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Sample records for bow mountains southeastern

  1. Assessing the potential for rainbow trout reproduction in tributaries of the Mountain Fork River below Broken Bow Dam, southeastern Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, James M.; Starks, Trevor A.; Farling, Tyler; Bastarache, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Stocked trout (Salmonidae) in reservoir tailwater systems in the Southern United States have been shown to use tributary streams for spawning and rearing. The lower Mountain Fork of the Little River below Broken Bow Dam is one of two year-round tailwater trout fisheries in Oklahoma, and the only one with evidence of reproduction by stocked rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Whether stocked trout use tributaries in this system for spawning is unknown. Furthermore, an

  2. Drill-hole data, drill-site geology, and geochemical data from the study of Precambrian uraniferous conglomerates of the Medicine Bow Mountains and Sierra Madre of southeastern Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlstrom, K.E.; Houston, R.S.; Schmidt, T.G.; Inlow, D.; Flurkey, A.J.; Kratochvil, A.L.; Coolidge, C.M.; Sever, C.K.; Quimby, W.F.

    1981-02-01

    This volume is presented as a companion to Volume 1: The Geology and Uranium Potential of Precambrian Conglomerates in the Medicine Bow Mountains and Sierra Madre of Southeastern Wyoming; and to Volume 3: Uranium Assessment for Precambrian Pebble Conglomerates in Southeastern Wyoming. Volume 1 summarized the geologic setting and geologic and geochemical characteristics of uranium-bearing conglomerates in Precambrian metasedimentary rocks of southeastern Wyoming. Volume 3 is a geostatistical resource estimate of U and Th in quartz-pebble conglomerates. This volume contains supporting geochemical data, lithologic logs from 48 drill holes in Precambrian rocks of the Medicine Bow Mountains and Sierra Madre, and drill site geologic maps and cross-sections from most of the holes.

  3. Assessing the potential for rainbow trout reproduction in tributaries of the Mountain Fork River below Broken Bow Dam, southeastern Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Long; Trevor A. Starks; Tyler Farling; Robert. Bastarache

    2016-01-01

    Stocked trout (Salmonidae) in reservoir tailwater systems in the Southern United States have been shown to use tributary streams for spawning and rearing. The lower Mountain Fork of the Little River below Broken Bow Dam is one of two year-round tailwater trout fisheries in Oklahoma, and the only one with evidence of reproduction by stocked rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus...

  4. Uranium assessment for the Precambrian pebble conglomerates in southeastern Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borgman, L.E.; Sever, C.; Quimby, W.F.; Andrew, M.E.; Karlstrom, K.E.; Houston, R.S.

    1981-03-01

    This volume is a geostatistical resource estimate of uranium and thorium in quartz-pebble conglomerates, and is a companion to Volume 1: The Geology and Uranium Potential to Precambrian Conglomerates in the Medicine Bow Mountains and Sierra Madre of Southeastern Wyoming; and to Volume 2: Drill-Hole Data, Drill-Site Geology, and Geochemical Data from the Study of Precambrian Uraniferous Conglomerates of the Medicine Bow Mountains and the Sierra Madre of Southeastern Wyoming.

  5. Bowing in the Right Direction: Hiland Mountain Correctional Center Women's String Orchestra Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warfield, Duane

    2010-01-01

    The Hiland Mountain Correctional Center, a 400-bed facility for multi-level adult female offenders in Eagle River, Alaska, offers a unique educational programme to its prisoners: an orchestra. Founded in 2003, by volunteer Pati Crofut, orchestra membership grew from eight to 22 female offenders between 2003 and 2009. Crofut has devoted her time…

  6. Quaking aspen reproduce from seed after wildfire in the mountains of southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald D. Quinn; Lin Wu

    2001-01-01

    Quaking aspen regenerated from seed after a stand replacement wildfire in the Chiricahua Mountains of southeastern Arizona. The wildfire had created gaps in the canopy so that aspen were able to establish from seed. Seedlings were found at a mean density of 0.17 m-2, 30 m or more from the nearest potential seed trees. Six clumps of aspen seedlings contained 18-186...

  7. Water beetles in mountainous regions in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MO. Segura

    Full Text Available Inventories provide information on the state of biodiversity at a site or for a geographic region. Species inventories are the basis for systematic study and critical to ecology, biogeography and identification of biological indicators and key species. They also provide key information for assessments of environmental change, for natural resource conservation or recovery of degraded ecosystems. Thus, inventories play a key role in planning strategies for conservation and sustainable use. This study aimed to inventory the fauna of water beetles, larvae and adults, in two mountainous regions in the state of São Paulo, in Serra da Mantiqueira (Parque Estadual de Campos do Jordão and Pindamonhangaba region and in Serra do Mar (Santa Virgínia and Picinguaba Divisions as well as to generate information about the habitats used by the different genera recorded. Specimens were collected in lotic and lentic systems, between the years 2005 to 2010. In total 14,492 specimens were collected and 16 families and 50 genera of Coleoptera were identified. This study in mountainous regions showed a significant portion of the faunal composition of South America and the state of São Paulo. The composition of the fauna, in terms of richness and abundance by family, indicated the predominance of Elmidae, followed by Hydrophilidae and Dytiscidae. Despite the diversity found, the results of estimated richness indicated the need for additional sampling effort for both regions, since the curves of estimated richness did not reach an asymptote, suggesting that new species can be found in future surveys.

  8. Changes in forest species composition and structure after stand-replacing wildfire in the mountains of southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald D. Quinn; Lin Wu

    2005-01-01

    A wildfire in the Chiricahua Mountains of southeastern Arizona apparently altered the long-term structure of the forest. The pre-fire canopy forest, which had not burned for 100 years, was an even mixture of Arizona pines and Rocky Mountain Douglas-firs. A decade later the new forest was numerically dominated by quaking aspen seedlings in clumps separated by persistent...

  9. Profiling Radar Observations and Numerical Simulations of a Downslope Wind Storm and Rotor on the Lee of the Medicine Bow Mountains in Wyoming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binod Pokharel

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study describes a downslope wind storm event observed over the Medicine Bow range (Wyoming, USA on 11 January 2013. The University of Wyoming King Air (UWKA made four along-wind passes over a five-hour period over the mountain of interest. These passes were recognized as among the most turbulent ones encountered in many years by crew members. The MacCready turbulence meter aboard the UWKA measured moderate to severe turbulence conditions on each pass in the lee of the mountain range, with eddy dissipation rate values over 0.5 m2/3 s−1. Three rawinsondes were released from an upstream location at different times. This event is simulated using the non-hydrostatic Weather Research and Forecast (WRF model at an inner- domain resolution of 1 km. The model produces a downslope wind storm, notwithstanding some discrepancies between model and rawinsonde data in terms of upstream atmospheric conditions. Airborne Wyoming Cloud Radar (WCR vertical-plane Doppler velocity data from two beams, one pointing to the nadir and one pointing slant forward, are synthesized to obtain a two-dimensional velocity field in the vertical plane below flight level. This synthesis reveals the fine-scale details of an orographic wave breaking event, including strong, persistent downslope acceleration, a strong leeside updraft (up to 10 m·s−1 flanked by counter-rotating vortices, and deep turbulence, extending well above flight level. The analysis of WCR-derived cross-mountain flow in 19 winter storms over the same mountain reveals that cross-mountain flow acceleration and downslope wind formation are difficult to predict from upstream wind and stability profiles.

  10. Bowed Strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossing, Thomas D.; Hanson, Roger J.

    In the next eight chapters, we consider some aspects of the science of bowed string instruments, old and new. In this chapter, we present a brief discussion of bowed strings, a subject that will be developed much more thoroughly in Chap. 16. Chapters 13-15 discuss the violin, the cello, and the double bass. Chapter 17 discusses viols and other historic string instruments, and Chap. 18 discusses the Hutchins-Schelleng violin octet.

  11. Paleoseismic investigations of Stagecoach Road fault, southeastern Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menges, C.M.; Oswald, J.A.; Coe, J.A.; Lundstrom, S.C.; Paces, J.B.; Mahan, S.A.; Widmann, B.; Murray, M.

    1998-04-01

    This report summarizes the results of paleoseismic investigations at two trenches (SCR-T1 and SCR-T3) excavated across the Stagecoach Road (SCR) fault at the southeastern margin of Yucca Mountain. The results of these studies are based on detailed mapping or logging of geologic and structural relationships exposed in trench walls, combined with descriptions of lithologic units, associated soils, and fault-related deformation. The ages of trench deposits are determined directly from geochronologic dating of selected units and soils, supplemented by stratigraphic and soil correlations with other surficial deposits in the Yucca Mountain area. The time boundaries used in this report for subdivision of the Quaternary period are listed in a table. These data and interpretations are used to identify the number, amounts, timing, and approximately lengths of late to middle Quaternary (less than 200 ka) surface-faulting events associated with paleoearthquakes at the trench sites. This displacement history forms the basis for calculating paleoearthquake recurrence intervals and fault-slip rates for the Stagecoach Road fault and allows comparison with fault behavior on other Quaternary faults at or near Yucca Mountain.

  12. Water deficits in timberline trees in the Snowy Mountains of South-Eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slatyer, R O

    1976-12-01

    Leaf water potential (Ψ), leaf diffusion resistance (r 1 ) and net photosynthesis of leaves of Eucalyptus pauciflora Sieb at timberline (2,040 m) were measured in winter and spring in the Snowy Mountains area of southeastern Australia. Four treatments were established in a 2×2 factorial design involving exposure to direct sunlight, screening to reduce solar radiation by approximately 50%, exposure to direct radiant cooling at night, and screening to reduce radiant cooling. A less comprehensive set of measurements was also made in summer.No significant water deficits developed in any of the treatments, water potentials remaining above Ψ=-14 bars in winter, and above Ψ=-10 bars in spring, well above the levels needed to cause tissue damage in this species. These results contrast with the extreme desiccation reported in trees at timberline in other regions and suggest that winter dehydration is not an important factor in limiting tree distribution in the Snowy Mountains.Tissue damage was observed in all treatments and was most pronounced in those exposed to natural radiation frosts, in which shoot die-back occurred. Although factors other than frost incidence may have been influenced by the treatments, the results suggest that low temperatures, possibly associated with periods of clear weather and cold nights in the spring, when the tissue was no longer winter-hardy, may have been the main factors responsible.

  13. Extensional reactivation of the Chocolate Mountains subduction thrust in the Gavilan Hills of southeastern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyarzabal, F.R.; Jacobson, C.E.; Haxel, G.B.

    1997-01-01

    The NE vergent Chocolate Mountains fault of south-eastern California has been interpreted as either a subduction thrust responsible for burial and prograde metamorphism of the ensimatic Orocopia Schist or as a normal fault involved in the exhumation of the schist. Our detailed structural analysis in the Gavilan Hills area provides new evidence to confirm the latter view. A zone of deformation is present at the top of the Orocopia Schist in which lineations are parallel to those in the upper plate of the Chocolate Mountains fault but oblique to ones at relatively deep levels in the schist. Both the Orocopia Schist and upper plate contain several generations of shear zones that show a transition from crystalloblastic through mylonitic to cataclastic textures. These structures formed during retrograde metamorphism and are considered to record the exhumation of the Orocopia Schist during early Tertiary time as a result of subduction return flow. The Gatuna fault, which places low-grade, supracrustal metasediments of the Winterhaven Formation above the gneisses of the upper plate, also seems to have been active at this time. Final unroofing of the Orocopia Schist occurred during early to middle Miocene regional extension and may have involved a second phase of movement on the Gatuna fault. Formation of the Chocolate Mountains fault during exhumation indicates that its top-to-the-NE sense of movement provides no constraint on the polarity of the Orocopia Schist subduction zone. This weakens the case for a previous model involving SW dipping subduction, while providing support for the view that the Orocopia Schist is a correlative of the Franciscan Complex.

  14. Altitudinal distribution of birds in a mountainous region in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Mallet-Rodrigues

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available We studied the altitudinal distribution of 426 bird species in the Serra dos Órgãos, a mountainous region in southeastern Brazil. Thirty-four localities were visited between 1991 and 2009. Our study revealed a decline in bird species richness with elevation, although a smaller number of species was recorded at lower altitudes (below 300 m possibly due to local extinctions caused by the intense human occupation of the region. A less diverse avifauna was found above 2,000 m, with only one species (Caprimulgus longirostris recorded exclusively in this altitudinal range. Most endemic species were found between 300 and 1,200 m, but the endemism was more significant at higher altitudes. Nearly half of the birds found above 1,400 m were endemic species. Most of the threatened species from the state of Rio de Janeiro recorded in our study were found below 1,200 m, but no significant difference was found between the proportions of threatened species among different altitudinal ranges. Species of seventeen genera have exhibited some replacement (sometimes with partial overlap along altitudinal gradients.

  15. Mesozoic burial, Mesozoic and Cenozoic exhumation of the Funeral Mountains core complex, Death Valley, Southeastern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyene, Mengesha Assefa

    2011-12-01

    The Funeral Mountains of Death Valley National Park, CA, provide an opportunity to date metamorphism resulting from crustal shortening and subsequent episodic extensional events in the Sevier hinterland. It was not clear whether crustal shortening and thus peak temperature metamorphism in the hinterland of the Sevier-Laramide orogenic wedge have occurred whether in Late Jurassic, Early Cretaceous, Late Cretaceous or somewhere between. Particularly ambiguous is the timing of crustal shortening in the deep levels of the hinterland of the Sevier belt, now manifest in the metamorphic core complexes, and how and when these middle-to-lower crustal rocks were exhumed. A 6-point garnet and a whole rock Savillax isochron from middle greenschist facies pelitic schist of the southeastern Funeral Mountains core complex yields an age of 162.1 +/- 5.8 Ma (2sigma). Composite PT paths determined from growth-zoned garnets from the same samples show a nearly isothermal pressure increase of ˜2 kbar at ˜490°C, suggesting thrust burial at 162.1 +/- 5.8 Ma. A second sample of Johnnie Formation from the comparatively higher metamorphic grade area to the northwest (East of Chloride Cliff) yielded an age of 172.9 +/- 4.9 Ma (2sigma) suggesting an increase of thrust burial age towards the higher grade rocks (northwest part of the core complex), consistent with paleo-depth interpretation and metamorphic grade. 40Ar/ 39Ar muscovite ages along footwall of the Boundary Canyon detachment fault and intra-core Chloride Cliff shear zone exhibit significant 40Ar/39Ar muscovite age differences. For samples from the immediate footwall of BCD, the pattern of ages decreasing toward the northwest is consistent with differences in depth of metamorphism, and for Late Cretaceous, top-to-northwest exhumation by motion along the precursor BCD; consistent with mesoscopic and microscopic kinematic studies. Samples from the footwall of the structurally-lower Chloride Cliff shear zone yield Tertiary 40Ar/39Ar

  16. Stratigraphy and paleogeographic significance of the Pennsylvanian-Permian Bird Spring Formation in the Ship Mountains, southeastern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Paul; Stevens, Calvin H.; Howard, Keith A.; Hoisch, Thomas D.

    2013-01-01

    A thick sequence of limestone, dolomite, and minor sandstone assigned to the Pennsylvanian and lower Permian Bird Spring Formation is exposed in the Ship Mountains about 85 kilometers (km) southwest of Needles, California, in the eastern Mojave Desert. These strata provide a valuable reference section of the Bird Spring Formation in a region where rocks of this age are not extensively exposed. This section, which is about 900 meters (m) thick, is divided into five informal members. Strata of the Bird Spring Formation in the Ship Mountains originated as shallow-water marine deposits on the broad, southwest-trending continental shelf of western North America. Perpendicular to the shelf, the paleogeographic position of the Ship Mountains section is intermediate between those of the thicker, less terrigenous, more seaward section of the Bird Spring Formation in the Providence Mountains, 55 km to the northwest, and the thinner, more terrigenous, more landward sections of the Supai Group near Blythe, 100 km to the southeast. Parallel to the shelf, the Ship Mountains section is comparable in lithofacies and inferred paleogeographic position to sections assigned to the Callville Limestone and overlying Pakoon Limestone in northwestern Arizona and southeastern Nevada, 250 km to the northeast. Deposition of the Bird Spring Formation followed a major rise in eustatic sea level at about the Mississippian- Pennsylvanian boundary. The subsequent depositional history was controlled by episodic changes in eustatic sea level, shelf subsidence rates, and sediment supply. Subsidence rates could have been influenced by coeval continental-margin tectonism to the northwest.

  17. An ethnobotanical survey of traditionally used plants on Suva planina mountain (south-eastern Serbia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarić, Snežana; Mačukanović-Jocić, Marina; Djurdjević, Lola; Mitrović, Miroslava; Kostić, Olga; Karadžić, Branko; Pavlović, Pavle

    2015-12-04

    This study documents the ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal importance of plants in the Suva planina mountain region (south-eastern Serbia). It is reflected in their high diversity and their wide range of uses in the treatment of the local population. The aim of this study was a comparative analysis of data collected in the Suva planina region with relevant data from the Western Balkans, which included identifying the 'most popular' plants, as well as those species which are used specifically for treatment solely in the research area. Ethnobotanical research was carried out between 2012 and 2014 and data was collected through both open and semi-structured interviews with locals. A total of 66 people were interviewed (37 women and 29 men), aged between 49 and 90 (with a mean age of 71). This study identified 128 plants and 2 fungi which are used in ethnomedicine, 5 plant species used in ethnoveterinary medicine, and 16 plants used for 'other' purposes. Lamiaceae (20), Asteraceae (17), Rosaceae (16), Brassicaceae (5), Alliaceae (4) and Apiaceae (4) have the greatest diversity of species. Results showed that Achillea mellefolium, Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Arctostaphyllos uva-ursi, Gentiana lutea, Hypericum perforatum, Juglans regia, Matricaria chamomilla, Mentha piperita, Plantago lanceolata, Plantago major, Salvia officinalis, Sempervivum tectorum, Tilia cordata and Thymus sepyllum are the 'most popular' medicinal plants (UV=1). Those plants with the most phytotherapeutic uses are Gentiana cruciata (14), H. perforatum (11) and A. sativum (10), while the most common conditions treated with medicinal plants are respiratory (79), urogenital (53), gastrointestinal (51), skin (43) and those relating to the circulatory system (35). A comparative analysis of the data collected in the research area and that from other parts of the Western Balkans showed that there are great similarities within Serbia between Suva planina and the Zlatibor region (37.2%) and Kopaonik Mt. (32

  18. Terrestrial laser scanner data from the 2011 Horseshoe Two fire, Chiricahua Mountains, southeastern Arizona

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Point cloud data collected on a steep, severely burned hillslope below Barfoot Peak near Rustler Park in the Chiricahua Mountains, AZ. The data were collected June...

  19. Stratigraphic framework of upper Paleozoic rocks, southeastern Sangre de Cristo Mountains, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltz, E.H.; Myers, D.A.

    1999-01-01

    The Sangre de Cristo Mountains of south-central Colorado and north-central New Mexico are the physiographic expression of a southerly trending Cenozoic structural uplift that plunges gently south to die out in the Great Plains south of Santa Fe and Las Vegas, New Mexico. The uplift is bounded on the west by Neogene downfaulted and downwarped basins of the Rio Grande depression and, on the east, by broad Laramide basins that have sharply folded western limbs. The uplift was modified in Neogene time by local igneous-intrusive doming and normal faulting related to the Rio Grande rift.

  20. An integrated geophysical study of the southeastern Sangre de Cristo Mountains, New Mexico: Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Veronica J.; Keller, G. Randy

    Southwestern Wyoming is located at the margin of the Archean Wyoming craton but has experienced significant deformation as a result of both the Sevier and Laramide orogenies. This study focuses on the nature and extent of this deformation and its interactions with structures within the Precambrian basement. We used about 350 km of newly released industry seismic reflection data along with gravity data, satellite imagery, and drilling information in an integrated analysis focusing on the north-south trending Rock Springs uplift, the northwest-trending Wind River uplift and the west-east trending Sweetwater uplift. These features form arches that are bounded by the Green River, Wind River, Great Divide, and the Washakie basins (Fig. 1). An example of the seismic data is shown in Figure 2 displays structural complexity at the northeast boundary of the Great Divide basin involving high-angle reverse faults with northeast dips. The fault that lies roughly in the middle of the line is interpreted to be the southeastern extension of the Wind River thrust, and the fault at the northeast end of the line is interpreted to be the Mormon Trail thrust. A gravity profile was modeled as a medium to integrate all of the data. This model of the upper crust indicates the presence of inhomogeneities in the Archean basement that have not been recognized previously. The basement northeast of the Wind River thrust contains considerable reflectivity indicating folding or fabric that either reflects or controls Laramide structures. The interweaving of reflectors in one line resemble imbricate structures shown in the CD-ROM Cheyenne belt deep reflection profile and could be related to an ancient structural boundary within the basement. Our analysis shows that the multiple thrusts bounding the Sweetwater uplift occur near major inhomogeneities in the Precambrian basement. Spatial relations we observe are consistent with the hypothesis that anastomosing arches characterize Laramide foreland

  1. Bow Crushing Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of these notes is to present a basis for the estimation of the internal collision forces between conventinal merchant vessels and large volume offshore structures in the form of gravity-supported offshore installations and bridges crossing international shipping routes.The main emphasis...... is on the presentation of impact loads on fixed offshore structures due to bow collisions. The crushing forces are determined as functions of vessels size, vessels speed, bow profile, collision angles and eccentric impacts....

  2. Logs and paleoseismic interpretations from trenches 14C and 14D on the Bow Ridge fault, northeastern Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menges, C.M.; Taylor, E.M.; Vadurro, G.; Oswald, J.A.; Cress, R.; Murray, M.; Lundstrom, S.C.; Paces, J.B.; Mahan, S.A.

    1997-12-31

    Detailed studies of trenches 14D and 14C on the Bow Ridge fault indicate two to three displacements and long recurrence intervals during the middle to late Quaternary. The main trace of the fault is marked by a thick (20--40 centimeters wide) subvertical shear zone coated with multiple carbonate-silica laminae and several generations of fine-grained fissure-fill debris. Exposed in the trenches is a vertically stacked sequence of thin (0.3--1.5 meters thick) fine-grained colluvial, alluvial, and eolian deposits that commonly contain smaller wedge-shaped units or several weakly to strongly developed buried paleosols, or both. The two to three surface-rupture events are recognized at discrete stratigraphic intervals in the sequence based on (1) incremental up-section decreases in offset of marker horizons, (b) upward terminations of shear zones, fissure fills, and fractures, and (c) the position of small scarp-derived colluvial wedges deposited adjacent to the fault above downfaulted marker horizons. Preferred estimates of the vertical displacement per event are 12 and 40 centimeters. Left-oblique striations are observed on carbonate fault laminae, which, if tectonic in origin, increase the vertical displacement by factors of 1.1 to 1.7, yielding preferred net slip displacements per event of 13 to 70 centimeters. Thermoluminescence ages of 48 {+-} 20 and 132 {+-} 23 thousand years bracket the ages of the events, which probably occurred near the bounding ages of the time interval. These age constraints suggest long, average recurrence intervals between the three events of 75 to 210 ky; the preferred values range between 100 to 140 ky. The small net cumulative displacement of two dated reference horizons yield very low fault slip rates of 0.002 to 0.007 millimeters per year; the preferred value is 0.003 millimeters per year.

  3. Moisture source in the Hyblean Mountains region (south-eastern Sicily, Italy): Evidence from stable isotopes signature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassa, Fausto [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione di Palermo, Via Ugo La Malfa, 153, 90146 Palermo (Italy)]. E-mail: f.grassa@pa.ingv.it; Favara, Rocco [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione di Palermo, Via Ugo La Malfa, 153, 90146 Palermo (Italy); Valenza, Mariano [Dipartimento CFTA, Universita di Palermo, Palermo, Via Archirafi, 36, 90123, Palermo (Italy)

    2006-12-15

    Here the authors present results of an isotope study on precipitation collected during a 2-a period from a rain-gauge network consisting of 6 stations located at different elevations in the Hyblean Mountains (HM) region, in south-eastern Sicily. The slope of the local meteoric water line ({delta}D = 6.50 {delta} {sup 18}O + 9.87) obtained for the region suggests that precipitation is affected by evaporation during rainfall events. The main variations in rainwater isotope composition are due to seasonal effects and elevation. An average {sup 2}H excess value of +21.2 per mille was found for precipitation events less affected by evaporation (i.e. when the rainfall was >65 mm/month). The spatial distribution of O isotope composition of precipitation shows a negative gradient from east and south to the inner areas. The depositional rate of Cl, used as a tracer of the origin of air masses, is highest at the coastal rain-gauges (SR and MRG stations) and lowest on the northern flank of the HM region (SC station). Based on these findings, a model is proposed for the origin of precipitation in the HM region, which assumes that a Mediterranean-derived component is the main source of moisture in the studied area. D/H and {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O ratios of inferred meteoric recharge waters were also compared with the isotope composition of waters collected from the main local springs and wells. The best linear fit of the {delta} {sup 18}O vs {delta}D relationship for Hyblean groundwater is {delta}D = 4.85 {delta} {sup 18}O-2.01. The enrichment of heavy isotopes in Hyblean groundwater is probably due to evaporation occurring after precipitation events or to a recharging contribution from surface waters (lakes or rivers) enriched in heavy isotopes.

  4. Aspects of seasonality and flood generating circulation patterns in a mountainous catchment in south-eastern Germany

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Petrow, Th; Merz, B; Lindenschmidt, K.-E; Thieken, A. H

    2007-01-01

    Analyses of discharge series, precipitation fields and flood producing atmospheric circulation patterns reveal that two governing flood regimes exist in the Mulde catchment in south-eastern Germany...

  5. Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regina M. Rochefort; Laurie L. Kurth; Tara W. Carolin; Robert R. Mierendorf; Kimberly Frappier; David L. Steenson

    2006-01-01

    This chapter concentrates on subalpine parklands and alpine meadows of southern British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, and western Montana. These areas lie on the flanks of several mountain ranges including the Olympics, the Cascades of Oregon and Washington, and the Coast Mountains in British Columbia.

  6. Chapter I: Geology of a Middle Tertiary Clay Deposit in thePatagonia Mountains near Harshaw, Santa Cruz County, Southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, Brenda B.

    2005-01-01

    A middle Tertiary rhyolite tuff on the northeast side of the Patagonia Mountains in Santa Cruz County, southeastern Arizona contains lenses of calcareous low-swelling montmorillonite clay, as much as 10 to 15 m thick. The presence of the tuff has been known for years, but the clay has not been described previously. The clay lenses, which are virtually silt- and sand-free, were probably formed by diagenetic alteration of fairly clean ash-fall-tuff beds. In preliminary tests, the clay exhibited only about 9 percent shrinkage on drying and about 1 percent shrinkage on firing. Cracking and distortion were minimal in both drying and firing. Further testing needs to be done on the clay to determine its suitability as a specialty clay or as an additive to other clays.

  7. A short note on linkage of climatic records between a river valley and the upper timberline in the Sygera Mountains, southeastern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Eryuan; Liu, Bo; Zhu, Liping; Yin, Zhi-Yong

    2011-05-01

    Tree-ring data from timberlines have been widely used to reconstruct past temperature variability. High-quality reconstructions depend on successful calibrations in which tree-ring records are compared with instrumental observations of climatic factors to establish quantitative relationships between tree growth and climate. Climatic data used in the calibrations are mostly from nearby meteorological stations, located generally in the valleys near human settlements of mountainous areas, regardless of whether climatic records at low elevations are representative for the upper timberline. In order to better understand the characteristics of the alpine environment at the upper timberline of blackseed juniper ( Juniperus saltuaria) in the eastern side of the Sygera Mountains, southeastern Tibetan Plateau, an automatic weather station was established. We found that the variation in the daily/5-day/10-day/monthly mean temperatures and sums of precipitation on the valley bottom (3000 m a.s.l.) as well as the daily/seasonal sums of precipitation from the TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) are highly correlated with the measurements at the upper timberline (4400 m a.s.l.). Thus, the variations of the valley bottom temperature and precipitation records are confident indicators of the conditions at the upper timberline on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau and hence can be used for the calibration in the dendroclimatic reconstructions based on timberline tree-ring data. For 5-day mean temperature pooled by individual months, the R 2 values of the regression models > 0.60 between the valley bottom and timberline in February-August and October, and precipitation, the R 2 values > 0.60 in March-July and October-December, and < 0.40 in January, February, August and September. This study represents a small step towards fixing problems regarding to dendroclimatic calibrations.

  8. Paleoseismic evidence for late Holocene tectonic deformation along the Saddle mountain fault zone, Southeastern Olympic Peninsula, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Elizabeth; Sherrod, Brian; Hughes, Jonathan F.; Kelsey, Harvey M.; Czajkowski, Jessica L.; Walsh, Timothy J.; Contreras, Trevor A.; Schermer, Elizabeth R.; Carson, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Trench and wetland coring studies show that northeast‐striking strands of the Saddle Mountain fault zone ruptured the ground about 1000 years ago, generating prominent scarps. Three conspicuous subparallel fault scarps can be traced for 15 km on Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) imagery, traversing the foothills of the southeast Olympic Mountains: the Saddle Mountain east fault, the Saddle Mountain west fault, and the newly identified Sund Creek fault. Uplift of the Saddle Mountain east fault scarp impounded stream flow, forming Price Lake and submerging an existing forest, thereby leaving drowned stumps still rooted in place. Stratigraphy mapped in two trenches, one across the Saddle Mountain east fault and the other across the Sund Creek fault, records one and two earthquakes, respectively, as faulting juxtaposed Miocene‐age bedrock against glacial and postglacial deposits. Although the stratigraphy demonstrates that reverse motion generated the scarps, slip indicators measured on fault surfaces suggest a component of left‐lateral slip. From trench exposures, we estimate the postglacial slip rate to be 0.2  mm/yr and between 0.7 and 3.2  mm/yr during the past 3000 years. Integrating radiocarbon data from this study with earlier Saddle Mountain fault studies into an OxCal Bayesian statistical chronology model constrains the most recent paleoearthquake age of rupture across all three Saddle Mountain faults to 1170–970 calibrated years (cal B.P.), which overlaps with the nearby Mw 7.5 1050–1020 cal B.P. Seattle fault earthquake. An earlier earthquake recorded in the Sund Creek trench exposure, dates to around 3500 cal B.P. The geometry of the Saddle Mountain faults and their near‐synchronous rupture to nearby faults 1000 years ago suggest that the Saddle Mountain fault zone forms a western boundary fault along which the fore‐arc blocks migrate northward in response to margin‐parallel shortening across the Puget Lowland.

  9. Bow and catapult internal dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Denny, M

    2003-01-01

    A simple model of bow and arrow dynamics is presented, which makes clear the physical principles, and reproduces the features obtained via more detailed, but less accessible calculations. We apply this instructive model to determine the efficiency of bows and of torsion-spring catapults.

  10. Siphonaptera parasites of wild rodents and marsupials trapped in three mountain ranges of the Atlantic forest in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moraes, Leandro Bianco; Bossi, David Eduardo Paolinetti; Linhares, Arício Xavier

    2003-12-01

    A study of the associations between small mammals and fleas was undertaken in three areas of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil: Serra da Fartura, SP, Serra da Bocaina, SP, and Itatiaia, RJ. Trapping of small rodents and marsupials was done every 3 months during 2 years, from June 1999 to May 2001. A total 502 rodents (13 species) and 50 marsupials (7 species) were collected, and 185 hosts out of 552 (33.5%) captured in the traps were parasitized by 327 fleas belonging to 11 different species. New host records were determined for several flea species, and 5 significant associations between fleas and hosts were also found.

  11. Articulated coordination of the right arm underlies control of bow parameters and quick bow reversals in skilled cello bowing

    OpenAIRE

    Julius eVerrel; Marjorie Hines Woollacott; Ulman eLindenberger

    2014-01-01

    Stringed instrument bowing is a complex coordinative motor skill acquired though years of intense practice. We apply a novel “freezing” analysis to investigate how movement at different joints contributes to bow transport (movement amplitude), stabilization of bow parameters (angle, velocity) during bow movements, and quick reversals of bow direction (acceleration amplitude). Participants were ten advanced or professional cellists (19–32 years, at least 10 years of practice) and ten age-match...

  12. Forest dynamics of pine- and oak-dominated communities on southeastern-facing slopes of Warm Springs Mountain, Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Sams, Brent Shipley

    2012-01-01

    Warm Springs Mountain (WSM), a priority conservation area for The Nature Conservancy in Bath County, Virginia, is home to a rare montane pine barren and large tracts of uninterrupted mixed pine and deciduous forest extending east into the George Washington National Forest. Limited documentation of past disturbances and their influence on WSM forests presents challenges for land managers desiring to understand historic conditions for these ecosystems. The only formal study of vegetation dynami...

  13. An Evaluation of MODIS-Retrieved Aerosol Optical Depth over a Mountainous AERONET Site in the Southeastern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, James P.; Gupta, Pawan; Levy, Robert C.; Sherman, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    The literature shows that aerosol optical depth (AOD) derived from the MODIS Collection 5 (C5) dark target algorithm has been extensively validated by spatiotemporal collocation with AERONET sites on both global and regional scales.Although generally comparing well over the eastern US region, poor performance over mountains in other regions indicate the need to evaluate the MODIS product over a mountain site. This study compares MODIS C5 AOD at 550nm to AOD measured at the Appalachian State University AERONET site in Boone, NC over 30 months between August 2010 and September 2013. For the combined Aqua and Terra datasets, although more than 70% of the 500 MODIS AOD measurements agree with collocated AERONET AOD to within error envelope of +/- (0.05 + 15%), MODIS tends to have a low bias (0.02-0.03). The agreement between MODIS and AERONET AOD does not depend on MODIS quality assurance confidence (QAC) value. However, when stratified by satellite, MODIS-Terra data does not perform as well as Aqua, with especially poor correlation (r = 0.39) for low aerosol loading conditions (AERONET AOD less than 0.15).Linear regressions between Terra and AERONET possess statistically-different slopes for AOD or = 0.15. AERONET AOD measured only during MODIS overpass hours is highly correlated with daily-averaged AERONET AOD. MODIS monthly-averaged AOD also tracks that of AERONET over the study period. These results indicate that MODIS is sensitive to the day-to-day variability, as well as the annual cycle of AOD over the Appalachian State AERONET site. The complex topography and high seasonality in AOD and vegetation indices allow us to specifically evaluate MODIS dark target algorithm surface albedo and aerosol model assumptions at a regionally-representative SE US mountain site.

