WorldWideScience

Sample records for bow thrusters

  1. Bowed Strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossing, Thomas D.; Hanson, Roger J.

    In the next eight chapters, we consider some aspects of the science of bowed string instruments, old and new. In this chapter, we present a brief discussion of bowed strings, a subject that will be developed much more thoroughly in Chap. 16. Chapters 13-15 discuss the violin, the cello, and the double bass. Chapter 17 discusses viols and other historic string instruments, and Chap. 18 discusses the Hutchins-Schelleng violin octet.

  2. Bow Crushing Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of these notes is to present a basis for the estimation of the internal collision forces between conventinal merchant vessels and large volume offshore structures in the form of gravity-supported offshore installations and bridges crossing international shipping routes.The main emphasis...... is on the presentation of impact loads on fixed offshore structures due to bow collisions. The crushing forces are determined as functions of vessels size, vessels speed, bow profile, collision angles and eccentric impacts....

  3. Development of a DP system for CS Enterprise I with Voith Schneider thrusters

    OpenAIRE

    Skåtun, Håkon Nødset

    2011-01-01

    A model ship named CS Enterprise 1 (CSE1) has been purchased by the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) to be used for demonstrations and student experiments at the Marine Cybernetics Laboratory (MC Lab). This model ship has in this project been equipped with two Voith Schneider Propellers (VSPs), and a new bow thruster, in addition instrumentation for these new actuators have been installed. Once the outfitting was completed, the aim was to develop a manual thruster co...

  4. Bow and catapult internal dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Denny, M

    2003-01-01

    A simple model of bow and arrow dynamics is presented, which makes clear the physical principles, and reproduces the features obtained via more detailed, but less accessible calculations. We apply this instructive model to determine the efficiency of bows and of torsion-spring catapults.

  5. Articulated coordination of the right arm underlies control of bow parameters and quick bow reversals in skilled cello bowing

    OpenAIRE

    Julius eVerrel; Marjorie Hines Woollacott; Ulman eLindenberger

    2014-01-01

    Stringed instrument bowing is a complex coordinative motor skill acquired though years of intense practice. We apply a novel “freezing” analysis to investigate how movement at different joints contributes to bow transport (movement amplitude), stabilization of bow parameters (angle, velocity) during bow movements, and quick reversals of bow direction (acceleration amplitude). Participants were ten advanced or professional cellists (19–32 years, at least 10 years of practice) and ten age-match...

  6. Articulated coordination of the right arm underlies control of bow parameters and quick bow reversals in skilled cello bowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrel, Julius; Woollacott, Marjorie; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2014-01-01

    Stringed instrument bowing is a complex coordinative motor skill acquired though years of intense practice. We apply a novel "freezing" analysis to investigate how movement at different joints contributes to bow transport (movement amplitude), stabilization of bow parameters (angle, velocity) during bow movements, and quick reversals of bow direction (acceleration amplitude). Participants were ten advanced or professional cellists (19-32 years, at least 10 years of practice) and ten age-matched novice players. Arm and bow movements were recorded using 3D motion capture. To assess how performance depends on articulated use of the right arm, actual data were compared to surrogate data, generated by artificially removing movement at ("freezing") individual joints in measured arm movements. This analysis showed that both elbow and shoulder significantly contribute to bow transport in experts, while only the shoulder contributed to bow transport in novices. Moreover, experts showed more strongly increased variability of bow parameters and reduced acceleration amplitudes at bow reversals for surrogate compared to actual movement data. This indicates that movement across joints was organized to reduce bow variability and achieve quick bow reversals. Corresponding effects were less pronounced or absent in the novices, in particular for the wrist and elbow. Our results demonstrate the importance of articulated use of the right arm and clarify the contribution of different joints in experts' bowing performance. Moreover, they support theories of motor control and learning that propose exploitation of biomechanical degrees of freedom, in particular of distal joints, as a critical component in skilled motor performance.

  7. Iodine Hall Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, James

    2015-01-01

    Iodine enables dramatic mass and cost savings for lunar and Mars cargo missions, including Earth escape and near-Earth space maneuvers. The demonstrated throttling ability of iodine is important for a singular thruster that might be called upon to propel a spacecraft from Earth to Mars or Venus. The ability to throttle efficiently is even more important for missions beyond Mars. In the Phase I project, Busek Company, Inc., tested an existing Hall thruster, the BHT-8000, on iodine propellant. The thruster was fed by a high-flow iodine feed system and supported by an existing Busek hollow cathode flowing xenon gas. The Phase I propellant feed system was evolved from a previously demonstrated laboratory feed system. Throttling of the thruster between 2 and 11 kW at 200 to 600 V was demonstrated. Testing showed that the efficiency of iodine fueled BHT-8000 is the same as with xenon, with iodine delivering a slightly higher thrust-to-power (T/P) ratio. In Phase II, a complete iodine-fueled system was developed, including the thruster, hollow cathode, and iodine propellant feed system. The nominal power of the Phase II system is 8 kW; however, it can be deeply throttled as well as clustered to much higher power levels. The technology also can be scaled to greater than 100 kW per thruster to support megawatt-class missions. The target thruster efficiency for the full-scale system is 65 percent at high specific impulse (Isp) (approximately 3,000 s) and 60 percent at high thrust (Isp approximately 2,000 s).

  8. Oxygen-Methane Thruster Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Orion Propulsion, Inc. proposes to develop an Oxygen and Methane RCS Thruster to advance the technology of alternate fuels. A successful Oxygen/CH4 RCS Thruster will...

  9. Magnesium Hall Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, James J.

    2015-01-01

    This Phase II project is developing a magnesium (Mg) Hall effect thruster system that would open the door for in situ resource utilization (ISRU)-based solar system exploration. Magnesium is light and easy to ionize. For a Mars- Earth transfer, the propellant mass savings with respect to a xenon Hall effect thruster (HET) system are enormous. Magnesium also can be combusted in a rocket with carbon dioxide (CO2) or water (H2O), enabling a multimode propulsion system with propellant sharing and ISRU. In the near term, CO2 and H2O would be collected in situ on Mars or the moon. In the far term, Mg itself would be collected from Martian and lunar regolith. In Phase I, an integrated, medium-power (1- to 3-kW) Mg HET system was developed and tested. Controlled, steady operation at constant voltage and power was demonstrated. Preliminary measurements indicate a specific impulse (Isp) greater than 4,000 s was achieved at a discharge potential of 400 V. The feasibility of delivering fluidized Mg powder to a medium- or high-power thruster also was demonstrated. Phase II of the project evaluated the performance of an integrated, highpower Mg Hall thruster system in a relevant space environment. Researchers improved the medium power thruster system and characterized it in detail. Researchers also designed and built a high-power (8- to 20-kW) Mg HET. A fluidized powder feed system supporting the high-power thruster was built and delivered to Busek Company, Inc.

  10. Colloid thruster technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perel, J.

    1971-01-01

    A program is described for attaining control, reproducibility, and predictability of operation for the annular colloid emitter. A thruster of an improved design was used for a 1000 hour test. The thruster was operated with a neutralizer for 1023 hours at 15 kV with an average thrust of 25 micropound and specific impulse of 1160 sec. The performance was stable, and the beam was vectored periodically. The clean condition of the emitter edge at the end of the test coupled with no degradation in performance during the test indicated that the lifetime could be extrapolated by at least an order of magnitude over the test time.

  11. The player and the bowed string: coordination of bowing parameters in violin and viola performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonderwaldt, E

    2009-11-01

    An experiment was conducted with four violin and viola players, measuring their bowing performance using an optical motion capture system and sensors on the bow. The measurements allowed for a detailed analysis of the use and coordination of the main bowing parameters bow velocity, bow force, and bow-bridge distance. An analysis of bowing strategies in detache playing of notes of three durations (0.2, 2, and 4 s) at three dynamic levels (pp, mf, and f) on all four strings is presented, focusing on the "steady" part of the notes. The results revealed clear trends in the coordinated variations of the bowing parameters depending on the constraints of the task, reflecting a common behavior as well as individual strategies. Furthermore, there were clear indications that the players adapted the bowing parameters to the physical properties of the string and the instrument, respecting the limits of the playable control parameter space.

  12. Articulated coordination of the right arm underlies control of bow parameters and quick bow reversals in skilled cello bowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius eVerrel

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Stringed instrument bowing is a complex coordinative motor skill acquired though years of intense practice. We apply a novel freezing analysis to investigate how movement at different joints contributes to bow transport (movement amplitude, stabilization of bow parameters (angle, velocity during bow movements, and quick reversals of bow direction (acceleration amplitude. Participants were ten advanced or professional cellists (19-32 years, at least 10 years of practice and ten age-matched novice players. Arm and bow movements were recorded using 3D motion capture. To assess how performance depends on articulated use of the right arm, actual data were compared to surrogate data, generated by artificially removing movement at (freezing individual joints in measured arm movements. This analysis showed that both elbow and shoulder significantly contribute to bow transport in experts, while only the shoulder contributed to bow transport in novices. Moreover, experts showed more strongly increased variability of bow parameters and reduced acceleration amplitudes at bow reversals for surrogate compared to actual movement data. This indicates that movement across joints was organized to reduce bow variability and achieve quick bow reversals. Corresponding effects were less pronounced or absent in the novices, in particular for the wrist and elbow. Our results demonstrate the importance of articulated use of the right arm and clarify the contribution of different joints in experts’ bowing performance. Moreover, they support theories of motor control and learning that propose exploitation of biomechanical degrees of freedom, in particular of distal joints, as a critical component in skilled motor performance.

  13. [Bow artefact in B-image sonography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bönhof, J A; Stapff, M; Bönhof, B; Kremer, H; Zöllner, N; Linhart, P

    1983-09-01

    Bow-shaped artifacts can often be seen in B-mode-ultrasound examinations. In order to find out the origin of these artifacts, water tank experiments were carried out and compared with in vivo observations. The studies showed that bow-shaped artifacts are caused by beam breadth, and that their shape is influenced by the type of the B-mode-instrument, the adjustment of the machine, and by the shape of the reflector. In vitro and in vivo, bow-shaped artifacts arise at strong reflectors and are visible in regions of low echogeneity. In vivo bow-shaped artifacts may imitate pathological findings such as septa or sludge.

  14. Helical plasma thruster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beklemishev, A. D., E-mail: bekl@bk.ru [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-15

    A new scheme of plasma thruster is proposed. It is based on axial acceleration of rotating magnetized plasmas in magnetic field with helical corrugation. The idea is that the propellant ionization zone can be placed into the local magnetic well, so that initially the ions are trapped. The E × B rotation is provided by an applied radial electric field that makes the setup similar to a magnetron discharge. Then, from the rotating plasma viewpoint, the magnetic wells of the helically corrugated field look like axially moving mirror traps. Specific shaping of the corrugation can allow continuous acceleration of trapped plasma ions along the magnetic field by diamagnetic forces. The accelerated propellant is expelled through the expanding field of magnetic nozzle. By features of the acceleration principle, the helical plasma thruster may operate at high energy densities but requires a rather high axial magnetic field, which places it in the same class as the VASIMR{sup ®} rocket engine.

  15. Green Liquid Monopropellant Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Prakash B.

    2015-01-01

    Physical Sciences, Inc. (PSI), and Orbital Technologies Corporation (ORBITEC) are developing a unique chemical propulsion system for next-generation NASA science spacecraft and missions. The system is compact, lightweight, and can operate with high reliability over extended periods of time and under a wide range of thermal environments. The system uses a new storable, low-toxicity liquid monopropellant as its working fluid. In Phase I, the team demonstrated experimentally the critical ignition and combustion processes for the propellant and used the data to develop thruster design concepts. In Phase II, the team developed and demonstrated in the laboratory a proof-of-concept prototype thruster. A Phase III project is envisioned to develop a full-scale protoflight propulsion system applicable to a class of NASA missions.

  16. Entropy Generation Across Earth's Bow Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, George K.; McCarthy, Michael; Fu, Suiyan; Lee E. s; Cao, Jinbin; Goldstein, Melvyn L.; Canu, Patrick; Dandouras, Iannis S.; Reme, Henri; Fazakerley, Andrew; hide

    2011-01-01

    Earth's bow shock is a transition layer that causes an irreversible change in the state of plasma that is stationary in time. Theories predict entropy increases across the bow shock but entropy has never been directly measured. Cluster and Double Star plasma experiments measure 3D plasma distributions upstream and downstream of the bow shock that allow calculation of Boltzmann's entropy function H and his famous H-theorem, dH/dt O. We present the first direct measurements of entropy density changes across Earth's bow shock. We will show that this entropy generation may be part of the processes that produce the non-thermal plasma distributions is consistent with a kinetic entropy flux model derived from the collisionless Boltzmann equation, giving strong support that solar wind's total entropy across the bow shock remains unchanged. As far as we know, our results are not explained by any existing shock models and should be of interests to theorists.

  17. Energetics of the terrestrial bow shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamrin, Maria; Gunell, Herbert; Norqvist, Patrik

    2017-04-01

    The solar wind is the primary energy source for the magnetospheric energy budget. Energy can enter through the magnetopause both as kinetic energy (plasma entering via e.g. magnetic reconnection and impulsive penetration) and as electromagnetic energy (e.g. by the conversion of solar wind kinetic energy into electromagnetic energy in magnetopause generators). However, energy is extracted from the solar wind already at the bow shock, before it encounters the terrestrial magnetopause. At the bow shock the supersonic solar wind is slowed down and heated, and the region near the bow shock is known to host many complex processes, including the accelerating of particles and the generation of waves. The processes at and near the bow shock can be discussed in terms of energetics: In a generator (load) process kinetic energy is converted to (from) electromagnetic energy. Bow shock regions where the solar wind is decelerated correspond to generators, while regions where particles are energized (accelerated and heated) correspond to loads. Recently, it has been suggested that currents from the bow shock generator should flow across the magnetosheath and connect to the magnetospause current systems [Siebert and Siscoe, 2002; Lopez et al., 2011]. In this study we use data from the Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) mission to investigate the energetics of the bow shock and the current closure, and we compare with the MHD simulations of Lopez et al., 2011.

  18. Modeling nonthermal emission from stellar bow shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, V.; López-Santiago, J.; Miceli, M.; Bonito, R.; de Castro, E.

    2016-04-01

    Context. Runaway O- and early B-type stars passing through the interstellar medium at supersonic velocities and characterized by strong stellar winds may produce bow shocks that can serve as particle acceleration sites. Previous theoretical models predict the production of high-energy photons by nonthermal radiative processes, but their efficiency is still debated. Aims: We aim to test and explain the possibility of emission from the bow shocks formed by runaway stars traveling through the interstellar medium by using previous theoretical models. Methods: We applied our model to AE Aurigae, the first reported star with an X-ray detected bow shock, to BD+43 3654, in which the observations failed in detecting high-energy emission, and to the transition phase of a supergiant star in the late stages of its life. Results: From our analysis, we confirm that the X-ray emission from the bow shock produced by AE Aurigae can be explained by inverse Compton processes involving the infrared photons of the heated dust. We also predict low high-energy flux emission from the bow shock produced by BD+43 3654, and the possibility of high-energy emission from the bow shock formed by a supergiant star during the transition phase from blue to red supergiant. Conclusions: Bow shocks formed by different types of runaway stars are revealed as a new possible source of high-energy photons in our neighborhood.

  19. 46 CFR 154.355 - Bow and stern loading piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bow and stern loading piping. 154.355 Section 154.355... Arrangements § 154.355 Bow and stern loading piping. (a) Bow and stern loading piping must: (1) Meet § 154.310... other openings to accommodation, service, or control spaces that face the bow or stern loading area must...

  20. Oxygen-Methane Thruster Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Two main innovations will be developed in the Phase II effort that are fundamentally associated with our gaseous oxygen/gaseous methane RCS thruster. The first...

  1. Shared Magnetics Hall Thruster Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In the proposed Phase II program, Busek Co. will demonstrate an innovative methodology for clustering Hall thrusters into a high performance, very high power...

  2. Shared Magnetics Hall Thruster Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In the proposed Phase I program, Busek Co. will demonstrate an innovative methodology for clustering Hall thrusters into a high performance, very high power...

  3. Iodine Hall Thruster for Space Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In the Phase I program, Busek Co. Inc. tested an existing Hall thruster, the BHT-8000, on iodine propellant. The thruster was fed by a high flow iodine feed system,...

  4. Effect of Buffer Bow Structure in Ship-Ship Collision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamada, Yasuhira; Endo, Hisayoshi; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2008-01-01

    tankers, the introduction of buffer bulbous bows has been proposed. Relatively soft buffer bows absorb part of the kinetic energy of the striking ship before penetrating the inner hull of the struck vessel. The purpose of the present paper is to verify the effectiveness of a prototype buffer bulbous bow......) and the forward velocity of the struck ship on the collapse mode of the bow of the striking vessel are investigated. Collapse modes, contact forces and energy absorption capabilities of the buffer bows are compared with those of conventional bows....

  5. Entropy generation across Earth's collisionless bow shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, G K; Lee, E; McCarthy, M; Goldstein, M; Fu, S Y; Cao, J B; Canu, P; Lin, N; Wilber, M; Dandouras, I; Réme, H; Fazakerley, A

    2012-02-10

    Earth's bow shock is a collisionless shock wave but entropy has never been directly measured across it. The plasma experiments on Cluster and Double Star measure 3D plasma distributions upstream and downstream of the bow shock allowing calculation of Boltzmann's entropy function H and his famous H theorem, dH/dt≤0. The collisionless Boltzmann (Vlasov) equation predicts that the total entropy does not change if the distribution function across the shock becomes nonthermal, but it allows changes in the entropy density. Here, we present the first direct measurements of entropy density changes across Earth's bow shock and show that the results generally support the model of the Vlasov analysis. These observations are a starting point for a more sophisticated analysis that includes 3D computer modeling of collisionless shocks with input from observed particles, waves, and turbulences.

  6. 46 CFR 154.1870 - Bow and stern loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bow and stern loading. 154.1870 Section 154.1870... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1870 Bow and stern loading. (a) When the bow or stern loading piping is not in use, the master shall lock closed the shut-off...

  7. Propeller Design Optimization for Tunnel Bow Thrusters in the Bollard Pull Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    cavitation risk . Beam theory was applied to determine stresses and calculate appropriate thicknesses. The sections were kept symmetric with respect to...initialization are included as Appendix D. 24 Motor Parameters Manufacturer Parker Back emf Constant 112.09 V/krpm Units Metric Resistance 2.97...avoid the need to open the motor housing and risk the watertight integrity of the fixture, additional thrust calibration runs were completed in an

  8. Extraction of bowing parameters from violin performance combining motion capture and sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonderwaldt, E; Demoucron, M

    2009-11-01

    A method is described for measurement of a complete set of bowing parameters in violin performance. Optical motion capture was combined with sensors for accurate measurement of the main bowing parameters (bow position, bow velocity, bow acceleration, bow-bridge distance, and bow force) as well as secondary control parameters (skewness, inclination, and tilt of the bow). In addition, other performance features (moments of on/off in bow-string contact, string played, and bowing direction) were extracted. Detailed descriptions of the calculations of the bowing parameters, features, and calibrations are given. The described system is capable of measuring all bowing parameters without disturbing the player, allowing for detailed studies of musically relevant aspects of bow control and coordination of bowing parameters in bowed-string instrument performance.

  9. Miniature Bipolar Electrostatic Ion Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Frank T.

    2006-01-01

    The figure presents a concept of a bipolar miniature electrostatic ion thruster for maneuvering a small spacecraft. The ionization device in the proposed thruster would be a 0.1-micron-thick dielectric membrane with metal electrodes on both sides. Small conical holes would be micromachined through the membrane and electrodes. An electric potential of the order of a volt applied between the membrane electrodes would give rise to an electric field of the order of several mega-volts per meter in the submicron gap between the electrodes. An electric field of this magnitude would be sufficient to ionize all the molecules that enter the holes. In a thruster-based on this concept, one or more propellant gases would be introduced into such a membrane ionizer. Unlike in larger prior ion thrusters, all of the propellant molecules would be ionized. This thruster would be capable of bipolar operation. There would be two accelerator grids - one located forward and one located aft of the membrane ionizer. In one mode of operation, which one could denote the forward mode, positive ions leaving the ionizer on the backside would be accelerated to high momentum by an electric field between the ionizer and an accelerator grid. Electrons leaving the ionizer on the front side would be ejected into free space by a smaller accelerating field. The equality of the ion and electron currents would eliminate the need for an additional electron- or ion-emitting device to keep the spacecraft charge-neutral. In another mode of operation, which could denote the reverse mode, the polarities of the voltages applied to the accelerator grids and to the electrodes of the membrane ionizer would be the reverse of those of the forward mode. The reversal of electric fields would cause the ion and electrons to be ejected in the reverse of their forward mode directions, thereby giving rise to thrust in the direction opposite that of the forward mode.

  10. Pulsed Electrogasdynamic Thruster for Attitude Control and Orbit Maneuver Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A new pulsed electric thruster, named "pulsed electrogasdynamic thruster," for attitude control and orbit maneuver is proposed. In this thruster, propellant gas is...

  11. A Microwave Thruster for Spacecraft Propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiravalle, Vincent P [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-23

    This presentation describes how a microwave thruster can be used for spacecraft propulsion. A microwave thruster is part of a larger class of electric propulsion devices that have higher specific impulse and lower thrust than conventional chemical rocket engines. Examples of electric propulsion devices are given in this presentation and it is shown how these devices have been used to accomplish two recent space missions. The microwave thruster is then described and it is explained how the thrust and specific impulse of the thruster can be measured. Calculations of the gas temperature and plasma properties in the microwave thruster are discussed. In addition a potential mission for the microwave thruster involving the orbit raising of a space station is explored.

  12. Advanced Microwave Electrothermal Thruster (AMET) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Orbital Technologies Corporation (ORBITEC) and the University of Alabama at Huntsville (UAH) propose to develop the Advanced Microwave Electrothermal Thruster...

  13. Electrodeless plasma thrusters for spacecraft: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathgate, S. N.; Bilek, M. M. M.; McKenzie, D. R.

    2017-08-01

    The physics of electrodeless electric thrusters that use directed plasma to propel spacecraft without employing electrodes subject to plasma erosion is reviewed. Electrodeless plasma thrusters are potentially more durable than presently deployed thrusters that use electrodes such as gridded ion, Hall thrusters, arcjets and resistojets. Like other plasma thrusters, electrodeless thrusters have the advantage of reduced fuel mass compared to chemical thrusters that produce the same thrust. The status of electrodeless plasma thrusters that could be used in communications satellites and in spacecraft for interplanetary missions is examined. Electrodeless thrusters under development or planned for deployment include devices that use a rotating magnetic field; devices that use a rotating electric field; pulsed inductive devices that exploit the Lorentz force on an induced current loop in a plasma; devices that use radiofrequency fields to heat plasmas and have magnetic nozzles to accelerate the hot plasma and other devices that exploit the Lorentz force. Using metrics of specific impulse and thrust efficiency, we find that the most promising designs are those that use Lorentz forces directly to expel plasma and those that use magnetic nozzles to accelerate plasma.

  14. Plastic bowing of the ribs in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caro, P.A.; Borden, S. IV

    1988-06-01

    Four cases of plastic bowing of the ribs are presented. In three patients with Werdnig-Hoffman disease, plastic curvatures were associated with chronic pneumonia and atelectasis. We postulate that intrapulmonary retractive forces can deform ribs thinned by muscular atrophy. In turn, thoracic collapse can perpetuate lobar and segmental atelectasis. In one case of osteogenesis imperfecta without pneumonia, we believe normal muscle forces bent ribs weakened by deficiency of normal cortical architecture.

  15. Multi-Stage Plasma Thruster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-01

    thrnste.r. is derived in Appendix C and indicates scaling of ablation-fed plasma thrusters with endo- or exo- thermic fuel slabs. IV.l. ACCELERATION OF... insulator to initiate ablation for mass-addition. PI, e15 mass (and a means of initiating current flow in the second-stage). The kinetic energy of the PPT...mechanism establishing the discharge distribution. With proper insulation , acceleration of the plasma will cease slightly beyond the end of the rails and

  16. Coordination in fast repetitive violin-bowing patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Schoonderwaldt

    Full Text Available We present a study of coordination behavior in complex violin-bowing patterns involving simultaneous bow changes (reversal of bowing direction and string crossings (changing from one string to another. Twenty-two violinists (8 advanced amateurs, 8 students with violin as major subject, and 6 elite professionals participated in the experiment. We investigated the influence of a variety of performance conditions (specific bowing patterns, dynamic level, tempo, and transposition and level of expertise on coordination behavior (a.o., relative phase and amplitude and stability. It was found that the general coordination behavior was highly consistent, characterized by a systematic phase lead of bow inclination over bow velocity of about 15° (i.e., string crossings were consistently timed earlier than bow changes. Within similar conditions, a high individual consistency was found, whereas the inter-individual agreement was considerably less. Furthermore, systematic influences of performance conditions on coordination behavior and stability were found, which could be partly explained in terms of particular performance constraints. Concerning level of expertise, only subtle differences were found, the student and professional groups (higher level of expertise showing a slightly higher stability than the amateur group (lower level of expertise. The general coordination behavior as observed in the current study showed a high agreement with perceptual preferences reported in an earlier study to similar bowing patterns, implying that complex bowing trajectories for an important part emerge from auditory-motor interaction.

  17. Coordination in fast repetitive violin-bowing patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonderwaldt, Erwin; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2014-01-01

    We present a study of coordination behavior in complex violin-bowing patterns involving simultaneous bow changes (reversal of bowing direction) and string crossings (changing from one string to another). Twenty-two violinists (8 advanced amateurs, 8 students with violin as major subject, and 6 elite professionals) participated in the experiment. We investigated the influence of a variety of performance conditions (specific bowing patterns, dynamic level, tempo, and transposition) and level of expertise on coordination behavior (a.o., relative phase and amplitude) and stability. It was found that the general coordination behavior was highly consistent, characterized by a systematic phase lead of bow inclination over bow velocity of about 15° (i.e., string crossings were consistently timed earlier than bow changes). Within similar conditions, a high individual consistency was found, whereas the inter-individual agreement was considerably less. Furthermore, systematic influences of performance conditions on coordination behavior and stability were found, which could be partly explained in terms of particular performance constraints. Concerning level of expertise, only subtle differences were found, the student and professional groups (higher level of expertise) showing a slightly higher stability than the amateur group (lower level of expertise). The general coordination behavior as observed in the current study showed a high agreement with perceptual preferences reported in an earlier study to similar bowing patterns, implying that complex bowing trajectories for an important part emerge from auditory-motor interaction.

  18. Development of ion thruster IT-500

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroteev, Anatoly S.; Lovtsov, Alexander S.; Muravlev, Vyacheslav A.; Selivanov, Mikhail Y.; Shagayda, Andrey A.

    2017-05-01

    A high-power ion thruster IT-500 was designed, manufactured and tested at Keldysh Research Center within a transport-power module project. This module is being designed to perform near-Earth space and interplanetary transport missions. In its nominal operation mode, IT-500 provides thrust in the range from 375 to 750 mN at specific impulse of 70 000 m/s and thrust efficiency of 0.75. Due to a high cost of the experimental testing of a large thruster, the emphasis was placed on the numerical optimization of the thruster design. The thruster completed performance tests and a 300 h wear test. The output characteristics of the thruster, obtained during the tests, confirmed the correctness of the provisional numerical optimization. IT-500 design, performance, and validation of the design approaches are discussed in this paper. Contribution to the Topical Issue: "Physics of Ion Beam Sources", edited by Holger Kersten and Horst Neumann.

  19. The heliosphere's interstellar interaction: no bow shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, D J; Alexashov, D; Bzowski, M; Fahr, H; Heerikhuisen, J; Izmodenov, V; Lee, M A; Möbius, E; Pogorelov, N; Schwadron, N A; Zank, G P

    2012-06-08

    As the Sun moves through the local interstellar medium, its supersonic, ionized solar wind carves out a cavity called the heliosphere. Recent observations from the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) spacecraft show that the relative motion of the Sun with respect to the interstellar medium is slower and in a somewhat different direction than previously thought. Here, we provide combined consensus values for this velocity vector and show that they have important implications for the global interstellar interaction. In particular, the velocity is almost certainly slower than the fast magnetosonic speed, with no bow shock forming ahead of the heliosphere, as was widely expected in the past.

  20. Bow wave and spray dynamics by a wedge

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhaoyuan; Yang, Jianming; Stern, Frederick

    2010-01-01

    Flows around a wedge-shaped bow are simulated with the aim of investigating the wave breaking mechanism and small scale features of ship bow waves. This fluid dynamics video shows the plunging wave breaking process around the wedge including the thin water sheet formation, overturning sheet with surface disturbance, fingering and breaking up into spray, plunging and splashing, and air entrainment.

  1. Marble bowing: comparative studies of three different public building facades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegesmund, S.; Ruedrich, J.; Koch, A.

    2008-12-01

    The veneer cladding of the Oeconomicum (OEC, Göttingen), the State Theatre of Darmstadt (STD, Darmstadt) and of the State and University Library (SUB, Göttingen) is characterised by pronounced bowing after a short time of exposure. Direct comparison of bowing data related to measurements from 2000 to 2003 at the SUB clearly show that the amplitude in bowing had significantly increased. The bowing is different in intensity and orientation (concave, convex). The cladding material (Peccia marble, Rosa Estremoz marble and Carrara marble) are different in lattice preferred orientation, grain size distribution and grain interlocking. Depending on the bowing, panels may show cracks mostly initiated at the dowels. The percentage of visible cracks and breakouts increases with the amplitude of bowing except for the STD. Repetitive heating-cooling under dry conditions leads to considerable inelastic residual strain only after the first or second thermal cycle. The residual strain continuously increases again if water is present, whereby the moisture content after a thermal cycle has a certain impact on the decay rate. The water-enhanced thermal dilatation strongly correlates with the deterioration rate obtained from the laboratory bow test. Detailed petrophysical investigations provide evidence that with increasing bowing a decrease of mechanical properties (flexural strength or breaking load at dowel hole) occur. Marble degradation is also connected with the increase in porosity and a general shift of the maximum pore radii to larger pore sizes. On-site damage analyses were combined with laboratory tests of the bowing potential to constrain factors that may influence the risk failure. The experimental bowing data clearly demonstrate that after 40 heating cycles combined with the effect of moisture a certain impact on the decay rate is observed. In the case of demounted panels the bowing tests show that already strongly deformed panels from the building exhibit a lower

  2. Ion thruster charge-exchange plasma flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruth, M. R., Jr.; Gabriel, S. B.; Kitamura, S.

    1982-01-01

    The electron bombardment ion thruster has been under development for a number of years and during this time, studies of the plasmas produced by the thrusters and their interactions with spacecraft have been evaluated, based on available data. Due to diagnostic techniques used and facility effects, there is uncertainty as to the reliability of data from these early studies. This paper presents data on the flow of the charge-exchange plasma produced just downstream of the thruster's ion optics. The 'end-effect' of a cylindrical Langmuir probe is used to determine ion density and directed ion velocity. Results are compared with data obtained from a retarding potential analyzer-Faraday cup.

  3. Iodine Hall Thruster for Space Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek Co. Inc. proposes to develop a high power (high thrust) electric propulsion system featuring an iodine fueled Hall Effect Thruster (HET). The system to be...

  4. High Thrust Efficiency MPD Thruster Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters can provide the high-specific impulse, high-power propulsion required to support human and robotic exploration missions to the...

  5. Optimized Magnetic Nozzles for MPD Thrusters Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters can provide the high-specific impulse, high-power propulsion required to enable ambitious human and robotic exploration missions...

  6. Q-thruster Breadboard Campaign Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Q-thruster technology is a mission enabling form of electric propulsion and is already being traded by NASA's Concept Architecture Team (CAT) & Human Space...

  7. Precision Electrospray Thruster Assembly (PETA) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — New low cost, low volume, low power, rugged electrospray thrusters will be ideal as actuators for precision thrusting, if provided with precision high voltage power...

  8. Dual Mode Low Power Hall Thruster Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Sample and return missions desire and missions like Saturn Observer require a low power Hall thruster that can operate at high thrust to power as well as high...

  9. Light Metal Propellant Hall Thruster Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek proposes to develop light metal Hall Effect thrusters that will help reduce the travel time, mass, and cost of SMD spacecraft. Busek has identified three...

  10. Acoustic Resonance Reaction Control Thruster (ARCTIC) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC proposes to develop and demonstrate the innovative Acoustic Resonance Reaction Control Thruster (ARCTIC) to provide rapid and reliable in-space impulse...

  11. Additive Manufacturing of Ion Thruster Optics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Plasma Controls will manufacture and test a set of ion optics for electric propulsion ion thrusters using additive manufacturing technology, also known as 3D...

  12. Q-Thruster Breadboard Campaign Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Harold

    2014-01-01

    Dr. Harold "Sonny" White has developed the physics theory basis for utilizing the quantum vacuum to produce thrust. The engineering implementation of the theory is known as Q-thrusters. During FY13, three test campaigns were conducted that conclusively demonstrated tangible evidence of Q-thruster physics with measurable thrust bringing the TRL up from TRL 2 to early TRL 3. This project will continue with the development of the technology to a breadboard level by leveraging the most recent NASA/industry test hardware. This project will replace the manual tuning process used in the 2013 test campaign with an automated Radio Frequency (RF) Phase Lock Loop system (precursor to flight-like implementation), and will redesign the signal ports to minimize RF leakage (improves efficiency). This project will build on the 2013 test campaign using the above improvements on the test implementation to get ready for subsequent Independent Verification and Validation testing at Glenn Research Center (GRC) and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in FY 2015. Q-thruster technology has a much higher thrust to power than current forms of electric propulsion (7x Hall thrusters), and can significantly reduce the total power required for either Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) or Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP). Also, due to the high thrust and high specific impulse, Q-thruster technology will greatly relax the specific mass requirements for in-space nuclear reactor systems. Q-thrusters can reduce transit times for a power-constrained architecture.

  13. High-Power Helicon Double Gun Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Nao

    While chemical propulsion is necessary to launch a spacecraft from a planetary surface into space, electric propulsion has the potential to provide significant cost savings for the orbital transfer of payloads between planets. Due to extended wave particle interactions, a plasma thruster that can operate in the 100 kW to several MW power regime can only be attained by increasing the size of the thruster, or by using an array of plasma thrusters. The High-Power Helicon (HPH) Double Gun thruster experiment examines whether firing two helicon thrusters in parallel produces an exhaust velocity higher than the exhaust velocity of a single thruster. The scaling law that relates the downstream plasma velocity with the number of helicon antennae is derived, and compared with the experimental result. In conjunction with data analysis, two digital filtering algorithms are developed to filter out the noise from helicon antennae. The scaling law states that the downstream plasma velocity is proportional to square root of the number of helicon antennae, which is in agreement with the experimental result.

  14. Radiographic characteristics of lower-extremity bowing in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheema, Jugesh I; Grissom, Leslie E; Harcke, H Theodore

    2003-01-01

    Lower-extremity bowing is common in infants and children and can result from a variety of conditions. At radiography, developmental bowing shows varus angulation centered at the knee, "metaphyseal beaking," thickening of the medial tibial cortices, and tilted ankle joints. Tibia vara (Blount disease) demonstrates genu varum and depression of the proximal tibia medially. Congenital bowing manifests as posteromedial bowing with cortical thickening along the concavity of the curvature and, in some cases, diaphyseal broadening. In rickets, radiographic changes occur primarily at sites of rapid growth and are predominantly metaphyseal, with widening of the zone of provisional calcification. Achondroplasia is characterized by shortening and thickening of the long bones with metaphyseal flaring and cupping. In neurofibromatosis, there may be anterolateral bowing of the tibia, and there is often focal narrowing and intramedullary sclerosis or cystic change at the apex of the angulation. The tibia is typically involved at the junction of the middle and distal thirds. Osteogenesis imperfecta demonstrates bowing from softening due to osteoporosis and multiple fractures and typically involves the entire skeleton. In camptomelic dysplasia, lower-extremity bowing is associated with a short trunk, short limbs, and deficiencies in pelvic bone development. Recognition of these pathologic conditions is important for differentiating those that will resolve spontaneously from those that require surgery or other treatment. Copyright RSNA, 2003

  15. H2 emission from non-stationary magnetized bow shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tram, L. N.; Lesaffre, P.; Cabrit, S.; Gusdorf, A.; Nhung, P. T.

    2018-01-01

    When a fast moving star or a protostellar jet hits an interstellar cloud, the surrounding gas gets heated and illuminated: a bow shock is born that delineates the wake of the impact. In such a process, the new molecules that are formed and excited in the gas phase become accessible to observations. In this paper, we revisit models of H2 emission in these bow shocks. We approximate the bow shock by a statistical distribution of planar shocks computed with a magnetized shock model. We improve on previous works by considering arbitrary bow shapes, a finite irradiation field and by including the age effect of non-stationary C-type shocks on the excitation diagram and line profiles of H2. We also examine the dependence of the line profiles on the shock velocity and on the viewing angle: we suggest that spectrally resolved observations may greatly help to probe the dynamics inside the bow shock. For reasonable bow shapes, our analysis shows that low-velocity shocks largely contribute to H2 excitation diagram. This can result in an observational bias towards low velocities when planar shocks are used to interpret H2 emission from an unresolved bow. We also report a large magnetization bias when the velocity of the planar model is set independently. Our 3D models reproduce excitation diagrams in BHR 71 and Orion bow shocks better than previous 1D models. Our 3D model is also able to reproduce the shape and width of the broad H2 1-0S(1) line profile in an Orion bow shock (Brand et al. 1989).

  16. Pickup ion processes associated with spacecraft thrusters: Implications for solar probe plus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemens, Adam, E-mail: a.j.clemens@qmul.ac.uk; Burgess, David [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-15

    Chemical thrusters are widely used in spacecraft for attitude control and orbital manoeuvres. They create an exhaust plume of neutral gas which produces ions via photoionization and charge exchange. Measurements of local plasma properties will be affected by perturbations caused by the coupling between the newborn ions and the plasma. A model of neutral expansion has been used in conjunction with a fully three-dimensional hybrid code to study the evolution and ionization over time of the neutral cloud produced by the firing of a mono-propellant hydrazine thruster as well as the interactions of the resulting ion cloud with the ambient solar wind. Results are presented which show that the plasma in the region near to the spacecraft will be perturbed for an extended period of time with the formation of an interaction region around the spacecraft, a moderate amplitude density bow wave bounding the interaction region and evidence of an instability at the forefront of the interaction region which causes clumps of ions to be ejected from the main ion cloud quasi-periodically.

  17. Structural changes in cuticles on violin bow hair caused by wear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tomoko; Sugiyama, Shigeru

    2010-01-01

    A bow with horse tail hair is used to play the violin. New and worn-out bow hairs were observed by atomic force microscopy. The cuticles of the new bow hair were already damaged by bleach and delipidation, however the worn-out bow hairs were much more damaged and broken off by force, which relates to wearing out.

  18. Low Mass Electromagnetic Plasmoid Thruster with Integrated PPU Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Electromagnetic Plasmoid Thruster (EMPT) is a revolutionary electric propulsion thruster and power processing (PPU) system that will allow a dramatic decrease in...

  19. Thruster Imaging Analysis for Control of a Solar Concentrator

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beasley, Joe

    2003-01-01

    .... Video capture images of an SRS solar thruster are analyzed to determine focal spot parameters and the best method of determining placement of the solar focal spot to provide maximum power transfer to the thruster...

  20. Downsized Bow-Tie Antenna with Folded Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatoshi, Mio; Tanaka, Shingo; Horiuchi, Satoru; Morishita, Hisashi

    It has been reported that by adding two folded elements, bow-tie antenna can be miniaturized, but the antenna has VSWR degradation problem. In this paper, the details of the VSWR degradation are investigated and the physical mechanism of the degradation is clarified. The best position for folded element is also shown. Moreover, the bow-tie antenna is bent in half in order to realize more size reduction. When the two folded elements are added to the half bent bow-tie antenna, the lowest operation frequency goes down and the proposed antenna can be more downsized than the previous proposed antenna. The gain is slightly lower than that of the previous model, however, the antenna area is reduced from 31%, which is the antenna area ratio of privious proposed antenna and conventional bow-tie antenna, to 19%. The bandwidth of 92% is obtained for VSWR≤2.

  1. Femoral bowing plane adaptation to femoral anteversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alp Akman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Femoral bowing plane (FBP is the unattended subject in the literature. More over the femoral shaft with its bowing is neglected in established anteversion determination methods. There is limited information about the relationship between FBP and anteversion. Thus we focused on this subject and hypothesized that there could be an adaptation of FBP to anteversion. Materials and Methods: FBP is determined on three-dimensional solid models derived from the left femoral computerized tomography data of 47 patients which were taken before for another reason and comparatively evaluated with anteversion. There were 20 women and 27 men. The mean age of patients was 56 years (range 21-84 years. Results: The anteversion values were found as the angle between a distal condylar axis (DCA and femoral neck anteversion axis (FNAA along an imaginary longitudinal femoral axis (LFA in the true cranio-caudal view. The FBP was determined as a plane that passes through the centre-points of three pre-determinated sections on the femoral shaft. The angles between DCA, FNAA and FBP were comparatively evaluated. The independent samples t-test was used for statistical analysis. At the end, it was found that FBP lies nearly perpendicular to the anteversion axis for the mean of our sample which is around 89° in females and 93° in males (range 78-102°. On the other hand, FBP does not lie close to the sagittal femoral plane (SFP; instead, there is an average 12.5° external rotation relative to the SFP. FBP is correlated well with anteversion in terms of FBP inclination from SFP and femoral torsion (i.e., angle between FBP and femoral neck anteversion axis (P0 < 0.001; r = 0.680 and r = −0.682, respectively. Combined correlation is perfect (R[2] = 1 as the FBP, SFP, and posterior femoral plane forms a triangle in the cranio-caudal view. Conclusions: We found that FBP adapts to anteversion. As FBP lies close to perpendicularity for the mean, femoral component

  2. Mesoscale Surface Pressure and Temperature Features Associated with Bow Echoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    contain several bowing segments. These multiple segments could occur at the same time and be located within the same bow, such as the serial derecho ...Examination of derecho environments using proximity soundings. Wea. Forecasting, 16, 329–342. Fovell, R. G., 2002: Upstream influence of numerically...Se- vere Local Storms, Hyannis, MA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 4.6. Johns, R. H., and W. D. Hirt, 1987: Derechos : Widespread con- vectively induced

  3. Congenital anterolateral tibial bowing and polydactyly: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemire Edmond G

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Congenital anterolateral bowing of the tibia is a rare deformity that may lead to pseudarthrosis and risk of fracture. This is commonly associated with neurofibromatosis type 1. In this report, we describe a 15-month old male with congenital anterolateral bowing of the right tibia and associated hallux duplication. This is a distinct entity with a generally favourable prognosis that should not be confused with other conditions such as neurofibromatosis type 1. Previously published cases are reviewed.

  4. Coaxial plasma thrusters for high specific impulse propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberg, Kurt F.; Gerwin, Richard A.; Barnes, Cris W.; Henins, Ivars; Mayo, Robert; Moses, Ronald, Jr.; Scarberry, Richard; Wurden, Glen

    1991-01-01

    A fundamental basis for coaxial plasma thruster performance is presented and the steady-state, ideal MHD properties of a coaxial thruster using an annular magnetic nozzle are discussed. Formulas for power usage, thrust, mass flow rate, and specific impulse are acquired and employed to assess thruster performance. The performance estimates are compared with the observed properties of an unoptimized coaxial plasma gun. These comparisons support the hypothesis that ideal MHD has an important role in coaxial plasma thruster dynamics.

  5. Diagnostics Systems for Permanent Hall Thrusters Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Jose Leonardo; Soares Ferreira, Ivan; Santos, Jean; Miranda, Rodrigo; Possa, M. Gabriela

    This work describes the development of Permanent Magnet Hall Effect Plasma Thruster (PHALL) and its diagnostic systems at The Plasma Physics Laboratory of University of Brasilia. The project consists on the construction and characterization of plasma propulsion engines based on the Hall Effect. Electric thrusters have been employed in over 220 successful space missions. Two types stand out: the Hall-Effect Thruster (HET) and the Gridded Ion Engine (GIE). The first, which we deal with in this project, has the advantage of greater simplicity of operation, a smaller weight for the propulsion subsystem and a longer shelf life. It can operate in two configurations: magnetic layer and anode layer, the difference between the two lying in the positioning of the anode inside the plasma channel. A Hall-Effect Thruster-HET is a type of plasma thruster in which the propellant gas is ionized and accelerated by a magneto hydrodynamic effect combined with electrostatic ion acceleration. So the essential operating principle of the HET is that it uses a J x B force and an electrostatic potential to accelerate ions up to high speeds. In a HET, the attractive negative charge is provided by electrons at the open end of the Thruster instead of a grid, as in the case of the electrostatic ion thrusters. A strong radial magnetic field is used to hold the electrons in place, with the combination of the magnetic field and the electrostatic potential force generating a fast circulating electron current, the Hall current, around the axis of the Thruster, mainly composed by drifting electrons in an ion plasma background. Only a slow axial drift towards the anode occurs. The main attractive features of the Hall-Effect Thruster are its simple design and operating principles. Most of the Hall-Effect Thrusters use electromagnet coils to produce the main magnetic field responsible for plasma generation and acceleration. In this paper we present a different new concept, a Permanent Magnet Hall

  6. Tutorial: Physics and modeling of Hall thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeuf, Jean-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Hall thrusters are very efficient and competitive electric propulsion devices for satellites and are currently in use in a number of telecommunications and government spacecraft. Their power spans from 100 W to 20 kW, with thrust between a few mN and 1 N and specific impulse values between 1000 and 3000 s. The basic idea of Hall thrusters consists in generating a large local electric field in a plasma by using a transverse magnetic field to reduce the electron conductivity. This electric field can extract positive ions from the plasma and accelerate them to high velocity without extracting grids, providing the thrust. These principles are simple in appearance but the physics of Hall thrusters is very intricate and non-linear because of the complex electron transport across the magnetic field and its coupling with the electric field and the neutral atom density. This paper describes the basic physics of Hall thrusters and gives a (non-exhaustive) summary of the research efforts that have been devoted to the modelling and understanding of these devices in the last 20 years. Although the predictive capabilities of the models are still not sufficient for a full computer aided design of Hall thrusters, significant progress has been made in the qualitative and quantitative understanding of these devices.

  7. Electrostatic ion thrusters - towards predictive modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalentev, O.; Matyash, K.; Duras, J.; Lueskow, K.F.; Schneider, R. [Ernst-Moritz-Arndt Universitaet Greifswald, D-17489 (Germany); Koch, N. [Technische Hochschule Nuernberg Georg Simon Ohm, Kesslerplatz 12, D-90489 Nuernberg (Germany); Schirra, M. [Thales Electronic Systems GmbH, Soeflinger Strasse 100, D-89077 Ulm (Germany)

    2014-02-15

    The development of electrostatic ion thrusters so far has mainly been based on empirical and qualitative know-how, and on evolutionary iteration steps. This resulted in considerable effort regarding prototype design, construction and testing and therefore in significant development and qualification costs and high time demands. For future developments it is anticipated to implement simulation tools which allow for quantitative prediction of ion thruster performance, long-term behavior and space craft interaction prior to hardware design and construction. Based on integrated numerical models combining self-consistent kinetic plasma models with plasma-wall interaction modules a new quality in the description of electrostatic thrusters can be reached. These open the perspective for predictive modeling in this field. This paper reviews the application of a set of predictive numerical modeling tools on an ion thruster model of the HEMP-T (High Efficiency Multi-stage Plasma Thruster) type patented by Thales Electron Devices GmbH. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. Chip based MEMS Ion Thruster to significantly enhance Cold Gas Thruster Lifetime for LISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajmar, M.; Laufer, P.; Bock, D.

    2017-05-01

    Micropropulsion is a key component for ultraprecise attitude and orbit control required by the eLISA mission. LISA pathfinder uses cold gas micro thrusters that are accurate but require large tanks due to their very low specific impulse, which in turn limits the possible mission duration of the follow up eLISA mission. Recently, we developed a compact MEMS ion thruster on the chip with a size of only 1cm2 that can be simply attached to a gas feeding line like the one used for cold gas thrusters. It provides a specific impulse greater than 1000 s and only requires a single DC voltage. Since the operating principle is based on field emission, very low thrust noises similar to FEEP thrusters are expected but with gas propellants. The MEMS ion thruster chip could be mounted in parallel to the existing gold gas system providing high Isp and therefore long mission durations while leaving the cold gas system in place. To enable a possible mission extension, the MEMS ion thruster could take over from the cold gas system as a backup while maintaining the existing micropropulsion thruster system with its heritage therefore minimum risk.

  9. Whistler waves at the Earth bow shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hanying; Russell, Christopher T.; Strangeway, Rorbert J.; Schwartz, Steve J.; An, Xin; Fischer, David; Le Contel, Olivier; Argall, Matthew; Paterson, William R.; Torbert, Roy B.

    2017-04-01

    The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft, with their state-of-the-art plasma and field instruments onboard, allow us to investigate electromagnetic waves at the bow shock and their association with small-scale disturbances in the shocked plasmas. Understanding these waves could improve our knowledge on the heating of electrons and ions across the shock ramp and the energy dissipation of supercritical shocks. We have found broad-band and narrow band waves across the shock ramp and slightly downstream. The broad-band waves propagate obliquely to the magnetic field direction and have frequencies up to the electron cyclotron frequency. Simultaneously, the electrons have quite disturbed velocities and are anisotropic in velocity space, leading to multiple possible instabilities, such as kinetic cross-field streaming instability, low-hybrid drift instability, etc. In the same region with the broad-band wave, there are narrow-band waves at a few hundred Hertz with durations under a second. These waves are right-handed circularly polarized and propagate along the magnetic field lines. The broad-band waves are only observed at the shock ramp, but the narrow-band waves are observed more frequently further downstream in the magnetosheath. Both wave types are likely to be whistler mode with different generation mechanisms. In this paper, we examine the electric and magnetic fields of these waves, as well as the plasma observations to understand the wave generation and their effects on the shock and magnetosheath plasmas.

  10. Mode Transitions in Hall Effect Thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekerak, Michael J.; Longmier, Benjamin W.; Gallimore, Alec D.; Brown, Daniel L.; Hofer, Richard R.; Polk, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Mode transitions have been commonly observed in Hall Effect Thruster (HET) operation where a small change in a thruster operating parameter such as discharge voltage, magnetic field or mass flow rate causes the thruster discharge current mean value and oscillation amplitude to increase significantly. Mode transitions in a 6-kW-class HET called the H6 are induced by varying the magnetic field intensity while holding all other operating parameters constant and measurements are acquired with ion saturation probes and ultra-fast imaging. Global and local oscillation modes are identified. In the global mode, the entire discharge channel oscillates in unison and azimuthal perturbations (spokes) are either absent or negligible. Downstream azimuthally spaced probes show no signal delay between each other and are very well correlated to the discharge current signal. In the local mode, signals from the azimuthally spaced probes exhibit a clear delay indicating the passage of "spokes" and are not well correlated to the discharge current. These spokes are localized oscillations propagating in the ExB direction that are typically 10-20% of the mean value. In contrast, the oscillations in the global mode can be 100% of the mean value. The transition between global and local modes occurs at higher relative magnetic field strengths for higher mass flow rates or higher discharge voltages. The thrust is constant through mode transition but the thrust-to-power decreased by 25% due to increasing discharge current. The plume shows significant differences between modes with the global mode significantly brighter in the channel and the near-field plasma plume as well as exhibiting a luminous spike on thruster centerline. Mode transitions provide valuable insight to thruster operation and suggest improved methods for thruster performance characterization.

  11. X-ray study of bow shocks in runaway stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Becker, M.; del Valle, M. V.; Romero, G. E.; Peri, C. S.; Benaglia, P.

    2017-11-01

    Massive runaway stars produce bow shocks through the interaction of their winds with the interstellar medium, with the prospect for particle acceleration by the shocks. These objects are consequently candidates for non-thermal emission. Our aim is to investigate the X-ray emission from these sources. We observed with XMM-Newton a sample of five bow shock runaways, which constitutes a significant improvement of the sample of bow shock runaways studied in X-rays so far. A careful analysis of the data did not reveal any X-ray emission related to the bow shocks. However, X-ray emission from the stars is detected, in agreement with the expected thermal emission from stellar winds. On the basis of background measurements we derive conservative upper limits between 0.3 and 10 keV on the bow shocks emission. Using a simple radiation model, these limits together with radio upper limits allow us to constrain some of the main physical quantities involved in the non-thermal emission processes, such as the magnetic field strength and the amount of incident infrared photons. The reasons likely responsible for the non-detection of non-thermal radiation are discussed. Finally, using energy budget arguments, we investigate the detectability of inverse Compton X-rays in a more extended sample of catalogued runaway star bow shocks. From our analysis we conclude that a clear identification of non-thermal X-rays from massive runaway bow shocks requires one order of magnitude (or higher) sensitivity improvement with respect to present observatories.

  12. A Numerical Study on Hydrodynamic Interactions between Dynamic Positioning Thrusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Doo Hwa; Lee, Sang Wook [University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    In this study, we conducted computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations for the unsteady hydrodynamic interaction of multiple thrusters by solving Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations. A commercial CFD software, STAR-CCM+ was used for all simulations by employing a ducted thruster model with combination of a propeller and No. 19a duct. A sliding mesh technique was used to treat dynamic motion of propeller rotation and non-conformal hexahedral grid system was considered. Four different combinations in tilting and azimuth angles of the thrusters were considered to investigate the effects on the propulsion performance. We could find that thruster-hull and thruster-thruster interactions has significant effect on propulsion performance and further study will be required for the optimal configurations with the best tilting and relative azimuth angle between thrusters.

  13. Advanced laboratory for testing plasma thrusters and Hall thruster measurement campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szelecka Agnieszka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Plasma engines are used for space propulsion as an alternative to chemical thrusters. Due to the high exhaust velocity of the propellant, they are more efficient for long-distance interplanetary space missions than their conventional counterparts. An advanced laboratory of plasma space propulsion (PlaNS at the Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (IPPLM specializes in designing and testing various electric propulsion devices. Inside of a special vacuum chamber with three performance pumps, an environment similar to the one that prevails in space is created. An innovative Micro Pulsed Plasma Thruster (LμPPT with liquid propellant was built at the laboratory. Now it is used to test the second prototype of Hall effect thruster (HET operating on krypton propellant. Meantime, an improved prototype of krypton Hall thruster is constructed.

  14. Venus bow shocks at unusually large distances from the planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinolfson, R. S.; Cable, S.

    1993-01-01

    Recent analysis of data from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) has shown that the bow shock often travels to unusually large distances from the planet when the solar wind magnetosonic Mach number is near unity. We suggest that distant bow shocks can be explained as an integral part of the response of the global solar wind/Venus interaction to the anomalous local solar wind conditions that existed during the time of these observations. The lower-than-normal plasma beta and magnetosonic Mach number are in a parameter regime for which the usual fast-mode bow shock close to the planet may not provide the necessary compression and deflection of the solar wind. Using MHD simulations we show that, for these conditions, the usual fast shock is replaced by a bow shock consisting of an intermediate shock near the Sun-Venus line and a fast shock at large distances from the Sun-Venus line. This composite bow shock propagates upstream away from the planet at a low speed and appears to be approaching a new equilibrium stand-off location at a large distance from the planet.

  15. A Model of an Ideal Electrohydrodynamic Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-04

    release; distribution unlimited (PA #10392). 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES For publication in the Journal of Propulsion and Power. 14. ABSTRACT...Senior Research Staff Engineer, leonid.pekker.ctr@edwards.af.mil † Manager of Advance Propulsion Group, marcus.young@edwards.af.mil...collision time  = thruster efficiency I. Introduction Electrohydrodynamics (EHD), or alternatively electro-fluid-dynamics (EFD) or electrokinetics

  16. Gallium Electromagnetic (GEM) Thruster Performance Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Robert E.; Burton, Rodney L.; Polzin, K. A.

    2009-01-01

    Discharge current, terminal voltage, and mass bit measurements are performed on a coaxial gallium electromagnetic thruster at discharge currents in the range of 7-23 kA. It is found that the mass bit varies quadratically with the discharge current which yields a constant exhaust velocity of 20 km/s. Increasing the electrode radius ratio of the thruster from to 2.6 to 3.4 increases the thruster efficiency from 21% to 30%. When operating with a central gallium anode, macroparticles are ejected at all energy levels tested. A central gallium cathode ejects macroparticles when the current density exceeds 3.7 10(exp 8) A/square m . A spatially and temporally broad spectroscopic survey in the 220-520 nm range is used to determine which species are present in the plasma. The spectra show that neutral, singly, and doubly ionized gallium species are present in the discharge, as well as annular electrode species at higher energy levels. Axial Langmuir triple probe measurements yield electron temperatures in the range of 0.8-3.8 eV and electron densities in the range of 8 x 10(exp )20 to 1.6 x 10(exp 21) m(exp -3) . Triple probe measurements suggest an exhaust plume with a divergence angle of 9 , and a completely doubly ionized plasma at the ablating thruster cathode.

  17. Bow and Oblique Shock Formation in Soap Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ildoo; Mandre, Shreyas; Sane, Aakash

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, soap films have been exploited primarily to approximate two-dimensional flows while their three-dimensional character is relatively unattended. An example of the three-dimensional character of the flow in a soap film is the observed Marangoni shock wave when the flow speed exceeds the wave speed. In this study, we investigated the formation of bow and oblique shocks in soap films generated by wedges with different deflection angles. When the wedge deflection angle is small and the film flows fast, oblique shocks are observed. When the oblique shock cannot exists, bow shock is formed upstream the wedge. We characterized the oblique shock angle as a function of the wedge deflection angle and the flow speed, and we also present the criteria for transition between bow and oblique Marangoni shocks in soap films.

