well as the status of breast cancer screening in Europe and the United States. Furthermore, problems of breast cancer screening in Japan discussed, together with the need for practical measures such as implementation of quality control systems aimed at improving the cancer screening rate (with a target of 50%), financial support, and population-based screening (organized screening), based on the Cancer Control Act. Current measures for screening of dense breast tissue in women in their 40s in Japan are also described. (author)

  14. Intrinsic motivation factors based on the self-determinant theory for regular breast cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Su Mi; Jo, Heui-Sug

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors of intrinsic motivation that affect regular breast cancer screening and contribute to development of a program for strategies to improve effective breast cancer screening. Subjects were residing in South Korea Gangwon-Province and were female over 40 and under 69 years of age. For the investigation, the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI) was modified to the situation of cancer screening and was used to survey 905 inhabitants. Multinominal logistic regression analyses were conducted for regular breast cancer screening (RS), one-time breast cancer screening (OS) and non-breast cancer screening (NS). For statistical analysis, IBM SPSS 20.0 was utilized. The determinant factors between RS and NS were "perceived effort and choice" and "stress and strain" - internal motivations related to regular breast cancer screening. Also, determinant factors between RS and OS are "age" and "perceived effort and choice" for internal motivation related to cancer screening. To increase regular screening, strategies that address individual perceived effort and choice are recommended. PMID:25556433

  15. Updates and Controversies in the Rapidly Evolving Field of Lung Cancer Screening, Early Detection, and Chemoprevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasmeena Kathuria

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. Cigarette smoking is a well-recognized risk factor for lung cancer, and a sustained elevation of lung cancer risk persists even after smoking cessation. Despite identifiable risk factors, there has been minimal improvement in mortality for patients with lung cancer primarily stemming from diagnosis at a late stage when there are few effective therapeutic options. Early detection of lung cancer and effective screening of high-risk individuals may help improve lung cancer mortality. While low dose computerized tomography (LDCT screening of high risk smokers has been shown to reduce lung cancer mortality, the high rates of false positives and potential for over-diagnosis have raised questions on how to best implement lung cancer screening. The rapidly evolving field of lung cancer screening and early-detection biomarkers may ultimately improve the ability to diagnose lung cancer in its early stages, identify smokers at highest-risk for this disease, and target chemoprevention strategies. This review aims to provide an overview of the opportunities and challenges related to lung cancer screening, the field of biomarker development for early lung cancer detection, and the future of lung cancer chemoprevention.

  16. Characteristics and prognosis of interval cancers after biennial screen-film or full-field digital screening mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Roy J P; van Bommel, Rob M G; Louwman, Marieke W; Nederend, Joost; Voogd, Adri C; Jansen, Frits H; Tjan-Heijnen, Vivianne C G; Duijm, Lucien E M

    2016-08-01

    We determined the characteristics and prognosis of interval breast cancers (IC) at screen-film (SFM) and full-field digital (FFDM) screening mammography. The study population consisted of 417,746 consecutive screening mammograms (302,699 SFM screens and 115,047 FFDM screens), obtained between 2000 and 2011. During 2-year follow-up, we collected breast imaging reports, surgical reports, and pathology results. A total of 800 ICs had been diagnosed in the screened population, of which 288 detected in the first year (early ICs) and 512 in the second year (late ICs) after a negative screen. 31.3 % of early IC's and 19.1 % of late IC's, respectively, were visible in retrospect on the latest previous screens, but had been missed during screening (P < 0.001). Missed invasive ICs were larger (28.5 mm vs. 23.9 mm, P = 0.003) and showed a higher fraction of T3+cancers (16.9 vs. 8.5 %, P = 0.02) than true ICs (i.e., not visible at the latest screen). A higher portion of missed than true ICs underwent mastectomy (44.7 vs. 30.8 %, P = 0.002). We found no differences in mammographic and tumor characteristics for early ICs, detected either after SFM or FFDM. Late ICs following FFDM were more often true ICs than missed ICs (69.0 vs. 57.6 %, P = 0.03) and more often receptor triple negative (P = 0.02), compared to late ICs at SFM. Interval cancer subgroups showed comparable overall survival. Interval cancer subgroups show distinctive mammographic and tumor characteristics but a comparable overall survival. PMID:27393617

  17. Differences between men with screening-detected versus clinically diagnosed prostate cancers in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stone S Noell

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The advent of prostate specific antigen (PSA testing in the United States of America (USA has led to a dramatic increase in the incidence of prostate cancer in the United States as well as the number of men undergoing aggressive treatment with radical prostatectomy and radiation therapy. We compared patient characteristics and treatment selection between American men with screening-detected versus clinically diagnosed prostate cancers. Methods We evaluated 3,173 men with prostate cancer in the USA. Surveys and medical records provided information on demographics, socioeconomic status, comorbidities, symptoms, tumor characteristics, and treatment. We classified men presenting with symptoms of advanced cancer – bone pain, weight loss, or hematuria – as "clinically diagnosed"; asymptomatic men and those with only lower urinary tract symptoms were considered "screening-detected." We used multivariate analyses to determine whether screening predicted receiving aggressive treatment for a clinically localized cancer. Results We classified 11% of cancers as being clinically diagnosed. Men with screening-detected cancers were more often non-Hispanic white (77% vs. 65%, P Conclusion Most cancers were detected by screening in this American cohort. Appropriately, younger, healthier men were more likely to be diagnosed by screening. Minority status and lower socio-economic status appeared to be screening barriers. Screening detected earlier-stage cancers and was associated with receiving aggressive treatment.