  14. Persistent organic pollutants in mountain air of the southeastern Tibetan Plateau: seasonal variations and implications for regional cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jiao; Wang, Xiaoping; Xue, Yonggang; Gong, Ping; Joswiak, Daniel R; Xu, Baiqing; Yao, Tandong

    2014-11-01

    In order to provide more conclusive evidence of monsoon-driven transport of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and assess the potential influence of forests on the fate of these pollutants, passive air samplers were consecutively deployed during 2008-2011 on Sygera Mountain (3800 m-4400 m). Higher DDTs levels were observed in the monsoon season (20.5-57.4 pg m(-3)) than the non-monsoon season (9.2-27.4 pg m(-3)), which confirmed that the Indian monsoon plays a key role in driving the atmospheric transport of DDTs to the TP. The similar DDT isomer ratios to the South Asia further suggested that Sygera Mountain is likely a receptor region of Indian subcontinent. By comparing the difference in concentrations between forest and clearing sites, it was found that the forest canopy can reduce airborne DDTs by a factor of 2, indicating strong absorption of DDTs by the Tibetan forest. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of a High Intensity Fire on the Abundance and Diversity of Reptiles in the Eastern Rhodopes Mountains, Southeastern Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgi S. Popgeorgiev

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The numerous fires during the past decade in the Eastern Rhodopes (southeastern Bulgaria resulted in extensive loss of habitat for multiple species. In this study on the reptilian fauna found near Kolets village (Haskovo District, Bulgaria we compared two adjacent territories during 2004–2006, a control and a recently burned. We found no effect on the Shannon-Wiener index of biological diversity (mean for the three years: Hburned = 0.488, Hcontrol = 0.498. However, fire led to decrease of abundance (Ab, individuals / 1000 m, best detected for the following species: Testudo hermanni (Abburned = 1.8, Abcontrol = 5.6; p = 0.003316, T. graeca (Abburned = 1.1, Abcontrol = 3.2; p = 0.071786, Lacerta viridis (Abburned = 16.8, Abcontrol = 40.6; p = 0.000263, and L. trilineata (Abburned = 6.8, Abcontrol = 19.2; p = 0.000879, where values for Ab are combined for 2004–2006.

  16. Articulated coordination of the right arm underlies control of bow parameters and quick bow reversals in skilled cello bowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrel, Julius; Woollacott, Marjorie; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2014-01-01

    Stringed instrument bowing is a complex coordinative motor skill acquired though years of intense practice. We apply a novel "freezing" analysis to investigate how movement at different joints contributes to bow transport (movement amplitude), stabilization of bow parameters (angle, velocity) during bow movements, and quick reversals of bow direction (acceleration amplitude). Participants were ten advanced or professional cellists (19-32 years, at least 10 years of practice) and ten age-matched novice players. Arm and bow movements were recorded using 3D motion capture. To assess how performance depends on articulated use of the right arm, actual data were compared to surrogate data, generated by artificially removing movement at ("freezing") individual joints in measured arm movements. This analysis showed that both elbow and shoulder significantly contribute to bow transport in experts, while only the shoulder contributed to bow transport in novices. Moreover, experts showed more strongly increased variability of bow parameters and reduced acceleration amplitudes at bow reversals for surrogate compared to actual movement data. This indicates that movement across joints was organized to reduce bow variability and achieve quick bow reversals. Corresponding effects were less pronounced or absent in the novices, in particular for the wrist and elbow. Our results demonstrate the importance of articulated use of the right arm and clarify the contribution of different joints in experts' bowing performance. Moreover, they support theories of motor control and learning that propose exploitation of biomechanical degrees of freedom, in particular of distal joints, as a critical component in skilled motor performance.

  17. Measurement of ambient aerosol hydration state at Great Smoky Mountains National Park in the southeastern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. Taylor

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We present results from two field deployments of a unique tandem differential mobility analyzer (TDMA configuration with two primary capabilities: identifying alternative stable or meta-stable ambient aerosol hydration states associated with hysteresis in aerosol hydration behavior and determining the actual Ambient hydration State (AS-TDMA. This data set is the first to fully classify the ambient hydration state of aerosols despite recognition that hydration state significantly impacts the roles of aerosols in climate, visibility and heterogeneous chemistry. The AS-TDMA was installed at a site in eastern Tennessee on the border of Great Smoky Mountains National Park for projects during the summer of 2006 and winter of 2007–2008. During the summer, 12% of the aerosols sampled in continuous AS-TDMA measurements were found to posses two possible hydration states under ambient conditions. In every case, the more hydrated of the possible states was occupied. The remaining 88% did not posses multiple possible states. In continuous measurements during the winter, 49% of the aerosols sampled possessed two possible ambient hydration states; the remainder possessed only one. Of those aerosols with multiple possible ambient hydration states, 65% occupied the more hydrated state; 35% occupied the less hydrated state. This seasonal contrast is supported by differences in the fine particulate (PM2.5 composition and ambient RH as measured during the two study periods. In addition to seasonal summaries, this work includes case studies depicting the variation of hydration state with changing atmospheric conditions.

  18. Bokan Mountain peralkaline granitic complex, Alexander terrane (southeastern Alaska): evidence for Early Jurassic rifting prior to accretion with North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostal, Jaroslav; Karl, Susan M.; Keppie, J. Duncan; Kontak, Daniel J.; Shellnutt, J. Gregory

    2013-01-01

    The circular Bokan Mountain complex (BMC) on southern Prince of Wales Island, southernmost Alaska, is a Jurassic peralkaline granitic intrusion about 3 km in diameter that crosscuts igneous and metasedimentary rocks of the Alexander terrane. The BMC hosts significant rare metal (rare earth elements, Y, U, Th, Zr, and Nb) mineralization related to the last stage of BMC emplacement. U–Pb (zircon) and 40Ar/39Ar (amphibole and whole-rock) geochronology indicates the following sequence of intrusive activity: (i) a Paleozoic basement composed mainly of 469 ± 4 Ma granitic rocks; (ii) intrusion of the BMC at 177 ± 1 Ma followed by rapid cooling through ca. 550 °C at 176 ± 1 Ma that was synchronous with mineralization associated with vertical, WNW-trending pegmatites, felsic dikes, and aegirine–fluorite veins and late-stage, sinistral shear deformation; and (iii) intrusion of crosscutting lamprophyre dikes at >150 Ma and again at ca. 105 Ma. The peralkaline nature of the BMC and the WNW trend of associated dikes suggest intrusion during NE–SW rifting that was followed by NE–SW shortening during the waning stages of BMC emplacement. The 177 Ma BMC was synchronous with other magmatic centres in the Alexander terrane, such as (1) the Dora Bay peralkaline stock and (2) the bimodal Moffatt volcanic suite located ∼30 km north and ∼100 km SE of the BMC, respectively. This regional magmatism is interpreted to represent a regional extensional event that precedes deposition of the Late Jurassic – Cretaceous Gravina sequence that oversteps the Wrangellia and Alexander exotic accreted terranes and the Taku and Yukon–Tanana pericratonic terranes of the Canadian–Alaskan Cordillera.

  19. Cretaceous to Eocene evolution of the southeastern Canadian Cordillera: Continuity of Rocky Mountain thrust systems with zones of "in-sequence" mid-crustal flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simony, Philip S.; Carr, Sharon D.

    2011-09-01

    The ˜400 km wide, east-verging, retrowedge side of the southeastern Canadian Cordillera was predominantly formed in a tectonic setting of oblique plate convergence during the Cretaceous to Eocene. This paper documents the internal geometrical development of the retrowedge. In the External zone, the Rocky Mountains and Foothills are characterized by three major east-verging, Late Cretaceous to Eocene, thin-skinned, piggyback thrust and fold systems. They root westward into a basal décollement and accommodated ˜180 km of shortening. The Western Internal zone is characterized by tracts of metamorphic rocks and metamorphic core complexes (e.g. Kettle, Okanagan, Priest River and Valhalla), some of which are basement-cored domes (e.g. Frenchman Cap, Thor-Odin, and Spokane). They have a downward-younging progression of Late Cretaceous to Eocene metamorphism and deformation in infrastructural flow zones characterized by transposition foliation, migmatites, flow folds and 1-7 km thick shear zones. In the Eastern Internal zone, a relict ˜100-200 km wide Early Cretaceous orogen, that predated emplacement of ca. 100 Ma plutons, is nested between the External and Western Internal zones. The geology and architecture of the Internal and External zones can be explained by progressive development of major Late Cretaceous to Eocene shear zone systems in the Internal zone that can be directly linked with coeval thrust and fold systems in the External zone. The linkage was via Late Cretaceous activation and Late Cretaceous to Early Eocene reactivation of the 150-200 km-wide central portion of the Rocky Mountain basal décollement that lies beneath and translated the intervening Early Cretaceous orogen. During the latest stages of shortening, in the Early Eocene, extensional shear zone systems in the Internal zone, localized on tectonothermal culminations, were concomitant with shortening in the External zone. Motion of deep-seated Early Eocene décollements beneath some of these

  20. Current and projected water demand and water availability estimates under climate change scenarios in the Weyib River basin in Bale mountainous area of Southeastern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serur, Abdulkerim Bedewi; Sarma, Arup Kumar

    2017-07-01

    This study intended to estimate the spatial and temporal variation of current and projected water demand and water availability under climate change scenarios in Weyib River basin, Bale mountainous area of Southeastern Ethiopia. Future downscaled climate variables from three Earth System Models under the three RCP emission scenarios were inputted into ArcSWAT hydrological model to simulate different components of water resources of a basin whereas current and projected human and livestock population of the basin is considered to estimate the total annual water demand for various purposes. Results revealed that the current total annual water demand of the basin is found to be about 289 Mm3, and this has to increase by 83.47% after 15 years, 200.67% after 45 years, and 328.78% after 75 years by the 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s, respectively, from base period water demand mainly due to very rapid increasing population (40.81, 130.80, and 229.12% by the 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s, respectively) and climatic variability. The future average annual total water availability in the basin is observed to be increased by ranging from 15.04 to 21.61, 20.08 to 23.34, and 16.21 to 39.53% by the 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s time slice, respectively, from base period available water resources (2333.39 Mm3). The current water availability per capita per year of the basin is about 3112.23 m3 and tends to decline ranging from 11.78 to 17.49, 46.02 to 47.45, and 57.18 to 64.34% by the 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s, respectively, from base period per capita per year water availability. This indicated that there might be possibility to fall the basin under water stress condition in the long term.

  1. The Early Jurassic Bokan Mountain peralkaline granitic complex (southeastern Alaska): geochemistry, petrogenesis and rare-metal mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostal, Jaroslav; Kontak, Daniel J.; Karl, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    The Early Jurassic (ca. 177 Ma) Bokan Mountain granitic complex, located on southern Prince of Wales Island, southernmost Alaska, cross-cuts Paleozoic igneous and metasedimentary rocks of the Alexander terrane of the North American Cordillera and was emplaced during a rifting event. The complex is a circular body (~3 km in diameter) of peralkaline granitic composition that has a core of arfvedsonite granite surrounded by aegirine granite. All the rock-forming minerals typically record a two-stage growth history and aegirine and arfvedsonite were the last major phases to crystalize from the magma. The Bokan granites and related dikes have SiO2 from 72 to 78 wt. %, high iron (FeO (tot) ~3-4.5 wt. %) and alkali (8-10 wt.%) concentrations with high FeO(tot)/(FeO(tot)+MgO) ratios (typically >0.95) and the molar Al2O3/(Na2O+K2O) ratio Nd values which are indicative of a mantle signature. The parent magma is inferred to be derived from an earlier metasomatized lithospheric mantle by low degrees of partial melting and generated the Bokan granitic melt through extensive fractional crystallization. The Bokan complex hosts significant rare-metal (REE, Y, U, Th, Nb) mineralization that is related to the late-stage crystallization history of the complex which involved the overlap of emplacement of felsic dikes, including pegmatite bodies, and generation of orthomagmatic fluids. The abundances of REE, HFSE, U and Th as well as Pb and Nd isotopic values of the pluton and dikes were modified by orthomagmatic hydrothermal fluids highly enriched in the strongly incompatible trace elements, which also escaped along zones of structural weakness to generate rare-metal mineralization. The latter was deposited in two stages: the first relates to the latest stage of magma emplacement and is associated with felsic dikes that intruded along the faults and shear deformations, whereas the second stage involved ingress of hydrothermal fluids that both remobilized and enriched the initial

  2. The player and the bowed string: coordination of bowing parameters in violin and viola performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonderwaldt, E

    2009-11-01

    An experiment was conducted with four violin and viola players, measuring their bowing performance using an optical motion capture system and sensors on the bow. The measurements allowed for a detailed analysis of the use and coordination of the main bowing parameters bow velocity, bow force, and bow-bridge distance. An analysis of bowing strategies in detache playing of notes of three durations (0.2, 2, and 4 s) at three dynamic levels (pp, mf, and f) on all four strings is presented, focusing on the "steady" part of the notes. The results revealed clear trends in the coordinated variations of the bowing parameters depending on the constraints of the task, reflecting a common behavior as well as individual strategies. Furthermore, there were clear indications that the players adapted the bowing parameters to the physical properties of the string and the instrument, respecting the limits of the playable control parameter space.

  3. Articulated coordination of the right arm underlies control of bow parameters and quick bow reversals in skilled cello bowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius eVerrel

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Stringed instrument bowing is a complex coordinative motor skill acquired though years of intense practice. We apply a novel freezing analysis to investigate how movement at different joints contributes to bow transport (movement amplitude, stabilization of bow parameters (angle, velocity during bow movements, and quick reversals of bow direction (acceleration amplitude. Participants were ten advanced or professional cellists (19-32 years, at least 10 years of practice and ten age-matched novice players. Arm and bow movements were recorded using 3D motion capture. To assess how performance depends on articulated use of the right arm, actual data were compared to surrogate data, generated by artificially removing movement at (freezing individual joints in measured arm movements. This analysis showed that both elbow and shoulder significantly contribute to bow transport in experts, while only the shoulder contributed to bow transport in novices. Moreover, experts showed more strongly increased variability of bow parameters and reduced acceleration amplitudes at bow reversals for surrogate compared to actual movement data. This indicates that movement across joints was organized to reduce bow variability and achieve quick bow reversals. Corresponding effects were less pronounced or absent in the novices, in particular for the wrist and elbow. Our results demonstrate the importance of articulated use of the right arm and clarify the contribution of different joints in experts’ bowing performance. Moreover, they support theories of motor control and learning that propose exploitation of biomechanical degrees of freedom, in particular of distal joints, as a critical component in skilled motor performance.

  4. Headwater Capture Evidenced by Paleo-Rivers Reconstruction and Population Genetic Structure of the Armored Catfish (Pareiorhaphis garbei in the Serra do Mar Mountains of Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio M. Q. Lima

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Paleo-drainage connections and headwater stream-captures are two main historical processes shaping the distribution of strictly freshwater fishes. Recently, bathymetric-based methods of paleo-drainage reconstruction have opened new possibilities to investigate how these processes have shaped the genetic structure of freshwater organisms. In this context, the present study used paleo-drainage reconstructions and single-locus cluster delimitation analyses to examine genetic structure on the whole distribution of Pareiorhaphis garbei, a ‘near threatened’ armored catfish from the Fluminense freshwater ecoregion in Southeastern Brazil. Sequences of two mitochondrial genes (cytochrome b and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 were obtained from five sampling sites in four coastal drainages: Macaé (KAE, São João (SJO, Guapi-Macacu [sub-basins Guapiaçu (GAC and Guapimirim (GMI], and Santo Aleixo (SAL. Pronounced genetic structure was found, involving 10 haplotypes for cytB and 6 for coi, with no haplotypes shared between localities. Coalescent-based delineation methods as well as distance-based methods revealed genetic clusters corresponding to each sample site. Paleo-drainage reconstructions showed two putative paleo-rivers: an eastern one connecting KAE and SJO; and a western one merging in the Guanabara Bay (GAC, GMI, and SAL. A disagreement was uncovered between the inferred past riverine connections and current population genetic structure. Although KAE and SJO belong to the same paleo-river, the latter is more closely related to specimens from the Guanabara paleo-river. This discordance between paleo-drainage connections and phylogenetic structure may indicate an ancient stream-capture event in headwaters of this region. Furthermore, all analyses showed high divergence between KAE and the other lineages, suggesting at least one cryptic species in the latter, and that the nominal species should be restricted to the Macaé river basin, its type

  5. Wind-driven snow conditions control the occurrence of contemporary marginal mountain permafrost in the Chic-Choc Mountains, south-eastern Canada: a case study from Mont Jacques-Cartier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Davesne

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We present data on the distribution and thermophysical properties of snow collected sporadically over 4 decades along with recent data of ground surface temperature from Mont Jacques-Cartier (1268 m a.s.l., the highest summit in the Appalachians of south-eastern Canada. We demonstrate that the occurrence of contemporary permafrost is necessarily associated with a very thin and wind-packed winter snow cover which brings local azonal topo-climatic conditions on the dome-shaped summit. The aims of this study were (i to understand the snow distribution pattern and snow thermophysical properties on the Mont Jacques-Cartier summit and (ii to investigate the impact of snow on the spatial distribution of the ground surface temperature (GST using temperature sensors deployed over the summit. Results showed that above the local treeline, the summit is characterized by a snow cover typically less than 30 cm thick which is explained by the strong westerly winds interacting with the local surface roughness created by the physiography and surficial geomorphology of the site. The snowpack structure is fairly similar to that observed on windy Arctic tundra with a top dense wind slab (300 to 450 kg m−3 of high thermal conductivity, which facilitates heat transfer between the ground surface and the atmosphere. The mean annual ground surface temperature (MAGST below this thin and wind-packed snow cover was about −1 °C in 2013 and 2014, for the higher, exposed, blockfield-covered sector of the summit characterized by a sporadic herbaceous cover. In contrast, for the gentle slopes covered with stunted spruce (krummholz, and for the steep leeward slope to the south-east of the summit, the MAGST was around 3 °C in 2013 and 2014. The study concludes that the permafrost on Mont Jacques-Cartier, most widely in the Chic-Choc Mountains and by extension in the southern highest summits of the Appalachians, is therefore likely limited to the barren wind

  6. Wind-driven snow conditions control the occurrence of contemporary marginal mountain permafrost in the Chic-Choc Mountains, south-eastern Canada: a case study from Mont Jacques-Cartier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davesne, Gautier; Fortier, Daniel; Domine, Florent; Gray, James T.

    2017-06-01

    We present data on the distribution and thermophysical properties of snow collected sporadically over 4 decades along with recent data of ground surface temperature from Mont Jacques-Cartier (1268 m a.s.l.), the highest summit in the Appalachians of south-eastern Canada. We demonstrate that the occurrence of contemporary permafrost is necessarily associated with a very thin and wind-packed winter snow cover which brings local azonal topo-climatic conditions on the dome-shaped summit. The aims of this study were (i) to understand the snow distribution pattern and snow thermophysical properties on the Mont Jacques-Cartier summit and (ii) to investigate the impact of snow on the spatial distribution of the ground surface temperature (GST) using temperature sensors deployed over the summit. Results showed that above the local treeline, the summit is characterized by a snow cover typically less than 30 cm thick which is explained by the strong westerly winds interacting with the local surface roughness created by the physiography and surficial geomorphology of the site. The snowpack structure is fairly similar to that observed on windy Arctic tundra with a top dense wind slab (300 to 450 kg m-3) of high thermal conductivity, which facilitates heat transfer between the ground surface and the atmosphere. The mean annual ground surface temperature (MAGST) below this thin and wind-packed snow cover was about -1 °C in 2013 and 2014, for the higher, exposed, blockfield-covered sector of the summit characterized by a sporadic herbaceous cover. In contrast, for the gentle slopes covered with stunted spruce (krummholz), and for the steep leeward slope to the south-east of the summit, the MAGST was around 3 °C in 2013 and 2014. The study concludes that the permafrost on Mont Jacques-Cartier, most widely in the Chic-Choc Mountains and by extension in the southern highest summits of the Appalachians, is therefore likely limited to the barren wind-exposed surface of the summit

  7. The Frequency of Growing Season Frost in the Subalpine Environment (Medicine Bow Mountains, Southeastern Wyoming), The Interaction of Leaf Morphology and Infrared Radiational Cooling and the Effects of Freezing on Native Vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-05-01

    majority of chilling stress studies have focused on crop plants of tropical or subtropical origin (Öquist and Wass 1988; Peeler and Naylor 1988...light energy. Plant Physiol 84:218-224 Eastham J and Rose CW 1988. Pasture evapotranspiration under varying tree planting density in an agroforestry ...fluorescence and photoinhibition in a tropical rainforest understory plant. Photosyn Res 27:135-142 Leuning R 1988. Leaf temperatures during radiation

  8. [Bow artefact in B-image sonography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bönhof, J A; Stapff, M; Bönhof, B; Kremer, H; Zöllner, N; Linhart, P

    1983-09-01

    Bow-shaped artifacts can often be seen in B-mode-ultrasound examinations. In order to find out the origin of these artifacts, water tank experiments were carried out and compared with in vivo observations. The studies showed that bow-shaped artifacts are caused by beam breadth, and that their shape is influenced by the type of the B-mode-instrument, the adjustment of the machine, and by the shape of the reflector. In vitro and in vivo, bow-shaped artifacts arise at strong reflectors and are visible in regions of low echogeneity. In vivo bow-shaped artifacts may imitate pathological findings such as septa or sludge.

  9. Entropy Generation Across Earth's Bow Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, George K.; McCarthy, Michael; Fu, Suiyan; Lee E. s; Cao, Jinbin; Goldstein, Melvyn L.; Canu, Patrick; Dandouras, Iannis S.; Reme, Henri; Fazakerley, Andrew; hide

    2011-01-01

    Earth's bow shock is a transition layer that causes an irreversible change in the state of plasma that is stationary in time. Theories predict entropy increases across the bow shock but entropy has never been directly measured. Cluster and Double Star plasma experiments measure 3D plasma distributions upstream and downstream of the bow shock that allow calculation of Boltzmann's entropy function H and his famous H-theorem, dH/dt O. We present the first direct measurements of entropy density changes across Earth's bow shock. We will show that this entropy generation may be part of the processes that produce the non-thermal plasma distributions is consistent with a kinetic entropy flux model derived from the collisionless Boltzmann equation, giving strong support that solar wind's total entropy across the bow shock remains unchanged. As far as we know, our results are not explained by any existing shock models and should be of interests to theorists.

  10. Energetics of the terrestrial bow shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamrin, Maria; Gunell, Herbert; Norqvist, Patrik

    2017-04-01

    The solar wind is the primary energy source for the magnetospheric energy budget. Energy can enter through the magnetopause both as kinetic energy (plasma entering via e.g. magnetic reconnection and impulsive penetration) and as electromagnetic energy (e.g. by the conversion of solar wind kinetic energy into electromagnetic energy in magnetopause generators). However, energy is extracted from the solar wind already at the bow shock, before it encounters the terrestrial magnetopause. At the bow shock the supersonic solar wind is slowed down and heated, and the region near the bow shock is known to host many complex processes, including the accelerating of particles and the generation of waves. The processes at and near the bow shock can be discussed in terms of energetics: In a generator (load) process kinetic energy is converted to (from) electromagnetic energy. Bow shock regions where the solar wind is decelerated correspond to generators, while regions where particles are energized (accelerated and heated) correspond to loads. Recently, it has been suggested that currents from the bow shock generator should flow across the magnetosheath and connect to the magnetospause current systems [Siebert and Siscoe, 2002; Lopez et al., 2011]. In this study we use data from the Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) mission to investigate the energetics of the bow shock and the current closure, and we compare with the MHD simulations of Lopez et al., 2011.

  11. Modeling nonthermal emission from stellar bow shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, V.; López-Santiago, J.; Miceli, M.; Bonito, R.; de Castro, E.

    2016-04-01

    Context. Runaway O- and early B-type stars passing through the interstellar medium at supersonic velocities and characterized by strong stellar winds may produce bow shocks that can serve as particle acceleration sites. Previous theoretical models predict the production of high-energy photons by nonthermal radiative processes, but their efficiency is still debated. Aims: We aim to test and explain the possibility of emission from the bow shocks formed by runaway stars traveling through the interstellar medium by using previous theoretical models. Methods: We applied our model to AE Aurigae, the first reported star with an X-ray detected bow shock, to BD+43 3654, in which the observations failed in detecting high-energy emission, and to the transition phase of a supergiant star in the late stages of its life. Results: From our analysis, we confirm that the X-ray emission from the bow shock produced by AE Aurigae can be explained by inverse Compton processes involving the infrared photons of the heated dust. We also predict low high-energy flux emission from the bow shock produced by BD+43 3654, and the possibility of high-energy emission from the bow shock formed by a supergiant star during the transition phase from blue to red supergiant. Conclusions: Bow shocks formed by different types of runaway stars are revealed as a new possible source of high-energy photons in our neighborhood.

  12. 46 CFR 154.355 - Bow and stern loading piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bow and stern loading piping. 154.355 Section 154.355... Arrangements § 154.355 Bow and stern loading piping. (a) Bow and stern loading piping must: (1) Meet § 154.310... other openings to accommodation, service, or control spaces that face the bow or stern loading area must...

  13. Study on tourist carrying capacity of sustainable tourism---by taking Qingliang Mountain in the south-eastern china as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shenglang; Liu, Ting

    2017-05-01

    This paper analyzed measurable problems of tourist carrying capacity and then studied the corresponding measures by adopting theories and methods of environment sciences. Tourist carrying capacity of Qingliang Mountain was studied by analyzing the system of tourism environment capacity. The results showed that the level of service was 9726, which was smaller than the ecological carrying capacity of 12894. The facilities and spatial capacity were identified as key factors to limit the tourist carrying capacity in Qingliang Mountain. Some advices and measures including newly built and rebuilt basic facilities, construction of management methods for slack and peak tourist season respectively, construction of new sight spot and touring path were discussed to improve the tourist carrying capacity of Qingliang Mountain and solve the problems of overloading of tourists in the peak season.

  14. Regeneration after 8 years in artificial canopy gaps in mountain ash (Eucalyptus regnans F. Muell.) forest in south-eastern Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van der P.J.; Dignan, P.

    2007-01-01

    We report on a study of regeneration of Mountain Ash (Eucalyptus regnans) forest in S.E. Australia in artificially created canopy gaps (0.01¿2 ha) and clearfelled coupes (4¿27 ha) with different seedbed treatments. Treatments were applied in 1988, 1989, and 1990. Our results are based on

  15. Blood parasites, total plasma protein and packed cell volume of small wild mammals trapped in three mountain ranges of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M A M L; Ronconi, A; Cordeiro, N; Bossi, D E P; Bergallo, H G; Costa, M C C; Balieiro, J C C; Varzim, F L S B

    2007-08-01

    A study of blood parasites in small wild non-flying mammals was undertaken in three areas of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil: Serra de Itatiaia, RJ, Serra da Bocaina, SP and Serra da Fartura, SP, from June 1999 to May 2001. A total of 450 animals (15 species) were captured in traps and it was observed in 15.5% of the blood smears the presence of Haemobartonella sp. and Babesia sp. in red blood cells. There was no statistically significant difference between parasited and non-parasited specimens regarding total plasma protein, packed cell volume and body weight, which strongly suggests that these specimens might be parasite reservoirs.

  16. Ground-Dwelling Arthropod Communities of a Sky Island Mountain Range in Southeastern Arizona, USA: Obtaining a Baseline for Assessing the Effects of Climate Change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallace M Meyer

    Full Text Available The few studies that have addressed past effects of climate change on species distributions have mostly focused on plants due to the rarity of historical faunal baselines. However, hyperdiverse groups like Arthropoda are vital to monitor in order to understand climate change impacts on biodiversity. This is the first investigation of ground-dwelling arthropod (GDA assemblages along the full elevation gradient of a mountain range in the Madrean Sky Island Region, establishing a baseline for monitoring future changes in GDA biodiversity. To determine how GDA assemblages relate to elevation, season, abiotic variables, and corresponding biomes, GDA were collected for two weeks in both spring (May and summer (September 2011 in the Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona, using pitfall traps at 66 sites in six distinct upland (non-riparian/non-wet canyon biomes. Four arthropod taxa: (1 beetles (Coleoptera, (2 spiders (Araneae, (3 grasshoppers and crickets (Orthoptera, and (4 millipedes and centipedes (Myriapoda were assessed together and separately to determine if there are similar patterns across taxonomic groups. We collected 335 species of GDA: 192/3793 (species/specimens Coleoptera, 102/1329 Araneae, 25/523 Orthoptera, and 16/697 Myriapoda. GDA assemblages differed among all biomes and between seasons. Fifty-three percent (178 species and 76% (254 species of all GDA species were found in only one biome and during only one season, respectively. While composition of arthropod assemblages is tied to biome and season, individual groups do not show fully concordant patterns. Seventeen percent of the GDA species occurred only in the two highest-elevation biomes (Pine and Mixed Conifer Forests. Because these high elevation biomes are most threatened by climate change and they harbor a large percentage of unique arthropod species (11-25% depending on taxon, significant loss in arthropod diversity is likely in the Santa Catalina Mountains and other isolated

  17. Ground-Dwelling Arthropod Communities of a Sky Island Mountain Range in Southeastern Arizona, USA: Obtaining a Baseline for Assessing the Effects of Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Wallace M; Eble, Jeffrey A; Franklin, Kimberly; McManus, Reilly B; Brantley, Sandra L; Henkel, Jeff; Marek, Paul E; Hall, W Eugene; Olson, Carl A; McInroy, Ryan; Bernal Loaiza, Emmanuel M; Brusca, Richard C; Moore, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    The few studies that have addressed past effects of climate change on species distributions have mostly focused on plants due to the rarity of historical faunal baselines. However, hyperdiverse groups like Arthropoda are vital to monitor in order to understand climate change impacts on biodiversity. This is the first investigation of ground-dwelling arthropod (GDA) assemblages along the full elevation gradient of a mountain range in the Madrean Sky Island Region, establishing a baseline for monitoring future changes in GDA biodiversity. To determine how GDA assemblages relate to elevation, season, abiotic variables, and corresponding biomes, GDA were collected for two weeks in both spring (May) and summer (September) 2011 in the Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona, using pitfall traps at 66 sites in six distinct upland (non-riparian/non-wet canyon) biomes. Four arthropod taxa: (1) beetles (Coleoptera), (2) spiders (Araneae), (3) grasshoppers and crickets (Orthoptera), and (4) millipedes and centipedes (Myriapoda) were assessed together and separately to determine if there are similar patterns across taxonomic groups. We collected 335 species of GDA: 192/3793 (species/specimens) Coleoptera, 102/1329 Araneae, 25/523 Orthoptera, and 16/697 Myriapoda. GDA assemblages differed among all biomes and between seasons. Fifty-three percent (178 species) and 76% (254 species) of all GDA species were found in only one biome and during only one season, respectively. While composition of arthropod assemblages is tied to biome and season, individual groups do not show fully concordant patterns. Seventeen percent of the GDA species occurred only in the two highest-elevation biomes (Pine and Mixed Conifer Forests). Because these high elevation biomes are most threatened by climate change and they harbor a large percentage of unique arthropod species (11-25% depending on taxon), significant loss in arthropod diversity is likely in the Santa Catalina Mountains and other isolated

  18. Blood parasites, total plasma protein and packed cell volume of small wild mammals trapped in three mountain ranges of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAML. Silva

    Full Text Available A study of blood parasites in small wild non-flying mammals was undertaken in three areas of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil: Serra de Itatiaia, RJ, Serra da Bocaina, SP and Serra da Fartura, SP, from June 1999 to May 2001. A total of 450 animals (15 species were captured in traps and it was observed in 15.5% of the blood smears the presence of Haemobartonella sp. and Babesia sp. in red blood cells. There was no statistically significant difference between parasited and non-parasited specimens regarding total plasma protein, packed cell volume and body weight, which strongly suggests that these specimens might be parasite reservoirs.

  19. Effect of Buffer Bow Structure in Ship-Ship Collision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamada, Yasuhira; Endo, Hisayoshi; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2008-01-01

    tankers, the introduction of buffer bulbous bows has been proposed. Relatively soft buffer bows absorb part of the kinetic energy of the striking ship before penetrating the inner hull of the struck vessel. The purpose of the present paper is to verify the effectiveness of a prototype buffer bulbous bow......) and the forward velocity of the struck ship on the collapse mode of the bow of the striking vessel are investigated. Collapse modes, contact forces and energy absorption capabilities of the buffer bows are compared with those of conventional bows....

  20. Entropy generation across Earth's collisionless bow shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, G K; Lee, E; McCarthy, M; Goldstein, M; Fu, S Y; Cao, J B; Canu, P; Lin, N; Wilber, M; Dandouras, I; Réme, H; Fazakerley, A

    2012-02-10

    Earth's bow shock is a collisionless shock wave but entropy has never been directly measured across it. The plasma experiments on Cluster and Double Star measure 3D plasma distributions upstream and downstream of the bow shock allowing calculation of Boltzmann's entropy function H and his famous H theorem, dH/dt≤0. The collisionless Boltzmann (Vlasov) equation predicts that the total entropy does not change if the distribution function across the shock becomes nonthermal, but it allows changes in the entropy density. Here, we present the first direct measurements of entropy density changes across Earth's bow shock and show that the results generally support the model of the Vlasov analysis. These observations are a starting point for a more sophisticated analysis that includes 3D computer modeling of collisionless shocks with input from observed particles, waves, and turbulences.