  18. CONGENITAL POSTEROMEDIAL BOWING OF THE TIBIA: REPORT OF 2 CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Isabel Miguel Dias

    2017-01-01

    Comments: Posteromedial bowing of the tibia is a rare entity, with few cases reported in literature. Its true incidence remains unknown. It implies differential diagnosis with the tibial congenital pseudarthrosis, usually related to neurofibromatosis. Most often its treatment is conservative, because it tends to resolve spontaneously (mostly under 8 years without any clinical consequences. Our aim is to alert pediatricians to establish the possibility of this clinical entity when dealing with tibial bowing, minimizing parental anxiety resulting from it. Nevertheless we emphasize the importance of evaluation by an orthopedist as there are clinical situations in which diagnosis may not be as evident.

  19. 76 FR 13666 - Pitney Bowes, Inc., Mailing Solutions Management, Global Engineering Group, Including On-Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... Employment and Training Administration Pitney Bowes, Inc., Mailing Solutions Management, Global Engineering... Solutions Management Division, Engineering Quality Assurance, Shelton, Connecticut. The Department's Notice... firm worker group should read: Pitney Bowes, Inc., Mailing Solutions Management, Global Engineering...

  20. NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) Project Qualification Propellant Throughput Milestone: Performance, Erosion, and Thruster Service Life Prediction After 450 kg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Daniel A.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA s Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) program is tasked with significantly improving and extending the capabilities of current state-of-the-art NSTAR thruster. The service life capability of the NEXT ion thruster is being assessed by thruster wear test and life-modeling of critical thruster components, such as the ion optics and cathodes. The NEXT Long-Duration Test (LDT) was initiated to validate and qualify the NEXT thruster propellant throughput capability. The NEXT thruster completed the primary goal of the LDT; namely to demonstrate the project qualification throughput of 450 kg by the end of calendar year 2009. The NEXT LDT has demonstrated 28,500 hr of operation and processed 466 kg of xenon throughput--more than double the throughput demonstrated by the NSTAR flight-spare. Thruster performance changes have been consistent with a priori predictions. Thruster erosion has been minimal and consistent with the thruster service life assessment, which predicts the first failure mode at greater than 750 kg throughput. The life-limiting failure mode for NEXT is predicted to be loss of structural integrity of the accelerator grid due to erosion by charge-exchange ions.

  1. High-Pressure Lightweight Thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Richard; McKechnie, Timothy; Shchetkovskiy, Anatoliy; Smirnov, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    interface realizes pseudo-plastic behavior with significant increase in the tensile strength. The investigation of high-temperature strength of C/Cs under high-rate heating (critical for thrust chambers) shows that tensile and compression strength increases from 70 MPa at room temperature to 110 MPa at 1,773 K, and up to 125 MPa at 2,473 K. Despite these unique properties, the use of C/Cs is limited by its high oxidation rate at elevated temperatures. Lining carbon/carbon chambers with a thin layer of iridium or iridium and rhenium is an innovative way to use proven refractory metals and provide the oxidation barrier necessary to enable the use of carbon/ carbon composites. Due to the lower density of C/Cs as compared to SiC/SiC composites, an iridium liner can be added to the C/C structure and still be below the overall thruster weight. Weight calculations show that C/C, C/C with 50 microns of Ir, and C/C with 100 microns of Ir are of less weight than alternative materials for the same construction.

  2. Investigation of beamed-energy ERH thruster performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrabo, Leik N.; Strayer, T. Darton; Bossard, John A.; Richard, Jacques C.; Gallimore, Alec D.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the performance of an External Radiation Heated (ERH) thruster. In this thruster, high intensity laser energy is focused to ignite either a Laser Supported Combustion (LSC) wave or a Laser Supported Detonation (LSD) wave. Thrust is generated as the LSC or LSD wave propagates over the thruster's surface, or in the proposed thruster configuration, the vehicle afterbody. Thrust models for the LSC and LSD waves were developed and simulated on a computer. Performance parameters investigated include the effect of laser intensity, flight Mach number, and altitude on mean-thrust and coupling coefficient of the ERH thruster. Results from these models suggest that the ERH thruster using LSC/LSD wave ignition could provide propulsion performance considerably greater than any propulsion system currently available.

  3. Los Alamos NEP research in advanced plasma thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberg, Kurt; Gerwin, Richard

    1991-01-01

    Research was initiated in advanced plasma thrusters that capitalizes on lab capabilities in plasma science and technology. The goal of the program was to examine the scaling issues of magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster performance in support of NASA's MPD thruster development program. The objective was to address multi-megawatt, large scale, quasi-steady state MPD thruster performance. Results to date include a new quasi-steady state operating regime which was obtained at space exploration initiative relevant power levels, that enables direct coaxial gun-MPD comparisons of thruster physics and performance. The radiative losses are neglible. Operation with an applied axial magnetic field shows the same operational stability and exhaust plume uniformity benefits seen in MPD thrusters. Observed gun impedance is in close agreement with the magnetic Bernoulli model predictions. Spatial and temporal measurements of magnetic field, electric field, plasma density, electron temperature, and ion/neutral energy distribution are underway. Model applications to advanced mission logistics are also underway.

  4. Mathematical Modeling of Liquid-fed Pulsed Plasma Thruster

    OpenAIRE

    Kaartikey Misra

    2018-01-01

    Liquid propellants are fast becoming attractive for pulsed plasma thrusters due to their high efficiency and low contamination issues. However, the complete plasma interaction and acceleration processes are still not very clear. Present paper develops a multi-layer numerical model for liquid propellant PPTs (pulsed plasma thrusters). The model is based on a quasi-steady flow assumption. The model proposes a possible acceleration mechanism for liquid-fed pulsed plasma thrusters and accurately ...

  5. Analysis of the Giacobini-Zinner bow wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, E.J.; Slavin, J.A.; Bame, S.J.; Thomsen, M.F.; Cowley, S.W.H.; Richardson, I.G.; Hovestadt, D.; Ipavich, F.M.; Ogilvie, K.W.; Coplan, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    The cometary bow wave of P/Giacobini-Zinner has been analyzed using the complete set of ICE field and particle observations to determine if it is a shock. Changes in the magnetic field and plasma flow velocities from upstream to downstream have been analyzed to determine the direction of the normal and the propagation velocity of the bow wave. The velocity has then been compared with the fast magnetosonic wave speed upstream to derive the Mach number and establish whether it is ''supersonic'', i.e., a shock, or ''subsonic,'' i.e., a large amplitude wave. The various measurements have also been compared with values derived from a Rankine-Hugoniot analysis. The results indicate that, inbound, the bow wave is a shock with M = 1.5. Outbound, a subsonic mach number is obtained, however, arguments are presented that the bow wave is also likely to be a shock at this location. 11 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Hierarchical modularity of nested bow-ties in metabolic networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Jian-Hua

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The exploration of the structural topology and the organizing principles of genome-based large-scale metabolic networks is essential for studying possible relations between structure and functionality of metabolic networks. Topological analysis of graph models has often been applied to study the structural characteristics of complex metabolic networks. Results In this work, metabolic networks of 75 organisms were investigated from a topological point of view. Network decomposition of three microbes (Escherichia coli, Aeropyrum pernix and Saccharomyces cerevisiae shows that almost all of the sub-networks exhibit a highly modularized bow-tie topological pattern similar to that of the global metabolic networks. Moreover, these small bow-ties are hierarchically nested into larger ones and collectively integrated into a large metabolic network, and important features of this modularity are not observed in the random shuffled network. In addition, such a bow-tie pattern appears to be present in certain chemically isolated functional modules and spatially separated modules including carbohydrate metabolism, cytosol and mitochondrion respectively. Conclusion The highly modularized bow-tie pattern is present at different levels and scales, and in different chemical and spatial modules of metabolic networks, which is likely the result of the evolutionary process rather than a random accident. Identification and analysis of such a pattern is helpful for understanding the design principles and facilitate the modelling of metabolic networks.

  7. Carbon Nanotube Based Electric Propulsion Thruster with Low Power Consumption Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR project is to develop field emission electric propulsion (FEEP) thruster using carbon nanotubes (CNT) integrated anode. FEEP thrusters have gained...

  8. Conducting wall Hall thrusters in magnetic shielding and standard configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaud, Lou; Mazouffre, Stéphane

    2017-07-01

    Traditional Hall thrusters are fitted with boron nitride dielectric discharge channels that confine the plasma discharge. Wall properties have significant effects on the performances and stability of the thrusters. In magnetically shielded thrusters, interactions between the plasma and the walls are greatly reduced, and the potential drop responsible for ion acceleration is situated outside the channel. This opens the way to the utilization of alternative materials for the discharge channel. In this work, graphite walls are compared to BN-SiO2 walls in the 200 W magnetically shielded ISCT200-MS and the unshielded ISCT200-US Hall thrusters. The magnetically shielded thruster shows no significant change in the discharge current mean value and oscillations, while the unshielded thruster's discharge current increases by 25% and becomes noticeably less stable. The electric field profile is also investigated through laser spectroscopy, and no significant difference is recorded between the ceramic and graphite cases for the shielded thruster. The unshielded thruster, on the other hand, has its acceleration region shifted 15% of the channel length downstream. Lastly, the plume profile is measured with planar probes fitted with guard rings. Once again the material wall has little influence on the plume characteristics in the shielded thruster, while the unshielded one is significantly affected.

  9. Thermal Management of Superconducting Electromagnets in VASIMR Thrusters Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future manned space exploration missions will require high power electric propulsion. VASIMR thrusters are the most attractive option because they offer short...

  10. Control Valve for Miniature Xenon Ion Thruster Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA is continuing its development of electric propulsion engines for various applications. Efforts have been directed toward both large and small thrusters,...

  11. High Efficiency Hall Thruster Discharge Power Converter Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek leveraged previous, internally sponsored, high power, Hall thruster discharge converter development which allowed it to design, build, and test new printed...

  12. Small Arms of the Scythians. On the Time of Sigmoid Bow Appearance in Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukyashko Sergey Ivanovich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Horse archers well-known in the ancient world used composite sigmoid bows for shooting (archery, the specific constructive features of which have been studied by the researchers. This type of a bow was convergently formed in Eastern China in the middle of the 2nd millennium B.C. and in the North Caucasus in the middle of the 4th millennium B.C. It gets transferred to the Northern Black Sea Region by the Scythians in the late 7th - early 6th centuries B.C. that resulted in the dramatic transformation of arrowheads’ types. The Greeks became aware of this weapon in the last third of the 6th century B.C. Bows can be divided into simple and complex ones. The simple bows are made from one solid bar, while the complex bows are made of several layers of different wood species. Composite bows are constructed from a few consequently connected bars. These types also include a reinforced bow – the bow springing qualities of which are reinforced by bone or tendon plates. Since the ancient masters combined different production methods, the definition of a composite reinforced bow can be found in the literature. European small arms development was focused on improving a simple bow. The strength of such bow was achieved by its size. However, massive bows are unsuitable for firing from a horse. Therefore, in cultures associated with the development of riding the search of methods of bow strength increase at the condition of reducing its size, was going on. In Asia, the focus was made on the material rather than shoulders design. As a result, complex composite bows appear in the East, which were made from several pieces of wood, connected with the central part of the handle at an angle. After the appearance of the Scythians in the middle East the angular design of bows was replaced by a sigmoid shape (scythicus acrus.

  13. Laser-Assisted Micro-Pulsejet Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horisawa, Hideyuki; Eto, Sou

    2010-10-01

    A fundamental study of a laser-assisted micro-pulsejet thruster was conducted for a candidate of next-generation air-breathing micro-thruster systems. CFD analyses were conducted to evaluate internal phenomena, thrust performances, and influence of exhaust orifice for propellants of hydrogen-air mixture. Experimental investigations were also conducted to evaluate influence of exhaust orifices and the optimum configuration of the micro-combustion chamber. From the results, it was shown that the exhaust orifice was more effective for the improvement of thrust performance. Moreover, influence of combustor geometry on thrust performance for the improvement was confirmed. In our simulation and experimental results, the efficiency from ideal chemical energy, which is expected to be released from an ideal hydrogen-air mixture, into kinetic energy was a few percents. There are still some ways to recover this amount of loss with optimum combustor geometries and higher laser energies, and potential achieving much higher thrust performances.

  14. A collisionless plasma thruster plume expansion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Mario; Cichocki, Filippo; Ahedo, Eduardo

    2015-06-01

    A two-fluid model of the unmagnetized, collisionless far region expansion of the plasma plume for gridded ion thrusters and Hall effect thrusters is presented. The model is integrated into two semi-analytical solutions valid in the hypersonic case. These solutions are discussed and compared against the results from the (exact) method of characteristics; the relative errors in density and velocity increase slowly axially and radially and are of the order of 10-2-10-3 in the cases studied. The plasma density, ion flux and ambipolar electric field are investigated. A sensitivity analysis of the problem parameters and initial conditions is carried out in order to characterize the far plume divergence angle in the range of interest for space electric propulsion. A qualitative discussion of the physics of the secondary plasma plume is also provided.

  15. Electronegative Gas Thruster - Direct Thrust Measurement Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankanich, John (Principal Investigator); Aanesland, Ane; Polzin, Kurt; Walker, Mitchell

    2015-01-01

    This effort is an international collaboration and academic partnership to mature an innovative electric propulsion (EP) thruster concept to TRL 3 through direct thrust measurement. The initial target application is for Small Satellites, but can be extended to higher power. The Plasma propulsion with Electronegative GASES (PEGASES) concept simplifies ion thruster operation, eliminates a neutralizer requirement and should yield longer life capabilities and lower cost implementation over conventional gridded ion engines. The basic proof-of concept has been demonstrated and matured to TRL 2 over the past several years by researchers at the Laboratoire de Physique des Plasma in France. Due to the low maturity of the innovation, there are currently no domestic investments in electronegative gas thrusters anywhere within NASA, industry or academia. The end product of this Center Innovation Fund (CIF) project will be a validation of the proof-of-concept, maturation to TRL 3 and technology assessment report to summarize the potential for the PEGASES concept to supplant the incumbent technology. Information exchange with the foreign national will be one-way with the exception of the test results. Those test results will first go through a standard public release ITAR/export control review, and the results will be presented in a public technical forum, and the results will be presented in a public technical forum.

  16. Magnetic field fluctuations across the Earth’s bow shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Czaykowska

    Full Text Available We present a statistical analysis of 132 dayside (LT 0700-1700 bow shock crossings of the AMPTE/IRM spacecraft. We perform a superposed epoch analysis of low frequency, magnetic power spectra some minutes up-stream and downstream of the bow shock. The events are devided into categories depending on the angle θBn between bow shock normal and interplanetary magnetic field, and on plasma-β. In the foreshock upstream of the quasi-parallel bow shock, the power of the magnetic fluctuations is roughly 1 order of magnitude larger (δB ~ 4 nT for frequencies 0.01–0.04 Hz than upstream of the quasi-perpendicular shock. There is no significant difference in the magnetic power spectra upstream and downstream of the quasi-parallel bow shock; only at the shock itself, is the magnetic power enhanced by a factor of 4. This enhancement may be due to either an amplification of convecting upstream waves or to wave generation at the shock interface. On the contrary, downstream of the quasi-perpendicular shock, the magnetic wave activity is considerably higher than upstream. Down-stream of the quasi-perpendicular low-β bow shock, we find a dominance of the left-hand polarized component at frequencies just below the ion-cyclotron frequency, with amplitudes of about 3 nT. These waves are identified as ion-cyclotron waves, which grow in a low-β regime due to the proton temperature anisotropy. We find a strong correlation of this anisotropy with the intensity of the left-hand polarized component. Downstream of some nearly perpendicular (θBn ≈ 90° high-β crossings, mirror waves are identified. However, there are also cases where the conditions for mirror modes are met downstream of the nearly perpendicular shock, but no mirror waves are observed.

    Key words. Interplanetary physics (plasma waves and turbulence – Magnetospheric physics (magnetosheath; plasma waves and

  17. Magnetic field fluctuations across the Earth’s bow shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Czaykowska

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a statistical analysis of 132 dayside (LT 0700-1700 bow shock crossings of the AMPTE/IRM spacecraft. We perform a superposed epoch analysis of low frequency, magnetic power spectra some minutes up-stream and downstream of the bow shock. The events are devided into categories depending on the angle θBn between bow shock normal and interplanetary magnetic field, and on plasma-β. In the foreshock upstream of the quasi-parallel bow shock, the power of the magnetic fluctuations is roughly 1 order of magnitude larger (δB ~ 4 nT for frequencies 0.01–0.04 Hz than upstream of the quasi-perpendicular shock. There is no significant difference in the magnetic power spectra upstream and downstream of the quasi-parallel bow shock; only at the shock itself, is the magnetic power enhanced by a factor of 4. This enhancement may be due to either an amplification of convecting upstream waves or to wave generation at the shock interface. On the contrary, downstream of the quasi-perpendicular shock, the magnetic wave activity is considerably higher than upstream. Down-stream of the quasi-perpendicular low-β bow shock, we find a dominance of the left-hand polarized component at frequencies just below the ion-cyclotron frequency, with amplitudes of about 3 nT. These waves are identified as ion-cyclotron waves, which grow in a low-β regime due to the proton temperature anisotropy. We find a strong correlation of this anisotropy with the intensity of the left-hand polarized component. Downstream of some nearly perpendicular (θBn ≈ 90° high-β crossings, mirror waves are identified. However, there are also cases where the conditions for mirror modes are met downstream of the nearly perpendicular shock, but no mirror waves are observed.Key words. Interplanetary physics (plasma waves and turbulence – Magnetospheric physics (magnetosheath; plasma waves and instabilities

  18. NASA HERMeS Hall Thruster Electrical Configuration Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Peter; Kamhawi, Hani; Huang, Wensheng; Yim, John; Herman, Daniel; Williams, George; Gilland, James; Hofer, Richard

    2016-01-01

    NASAs Hall Effect Rocket with Magnetic Shielding (HERMeS) 12.5 kW Technology Demonstration Unit-1 (TDU-1) Hall thruster has been the subject of extensive technology maturation in preparation for development into a flight ready propulsion system. Part of the technology maturation was to test the TDU-1 thruster in several ground based electrical configurations to assess the thruster robustness and suitability to successful in-space operation. The ground based electrical configuration testing has recently been demonstrated as an important step in understanding and assessing how a Hall thruster may operate differently in space compared to ground based testing, and to determine the best configuration to conduct development and qualification testing. This presentation will cover the electrical configuration testing of the TDU-1 HERMeS Hall thruster in NASA Glenn Research Centers Vacuum Facility 5. The three electrical configurations examined are the thruster body tied to facility ground, thruster floating, and finally the thruster body electrically tied to cathode common. The TDU-1 HERMeS was configured with two different exit plane boundary conditions, dielectric and conducting, to examine the influence on the electrical configuration characterization.

  19. Numerical simulation of SMART-1 Hall-thruster plasma interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tajmar, Martin; Sedmik, René; Scharlemann, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    SMART-1 has been the first European mission using a Hall thruster to reach the moon. An onboard plasma diagnostic package allowed a detailed characterization of the thruster exhaust plasma and its interactions with the spacecraft. Analysis of in-flight data revealed, amongst others, an unpredicted

  20. Hot flow anomaly observed at Jupiter's bow shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valek, P. W.; Thomsen, M. F.; Allegrini, F.; Bagenal, F.; Bolton, S.; Connerney, J.; Ebert, R. W.; Gladstone, R.; Kurth, W. S.; Levin, S.; Louarn, P.; Mauk, B.; McComas, D. J.; Pollock, C.; Reno, M.; Szalay, J. R.; Weidner, S.; Wilson, R. J.

    2017-08-01

    A Hot Flow Anomaly (HFA) is created when an interplanetary current sheet interacts with a planetary bow shock. Previous studies have reported observing HFAs at Earth, Mercury, Venus, Mars, and Saturn. During Juno's approach to Jupiter, a number of its instruments operated in the solar wind. Prior to crossing into Jupiter's magnetosphere, Juno observed an HFA at Jupiter for the first time. This Jovian HFA shares most of the characteristics of HFAs seen at other planets. The notable exception is that the Jovian HFA is significantly larger than any HFA seen before. With an apparent size greater than 2 × 106 km the Jovian HFA is orders of magnitude larger than those seen at the other planets. By comparing the size of the HFAs at the other planets with the Jovian HFA, we conclude that HFAs size scales with the size of planetary bow shocks that the interplanetary current sheet interacts with.

  1. Bowing to the Dharma: Japanese Buddhist Women Leaders & Healers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Arai

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The prodigious stream of Japanese Buddhist women in roles of leadership and healing extends the length of Japanese Buddhist history. This article will highlight the transformative power of bowing that helped galvanize Sōtō Zen nuns on the eve of the twentieth century and feature twentieth-century leaders who institutionalized their disciplined commitments. It will also offer a window into the creative healing practices that characterizes women’s activity in the home.

  2. Arctic Bowyery – The Use of Compression Wood in Bows in the Subarctic and Arctic Regions of Eurasia and America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Lepola

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a study of the traditional use of a special kind of wood in bow construction in Eurasia and North America. This special kind of wood, called compression wood and coming from coniferous trees, has unique qualities that makes it suitable for bow construction. Bows made using this special wood have been referred to as Finno-Ugric bows, Sámi bows, Two-Wood bows and Eurasia laminated bows. These bows appear to have developed from archaic forms of compression wood self bows that were made from a single piece of wood. Recently features similar to the Eurasian compression wood bows have been discovered in bows originating from Alaska, and the use of compression wood for bow manufacture has been known to some Canadian Inuit groups. This paper addresses the origin and possible diffusion pattern of this innovation in bow technology in Eurasia and suggests a timeframe and a possible source for the transfer of this knowledge to North America. This paper also discusses the role of the Asiatic composite bow in the development of bows in Eurasia.

  3. Arctic Bowyery – the Use of Compression Wood in Bows in the Subarctic and Arctic Regions of Eurasia and America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Lepola

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a study of the traditional use of a special kind of wood in bow construction in Eurasia and North America. This special kind of wood, called compression wood and coming from coniferous trees, has unique qualities that makes it suitable for bow construction. Bows made using this special wood have been referred to as Finno-Ugric bows, Sámi bows, Two-Wood bows and Eurasia laminated bows. These bows appear to have developed from archaic forms of compression wood self bows that were made from a single piece of wood. Recently features similar to the Eurasian compression wood bows have been discovered in bows originating from Alaska, and the use of compression wood for bow manufacture has been known to some Canadian Inuit groups. This paper addresses the origin and possible diffusion pattern of this innovation in bow technology in Eurasia and suggests a timeframe and a possible source for the transfer of this knowledge to North America. This paper also discusses the role of the Asiatic composite bow in the development of bows in Eurasia.

  4. PLANETARY EMBRYO BOW SHOCKS AS A MECHANISM FOR CHONDRULE FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, Christopher R.; Boley, Aaron C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy University of British Columbia Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Morris, Melissa A. [Physics Department State University of New York at Cortland Cortland, NY 13045 (United States)

    2016-02-20

    We use radiation hydrodynamics with direct particle integration to explore the feasibility of chondrule formation in planetary embryo bow shocks. The calculations presented here are used to explore the consequences of a Mars-size planetary embryo traveling on a moderately excited orbit through the dusty, early environment of the solar system. The embryo’s eccentric orbit produces a range of supersonic relative velocities between the embryo and the circularly orbiting gas and dust, prompting the formation of bow shocks. Temporary atmospheres around these embryos, which can be created via volatile outgassing and gas capture from the surrounding nebula, can non-trivially affect thermal profiles of solids entering the shock. We explore the thermal environment of solids that traverse the bow shock at different impact radii, the effects that planetoid atmospheres have on shock morphologies, and the stripping efficiency of planetoidal atmospheres in the presence of high relative winds. Simulations are run using adiabatic and radiative conditions, with multiple treatments for the local opacities. Shock speeds of 5, 6, and 7 km s{sup −1} are explored. We find that a high-mass atmosphere and inefficient radiative conditions can produce peak temperatures and cooling rates that are consistent with the constraints set by chondrule furnace studies. For most conditions, the derived cooling rates are potentially too high to be consistent with chondrule formation.

  5. Dependence of sound characteristics on the bowing position in a violin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, YuJi; Kim, Young H.

    2014-12-01

    A quantitative analysis of violin sounds produced for different bowing positions over the full length of a violin string has been carried out. An automated bowing machine was employed in order to keep the bowing parameters constant. A 3-dimensional profile of the frequency spectrum was introduced in order to characterize the violin's sound. We found that the fundamental frequency did not change for different bowing positions, whereas the frequencies of the higher harmonics were different. Bowing the string at 30 mm from the bridge produced musical sounds. The middle of the string was confirmed to be a dead zone, as reported in previous works. In addition, the quarter position was also found to be a dead zone. Bowing the string 90 mm from the bridge dominantly produces a fundamental frequency of 864 Hz and its harmonics.

  6. Numerical Study on the Effect of Buffer Bow Structure in Ship-to-ship Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamada, Yasuhira; Endo, Hisayoshi; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2005-01-01

    A disastrous oil spill from a struck oil tanker has become one of the major problems in view of conservation of maritime environment. So far double hulls (D/H) have been introduced to reduce the consequences of collision and grounding events In order to further reduce the oil spill from struck oil...... tankers, the introduction of buffer bulbous bows has been proposed. Relatively soft buffer bows absorb part of the kinetic energy of the striking ship before penetrating the inner hull of the struck vessel. The purpose of the present paper is to verify the effectiveness of a prototype buffer bulbous bow......) and the forward velocity of the struck ship on the collapse mode of the bow of the striking vessel are investigated. Collapse modes, contact forces and energy absorption capabilities of the buffer bows are compared with those of conventional bows....

  7. Cassini Thruster Calibration Algorithm Using Reaction Wheel Biasing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Farheen

    2012-01-01

    Thrust force estimates for the reaction control thrusters on-board Cassini spacecraft are presented in this paper. Cassini consists of two thruster branches (A and B) each with eight thrusters. The four Z-thrusters control the X and Y-axes, while the four Y-thrusters control the Z-axis. It is important to track the thrust force estimates in order to detect any thruster degradation and for supporting various activities in spacecraft operations (Titan flyby, spacecraft maneuvers). The Euler equation, which describes the rotational motion of the spacecraft during a reaction wheel bias event, is used to develop the algorithm. The thrust estimates are obtained from the pseudo inverse solution using flight telemetry during the bias. Results show that the A-branch Z3A and Z4A thrusters exhibited degraded thrust in November 2008. Due to the degraded thrust performance of Z3A and Z4A, A-branch usage was discontinued and prime branch was swapped to B-branch in March 2009. The thrust estimates from the B-branch do not show any degradation to date. The algorithm is used to trend the B-branch thrust force estimates as the mission continues.

  8. Transient tests on an MHD thruster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierson, E.S. (Purdue Univ., Hammond, IN (United States). Dept. of Engineering); Libera, J.; Petrick, M. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Systems Div.)

    1993-01-01

    Three different types of transient tests were made -- coast downs to zero voltage and current under open circuit and short circuit conditions, reverses where the applied voltage was reversed to the same or a different value, and jumps where the voltage applied to the thruster was increased without a change in polarity. Most except the coast downs were dons both quickly (voltage changes as fast as possible) and slowly (6 s to complete the voltage change). A few slower (12 s) transients were done. Transient runs were made for water conductivities of 16.2 and 5.09 S/m. In all cases steady-state conditions were established and several seconds of data taken before initiating the transients. Data were measured every 0.75 to 1 .5 second over the time interval of interest. Particular attention was paid to looking for evidence of gas bubbles, and to the chance of the voltage profiles between the electrodes. The data are interpreted based on the behavior of the power supply and the thruster.

  9. Optimisation of a quantum pair space thruster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriu DRAGAN

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the problem of propulsion for long term space missions. Traditionally a space propulsion unit has a propellant mass which is ejected trough a nozzle to generate thrust; this is also the case with inert gases energized by an on-board power unit. Unconventional methods for propulsion include high energy LASERs that rely on the momentum of photons to generate thrust. Anti-matter has also been proposed for energy storage. Although the momentum of ejected gas is significantly higher, the LASER propulsion offers the perspective of unlimited operational time – provided there is a power source. The paper will propose the use of the quantum pair formation for generating a working mass, this is different than conventional anti-matter thrusters since the material particles generated are used as propellant not as energy storage.Two methods will be compared: LASER and positron-electron, quantum pair formation. The latter will be shown to offer better momentum above certain energy levels.For the demonstrations an analytical solution is obtained and provided in the form of various coefficients. The implications are, for now, theoretical however the practicality of an optimized thruster using such particles is not to be neglected for long term space missions.

  10. Towards a generalized friction controller: from the bowed string to Unusual Musical Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serafin, Stefania; Young, Diana

    2017-01-01

    We present case studies of unusual instruments that share the same excitation mechanism as that of the bowed string. The musical saw, Tibetan singing bow, glass harmonica, and bowed cymbal all produce sound by rubbing a hard object on the surface of the instrument. For each, we discuss the design...... of its physical model and present a means for expressively controlling it. Finally, we propose a new kind of generalized friction controller to be used in all these examples....

  11. Performance and flow characteristics of MHD seawater thruster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doss, E.D.

    1990-01-01

    The main goal of the research is to investigate the effects of strong magnetic fields on the electrical and flow fields inside MHD thrusters. The results of this study is important in the assessment of the feasibility of MHD seawater propulsion for the Navy. To accomplish this goal a three-dimensional fluid flow computer model has been developed and applied to study the concept of MHD seawater propulsion. The effects of strong magnetic fields on the current and electric fields inside the MHD thruster and their interaction with the flow fields, particularly those in the boundary layers, have been investigated. The results of the three-dimensional computations indicate that the velocity profiles are flatter over the sidewalls of the thruster walls in comparison to the velocity profiles over the electrode walls. These nonuniformities in the flow fields give rise to nonuniform distribution of the skin friction along the walls of the thrusters, where higher values are predicted over the sidewalls relative to those over the electrode walls. Also, a parametric study has been performed using the three-dimensional MHD flow model to analyze the performance of continuous electrode seawater thrusters under different operating parameters. The effects of these parameters on the fluid flow characteristics, and on the thruster efficiency have been investigated. Those parameters include the magnetic field (10--20 T), thruster diameter, surface roughness, flow velocity, and the electric load factor. The results show also that the thruster performance improves with the strength of the magnetic field and thruster diameter, and the efficiency decreases with the flow velocity and surface roughness.

  12. Trends and correlation analysis in diagnosing turbine rotor bow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz GAŁKA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Permanent rotor bow in a steam turbine is a serious failure which usually demands a time-consuming and costly repair. Its vibration-related symptoms are not specific and qualitative diagnosis typically has to employ results obtained during transients.In a 230 MW power steam turbine, gradual dynamic behavior deterioration was observed, immediately after commissioning. Increase of the fundamental component of rear intermediate-pressure turbine bearing vertical vibration was detected, with the time constant of the order of months. Permanent rotor bow, exceeding 200 m, turned out to be the cause. Rotor repair resulted in a dramatic improvement of dynamic behavior, which, however, soon began to deteriorate again. Vibration spectra had been detected in the off-line mode since commissioning, which allowed to determine vibration time histories.Vibration trends analysis does not provide sufficient information to determine root cause, but allows for eliminating a number of possible malfunctions that give similar symptoms. In particular, the possibility of a sudden random-type damage due to human error is eliminated, which in fact is the most common cause of a permanent bow.Analysis of vibration amplitude correlation between vertical and axial directions reveals very strong correlation between fundamental components in the turbine under consideration, as well in the other one, in which similar failure has been observed. Third unit of the same type, apart from qualitatively different vibration trends, is characterized by correlation factors lower by a few times.This particular case is indicative of the importance of evolutionary symptoms (vibration amplitude time dependence and increase rate, as well as correlation factors in qualitative diagnosis. Such symptoms can be very useful in distinguishing between possible failures which result in similar changes of machine vibration behavior.

  13. Modeling of the Archery Bow and Arrow Vibrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Zaniewski

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibration processes in the compound and open kinematical chain with an external link, as a model of an archery bow and arrow system, are evaluated. A mechanical and mathematical model of bend oscillations of the system during accelerate motion of the external link is proposed. Correlation between longitudinal acceleration and natural frequencies is obtained. There are recommendations regarding determination of virtual forms to study arrow vibrations and buckling. The models and methods have been adapted for realization into the engineering method using well-known mathematical software packages.

  14. Effective Maxillary Protraction with Tandem Traction Bow Appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravin Kumar S Marure

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tandem traction bow appliance (TTBA promotes patient compliance, because it is more esthetic and comfortable than extraoral appliances. TTBA should be used only in case where maxillary deficiency and normal mandible is present. Advantages of it includes good oral hygiene, early treatment of any Class III malocclusion, optimal retention, distribution of the forces for protraction to all maxillary teeth, free mandibular movement. It can be used in conjunction with fixed appliances if necessary. This paper includes two case reports. The treatment results in both the cases demonstrated significant skeletal and dental response to TTBA therapy. Skeletal change was primarily a result of anterior movement of the maxilla.

  15. Radio Frequency Micro Ion Thruster for Precision Propulsion Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek proposes to continue development of an engineering model radio frequency discharge, gridded micro ion thruster that produces sub-mN to mN thrust precisely...

  16. Magnesium Hall Thruster for Solar System Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation being developed in this program is a Mg Hall Effect Thruster system that would open the door for In-Situ Resource Utilization based solar system...

  17. High Throughput Hall Thruster for Small Spacecraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek is developing a high throughput nominal 100-W Hall Effect Thruster. This device is well sized for spacecraft ranging in size from several tens of kilograms to...

  18. High Throughput Hall Thruster for Small Spacecraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek Co. Inc. proposes to develop a high throughput, nominal 100 W Hall Effect Thruster (HET). This HET will be sized for small spacecraft (< 180 kg), including...

  19. High Input Voltage Hall Thruster Discharge Converter Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall scope of this Phase I/II effort is the development of a high efficiency 15kW (nominal) Hall thruster discharge converter. In Phase I, Busek Co. Inc. will...

  20. Radio Frequency Micro Ion Thruster for Precision Propulsion Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek proposes to develop radio frequency discharge, gridded micro-ion thruster that produces sub-mN thrust precisely adjustable over a wide dynamic thrust range....

  1. Performance prediction of electrohydrodynamic thrusters by the perturbation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, H., E-mail: shibata@daedalus.k.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Watanabe, Y. [Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Suzuki, K. [Department of Advanced Energy, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan)

    2016-05-15

    In this paper, we present a novel method for analyzing electrohydrodynamic (EHD) thrusters. The method is based on a perturbation technique applied to a set of drift-diffusion equations, similar to the one introduced in our previous study on estimating breakdown voltage. The thrust-to-current ratio is generalized to represent the performance of EHD thrusters. We have compared the thrust-to-current ratio obtained theoretically with that obtained from the proposed method under atmospheric air conditions, and we have obtained good quantitative agreement. Also, we have conducted a numerical simulation in more complex thruster geometries, such as the dual-stage thruster developed by Masuyama and Barrett [Proc. R. Soc. A 469, 20120623 (2013)]. We quantitatively clarify the fact that if the magnitude of a third electrode voltage is low, the effective gap distance shortens, whereas if the magnitude of the third electrode voltage is sufficiently high, the effective gap distance lengthens.

  2. 20mN, Variable Specific Impulse Colloid Thruster Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Colloid thrusters have long been known for their exceptional thrust efficiency and ability to operate over a range of specific impulse due to easily variable...

  3. Three Phase Resonant DC Power Converter for Ion Thrusters Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The new generation of, high performance electric propulsion missions will require high mass throughput and most likely the use of grided ion thruster equipped with...

  4. Four Thruster Microfluidic Electrospray Propulsion (MEP) Cubesat Board Demonstration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Cubesat Microfluidic Electrospray Propulsion (MEP) system module prototype will be designed, built and tested to demonstrate that a four MEP thruster system can...

  5. A High Performance Cathode Heater for Hall Thrusters Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High current hollow cathodes are the baseline electron source for next generation high power Hall thrusters. Currently for electron sources providing current levels...

  6. Design and Performance Estimates of an Ablative Gallium Electromagnetic Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    The present study details the high-power condensable propellant research being conducted at NASA Glenn Research Center. The gallium electromagnetic thruster is an ablative coaxial accelerator designed to operate at arc discharge currents in the range of 10-25 kA. The thruster is driven by a four-parallel line pulse forming network capable of producing a 250 microsec pulse with a 60 kA amplitude. A torsional-type thrust stand is used to measure the impulse of a coaxial GEM thruster. Tests are conducted in a vacuum chamber 1.5 m in diameter and 4.5 m long with a background pressure of 2 microtorr. Electromagnetic scaling calculations predict a thruster efficiency of 50% at a specific impulse of 2800 seconds.

  7. Long Life Cold Cathodes for Hall effect Thrusters Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An electron source incorporating long life, high current density cold cathodes inside a microchannel plate for use with ion thrusters is proposed. Cathode lifetime...

  8. Magnesium Hall Thruster for Solar System Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek proposes to prove the feasibility of a Mg Hall effect thruster system that would open the door for In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) based solar system...

  9. Thruster Modelling for Underwater Vehicle Using System Identification Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Shahrieel Mohd Aras

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper describes a study of thruster modelling for a remotely operated underwater vehicle (ROV by system identification using Microbox 2000/2000C. Microbox 2000/2000C is an XPC target machine device to interface between an ROV thruster with the MATLAB 2009 software. In this project, a model of the thruster will be developed first so that the system identification toolbox in MATLAB can be used. This project also presents a comparison of mathematical and empirical modelling. The experiments were carried out by using a mini compressor as a dummy depth pressure applied to a pressure sensor. The thruster model will thrust and submerge until it reaches a set point and maintain the set point depth. The depth was based on pressure sensor measurement. A conventional proportional controller was used in this project and the results gathered justified its selection.

  10. 20mN, Variable Specific Impulse Colloid Thruster Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During Phase I, Busek designed and manufactured an electrospray emitter capable of generating 20 mN in a 7" x 7" x 1.7" package. The thruster consists of nine...

  11. Pulsed Electrogasdynamic Thruster for Attitude Control and Orbit Maneuver Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In the Phase I program we successfully demonstrated the feasibility of the Pulsed ElectroGasdynamic (PEG) thruster for attitude control and orbital maneuvering. In...

  12. Low-Cost, High-Performance Hall Thruster Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesterman, Bryce

    2015-01-01

    Colorado Power Electronics (CPE) has built an innovative modular PPU for Hall thrusters, including discharge, magnet, heater and keeper supplies, and an interface module. This high-performance PPU offers resonant circuit topologies, magnetics design, modularity, and a stable and sustained operation during severe Hall effect thruster current oscillations. Laboratory testing has demonstrated discharge module efficiency of 96 percent, which is considerably higher than current state of the art.

  13. Pseudospectral Model for Hybrid PIC Hall-effect Thruster Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Paper 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) July 2015-July 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Pseudospectral model for hybrid PIC Hall-effect thruster simulationect...of a pseudospectral azimuthal-axial hybrid- PIC HET code which is designed to explicitly resolve and filter azimuthal fluctuations in the...661-275-5908 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239.18 Pseudospectral model for hybrid PIC Hall-effect thruster simulation IEPC

  14. NASA Brief: Q-Thruster Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Harold

    2013-01-01

    Q-thrusters are a low-TRL form of electric propulsion that operates on the principle of pushing off of the quantum vacuum. A terrestrial analog to this is to consider how a submarine uses its propeller to push a column of water in one direction, while the sub recoils in the other to conserve momentum -the submarine does not carry a "tank" of sea water to be used as propellant. In our case, we use the tools of Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) to show how the thruster pushes off of the quantum vacuum which can be thought of as a sea of virtual particles -principally electrons and positrons that pop into and out of existence, and where fields are stronger, there are more virtual particles. The idea of pushing off the quantum vacuum has been in the technical literature for a few decades, but to date, the obstacle has been the magnitude of the predicted thrust which has been derived analytically to be very small, and therefore not likely to be useful for human spaceflight. Our recent theoretical model development and test data suggests that we can greatly increase the magnitude of the negative pressure of the quantum vacuum and generate a specific force such that technology based on this approach can be competitive for in-space propulsion approx. 0.1N/kW), and possibly for terrestrial applications (approx. 10N/kW). As an additional validation of the approach, the theory allows calculation of physics constants from first principles: Gravitational constant, Planck constant, Bohr radius, dark energy fraction, electron mass.

  15. Electric Propulsion Electronics And Thrusters As A Satellite Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollor, Matthais

    2011-10-01

    The integration of electrical thrusters with an electronic into a subsystem and with this establishing an integrated design providing full function and performance is critical task. It starts with the proper specification of the electrical interfaces between thrusters and electronics, including a proper definition of the thrusters as an electric load. Furthermore the use of high voltage needs specific knowledge in design and is increasing the subsystem complexity due to obsolesce of suitable disconnect-able harness and of redundancy switching means. EMC is rising to a couple of questions, i.e. about possible interference of magnetic field emission with the satellites attitude control system or about the thruster plasma affecting RF transmission of communication links. End-to-end testing of the propulsion subsystem is limited as it is not possible to run the thruster together with the spacecraft in a vacuum facility. Therefore testing of the subsystem has to be "sliced": typically, the thruster is first characterized with the aid of lab power supplies and is later tested coupled with the "space" electronics. Finally system checkout on satellite level is performed with the using simulators.

  16. Low-Mass, Low-Power Hall Thruster System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pote, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    NASA is developing an electric propulsion system capable of producing 20 mN thrust with input power up to 1,000 W and specific impulse ranging from 1,600 to 3,500 seconds. The key technical challenge is the target mass of 1 kg for the thruster and 2 kg for the power processing unit (PPU). In Phase I, Busek Company, Inc., developed an overall subsystem design for the thruster/cathode, PPU, and xenon feed system. This project demonstrated the feasibility of a low-mass power processing architecture that replaces four of the DC-DC converters of a typical PPU with a single multifunctional converter and a low-mass Hall thruster design employing permanent magnets. In Phase II, the team developed an engineering prototype model of its low-mass BHT-600 Hall thruster system, with the primary focus on the low-mass PPU and thruster. The goal was to develop an electric propulsion thruster with the appropriate specific impulse and propellant throughput to enable radioisotope electric propulsion (REP). This is important because REP offers the benefits of nuclear electric propulsion without the need for an excessively large spacecraft and power system.

  17. Design and model experiments on thruster assisted mooring system; Futaishiki kaiyo kozobutsu no thruster ni yoru choshuki doyo seigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, M.; Koterayama, W. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics; Kajiwara, H. [Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu (Japan). Faculty of Computer Science and System Engineering; Hyakudome, T. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Described herein are dynamics and model experiments of the system in which positioning of a floating marine structure by mooring is combined with thruster-controlled positioning. Coefficients of dynamic forces acting on a floating structure model are determined experimentally and by the three-dimensional singularity distribution method, and the controller is designed by the PID, LQI and H{infinity} control theories. A model having a scale ratio of 1/100 was used for the experiments, where 2 thrusters were arranged in a diagonal line, one on the X-axis. It is found that the LQI and H{infinity} controllers of the thruster can control long-cycle rolling of the floating structure. They allow thruster control which is insensitive to wave cycle motion, and efficiently reduce positioning energy. The H{infinity} control regulates frequency characteristics of a closed loop more finely than the LQI control, and exhibits better controllability. 25 refs., 25 figs.

  18. Lunar Surface Potential Increases during Terrestrial Bow Shock Traversals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Michael R.; Stubbs, Timothy J.; Hills, H. Kent; Halekas, Jasper; Farrell, William M.; Delory, Greg T.; Espley, Jared; Freeman, John W.; Vondrak, Richard R.; Kasper, Justin

    2009-01-01

    Since the Apollo era the electric potential of the Moon has been a subject of interest and debate. Deployed by three Apollo missions, Apollo 12, Apollo 14 and Apollo 15, the Suprathermal Ion Detector Experiment (SIDE) determined the sunlit lunar surface potential to be about +10 Volts using the energy spectra of lunar ionospheric thermal ions accelerated toward the Moon. We present an analysis of Apollo 14 SIDE "resonance" events that indicate the lunar surface potential increases when the Moon traverses the dawn bow shock. By analyzing Wind spacecraft crossings of the terrestrial bow shock at approximately this location and employing current balancing models of the lunar surface, we suggest causes for the increasing potential. Determining the origin of this phenomenon will improve our ability to predict the lunar surface potential in support of human exploration as well as provide models for the behavior of other airless bodies when they traverse similar features such as interplanetary shocks, both of which are goals of the NASA Lunar Science Institute's Dynamic Response of the Environment At the Moon (DREAM) team.

  19. Bow Shock Leads the Way for a Speeding Hot Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-09-01

    As hot Jupiters whip around their host stars, their speeds can exceed the speed of sound in the surrounding material, theoretically causing a shock to form ahead of them. Now, a study has reported the detection of such a shock ahead of transiting exoplanet HD 189733b, providing a potential indicator of the remarkably strong magnetic field of the planet.Rushing PlanetsDue to their proximity to their hosts, hot Jupiters move very quickly through the stellar wind and corona surrounding the star. When this motion is supersonic, the material ahead of the planet can be compressed by a bow shock and for a transiting hot Jupiter, this shock will cross the face of the host star in advance of the planets transit.In a recent study, a team of researchers by Wilson Cauley of Wesleyan University report evidence of just such a pre-transit. The teams target is exoplanet HD 189733b, one of the closest hot Jupiters to our solar system. When the authors examined high-resolution transmission spectra of this system, they found that prior to the optical transit of the planet, there was a large dip in the transmission of the first three hydrogen Balmer lines. This could well be the absorption of an optically-thick bow shock as it moves past the face of the star.Tremendous MagnetismOperating under this assumption, the authors create a model of the absorption expected from a hot Jupiter transiting with a bow shock ahead of it. Using this model, they show that a shock leading the planet at a distance of 12.75 times the planets radius reproduces the key features of the transmission spectrum.This stand-off distance is surprisingly large. Assuming that the location of the bow shock is set by the point where the planets magnetospheric pressure balances the pressure of the stellar wind or corona that it passes through, the planetary magnetic field would have to be at least 28 Gauss. This is seven times the strength of Jupiters magnetic field!Understanding the magnetic fields of exoplanets is

  20. Effect of Body Structure on Skill Formation in a Force Precision Task Mimicking Cello Bowing Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogihara, Naomichi; Yamazaki, Nobutoshi

    To elucidate the skill formation mechanism in a complex force precision task mimicking cello bowing movements, three-dimensional joint orientations and changes in bowing force are measured for 2 novice and 2 expert subjects. A rigid link model of the human upper limb is constructed in order to calculate changes in joint moment, potential energy and structural inductivity of motion during bowing, and the motions are compared kinetically. Results show that the novices generate low-in-potential energy bowing motion, but not suitable for skillful control of the bow. In contrast, the experts can fulfill a task requirement by skillfully coordinating the musculo-skeletal system, but the motion is not easy as that of the novices. It is suggested that the transition from a novice to an expert may be difficult due to the ease in the initially generated motion, which obstructs the search for the optimal skillful motion.

  1. Unequal outer and inner bow configurations: comparing 2 asymmetric headgear systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosh, Tamar; Portal, Schay; Sarne, Ofer; Vardimon, Alexander D

    2005-07-01

    Asymmetric headgear is used when different molar distalization forces (MDF) are needed on the right and left sides of the jaw to correct a Class II molar relationship. We investigated 2 asymmetric headgear configurations, the outer-bow and the inner-bow, on cervical-pull headgear. In the first configuration, 5 hooks were soldered on 1 side of the outer bow at 10-mm intervals, making this side shorter; in the other, 4 stops (1.5 mm) were added to 1 side of the inner bow, making this side longer. The right and left MDF and the extraoral force (EF) were measured simultaneously with 2 fork transducers and a testing machine, respectively. A 40-mm difference between the long and short outer bows resulted in a 2.17-fold greater MDF on the long-side molar (7:3 ratio). The 3-4 stop configuration provided the optimal inner-bow arrangement, with stop/no-stop MDF ratios of 7:3 and 10:0, respectively, at 10 N EF. At low-to-medium EF levels, a unilateral MDF developed on the stop side with zero MDF on the no-stop side. The sum of the right and left MDF nearly equaled the EF in the outer-bow asymmetry and was 60% in the inner-bow setting; this suggests strong lateral forces in the latter. Clinically, for a bilateral unequal Class II relationship, the system of choice is outer-bow asymmetric headgear. For a unilateral Class II relationship with 1 side in a Class I molar relationship (Class II subdivision), inner-bow asymmetric headgear is recommended.

  2. Wear Testing of the HERMeS Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, George J., Jr.; Gilland, James H.; Peterson, Peter Y.; Kamhawi, Hani; Huang, Wensheng; Ahern, Drew M.; Yim, John; Herman, Daniel A.; Hofer, Richard R.; Sekerak, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Hall-Effect Rocket with Magnetic Shielding (HERMeS) thruster is being developed and tested at NASA GRC and NASA JPL through support of the Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) as primary propulsion for the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM). This thruster is advancing the state-of-the-art of Hall-effect thrusters and is intended to serve as a precursor to higher power systems for human interplanetary exploration. A 2000-hour wear test has been initiated at NASA GRC with the HERMeS Technology Demonstration Unit One and three of four test segments have been completed totaling 728 h of operation. This is the first test of a NASA-designed magnetically shielded thruster to extend beyond 300 hr of continuous operation. Trends in performance, component wear, thermal design, plume properties, and back-sputtered deposition are discussed for two wear-test segments of 246 h and 360 h. The first incorporated graphite pole covers in an electrical configuration where cathode was electrically connected to thruster body. The second utilized traditional alumina pole covers with the thruster body floating. It was shown that the magnetic shielding in both configurations completely eliminated erosion of the boron nitride discharge channel but resulted in erosion of the inner pole cover. The volumetric erosion rate of the graphite pole covers was roughly 2/3 that of the alumina pole covers and the thruster exhibited slightly better performance. Buildup of back-sputtered carbon on the BN channel at a rate of roughly 1.5 µm/kh is shown to have negligible impact on the performance.

  3. Micro Pulsed Inductive Thruster with Solid Fuel Option (uPIT_SF) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Micro Pulsed Inductive Thruster with Solid Fuel Option (5PIT_SF) is a high-precision impulse bit electromagnetic plasma micro-thruster. The 5PIT prototype is a...

  4. Vacuum Chamber Construction and Contamination Study of A Micro Pulsed Plasma Thruster

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Debevec, Jacob H

    2006-01-01

    The micro pulsed plasma thruster (micro-PPT) is a simple and versatile electric thruster capable of performing multiple missions, from precise attitude control on standard satellites to primary propulsion for nanosatellites...

  5. Hall Effect Thruster for High Power Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek proposes to develop a flight version of a high power Hall Effect thruster. While numerous high power Hall Effect thrusters have been demonstrated in the...

  6. High Performance Plasma Channel Insulators for High Power Hall Thrusters Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA missions for planetary exploration require high power, long-life Hall thrusters. However, thruster power and lifetime are limited by the erosion of plasma...

  7. Lifetime Improvement of Large Scale Green Monopropellant Thrusters via Novel, Long-Life Catalysts Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek proposes to develop and life-test a flight-weight, 5N class green monopropellant thruster in Phase II. The most important feature that sets this thruster apart...

  8. Curvature and bow of bulk GaN substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foronda, Humberto M.; Young, Erin C.; Robertson, Christian A.; Speck, James S. [Materials Department, UCSB, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Romanov, Alexey E. [Materials Department, UCSB, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute RAS, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); ITMO University, St. Petersburg 197101 (Russian Federation); Beltz, Glenn E. [Mechanical Engineering Department, UCSB, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

    2016-07-21

    We investigate the bow of free standing (0001) oriented hydride vapor phase epitaxy grown GaN substrates and demonstrate that their curvature is consistent with a compressive to tensile stress gradient (bottom to top) present in the substrates. The origin of the stress gradient and the curvature is attributed to the correlated inclination of edge threading dislocation (TD) lines away from the [0001] direction. A model is proposed and a relation is derived for bulk GaN substrate curvature dependence on the inclination angle and the density of TDs. The model is used to analyze the curvature for commercially available GaN substrates as determined by high resolution x-ray diffraction. The results show a close correlation between the experimentally determined parameters and those predicted from theoretical model.

  9. The bowed catheter sign: a risk for pericardial tamponade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Towbin, Richard [Phoenix Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    2008-03-15

    The use of a central venous catheter (CVC) has become commonplace in the care of children with a wide variety of medical and surgical problems. Complications resulting from the insertion of these catheters are well recognized and can be life-threatening. When a temporary CVC or other catheter is inserted into the central venous system it is secured to the skin with a combination of sutures and sterile dressing. This fixes the catheter in place and does not allow it to retract, thereby putting pressure on the right atrial wall via the catheter tip if it is too long. The probability of wall penetration is increased if a catheter or device is tapered at the point of contact. The purpose of this case report is to present the bowed catheter sign and to review the anatomy of the cavotricuspid isthmus, a possible predisposing factor to cardiac perforation and tamponade. (orig.)

  10. On the kinematics and thickness of the terrestrial bow shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruparova, Oksana; Krupar, Vratislav; Santolik, Ondrej; Soucek, Jan; Safrankova, Jana; Nemecek, Zdenek; Nemec, Frantisek; Maksimovic, Milan

    2017-04-01

    The bow shock (BS) is formed due to the continuous interaction between the supersonic solar wind and the Earth's magnetosphere ahead of the magnetopause. Thanks to its proximity, BS is a perfect object to study a wide range of phenomena related to collisionless shocks and wave-particle interactions. We have analyzed more than 500 quasi-perpendicular BS crossings between 2001 and 2015 using data retrieved by the magnetometers aboard the four Cluster spacecraft. Applying a simple timing method to four-point measurement, we estimated the BS normal direction and velocity along this direction case by case. Next, we applied the Butterworth filter to numerical derivations of time-intensity profiles to estimate temporal sizes of BS magnetic ramps, and consequently spatial ones using obtained velocities. We have found that BS ramp scales are statistically around 50 km. We discuss relation between the BS ramp scales and both Alfven and magnetosonic Mach numbers.

  11. Violin Pedagogy and the Physics of the Bowed String

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Alexander Rhodes

    The paper describes the mechanics of violin tone production using non-specialist language, in order to present a scientific understanding of tone production accessible to a broad readership. As well as offering an objective understanding of tone production, this model provides a powerful tool for analyzing the technique of string playing. The interaction between the bow and the string is quite complex. Literature reviewed for this study reveals that scientific investigations have provided important insights into the mechanics of string playing, offering explanations for factors which both contribute to and limit the range of tone colours and dynamics that stringed instruments can produce. Also examined in the literature review are significant works of twentieth century violin pedagogy exploring tone production on the violin, based on the practical experience of generations of teachers and performers. Hermann von Helmholtz described the stick-slip cycle which drives the string in 1863, which replaced earlier ideas about the vibration of violin strings. Later, scientists such as John Schelleng and Lothar Cremer were able to demonstrate how the mechanics of the bow-string interaction can create different tone colours. Recent research by Anders Askenfelt, Knut Guettler, and Erwin Schoonderwaldt have continued to refine earlier research in this area. The writings of Lucien Capet, Leopold Auer, Carl Flesch, Paul Rolland, Kato Havas, Ivan Galamian, and Simon Fischer are examined and analyzed. Each author describes a different approach to tone production on the violin, representing a different understanding of the underlying mechanism. Analyzing these writings within the context of a scientific understanding of tone production makes it possible to compare these approaches more consistently, and to synthesize different concepts drawn from the diverse sources evaluated.

  12. Scaling of FRC Thrusters with Neutral Entrainment (Conference Paper with Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-09

    Entrainment Thruster ( NET ) can effectively accelerate neutral propellant to high specific impulse, without major ionization or frozen flow losses. This will...magnetic field, the Neutral Entrainment Thruster ( NET ) can effectively accelerate neutral propellant to high specific impulse, without major ionization or...propulsion systems. The MSNW Neutral Entrainment Thruster ( NET ) [2] has the capability to address these demanding combined requirements of high specific

  13. 20-mN Variable Specific Impulse (Isp) Colloid Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demmons, Nathaniel

    2015-01-01

    Busek Company, Inc., has designed and manufactured an electrospray emitter capable of generating 20 mN in a compact package (7x7x1.7 in). The thruster consists of nine porous-surface emitters operating in parallel from a common propellant supply. Each emitter is capable of supporting over 70,000 electrospray emission sites with the plume from each emitter being accelerated through a single aperture, eliminating the need for individual emission site alignment to an extraction grid. The total number of emission sites during operation is expected to approach 700,000. This Phase II project optimized and characterized the thruster fabricated during the Phase I effort. Additional porous emitters also were fabricated for full-scale testing. Propellant is supplied to the thruster via existing feed-system and microvalve technology previously developed by Busek, under the NASA Space Technology 7's Disturbance Reduction System (ST7-DRS) mission and via follow-on electric propulsion programs. This project investigated methods for extending thruster life beyond the previously demonstrated 450 hours. The life-extending capabilities will be demonstrated on a subscale version of the thruster.

  14. Operating a magnetic nozzle helicon thruster with strong magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Kazunori, E-mail: kazunori@ecei.tohoku.ac.jp; Komuro, Atsushi; Ando, Akira [Department of Electrical Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    A pulsed axial magnetic field up to ∼2.8 kG is applied to a 26-mm-inner-diameter helicon plasma thruster immersed in a vacuum chamber, and the thrust is measured using a pendulum target. The pendulum is located 30-cm-downstream of the thruster, and the thruster rf power and argon flow rate are fixed at 1 kW and 70 sccm (which gives a chamber pressure of 0.7 mTorr). The imparted thrust increases as the applied magnetic field is increased and saturates at a maximum value of ∼9.5 mN for magnetic field above ∼2 kG. At the maximum magnetic field, it is demonstrated that the normalized plasma density, and the ion flow energy in the magnetic nozzle, agree within ∼50% and of 10%, respectively, with a one-dimensional model that ignores radial losses from the nozzle. This magnetic nozzle model is combined with a simple global model of the thruster source that incorporates an artificially controlled factor α, to account for radial plasma losses to the walls, where α = 0 and 1 correspond to zero losses and no magnetic field, respectively. Comparison between the experiments and the model implies that the radial losses in the thruster source are experimentally reduced by the applied magnetic field to about 10% of that obtained from the no magnetic field model.