  18. Comparative pathology of breast cancer in a randomised trial of screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, T J; Lamb, J; Donnan, P; Alexander, F E; Huggins, A; Muir, B B; Kirkpatrick, A E; Chetty, U; Hepburn, W; Smith, A

    1991-07-01

    In the Edinburgh Randomised Breast Screening Project (EBSP) to December 1988 there were 500 cancers in the study population invited to screening and 340 cancers identified in the control population. The size and negative lymph node status characteristics of invasive cancers from the two populations were significantly different (P less than 0.05). The cancers detected by screening were predominantly 'early stage', with 16% noninvasive (PTIS) and 42% invasive stage I (pT1 node negative), whereas cancers were frequently 'late stage' (more than pT2) and inoperable in nonattenders (44%) and controls (36%). Grouped according to customary size ranges of invasive cancers, the proportion of cases lymph node positive differed in those screen detected compared with controls, but the benefit in favour of screen detection was not constant. In comparisons of cancers detected at prevalence and incidence screens, as a test of conformity with screening theory, no significant differences were apparent according to size and lymph node status, yet the characteristics of histological type of cancer discriminated significantly (P less than 0.05). When these same histological characteristics were used to compare survival, the capacity to separate invasive cancers into two groups having good and poor survival probabilities was evident, with a significant improvement for the screen detected poor survival group compared with controls (P less than 0.05). PMID:1854609

  19. Radial scars detected mammographically in a breast cancer screening programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radial scars are getting more and more common since implementation of mammography as diagnostic tool in screening women for breast cancer. At Karolinska Hospital, 18987 asymptomatic women, aged 50-69, were screened for breast cancer through mammography during August 1989-May 1991. A total of 735 (3.87%) were recalled for additional views after initial mammograms and 463 (2.44%) were assessed with help of cytology. In all 175 women (0.92%) were selected for surgery and 146 (0.77%) had histologically verified cancers. The remaining 29 (0.15%) had non- malignant lesions of which 11 (0.06%) were radial scars. All radial scars were diagnosed on mammograms and later confirmed with histology. The radiologic characteristics were found to be a) rather thick and long radiating structures accompanied by radiolucent linear structures parallel to some of the spicules, b) absence of calcifications, c) radiolucent areas in the body of the lesion, d) an average mean size of 6 mm and e) changing image in different views. Most of the lesions, 73% (8/11), were in moderately dense breasts and there was no specific relation to the right or left breast. A majority of radial scars, 64% (7/11), were found in the upper outer quadrants, 3/11 in the lower outer quadrants and 1/11 in the lower inner quadrant. Literature shows that histology uses many synonyms for radial scars and therefore team work between radiologists and pathologists is suggested for better conformity of the diagnosis. (author). 32 refs.; 1 fig

  20. Radiation-Induced Breast Cancer Incidence and Mortality from Digital Mammography Screening: A Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglioretti, Diana L.; Lange, Jane; van den Broek, Jeroen J.; Lee, Christoph I.; van Ravesteyn, Nicolien T.; Ritley, Dominique; Kerlikowske, Karla; Fenton, Joshua J.; Melnikow, Joy; de Koning, Harry J.; Hubbard, Rebecca A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Estimates of radiation-induced breast cancer risk from mammography screening have not previously considered dose exposure variation or diagnostic work-up after abnormal screening. Objective To estimate distributions of radiation-induced breast cancer incidence and mortality from digital mammography screening, considering exposure from screening and diagnostic mammography and dose variation across women. Design Two simulation-modeling approaches using common data on screening mammography from the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium and radiation dose from mammography from the Digital Mammographic Imaging Screening Trial. Setting U.S. population. Patients Women aged 40–74 years. Interventions Annual or biennial digital mammography screening from age 40, 45, or 50 until 74. Measurements Lifetime breast cancer deaths averted (benefits) and radiation-induced breast cancer incidence and mortality per 100,000 women screened (harms). Results On average, annual screening of 100,000 women aged 40 to 74 years was projected to induce 125 breast cancers (95% confidence interval [CI]=88–178) leading to 16 deaths (95% CI=11–23) relative to 968 breast cancer deaths averted by early detection from screening. Women exposed at the 95th percentile were projected to develop 246 radiation-induced breast cancers leading to 32 deaths per 100,000 women. Women with large breasts requiring extra views for complete breast examination (8% of population) were projected to have higher radiation-induced breast cancer incidence and mortality (266 cancers, 35 deaths per 100,000 women), compared to women with small or average breasts (113 cancers, 15 deaths per 100,000 women). Biennial screening starting at age 50 reduced risk of radiation-induced cancers 5-fold. Limitations We were unable to estimate years of life lost from radiation-induced breast cancer. Conclusions Radiation-induced breast cancer incidence and mortality from digital mammography screening are impacted by dose