  1. Applied Geospatial Education: Acquisition and Processing of High Resolution Airborne LIDAR and Orthoimages for the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, T. R.; Madden, M.; Sharma, J. B.; Panda, S. S.

    2012-07-01

    In an innovative collaboration between government, university and private industry, researchers at the University of Georgia and Gainesville State College are collaborating with Photo Science, Inc. to acquire, process and quality control check lidar and or-thoimages of forest areas in the Southern Appalachian Mountains of the United States. Funded by the U.S. Geological Survey, this project meets the objectives of the ARRA initiative by creating jobs, preserving jobs and training students for high skill positions in geospatial technology. Leaf-off lidar data were acquired at 1-m resolution of the Tennessee portion of the Great Smoky Mountain National Park (GRSM) and adjacent Foothills Parkway. This 1400-sq. km. area is of high priority for national/global interests due to biodiversity, rare and endangered species and protection of some of the last remaining virgin forest in the U.S. High spatial resolution (30 cm) leaf-off 4-band multispectral orthoimages also were acquired for both the Chattahoochee National Forest in north Georgia and the entire GRSM. The data are intended to augment the National Elevation Dataset and orthoimage database of The National Map with information that can be used by many researchers in applications of LiDAR point clouds, high resolution DEMs and or-thoimage mosaics. Graduate and undergraduate students were involved at every stage of the workflow in order to provide then with high level technical educational and professional experience in preparation for entering the geospatial workforce. This paper will present geospatial workflow strategies, multi-team coordination, distance-learning training and industry-academia partnership.

  2. 46 CFR 154.1870 - Bow and stern loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bow and stern loading. 154.1870 Section 154.1870... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1870 Bow and stern loading. (a) When the bow or stern loading piping is not in use, the master shall lock closed the shut-off...

  3. Tracing Sources Of Nitrate And Sulfate In The Bow River, Alberta Canada, Using Isotope Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, J.; Mayer, B.; Ryan, C.

    2009-05-01

    The Bow River in Alberta is a major tributary to the South Saskatchewan River in western Canada. Urban development and agricultural activities including feedlot operations within the Bow River Basin can potentially impact the river water quality by elevating nitrate and sulfate concentrations. In this project, we applied hydrological, chemical and isotopic techniques to identify sources of nitrate and sulfate in the Bow River. The study area stretches approximately 570km along the Bow River from Lake Louise in the Rocky Mountain headwaters to near its confluence with the Oldman River in the prairies. Between June 2007 and July 2008, monthly samples were taken from the Bow River for major ion chemistry and stable isotope ratio measurements of H, O, C, N and S. Flow data from Alberta Environment were used in combination with chemical data to estimate fluxes of nitrate, sulfate and other ionic solutes along the river. Isotope results show that Bow River water near Lake Louise was characterized by δ15N-NO3 values between 0 and +4‰ and δ18O-NO3 values between +7 and +11‰ falling within the range typical for nitrate produced by nitrification in forest ecosystems. Between Canmore and Calgary, δ15N- NO3 increased to values between +3 and +8‰, and δ18O-NO3 ranged between -5 and +5‰. Nitrate discharged from the Bonnybrook wastewater treatment plant in Calgary has elevated δ15N-NO3 values of +8‰ and low δ18O-NO3 values of -10‰. Nitrate flux increased over an order of magnitude in the river as a result of wastewater effluent discharge at Calgary. In the agricultural irrigation districts downstream of Calgary, δ15N-NO3 values varied between +6 and +11‰, whereas δ18O-NO3 values ranged between -11 and +1‰. The elevated δ15N-NO3 and low δ18O-NO3 values indicate that sewage derived nitrate from the wastewater treatment plant is the major cause for increased nitrate fluxes in the Bow River downstream of Calgary. At Lake Louise, δ34S-SO4 values varied

  4. Laramide alteration of proterozoic diabase: A likely contributor of copper to porphyry systems in the dripping spring mountains area, Southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Force, E.R.

    1998-01-01

    Proterozoic diabase of the Dripping Spring range occurs as sills in the Proterozoic Apache Group and the Troy Quartzite and as intrusive sheets in basement rocks. The aggregate thickness of the diabase sills and intrusive sheets averages about 450 m in the part of the range showing little mid-Tertiary extension. Laramide alteration is of two types, dominated by chlorite and actinolite, respectively, and formed mostly from clinopyroxene. Actinolite-dominated assemblages are higher in Na and Ca. Hydrothermal biotite is common in the central areas of both alteration types. Laramide alteration forms two distribution patterns: a subequant pattern centered on Laramide intrusions and small porphyry deposits, characterized by actinolitic alteration, and a more extensive branching linear pattern that follows Laramide structures, centered on the larger Ray porphyry deposit, extending toward other Laramide districts and showing both alteration types. Alteration has apparently mobilized copper and other metals from diabase. The freshest diabase samples average about 120 ppm copper with little variation. In chloritic alteration, about 100 ppm of this copper is expelled in the most completely altered rocks. In actinolitic alteration, diabase may either gain or lose copper during alteration. Chloritic alteration constitutes roughly 70 percent of the diabase alteration in the study area, where alteration averages 41 percent complete. This implies liberation of about 9 ?? 106 tons (t) copper from diabase alteration, significantly less than the 16 ?? 106 t copper in Laramide mineral deposits of the superdistrict (Ray, Superior, Chilito, Christmas). However, diabase alteration may have been a significant component of the supply of copper to the Laramide mineral districts of the area. Synmineral magmatic sources of copper are not documented in this area. The distribution of Proterozoic diabase coincides with the central part of the southeastern Arizona copper province, which may thus

  5. Timber productivity of seven forest ecosystems in southeastern Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willem W.S. van Hees

    1988-01-01

    Observations of growth on Alaska-cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis), mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana), Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis), western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla), and western redcedar (Thuja plicata) on seven forest ecosystems in southeastern Alaska...

  6. Extraction of bowing parameters from violin performance combining motion capture and sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonderwaldt, E; Demoucron, M

    2009-11-01

    A method is described for measurement of a complete set of bowing parameters in violin performance. Optical motion capture was combined with sensors for accurate measurement of the main bowing parameters (bow position, bow velocity, bow acceleration, bow-bridge distance, and bow force) as well as secondary control parameters (skewness, inclination, and tilt of the bow). In addition, other performance features (moments of on/off in bow-string contact, string played, and bowing direction) were extracted. Detailed descriptions of the calculations of the bowing parameters, features, and calibrations are given. The described system is capable of measuring all bowing parameters without disturbing the player, allowing for detailed studies of musically relevant aspects of bow control and coordination of bowing parameters in bowed-string instrument performance.

  7. InSAR Reveals a Potpourri of Deformation Signals in the Yucca Mountain -- Amargosa Valley -- Death Valley Region, Southwestern Nevada/Southeastern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzenstein, K. W.; Bell, J. W.

    2005-12-01

    InSAR studies have revealed a variety of surface deformation signals attributed to several causes in the Yucca Mountain -- Amargosa Valley -- Death Valley region. This study utilizes 26 ERS 1 and 2 scenes to produce 34 interferometric pairs that cover the period of 1992 - 2000. Prominent signals that have been previously studied include the 1992 Little Skull Mountain Earthquake and groundwater subsidence in the Pahrump Valley (Lohman et al., 2002, and Utley, 2005). Several subsidence signals (2.5 -- 3.5 cm) present within Amargosa Valley represent aquifer response in close proximity to local groundwater withdrawal. Observed groundwater level declines in the vicinity of the subsidence bowls are also present. However, signals near Amargosa Flat and Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge appear to be a more complex regional aquifer response related either to distant groundwater use or other hydrologic processes related to the abundant spring activity in the area as groundwater levels have remained fairly steady in these regions. A subsidence signal at Frenchman Flat, within the Nevada Test Site, shows approximately 2 cm of subsidence with the majority occurring between 1998 and 2000. Groundwater use in this area was actually lower during this time period than during the previous six years covered by this study, and monitoring wells suggest a relatively constant depth to groundwater with no notable trend up or down. This suggests another mechanism behind the subsidence, including the possibility that three nuclear blast centers located within the subsidence bowl have altered groundwater recharge conditions in the area. The signal with the largest magnitude is related to mining activity at the Bullfrog Mine located west of Beatty, NV. At this location, as much as 8 cm of subsidence, occurring between 1995 and 2000, is centered on the eastern edge of the mine site and extends into the bedrock to the northeast. GPS data (Bennett et al, 2003 and Wernicke et al, 2004) suggest

  8. Experiences with semi-distributed hydrological modelling in a small Mediterranean mountain research basin: TOPMODEL at Vallcebre (South-Eastern Pyrenees).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallart, F.; Latron, J.; Llorens, P.; Beven, K. J.

    2009-04-01

    Research in the Vallcebre basins (0.15-4.17 km2) started 20 years ago with the objective of better understanding the hydrological functioning of Mediterranean mountains that were used for agriculture and extensive grazing in the past and are subject to land abandonment in the last decades. Two of the sub basins (Cal Parisa and Can Vila) show characteristics adequate for the application of TOPMODEL: topography is sloping, bedrock is water tight, saturated areas appear and are dynamic during wet periods, and the extent of impervious areas prone to Hortonian overland flow is limited. Two major exercises were conducted in these sub basins with TOPMODEL. In a first application, the spatial pattern of Molinia coerulea patches, a hydrophytic grass which grows in frequently water-logged soils, was compared with the TOPMODEL topographic index map in the Cal Parisa sub basin. Furthermore, a tentative parameterisation of TOPMODEL using flow recession and soil moisture data was performed and observed and predicted basin responses were compared. The results showed that the frequently saturated areas had a bi-modal distribution of topographic index values, one mode attributed to the general topography of the basin and the other (with lower values) to the role of old agricultural terraces. The terraces generate saturated areas in drier situations than those expected by the main topography, causing an increase of saturated overland flow and a decrease of baseflow, in comparison with a non-terraced basin. These results were not validated nor refuted afterwards, although the analysis of the response time of this basin demonstrated a delay of flows when compared with the response times expectable for saturated overland flow in basins of similar size. The second experience, carried out in the Can Vila basin, consisted of the use of internal basin information (depth to the water table and extent of saturated areas) to gather information on TOPMODEL parameters using the GLUE approach

  9. Plastic bowing of the ribs in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caro, P.A.; Borden, S. IV

    1988-06-01

    Four cases of plastic bowing of the ribs are presented. In three patients with Werdnig-Hoffman disease, plastic curvatures were associated with chronic pneumonia and atelectasis. We postulate that intrapulmonary retractive forces can deform ribs thinned by muscular atrophy. In turn, thoracic collapse can perpetuate lobar and segmental atelectasis. In one case of osteogenesis imperfecta without pneumonia, we believe normal muscle forces bent ribs weakened by deficiency of normal cortical architecture.

  10. Coordination in fast repetitive violin-bowing patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Schoonderwaldt

    Full Text Available We present a study of coordination behavior in complex violin-bowing patterns involving simultaneous bow changes (reversal of bowing direction and string crossings (changing from one string to another. Twenty-two violinists (8 advanced amateurs, 8 students with violin as major subject, and 6 elite professionals participated in the experiment. We investigated the influence of a variety of performance conditions (specific bowing patterns, dynamic level, tempo, and transposition and level of expertise on coordination behavior (a.o., relative phase and amplitude and stability. It was found that the general coordination behavior was highly consistent, characterized by a systematic phase lead of bow inclination over bow velocity of about 15° (i.e., string crossings were consistently timed earlier than bow changes. Within similar conditions, a high individual consistency was found, whereas the inter-individual agreement was considerably less. Furthermore, systematic influences of performance conditions on coordination behavior and stability were found, which could be partly explained in terms of particular performance constraints. Concerning level of expertise, only subtle differences were found, the student and professional groups (higher level of expertise showing a slightly higher stability than the amateur group (lower level of expertise. The general coordination behavior as observed in the current study showed a high agreement with perceptual preferences reported in an earlier study to similar bowing patterns, implying that complex bowing trajectories for an important part emerge from auditory-motor interaction.

  11. Coordination in fast repetitive violin-bowing patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonderwaldt, Erwin; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2014-01-01

    We present a study of coordination behavior in complex violin-bowing patterns involving simultaneous bow changes (reversal of bowing direction) and string crossings (changing from one string to another). Twenty-two violinists (8 advanced amateurs, 8 students with violin as major subject, and 6 elite professionals) participated in the experiment. We investigated the influence of a variety of performance conditions (specific bowing patterns, dynamic level, tempo, and transposition) and level of expertise on coordination behavior (a.o., relative phase and amplitude) and stability. It was found that the general coordination behavior was highly consistent, characterized by a systematic phase lead of bow inclination over bow velocity of about 15° (i.e., string crossings were consistently timed earlier than bow changes). Within similar conditions, a high individual consistency was found, whereas the inter-individual agreement was considerably less. Furthermore, systematic influences of performance conditions on coordination behavior and stability were found, which could be partly explained in terms of particular performance constraints. Concerning level of expertise, only subtle differences were found, the student and professional groups (higher level of expertise) showing a slightly higher stability than the amateur group (lower level of expertise). The general coordination behavior as observed in the current study showed a high agreement with perceptual preferences reported in an earlier study to similar bowing patterns, implying that complex bowing trajectories for an important part emerge from auditory-motor interaction.

  12. The heliosphere's interstellar interaction: no bow shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, D J; Alexashov, D; Bzowski, M; Fahr, H; Heerikhuisen, J; Izmodenov, V; Lee, M A; Möbius, E; Pogorelov, N; Schwadron, N A; Zank, G P

    2012-06-08

    As the Sun moves through the local interstellar medium, its supersonic, ionized solar wind carves out a cavity called the heliosphere. Recent observations from the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) spacecraft show that the relative motion of the Sun with respect to the interstellar medium is slower and in a somewhat different direction than previously thought. Here, we provide combined consensus values for this velocity vector and show that they have important implications for the global interstellar interaction. In particular, the velocity is almost certainly slower than the fast magnetosonic speed, with no bow shock forming ahead of the heliosphere, as was widely expected in the past.

  13. Bow wave and spray dynamics by a wedge

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhaoyuan; Yang, Jianming; Stern, Frederick

    2010-01-01

    Flows around a wedge-shaped bow are simulated with the aim of investigating the wave breaking mechanism and small scale features of ship bow waves. This fluid dynamics video shows the plunging wave breaking process around the wedge including the thin water sheet formation, overturning sheet with surface disturbance, fingering and breaking up into spray, plunging and splashing, and air entrainment.

  14. Marble bowing: comparative studies of three different public building facades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegesmund, S.; Ruedrich, J.; Koch, A.

    2008-12-01

    The veneer cladding of the Oeconomicum (OEC, Göttingen), the State Theatre of Darmstadt (STD, Darmstadt) and of the State and University Library (SUB, Göttingen) is characterised by pronounced bowing after a short time of exposure. Direct comparison of bowing data related to measurements from 2000 to 2003 at the SUB clearly show that the amplitude in bowing had significantly increased. The bowing is different in intensity and orientation (concave, convex). The cladding material (Peccia marble, Rosa Estremoz marble and Carrara marble) are different in lattice preferred orientation, grain size distribution and grain interlocking. Depending on the bowing, panels may show cracks mostly initiated at the dowels. The percentage of visible cracks and breakouts increases with the amplitude of bowing except for the STD. Repetitive heating-cooling under dry conditions leads to considerable inelastic residual strain only after the first or second thermal cycle. The residual strain continuously increases again if water is present, whereby the moisture content after a thermal cycle has a certain impact on the decay rate. The water-enhanced thermal dilatation strongly correlates with the deterioration rate obtained from the laboratory bow test. Detailed petrophysical investigations provide evidence that with increasing bowing a decrease of mechanical properties (flexural strength or breaking load at dowel hole) occur. Marble degradation is also connected with the increase in porosity and a general shift of the maximum pore radii to larger pore sizes. On-site damage analyses were combined with laboratory tests of the bowing potential to constrain factors that may influence the risk failure. The experimental bowing data clearly demonstrate that after 40 heating cycles combined with the effect of moisture a certain impact on the decay rate is observed. In the case of demounted panels the bowing tests show that already strongly deformed panels from the building exhibit a lower

  15. Ozone and modeled stomatal conductance at a high elevation subalpine site in southeastern Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert C. Musselman; Karl F. Zeller; Nedialko T. Nikolov

    1998-01-01

    Ozone concentrations have been monitored at the Glacier Lakes Ecosystem Experiment Site (GLEES) in the Snowy Range of the Medicine Bow Mountains 55 km west of Laramie, Wyoming, USA. The site is located at 3,186 m elevation in a large subalpine meadow of a mature subalpine forest near timberline. Continuous ozone and meteorological monitoring are a part of the GLEES...

  16. Radiographic characteristics of lower-extremity bowing in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheema, Jugesh I; Grissom, Leslie E; Harcke, H Theodore

    2003-01-01

    Lower-extremity bowing is common in infants and children and can result from a variety of conditions. At radiography, developmental bowing shows varus angulation centered at the knee, "metaphyseal beaking," thickening of the medial tibial cortices, and tilted ankle joints. Tibia vara (Blount disease) demonstrates genu varum and depression of the proximal tibia medially. Congenital bowing manifests as posteromedial bowing with cortical thickening along the concavity of the curvature and, in some cases, diaphyseal broadening. In rickets, radiographic changes occur primarily at sites of rapid growth and are predominantly metaphyseal, with widening of the zone of provisional calcification. Achondroplasia is characterized by shortening and thickening of the long bones with metaphyseal flaring and cupping. In neurofibromatosis, there may be anterolateral bowing of the tibia, and there is often focal narrowing and intramedullary sclerosis or cystic change at the apex of the angulation. The tibia is typically involved at the junction of the middle and distal thirds. Osteogenesis imperfecta demonstrates bowing from softening due to osteoporosis and multiple fractures and typically involves the entire skeleton. In camptomelic dysplasia, lower-extremity bowing is associated with a short trunk, short limbs, and deficiencies in pelvic bone development. Recognition of these pathologic conditions is important for differentiating those that will resolve spontaneously from those that require surgery or other treatment. Copyright RSNA, 2003

  17. H2 emission from non-stationary magnetized bow shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tram, L. N.; Lesaffre, P.; Cabrit, S.; Gusdorf, A.; Nhung, P. T.

    2018-01-01

    When a fast moving star or a protostellar jet hits an interstellar cloud, the surrounding gas gets heated and illuminated: a bow shock is born that delineates the wake of the impact. In such a process, the new molecules that are formed and excited in the gas phase become accessible to observations. In this paper, we revisit models of H2 emission in these bow shocks. We approximate the bow shock by a statistical distribution of planar shocks computed with a magnetized shock model. We improve on previous works by considering arbitrary bow shapes, a finite irradiation field and by including the age effect of non-stationary C-type shocks on the excitation diagram and line profiles of H2. We also examine the dependence of the line profiles on the shock velocity and on the viewing angle: we suggest that spectrally resolved observations may greatly help to probe the dynamics inside the bow shock. For reasonable bow shapes, our analysis shows that low-velocity shocks largely contribute to H2 excitation diagram. This can result in an observational bias towards low velocities when planar shocks are used to interpret H2 emission from an unresolved bow. We also report a large magnetization bias when the velocity of the planar model is set independently. Our 3D models reproduce excitation diagrams in BHR 71 and Orion bow shocks better than previous 1D models. Our 3D model is also able to reproduce the shape and width of the broad H2 1-0S(1) line profile in an Orion bow shock (Brand et al. 1989).

  18. Structural changes in cuticles on violin bow hair caused by wear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tomoko; Sugiyama, Shigeru

    2010-01-01

    A bow with horse tail hair is used to play the violin. New and worn-out bow hairs were observed by atomic force microscopy. The cuticles of the new bow hair were already damaged by bleach and delipidation, however the worn-out bow hairs were much more damaged and broken off by force, which relates to wearing out.

  19. Downsized Bow-Tie Antenna with Folded Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatoshi, Mio; Tanaka, Shingo; Horiuchi, Satoru; Morishita, Hisashi

    It has been reported that by adding two folded elements, bow-tie antenna can be miniaturized, but the antenna has VSWR degradation problem. In this paper, the details of the VSWR degradation are investigated and the physical mechanism of the degradation is clarified. The best position for folded element is also shown. Moreover, the bow-tie antenna is bent in half in order to realize more size reduction. When the two folded elements are added to the half bent bow-tie antenna, the lowest operation frequency goes down and the proposed antenna can be more downsized than the previous proposed antenna. The gain is slightly lower than that of the previous model, however, the antenna area is reduced from 31%, which is the antenna area ratio of privious proposed antenna and conventional bow-tie antenna, to 19%. The bandwidth of 92% is obtained for VSWR≤2.

  20. Femoral bowing plane adaptation to femoral anteversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alp Akman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Femoral bowing plane (FBP is the unattended subject in the literature. More over the femoral shaft with its bowing is neglected in established anteversion determination methods. There is limited information about the relationship between FBP and anteversion. Thus we focused on this subject and hypothesized that there could be an adaptation of FBP to anteversion. Materials and Methods: FBP is determined on three-dimensional solid models derived from the left femoral computerized tomography data of 47 patients which were taken before for another reason and comparatively evaluated with anteversion. There were 20 women and 27 men. The mean age of patients was 56 years (range 21-84 years. Results: The anteversion values were found as the angle between a distal condylar axis (DCA and femoral neck anteversion axis (FNAA along an imaginary longitudinal femoral axis (LFA in the true cranio-caudal view. The FBP was determined as a plane that passes through the centre-points of three pre-determinated sections on the femoral shaft. The angles between DCA, FNAA and FBP were comparatively evaluated. The independent samples t-test was used for statistical analysis. At the end, it was found that FBP lies nearly perpendicular to the anteversion axis for the mean of our sample which is around 89° in females and 93° in males (range 78-102°. On the other hand, FBP does not lie close to the sagittal femoral plane (SFP; instead, there is an average 12.5° external rotation relative to the SFP. FBP is correlated well with anteversion in terms of FBP inclination from SFP and femoral torsion (i.e., angle between FBP and femoral neck anteversion axis (P0 < 0.001; r = 0.680 and r = −0.682, respectively. Combined correlation is perfect (R[2] = 1 as the FBP, SFP, and posterior femoral plane forms a triangle in the cranio-caudal view. Conclusions: We found that FBP adapts to anteversion. As FBP lies close to perpendicularity for the mean, femoral component

  1. Mesoscale Surface Pressure and Temperature Features Associated with Bow Echoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    contain several bowing segments. These multiple segments could occur at the same time and be located within the same bow, such as the serial derecho ...Examination of derecho environments using proximity soundings. Wea. Forecasting, 16, 329–342. Fovell, R. G., 2002: Upstream influence of numerically...Se- vere Local Storms, Hyannis, MA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 4.6. Johns, R. H., and W. D. Hirt, 1987: Derechos : Widespread con- vectively induced

  2. Congenital anterolateral tibial bowing and polydactyly: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemire Edmond G

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Congenital anterolateral bowing of the tibia is a rare deformity that may lead to pseudarthrosis and risk of fracture. This is commonly associated with neurofibromatosis type 1. In this report, we describe a 15-month old male with congenital anterolateral bowing of the right tibia and associated hallux duplication. This is a distinct entity with a generally favourable prognosis that should not be confused with other conditions such as neurofibromatosis type 1. Previously published cases are reviewed.

  3. Whistler waves at the Earth bow shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hanying; Russell, Christopher T.; Strangeway, Rorbert J.; Schwartz, Steve J.; An, Xin; Fischer, David; Le Contel, Olivier; Argall, Matthew; Paterson, William R.; Torbert, Roy B.

    2017-04-01

    The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft, with their state-of-the-art plasma and field instruments onboard, allow us to investigate electromagnetic waves at the bow shock and their association with small-scale disturbances in the shocked plasmas. Understanding these waves could improve our knowledge on the heating of electrons and ions across the shock ramp and the energy dissipation of supercritical shocks. We have found broad-band and narrow band waves across the shock ramp and slightly downstream. The broad-band waves propagate obliquely to the magnetic field direction and have frequencies up to the electron cyclotron frequency. Simultaneously, the electrons have quite disturbed velocities and are anisotropic in velocity space, leading to multiple possible instabilities, such as kinetic cross-field streaming instability, low-hybrid drift instability, etc. In the same region with the broad-band wave, there are narrow-band waves at a few hundred Hertz with durations under a second. These waves are right-handed circularly polarized and propagate along the magnetic field lines. The broad-band waves are only observed at the shock ramp, but the narrow-band waves are observed more frequently further downstream in the magnetosheath. Both wave types are likely to be whistler mode with different generation mechanisms. In this paper, we examine the electric and magnetic fields of these waves, as well as the plasma observations to understand the wave generation and their effects on the shock and magnetosheath plasmas.

  4. X-ray study of bow shocks in runaway stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Becker, M.; del Valle, M. V.; Romero, G. E.; Peri, C. S.; Benaglia, P.

    2017-11-01

    Massive runaway stars produce bow shocks through the interaction of their winds with the interstellar medium, with the prospect for particle acceleration by the shocks. These objects are consequently candidates for non-thermal emission. Our aim is to investigate the X-ray emission from these sources. We observed with XMM-Newton a sample of five bow shock runaways, which constitutes a significant improvement of the sample of bow shock runaways studied in X-rays so far. A careful analysis of the data did not reveal any X-ray emission related to the bow shocks. However, X-ray emission from the stars is detected, in agreement with the expected thermal emission from stellar winds. On the basis of background measurements we derive conservative upper limits between 0.3 and 10 keV on the bow shocks emission. Using a simple radiation model, these limits together with radio upper limits allow us to constrain some of the main physical quantities involved in the non-thermal emission processes, such as the magnetic field strength and the amount of incident infrared photons. The reasons likely responsible for the non-detection of non-thermal radiation are discussed. Finally, using energy budget arguments, we investigate the detectability of inverse Compton X-rays in a more extended sample of catalogued runaway star bow shocks. From our analysis we conclude that a clear identification of non-thermal X-rays from massive runaway bow shocks requires one order of magnitude (or higher) sensitivity improvement with respect to present observatories.

  5. Parmotrema hydrium, a new species of Parmeliaceae in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Navarro Benatti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Parmotrema hydrium is a new lichen species discovered during a survey of Parmeliaceae in the Cantareira mountain range of southeastern Brazil. In its medullary chemistry, the species contains several fatty acids and other substances, including small amounts of atranorin, typically restricted to the soralia and young lobes.

  6. Habitat associations of birds and herpetofauna in southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    William M. Block; Kieth E. Severson

    1992-01-01

    The mountains of southeastern Arizona support a large diversity of vegetative plant communities ranging from grassland and desert scrub to spruce-fir forests. These vegetation types provide appropriate conditions for a number of species of vertebrates. Although vertebrates have been the subject of numerous studies in this region, most studies were restricted to one...

  7. Venus bow shocks at unusually large distances from the planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinolfson, R. S.; Cable, S.

    1993-01-01

    Recent analysis of data from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) has shown that the bow shock often travels to unusually large distances from the planet when the solar wind magnetosonic Mach number is near unity. We suggest that distant bow shocks can be explained as an integral part of the response of the global solar wind/Venus interaction to the anomalous local solar wind conditions that existed during the time of these observations. The lower-than-normal plasma beta and magnetosonic Mach number are in a parameter regime for which the usual fast-mode bow shock close to the planet may not provide the necessary compression and deflection of the solar wind. Using MHD simulations we show that, for these conditions, the usual fast shock is replaced by a bow shock consisting of an intermediate shock near the Sun-Venus line and a fast shock at large distances from the Sun-Venus line. This composite bow shock propagates upstream away from the planet at a low speed and appears to be approaching a new equilibrium stand-off location at a large distance from the planet.

  8. Geologic, geomorphic, and meteorological aspects of debris flows triggered by Hurricanes Frances and Ivan during September 2004 in the Southern Appalachian Mountains of Macon County, North Carolina (southeastern USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. M. Wooten; K. A. Gillon; A. C. Witt; R. S. Latham; T. J. Douglas; J. B. Bauer; S. J. Fuemmeler; L. G. Lee

    2008-01-01

    In September 2004, rain from the remnants of Hurricanes Frances and Ivan triggered at least 155 landslides in the Blue Ridge Mountains of North Carolina. At least 33 debris flows occurred in Macon County, causing 5 deaths, destroying 16 homes, and damaging infrastructure. We mapped debris flows and debris deposits using a light-detecting and ranging digital elevation...

  9. Mammals of the Kammanassie Mountains, southern Cape Province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mammal fauna of the Kammanassie Mountain State Forest Reserve and Mountain Catchment Area was censused in the high-rainfall southeastern sector and low-rainfall northwestern sector from 2 -12 February, 1979. Collecting yielded 287 specimens of 17 species of small mammals, while the presence of a further 16 ...

  10. Bow and Oblique Shock Formation in Soap Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ildoo; Mandre, Shreyas; Sane, Aakash

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, soap films have been exploited primarily to approximate two-dimensional flows while their three-dimensional character is relatively unattended. An example of the three-dimensional character of the flow in a soap film is the observed Marangoni shock wave when the flow speed exceeds the wave speed. In this study, we investigated the formation of bow and oblique shocks in soap films generated by wedges with different deflection angles. When the wedge deflection angle is small and the film flows fast, oblique shocks are observed. When the oblique shock cannot exists, bow shock is formed upstream the wedge. We characterized the oblique shock angle as a function of the wedge deflection angle and the flow speed, and we also present the criteria for transition between bow and oblique Marangoni shocks in soap films.

  11. CONGENITAL POSTEROMEDIAL BOWING OF THE TIBIA: REPORT OF 2 CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Isabel Miguel Dias

    2017-01-01

    Comments: Posteromedial bowing of the tibia is a rare entity, with few cases reported in literature. Its true incidence remains unknown. It implies differential diagnosis with the tibial congenital pseudarthrosis, usually related to neurofibromatosis. Most often its treatment is conservative, because it tends to resolve spontaneously (mostly under 8 years without any clinical consequences. Our aim is to alert pediatricians to establish the possibility of this clinical entity when dealing with tibial bowing, minimizing parental anxiety resulting from it. Nevertheless we emphasize the importance of evaluation by an orthopedist as there are clinical situations in which diagnosis may not be as evident.

  12. 76 FR 13666 - Pitney Bowes, Inc., Mailing Solutions Management, Global Engineering Group, Including On-Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... Employment and Training Administration Pitney Bowes, Inc., Mailing Solutions Management, Global Engineering... Solutions Management Division, Engineering Quality Assurance, Shelton, Connecticut. The Department's Notice... firm worker group should read: Pitney Bowes, Inc., Mailing Solutions Management, Global Engineering...

  13. Analysis of the Giacobini-Zinner bow wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, E.J.; Slavin, J.A.; Bame, S.J.; Thomsen, M.F.; Cowley, S.W.H.; Richardson, I.G.; Hovestadt, D.; Ipavich, F.M.; Ogilvie, K.W.; Coplan, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    The cometary bow wave of P/Giacobini-Zinner has been analyzed using the complete set of ICE field and particle observations to determine if it is a shock. Changes in the magnetic field and plasma flow velocities from upstream to downstream have been analyzed to determine the direction of the normal and the propagation velocity of the bow wave. The velocity has then been compared with the fast magnetosonic wave speed upstream to derive the Mach number and establish whether it is ''supersonic'', i.e., a shock, or ''subsonic,'' i.e., a large amplitude wave. The various measurements have also been compared with values derived from a Rankine-Hugoniot analysis. The results indicate that, inbound, the bow wave is a shock with M = 1.5. Outbound, a subsonic mach number is obtained, however, arguments are presented that the bow wave is also likely to be a shock at this location. 11 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Hierarchical modularity of nested bow-ties in metabolic networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Jian-Hua

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The exploration of the structural topology and the organizing principles of genome-based large-scale metabolic networks is essential for studying possible relations between structure and functionality of metabolic networks. Topological analysis of graph models has often been applied to study the structural characteristics of complex metabolic networks. Results In this work, metabolic networks of 75 organisms were investigated from a topological point of view. Network decomposition of three microbes (Escherichia coli, Aeropyrum pernix and Saccharomyces cerevisiae shows that almost all of the sub-networks exhibit a highly modularized bow-tie topological pattern similar to that of the global metabolic networks. Moreover, these small bow-ties are hierarchically nested into larger ones and collectively integrated into a large metabolic network, and important features of this modularity are not observed in the random shuffled network. In addition, such a bow-tie pattern appears to be present in certain chemically isolated functional modules and spatially separated modules including carbohydrate metabolism, cytosol and mitochondrion respectively. Conclusion The highly modularized bow-tie pattern is present at different levels and scales, and in different chemical and spatial modules of metabolic networks, which is likely the result of the evolutionary process rather than a random accident. Identification and analysis of such a pattern is helpful for understanding the design principles and facilitate the modelling of metabolic networks.

  15. Small Arms of the Scythians. On the Time of Sigmoid Bow Appearance in Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukyashko Sergey Ivanovich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Horse archers well-known in the ancient world used composite sigmoid bows for shooting (archery, the specific constructive features of which have been studied by the researchers. This type of a bow was convergently formed in Eastern China in the middle of the 2nd millennium B.C. and in the North Caucasus in the middle of the 4th millennium B.C. It gets transferred to the Northern Black Sea Region by the Scythians in the late 7th - early 6th centuries B.C. that resulted in the dramatic transformation of arrowheads’ types. The Greeks became aware of this weapon in the last third of the 6th century B.C. Bows can be divided into simple and complex ones. The simple bows are made from one solid bar, while the complex bows are made of several layers of different wood species. Composite bows are constructed from a few consequently connected bars. These types also include a reinforced bow – the bow springing qualities of which are reinforced by bone or tendon plates. Since the ancient masters combined different production methods, the definition of a composite reinforced bow can be found in the literature. European small arms development was focused on improving a simple bow. The strength of such bow was achieved by its size. However, massive bows are unsuitable for firing from a horse. Therefore, in cultures associated with the development of riding the search of methods of bow strength increase at the condition of reducing its size, was going on. In Asia, the focus was made on the material rather than shoulders design. As a result, complex composite bows appear in the East, which were made from several pieces of wood, connected with the central part of the handle at an angle. After the appearance of the Scythians in the middle East the angular design of bows was replaced by a sigmoid shape (scythicus acrus.