  15. Thrust Stand Measurements of a Conical Pulsed Inductive Plasma Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallock, Ashley K.; Polzin, Kurt A.; Emsellem, Gregory D.

    2012-01-01

    Pulsed inductive plasma thrusters [1-3] are spacecraft propulsion devices in which electrical energy is capacitively stored and then discharged through an inductive coil. The thruster is electrodeless, with a time-varying current in the coil interacting with a plasma covering the face of the coil to induce a plasma current. Propellant is accelerated and expelled at a high exhaust velocity (O(10-100 km/s)) by the Lorentz body force arising from the interaction of the magnetic field and the induced plasma current. While this class of thruster mitigates the life-limiting issues associated with electrode erosion, pulsed inductive plasma thrusters can su er from both high pulse energy requirements imposed by the voltage demands of inductive propellant ionization, and low propellant utilization efficiencies. The Microwave Assisted Discharge Inductive Plasma Accelerator (MAD-IPA)[4], shown in Fig. 1 is a pulsed inductive plasma thruster that is able to operate at lower pulse energies by partially ionizing propellant with an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) discharge inside a conical inductive coil whose geometry serves to potentially increase propellant and plasma plume containment relative to at coil geometries. The ECR plasma is created with the use of permanent mag- nets arranged to produce a thin resonance region along the inner surface of the coil, restricting plasma formation and, in turn, current sheet formation to areas of high magnetic coupling to the driving coil.

  16. System for Coupling an IEC Reactor to Ion Thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Jason; Burton, Rodney; Momoto, Hiromu; Miley, George; Richardson, Nathan

    2002-11-01

    A conceptual design for an electric-thruster-driven space ship using a D-He3 fueled Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) fusion power unit was recently developed [1]. This propulsion system uses a bank of modified NSTAR-type krypton ion thrusters (specific impulse of 16,000 sec.) giving a total thrust of 1020 N. The thrust time for a typical outer planet mission ( e.g. Jupiter) with a delta-V of 50,000 m/s is then 200 days. A key component of this concept is a traveling wave direct energy converter that converts the kinetic energy of 14-MeV fusion reaction product protons to high voltage (about 1 MV) DC electrical output. A unique step-down transformer and rectifier system condition this output for use in the ion thrusters. Details of these components, the NSTAR-thruster modifications plus a magnetic hexa-pole collimator designed to guide the emitted protons into the traveling wave converter will be described. This advanced electric thruster design offers a very high power-to-weight ratio system that is crucial for deep space propulsion. [1] George H. Miley, Hiromu Momota, R. Burton, N.Richardson, M. Coventry, and Y. Shaban, IEC Based D-He3 Fusion for Space Propulsion, Trans Am. Nuclear Society, Annual Meeting, Hollywood, FL, June 2002.

  17. A comparison of 3 methods of face-bow transfer recording: implications for orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gateno, J; Forrest, K K; Camp, B

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the occlusal plane inclination of models mounted using 3 different systems for face-bow transfer with the actual occlusal plane inclination as measured on a cephalometric radiograph. Twenty-two subjects were enrolled in this study. Three alginate impressions of the maxillary dentition were taken, and 3 stone dental models were produced for each subject. Face-bow recordings were obtained on each subject using the SAM Anatomical Face-bow (Great Lakes Orthodontics Products, Ltd, Tonawanda, NY), the Erickson Surgical Face-bow (Great Lakes Orthodontics Products, Ltd) and a new technique developed by one of the authors (J.G.). For each subject, the dental models were mounted on a SAM articulator using each of the 3 face-bow recordings. Finally, a lateral cephalometric radiograph was obtained for each subject. The occlusal plane inclination was measured on the models and on the cephalometric radiographs. Differences among groups were tested using a 1-way analysis of variance. Bonferroni test was used for post hoc comparison between different pairs of groups. The average occlusal plane inclination using the SAM Anatomical Face-bow was 7.8 degrees +/- 4.2 degrees greater than the actual-a difference that was statistically significant. The mean occlusal plane inclination of the models obtained using the Erickson Surgical Face-bow was 4.4 degrees +/- 2.2 degrees greater than the actual-a difference that was also statistically significant. The mean occlusal plane inclination of the models obtained by the new technique was only 0.9 degrees +/- 1.2 degrees greater than the actual; this difference was not statistically significant. The new mounting technique is more accurate than the conventional SAM Face-bow or the Erickson Face-bow for reproducing the actual occlusal plane inclination. Copyright 2001 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons.

  18. Liquid fluorine/hydrazine rhenium thruster update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, M. A.; Kaplan, R. B.; Tuffias, R. H.

    1983-01-01

    The status of a fluorine/hydrazine thruster development program is discussed. A solid rhenium metal sea-level thrust chamber was successfully fabricated and tested for a total run duration of 1075 s with 17 starts. Rhenium fabrication methods are discussed. A test program was conducted to evaluate performance and chamber cooling. Acceptable performance was reached and cooling was adequate. A flight-type injector was fabricated that achieved an average extrapolated performance value of 3608 N-s/kg (368 lbf-s/lbm). Altitude thrust chambers were fabricated. One chamber incorporates a rhenium combustor and nozzle with an area ratio of 15:1, and a columbium nozzle extension with area ratios from 15:1 to 60:1. The other chamber was fabricated completely with a carbon/carbon composite. Because of the attributes of rhenium for use in high-temperature applications, a program to provide the materials and processes technology needed to reliably fabricate and/or repair vapor-deposited rhenium parts of relatively large size and complex shape is recommended.

  19. Laser propulsion 10 kW thruster test program results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, J.; Krier, H.; Glumb, R. J.

    1992-07-01

    This paper summarizes the results of the first-ever experimental tests of a 10 kW laser-powered rocket engine. The rocket engine used high-temperature laser-sustained plasmas to heat flows of argon and hydrogen propellants, which were then exhausted through a rocket nozzle to generate thrust. This paper describes the design of the thruster and test support equipment in detail, including a description of the diagnostic systems used. This is followed by a summary of the performance data acquired during the thruster tests, particularly specific impulse and thruster efficiency as functions of pressure and propellant type. Key findings include demonstrations of specific impulse values of up to 350 seconds at efficiencies near 40 percent using hydrogen propellant, and the discovery of a low-velocity stability limit for laser-sustained plasmas.

  20. The effects of aniline impurities on monopropellant hydrazine thruster performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, L.; Mattson, L.; Oshiro, R.

    1976-01-01

    Both a 0.45-N and a 0.9-N thruster representative of the designs being flown on 3-axis stabilized spacecraft were used in testing various grades of hydrazine for the phenomenon of monopropellant hydrazine thruster catalyst bed poisoning. Both designs employed Shell 405 ABSG spontaneous catalyst. It is found that pulse shape distortion can be minimized, if not eliminated, by using aniline-free hydrazine. The mechanisms for both steady-state and pulse-mode performance loss are associated with the formation of a catalyst coke similar to the polycyclic aromatic poisons encountered in the petroleum industry. These poisoning mechanisms are reversible, with high-temperature operation being required to drive off the aniline coke deposits. It is recommended that a purified-grade hydrazine be considered for any mission that imposes operational conditions on a thruster which can result in aniline-induced poisoning of the catalyst bed.

  1. Inert gas radio-frequency thruster RIT 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groh, K.H.; Blum, O.; Rado, H.; Loeb, H.W.

    1979-01-01

    It is noted that the use of mercury as a propellant may restrict the application of the electric propulsion system due to the poisonousness and/or availability of mercury. The present paper describes the RIT 10 engine modified to operate with xenon and argon. Attention is given to the modified design, function tests and performance mapping for the ion thruster and the plasma bridge neutralizer. The experiments show that the thruster works well with both gases, noting that the data for xenon are similar to that of mercury, but preliminary tests demonstrate lower efficiencies for argon than with xenon. In conclusion, it is proven that no fundamental problems exist in operating the ion thruster with argon.

  2. Power Electronics Development for the SPT-100 Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamley, John A.; Hill, Gerald M.; Sankovic, John M.

    1994-01-01

    Russian electric propulsion technologies have recently become available on the world market. Of significant interest is the Stationary Plasma Thruster (SPT) which has a significant flight heritage in the former Soviet space program. The SPT has performance levels of up to 1600 seconds of specific impulse at a thrust efficiency of 0.50. Studies have shown that this level of performance is well suited for stationkeeping applications, and the SPT-100, with a 1.35 kW input power level, is presently being evaluated for use on Western commercial satellites. Under a program sponsored by the Innovative Science and Technology Division of the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization, a team of U.S. electric propulsion specialists observed the operation of the SPT-100 in Russia. Under this same program, power electronics were developed to operate the SPT-100 to characterize thruster performance and operation in the U.S. The power electronics consisted of a discharge, cathode heater, and pulse igniter power supplies to operate the thruster with manual flow control. A Russian designed matching network was incorporated in the discharge supply to ensure proper operation with the thruster. The cathode heater power supply and igniter were derived from ongoing development projects. No attempts were made to augment thruster electromagnet current in this effort. The power electronics successfully started and operated the SPT-100 thruster in performance tests at NASA Lewis, with minimal oscillations in the discharge current. The efficiency of the main discharge supply was measured at 0.92, and straightforward modifications were identified which could increase the efficiency to 0.94.

  3. Recycle Requirements for NASA's 30 cm Xenon Ion Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinero, Luis R.; Rawlin, Vincent K.

    1994-01-01

    Electrical breakdowns have been observed during ion thruster operation. These breakdowns, or arcs, can be caused by several conditions. In flight systems, the power processing unit must be designed to handle these faults autonomously. This has a strong impact on power processor requirements and must be understood fully for the power processing unit being designed for the NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Application Readiness program. In this study, fault conditions were investigated using a NASA 30 cm ion thruster and a power console. Power processing unit output specifications were defined based on the breakdown phenomena identified and characterized.

  4. Microwave processes in the SPD-ATON stationary plasma thruster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirdyashev, K. P., E-mail: kpk@ms.ire.rssi.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kotelnikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics (Fryazino Branch) (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    Results of experimental studies of microwave processes accompanying plasma acceleration in the SPD-ATON stationary plasma thruster are presented. Specific features of the generation of microwave oscillations in both the acceleration channel and the plasma flow outgoing from the thruster are analyzed on the basis of local measurements of the spectra of the plasma wave fields. Mechanisms for generation of microwave oscillations are considered with allowance for the inhomogeneity of the electron density and magnetic field behind the edge of the acceleration channel. The effect of microwave oscillations on the electron transport and the formation of the discharge current in the acceleration channel is discussed.

  5. Spatial scales of the magnetic ramp at the Venusian bow shock

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A. P. Dimmock; S. N. Walker; T. L. Zhang; S. A. Pope

    2011-01-01

    .... The study encompasses around 60 crossings of the Venusian bow shock from 2006 to 2009. The statistical relationship between the shock ramp spatial scales, overshoot and upstream shock parameters are investigated...

  6. Trade Study of Multiple Thruster Options for the Mars Airplane Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhl, Christopher A.; Gayle, Steven W.; Hunter, Craig A.; Kenney, Patrick S.; Scola, Salvatore; Paddock, David A.; Wright, Henry S.; Gasbarre, Joseph F.

    2009-01-01

    A trade study was performed at NASA Langley Research Center under the Planetary Airplane Risk Reduction (PARR) project (2004-2005) to examine the option of using multiple, smaller thrusters in place of a single large thruster on the Mars airplane concept with the goal to reduce overall cost, schedule, and technical risk. The 5-lbf (22N) thruster is a common reaction control thruster on many satellites. Thousands of these types of thrusters have been built and flown on numerous programs, including MILSTAR and Intelsat VI. This study has examined the use of three 22N thrusters for the Mars airplane propulsion system and compared the results to those of the baseline single thruster system.

  7. Fault-Tolerant Region-Based Control of an Underwater Vehicle with Kinematically Redundant Thrusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zool H. Ismail

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new control approach for an underwater vehicle with a kinematically redundant thruster system. This control scheme is derived based on a fault-tolerant decomposition for thruster force allocation and a region control scheme for the tracking objective. Given a redundant thruster system, that is, six or more pairs of thrusters are used, the proposed redundancy resolution and region control scheme determine the number of thruster faults, as well as providing the reference thruster forces in order to keep the underwater vehicle within the desired region. The stability of the presented control law is proven in the sense of a Lyapunov function. Numerical simulations are performed with an omnidirectional underwater vehicle and the results of the proposed scheme illustrate the effectiveness in terms of optimizing the thruster forces.

  8. DOUBLE BOW SHOCKS AROUND YOUNG, RUNAWAY RED SUPERGIANTS: APPLICATION TO BETELGEUSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackey, Jonathan; Mohamed, Shazrene; Neilson, Hilding R.; Langer, Norbert; Meyer, Dominique M.-A., E-mail: jmackey@astro.uni-bonn.de [Argelander-Institut fuer Astronomie, Auf dem Huegel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2012-05-20

    A significant fraction of massive stars are moving supersonically through the interstellar medium (ISM), either due to disruption of a binary system or ejection from their parent star cluster. The interaction of their wind with the ISM produces a bow shock. In late evolutionary stages these stars may undergo rapid transitions from red to blue and vice versa on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, with accompanying rapid changes to their stellar winds and bow shocks. Recent three-dimensional simulations of the bow shock produced by the nearby runaway red supergiant (RSG) Betelgeuse, under the assumption of a constant wind, indicate that the bow shock is very young (<30, 000 years old), hence Betelgeuse may have only recently become an RSG. To test this possibility, we have calculated stellar evolution models for single stars which match the observed properties of Betelgeuse in the RSG phase. The resulting evolving stellar wind is incorporated into two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations in which we model a runaway blue supergiant (BSG) as it undergoes the transition to an RSG near the end of its life. We find that the collapsing BSG wind bubble induces a bow shock-shaped inner shell around the RSG wind that resembles Betelgeuse's bow shock, and has a similar mass. Surrounding this is the larger-scale retreating bow shock generated by the now defunct BSG wind's interaction with the ISM. We suggest that this outer shell could explain the bar feature located (at least in projection) just in front of Betelgeuse's bow shock.

  9. Asymmetric Outer Bow Length and Cervical Headgear Force System: 3D Analysis Using Finite Element Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geramy, Allahyar; Hassanpour, Mehdi; Emadian Razavi, Elham Sadat

    2015-03-01

    This study sought to assess distal and lateral forces and moments of asymmetric headgears by variable outer bow lengths. Four 3D finite element method (FEM) models of a cervical headgear attached to the maxillary first molars were designed in SolidWorks 2010 software and transferred to ANSYS Workbench ver. 11 software. Models contained the first molars, their periodontal ligament (PDL), cancellous and cortical bones, a mesiodistal slice of the maxillae and the headgear. Models were the same except for the outer bow length in headgears. The headgear was symmetric in model 1. In models 2 to 4, the headgears were asymmetric in length with differences of 5mm, 10mm and 15mm, respectively. A 2.5 N force in horizontal plane was applied and the loading manner of each side of the outer bow was calculated trigonometrically using data from a volunteer. The 15mm difference in outer bow length caused the greatest difference in lateral (=0.21 N) and distal (= 1.008 N) forces and also generated moments (5.044 N.mm). As the difference in outer bow length became greater, asymmetric effects increased. Greater distal force in the longer arm side was associated with greater lateral force towards the shorter arm side and more net yawing moment. A difference range of 1mm to 15 mm of length in cervical headgear can be considered as a safe length of outer bow shortening in clinical use.

  10. Anterior Femoral Bow and Possible Effect on the Stifle Joint: A Comparison between Humans and Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocal, M K; Sabanci, S S; Cobanoglu, M; Enercan, M

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the anterior bow of the femur between dogs and humans in terms of the possible impact on the stifle joint. The femoral radiographs obtained retrospectively were used to determine the angles and positions of the anterior bow in both dogs (n = 135) and humans (n = 57). Descriptive statistics and Pearson's correlation analysis were used for the statistical analyses of the variables. The mean anterior bow angle (ABA) was 18.3 ± 2.02° and 4.88 ± 1.24° in dogs and humans, respectively. The bow position was at the distal shaft in dogs (64.9 ± 2.04%) and almost at the mid-shaft of the bone (46.5 ± 5.52%) in humans. The ABA was related to the bow position in both humans and dogs. Additionally, the angle correlated with age in humans, while it was correlated with weight and breed in dogs. In conclusion, it is suggested that the anterior bow should be used as a landmark on the femoral axis for the biomechanical research of stifle joint, and dog stifle could be used as a suitable model for human knee in experimental studies for clinicians, while making sure that ethical principles are fully respected. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. PENGARUH ANTI-SLAMMING BULBOUS BOW TERHADAP GERAKAN SLAMMING PADA KAPAL PERINTIS 200 DWT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Iqbal

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Analisis seakeeping (kemampuan olah gerak kapal merupakan aspek penting dalam perancangan kapal. Berdasarkan analisis tersebut, dapat diketahui batas operasional dari sebuah kapal. Salah satunya adalah dapat mengetahui kemampuan kapal pada tinggi gelombang signifikan (Hs tertentu. Memodifikasi bentuk haluan kapal dengan membuat dasar dari haluan tersebut lebih rendah dibandingkan dengan dasar lambung kapal nya (dibawah garis baseline kapal dinamakan Anti-Slamming Bow. Pada penelitian ini, anti-slamming bow ditambahkan dengan ­bulbous bow yang dinamakan dengn Anti-Slamming Bulbous Bow (ASB. Panjang (lasb dan tinggi (hasb Anti-Slamming Bulbous Bow divariasikan untuk mendapatkan probabilitas dan intensitas slamming yang paling rendah. Metode untuk menghitung RAO menggunakan Metode Panel. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa nilai probabilitas pada kapal existing (model awal pada Hs = 4 m dan Tave = 5 s pada kecepatan 14 knot tidak memenuhi standar kriteria Nordforsk ’87 karena memiliki nilai probabilitas slamming sebesar 12,19%. Selain model awal, model 1, model 3 dan model 5 juga tidak memenuhi standar kriteria karena memiliki nilai probabilitas slamming sebesar 5,19%, 5,04% dan 5,10%. Parameter ukuran anti-slamming bulbous bow terbaik terdapat pada model 6 dimana rasio panjang ASB terhadap Lpp kapal sebesar 0,4 dan rasio tinggi ASB terhadap sarat kapal sebesar 0,4. Sedangkan bentuk Bulbous terbaik adalah Bulbous A yaitu bulbous tipe bentuk titik air tergantung. Model ini memiliki nilai  probabilas sebesar 1,95% dan memenuhi kriteria Nordforsk ’87.

  12. Control wafer bow of InGaP on 200 mm Si by strain engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing; Bao, Shuyu; Made, Riko I.; Lee, Kwang Hong; Wang, Cong; Eng Kian Lee, Kenneth; Fitzgerald, Eugene A.; Michel, Jurgen

    2017-12-01

    When epitaxially growing III–V compound semiconductors on Si substrates the mismatch of coefficients of thermal expansion (CTEs) between III–V and Si causes stress and wafer bow. The wafer bow is deleterious for some wafer-scale processing especially when the wafer size is large. Strain engineering was applied in the epitaxy of InGaP films on 200 mm silicon wafers having high quality germanium buffers. By applying compressive strain in the InGaP films to compensate the tensile strain induced by CTE mismatch, wafer bow was decreased from about 100 μm to less than 50 μm. X-ray diffraction studies show a clear trend between the decrease of wafer bow and the compensation of CTE mismatch induced tensile strain in the InGaP layers. In addition, the anisotropic strain relaxation in InGaP films resulted in anisotropic wafer bow along two perpendicular (110) directions. Etch pit density and plane-view transmission electron microscopy characterizations indicate that threading dislocation densities did not change significantly due to the lattice-mismatch applied in the InGaP films. This study shows that strain engineering is an effective method to control wafer bow when growing III–V semiconductors on large size Si substrates.

  13. Bow shock models of ultracompact H II regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mac Low, M.; Van Buren, D.; Wood, D.O.S.; Churchwell, E. (NASA, Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (USA) Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics, Boulder, CO (USA) JPL, Pasadena, CA (USA) Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (USA) Washburn Observatory, Madison, WI (USA))

    1991-03-01

    This paper presents models of ultracompact H II regions as the bow shocks formed by massive stars, with strong stellar winds, moving supersonically through molecular clouds. The morphologies, sizes and brightnesses of observed objects match the models well. Plausible models are provided for the ultracompact H II regions G12.21 - 0.1, G29.96 - 0.02, G34.26 + 0.15, and G43.89 - 0.78. To do this, the equilibrium shape of the wind-blown shell is calculated, assuming momentum conservation. Then the shell is illuminated with ionizing radiation from the central star, radiative transfer for free-free emission through the shell is performed, and the resulting object is visualized at various angles for comparison with radio continuum maps. The model unifies most of the observed morphologies of ultracompact H II regions, excluding only those objects with spherical shells. Ram pressure confinement greatly lengthens the life of ultracompact H II regions, explaining the large number that exist in the Galaxy despite their low apparent kinematic ages. 32 refs.

  14. Bow shock models of ultracompact H II regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Van Buren, Dave; Wood, Douglas O. S.; Churchwell, ED

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents models of ultracompact H II regions as the bow shocks formed by massive stars, with strong stellar winds, moving supersonically through molecular clouds. The morphologies, sizes and brightnesses of observed objects match the models well. Plausible models are provided for the ultracompact H II regions G12.21 - 0.1, G29.96 - 0.02, G34.26 + 0.15, and G43.89 - 0.78. To do this, the equilibrium shape of the wind-blown shell is calculated, assuming momentum conservation. Then the shell is illuminated with ionizing radiation from the central star, radiative transfer for free-free emission through the shell is performed, and the resulting object is visualized at various angles for comparison with radio continuum maps. The model unifies most of the observed morphologies of ultracompact H II regions, excluding only those objects with spherical shells. Ram pressure confinement greatly lengthens the life of ultracompact H II regions, explaining the large number that exist in the Galaxy despite their low apparent kinematic ages.

  15. Dentofacial effects of a modified tandem traction bow appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalay, Zeynep; Tortop, Tuba

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the dentofacial effects of a modified tandem traction bow appliance (modified TTBA) in skeletal Class III subjects, and the effect of age on treatment response. The material consisted of the pre-treatment/pre-observation and post-treatment/post-observation lateral cephalograms and hand-wrist films of 45 children with skeletal and dental Class III malocclusions. Thirty patients were treated with a modified TTBA. Two treatment groups of 15 patients each were formed: an early (nine girls, six boys; mean skeletal age: 8.18 ± 0.50 years) and a late treatment (5 girls, 10 boys; mean skeletal age: 11.75 ± 1.00 years) group. The remaining 15 children (5 girls, 10 boys; mean skeletal age: 7.90 ± 0.62 years) were observed without treatment for 8 months and served as a control for the early treatment group. Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney U-tests were used for statistical analysis. Significant forward maxillary movement was determined in both treatment groups (P skeletal correction of the Class III malocclusion was achieved.

  16. Simulations of a Plasma Thruster Utilizing the FRC Configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rognlien, T. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Cohen, B. I. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-10-10

    This report describes work performed by LLNL to model the behavior and performance of a reverse-field configuration (FRC) type of plasma device as a plasma thruster as summarized by Razin et al. [1], which also describes the MNX device at PPPL used to study this concept.

  17. Parametric studies of the Hall current plasma thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkenazy, J.; Raitses, Y.; Appelbaum, G.

    1998-05-01

    The Hall current plasma thruster accelerates a plasma jet by an axial electric field and an applied radial magnetic field in an annular ceramic channel. A relatively large current density (>0.1 A/cm2) can be obtained as the acceleration mechanism is not limited by space charge effects. Such a device can be used as a small rocket engine on board spacecraft with the advantage of a large jet velocity compared to conventional rocket engines (10000-30000 m/s versus 2000-4800 m/s). An experimental Hall thruster was constructed and operated in a broad range of operating conditions and under various configuration variations. Electrical, magnetic and plasma diagnostics, and as well accurate thrust and gas flow rate measurements, have been used to investigate the dependence of thruster behavior on the applied voltage, gas flow rate, magnetic field, channel geometry and wall material. The studies conducted so far have demonstrated a significant effect of channel material on thruster electrical characteristics and the existence of an optimal channel length for a given flow rate. Representative results highlighting these findings are presented.

  18. Monopropellant Thruster Development Using a Family of Micro Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-17

    Reaction Processes - Thrust Characteristics - Propellant Flow Rate - SWAP • System Change on Mission/ Operations • Performance Variation Effect on Mission...Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports (0704-0188), 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202...NUMBER (Include area code) 17 February 2017 Briefing Charts 30 January 2017 - 28 February 2017 Monopropellant Thruster Development Using a Family of

  19. High Fidelity Modeling of Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) Thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    expedited through the hiring of two new employees, Dr. Eder Sousa (recent graduate of U. of Washington) and Dr. Artan Qerushi (formerly at Tri- Alpha ...Effect on Field-Reversed Configuration Thruster Efficiency, Journal of Propulsion and Power, Vol 30, No. 6, Nov- Dec 2014. - Qerushi, A, “Overview of

  20. Thermal stability of the krypton Hall effect thruster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szelecka Agnieszka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Krypton Large IMpulse Thruster (KLIMT ESA/PECS project, which has been implemented in the Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (IPPLM and now is approaching its final phase, was aimed at incremental development of a ~500 W class Hall effect thruster (HET. Xenon, predominantly used as a propellant in the state-of-the-art HETs, is extremely expensive. Krypton has been considered as a cheaper alternative since more than fifteen years; however, to the best knowledge of the authors, there has not been a HET model especially designed for this noble gas. To address this issue, KLIMT has been geared towards operation primarily with krypton. During the project, three subsequent prototype versions of the thruster were designed, manufactured and tested, aimed at gradual improvement of each next exemplar. In the current paper, the heat loads in new engine have been discussed. It has been shown that thermal equilibrium of the thruster is gained within the safety limits of the materials used. Extensive testing with both gases was performed to compare KLIMT’s thermal behaviour when supplied with krypton and xenon propellants.

  1. Rapid evaluation of ion thruster lifetime using optical emission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, B. A.; Parsons, M. L.; Mantenieks, M. A.

    1985-01-01

    A major life-limiting phenomenon of electric thrusters is the sputter erosion of discharge chamber components. Thrusters for space propulsion are required to operate for extended periods of time, usually in excess of 10,000 hr. Lengthy and very costly life-tests in high-vacuum facilities have been required in the past to determine the erosion rates of thruster components. Alternative methods for determining erosion rates which can be performed in relatively short periods of time at considerably lower costs are studied. An attempt to relate optical emission intensity from an ion bombarded surface (screen grid) to the sputtering rate of that surface is made. The model used a kinetic steady-state (KSS) approach, balancing the rates of population and depopulation of ten low-lying excited states of the sputtered molybdenum atom (MoI) with those of the ground state to relate the spectral intensities of the various transitions of the MoI to the population densities. Once this is accomplished, the population density can be related to the sputting rate of the target. Radiative and collisional modes of excitation and decay are considered. Since actual data has not been published for MoI excitation rate and decay constants, semiempirical equations are used. The calculated sputtering rate and intensity is compared to the measured intensity and sputtering rates of the 8 and 30 cm ion thrusters.

  2. Mathematical Modeling of Liquid-fed Pulsed Plasma Thruster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaartikey Misra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquid propellants are fast becoming attractive for pulsed plasma thrusters due to their high efficiency and low contamination issues. However, the complete plasma interaction and acceleration processes are still not very clear. Present paper develops a multi-layer numerical model for liquid propellant PPTs (pulsed plasma thrusters. The model is based on a quasi-steady flow assumption. The model proposes a possible acceleration mechanism for liquid-fed pulsed plasma thrusters and accurately predicts the propellant utilization capabilities and estimations for the fraction of propellant gas that is completely ionized and accelerated to high exit velocities. Validation of the numerical model and the assumptions on which the model is based on is achieved by comparing the experimental results and the simulation results for two different liquid-fed thrusters developed at the University of Tokyo. Simulation results shows that up-to 50 % of liquid propellant injected is completely ionized and accelerated to high exit velocities (>50 Km/s, whereas, neutral gas contribute to only 7 % of the total specific impulse and accelerated to low exit velocity (<4 Km/s. The model shows an accuracy up-to 92 % . Optimization methods are briefly discussed to ensure efficient propellant utilization and performance. The model acts as a tool to understand the background physics and to optimize the performance for liquid-fed PPTs.

  3. Mission and System Advantages of Iodine Hall Thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankanich, John W.; Szabo, James; Pote, Bruce; Oleson, Steve; Kamhawi, Hani

    2014-01-01

    The exploration of alternative propellants for Hall thrusters continues to be of interest to the community. Investments have been made and continue for the maturation of iodine based Hall thrusters. Iodine testing has shown comparable performance to xenon. However, iodine has a higher storage density and resulting higher ?V capability for volume constrained systems. Iodine's vapor pressure is low enough to permit low-pressure storage, but high enough to minimize potential adverse spacecraft-thruster interactions. The low vapor pressure also means that iodine does not condense inside the thruster at ordinary operating temperatures. Iodine is safe, it stores at sub-atmospheric pressure, and can be stored unregulated for years on end; whether on the ground or on orbit. Iodine fills a niche for both low power (10kW) electric propulsion regimes. A range of missions have been evaluated for direct comparison of Iodine and Xenon options. The results show advantages of iodine Hall systems for both small and microsatellite application and for very large exploration class missions.

  4. Magnetic mirror effect in a cylindrical Hall thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yiwei; Tang, Haibin; Ren, Junxue; Li, Min; Cao, Jinbin

    2018-01-01

    For cylindrical Hall thrusters, the magnetic field geometry is totally different from that in conventional Hall thrusters. In this study, we investigate the magnetic mirror effect in a fully cylindrical Hall thruster by changing the number of iron rings (0–5), which surround the discharge channel wall. The plasma properties inside the discharge channel and plume area are simulated with a self-developed PIC-MCC code. The numerical results show significant influence of magnetic geometry on the electron confinement. With the number of rings increasing above three, the near-wall electron density gap is reduced, indicating the suppression of neutral gas leakage. The electron temperature inside the discharge channel reaches its peak (38.4 eV) when the magnetic mirror is strongest. It is also found that the thruster performance has strong relations with the magnetic mirror as the propellant utilisation efficiency reaches the maximum (1.18) at the biggest magnetic mirror ratio. Also, the optimal magnetic mirror improves the multi-charged ion dynamics, including the ion production and propellant utilisation efficiency.

  5. Mode Transitions in Magnetically Shielded Hall Effect Thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekerak, Michael J.; Longmier, Benjamin W.; Gallimore, Alec D.; Huang, Wensheng; Kamhawi, Hani; Hofer, Richard R.; Jorns, Benjamin A.; Polk, James E.

    2014-01-01

    A mode transition study is conducted in magnetically shielded thrusters where the magnetic field magnitude is varied to induce mode transitions. Three different oscillatory modes are identified with the 20-kW NASA-300MS-2 and the 6-kW H6MS: Mode 1) global mode similar to unshielded thrusters at low magnetic fields, Mode 2) cathode oscillations at nominal magnetic fields, and Mode 3) combined spoke, cathode and breathing mode oscillations at high magnetic fields. Mode 1 exhibits large amplitude, low frequency (1-10 kHz), breathing mode type oscillations where discharge current mean value and oscillation amplitude peak. The mean discharge current is minimized while thrust-to-power and anode efficiency are maximized in Mode 2, where higher frequency (50-90 kHz), low amplitude, cathode oscillations dominate. Thrust is maximized in Mode 3 and decreases by 5-6% with decreasing magnetic field strength. The presence or absence of spokes and strong cathode oscillations do not affect each other or discharge current. Similar to unshielded thrusters, mode transitions and plasma oscillations affect magnetically shielded thruster performance and should be characterized during system development.

  6. NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) Ion Propulsion System Information Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pencil, Eirc S.; Benson, Scott W.

    2008-01-01

    This document is a guide to New Frontiers mission proposal teams. The document describes the development and status of the NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) ion propulsion system (IPS) technology, its application to planetary missions, and the process anticipated to transition NEXT to the first flight mission.

  7. Investigating Discharge Ignition Fundamentals of Micro-Cathode Arc Thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teel, George Lewis

    This dissertation is a compilation of studies of the volatile process that vacuum arcs undergo, known as breakdown. Breakdown is a transfer of electrons from one electrode to another. These electrons typically bombard the electrode surfaces causing secondary electron emission and ionization. This expulsion of ions and electrons then proceed to cause arc discharge, is what most people associate as ``the spark.'' This field-emission to breakdown process induces localized heating, which then causes this explosive ionization to occur. Once plasma is formed, high temperatures and pressures are forced on the surrounding surfaces. This initiation process, the effects of this process, and the manipulation of these effects have all been studied and described in this work. A series of initial observations of the before and after effects of discharge have been made through various equipment such as a Scanning Electron Microscope, Energy Dispersive X-Ray, and Confocal Microscope. Methods to develop a resistance measurement scheme provided a means to characterize the thruster's operation over its lifetime. Further characterization of the plasma plume was done through the use of Langmuir probes. Temperature and density distributions were also measured. An entirely new and miniaturized design of the thrusters were developed and initially tested. Last, a new application for these vacuum arc thrusters was studied for use in an underwater environment. The purpose of this work was to further develop a vacuum arc thruster, known as the Micro-Cathode Arc Thruster (muCAT), which has been developed at the George Washington University's Micro Propulsion and Nanotechnology Lab. The muCAT has been developed over the past decade, and in the last 5 years has gone from simple lab circuitry to space flown hardware. Therefore it is imperative to fully understand every aspect of this technology to achieve precisely what missions require. The results of this dissertation have allowed a new

  8. Comparison of accelerated ion populations observed upstream of the bow shocks at Venus and Mars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yamauchi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Foreshock ions are compared between Venus and Mars at energies of 0.6~20 keV using the same ion instrument, the Ion Mass Analyser, on board both Venus Express and Mars Express. Venus Express often observes accelerated protons (2~6 times the solar wind energy that travel away from the Venus bow shock when the spacecraft location is magnetically connected to the bow shock. The observed ions have a large field-aligned velocity compared to the perpendicular velocity in the solar wind frame, and are similar to the field-aligned beams and intermediate gyrating component of the foreshock ions in the terrestrial upstream region. Mars Express does not observe similar foreshock ions as does Venus Express, indicating that the Martian foreshock does not possess the intermediate gyrating component in the upstream region on the dayside of the planet. Instead, two types of gyrating protons in the solar wind frame are observed very close to the Martian quasi-perpendicular bow shock within a proton gyroradius distance. The first type is observed only within the region which is about 400 km from the bow shock and flows tailward nearly along the bow shock with a similar velocity as the solar wind. The second type is observed up to about 700 km from the bow shock and has a bundled structure in the energy domain. A traversal on 12 July 2005, in which the energy-bunching came from bundling in the magnetic field direction, is further examined. The observed velocities of the latter population are consistent with multiple specular reflections of the solar wind at the bow shock, and the ions after the second reflection have a field-aligned velocity larger than that of the de Hoffman-Teller velocity frame, i.e., their guiding center has moved toward interplanetary space out from the bow shock. To account for the observed peculiarity of the Martian upstream region, finite gyroradius effects of the solar wind protons compared to the radius of the bow shock curvature and

  9. Exploiting biomechanical degrees of freedom for fast and accurate changes in movement direction: coordination underlying quick bow reversals during continuous cello bowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius eVerrel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical and empirical evidence suggests that accurate and efficient motor performance may be achieved by task-specific exploitation of biomechanical degrees of freedom. We investigate coordination of the right arm in a task requiring a sudden yet precisely controlled reversal of movement direction: bow reversals during continuous (legato tone production on a stringed instrument. Ten advanced or professional cello players (at least ten years of practice and ten age-matched novice players took part in the study. Kinematic data from the bow and the right arm were analyzed in terms of velocity and acceleration profiles, as well as temporal coordination along the arm. As expected, experts’ bow velocity and acceleration profiles differed markedly from those of novice participants, with higher peak accelerations and quicker direction changes. Importantly, experts achieved the change in movement direction with a single acceleration peak while novices tended to use multiple smaller acceleration peaks. Experts moreover showed a proximal-distal gradient in timing and amplitudes of acceleration peaks, with earlier and lower-amplitude reversals at more proximal joints. We suggest that this coordination pattern allows generating high accelerations at the end effector while reducing the required joint torques at the proximal joints. This may underlie experts’ ability to produce fast bow reversals efficiently and with high spatiotemporal accuracy. The findings are discussed in terms of motor control theory as well as potential implications for musicians’ performance and health.

  10. Comparisons in Performance of Electromagnet and Permanent-Magnet Cylindrical Hall-Effect Thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzin, K. A.; Raitses, Y.; Gayoso, J. C.; Fisch, N. J.

    2010-01-01

    Three different low-power cylindrical Hall thrusters, which more readily lend themselves to miniaturization and low-power operation than a conventional (annular) Hall thruster, are compared to evaluate the propulsive performance of each. One thruster uses electromagnet coils to produce the magnetic field within the discharge channel while the others use permanent magnets, promising power reduction relative to the electromagnet thruster. A magnetic screen is added to the permanent magnet thruster to improve performance by keeping the magnetic field from expanding into space beyond the exit of the thruster. The combined dataset spans a power range from 50-350 W. The thrust levels over this range were 1.3-7.3 mN, with thruster efficiencies and specific impulses spanning 3.5-28.7% and 400-1940 s, respectively. The efficiency is generally higher for the permanent magnet thruster with the magnetic screen, while That thruster s specific impulse as a function of discharge voltage is comparable to the electromagnet thruster.

  11. Low Cost Electric Propulsion Thruster for Deep Space Robotic Science Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzella, David

    2008-01-01

    Electric Propulsion (EP) has found widespread acceptance by commercial satellite providers for on-orbit station keeping due to the total life cycle cost advantages these systems offer. NASA has also sought to benefit from the use of EP for primary propulsion onboard the Deep Space-1 and DAWN spacecraft. These applications utilized EP systems based on gridded ion thrusters, which offer performance unequaled by other electric propulsion thrusters. Through the In-Space Propulsion Project, a lower cost thruster technology is currently under development designed to make electric propulsion intended for primary propulsion applications cost competitive with chemical propulsion systems. The basis for this new technology is a very reliable electric propulsion thruster called the Hall thruster. Hall thrusters, which have been flown by the Russians dating back to the 1970s, have been used by the Europeans on the SMART-1 lunar orbiter and currently employed by 15 other geostationary spacecraft. Since the inception of the Hall thruster, over 100 of these devices have been used with no known failures. This paper describes the latest accomplishments of a development task that seeks to improve Hall thruster technology by increasing its specific impulse, throttle-ability, and lifetime to make this type of electric propulsion thruster applicable to NASA deep space science missions. In addition to discussing recent progress on this task, this paper describes the performance and cost benefits projected to result from the use of advanced Hall thrusters for deep space science missions.

  12. Congenital posteromedial bowing of the tibia: a retrospective analysis of growth abnormalities in the leg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Hitesh H; Doddabasappa, Siddesh N; Joseph, Benjamin

    2009-05-01

    We studied case records and radiographs of 20 children with congenital posteromedial bowing of the tibia (CPMBT) retrospectively to determine the pattern of correction of the bowing, the associated growth abnormalities of the tibia and fibula, and the role of surgical intervention in CPMBT. The magnitude of diaphyseal bowing in two planes and the physeal inclination were measured. Abnormalities of ossification of the distal tibial epiphysis and inclination of the distal articular surface if present were noted and shortening of the tibia was recorded. The rate of resolution of deformity was noted from sequential radiographs and expressed as percentage reduction per month of follow-up. At initial presentation the magnitude of deformity varied; the most severe posterior diaphyseal bow was 70 degrees whereas the most severe medial diaphyseal bow was 64 degrees. Two distinct mechanisms seem to be responsible for resolution of the deformity in CPMBT; one involves physeal realignment and the other involves diaphyseal remodeling. In the first year of life, rapid resolution of angulation was noted; the rate of resolution reduced significantly thereafter. In a proportion of children with CPMBT residual deformity may persist till over 4 years of age. Physeal realignment occurred at a faster rate than diaphyseal remodeling. The degree of shortening was related to the severity of bowing and shortening as great as 40% was noted in a patient. Wedging of the distal tibial epiphysis and fibular hypoplasia with valgus inclination of the distal tibial articular surface occur in some children with CPMBT. Eccentric ossification of the distal tibial epiphysis in early childhood may be a predictor of wedging of the distal tibial epiphysis later on. We recommend all the children with CPMBT to be followed up periodically till skeletal maturity, to identify cases with residual bowing, ankle deformity, muscle weakness, and limb length inequality as active surgical intervention may be needed

  13. Polarized bow shocks reveal features of the winds and environments of massive stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Manisha

    2018-01-01

    Massive stars strongly affect their surroundings through their energetic stellar winds and deaths as supernovae. The bow shock structures created by fast-moving massive stars contain important information about the winds and ultimate fates of these stars as well as their local interstellar medium (ISM). Since bow shocks are aspherical, the light scattered in the dense shock material becomes polarized. Analyzing this polarization reveals details of the bow shock geometry as well as the composition, velocity, density, and albedo of the scattering material. With these quantities, we can constrain the properties of the stellar wind and thus the evolutionary state of the star, as well as the dust composition of the local ISM.In my dissertation research, I use a Monte Carlo radiative transfer code that I optimized to simulate the polarization signatures produced by both resolved and unresolved stellar wind bow shocks (SWBS) illuminated by a central star and by shock emission. I derive bow shock shapes and densities from published analytical calculations and smooth particle hydrodynamic (SPH) models. In the case of the analytical SWBS and electron scattering, I find that higher optical depths produce higher polarization and position angle rotations at specific viewing angles compared to theoretical predictions for low optical depths. This is due to the geometrical properties of the bow shock combined with multiple scattering effects. For dust scattering, the polarization signature is strongly affected by wavelength, dust grain properties, and viewing angle. The behavior of the polarization as a function of wavelength in these cases can distinguish among different dust models for the local ISM. In the case of SPH density structures, I investigate how the polarization changes as a function of the evolutionary phase of the SWBS. My dissertation compares these simulations with polarization data from Betelgeuse and other massive stars with bow shocks. I discuss the

  14. 33 CFR 207.440 - St. Marys Falls Canal and Locks, Mich.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Vessels with non-friction winches or lack of both bow and stern thrusters. Four vessel-supplied line... bow/stern thrusters. Bow and/or stern thruster use shall be kept to a minimum while transiting the Soo... with bow or stern thrusters, may cause control difficulties for certain classes of vessels. Therefore...

  15. Ion Events Observed by Wind far Upstream From the Bow Shock and by Geotail / Imp-8 Near the Bow Shock and Within the Plasma Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostopoulos, G.; Efthymiadis, D.; Sarris, E. T.; Krimigis, S. M.

    2002-12-01

    Mason et al. (1996) reported characteristics of short duration energetic (>~30 keV/neucleon) heavy ion enhancements observed by the WIND spacecraft at large distances upstream from the bow shock during two periods of high speed streams (Jan. 20, 1995 - Feb. 19, 1995) and Desai et al (2000) extended their study and presented results from a statistical analysis of upstream events rich in CNO species as observed by the WIND spacecraft between 1994 day 325 to 1999 day 92. Desai et al. suggested that some ion characteristics (as for instance, the fact that the majority of the events were observed in the dawn-noon sector, the solar-wind-like ion composition and the heavy ion dominance of the total energy ion spectrum above ~0.5 MeV) appear to pose severe problems for the leakage model, while other characteristics appear to pose serious challenges for the Fermi acceleration model. In this paper we compare the statistical results of Desai et al. with the results from previous statistical and case studies and we show that the Wind observations are in general consistent with the leakage model. Furthermore, we examine simultaneous multispacecraft observations during time periods of some typical events presented by the authors (Mason et al., 1996; Desai et al., 2000) and we compare them with predictions from the leakage and bow shock acceleration models. In particular: (a) we present observations by WIND far upstream from the bow shock and by Geotail and IMP-8 within the magnetosphere and we infer that particle acceleration within the plasma sheet and subsequent leakage to the upstream region are responsible for the generation of these upstream ion events, and (b) we compare the upstream WIND observations with observations obtained by Geotail and IMP-8 near the bow shock, and we infer that the near bow shock observations do not fit with major predictions of Fermi acceleration models.

  16. Investigating the Function of Play Bows in Dog and Wolf Puppies (Canis lupus familiaris, Canis lupus occidentalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byosiere, Sarah-Elizabeth; Espinosa, Julia; Marshall-Pescini, Sarah; Smuts, Barbara; Range, Friederike

    2016-01-01

    Animals utilize behavioral signals across a range of different contexts in order to communicate with others and produce probable behavioral outcomes. During play animals frequently adopt action patterns used in other contexts. Researchers have therefore hypothesized that play signals have evolved to clarify communicative intent. One highly stereotyped play signal is the canid play bow, but its function remains contested. In order to clarify how canid puppies use play bows, we used data on play bows in immature wolves (ages 2.7-7.8 months) and dogs (ages 2 to 5 months) to test hypotheses evaluated in a previous study of adult dogs. We found that young dogs used play bows similarly to adult dogs; play bows most often occurred after a brief pause in play followed by complementary highly active play states. However, while the relative number of play bows and total observation time was similar between dog and wolf puppies, wolves did not follow this behavioral pattern, as play bows were unsuccessful in eliciting further play activity by the partner. While some similarities for the function of play bows in dog and wolf puppies were documented, it appears that play bows may function differently in wolf puppies in regards to re-initiating play.

  17. Investigating the Function of Play Bows in Dog and Wolf Puppies (Canis lupus familiaris, Canis lupus occidentalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah-Elizabeth Byosiere

    Full Text Available Animals utilize behavioral signals across a range of different contexts in order to communicate with others and produce probable behavioral outcomes. During play animals frequently adopt action patterns used in other contexts. Researchers have therefore hypothesized that play signals have evolved to clarify communicative intent. One highly stereotyped play signal is the canid play bow, but its function remains contested. In order to clarify how canid puppies use play bows, we used data on play bows in immature wolves (ages 2.7-7.8 months and dogs (ages 2 to 5 months to test hypotheses evaluated in a previous study of adult dogs. We found that young dogs used play bows similarly to adult dogs; play bows most often occurred after a brief pause in play followed by complementary highly active play states. However, while the relative number of play bows and total observation time was similar between dog and wolf puppies, wolves did not follow this behavioral pattern, as play bows were unsuccessful in eliciting further play activity by the partner. While some similarities for the function of play bows in dog and wolf puppies were documented, it appears that play bows may function differently in wolf puppies in regards to re-initiating play.

  18. Finite element method (FEM) analysis of the force systems produced by asymmetric inner headgear bows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geramy, Allahyar; Kizilova, Natalya; Terekhov, Leonid

    2011-11-01

    Extra-oral traction appliances were introduced more than a century ago and continue to be used to produce orthopaedic and/or dental changes in the maxilla. While force systems produced by asymmetric outer bows have been studied extensively, the force systems produced by asymmetric inner bows have been overlooked. To analyse the forces acting on the maxillary first molars: when the size of one bayonet bend is increased; when the point of application of the distalising force on the inner bow is moved to one side; when one molar is displaced palatally. Four FEM models of cervical headgear attached to maxillary first molars were designed in SolidWorks 2010 and transferred to an ANSYS Workbench Ver. 12.1. Model 1, each molar was 23 mm from the midpalatal line and the inner bow was symmetrical; Model 2, the left molar was displaced 4 mm towards the midpalatal line and the inner bow was symmetrical; Model 3, the molars were equidistant (23 mm) from the midpalatal line, but the left molar was engaged by a 2 mm larger bayonet bend; Model 4, the molars were equidistant (23 mm) from the midpalatal line but the join between the inner and outer bows was displaced 2 mm towards the left molar. In all FEM models, a 2N force was applied to the inner bow at the join between inner and outer bows and the energy transmitted to the teeth and the von Mises stresses on the molar PDLs were assessed. There were marked differences in the strain energy on the teeth and the von Mises stresses on their PDLs. A 14 to 20 per cent increase in energy and force was produced on the tooth closer to the symmetric plane of the headgear. In addition, the increase in energy produced a 30 to 62 per cent increase in the von Mises stresses within the PDLs. Small asymmetries in molar position, the size of a bayonet bend and the point of application of a force on an inner bow resulted in asymmetrical forces on the molars. These forces were higher on the molar closer to the symmetric plane of the headgear.

  19. Unilateral Outer Bow Expanded Cervical Headgear Force System: 3D Analysis Using Finite Element Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geramy, Allahyar; Mortezai, Omid; Esmaily, Masomeh; Darvishpour, Hojat

    2015-04-01

    Headgears are among the effective orthodontic appliances to achieve treatment goals. Unilateral molar distal movement is sometimes needed during an orthodontic treatment, which can be achieved by an asymmetric headgear. Different unilateral headgears have been introduced. The main goal of this study was to analyze the force system of unilateral expanded outer bow asymmetric headgears by the finite element method (FEM). Six 3D finite element models of a mesiodistal slice of the maxilla containing upper first molars, their periodontal ligaments (PDLs), cancellous bone, cortical bone, and a cervical headgear with expanded outer bow attached to maxillary first molars were designed in SolidWorks 2010 and meshed in ANSYS Workbench ver. 12.1. The models were the same except for the degree of outer bow expansion. The outer bow ends were loaded with 2 N force. The distal driving force and the net moment were evaluated. A decrease in the distalizing force in the normal side molar from 1.69 N to 1.37 N was shown by increasing the degree of unilateral expansion. At the same time, the force increased from 2.19 N to 2.49 N in the expanded side molar. A net moment increasing from 2.26 N.mm to 4.64 N.mm was also shown. Unilateral outer bow expansion can produce different distalizing forces in molars, which increase by increasing the expansion.

  20. Unilateral Outer Bow Expanded Cervical Headgear Force System: 3D Analysis Using Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allahyar Geramy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Headgears are among the effective orthodontic appliances to achieve treatment goals. Unilateral molar distal movement is sometimes needed during an orthodontic treat- ment, which can be achieved by an asymmetric headgear. Different unilateral headgears have been introduced. The main goal of this study was to analyze the force system of uni- lateral expanded outer bow asymmetric headgears by the finite element method (FEM.Materials and Methods: Six 3D finite element models of a mesiodistal slice of the maxilla containing upper first molars, their periodontal ligaments (PDLs, cancellous bone, cortical bone, and a cervical headgear with expanded outer bow attached to maxillary first molars were designed in SolidWorks 2010 and meshed in ANSYS Workbench ver. 12.1. The mod- els were the same except for the degree of outer bow expansion. The outer bow ends were loaded with 2-Newton force. The distal driving force and the net moment were evaluated.Results: A decrease in the distalizing force in the normal side molar from 1.69 N to 1.37 N was shown by increasing the degree of unilateral expansion. At the same time, the force increased from 2.19 N to 2.49 N in the expanded side molar. A net moment increasing from 2.26 N.mm to 4.64 N.mm was also shown.Conclusion: Unilateral outer bow expansion can produce different distalizing forces in mo- lars, which increase by increasing the expansion.

  1. BOWS (bioinformatics open web services) to centralize bioinformatics tools in web services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velloso, Henrique; Vialle, Ricardo A; Ortega, J Miguel

    2015-06-02

    Bioinformaticians face a range of difficulties to get locally-installed tools running and producing results; they would greatly benefit from a system that could centralize most of the tools, using an easy interface for input and output. Web services, due to their universal nature and widely known interface, constitute a very good option to achieve this goal. Bioinformatics open web services (BOWS) is a system based on generic web services produced to allow programmatic access to applications running on high-performance computing (HPC) clusters. BOWS intermediates the access to registered tools by providing front-end and back-end web services. Programmers can install applications in HPC clusters in any programming language and use the back-end service to check for new jobs and their parameters, and then to send the results to BOWS. Programs running in simple computers consume the BOWS front-end service to submit new processes and read results. BOWS compiles Java clients, which encapsulate the front-end web service requisitions, and automatically creates a web page that disposes the registered applications and clients. Bioinformatics open web services registered applications can be accessed from virtually any programming language through web services, or using standard java clients. The back-end can run in HPC clusters, allowing bioinformaticians to remotely run high-processing demand applications directly from their machines.

  2. BOW SHOCK FRAGMENTATION DRIVEN BY A THERMAL INSTABILITY IN LABORATORY ASTROPHYSICS EXPERIMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki-Vidal, F.; Lebedev, S. V.; Pickworth, L. A.; Swadling, G. F.; Skidmore, J.; Hall, G. N.; Bennett, M.; Bland, S. N.; Burdiak, G.; De Grouchy, P.; Music, J.; Suttle, L. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom); Ciardi, A. [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 6, UMR 8112, LERMA, F-75005, Paris (France); Rodriguez, R.; Gil, J. M.; Espinosa, G. [Departamento de Fisica de la Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, E-35017 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Hartigan, P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, 6100 S. Main, Houston, TX 77521-1892 (United States); Hansen, E.; Frank, A., E-mail: f.suzuki@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States)

    2015-12-20

    The role of radiative cooling during the evolution of a bow shock was studied in laboratory-astrophysics experiments that are scalable to bow shocks present in jets from young stellar objects. The laboratory bow shock is formed during the collision of two counterstreaming, supersonic plasma jets produced by an opposing pair of radial foil Z-pinches driven by the current pulse from the MAGPIE pulsed-power generator. The jets have different flow velocities in the laboratory frame, and the experiments are driven over many times the characteristic cooling timescale. The initially smooth bow shock rapidly develops small-scale nonuniformities over temporal and spatial scales that are consistent with a thermal instability triggered by strong radiative cooling in the shock. The growth of these perturbations eventually results in a global fragmentation of the bow shock front. The formation of a thermal instability is supported by analysis of the plasma cooling function calculated for the experimental conditions with the radiative packages ABAKO/RAPCAL.

  3. Blade bowing effects on radial equilibrium of inlet flow in axial compressor cascades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han XU

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The circumferentially averaged equation of the inlet flow radial equilibrium in axial compressor was deduced. It indicates that the blade inlet radial pressure gradient is closely related to the radial component of the circumferential fluctuation (CF source item. Several simplified cascades with/without aerodynamic loading were numerically studied to investigate the effects of blade bowing on the inlet flow radial equilibrium. A data reduction program was conducted to obtain the CF source from three-dimensional (3D simulation results. Flow parameters at the passage inlet were focused on and each term in the radial equilibrium equation was discussed quantitatively. Results indicate that the inviscid blade force is the inducement of the inlet CF due to geometrical asymmetry. Blade bowing induces variation of the inlet CF, thus changes the radial pressure gradient and leads to flow migration before leading edge (LE in the cascades. Positive bowing drives the inlet flow to migrate from end walls to mid-span and negative bowing turns it to the reverse direction to build a new equilibrium. In addition, comparative studies indicate that the inlet Mach number and blade loading can efficiently impact the effectiveness of blade bowing on radial equilibrium in compressor design.

  4. Bow shock nebulae of hot massive stars in a magnetized medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, D. M.-A.; Mignone, A.; Kuiper, R.; Raga, A. C.; Kley, W.

    2017-01-01

    A significant fraction of OB-type, main-sequence massive stars are classified as runaway and move supersonically through the interstellar medium (ISM). Their strong stellar winds interact with their surroundings, where the typical strength of the local ISM magnetic field is about 3.5-7 μG, which can result in the formation of bow shock nebulae. We investigate the effects of such magnetic fields, aligned with the motion of the flow, on the formation and emission properties of these circumstellar structures. Our axisymmetric, magneto-hydrodynamical simulations with optically thin radiative cooling, heating and anisotropic thermal conduction show that the presence of the background ISM magnetic field affects the projected optical emission of our bow shocks at Hα and [O III] λ 5007 which become fainter by about 1-2 orders of magnitude, respectively. Radiative transfer calculations against dust opacity indicate that the magnetic field slightly diminishes their projected infrared emission and that our bow shocks emit brightly at 60 μm. This may explain why the bow shocks generated by ionizing runaway massive stars are often difficult to identify. Finally, we discuss our results in the context of the bow shock of ζ Ophiuchi and we support the interpretation of its imperfect morphology as an evidence of the presence of an ISM magnetic field not aligned with the motion of its driving star.

  5. Post-Test Inspection of Nasa's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster Long Duration Test Hardware: Ion Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulas, George C.; Shastry, Rohit

    2016-01-01

    A Long Duration Test (LDT) was initiated in June 2005 as a part of NASAs Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) service life validation approach. Testing was voluntarily terminated in February 2014, with the thruster accumulating 51,184 hours of operation, processing 918 kg of xenon propellant, and delivering 35.5 MN-s of total impulse. This presentation will present the post-test inspection results to date for the thrusters ion optics.

  6. Preliminary investigation of power flow and electrode phenomena in a multi-megawatt coaxial plasma thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberg, Kurt; Gerwin, Richard; Henins, Ivars; Mayo, Robert; Scheuer, Jay; Nurden, Glen

    1993-01-01

    This paper summarizes preliminary experimental and theoretical research that was directed towards the study of quasisteady-state power flow in a large, un-optimized, multi-megawatt coaxial plasma thruster. The report addresses large coaxial thruster operation and includes evaluation and interpretation of the experimental results with a view to the development of efficient, steady-state megawatt-class magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thrusters.

  7. Colloid Thruster for Attitude Control Systems (ACS) and Tip-off Control Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek proposes to develop and deliver a complete engineering model colloid thruster system, capable of thrust levels and lifetimes required for spacecraft...

  8. Low-Cost High-Performance Hall Thruster Support System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Colorado Power Electronics (CPE) has built an innovative modular power processing unit (PPU) for Hall Thrusters, including discharge, magnet, heater and keeper...

  9. Carbon Nanotube Based Electric Propulsion Thruster with Low Power Consumption Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Field emission electric propulsion (FEEP) thrusters have gained considerable attention for spacecrafts disturbance compensation because of excellent characteristics....

  10. Fiber Optic Sensors for the Study of Spacecraft-Thruster Interactions: Ion Sputtering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ketsdever, Andrew D

    2001-01-01

    .... Typically, quartz crystal microbalances (QCMs) are used to investigate spacecraft-thruster interactions where the major contamination mechanism is the adsorption of molecular species on critical surfaces...