  16. Magnetic field fluctuations across the Earth’s bow shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Czaykowska

    Full Text Available We present a statistical analysis of 132 dayside (LT 0700-1700 bow shock crossings of the AMPTE/IRM spacecraft. We perform a superposed epoch analysis of low frequency, magnetic power spectra some minutes up-stream and downstream of the bow shock. The events are devided into categories depending on the angle θBn between bow shock normal and interplanetary magnetic field, and on plasma-β. In the foreshock upstream of the quasi-parallel bow shock, the power of the magnetic fluctuations is roughly 1 order of magnitude larger (δB ~ 4 nT for frequencies 0.01–0.04 Hz than upstream of the quasi-perpendicular shock. There is no significant difference in the magnetic power spectra upstream and downstream of the quasi-parallel bow shock; only at the shock itself, is the magnetic power enhanced by a factor of 4. This enhancement may be due to either an amplification of convecting upstream waves or to wave generation at the shock interface. On the contrary, downstream of the quasi-perpendicular shock, the magnetic wave activity is considerably higher than upstream. Down-stream of the quasi-perpendicular low-β bow shock, we find a dominance of the left-hand polarized component at frequencies just below the ion-cyclotron frequency, with amplitudes of about 3 nT. These waves are identified as ion-cyclotron waves, which grow in a low-β regime due to the proton temperature anisotropy. We find a strong correlation of this anisotropy with the intensity of the left-hand polarized component. Downstream of some nearly perpendicular (θBn ≈ 90° high-β crossings, mirror waves are identified. However, there are also cases where the conditions for mirror modes are met downstream of the nearly perpendicular shock, but no mirror waves are observed.

    Key words. Interplanetary physics (plasma waves and turbulence – Magnetospheric physics (magnetosheath; plasma waves and

  17. Magnetic field fluctuations across the Earth’s bow shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Czaykowska

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a statistical analysis of 132 dayside (LT 0700-1700 bow shock crossings of the AMPTE/IRM spacecraft. We perform a superposed epoch analysis of low frequency, magnetic power spectra some minutes up-stream and downstream of the bow shock. The events are devided into categories depending on the angle θBn between bow shock normal and interplanetary magnetic field, and on plasma-β. In the foreshock upstream of the quasi-parallel bow shock, the power of the magnetic fluctuations is roughly 1 order of magnitude larger (δB ~ 4 nT for frequencies 0.01–0.04 Hz than upstream of the quasi-perpendicular shock. There is no significant difference in the magnetic power spectra upstream and downstream of the quasi-parallel bow shock; only at the shock itself, is the magnetic power enhanced by a factor of 4. This enhancement may be due to either an amplification of convecting upstream waves or to wave generation at the shock interface. On the contrary, downstream of the quasi-perpendicular shock, the magnetic wave activity is considerably higher than upstream. Down-stream of the quasi-perpendicular low-β bow shock, we find a dominance of the left-hand polarized component at frequencies just below the ion-cyclotron frequency, with amplitudes of about 3 nT. These waves are identified as ion-cyclotron waves, which grow in a low-β regime due to the proton temperature anisotropy. We find a strong correlation of this anisotropy with the intensity of the left-hand polarized component. Downstream of some nearly perpendicular (θBn ≈ 90° high-β crossings, mirror waves are identified. However, there are also cases where the conditions for mirror modes are met downstream of the nearly perpendicular shock, but no mirror waves are observed.Key words. Interplanetary physics (plasma waves and turbulence – Magnetospheric physics (magnetosheath; plasma waves and instabilities

  18. Hot flow anomaly observed at Jupiter's bow shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valek, P. W.; Thomsen, M. F.; Allegrini, F.; Bagenal, F.; Bolton, S.; Connerney, J.; Ebert, R. W.; Gladstone, R.; Kurth, W. S.; Levin, S.; Louarn, P.; Mauk, B.; McComas, D. J.; Pollock, C.; Reno, M.; Szalay, J. R.; Weidner, S.; Wilson, R. J.

    2017-08-01

    A Hot Flow Anomaly (HFA) is created when an interplanetary current sheet interacts with a planetary bow shock. Previous studies have reported observing HFAs at Earth, Mercury, Venus, Mars, and Saturn. During Juno's approach to Jupiter, a number of its instruments operated in the solar wind. Prior to crossing into Jupiter's magnetosphere, Juno observed an HFA at Jupiter for the first time. This Jovian HFA shares most of the characteristics of HFAs seen at other planets. The notable exception is that the Jovian HFA is significantly larger than any HFA seen before. With an apparent size greater than 2 × 106 km the Jovian HFA is orders of magnitude larger than those seen at the other planets. By comparing the size of the HFAs at the other planets with the Jovian HFA, we conclude that HFAs size scales with the size of planetary bow shocks that the interplanetary current sheet interacts with.

  19. Bowing to the Dharma: Japanese Buddhist Women Leaders & Healers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Arai

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The prodigious stream of Japanese Buddhist women in roles of leadership and healing extends the length of Japanese Buddhist history. This article will highlight the transformative power of bowing that helped galvanize Sōtō Zen nuns on the eve of the twentieth century and feature twentieth-century leaders who institutionalized their disciplined commitments. It will also offer a window into the creative healing practices that characterizes women’s activity in the home.

  20. Arctic Bowyery – The Use of Compression Wood in Bows in the Subarctic and Arctic Regions of Eurasia and America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Lepola

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a study of the traditional use of a special kind of wood in bow construction in Eurasia and North America. This special kind of wood, called compression wood and coming from coniferous trees, has unique qualities that makes it suitable for bow construction. Bows made using this special wood have been referred to as Finno-Ugric bows, Sámi bows, Two-Wood bows and Eurasia laminated bows. These bows appear to have developed from archaic forms of compression wood self bows that were made from a single piece of wood. Recently features similar to the Eurasian compression wood bows have been discovered in bows originating from Alaska, and the use of compression wood for bow manufacture has been known to some Canadian Inuit groups. This paper addresses the origin and possible diffusion pattern of this innovation in bow technology in Eurasia and suggests a timeframe and a possible source for the transfer of this knowledge to North America. This paper also discusses the role of the Asiatic composite bow in the development of bows in Eurasia.

  1. Arctic Bowyery – the Use of Compression Wood in Bows in the Subarctic and Arctic Regions of Eurasia and America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Lepola

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a study of the traditional use of a special kind of wood in bow construction in Eurasia and North America. This special kind of wood, called compression wood and coming from coniferous trees, has unique qualities that makes it suitable for bow construction. Bows made using this special wood have been referred to as Finno-Ugric bows, Sámi bows, Two-Wood bows and Eurasia laminated bows. These bows appear to have developed from archaic forms of compression wood self bows that were made from a single piece of wood. Recently features similar to the Eurasian compression wood bows have been discovered in bows originating from Alaska, and the use of compression wood for bow manufacture has been known to some Canadian Inuit groups. This paper addresses the origin and possible diffusion pattern of this innovation in bow technology in Eurasia and suggests a timeframe and a possible source for the transfer of this knowledge to North America. This paper also discusses the role of the Asiatic composite bow in the development of bows in Eurasia.

  2. PLANETARY EMBRYO BOW SHOCKS AS A MECHANISM FOR CHONDRULE FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, Christopher R.; Boley, Aaron C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy University of British Columbia Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Morris, Melissa A. [Physics Department State University of New York at Cortland Cortland, NY 13045 (United States)

    2016-02-20

    We use radiation hydrodynamics with direct particle integration to explore the feasibility of chondrule formation in planetary embryo bow shocks. The calculations presented here are used to explore the consequences of a Mars-size planetary embryo traveling on a moderately excited orbit through the dusty, early environment of the solar system. The embryo’s eccentric orbit produces a range of supersonic relative velocities between the embryo and the circularly orbiting gas and dust, prompting the formation of bow shocks. Temporary atmospheres around these embryos, which can be created via volatile outgassing and gas capture from the surrounding nebula, can non-trivially affect thermal profiles of solids entering the shock. We explore the thermal environment of solids that traverse the bow shock at different impact radii, the effects that planetoid atmospheres have on shock morphologies, and the stripping efficiency of planetoidal atmospheres in the presence of high relative winds. Simulations are run using adiabatic and radiative conditions, with multiple treatments for the local opacities. Shock speeds of 5, 6, and 7 km s{sup −1} are explored. We find that a high-mass atmosphere and inefficient radiative conditions can produce peak temperatures and cooling rates that are consistent with the constraints set by chondrule furnace studies. For most conditions, the derived cooling rates are potentially too high to be consistent with chondrule formation.

  3. Dependence of sound characteristics on the bowing position in a violin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, YuJi; Kim, Young H.

    2014-12-01

    A quantitative analysis of violin sounds produced for different bowing positions over the full length of a violin string has been carried out. An automated bowing machine was employed in order to keep the bowing parameters constant. A 3-dimensional profile of the frequency spectrum was introduced in order to characterize the violin's sound. We found that the fundamental frequency did not change for different bowing positions, whereas the frequencies of the higher harmonics were different. Bowing the string at 30 mm from the bridge produced musical sounds. The middle of the string was confirmed to be a dead zone, as reported in previous works. In addition, the quarter position was also found to be a dead zone. Bowing the string 90 mm from the bridge dominantly produces a fundamental frequency of 864 Hz and its harmonics.

  4. Numerical Study on the Effect of Buffer Bow Structure in Ship-to-ship Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamada, Yasuhira; Endo, Hisayoshi; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2005-01-01

    A disastrous oil spill from a struck oil tanker has become one of the major problems in view of conservation of maritime environment. So far double hulls (D/H) have been introduced to reduce the consequences of collision and grounding events In order to further reduce the oil spill from struck oil...... tankers, the introduction of buffer bulbous bows has been proposed. Relatively soft buffer bows absorb part of the kinetic energy of the striking ship before penetrating the inner hull of the struck vessel. The purpose of the present paper is to verify the effectiveness of a prototype buffer bulbous bow......) and the forward velocity of the struck ship on the collapse mode of the bow of the striking vessel are investigated. Collapse modes, contact forces and energy absorption capabilities of the buffer bows are compared with those of conventional bows....

  5. Towards a generalized friction controller: from the bowed string to Unusual Musical Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serafin, Stefania; Young, Diana

    2017-01-01

    We present case studies of unusual instruments that share the same excitation mechanism as that of the bowed string. The musical saw, Tibetan singing bow, glass harmonica, and bowed cymbal all produce sound by rubbing a hard object on the surface of the instrument. For each, we discuss the design...... of its physical model and present a means for expressively controlling it. Finally, we propose a new kind of generalized friction controller to be used in all these examples....

  6. Geology and mineral resources of the Sheldon-Hart Mountain National Wildlife Refuge Complex (Oregon and Nevada), the Southeastern Oregon and North-Central Nevada, and the Southern Idaho and Northern Nevada (and Utah) Sagebrush Focal Areas: Chapter B in Mineral resources of the Sagebrush Focal Areas of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikre, Peter G.; Benson, Mary Ellen; Bleiwas, Donald I.; Colgan, Joseph P.; Cossette, Pamela M.; DeAngelo, Jacob; Dicken, Connie L.; Drake, Ronald M.; du Bray, Edward A.; Fernette, Gregory L.; Glen, Jonathan M.G.; Haacke, Jon E.; Hall, Susan M.; Hofstra, Albert H.; John, David A.; Ludington, Stephen; Mihalasky, Mark J.; Rytuba, James J.; Shaffer, Brian N.; Stillings, Lisa M.; Wallis, John C.; Williams, Colin F.; Yager, Douglas B.; Zürcher, Lukas

    2016-10-04

    SummaryThe U.S. Department of the Interior has proposed to withdraw approximately 10 million acres of Federal lands from mineral entry (subject to valid existing rights) from 12 million acres of lands defined as Sagebrush Focal Areas (SFAs) in Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming (for further discussion on the lands involved see Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5089–A). The purpose of the proposed action is to protect the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and its habitat from potential adverse effects of locatable mineral exploration and mining. The U.S. Geological Survey Sagebrush Mineral-Resource Assessment (SaMiRA) project was initiated in November 2015 and supported by the Bureau of Land Management to (1) assess locatable mineral-resource potential and (2) to describe leasable and salable mineral resources for the seven SFAs and Nevada additions.This chapter summarizes the current status of locatable, leasable, and salable mineral commodities and assesses the potential of selected locatable minerals in lands proposed for withdrawal that span the Nevada, Oregon, Idaho, and Utah borders. In this report, the four study areas evaluated were (1) the Sheldon-Hart Mountain National Wildlife Refuge Complex SFA in Washoe County, Nevada, and Harney and Lake Counties, Oregon; (2) the Southeastern Oregon and North-Central Nevada SFA in Humboldt County, Nevada, and Harney and Malheur Counties, Oregon; (3) the Southern Idaho and Northern Nevada SFA in Cassia, Owyhee, and Twin Falls Counties, Idaho, Elko County, Nevada, and Box Elder County, Utah; and (4) the Nevada additions in Humboldt and Elko Counties, Nevada.

  7. Southeastern Science Policy Colloquium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphries, F.

    1995-06-22

    This conference covers four main topics: (1) Southeastern Labor Market and its Impact on Corporate/Industry Development; (2) New Issues for Science and Technology in the Year 2000 and Beyond; (3) The Role of Academia in Developing the Labor Force of the Southeast; and (4) K-12 Education: Challenges for the 21st Century.

  8. Trends and correlation analysis in diagnosing turbine rotor bow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz GAŁKA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Permanent rotor bow in a steam turbine is a serious failure which usually demands a time-consuming and costly repair. Its vibration-related symptoms are not specific and qualitative diagnosis typically has to employ results obtained during transients.In a 230 MW power steam turbine, gradual dynamic behavior deterioration was observed, immediately after commissioning. Increase of the fundamental component of rear intermediate-pressure turbine bearing vertical vibration was detected, with the time constant of the order of months. Permanent rotor bow, exceeding 200 m, turned out to be the cause. Rotor repair resulted in a dramatic improvement of dynamic behavior, which, however, soon began to deteriorate again. Vibration spectra had been detected in the off-line mode since commissioning, which allowed to determine vibration time histories.Vibration trends analysis does not provide sufficient information to determine root cause, but allows for eliminating a number of possible malfunctions that give similar symptoms. In particular, the possibility of a sudden random-type damage due to human error is eliminated, which in fact is the most common cause of a permanent bow.Analysis of vibration amplitude correlation between vertical and axial directions reveals very strong correlation between fundamental components in the turbine under consideration, as well in the other one, in which similar failure has been observed. Third unit of the same type, apart from qualitatively different vibration trends, is characterized by correlation factors lower by a few times.This particular case is indicative of the importance of evolutionary symptoms (vibration amplitude time dependence and increase rate, as well as correlation factors in qualitative diagnosis. Such symptoms can be very useful in distinguishing between possible failures which result in similar changes of machine vibration behavior.

  9. Modeling of the Archery Bow and Arrow Vibrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Zaniewski

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibration processes in the compound and open kinematical chain with an external link, as a model of an archery bow and arrow system, are evaluated. A mechanical and mathematical model of bend oscillations of the system during accelerate motion of the external link is proposed. Correlation between longitudinal acceleration and natural frequencies is obtained. There are recommendations regarding determination of virtual forms to study arrow vibrations and buckling. The models and methods have been adapted for realization into the engineering method using well-known mathematical software packages.

  10. Effective Maxillary Protraction with Tandem Traction Bow Appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravin Kumar S Marure

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tandem traction bow appliance (TTBA promotes patient compliance, because it is more esthetic and comfortable than extraoral appliances. TTBA should be used only in case where maxillary deficiency and normal mandible is present. Advantages of it includes good oral hygiene, early treatment of any Class III malocclusion, optimal retention, distribution of the forces for protraction to all maxillary teeth, free mandibular movement. It can be used in conjunction with fixed appliances if necessary. This paper includes two case reports. The treatment results in both the cases demonstrated significant skeletal and dental response to TTBA therapy. Skeletal change was primarily a result of anterior movement of the maxilla.

  11. Southeastern Scarp of Olympus Mons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 4 June 2002) The Science The movement pathways of molten rock, or lava, is demonstrated in this image of a portion of Olympus Mons, the largest volcano in our solar system. These now-solid lava flows all show nearly the same orientation, having flowed from northeast to southwest, down the slope of the volcano's southeastern flank. Throughout the image, narrow pairs of lineaments can be observed ? these are called levees, and are essentially channel walls formed by the solidification and buildup of the edges of the lava flows. We can determine that the high-standing mountains must be older than the flows because they blocked their passage, causing the flows to change direction and go around the taller mountains. As in other THEMIS images, the lack of bright-dark contrast in this image indicates that a layer of dust covers these surfaces. The surfaces of the lava flows are virtually uncratered, attesting to the relatively recent formation of the flows, where ?recent? is within the last 500 million years or so. Several meteorites found on Earth appear to have come from volcanic regions on Mars ? their ages are as young as 180 million years, leading many scientists to suggest that volcanoes of the Tharsis region, including Olympus Mons, may be the source regions of these meteorites. A prominent pear-shaped bowl is apparent on a hill in the lower right third of the image ? the collapse and mass movement of material down slope, which also formed a debris pile below and southeast of the bowl, likely formed this feature. The Story Millions and millions of years ago, a huge impact blasted a crater into the surface of Mars, sending particles of the Martian surface scattering into space at great speeds, where they spent millions and millions of years calmly in space before encountering a nearby orbiting planet: our own planet Earth. Hurtling down through Earth's atmosphere, these pieces of Mars landed in various regions of our world and were discovered by modern

  12. Lunar Surface Potential Increases during Terrestrial Bow Shock Traversals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Michael R.; Stubbs, Timothy J.; Hills, H. Kent; Halekas, Jasper; Farrell, William M.; Delory, Greg T.; Espley, Jared; Freeman, John W.; Vondrak, Richard R.; Kasper, Justin

    2009-01-01

    Since the Apollo era the electric potential of the Moon has been a subject of interest and debate. Deployed by three Apollo missions, Apollo 12, Apollo 14 and Apollo 15, the Suprathermal Ion Detector Experiment (SIDE) determined the sunlit lunar surface potential to be about +10 Volts using the energy spectra of lunar ionospheric thermal ions accelerated toward the Moon. We present an analysis of Apollo 14 SIDE "resonance" events that indicate the lunar surface potential increases when the Moon traverses the dawn bow shock. By analyzing Wind spacecraft crossings of the terrestrial bow shock at approximately this location and employing current balancing models of the lunar surface, we suggest causes for the increasing potential. Determining the origin of this phenomenon will improve our ability to predict the lunar surface potential in support of human exploration as well as provide models for the behavior of other airless bodies when they traverse similar features such as interplanetary shocks, both of which are goals of the NASA Lunar Science Institute's Dynamic Response of the Environment At the Moon (DREAM) team.

  13. Bow Shock Leads the Way for a Speeding Hot Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-09-01

    As hot Jupiters whip around their host stars, their speeds can exceed the speed of sound in the surrounding material, theoretically causing a shock to form ahead of them. Now, a study has reported the detection of such a shock ahead of transiting exoplanet HD 189733b, providing a potential indicator of the remarkably strong magnetic field of the planet.Rushing PlanetsDue to their proximity to their hosts, hot Jupiters move very quickly through the stellar wind and corona surrounding the star. When this motion is supersonic, the material ahead of the planet can be compressed by a bow shock and for a transiting hot Jupiter, this shock will cross the face of the host star in advance of the planets transit.In a recent study, a team of researchers by Wilson Cauley of Wesleyan University report evidence of just such a pre-transit. The teams target is exoplanet HD 189733b, one of the closest hot Jupiters to our solar system. When the authors examined high-resolution transmission spectra of this system, they found that prior to the optical transit of the planet, there was a large dip in the transmission of the first three hydrogen Balmer lines. This could well be the absorption of an optically-thick bow shock as it moves past the face of the star.Tremendous MagnetismOperating under this assumption, the authors create a model of the absorption expected from a hot Jupiter transiting with a bow shock ahead of it. Using this model, they show that a shock leading the planet at a distance of 12.75 times the planets radius reproduces the key features of the transmission spectrum.This stand-off distance is surprisingly large. Assuming that the location of the bow shock is set by the point where the planets magnetospheric pressure balances the pressure of the stellar wind or corona that it passes through, the planetary magnetic field would have to be at least 28 Gauss. This is seven times the strength of Jupiters magnetic field!Understanding the magnetic fields of exoplanets is

  14. Effect of Body Structure on Skill Formation in a Force Precision Task Mimicking Cello Bowing Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogihara, Naomichi; Yamazaki, Nobutoshi

    To elucidate the skill formation mechanism in a complex force precision task mimicking cello bowing movements, three-dimensional joint orientations and changes in bowing force are measured for 2 novice and 2 expert subjects. A rigid link model of the human upper limb is constructed in order to calculate changes in joint moment, potential energy and structural inductivity of motion during bowing, and the motions are compared kinetically. Results show that the novices generate low-in-potential energy bowing motion, but not suitable for skillful control of the bow. In contrast, the experts can fulfill a task requirement by skillfully coordinating the musculo-skeletal system, but the motion is not easy as that of the novices. It is suggested that the transition from a novice to an expert may be difficult due to the ease in the initially generated motion, which obstructs the search for the optimal skillful motion.

  15. Unequal outer and inner bow configurations: comparing 2 asymmetric headgear systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosh, Tamar; Portal, Schay; Sarne, Ofer; Vardimon, Alexander D

    2005-07-01

    Asymmetric headgear is used when different molar distalization forces (MDF) are needed on the right and left sides of the jaw to correct a Class II molar relationship. We investigated 2 asymmetric headgear configurations, the outer-bow and the inner-bow, on cervical-pull headgear. In the first configuration, 5 hooks were soldered on 1 side of the outer bow at 10-mm intervals, making this side shorter; in the other, 4 stops (1.5 mm) were added to 1 side of the inner bow, making this side longer. The right and left MDF and the extraoral force (EF) were measured simultaneously with 2 fork transducers and a testing machine, respectively. A 40-mm difference between the long and short outer bows resulted in a 2.17-fold greater MDF on the long-side molar (7:3 ratio). The 3-4 stop configuration provided the optimal inner-bow arrangement, with stop/no-stop MDF ratios of 7:3 and 10:0, respectively, at 10 N EF. At low-to-medium EF levels, a unilateral MDF developed on the stop side with zero MDF on the no-stop side. The sum of the right and left MDF nearly equaled the EF in the outer-bow asymmetry and was 60% in the inner-bow setting; this suggests strong lateral forces in the latter. Clinically, for a bilateral unequal Class II relationship, the system of choice is outer-bow asymmetric headgear. For a unilateral Class II relationship with 1 side in a Class I molar relationship (Class II subdivision), inner-bow asymmetric headgear is recommended.

  16. Wild edible mushrooms in the Blue Mountains: resource and issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catherine G. Parks; Craig L. Schmitt

    1997-01-01

    This paper reviews the wild mushroom resource of the Blue Mountains of northeastern Oregon and southeastern Washington and summarizes issues and concerns for regulation, monitoring, and management. Existing biological information on the major available commercial mushrooms in the area, with emphasis on morels, is presented. Brief descriptions of the most commonly...

  17. A new species of Clepsis Guenee, 1845 (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) from the Sky Islands of southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clepsis sangreyana, new species, is described and illustrated from the “sky islands” (i.e., Chiricahua, Huachuca, and Santa Rita mountains) of southeastern Arizona, U.S.A. Superficially, it is most similar to Argyrotaenia dorsalana (Dyar, 1903), but it is assigned unambiguously to Clepsis Guenée on ...

  18. Curvature and bow of bulk GaN substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foronda, Humberto M.; Young, Erin C.; Robertson, Christian A.; Speck, James S. [Materials Department, UCSB, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Romanov, Alexey E. [Materials Department, UCSB, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute RAS, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); ITMO University, St. Petersburg 197101 (Russian Federation); Beltz, Glenn E. [Mechanical Engineering Department, UCSB, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

    2016-07-21

    We investigate the bow of free standing (0001) oriented hydride vapor phase epitaxy grown GaN substrates and demonstrate that their curvature is consistent with a compressive to tensile stress gradient (bottom to top) present in the substrates. The origin of the stress gradient and the curvature is attributed to the correlated inclination of edge threading dislocation (TD) lines away from the [0001] direction. A model is proposed and a relation is derived for bulk GaN substrate curvature dependence on the inclination angle and the density of TDs. The model is used to analyze the curvature for commercially available GaN substrates as determined by high resolution x-ray diffraction. The results show a close correlation between the experimentally determined parameters and those predicted from theoretical model.

  19. The bowed catheter sign: a risk for pericardial tamponade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Towbin, Richard [Phoenix Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    2008-03-15

    The use of a central venous catheter (CVC) has become commonplace in the care of children with a wide variety of medical and surgical problems. Complications resulting from the insertion of these catheters are well recognized and can be life-threatening. When a temporary CVC or other catheter is inserted into the central venous system it is secured to the skin with a combination of sutures and sterile dressing. This fixes the catheter in place and does not allow it to retract, thereby putting pressure on the right atrial wall via the catheter tip if it is too long. The probability of wall penetration is increased if a catheter or device is tapered at the point of contact. The purpose of this case report is to present the bowed catheter sign and to review the anatomy of the cavotricuspid isthmus, a possible predisposing factor to cardiac perforation and tamponade. (orig.)

  20. On the kinematics and thickness of the terrestrial bow shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruparova, Oksana; Krupar, Vratislav; Santolik, Ondrej; Soucek, Jan; Safrankova, Jana; Nemecek, Zdenek; Nemec, Frantisek; Maksimovic, Milan

    2017-04-01

    The bow shock (BS) is formed due to the continuous interaction between the supersonic solar wind and the Earth's magnetosphere ahead of the magnetopause. Thanks to its proximity, BS is a perfect object to study a wide range of phenomena related to collisionless shocks and wave-particle interactions. We have analyzed more than 500 quasi-perpendicular BS crossings between 2001 and 2015 using data retrieved by the magnetometers aboard the four Cluster spacecraft. Applying a simple timing method to four-point measurement, we estimated the BS normal direction and velocity along this direction case by case. Next, we applied the Butterworth filter to numerical derivations of time-intensity profiles to estimate temporal sizes of BS magnetic ramps, and consequently spatial ones using obtained velocities. We have found that BS ramp scales are statistically around 50 km. We discuss relation between the BS ramp scales and both Alfven and magnetosonic Mach numbers.

  1. Violin Pedagogy and the Physics of the Bowed String

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Alexander Rhodes

    The paper describes the mechanics of violin tone production using non-specialist language, in order to present a scientific understanding of tone production accessible to a broad readership. As well as offering an objective understanding of tone production, this model provides a powerful tool for analyzing the technique of string playing. The interaction between the bow and the string is quite complex. Literature reviewed for this study reveals that scientific investigations have provided important insights into the mechanics of string playing, offering explanations for factors which both contribute to and limit the range of tone colours and dynamics that stringed instruments can produce. Also examined in the literature review are significant works of twentieth century violin pedagogy exploring tone production on the violin, based on the practical experience of generations of teachers and performers. Hermann von Helmholtz described the stick-slip cycle which drives the string in 1863, which replaced earlier ideas about the vibration of violin strings. Later, scientists such as John Schelleng and Lothar Cremer were able to demonstrate how the mechanics of the bow-string interaction can create different tone colours. Recent research by Anders Askenfelt, Knut Guettler, and Erwin Schoonderwaldt have continued to refine earlier research in this area. The writings of Lucien Capet, Leopold Auer, Carl Flesch, Paul Rolland, Kato Havas, Ivan Galamian, and Simon Fischer are examined and analyzed. Each author describes a different approach to tone production on the violin, representing a different understanding of the underlying mechanism. Analyzing these writings within the context of a scientific understanding of tone production makes it possible to compare these approaches more consistently, and to synthesize different concepts drawn from the diverse sources evaluated.

  2. A comparison of 3 methods of face-bow transfer recording: implications for orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gateno, J; Forrest, K K; Camp, B

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the occlusal plane inclination of models mounted using 3 different systems for face-bow transfer with the actual occlusal plane inclination as measured on a cephalometric radiograph. Twenty-two subjects were enrolled in this study. Three alginate impressions of the maxillary dentition were taken, and 3 stone dental models were produced for each subject. Face-bow recordings were obtained on each subject using the SAM Anatomical Face-bow (Great Lakes Orthodontics Products, Ltd, Tonawanda, NY), the Erickson Surgical Face-bow (Great Lakes Orthodontics Products, Ltd) and a new technique developed by one of the authors (J.G.). For each subject, the dental models were mounted on a SAM articulator using each of the 3 face-bow recordings. Finally, a lateral cephalometric radiograph was obtained for each subject. The occlusal plane inclination was measured on the models and on the cephalometric radiographs. Differences among groups were tested using a 1-way analysis of variance. Bonferroni test was used for post hoc comparison between different pairs of groups. The average occlusal plane inclination using the SAM Anatomical Face-bow was 7.8 degrees +/- 4.2 degrees greater than the actual-a difference that was statistically significant. The mean occlusal plane inclination of the models obtained using the Erickson Surgical Face-bow was 4.4 degrees +/- 2.2 degrees greater than the actual-a difference that was also statistically significant. The mean occlusal plane inclination of the models obtained by the new technique was only 0.9 degrees +/- 1.2 degrees greater than the actual; this difference was not statistically significant. The new mounting technique is more accurate than the conventional SAM Face-bow or the Erickson Face-bow for reproducing the actual occlusal plane inclination. Copyright 2001 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons.

  3. Spatial scales of the magnetic ramp at the Venusian bow shock

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A. P. Dimmock; S. N. Walker; T. L. Zhang; S. A. Pope

    2011-01-01

    .... The study encompasses around 60 crossings of the Venusian bow shock from 2006 to 2009. The statistical relationship between the shock ramp spatial scales, overshoot and upstream shock parameters are investigated...

  4. Mountain medicin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Bjørn; Hjuler, Kasper Fjellhaugen

    2016-01-01

    Travelling to high altitudes is an increasingly popular form of recreational holiday. Individual medical advice may be essential for certain groups of individuals such as patients with chronic disorders, pregnant women or children. This is the second part in a series of two articles on mountain...... medicine. The first part covered high-altitude physiology and medical aspects of objective alpine dangers and the increased exposure to ultraviolet radiation. This part covers altitude sickness, fluid balance, nutrition, and precautions for patients with pre-existing medical conditions, pregnant women...

  5. DOUBLE BOW SHOCKS AROUND YOUNG, RUNAWAY RED SUPERGIANTS: APPLICATION TO BETELGEUSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackey, Jonathan; Mohamed, Shazrene; Neilson, Hilding R.; Langer, Norbert; Meyer, Dominique M.-A., E-mail: jmackey@astro.uni-bonn.de [Argelander-Institut fuer Astronomie, Auf dem Huegel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2012-05-20

    A significant fraction of massive stars are moving supersonically through the interstellar medium (ISM), either due to disruption of a binary system or ejection from their parent star cluster. The interaction of their wind with the ISM produces a bow shock. In late evolutionary stages these stars may undergo rapid transitions from red to blue and vice versa on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, with accompanying rapid changes to their stellar winds and bow shocks. Recent three-dimensional simulations of the bow shock produced by the nearby runaway red supergiant (RSG) Betelgeuse, under the assumption of a constant wind, indicate that the bow shock is very young (<30, 000 years old), hence Betelgeuse may have only recently become an RSG. To test this possibility, we have calculated stellar evolution models for single stars which match the observed properties of Betelgeuse in the RSG phase. The resulting evolving stellar wind is incorporated into two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations in which we model a runaway blue supergiant (BSG) as it undergoes the transition to an RSG near the end of its life. We find that the collapsing BSG wind bubble induces a bow shock-shaped inner shell around the RSG wind that resembles Betelgeuse's bow shock, and has a similar mass. Surrounding this is the larger-scale retreating bow shock generated by the now defunct BSG wind's interaction with the ISM. We suggest that this outer shell could explain the bar feature located (at least in projection) just in front of Betelgeuse's bow shock.

  6. Asymmetric Outer Bow Length and Cervical Headgear Force System: 3D Analysis Using Finite Element Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geramy, Allahyar; Hassanpour, Mehdi; Emadian Razavi, Elham Sadat

    2015-03-01

    This study sought to assess distal and lateral forces and moments of asymmetric headgears by variable outer bow lengths. Four 3D finite element method (FEM) models of a cervical headgear attached to the maxillary first molars were designed in SolidWorks 2010 software and transferred to ANSYS Workbench ver. 11 software. Models contained the first molars, their periodontal ligament (PDL), cancellous and cortical bones, a mesiodistal slice of the maxillae and the headgear. Models were the same except for the outer bow length in headgears. The headgear was symmetric in model 1. In models 2 to 4, the headgears were asymmetric in length with differences of 5mm, 10mm and 15mm, respectively. A 2.5 N force in horizontal plane was applied and the loading manner of each side of the outer bow was calculated trigonometrically using data from a volunteer. The 15mm difference in outer bow length caused the greatest difference in lateral (=0.21 N) and distal (= 1.008 N) forces and also generated moments (5.044 N.mm). As the difference in outer bow length became greater, asymmetric effects increased. Greater distal force in the longer arm side was associated with greater lateral force towards the shorter arm side and more net yawing moment. A difference range of 1mm to 15 mm of length in cervical headgear can be considered as a safe length of outer bow shortening in clinical use.

  7. Anterior Femoral Bow and Possible Effect on the Stifle Joint: A Comparison between Humans and Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocal, M K; Sabanci, S S; Cobanoglu, M; Enercan, M

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the anterior bow of the femur between dogs and humans in terms of the possible impact on the stifle joint. The femoral radiographs obtained retrospectively were used to determine the angles and positions of the anterior bow in both dogs (n = 135) and humans (n = 57). Descriptive statistics and Pearson's correlation analysis were used for the statistical analyses of the variables. The mean anterior bow angle (ABA) was 18.3 ± 2.02° and 4.88 ± 1.24° in dogs and humans, respectively. The bow position was at the distal shaft in dogs (64.9 ± 2.04%) and almost at the mid-shaft of the bone (46.5 ± 5.52%) in humans. The ABA was related to the bow position in both humans and dogs. Additionally, the angle correlated with age in humans, while it was correlated with weight and breed in dogs. In conclusion, it is suggested that the anterior bow should be used as a landmark on the femoral axis for the biomechanical research of stifle joint, and dog stifle could be used as a suitable model for human knee in experimental studies for clinicians, while making sure that ethical principles are fully respected. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. PENGARUH ANTI-SLAMMING BULBOUS BOW TERHADAP GERAKAN SLAMMING PADA KAPAL PERINTIS 200 DWT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Iqbal

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Analisis seakeeping (kemampuan olah gerak kapal merupakan aspek penting dalam perancangan kapal. Berdasarkan analisis tersebut, dapat diketahui batas operasional dari sebuah kapal. Salah satunya adalah dapat mengetahui kemampuan kapal pada tinggi gelombang signifikan (Hs tertentu. Memodifikasi bentuk haluan kapal dengan membuat dasar dari haluan tersebut lebih rendah dibandingkan dengan dasar lambung kapal nya (dibawah garis baseline kapal dinamakan Anti-Slamming Bow. Pada penelitian ini, anti-slamming bow ditambahkan dengan ­bulbous bow yang dinamakan dengn Anti-Slamming Bulbous Bow (ASB. Panjang (lasb dan tinggi (hasb Anti-Slamming Bulbous Bow divariasikan untuk mendapatkan probabilitas dan intensitas slamming yang paling rendah. Metode untuk menghitung RAO menggunakan Metode Panel. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa nilai probabilitas pada kapal existing (model awal pada Hs = 4 m dan Tave = 5 s pada kecepatan 14 knot tidak memenuhi standar kriteria Nordforsk ’87 karena memiliki nilai probabilitas slamming sebesar 12,19%. Selain model awal, model 1, model 3 dan model 5 juga tidak memenuhi standar kriteria karena memiliki nilai probabilitas slamming sebesar 5,19%, 5,04% dan 5,10%. Parameter ukuran anti-slamming bulbous bow terbaik terdapat pada model 6 dimana rasio panjang ASB terhadap Lpp kapal sebesar 0,4 dan rasio tinggi ASB terhadap sarat kapal sebesar 0,4. Sedangkan bentuk Bulbous terbaik adalah Bulbous A yaitu bulbous tipe bentuk titik air tergantung. Model ini memiliki nilai  probabilas sebesar 1,95% dan memenuhi kriteria Nordforsk ’87.

  9. Control wafer bow of InGaP on 200 mm Si by strain engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing; Bao, Shuyu; Made, Riko I.; Lee, Kwang Hong; Wang, Cong; Eng Kian Lee, Kenneth; Fitzgerald, Eugene A.; Michel, Jurgen

    2017-12-01

    When epitaxially growing III–V compound semiconductors on Si substrates the mismatch of coefficients of thermal expansion (CTEs) between III–V and Si causes stress and wafer bow. The wafer bow is deleterious for some wafer-scale processing especially when the wafer size is large. Strain engineering was applied in the epitaxy of InGaP films on 200 mm silicon wafers having high quality germanium buffers. By applying compressive strain in the InGaP films to compensate the tensile strain induced by CTE mismatch, wafer bow was decreased from about 100 μm to less than 50 μm. X-ray diffraction studies show a clear trend between the decrease of wafer bow and the compensation of CTE mismatch induced tensile strain in the InGaP layers. In addition, the anisotropic strain relaxation in InGaP films resulted in anisotropic wafer bow along two perpendicular (110) directions. Etch pit density and plane-view transmission electron microscopy characterizations indicate that threading dislocation densities did not change significantly due to the lattice-mismatch applied in the InGaP films. This study shows that strain engineering is an effective method to control wafer bow when growing III–V semiconductors on large size Si substrates.

  10. Bow shock models of ultracompact H II regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mac Low, M.; Van Buren, D.; Wood, D.O.S.; Churchwell, E. (NASA, Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (USA) Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics, Boulder, CO (USA) JPL, Pasadena, CA (USA) Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (USA) Washburn Observatory, Madison, WI (USA))

    1991-03-01

    This paper presents models of ultracompact H II regions as the bow shocks formed by massive stars, with strong stellar winds, moving supersonically through molecular clouds. The morphologies, sizes and brightnesses of observed objects match the models well. Plausible models are provided for the ultracompact H II regions G12.21 - 0.1, G29.96 - 0.02, G34.26 + 0.15, and G43.89 - 0.78. To do this, the equilibrium shape of the wind-blown shell is calculated, assuming momentum conservation. Then the shell is illuminated with ionizing radiation from the central star, radiative transfer for free-free emission through the shell is performed, and the resulting object is visualized at various angles for comparison with radio continuum maps. The model unifies most of the observed morphologies of ultracompact H II regions, excluding only those objects with spherical shells. Ram pressure confinement greatly lengthens the life of ultracompact H II regions, explaining the large number that exist in the Galaxy despite their low apparent kinematic ages. 32 refs.

  11. Bow shock models of ultracompact H II regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Van Buren, Dave; Wood, Douglas O. S.; Churchwell, ED

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents models of ultracompact H II regions as the bow shocks formed by massive stars, with strong stellar winds, moving supersonically through molecular clouds. The morphologies, sizes and brightnesses of observed objects match the models well. Plausible models are provided for the ultracompact H II regions G12.21 - 0.1, G29.96 - 0.02, G34.26 + 0.15, and G43.89 - 0.78. To do this, the equilibrium shape of the wind-blown shell is calculated, assuming momentum conservation. Then the shell is illuminated with ionizing radiation from the central star, radiative transfer for free-free emission through the shell is performed, and the resulting object is visualized at various angles for comparison with radio continuum maps. The model unifies most of the observed morphologies of ultracompact H II regions, excluding only those objects with spherical shells. Ram pressure confinement greatly lengthens the life of ultracompact H II regions, explaining the large number that exist in the Galaxy despite their low apparent kinematic ages.

  12. Dentofacial effects of a modified tandem traction bow appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalay, Zeynep; Tortop, Tuba

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the dentofacial effects of a modified tandem traction bow appliance (modified TTBA) in skeletal Class III subjects, and the effect of age on treatment response. The material consisted of the pre-treatment/pre-observation and post-treatment/post-observation lateral cephalograms and hand-wrist films of 45 children with skeletal and dental Class III malocclusions. Thirty patients were treated with a modified TTBA. Two treatment groups of 15 patients each were formed: an early (nine girls, six boys; mean skeletal age: 8.18 ± 0.50 years) and a late treatment (5 girls, 10 boys; mean skeletal age: 11.75 ± 1.00 years) group. The remaining 15 children (5 girls, 10 boys; mean skeletal age: 7.90 ± 0.62 years) were observed without treatment for 8 months and served as a control for the early treatment group. Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney U-tests were used for statistical analysis. Significant forward maxillary movement was determined in both treatment groups (P skeletal correction of the Class III malocclusion was achieved.

  13. Comparison of accelerated ion populations observed upstream of the bow shocks at Venus and Mars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yamauchi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Foreshock ions are compared between Venus and Mars at energies of 0.6~20 keV using the same ion instrument, the Ion Mass Analyser, on board both Venus Express and Mars Express. Venus Express often observes accelerated protons (2~6 times the solar wind energy that travel away from the Venus bow shock when the spacecraft location is magnetically connected to the bow shock. The observed ions have a large field-aligned velocity compared to the perpendicular velocity in the solar wind frame, and are similar to the field-aligned beams and intermediate gyrating component of the foreshock ions in the terrestrial upstream region. Mars Express does not observe similar foreshock ions as does Venus Express, indicating that the Martian foreshock does not possess the intermediate gyrating component in the upstream region on the dayside of the planet. Instead, two types of gyrating protons in the solar wind frame are observed very close to the Martian quasi-perpendicular bow shock within a proton gyroradius distance. The first type is observed only within the region which is about 400 km from the bow shock and flows tailward nearly along the bow shock with a similar velocity as the solar wind. The second type is observed up to about 700 km from the bow shock and has a bundled structure in the energy domain. A traversal on 12 July 2005, in which the energy-bunching came from bundling in the magnetic field direction, is further examined. The observed velocities of the latter population are consistent with multiple specular reflections of the solar wind at the bow shock, and the ions after the second reflection have a field-aligned velocity larger than that of the de Hoffman-Teller velocity frame, i.e., their guiding center has moved toward interplanetary space out from the bow shock. To account for the observed peculiarity of the Martian upstream region, finite gyroradius effects of the solar wind protons compared to the radius of the bow shock curvature and

  14. Exploiting biomechanical degrees of freedom for fast and accurate changes in movement direction: coordination underlying quick bow reversals during continuous cello bowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius eVerrel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical and empirical evidence suggests that accurate and efficient motor performance may be achieved by task-specific exploitation of biomechanical degrees of freedom. We investigate coordination of the right arm in a task requiring a sudden yet precisely controlled reversal of movement direction: bow reversals during continuous (legato tone production on a stringed instrument. Ten advanced or professional cello players (at least ten years of practice and ten age-matched novice players took part in the study. Kinematic data from the bow and the right arm were analyzed in terms of velocity and acceleration profiles, as well as temporal coordination along the arm. As expected, experts’ bow velocity and acceleration profiles differed markedly from those of novice participants, with higher peak accelerations and quicker direction changes. Importantly, experts achieved the change in movement direction with a single acceleration peak while novices tended to use multiple smaller acceleration peaks. Experts moreover showed a proximal-distal gradient in timing and amplitudes of acceleration peaks, with earlier and lower-amplitude reversals at more proximal joints. We suggest that this coordination pattern allows generating high accelerations at the end effector while reducing the required joint torques at the proximal joints. This may underlie experts’ ability to produce fast bow reversals efficiently and with high spatiotemporal accuracy. The findings are discussed in terms of motor control theory as well as potential implications for musicians’ performance and health.

  15. Geologic map of the Paintbrush Canyon Area, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickerson, R.P. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Drake, R.M. II [Pacific Western Technologies, Ltd., Lakewood, CO (United States)

    1998-11-01

    This geologic map is produced to support site characterization studies of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, site of a potential nuclear waste storage facility. The area encompassed by this map lies between Yucca Wash and Fortymile Canyon, northeast of Yucca Mountain. It is on the southern flank of the Timber Mountain caldera complex within the southwest Nevada volcanic field. Miocene tuffs and lavas of the Calico Hills Formation, the Paintbrush Group, and the Timber Mountain Group crop out in the area of this map. The source vents of the tuff cones and lava domes commonly are located beneath the thickest deposits of pyroclastic ejecta and lava flows. The rocks within the mapped area have been deformed by north- and northwest-striking, dominantly west-dipping normal faults and a few east-dipping normal faults. Faults commonly are characterized by well developed fault scarps, thick breccia zones, and hanging-wall grabens. Latest movement as preserved by slickensides on west-dipping fault scarps is oblique down towards the southwest. Two of these faults, the Paintbrush Canyon fault and the Bow Ridge fault, are major block-bounding faults here and to the south at Yucca Mountain. Offset of stratigraphic units across faults indicates that faulting occurred throughout the time these volcanic units were deposited.

  16. Congenital posteromedial bowing of the tibia: a retrospective analysis of growth abnormalities in the leg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Hitesh H; Doddabasappa, Siddesh N; Joseph, Benjamin

    2009-05-01

    We studied case records and radiographs of 20 children with congenital posteromedial bowing of the tibia (CPMBT) retrospectively to determine the pattern of correction of the bowing, the associated growth abnormalities of the tibia and fibula, and the role of surgical intervention in CPMBT. The magnitude of diaphyseal bowing in two planes and the physeal inclination were measured. Abnormalities of ossification of the distal tibial epiphysis and inclination of the distal articular surface if present were noted and shortening of the tibia was recorded. The rate of resolution of deformity was noted from sequential radiographs and expressed as percentage reduction per month of follow-up. At initial presentation the magnitude of deformity varied; the most severe posterior diaphyseal bow was 70 degrees whereas the most severe medial diaphyseal bow was 64 degrees. Two distinct mechanisms seem to be responsible for resolution of the deformity in CPMBT; one involves physeal realignment and the other involves diaphyseal remodeling. In the first year of life, rapid resolution of angulation was noted; the rate of resolution reduced significantly thereafter. In a proportion of children with CPMBT residual deformity may persist till over 4 years of age. Physeal realignment occurred at a faster rate than diaphyseal remodeling. The degree of shortening was related to the severity of bowing and shortening as great as 40% was noted in a patient. Wedging of the distal tibial epiphysis and fibular hypoplasia with valgus inclination of the distal tibial articular surface occur in some children with CPMBT. Eccentric ossification of the distal tibial epiphysis in early childhood may be a predictor of wedging of the distal tibial epiphysis later on. We recommend all the children with CPMBT to be followed up periodically till skeletal maturity, to identify cases with residual bowing, ankle deformity, muscle weakness, and limb length inequality as active surgical intervention may be needed

  17. Polarized bow shocks reveal features of the winds and environments of massive stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Manisha

    2018-01-01

    Massive stars strongly affect their surroundings through their energetic stellar winds and deaths as supernovae. The bow shock structures created by fast-moving massive stars contain important information about the winds and ultimate fates of these stars as well as their local interstellar medium (ISM). Since bow shocks are aspherical, the light scattered in the dense shock material becomes polarized. Analyzing this polarization reveals details of the bow shock geometry as well as the composition, velocity, density, and albedo of the scattering material. With these quantities, we can constrain the properties of the stellar wind and thus the evolutionary state of the star, as well as the dust composition of the local ISM.In my dissertation research, I use a Monte Carlo radiative transfer code that I optimized to simulate the polarization signatures produced by both resolved and unresolved stellar wind bow shocks (SWBS) illuminated by a central star and by shock emission. I derive bow shock shapes and densities from published analytical calculations and smooth particle hydrodynamic (SPH) models. In the case of the analytical SWBS and electron scattering, I find that higher optical depths produce higher polarization and position angle rotations at specific viewing angles compared to theoretical predictions for low optical depths. This is due to the geometrical properties of the bow shock combined with multiple scattering effects. For dust scattering, the polarization signature is strongly affected by wavelength, dust grain properties, and viewing angle. The behavior of the polarization as a function of wavelength in these cases can distinguish among different dust models for the local ISM. In the case of SPH density structures, I investigate how the polarization changes as a function of the evolutionary phase of the SWBS. My dissertation compares these simulations with polarization data from Betelgeuse and other massive stars with bow shocks. I discuss the

  18. Ion Events Observed by Wind far Upstream From the Bow Shock and by Geotail / Imp-8 Near the Bow Shock and Within the Plasma Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostopoulos, G.; Efthymiadis, D.; Sarris, E. T.; Krimigis, S. M.

    2002-12-01

    Mason et al. (1996) reported characteristics of short duration energetic (>~30 keV/neucleon) heavy ion enhancements observed by the WIND spacecraft at large distances upstream from the bow shock during two periods of high speed streams (Jan. 20, 1995 - Feb. 19, 1995) and Desai et al (2000) extended their study and presented results from a statistical analysis of upstream events rich in CNO species as observed by the WIND spacecraft between 1994 day 325 to 1999 day 92. Desai et al. suggested that some ion characteristics (as for instance, the fact that the majority of the events were observed in the dawn-noon sector, the solar-wind-like ion composition and the heavy ion dominance of the total energy ion spectrum above ~0.5 MeV) appear to pose severe problems for the leakage model, while other characteristics appear to pose serious challenges for the Fermi acceleration model. In this paper we compare the statistical results of Desai et al. with the results from previous statistical and case studies and we show that the Wind observations are in general consistent with the leakage model. Furthermore, we examine simultaneous multispacecraft observations during time periods of some typical events presented by the authors (Mason et al., 1996; Desai et al., 2000) and we compare them with predictions from the leakage and bow shock acceleration models. In particular: (a) we present observations by WIND far upstream from the bow shock and by Geotail and IMP-8 within the magnetosphere and we infer that particle acceleration within the plasma sheet and subsequent leakage to the upstream region are responsible for the generation of these upstream ion events, and (b) we compare the upstream WIND observations with observations obtained by Geotail and IMP-8 near the bow shock, and we infer that the near bow shock observations do not fit with major predictions of Fermi acceleration models.

  19. Investigating the Function of Play Bows in Dog and Wolf Puppies (Canis lupus familiaris, Canis lupus occidentalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byosiere, Sarah-Elizabeth; Espinosa, Julia; Marshall-Pescini, Sarah; Smuts, Barbara; Range, Friederike

    2016-01-01

    Animals utilize behavioral signals across a range of different contexts in order to communicate with others and produce probable behavioral outcomes. During play animals frequently adopt action patterns used in other contexts. Researchers have therefore hypothesized that play signals have evolved to clarify communicative intent. One highly stereotyped play signal is the canid play bow, but its function remains contested. In order to clarify how canid puppies use play bows, we used data on play bows in immature wolves (ages 2.7-7.8 months) and dogs (ages 2 to 5 months) to test hypotheses evaluated in a previous study of adult dogs. We found that young dogs used play bows similarly to adult dogs; play bows most often occurred after a brief pause in play followed by complementary highly active play states. However, while the relative number of play bows and total observation time was similar between dog and wolf puppies, wolves did not follow this behavioral pattern, as play bows were unsuccessful in eliciting further play activity by the partner. While some similarities for the function of play bows in dog and wolf puppies were documented, it appears that play bows may function differently in wolf puppies in regards to re-initiating play.

  20. Investigating the Function of Play Bows in Dog and Wolf Puppies (Canis lupus familiaris, Canis lupus occidentalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah-Elizabeth Byosiere

    Full Text Available Animals utilize behavioral signals across a range of different contexts in order to communicate with others and produce probable behavioral outcomes. During play animals frequently adopt action patterns used in other contexts. Researchers have therefore hypothesized that play signals have evolved to clarify communicative intent. One highly stereotyped play signal is the canid play bow, but its function remains contested. In order to clarify how canid puppies use play bows, we used data on play bows in immature wolves (ages 2.7-7.8 months and dogs (ages 2 to 5 months to test hypotheses evaluated in a previous study of adult dogs. We found that young dogs used play bows similarly to adult dogs; play bows most often occurred after a brief pause in play followed by complementary highly active play states. However, while the relative number of play bows and total observation time was similar between dog and wolf puppies, wolves did not follow this behavioral pattern, as play bows were unsuccessful in eliciting further play activity by the partner. While some similarities for the function of play bows in dog and wolf puppies were documented, it appears that play bows may function differently in wolf puppies in regards to re-initiating play.

  1. Ordovician "sphinctozoan" sponges from Prince of Wales Island, southeastern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, J.K.; Karl, S.M.; Blodgett, R.B.; Baichtal, J.F.

    2005-01-01

    A faunule of silicified hypercalcified "sphinctozoan" sponges has been recovered from a clast of Upper Ordovician limestone out of the Early Devonian Karheen Formation on Prince of Wales Island in southeastern Alaska. Included in the faunule are abundant examples of the new genus Girtyocoeliana, represented by Girtyocoeliana epiporata (Rigby and Potter), and Corymbospongia adnata Rigby and Potter, along with rare Corymbospongia amplia n. sp., and Girtyocoelia(?) sp., plus common Amblysiphonella sp. 1 and rare Amblysiphonella(?) sp. 2. The assemblage is similar to that from Ordovician clasts from the eastern Klamath Mountains of northern California. This indicates that the Alexander terrane of southeastern Alaska is related paleogeographically to the lithologically and paleontologically similar terrane of the eastern Klamath Mountains. This lithology and fossil assemblage of the clast cannot be tied to any currently known local rock units on Prince of Wales Island. Other clasts in the conglomerate appear to have been locally derived, so it is inferred that the limestone clasts were also locally derived, indicating the presence of a previously undocumented Ordovician limestone unit on northern Prince of Wales Island. 

  2. Finite element method (FEM) analysis of the force systems produced by asymmetric inner headgear bows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geramy, Allahyar; Kizilova, Natalya; Terekhov, Leonid

    2011-11-01

    Extra-oral traction appliances were introduced more than a century ago and continue to be used to produce orthopaedic and/or dental changes in the maxilla. While force systems produced by asymmetric outer bows have been studied extensively, the force systems produced by asymmetric inner bows have been overlooked. To analyse the forces acting on the maxillary first molars: when the size of one bayonet bend is increased; when the point of application of the distalising force on the inner bow is moved to one side; when one molar is displaced palatally. Four FEM models of cervical headgear attached to maxillary first molars were designed in SolidWorks 2010 and transferred to an ANSYS Workbench Ver. 12.1. Model 1, each molar was 23 mm from the midpalatal line and the inner bow was symmetrical; Model 2, the left molar was displaced 4 mm towards the midpalatal line and the inner bow was symmetrical; Model 3, the molars were equidistant (23 mm) from the midpalatal line, but the left molar was engaged by a 2 mm larger bayonet bend; Model 4, the molars were equidistant (23 mm) from the midpalatal line but the join between the inner and outer bows was displaced 2 mm towards the left molar. In all FEM models, a 2N force was applied to the inner bow at the join between inner and outer bows and the energy transmitted to the teeth and the von Mises stresses on the molar PDLs were assessed. There were marked differences in the strain energy on the teeth and the von Mises stresses on their PDLs. A 14 to 20 per cent increase in energy and force was produced on the tooth closer to the symmetric plane of the headgear. In addition, the increase in energy produced a 30 to 62 per cent increase in the von Mises stresses within the PDLs. Small asymmetries in molar position, the size of a bayonet bend and the point of application of a force on an inner bow resulted in asymmetrical forces on the molars. These forces were higher on the molar closer to the symmetric plane of the headgear.

  3. Unilateral Outer Bow Expanded Cervical Headgear Force System: 3D Analysis Using Finite Element Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geramy, Allahyar; Mortezai, Omid; Esmaily, Masomeh; Darvishpour, Hojat

    2015-04-01

    Headgears are among the effective orthodontic appliances to achieve treatment goals. Unilateral molar distal movement is sometimes needed during an orthodontic treatment, which can be achieved by an asymmetric headgear. Different unilateral headgears have been introduced. The main goal of this study was to analyze the force system of unilateral expanded outer bow asymmetric headgears by the finite element method (FEM). Six 3D finite element models of a mesiodistal slice of the maxilla containing upper first molars, their periodontal ligaments (PDLs), cancellous bone, cortical bone, and a cervical headgear with expanded outer bow attached to maxillary first molars were designed in SolidWorks 2010 and meshed in ANSYS Workbench ver. 12.1. The models were the same except for the degree of outer bow expansion. The outer bow ends were loaded with 2 N force. The distal driving force and the net moment were evaluated. A decrease in the distalizing force in the normal side molar from 1.69 N to 1.37 N was shown by increasing the degree of unilateral expansion. At the same time, the force increased from 2.19 N to 2.49 N in the expanded side molar. A net moment increasing from 2.26 N.mm to 4.64 N.mm was also shown. Unilateral outer bow expansion can produce different distalizing forces in molars, which increase by increasing the expansion.

  4. Unilateral Outer Bow Expanded Cervical Headgear Force System: 3D Analysis Using Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allahyar Geramy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Headgears are among the effective orthodontic appliances to achieve treatment goals. Unilateral molar distal movement is sometimes needed during an orthodontic treat- ment, which can be achieved by an asymmetric headgear. Different unilateral headgears have been introduced. The main goal of this study was to analyze the force system of uni- lateral expanded outer bow asymmetric headgears by the finite element method (FEM.Materials and Methods: Six 3D finite element models of a mesiodistal slice of the maxilla containing upper first molars, their periodontal ligaments (PDLs, cancellous bone, cortical bone, and a cervical headgear with expanded outer bow attached to maxillary first molars were designed in SolidWorks 2010 and meshed in ANSYS Workbench ver. 12.1. The mod- els were the same except for the degree of outer bow expansion. The outer bow ends were loaded with 2-Newton force. The distal driving force and the net moment were evaluated.Results: A decrease in the distalizing force in the normal side molar from 1.69 N to 1.37 N was shown by increasing the degree of unilateral expansion. At the same time, the force increased from 2.19 N to 2.49 N in the expanded side molar. A net moment increasing from 2.26 N.mm to 4.64 N.mm was also shown.Conclusion: Unilateral outer bow expansion can produce different distalizing forces in mo- lars, which increase by increasing the expansion.

  5. BOWS (bioinformatics open web services) to centralize bioinformatics tools in web services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velloso, Henrique; Vialle, Ricardo A; Ortega, J Miguel

    2015-06-02

    Bioinformaticians face a range of difficulties to get locally-installed tools running and producing results; they would greatly benefit from a system that could centralize most of the tools, using an easy interface for input and output. Web services, due to their universal nature and widely known interface, constitute a very good option to achieve this goal. Bioinformatics open web services (BOWS) is a system based on generic web services produced to allow programmatic access to applications running on high-performance computing (HPC) clusters. BOWS intermediates the access to registered tools by providing front-end and back-end web services. Programmers can install applications in HPC clusters in any programming language and use the back-end service to check for new jobs and their parameters, and then to send the results to BOWS. Programs running in simple computers consume the BOWS front-end service to submit new processes and read results. BOWS compiles Java clients, which encapsulate the front-end web service requisitions, and automatically creates a web page that disposes the registered applications and clients. Bioinformatics open web services registered applications can be accessed from virtually any programming language through web services, or using standard java clients. The back-end can run in HPC clusters, allowing bioinformaticians to remotely run high-processing demand applications directly from their machines.

  6. BOW SHOCK FRAGMENTATION DRIVEN BY A THERMAL INSTABILITY IN LABORATORY ASTROPHYSICS EXPERIMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki-Vidal, F.; Lebedev, S. V.; Pickworth, L. A.; Swadling, G. F.; Skidmore, J.; Hall, G. N.; Bennett, M.; Bland, S. N.; Burdiak, G.; De Grouchy, P.; Music, J.; Suttle, L. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom); Ciardi, A. [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 6, UMR 8112, LERMA, F-75005, Paris (France); Rodriguez, R.; Gil, J. M.; Espinosa, G. [Departamento de Fisica de la Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, E-35017 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Hartigan, P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, 6100 S. Main, Houston, TX 77521-1892 (United States); Hansen, E.; Frank, A., E-mail: f.suzuki@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States)

    2015-12-20

    The role of radiative cooling during the evolution of a bow shock was studied in laboratory-astrophysics experiments that are scalable to bow shocks present in jets from young stellar objects. The laboratory bow shock is formed during the collision of two counterstreaming, supersonic plasma jets produced by an opposing pair of radial foil Z-pinches driven by the current pulse from the MAGPIE pulsed-power generator. The jets have different flow velocities in the laboratory frame, and the experiments are driven over many times the characteristic cooling timescale. The initially smooth bow shock rapidly develops small-scale nonuniformities over temporal and spatial scales that are consistent with a thermal instability triggered by strong radiative cooling in the shock. The growth of these perturbations eventually results in a global fragmentation of the bow shock front. The formation of a thermal instability is supported by analysis of the plasma cooling function calculated for the experimental conditions with the radiative packages ABAKO/RAPCAL.

  7. Blade bowing effects on radial equilibrium of inlet flow in axial compressor cascades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han XU

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The circumferentially averaged equation of the inlet flow radial equilibrium in axial compressor was deduced. It indicates that the blade inlet radial pressure gradient is closely related to the radial component of the circumferential fluctuation (CF source item. Several simplified cascades with/without aerodynamic loading were numerically studied to investigate the effects of blade bowing on the inlet flow radial equilibrium. A data reduction program was conducted to obtain the CF source from three-dimensional (3D simulation results. Flow parameters at the passage inlet were focused on and each term in the radial equilibrium equation was discussed quantitatively. Results indicate that the inviscid blade force is the inducement of the inlet CF due to geometrical asymmetry. Blade bowing induces variation of the inlet CF, thus changes the radial pressure gradient and leads to flow migration before leading edge (LE in the cascades. Positive bowing drives the inlet flow to migrate from end walls to mid-span and negative bowing turns it to the reverse direction to build a new equilibrium. In addition, comparative studies indicate that the inlet Mach number and blade loading can efficiently impact the effectiveness of blade bowing on radial equilibrium in compressor design.

  8. Bow shock nebulae of hot massive stars in a magnetized medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, D. M.-A.; Mignone, A.; Kuiper, R.; Raga, A. C.; Kley, W.

    2017-01-01

    A significant fraction of OB-type, main-sequence massive stars are classified as runaway and move supersonically through the interstellar medium (ISM). Their strong stellar winds interact with their surroundings, where the typical strength of the local ISM magnetic field is about 3.5-7 μG, which can result in the formation of bow shock nebulae. We investigate the effects of such magnetic fields, aligned with the motion of the flow, on the formation and emission properties of these circumstellar structures. Our axisymmetric, magneto-hydrodynamical simulations with optically thin radiative cooling, heating and anisotropic thermal conduction show that the presence of the background ISM magnetic field affects the projected optical emission of our bow shocks at Hα and [O III] λ 5007 which become fainter by about 1-2 orders of magnitude, respectively. Radiative transfer calculations against dust opacity indicate that the magnetic field slightly diminishes their projected infrared emission and that our bow shocks emit brightly at 60 μm. This may explain why the bow shocks generated by ionizing runaway massive stars are often difficult to identify. Finally, we discuss our results in the context of the bow shock of ζ Ophiuchi and we support the interpretation of its imperfect morphology as an evidence of the presence of an ISM magnetic field not aligned with the motion of its driving star.

  9. Snow Storm Blankets Southeastern U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A new year's storm brought heavy snow to portions of the southeastern United States, with some regions receiving more than a foot in less than two days. By Friday, January 4, 2002, the skies had cleared, and MODIS captured this false-color image showing the extent of the snowfall. Snow cover is red, and extends all the way from Alabama (lower left), up through Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia, and Maryland, including the southern reaches of the Delmarva Peninsula (upper right). Beneath some clouds in West Virginia (top center), snow is also visible on the Allegheny Mountains and the Appalachian Plateau, although it did come from the same storm. Though red isn't the color we associate with snow, scientists often find 'false-color' images more useful than 'true-color' images in certain situations. True-color images are images in which the satellite data are made to look like what our eyes would see, using a combination of red, green, and blue. In a true-color image of this scene, cloud and snow would appear almost identical-both would be very bright white-and would be hard to distinguish from each other. However, at near-infrared wavelengths of light, snow cover absorbs sunlight and therefore appears much darker than clouds. So a false-color image in which one visible wavelength of the data is colored red, and different near-infrared wavelengths are colored green and blue helps show the snow cover most clearly.

  10. Improved bow shock models for Herbig-Haro objects - Application to HH 2A-prime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, John C.; Hartmann, Lee; Hartigan, Patrick

    1988-01-01

    An improved version of the bow shock theory previously applied to Herbig-Haro objects is presented. The modifications provide a more accurate calculation of the ionization state of material entering the bow shock. The revised preionization does not drastically affect the emission-line predictions for a 200 km/s bow shock model, though the effects will be more severe for slower shock velocities. The line profiles of the new models resemble the observed profiles somewhat more closely, and the relative emission-line intensities typically differ by 30 percent from those predicted by the older models. The models agree well with new IUE spectra and existing optical data for HH 2A-prime.

  11. Research on bulbous bow optimization based on the improved PSO algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sheng-long; Zhang, Bao-ji; Tezdogan, Tahsin; Xu, Le-ping; Lai, Yu-yang

    2017-08-01

    In order to reduce the total resistance of a hull, an optimization framework for the bulbous bow optimization was presented. The total resistance in calm water was selected as the objective function, and the overset mesh technique was used for mesh generation. RANS method was used to calculate the total resistance of the hull. In order to improve the efficiency and smoothness of the geometric reconstruction, the arbitrary shape deformation (ASD) technique was introduced to change the shape of the bulbous bow. To improve the global search ability of the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm, an improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO) algorithm was proposed to set up the optimization model. After a series of optimization analyses, the optimal hull form was found. It can be concluded that the simulation based design framework built in this paper is a promising method for bulbous bow optimization.

  12. Electron bow-wave injection of electrons in laser-driven bubble acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Y Y; Kawata, S; Yu, T P; Gu, Y Q; Sheng, Z M; Yu, M Y; Zhuo, H B; Liu, H J; Yin, Y; Takahashi, K; Xie, X Y; Liu, J X; Tian, C L; Shao, F Q

    2012-04-01

    An electron injection regime in laser wake-field acceleration, namely electron bow-wave injection, is investigated by two- and three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation as well as analytical model. In this regime electrons in the intense electron bow wave behind the first bubble catch up with the bubble tail and are trapped by the bubble finally, resulting in considerable enhancement of the total trapped electron number. For example, with the increase of the laser intensity from 2 × 10(19) to 1 × 10(20) W/cm(2), the electron trapping changes from normal self-injection to bow-wave injection and the trapped electron number is enhanced by two orders of magnitude. An analytical model is proposed to explain the numerical observation.