  11. A 200 W Hall thruster with hollow indented anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yongjie; Sun, Hezhi; Wei, Liqiu; Li, Peng; Su, Hongbo; Peng, Wuji; Yu, Daren

    2017-10-01

    A hollow indented anode is proposed for increasing the neutral gas density in a discharge channel, in order to improve the performance of the thruster. The experimental results show that a hollow indented anode structure can effectively improve the performance, compared to a hollow straight anode under similar operating conditions, in terms of thrust, propellant utilization, ionization rate, and anode efficiency. Furthermore, simulations show that the indented anode can effectively increase the neutral gas density in a discharge channel and on the centerline of the channel, compared to a hollow straight anode. In addition, it can increase the ionization rate in the channel and the pre-ionization in the anode. Therefore, the hollow indented anode could be considered as an important design idea for improving thruster performance.

  12. Micropropulsion in space via dust-plasma thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avinash, K.; Zank, G. P.

    2007-05-01

    A new engine for propulsion in space, i.e., the dust-plasma thruster, is proposed. The scheme uses plasma thermal energy to charge externally injected sub-micrometer-sized particles and simultaneously create electric fields in the plasma that accelerates them. Particles are subsequently charge stripped and exhausted to produce electrically neutral thrust obviating the need of a charge neutralizer. For reasonable plasma and particle parameters, thrust and specific impulse over a broad range may be produced. The dependence of thrust on particle size, number of injected particles, and plasma temperature density allows for a better thruster precision. The scheme is shown to have modest power requirements. It may be realized in a simple design where there are no high voltage grids or electrodes, charge neutralizer, valves, pressurized gases, etc., and can operate in space or vacuum. A layout for the possible configuration is described.

  13. Micro-propulsion in space via dust - plasma thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zank, Gary; Avinash, Khare

    2007-11-01

    A new scheme of micro propulsion in space i.e. the dust -- plasma thruster is proposed. The scheme uses plasma thermal energy to charge externally injected sub micron sized particles and simultaneously create electric fields in the plasma which accelerates them. Particles are subsequently charge stripped and exhausted to produce electrically neutral thrust obviating the need of a charge neutralizer. For reasonable plasma and particle parameters, thrust and specific impulse over a broad range may be produced. The dependence of thrust on particle size and other plasma parameters allows for a better thruster precision. The scheme is shown to have modest power requirements. It may be realized in a simple design where there are no high voltage grids or electrodes, charge neutralizer, valves, pressurized gases etc and can operate in space or vacuum. A layout for the possible configuration is described.

  14. Geometrical characterization and performance optimization of monopropellant thruster injector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.R. Nada

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The function of the injector in a monopropellant thruster is to atomize the liquid hydrazine and to distribute it over the catalyst bed as uniformly as possible. A second objective is to place the maximum amount of catalyst in contact with the propellant in as short time as possible to minimize the starting transient time. Coverage by the spray is controlled mainly by cone angle and diameter of the catalyst bed, while atomization quality is measured by the Sauter Mean Diameter, SMD. These parameters are evaluated using empirical formulae. In this paper, two main types of injectors are investigated; plain orifice and full cone pressure swirl injectors. The performance of these two types is examined for use with blow down monopropellant propulsion system. A comprehensive characterization is given and design charts are introduced to facilitate optimizing the performance of the injector. Full-cone injector is a more suitable choice for monopropellant thruster and it might be available commercially.

  15. Improved bow shock models for Herbig-Haro objects - Application to HH 2A-prime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, John C.; Hartmann, Lee; Hartigan, Patrick

    1988-01-01

    An improved version of the bow shock theory previously applied to Herbig-Haro objects is presented. The modifications provide a more accurate calculation of the ionization state of material entering the bow shock. The revised preionization does not drastically affect the emission-line predictions for a 200 km/s bow shock model, though the effects will be more severe for slower shock velocities. The line profiles of the new models resemble the observed profiles somewhat more closely, and the relative emission-line intensities typically differ by 30 percent from those predicted by the older models. The models agree well with new IUE spectra and existing optical data for HH 2A-prime.

  16. Research on bulbous bow optimization based on the improved PSO algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sheng-long; Zhang, Bao-ji; Tezdogan, Tahsin; Xu, Le-ping; Lai, Yu-yang

    2017-08-01

    In order to reduce the total resistance of a hull, an optimization framework for the bulbous bow optimization was presented. The total resistance in calm water was selected as the objective function, and the overset mesh technique was used for mesh generation. RANS method was used to calculate the total resistance of the hull. In order to improve the efficiency and smoothness of the geometric reconstruction, the arbitrary shape deformation (ASD) technique was introduced to change the shape of the bulbous bow. To improve the global search ability of the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm, an improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO) algorithm was proposed to set up the optimization model. After a series of optimization analyses, the optimal hull form was found. It can be concluded that the simulation based design framework built in this paper is a promising method for bulbous bow optimization.

  17. Electron bow-wave injection of electrons in laser-driven bubble acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Y Y; Kawata, S; Yu, T P; Gu, Y Q; Sheng, Z M; Yu, M Y; Zhuo, H B; Liu, H J; Yin, Y; Takahashi, K; Xie, X Y; Liu, J X; Tian, C L; Shao, F Q

    2012-04-01

    An electron injection regime in laser wake-field acceleration, namely electron bow-wave injection, is investigated by two- and three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation as well as analytical model. In this regime electrons in the intense electron bow wave behind the first bubble catch up with the bubble tail and are trapped by the bubble finally, resulting in considerable enhancement of the total trapped electron number. For example, with the increase of the laser intensity from 2 × 10(19) to 1 × 10(20) W/cm(2), the electron trapping changes from normal self-injection to bow-wave injection and the trapped electron number is enhanced by two orders of magnitude. An analytical model is proposed to explain the numerical observation.

  18. Prenatal diagnosis of metatropic dysplasia: beware of the pseudo-bowing sign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garel, Catherine [Trousseau Hospital, University Hospitals of the East of Paris, Department of Radiology, Paris (France); Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, Department of Radiology, Paris (France); Dhouib, Amira; Sileo, Chiara; Ducou le Pointe, Hubert [Trousseau Hospital, University Hospitals of the East of Paris, Department of Radiology, Paris (France); Cormier-Daire, Valerie [Paris Descartes University, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Necker-Enfants-Malades Hospital, Department of Genetics, Paris (France)

    2014-03-15

    Metatropic dysplasia is a very rare form of osteochondrodysplasia with only one case of prenatal diagnosis described in the literature. It is characterized by marked shortening of the long bones with severe platyspondyly and dumbbell-shape metaphyses. We report a case of metatropic dysplasia that was diagnosed prenatally and describe the findings on US and CT. The pregnancy was terminated and the post-mortem radiographs are shown. The woman had been referred for short and bowed long bones. Severe metaphyseal enlargement was a misleading finding because it had been misinterpreted as limb bowing. Thus when abnormal curvature of the long bones is observed at prenatal US, attention should be drawn not only to the diaphyses but also to the metaphyses because severe metaphyseal enlargement might be responsible for pseudo-bowing. (orig.)

  19. Fabrication of LTCC based Micro Thruster for Precision Controlled Spaceflight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jack; Jørgensen, John Leif

    2011-01-01

    The paper at hand presents the initial investigations on the development and fabrication of a micro thruster based on LTCC technology, delivering a thrust in the micro Newton regime. Using smaller segments of an observation system distributed on two or more spacecrafts, one can realize an observa...... elimination of the disturbance forces perturbing the orbits and attitudes of formation flying spacecrafts. In the flowing the investigations on the dimensioning and the calculations on the somewhat predictive performance are presented in short form....

  20. Orbital Dynamics of a Simple Solar Photon Thruster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna D. Guerman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We study orbital dynamics of a compound solar sail, namely, a Simple Solar Photon Thruster and compare its behavior to that of a common version of sailcraft. To perform this analysis, development of a mathematical model for force created by light reflection on all sailcraft elements is essential. We deduce the equations of sailcraft's motion and compare performance of two schemes of solar propulsion for two test time-optimal control problems of trajectory transfer.

  1. Orbital Dynamics of a Simple Solar Photon Thruster

    OpenAIRE

    Anna D. Guerman; Georgi V. Smirnov; Maria Cecilia Pereira

    2009-01-01

    We study orbital dynamics of a compound solar sail, namely, a Simple Solar Photon Thruster and compare its behavior to that of a common version of sailcraft. To perform this analysis, development of a mathematical model for force created by light reflection on all sailcraft elements is essential. We deduce the equations of sailcraft's motion and compare performance of two schemes of solar propulsion for two test time-optimal control problems of trajectory transfer.

  2. Plasma Measurements in an Integrated-System FARAD Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzin, K. A.; Rose, M. F.; Miller, R.; Best, S.

    2007-01-01

    Pulsed inductive plasma accelerators are spacecraft propulsion devices in which energy is stored in a capacitor and then discharged through an inductive coil. The device is electrodeless, inducing a current sheet in a plasma located near the face of the coil. The propellant is accelerated and expelled at a high exhaust velocity (order of 10 km/s) through the interaction of the plasma current and the induced magnetic field. The Faraday Accelerator with RF-Assisted Discharge (FARAD) thruster[1,2] is a type of pulsed inductive plasma accelerator in which the plasma is preionized by a mechanism separate from that used to form the current sheet and accelerate the gas. Employing a separate preionization mechanism allows for the formation of an inductive current sheet at much lower discharge energies and voltages than those used in previous pulsed inductive accelerators like the Pulsed Inductive Thruster (PIT). A benchtop FARAD thruster was designed following guidelines and similarity performance parameters presented in Refs. [3,4]. This design is described in detail in Ref. [5]. In this paper, we present the temporally and spatially resolved measurements of the preionized plasma and inductively-accelerated current sheet in the FARAD thruster operating with a Vector Inversion Generator (VIG) to preionize the gas and a Bernardes and Merryman circuit topology to provide inductive acceleration. The acceleration stage operates on the order of 100 J/pulse. Fast-framing photography will be used to produce a time-resolved, global view of the evolving current sheet. Local diagnostics used include a fast ionization gauge capable of mapping the gas distribution prior to plasma initiation; direct measurement of the induced magnetic field using B-dot probes, induced azimuthal current measurement using a mini-Rogowski coil, and direct probing of the number density and electron temperature using triple probes.

  3. Vacuum arc plasma thrusters with inductive energy storage driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Mahadevan (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A plasma thruster with a cylindrical inner and cylindrical outer electrode generates plasma particles from the application of energy stored in an inductor to a surface suitable for the formation of a plasma and expansion of plasma particles. The plasma production results in the generation of charged particles suitable for generating a reaction force, and the charged particles are guided by a magnetic field produced by the same inductor used to store the energy used to form the plasma.

  4. NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) Component Verification Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Daniel A.; Pinero, Luis R.; Sovey, James S.

    2009-01-01

    Component testing is a critical facet of the comprehensive thruster life validation strategy devised by the NASA s Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) program. Component testing to-date has consisted of long-duration high voltage propellant isolator and high-cycle heater life validation testing. The high voltage propellant isolator, a heritage design, will be operated under different environmental condition in the NEXT ion thruster requiring verification testing. The life test of two NEXT isolators was initiated with comparable voltage and pressure conditions with a higher temperature than measured for the NEXT prototype-model thruster. To date the NEXT isolators have accumulated 18,300 h of operation. Measurements indicate a negligible increase in leakage current over the testing duration to date. NEXT 1/2 in. heaters, whose manufacturing and control processes have heritage, were selected for verification testing based upon the change in physical dimensions resulting in a higher operating voltage as well as potential differences in thermal environment. The heater fabrication processes, developed for the International Space Station (ISS) plasma contactor hollow cathode assembly, were utilized with modification of heater dimensions to accommodate a larger cathode. Cyclic testing of five 1/22 in. diameter heaters was initiated to validate these modified fabrication processes while retaining high reliability heaters. To date two of the heaters have been cycled to 10,000 cycles and suspended to preserve hardware. Three of the heaters have been cycled to failure giving a B10 life of 12,615 cycles, approximately 6,000 more cycles than the established qualification B10 life of the ISS plasma contactor heaters.

  5. Iodine Plasma Species Measurements in a Hall Effect Thruster Plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    60 90 0 2 4 6 8 Current (mA/cm^2) A n g l e ( d e g ) Xenon Iodine 500 V, 2 A, I2 Presented at 2012 JPC 33 Distribution A: Approved for public...Over 1 hour of operation on iodine – Additional 1/2 hour with thruster flowing Xe – Current up to ~50 A into anode Presented at 2012 JPC

  6. Asymmetric Outer Bow Length and Cervical Headgear Force System: 3D Analysis Using Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allahyar Geramy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study sought to assess distal and lateral forces and moments of asymmetric headgears by variable outer bow lengths.Materials and Methods: Four 3D finite element method (FEM models of a cer- vical headgear attached to the maxillary first molars were designed in SolidWorks2010 software and transferred to ANSYS Workbench ver. 11 software. Modelscontained the first molars, their periodontal ligament (PDL, cancellous and cor- tical bones, a mesiodistal slice of the maxillae and the headgear. Models were the same except for the outer bow length in headgears. The headgear was symmetric in model 1. In models 2 to 4, the headgears were asymmetric in length with dif- ferences of 5mm, 10mm and 15mm, respectively. A 2.5 N force in horizontal plane was applied and the loading manner of each side of the outer bow was cal- culated trigonometrically using data from a volunteer.Results: The 15mm difference in outer bow length caused the greatest difference in lateral (=0.21 N and distal (= 1.008 N forces and also generated moments (5.044 N.mm.Conclusion: As the difference in outer bow length became greater, asymmetric effects increased. Greater distal force in the longer arm side was associated with greater lateral force towards the shorter arm side and more net yawing moment. Clinical Relevance:A difference range of 1mm to 15 mm of length in cervical headgear can be consi-dered as a safe length of outer bow shortening in clinical use.

  7. Estimating Thruster Impulses From IMU and Doppler Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisano, Michael E.; Kruizinga, Gerhard L.

    2009-01-01

    A computer program implements a thrust impulse measurement (TIM) filter, which processes data on changes in velocity and attitude of a spacecraft to estimate the small impulsive forces and torques exerted by the thrusters of the spacecraft reaction control system (RCS). The velocity-change data are obtained from line-of-sight-velocity data from Doppler measurements made from the Earth. The attitude-change data are the telemetered from an inertial measurement unit (IMU) aboard the spacecraft. The TIM filter estimates the threeaxis thrust vector for each RCS thruster, thereby enabling reduction of cumulative navigation error attributable to inaccurate prediction of thrust vectors. The filter has been augmented with a simple mathematical model to compensate for large temperature fluctuations in the spacecraft thruster catalyst bed in order to estimate thrust more accurately at deadbanding cold-firing levels. Also, rigorous consider-covariance estimation is applied in the TIM to account for the expected uncertainty in the moment of inertia and the location of the center of gravity of the spacecraft. The TIM filter was built with, and depends upon, a sigma-point consider-filter algorithm implemented in a Python-language computer program.

  8. Chemical kinetic performance losses for a hydrogen laser thermal thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccay, T. D.; Dexter, C. E.

    1985-01-01

    Projected requirements for efficient, economical, orbit-raising propulsion systems have generated investigations into several potentially high specific impulse, moderate thrust, advanced systems. One of these systems, laser thermal propulsion, utilizes a high temperature plasma as the enthalpy source. The plasma is sustained by a focused laser beam which maintains the plasma temperature at levels near 20,000 K. Since such temperature levels lead to total dissociation and high ionization, the plasma thruster system potentially has a high specific impulse decrement due to recombination losses. The nozzle flow is expected to be sufficiently nonequilibrium to warrant concern over the achievable specific impluse. This investigation was an attempt at evaluation of those losses. The One-Dimensional Kinetics (ODK) option of the Two-Dimensional Kinetics (TDK) Computer Program was used with a chemical kinetics rate set obtained from available literature to determine the chemical kinetic energy losses for typical plasma thruster conditions. The rates were varied about the nominal accepted values to band the possible losses. Kinetic losses were shown to be highly significant for a laser thermal thruster using hydrogen. A 30 percent reduction in specific impulse is possible simply due to the inability to completely extract the molecular recombination energy.

  9. High-Efficiency Hall Thruster Discharge Power Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaquish, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Busek Company, Inc., is designing, building, and testing a new printed circuit board converter. The new converter consists of two series or parallel boards (slices) intended to power a high-voltage Hall accelerator (HiVHAC) thruster or other similarly sized electric propulsion devices. The converter accepts 80- to 160-V input and generates 200- to 700-V isolated output while delivering continually adjustable 300-W to 3.5-kW power. Busek built and demonstrated one board that achieved nearly 94 percent efficiency the first time it was turned on, with projected efficiency exceeding 97 percent following timing software optimization. The board has a projected specific mass of 1.2 kg/kW, achieved through high-frequency switching. In Phase II, Busek optimized to exceed 97 percent efficiency and built a second prototype in a form factor more appropriate for flight. This converter then was integrated with a set of upgraded existing boards for powering magnets and the cathode. The program culminated with integrating the entire power processing unit and testing it on a Busek thruster and on NASA's HiVHAC thruster.

  10. Near-Term IEC Thrusters and Future Fusion Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miley, George; Gu, Yibin; Jurczyk, Brian

    1997-11-01

    For space missions beyond orbital and lunar distances, studies indicate that advanced power and propulsion systems will be required. Conceptual fusion rocket design studies using the Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) concept have predicted excellent performance for a variety of space missions.(Williams, C.H., S.K. Borowski, "Fusion Propulsion System Survey and Desired Operating Parameters," Fusion Propulsion Workshop, Huntsville, AL, 1997.)(Bussard, R.W., L.W. Jameson, "Design Considerations for Clean QED Fusion Propulsion Systems," Proc. 11th Symp. on Space Nuclear Power and Propulsion, 1994.)(Miley, G.H., et al., "Innovative Technology for and Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Propulsion Unit," Fusion Energy in Space Propulsion, vol. 167, 1995.) Research at the University of Illinois has shifted towards the development of a small-scale xenon jet plasma thruster ( 500W) for satellite adjustment and station-keeping. The scalability of the IEC physics will allow the research on this thruster to contribute to the eventual goal of a high-power fusion propulsion unit, while simultaneously generating a spin-off technology that can be utilized in the near term. A presentation of the experimental setup and preliminary results will be given for the IEC thruster.

  11. Acute traumatic stroke: a case of bow hunter's stroke in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, E L; Van Coster, R; Verstraeten, K

    1998-06-01

    Acute traumatic stroke of the cerebellum is rarely seen in children. In adults, chiropractical manipulation, yoga exercises, bow hunting and cervical trauma have all been associated with vertebrobasillar damage and subsequent stroke due to cerebellar infarction. We present a case of bow hunter's stroke in a child. An 11-year-old boy developed deep coma one day after minor occipital head injury due to an infarct in the left cerebellum and ipsilateral medulla oblongata. Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) showed hypoperfusion of the left vertebral artery and occlusion of the posterior and anterior inferior cerebellar arteries (PICA and AICA respectively).

  12. Anomalous band bowing in pulsed laser deposited MgxZn1-xO films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Arpana; Dar, Tanveer Ahmad; Phase, D. M.; Sen, Pratima

    2013-12-01

    Random variation of band bowing in pulsed laser deposited Mg doped (x=0.090, 0.147, 0.211, 0.268) ZnO thin films was observed. The X-ray diffraction and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy data reveal lattice relaxation and increase in band gap as well as disorderness in the samples. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data confirm the presence of magnesium and oxygen interstitials (Mgi and Oi) as well as oxygen vacancies (VO). The randomness of band bowing is attributed to the presence of these defects.

  13. The distant bow shock and magnetotail of Venus - Magnetic field and plasma wave observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, C. T.; Luhmann, J. G.; Elphic, R. C.; Scarf, F. L.

    1981-01-01

    An examination of the magnetic field and plasma wave data obtained by the Pioneer Venus orbiter in the wake region behind Venus discloses a well developed bow shock whose location is similar to that observed on previous missions in contrast to the dayside bow shock. Venus also has a well developed magnetotail in which the field strenght is enhanced over magnetosheath values and in which the magnetic field is aligned approximately with the solar wind direction. The boundary between magnetosheath and magnetotail is also marked by a change in the plasma wave spectrum.

  14. 76 FR 78234 - Medicine Bow-Routt National Forests and Thunder Basin National Grassland, Campbell County, WY...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... Forest Service Medicine Bow-Routt National Forests and Thunder Basin National Grassland, Campbell County...: Send written comments to Richard A. Cooksey, Deputy Forest Supervisor, Medicine Bow-Routt National... Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 1-800-877-8339 between 8 a.m. and 8 p.m., Eastern Time, Monday through...

  15. NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) Long-Duration Test as of 736 kg of Propellant Throughput

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastry, Rohit; Herman, Daniel A.; Soulas, George C.; Patterson, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA s Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) program is developing the next-generation solar-electric ion propulsion system with significant enhancements beyond the state-of-the-art NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Application Readiness (NSTAR) ion propulsion system to provide future NASA science missions with enhanced mission capabilities. A Long-Duration Test (LDT) was initiated in June 2005 to validate the thruster service life modeling and to qualify the thruster propellant throughput capability. The thruster has set electric propulsion records for the longest operating duration, highest propellant throughput, and most total impulse demonstrated. At the time of this publication, the NEXT LDT has surpassed 42,100 h of operation, processed more than 736 kg of xenon propellant, and demonstrated greater than 28.1 MN s total impulse. Thruster performance has been steady with negligible degradation. The NEXT thruster design has mitigated several lifetime limiting mechanisms encountered in the NSTAR design, including the NSTAR first failure mode, thereby drastically improving thruster capabilities. Component erosion rates and the progression of the predicted life-limiting erosion mechanism for the thruster compare favorably to pretest predictions based upon semi-empirical ion thruster models used in the thruster service life assessment. Service life model validation has been accomplished by the NEXT LDT. Assuming full-power operation until test article failure, the models and extrapolated erosion data predict penetration of the accelerator grid grooves after more than 45,000 hours of operation while processing over 800 kg of xenon propellant. Thruster failure due to degradation of the accelerator grid structural integrity is expected after groove penetration.

  16. End-of-test Performance and Wear Characterization of NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) Long-Duration Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastry, Rohit; Herman, Daniel Andrew; Soulas, George C.; Patterson, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation describes results from the end-of-test performance characterization of NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) Long-Duration Test (LDT). Sub-component performance as well as overall thruster performance is presented and compared to results over the course of the test. Overall wear of critical thruster components is also described, and an update on the first failure mode of the thruster is provided.

  17. Performance of a Permanent-Magnet Cylindrical Hall-Effect Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzin, K. A.; Sooby, E. S.; Kimberlin, A. C.; Raites, Y.; Merino, E.; Fisch, N. J.

    2009-01-01

    The performance of a low-power cylindrical Hall thruster, which more readily lends itself to miniaturization and low-power operation than a conventional (annular) Hall thruster, was measured using a planar plasma probe and a thrust stand. The field in the cylindrical thruster was produced using permanent magnets, promising a power reduction over previous cylindrical thruster iterations that employed electromagnets to generate the required magnetic field topology. Two sets of ring-shaped permanent magnets are used, and two different field configurations can be produced by reorienting the poles of one magnet relative to the other. A plasma probe measuring ion flux in the plume is used to estimate the current utilization for the two magnetic topologies. The measurements indicate that electron transport is impeded much more effectively in one configuration, implying higher thrust efficiency. Thruster performance measurements on this configuration were obtained over a power range of 70-350 W and with the cathode orifice located at three different axial positions relative to the thruster exit plane. The thrust levels over this power range were 1.25-6.5 mN, with anode efficiencies and specific impulses spanning 4-21% and 400-1950 s, respectively. The anode efficiency of the permanent-magnet thruster compares favorable with the efficiency of the electromagnet thruster when the power consumed by the electromagnets is taken into account.

  18. A Robust Digital Autopilot for Spacecraft Equipped with Pulse-Operated Thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, S. W.; Flashner, H.

    1996-01-01

    The analysis and design of attitude control systems for spacecraft employing pulse-operated (on-off) thrusters is usually accomplished through a combination of modeling approximations and empirical techniques. In this paper a new thruster pulse-modulation scheme for pointing and tracking applications is developed from nonlinear control theory.

  19. Operation of Direct Drive Systems: Experiments in Peak Power Tracking and Multi-Thruster Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, John Steven; Brophy, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Direct-drive power and propulsion systems have the potential to significantly reduce the mass of high-power solar electric propulsion spacecraft, among other advantages. Recent experimental direct-drive work has significantly mitigated or retired the technical risks associated with single-thruster operation, so attention is now moving toward systems-level areas of interest. One of those areas is the use of a Hall thruster system as a peak power tracker to fully use the available power from a solar array. A simple and elegant control based on the incremental conductance method, enhanced by combining it with the unique properties of Hall thruster systems, is derived here and it is shown to track peak solar array power very well. Another area of interest is multi-thruster operation and control. Dualthruster operation was investigated in a parallel electrical configuration, with both thrusters operating from discharge power provided by a single solar array. Startup and shutdown sequences are discussed, and it is shown that multi-thruster operation and control is as simple as for a single thruster. Some system architectures require operation of multiple cathodes while they are electrically connected together. Four different methods to control the discharge current emitted by individual cathodes in this configuration are investigated, with cathode flow rate control appearing to be advantageous. Dual-parallel thruster operation with equal cathode current sharing at total powers up to 10 kW is presented.

  20. DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF AUTO DEPTH CONTROL OF REMOTELY OPERATED VEHICLE USING THRUSTER SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A. Ali

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Remotely Operated Vehicles are underwater robots designed specifically for surveillance, monitoring and collecting data for underwater activities. In the underwater vehicle industries, the thruster is an important part in controlling the direction, depth and speed of the ROV. However, there are some ROVs that cannot be maintained at the specified depth for a long time because of disturbance. This paper proposes an auto depth control using a thruster system. A prototype of a thruster with an auto depth control is developed and attached to the previously fabricated UTeM ROV. This paper presents the operation of auto depth control as well as thrusters for submerging and emerging purposes and maintaining the specified depth. The thruster system utilizes a microcontroller as its brain, a piezoresistive strain gauge pressure sensor and a DC brushless motor to run the propeller. Performance analysis of the auto depth control system is conducted to identify the sensitivity of the pressure sensor, and the accuracy and stability of the system. The results show that the thruster system performs well in maintaining a specified depth as well as stabilizing itself when a disturbanceoccurs even with a simple proportional controller used to control the thruster, where the thruster is an important component of the ROV.

  1. Non-stationarity of the quasi-perpendicular bow shock: comparison between Cluster observations and simulations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Comisel, H.; Scholer, M.; Souček, Jan; Matsukiyo, S.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 2 (2011), s. 263-274 ISSN 0992-7689 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : bow shock * Cluster * plasma waves * shock waves Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.842, year: 2011 http://www.ann-geophys.net/29/263/2011/angeo-29-263-2011.pdf

  2. Bow shocks as tracers of the environment and stellar outflows near the supermassive black hole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stofanova, L.; Zajaček, M.; Karas, V.

    2017-10-01

    Bow shocks develop near stars in the supersonic motion with respect to the surrounding interstellar environment. In particular, extended shocks emerge due to the interaction of stars with strong winds. We discuss the expected shape and orientation of bow shocks in the context of fast moving stars near a supermassive black hole (SMBH) embedded within Bondi-type accretion flow (Zajaček et al. 2016, MNRAS; Štofanová 2016, BSc. Thesis). We present models which take into account different velocities of the probe star and also consider various scenarios for the ambient medium near the vicinity of the black hole such as an inflow/outflow of the material towards/outwards SMBH or a model which considers inflow and outflow at the same time. Under suitable circumstances, a bow shock structure can be detected in infrared domain and their properties can trace the environment of the Galactic center. On the other hand, if density of the ambient medium is determined from mm/radio observations, bow shocks can be used to constrain mass-loss rates of massive OB/WR stars. X-rays can supplement the spectral evidence, though, the structures are below the angular resolution of the current instruments even in the most favourable case of the Milky Way's SMBH (Sgr A*).

  3. A benchmark study of procedures for analysis of axial crushing of bulbous bows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamada, Yasuhira; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2008-01-01

    Simplified methods to estimate mean axial crushing forces of plated structures are reviewed and applied to a series of experimental results for axial crushing of large-scale bulbous bow models. Methods based on intersection unit elements such as L-, T- and X-type elements as well as methods based...

  4. Modelling the ballistics and thermodynamics of bow spray droplets for marine icing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoes, C.M.; Aalbers, AB; Hoving, J.S.

    2016-01-01

    In preparation to the SALTO JIP (Safe Arctic Logistics, Transport & Operations) work was done towards developing an improved model for icing due to sea spray at the bow of a ship. The so-called SHIPICE model may be used in a probabilistic risk-based approach and consists of two main segments: 1.

  5. Fuzzy Bayesian Network-Bow-Tie Analysis of Gas Leakage during Biomass Gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fang; Xu, Kaili; Yao, Xiwen; Li, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Biomass gasification technology has been rapidly developed recently. But fire and poisoning accidents caused by gas leakage restrict the development and promotion of biomass gasification. Therefore, probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) is necessary for biomass gasification system. Subsequently, Bayesian network-bow-tie (BN-bow-tie) analysis was proposed by mapping bow-tie analysis into Bayesian network (BN). Causes of gas leakage and the accidents triggered by gas leakage can be obtained by bow-tie analysis, and BN was used to confirm the critical nodes of accidents by introducing corresponding three importance measures. Meanwhile, certain occurrence probability of failure was needed in PSA. In view of the insufficient failure data of biomass gasification, the occurrence probability of failure which cannot be obtained from standard reliability data sources was confirmed by fuzzy methods based on expert judgment. An improved approach considered expert weighting to aggregate fuzzy numbers included triangular and trapezoidal numbers was proposed, and the occurrence probability of failure was obtained. Finally, safety measures were indicated based on the obtained critical nodes. The theoretical occurrence probabilities in one year of gas leakage and the accidents caused by it were reduced to 1/10.3 of the original values by these safety measures. PMID:27463975

  6. Fuzzy Bayesian Network-Bow-Tie Analysis of Gas Leakage during Biomass Gasification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Yan

    Full Text Available Biomass gasification technology has been rapidly developed recently. But fire and poisoning accidents caused by gas leakage restrict the development and promotion of biomass gasification. Therefore, probabilistic safety assessment (PSA is necessary for biomass gasification system. Subsequently, Bayesian network-bow-tie (BN-bow-tie analysis was proposed by mapping bow-tie analysis into Bayesian network (BN. Causes of gas leakage and the accidents triggered by gas leakage can be obtained by bow-tie analysis, and BN was used to confirm the critical nodes of accidents by introducing corresponding three importance measures. Meanwhile, certain occurrence probability of failure was needed in PSA. In view of the insufficient failure data of biomass gasification, the occurrence probability of failure which cannot be obtained from standard reliability data sources was confirmed by fuzzy methods based on expert judgment. An improved approach considered expert weighting to aggregate fuzzy numbers included triangular and trapezoidal numbers was proposed, and the occurrence probability of failure was obtained. Finally, safety measures were indicated based on the obtained critical nodes. The theoretical occurrence probabilities in one year of gas leakage and the accidents caused by it were reduced to 1/10.3 of the original values by these safety measures.

  7. Fuzzy Bayesian Network-Bow-Tie Analysis of Gas Leakage during Biomass Gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fang; Xu, Kaili; Yao, Xiwen; Li, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Biomass gasification technology has been rapidly developed recently. But fire and poisoning accidents caused by gas leakage restrict the development and promotion of biomass gasification. Therefore, probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) is necessary for biomass gasification system. Subsequently, Bayesian network-bow-tie (BN-bow-tie) analysis was proposed by mapping bow-tie analysis into Bayesian network (BN). Causes of gas leakage and the accidents triggered by gas leakage can be obtained by bow-tie analysis, and BN was used to confirm the critical nodes of accidents by introducing corresponding three importance measures. Meanwhile, certain occurrence probability of failure was needed in PSA. In view of the insufficient failure data of biomass gasification, the occurrence probability of failure which cannot be obtained from standard reliability data sources was confirmed by fuzzy methods based on expert judgment. An improved approach considered expert weighting to aggregate fuzzy numbers included triangular and trapezoidal numbers was proposed, and the occurrence probability of failure was obtained. Finally, safety measures were indicated based on the obtained critical nodes. The theoretical occurrence probabilities in one year of gas leakage and the accidents caused by it were reduced to 1/10.3 of the original values by these safety measures.

  8. Large Scale Earth's Bow Shock with Northern IMF as Simulated by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    magnetopause—bow shock—PIC code—. MHD model. c Indian Academy of ..... Table 1. The solar wind input scaled parameters for the PIC and their corresponding values for the MHD code. Parameters. PIC code. GUMICS-v4. CPU time.

  9. 76 FR 65717 - City of Broken Bow, OK; Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission City of Broken Bow, OK; Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Assessment In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and the Federal Energy Regulatory... Forest. Staff prepared a final environmental assessment (EA), which analyzes the potential environmental...

  10. The Effect of Buffer Bow Structures on Collision Damages of Oil Tankers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamada, Yasuhira; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Friis-Hansen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    SSCAT for collision scenarios where striking ships at various speeds, sizes and bulb shapes collide perpendicularly with a VLCC in fully loaded condition. The probability of oil spill from the struck VLCC in cases where all the striking ships use buffer bulbous bows was compared with the case where all...

  11. Tracing Sources Of Nitrate And Sulfate In The Bow River, Alberta Canada, Using Isotope Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, J.; Mayer, B.; Ryan, C.

    2009-05-01

    The Bow River in Alberta is a major tributary to the South Saskatchewan River in western Canada. Urban development and agricultural activities including feedlot operations within the Bow River Basin can potentially impact the river water quality by elevating nitrate and sulfate concentrations. In this project, we applied hydrological, chemical and isotopic techniques to identify sources of nitrate and sulfate in the Bow River. The study area stretches approximately 570km along the Bow River from Lake Louise in the Rocky Mountain headwaters to near its confluence with the Oldman River in the prairies. Between June 2007 and July 2008, monthly samples were taken from the Bow River for major ion chemistry and stable isotope ratio measurements of H, O, C, N and S. Flow data from Alberta Environment were used in combination with chemical data to estimate fluxes of nitrate, sulfate and other ionic solutes along the river. Isotope results show that Bow River water near Lake Louise was characterized by δ15N-NO3 values between 0 and +4‰ and δ18O-NO3 values between +7 and +11‰ falling within the range typical for nitrate produced by nitrification in forest ecosystems. Between Canmore and Calgary, δ15N- NO3 increased to values between +3 and +8‰, and δ18O-NO3 ranged between -5 and +5‰. Nitrate discharged from the Bonnybrook wastewater treatment plant in Calgary has elevated δ15N-NO3 values of +8‰ and low δ18O-NO3 values of -10‰. Nitrate flux increased over an order of magnitude in the river as a result of wastewater effluent discharge at Calgary. In the agricultural irrigation districts downstream of Calgary, δ15N-NO3 values varied between +6 and +11‰, whereas δ18O-NO3 values ranged between -11 and +1‰. The elevated δ15N-NO3 and low δ18O-NO3 values indicate that sewage derived nitrate from the wastewater treatment plant is the major cause for increased nitrate fluxes in the Bow River downstream of Calgary. At Lake Louise, δ34S-SO4 values varied

  12. Study on Endurance and Performance of Impregnated Ruthenium Catalyst for Thruster System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jincheol; Kim, Taegyu

    2018-02-01

    Performance and endurance of the Ru catalyst were studied for nitrous oxide monopropellant thruster system. The thermal decomposition of N2O requires a considerably high temperature, which make it difficult to be utilized as a thruster propellant, while the propellant decomposition temperature can be reduced by using the catalyst through the decomposition reaction with the propellant. However, the catalyst used for the thruster was frequently exposed to high temperature and high-pressure environment. Therefore, the state change of the catalyst according to the thruster operation was analyzed. Characterization of catalyst used in the operation condition of the thruster was performed using FE-SEM and EDS. As a result, performance degradation was occurred due to the volatilization of Ru catalyst and reduction of the specific surface area according to the phase change of Al2O3.

  13. Human Outer Solar System Exploration via Q-Thruster Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, B. Kent; White, Harold G.

    2014-01-01

    Propulsion technology development efforts at the NASA Johnson Space Center continue to advance the understanding of the quantum vacuum plasma thruster (QThruster), a form of electric propulsion. Through the use of electric and magnetic fields, a Q-thruster pushes quantum particles (electrons/positrons) in one direction, while the Qthruster recoils to conserve momentum. This principle is similar to how a submarine uses its propeller to push water in one direction, while the submarine recoils to conserve momentum. Based on laboratory results, it appears that continuous specific thrust levels of 0.4 - 4.0 N/kWe are achievable with essentially no onboard propellant consumption. To evaluate the potential of this technology, a mission analysis tool was developed utilizing the Generalized Reduced Gradient non-linear parameter optimization engine contained in the Microsoft Excel® platform. This tool allowed very rapid assessments of "Q-Ship" minimum time transfers from earth to the outer planets and back utilizing parametric variations in thrust acceleration while enforcing constraints on planetary phase angles and minimum heliocentric distances. A conservative Q-Thruster specific thrust assumption (0.4 N/kWe) combined with "moderate" levels of space nuclear power (1 - 2 MWe) and vehicle specific mass (45 - 55 kg/kWe) results in continuous milli-g thrust acceleration, opening up realms of human spaceflight performance completely unattainable by any current systems or near-term proposed technologies. Minimum flight times to Mars are predicted to be as low as 75 days, but perhaps more importantly new "retro-phase" and "gravity-augmented" trajectory shaping techniques were revealed which overcome adverse planetary phasing and allow virtually unrestricted departure and return opportunities. Even more impressively, the Jovian and Saturnian systems would be opened up to human exploration with round-trip times of 21 and 32 months respectively including 6 to 12 months of

  14. Liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen auxiliary power system thruster investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, E. E.; Kusak, L.

    1979-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and demonstration of a 111 newton (25 lb) thrust, integrated auxiliary propulsion system (IAPS) thruster for use with LH2/LO2 propellants is described. Hydrogen was supplied at a temperature range of 22 to 33 K (40 to 60 R), and oxygen from 89 to 122 K (160 to 220 R). The thruster was designed to operate in both pulse mode and steady-state modes for vehicle attitude control, space maneuvering, and as an abort backup in the event of failure of the main propulsion system. A dual-sleeve, tri-axial injection system was designed that utilizes a primary injector/combustor where 100 percent of the oxygen and 8 percent of the hydrogen is introduced; a secondary injector/combustor where 45 percent of the hydrogen is introduced to mix with the primary combustor gases; and a boundary layer injector that uses the remaining 45 percent of the hydrogen to cool the thrust throat/nozzle design. Hot-fire evaluation of this thruster with a BLC injection distance of 2.79 cm (1.10 in.) indicated that a specific impulse value of 390 sec can be attained using a coated molybdenum thrust chamber. Pulse mode tests indicated that a chamber pressure buildup to 90 percent thrust can be achieved in a time on the order of 48 msec. Some problems were encountered in achieving ignition of each pulse during pulse trains. This was interpreted to indicate that a higher delivered spark energy level ( 100 mJ) would be required to maintain ignition reliability of the plasma torch ignition system under the extra 'cold' conditions resulting during pulsing.

  15. Polarization signatures of bow shocks: A diagnostic tool to constrain the properties of stellar winds and ISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Manisha; Hoffman, Jennifer L.; Nielson, Hilding R.; Ignace, Richard

    2017-01-01

    When a stellar wind traveling at supersonic speed interacts with almost stationary ISM, a bow shock shape is formed. By studying a bow shock, we can obtain information about the properties of the stellar wind as well as the surrounding ISM. Bow shocks are asymmetric structures, and thus produce net polarization even if they are unresolved. Hence, polarization studies of bow shocks can provide complementary constraints on their properties.We simulate the polarization signatures of circumstellar material with bow shock geometries using a Monte Carlo radiative transfer code called SLIP. We use the analytic solution from Wilkin (1996) to define the geometry and mass surface density of the bow shock in our models. We present results from our simulations showing how changing CSM optical depth, CSM albedo, photon source, and scattering particles (electrons or different types of dust particles) affects the observed polarization in both resolved and unresolved cases. In the optically thin regime of the unresolved electron-scattering case, the polarization peaks at an inclination angle of 90°, in agreement with analytical single-scattering models. In optically thick cases, a second polarization peak appears near 130°, which we propose is due to multiple scattering. Given these results, an observed polarization value can constrain the inclination of an unresolved bow shock to two possible angles, which in turn constrain the motion of the star. In case of resolved bow shocks, our simulations produce polarization maps which we compare with observations.We also present results from our dust-scattering simulations, which show that multicolor broadband polarization observations can constrain the characteristics of the dust in a resolved or unresolved bow shock-shaped CSM configuration.

  16. Design of automatic thruster assisted mooring systems for ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan P. Strand

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the mathematical modelling and controller design of an automatic thruster assisted position mooring system. Such control systems are applied to anchored floating production offloading and storage vessels and semi-subs. The controller is designed using model based control with a LQG feedback controller in conjunction with a Kalman filter. The controller design is in addition to the environmental loads accounting for the mooring forces acting on the vessel. This is reflected in the model structure and in the inclusion of new functionality.

  17. An Investigation into the Spectral Imaging of Hall Thruster Plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    exposure time λ wavelength ∗Research Engineer , ERC, Inc., 1 Ara Rd. Edwards AFB, CA 93524 †Research Scientist, AFRL/RQRS, 1 Ara Rd. Edwards AFB, CA...93524 ‡Research Engineer , AFRL/RQRS, 1 Ara Rd. Edwards AFB, CA 93524 1 of 18 Joint Conference of 30th ISTS, 34th IEPC and 6th NSAT, Kobe-Hyogo, Japan...Chamber 1 Interior Setup – Thruster mounted for profile view – Optical shade controlled with stepper motor driven stage • Blocks cathode and upstream

  18. Simplified Ion Thruster Xenon Feed System for NASA Science Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, John Steven; Randolph, Thomas M.; Hofer, Richard R.; Goebel, Dan M.

    2009-01-01

    The successful implementation of ion thruster technology on the Deep Space 1 technology demonstration mission paved the way for its first use on the Dawn science mission, which launched in September 2007. Both Deep Space 1 and Dawn used a "bang-bang" xenon feed system which has proven to be highly successful. This type of feed system, however, is complex with many parts and requires a significant amount of engineering work for architecture changes. A simplified feed system, with fewer parts and less engineering work for architecture changes, is desirable to reduce the feed system cost to future missions. An attractive new path for ion thruster feed systems is based on new components developed by industry in support of commercial applications of electric propulsion systems. For example, since the launch of Deep Space 1 tens of mechanical xenon pressure regulators have successfully flown on commercial spacecraft using electric propulsion. In addition, active proportional flow controllers have flown on the Hall-thruster-equipped Tacsat-2, are flying on the ion thruster GOCE mission, and will fly next year on the Advanced EHF spacecraft. This present paper briefly reviews the Dawn xenon feed system and those implemented on other xenon electric propulsion flight missions. A simplified feed system architecture is presented that is based on assembling flight-qualified components in a manner that will reduce non-recurring engineering associated with propulsion system architecture changes, and is compared to the NASA Dawn standard. The simplified feed system includes, compared to Dawn, passive high-pressure regulation, a reduced part count, reduced complexity due to cross-strapping, and reduced non-recurring engineering work required for feed system changes. A demonstration feed system was assembled using flight-like components and used to operate a laboratory NSTAR-class ion engine. Feed system components integrated into a single-string architecture successfully operated

  19. THE ROLE OF PICKUP IONS ON THE STRUCTURE OF THE VENUSIAN BOW SHOCK AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR THE TERMINATION SHOCK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Quanming; Shan Lican; Zhang Tielong; Wu Mingyu; Wang Shui [CAS Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment, Department of Geophysics and Planetary Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Zank, Gary P. [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research (CSPAR), University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Yang Zhongwei [SOA Key Laboratory for Polar Science, Polar Research Institute of China, Shanghai (China); Du Aimin, E-mail: qmlu@ustc.edu.cn [Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2013-08-20

    The recent crossing of the termination shock by Voyager 2 has demonstrated the important role of pickup ions (PUIs) in the physics of collisionless shocks. The Venus Express (VEX) spacecraft orbits Venus in a 24 hr elliptical orbit that crosses the bow shock twice a day. VEX provides a unique opportunity to investigate the role of PUIs on the structure of collisionless shocks more generally. Using VEX observations, we find that the strength of the Venusian bow shock is weaker when solar activity is strong. We demonstrate that this surprising anti-correlation is due to PUIs mediating the Venusian bow shock.

  20. Effect of Inductive Coil Geometry on the Operating Characteristics of an Inductive Pulsed Plasma Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallock, Ashley K.; Polzin, Kurt A.; Kimberlin, Adam C.; Perdue, Kevin A.

    2012-01-01

    Operational characteristics of two separate inductive thrusters with conical theta pinch coils of different cone angles are explored through thrust stand measurements and time- integrated, unfiltered photography. Trends in impulse bit measurements indicate that, in the present experimental configuration, the thruster with the inductive coil possessing a smaller cone angle produced larger values of thrust, in apparent contradiction to results of a previous thruster acceleration model. Areas of greater light intensity in photographs of thruster operation are assumed to qualitatively represent locations of increased current density. Light intensity is generally greater in images of the thruster with the smaller cone angle when compared to those of the thruster with the larger half cone angle for the same operating conditions. The intensity generally decreases in both thrusters for decreasing mass flow rate and capacitor voltage. The location of brightest light intensity shifts upstream for decreasing mass flow rate of propellant and downstream for decreasing applied voltage. Recognizing that there typically exists an optimum ratio of applied electric field to gas pressure with respect to breakdown efficiency, this result may indicate that the optimum ratio was not achieved uniformly over the coil face, leading to non-uniform and incomplete current sheet formation in violation of the model assumption of immediate formation where all the injected propellant is contained in a magnetically-impermeable current sheet.

  1. Study of the catastrophic discharge phenomenon in a Hall thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yongjie; Su, Hongbo; Li, Peng; Wei, Liqiu; Li, Hong; Peng, Wuji; Xu, Yu; Sun, Hezhi; Yu, Daren

    2017-10-01

    In a 1350-W Hall-effect thruster, in which a technique for pushing down the magnetic field is implemented, a catastrophic discharge phenomenon is identified by varying the magnetic field strength while keeping all other operating parameters constant. According to experiments, before and after the discharge catastrophe, the plume changes from focusing state to a divergent state, and discharge parameters such as discharge current and thrust exhibit noticeable changes. The divergence half-angle of the plume increases from 22° to 46°. The oscillation amplitude and mean values of the discharge current significantly increase from 0.8 A to 4 A and from 4.6 A to 6.3 A, respectively, while the thrust increases from 89.3 mN to 91 mN. Analysis of the experimental results shows that as the maximum magnetic field of the thruster we developed is in the plume region, the acceleration occurs in the plume region and a large number of Xe2+ ions appear in the plume area, the catastrophic discharge phenomenon observed.

  2. Ion angular distribution simulation of the HEMP Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duras, Julia; Koch, Norbert; Kahnfeld, Daniel; Bandelow, Gunnar; Matthias, Paul; Lüskow, Karl Felix; Schneider, Ralf; Kemnitz, Stefan

    2016-10-01

    Ion angular current and energy distributions are important parameters for ion thrusters, which are typically measured at a few tens of centimetres to a few meters distance from thruster exit. However, fully kinetic Particle-in-Cell simulations are not able to simulate such domain sizes, due to high computational costs. Therefore, a parallelisation strategy of the code is presented to reduce computational time. To map diagnostics information from the domain boundary of the calculational domain to the positions of experimental diagnostics the concept of transfer functions is introduced. The calculated ion beam angular distributions in the plume region are quite sensitive to boundary conditions of the potential, possible additional source contributions, e.g. from secondary electron emission at vessel walls, and charge exchange collisions. This work was supported by the Bavarian State Ministry of Education Science and the Arts and the German Space Agency DLR. We also like to thank R. Heidemann from THALES Electron Devices GmbH, for interesting and stimulating discussions.

  3. Engineering Risk Assessment of Space Thruster Challenge Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Donovan L.; Mattenberger, Christopher J.; Go, Susie

    2014-01-01

    The Engineering Risk Assessment (ERA) team at NASA Ames Research Center utilizes dynamic models with linked physics-of-failure analyses to produce quantitative risk assessments of space exploration missions. This paper applies the ERA approach to the baseline and extended versions of the PSAM Space Thruster Challenge Problem, which investigates mission risk for a deep space ion propulsion system with time-varying thruster requirements and operations schedules. The dynamic mission is modeled using a combination of discrete and continuous-time reliability elements within the commercially available GoldSim software. Loss-of-mission (LOM) probability results are generated via Monte Carlo sampling performed by the integrated model. Model convergence studies are presented to illustrate the sensitivity of integrated LOM results to the number of Monte Carlo trials. A deterministic risk model was also built for the three baseline and extended missions using the Ames Reliability Tool (ART), and results are compared to the simulation results to evaluate the relative importance of mission dynamics. The ART model did a reasonable job of matching the simulation models for the baseline case, while a hybrid approach using offline dynamic models was required for the extended missions. This study highlighted that state-of-the-art techniques can adequately adapt to a range of dynamic problems.

  4. Experimental Investigations of a Krypton Stationary Plasma Thruster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Bugrova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Stationary plasma thrusters are attractive electric propulsion systems for spacecrafts. The usual propellant is xenon. Among the other suggested propellants, krypton could be one of the best candidates. Most studies have been carried out with a Hall effect thruster previously designed for xenon. The ATON A-3 developed by MSTU MIREA (Moscow initially defined for xenon has been optimized for krypton. The stable high-performance ATON A-3 operation in Kr has been achieved after optimization of its magnetic field configuration and its optimization in different parameters: length and width of the channel, buffer volume dimensions, mode of the cathode operation, and input parameters. For a voltage of 400 V and the anode mass flow rate of 2.5 mg/s the anode efficiency reaches 60% and the specific impulse reaches 2900 s under A-3 operating with Kr. The achieved performances under operation A-3 with Kr are presented and compared with performances obtained with Xe.

  5. Assessment of Pole Erosion in a Magnetically Shielded Hall Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Ortega, Alejandro L.

    2014-01-01

    Numerical simulations of a 6-kW laboratory Hall thruster called H6 have been performed to quantify the erosion rate at the inner pole. The assessments have been made in two versions of the thruster, namely the unshielded (H6US) and magnetically shielded (H6MS) configurations. The simulations have been performed with the 2-D axisymmetric code Hall2De which employs a new multi-fluid ion algorithm to capture the presence of low-energy ions in the vicinity of the poles. It is found that the maximum computed erosion rate at the inner pole of the H6MS exceeds the measured rate of back-sputtered deposits by 4.5 times. This explains only part of the surface roughening that was observed after a 150-h wear test, which covered most of the pole area exposed to the plasma. For the majority of the pole surface the computed erosion rates are found to be below the back-sputter rate and comparable to those in the H6US which exhibited little to no sputtering in previous tests. Possible explanations for the discrepancy are discussed.

  6. Update on Modular Laser Launch System and Heat Exchanger Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kare, Jordin T.

    2011-11-01

    The heat-exchanger (HX) thruster and modular laser array provide a comparatively low-risk route to a ground-to-orbit laser launch system. Recently, the reference designs for the propulsion system, laser array, and overall launch system have evolved significantly. By combining a variable flow of dense propellant with the primary hydrogen propellant, the heat exchanger thruster can trade reduced Isp for increased thrust at liftoff, with minimal increase in tank mass. Single-mode CW fiber lasers up to 10 kW power allow a beam module to be built with off-the-shelf commercial lasers. Low-cost high-radiance laser diode arrays can deliver launch-level fluxes of 5-10 MW/m2 over tens of kilometers, sufficient to power a vehicle through the atmosphere, and high enough to hand off propulsion to a main laser array several hundred kilometers downrange. These and other enhancements enable a system design with a true single-stage vehicle in which the only component not yet demonstrated is the silicon-carbide heat exchanger itself.

  7. Space Shuttle vernier thruster long-life chamber development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohn, Douglas D.

    1990-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Reaction Control Subsystem (RCS) vernier thruster is a pressure fed engine that utilizes storable propellants to provide precise attitude control for the Orbiter. The current vernier thruster is life limited due to its chamber material. By developing an iridium-lined rhenium chamber for the vernier, substantial gains could be achieved in the operational life of the chamber. The present RCS vernier, its requirements, operating characteristics, and life limitations are described. The current technology status of iridium-lined rhenium is presented along with a description of the operational life capabilities to be gained from implementing this material into the design of a long life vernier chamber. Discussion of the proposed demonstration program to be performed by the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center to attain additional insight into the application of this technology to the RCS vernier, includes the technical objectives, approach, and program schedule. The plans for further development and integration with the Orbiter and the Shuttle system are also presented.

  8. Cross Body Thruster Control and Modeling of a Body of Revolution Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Controller SVT – Stern Vertical Thruster xvi THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK xvii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Foremost, this work would not have been...7 2 4 3 3.350 10 - 2.352 10 1.923 10 - 3.106 10 4.480 10 SVT n n n n − − − − − Τ = ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ + ⋅ (133) Again, these equations are only...thruster was varied to achieve a commanded pitch of 0[ ]deg . Table 11 presents the results: 67 FVT [RPM] SVT [RPM] Thruster Differential [RPM

  9. Characteristics of plasma properties in double discharge ablative pulsed plasma thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhiwen; Sun, Guorui; Liu, Zhen; Liu, Xiangyang; Xie, Kan; Wang, Ningfei

    2017-11-01

    Ablative pulsed plasma thrusters, the earliest electric space propulsion devices, create highly transient plasmas in short discharges that are expelled to create thrust. In recent years, the double-discharge ablative pulsed plasma thruster design has been proposed to improve the low-thrust efficiency. In this study, optical emission spectroscopy was applied to investigate the plasma properties in different regions and energy distributions. The electron temperature and electron density of the plasmas are derived and discussed. This study provides a physical mechanism for double-discharge pulsed plasma thrusters.

  10. Bow shock models for the velocity structure of ultracompact H II regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Buren, Dave; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark

    1992-01-01

    The velocity structure of ultracompact H II regions is modeled assuming that O stars moving supersonically through molecular clouds sweep up bow shocks to produce the observed objects. The expected radio recombination line emission is calculated for the case of an optically thin continuum and the strong effect of changing the viewing angle is shown. The kinematic information removes the degeneracy with ram pressure of a previous model, allowing measurement of stellar velocity vectors and cloud densities. A detailed model for G29.96-0.02 shows good agreement with observations by Wood and Churchwell, supporting the bow shock hypothesis. It is found that the exciting star of G29 is moving at 20 km/s relative to the gas, suggesting that O stars acquire a large velocity dispersion early in their lives.

  11. MAVEN observations of gyrotropic electron distributions upstream of Mars bow shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meziane, Karim; McFadden, James; Hamza, A. M.; Mazelle, Christian; Jakosky, Bruce; Mitchell, David; Halekas, Jasper; Espley, Jared; Connerney, J. E. D.

    2016-07-01

    Recent observations upstream from the Martian bow shock by the MAVEN Solar Wind Electron Analyzer (SWEA) experiment are presented. Flux enhancements of electrons with energies 70-400 eV are always observed when MAVEN spacecraft is magnetically connected to the shock. A detailed examination of the pitch angle distribution shows that the enhanced fluxes are associated with electrons moving away from Mars. In the full 3-D angular distribution, the electrons appear in an 'annulus' centered along the IMF direction. Moreover, the gyrotropic character is observed over a large range of shock geometry from quasi-parallel to quasi-perpendicular. These signatures in the electron distribution function strongly suggest that the reflection off the shock is the main mechanism for the production of Martian foreshock electrons. A quantitative analysis of electron distributions is carried out in order to probe the characteristics of the Martian bow shock.

  12. ULF waves upstream of the Venus bow shock - Properties of one-hertz waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlowski, D. S.; Russell, C. T.

    1991-01-01

    Pioneer Venus Orbiter data are used here to study the properties of a class of ULF upstream waves with relatively high observed frequencies. These waves show significant similarity to 'one-Hz' waves identified at earth in the ISEE 1 and 2 observations and the whistler waves identified earlier by IMP 6 observations. The waves appear almost immediately after the spacecraft crosses the magnetic field tangent line to the bow shock surface into the region of connected field lines. The wave amplitude decreases with distance from the shock measured along the magnetic field line. Group velocities calculated using the cold plasma dispersion relation indicate that the waves have sufficient upstream velocities to propagate form the shock into the solar wind. The totality of observations seem best explained by a source of right-handed whistler mode waves at the bow shock.

  13. Spatial scales of the magnetic ramp at the Venusian bow shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Dimmock

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Typically multi-spacecraft missions are ideally suited to the study of shock spatial scales due to the separation of temporal and spatial variations. These missions are not possible at all locations and therefore in-situ multi-spacecraft measurements are not available beyond the Earth. The present paper presents a study of shock spatial scales using single spacecraft measurements made by the Venus Express spacecraft. The scales are determined based on previous knowledge of shock overshoot scales measured by the ISEE and Cluster missions. The study encompasses around 60 crossings of the Venusian bow shock from 2006 to 2009. The statistical relationship between the shock ramp spatial scales, overshoot and upstream shock parameters are investigated. We find that despite somewhat different solar wind conditions our results are comparable with those based on multi-spacecraft missions at the terrestrial bow shock.

  14. Characterization of Saturn's bow shock: Magnetic field observations of quasi-perpendicular shocks

    CERN Document Server

    Sulaiman, A H; Dougherty, M K

    2016-01-01

    Collisionless shocks vary drastically from terrestrial to astrophysical regimes resulting in radically different characteristics. This poses two complexities. Firstly, separating the influences of these parameters on physical mechanisms such as energy dissipation. Secondly, correlating observations of shock waves over a wide range of each parameter, enough to span across different regimes. Investigating the latter has been restricted since the majority of studies on shocks at exotic regimes (such as supernova remnants) have been achieved either remotely or via simulations, but rarely by means of in-situ observations. Here we present the parameter space of MA bow shock crossings from 2004-2014 as observed by the Cassini spacecraft. We find that Saturn's bow shock exhibits characteristics akin to both terrestrial and astrophysical regimes (MA of order 100), which is principally controlled by the upstream magnetic field strength. Moreover, we determined the {\\theta}Bn of each crossing to show that Saturn's (days...

  15. The Energetic Ion Events Measured Upstream the Earth's Bow Shock by STEREO, Cluster, ACE and Geotail: Where is the Origin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronberg, E.; Bucik, R.; Haaland, S.; Klecker, B.; Daly, P. W.; Desai, M. I.; Yamauchi, M.; Gómez-Herrero, R.

    2009-12-01

    In earlier studies (e.g. Desai et al., 2008}) the observations of upstream events up to 3800 R_E were reported during declining phase of the solar cycle in 2007. These upstream events observed by STEREO-A mainly occurred after the corotating compression region passed the Earth's magnetosphere. We study the relation of these upstream events (from about 130 to 1600 R_E away from the Earth) with the observations in the direct vicinity of the terrestrial bow shock (up to X = 18 R_E). For this purpose simultaneous measurements of energetic ions with energies >30 keV by particle instruments onboard STEREO-A, STEREO-B, ACE (far upstream region), and onboard Cluster and Geotail (the direct vicinity of the bow shock) are used. The upstream events are observed simultaneously mainly when the magnetic field is pointing along the line joining those satellites in far upstream region with those near the terrestrial bow shock. Therefore the connection of the magnetic field to the bow shock plays an important role for the occurrence of the many energetic events far upstream. Nevertheless there is a number of energetic events whose origin seems not to be connected to the terrestrial bow shock. Using the estimation of the propagation time of solar wind discontinuities we show that these energetic events convect together with the solar wind, pass the upstream region of the Earth's bow shock and trigger the upstream events in the vicinity of the bow shock, not the other way around. The ion intensity observed by STEREO-A and STEREO-B in these cases is often significantly higher than that observed in front of the bow shock by Cluster and Geotail. This suggests that, particles are accelerated in the solar wind, possibly by enhanced wave activity in high speed streams and corotating interaction regions (CIR).

  16. Performance, Facility Pressure Effects, and Stability Characterization Tests of NASA's Hall Effect Rocket with Magnetic Shielding Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Huang, Wensheng; Haag, Thomas; Yim, John; Herman, Daniel; Williams, George; Gilland, James; Peterson, Peter; Hofer, Richard; Mikellides, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    NASAs Hall Effect Rocket with Magnetic Shielding (HERMeS) 12.5 kW Technology Demonstration Unit-1 (TDU-1) Hall thruster has been the subject of extensive technology maturation in preparation for flight system development. Part of the technology maturation effort included experimental evaluation of the TDU-1 thruster with conducting and dielectric front pole cover materials in two different electrical configurations. A graphite front pole cover thruster configuration with the thruster body electrically tied to cathode and an alumina front pole cover thruster configuration with the thruster body floating were evaluated. Both configurations were also evaluated at different facility background pressure conditions to evaluate background pressure effects on thruster operation. Performance characterization tests found that higher thruster performance was attained with the graphite front pole cover configuration with the thruster electrically tied to cathode. A total thrust efficiency of 68 and a total specific impulse of 2,820 s was demonstrated at a discharge voltage of 600 V and a discharge power of 12.5 kW. Thruster stability regimes were characterized with respect to the thruster discharge current oscillations and with maps of the current-voltage-magnetic field (IVB). Analysis of TDU-1 discharge current waveforms found that lower normalized discharge current peak-to-peak and root mean square magnitudes were attained when the thruster was electrically floated with alumina front pole covers. Background pressure effects characterization tests indicated that the thruster performance and stability was mostly invariant to changes in the facility background pressure for vacuum chamber pressure below 110-5 Torr-Xe (for thruster flow rate above 8 mgs). Power spectral density analysis of the discharge current waveform showed that increasing the vacuum chamber background pressure resulted in a higher discharge current dominant frequency. Finally the IVB maps of the TDU-1

  17. Observation of Motion of Bowed Strings and Resonant Strings in Violin Performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsutani, Akihiro

    2013-10-01

    The motion of a bowed string and a resonant string of a violin were simultaneously observed for the first time. The results of the direct observation of string motion in double stops and harmonics are also presented. The importance of the resonance was experimentally demonstrated from these observations. It is suggested that players should take account of the resonance and ideal Helmholtz motion in violin performances.

  18. [A drill-bow in Horace, Odes 3.6.7].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moog, Ferdinand Peter

    2004-01-01

    With the short poem Odes 3.26 Horaces says--ostensibly--farewell to the subject of love. A symbol of his retreat is the order given to his followers: they ought to lay in the Temple of Venus the three objects which he has used in his night escapades struggling for the girls' love: lucida funalia (torches), vectis (jemmies), and arcus. The last words has been puzzling the scholars for centuries. Many took offence at the transmitted text and offered conjectures of their own. Some, however, defended arcus using different arguemtns, for instance that arcus refers to bows and arrows as weapons of the lascivious night-reveller. Also the author of this article retains arcus in the text. The context and grammatical construction let assume that also this noun denotes a tool of a burglar, preferably a drill driven by a fiddle-bow. Such instruments were use by carpenters, joiners, and surgeons. Apart from this, gigantic drill-bows were known among military machines. These were frequently applied in sieges. Horace might have seen descriptions and drawings of them in military handbooks which he presumably read in order to prepare himself for his short and rather inglorious career as an officer in the army of Caesar's murderers. For Romans without military experience who suddenly obtained a high rank at war this was a typical way of making good their shortcomings. The parallel between the siege of a town and the attack upon the beloved girl's house must be regarded as a poetic exaggeration; the reader should be amused by an impracticable idea. Furthermore, a possible connection between Horace's poem and the Heracles of Euripides is pointed out here for the first time. In Heracles 942-6 the hero, driven insane by Lyssa's work, asks for his bow, his arrows and siege instruments to take Mycenae, the fortress of his tormentor Eurystheus. In fact he brakes into his own bedroom and kills his spouse and his son.

  19. Self-assembled silver nanoparticles in a bow-tie antenna configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskelinen, Antti-Pekka; Moerland, Robert J; Kostiainen, Mauri A; Törmä, Päivi

    2014-03-26

    The self-assembly of silver nanoparticles into a bow-tie antenna configuration is achieved with the DNA origami method. Instead of complicated particle geometries, spherical silver nanoparticles are used. Formation of the structures in high yields is verified with transmission electron microscopy and agarose gel electrophoresis. According to finite-difference time-domain simulations, the antenna configuration could be used as a DNA sensor.

  20. Increase The Absorptive Capacity Of Light Of The Photocells By Embedded In Bow-tie Antenna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Chenguang [School of Science, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing, 100876 (China); Lang Peilin [Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications (BUPT), Ministry of Education, Beijing 100876 (China); Zhang Ru, E-mail: napolles@sohu.com

    2011-02-01

    The application of silicon photocells has been widely used in biological and energy field, how to improve the efficiency of silicon photocells has become the research hot spots. The light absorption efficiency is not ideal, only 10% to 20% of solar energy can be transformed into electricity, the paper embeds metal bow-tie antenna in the crystals of silicon, by the field enhancement of the surface plasma, it highly increase the absorptive capacity of light of the silicon photocells.

  1. Variation of the ratio of specific heats across a detached bow shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, J. K.; Wiskerchen, M. J.

    1974-01-01

    Equations are derived which allow the ratio of specific heats behind the earth's bow shock to be evaluated if several pre-shock parameters (the specific-heat ratio, the Alfvenic Mach number, the sonic Mach number, and the angle between the shock normal at the stagnation point and the magnetic field) and the density jump across the shock are known. Numerical examples show that the dependence of the post-shock ratio on the pre-shock ratio is weak.

  2. Phenomenology of the earth's bow shock system - A summary description of experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenstadt, E. W.

    1976-01-01

    Observational data on the earth's bow shock system are classified and characterized. Foreshock components, midshock components, and aftershock components are discussed separately. Schematic representations of the field and plasma particle parameters are elaborated, with attention given to quasi-perpendicular geometry and quasi-parallel geometry. Magnetic pulsation structure is delineated. Schematic profiles of field, particle, and wave behavior through a representative quasi-perpendicular shock crossing are displayed.

  3. Farby-Perot observations and new models of the HH 47A and HH 47D bow shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Jon A.; Hartigan, Patrick; Heathcote, Steve; Raymond, John C.; Cecil, Gerald

    1994-01-01

    We present new models for the HH 47A and HH 47D bow shocks based on line flux and velocity maps obtained with an imaging Fabry-Perot spectrometer. We confirm that HH 47A and HH 47D each show a bow shock/Mach disk morphology, and that velocity variability in the outflow can account for the observed structures. While it was suggested a decade ago that the inner working surface HH 47A appears to be traveling into the wake of HH 47D, we find kinematic evidence that the outer bow shock HH 47D is also not the primary ejection event in the outflow but follows in the wake of previously ejected material. By comparing the observed line ratios and line profiles to those predicted by our bow shock models, we find that both bow shocks have substantially lower shock velocities than their space motions would imply, and that the emission from each bow shock is systematically blueshifted from the rest-frame velocity of the ambient emission, indicating a comoving preshock medium. We derive kinematic ages of approximately 1150 yr for HH 47D and approximately 550 yr for HH 47A, which implies that the stellar driving source may undergo repetitive eruptions similar to FU Orionis-type outbursts every several hundred years. This timescale is similar to estimates made by Reipurth and collaborators for the separation between major outbursts in the HH 34 and HH 111 stellar jets.

  4. Ship Bow Force-Deformation Curves for Ship-Impact Demand of Bridges considering Effect of Pile-Cap Depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Fan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since static analysis procedures in the vessel impact-resistant design codes neglect dynamic amplification effects related to bridge mass, ship-impact responses of bridges may be potentially underestimated. For this reason, several dynamic vessel-impact analysis techniques had been recently proposed, where a force-deformation curve was employed to model the vessel bow stiffness. Most of the recent works mainly focused on the force-deformation curves of the barge bows rather than the ship bows. In this paper, a high-resolution finite element model is developed to obtain the ship bow force-deformation curves. The global and local characteristics of the ship bow force-deformation curves are discussed based on the finite element crush analyses between the ship bows and the rigid walls. Effect of pile-cap depth on the force-deformation curves (rather than only impact forces is studied in detail, and the corresponding empirical equations are developed using an energy ratio method. Finally, a practical example of ship-bridge collision is investigated to validate the force-deformation curves considering the effect of pile-cap depth. It is found from the case study that the effect of pile-cap depth plays an important role in quantifying structural demand under impact loads. The case study also indicates that the developed equations are reasonable in practical applications.

  5. The structure of bow shocks formed by the interaction of pulsed-power driven magnetised plasma flows with conducting obstacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdiak, G. C.; Lebedev, S. V.; Bland, S. N.; Clayson, T.; Hare, J.; Suttle, L.; Suzuki-Vidal, F.; Garcia, D. C.; Chittenden, J. P.; Bott-Suzuki, S.; Ciardi, A.; Frank, A.; Lane, T. S.

    2017-07-01

    We present an experimental study of the development and structure of bow shocks produced by the interaction of a magnetised, collisional, super-Alfvénic plasma flow with conducting cylindrical obstacles. The plasma flow with an embedded, frozen-in magnetic field (ReM ˜ 20) is produced by the current-driven ablation of fine aluminium wires in an inverse, exploding wire array z-pinch. We show that the orientation of the embedded field with respect to the obstacles has a dramatic effect on the bow shock structure. When the field is aligned with the obstacle, a sharp bow shock is formed with a global structure that is determined simply by the fast magneto-sonic Mach number. When the field is orthogonal to the obstacle, magnetic draping occurs. This leads to the growth of a magnetic precursor and the subsequent development of a magnetised bow shock that is mediated by two-fluid effects, with an opening angle and a stand-off distance, that are both many times larger than in the parallel geometry. By changing the field orientation, we change the fluid regime and physical mechanisms that are responsible for the development of the bow shocks. MHD simulations show good agreement with the structure of well-developed bow shocks. However, collisionless, two-fluid effects will need to be included within models to accurately reproduce the development of the shock with an orthogonal B-field.

  6. Interactions of massive stars with the interstellar medium: Bow shocks and superbubbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maclow, M.

    1989-01-01

    Stellar winds and supernovae from massive stars carry most of the energy transferred from stars to the interstellar medium. The structures created by these processes reveal glimpses of the movement of mass between stars and the galactic ecological cycle. Two such structures are modeled bow shocks and superbubbles. Multiple supernovae and winds from OB associations carve large holes filled with hot gas in the galactic disk. These superbubbles sweep up thin, cold, dense shells that eventually grow large enough to blow out of the disk, venting hot gas into the galactic halo. To model superbubbles, the blast waves from supernovae within them are analytically described, showing they become subsonic before reaching the walls or cooling radiatively. The Kompaneets or thin-shell approximation are used to numerically model the growth of superbubbles in stratified disks until they become Raleigh-Taylor unstable. ZEUS, a two-dimensional hydrodynamics code was used to follow the breakup of the shell. The differences between the results and previous models are explained. Considering stars with strong winds leads to an explanation for ultracompact H II regions (USHRs). It was proposed that UCHRs are trapped in bow shocks swept up by the winds of massive stars moving supersonically through molecular clouds. A thin shell approximation was used to find the shape of such bow shocks. Simulated maps were produced and compared to G12.21 - 0.01, G29.96 - 0.02, G34.26 + 0.15, and G43.89 - 0.78.

  7. Risk analysis of urban gas pipeline network based on improved bow-tie model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, M. J.; You, Q. J.; Yue, Z.

    2017-11-01

    Gas pipeline network is a major hazard source in urban areas. In the event of an accident, there could be grave consequences. In order to understand more clearly the causes and consequences of gas pipeline network accidents, and to develop prevention and mitigation measures, the author puts forward the application of improved bow-tie model to analyze risks of urban gas pipeline network. The improved bow-tie model analyzes accident causes from four aspects: human, materials, environment and management; it also analyzes the consequences from four aspects: casualty, property loss, environment and society. Then it quantifies the causes and consequences. Risk identification, risk analysis, risk assessment, risk control, and risk management will be clearly shown in the model figures. Then it can suggest prevention and mitigation measures accordingly to help reduce accident rate of gas pipeline network. The results show that the whole process of an accident can be visually investigated using the bow-tie model. It can also provide reasons for and predict consequences of an unfortunate event. It is of great significance in order to analyze leakage failure of gas pipeline network.

  8. High-Energy-Density, Laboratory-Astrophysics Studies of Jets and Bow Shocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, J M; Wilde, B H; Rosen, P A; Perry, T S; Khokhlov, A M; Coker, R F; Frank, A; Keiter, P A; Blue, B E; Drake, R P; Knauer, J P; Williams, R R

    2005-01-24

    Large-scale directional outflows of supersonic plasma, also known as ''jets'', are ubiquitous phenomena in astrophysics [1]. The interaction of such jets with surrounding matter often results in spectacular bow shocks, and intense radiation from radio to gamma-ray wavelengths. The traditional approach to understanding such phenomena is through theoretical analysis and numerical simulations. However, such numerical simulations have limited resolution, often assume axial symmetry, do not include all relevant physical processes, and fail to scale correctly in Reynolds number and perhaps other key dimensionless parameters. Additionally, they are frequently not tested by comparison with laboratory experiments. Recent advances in high-energy-density physics using large inertial-confinement-fusion devices now allow controlled laboratory experiments on macroscopic volumes of plasma of direct relevance relevant to astrophysics [2]. In this Letter we report the first results of experiments designed to study the evolution of supersonic plasma jets and the bow shocks they drive into a surrounding medium. Our experiments reveal both regular and highly complex flow patterns in the bow shock, thus opening a new window--complementary to computer simulations--into understanding the nature of three-dimensional astrophysical jets.

  9. The Asymmetric Bow Shock/Pulsar Wind Nebula of PSR J2124–3358

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romani, Roger W.; Slane, Patrick; Green, Andrew W.

    2017-12-01

    We describe new measurements of the remarkable Hα/UV/X-ray bow shock and pulsar wind nebula (PWN) of the isolated millisecond pulsar (MSP) PSR J2124‑3358. Chandra X-ray Observatory imaging shows a one-sided jet structure with a softer equatorial outflow. KOALA integral field unit spectroscopy shows that non-radiative emission dominates the bow shock and that the Hα nebula is asymmetric about the pulsar velocity with an elongation into the plane of the sky. We extend analytic models of the contact discontinuity to accommodate such shapes and compare these to the data. Using Hubble Space Telescope UV detections of the pulsar and bow shock, radio timing distance, proper motion measurements, and the CXO-detected projected spin axis, we model the 3D PWN momentum flux distribution. The integrated momentum flux depends on the ionization of the ambient ISM, but for an expected ambient warm neutral medium, we infer I=2.4× {10}45 {{g}} {{cm}}2. This implies {M}{NS}=1.6{--}2.1 {M}ȯ , depending on the equation of state, which in turn suggests that the MSP gained significant mass during recycling and then lost its companion. However, this conclusion is at present tentative, since lower ionization allows ∼ 30 % lower masses, and uncertainty in the parallax allows up to 50% error.

  10. Interaction of single-pulse laser energy with bow shock in hypersonic flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Yanji

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Pressure sensing and schlieren imaging with high resolution and sensitivity are applied to the study of the interaction of single-pulse laser energy with bow shock at Mach 5. An Nd:YAG laser operated at 1.06 μm, 100 mJ pulse energy is used to break down the hypersonic flow in a shock tunnel. Three-dimensional Navier–Stokes equations are solved with an upwind scheme to simulate the interaction. The pressure at the stagnation point on the blunt body is measured and calculated to examine the pressure variation during the interaction. Schlieren imaging is used in conjunction with the calculated density gradients to examine the process of the interaction. The results show that the experimental pressure at the stagnation point on the blunt body and schlieren imaging fit well with the simulation. The pressure at the stagnation point on the blunt body will increase when the transmission shock approaches the blunt body and decrease with the formation of the rarefied wave. Bow shock is deformed during the interaction. Quasi-stationary waves are formed by high rate laser energy deposition to control the bow shock. The pressure and temperature at the stagnation point on the blunt body and the wave drag are reduced to 50%, 75% and 81% respectively according to the simulation. Schlieren imaging has provided important information for the investigation of the mechanism of the interaction.

  11. Magnetosheath Filamentary Structures Formed by Ion Acceleration at the Quasi-Parallel Bow Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidi, N.; Sibeck, D.; Gutynska, O.; Trattner, K. J.

    2014-01-01

    Results from 2.5-D electromagnetic hybrid simulations show the formation of field-aligned, filamentary plasma structures in the magnetosheath. They begin at the quasi-parallel bow shock and extend far into the magnetosheath. These structures exhibit anticorrelated, spatial oscillations in plasma density and ion temperature. Closer to the bow shock, magnetic field variations associated with density and temperature oscillations may also be present. Magnetosheath filamentary structures (MFS) form primarily in the quasi-parallel sheath; however, they may extend to the quasi-perpendicular magnetosheath. They occur over a wide range of solar wind Alfvénic Mach numbers and interplanetary magnetic field directions. At lower Mach numbers with lower levels of magnetosheath turbulence, MFS remain highly coherent over large distances. At higher Mach numbers, magnetosheath turbulence decreases the level of coherence. Magnetosheath filamentary structures result from localized ion acceleration at the quasi-parallel bow shock and the injection of energetic ions into the magnetosheath. The localized nature of ion acceleration is tied to the generation of fast magnetosonic waves at and upstream of the quasi-parallel shock. The increased pressure in flux tubes containing the shock accelerated ions results in the depletion of the thermal plasma in these flux tubes and the enhancement of density in flux tubes void of energetic ions. This results in the observed anticorrelation between ion temperature and plasma density.

  12. Status of the NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) Long-Duration Test After 30,352 Hours of Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Daniel A.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA s Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) program is tasked with significantly improving and extending the capabilities of current state-of-the-art NSTAR thruster. The service life capability of the NEXT ion thruster is being assessed by thruster wear test and life-modeling of critical thruster components, such as the ion optics and cathodes. The NEXT Long-Duration Test (LDT) was initiated to validate and qualify the NEXT thruster propellant throughput capability. The NEXT thruster completed the primary goal of the LDT; namely to demonstrate the project qualification throughput of 450 kg by the end of calendar year 2009. The NEXT LDT has demonstrated 30,352 hr of operation and processed 490 kg of xenon throughput--surpassing the NSTAR Extended Life Test hours demonstrated and more than double the throughput demonstrated by the NSTAR flight-spare. Thruster performance changes have been consistent with a priori predictions. Thruster erosion has been minimal and consistent with the thruster service life assessment, which predicts the first failure mode at greater than 750 kg throughput. The life-limiting failure mode for NEXT is predicted to be loss of structural integrity of the accelerator grid due to erosion by charge-exchange ions.

  13. Low Cost Refractory Matrix Composite Thruster for Mars Ascent Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The long-term goal for this effort is to develop a low-cost, high-temperature thruster. Within the attitude control propulsion community, many efforts have focused...

  14. Lifetime Improvement of Large Scale Green Monopropellant Thrusters via Novel, Long-Life Catalysts Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek proposes to develop a high performance, non-toxic storable, "green" monopropellant thruster suitable for in-space reaction control propulsion. The engine will...

  15. Kinetic Molecular Dynamic Model of Hall Thruster Channel Wall Erosion Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hall thrusters are being considered for many space missions because their high specific impulse delivers a larger payload mass fraction than chemical rockets. With a...

  16. Wide Throttling, High Throughput Hall Thruster for Science and Exploration Missions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In response to Topic S3.04 "Propulsion Systems," Busek Co. Inc. will develop a high throughput Hall effect thruster with a nominal peak power of 1-kW and wide...

  17. Colloid Thruster for Attitude Control Systems (ACS) and Tip-off Control Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop and test key technologies needed for an integrated, high thrust colloid thruster system with no moving parts, for spacecraft attitude control...

  18. Colloid micro-Newton thruster development for the ST7-DRS and LISA missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemer, John K.; Gamero-Castano, Manuel; Hruby, Vlad; Spence, Doug; Demmons, Nate; McCormick, Ryan; Roy, Tom

    2005-01-01

    We present recent progress and development of the Busek Colloid Micro-Newton Thruster (CMNT) for the Space Technology 7 Disturbance Reduction System (ST7-DRS) and Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) Missions.

  19. Deterministic errors in the Magellan orbit due to attitude control thruster activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Douglas B.; Mohan, Srinivas N.

    1989-01-01

    The pitch and yaw attitude control thrusters of the Magellan spacecraft generate uncoupled moments about the spacecraft center of mass, perturbing the spacecraft's orbit. A strategy to model these perturbing forces in the spacecraft equations of motion is presented. This strategy can model the thruster forces occurring in the nominal and contingency modes of attitude control operation. In the nominal mode, the thrusters fire only to balance the daily unloading of the momentum wheels. The contingency case will occur if a pitch or yaw axis momentum wheel fails, and the thrusters could fire up to 1200 times around the orbit to replace the failed wheel's momentum contribution. Deterministic errors are computed and shown to be under specified error requirements.

  20. HIGH ENERGY REPLACEMENT FOR TEFLON PROPELLANT IN PULSED PLASMA THRUSTERS Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This program will utilize a well-characterized Pulsed Plasma Thruster (PPT) to test experimental high-energy extinguishable solid propellants (HE), instead of...

  1. Effect of Ambipolar Potential on the Propulsive Performance of the GDM Plasma Thruster Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The gasdynamic mirror (GDM) plasma thruster has the ability to confine high-density plasma for the length of time required to heat it to the temperatures...

  2. Effect of Ambipolar Potential on the Propulsive Performance of the GDM Plasma Thruster Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Gasdynamic Mirror (GDM) thruster is an electric propulsion device, without electrodes, that will magnetically confine a plasma with such density and temperature...

  3. Hot-Fire Testing of a 1N AF-M315E Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnside, Christopher G.; Pedersen, Kevin; Pierce, Charles W.

    2015-01-01

    This hot-fire test continues NASA investigation of green propellant technologies for future missions. To show the potential for green propellants to replace some hydrazine systems in future spacecraft, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is continuing to embark on hot-fire test campaigns with various green propellant blends. NASA completed a hot-fire test of a 1N AF-M315E monopropellant thruster at the Marshall Space Flight Center in the small altitude test stand located in building 4205. The thruster is a ground test article used for basic performance determination and catalyst studies. The purpose of the hot-fire testing was for performance determination of a 1N size thruster and form a baseline from which to study catalyst performance and life with follow-on testing to be conducted at a later date. The thruster performed as expected. The result of the hot-fire testing are presented in this paper and presentation.

  4. Laser-Powered Thrusters for High Efficiency Variable Specific Impulse Missions (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Phipps, Claude R; Luke, J. R; Helgeson, W. D

    2007-01-01

    .... Considering a laser ablation propulsion device as an electric thruster, use of energetic ablation fuels can give thrust electrical efficiency greater than unity at the bottom of this Isp range...

  5. Hall Effect Thruster for High Power Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In Phase I Busek matured the design of an existing 15-kW laboratory thruster. Magnetic modeling was performed to generate a circuit incorporating magnetic shielding....

  6. Feasibility of a 5mN Laser-Driven Mini-Thruster Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We have developed a next-generation thruster under a Phase II SBIR which we believe can meet NASA requirements after some modifications and improvements. It is the...

  7. Propellantless Spacecraft Formation-Flying and Maneuvering with Photonic Laser Thrusters Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Until the former NIAC was closed, we had investigated a nano-meter accuracy formation flight method based on photon thrusters and tethers, Photon Tether Formation...

  8. Dynamic Particle Weight Remapping in Hybrid PIC Hall-effect Thruster Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Paper 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) May 2015-July 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Dynamic Particle Weight Remapping in Hybrid PIC Hall-effect Thruster...macroparticle growth and distribution and statistical noise are key challenges for particle kinetic models such as particle-in-cell ( PIC ). For hybrid fluid... PIC models such as those commonly used in Hall-effect thruster (HET) simulation, the statistical noise adds an additional challenge due to the

  9. Performance and Thermal Characterization of the NASA-300MS 20 kW Hall Effect Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Huang, Wensheng; Haag, Thomas; Shastry, Rohit; Soulas, George; Smith, Timothy; Mikellides, Ioannis; Hofer, Richard

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate is sponsoring the development of a high fidelity 15 kW-class long-life high performance Hall thruster for candidate NASA technology demonstration missions. An essential element of the development process is demonstration that incorporation of magnetic shielding on a 20 kW-class Hall thruster will yield significant improvements in the throughput capability of the thruster without any significant reduction in thruster performance. As such, NASA Glenn Research Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory collaborated on modifying the NASA-300M 20 kW Hall thruster to improve its propellant throughput capability. JPL and NASA Glenn researchers performed plasma numerical simulations with JPL's Hall2De and a commercially available magnetic modeling code that indicated significant enhancement in the throughput capability of the NASA-300M can be attained by modifying the thruster's magnetic circuit. This led to modifying the NASA-300M magnetic topology to a magnetically shielded topology. This paper presents performance evaluation results of the two NASA-300M magnetically shielded thruster configurations, designated 300MS and 300MS-2. The 300MS and 300MS-2 were operated at power levels between 2.5 and 20 kW at discharge voltages between 200 and 700 V. Discharge channel deposition from back-sputtered facility wall flux, and plasma potential and electron temperature measurements made on the inner and outer discharge channel surfaces confirmed that magnetic shielding was achieved. Peak total thrust efficiency of 64% and total specific impulse of 3,050 sec were demonstrated with the 300MS-2 at 20 kW. Thermal characterization results indicate that the boron nitride discharge chamber walls temperatures are approximately 100 C lower for the 300MS when compared to the NASA- 300M at the same thruster operating discharge power.

  10. Steady State Analysis of Hydrazine Catalytic Thrusters for Different Types of Catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-15

    AD-A023 231 STEADY STATE ANALYSIS OF HYDRAZINE CATALYTIC THRUSTERS FOR DIFFERENT TYPES OF CATALYSTS Antonio Crespo Instituto Nacional de Tecnica... ANALYSIS OF HYDRAZINE CATALYTIC -1 Jan 1975-30 June 1975 THRUSTERS FOR -DIFFERENT TYPES OF CATALYSTS 6. PERFORMING ORG. ftZPORT NU~n ER...ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK- AREA A WORK UNIT NUMBERS .INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE TECRICA AERO) ESPACIAL (INTA) 681308 PASEOPINTOR ROSALES

  11. Development of the Multiple Use Plug Hybrid for Nanosats (Muphyn) Miniature Thruster

    OpenAIRE

    Eilers, Shannon Dean

    2013-01-01

    The Multiple Use Plug Hybrid for Nanosats (MUPHyN) prototype thruster incorporates solutions to several major challenges that have traditionally limited the deployment of chemical propulsion systems on small spacecraft. The MUPHyN thruster offers several features that are uniquely suited for small satellite applications. These features include 1) a non-explosive ignition system, 2) non-mechanical thrust vectoring using secondary fluid injection on an aerospike nozzle cooled with the oxidizer ...

  12. Global Linear Stability Analysis of the Spoke Oscillation in Hall Effect Thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Stubbers, B.E. Jurczyk, et al. Hall Thruster Electron Mobility Investigation using Full 3DMonte Carlo Trajectory Simulations. In Proceedings of the...112] A. Dinklage, T. Klinger, G. Marx , and L. Schweikhard. Plasma physics: confinement, transport and collective effects. Berlin Springer Verlag...Garrigues. Study of stochastic effects in a Hall effect thruster using a test particles Monte- Carlo model. In Proceedings of the 32nd International

  13. Performance of a Cylindrical Hall-Effect Thruster with Magnetic Field Generated by Permanent Magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Raitses, Yevgeny; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2008-01-01

    While Hall thrusters can operate at high efficiency at kW power levels, it is difficult to construct one that operates over a broad envelope down to 100W while maintaining an efficiency of 45- 55%. Scaling to low power while holding the main dimensionless parameters constant requires a decrease in the thruster channel size and an increase in the magnetic field strength. Increasing the magnetic field becomes technically challenging since the field can saturate the miniaturized inner components of the magnetic circuit and scaling down the magnetic circuit leaves very little room for magnetic pole pieces and heat shields. An alternative approach is to employ a cylindrical Hall thruster (CHT) geometry. Laboratory model CHTs have operated at power levels ranging from the order of 50 Watts up to 1 kW. These thrusters exhibit performance characteristics which are comparable to conventional, annular Hall thrusters of similar size. Compared to the annular Hall thruster, the CHT has a lower insulator surface area to discharge chamber volume ratio. Consequently, there is the potential for reduced wall losses in the channel of a CHT, and any reduction in wall losses should translate into lower channel heating rates and reduced erosion. This makes the CHT geometry promising for low-power applications. Recently, a CHT that uses permanent magnets to produce the magnetic field topology was tested. This thruster has the promise of reduced power consumption over previous CHT iterations that employed electromagnets. Data are presented for two purposes: to expose the effect different controllable parameters have on the discharge and to summarize performance measurements (thrust, Isp, efficiency) obtained using a thrust stand. These data are used to gain insight into the thruster's operation and to allow for quantitative comparisons between the permanent magnet CHT and the electromagnet CHT.

  14. RHETT2/EPDM Hall Thruster Propulsion System Electromagnetic Compatibility Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, Charles J.; Sankovic, John M.; Freitas, Joseph; Lynn, Peter R.

    1997-01-01

    Electromagnetic compatibility measurements were obtained as part of the Electric Propulsion Demonstration Module (EPDM) flight qualification program. Tests were conducted on a Hall thruster system operating at a nominal 66O W discharge power. Measurements of conducted and radiated susceptibility and emissions were obtained and referenced to MEL-STD-461 C. The power processor showed some conducted susceptibility below 4 kHz for the magnet current and discharge voltage. Radiated susceptibility testing yielded a null result. Conducted emissions showed slight violations of the specified limit for MIL-461C CE03. Radiated emissions exceeded the RE02 standard at low frequencies, below 300 MHz, by up to 40 dB RV/m/MHz.

  15. Elimination of Lifetime Limiting Mechanism of Hall Thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, David T. (Inventor); Manzella, David H. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A Hall thruster includes inner and outer electromagnets, with the outer electromagnet circumferentially surrounding the inner electromagnet along a centerline axis and separated therefrom, inner and outer poles, in physical connection with their respective inner and outer electromagnets, with the inner pole having a mostly circular shape and the outer pole having a mostly annular shape, a discharge chamber separating the inner and outer poles, a combined anode electrode/gaseous propellant distributor, located at an upstream portion of the discharge chamber and supplying propellant gas and an actuator, in contact with a sleeve portion of the discharge chamber. The actuator is configured to extend the sleeve portion or portions of the discharge chamber along the centerline axis with respect to the inner and outer poles.

  16. Attitude Dynamics and Stability of a Simple Solar Photon Thruster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna D. Guerman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is dedicated to the development of a model of the attitude dynamics for a nonideal Simple Solar Photon Thruster (SSPT and to the analysis of sailcraft motions with respect to their centre of mass. Derivation of the expressions for force and torque due to solar radiation that is valid for the case, when there is a misalignment of the SSPT axis with the sun direction, is followed by study of sailcraft dynamics and stability properties. Analysis of stability shows that an ideally reflecting sail is unstable, while for a sailcraft with nonideal collector, the symmetry axis is stable with respect to the Sun direction for large variety of system parameters. The motion around symmetry axis is always unstable and requires an active stabilizer.

  17. On the capabilities of nano electrokinetic thrusters for space propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, F. J.; Hernaiz, G.; Miranda, J. J.; Sureda, M.

    2013-02-01

    A theoretical analysis considering the capabilities of nano electrokinetic thrusters for space propulsion is presented. The work describes an electro-hydro-dynamic model of the electrokinetic flow in nano-channels and represents the first attempt to exploit the advantages of the electrokinetic effect as the basis for a new class of nano-scale thrusters suitable for space propulsion. Among such advantages are their small volume, fundamental simplicity, overall low mass, and actuation efficiency. Their electrokinetic efficiency is affected by the slip length, surface charge, pH and molarity. These design variables are analyzed and optimized for the highest electrokinetic performance inside nano-channels. The optimization is done for power consumption, thrust and specific impulse resulting in high theoretical efficiency ˜99% with corresponding high thrust-to-power ratios. Performance curves are obtained for the electrokinetic design variables showing that high molarity electrolytes lead to high thrust and specific impulse values, whereas low molarities provide highest thrust-to-power ratios and efficiencies. A theoretically designed 100 nm wide by 1 μm long emitter optimized using the ideal performance charts developed would deliver thrusts from 5 to 43 μN, specific impulse from 60 to 210 s, and would have power consumption between 1-15 mW. It should be noted that although this is a detail analytical analysis no prototypes exist and any future experimental work will face challenges that could affect the final performance. By designing an array composed of thousands of these single electrokinetic emitters, it would result in a flexible and scalable propulsion system capable of providing a wide range of thrust control for different mission scenarios and maintaining very high efficiencies and thrust-to-power ratio by varying the number of emitters in use at any one time.

  18. Measuring the spacecraft and environmental interactions of the 8-cm mercury ion thrusters on the P80-1 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    The subject interface measurements are described for the Ion Auxiliary Propulsion System (IAPS) flight test of two 8-cm thrusters. The diagnostic devices and the effects to be measured include: 1) quartz crystal microbalances to detect nonvolatile deposition due to thruster operation; 2) warm and cold solar cell monitors for nonvolatile and volatile (mercury) deposition; 3) retarding potential ion collectors to characterize the low energy thruster ionic efflux; and 4) a probe to measure the spacecraft potential and thruster generated electron currents to biased spacecraft surfaces. The diagnostics will also assess space environmental interactions of the spacecraft and thrusters. The diagnostic data will characterize mercury thruster interfaces and provide data useful for future applications.

  19. Magnetic Field Effects on the Plume of a Diverging Cusped-Field Thruster

    KAUST Repository

    Matlock, Taylor

    2010-07-25

    The Diverging Cusped-Field Thruster (DCFT) uses three permanent ring magnets of alternating polarity to create a unique magnetic topology intended to reduce plasma losses to the discharge chamber surfaces. The magnetic field strength within the DCFT discharge chamber (up to 4 kG on axis) is much higher than in thrusters of similar geometry, which is believed to be a driving factor in the high measured anode efficiencies. The field strength in the near plume region is large as well, which may bear on the high beam divergences measured, with peaks in ion current found at angles of around 30-35 from the thruster axis. Characterization of the DCFT has heretofore involved only one magnetic topology. It is then the purpose of this study to investigate changes to the near-field plume caused by altering the shape and strength of the magnetic field. A thick magnetic collar, encircling the thruster body, is used to lower the field strength outside of the discharge chamber and thus lessen any effects caused by the external field. Changes in the thruster plume with field topology are monitored by the use of normal Langmuir and emissive probes interrogating the near-field plasma. Results are related to other observations that suggest a unified conceptual framework for the important near-exit region of the thruster.

  20. Hybrid-PIC Modeling of a High-Voltage, High-Specific-Impulse Hall Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brandon D.; Boyd, Iain D.; Kamhawi, Hani; Huang, Wensheng

    2013-01-01

    The primary life-limiting mechanism of Hall thrusters is the sputter erosion of the discharge channel walls by high-energy propellant ions. Because of the difficulty involved in characterizing this erosion experimentally, many past efforts have focused on numerical modeling to predict erosion rates and thruster lifespan, but those analyses were limited to Hall thrusters operating in the 200-400V discharge voltage range. Thrusters operating at higher discharge voltages (V(sub d) >= 500 V) present an erosion environment that may differ greatly from that of the lower-voltage thrusters modeled in the past. In this work, HPHall, a well-established hybrid-PIC code, is used to simulate NASA's High-Voltage Hall Accelerator (HiVHAc) at discharge voltages of 300, 400, and 500V as a first step towards modeling the discharge channel erosion. It is found that the model accurately predicts the thruster performance at all operating conditions to within 6%. The model predicts a normalized plasma potential profile that is consistent between all three operating points, with the acceleration zone appearing in the same approximate location. The expected trend of increasing electron temperature with increasing discharge voltage is observed. An analysis of the discharge current oscillations shows that the model predicts oscillations that are much greater in amplitude than those measured experimentally at all operating points, suggesting that the differences in oscillation amplitude are not strongly associated with discharge voltage.

  1. Hall Thruster Plume Measurements On-Board the Russian Express Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzella, David; Jankovsky, Robert; Elliott, Frederick; Mikellides, Ioannis; Jongeward, Gary; Allen, Doug

    2001-01-01

    The operation of North-South and East-West station-keeping Hall thruster propulsion systems on-board two Russian Express-A geosynchronous communication satellites were investigated through a collaborative effort with the manufacturer of the spacecraft. Over 435 firings of 16 different thrusters with a cumulative run time of over 550 hr were reported with no thruster failures. Momentum transfer due to plume impingement was evaluated based on reductions in the effective thrust of the SPT-100 thrusters and induced disturbance torques determined based on attitude control system data and range data. Hall thruster plasma plume effects on the transmission of C-band and Ku-band communication signals were shown to be negligible. On-orbit ion current density measurements were made and subsequently compared to predictions and ground test data. Ion energy, total pressure, and electric field strength measurements were also measured on-orbit. The effect of Hall thruster operation on solar array performance over several months was investigated. A subset of these data is presented.

  2. 3D ion velocity distribution function measurement in an electric thruster using laser induced fluorescence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, P Q; Jarrige, J; Cucchetti, E; Cannat, F; Packan, D

    2017-09-01

    Measuring the full ion velocity distribution function (IVDF) by non-intrusive techniques can improve our understanding of the ionization processes and beam dynamics at work in electric thrusters. In this paper, a Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF) tomographic reconstruction technique is applied to the measurement of the IVDF in the plume of a miniature Hall effect thruster. A setup is developed to move the laser axis along two rotation axes around the measurement volume. The fluorescence spectra taken from different viewing angles are combined using a tomographic reconstruction algorithm to build the complete 3D (in phase space) time-averaged distribution function. For the first time, this technique is used in the plume of a miniature Hall effect thruster to measure the full distribution function of the xenon ions. Two examples of reconstructions are provided, in front of the thruster nose-cone and in front of the anode channel. The reconstruction reveals the features of the ion beam, in particular on the thruster axis where a toroidal distribution function is observed. These findings are consistent with the thruster shape and operation. This technique, which can be used with other LIF schemes, could be helpful in revealing the details of the ion production regions and the beam dynamics. Using a more powerful laser source, the current implementation of the technique could be improved to reduce the measurement time and also to reconstruct the temporal evolution of the distribution function.

  3. 3D ion velocity distribution function measurement in an electric thruster using laser induced fluorescence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, P. Q.; Jarrige, J.; Cucchetti, E.; Cannat, F.; Packan, D.

    2017-09-01

    Measuring the full ion velocity distribution function (IVDF) by non-intrusive techniques can improve our understanding of the ionization processes and beam dynamics at work in electric thrusters. In this paper, a Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF) tomographic reconstruction technique is applied to the measurement of the IVDF in the plume of a miniature Hall effect thruster. A setup is developed to move the laser axis along two rotation axes around the measurement volume. The fluorescence spectra taken from different viewing angles are combined using a tomographic reconstruction algorithm to build the complete 3D (in phase space) time-averaged distribution function. For the first time, this technique is used in the plume of a miniature Hall effect thruster to measure the full distribution function of the xenon ions. Two examples of reconstructions are provided, in front of the thruster nose-cone and in front of the anode channel. The reconstruction reveals the features of the ion beam, in particular on the thruster axis where a toroidal distribution function is observed. These findings are consistent with the thruster shape and operation. This technique, which can be used with other LIF schemes, could be helpful in revealing the details of the ion production regions and the beam dynamics. Using a more powerful laser source, the current implementation of the technique could be improved to reduce the measurement time and also to reconstruct the temporal evolution of the distribution function.

  4. Effect of an isotropic outflow from the Galactic Centre on the bow-shock evolution along the orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajaček, M.; Eckart, A.; Karas, V.; Kunneriath, D.; Shahzamanian, B.; Sabha, N.; Mužić, K.; Valencia-S., M.

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the observations of several infrared-excess bow-shock sources and proplyd-like objects near the Galactic Centre, we analyse the effect of a potential outflow from the centre on bow-shock properties. We show that due to the non-negligible isotropic central outflow the bow-shock evolution along the orbit becomes asymmetric between the pre-peribothron and post-peribothron phases. This is demonstrated by the calculation of the bow-shock size evolution, the velocity along the shocked layer, the surface density of the bow shock, and by emission-measure maps close to the peribothron passage. Within the ambient velocity range of ≲2000 km s-1 the asymmetry is profound and the changes are considerable for different outflow velocities. As a case study we perform model calculations for the Dusty S-cluster Object (DSO/G2) as a potential young stellar object that is currently being monitored and has passed the pericentre at ˜2000 Schwarzschild radii from the supermassive black hole (Sgr A*) in 2014. We show that the velocity field of the shocked layer can contribute to the observed increasing line width of the DSO source up to the peribothron. Subsequently, supposing that the line emission originates in the bow shock, a decrease of the line width is expected. Furthermore, the decline of the bow-shock emission measure in the post-peribothron phase could help to reveal the emission of the putative star. The dominant contribution of circumstellar matter (either inflow or outflow) is consistent with the observed stable luminosity and compactness of the DSO/G2 source during its pericentre passage.

  5. Martian Bow Shock and Magnetic Pile-Up Barrier Formation Due to the Exosphere Ion Mass-Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eojin Kim

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Bow shock, formed by the interaction between the solar wind and a planet, is generated in different patterns depending on the conditions of the planet. In the case of the earth, its own strong magnetic field plays a critical role in determining the position of the bow shock. However, in the case of Mars of which has very a small intrinsic magnetic field, the bow shock is formed by the direct interaction between the solar wind and the Martian ionosphere. It is known that the position of the Martian bow shock is affected by the mass loading-effect by which the supersonic solar wind velocity becomes subsonic as the heavy ions originating from the planet are loaded on the solar wind. We simulated the Martian magnetosphere depending on the changes of the density and velocity of the solar wind by using the three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic model built by modifying the comet code that includes the mass loading effect. The Martian exosphere model of was employed as the Martian atmosphere model, and only the photoionization by the solar radiation was considered in the ionization process of the neutral atmosphere. In the simulation result under the normal solar wind conditions, the Martian bow shock position in the subsolar point direction was consistent with the result of the previous studies. The three-dimensional simulation results produced by varying the solar wind density and velocity were all included in the range of the Martian bow shock position observed by Mariner 4, Mars 2, 3, 5, and Phobos 2. Additionally, the simulation result also showed that the change of the solar wind density had a greater effect on the Martian bow shock position than the change of the solar wind velocity. Our result may be useful in analyzing the future observation data by Martian probes.

  6. Predictive fault-tolerant control of an all-thruster satellite in 6-DOF motion via neural network model updating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, M. M.; Assadian, N.

    2018-03-01

    The problem of controlling an all-thruster spacecraft in the coupled translational-rotational motion in presence of actuators fault and/or failure is investigated in this paper. The nonlinear model predictive control approach is used because of its ability to predict the future behavior of the system. The fault/failure of the thrusters changes the mapping between the commanded forces to the thrusters and actual force/torque generated by the thruster system. Thus, the basic six degree-of-freedom kinetic equations are separated from this mapping and a set of neural networks are trained off-line to learn the kinetic equations. Then, two neural networks are attached to these trained networks in order to learn the thruster commands to force/torque mappings on-line. Different off-nominal conditions are modeled so that neural networks can detect any failure and fault, including scale factor and misalignment of thrusters. A simple model of the spacecraft relative motion is used in MPC to decrease the computational burden. However, a precise model by the means of orbit propagation including different types of perturbation is utilized to evaluate the usefulness of the proposed approach in actual conditions. The numerical simulation shows that this method can successfully control the all-thruster spacecraft with ON-OFF thrusters in different combinations of thruster fault and/or failure.

  7. In-Situ Measurement of Hall Thruster Erosion Using a Fiber Optic Regression Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzin, Kurt; Korman, Valentin

    2009-01-01

    One potential life-limiting mechanism in a Hall thruster is the erosion of the ceramic material comprising the discharge channel. This is especially true for missions that require long thrusting periods and can be problematic for lifetime qualification, especially when attempting to qualify a thruster by analysis rather than a test lasting the full duration of the mission. In addition to lifetime, several analytical and numerical models include electrode erosion as a mechanism contributing to enhanced transport properties. However, there is still a great deal of dispute over the importance of erosion to transport in Hall thrusters. The capability to perform an in-situ measurement of discharge channel erosion is useful in addressing both the lifetime and transport concerns. An in-situ measurement would allow for real-time data regarding the erosion rates at different operating points, providing a quick method for empirically anchoring any analysis geared towards lifetime qualification. Erosion rate data over a thruster s operating envelope would also be useful in the modeling of the detailed physics inside the discharge chamber. There are many different sensors and techniques that have been employed to quantify discharge channel erosion in Hall thrusters. Snapshots of the wear pattern can be obtained at regular shutdown intervals using laser profilometry. Many non-intrusive techniques of varying complexity and sensitivity have been employed to detect the time-varying presence of erosion products in the thruster plume. These include the use quartz crystal microbalances, emission spectroscopy, laser induced flourescence, and cavity ring-down spectroscopy. While these techniques can provide a very accurate picture of the level of eroded material in the thruster plume, it is more difficult to use them to determine the location from which the material was eroded. Furthermore, none of the methods cited provide a true in-situ measure of erosion at the channel surface while

  8. ANALISA OLAH GERAK KAPAL DI GELOMBANG REGULER PADA KAPAL TIPE AXE BOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romadhoni Romadhoni

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Kapal dengan tipe AXE BOW merupakan pengembangan dari Inovasi Enlarged ship Concept yang di desain dan dikembangkan pada tahun 1995 oleh Delft University dan Damen Shipyard. Konsep Axe- Bow sendiri merupakan re-design bentuk haluan kapal yang pada penelitian sebelumnya dapat memberikan nilai hambatan yang lebih rendah dibandingan haluan tanpa bentuk Axe Bow.  Pada penelitian ini menganalisa tentang enam derajat kebebasan, khususnya pada gerakan vertikal yaitu heaving, pitching dan rolling pada gelombang reguler yang disajikan dalam grafik Response Amplitudo Operator (RAO’s. dengan memasukkan parameter seperti variasi kecepatan serta sudut gelombang yaitu 0°,45°,90° dan 180° kemudian dari grafik dapat terlihat nilai sub-kritis, kritis dan sangat kritis pada setiap gerakan. Perhitungan dilakukan dengan bantuan komputasi software Seakeeper ver.13, Hasil penelitian ini adalah nilai gerakan heave maksimum terjadi pada saat kecepatan 12.68 m/s kondisi sudut datang gelombang 180° dengan nilai RAO sebesar 2,54 m/m pada frekuensi 0,95 rad/s. Selanjutnya terjadi penurunan nilai gerakan roll seiring dengan bertambahnya kecepatan kapal. Nilai roll maksimum terjadi sudut datang gelombang 90° saat kecepatan kapal 0/ms dengan nilai RAO 15.5 deg/m pada frekuensi 0,95 rad/s, sedangkan nilai roll minimum terjadi pada kecepatan 12.68 m/s dengan sudut datang 90o nilai RAO 15.04 deg/m. pada fekuensi 1.25 rad/s. dan gerakan pith maksimum terjadi pada kecepatan kapal 12.68 m/s arah gelombang 180o dengan nilai RAO 11.29 deg/m pada frekuensi 1.0 rad/s.

  9. Analytic MHD Theory for Earth's Bow Shock at Low Mach Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabbe, Crockett L.; Cairns, Iver H.

    1995-01-01

    A previous MHD theory for the density jump at the Earth's bow shock, which assumed the Alfven M(A) and sonic M(s) Mach numbers are both much greater than 1, is reanalyzed and generalized. It is shown that the MHD jump equation can be analytically solved much more directly using perturbation theory, with the ordering determined by M(A) and M(s), and that the first-order perturbation solution is identical to the solution found in the earlier theory. The second-order perturbation solution is calculated, whereas the earlier approach cannot be used to obtain it. The second-order terms generally are important over most of the range of M(A) and M(s) in the solar wind when the angle theta between the normal to the bow shock and magnetic field is not close to 0 deg or 180 deg (the solutions are symmetric about 90 deg). This new perturbation solution is generally accurate under most solar wind conditions at 1 AU, with the exception of low Mach numbers when theta is close to 90 deg. In this exceptional case the new solution does not improve on the first-order solutions obtained earlier, and the predicted density ratio can vary by 10-20% from the exact numerical MHD solutions. For theta approx. = 90 deg another perturbation solution is derived that predicts the density ratio much more accurately. This second solution is typically accurate for quasi-perpendicular conditions. Taken together, these two analytical solutions are generally accurate for the Earth's bow shock, except in the rare circumstance that M(A) is less than or = 2. MHD and gasdynamic simulations have produced empirical models in which the shock's standoff distance a(s) is linearly related to the density jump ratio X at the subsolar point. Using an empirical relationship between a(s) and X obtained from MHD simulations, a(s) values predicted using the MHD solutions for X are compared with the predictions of phenomenological models commonly used for modeling observational data, and with the predictions of a

  10. Multispacecraft observations of the terrestrial bow shock and magnetopause during extreme solar wind disturbances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatrallyay, M.; Erdos, G.; Nemeth, Z.

    2012-01-01

    by the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) component transverse to the solar wind flow. The observed magnetopause crossings could be predicted with a reasonable accuracy (0.1-0.2 RE) by one of the presented models at least. For geosynchronous magnetopause crossings observed by the GOES satellites, (1) the new model...... interplanetary disturbances. The results of a global 3-D MHD model were in good agreement with the Cluster observations on 17 January 2005, but they did not predict the bow shock crossings on 31 October 2003....

  11. Beam-Steerable Microstrip-Fed Bow-Tie Antenna Array for Fifth Generation Cellular Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ojaroudiparchin, Naser; Shen, Ming; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2016-01-01

    The design and performance of mm-wave phased array antenna for 5G mobile broadband communication systems has been provided in this manuscript. The antenna is designed on a N9000 PTFE substrate with 0.787 mm thickness and 2.2 dielectric constant and 65×130 mm2 overall dimension. Eight elements...... of bow-tie antennas have been used at the top-edge region of mobile phone PCB. The antenna elements fed by microstrip lines are designed to operate at 17 GHz. The simulated results give good performances in terms of different antenna parameters. In addition, an investigation on the distance between...

  12. Estimation of violin bowing features from Audio recordings with Convolutional Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez-Carillo, Alfonso; Purwins, Hendrik

    2017-01-01

    . However, the acquisition process usually involves the use of expensive sensing systems and complex setups that are generally intrusive in practice. An alternative to direct acquisition is through the analysis of the audio signal. So called indirect acquisition has many advantages including the simplicity...... and low-cost of the acquisition and its nonintrusive nature. The main challenge is designing robust detection algorithms to be as accurate as the direct approaches. In this paper, we present an indirect acquisition method to estimate violin bowing controls from audio signal analysis based on training...

  13. Dynamics of ion sound waves in the front of the terrestrial bow shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Giagkiozis

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Single spacecraft measurements from the Cluster 3 satellite are used to identify nonlinear processes in ion-sound turbulence observed within the front of the quasiperpendicular terrestrial bow shock. Ion sound waves possess spatial scales that are too small for the efficient use of multipoint measurements on inter-satellite separation scales. However, it is shown how frequency domain modelling can be applied to single spacecraft electric field data obtained using the EFW internal burst mode. The resulting characteristics of the nonlinear processes are used to argue about the possible wave sources and investigate their dynamics.

  14. Performance of Solar Electric Powered Deep Space Missions Using Hall Thruster Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzberger, Kevin E.; Manzella, David

    2006-01-01

    Power limited, low-thrust trajectories were assessed for missions to Jupiter, Saturn, and Neptune utilizing a single Venus Gravity Assist (VGA) and a primary propulsion system based on either a 3-kW high voltage Hall thruster, of the type being developed by the NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology Program, or an 8-kW variant of this thruster. These Hall thrusters operate with specific impulses below 3,000 seconds. A trade study was conducted to examine mission parameters that include: net delivered mass (NDM), beginning-of-life (BOL) solar array power, heliocentric transfer time, required launch vehicle, number of operating thrusters, and throttle profile. The top performing spacecraft configuration was defined to be the one that delivered the highest mass for a range of transfer times. In order to evaluate the potential future benefit of using next generation Hall thrusters as the primary propulsion system, comparisons were made with the advanced state-of-the-art (ASOA), 7-kW, 4,100 second NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) for the same mission scenarios. For the BOL array powers considered in this study (less than 30 kW), the results show that the performance of the Hall thrusters, relative to NEXT, is largely dependant on the performance capability of the launch vehicle, and that at least a 10 percent performance gain, equating to at least an additional 200 kg dry mass at each target planet, is achieved over the higher specific impulse NEXT when launched on an Atlas 551.

  15. Archery by the Apaches – implications of using the bow and arrow in hunter-gatherer communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žiga Šmit

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on the technical and social details of production, training, and use of archery equipment by a Native American tribe, the Apaches. The study aims to understand the use of the bow in the Mesolithic and Early and Middle Neolithic societies of the Old World. The paper further describes arrow ballistics. An arrow and bow with similar dimensions and materials to those used by the Apaches was reconstructed and used in ballistic experiments. Shooting and the subsequent model calculation showed that the effective range of arrows made of reed and projected by a bow of medium strength (16–18kg was not more than approx. 20m. Due to the initial flat part of the ballistic trajectory, such arrows were quite efficient in close-range contests. Within the model calculation, a regression procedure was introduced to determine the arrow air-drag parameters from an ensemble of shots.

  16. Performance of a Cylindrical Hall-Effect Thruster Using Permanent Magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Raitses, Y.; Merino, E.; Fisch, N. J.

    2009-01-01

    While annular Hall thrusters can operate at high efficiency at kW power levels, it is difficult to construct one that operates over a broad envelope from 1 kW down to 100 W while maintaining an efficiency of 45-55%. Scaling to low power while holding the main dimensionless parameters constant requires a decrease in the thruster channel size and an increase in the magnetic field strength. Increasing the magnetic field becomes technically challenging since the field can saturate the miniaturized inner components of the magnetic circuit and scaling down the magnetic circuit leaves very little room for magnetic pole pieces and heat shields. In addition, the central magnetic pole piece defining the interior wall of the annular channel can experience excessive heat loads in a miniaturized Hall thruster, with the temperature eventually exceeding the Curie temperature of the material and in extreme circumstances leading to accelerated erosion of the channel wall. An alternative approach is to employ a cylindrical Hall thruster (CHT) geometry. Laboratory model CHTs have operated at power levels ranging from 50 W up to 1 kW. These thrusters exhibit performance characteristics that are comparable to conventional, annular Hall thrusters of similar size. Compared to the annular Hall thruster, the CHTs insulator surface area to discharge chamber volume ratio is lower. Consequently, there is the potential for reduced wall losses in the channel of a CHT, and any reduction in wall losses should translate into lower channel heating rates and reduced erosion, making the CHT geometry promising for low-power applications. This potential for high performance in the low-power regime has served as the impetus for research and development efforts aimed at understanding and improving CHT performance. Recently, a 2.6 cm channel diameter permanent magnet CHT (shown in Fig. 1) was tested. This thruster has the promise of reduced power consumption over previous CHT iterations that employed

  17. Modeling and Thrust Optimization of a Bio-Inspired Pulsatile Jet Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieg, Michael W.