  13. Prenatal diagnosis of metatropic dysplasia: beware of the pseudo-bowing sign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garel, Catherine [Trousseau Hospital, University Hospitals of the East of Paris, Department of Radiology, Paris (France); Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, Department of Radiology, Paris (France); Dhouib, Amira; Sileo, Chiara; Ducou le Pointe, Hubert [Trousseau Hospital, University Hospitals of the East of Paris, Department of Radiology, Paris (France); Cormier-Daire, Valerie [Paris Descartes University, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Necker-Enfants-Malades Hospital, Department of Genetics, Paris (France)

    2014-03-15

    Metatropic dysplasia is a very rare form of osteochondrodysplasia with only one case of prenatal diagnosis described in the literature. It is characterized by marked shortening of the long bones with severe platyspondyly and dumbbell-shape metaphyses. We report a case of metatropic dysplasia that was diagnosed prenatally and describe the findings on US and CT. The pregnancy was terminated and the post-mortem radiographs are shown. The woman had been referred for short and bowed long bones. Severe metaphyseal enlargement was a misleading finding because it had been misinterpreted as limb bowing. Thus when abnormal curvature of the long bones is observed at prenatal US, attention should be drawn not only to the diaphyses but also to the metaphyses because severe metaphyseal enlargement might be responsible for pseudo-bowing. (orig.)

  14. Lithology, fault displacement, and origin of secondary calcium carbonate and opaline silica at Trenches 14 and 14D on the Bow Ridge Fault at Exile Hill, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, E.M.; Huckins, H.E.

    1995-02-01

    Yucca Mountain, a proposed site for a high-level nuclear-waste repository, is located in southern Nevada, 20 km east of Beatty, and adjacent to the southwest comer of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) (fig. 1). Yucca Mountain is located within the Basin and Range province of the western United States. The climate is semiarid, and the flora is transitional between that of the Mojave Desert to the south and the Great Basin Desert to the north. As part of the evaluation, hydrologic conditions, especially water levels, of Yucca Mountain and vicinity during the Quaternary, and especially the past 20,000 years, are being characterized. In 1982, the US Geological Survey, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy (under interagency agreement DE-A104-78ET44802), excavated twenty-six bulldozer and backhoe trenches in the Yucca Mountain region to evaluate the nature and frequency of Quaternary faulting (Swadley and others, 1984). The trenches were oriented perpendicular to traces of suspected Quaternary faults and across projections of known bedrock faults into Quaternary deposits. Trench 14 exposes the Bow Ridge Fault on the west side of Exile Hill. Although the original purpose of the excavation of trench 14 was to evaluate the nature and frequency of Quaternary faulting on the Bow Ridge Fault, concern arose as to whether or not the nearly vertical calcium carbonate (the term ``carbonate`` in this study refers to calcium carbonate) and opaline silica veins in the fault zone were deposited by ascending waters (ground water). These veins resemble in gross morphology veins commonly formed by hydrothermal processes.

  15. Asymmetric Outer Bow Length and Cervical Headgear Force System: 3D Analysis Using Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allahyar Geramy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study sought to assess distal and lateral forces and moments of asymmetric headgears by variable outer bow lengths.Materials and Methods: Four 3D finite element method (FEM models of a cer- vical headgear attached to the maxillary first molars were designed in SolidWorks2010 software and transferred to ANSYS Workbench ver. 11 software. Modelscontained the first molars, their periodontal ligament (PDL, cancellous and cor- tical bones, a mesiodistal slice of the maxillae and the headgear. Models were the same except for the outer bow length in headgears. The headgear was symmetric in model 1. In models 2 to 4, the headgears were asymmetric in length with dif- ferences of 5mm, 10mm and 15mm, respectively. A 2.5 N force in horizontal plane was applied and the loading manner of each side of the outer bow was cal- culated trigonometrically using data from a volunteer.Results: The 15mm difference in outer bow length caused the greatest difference in lateral (=0.21 N and distal (= 1.008 N forces and also generated moments (5.044 N.mm.Conclusion: As the difference in outer bow length became greater, asymmetric effects increased. Greater distal force in the longer arm side was associated with greater lateral force towards the shorter arm side and more net yawing moment. Clinical Relevance:A difference range of 1mm to 15 mm of length in cervical headgear can be consi-dered as a safe length of outer bow shortening in clinical use.

  16. Acute traumatic stroke: a case of bow hunter's stroke in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, E L; Van Coster, R; Verstraeten, K

    1998-06-01

    Acute traumatic stroke of the cerebellum is rarely seen in children. In adults, chiropractical manipulation, yoga exercises, bow hunting and cervical trauma have all been associated with vertebrobasillar damage and subsequent stroke due to cerebellar infarction. We present a case of bow hunter's stroke in a child. An 11-year-old boy developed deep coma one day after minor occipital head injury due to an infarct in the left cerebellum and ipsilateral medulla oblongata. Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) showed hypoperfusion of the left vertebral artery and occlusion of the posterior and anterior inferior cerebellar arteries (PICA and AICA respectively).

  17. Anomalous band bowing in pulsed laser deposited MgxZn1-xO films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Arpana; Dar, Tanveer Ahmad; Phase, D. M.; Sen, Pratima

    2013-12-01

    Random variation of band bowing in pulsed laser deposited Mg doped (x=0.090, 0.147, 0.211, 0.268) ZnO thin films was observed. The X-ray diffraction and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy data reveal lattice relaxation and increase in band gap as well as disorderness in the samples. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data confirm the presence of magnesium and oxygen interstitials (Mgi and Oi) as well as oxygen vacancies (VO). The randomness of band bowing is attributed to the presence of these defects.

  18. The distant bow shock and magnetotail of Venus - Magnetic field and plasma wave observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, C. T.; Luhmann, J. G.; Elphic, R. C.; Scarf, F. L.

    1981-01-01

    An examination of the magnetic field and plasma wave data obtained by the Pioneer Venus orbiter in the wake region behind Venus discloses a well developed bow shock whose location is similar to that observed on previous missions in contrast to the dayside bow shock. Venus also has a well developed magnetotail in which the field strenght is enhanced over magnetosheath values and in which the magnetic field is aligned approximately with the solar wind direction. The boundary between magnetosheath and magnetotail is also marked by a change in the plasma wave spectrum.

  19. 76 FR 78234 - Medicine Bow-Routt National Forests and Thunder Basin National Grassland, Campbell County, WY...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... Forest Service Medicine Bow-Routt National Forests and Thunder Basin National Grassland, Campbell County...: Send written comments to Richard A. Cooksey, Deputy Forest Supervisor, Medicine Bow-Routt National... Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 1-800-877-8339 between 8 a.m. and 8 p.m., Eastern Time, Monday through...

  20. Suicide in Batman, Southeastern Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altindag, Abdurrahman; Ozkan, Mustafa; Oto, Remzi

    2005-01-01

    The southeastern part of Turkey has comparatively high female suicide rates. We aimed to research social, economic, cultural, and psychiatric reasons of suicides in Batman in a case-controlled psychological autopsy study comparing suicides with matched community controls. The female suicide rate was 9.3 per 100.000 and the female/male ratio was…

  1. Mapping vegetation structure in the Pinaleno Mountains using lidar-phase 3: Forest inventory modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent Mitchell; Mike Walterman; Tom Mellin; Craig Wilcox; Ann M. Lynch; John Anhold; Donald A. Falk; John Koprowski; Denise Laes; Don Evans; Haans Fisk

    2012-01-01

    Understanding forest structure and how it is affected by management practices and natural events is a critical part of managing natural resources within the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. The Pinaleno Mountains of southeastern Arizona represent a Madrean sky island ecosystem and the last remaining habitat for the Mt. Graham red squirrel. This unique...

  2. Fuel characterization in the southern Appalachian Mountains: an application of landscape ecosystem classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron D. Stottlemeyer; Victor B. Shelburne; Thomas A. Waldrop; Sandra Rideout-Hanzak; William C. Bridges

    2009-01-01

    Prescribed fire has been widely used in the south-eastern United States to meet forest management objectives, but has only recently been reintroduced to the southern Appalachian Mountains. Fuel information is not available to forest managers in this region and direct measurement is often impractical owing to steep, remote topography. The objective of the present study...

  3. Conodont color alteration (CAI) as an aid to structural interpretation in the Black Pine Mountains, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Fred J.; Wardlaw, Bruce R.

    2012-01-01

    The Black Pine Mountains, southeastern Cassia County, Idaho, consist of southern and northern blocks separated by a northeast-trending, high-angle fault. Differences in conodont color alteration values distinguish the two blocks. The southern block has significantly higher organic maturation levels than the northern block and is interpreted to have been thrust northeastward adjacent to the northern block.

  4. Non-stationarity of the quasi-perpendicular bow shock: comparison between Cluster observations and simulations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Comisel, H.; Scholer, M.; Souček, Jan; Matsukiyo, S.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 2 (2011), s. 263-274 ISSN 0992-7689 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : bow shock * Cluster * plasma waves * shock waves Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.842, year: 2011 http://www.ann-geophys.net/29/263/2011/angeo-29-263-2011.pdf

  5. Bow shocks as tracers of the environment and stellar outflows near the supermassive black hole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stofanova, L.; Zajaček, M.; Karas, V.

    2017-10-01

    Bow shocks develop near stars in the supersonic motion with respect to the surrounding interstellar environment. In particular, extended shocks emerge due to the interaction of stars with strong winds. We discuss the expected shape and orientation of bow shocks in the context of fast moving stars near a supermassive black hole (SMBH) embedded within Bondi-type accretion flow (Zajaček et al. 2016, MNRAS; Štofanová 2016, BSc. Thesis). We present models which take into account different velocities of the probe star and also consider various scenarios for the ambient medium near the vicinity of the black hole such as an inflow/outflow of the material towards/outwards SMBH or a model which considers inflow and outflow at the same time. Under suitable circumstances, a bow shock structure can be detected in infrared domain and their properties can trace the environment of the Galactic center. On the other hand, if density of the ambient medium is determined from mm/radio observations, bow shocks can be used to constrain mass-loss rates of massive OB/WR stars. X-rays can supplement the spectral evidence, though, the structures are below the angular resolution of the current instruments even in the most favourable case of the Milky Way's SMBH (Sgr A*).

  6. A benchmark study of procedures for analysis of axial crushing of bulbous bows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamada, Yasuhira; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2008-01-01

    Simplified methods to estimate mean axial crushing forces of plated structures are reviewed and applied to a series of experimental results for axial crushing of large-scale bulbous bow models. Methods based on intersection unit elements such as L-, T- and X-type elements as well as methods based...

  7. Modelling the ballistics and thermodynamics of bow spray droplets for marine icing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoes, C.M.; Aalbers, AB; Hoving, J.S.

    2016-01-01

    In preparation to the SALTO JIP (Safe Arctic Logistics, Transport & Operations) work was done towards developing an improved model for icing due to sea spray at the bow of a ship. The so-called SHIPICE model may be used in a probabilistic risk-based approach and consists of two main segments: 1.

  8. Fuzzy Bayesian Network-Bow-Tie Analysis of Gas Leakage during Biomass Gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fang; Xu, Kaili; Yao, Xiwen; Li, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Biomass gasification technology has been rapidly developed recently. But fire and poisoning accidents caused by gas leakage restrict the development and promotion of biomass gasification. Therefore, probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) is necessary for biomass gasification system. Subsequently, Bayesian network-bow-tie (BN-bow-tie) analysis was proposed by mapping bow-tie analysis into Bayesian network (BN). Causes of gas leakage and the accidents triggered by gas leakage can be obtained by bow-tie analysis, and BN was used to confirm the critical nodes of accidents by introducing corresponding three importance measures. Meanwhile, certain occurrence probability of failure was needed in PSA. In view of the insufficient failure data of biomass gasification, the occurrence probability of failure which cannot be obtained from standard reliability data sources was confirmed by fuzzy methods based on expert judgment. An improved approach considered expert weighting to aggregate fuzzy numbers included triangular and trapezoidal numbers was proposed, and the occurrence probability of failure was obtained. Finally, safety measures were indicated based on the obtained critical nodes. The theoretical occurrence probabilities in one year of gas leakage and the accidents caused by it were reduced to 1/10.3 of the original values by these safety measures. PMID:27463975

  9. Fuzzy Bayesian Network-Bow-Tie Analysis of Gas Leakage during Biomass Gasification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Yan

    Full Text Available Biomass gasification technology has been rapidly developed recently. But fire and poisoning accidents caused by gas leakage restrict the development and promotion of biomass gasification. Therefore, probabilistic safety assessment (PSA is necessary for biomass gasification system. Subsequently, Bayesian network-bow-tie (BN-bow-tie analysis was proposed by mapping bow-tie analysis into Bayesian network (BN. Causes of gas leakage and the accidents triggered by gas leakage can be obtained by bow-tie analysis, and BN was used to confirm the critical nodes of accidents by introducing corresponding three importance measures. Meanwhile, certain occurrence probability of failure was needed in PSA. In view of the insufficient failure data of biomass gasification, the occurrence probability of failure which cannot be obtained from standard reliability data sources was confirmed by fuzzy methods based on expert judgment. An improved approach considered expert weighting to aggregate fuzzy numbers included triangular and trapezoidal numbers was proposed, and the occurrence probability of failure was obtained. Finally, safety measures were indicated based on the obtained critical nodes. The theoretical occurrence probabilities in one year of gas leakage and the accidents caused by it were reduced to 1/10.3 of the original values by these safety measures.

  10. Fuzzy Bayesian Network-Bow-Tie Analysis of Gas Leakage during Biomass Gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fang; Xu, Kaili; Yao, Xiwen; Li, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Biomass gasification technology has been rapidly developed recently. But fire and poisoning accidents caused by gas leakage restrict the development and promotion of biomass gasification. Therefore, probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) is necessary for biomass gasification system. Subsequently, Bayesian network-bow-tie (BN-bow-tie) analysis was proposed by mapping bow-tie analysis into Bayesian network (BN). Causes of gas leakage and the accidents triggered by gas leakage can be obtained by bow-tie analysis, and BN was used to confirm the critical nodes of accidents by introducing corresponding three importance measures. Meanwhile, certain occurrence probability of failure was needed in PSA. In view of the insufficient failure data of biomass gasification, the occurrence probability of failure which cannot be obtained from standard reliability data sources was confirmed by fuzzy methods based on expert judgment. An improved approach considered expert weighting to aggregate fuzzy numbers included triangular and trapezoidal numbers was proposed, and the occurrence probability of failure was obtained. Finally, safety measures were indicated based on the obtained critical nodes. The theoretical occurrence probabilities in one year of gas leakage and the accidents caused by it were reduced to 1/10.3 of the original values by these safety measures.

  11. Large Scale Earth's Bow Shock with Northern IMF as Simulated by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    magnetopause—bow shock—PIC code—. MHD model. c Indian Academy of ..... Table 1. The solar wind input scaled parameters for the PIC and their corresponding values for the MHD code. Parameters. PIC code. GUMICS-v4. CPU time.

  12. 76 FR 65717 - City of Broken Bow, OK; Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission City of Broken Bow, OK; Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Assessment In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and the Federal Energy Regulatory... Forest. Staff prepared a final environmental assessment (EA), which analyzes the potential environmental...

  13. The Effect of Buffer Bow Structures on Collision Damages of Oil Tankers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamada, Yasuhira; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Friis-Hansen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    SSCAT for collision scenarios where striking ships at various speeds, sizes and bulb shapes collide perpendicularly with a VLCC in fully loaded condition. The probability of oil spill from the struck VLCC in cases where all the striking ships use buffer bulbous bows was compared with the case where all...

  14. Polarization signatures of bow shocks: A diagnostic tool to constrain the properties of stellar winds and ISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Manisha; Hoffman, Jennifer L.; Nielson, Hilding R.; Ignace, Richard

    2017-01-01

    When a stellar wind traveling at supersonic speed interacts with almost stationary ISM, a bow shock shape is formed. By studying a bow shock, we can obtain information about the properties of the stellar wind as well as the surrounding ISM. Bow shocks are asymmetric structures, and thus produce net polarization even if they are unresolved. Hence, polarization studies of bow shocks can provide complementary constraints on their properties.We simulate the polarization signatures of circumstellar material with bow shock geometries using a Monte Carlo radiative transfer code called SLIP. We use the analytic solution from Wilkin (1996) to define the geometry and mass surface density of the bow shock in our models. We present results from our simulations showing how changing CSM optical depth, CSM albedo, photon source, and scattering particles (electrons or different types of dust particles) affects the observed polarization in both resolved and unresolved cases. In the optically thin regime of the unresolved electron-scattering case, the polarization peaks at an inclination angle of 90°, in agreement with analytical single-scattering models. In optically thick cases, a second polarization peak appears near 130°, which we propose is due to multiple scattering. Given these results, an observed polarization value can constrain the inclination of an unresolved bow shock to two possible angles, which in turn constrain the motion of the star. In case of resolved bow shocks, our simulations produce polarization maps which we compare with observations.We also present results from our dust-scattering simulations, which show that multicolor broadband polarization observations can constrain the characteristics of the dust in a resolved or unresolved bow shock-shaped CSM configuration.

  15. THE ROLE OF PICKUP IONS ON THE STRUCTURE OF THE VENUSIAN BOW SHOCK AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR THE TERMINATION SHOCK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Quanming; Shan Lican; Zhang Tielong; Wu Mingyu; Wang Shui [CAS Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment, Department of Geophysics and Planetary Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Zank, Gary P. [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research (CSPAR), University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Yang Zhongwei [SOA Key Laboratory for Polar Science, Polar Research Institute of China, Shanghai (China); Du Aimin, E-mail: qmlu@ustc.edu.cn [Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2013-08-20

    The recent crossing of the termination shock by Voyager 2 has demonstrated the important role of pickup ions (PUIs) in the physics of collisionless shocks. The Venus Express (VEX) spacecraft orbits Venus in a 24 hr elliptical orbit that crosses the bow shock twice a day. VEX provides a unique opportunity to investigate the role of PUIs on the structure of collisionless shocks more generally. Using VEX observations, we find that the strength of the Venusian bow shock is weaker when solar activity is strong. We demonstrate that this surprising anti-correlation is due to PUIs mediating the Venusian bow shock.

  16. Facing Change in Southeastern North Carolina: How Do We Respond?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Hossfeld

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Once referred to as the "vale of humility between two mountains of conceit," North Carolina has transformed itself from its humble origins to a progressive state embracing the new millennium. From the boom of the Research Triangle to the financial banking hub of Charlotte, the state stands out on many indicators of progress, prosperity and leadership. Yet the very problems that have plagued the state for centuries endure, and the residue of these is the very issue Southeastern North Carolinians must address. Persistent poverty, affordable housing, low incomes and enduring racial inequalities are the age-old problems plaguing our region. Coupled with remarkable population growth and a growing immigrant population, the face of Down East is changing – and how we respond is critical to our future. A number of suggestions on economic development for areas of poverty are suggested.

  17. The genetic structure of the mountain forest butterfly Erebia euryale unravels the late Pleistocene and postglacial history of the mountain coniferous forest biome in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Thomas; Haubrich, Karola

    2008-05-01

    The distribution of the mountain coniferous forest biome in Europe throughout time is not sufficiently understood. One character species of this habitat type is the large ringlet, Erebia euryale well reflecting the extension of this biome today, and the genetic differentiation of this species among and within mountain systems may unravel the late Pleistocene history of this habitat type. We therefore analysed the allozyme pattern of 381 E. euryale individuals from 11 populations in four different European mountain systems (Pyrenees, Alps, Carpathians, Rila). All loci analysed were polymorphic. The mean F(ST) over all samples was high (20%). Furthermore, the mean genetic distance among samples was quite high (0.049). We found four different groups well supported by cluster analyses, bootstraps and hierarchical variance analyses: Pyrenees, western Alps, eastern Alps and southeastern Europe (Carpathians and Rila). The genetic diversity of the populations was highest in the southeastern European group and stepwise decreased westwards. Interestingly, the populations from Bulgaria and Romania were almost identical; therefore, we assume that they were not separated by the Danube Valley, at least during the last ice age. On the contrary, the differentiation among the three western Alps populations was considerable. For all these reasons, we assume that (i) the most important refugial area for the coniferous mountain forest biome in Europe has been located in southeastern Europe including at least parts of the Carpathians and the Bulgarian mountains; (ii) important refugial areas for this biome existed at the southeastern edge of the Alps; (iii) fragments of this habitat types survived along the southwestern Alps, but in a more scattered distribution; and (iv) relatively small relicts have persisted somewhere at the foothills of the Pyrenees.

  18. Mountain Plover [ds109

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Point locations representing observations of mountain plover (Charadrius montanus) feeding and roosting flocks (and occasional individuals) documented during an...

  19. Bow shock models for the velocity structure of ultracompact H II regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Buren, Dave; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark

    1992-01-01

    The velocity structure of ultracompact H II regions is modeled assuming that O stars moving supersonically through molecular clouds sweep up bow shocks to produce the observed objects. The expected radio recombination line emission is calculated for the case of an optically thin continuum and the strong effect of changing the viewing angle is shown. The kinematic information removes the degeneracy with ram pressure of a previous model, allowing measurement of stellar velocity vectors and cloud densities. A detailed model for G29.96-0.02 shows good agreement with observations by Wood and Churchwell, supporting the bow shock hypothesis. It is found that the exciting star of G29 is moving at 20 km/s relative to the gas, suggesting that O stars acquire a large velocity dispersion early in their lives.

  20. MAVEN observations of gyrotropic electron distributions upstream of Mars bow shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meziane, Karim; McFadden, James; Hamza, A. M.; Mazelle, Christian; Jakosky, Bruce; Mitchell, David; Halekas, Jasper; Espley, Jared; Connerney, J. E. D.

    2016-07-01

    Recent observations upstream from the Martian bow shock by the MAVEN Solar Wind Electron Analyzer (SWEA) experiment are presented. Flux enhancements of electrons with energies 70-400 eV are always observed when MAVEN spacecraft is magnetically connected to the shock. A detailed examination of the pitch angle distribution shows that the enhanced fluxes are associated with electrons moving away from Mars. In the full 3-D angular distribution, the electrons appear in an 'annulus' centered along the IMF direction. Moreover, the gyrotropic character is observed over a large range of shock geometry from quasi-parallel to quasi-perpendicular. These signatures in the electron distribution function strongly suggest that the reflection off the shock is the main mechanism for the production of Martian foreshock electrons. A quantitative analysis of electron distributions is carried out in order to probe the characteristics of the Martian bow shock.

  1. ULF waves upstream of the Venus bow shock - Properties of one-hertz waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlowski, D. S.; Russell, C. T.

    1991-01-01

    Pioneer Venus Orbiter data are used here to study the properties of a class of ULF upstream waves with relatively high observed frequencies. These waves show significant similarity to 'one-Hz' waves identified at earth in the ISEE 1 and 2 observations and the whistler waves identified earlier by IMP 6 observations. The waves appear almost immediately after the spacecraft crosses the magnetic field tangent line to the bow shock surface into the region of connected field lines. The wave amplitude decreases with distance from the shock measured along the magnetic field line. Group velocities calculated using the cold plasma dispersion relation indicate that the waves have sufficient upstream velocities to propagate form the shock into the solar wind. The totality of observations seem best explained by a source of right-handed whistler mode waves at the bow shock.

  2. Spatial scales of the magnetic ramp at the Venusian bow shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Dimmock

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Typically multi-spacecraft missions are ideally suited to the study of shock spatial scales due to the separation of temporal and spatial variations. These missions are not possible at all locations and therefore in-situ multi-spacecraft measurements are not available beyond the Earth. The present paper presents a study of shock spatial scales using single spacecraft measurements made by the Venus Express spacecraft. The scales are determined based on previous knowledge of shock overshoot scales measured by the ISEE and Cluster missions. The study encompasses around 60 crossings of the Venusian bow shock from 2006 to 2009. The statistical relationship between the shock ramp spatial scales, overshoot and upstream shock parameters are investigated. We find that despite somewhat different solar wind conditions our results are comparable with those based on multi-spacecraft missions at the terrestrial bow shock.

  3. Characterization of Saturn's bow shock: Magnetic field observations of quasi-perpendicular shocks

    CERN Document Server

    Sulaiman, A H; Dougherty, M K

    2016-01-01

    Collisionless shocks vary drastically from terrestrial to astrophysical regimes resulting in radically different characteristics. This poses two complexities. Firstly, separating the influences of these parameters on physical mechanisms such as energy dissipation. Secondly, correlating observations of shock waves over a wide range of each parameter, enough to span across different regimes. Investigating the latter has been restricted since the majority of studies on shocks at exotic regimes (such as supernova remnants) have been achieved either remotely or via simulations, but rarely by means of in-situ observations. Here we present the parameter space of MA bow shock crossings from 2004-2014 as observed by the Cassini spacecraft. We find that Saturn's bow shock exhibits characteristics akin to both terrestrial and astrophysical regimes (MA of order 100), which is principally controlled by the upstream magnetic field strength. Moreover, we determined the {\\theta}Bn of each crossing to show that Saturn's (days...

  4. Newborn screening in southeastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groselj, Urh; Tansek, Mojca Zerjav; Smon, Andraz; Angelkova, Natalija; Anton, Dana; Baric, Ivo; Djordjevic, Maja; Grimci, Lindita; Ivanova, Maria; Kadam, Adil; Kotori, Vjosa Mulliqi; Maksic, Hajrija; Marginean, Oana; Margineanu, Otilia; Milijanovic, Olivera; Moldovanu, Florentina; Muresan, Mariana; Murko, Simona; Nanu, Michaela; Lampret, Barbka Repic; Samardzic, Mira; Sarnavka, Vladimir; Savov, Aleksei; Stojiljkovic, Maja; Suzic, Biljana; Tincheva, Radka; Tahirovic, Husref; Toromanovic, Alma; Usurelu, Natalia; Battelino, Tadej

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study was to assess the current state of newborn screening (NBS) in the region of southeastern Europe, as an example of a developing region, focusing also on future plans. Responses were obtained from 11 countries. Phenylketonuria screening was not introduced in four of 11 countries, while congenital hypothyroidism screening was not introduced in three of them; extended NBS programs were non-existent. The primary challenges were identified. Implementation of NBS to developing countries worldwide should be considered as a priority. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Energetic Ion Events Measured Upstream the Earth's Bow Shock by STEREO, Cluster, ACE and Geotail: Where is the Origin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronberg, E.; Bucik, R.; Haaland, S.; Klecker, B.; Daly, P. W.; Desai, M. I.; Yamauchi, M.; Gómez-Herrero, R.

    2009-12-01

    In earlier studies (e.g. Desai et al., 2008}) the observations of upstream events up to 3800 R_E were reported during declining phase of the solar cycle in 2007. These upstream events observed by STEREO-A mainly occurred after the corotating compression region passed the Earth's magnetosphere. We study the relation of these upstream events (from about 130 to 1600 R_E away from the Earth) with the observations in the direct vicinity of the terrestrial bow shock (up to X = 18 R_E). For this purpose simultaneous measurements of energetic ions with energies >30 keV by particle instruments onboard STEREO-A, STEREO-B, ACE (far upstream region), and onboard Cluster and Geotail (the direct vicinity of the bow shock) are used. The upstream events are observed simultaneously mainly when the magnetic field is pointing along the line joining those satellites in far upstream region with those near the terrestrial bow shock. Therefore the connection of the magnetic field to the bow shock plays an important role for the occurrence of the many energetic events far upstream. Nevertheless there is a number of energetic events whose origin seems not to be connected to the terrestrial bow shock. Using the estimation of the propagation time of solar wind discontinuities we show that these energetic events convect together with the solar wind, pass the upstream region of the Earth's bow shock and trigger the upstream events in the vicinity of the bow shock, not the other way around. The ion intensity observed by STEREO-A and STEREO-B in these cases is often significantly higher than that observed in front of the bow shock by Cluster and Geotail. This suggests that, particles are accelerated in the solar wind, possibly by enhanced wave activity in high speed streams and corotating interaction regions (CIR).

  6. Observation of Motion of Bowed Strings and Resonant Strings in Violin Performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsutani, Akihiro

    2013-10-01

    The motion of a bowed string and a resonant string of a violin were simultaneously observed for the first time. The results of the direct observation of string motion in double stops and harmonics are also presented. The importance of the resonance was experimentally demonstrated from these observations. It is suggested that players should take account of the resonance and ideal Helmholtz motion in violin performances.

  7. [A drill-bow in Horace, Odes 3.6.7].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moog, Ferdinand Peter

    2004-01-01

    With the short poem Odes 3.26 Horaces says--ostensibly--farewell to the subject of love. A symbol of his retreat is the order given to his followers: they ought to lay in the Temple of Venus the three objects which he has used in his night escapades struggling for the girls' love: lucida funalia (torches), vectis (jemmies), and arcus. The last words has been puzzling the scholars for centuries. Many took offence at the transmitted text and offered conjectures of their own. Some, however, defended arcus using different arguemtns, for instance that arcus refers to bows and arrows as weapons of the lascivious night-reveller. Also the author of this article retains arcus in the text. The context and grammatical construction let assume that also this noun denotes a tool of a burglar, preferably a drill driven by a fiddle-bow. Such instruments were use by carpenters, joiners, and surgeons. Apart from this, gigantic drill-bows were known among military machines. These were frequently applied in sieges. Horace might have seen descriptions and drawings of them in military handbooks which he presumably read in order to prepare himself for his short and rather inglorious career as an officer in the army of Caesar's murderers. For Romans without military experience who suddenly obtained a high rank at war this was a typical way of making good their shortcomings. The parallel between the siege of a town and the attack upon the beloved girl's house must be regarded as a poetic exaggeration; the reader should be amused by an impracticable idea. Furthermore, a possible connection between Horace's poem and the Heracles of Euripides is pointed out here for the first time. In Heracles 942-6 the hero, driven insane by Lyssa's work, asks for his bow, his arrows and siege instruments to take Mycenae, the fortress of his tormentor Eurystheus. In fact he brakes into his own bedroom and kills his spouse and his son.

  8. Self-assembled silver nanoparticles in a bow-tie antenna configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskelinen, Antti-Pekka; Moerland, Robert J; Kostiainen, Mauri A; Törmä, Päivi

    2014-03-26

    The self-assembly of silver nanoparticles into a bow-tie antenna configuration is achieved with the DNA origami method. Instead of complicated particle geometries, spherical silver nanoparticles are used. Formation of the structures in high yields is verified with transmission electron microscopy and agarose gel electrophoresis. According to finite-difference time-domain simulations, the antenna configuration could be used as a DNA sensor.

  9. Increase The Absorptive Capacity Of Light Of The Photocells By Embedded In Bow-tie Antenna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Chenguang [School of Science, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing, 100876 (China); Lang Peilin [Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications (BUPT), Ministry of Education, Beijing 100876 (China); Zhang Ru, E-mail: napolles@sohu.com

    2011-02-01

    The application of silicon photocells has been widely used in biological and energy field, how to improve the efficiency of silicon photocells has become the research hot spots. The light absorption efficiency is not ideal, only 10% to 20% of solar energy can be transformed into electricity, the paper embeds metal bow-tie antenna in the crystals of silicon, by the field enhancement of the surface plasma, it highly increase the absorptive capacity of light of the silicon photocells.

  10. Variation of the ratio of specific heats across a detached bow shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, J. K.; Wiskerchen, M. J.

    1974-01-01

    Equations are derived which allow the ratio of specific heats behind the earth's bow shock to be evaluated if several pre-shock parameters (the specific-heat ratio, the Alfvenic Mach number, the sonic Mach number, and the angle between the shock normal at the stagnation point and the magnetic field) and the density jump across the shock are known. Numerical examples show that the dependence of the post-shock ratio on the pre-shock ratio is weak.

  11. Phenomenology of the earth's bow shock system - A summary description of experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenstadt, E. W.

    1976-01-01

    Observational data on the earth's bow shock system are classified and characterized. Foreshock components, midshock components, and aftershock components are discussed separately. Schematic representations of the field and plasma particle parameters are elaborated, with attention given to quasi-perpendicular geometry and quasi-parallel geometry. Magnetic pulsation structure is delineated. Schematic profiles of field, particle, and wave behavior through a representative quasi-perpendicular shock crossing are displayed.

  12. Using noble gases to investigate mountain-front recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, A.H.; Solomon, D.K.

    2003-01-01

    Mountain-front recharge is a major component of recharge to inter-mountain basin-fill aquifers. The two components of mountain-front recharge are (1) subsurface inflow from the mountain block (subsurface inflow), and (2) infiltration from perennial and ephemeral streams near the mountain front (stream seepage). The magnitude of subsurface inflow is of central importance in source protection planning for basin-fill aquifers and in some water rights disputes, yet existing estimates carry large uncertainties. Stable isotope ratios can indicate the magnitude of mountain-front recharge relative to other components, but are generally incapable of distinguishing subsurface inflow from stream seepage. Noble gases provide an effective tool for determining the relative significance of subsurface inflow, specifically. Dissolved noble gas concentrations allow for the determination of recharge temperature, which is correlated with recharge elevation. The nature of this correlation cannot be assumed, however, and must be derived for the study area. The method is applied to the Salt Lake Valley Principal Aquifer in northern Utah to demonstrate its utility. Samples from 16 springs and mine tunnels in the adjacent Wasatch Mountains indicate that recharge temperature decreases with elevation at about the same rate as the mean annual air temperature, but is on average about 2??C cooler. Samples from 27 valley production wells yield recharge elevations ranging from the valley elevation (about 1500 m) to mid-mountain elevation (about 2500 m). Only six of the wells have recharge elevations less than 1800 m. Recharge elevations consistently greater than 2000 m in the southeastern part of the basin indicate that subsurface inflow constitutes most of the total recharge in this area. ?? 2003 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  13. Farby-Perot observations and new models of the HH 47A and HH 47D bow shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Jon A.; Hartigan, Patrick; Heathcote, Steve; Raymond, John C.; Cecil, Gerald

    1994-01-01

    We present new models for the HH 47A and HH 47D bow shocks based on line flux and velocity maps obtained with an imaging Fabry-Perot spectrometer. We confirm that HH 47A and HH 47D each show a bow shock/Mach disk morphology, and that velocity variability in the outflow can account for the observed structures. While it was suggested a decade ago that the inner working surface HH 47A appears to be traveling into the wake of HH 47D, we find kinematic evidence that the outer bow shock HH 47D is also not the primary ejection event in the outflow but follows in the wake of previously ejected material. By comparing the observed line ratios and line profiles to those predicted by our bow shock models, we find that both bow shocks have substantially lower shock velocities than their space motions would imply, and that the emission from each bow shock is systematically blueshifted from the rest-frame velocity of the ambient emission, indicating a comoving preshock medium. We derive kinematic ages of approximately 1150 yr for HH 47D and approximately 550 yr for HH 47A, which implies that the stellar driving source may undergo repetitive eruptions similar to FU Orionis-type outbursts every several hundred years. This timescale is similar to estimates made by Reipurth and collaborators for the separation between major outbursts in the HH 34 and HH 111 stellar jets.