    A new type of thruster technology offers promising low speed maneuvering capabilities for underwater vehicles. Similar to the natural locomotion of squid and jellyfish the thruster successively forces fluid jets in and out of a small internal cavity. We investigate several properties of squid and jellyfish locomotion to drive the thruster design including actuation of nozzle geometry and vortex ring thrust augmentation. The thrusters are compact with no extruding components to negatively impact the vehicle's drag. These devices have thrust rise-times orders of magnitude faster than those reported for typical propeller thrusters, making them an attractive option for high accuracy underwater vehicle maneuvering. The dynamics of starting jet circulation, impulse, and kinetic energy are derived in terms of kinematics at the entrance boundary of a semi-infinite domain, specifically identifying the effect of a non-parallel incoming flow. A model for pressure at the nozzle is derived without the typical reliance on a predetermined potential function, making it a powerful tool for modeling any jet flow. Jets are created from multiple nozzle configurations to validate these models, and velocity and vorticity fields are determined using DPIV techniques. A converging starting jet resulted in circulation 90--100%, impulse 70--75%, and energy 105--135% larger than a parallel starting jet with identical volume flux and piston velocity, depending on the stroke ratio. The new model is a much better predictor of the jet properties than the standard 1D slug model. A simplified thrust model, was derived to describe the high frequency thruster characteristics. This model accurately predicts the average thrust, measured directly, for stroke ratios up to a critical value where the leading vortex ring separates from the remainder of the shear flow. A new model predicting the vortex ring pinch-off process is developed based on characteristic centerline velocities. The vortex ring pinch

  18. Development of a Micro-Thruster Test Facility which fulfils the LISA requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hey, Franz Georg; Keller, A.; Johann, U.; Braxmaier, C.; Tajmar, M.; Fitzsimons, E.; Weise, D.

    2015-05-01

    In the context of investigations for a sufficient attitude control thruster for LISA, we have developed a thruster test facility which consists of a highly precise thrust balance coupled with plasma diagnostics. In parallel to the test facility development, investigations to downscale a High Efficiency Multistage Plasma Thruster (HEMP-T) are also being carried out. The thruster has been used to demonstrate the measurement capabilities of the facility. The setup allows a parallel operation of all instruments and can also be used for other types of μN propulsion systems including cold gas thrusters. The thrust balance consists of two pendulums. As read out a heterodyne laser interferometer is used. Differential wave front sensing (DWS) enables the measurement of the pendulum tilt which, via suitable calibration using an electrostatic comb, can be converted to a thrust. The whole setup is a symmetric configuration enabling a common-mode rejection of the dominant noise sources (e.g. seismic noise etc.). The thrust balance has a demonstrated precision of 0.1 μN. Based on our unique design, this precision can be attained down to 10-3 Hz. Thus, the measurement setup is especially suitable for characterising the thrust noise of potential eLISA propulsion candidates. We give an overview of the design, the present performance and the future plans.

  19. Spatiotemporal study of gas heating mechanisms in a radio-frequency electrothermal plasma micro-thruster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia eGreig

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A spatiotemporal study of neutral gas temperature during the first 100 s of operation for a radio-frequency electrothermal plasma micro-thruster operating on nitrogen at 60 W and 1.5 Torr is performed to identify the heating mechanisms involved. Neutral gas temperature is estimated from rovibrational band fitting of the nitrogen second positive system. A set of baffles are used to restrict the optical image and separate the heating mechanisms occurring in the central bulk discharge region and near the thruster walls.For each spatial region there are three distinct gas heating mechanisms being fast heating from ion-neutral collisions with timescales of tens of milliseconds, intermediate heating with timescales of 10 s from ion bombardment on the inner thruster tube surface creating wall heating, and slow heating with timescales of 100 s from gradual warming of the entire thruster housing. The results are discussed in relation to optimising the thermal properties of future thruster designs.

  20. Integration Testing of a Modular Discharge Supply for NASA's High Voltage Hall Accelerator Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinero, Luis R.; Kamhawi, hani; Drummond, Geoff

    2010-01-01

    NASA s In-Space Propulsion Technology Program is developing a high performance Hall thruster that can fulfill the needs of future Discovery-class missions. The result of this effort is the High Voltage Hall Accelerator thruster that can operate over a power range from 0.3 to 3.5 kW and a specific impulse from 1,000 to 2,800 sec, and process 300 kg of xenon propellant. Simultaneously, a 4.0 kW discharge power supply comprised of two parallel modules was developed. These power modules use an innovative three-phase resonant topology that can efficiently supply full power to the thruster at an output voltage range of 200 to 700 V at an input voltage range of 80 to 160 V. Efficiencies as high as 95.9 percent were measured during an integration test with the NASA103M.XL thruster. The accuracy of the master/slave current sharing circuit and various thruster ignition techniques were evaluated.

  1. Study on the influences of ionization region material arrangement on Hall thruster channel discharge characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, HU; Ping, DUAN; Jilei, SONG; Wenqing, LI; Long, CHEN; Xingyu, BIAN

    2018-02-01

    There exists strong interaction between the plasma and channel wall in the Hall thruster, which greatly affects the discharge performance of the thruster. In this paper, a two-dimensional physical model is established based on the actual size of an Aton P70 Hall thruster discharge channel. The particle-in-cell simulation method is applied to study the influences of segmented low emissive graphite electrode biased with anode voltage on the discharge characteristics of the Hall thruster channel. The influences of segmented electrode placed at the ionization region on electric potential, ion number density, electron temperature, ionization rate, discharge current and specific impulse are discussed. The results show that, when segmented electrode is placed at the ionization region, the axial length of the acceleration region is shortened, the equipotential lines tend to be vertical with wall at the acceleration region, thus radial velocity of ions is reduced along with the wall corrosion. The axial position of the maximal electron temperature moves towards the exit with the expansion of ionization region. Furthermore, the electron-wall collision frequency and ionization rate also increase, the discharge current decreases and the specific impulse of the Hall thruster is slightly enhanced.

  2. Cometary compact H II regions are stellar-wind bow shocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Buren, D.; Mac Low, M.; Wood, D.O.S.; Churchwell, E. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (USA) Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, Toronto (Canada) NASA, Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (USA) Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics, Boulder, CO (USA) Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (USA) Washburn Observatory, Madison, WI (USA))

    1990-04-01

    Comet-shaped H II regions, like G34.3 + 0.2, are easily explained as bow shocks created by wind-blowing massive stars moving supersonically through molecular clouds. The required velocities of the stars through dense clumps are less than about 10 km/s, comparable to the velocity dispersion of stars in OB associations. An analytic model of bow shocks matches the gross characteristics seen in the radio continuum and the velocity structure inferred from hydrogen recombination and molecular line observations. The champagne flow model cannot account for these structures. VLBI observations of masers associated with the shells of cometary compact H II regions should reveal tailward proper motions predominantly parallel to the shell, rather than perpendicular. It is predicted that over a decade baseline, high signal-to-noise VLA observations of this class of objects will show headward pattern motion in the direction of the symmetry axis, but not expansion. Finally, shock-generated and coronal infrared lines are also predicted. 57 refs.

  3. Simulation study of magnetic holes at the Earth's collisionless bow shock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliasson, B; Shukla, P K [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik IV, Fakultaet fuer Physik und Astronomie, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Department of Physics, Umeaa University, SE-90187 Umeaa (Sweden)

    2007-06-15

    Recent observations by the Cluster and Double Star spacecraft at the Earth's bow shock have revealed localized magnetic field and density holes in the solar wind plasma. These structures are characterized by a local depletion of the magnetic field and the plasma density, and by a strong increase of the plasma temperature inside the magnetic and density cavities. Our objective here is to report results of a hybrid-Vlasov simulations of ion-Larmor-radius sized plasma density cavities with parameters that are representative of the high-beta solar wind plasma at the Earth's bow shock. We observe the asymmetric self-steepening and shock-formation of the cavity, and a strong localized temperature increase (by a factor of 5-7) of the plasma due to reflections and shock surfing of the ions against the collisionless shock. Temperature maxima are correlated with density minima, in agreement with Cluster observations. For oblique incidence of the solar wind, we observe efficient acceleration of ions along the magnetic field lines by the shock drift acceleration process.

  4. Ionospheric Bow Waves and Perturbations Induced by the 21 August 2017 Solar Eclipse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shun-Rong; Erickson, Philip J.; Goncharenko, Larisa P.; Coster, Anthea J.; Rideout, William; Vierinen, Juha

    2017-12-01

    During solar eclipses, the Moon's shadow causes a large reduction in atmospheric energy input, including not only the stratosphere but also the thermosphere and ionosphere. The eclipse shadow has a supersonic motion which is theoretically expected to generate atmospheric bow waves, similar to a fast-moving river boat, with waves starting in the lower atmosphere and propagating into the ionosphere. However, previous geographically limited observations have had difficulty detecting these weak waves within the natural background atmospheric variability, and the existence of eclipse-induced ionospheric waves and their evolution in a complex coupling system remain controversial. During the 21 August 2017 eclipse, high fidelity and wide coverage ionospheric observations provided for the first time an oversampled set of eclipse data, using a dense network of Global Navigation Satellite System receivers at ˜2,000 sites in North America. We show the first unambiguous evidence of ionospheric bow waves as electron content disturbances over central/eastern United States, with ˜1 h duration, 300-400 km wavelength and 280 m/s phase speed emanating from and tailing the totality region. We also identify large ionospheric perturbations moving at the supersonic speed of the maximum solar obscuration which are too fast to be associated with known gravity wave or large-scale traveling ionospheric disturbance processes. This study reveals complex interconnections between the Sun, Moon, and Earth's neutral atmosphere and ionosphere and demonstrates persistent coupling processes between different components of the Earth's atmosphere, a topic of significant community interest.

  5. Compound semiconductor alloys: From atomic-scale structure to bandgap bowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnohr, C. S.

    2015-09-01

    Compound semiconductor alloys such as InxGa1-xAs, GaAsxP1-x, or CuInxGa1-xSe2 are increasingly employed in numerous electronic, optoelectronic, and photonic devices due to the possibility of tuning their properties over a wide parameter range simply by adjusting the alloy composition. Interestingly, the material properties are also determined by the atomic-scale structure of the alloys on the subnanometer scale. These local atomic arrangements exhibit a striking deviation from the average crystallographic structure featuring different element-specific bond lengths, pronounced bond angle relaxation and severe atomic displacements. The latter, in particular, have a strong influence on the bandgap energy and give rise to a significant contribution to the experimentally observed bandgap bowing. This article therefore reviews experimental and theoretical studies of the atomic-scale structure of III-V and II-VI zincblende alloys and I-III-VI2 chalcopyrite alloys and explains the characteristic findings in terms of bond length and bond angle relaxation. Different approaches to describe and predict the bandgap bowing are presented and the correlation with local structural parameters is discussed in detail. The article further highlights both similarities and differences between the cubic zincblende alloys and the more complex chalcopyrite alloys and demonstrates that similar effects can also be expected for other tetrahedrally coordinated semiconductors of the adamantine structural family.

  6. Diversity of sponges (Porifera) from cryptic habitats on the Belize barrier reef near Carrie Bow Cay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rützler, Klaus; Piantoni, Carla; Van Soest, Rob W M; Díaz, M Cristina

    2014-05-29

    The Caribbean barrier reef near Carrie Bow Cay, Belize, has been a focus of Smithsonian Institution (Washington) reef and mangrove investigations since the early 1970s. Systematics and biology of sponges (Porifera) were addressed by several researchers but none of the studies dealt with cryptic habitats, such as the shaded undersides of coral rubble, reef crevices, and caves, although a high species diversity was recognized and samples were taken for future reference and study. This paper is the result of processing samples taken between 1972 and 2012. In all, 122 species were identified, 14 of them new (including one new genus). The new species are Tetralophophora (new genus) mesoamericana, Geodia cribrata, Placospongia caribica, Prosuberites carriebowensis, Timea diplasterina, Timea oxyasterina, Rhaphidhistia belizensis, Wigginsia curlewensis, Phorbas aurantiacus, Myrmekioderma laminatum, Niphates arenata, Siphonodictyon occultum, Xestospongia purpurea, and Aplysina sciophila. We determined that about 75 of the 122 cryptic sponge species studied (61%) are exclusive members of the sciophilic community, 47 (39 %) occur in both, light-exposed and shaded or dark habitats. Since we estimate the previously known sponge population of Carrie Bow reefs and mangroves at about 200 species, the cryptic fauna makes up 38 % of total diversity.

  7. Modeling plasma glow discharges in Air near a Mach 3 bow shock with KRONOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassou, Sebastien; Labaune, Julien; Packan, Denis; Elias, Paul-Quentin

    2016-09-01

    In this work, plasma glow discharge in Air is modeled near a Mach 3 bow shock. Numerical simulations are performed using the coupling KRONOS which have been developed at ONERA. The flow field is modeled using the code CFD: CEDRE from ONERA and the electrical and plasma part by the EDF open-source code CODE_SATURNE. The plasma kinetic modeling consists on a two-term Boltzmann equation solver and a chemical reaction solver depending of the electric field. The coupling KRONOS is fully parallelized and run on ONERA supercomputers. The shock wave is formed by the propagation of a supersonic flow (M = 3) through a truncated conical model mounted with a central spike. Depending on the spike's voltage value, corona, glow or arc regime could be obtained in a steady flow. The parameters for the supersonic flow and the spike configurations are chosen to be in glow discharge regime and to reproduce the experimental setup. In our simulations, 12 species and 80 reactions (ionization, electronic or vibrational excitation, attachment etc ...) are considered to properly model the glow discharge and the afterglow. In a stationary flow, glow discharge is observed only at the upstream of the shock wave near the high voltage spike. Behind the bow shock, in the afterglow, negative ions are provided by electrons attachment with O2. The negative ions flow convection ensures the electrical conduction and the establishment of the glow discharge.

  8. Numerical Simulation of High Specific Impulse Ion Thruster Grid System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Yoshinori

    A high specific impulse ion thruster (HiIsp-IT) operated at a voltage of over 10 kV has been studied and the problems of direct ion impingement on the accelerating grid and of production and impingement of charge-exchange ions have been considered. In order to investigate these problems and to facilitate the grid systems design, a three-dimensional particle simulation code that employs an energy compensation method, a simplified pre-sheath definition method, a region sharing method was developed. This code also simulates the production and subsequent motion of charge-exchange ions. Using this code, results obtained quickly using a personal computer are shown to be in good agreement with experimental data associated with: the crossover impingement under low-beam-current condition and the star-shaped pattern of ion beam cross section as it passes through the accelerating grid. It argued that this code is a useful tool for rapid preliminary analysis and design of HiIsp-IT grid systems.

  9. Vacuum Plasma Spray (VPS) Material Applications for Thruster Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elam, Sandra; Holmes, Richard; Hickman, Robert

    2006-01-01

    A variety of vacuum plasma spray (VPS) material systems have been successfully applied to injector and thrust chamber components. VPS offers a versatile fabrication process with relatively low costs to produce near net shape parts. The materials available with VPS increase operating margins and improve component life by providing superior thermal and oxidation protection in specific engine environments. Functional gradient materials (FGM) formed with VPS allow thrust chamber liners to be fabricated with GRCop-84 (an alloy of copper, chrome, and niobium) and a protective layer of NiCrAlY on the hot wall. A variety of thrust chamber liner designs have been fabricated to demonstrate the versatility of the process. Hot-fire test results have confined the improved durability and high temperature performance of the material systems for thrust chamber liners. Similar FGM s have been applied to provide superior thermal protection on injector faceplates with NiCrAlY and zirconia coatings. The durability of the applied materials has been demonstrated with hot-fire cycle testing on injector faceplates in high temperature environments. The material systems can benefit the components used in booster and main engine propulsion systems. More recent VPS efforts are focused on producing rhenium based material systems for high temperature applications to benefit in-space engines like reaction control system (RCS) thrusters.

  10. Investigation of a Gallium MPD Thruster with an Ablating Cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Robert E.; Burton, Rodney L.; Polzin, Kurt A.

    2010-01-01

    Arc impedance, exhaust velocity, and plasma probe measurements are presented. The thruster is driven by a 50 microsecond pulse from a 6.2 milliohm pulse forming network, and gallium is supplied to the discharge by evaporation of the cathode. The arc voltage is found to vary linearly with the discharge current with an arc impedance of 6.5 milliohms. Electrostatic probes yield an exhaust velocity that is invariant with the discharge current and has a peak value of 20 kilometers per second, which is in reasonable agreement with the value (16 plus or minus 1 kilometer per second) calculated from the mass bit and discharge current data. Triple probe measurements yield on axis electron temperatures in the range of 0.8-3.8 eV, electron densities in the range of 1.6 x 10(exp 21) to 2.1 x 10(exp 22) per cubic meter, and a divergence half angle of 16 degrees. Measurements within the interelectrode region yield a peak magnetic field of 0.8 T, and the observed radial trends are consistent with an azimuthally symmetric current distribution. A cathode power balance model is coupled with an ablative heat conduction model predicting mass bit values that are within 20% of the experimental values.

  11. Ion velocities in a micro-cathode arc thruster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang Taisen; Shashurin, Alexey; Keidar, Michael [The George Washington University, Washington, DC 22202 (United States); Beilis, Isak [Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2012-06-15

    Ion velocities in the plasma jet generated by the micro-cathode arc thruster are studied by means of time-of-flight method using enhanced ion detection system (EIDS). The EIDS triggers perturbations (spikes) on arc current waveform, and the larger current in the spike generates denser plasma bunches propagating along with the mainstream plasma. The EIDS utilizes double electrostatic probes rather than single probes. The average Ti ion velocity is measured to be around 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} m/s without a magnetic field. It was found that the application of a magnetic field does not change ion velocities in the interelectrode region while leads to ion acceleration in the free expanding plasma plume by a factor of about 2. Ion velocities of about 3.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} m/s were detected for the magnetic field of about 300 mT at distance of about 100-200 mm from the cathode. It is proposed that plasma is accelerated due to Lorentz force. The average thrust is calculated using the ion velocity measurements and the cathode mass consumption rate, and its increase with the magnetic field is demonstrated.

  12. An ablative pulsed plasma thruster with a segmented anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhe; Ren, Junxue; Tang, Haibin; Ling, William Yeong Liang; York, Thomas M.

    2018-01-01

    An ablative pulsed plasma thruster (APPT) design with a ‘segmented anode’ is proposed in this paper. We aim to examine the effect that this asymmetric electrode configuration (a normal cathode and a segmented anode) has on the performance of an APPT. The magnetic field of the discharge arc, plasma density in the exit plume, impulse bit, and thrust efficiency were studied using a magnetic probe, Langmuir probe, thrust stand, and mass bit measurements, respectively. When compared with conventional symmetric parallel electrodes, the segmented anode APPT shows an improvement in the impulse bit of up to 28%. The thrust efficiency is also improved by 49% (from 5.3% to 7.9% for conventional and segmented designs, respectively). Long-exposure broadband emission images of the discharge morphology show that compared with a normal anode, a segmented anode results in clear differences in the luminous discharge morphology and better collimation of the plasma. The magnetic probe data indicate that the segmented anode APPT exhibits a higher current density in the discharge arc. Furthermore, Langmuir probe data collected from the central exit plane show that the peak electron density is 75% higher than with conventional parallel electrodes. These results are believed to be fundamental to the physical mechanisms behind the increased impulse bit of an APPT with a segmented electrode.

  13. Thrust Stand Characterization of the NASA Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamant, Kevin D.; Pollard, James E.; Crofton, Mark W.; Patterson, Michael J.; Soulas, George C.

    2010-01-01

    Direct thrust measurements have been made on the NASA Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) ion engine using a standard pendulum style thrust stand constructed specifically for this application. Values have been obtained for the full 40-level throttle table, as well as for a few off-nominal operating conditions. Measurements differ from the nominal NASA throttle table 10 (TT10) values by 3.1 percent at most, while at 30 throttle levels (TLs) the difference is less than 2.0 percent. When measurements are compared to TT10 values that have been corrected using ion beam current density and charge state data obtained at The Aerospace Corporation, they differ by 1.2 percent at most, and by 1.0 percent or less at 37 TLs. Thrust correction factors calculated from direct thrust measurements and from The Aerospace Corporation s plume data agree to within measurement error for all but one TL. Thrust due to cold flow and "discharge only" operation has been measured, and analytical expressions are presented which accurately predict thrust based on thermal thrust generation mechanisms.

  14. Charge-exchange plasma generated by an ion thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, H. R.

    1975-01-01

    The use of high voltage solar arrays greatly reduces or eliminates power processing requirements in space electric propulsion systems. This use also requires substantial areas of solar array to be at high positive potential relative to space and most of the spacecraft. The charge exchange plasma conducts electrons from the ion beam to such positive surfaces, and thereby electrically load the high voltage solar array. To evaluate this problem, the charge-exchange plasma generated by an ion beam was investigated experimentally. Based upon the experimental data, a simple model was derived for the charge-exchange plasma. This model is conservative in the sense that both the electron/ion density and the electron current density should be equal to, or less than, the preducted value for all directions in the hemisphere upstream of the ion beam direction. Increasing the distance between a positive potential surface (such as a high voltage solar array) and the thruster is the simplest way to control interactions. Both densities and currents vary as the inverse square of this distance.

  15. Woods with physical, mechanical and acoustic properties similar to those of Caesalpinia echinata have high potential as alternative woods for bow makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Luiz Longui

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available For nearly two hundred years, Caesalpinia echinata wood has been the standard for modern bows. However, the threat of extinction and the enforcement of trade bans have required bow makers to seek alternative woods. The hypothesis tested was that woods with physical, mechanical and acoustic properties similar to those of C. echinata would have high potential as alternative woods for bows. Accordingly, were investigated Handroanthus spp., Mezilaurus itauba, Hymenaea spp., Dipteryx spp., Diplotropis spp. and Astronium lecointei. Handroanthus and Diplotropis have the greatest number of similarities with C. echinata, but only Handroanthus spp. showed significant results in actual bow manufacture, suggesting the importance of such key properties as specific gravity, speed of sound propagation and modulus of elasticity. In practice, Handroanthus and Dipteryx produced bows of quality similar to that of C. echinata.

  16. Liquid-metal-fed Pulsed Plasma Thrusters for In-space Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markusic, Thomas E.

    2004-01-01

    Liquid metal propellants may provide a path toward more reliable and efficient pulsed plasma thrusters (PPTs). Conceptual thruster designs which eliminate the need for high current switches and propellant metering valves are described. Propellant loading techniques are suggested that show promise to increase thruster propellant utilization, dynamic, and electrical efficiency. Calibration results from a compact, electromagnetically-pumped propellant feed system are presented. Results for lithium and gallium propellants show capability to meter propellant at flow rates up to 10 +/- 0.1 mg/s. Experiments investigating the initiation of arc discharges using liquid metal droplets are presented. High speed photography and laser interferometry provide spatially and temporally resolved information on the decomposition of liquid metal droplets , and the evolution of the accelerating current channel.

  17. Application of the Bow Tie method for evaluation of safety in the procedure of logging wells; Aplicacion del metodo de Bow Tie para la evaluacion de seguridad en la practica de perfilaje de pozos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfonso Pallares, C; Perez Reyes, Y.; Sarabia Molina, I.I. [Centro Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear (CNSN), La Habana (Cuba)

    2013-07-01

    This work consists of an assessment of security in the practice of logging of oil wells, using the method of Bow Tie for being a simple method of evaluation of the risk, which makes it possible in a structured way to set priorities to manage risk.

  18. Hall-Effect Thruster Simulations with 2-D Electron Transport and Hydrodynamic Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Hofer, Richard H.; Goebel, Dan M.

    2009-01-01

    A computational approach that has been used extensively in the last two decades for Hall thruster simulations is to solve a diffusion equation and energy conservation law for the electrons in a direction that is perpendicular to the magnetic field, and use discrete-particle methods for the heavy species. This "hybrid" approach has allowed for the capture of bulk plasma phenomena inside these thrusters within reasonable computational times. Regions of the thruster with complex magnetic field arrangements (such as those near eroded walls and magnets) and/or reduced Hall parameter (such as those near the anode and the cathode plume) challenge the validity of the quasi-one-dimensional assumption for the electrons. This paper reports on the development of a computer code that solves numerically the 2-D axisymmetric vector form of Ohm's law, with no assumptions regarding the rate of electron transport in the parallel and perpendicular directions. The numerical challenges related to the large disparity of the transport coefficients in the two directions are met by solving the equations in a computational mesh that is aligned with the magnetic field. The fully-2D approach allows for a large physical domain that extends more than five times the thruster channel length in the axial direction, and encompasses the cathode boundary. Ions are treated as an isothermal, cold (relative to the electrons) fluid, accounting for charge-exchange and multiple-ionization collisions in the momentum equations. A first series of simulations of two Hall thrusters, namely the BPT-4000 and a 6-kW laboratory thruster, quantifies the significance of ion diffusion in the anode region and the importance of the extended physical domain on studies related to the impact of the transport coefficients on the electron flow field.

  19. Non-Maxwellian electron energy probability functions in the plume of a SPT-100 Hall thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giono, G.; Gudmundsson, J. T.; Ivchenko, N.; Mazouffre, S.; Dannenmayer, K.; Loubère, D.; Popelier, L.; Merino, M.; Olentšenko, G.

    2018-01-01

    We present measurements of the electron density, the effective electron temperature, the plasma potential, and the electron energy probability function (EEPF) in the plume of a 1.5 kW-class SPT-100 Hall thruster, derived from cylindrical Langmuir probe measurements. The measurements were taken on the plume axis at distances between 550 and 1550 mm from the thruster exit plane, and at different angles from the plume axis at 550 mm for three operating points of the thruster, characterized by different discharge voltages and mass flow rates. The bulk of the electron population can be approximated as a Maxwellian distribution, but the measured distributions were seen to decline faster at higher energy. The measured EEPFs were best modelled with a general EEPF with an exponent α between 1.2 and 1.5, and their axial and angular characteristics were studied for the different operating points of the thruster. As a result, the exponent α from the fitted distribution was seen to be almost constant as a function of the axial distance along the plume, as well as across the angles. However, the exponent α was seen to be affected by the mass flow rate, suggesting a possible relationship with the collision rate, especially close to the thruster exit. The ratio of the specific heats, the γ factor, between the measured plasma parameters was found to be lower than the adiabatic value of 5/3 for each of the thruster settings, indicating the existence of non-trivial kinetic heat fluxes in the near collisionless plume. These results are intended to be used as input and/or testing properties for plume expansion models in further work.

  20. Influence of the magnetic field configuration on the plasma flow in Hall thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreussi, T.; Giannetti, V.; Leporini, A.; Saravia, M. M.; Andrenucci, M.

    2018-01-01

    In Hall propulsion, the thrust is provided by the acceleration of ions in a plasma generated in a cross-field configuration. Standard thruster configurations have annular channels with an almost radial magnetic field at the channel exit. A potential difference is imposed in the axial direction and the intensity of the magnetic field is calibrated in order to hinder the electron motion, while leaving the ions non-magnetised. Magnetic field lines can be assumed, as a first approximation, as lines of constant electron temperature and of thermalized potential. In typical thruster configurations, the discharge occurs inside a ceramic channel and, due to plasma–wall interactions, the electron temperature is typically low, less than few tens of eV. Hence, the magnetic field lines can be effectively used to tailor the distribution of the electrostatic potential. However, the erosion of the ceramic walls caused by the ion bombardment represents the main limiting factor of the thruster lifetime and new thruster configurations are currently under development. For these configurations, classical first order models of the plasma dynamics fail to grasp the influence of the magnetic topology on the plasma flow. In the present paper, a novel approach to investigate the correlation between magnetic field topology and thruster performance is presented. Due to the anisotropy induced by the magnetic field, the gradients of the plasma properties are assumed to be mainly in the direction orthogonal to the local magnetic field, thus enabling a quasi-one-dimensional description in magnetic coordinates. Theoretical and experimental investigations performed on a 5 kW class Hall thruster with different magnetic field configurations are then presented and discussed.

  1. Evalution Of A 4.5-kW D-100 Thruster With Anode Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, C. E.; Tverdokhlebov, S. O.; Semenkin, A. V.; Garkusha, V. I.

    1996-01-01

    Design characteristics and performance data of a 4.5-kW, thruster with anode layer (TAL) developed at the Central Research Institue for Machine Building (TsNIIMASH) are presented. The TAL is designated the D-100 with a discharge chamber of outer diameter approximately 100mm. Performance characteristics demonstrated by the D-100 and life estimates by TsNIIMASH make this thruster an excellent candidate for a wide range of station keeping, orbit raising, orbit maneuvering and JPL planetary missions.

  2. a Permanent Magnet Hall Thruster for Satellite Orbit Maneuvering with Low Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Jose Leonardo

    Plasma thrusters are known to have some advantages like high specific impulse. Electric propulsion is already recognized as a successful technology for long duration space missions. It has been used as primary propulsion system on earth-moon orbit trnsfer missions, comets and asteroids exploration and on commercially geosyncronous satellite attitude control systems. Closed Drift Plasma Thrusters, also called Hall Thrusters or SPT (Stationary Plasma Thruster) was conceived inthe USSR and, since then, they have been developed in several countries such as France, USA, Japan and Brazil. In this work, introductory remarks are made with focus on the most significant contributions of the electric propulsion to the progress of space missions and its future role on the brazillian space program. The main features of an inedit Permanent Magnet Hall Thruster (PMHT) developed at the Plasma Laboratory of the University of Brasilia is presented. The idea of using an array of permanent magnets, instead of an eletromagnet, to produce a radial magnetic field inside the cylindrical plasma drift channel of the thruster is a very important improvement, because it allows the possibility of developing a Hall Thruster with electric power consumption low enough to be used in small and medium size satellites. The new Halĺplasma source characterization is presented with plasma density, temperature and potential space profiles. Ion temperature mesurements based on Doppler broadening of spectral lines and ion energy measurements of the ejected plasma plume are also shown. Based on the mesured parameters of the accelerated plasma we constructed a merit figure for the PMHT. We also perform numerical simulations of satellite orbit raising from an altitude of 700 km to 36000 km using a PMHT operating in the 100 mN to 500 mN thrust range. In order to perform these caculations, integration techniques of spacecraft trajectory were used. The main simulation parameters were: orbit raising time

  3. Pulsar Wind Nebulae with Bow Shocks: Non-thermal Radiation and Cosmic Ray Leptons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykov, A. M.; Amato, E.; Petrov, A. E.; Krassilchtchikov, A. M.; Levenfish, K. P.

    2017-07-01

    Pulsars with high spin-down power produce relativistic winds radiating a non-negligible fraction of this power over the whole electromagnetic range from radio to gamma-rays in the pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe). The rest of the power is dissipated in the interactions of the PWNe with the ambient interstellar medium (ISM). Some of the PWNe are moving relative to the ambient ISM with supersonic speeds producing bow shocks. In this case, the ultrarelativistic particles accelerated at the termination surface of the pulsar wind may undergo reacceleration in the converging flow system formed by the plasma outflowing from the wind termination shock and the plasma inflowing from the bow shock. The presence of magnetic perturbations in the flow, produced by instabilities induced by the accelerated particles themselves, is essential for the process to work. A generic outcome of this type of reacceleration is the creation of particle distributions with very hard spectra, such as are indeed required to explain the observed spectra of synchrotron radiation with photon indices Γ≲ 1.5. The presence of this hard spectral component is specific to PWNe with bow shocks (BSPWNe). The accelerated particles, mainly electrons and positrons, may end up containing a substantial fraction of the shock ram pressure. In addition, for typical ISM and pulsar parameters, the e+ released by these systems in the Galaxy are numerous enough to contribute a substantial fraction of the positrons detected as cosmic ray (CR) particles above few tens of GeV and up to several hundred GeV. The escape of ultrarelativistic particles from a BSPWN—and hence, its appearance in the far-UV and X-ray bands—is determined by the relative directions of the interstellar magnetic field, the velocity of the astrosphere and the pulsar rotation axis. In this respect we review the observed appearance and multiwavelength spectra of three different types of BSPWNe: PSR J0437-4715, the Guitar and Lighthouse nebulae, and

  4. Implications of MODIS bow-tie distortion on aerosol optical depth retrievals, and techniques for mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayer, A. M.; Hsu, N. C.; Bettenhausen, C.

    2015-12-01

    The scan geometry of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors, combined with the Earth's curvature, results in a pixel shape distortion known as the "bow-tie effect". Specifically, sensor pixels near the edge of the swath are elongated along-track and across-track compared to pixels near the centre of the swath, resulting in an increase of pixel area by up to a factor of ∼ 9 and, additionally, the overlap of pixels acquired from consecutive scans. The Deep Blue and Dark Target aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieval algorithms aggregate sensor pixels and provide level 2 (L2) AOD at a nominal horizontal pixel size of 10 km, but the bow-tie distortion means that they also suffer from this size increase and overlap. This means that the spatial characteristics of the data vary as a function of satellite viewing zenith angle (VZA) and, for VZA > 30°, corresponding to approximately 50 % of the data, are areally enlarged by a factor of 50 % or more compared to this nominal pixel area and are not spatially independent of each other. This has implications for retrieval uncertainty and aggregated statistics, causing a narrowing of AOD distributions near the edge of the swath, as well as for data comparability from the application of similar algorithms to sensors without this level of bow-tie distortion. Additionally, the pixel overlap is not obvious to users of the L2 aerosol products because only pixel centres, not boundaries, are provided within the L2 products. A two-step procedure is proposed to mitigate the effects of this distortion on the MODIS aerosol products. The first (simple) step involves changing the order in which pixels are aggregated in L2 processing to reflect geographical location rather than scan order, which removes the bulk of the overlap between L2 pixels and slows the rate of growth of L2 pixel size vs. VZA. This can be achieved without significant changes to existing MODIS processing algorithms. The second step involves

  5. Is "Bow" for an Arrow or for Hair? A Classroom Demonstration on Gender Differences in Interpreting Ambiguous Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fa-Kaji, Naomi; Nguyen, Linda; Hebl, Mikki; Skorinko, Jeanine

    2016-01-01

    This article details a classroom demonstration of how gender differences in cognitive schemas can result in men and women differentially interpreting the same information. Students heard a series of six homonyms (e.g., bow and nail) spoken aloud and wrote down the first word with which they free-associated each homonym. When hearing the words…

  6. Effect of an isotropic outflow from the Galactic Centre on the bow-shock evolution along the orbit

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zajaček, Michal; Eckart, A.; Karas, Vladimír; Kunneriath, Devaky; Shahzamanian, B.; Sabha, N.; Muzic, K.; Valencia-S, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 455, č. 2 (2016), s. 1257-1274 ISSN 0035-8711 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GC13-00070J Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : galactic centre * black hole * bow-shock Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.961, year: 2016

  7. A Prospective Evaluation of Duplex Ultrasound for Thoracic Outlet Syndrome in High-Performance Musicians Playing Bowed String Musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garret Adam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS is a neurovascular condition involving the upper extremity, which is known to occur in individuals who perform chronic repetitive upper extremity activities. We prospectively evaluate the incidence of TOS in high-performance musicians who played bowed string musicians. Sixty-four high-performance string instrument musicians from orchestras and professional musical bands were included in the study. Fifty-two healthy volunteers formed an age-matched control group. Bilateral upper extremity duplex scanning for subclavian vessel compression was performed in all subjects. Provocative maneuvers including Elevated Arm Stress Test (EAST and Upper Limb Tension Test (ULTT were performed. Abnormal ultrasound finding is defined by greater than 50% subclavian vessel compression with arm abduction, diminished venous waveforms, or arterial photoplethysmography (PPG tracing with arm abduction. Bowed string instruments performed by musicians in our study included violin (41%, viola (33%, and cello (27%. Positive EAST or ULTT test in the musician group and control group were 44%, and 3%, respectively (p = 0.03. Abnormal ultrasound scan with vascular compression was detected in 69% of musicians, in contrast to 15% of control subjects (p = 0.03. TOS is a common phenomenon among high-performance bowed string instrumentalists. Musicians who perform bowed string instruments should be aware of this condition and its associated musculoskeletal symptoms.

  8. Atelier Bow-Wow on the Representation of Behaviorology: Yosiharu Tsukamoto in conversation with Anne Elisabeth Toft and Christina Capetillo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Anne Elisabeth; Capetillo, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Yoshiharu Tsukamoto discussing the representational practices of Atelier Bow-Wow and its work on “Behaviorology”: How do you represent the seemingly un-representable? How do you depict and illustrate what is not tangible? How do you represent social practices, time-based processes, situations, sp...

  9. Bow-tie risk assessment combining causes and effects applied to gasoil storage in an abandoned salt cavern,

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, K; Hendriks, D.; Wildenborg, T.; Duijne, H.

    2014-01-01

    A semi-quantitative risk assessment is presented for the storage of gas oil in depleted salt caverns in the Twente region, the Netherlands. It is based on a bow-tie model, in which an incident, leakage of gas oil from the storage system (cavern and wells), is evaluated by assessing its possible

  10. Nowcasting and forecasting of the magnetopause and bow shock—A status update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrinec, S. M.; Redmon, R. J.; Rastaetter, L.

    2017-01-01

    There has long been interest in knowing the shape and location of the Earth's magnetopause and of the standing fast-mode bow shock upstream of the Earth's magnetosphere. This quest for knowledge spans both the research and operations arenas. Pertinent to the latter, nowcasting and near-term forecasting are important for determining the extent to which the magnetosphere is compressed or expanded due to the influence of the solar wind bulk plasma and fields and the coupling to other magnetosphere-ionosphere processes with possible effects on assets. This article provides an update to a previous article on the same topic published 15 years earlier, with focus on studies that have been conducted, the current status of nowcasting and forecasting of geophysical boundaries, and future endeavors.

  11. Gyrating ions and large-amplitude monochromatic MHD waves upstream of the earth's bow shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, M. F.; Gosling, J. T.; Bame, S. J.; Rusell, C. T.

    1985-01-01

    Episodes of nearly monochromatic, low-frequency (0.03 Hz) hydromagnetic waves are occasionally observed upstream of the earth's bow shock. High time resolution (3 s) measurements of two-dimensional ion distributions during two nearly monochromatic wave events reveal that the ion distributions asociated with these waves are 'gyrating ions.' Such distributions consists of suprathermal ions with parallel and perpendicular velocities confined to a fairly narrow range of (nonzero) values. The ions are also often confined to a fairly narrow range of gyrophase angle ('gyrophase bunched'). In one of the two cases, the observed frequency of the waves agrees quite well with the Doppler shifted resonance frequency of waves in right-hand resonance with the observed gyrating ions. In the second case, the observed frequency is lower than the predicted frequency by a factor of 1.5-2.

  12. Short term memory bowing effect is consistent with presentation rate dependent decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnow, Eugen

    2010-12-01

    I reanalyze the free recall data of Murdock, J Exp Psychol 64(5):482-488 (1962) and Murdock and Okada, J Verbal Learn and Verbal Behav 86:263-267 (1970) which show the famous bowing effect in which initial and recent items are recalled better than intermediate items (primacy and recency effects). Recent item recall probabilities follow a logarithmic decay with time of recall consistent with the tagging/retagging theory. The slope of the decay increases with increasing presentation rate. The initial items, with an effectively low presentation rate, decay with the slowest logarithmic slope, explaining the primacy effect. The finding that presentation rate limits the duration of short term memory suggests a basis for memory loss in busy adults, for the importance of slow music practice, for long term memory deficiencies for people with attention deficits who may be artificially increasing the presentation rates of their surroundings. A well-defined, quantitative measure of the primacy effect is introduced.

  13. On the proper Mach number and ratio of specific heats for modeling the Venus bow shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatrallyay, M.; Russell, C. T.; Luhmann, J. G.; Barnes, A.; Mihalov, J. D.

    1984-01-01

    Observational data from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter are used to investigate the physical characteristics of the Venus bow shock, and to explore some general issues in the numerical simulation of collisionless shocks. It is found that since equations from gas-dynamic (GD) models of the Venus shock cannot in general replace MHD equations, it is not immediately obvious what the optimum way is to describe the desired MHD situation with a GD code. Test case analysis shows that for quasi-perpendicular shocks it is safest to use the magnetospheric Mach number as an input to the GD code. It is also shown that when comparing GD predicted temperatures with MHD predicted temperatures total energy should be compared since the magnetic energy density provides a significant fraction of the internal energy of the MHD fluid for typical solar wind parameters. Some conclusions are also offered on the properties of the terrestrial shock.

  14. Large amplitude MHD waves upstream of the Jovian bow shock: Reinterpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, M. L.; Wong, H. K.; Vinas, A. F.; Smith, C. W.

    1984-01-01

    Observations of large amplitude magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves upstream of the Jovian bow shock were previously interpreted as arising from a resonant electromagnetic ion beam instability. That interpretation was based on the conclusion that the observed fluctuations were predominantly right elliptically polarized in the solar wind rest frame. Because it was noted that the fluctuations are, in fact, left elliptically polarized, a reanalysis of the observations was necessary. Several mechanisms for producing left hand polarized MHD waves in the observed frequency range were investigated. Instabilities excited by protons appear unlikely to account for the observations. A resonant instability excited by relativistic electrons escaping from the Jovian magnetosphere is a likely source of free energy consistent with the observations. Evidence for the existence of such a population of electrons was found in both the Low Energy Charged Particle experiments and Cosmic Ray experiments on Voyager 2.

  15. Large-amplitude MHD waves upstream of the Jovian bow shock Reinterpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, M. L.; Wong, H. K.; Vinas, A. F.; Smith, C. W.

    1985-01-01

    Observations of large amplitude magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves upstream of the Jovian bow shock were previously interpreted as arising from a resonant electromagnetic ion beam instability. That interpretation was based on the conclusion that the observed fluctuations were predominantly right elliptically polarized in the solar wind rest frame. Because it was noted that the fluctuations are, in fact, left elliptically polarized, a reanalysis of the observations was necessary. Several mechanisms for producing left hand polarized MHD waves in the observed frequency range were investigated. Instabilities excited by protons appear unlikely to account for the observations. A resonant instability excited by relativistic electrons escaping from the Jovian magnetosphere is a likely source of free energy consistent with the observations. Evidence for the existence of such a population of electrons was found in both the Low Energy Charged Particle experiments and Cosmic Ray experiments on Voyager 2.

  16. A Multi-wavelength Study of an Isolated MSP Bow Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romani, Roger W.; Slane, Patrick; Green, Andrew

    2017-08-01

    PSR J2124-3358 is the only single MSP known to sport an Halpha bow shock. This shock, now also seen in the UV, encloses an unusual X-ray pulsar wind nebula (PWN) with a long off-axis trail. Combining the X-ray and UV images with AAT/KOALA integral field spectroscopy of the Halpha emission, we have an unusually complete picture of the pulsar's (101 km/s transverse) motion and the latitudinal distribution of its wind flux. These images reveal the 3-D orientation of a hard-spectrum PWN jet and a softer equatorial outflow. Within the context of a thin shock model, we can constrain the total energy output of the pulsar and the neutron star moment of inertia. The IFU spectra show extreme Balmer dominance, which also constrains the nature of the UV shock emission.

  17. Recurrent juvenile ischemic stroke caused by bow hunter's stroke revealed by carotid duplex ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takekawa, Hidehiro; Suzuki, Keisuke; Nishihira, Takahito; Iwasaki, Akio; Hoshiyama, Eisei; Okamura, Madoka; Numao, Ayaka; Suzuki, Shiho; Hirata, Koichi

    2015-07-01

    Bow hunter's stroke (BHS) is a rare cause of vertebrobasilar insufficiency due to rotational vertebral artery (VA) occlusion associated with head turning. We report a juvenile patient presenting with recurrent ischemic stroke caused by BHS, which was revealed by carotid duplex ultrasonography. Carotid duplex ultrasonography performed in the neutral position showed normal findings. However, disappearance of end-diastolic blood flow of contralateral VAs was observed with head rotation. Digital subtraction angiography confirmed occlusion at C1/2 levels in the VA contralateral to the head rotation, bilaterally. Importantly, our patient did not recognize the association of head rotation and previous episodes of stroke. We suggest that BHS should be considered in patients with cryptogenic stroke occurring in the vertebrobasilar artery territory.

  18. Phase ordering of zig-zag and bow-shaped hard needles in two dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavarone, Raffaele; Charbonneau, Patrick; Stark, Holger

    2015-09-21

    We perform extensive Monte Carlo simulations of a two-dimensional bent hard-needle model in both its chiral zig-zag and its achiral bow-shape configurations and present their phase diagrams. We find evidence for a variety of stable phases: isotropic, quasi-nematic, smectic-C, anti-ferromorphic smectic-A, and modulated-nematic. This last phase consists of layers formed by supramolecular arches. They create a modulation of the molecular polarity whose period is sensitively controlled by molecular geometry. We identify transition densities using correlation functions together with appropriately defined order parameters and compare them with predictions from Onsager theory. The contribution of the molecular excluded area to deviations from Onsager theory and simple liquid crystal phase morphology is discussed. We demonstrate the isotropic-quasi-nematic transition to be consistent with a Kosterlitz-Thouless disclination unbinding scenario.

  19. From Bows to Sound-Chests: Tracing the Ancestry of the Violin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janelle R. Finley

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The ancestry of the violin is a subject that has been studied, researched, debated, and written about in great detail. However, despite all of the research and study, the ancestry of the violin is still not certain. This paper presents two schools of thought that propose different theories as to how the ancestry of the violin should be determined and what instruments should be included in the ancestry of the violin. The first school of thought proposes that the violin’s ancestry should be traced through the bow. The second theory proposes that the violin’s ancestry should be traced through the sound-chest of the violin. This paper also presents the different arguments for and against each theory, the importance of this topic, and the paper’s position on this topic. Research for this paper was accomplished through the use of scholarly books on the subject of the history of the violin.

  20. NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) Prototype Model 1R (PM1R) Ion Thruster and Propellant Management System Wear Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanNoord, Jonathan L.; Soulas, George C.; Sovey, James S.

    2010-01-01

    The results of the NEXT wear test are presented. This test was conducted with a 36-cm ion engine (designated PM1R) and an engineering model propellant management system. The thruster operated with beam extraction for a total of 1680 hr and processed 30.5 kg of xenon during the wear test, which included performance testing and some operation with an engineering model power processing unit. A total of 1312 hr was accumulated at full power, 277 hr at low power, and the remainder was at intermediate throttle levels. Overall ion engine performance, which includes thrust, thruster input power, specific impulse, and thrust efficiency, was steady with no indications of performance degradation. The propellant management system performed without incident during the wear test. The ion engine and propellant management system were also inspected following the test with no indication of anomalous hardware degradation from operation.

  1. The effects of cervical headgear with an expanded inner bow in the permanent dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlik, Selin Kale; Iscan, Hakan N

    2008-08-01

    In this study, the effects of cervical headgear (CHG) use on the transverse dimension of the maxillary dental arch were evaluated in patients in the permanent dentition. Thirteen girls and 12 boys (mean age: 13.41 +/- 0.52 years) with a bilateral full cusp Class II molar relationship comprised the study group. Fifteen girls and 10 boys with a Class I normal occlusion comprised the controls. In the treatment group, CHG with an expanded inner bow was used for a mean period of 11.2 +/- 5.6 months. The headgear was used for molar distalization and the force magnitude was 196.1 cN. After CHG treatment, the patients underwent non-extraction fixed orthodontic treatment for 14.1 +/- 2.5 months. During this period, the control group received regular dental check-ups. Dental casts obtained at the beginning (T1) and end (T2) of headgear use and at the end of orthodontic treatment (T3) and posteroanterior cephalograms taken at T1 and T2 were evaluated. A Student's t-test was used for intergroup comparison at T1, T2, and T3 and a Mann-Whitney U-test with a Bonferroni correction for comparison of treatment/observation changes. At T2, intercanine (0.96 +/- 0.56 mm), interpremolar (1.6 +/- 0.55 mm for the first premolar, 1.74 +/- 0.65 mm for the second premolar), and intermolar (2.31 +/- 0.75 mm) widths increased, while the distance between the intersection of the zygomatic process and the maxillary alveolar process on the right (JR) and left (JL) did not change. Fixed orthodontic treatment did not have any effect on any of the measurements. With the intentional expansion of the inner bow of CHG, the amount of maxillary dental arch expansion achieved in the permanent dentition was statistically significant (P < 0.017).

  2. Electron Scattering by High-Frequency Whistler Waves at Earth's Bow Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, M.; Wilson, L. B., III; Phan, T. D.; Hull, A. J.; Amano, T.; Hoshino, M.; Argall, M. R.; Le Contel, O.; Agapitov, O.; Gersham, D. J.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Electrons are accelerated to non-thermal energies at shocks in space and astrophysical environments. While different mechanisms of electron acceleration have been proposed, it remains unclear how non-thermal electrons are produced out of the thermal plasma pool. Here, we report in situ evidence of pitch-angle scattering of non-thermal electrons by whistler waves at Earths bow shock. On 2015 November 4, the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission crossed the bow shock with an Alfvn Mach number is approximately 11 and a shock angle of approximately 84deg. In the ramp and overshoot regions, MMS revealed bursty enhancements of non-thermal (0.52 keV) electron flux, correlated with high-frequency (0.2 - 0.4 Omega(sub ce), where Omega(sub ce) is the cyclotron frequency) parallel-propagating whistler waves. The electron velocity distribution (measured at 30 ms cadence) showed an enhanced gradient of phase-space density at and around the region where the electron velocity component parallel to the magnetic field matched the resonant energy inferred from the wave frequency range. The flux of 0.5 keV electrons (measured at 1ms cadence) showed fluctuations with the same frequency. These features indicate that non-thermal electrons were pitch-angle scattered by cyclotron resonance with the high-frequency whistler waves. However, the precise role of the pitch-angle scattering by the higher-frequency whistler waves and possible nonlinear effects in the electron acceleration process remains unclear.

  3. Electron Scattering by High-frequency Whistler Waves at Earth’s Bow Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, M.; Wilson, L. B., III; Phan, T. D.; Hull, A. J.; Amano, T.; Hoshino, M.; Argall, M. R.; Le Contel, O.; Agapitov, O.; Gershman, D. J.; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.; Burch, J. L.; Torbert, R. B.; Pollock, C.; Dorelli, J. C.; Giles, B. L.; Moore, T. E.; Saito, Y.; Avanov, L. A.; Paterson, W.; Ergun, R. E.; Strangeway, R. J.; Russell, C. T.; Lindqvist, P. A.

    2017-06-01

    Electrons are accelerated to non-thermal energies at shocks in space and astrophysical environments. While different mechanisms of electron acceleration have been proposed, it remains unclear how non-thermal electrons are produced out of the thermal plasma pool. Here, we report in situ evidence of pitch-angle scattering of non-thermal electrons by whistler waves at Earth’s bow shock. On 2015 November 4, the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission crossed the bow shock with an Alfvén Mach number ˜11 and a shock angle ˜84°. In the ramp and overshoot regions, MMS revealed bursty enhancements of non-thermal (0.5-2 keV) electron flux, correlated with high-frequency (0.2-0.4 {{{Ω }}}{ce}, where {{{Ω }}}{ce} is the cyclotron frequency) parallel-propagating whistler waves. The electron velocity distribution (measured at 30 ms cadence) showed an enhanced gradient of phase-space density at and around the region where the electron velocity component parallel to the magnetic field matched the resonant energy inferred from the wave frequency range. The flux of 0.5 keV electrons (measured at 1 ms cadence) showed fluctuations with the same frequency. These features indicate that non-thermal electrons were pitch-angle scattered by cyclotron resonance with the high-frequency whistler waves. However, the precise role of the pitch-angle scattering by the higher-frequency whistler waves and possible nonlinear effects in the electron acceleration process remains unclear.

  4. Injection and acceleration of H+ and He2+ at Earth's bow shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Scholer

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available We have performed a number of one-dimensional hybrid simulations (particle ions, massless electron fluid of quasi-parallel collisionless shocks in order to investigate the injection and subsequent acceleration of part of the solar wind ions at the Earth's bow shock. The shocks propagate into a medium containing magnetic fluctuations, which are initially superimposed on the background field, as well as generated or enhanced by the electromagnetic ion/ion beam instability between the solar wind and backstreaming ions. In order to study the mass (M and charge (Q dependence of the acceleration process He2+ is included self-consistently. The upstream differential intensity spectra of H+ and He2+ can be well represented by exponentials in energy. The e-folding energy Ec is a function of time: Ec increases with time. Furthermore the e-folding energy (normalized to the shock ramming energy Ep increases with increasing Alfvén Mach number of the shock and with increasing fluctuation level of the initially superimposed turbulence. When backstreaming ions leave the shock after their first encounter they exhibit already a spectrum which extends to more than ten times the shock ramming energy and which is ordered in energy per charge. From the injection spectrum it is concluded that leakage of heated downstream particles does not contribute to ion injection. Acceleration models that permit thermal particles to scatter like the non-thermal population do not describe the correct physics.Key words. Interplanetary physics (planetary bow shocks · Space plasma physics (charged particle motion and acceleration; numerical simulation studies

  5. 76 FR 43639 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... the use of both stern and bow thrusters required for dynamic positioning during coupling. These data...B. Sound levels during coupling operations were dominated by the periodic use of the bow and stern... bow thruster actions. The EBRV would require the use of thrusters for dynamic positioning during...

  6. Automated bow shock and radiation belt edge identification methods and their application for Cluster, THEMIS/ARTEMIS and Van Allen Probes data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facsko, Gabor; Sibeck, David; Balogh, Tamas; Kis, Arpad; Wesztergom, Viktor

    2017-04-01

    The bow shock and the outer rim of the outer radiation belt are detected automatically by our algorithm developed as a part of the Boundary Layer Identification Code Cluster Active Archive project. The radiation belt positions are determined from energized electron measurements working properly onboard all Cluster spacecraft. For bow shock identification we use magnetometer data and, when available, ion plasma instrument data. In addition, electrostatic wave instrument electron density, spacecraft potential measurements and wake indicator auxiliary data are also used so the events can be identified by all Cluster probes in highly redundant way, as the magnetometer and these instruments are still operational in all spacecraft. The capability and performance of the bow shock identification algorithm were tested using known bow shock crossing determined manually from January 29, 2002 to February 3,. The verification enabled 70% of the bow shock crossings to be identified automatically. The method shows high flexibility and it can be applied to observations from various spacecraft. Now these tools have been applied to Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS)/Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun (ARTEMIS) magnetic field, plasma and spacecraft potential observations to identify bow shock crossings; and to Van Allen Probes supra-thermal electron observations to identify the edges of the radiation belt. The outcomes of the algorithms are checked manually and the parameters used to search for bow shock identification are refined.

  7. Preliminary Results of Performance Measurements on a Cylindrical Hall-Effect Thruster with Magnetic Field Generated by Permanent Magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzin, K. A.; Raitses, Y.; Merino, E.; Fisch, N. J.

    2008-01-01

    The performance of a low-power cylindrical Hall thruster, which more readily lends itself to miniaturization and low-power operation than a conventional (annular) Hall thruster, was measured using a planar plasma probe and a thrust stand. The field in the cylindrical thruster was produced using permanent magnets, promising a power reduction over previous cylindrical thruster iterations that employed electromagnets to generate the required magnetic field topology. Two sets of ring-shaped permanent magnets are used, and two different field configurations can be produced by reorienting the poles of one magnet relative to the other. A plasma probe measuring ion flux in the plume is used to estimate the current utilization for the two magnetic configurations. The measurements indicate that electron transport is impeded much more effectively in one configuration, implying a higher thrust efficiency. Preliminary thruster performance measurements on this configuration were obtained over a power range of 100-250 W. The thrust levels over this power range were 3.5-6.5 mN, with anode efficiencies and specific impulses spanning 14-19% and 875- 1425 s, respectively. The magnetic field in the thruster was lower for the thrust measurements than the plasma probe measurements due to heating and weakening of the permanent magnets, reducing the maximum field strength from 2 kG to roughly 750-800 G. The discharge current levels observed during thrust stand testing were anomalously high compared to those levels measured in previous experiments with this thruster.

  8. Space Technology: Game Changing Development Deep Space Engine (DSE) 100 lbf and 5 lbf Thruster Development and Qualification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    Science mission studies require spacecraft propulsion systems that are high-performance, lightweight, and compact. Highly matured technology and low-cost, short development time of the propulsion system are also very desirable. The Deep Space Engine (DSE) 100-lbf thruster is being developed to meet these needs. The overall goal of this game changing technology project is to qualify the DSE thrusters along with 5-lbf attitude control thrusters for space flight and for inclusion in science and exploration missions. The aim is to perform qualification tests representative of mission duty cycles. Most exploration missions are constrained by mass, power and cost. As major propulsion components, thrusters are identified as high-risk, long-lead development items. NASA spacecraft primarily rely on 1960s' heritage in-space thruster designs and opportunities exist for reducing size, weight, power, and cost through the utilization of modern materials and advanced manufacturing techniques. Advancements in MON-25/MMH hypergolic bipropellant thrusters represent a promising avenue for addressing these deficiencies with tremendous mission enhancing benefits. DSE is much lighter and costs less than currently available thrusters in comparable thrust classes. Because MON-25 propellants operate at lower temperatures, less power is needed for propellant conditioning for in-space propulsion applications, especially long duration and/or deep-space missions. Reduced power results in reduced mass for batteries and solar panels. DSE is capable of operating at a wide propellant temperature range (between -22 F and 122 F) while a similar existing thruster operates between 45 F and 70 F. Such a capability offers robust propulsion operation as well as flexibility in design. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center evaluated available operational Missile Defense Agency heritage thrusters suitable for the science and lunar lander propulsion systems.

  9. Failure Investigation of an Intra-Manifold Explosion in a Horizontally-Mounted 870 lbf Reaction Control Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durning, Joseph G., III; Westover, Shayne C.; Cone, Darren M.