  14. Ship Bow Force-Deformation Curves for Ship-Impact Demand of Bridges considering Effect of Pile-Cap Depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Fan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since static analysis procedures in the vessel impact-resistant design codes neglect dynamic amplification effects related to bridge mass, ship-impact responses of bridges may be potentially underestimated. For this reason, several dynamic vessel-impact analysis techniques had been recently proposed, where a force-deformation curve was employed to model the vessel bow stiffness. Most of the recent works mainly focused on the force-deformation curves of the barge bows rather than the ship bows. In this paper, a high-resolution finite element model is developed to obtain the ship bow force-deformation curves. The global and local characteristics of the ship bow force-deformation curves are discussed based on the finite element crush analyses between the ship bows and the rigid walls. Effect of pile-cap depth on the force-deformation curves (rather than only impact forces is studied in detail, and the corresponding empirical equations are developed using an energy ratio method. Finally, a practical example of ship-bridge collision is investigated to validate the force-deformation curves considering the effect of pile-cap depth. It is found from the case study that the effect of pile-cap depth plays an important role in quantifying structural demand under impact loads. The case study also indicates that the developed equations are reasonable in practical applications.

  15. The structure of bow shocks formed by the interaction of pulsed-power driven magnetised plasma flows with conducting obstacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdiak, G. C.; Lebedev, S. V.; Bland, S. N.; Clayson, T.; Hare, J.; Suttle, L.; Suzuki-Vidal, F.; Garcia, D. C.; Chittenden, J. P.; Bott-Suzuki, S.; Ciardi, A.; Frank, A.; Lane, T. S.

    2017-07-01

    We present an experimental study of the development and structure of bow shocks produced by the interaction of a magnetised, collisional, super-Alfvénic plasma flow with conducting cylindrical obstacles. The plasma flow with an embedded, frozen-in magnetic field (ReM ˜ 20) is produced by the current-driven ablation of fine aluminium wires in an inverse, exploding wire array z-pinch. We show that the orientation of the embedded field with respect to the obstacles has a dramatic effect on the bow shock structure. When the field is aligned with the obstacle, a sharp bow shock is formed with a global structure that is determined simply by the fast magneto-sonic Mach number. When the field is orthogonal to the obstacle, magnetic draping occurs. This leads to the growth of a magnetic precursor and the subsequent development of a magnetised bow shock that is mediated by two-fluid effects, with an opening angle and a stand-off distance, that are both many times larger than in the parallel geometry. By changing the field orientation, we change the fluid regime and physical mechanisms that are responsible for the development of the bow shocks. MHD simulations show good agreement with the structure of well-developed bow shocks. However, collisionless, two-fluid effects will need to be included within models to accurately reproduce the development of the shock with an orthogonal B-field.

  16. Interactions of massive stars with the interstellar medium: Bow shocks and superbubbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maclow, M.

    1989-01-01

    Stellar winds and supernovae from massive stars carry most of the energy transferred from stars to the interstellar medium. The structures created by these processes reveal glimpses of the movement of mass between stars and the galactic ecological cycle. Two such structures are modeled bow shocks and superbubbles. Multiple supernovae and winds from OB associations carve large holes filled with hot gas in the galactic disk. These superbubbles sweep up thin, cold, dense shells that eventually grow large enough to blow out of the disk, venting hot gas into the galactic halo. To model superbubbles, the blast waves from supernovae within them are analytically described, showing they become subsonic before reaching the walls or cooling radiatively. The Kompaneets or thin-shell approximation are used to numerically model the growth of superbubbles in stratified disks until they become Raleigh-Taylor unstable. ZEUS, a two-dimensional hydrodynamics code was used to follow the breakup of the shell. The differences between the results and previous models are explained. Considering stars with strong winds leads to an explanation for ultracompact H II regions (USHRs). It was proposed that UCHRs are trapped in bow shocks swept up by the winds of massive stars moving supersonically through molecular clouds. A thin shell approximation was used to find the shape of such bow shocks. Simulated maps were produced and compared to G12.21 - 0.01, G29.96 - 0.02, G34.26 + 0.15, and G43.89 - 0.78.

  17. Risk analysis of urban gas pipeline network based on improved bow-tie model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, M. J.; You, Q. J.; Yue, Z.

    2017-11-01

    Gas pipeline network is a major hazard source in urban areas. In the event of an accident, there could be grave consequences. In order to understand more clearly the causes and consequences of gas pipeline network accidents, and to develop prevention and mitigation measures, the author puts forward the application of improved bow-tie model to analyze risks of urban gas pipeline network. The improved bow-tie model analyzes accident causes from four aspects: human, materials, environment and management; it also analyzes the consequences from four aspects: casualty, property loss, environment and society. Then it quantifies the causes and consequences. Risk identification, risk analysis, risk assessment, risk control, and risk management will be clearly shown in the model figures. Then it can suggest prevention and mitigation measures accordingly to help reduce accident rate of gas pipeline network. The results show that the whole process of an accident can be visually investigated using the bow-tie model. It can also provide reasons for and predict consequences of an unfortunate event. It is of great significance in order to analyze leakage failure of gas pipeline network.

  18. High-Energy-Density, Laboratory-Astrophysics Studies of Jets and Bow Shocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, J M; Wilde, B H; Rosen, P A; Perry, T S; Khokhlov, A M; Coker, R F; Frank, A; Keiter, P A; Blue, B E; Drake, R P; Knauer, J P; Williams, R R

    2005-01-24

    Large-scale directional outflows of supersonic plasma, also known as ''jets'', are ubiquitous phenomena in astrophysics [1]. The interaction of such jets with surrounding matter often results in spectacular bow shocks, and intense radiation from radio to gamma-ray wavelengths. The traditional approach to understanding such phenomena is through theoretical analysis and numerical simulations. However, such numerical simulations have limited resolution, often assume axial symmetry, do not include all relevant physical processes, and fail to scale correctly in Reynolds number and perhaps other key dimensionless parameters. Additionally, they are frequently not tested by comparison with laboratory experiments. Recent advances in high-energy-density physics using large inertial-confinement-fusion devices now allow controlled laboratory experiments on macroscopic volumes of plasma of direct relevance relevant to astrophysics [2]. In this Letter we report the first results of experiments designed to study the evolution of supersonic plasma jets and the bow shocks they drive into a surrounding medium. Our experiments reveal both regular and highly complex flow patterns in the bow shock, thus opening a new window--complementary to computer simulations--into understanding the nature of three-dimensional astrophysical jets.

  19. The Asymmetric Bow Shock/Pulsar Wind Nebula of PSR J2124–3358

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romani, Roger W.; Slane, Patrick; Green, Andrew W.

    2017-12-01

    We describe new measurements of the remarkable Hα/UV/X-ray bow shock and pulsar wind nebula (PWN) of the isolated millisecond pulsar (MSP) PSR J2124‑3358. Chandra X-ray Observatory imaging shows a one-sided jet structure with a softer equatorial outflow. KOALA integral field unit spectroscopy shows that non-radiative emission dominates the bow shock and that the Hα nebula is asymmetric about the pulsar velocity with an elongation into the plane of the sky. We extend analytic models of the contact discontinuity to accommodate such shapes and compare these to the data. Using Hubble Space Telescope UV detections of the pulsar and bow shock, radio timing distance, proper motion measurements, and the CXO-detected projected spin axis, we model the 3D PWN momentum flux distribution. The integrated momentum flux depends on the ionization of the ambient ISM, but for an expected ambient warm neutral medium, we infer I=2.4× {10}45 {{g}} {{cm}}2. This implies {M}{NS}=1.6{--}2.1 {M}ȯ , depending on the equation of state, which in turn suggests that the MSP gained significant mass during recycling and then lost its companion. However, this conclusion is at present tentative, since lower ionization allows ∼ 30 % lower masses, and uncertainty in the parallax allows up to 50% error.

  20. Interaction of single-pulse laser energy with bow shock in hypersonic flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Yanji

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Pressure sensing and schlieren imaging with high resolution and sensitivity are applied to the study of the interaction of single-pulse laser energy with bow shock at Mach 5. An Nd:YAG laser operated at 1.06 μm, 100 mJ pulse energy is used to break down the hypersonic flow in a shock tunnel. Three-dimensional Navier–Stokes equations are solved with an upwind scheme to simulate the interaction. The pressure at the stagnation point on the blunt body is measured and calculated to examine the pressure variation during the interaction. Schlieren imaging is used in conjunction with the calculated density gradients to examine the process of the interaction. The results show that the experimental pressure at the stagnation point on the blunt body and schlieren imaging fit well with the simulation. The pressure at the stagnation point on the blunt body will increase when the transmission shock approaches the blunt body and decrease with the formation of the rarefied wave. Bow shock is deformed during the interaction. Quasi-stationary waves are formed by high rate laser energy deposition to control the bow shock. The pressure and temperature at the stagnation point on the blunt body and the wave drag are reduced to 50%, 75% and 81% respectively according to the simulation. Schlieren imaging has provided important information for the investigation of the mechanism of the interaction.

  1. Magnetosheath Filamentary Structures Formed by Ion Acceleration at the Quasi-Parallel Bow Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidi, N.; Sibeck, D.; Gutynska, O.; Trattner, K. J.

    2014-01-01

    Results from 2.5-D electromagnetic hybrid simulations show the formation of field-aligned, filamentary plasma structures in the magnetosheath. They begin at the quasi-parallel bow shock and extend far into the magnetosheath. These structures exhibit anticorrelated, spatial oscillations in plasma density and ion temperature. Closer to the bow shock, magnetic field variations associated with density and temperature oscillations may also be present. Magnetosheath filamentary structures (MFS) form primarily in the quasi-parallel sheath; however, they may extend to the quasi-perpendicular magnetosheath. They occur over a wide range of solar wind Alfvénic Mach numbers and interplanetary magnetic field directions. At lower Mach numbers with lower levels of magnetosheath turbulence, MFS remain highly coherent over large distances. At higher Mach numbers, magnetosheath turbulence decreases the level of coherence. Magnetosheath filamentary structures result from localized ion acceleration at the quasi-parallel bow shock and the injection of energetic ions into the magnetosheath. The localized nature of ion acceleration is tied to the generation of fast magnetosonic waves at and upstream of the quasi-parallel shock. The increased pressure in flux tubes containing the shock accelerated ions results in the depletion of the thermal plasma in these flux tubes and the enhancement of density in flux tubes void of energetic ions. This results in the observed anticorrelation between ion temperature and plasma density.

  2. Spatial distribution and frequency of precipitation during an extreme event: July 2006 mesoscale convective complexes and floods in southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, P.G.; Magirl, C.S.; Webb, R.H.; Pytlak, E.; Troch, Peter A.; Lyon, S.W.

    2009-01-01

    An extreme, multiday rainfall event over southeastern Arizona during 27-31 July 2006 caused record flooding and a historically unprecedented number of slope failures and debris flows in the Santa Catalina Mountains north of Tucson. An unusual synoptic weather pattern induced repeated nocturnal mesoscale convective systems over southeastern Arizona for five continuous days, generating multiday rainfall totals up to 360 mm. Analysis of point rainfall and weather radar data yielded storm totals for the southern Santa Catalina Mountains at 754 grid cells approximately 1 km ?? 1 km in size. Precipitation intensity for the 31 July storms was not unusual for typical monsoonal precipitation in this region (recurrence interval (RI) 50 years and individual grid cells had RI exceeding 1000 years. The 31 July storms caused the watersheds to be essentially saturated following 4 days of rainfall. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  3. Effect of coarse woody debris manipulation on soricid and herpetofaunal communities in upland pine stands of the southeastern coastal plain.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Justin, Charles

    2009-04-01

    Abstract -The majority of studies investigating the importance of coarse woody debris (CWD) to forest- floor vertebrates have taken place in the Pacific Northwest and southern Appalachian Mountains, while comparative studies in the southeastern Coastal Plain are lacking. My study was a continuation of a long-term project investigating the importance of CWD as a habitat component for shrew and herpetofaunal communities within managed pine stands in the southeastern Coastal Plain. Results suggest that addition of CWD can increase abundance of southeastern and southern short-tailed shrews. However, downed wood does not appear to be a critical habitat component for amphibians and reptiles. Rising petroleum costs and advances in wood utilization technology have resulted in an emerging biofuels market with potential to decrease CWD volumes left in forests following timber harvests. Therefore, forest managers must understand the value of CWD as an ecosystem component to maintain economically productive forests while conserving biological diversity.

  4. Mountain Pine Beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gene D. Amman; Mark D. McGregor; Robert E. Jr. Dolph

    1989-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, is a member of a group of beetles known as bark beetles: Except when adults emerge and attack new trees, the mountain pine beetle completes its life cycle under the bark. The beetle attacks and kills lodgepole, ponderosa, sugar, and western white pines. Outbreaks frequently develop in lodgepole pine stands that...

  5. Effect of an isotropic outflow from the Galactic Centre on the bow-shock evolution along the orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajaček, M.; Eckart, A.; Karas, V.; Kunneriath, D.; Shahzamanian, B.; Sabha, N.; Mužić, K.; Valencia-S., M.

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the observations of several infrared-excess bow-shock sources and proplyd-like objects near the Galactic Centre, we analyse the effect of a potential outflow from the centre on bow-shock properties. We show that due to the non-negligible isotropic central outflow the bow-shock evolution along the orbit becomes asymmetric between the pre-peribothron and post-peribothron phases. This is demonstrated by the calculation of the bow-shock size evolution, the velocity along the shocked layer, the surface density of the bow shock, and by emission-measure maps close to the peribothron passage. Within the ambient velocity range of ≲2000 km s-1 the asymmetry is profound and the changes are considerable for different outflow velocities. As a case study we perform model calculations for the Dusty S-cluster Object (DSO/G2) as a potential young stellar object that is currently being monitored and has passed the pericentre at ˜2000 Schwarzschild radii from the supermassive black hole (Sgr A*) in 2014. We show that the velocity field of the shocked layer can contribute to the observed increasing line width of the DSO source up to the peribothron. Subsequently, supposing that the line emission originates in the bow shock, a decrease of the line width is expected. Furthermore, the decline of the bow-shock emission measure in the post-peribothron phase could help to reveal the emission of the putative star. The dominant contribution of circumstellar matter (either inflow or outflow) is consistent with the observed stable luminosity and compactness of the DSO/G2 source during its pericentre passage.

  6. Martian Bow Shock and Magnetic Pile-Up Barrier Formation Due to the Exosphere Ion Mass-Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eojin Kim

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Bow shock, formed by the interaction between the solar wind and a planet, is generated in different patterns depending on the conditions of the planet. In the case of the earth, its own strong magnetic field plays a critical role in determining the position of the bow shock. However, in the case of Mars of which has very a small intrinsic magnetic field, the bow shock is formed by the direct interaction between the solar wind and the Martian ionosphere. It is known that the position of the Martian bow shock is affected by the mass loading-effect by which the supersonic solar wind velocity becomes subsonic as the heavy ions originating from the planet are loaded on the solar wind. We simulated the Martian magnetosphere depending on the changes of the density and velocity of the solar wind by using the three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic model built by modifying the comet code that includes the mass loading effect. The Martian exosphere model of was employed as the Martian atmosphere model, and only the photoionization by the solar radiation was considered in the ionization process of the neutral atmosphere. In the simulation result under the normal solar wind conditions, the Martian bow shock position in the subsolar point direction was consistent with the result of the previous studies. The three-dimensional simulation results produced by varying the solar wind density and velocity were all included in the range of the Martian bow shock position observed by Mariner 4, Mars 2, 3, 5, and Phobos 2. Additionally, the simulation result also showed that the change of the solar wind density had a greater effect on the Martian bow shock position than the change of the solar wind velocity. Our result may be useful in analyzing the future observation data by Martian probes.

  7. Social-value maps for Arapaho, Roosevelt, Medicine Bow, Routt, and White River National Forests, Colorado and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancona, Zachary H.; Semmens, Darius J.; Sherrouse, Benson C.

    2016-03-25

    Executive SummaryThe continued pressures of population growth on the life-sustaining, economic, and cultural ecosystem services provided by our national forests, particularly those located near rapidly growing urban areas, present ongoing challenges to forest managers. Achieving an effective assessment of these ecosystem services includes a proper accounting of the ecological, economic, and social values attributable to them. However, assessments of ecosystem goods and services notably lack information describing the spatial distribution and relative intensity of social values—the perceived, nonmarket values derived particularly from cultural ecosystem services. A geographic information system (GIS) tool developed to fill this need, Social Values for Ecosystem Services (SolVES; http://solves.cr.usgs.gov), now provides the capability to generate social-value maps at a range of spatial scales. This report presents some of the methods behind SolVES, procedures needed to apply the tool, the first formal map products resulting from its application at a regional scale, and a discussion of the management implications associated with this type of information.In this study, we use SolVES to identify the location and relative intensity of social values as derived from survey responses gathered from residents living in counties adjacent to Arapaho, Roosevelt, Medicine Bow, Routt, and White River National Forests. The results, presented as a series of social-value maps, represent the first publicly available spatial data on social-value intensity for the southern Rocky Mountain region. Our analysis identified high-value areas for social values including aesthetic, biodiversity, and life sustaining within wilderness areas. Other values, like recreation, show high-value areas both within wilderness and throughout the general forest areas, which can be attributed to people using the forests for a diverse set of recreational activities. The economic social-value type was lower

  8. Faith Moves Mountains: an Appalachian cervical cancer prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberg, Nancy E; Hatcher, Jennifer; Dignan, Mark B; Shelton, Brent; Wright, Sherry; Dollarhide, Kaye F

    2009-01-01

    To provide a conceptual description of Faith Moves Mountains (FMM), an intervention designed to reduce the disproportionate burden of cervical cancer among Appalachian women. FMM, a community-based participatory research program designed and implemented in collaboration with churches in rural, southeastern Kentucky, aims to increase cervical cancer screening (Pap tests) through a multiphase process of educational programming and lay health counseling. We provide a conceptual overview to key elements of the intervention, including programmatic development, theoretical basis, intervention approach and implementation, and evaluation procedures. After numerous modifications, FMM has recruited and retained over 400 women, 30 churches, and has become a change agent in the community.

  9. Faith Moves Mountains: An Appalachian Cervical Cancer Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Hatcher, Jennifer; Dignan, Mark B.; Shelton, Brent; Wright, Sherry; Dollarhide, Kaye F.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To provide a conceptual description of Faith Moves Mountains (FMM), an intervention designed to reduce the disproportionate burden of cervical cancer among Appalachian women. Methods FMM, a community-based participatory research program designed and implemented in collaboration with churches in rural, southeastern Kentucky, aims to increase cervical cancer screening (Pap tests) through a multiphase process of educational programming and lay health counseling. Results We provide a conceptual overview to key elements of the intervention, including programmatic development, theoretical basis, intervention approach and implementation, and evaluation procedures. Conclusions After numerous modifications, FMM has recruited and retained over 400 women, 30 churches, and has become a change agent in the community. PMID:19320612

  10. Rocky Mountain Arsenal Timeline

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document details all of the major events having occurred at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal from it's establishment on May 2, 1942 up through the document's release...

  11. Diurnal variation of mountain waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Worthington

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Mountain waves could be modified as the boundary layer varies between stable and convective. However case studies show mountain waves day and night, and above e.g. convective rolls with precipitation lines over mountains. VHF radar measurements of vertical wind (1990–2006 confirm a seasonal variation of mountain-wave amplitude, yet there is little diurnal variation of amplitude. Mountain-wave azimuth shows possible diurnal variation compared to wind rotation across the boundary layer.

  12. ANALISA OLAH GERAK KAPAL DI GELOMBANG REGULER PADA KAPAL TIPE AXE BOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romadhoni Romadhoni

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Kapal dengan tipe AXE BOW merupakan pengembangan dari Inovasi Enlarged ship Concept yang di desain dan dikembangkan pada tahun 1995 oleh Delft University dan Damen Shipyard. Konsep Axe- Bow sendiri merupakan re-design bentuk haluan kapal yang pada penelitian sebelumnya dapat memberikan nilai hambatan yang lebih rendah dibandingan haluan tanpa bentuk Axe Bow.  Pada penelitian ini menganalisa tentang enam derajat kebebasan, khususnya pada gerakan vertikal yaitu heaving, pitching dan rolling pada gelombang reguler yang disajikan dalam grafik Response Amplitudo Operator (RAO’s. dengan memasukkan parameter seperti variasi kecepatan serta sudut gelombang yaitu 0°,45°,90° dan 180° kemudian dari grafik dapat terlihat nilai sub-kritis, kritis dan sangat kritis pada setiap gerakan. Perhitungan dilakukan dengan bantuan komputasi software Seakeeper ver.13, Hasil penelitian ini adalah nilai gerakan heave maksimum terjadi pada saat kecepatan 12.68 m/s kondisi sudut datang gelombang 180° dengan nilai RAO sebesar 2,54 m/m pada frekuensi 0,95 rad/s. Selanjutnya terjadi penurunan nilai gerakan roll seiring dengan bertambahnya kecepatan kapal. Nilai roll maksimum terjadi sudut datang gelombang 90° saat kecepatan kapal 0/ms dengan nilai RAO 15.5 deg/m pada frekuensi 0,95 rad/s, sedangkan nilai roll minimum terjadi pada kecepatan 12.68 m/s dengan sudut datang 90o nilai RAO 15.04 deg/m. pada fekuensi 1.25 rad/s. dan gerakan pith maksimum terjadi pada kecepatan kapal 12.68 m/s arah gelombang 180o dengan nilai RAO 11.29 deg/m pada frekuensi 1.0 rad/s.

  13. Southeastern superpave center pooled-fund activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    Much has been learned about materials characteristics, testing procedures, new equipment, mix design, and pavement performance through the many studies conducted as a part of the Southeastern Superpave Center (SSC) pooled-fund program. Lessons learne...

  14. Butterfly Surveys in Southeastern North Dakota : 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goal of this study was to inventory butterflies and skippers on a number of wetland prairie sites in southeastern North Dakota, and pinpoint the location and...

  15. Butterfly Surveys in Southeastern North Dakota : 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goal of this study was to inventory butterflies and skippers on a number of wetland prairie sites in southeastern North Dakota, and pinpoint the location and...

  16. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE DESCRIPTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.M. Simmons

    2004-04-16

    The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' summarizes, in a single document, the current state of knowledge and understanding of the natural system at Yucca Mountain. It describes the geology; geochemistry; past, present, and projected future climate; regional hydrologic system; and flow and transport within the unsaturated and saturated zones at the site. In addition, it discusses factors affecting radionuclide transport, the effect of thermal loading on the natural system, and tectonic hazards. The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' is broad in nature. It summarizes investigations carried out as part of the Yucca Mountain Project since 1988, but it also includes work done at the site in earlier years, as well as studies performed by others. The document has been prepared under the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management quality assurance program for the Yucca Mountain Project. Yucca Mountain is located in Nye County in southern Nevada. The site lies in the north-central part of the Basin and Range physiographic province, within the northernmost subprovince commonly referred to as the Great Basin. The basin and range physiography reflects the extensional tectonic regime that has affected the region during the middle and late Cenozoic Era. Yucca Mountain was initially selected for characterization, in part, because of its thick unsaturated zone, its arid to semiarid climate, and the existence of a rock type that would support excavation of stable openings. In 1987, the United States Congress directed that Yucca Mountain be the only site characterized to evaluate its suitability for development of a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.

  17. Analytic MHD Theory for Earth's Bow Shock at Low Mach Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabbe, Crockett L.; Cairns, Iver H.

    1995-01-01

    A previous MHD theory for the density jump at the Earth's bow shock, which assumed the Alfven M(A) and sonic M(s) Mach numbers are both much greater than 1, is reanalyzed and generalized. It is shown that the MHD jump equation can be analytically solved much more directly using perturbation theory, with the ordering determined by M(A) and M(s), and that the first-order perturbation solution is identical to the solution found in the earlier theory. The second-order perturbation solution is calculated, whereas the earlier approach cannot be used to obtain it. The second-order terms generally are important over most of the range of M(A) and M(s) in the solar wind when the angle theta between the normal to the bow shock and magnetic field is not close to 0 deg or 180 deg (the solutions are symmetric about 90 deg). This new perturbation solution is generally accurate under most solar wind conditions at 1 AU, with the exception of low Mach numbers when theta is close to 90 deg. In this exceptional case the new solution does not improve on the first-order solutions obtained earlier, and the predicted density ratio can vary by 10-20% from the exact numerical MHD solutions. For theta approx. = 90 deg another perturbation solution is derived that predicts the density ratio much more accurately. This second solution is typically accurate for quasi-perpendicular conditions. Taken together, these two analytical solutions are generally accurate for the Earth's bow shock, except in the rare circumstance that M(A) is less than or = 2. MHD and gasdynamic simulations have produced empirical models in which the shock's standoff distance a(s) is linearly related to the density jump ratio X at the subsolar point. Using an empirical relationship between a(s) and X obtained from MHD simulations, a(s) values predicted using the MHD solutions for X are compared with the predictions of phenomenological models commonly used for modeling observational data, and with the predictions of a

  18. Multispacecraft observations of the terrestrial bow shock and magnetopause during extreme solar wind disturbances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatrallyay, M.; Erdos, G.; Nemeth, Z.

    2012-01-01

    by the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) component transverse to the solar wind flow. The observed magnetopause crossings could be predicted with a reasonable accuracy (0.1-0.2 RE) by one of the presented models at least. For geosynchronous magnetopause crossings observed by the GOES satellites, (1) the new model...... interplanetary disturbances. The results of a global 3-D MHD model were in good agreement with the Cluster observations on 17 January 2005, but they did not predict the bow shock crossings on 31 October 2003....

  19. Beam-Steerable Microstrip-Fed Bow-Tie Antenna Array for Fifth Generation Cellular Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ojaroudiparchin, Naser; Shen, Ming; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2016-01-01

    The design and performance of mm-wave phased array antenna for 5G mobile broadband communication systems has been provided in this manuscript. The antenna is designed on a N9000 PTFE substrate with 0.787 mm thickness and 2.2 dielectric constant and 65×130 mm2 overall dimension. Eight elements...... of bow-tie antennas have been used at the top-edge region of mobile phone PCB. The antenna elements fed by microstrip lines are designed to operate at 17 GHz. The simulated results give good performances in terms of different antenna parameters. In addition, an investigation on the distance between...

  20. Estimation of violin bowing features from Audio recordings with Convolutional Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez-Carillo, Alfonso; Purwins, Hendrik

    2017-01-01

    . However, the acquisition process usually involves the use of expensive sensing systems and complex setups that are generally intrusive in practice. An alternative to direct acquisition is through the analysis of the audio signal. So called indirect acquisition has many advantages including the simplicity...... and low-cost of the acquisition and its nonintrusive nature. The main challenge is designing robust detection algorithms to be as accurate as the direct approaches. In this paper, we present an indirect acquisition method to estimate violin bowing controls from audio signal analysis based on training...

  1. Dynamics of ion sound waves in the front of the terrestrial bow shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Giagkiozis

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Single spacecraft measurements from the Cluster 3 satellite are used to identify nonlinear processes in ion-sound turbulence observed within the front of the quasiperpendicular terrestrial bow shock. Ion sound waves possess spatial scales that are too small for the efficient use of multipoint measurements on inter-satellite separation scales. However, it is shown how frequency domain modelling can be applied to single spacecraft electric field data obtained using the EFW internal burst mode. The resulting characteristics of the nonlinear processes are used to argue about the possible wave sources and investigate their dynamics.

  2. Mountain goat abundance and population trends in the Olympic Mountains, northwestern Washington, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Kurt J.; Happe, Patricia J.; Beirne, Katherine F.; Baccus, William T.

    2016-11-30

    Executive SummaryWe estimated abundance and trends of non-native mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) in the Olympic Mountains of northwestern Washington, based on aerial surveys conducted during July 13–24, 2016. The surveys produced the seventh population estimate since the first formal aerial surveys were conducted in 1983. This was the second population estimate since we adjusted survey area boundaries and adopted new estimation procedures in 2011. Before 2011, surveys encompassed all areas free of glacial ice at elevations above 1,520 meters (m), but in 2011 we expanded survey unit boundaries to include suitable mountain goat habitats at elevations between 1,425 and 1,520 m. In 2011, we also began applying a sightability correction model allowing us to estimate undercounting bias associated with aerial surveys and to adjust survey results accordingly. The 2016 surveys were carried out by National Park Service (NPS) personnel in Olympic National Park and by Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) biologists in Olympic National Forest and in the southeastern part of Olympic National Park. We surveyed a total of 59 survey units, comprising 55 percent of the 60,218-hectare survey area. We estimated a mountain goat population of 623 ±43 (standard error, SE). Based on this level of estimation uncertainty, the 95-percent confidence interval ranged from 561 to 741 mountain goats at the time of the survey.We examined the rate of increase of the mountain goat population by comparing the current population estimate to previous estimates from 2004 and 2011. Because aerial survey boundaries changed between 2004 and 2016, we recomputed population estimates for 2011 and 2016 surveys based on the revised survey boundaries as well as the previously defined boundaries so that estimates were directly comparable across years. Additionally, because the Mount Washington survey unit was not surveyed in 2011, we used results from an independent survey of the Mount

  3. Archery by the Apaches – implications of using the bow and arrow in hunter-gatherer communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žiga Šmit

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on the technical and social details of production, training, and use of archery equipment by a Native American tribe, the Apaches. The study aims to understand the use of the bow in the Mesolithic and Early and Middle Neolithic societies of the Old World. The paper further describes arrow ballistics. An arrow and bow with similar dimensions and materials to those used by the Apaches was reconstructed and used in ballistic experiments. Shooting and the subsequent model calculation showed that the effective range of arrows made of reed and projected by a bow of medium strength (16–18kg was not more than approx. 20m. Due to the initial flat part of the ballistic trajectory, such arrows were quite efficient in close-range contests. Within the model calculation, a regression procedure was introduced to determine the arrow air-drag parameters from an ensemble of shots.

  4. Cometary compact H II regions are stellar-wind bow shocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Buren, D.; Mac Low, M.; Wood, D.O.S.; Churchwell, E. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (USA) Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, Toronto (Canada) NASA, Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (USA) Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics, Boulder, CO (USA) Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (USA) Washburn Observatory, Madison, WI (USA))

    1990-04-01

    Comet-shaped H II regions, like G34.3 + 0.2, are easily explained as bow shocks created by wind-blowing massive stars moving supersonically through molecular clouds. The required velocities of the stars through dense clumps are less than about 10 km/s, comparable to the velocity dispersion of stars in OB associations. An analytic model of bow shocks matches the gross characteristics seen in the radio continuum and the velocity structure inferred from hydrogen recombination and molecular line observations. The champagne flow model cannot account for these structures. VLBI observations of masers associated with the shells of cometary compact H II regions should reveal tailward proper motions predominantly parallel to the shell, rather than perpendicular. It is predicted that over a decade baseline, high signal-to-noise VLA observations of this class of objects will show headward pattern motion in the direction of the symmetry axis, but not expansion. Finally, shock-generated and coronal infrared lines are also predicted. 57 refs.

  5. Simulation study of magnetic holes at the Earth's collisionless bow shock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliasson, B; Shukla, P K [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik IV, Fakultaet fuer Physik und Astronomie, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Department of Physics, Umeaa University, SE-90187 Umeaa (Sweden)

    2007-06-15

    Recent observations by the Cluster and Double Star spacecraft at the Earth's bow shock have revealed localized magnetic field and density holes in the solar wind plasma. These structures are characterized by a local depletion of the magnetic field and the plasma density, and by a strong increase of the plasma temperature inside the magnetic and density cavities. Our objective here is to report results of a hybrid-Vlasov simulations of ion-Larmor-radius sized plasma density cavities with parameters that are representative of the high-beta solar wind plasma at the Earth's bow shock. We observe the asymmetric self-steepening and shock-formation of the cavity, and a strong localized temperature increase (by a factor of 5-7) of the plasma due to reflections and shock surfing of the ions against the collisionless shock. Temperature maxima are correlated with density minima, in agreement with Cluster observations. For oblique incidence of the solar wind, we observe efficient acceleration of ions along the magnetic field lines by the shock drift acceleration process.