    2011-01-01

    In June 2010, an 870 lbf Space Shuttle Orbiter Reaction Control System Primary Thruster experienced an unintended shutdown during a test being performed at the NASA White Sands Test Facility. Subsequent removal and inspection of the thruster revealed permanent deformation and misalignment of the thruster valve mounting plate. Destructive evaluation determined that after three nominal firing sequences, the thruster had experienced an energetic event within the fuel (monomethylhydrazine) manifold at the start of the fourth firing sequence. The current understanding of the phenomenon of intra-manifold explosions in hypergolic bipropellant thrusters is documented in literature where it is colloquially referred to as a ZOT. The typical ZOT scenario involves operation of a thruster in a gravitational field with environmental pressures above the triple point pressure of the propellants. Post-firing, when the thruster valves are commanded closed, there remains a residual quantity of propellant in both the fuel and oxidizer (nitrogen tetroxide) injector manifolds known as the "dribble volume". In an ambient ground test configuration, these propellant volumes will drain from the injector manifolds but are impeded by the local atmospheric pressure. The evacuation of propellants from the thruster injector manifolds relies on the fluids vapor pressure to expel the liquid. The higher vapor pressure oxidizer will evacuate from the manifold before the lower vapor pressure fuel. The localized cooling resulting from the oxidizer boiling during manifold draining can result in fuel vapor migration and condensation in the oxidizer passage. The liquid fuel will then react with the oxidizer that enters the manifold during the next firing and may produce a localized high pressure reaction or explosion within the confines of the oxidizer injector manifold. The typical ZOT scenario was considered during this failure investigation, but was ultimately ruled out as a cause of the explosion

  10. Hybrid-PIC simulation of sputtering product distribution in a Hall thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xifeng; Hang, Guanrong; Liu, Hui; Meng, Yingchao; Luo, Xiaoming; Yu, Daren

    2017-10-01

    Hall thrusters have been widely used in orbit correction and the station-keeping of geostationary satellites due to their high specific impulse, long life, and high reliability. During the operating life of a Hall thruster, high-energy ions will bombard the discharge channel and cause serious erosion. As time passes, this sputtering process will change the macroscopic surface morphology of the discharge channel, especially near the exit, thus affecting the performance of the thruster. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out research on the motion of the sputtering products and erosion process of the discharge wall. To better understand the moving characteristics of sputtering products, based on the hybrid particle-in-cell (PIC) numerical method, this paper simulates the different erosion states of the thruster discharge channel in different moments and analyzes the moving process of different particles, such as B atoms and B+ ions. In this paper, the main conclusion is that B atoms are mainly produced on both sides of the channel exit, and B+ ions are mainly produced in the middle of the channel exit. The ionization rate of B atoms is approximately 1%.

  11. Hybrid-PIC Modeling of the Transport of Atomic Boron in a Hall Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brandon D.; Boyd, Iaian D.; Kamhawi, Hani

    2015-01-01

    Computational analysis of the transport of boron eroded from the walls of a Hall thruster is performed by implementing sputter yields of hexagonal boron nitride and velocity distribution functions of boron within the hybrid-PIC model HPHall. The model is applied to simulate NASA's HiVHAc Hall thruster at a discharge voltage of 500V and discharge powers of 1-3 kW. The number densities of ground- and 4P-state boron are computed. The density of ground-state boron is shown to be a factor of about 30 less than the plasma density. The density of the excited state is shown to be about three orders of magnitude less than that of the ground state, indicating that electron impact excitation does not significantly affect the density of ground-state boron in the discharge channel or near-field plume of a Hall thruster. Comparing the rates of excitation and ionization suggests that ionization has a greater influence on the density of ground-state boron, but is still negligible. The ground-state boron density is then integrated and compared to cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) measurements for each operating point. The simulation results show good agreement with the measurements for all operating points and provide evidence in support of CRDS as a tool for measuring Hall thruster erosion in situ.

  12. A modular assembly method of a feed and thruster system for Cubesats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwerse, M.C.; Jansen, Henricus V.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2010-01-01

    A modular assembly method for devices based on micro system technology is presented. The assembly method forms the foundation for a miniaturized feed and thruster system as part of a micro propulsion unit working as a simple blow-down system of a rocket engine. The micro rocket is designed to be

  13. Conditioning of In-Situ Propellants for RMF-FRC Plasma Thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Michael; Hill, Carrie; Uchizono, Nolan

    2015-11-01

    Current ion thrusters use noble gases to limit chemical attack of thruster components. However, thrusters based on Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) plasmas need not directly contact propellants so that reactive propellants such as ammonia, methane, butane, water, or combination of these are possible. The practical need to convert liquid propellant to a gaseous partially ionized state is what drives our research. A decomposition device was built to transition from liquid to gas to partially ionized plasma. Pressure is maintained high enough so that all chemical components have residence times sufficiently long to complete phase change and to reach chemical equilibrium at high temperature so the gas consists of primarily of H2O, H2, N2, O2, CO, and CO2. This gas is then fed to an inductive discharge that further breaks down molecules and brings the propellant to the proper ionization configuration for the FRC. We will be measuring chemical state, ionization state, and uniformity as propellant enters the discharge region. A parallel FRC thruster effort is underway.

  14. Rarefied gas electro jet (RGEJ) micro-thruster for space propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Ariel; Roy, Subrata

    2017-11-01

    This article numerically investigates a micro-thruster for small satellites which utilizes plasma actuators to heat and accelerate the flow in a micro-channel with rarefied gas in the slip flow regime. The inlet plenum condition is considered at 1 Torr with flow discharging to near vacuum conditions (planes are ~0.01 and ~0.1, respectively. Although several studies have been performed in micro-hallow cathode discharges at constant pressure, to our knowledge, an integrated study of the glow discharge physics and resulting fluid flow of a plasma thruster under these low pressure and low Knudsen number conditions is yet to be reported. Numerical simulations of the charge distribution due to gas ionization processes and the resulting rarefied gas flow are performed using an in-house code. The mass flow rate, thrust, specific impulse, power consumption and the thrust effectiveness of the thruster are predicted based on these results. The ionized gas is modelled using local mean energy approximation. An electrically induced body force and a thermal heating source are calculated based on the space separated charge distribution and the ion Joule heating, respectively. The rarefied gas flow with these electric force and heating source is modelled using density-based compressible flow equations with slip flow boundary conditions. The results show that a significant improvement of specific impulse can be achieved over highly optimized cold gas thrusters using the same propellant.

  15. Diagnostic Setup for Characterization of Near-Anode Processes in Hall Thrusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Dorf; Y. Raitses; N.J. Fisch

    2003-09-08

    A diagnostic setup for characterization of near-anode processes in Hall-current plasma thrusters consisting of biased and emissive electrostatic probes, high-precision positioning system and low-noise electronic circuitry was developed and tested. Experimental results show that radial probe insertion does not cause perturbations to the discharge and therefore can be used for accurate near-anode measurements.

  16. Numerical comparison of exhaust plume flow behaviors of small monopropellant and bipropellant thrusters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyun Ho Lee

    Full Text Available In general, a space propulsion system has a crucial role in the normal mission operations of a spacecraft. Depending on the types and number of propellants, a monopropellant and a bipropellant thrusters are mostly utilized for low thrust liquid rocket engines. As the plume gas flow exhausted from these small thrusters expands freely in a vacuum space environment along all directions, adverse effects of the plume impingement onto the spacecraft surfaces can dramatically reduce the function and performance of a spacecraft. Thus, the purpose of the present study is to investigate and compare the major differences of the plume gas flow behaviors numerically between the small monopropellant and bipropellant thrusters. To ensure efficient numerical calculations, the whole physical domain was divided into three different subdomains depending on the flow conditions, and then the appropriate numerical methods were combined and applied for each subdomain sequentially. With the present analysis results, the plume gas behaviors including the density, the overall temperature and the separation of the chemical species are compared and discussed between the monopropellant and the bipropellant thrusters. Consequently, the present results are expected to provide useful information on selecting the appropriate propulsion system, which can be very helpful for actual engineers practically during the design process.

  17. Brayton-Cycle Power-Conversion Unit Tested With Ion Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervol, David S.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear electric propulsion has been identified as an enabling technology for future NASA space science missions, such as the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) now under study. An important element of the nuclear electric propulsion spacecraft is the power conversion system, which converts the reactor heat to electrical power for use by the ion propulsion system and other spacecraft loads. The electrical integration of the power converter and ion thruster represents a key technical challenge in making nuclear electric propulsion technology possible. This technical hurdle was addressed extensively on December 1, 2003, when a closed- Brayton-cycle power-conversion unit was tested with a gridded ion thruster at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The test demonstrated end-to-end power throughput and marked the first-ever coupling of a Brayton turbo alternator and a gridded ion thruster, both of which are candidates for use on JIMO-type missions. The testing was conducted at Glenn's Vacuum Facility 6, where the Brayton unit was installed in the 3-m-diameter vacuum test port and the ion thruster was installed in the 7.6-m-diameter main chamber.

  18. Assessment Of C60 As A Propellant Material For Ion Thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Don; Leifer, Stephanie D.

    1995-01-01

    Report presents analyses and data to support proposed use of C60 (buckminsterfullerene) as alternative to Xe, current propellent material of choice for use in ion thrusters. Concept of using C60 for this purpose described in "Electrostatic Propulsion Using C60 Molecules" (NPO-18526).

  19. Application of hollow anodes in a Hall thruster with double-peak magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yongjie; Sun, Hezhi; Li, Peng; Wei, Liqiu; Su, Hongbo; Peng, Wuji; Li, Hong; Yu, Daren

    2017-08-01

    A low-power Hall thruster was designed with two permanent magnet rings. Unlike conventional Hall thrusters, this one has a symmetrical double-peak magnetic field with a larger gradient. Moreover, the highest magnetic field strength appears in the plume region; hence, the distance from the zero-magnetic region to the channel outlet is shorter than that of other Hall thrusters. This paper presents the law and mechanism of the effect of a U-shaped hollow anode with the front end in the zero-magnetic region and anodes at the first magnetic peak and zero-magnetic point (corresponding to the front and rear end faces of the U-shaped anode, respectively) on the discharge characteristics of the thruster. The study shows that the overall performance of the hollow anode under the same operating conditions is the highest. For the anode at the magnetic peak, although the ionization rate is the highest, most of the ions generated by ionization collide with the walls, causing greater energy loss and minimizing its performance. For the anode at the zero-magnetic point, although its maximum ionization rate is higher than that of the hollow anode, and the power deposition on the walls is slightly smaller, its propellant utilization and voltage utilization are lower than those of the hollow anode; furthermore, its overall performance is poorer than that of the hollow anode because of the short channel and shorter ionization region.

  20. Laser ignition of a cryogenic thruster using a miniaturised Nd:YAG laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfletti, Chiara; Kroupa, Gerhard

    2013-11-04

    An experimental study has been conducted to assess the feasibility of implementing laser ignition in cryogenic reaction and control and orbital manouvering thrusters. A experimental thruster with a single-coaxial injector element combustion chamber for testing with liquid oxygen/gaseous hydrogen and liquid oxygen/gaseous methane was designed for this purpose. Mapping tests conducted using a standard table top laser revealed that the minimum incident energies required for 100% reliable laser plasma and laser ablation ignition of liquid oxygen/gaseous hydrogen are 72 mJ and 14.5 mJ respectively. In addition, the miniaturised HIPoLas® laser was mounted directly on the thruster and used as ignition system. This paper reports locations of energy deposition, levels of delivered energy and associated ignition probabilities obtained. The results indicate the feasibility of using a laser system for the direct ignition of reaction and control and orbital manouvering thrusters and highlight further investigations and developments necessary for the implementation of miniaturised laser systems for vacuum igntion of cryogenic propellants.

  1. High Fidelity Multi-Objective Design Optimization of a Downscaled Cusped Field Thruster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Fahey

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Cusped Field Thruster (CFT concept has demonstrated significantly improved performance over the Hall Effect Thruster and the Gridded Ion Thruster; however, little is understood about the complexities of the interactions and interdependencies of the geometrical, magnetic and ion beam properties of the thruster. This study applies an advanced design methodology combining a modified power distribution calculation and evolutionary algorithms assisted by surrogate modeling to a multi-objective design optimization for the performance optimization and characterization of the CFT. Optimization is performed for maximization of performance defined by five design parameters (i.e., anode voltage, anode current, mass flow rate, and magnet radii, simultaneously aiming to maximize three objectives; that is, thrust, efficiency and specific impulse. Statistical methods based on global sensitivity analysis are employed to assess the optimization results in conjunction with surrogate models to identify key design factors with respect to the three design objectives and additional performance measures. The research indicates that the anode current and the Outer Magnet Radius have the greatest effect on the performance parameters. An optimal value for the anode current is determined, and a trend towards maximizing anode potential and mass flow rate is observed.

  2. Power Dependence of the Electron Mobility Profile in a Hall Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorns, Benjamin A.; Hofery, Richard H.; Mikellides, Ioannis G.

    2014-01-01

    The electron mobility profile is estimated in a 4.5 kW commercial Hall thruster as a function of discharge power. Internal measurements of plasma potential and electron temperature are made in the thruster channel with a high-speed translating probe. These measurements are presented for a range of throttling conditions from 150 - 400 V and 0.6 - 4.5 kW. The fluid-based solver, Hall2De, is used in conjunction with these internal plasma parameters to estimate the anomalous collision frequency profile at fixed voltage, 300 V, and three power levels. It is found that the anomalous collision frequency profile does not change significantly upstream of the location of the magnetic field peak but that the extent and magnitude of the anomalous collision frequency downstream of the magnetic peak does change with thruster power. These results are discussed in the context of developing phenomenological models for how the collision frequency profile depends on thruster operating conditions.

  3. Pyro thruster for performing rocket booster attachment, disconnect, and jettison functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornyak, Stephen

    1989-01-01

    The concept of a pyro thruster, combining an automatic structural attachment with quick disconnect and thrusting capability, is described. The purpose of the invention is to simplify booster installation, disengagement, and jettison functions for the U.S. Air Force Advanced Launch Systems (ALS) program.

  4. Effects of magnetic field strength in the discharge channel on the performance of a multi-cusped field thruster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Hu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The performance characteristics of a Multi-cusped Field Thruster depending on the magnetic field strength in the discharge channel were investigated. Four thrusters with different outer diameters of the magnet rings were designed to change the magnetic field strength in the discharge channel. It is found that increasing the magnetic field strength could restrain the radial cross-field electron current and decrease the radial width of main ionization region, which gives rise to the reduction of propellant utilization and thruster performance. The test results in different anode voltage conditions indicate that both the thrust and anode efficiency are higher for the weaker magnetic field in the discharge channel.

  5. Enhancing Micro-Cathode Arc Thruster (muCAT) Plasma Generation to Analyze Magnetic Field Angle Effects on Sheath Formation in Hall Thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, Joseph Nicholas

    Using a Delta IV or Atlas V launch vehicle to send a payload into Low Earth Orbit can cost between 13,000 and 14,000 per kilogram. With payloads that utilize a propulsion system, maximizing the efficiency of that propulsion system would not only be financially beneficial, but could also increase the range of possible missions and allow for a longer mission lifetime. This dissertation looks into efficiency increases in the Micro-Cathode Arc Thruster (muCAT) and Hall Thruster. The muCAT is an electric propulsion device that ablates solid cathode material, through an electrical arc discharge, to create plasma and ultimately produce thrust. About 90% of the arc discharge current is conducted by electrons, which go toward heating the anode and contribute very little to thrust, with only the remaining 10% going toward thrust in the form of ion current. I will discuss the results of an experiment in which electron heating on a low melting point anode was shown to increase ion current, which theoretically should increase thrust levels at low frequencies. Another feature of the muCAT is the use of an external magnetic solenoid which increases thrust, ion current, and causes uniform cathode erosion. An experiment has shown that efficiency can also be increased by removing the external magnetic field power supply and, instead, utilizing the residual arc current to power the magnetic solenoid. A Hall Thruster is a type of electric propulsion device that accelerates ions across an electric potential between an anode and magnetically trapped electrons. The limiting factor in Hall Thruster operation is the lifetime of the wall material. During operation, a positively charged layer forms over the surface of the walls, known as a plasma sheath, which contributes to wall erosion. Therefore, by reducing or eliminating the sheath layer, Hall Thruster operational lifetime can increase. Computational modeling has shown that large magnetic field angles and large perpendicular electric

  6. On the Application of Hall Thruster Working with Ambient Atmospheric Gas for Orbital Station-Keeping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Duhopel'nikov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the application of the Hall thruster using the ambient atmospheric air for orbital station keeping. This is a relevant direction at the up-to-date development stage of propulsion systems. Many teams of designers of electric rocket thrusters evaluate the application of different schemes of particle acceleration at the low-earth orbit. Such technical solution allows us to abandon the storage systems of the working agent on the spacecraft board. Thus, lifetime of such a system at the orbit wouldn`t be limited by fuel range. The paper suggests a scheme of the propulsion device with a parabolic confuser that provides a required compression ratio of the ambient air for correct operation. Formulates physical and structural restrictions on ambient air to be used as a working agent of the thruster. Pointes out that the altitudes from 200 to 300 km are the most promising for such propulsion devices. Shows that for operation at lower altitudes are required the higher capacities that are not provided by modern onboard power supply systems. For the orbit heightening the air intakes with significant compression rate are of necessity. The size of such air intakes would exceed nose fairing of exploited space launch systems. To perform further design calculations are shown dependencies that allow us to calculate an effective diameter of the thruster channel and a critical voltage to be desirable for thrust force excess over air resistance. The dependencies to calculate minimal and maximal fluxes of neutral particles of oxygen and nitrogen, that are necessary for normal thruster operation, are also shown. Calculation results of the propulsion system parameters for the spacecrafts with cross-sectional area within 1 - 3 m2 and inlet diameter of air intake within 1 - 3 m are demonstrated. The research results have practical significance in design of advanced propulsion devices for lowaltitude spacecrafts. The work has been supported by the RFFR

  7. Electrospray Thrusters for Attitude Control of a 1-U CubeSat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timilsina, Navin

    With a rapid increase in the interest in use of nanosatellites in the past decade, finding a precise and low-power-consuming attitude control system for these satellites has been a real challenge. In this thesis, it is intended to design and test an electrospray thruster system that could perform the attitude control of a 1-unit CubeSat. Firstly, an experimental setup is built to calculate the conductivity of different liquids that could be used as propellants for the CubeSat. Secondly, a Time-Of-Flight experiment is performed to find out the thrust and specific impulse given by these liquids and hence selecting the optimum propellant. On the other hand, a colloidal thruster system for a 1-U CubeSat is designed in Solidworks and fabricated using Lathe and CNC Milling Machine. Afterwards, passive propellant feeding is tested in this thruster system. Finally, the electronic circuit and wireless control system necessary to remotely control the CubeSat is designed and the final testing is performed. Among the propellants studied, Ethyl ammonium nitrate (EAN) was selected as the best propellant for the CubeSat. Theoretical design and fabrication of the thruster system was performed successfully and so was the passive propellant feeding test. The satellite was assembled for the final experiment but unfortunately the microcontroller broke down during the first test and no promising results were found out. However, after proving that one thruster works with passive feeding, it could be said that the ACS testing would have worked if we had performed vacuum compatibility tests for other components beforehand.

  8. ISS Contingency Attitude Control Recovery Method for Loss of Automatic Thruster Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrossian, Nazareth; Bhatt, Sagar; Alaniz, Abran; McCants, Edward; Nguyen, Louis; Chamitoff, Greg

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the attitude control issues associated with International Space Station (ISS) loss of automatic thruster control capability are discussed and methods for attitude control recovery are presented. This scenario was experienced recently during Shuttle mission STS-117 and ISS Stage 13A in June 2007 when the Russian GN&C computers, which command the ISS thrusters, failed. Without automatic propulsive attitude control, the ISS would not be able to regain attitude control after the Orbiter undocked. The core issues associated with recovering long-term attitude control using CMGs are described as well as the systems engineering analysis to identify recovery options. It is shown that the recovery method can be separated into a procedure for rate damping to a safe harbor gravity gradient stable orientation and a capability to maneuver the vehicle to the necessary initial conditions for long term attitude hold. A manual control option using Soyuz and Progress vehicle thrusters is investigated for rate damping and maneuvers. The issues with implementing such an option are presented and the key issue of closed-loop stability is addressed. A new non-propulsive alternative to thruster control, Zero Propellant Maneuver (ZPM) attitude control method is introduced and its rate damping and maneuver performance evaluated. It is shown that ZPM can meet the tight attitude and rate error tolerances needed for long term attitude control. A combination of manual thruster rate damping to a safe harbor attitude followed by a ZPM to Stage long term attitude control orientation was selected by the Anomaly Resolution Team as the alternate attitude control method for such a contingency.

  9. Development of a 13 kW Hall Thruster Propulsion System Performance Model for AEPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Steven; Allen, May; Goodfellow, Keith; Chew, Gilbert; Rapetti, Ryan; Tofil, Todd; Herman, Dan; Jackson, Jerry; Myers, Roger

    2017-01-01

    The Advanced Electric Propulsion System (AEPS) program will develop a flight 13kW Hall thruster propulsion system based on NASA's HERMeS thruster. The AEPS system includes the Hall Thruster, the Power Processing Unit (PPU) and the Xenon Flow Controller (XFC). These three primary components must operate together to ensure that the system generates the required combinations of thrust and specific impulse at the required system efficiencies for the desired system lifetime. At the highest level, the AEPS system will be integrated into the spacecraft and will receive power, propellant, and commands from the spacecraft. Power and propellant flow rates will be determined by the throttle set points commanded by the spacecraft. Within the system, the major control loop is between the mass flow rate and thruster current, with time-dependencies required to handle all expected transients, and additional, much slower interactions between the thruster and cathode temperatures, flow controller and PPU. The internal system interactions generally occur on shorter timescales than the spacecraft interactions, though certain failure modes may require rapid responses from the spacecraft. The AEPS system performance model is designed to account for all these interactions in a way that allows evaluation of the sensitivity of the system to expected changes over the planned mission as well as to assess the impacts of normal component and assembly variability during the production phase of the program. This effort describes the plan for the system performance model development, correlation to NASA test data, and how the model will be used to evaluate the critical internal and external interactions. The results will ensure the component requirements do not unnecessarily drive the system cost or overly constrain the development program. Finally, the model will be available to quickly troubleshoot any future unforeseen development challenges.

  10. Bowing and expansion of natural stone panels: marble and limestone testing and assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grelk, Bent

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural stone has been used as a building material for centuries. In the past, load bearing members were made of entirely of stone, but in the last 50 years new processing techniques have made the production and use of thin facade cladding a profitable venture. Unfortunately however, marble facades on buildings in Europe and elsewhere have undergone severe deterioration. The EC-financed TEAM project (2000-2005 studied the bowing observed on marble facades in both cold and warm climates. TEAM’s main objectives were to understand and explain the expansion, bowing, and strength loss mechanisms governing the decay of marble- and limestone-clad facades, and to draft new European standards to prevent the use of marble and limestone poorly suited to outdoor cladding. A survey of some 200 buildings afforded a clear picture of the geographical, geological and climatic scope of the problem. Detailed case studies of six buildings resulted in a facade assessment methodology that included a monitoring system and risk assessment. Both laboratory and field research was conducted on almost 100 different types of stone from different countries and in place in different climates. The outcome was the determination of the decay mechanisms and critical factors. Two test methods and respective precision statements, one for bowing and the other for irreversible thermal expansion in high humidity conditions, were prepared for submission to CEN TC 246.La piedra natural se ha empleado como material de construcción durante siglos. En el pasado, se solía utilizar en elementos de carga, pero en los últimos 50 años las nuevas técnicas de procesamiento han permitido que sea comercialmente rentable producir y utilizar revestimientos para fachadas de espesor reducido. Desafortunadamente, numerosas fachadas de mármol de edificios tanto en Europa como fuera de ella han sufrido graves problemas derivados del deterioro de la piedra. El proyecto TEAM (2000

  11. Two-Polarisation Physical Model of Bowed Strings with Nonlinear Contact and Friction Forces, and Application to Gesture-Based Sound Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Desvages

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent bowed string sound synthesis has relied on physical modelling techniques; the achievable realism and flexibility of gestural control are appealing, and the heavier computational cost becomes less significant as technology improves. A bowed string sound synthesis algorithm is designed, by simulating two-polarisation string motion, discretising the partial differential equations governing the string’s behaviour with the finite difference method. A globally energy balanced scheme is used, as a guarantee of numerical stability under highly nonlinear conditions. In one polarisation, a nonlinear contact model is used for the normal forces exerted by the dynamic bow hair, left hand fingers, and fingerboard. In the other polarisation, a force-velocity friction curve is used for the resulting tangential forces. The scheme update requires the solution of two nonlinear vector equations. The dynamic input parameters allow for simulating a wide range of gestures; some typical bow and left hand gestures are presented, along with synthetic sound and video demonstrations.

  12. Predicting Hall Thruster Operational Lifetime Using a Kinetic Plasma Model and a Molecular Dynamics Simulation Method Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hall thrusters are being considered for many space missions because their high specific impulse delivers a larger payload mass fraction than chemical rockets. With a...

  13. Experimental Investigation from the Operation of a 2 kW Brayton Power Conversion Unit and a Xenon Ion Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervol, David; Mason, Lee; Birchenough, Art; Pinero, Luis

    2004-01-01

    A 2kW Brayton Power Conversion Unit (PCU) and a xenon ion thruster were integrated with a Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) system as part of a Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) Testbed at NASA's Glenn Research Center. Brayton Converters and ion thrusters are potential candidates for use on future high power NEP mission such as the proposed Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO). The use of a existing lower power test hardware provided a cost effective means to investigate the critical electrical interface between the power conversion system and the propulsion system. The testing successfully demonstrated compatible electrical operations between the converter and the thruster, including end-to-end electric power throughput, high efficiency AC to DC conversion, and thruster recycle fault protection. The details of this demonstration are reported herein.

  14. Experimental Investigations from the Operation of a 2 Kw Brayton Power Conversion Unit and a Xenon Ion Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Lee; Birchenough, Arthur; Pinero, Luis

    2004-01-01

    A 2 kW Brayton Power Conversion Unit (PCU) and a xenon ion thruster were integrated with a Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) system as part of a Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) Testbed at NASA's Glenn Research Center. Brayton converters and ion thrusters are potential candidates for use on future high power NEP missions such as the proposed Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO). The use of existing lower power test hardware provided a cost-effective means to investigate the critical electrical interface between the power conversion system and ion propulsion system. The testing successfully demonstrated compatible electrical operations between the converter and the thruster, including end-to-end electric power throughput, high efficiency AC to DC conversion, and thruster recycle fault protection. The details of this demonstration are reported herein.

  15. Non-stationarity of the quasi-perpendicular bow shock: comparison between Cluster observations and simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Comişel

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We have performed full particle electromagnetic simulations of a quasi-perpendicular shock. The shock parameters have been chosen to be appropriate for the quasi-perpendicular Earth's bow shock observed by Cluster on 24 January 2001 (Lobzin et al., 2007. We have performed two simulations with different ion to electron mass ratio: run 1 with mi/me=1840 and run 2 with mi/me=100. In run 1 the growth rate of the modified two-stream instability (MTSI is large enough to get excited during the reflection and upstream gyration of part of the incident solar wind ions. The waves due to the MTSI are on the whistler mode branch and have downstream directed phase velocities in the shock frame. The Poynting flux (and wave group velocity far upstream in the foot is also directed in the downstream direction. However, in the density and magnetic field compression region of the overshoot the waves are refracted and the Poynting flux in the shock frame is directed upstream. The MTSI is suppressed in the low mass ratio run 2. The low mass ratio run shows more clearly the non-stationarity of the shock with a larger time scale of the order of an inverse ion gyrofrequency (Ωci: the magnetic field profile flattens and steepens with a period of ~1.5Ωci−1. This non-stationarity is different from reformation seen in previous simulations of perpendicular or quasi-perpendicular shocks. Beginning with a sharp shock ramp the large electric field in the normal direction leads to high reflection rate of solar wind protons. As they propagate upstream, the ion bulk velocity decreases and the magnetic field increases in the foot, which results in a flattening of the magnetic field profile and in a decrease of the normal electric field. Subsequently the reflection rate decreases and the whole shock profile steepens again. Superimposed on this 'breathing' behavior are in the realistic mass ratio case the waves due to the MTSI. The simulations lead us to a re-interpretation of

  16. Dispersion of low frequency plasma waves upstream of the quasi-perpendicular terrestrial bow shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Dimmock

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Low frequency waves in the foot of a supercritical quasi-perpendicular shock front have been observed since the very early in situ observations of the terrestrial bow shock (Guha et al., 1972. The great attention that has been devoted to these type of waves since the first observations is explained by the key role attributed to them in the processes of energy redistribution in the shock front by various theoretical models. In some models, these waves play the role of the intermediator between the ions and electrons. It is assumed that they are generated by plasma instability that exist due to the counter-streaming flows of incident and reflected ions. In the second type of models, these waves result from the evolution of the shock front itself in the quasi-periodic process of steepening and overturning of the magnetic ramp. However, the range of the observed frequencies in the spacecraft frame are not enough to distinguish the origin of the observed waves. It also requires the determination of the wave vectors and the plasma frame frequencies. Multipoint measurements within the wave coherence length are needed for an ambiguous determination of the wave vectors. In the main multi-point missions such as ISEE, AMPTE, Cluster and THEMIS, the spacecraft separation is too large for such a wave vector determination and therefore only very few case studies are published (mainly for AMPTE UKS AMPTE IRM pair. Here we present the observations of upstream low frequency waves by the Cluster spacecraft which took place on 19 February 2002. The spacecraft separation during the crossing of the bow shock was small enough to determine the wave vectors and allowed the identification of the plasma wave dispersion relation for the observed waves. Presented results are compared with whistler wave dispersion and it is shown that contrary to previous studies based on the AMPTE data, the phase velocity in the shock frame is directed downstream. The consequences of this

  17. Study on the effect of the CANFLEX-NU fuel element bowing on the critical heat flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suk, Ho Chun; Cho, Moon Sung; Jeon, Ji Su

    2001-01-01

    The effect of the CANFLEX-NU fuel element bowing on the critical heat flux is reviewed and analyzed, which is requested by KINS as the Government design licensing condition for the use of the fuel bundles in CANDU power reactors. The effect of the gap between two adjacent fuel elements on the critical heat flux and onset-of-dryout power is studied. The reduction of the width of a single inter-rod gap from its nominal size to the minimum manufacture allowance of 1 mm has a negligible effects on the thermal-hydraulic performance of the bundle for the given set of boundary conditions applied to the CANFLEX-43 element bundle in an uncrept channel. As expected, the in-reactor irradiation test results show that there are no evidence of the element bow problems on the bundle performance.

  18. The effect of element bow on dryout power and post-dryout heat transfer in CANDU fuel bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutradhar, S.C.; Schenk, J.R. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    1997-07-01

    Dryout and post-dryout tests were performed in a modified 37-element simulated CANDU fuel bundle, with one outer element of the last bundle bowed at gradual but controlled steps toward the pressure-tube wall. The dryout power decreased moderately as the gap size was reduced from nominal to about 40%. For smaller-than-40%-gap sizes, however, the dryout power increased in most cases; this resulted in almost equal dryout powers at the nominal and zero gap sizes. The maximum surface temperature of the bowed element at up to 20% overpower increased with decreasing gap sizes; however, for gap sizes smaller than 35% of the nominal gap, the surface temperature fluctuated moderately. (author)

  19. Pattern Switchable Antenna System Using Inkjet-Printed Directional Bow-Tie for Bi-Direction Sensing Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Seung-Hyun; Seo, Yunsik; Lim, Sungjoon

    2015-12-10

    In this paper, we propose a paper-based pattern switchable antenna system using inkjet-printing technology for bi-direction sensor applications. The proposed antenna system is composed of two directional bow-tie antennas and a switching network. The switching network consists of a single-pole-double-throw (SPDT) switch and a balun element. A double-sided parallel-strip line (DSPSL) is employed to convert the unbalanced microstrip mode to the balanced strip mode. Two directional bow-tie antennas have different radiation patterns because of the different orientation of the reflectors and antennas. It is demonstrated from electromagnetic (EM) simulation and measurement that the radiation patterns of the proposed antenna are successfully switched by the SPDT switch.

  20. Effects of magnetic field strength in the discharge channel on the performance of a multi-cusped field thruster

    OpenAIRE

    Peng Hu; Hui Liu; Yuanyuan Gao; Daren Yu

    2016-01-01

    The performance characteristics of a Multi-cusped Field Thruster depending on the magnetic field strength in the discharge channel were investigated. Four thrusters with different outer diameters of the magnet rings were designed to change the magnetic field strength in the discharge channel. It is found that increasing the magnetic field strength could restrain the radial cross-field electron current and decrease the radial width of main ionization region, which gives rise to the reduction o...

  1. A methodology to select a group of species among 131 tropical (colombian) species for bowed timber applications

    OpenAIRE

    Caicedo-Llano,Natalia

    2014-01-01

    We present a methodology of selecting wood species for architectural purposes, especially when a curved shape is required. First, a mechanical criterion is associated with a morphology, more specifically a characteristic value of stress-strain relation is associated with the attitude of wood for bowing. Second, a filtering is done using data of wood in the green state and in the dry state, and then the wood selection is refined by using relevant criteria related to environment and economic co...

  2. Kaguya observations of the lunar wake in the terrestrial foreshock: Surface potential change by bow-shock reflected ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Masaki N.; Harada, Yuki; Saito, Yoshifumi; Tsunakawa, Hideo; Takahashi, Futoshi; Yokota, Shoichiro; Matsushima, Masaki; Shibuya, Hidetoshi; Shimizu, Hisayoshi

    2017-09-01

    There forms a tenuous region called the wake behind the Moon in the solar wind, and plasma entry/refilling into the wake is a fundamental problem of the lunar plasma science. High-energy ions and electrons in the foreshock of the Earth's magnetosphere were detected at the lunar surface in the Apollo era, but their effects on the lunar night-side environment have never been studied. Here we show the first observation of bow-shock reflected protons by Kaguya (SELENE) spacecraft in orbit around the Moon, confirming that solar wind plasma reflected at the terrestrial bow shock can easily access the deepest lunar wake when the Moon stays in the foreshock (We name this mechanism 'type-3 entry'). In a continuous type-3 event, low-energy electron beams from the lunar night-side surface are not obvious even though the spacecraft location is magnetically connected to the lunar surface. On the other hand, in an intermittent type-3 entry event, the kinetic energy of upward-going field-aligned electron beams decreases from ∼ 80 eV to ∼ 20 eV or electron beams disappear as the bow-shock reflected ions come accompanied by enhanced downward electrons. According to theoretical treatment based on electric current balance at the lunar surface including secondary electron emission by incident electron and ion impact, we deduce that incident ions would be accompanied by a few to several times higher flux of an incident electron flux, which well fits observed downward fluxes. We conclude that impact by the bow-shock reflected ions and electrons raises the electrostatic potential of the lunar night-side surface.

  3. Assessing the potential for rainbow trout reproduction in tributaries of the Mountain Fork River below Broken Bow Dam, southeastern Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, James M.; Starks, Trevor A.; Farling, Tyler; Bastarache, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Stocked trout (Salmonidae) in reservoir tailwater systems in the Southern United States have been shown to use tributary streams for spawning and rearing. The lower Mountain Fork of the Little River below Broken Bow Dam is one of two year-round tailwater trout fisheries in Oklahoma, and the only one with evidence of reproduction by stocked rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Whether stocked trout use tributaries in this system for spawning is unknown. Furthermore, an

  4. Perspectives on grizzly bear management in Banff National Park and the Bow River Watershed, Alberta: A Q methodology study

    OpenAIRE

    Chamberlain, Emily Carter

    2006-01-01

    Conserving populations of large carnivores such as grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) requires not only biophysical research, but also an understanding of the values and beliefs of the people involved with and affected by carnivore management. I used Q methodology to examine views of stakeholders concerning grizzly bear management in the Banff-Bow Valley region of Alberta, Canada. In recent years, decision-making about bears in this region has been characterized by acrimonious disputes over scienti...

  5. Traction bow for acute reduction of fracture and/or dislocation of the thoracic or thoracolumbar spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G J; Eschenroeder, H C; Redler, M R; Stamp, W G

    1988-01-01

    Treatment of acute fractures and/or fracture dislocations of the thoracic or thoracolumbar spine has traditionally involved bedrest or the use of traction devices with external hanging weights, until surgical correction can be accomplished. A fiberglass tubular traction bow with continuous adjustable elastic tension has been designed for the application of skeletal traction. When used to treat thoracic or thoracolumbar fractures and/or dislocations, it can maintain distraction forces in an uninterrupted fashion. Ten patients with acute fractures and/or dislocations of the thoracic or thoracolumbar spine were treated with this traction bow. All of the spinal deformities showed dramatic improvement within the first 3 h of treatment. The patients all showed immediate lessening of acute severe pain, and those with incomplete neurologic loss showed improvement of their neurologic function. The patients all tolerated the device well and were able to undergo radiologic examination and, ultimately, spinal fusion while they were stabilized in the traction bow. We believe this device is especially valuable for immediate reduction of spine and care of patients with fractures or fracture dislocations of the thoracolumbar spine.

  6. Clustering of Hall effect thrusters for high-power electric propulsion applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, Brian Eric

    This thesis presents research aimed at understanding the technical issues related to operating multiple Hall effect thrusters in close proximity to each other. This will facilitate development of electric propulsion systems capable of operating at power levels beyond the current state of the art. An extensive array of plume data was obtained using a variety of plasma diagnostics. Measurements were taken downstream of a cluster of four thrusters, each of which was coupled to its own hollow cathode and operated from its own set of power supplies. Comparing data obtained in this configuration to measurements taken in the plume of a single thruster showed that three of the most basic properties in the cluster plume: plasma density, electron temperature, and plasma potential, could be predicted based solely on knowledge of a single thruster. Predictions made using the methods presented in this dissertation appear to be accurate to within the margin of error of typical plasma diagnostics. Secondary properties such as the ion current density and ion energy spectrum were also studied in the cluster plume. It was found that the beam profile of a cluster is slightly narrower than predicted by linear superposition of the contributions from each individual engine. A particle tracking algorithm revealed this behavior to be the result of low-energy ions being preferentially deflected downstream by the unique plasma potential profiles in the cluster plume. Measurements of the ion energy spectrum showed a significant increase in ions occurring at energy to charge ratios below the main peak in the distribution when multiple thrusters were operated. This appears to indicate an increase in elastic scattering due to clustering. Finally, several alternative cluster configurations have been studied to examine parallel and shared cathode operation. It was found that parallel operation generally caused one cathode to dominate the discharge. When multiple thrusters were coupled to a single

  7. Steady-state Manoeuvring of a Generic ASD Tug in Escort Pull and Bow-rope Aided Push Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslaw Artyszuk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to expand the very promising research undertaken in the author's previous work, basically done on simplified modelling the escort push operation. Now, the other two modes of a tug's employment, as stated in the title, are covered. The special focus is again set on the indirect towing in that the towline force is much higher than the thruster force. The ratio of these two forces, referred to as the relative towing force (or amplification ratio is evaluated together with the hull drift angle and the thruster(-s angle for a given escort speed. This mutual relationship is known as the tug performance diagram. Although rather generic (container-type formulas are derived, they are supplied for exemplification purposes with simple, analytically given hull hydrodynamic forces. The aim is also here to provide a basis for further sensitivity analysis of the model and possible improvement/optimisation to the tug design. The obtained charts also could serve as rough and clear guidance for towmasters while escorting.

  8. Modified tandem traction bow appliance compared with facemask therapy in treating Class III malocclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortop, Tuba; Kaygisiz, Emine; Gencer, Deniz; Yuksel, Sema; Atalay, Zeynep

    2014-07-01

    To compare the effects of the modified tandem traction bow appliance (MTTBA) and the facemask in treating patients with Class III malocclusion. The material consisted of the pre-post treatment\\pre-post observation lateral cephalograms of 65 subjects with skeletal and dental Class III malocclusion. In the first group 21 patients (mean age: 10 years, 6 months) were treated with a Delaire-type facemask (FM). In the second group 22 patients treated (mean age: 10 years) with MTTBA. The remaining 22 children (mean age: 9 years, 7 months) were observed without treatment for 11 months. Increase in SNA, N-FH ⊥ A, and ANB angles were significantly greater in the treatment groups compared to the control group. However, ANB angle showed a significantly greater increase in the FM group (2.8 ± 0.30°) than in the MTTBA group (2.0 ± 0.18°). The overjet and molar relation increased significantly in both treatment groups, but in the FM group (5.2 ± 0.40 mm) increase in overjet was significantly greater than in the MTTBA group (4.0 ± 0.27 mm). Mesial movement of upper molar and incisor were found to be greater in the FM group compared to the modified TTBA group. Both appliances were found to be effective in the treatment of Class III malocclusion. Their skeletal and dental effects showed differences due to their design.

  9. Computational fluid dynamics based bulbous bow optimization using a genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Shahid; Huang, Debo

    2012-09-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) plays a major role in predicting the flow behavior of a ship. With the development of fast computers and robust CFD software, CFD has become an important tool for designers and engineers in the ship industry. In this paper, the hull form of a ship was optimized for total resistance using CFD as a calculation tool and a genetic algorithm as an optimization tool. CFD based optimization consists of major steps involving automatic generation of geometry based on design parameters, automatic generation of mesh, automatic analysis of fluid flow to calculate the required objective/cost function, and finally an optimization tool to evaluate the cost for optimization. In this paper, integration of a genetic algorithm program, written in MATLAB, was carried out with the geometry and meshing software GAMBIT and CFD analysis software FLUENT. Different geometries of additive bulbous bow were incorporated in the original hull based on design parameters. These design variables were optimized to achieve a minimum cost function of "total resistance". Integration of a genetic algorithm with CFD tools proves to be effective for hull form optimization.

  10. Postural stability, clicker reaction time and bow draw force predict performance in elite recurve archery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spratford, Wayne; Campbell, Rhiannon

    2017-06-01

    Recurve archery is an Olympic sport that requires extreme precision, upper body strength and endurance. The purpose of this research was to quantify how postural stability variables both pre- and post-arrow release, draw force, flight time, arrow length and clicker reaction time, collectively, impacted on the performance or scoring outcomes in elite recurve archery athletes. Thirty-nine elite-level recurve archers (23 male and 16 female; mean age = 24.7 ± 7.3 years) from four different countries volunteered to participate in this study prior to competing at a World Cup event. An AMTI force platform (1000Hz) was used to obtain centre of pressure (COP) measurements 1s prior to arrow release and 0.5s post-arrow release. High-speed footage (200Hz) allowed for calculation of arrow flight time and score. Results identified clicker reaction time, draw force and maximum sway speed as the variables that best predicted shot performance. Specifically, reduced clicker reaction time, greater bow draw force and reduced postural sway speed post-arrow release were predictors of higher scoring shots. It is suggested that future research should focus on investigating shoulder muscle tremors at full draw in relation to clicker reaction time, and the effect of upper body strength interventions (specifically targeting the musculature around the shoulder girdle) on performance in recurve archers.

  11. Relativistic Electrons Produced by Foreshock Disturbances Observed Upstream of Earth's Bow Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, L. B., III; Sibeck, D. G.; Turner, D. L.; Osmane, A.; Caprioli, D.; Angelopoulos, V.

    2016-01-01

    Charged particles can be reflected and accelerated by strong (i.e., high Mach number) astrophysical collisionless shock waves, streaming away to form a foreshock region in communication with the shock. Foreshocks are primarily populated by suprathermal ions that can generate foreshock disturbances-largescale (i.e., tens to thousands of thermal ion Larmor radii), transient (approximately 5-10 per day) structures. They have recently been found to accelerate ions to energies of several keV. Although electrons in Saturn's high Mach number (M > 40) bow shock can be accelerated to relativistic energies (nearly 1000 keV), it has hitherto been thought impossible to accelerate electrons beyond a few tens of keV at Earth's low Mach number (1 =M shock. Here we report observations of electrons energized by foreshock disturbances to energies up to at least approximately 300 keV. Although such energetic electrons have been previously observed, their presence has been attributed to escaping magnetospheric particles or solar events. These relativistic electrons are not associated with any solar or magnetospheric activity. Further, due to their relatively small Larmor radii (compared to magnetic gradient scale lengths) and large thermal speeds (compared to shock speeds), no known shock acceleration mechanism can energize thermal electrons up to relativistic energies. The discovery of relativistic electrons associated with foreshock structures commonly generated in astrophysical shocks could provide a new paradigm for electron injections and acceleration in collisionless plasmas.

  12. CFD analyses of the rod bowing effect on the subchannel outlet temperature distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekstroem, Karoliina; Toppila, Timo [Fortum Power and Heat, Fortum (Finland)

    2017-09-15

    In the Loviisa 1 and 2 nuclear power plants the subcooling margin of the hottest subchannel of the fuel assembly is monitored. The temperature of the coolant in the hottest subchannel is limited to the constant saturation temperature. Bending of the fuel rods occurs during normal operation due to the differences in the heat profiles of the rods. The coolant temperature will rise more in the subchannel with smaller flow area due to the bending and this has to be taken into account in the safety margin of subchannel enthalpy rise. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations are used to estimate how much the estimated maximum bow of a rod affects the temperature rise of the subchannel. The quantitative uncertainty of the predicted enthalpy rise in fuel bundle subchannel is estimated based on the uncertainty of modelling of mixing between subchannels. The measured turbulence quantities from LDA measurements of cold test assembly made in 1990s in Fortum are compared with CFD results to give uncertainty estimation for turbulence, which is further used for uncertainty estimation of mixing and simulated subchannel enthalpy rise.

  13. ANALISA PENGARUH BENTUK LAMBUNG AXE BOW PADA KAPAL HIGH SPEED CRAFT TERHADAP HAMBATAN TOTAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romadhoni Oni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hambatan merupakan salah satu faktor utama yang mempengaruhi proses perancangan sebuah kapal. Kapal dengan bentuk lambung yang baik akan menghasilkan hambatan yang efisiensi sehingga operasional kapal dan pergerakan kapal lebih baik. Pada ini penelitian dilakukan dengan memodelkan kapal high speed craft tipe Crew boat panjang 38 meter, lebar 7.6 meter, tinggi 3.65 meter dan draft 1.89 meter. Selanjutnya diselidiki model lambung kapal yang menghasilkan hambatan total paling kecil menggunakan pendekatan studi numerik software (maxsuft hullspeed metode savitsky dan holtrop dan software Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD. Hasil penelitian berdasarkan analisa numerik (Maxsuft –Hullspeed dan CFD menujukkan pada kecepatan sevice bentuk lambung model AXE Bow memiliki nilai hambatan yang lebih kecil dibandingkan model kapal planing hull chine (HPC dan rounded hull (RH. Hasil perhitungan numerik dan CFD memiliki nilai yang hampir sama pada setiap variasi model. Hasil komparisi yang dilakukan didapatkan selisih total hambatan pada kecepatan 25 knot yaitu  model HPC 1.8 kN, model HPCAB 5.2 kN, model RH 4.8 kN dan model 5.1 kN. Dari perbandingan kedua metode tersebut memiliki selisih cukup kecil yaitu  kurang dari 5%. Selain mendapatkan nilai hambatan Software CFD akan menghasilkan nilai  perbandingan gaya angkat (lift force, dan total pressure yang terdistribusi  pada permukaan model setiap variasi kecepatan.

  14. Relativistic Electrons Produced by Foreshock Disturbances Observed Upstream of Earth's Bow Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, L. B., III; Sibeck, D. G.; Turner, D. L.; Osmane, A.; Caprioli, D.; Angelopoulos, V.

    2016-01-01

    Charged particles can be reflected and accelerated by strong (i.e., high Mach number) astrophysical collisionless shock waves, streaming away to form a foreshock region in communication with the shock. Foreshocks are primarily populated by suprathermal ions that can generate foreshock disturbances-largescale (i.e., tens to thousands of thermal ion Larmor radii), transient (approximately 5-10 per day) structures. They have recently been found to accelerate ions to energies of several keV. Although electrons in Saturn's high Mach number (M > 40) bow shock can be accelerated to relativistic energies (nearly 1000 keV), it has hitherto been thought impossible to accelerate electrons beyond a few tens of keV at Earth's low Mach number (1 =M electrons energized by foreshock disturbances to energies up to at least approximately 300 keV. Although such energetic electrons have been previously observed, their presence has been attributed to escaping magnetospheric particles or solar events. These relativistic electrons are not associated with any solar or magnetospheric activity. Further, due to their relatively small Larmor radii (compared to magnetic gradient scale lengths) and large thermal speeds (compared to shock speeds), no known shock acceleration mechanism can energize thermal electrons up to relativistic energies. The discovery of relativistic electrons associated with foreshock structures commonly generated in astrophysical shocks could provide a new paradigm for electron injections and acceleration in collisionless plasmas.

  15. Theory of 2{omega}{sub pe} radiation induced by the bow shock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, P.H.; Wu, C.S. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Vinas, A.F.; Reiner, M.J.; Fainberg, J.; Stone, R.G. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)

    1994-12-01

    A new radiation emission mechanism is proposed to explain electromagnetic radiation observed at twice the electron plasma frequency, 2{omega}{sub pe} in the upstream region of the Earth`s bow shock. This radiation has its origin at the electron foreshock boundary where energetic electron beams and intense narrow-band Langmuir waves are observed. The proposed emission mechanism results from the interaction of the electron beam and Langmuir waves that are backscattered off thermal ions. This interaction is described by a nonlinear dispersion equation which incorporates an effect owing to electron trajectory modulation by the backscattered Langmuir waves. Subsequent analysis of the dispersion equation reveals two important consequences. First, a long-wavelength electrostatic quasi-mode with frequency at 2{omega}{sup pe} is excited, and second, the quasi-mode and the electromagnetic mode are nonlinearly coupled. The implication is that, when the excited 2{omega}{sub pe} quasi-mode propagates in an inhomogeneous medium with slightly decreasing density, the quasi-mode can be converted directly into an electromagnetic mode. Hence the eletromagnetic radiation at twice the plasma frequency is generated. Numerical solutions of the dispersion equation with the choice of parameters that describe physical characteristics of the electron foreshock are presented, which illustrates the viability of the new mechanism. 24 refs., 2 figs.

  16. Theory of 2 omega(sub pe) radiation induced by the bow shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Peter H.; Wu, C. S.; Vinas, A. F.-; Reiner, M. J.; Fainberg, J.; Stone, R. G.

    1994-01-01

    A new radiation emission mechanism is proposed to explain electomagnetic radiation observed at twice the electron plasma frequency, 2 omega(sub pe), in the upstream region of the Earth's bow shock. This radiation had its origin at the electron foreshock boundary where energetic electron beams and intense narrow-band Langmiur waves are observed. The proposed emission mechanism results from the interaction of the electron beam and Langmuir waves that are backscattered off thermal ions. This interaction is described by a nonlinear dispersion equation which incorporates an effect owing to electron trajectory modulation by the backscattered Langmuir waves. Subsequent analysis of the dispersion equation reveals two important consequences. First, a long-wavelength electrostatic quasi-mode with frequency at 2 omega(sub pe) is excited, and second, the quasi-mode and the electomagnetic mode are nonlinearly coupled. The implication is that, when the excited 2 omega(sub pe) quasi-mode propagates in an inhomgeneous medium with slightly decreasing density, the quasi-mode can be converted directly into an electromagnetic mode. Hense the electomagnetic radiation at twice the plasma frequency is generated. Numerical solutions of the dispersion equation with the choice of parameters that describe physical characteristics of the electron foreshock are presented, which illustrates the viability of the new mechanism.

  17. The Parametric Study and Fine-Tuning of Bow-Tie Slot Antenna with Loaded Stub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiei, M M; Moghavvemi, Mahmoud; Wan Mahadi, Wan Nor Liza

    2017-01-01

    A printed Bow-Tie slot antenna with loaded stub is proposed and the effects of changing the dimensions of the slot area, the stub and load sizes are considered in this paper. These parameters have a considerable effect on the antenna characteristics as well as its performance. An in-depth parametric study of these dimensions is presented. This paper proposes the necessary conditions for initial approximation of dimensions needed to design this antenna. In order to achieve the desired performance of the antenna fine tuning of all sizes of these parameters is required. The parametric studies used in this paper provide proper trends for initiation and tuning the design. A prototype of the antenna for 1.7GHz to 2.6GHz band is fabricated. Measurements conducted verify that the designed antenna has wideband characteristics with 50% bandwidth around the center frequency of 2.1GHz. Conducted measurements for reflection coefficient (S11) and radiation pattern also validate our simulation results.

  18. Experimental demonstration of bow-shock instability and its numerical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Y.; Ohnishi, N.; Ohtani, K.

    2017-05-01

    An experimental demonstration was carried out in a ballistic range at high Mach numbers with the low specific heat ratio gas hydrofluorocarbon HFC-134a to observe the unstable bow-shock wave generated in front of supersonic blunt objects. The shadowgraph images obtained from the experiments showed instability characteristics, in which the disturbances grow and flow downstream and the wake flow appears wavy because of the shock oscillation. Moreover, the influence of the body shape and specific heat ratio on the instability was investigated for various experimental conditions. Furthermore, the observed features, such as wave structure and disturbance amplitude, were captured by numerical simulations, and it was demonstrated that computational fluid dynamics could effectively simulate the physical instability. In addition, it was deduced that the shock instability is induced by sound emissions from the edge of the object. This inference supports the dependence of the instability on the specific heat ratio and Mach number because the shock stand-off distance is affected by these parameters and limits the sound wave propagation.

  19. Bow hull-form optimization in waves of a 66,000 DWT bulk carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Won Yu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses optimization techniques to obtain bow hull form of a 66,000 DWT bulk carrier in calm water and in waves. Parametric modification functions of SAC and section shape of DLWL are used for hull form variation. Multi-objective functions are applied to minimize the wave-making resistance in calm water and added resistance in regular head wave of λ/L = 0.5. WAVIS version 1.3 is used to obtain wave-making resistance. The modified Fujii and Takahashi's formula is applied to obtain the added resistance in short wave. The PSO algorithm is employed for the optimization technique. The resistance and motion characteristics in calm water and regular and irregular head waves of the three hull forms are compared. It has been shown that the optimal brings 13.2% reduction in the wave-making resistance and 13.8% reduction in the added resistance at λ/L = 0.5; and the mean added resistance reduces by 9.5% at sea state 5.

  20. Potential pathogenic mechanism for stress fractures of the bowed femoral shaft in the elderly: Mechanical analysis by the CT-based finite element method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yoto; Wakabayashi, Yoshiaki; Kurosa, Yoshiro; Fujita, Koji; Okawa, Atsushi

    2014-11-01

    Stress fractures of the bowed femoral shaft (SBFs) may be one of the causes of atypical femoral fractures (AFFs). The CT-based finite element method (CT/FEM) can be used to structurally evaluate bone morphology and bone density based on patient DICOM data, thereby quantitatively and macroscopically assessing bone strength. Here, we clarify the pathogenic mechanism of SBFs and demonstrate this new understanding of AFFs through mechanical analysis by CT/FEM. A prospective clinical study was performed from April 2012 to February 2014. We assembled two study groups, the bowed AFF group (n=4 patients; mean age, 78.0 years) including those with a prior history of AFF associated with bowing deformity and the thigh pain group (n=14 patients; mean age, 78.6 years) comprising outpatients with complaints of thigh pain and tenderness. Stress concentration in the femoral shaft was analysed by CT/FEM, and the visual findings and extracted data were assessed to determine the maximum principal stress (MPS) and tensile stress-strength ratio (TSSR). In addition, we assessed femoral bowing, bone density, and bone metabolic markers. Wilcoxon's rank sum test was used for statistical analysis. All patients in the bowed AFF group showed a marked concentration of diffuse stress on the anterolateral surface. Thirteen patients in the thigh pain group had no significant findings. However, the remaining 1 patient had a finding similar to that observed in the bowed AFF group, with radiographic evidence of bowing deformity and a focally thickened lateral cortex. Patients were reclassified as having SBF (n=5) or non-SBF (n=13). Statistical analysis revealed significant differences in MPS (p=0.0031), TSSR (p=0.0022), and femoral bowing (lateral, p=0.0015; anterior, p=0.0022) between the SBF and non-SBF groups, with no significant differences in bone density or bone metabolic markers. Significant tensile stress due to bowing deformity can induce AFFs. SBFs should be considered a novel subtype of

  1. Magnetic Shielding of the Acceleration Channel Walls in a Long-Life Hall Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Hofer, Richard R.; Goebel, Dan M.; de Grys, Kristi; Mathers, Alex

    2010-01-01

    In a Qualification Life Test (QLT) of the BPT-4000 Hall thruster that recently accumulated greater than 10,000 h it was found that the erosion of the acceleration channel practically stopped after approximately 5,600 h. Numerical simulations of this thruster using a 2-D axisymmetric, magnetic field-aligned-mesh (MFAM) plasma solver reveal that the process that led to this significant reduction of the erosion was multifaceted. It is found that when the channel receded from its early-in-life geometry to its steady-state configuration several changes in the near-wall plasma and sheath were induced by the magnetic field that, collectively, constituted an effective shielding of the walls from any significant ion bombardment. Because all such changes in the behavior of the ionized gas near the eroding surfaces were caused by the topology of the magnetic field there, we term this process "magnetic shielding."

  2. High Input Voltage Discharge Supply for High Power Hall Thrusters Using Silicon Carbide Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinero, Luis R.; Scheidegger, Robert J.; Aulsio, Michael V.; Birchenough, Arthur G.

    2014-01-01

    A power processing unit for a 15 kW Hall thruster is under development at NASA Glenn Research Center. The unit produces up to 400 VDC with two parallel 7.5 kW discharge modules that operate from a 300 VDC nominal input voltage. Silicon carbide MOSFETs and diodes were used in this design because they were the best choice to handle the high voltage stress while delivering high efficiency and low specific mass. Efficiencies in excess of 97 percent were demonstrated during integration testing with the NASA-300M 20 kW Hall thruster. Electromagnet, cathode keeper, and heater supplies were also developed and will be integrated with the discharge supply into a vacuum-rated brassboard power processing unit with full flight functionality. This design could be evolved into a flight unit for future missions that requires high power electric propulsion.

  3. Characterization of laser-sustained plasma behavior during 10 kW laser thruster tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, J.; Krier, H.; Zerkle, D.; Glumb, R. J.

    1992-07-01

    This paper describes some of the important properties and characteristics of laser-sustained plasmas that were generated as part of the experimental tests of a 10 kW laser-powered rocket engine. The high-temperature laser-sustained plasmas were used to heat flows of argon and hydrogen propellants, which were then exhausted through a rocket nozzle to generate thrust. This paper describes some of the detailed plasma analysis that went into the design of the laser thruster, and then summarizes the key performance data acquired during the thruster tests, particularly that data that gives insight into the characteristics of the plasmas. Key findings include demonstrations of specific impulse values of up to 350 seconds at efficiencies near 40 percent using hydrogen plasmas, and the discovery of a low-velocity stability limit for laser-sustained plasmas that has important implications for the design of future laser propulsion systems.

  4. Silicon Carbide (SiC) Power Processing Unit (PPU) for Hall Effect Thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    Arkansas Power Electronics International (APEI), Inc., is developing a high-efficiency, radiation-hardened 3.8-kW SiC power supply for the PPU of Hall effect thrusters. This project specifically targets the design of a PPU for the high-voltage Hall accelerator (HiVHAC) thruster, with target specifications of 80- to 160-V input, 200- to 700-V/5A output, efficiency greater than 96 percent, and peak power density in excess of 2.5 kW/kg. The PPU under development uses SiC junction field-effect transistor power switches, components that APEI, Inc., has irradiated under total ionizing dose conditions to greater than 3 MRad with little to no change in device performance.

  5. NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster: The NEXT Ion Propulsion System for Solar System Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pencil, Eric J.; Benson, Scott W.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA s Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) Ion Propulsion system. The NEXT project is developing a solar electric ion propulsion system. The NEXT project is advancing the capability of ion propulsion to meet NASA robotic science mission needs. The NEXT system is planned to significantly improve performance over the state of the art electric propulsion systems, such as NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Application Readiness (NSTAR). The status of NEXT development is reviewed, including information on the NEXT Thruster, the power processing unit, the propellant management system (PMS), the digital control interface unit, and the gimbal. Block diagrams NEXT system are presented. Also a review of the lessons learned from the Dawn and NSTAR systems is provided. In summary the NEXT project activities through 2007 have brought next-generation ion propulsion technology to a sufficient maturity level.

  6. Iodine Hall Thruster Propellant Feed System for a CubeSat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Peeples, Steven

    2014-01-01

    The components required for an in-space iodine vapor-fed Hall effect thruster propellant management system are described. A laboratory apparatus was assembled and used to produce iodine vapor and control the flow through the application of heating to the propellant reservoir and through the adjustment of the opening in a proportional flow control valve. Changing of the reservoir temperature altered the flowrate on the timescale of minutes while adjustment of the proportional flow control valve changed the flowrate immediately without an overshoot or undershoot in flowrate with the requisite recovery time associated with thermal control systems. The flowrates tested spanned a range from 0-1.5 mg/s of iodine, which is sufficient to feed a 200-W Hall effect thruster.

  7. Laser ablation in a running hall effect thruster for space propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balika, L.; Focsa, C.; Gurlui, S.; Pellerin, S.; Pellerin, N.; Pagnon, D.; Dudeck, M.

    2013-07-01

    Hall Effect Thrusters (HETs) are promising electric propulsion devices for the station-keeping of geostationary satellites (more than 120 in orbit to date). Moreover, they can offer a cost-effective solution for interplanetary journey, as proved by the recent ESA SMART-1 mission to the Moon. The main limiting factor of the HETs lifetime is the erosion of the annular channel ceramics walls. In order to provide a better understanding of the energy deposition on the insulated walls, a laser irradiation study has been carried out on a PPS100-ML thruster during its run in the PIVOINE-2G ground test facility (CNRS Orléans, France). Two distinct approaches have been followed: continuous wave fiber laser irradiation (generation of thermal defects) and nanosecond pulsed laser ablation (generation of topological defects). The irradiated zones have been monitored in situ by IR thermography and optical emission spectroscopy and further investigated ex situ by scanning electron microscopy and profilometry.

  8. Annual Report 2015: High Fidelity Modeling of Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC) Thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Field-Reversed Configuration ( FRC ) Thrusters 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Justin Koo 5d...simultaneously. The low‐fidelity simulation capability for the formation process in RMF  FRC  thrusters (based on  the Hugrass model) and a high...fidelity multifluid capability for both theta‐pinch and RMF  FRCs  provides us with  both an extremely rapid engineering‐level code to quickly simulate

  9. Time-Synchronized Continuous Wave Laser Induced Fluorescence Velocity Measurements of a 600 Watt Hall Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    and Reports (0704-0188), 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any... PMT ). FFTs of these traces show that the thruster 2 Joint Conference of 30th ISTS, 34th IEPC and 6th NSAT, Hyogo-Kobe, Japan July 4–10, 2015...onto the entrance slit of the 125 mm focal length monochromator attached to a photomultiplier tube ( PMT ). If sent directly into a lock-in amplifier

  10. ION ACOUSTIC TURBULENCE, ANOMALOUS TRANSPORT, AND SYSTEM DYNAMICS IN HALL EFFECT THRUSTERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-30

    NUMBER (Include area code) 30 June 2017 Briefing Charts 26 May 2017 - 30 June 2017 ION ACOUSTIC TURBULENCE, ANOMALOUS TRANSPORT , AND SYSTEM DYNAMICS...Robert Martin N/A ION ACOUSTIC TURBULENCE, ANOMALOUS TRANSPORT , AND SYSTEM DYNAMICS IN HALL EFFECT THRUSTERS Robert Martin1, Jonathan Tran2 1AIR FORCE...Approved for Public Release; Distribution is Unlimited. PA# 17394 1 / 13 OUTLINE 1 INTRODUCTION 2 TRANSPORT 3 DYNAMIC SYSTEM 4 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

  11. Detailed Design of a Thruster Solution for a Small Mass-Market Remotely Operated Underwater Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Huynh, Johnny Quang Tuan

    2016-01-01

    This thesis addresses the design of a thruster-solution for a mass-market Remotely Operated Underwater Vehicle with respect to performance and cost while increasing reliability, efficiency and durability of the system. With a relatively new and unexplored market, delivery of high quality is very important to make an impact with consumers. Factors such as performance, build quality and portability are important to be able to stay competitive in the market. The objective is to design a...

  12. Performance and Qualification of the Power Supply and Control Unit for the HEMP Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brag, R.; Herty, F.

    2014-08-01

    In 2013, Astrium GmbH delivered several flight model electronics for Electric Propulsion (EP) systems or corresponding components. One of the elements is a Power Supply and Control Unit (PSCU) for the Thales development "High Efficiency Multistage Plasma Thruster" (HEMP-T) (see Figure 1). This paper presents the PSCU specification and results of the qualification and acceptance phase of the EQM and the PFM.

  13. CubeSat Packaged Electrospray Thruster Evaluation for Enhanced Operationally Responsive Space Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    cosmological sources of gravitational waves of low frequencies in space. The use of the colloid thruster is ideal in the required fine thrust...Federale de Lausanne, Suisse, 2009. [10] Martinez-Sanchez, M. “ Lecture 23-25: Colloidal Engines”, URL: http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/aeronautics-and...astronautics/16-522-space- propulsion-spring-2004/ lecture -notes/November [cited 5 January 2010]. [11] Mills, A. and Chang, B. “Error Analysis of

  14. Artificial Neural Network Test Support Development for the Space Shuttle PRCS Thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, Mark E.

    2005-01-01

    A significant anomaly, Fuel Valve Pilot Seal Extrusion, is affecting the Shuttle Primary Reaction Control System (PRCS) Thrusters, and has caused 79 to fail. To help address this problem, a Shuttle PRCS Thruster Process Evaluation Team (TPET) was formed. The White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) and Boeing members of the TPET have identified many discrete valve current trace characteristics that are predictive of the problem. However, these are difficult and time consuming to identify and trend by manual analysis. Based on this exhaustive analysis over months, 22 thrusters previously delivered by the Depot were identified as high risk for flight failures. Although these had only recently been installed, they had to be removed from Shuttles OV103 and OV104 for reprocessing, by directive of the Shuttle Project Office. The resulting impact of the thruster removal, replacement, and valve replacement was significant (months of work and hundreds of thousands of dollars). Much of this could have been saved had the proposed Neural Network (NN) tool described in this paper been in place. In addition to the significant benefits to the Shuttle indicated above, the development and implementation of this type of testing will be the genesis for potential Quality improvements across many areas of WSTF test data analysis and will be shared with other NASA centers. Future tests can be designed to incorporate engineering experience via Artificial Neural Nets (ANN) into depot level acceptance of hardware. Additionally, results were shared with a NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Super Problem Response Team (SPRT). There was extensive interest voiced among many different personnel from several centers. There are potential spin-offs of this effort that can be directly applied to other data acquisition systems as well as vehicle health management for current and future flight vehicles.

  15. Two-Dimensional, Time-Dependent Plasma Structures of a Hall Effect Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    This ultra-high speed imaging capability provides a two-dimensional description of the plasma field with time-resolved information. Moreover, this...47 3.7 Relative spectral response of the Shimadzu HPV -2 ultra-high speed camera taken from Shimadzu HPV -2 Spectral Response . 48 3.8 Sample...magnetic field. Operational characteristics of the thruster, such as a description of the parts and the fuel types, will also be discussed. Chapter II will

  16. Development of the Multiple Use Plug Hybrid for Nanosats (MUPHyN) miniature thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilers, Shannon

    The Multiple Use Plug Hybrid for Nanosats (MUPHyN) prototype thruster incorporates solutions to several major challenges that have traditionally limited the deployment of chemical propulsion systems on small spacecraft. The MUPHyN thruster offers several features that are uniquely suited for small satellite applications. These features include 1) a non-explosive ignition system, 2) non-mechanical thrust vectoring using secondary fluid injection on an aerospike nozzle cooled with the oxidizer flow, 3) a non-toxic, chemically-stable combination of liquid and inert solid propellants, 4) a compact form factor enabled by the direct digital manufacture of the inert solid fuel grain. Hybrid rocket motors provide significant safety and reliability advantages over both solid composite and liquid propulsion systems; however, hybrid motors have found only limited use on operational vehicles due to 1) difficulty in modeling the fuel flow rate 2) poor volumetric efficiency and/or form factor 3) significantly lower fuel flow rates than solid rocket motors 4) difficulty in obtaining high combustion efficiencies. The features of the MUPHyN thruster are designed to offset and/or overcome these shortcomings. The MUPHyN motor design represents a convergence of technologies, including hybrid rocket regression rate modeling, aerospike secondary injection thrust vectoring, multiphase injector modeling, non-pyrotechnic ignition, and nitrous oxide regenerative cooling that address the traditional challenges that limit the use of hybrid rocket motors and aerospike nozzles. This synthesis of technologies is unique to the MUPHyN thruster design and no comparable work has been published in the open literature.

  17. Comparison of Medium Power Hall Effect Thruster Ion Acceleration for Krypton and Xenon Propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-14

    that of the most common liquid monopropellant, hydrazine, which as a specific gravity of approximately 1. While xenon remains an ideal propellant for...changes in propellant as well as for validation of numerical models simulat- ing these thrusters and fundamentally understanding that impact. Laser...Krypton and Xenon Propellants 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) William A. Hargus, Jr.; Gregory M. Azarnia; Michael R

  18. A review of electron bombardment thruster systems/spacecraft field and particle interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, D. C.

    1978-01-01

    This paper collates and summarizes information on the field and particle interfaces of electron bombardment ion thruster systems. Major areas discussed are the nonpropellant particles, neutral propellant, ion beam, low energy plasma, and fields. Spacecraft functions and subsystems reviewed are solar arrays, thermal control systems, optical sensors, communications, science, structures and materials, and potential control. An appendix is included to facilitate identification of specific interaction areas.

  19. Experimental Evaluation of a Green Bi-Propellant Thruster for Small Satellite Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, Stefan; Knop, Tobias; Engelen, Steven

    2016-01-01

    A bi-propellant thruster system based on the green propellants, nitrous oxide and propane, combines good storage density with specific impulse performance comparable to conventional space storable propellants. The non-toxic and self-pressurizing properties of nitrous oxide and propane yield a simple, safe, yet high performance system, suitable for CubeSats requiring moderate to large Delta-V maneuvers. The HT-PM400.10 propulsion system utilizes these propellants in a 2U subsystem, intended fo...

  20. Hybrid-PIC Computer Simulation of the Plasma and Erosion Processes in Hall Thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Richard R.; Katz, Ira; Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Gamero-Castano, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    HPHall software simulates and tracks the time-dependent evolution of the plasma and erosion processes in the discharge chamber and near-field plume of Hall thrusters. HPHall is an axisymmetric solver that employs a hybrid fluid/particle-in-cell (Hybrid-PIC) numerical approach. HPHall, originally developed by MIT in 1998, was upgraded to HPHall-2 by the Polytechnic University of Madrid in 2006. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has continued the development of HPHall-2 through upgrades to the physical models employed in the code, and the addition of entirely new ones. Primary among these are the inclusion of a three-region electron mobility model that more accurately depicts the cross-field electron transport, and the development of an erosion sub-model that allows for the tracking of the erosion of the discharge chamber wall. The code is being developed to provide NASA science missions with a predictive tool of Hall thruster performance and lifetime that can be used to validate Hall thrusters for missions.

  1. Hot-Fire Testing of 5N and 22N HPGP Thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnside, Christopher G.; Pedersen, Kevin W.; Pierce, Charles W.

    2015-01-01

    This hot-fire test continues NASA investigation of green propellant technologies for future missions. To show the potential for green propellants to replace some hydrazine systems in future spacecraft, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is continuing to embark on hot-fire test campaigns with various green propellant blends.NASA completed hot-fire testing of 5N and 22N HPGP thrusters at the Marshall Space Flight Center’s Component Development Area altitude test stand in April 2015. Both thrusters are ground test articles and not flight ready units, but are representative of potential flight hardware with a known path towards flight application. The purpose of the 5N testing was to perform facility check-outs and generate a small set of data for comparison to ECAPS and Orbital ATK data sets. The 5N thruster performed as expected with thrust and propellant flow-rate data generated that are similar to previous testing at Orbital ATK. Immediately following the 5N testing, and using the same facility, the 22N testing was conducted on the same test stand with the purpose of demonstrating the 22N performance. The results of 22N testing indicate it performed as expected.The results of the hot-fire testing are presented in this paper and presentation.

  2. Development of a Hardware-in-the-loop Simulator for Spacecraft Attitude Control Using Thrusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Wook Koh

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL simulator using thrusters is developed to validate the spacecraft attitude system. To control the attitude of the simulator, eight cold gas thrusters are aligned with roll, pitch and yaw axis. Also linear actuators are applied to the HIL simulator for automatic mass balancing to compensate the center of mass offset from the center of rotation. The HIL simulator consists of an embedded computer (Onboard PC for simulator system control, a wireless adapter for wireless network, a rate gyro sensor to measure 3-axis attitude of the simulator, an inclinometer to measure horizontal attitude, and a battery set to supply power for the simulator independently. For the performance test of the HIL simulator, a bang-bang controller and Pulse-Width Pulse-Frequency (PWPF modulator are evaluated successfully. The maneuver of 68 deg. in yaw axis is tested for the comparison of the both controllers. The settling time of the bang -bang controller is faster than that of the PWPF modulator by six seconds in the experiment. The required fuel of the PWPF modulator is used as much as 51% of bang-bang controller in the experiment. Overall, the HIL simulator is appropriately developed to validate the control algorithms using thrusters.

  3. The manifestation of Alfven's hypothesis of critical ionization velocity in the performance of MPD thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choueiri, E. Y.; Kelly, A. J.; Jahn, R. G.

    1985-01-01

    The role of Alfven's critical ionization velocity in the performance of the self-field MPD thruster has been investigated. The existence of a well defined characteristic velocity can be attributed to an ionization process involving the production of a population of suprathermal electrons by an electrostatic instability. It is shown that for the MPD thruster plasma, suprathermalization of electrons via this electrostatic instability can only happen if ions are initially accelerated to velocities larger than the Alfven critical ionization velocity. When this occurs the mechanism will be initiated and the ions decelerated to velocities near the critical velocity. This mechanism ceases to be limiting when all neutrals are ionized. A model of MPD thruster terminal behavior, incorporating Alfven's hypothesis, is presented. Experiments with three different propellants reveal that operation at values of the current squared to total mass flow ratio corresponding to the Alfven critical velocity is marked by a transition wherein low frequency voltage oscillations and a notable change in the voltage-current dependence occurs. One major result of this study is the demonstration that the Alfven critical velocity is not a fundamental limitation on MPD exhaust velocity.

  4. Ultra High Voltage Propellant Isolators and Insulators for JIMO Ion Thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Gaier, James R.; Hung, Ching-Cheh; Walters, Patty A.; Sechkar, Ed; Panko, Scott; Kamiotis, Christina A.

    2004-01-01

    Within NASA's Project Prometheus, high specific impulse ion thrusters for electric propulsion of spacecraft for the proposed Jupiter Icy Moon Orbiter (JIMO) mission to three of Jupiter's moons: Callisto, Ganymede and Europa will require high voltage operation to meet mission propulsion. The anticipated approx.6,500 volt net ion energy will require electrical insulation and propellant isolation which must exceed that used successfully by the NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Readiness (NSTAR) Deep Space 1 mission thruster by a factor of approx.6. Xenon propellant isolator prototypes that operate at near one atmosphere and prototypes that operate at low pressures (Insulators used to mount the thrusters as well as those needed to support the ion optics have also been designed and are under evaluation. Isolator and insulator concepts, design issues, design guidelines, fabrication considerations and performance issues are presented. The objective of the investigation was to identify candidate isolators and insulators that are sufficiently robust to perform durably and reliably during the proposed JIMO mission.

  5. Inductively coupled TI-MPD spacecraft electric propulsion. [thermionic magnetoplasma dynamic thruster design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, E. J.; Clark, K. E.; Pawlik, E. V.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear electric propulsion concept using a thermionic reactor inductively coupled to a magnetoplasma-dynamic (MPD) accelerator is described and the results of preliminary analyses are presented. In this system, the thermionic generating unit operates continuously at a power level of approximately 0.4 MW, while the MPD thruster operates intermittently at higher voltages and power levels. Energy storage is provided by building up a large current in an inductor. Periodically, the charging current is interrupted and the energy stored in the magnetic field of the inductor is utilized for a short duration thrust pulse. A typical thrust pulse is characterized by a power level of 1 to 4 MWe, a duration of 1 msec, and a duty cycle of approximately 20%. Results of the preliminary analysis show that approximately 85 to 90% of the power available from the thermionic converter array can be delivered to the MPD thruster for a nominal 400 kWe system with an inductive unit suitable for a flight vehicle. Optimized values of the total specific mass of the system including the thermionic reactor, the inductor, and the MPD thruster are estimated in the range of 23 to 24 kg/kWe.

  6. Recent Development Activities and Future Mission Applications of NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Michael J.; Pencil, Eric J.

    2014-01-01

    NASAs Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) project is developing next generation ion propulsion technologies to enhance the performance and lower the costs of future NASA space science missions. This is being accomplished by producing Engineering Model (EM) and Prototype Model (PM) components, validating these via qualification-level and integrated system testing, and preparing the transition of NEXT technologies to flight system development. This presentation is a follow-up to the NEXT project overviews presented in 2009-2010. It reviews the status of the NEXT project, presents the current system performance characteristics, and describes planned activities in continuing the transition of NEXT technology to a first flight. In 2013 a voluntary decision was made to terminate the long duration test of the NEXT thruster, given the thruster design has exceeded all expectations by accumulating over 50,000 hours of operation to demonstrate around 900 kg of xenon throughput. Besides its promise for upcoming NASA science missions, NEXT has excellent potential for future commercial and international spacecraft applications.

  7. Plasma Perturbations in High-Speed Probing of Hall Thruster Discharge Chambers: Quantification and Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorns, Benjamin A.; Goebel, Dan M.; Hofer, Richard R.

    2015-01-01

    An experimental investigation is presented to quantify the effect of high-speed probing on the plasma parameters inside the discharge chamber of a 6-kW Hall thruster. Understanding the nature of these perturbations is of significant interest given the importance of accurate plasma measurements for characterizing thruster operation. An array of diagnostics including a high-speed camera and embedded wall probes is employed to examine in real time the changes in electron temperature and plasma potential induced by inserting a high-speed reciprocating Langmuir probe into the discharge chamber. It is found that the perturbations onset when the scanning probe is downstream of the electron temperature peak, and that along channel centerline, the perturbations are best characterized as a downstream shift of plasma parameters by 15-20% the length of the discharge chamber. A parametric study is performed to investigate techniques to mitigate the observed probe perturbations including varying probe speed, probe location, and operating conditions. It is found that the perturbations largely disappear when the thruster is operated at low power and low discharge voltage. The results of this mitigation study are discussed in the context of recommended methods for generating unperturbed measurements of the discharge chamber plasma.

  8. A New Method for Analyzing Near-Field Faraday Probe Data in Hall Thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wensheng; Shastry, Rohit; Herman, Daniel A.; Soulas, George C.; Kamhawi, Hani

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for analyzing near-field Faraday probe data obtained from Hall thrusters. Traditional methods spawned from far-field Faraday probe analysis rely on assumptions that are not applicable to near-field Faraday probe data. In particular, arbitrary choices for the point of origin and limits of integration have made interpretation of the results difficult. The new method, called iterative pathfinding, uses the evolution of the near-field plume with distance to provide feedback for determining the location of the point of origin. Although still susceptible to the choice of integration limits, this method presents a systematic approach to determining the origin point for calculating the divergence angle. The iterative pathfinding method is applied to near-field Faraday probe data taken in a previous study from the NASA-300M and NASA-457Mv2 Hall thrusters. Since these two thrusters use centrally mounted cathodes the current density associated with the cathode plume is removed before applying iterative pathfinding. A procedure is presented for removing the cathode plume. The results of the analysis are compared to far-field probe analysis results. This paper ends with checks on the validity of the new method and discussions on the implications of the results.

  9. A new ion-ion plasma thruster with an annular geometry★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazouffre, Stéphane; Renaud, Denis

    2017-11-01

    The concept of ion-ion plasma thruster relies on a magnetic filter to create an electron-free plasma in the ion current extraction region. However, experiments and computer simulations show that a transverse magnetic field makes the discharge asymmetrical due to electron drift and instabilities in the region of strong magnetic field. The drift drives a large electron flux to the walls, therefore increasing losses, and reduces the electron confinement by creating an escape path throughout the magnetic filter, which is detrimental for the thruster performances. We present a new architecture for an ion-ion plasma thruster that allows to cancel the asymmetry of the plasma by closing in the electron drift on itself. The concept is termed AIPE, an acronym for Annular Ion-ion Plasma Engine. A prototype was developed and tested with noble gases and SF6. Outcomes of experiments dedicated to the examination of the AIPE discharge and beam by means of Langmuir probe, E×B probe and laser photodetachment are given and discussed. It is shown that the discharge is symmetrical and homogeneous. In addition, positive and negative ions can be extracted and accelerated through the grid assembly. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Physics of Ion Beam Sources", edited by Holger Kersten and Horst Neumann.

  10. Large scale motions of Neptune's bow shock: Evidence for control of the shock position by the rotation phase of Neptune's magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Iver H.; Smith, Charles W.; Kurth, William S.; Gurnett, Donald A.; Moses, Stewart L.

    1991-01-01

    The Voyager 2 spacecraft observed high levels of Langmuir waves before the inbound crossing of Neptune's bow shock, thereby signifying magnetic connection of the bow shock. The Langmuir waves occurred in multiple bursts throughout two distinct periods separated by an 85 minute absence of wave activity. The times of onsets, peaks, and disappearances of the waves were used together with the magnetic field directions and spacecraft position, to perform a 'remote-sensing' analysis of the shape and location of Neptune's bow shock prior to the inbound bow shock crossing. The bow shock is assumed to have a parabolidal shape with a nose location and flaring parameter determined independently for each wave event. The remote-sensing analysis give a shock position consistent with the time of the inbound shock crossing. The flaring parameter of the shock remains approximately constant throughout each period of wave activity but differs by a factor of 10 between the two periods. The absence of waves between two periods of wave activity coincides with a large rotation of the magnetic field and a large increase in the solar wind ram pressure' both these effects lead to magnetic disconnection of the spacecraft from shock. The planetwards motion of the shock's nose from 38.5 R(sub N) to 34.5 R(sub N) during the second time period occurred while the solar wind ram pressure remained constant to within 15 percent. This second period of planetwards motion of the shock is therefore strong evidence for Neptune's bow shock moving in response to the rotation of Neptune's oblique, tilted magnetic dipole. Normalizing the ram pressure, the remotely-sensed shock moves sunwards during the first wave period and planetwards in the second wave period. The maximum standoff distance occurs while the dipole axis is close to being perpendicular to the Sun-Neptune direction. The remote-sensing analysis provides strong evidence that the location of Neptune's bow shock is controlled by Neptune's rotation

  11. Nonlinear wave-particle interaction upstream from the Earth's bow shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mazelle

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Well-defined ring-like backstreaming ion distributions have been recently reported from observations made by the 3DP/PESA-High analyzer onboard the WIND spacecraft in the Earth's foreshock at large distances from the bow shock, which suggests a local production mechanism. The maximum phase space density for these distributions remains localized at a nearly constant pitch-angle value for a large number of gyroperiods while the shape of the distribution remains very steady. These distributions are also observed in association with quasi-monochromatic low frequency (~ 50 mHz waves with substantial amplitude (δB/B>0.2. The analysis of the magnetic field data has shown that the waves are propagating parallel to the background field in the right-hand mode. Parallel ion beams are also often observed in the same region before the observation of both the ring-like distributions and the waves. The waves appear in cyclotron resonance with the ion parallel beams. We investigate first the possibility that the ion beams could provide the free energy source for driving an ion/ion instability responsible for the ULF wave occurrence. For that, we solve the wave dispersion relation with the observed parameters. Second, we show that the ring-like distributions could then be produced by a coherent nonlinear wave-particle interaction. It tends to trap the ions into narrow cells in velocity space centered on a well-defined pitch-angle, directly related to the saturation wave amplitude in the analytical theory. The theoretical predictions are in good quantitative agreement with the observations

  12. High-Efficiency Nested Hall Thrusters for Robotic Solar System Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Richard R.

    2013-01-01

    This work describes the scaling and design attributes of Nested Hall Thrusters (NHT) with extremely large operational envelopes, including a wide range of throttleability in power and specific impulse at high efficiency (>50%). NHTs have the potential to provide the game changing performance, powerprocessing capabilities, and cost effectiveness required to enable missions that cannot otherwise be accomplished. NHTs were first identified in the electric propulsion community as a path to 100- kW class thrusters for human missions. This study aimed to identify the performance capabilities NHTs can provide for NASA robotic and human missions, with an emphasis on 10-kW class thrusters well-suited for robotic exploration. A key outcome of this work has been the identification of NHTs as nearly constant-efficiency devices over large power throttling ratios, especially in direct-drive power systems. NHT systems sized for robotic solar system exploration are predicted to be capable of high-efficiency operation over nearly their entire power throttling range. A traditional Annular Hall Thruster (AHT) consists of a single annular discharge chamber where the propellant is ionized and accelerated. In an NHT, multiple annular channels are concentrically stacked. The channels can be operated in unison or individually depending on the available power or required performance. When throttling an AHT, performance must be sacrificed since a single channel cannot satisfy the diverse design attributes needed to maintain high thrust efficiency. NHTs can satisfy these requirements by varying which channels are operated and thereby offer significant benefits in terms of thruster performance, especially under deep power throttling conditions where the efficiency of an AHT suffers since a single channel can only operate efficiently (>50%) over a narrow power throttling ratio (3:1). Designs for 10-kW class NHTs were developed and compared with AHT systems. Power processing systems were

  13. Plasma Potential and Langmuir Probe Measurements in the Near-field Plume of the NASA-300M Hall Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Daniel A.; Shastry, Rohit; Huang, Wensheng; Soulas, George C.; Kamhawi, Hani

    2012-01-01

    In order to aid in the design of high-power Hall thrusters and provide experimental validation for existing modeling efforts, plasma potential and Langmuir probe measurements were performed in the near-field plume of the NASA-300M Hall thruster. A probe array consisting of a Faraday probe, Langmuir probe, and emissive probe was used to interrogate the plume from approximately 0.1 - 2.0 mean thruster diameters downstream of the thruster exit plane at four operating conditions: 300 V, 400 V, and 500 V at 20 kW as well as 300 V at 10 kW. Results show that the acceleration zone and high-temperature region were contained within 0.3 mean thruster diameters from the exit plane at all operating conditions. Isothermal lines were shown to strongly follow magnetic field lines in the near-field, with maximum temperatures ranging from 19 - 27 eV. The electron temperature spatial distribution created large drops in measured floating potentials in front of the magnetic pole surfaces where the plasma density was low, which suggests strong sheaths at these surfaces. The data taken have provided valuable information for future design and modeling validation, and complements ongoing internal measurement efforts on the NASA-300M.

  14. Plasma Potential and Langmuir Probe Measurements in the Near-field Plume of the NASA-457Mv2 Hall Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastry, Rohit; Huang, Wensheng; Herman, Daniel A.; Soulas, George C.; Kamhawi, Hani

    2012-01-01

    In order to further the design of future high-power Hall thrusters and provide experimental validation for ongoing modeling efforts, plasma potential and Langmuir probe measurements were performed on the 50-kW NASA-457Mv2. An electrostatic probe array comprised of a near-field Faraday probe, single Langmuir probe, and emissive probe was used to interrogate the near-field plume from approximately 0.1 - 2.0 mean thruster diameters downstream of the thruster exit plane at the following operating conditions: 300 V, 400 V and 500 V at 30 kW and 500 V at 50 kW. Results have shown that the acceleration zone is limited to within 0.4 mean thruster diameters of the exit plane while the high-temperature region is limited to 0.25 mean thruster diameters from the exit plane at all four operating conditions. Maximum plasma potentials in the near-field at 300 and 400 V were approximately 50 V with respect to cathode potential, while maximum electron temperatures varied from 24 - 32 eV, depending on operating condition. Isothermal lines at all operating conditions were found to strongly resemble the magnetic field topology in the high-temperature regions. This distribution was found to create regions of high temperature and low density near the magnetic poles, indicating strong, thick sheath formation along these surfaces. The data taken from this study are considered valuable for future design as well as modeling validation.

  15. Bowing, kneeling and 'prostration': athlete's collapse patterns during sudden cardiac arrhythmia/arrest on the field of play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltsezak, Stanislav

    2014-11-01

    Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) on the field of play remains one of the most tragic and challenging events for a team physician. Even with robust regular preparticipation cardiac screening we cannot prevent all cases of SCA. Ability to recognise imminent cardiac arrest occurring on the field of play remains an important step in managing this condition without delay. You Tube was searched for video clips clearly depicting the sequence of an athlete's collapse of cardiac origin. A pattern of collapse was subsequently analysed. 13 cases were available for public viewing on You Tube and demonstrated the final position of collapse. 12 collapses had full video footage of athlete's fall. All athletes were men. 84.6% (11) cases were from football (soccer). 15.4% (2) of cases were from martial arts. In 10 out of 12 cardiac event cases (83.3%) bowing and/or kneeling were followed by decubitus position. 58.3% (7) of cases demonstrated bowing at the beginning of collapse. 58.3% (7) cases had kneeling as an element of collapse. 61.5% (8 out of 13 cases) of casualties adopted position of 'prostration' (ie, prone) as final stage of collapse. When on the field of play, in the absence of head injury, athletes displaying bowing and/or kneeling positions followed by collapse should be assumed to have a life-threatening cardiac event. Final position of 'prostration' was adopted in over half of cardiogenic collapses. A sports medicine professional should bear this in mind and target his/her assessment and treatment accordingly. When attending such casualties, a defibrillator must be taken to the collapsed player. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. STEREO and Wind Observations of Intense Cyclotron Harmonic Waves at the Earth's Bow Shock and Inside the Magnetosheath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breneman, A. W.; Cattell, C.

    2013-01-01

    We present the first observations of electron cyclotron harmonic waves at the Earth's bow shock from STEREO and Wind burst waveform captures. These waves are observed at magnetic field gradients at a variety of shock geometries ranging from quasi-parallel to nearly perpendicular along with whistler mode waves, ion acoustic waves, and electrostatic solitary waves. Large amplitude cyclotron harmonic waveforms are also observed in the magnetosheath in association with magnetic field gradients convected past the bow shock. Amplitudes of the cyclotron harmonic waves range from a few tens to more than 500 millivolts/meter peak-peak. A comparison between the short (15 meters) and long (100 meters) Wind spin plane antennas shows a similar response at low harmonics and a stronger response on the short antenna at higher harmonics. This indicates that wavelengths are not significantly larger than 100 meters, consistent with the electron cyclotron radius. Waveforms are broadband and polarizations are distinctively comma-shaped with significant power both perpendicular and parallel to the magnetic field. Harmonics tend to be more prominent in the perpendicular directions. These observations indicate that the waves consist of a combination of perpendicular Bernstein waves and field-aligned waves without harmonics. A likely source is the electron cyclotron drift instability which is a coupling between Bernstein and ion acoustic waves. These waves are the most common type of high-frequency wave seen by STEREO during bow shock crossings and magnetosheath traversals and our observations suggest that they are an important component of the high-frequency turbulent spectrum in these regions.

  17. Bow shock specularly reflected ions in the presence of low-frequency electromagnetic waves: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Meziane

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available An energetic ion (E≤40 event observed by the CLUSTER/CIS experiment upstream of the Earth's bow shock is studied in detail. The ion event is observed in association with quasi-monochromatic ULF MHD-like waves, which we show modulate the ion fluxes. According to three statistical bow shock position models, the Cluster spacecrafts are located at ~0.5 Re from the shock and the averaged bow shock θBn0 is about ~30°. The analysis of the three-dimensional angular distribution indicates that ions propagating roughly along the magnetic field direction are observed at the onset of the event. Later on, the angular distribution is gyrophase-bunched and the pitch-angle distribution is peaked at α0~θBn0, consistent with the specular reflection production mechanism. The analysis of the waves shows that they are left-handed in the spacecraft frame of reference (right-handed in the solar wind frame and propagate roughly along the ambient magnetic field; we have found that they are in cyclotron-resonance with the field-aligned beam observed just upstream. Using properties of the waves and particles, we explain the observed particle flux-modulation in the context of θBn changes at the shock caused by the convected ULF waves. We have found that the high count rates coincide with particles leaving the shock when θBn angles are less than ~40°, consistent with the specular reflection hypothesis as the production mechanism of ions.

  18. Bow shock specularly reflected ions in the presence of low-frequency electromagnetic waves: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Meziane

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available An energetic ion (E≤40 event observed by the CLUSTER/CIS experiment upstream of the Earth's bow shock is studied in detail. The ion event is observed in association with quasi-monochromatic ULF MHD-like waves, which we show modulate the ion fluxes. According to three statistical bow shock position models, the Cluster spacecrafts are located at ~0.5 Re from the shock and the averaged bow shock θBn0 is about ~30°. The analysis of the three-dimensional angular distribution indicates that ions propagating roughly along the magnetic field direction are observed at the onset of the event. Later on, the angular distribution is gyrophase-bunched and the pitch-angle distribution is peaked at α0Bn0, consistent with the specular reflection production mechanism. The analysis of the waves shows that they are left-handed in the spacecraft frame of reference (right-handed in the solar wind frame and propagate roughly along the ambient magnetic field; we have found that they are in cyclotron-resonance with the field-aligned beam observed just upstream. Using properties of the waves and particles, we explain the observed particle flux-modulation in the context of θBn changes at the shock caused by the convected ULF waves. We have found that the high count rates coincide with particles leaving the shock when θBn angles are less than ~40°, consistent with the specular reflection hypothesis as the production mechanism of ions.

  19. Experimental investigation of the catalytic decomposition and combustion characteristics of a non-toxic ammonium dinitramide (ADN)-based monopropellant thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Li, Guoxiu; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Meng; Yu, Yusong

    2016-12-01

    Low toxicity ammonium dinitramide (ADN)-based aerospace propulsion systems currently show promise with regard to applications such as controlling satellite attitude. In the present work, the decomposition and combustion processes of an ADN-based monopropellant thruster were systematically studied, using a thermally stable catalyst to promote the decomposition reaction. The performance of the ADN propulsion system was investigated using a ground test system under vacuum, and the physical properties of the ADN-based propellant were also examined. Using this system, the effects of the preheating temperature and feed pressure on the combustion characteristics and thruster performance during steady state operation were observed. The results indicate that the propellant and catalyst employed during this work, as well as the design and manufacture of the thruster, met performance requirements. Moreover, the 1 N ADN thruster generated a specific impulse of 223 s, demonstrating the efficacy of the new catalyst. The thruster operational parameters (specifically, the preheating temperature and feed pressure) were found to have a significant effect on the decomposition and combustion processes within the thruster, and the performance of the thruster was demonstrated to improve at higher feed pressures and elevated preheating temperatures. A lower temperature of 140 °C was determined to activate the catalytic decomposition and combustion processes more effectively compared with the results obtained using other conditions. The data obtained in this study should be beneficial to future systematic and in-depth investigations of the combustion mechanism and characteristics within an ADN thruster.

  20. Integration Tests of the 4 kW-class High Voltage Hall Accelerator Power Processing Unit with the HiVHAc and the SPT-140 Hall Effect Thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Pinero, Luis; Haag, Thomas; Huang, Wensheng; Ahern, Drew; Liang, Ray; Shilo, Vlad

    2016-01-01

    NASAs Science Mission Directorate is sponsoring the development of a 4 kW-class Hall propulsion system for implementation in NASA science and exploration missions. The main components of the system include the High Voltage Hall Accelerator (HiVHAc), an engineering model power processing unit (PPU) developed by Colorado Power Electronics, and a xenon flow control module (XFCM) developed by VACCO Industries. NASA Glenn Research Center is performing integrated tests of the Hall thruster propulsion system. This presentation presents results from integrated tests of the PPU and XFCM with the HiVHAc engineering development thruster and a SPT-140 thruster provided by Space System Loral. The results presented in this paper demonstrate thruster discharge initiation, open-loop and closed-loop control of the discharge current with anode flow for both the HiVHAc and the SPT-140 thrusters. Integrated tests with the SPT-140 thruster indicated that the PPU was able to repeatedly initiate the thrusters discharge, achieve steady state operation, and successfully throttle the thruster between 1.5 and 4.5 kW. The measured SPT-140 performance was identical to levels reported by Space Systems Loral.

  1. Significance of the 'bow and lean test' for the diagnosis of benign horizontal semicircular canal paroxysmal positional vertigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying CHEN

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To observe and assess the positive rate and accuracy of 'bow and lean test' in the horizontal semicircular canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (HSC-BPPV. Methods Ninety-two HSC-BPPV patients who were diagnosed by head roll test (HRT were enrolled, and then further tested with 'bow and lean test' (BLT between Oct 1, 2010 and Sep 30, 2011. They were treated by Barbecue maneuver or Brandt-Daroff exercise on the basis of HRT and BLT tests. The positive rate of BLT test was analyzed, and its accuracy for diagnosis and success rate for treatment of HSC-BPPV were compared between HRT and BLT. Results Among the 92 patients, 83(90.2% of them showed BLT nystagmus. Fifty-seven of 83 (68.7% patients showed both bowing nystagmus and leaning nystagmus, and 18(21.7% and 8(9.6% respectively showed bowing nystagmus alone or leaning nystagmus alone. Among 92 patients, 74(80.4% of them the affected side could be determined by HRT with 69 BLT positive and 5 BLT negative. Among the 69 BLT-positive patients, 60 patients showed the same result of HRT, and successful result was achieved by manipulation. 9 patients showed different result between BLT and HRT, in whom manipulation failed according to the result of HRT, but succeeded when manipulation was performed according to BLT. In 18 patients(19.6% it was not able to determine the affected side by HRT, but in 14 patients manipulation was successful when BLT result was applied. In 4 patients BLT failed to evoke nystagmus, but after practicing Brandt-Daroff exercise, vertigo and HRT nystagmus disappeared 3 days later. Among the 92 patients, 65(70.7% were cured according to HRT, while 83(90.2% got successful result according to BLT(P < 0.05. Conclusion The positive rate and accuracy for HSC-BPPV by BLT are high. It is a useful method for determining the affected side in HSC-BPPV, and to provide the basis for selecting effective manipulation treatment.

  2. Role of In-segregation in anomalously large band-gap bowings of (In,Al,Ga)N

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorczyka, I.; Suski, T.; Christensen, Niels Egede

    2011-01-01

    Large bowings of the band gap and its pressure coefficient in In-containing nitride semiconductor alloys are observed. Photoluminescence measurements for InxGa1-xN and InxAl1-xN combined with other experimental data show large scatter of the results. A comparison with ab-initio calculations...... suggests that this scatter can be ascribed to the formation of In clusters during the sample preparation. The explanation of the observed anomalies taking into account chemical and size effects indicates a specific nature of InN, different from other nitrides and other In-based binary semiconductors....

  3. Compositional bowing of band energies and their deformation potentials in strained InGaAs ternary alloys: A first-principles study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khomyakov, Petr A.; Luisier, Mathieu; Schenk, Andreas [Integrated Systems Laboratory, Department of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, ETH Zurich, Gloriastrasse 35, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-08-10

    Using first-principles calculations, we show that the conduction and valence band energies and their deformation potentials exhibit a non-negligible compositional bowing in strained ternary semiconductor alloys such as InGaAs. The electronic structure of these compounds has been calculated within the framework of local density approximation and hybrid functional approach for large cubic supercells and special quasi-random structures, which represent two kinds of model structures for random alloys. We find that the predicted bowing effect for the band energy deformation potentials is rather insensitive to the choice of the functional and alloy structural model. The direction of bowing is determined by In cations that give a stronger contribution to the formation of the In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}As valence band states with x ≳ 0.5, compared to Ga cations.

  4. Ion Voltage Diagnostics in the Far-Field Plume of a High-Specific Impulse Hall Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Richard R.; Haas, James M.; Gallimore, Alec D.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of the magnetic field and discharge voltage on the far-field plume of the NASA 173Mv2 laboratory-model Hall thruster were investigated. A cylindrical Langmuir probe was used to measure the plasma potential and a retarding potential analyzer was employed to measure the ion voltage distribution. The plasma potential was affected by relatively small changes in the external magnetic field, which suggested a means to control the plasma surrounding the thruster. As the discharge voltage increased, the ion voltage distribution showed that the acceleration efficiency increased and the dispersion efficiency decreased. This implied that the ionization zone was growing axially and moving closer to the anode, which could have affected thruster efficiency and lifetime due to higher wall losses. However, wall losses may have been reduced by improved focusing efficiency since the total efficiency increased and the plume divergence decreased with discharge voltage.

  5. Real-Tme Boron Nitride Erosion Measurements of the HiVHAc Thruster via Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Brian C.; Yalin, Azer P.; Gallimore, Alec; Huang, Wensheng; Kamhawi, Hani

    2013-01-01

    Cavity ring-down spectroscopy was used to make real-time erosion measurements from the NASA High Voltage Hall Accelerator thruster. The optical sensor uses 250 nm light to measure absorption of atomic boron in the plume of an operating Hall thruster. Theerosion rate of the High Voltage Hall Accelerator thruster was measured for discharge voltages ranging from 330 to 600 V and discharge powers ranging from 1 to 3 kW. Boron densities as high as 6.5 x 10(exp 15) per cubic meter were found within the channel. Using a very simple boronvelocity model, approximate volumetric erosion rates between 5.0 x 10(exp -12) and 8.2 x 10(exp -12) cubic meter per second were found.

  6. Study and Developement of Compact Permanent Magnet Hall Thrusters for Future Brazillian Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Jose Leonardo; Martins, Alexandre; Cerda, Rodrigo

    2016-07-01

    The Plasma Physics Laboratory of UnB has been developing a Permanent Magnet Hall Thruster (PHALL) for the UNIESPAÇO program, part of the Space Activities Program conducted by AEB- The Brazillian Space Agency since 2004. Electric propulsion is now a very successful method for primary and secondary propulsion systems. It is essential for several existing geostationary satellite station keeping systems and for deep space long duration solar system missions, where the thrusting system can be designed to be used on orbit transfer maneuvering and/or for satellite attitude control in long term space missions. Applications of compact versions of Permanent Magnet Hall Thrusters on future brazillian space missions are needed and foreseen for the coming years beginning with the use of small divergent cusp field (DCFH) Hall Thrusters type on CUBESATS ( 5-10 kg , 1W-5 W power consumption) and on Micro satellites ( 50- 100 kg, 10W-100W). Brazillian (AEB) and German (DLR) space agencies and research institutions are developing a new rocket dedicated to small satellite launching. The VLM- Microsatellite Launch Vehicle. The development of PHALL compact versions can also be important for the recently proposed SBG system, a future brazillian geostationary satellite system that is already been developed by an international consortium of brazillian and foreign space industries. The exploration of small bodies in the Solar System with spacecraft has been done by several countries with increasing frequency in these past twenty five years. Since their historical beginning on the sixties, most of the Solar System missions were based on gravity assisted trajectories very much depended on planet orbit positioning relative to the Sun and the Earth. The consequence was always the narrowing of the mission launch window. Today, the need for Solar System icy bodies in situ exploration requires less dependence on gravity assisted maneuvering and new high precision low thrust navigation methods

  7. Anti-slamming bulbous bow and tunnel stern applications on a novel Deep-V catamaran for improved performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Atlar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available While displacement type Deep-V mono hulls have superior seakeeping behaviour at speed, catamarans typically have modest behaviour in rough seas. It is therefore a logical progression to combine the superior seakeeping performance of a displacement type Deep-V mono-hull with the high-speed benefits of a catamaran to take the advantages of both hull forms. The displacement Deep-V catamaran concept was developed in Newcastle University and Newcastle University's own multi-purpose research vessel, which was launched in 2011, pushed the design envelope still further with the successful adoption of a novel anti-slamming bulbous bow and tunnel stern for improved efficiency. This paper presents the hullform development of this unique vessel to understand the contribution of the novel bow and stern features on the performance of the Deep-V catamaran. The study is also a further validation of the hull resistance by using advanced numerical analysis methods in conjunction with the model test. An assessment of the numerical predictions of the hull resistance is also made against physical model test results and shows a good agreement between them.

  8. Large Scale Earth's Bow Shock with Northern IMF as simulated by PIC code in parallel with MHD model

    CERN Document Server

    Baraka, Suleiman M

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a 3D kinetic model (Particle-in-Cell PIC ) for the description of the large scale Earth's bow shock. The proposed version is stable and does not require huge or extensive computer resources. Because PIC simulations work with scaled plasma and field parameters, we also propose to validate our code by comparing its results with the available MHD simulations under same scaled Solar wind ( SW ) and ( IMF ) conditions. We report new results from the two models. In both codes the Earth's bow shock position is found to be ~14.8 RE along the Sun-Earth line, and ~ 29 RE on the dusk side. Those findings are consistent with past in situ observations. Both simulations reproduce the theoretical jump conditions at the shock. However, the PIC code density and temperature distributions are inflated and slightly shifted sunward when compared to the MHD results. Kinetic electron motions and reflected ions upstream may cause this sunward shift. Species distributions in the foreshock region are depicted...

  9. Understanding the role of Whistler waves at the Bow shock of Earth: MMS observations and dispersion analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, H.; Russell, C.; Schwartz, S. J.; An, X.; Strangeway, R. J.

    2016-12-01

    Abundant wave activity is generated at the bow shock of the Earth, that plays an important role in heating the electrons and ions and dissipating the excess energy of supercritical shocks. The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecrafts, with their state-of-the-art plasma and field instruments onboard, allow us to study these waves and better understand the role they play at the bow shock. We have find broad-band waves up to the electron cyclotron frequency across the shock ramp and slightly downstream of it, with large propagation angles with respect to the background magnetic field direction. Simultaneously, the electrons have quite disturbed velocities and are anisotropic in velocity space. In the same region, narrow-band waves at a few hundred Hertz are also observed with durations under a second. These waves are right-handed circularly polarized and propagate along the magnetic field lines. Both wave types are likely to be whistler mode, probably associated with electron streams in the shock ramp. We perform wave analysis of the magnetic and electric fields observed by MMS and carry out dispersion analysis with the guidance of the plasma observations to understand the wave generation and their effects on the shock and magnetosheath plasmas.

  10. Risk Analysis on Leakage Failure of Natural Gas Pipelines by Fuzzy Bayesian Network with a Bow-Tie Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Shan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pipeline is the major mode of natural gas transportation. Leakage of natural gas pipelines may cause explosions and fires, resulting in casualties, environmental damage, and material loss. Efficient risk analysis is of great significance for preventing and mitigating such potential accidents. The objective of this study is to present a practical risk assessment method based on Bow-tie model and Bayesian network for risk analysis of natural gas pipeline leakage. Firstly, identify the potential risk factors and consequences of the failure. Then construct the Bow-tie model, use the quantitative analysis of Bayesian network to find the weak links in the system, and make a prediction of the control measures to reduce the rate of the accident. In order to deal with the uncertainty existing in the determination of the probability of basic events, fuzzy logic method is used. Results of a case study show that the most likely causes of natural gas pipeline leakage occurrence are parties ignore signage, implicit signage, overload, and design defect of auxiliaries. Once the leakage occurs, it is most likely to result in fire and explosion. Corresponding measures taken on time will reduce the disaster degree of accidents to the least extent.

  11. Recent H-alpha Results on Pulsar B2224+65’s Bow-Shock Nebula, the “Guitar”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Dolch

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We used the 4 m Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT at Lowell observatory in 2014 to observe the Guitar Nebula, an Hα bow-shock nebula around the high-velocity radio pulsar B2224+65. Since the nebula's discovery in 1992, the structure of the bow-shock has undergone significant dynamical changes. We have observed the limb structure, targeting the “body” and “neck” of the guitar. Comparing the DCT observations to 1995 observations with the Palomar 200-inch Hale telescope, we found changes in both spatial structure and surface brightness in the tip, head, and body of the nebula.

  12. Atypical Femoral Shaft Fractures in Female Bisphosphonate Users Were Associated with an Increased Anterolateral Femoral Bow and a Thicker Lateral Cortex: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Pil Jang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our study was to investigate the radiographic characteristics of atypical femoral shaft fractures (AFSFs in females with a particular focus on femoral bow and cortical thickness. We performed a fracture location-, age-, gender-, and ethnicity-matched case-control study. Forty-two AFSFs in 29 patients and 22 typical osteoporotic femoral shaft fractures in 22 patients were enrolled in AFSF group and control group, respectively. With comparing demographics between two groups, radiographically measured femoral bow and cortical thicknesses of AFSF group were compared with control group. All AFSF patients were females with a mean age of 74.4 years (range, 58–85 years. All had a history of bisphosphonate (BP use with a mean duration of 7.3 years (range 1–17 years. Femoral bow of AFSF group was significantly higher than control group on both anteroposterior (AP and lateral radiographs after age correction. Mean femoral bow on an AP radiograph was 12.39°±5.38° in AFSF group and 3.97±3.62° in control group (P<0.0001. Mean femoral bow on the lateral radiograph was 15.71°±5.62° in AFSF group and 10.72°±4.61° in control group (after age correction P=0.003. And cortical thicknesses of AFSF group demonstrated marked disparity between tensile and compressive side of bowed femurs in this study. An adjusted lateral cortical thickness was 10.5±1.4 mm in AFSF group and 8.1±1.3 mm in control group (after age correction P<0.0001 while medial cortical thickness of AFSF group was not statistically different from control group. Correlation analysis showed that the lateral femoral bow on the AP radiograph was solely related to lateral CTI (R=0.378, P=0.002. AFSFs in female BP users were associated with an increased anterolateral femoral bow and a thicker lateral cortex of femurs.

  13. Design and Test of a Liquid Oxygen / Liquid Methane Thruster with Cold Helium Pressurization Heat Exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, John C.; Morehead, Robert L.; Atwell, Matthew J.; Hurlbert, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    A liquid oxygen / liquid methane 2,000 lbf thruster was designed and tested in conjuction with a nozzle heat exchanger for cold helium pressurization. Cold helium pressurization systems offer significant spacecraft vehicle dry mass savings since the pressurant tank size can be reduced as the pressurant density is increased. A heat exchanger can be incorporated into the main engine design to provide expansion of the pressurant supply to the propellant tanks. In order to study the systems integration of a cold-helium pressurization system, a 2,000 lbf thruster with a nozzle heat exchanger was designed for integration into the Project Morpheus vehicle at NASA Johnson Space Center. The testing goals were to demonstrate helium loading and initial conditioning to low temperatures, high-pressure/low temperature storage, expansion through the main engine heat exchanger, and propellant tank injection/pressurization. The helium pressurant tank was an existing 19 inch diameter composite-overwrap tank, and the targert conditions were 4500 psi and -250 F, providing a 2:1 density advantage compared to room tempatrue storage. The thruster design uses like-on-like doublets in the injector pattern largely based on Project Morpheus main engine hertiage data, and the combustion chamber was designed for an ablative chamber. The heat exchanger was installed at the ablative nozzle exit plane. Stand-alone engine testing was conducted at NASA Stennis Space Center, including copper heat-sink chambers and highly-instrumented spoolpieces in order to study engine performance, stability, and wall heat flux. A one-dimensional thermal model of the integrated system was completed. System integration into the Project Morpheus vehicle is complete, and systems demonstrations will follow.

  14. A 5000-hour test of a grid-translation beam-deflection system for a 5-cm diameter Kaufman thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathem, W. C.

    1973-01-01

    A grid-translation type beam deflection system was tested on a 5-cm diameter mercury ion thruster for 5000 hours at a thrust level of about 0.36 mlb. During the first 2000 hours the beam was vectored 10 degrees in one direction. No erosion damage attributable to beam deflection was detected. Results indicate a possible lifetime of 15,000 to 20,000 hours. An optimized neutralizer position was used which eliminated the sputter erosion groove observed on the SERT 2 thrusters.

  15. [Comparative analysis of edentulous patients treated traditionally and with the use of a face-bow and Quick Master articulator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubrak, J

    1998-01-01

    Correct determination of the occlusal plane is one of the most difficult stages of treatment. After determining the correct occlusal plane its reproduction is possible thanks to the use of articulators. These instruments simulate movements of the jaw in three planes. One of the most optimal articulators is a semi-adjustable type. These instruments are not complicated and give good treatment results. A modern semiadjustable type of articulator is Quick Master. The face-bow which comes together with this instrument is used for recording and transferring the occlusal relation to the articulator. This allows to mount models in an adequate three dimensional position in relation to the temporo-mandibular joint. The use of these instruments leads to many questions and doubts due to difficulties in their use. Therefore the aim of my study was to elaborate a simple method of occlusal recording. I have also compared the treatment results of edentulous patients treated with the use of an articulator and the use of a traditional method. Prosthetic restorations were prepared among 60 patients. The study material was divided into two groups of 30 patients each. In the control group for preparing complete dentures the Gysi method was employed as the most common. In the study group a face-bow and articulator were used. After preparing complete dentures detailed clinical control examinations were carried out and were repeated 24-48 hours after fitting the dentures and also after 3 and 6 months of their use. Working with the face-bow I have employed my own modification of recording the occlusion. The upper wax rim was placed on a slightly warmed bite fork and drawing pins were placed in the recording block to act as a type of key. The lower rim was warmed and brought to occlusal contact a couple of times. Next the face-bow was inserted. The recorded occlusion was transferred and mounted in the articulator. Teeth in both cases were set up similarly to the Gysi method. Lower teeth

  16. Magnetic field deformation due to electron drift in a Hall thruster

    OpenAIRE

    Han Liang; Ding Yongjie; Zhang Xu; Wei Liqiu; Yu Daren

    2017-01-01

    The strength and shape of the magnetic field are the core factors in the design of the Hall thruster. However, Hall current can affect the distribution of static magnetic field. In this paper, the Particle-In-Cell (PIC) method is used to obtain the distribution of Hall current in the discharge channel. The Hall current is separated into a direct and an alternating part to calculate the induced magnetic field using Finite Element Method Magnetics (FEMM). The results show that the direct Hall c...

  17. Performance Characterization of the Air Force Transformational Satellite 12 kW Hall Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Haag, Thomas W.; Smith, Timothy; Herman, Daniel; Huang, Wensheng; Shastry, Rohit; Peterson, Peter; Mathers, Alex

    2013-01-01

    The STMD GCD ISP project is tasked with developing, maturing, and testing enabling human exploration propulsion requirements and potential designs for advanced high-energy, in-space propulsion systems to support deep-space human exploration and reduce travel time between Earth's orbit and future destinations for human activity. High-power Hall propulsion systems have been identified as enabling technologies and have been the focus of the activities at NASA Glenn-In-house effort to evaluate performance and interrogate operation of NASA designed and manufactured Hall thrusters. Evaluate existing high TRL EP devices that may be suitable for implementation in SEP TDM.

  18. Investigation of Low Discharge Voltage Hall Thruster Characteristics and Evaluation of Loss Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Electronics and Propellant Hardware Thruster discharge power was provided by a 1250 V, 80 A AMREL HPS1250-80 DC power supply in line with an RLC circuit to...external supply and electrical circuit .122,136 In this investigation, a ~500 Hz RLC filter was removed from the circuit with negligible change in the...field ……………………………………………. [ T ] dExB distance between ExB probe parallel plate electrodes ………………. [ m ] E v electric field vector

  19. Gyro-based Maximum-Likelihood Thruster Fault Detection and Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Edward; Lages, Chris; Mah, Robert; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    When building smaller, less expensive spacecraft, there is a need for intelligent fault tolerance vs. increased hardware redundancy. If fault tolerance can be achieved using existing navigation sensors, cost and vehicle complexity can be reduced. A maximum likelihood-based approach to thruster fault detection and identification (FDI) for spacecraft is developed here and applied in simulation to the X-38 space vehicle. The system uses only gyro signals to detect and identify hard, abrupt, single and multiple jet on- and off-failures. Faults are detected within one second and identified within one to five accords,

  20. Development of High-Power Hall Thruster Power Processing Units at NASA GRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinero, Luis R.; Bozak, Karin E.; Santiago, Walter; Scheidegger, Robert J.; Birchenough, Arthur G.

    2015-01-01

    NASA GRC successfully designed, built and tested four different power processor concepts for high power Hall thrusters. Each design satisfies unique goals including the evaluation of a novel silicon carbide semiconductor technology, validation of innovative circuits to overcome the problems with high input voltage converter design, development of a direct-drive unit to demonstrate potential benefits, or simply identification of lessonslearned from the development of a PPU using a conventional design approach. Any of these designs could be developed further to satisfy NASA's needs for high power electric propulsion in the near future.