  6. Ionospheric Bow Waves and Perturbations Induced by the 21 August 2017 Solar Eclipse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shun-Rong; Erickson, Philip J.; Goncharenko, Larisa P.; Coster, Anthea J.; Rideout, William; Vierinen, Juha

    2017-12-01

    During solar eclipses, the Moon's shadow causes a large reduction in atmospheric energy input, including not only the stratosphere but also the thermosphere and ionosphere. The eclipse shadow has a supersonic motion which is theoretically expected to generate atmospheric bow waves, similar to a fast-moving river boat, with waves starting in the lower atmosphere and propagating into the ionosphere. However, previous geographically limited observations have had difficulty detecting these weak waves within the natural background atmospheric variability, and the existence of eclipse-induced ionospheric waves and their evolution in a complex coupling system remain controversial. During the 21 August 2017 eclipse, high fidelity and wide coverage ionospheric observations provided for the first time an oversampled set of eclipse data, using a dense network of Global Navigation Satellite System receivers at ˜2,000 sites in North America. We show the first unambiguous evidence of ionospheric bow waves as electron content disturbances over central/eastern United States, with ˜1 h duration, 300-400 km wavelength and 280 m/s phase speed emanating from and tailing the totality region. We also identify large ionospheric perturbations moving at the supersonic speed of the maximum solar obscuration which are too fast to be associated with known gravity wave or large-scale traveling ionospheric disturbance processes. This study reveals complex interconnections between the Sun, Moon, and Earth's neutral atmosphere and ionosphere and demonstrates persistent coupling processes between different components of the Earth's atmosphere, a topic of significant community interest.

  7. Compound semiconductor alloys: From atomic-scale structure to bandgap bowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnohr, C. S.

    2015-09-01

    Compound semiconductor alloys such as InxGa1-xAs, GaAsxP1-x, or CuInxGa1-xSe2 are increasingly employed in numerous electronic, optoelectronic, and photonic devices due to the possibility of tuning their properties over a wide parameter range simply by adjusting the alloy composition. Interestingly, the material properties are also determined by the atomic-scale structure of the alloys on the subnanometer scale. These local atomic arrangements exhibit a striking deviation from the average crystallographic structure featuring different element-specific bond lengths, pronounced bond angle relaxation and severe atomic displacements. The latter, in particular, have a strong influence on the bandgap energy and give rise to a significant contribution to the experimentally observed bandgap bowing. This article therefore reviews experimental and theoretical studies of the atomic-scale structure of III-V and II-VI zincblende alloys and I-III-VI2 chalcopyrite alloys and explains the characteristic findings in terms of bond length and bond angle relaxation. Different approaches to describe and predict the bandgap bowing are presented and the correlation with local structural parameters is discussed in detail. The article further highlights both similarities and differences between the cubic zincblende alloys and the more complex chalcopyrite alloys and demonstrates that similar effects can also be expected for other tetrahedrally coordinated semiconductors of the adamantine structural family.

  8. Diversity of sponges (Porifera) from cryptic habitats on the Belize barrier reef near Carrie Bow Cay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rützler, Klaus; Piantoni, Carla; Van Soest, Rob W M; Díaz, M Cristina

    2014-05-29

    The Caribbean barrier reef near Carrie Bow Cay, Belize, has been a focus of Smithsonian Institution (Washington) reef and mangrove investigations since the early 1970s. Systematics and biology of sponges (Porifera) were addressed by several researchers but none of the studies dealt with cryptic habitats, such as the shaded undersides of coral rubble, reef crevices, and caves, although a high species diversity was recognized and samples were taken for future reference and study. This paper is the result of processing samples taken between 1972 and 2012. In all, 122 species were identified, 14 of them new (including one new genus). The new species are Tetralophophora (new genus) mesoamericana, Geodia cribrata, Placospongia caribica, Prosuberites carriebowensis, Timea diplasterina, Timea oxyasterina, Rhaphidhistia belizensis, Wigginsia curlewensis, Phorbas aurantiacus, Myrmekioderma laminatum, Niphates arenata, Siphonodictyon occultum, Xestospongia purpurea, and Aplysina sciophila. We determined that about 75 of the 122 cryptic sponge species studied (61%) are exclusive members of the sciophilic community, 47 (39 %) occur in both, light-exposed and shaded or dark habitats. Since we estimate the previously known sponge population of Carrie Bow reefs and mangroves at about 200 species, the cryptic fauna makes up 38 % of total diversity.

  9. Modeling plasma glow discharges in Air near a Mach 3 bow shock with KRONOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassou, Sebastien; Labaune, Julien; Packan, Denis; Elias, Paul-Quentin

    2016-09-01

    In this work, plasma glow discharge in Air is modeled near a Mach 3 bow shock. Numerical simulations are performed using the coupling KRONOS which have been developed at ONERA. The flow field is modeled using the code CFD: CEDRE from ONERA and the electrical and plasma part by the EDF open-source code CODE_SATURNE. The plasma kinetic modeling consists on a two-term Boltzmann equation solver and a chemical reaction solver depending of the electric field. The coupling KRONOS is fully parallelized and run on ONERA supercomputers. The shock wave is formed by the propagation of a supersonic flow (M = 3) through a truncated conical model mounted with a central spike. Depending on the spike's voltage value, corona, glow or arc regime could be obtained in a steady flow. The parameters for the supersonic flow and the spike configurations are chosen to be in glow discharge regime and to reproduce the experimental setup. In our simulations, 12 species and 80 reactions (ionization, electronic or vibrational excitation, attachment etc ...) are considered to properly model the glow discharge and the afterglow. In a stationary flow, glow discharge is observed only at the upstream of the shock wave near the high voltage spike. Behind the bow shock, in the afterglow, negative ions are provided by electrons attachment with O2. The negative ions flow convection ensures the electrical conduction and the establishment of the glow discharge.

  10. Woods with physical, mechanical and acoustic properties similar to those of Caesalpinia echinata have high potential as alternative woods for bow makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Luiz Longui

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available For nearly two hundred years, Caesalpinia echinata wood has been the standard for modern bows. However, the threat of extinction and the enforcement of trade bans have required bow makers to seek alternative woods. The hypothesis tested was that woods with physical, mechanical and acoustic properties similar to those of C. echinata would have high potential as alternative woods for bows. Accordingly, were investigated Handroanthus spp., Mezilaurus itauba, Hymenaea spp., Dipteryx spp., Diplotropis spp. and Astronium lecointei. Handroanthus and Diplotropis have the greatest number of similarities with C. echinata, but only Handroanthus spp. showed significant results in actual bow manufacture, suggesting the importance of such key properties as specific gravity, speed of sound propagation and modulus of elasticity. In practice, Handroanthus and Dipteryx produced bows of quality similar to that of C. echinata.

  11. Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera assemblages in litter in a mountain stream of the Atlantic Rainforest from Southeastern Brazil Comunidades de Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera e Trichoptera em folhiço de um riacho de montanha da Mata Atlântica do Sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera L. Crisci-Bispo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera associated with litter in southeastern Brazil streams aimed to answer the following questions: 1 Does richness and composition of EPT fauna differ between riffle and pool mesohabitats despite being associated to the same substratum, litter? 2 Does the similarity of the EPT fauna between both mesohabitats change with time? 3 Does the EPT functional feeding structure differ between both mesohabitats (riffles-pools? In order to answer these questions, monthly collections, from November 1999 to June 2000, were done in Ribeirão (Stream Bocaina with a D-net (10 litter patches in riffles and 10 in pools. The EPT fauna at Ribeirão Bocaina was more diversified and more abundant in the litter in riffles than in the litter in pools, although, when richness was standardized for the same number of individuals it became similar in both conditions. EPT fauna was very different between both mesohabitats in terms of faunal composition as well as in terms of function. Probably it was due to differences in water speed, in the time of litter residence and in the concentration of dissolved oxygen between both mesohabitats.A fauna de Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera e Trichoptera associadas ao folhiço em um riacho do sudeste do Brasil foi estudada com o objetivo de responder às seguintes questões: 1 A riqueza e a composição faunística de EPT difere entre os dois mesohabitats (corredeira-remanso mesmo quando associadas ao mesmo substrato, folhiço? 2 A similaridade da fauna de EPT entre os dois mesohabitas muda temporalmente? 3 A estrutura funcional de EPT difere entre os dois mesohabitats (corredeira-remanso? Para responder essas questões, coletas mensais, de novembro de 1999 a junho de 2000, foram feitas no Ribeirão Bocaina com rede D (10 acúmulos de folhas em remanso e 10 em corredeira. A fauna de EPT do Ribeirão Bocaina foi mais diversificada e mais abundante no folhiço em corredeira do que no folhi

  12. Debris Flows and Floods in Southeastern Arizona from Extreme Precipitation in July 2006 - Magnitude, Frequency, and Sediment Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Robert H.; Magirl, Christopher S.; Griffiths, Peter G.; Boyer, Diane E.

    2008-01-01

    From July 31 to August 1, 2006, an unusual set of atmospheric conditions aligned to produce record floods and an unprecedented number of slope failures and debris flows in southeastern Arizona. During the week leading up to the event, an upper-level low-pressure system centered over New Mexico generated widespread and locally heavy rainfall in southeastern Arizona, culminating in a series of strong, mesoscale convective systems that affected the region in the early morning hours of July 31 and August 1. Rainfall from July 27 through 30 provided sufficient antecedent moisture that the storms of July 31 through August 1 resulted in record streamflow flooding in northeastern Pima County and eastern Pinal County. The rainfall caused at least 623 slope failures in four mountain ranges, including more than 30 near Bowie Mountain in the northern Chiracahua Mountains, and 113 at the southern end of the Huachuca Mountains within and adjacent to Coronado National Memorial. In the Santa Catalina Mountains north of Tucson, 435 slope failures spawned debris flows on July 31 that, together with flood runoff, damaged structures and roads, affecting infrastructure within Tucson's urban boundary. Heavy, localized rainfall in the Galiuro Mountains on August 1, 2006, resulted in at least 45 slope failures and an unknown number of debris flows in Aravaipa Canyon. In the southern Santa Catalina Mountains, the maximum 3-day precipitation measured at a climate station for July 29-31 was 12.04 in., which has a 1,200-year recurrence interval. Other rainfall totals from late July to August 1 in southeastern Arizona also exceeded 1,000-year recurrence intervals. The storms produced floods of record along six watercourses, and these floods had recurrence intervals of 100-500 years. Repeat photography suggests that the spate of slope failures was historically unprecedented, and geologic mapping and cosmogenic dating of ancient debris-flow deposits indicate that debris flows reaching alluvial

  13. Application of the Bow Tie method for evaluation of safety in the procedure of logging wells; Aplicacion del metodo de Bow Tie para la evaluacion de seguridad en la practica de perfilaje de pozos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfonso Pallares, C; Perez Reyes, Y.; Sarabia Molina, I.I. [Centro Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear (CNSN), La Habana (Cuba)

    2013-07-01

    This work consists of an assessment of security in the practice of logging of oil wells, using the method of Bow Tie for being a simple method of evaluation of the risk, which makes it possible in a structured way to set priorities to manage risk.

  14. STRAWBERRY MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS, OREGON.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, T.P.; Stotelmeyer, Ronald B.

    1984-01-01

    The Strawberry Mountain Wilderness extends 18 mi along the crest of the Strawberry Range and comprises about 53 sq mi in the Malheur National Forest, Grant County, Oregon. Systematic geologic mapping, geochemical sampling and detailed sampling of prospect workings was done. A demonstrated copper resource in small quartz veins averaging at most 0. 33 percent copper with traces of silver occurs in shear zones in gabbro. Two small areas with substantiated potential for chrome occur near the northern edge of the wilderness. There is little promise for the occurrence of additional mineral or energy resources in the Strawberry Mountain Wilderness.

  15. Pulsar Wind Nebulae with Bow Shocks: Non-thermal Radiation and Cosmic Ray Leptons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykov, A. M.; Amato, E.; Petrov, A. E.; Krassilchtchikov, A. M.; Levenfish, K. P.

    2017-07-01

    Pulsars with high spin-down power produce relativistic winds radiating a non-negligible fraction of this power over the whole electromagnetic range from radio to gamma-rays in the pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe). The rest of the power is dissipated in the interactions of the PWNe with the ambient interstellar medium (ISM). Some of the PWNe are moving relative to the ambient ISM with supersonic speeds producing bow shocks. In this case, the ultrarelativistic particles accelerated at the termination surface of the pulsar wind may undergo reacceleration in the converging flow system formed by the plasma outflowing from the wind termination shock and the plasma inflowing from the bow shock. The presence of magnetic perturbations in the flow, produced by instabilities induced by the accelerated particles themselves, is essential for the process to work. A generic outcome of this type of reacceleration is the creation of particle distributions with very hard spectra, such as are indeed required to explain the observed spectra of synchrotron radiation with photon indices Γ≲ 1.5. The presence of this hard spectral component is specific to PWNe with bow shocks (BSPWNe). The accelerated particles, mainly electrons and positrons, may end up containing a substantial fraction of the shock ram pressure. In addition, for typical ISM and pulsar parameters, the e+ released by these systems in the Galaxy are numerous enough to contribute a substantial fraction of the positrons detected as cosmic ray (CR) particles above few tens of GeV and up to several hundred GeV. The escape of ultrarelativistic particles from a BSPWN—and hence, its appearance in the far-UV and X-ray bands—is determined by the relative directions of the interstellar magnetic field, the velocity of the astrosphere and the pulsar rotation axis. In this respect we review the observed appearance and multiwavelength spectra of three different types of BSPWNe: PSR J0437-4715, the Guitar and Lighthouse nebulae, and

  16. Implications of MODIS bow-tie distortion on aerosol optical depth retrievals, and techniques for mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayer, A. M.; Hsu, N. C.; Bettenhausen, C.

    2015-12-01

    The scan geometry of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors, combined with the Earth's curvature, results in a pixel shape distortion known as the "bow-tie effect". Specifically, sensor pixels near the edge of the swath are elongated along-track and across-track compared to pixels near the centre of the swath, resulting in an increase of pixel area by up to a factor of ∼ 9 and, additionally, the overlap of pixels acquired from consecutive scans. The Deep Blue and Dark Target aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieval algorithms aggregate sensor pixels and provide level 2 (L2) AOD at a nominal horizontal pixel size of 10 km, but the bow-tie distortion means that they also suffer from this size increase and overlap. This means that the spatial characteristics of the data vary as a function of satellite viewing zenith angle (VZA) and, for VZA > 30°, corresponding to approximately 50 % of the data, are areally enlarged by a factor of 50 % or more compared to this nominal pixel area and are not spatially independent of each other. This has implications for retrieval uncertainty and aggregated statistics, causing a narrowing of AOD distributions near the edge of the swath, as well as for data comparability from the application of similar algorithms to sensors without this level of bow-tie distortion. Additionally, the pixel overlap is not obvious to users of the L2 aerosol products because only pixel centres, not boundaries, are provided within the L2 products. A two-step procedure is proposed to mitigate the effects of this distortion on the MODIS aerosol products. The first (simple) step involves changing the order in which pixels are aggregated in L2 processing to reflect geographical location rather than scan order, which removes the bulk of the overlap between L2 pixels and slows the rate of growth of L2 pixel size vs. VZA. This can be achieved without significant changes to existing MODIS processing algorithms. The second step involves

  17. Is "Bow" for an Arrow or for Hair? A Classroom Demonstration on Gender Differences in Interpreting Ambiguous Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fa-Kaji, Naomi; Nguyen, Linda; Hebl, Mikki; Skorinko, Jeanine

    2016-01-01

    This article details a classroom demonstration of how gender differences in cognitive schemas can result in men and women differentially interpreting the same information. Students heard a series of six homonyms (e.g., bow and nail) spoken aloud and wrote down the first word with which they free-associated each homonym. When hearing the words…

  18. Effect of an isotropic outflow from the Galactic Centre on the bow-shock evolution along the orbit

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zajaček, Michal; Eckart, A.; Karas, Vladimír; Kunneriath, Devaky; Shahzamanian, B.; Sabha, N.; Muzic, K.; Valencia-S, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 455, č. 2 (2016), s. 1257-1274 ISSN 0035-8711 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GC13-00070J Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : galactic centre * black hole * bow-shock Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.961, year: 2016

  19. A Prospective Evaluation of Duplex Ultrasound for Thoracic Outlet Syndrome in High-Performance Musicians Playing Bowed String Musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garret Adam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS is a neurovascular condition involving the upper extremity, which is known to occur in individuals who perform chronic repetitive upper extremity activities. We prospectively evaluate the incidence of TOS in high-performance musicians who played bowed string musicians. Sixty-four high-performance string instrument musicians from orchestras and professional musical bands were included in the study. Fifty-two healthy volunteers formed an age-matched control group. Bilateral upper extremity duplex scanning for subclavian vessel compression was performed in all subjects. Provocative maneuvers including Elevated Arm Stress Test (EAST and Upper Limb Tension Test (ULTT were performed. Abnormal ultrasound finding is defined by greater than 50% subclavian vessel compression with arm abduction, diminished venous waveforms, or arterial photoplethysmography (PPG tracing with arm abduction. Bowed string instruments performed by musicians in our study included violin (41%, viola (33%, and cello (27%. Positive EAST or ULTT test in the musician group and control group were 44%, and 3%, respectively (p = 0.03. Abnormal ultrasound scan with vascular compression was detected in 69% of musicians, in contrast to 15% of control subjects (p = 0.03. TOS is a common phenomenon among high-performance bowed string instrumentalists. Musicians who perform bowed string instruments should be aware of this condition and its associated musculoskeletal symptoms.

  20. Atelier Bow-Wow on the Representation of Behaviorology: Yosiharu Tsukamoto in conversation with Anne Elisabeth Toft and Christina Capetillo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Anne Elisabeth; Capetillo, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Yoshiharu Tsukamoto discussing the representational practices of Atelier Bow-Wow and its work on “Behaviorology”: How do you represent the seemingly un-representable? How do you depict and illustrate what is not tangible? How do you represent social practices, time-based processes, situations, sp...

  1. Bow-tie risk assessment combining causes and effects applied to gasoil storage in an abandoned salt cavern,

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, K; Hendriks, D.; Wildenborg, T.; Duijne, H.

    2014-01-01

    A semi-quantitative risk assessment is presented for the storage of gas oil in depleted salt caverns in the Twente region, the Netherlands. It is based on a bow-tie model, in which an incident, leakage of gas oil from the storage system (cavern and wells), is evaluated by assessing its possible

  2. Regeneration in United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service mixed conifer partial cuttings in the Blue Mountains of Oregon and Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.W. Seidel; S. Conrade. Head

    1983-01-01

    A survey in the Blue Mountains of north-eastern Oregon and southeastern Washington showed that, on the average, partial cuts in the grand fir/big huckleberry community were well stocked with a mixture of advance, natural post-harvest, and planted reproduction of a number of species. Partial cuts in the mixed conifer/pinegrass community had considerably fewer seedlings...

  3. Southeastern Power Administration 2012 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-01-01

    Dear Secretary Moniz: I am pleased to submit Southeastern Power Administration’s (Southeastern) fiscal year (FY) 2012 Annual Report for your review. This report reflects our agency’s programs, accomplishments, operational, and financial activities for the 12-month period beginning October 1, 2011, and ending September 30, 2012. This past year, Southeastern marketed approximately 5.4 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to 487 wholesale customers in 10 southeastern states. Revenues from the sale of this power totaled about $263 million. With the financial assistance and support of Southeastern’s customers, funding for capitalized equipment purchases and replacements at hydroelectric facilities operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) continued in FY 2012. Currently, there are more than 214 customers participating in funding infrastructure renewal efforts of powerplants feeding the Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina, Kerr-Philpott, and Cumberland Systems. This funding, which totaled more than $71 million, provided much needed repairs and maintenance for aging projects in Southeastern’s marketing area. Drought conditions continued in the southeastern region of the United States this past year, particularly in the Savannah River Basin. Lack of rainfall strained our natural and financial resources. Power purchases for FY 2012 in the Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina System totaled approximately $29 million. About $8 million of this amount was for replacement power, which is purchased only during adverse water conditions in order to meet Southeastern’s customer contract requirements. Southeastern’s goal is to maximize the benefits of our region’s water resources. Competing uses of these resources will present another challenging year for Southeastern’s employees. With the cooperation and communication among the Department of Energy (DOE), preference customers, and Corps, I am certain Southeastern is positioned to meet these challenges in the future. We

  4. Southeastern Power Administration 2011 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-12-31

    Dear Secretary Chu: I am pleased to submit Southeastern Power Administration’s (Southeastern) fiscal year (FY) 2011 Annual Report for your review. This report reflects our agency’s programs, accomplishments, operational, and financial activities for the 12-month period beginning October 1, 2010, and ending September 31, 2011. This past year, Southeastern marketed approximately 6.2 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to 489 wholesale customers in 10 southeastern states. Revenues from the sale of this power totaled more than $264 million. With the financial assistance and support of Southeastern’s customers, funding for capitalized equipment purchases and replacements at hydroelectric facilities operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) continued in FY 2011. This funding, which totaled more than $45 million, provided much needed repairs and maintenance for aging projects in Southeastern’s marketing area. Currently, there are more than 214 customers participating in the funding efforts in the Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina, Kerr-Philpott, and Cumberland Systems of projects. Drought conditions continued in the southeastern region of the United States this past year, particularly in the Savannah River Basin. Lack of rain placed strains on our natural and financial resources. Power purchases for FY 2011 totaled approximately $38 million. About $9 million of this amount was for replacement power, which is purchased only during adverse water conditions in order to meet Southeastern’s customer contract requirements. Southeastern’s goal is to maximize the benefits of our region’s water resources. Competing uses of these resources will present another challenging year for Southeastern’s employees. With the cooperation and communication among the Department of Energy (DOE), preference customers, and Corps, I am certain Southeastern is positioned to meet these challenges in the future. We are committed to providing reliable hydroelectric power to

  5. Elevation Pattern in Growth Coherency on the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Lixin; Deng, Xu; Zhang, Qi-Bin

    2016-01-01

    It is generally expected that inter-annual changes in radial growth among trees would be similar to the increase in altitude due to the limitation of increasingly harsher climatic factors. Here, we examine whether this pattern exists in alpine forests on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau. Increment cores were collected from mature trees at the lower, middle and upper limits of balfour spruce (Picea likiangensis var. balfouriana (Rehd. et Wils.) Hillier ex Slsvin) forests at the Buze and Yela Mountains in Basu County, Changdu Prefecture of Tibet, China. The treeline elevations are 4320 m and 4510 m a.s.l. for Buze and Yela, respectively. Tree-ring widths were measured, crossdated, and detrended to obtain a sequence of ring-width indices for each individual sample. Annual growth rate, climate sensitivity, growth-climate relationships, and growth synchrony among trees were calculated and compared across altitudes. In Buze Mountain, the annual growth rate of trees has no significant difference across altitudes. The mean sensitivity of trees is lower at the treelines than at lower elevations. Tree growth has stronger correlation with winter temperature at upper elevations than at lower elevations, has significant correlation with moisture, not temperature, in the growing season, and the growth response to moisture is lower at the treeline than at lower elevations. The correlation among individual tree-ring sequences is lower at the treeline than at sites at lower elevation. In Yela Mountain, the characterisitics of annual growth rate, mean sensitivity, tree growth-climate relationships, and inter-serial correlation are similar to those in Buze, but their differences along altitudinal gradients are less significant as those in Buze. Our data do not support the general expectation of growth convergence among individuals with increasing altitude. We conclude that individual heterogeneity and microhabitat diversity are important features for treeline trees that may dampen

  6. Elevation Pattern in Growth Coherency on the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixin Lyu

    Full Text Available It is generally expected that inter-annual changes in radial growth among trees would be similar to the increase in altitude due to the limitation of increasingly harsher climatic factors. Here, we examine whether this pattern exists in alpine forests on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau. Increment cores were collected from mature trees at the lower, middle and upper limits of balfour spruce (Picea likiangensis var. balfouriana (Rehd. et Wils. Hillier ex Slsvin forests at the Buze and Yela Mountains in Basu County, Changdu Prefecture of Tibet, China. The treeline elevations are 4320 m and 4510 m a.s.l. for Buze and Yela, respectively. Tree-ring widths were measured, crossdated, and detrended to obtain a sequence of ring-width indices for each individual sample. Annual growth rate, climate sensitivity, growth-climate relationships, and growth synchrony among trees were calculated and compared across altitudes. In Buze Mountain, the annual growth rate of trees has no significant difference across altitudes. The mean sensitivity of trees is lower at the treelines than at lower elevations. Tree growth has stronger correlation with winter temperature at upper elevations than at lower elevations, has significant correlation with moisture, not temperature, in the growing season, and the growth response to moisture is lower at the treeline than at lower elevations. The correlation among individual tree-ring sequences is lower at the treeline than at sites at lower elevation. In Yela Mountain, the characterisitics of annual growth rate, mean sensitivity, tree growth-climate relationships, and inter-serial correlation are similar to those in Buze, but their differences along altitudinal gradients are less significant as those in Buze. Our data do not support the general expectation of growth convergence among individuals with increasing altitude. We conclude that individual heterogeneity and microhabitat diversity are important features for treeline trees

  7. Elevation Pattern in Growth Coherency on the Southeastern Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Lixin; Deng, Xu; Zhang, Qi-Bin

    It is generally expected that inter-annual changes in radial growth among trees would be similar to the increase in altitude due to the limitation of increasingly harsher climatic factors. Here, we examine whether this pattern exists in alpine forests on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau. Increment cores were collected from mature trees at the lower, middle and upper limits of balfour spruce (Picea likiangensis var. balfouriana (Rehd. et Wils.) Hillier ex Slsvin) forests at the Buze and Yela Mountains in Basu County, Changdu Prefecture of Tibet, China. The treeline elevations are 4320 m and 4510 m a.s.l. for Buze and Yela, respectively. Tree-ring widths were measured, crossdated, and detrended to obtain a sequence of ring-width indices for each individual sample. Annual growth rate, climate sensitivity, growth-climate relationships, and growth synchrony among trees were calculated and compared across altitudes. In Buze Mountain, the annual growth rate of trees has no significant difference across altitudes. The mean sensitivity of trees is lower at the treelines than at lower elevations. Tree growth has stronger correlation with winter temperature at upper elevations than at lower elevations, has significant correlation with moisture, not temperature, in the growing season, and the growth response to moisture is lower at the treeline than at lower elevations. The correlation among individual tree-ring sequences is lower at the treeline than at sites at lower elevation. In Yela Mountain, the characterisitics of annual growth rate, mean sensitivity, tree growth-climate relationships, and inter-serial correlation are similar to those in Buze, but their differences along altitudinal gradients are less significant as those in Buze. Our data do not support the general expectation of growth convergence among individuals with increasing altitude. We conclude that individual heterogeneity and microhabitat diversity are important features for treeline trees that may dampen

  8. Post-Gondwanan continental sedimentaiton, Limpopo region, southeastern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botha, G. A.; De Wit, M. C. J.

    1996-08-01

    The post-Karoo age sedimentary succession known formerly as the Malvernia Formation, is currently termed the Malonga Formation, 'Formaçao de Sena', 'Formaçao de Singuédeze/Elefantes' and Gona-re-Zhou Plateau Beds in the Limpopo Basin region where South Africa, Mozambique and Zimbabwe have common borders. These rocks represent continental, taphrogenic sedimentation on the eastern margin of the emergent African continent after the breakup of Gondwana. The wide occurrence of this system along the northern Lebombo mountains and within the tectonically active Limpopo and Zambezi valleys, suggests the existence of a peidmont landsurface comprising coalesced alluvial fans and major fluvial channel/floodplain systems close to the continental margin during the Late Mesozoic to Early Cainozoic era. Sedimentation followed the long period of eustatic uplift associated with Karoo vulcanicity and the extensional tectonics and rifting along the continental margin and within the proto-Limpopo and Zambezi valleys. The Malonga Formation exposed near Pafuri in the extreme NW of South Africa shows an eastward lithological change from homogeneous, poorly-sorted, thinly-bedded sandstones and conglomerates, deposited by sheetflood action, to a sequence of fining-upward units comprising clast-supported pebble to boulder grade conglomerate and overlying planar bedded silt and sand, deposited in fluvial channel and floodplain environments. The homogeneous, silty succession exposed in the Olifants River valley, east of the Lebombo mountains in Mozambique, possibly represents the distal reaches of this system. Calcareous palaeosols developed within the sedimentary units suggest periodic geomorphic stability on the broad alluvial plain. Further north in southeastern Zimbabwe, laterally continuous depositional units comprising thinly-bedded, poorly-sorted, matrix-supported conglomerate, interbedded with very coarse-grained sandstone, is consistent with deposition on an alluvial fan complex

  9. Rocky Mountain Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutkiewicz, Jody Steiner, Ed.

    This publication features articles detailing the state of educational programs in the Rocky Mountain area. The articles address: 1) the impact of physical geography on culture, education, and lifestyle; 2) the education of migrant and/or agricultural workers and their children; 3) educational needs of children in rural areas; 4) outdoor education;…

  10. Rocky Mountain High.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, David

    2001-01-01

    Describes Colorado's Eagle Rock School, which offers troubled teens a fresh start by transporting them to a tuition- free campus high in the mountains. The program encourages spiritual development as well as academic growth. The atmosphere is warm, loving, structured, and nonthreatening. The article profiles several students' experiences at the…

  11. Nowcasting and forecasting of the magnetopause and bow shock—A status update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrinec, S. M.; Redmon, R. J.; Rastaetter, L.

    2017-01-01

    There has long been interest in knowing the shape and location of the Earth's magnetopause and of the standing fast-mode bow shock upstream of the Earth's magnetosphere. This quest for knowledge spans both the research and operations arenas. Pertinent to the latter, nowcasting and near-term forecasting are important for determining the extent to which the magnetosphere is compressed or expanded due to the influence of the solar wind bulk plasma and fields and the coupling to other magnetosphere-ionosphere processes with possible effects on assets. This article provides an update to a previous article on the same topic published 15 years earlier, with focus on studies that have been conducted, the current status of nowcasting and forecasting of geophysical boundaries, and future endeavors.

  12. Gyrating ions and large-amplitude monochromatic MHD waves upstream of the earth's bow shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, M. F.; Gosling, J. T.; Bame, S. J.; Rusell, C. T.

    1985-01-01

    Episodes of nearly monochromatic, low-frequency (0.03 Hz) hydromagnetic waves are occasionally observed upstream of the earth's bow shock. High time resolution (3 s) measurements of two-dimensional ion distributions during two nearly monochromatic wave events reveal that the ion distributions asociated with these waves are 'gyrating ions.' Such distributions consists of suprathermal ions with parallel and perpendicular velocities confined to a fairly narrow range of (nonzero) values. The ions are also often confined to a fairly narrow range of gyrophase angle ('gyrophase bunched'). In one of the two cases, the observed frequency of the waves agrees quite well with the Doppler shifted resonance frequency of waves in right-hand resonance with the observed gyrating ions. In the second case, the observed frequency is lower than the predicted frequency by a factor of 1.5-2.

  13. Short term memory bowing effect is consistent with presentation rate dependent decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnow, Eugen

    2010-12-01

    I reanalyze the free recall data of Murdock, J Exp Psychol 64(5):482-488 (1962) and Murdock and Okada, J Verbal Learn and Verbal Behav 86:263-267 (1970) which show the famous bowing effect in which initial and recent items are recalled better than intermediate items (primacy and recency effects). Recent item recall probabilities follow a logarithmic decay with time of recall consistent with the tagging/retagging theory. The slope of the decay increases with increasing presentation rate. The initial items, with an effectively low presentation rate, decay with the slowest logarithmic slope, explaining the primacy effect. The finding that presentation rate limits the duration of short term memory suggests a basis for memory loss in busy adults, for the importance of slow music practice, for long term memory deficiencies for people with attention deficits who may be artificially increasing the presentation rates of their surroundings. A well-defined, quantitative measure of the primacy effect is introduced.

  14. On the proper Mach number and ratio of specific heats for modeling the Venus bow shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatrallyay, M.; Russell, C. T.; Luhmann, J. G.; Barnes, A.; Mihalov, J. D.

    1984-01-01

    Observational data from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter are used to investigate the physical characteristics of the Venus bow shock, and to explore some general issues in the numerical simulation of collisionless shocks. It is found that since equations from gas-dynamic (GD) models of the Venus shock cannot in general replace MHD equations, it is not immediately obvious what the optimum way is to describe the desired MHD situation with a GD code. Test case analysis shows that for quasi-perpendicular shocks it is safest to use the magnetospheric Mach number as an input to the GD code. It is also shown that when comparing GD predicted temperatures with MHD predicted temperatures total energy should be compared since the magnetic energy density provides a significant fraction of the internal energy of the MHD fluid for typical solar wind parameters. Some conclusions are also offered on the properties of the terrestrial shock.

  15. Large amplitude MHD waves upstream of the Jovian bow shock: Reinterpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, M. L.; Wong, H. K.; Vinas, A. F.; Smith, C. W.

    1984-01-01

    Observations of large amplitude magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves upstream of the Jovian bow shock were previously interpreted as arising from a resonant electromagnetic ion beam instability. That interpretation was based on the conclusion that the observed fluctuations were predominantly right elliptically polarized in the solar wind rest frame. Because it was noted that the fluctuations are, in fact, left elliptically polarized, a reanalysis of the observations was necessary. Several mechanisms for producing left hand polarized MHD waves in the observed frequency range were investigated. Instabilities excited by protons appear unlikely to account for the observations. A resonant instability excited by relativistic electrons escaping from the Jovian magnetosphere is a likely source of free energy consistent with the observations. Evidence for the existence of such a population of electrons was found in both the Low Energy Charged Particle experiments and Cosmic Ray experiments on Voyager 2.

  16. Large-amplitude MHD waves upstream of the Jovian bow shock Reinterpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, M. L.; Wong, H. K.; Vinas, A. F.; Smith, C. W.

    1985-01-01

    Observations of large amplitude magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves upstream of the Jovian bow shock were previously interpreted as arising from a resonant electromagnetic ion beam instability. That interpretation was based on the conclusion that the observed fluctuations were predominantly right elliptically polarized in the solar wind rest frame. Because it was noted that the fluctuations are, in fact, left elliptically polarized, a reanalysis of the observations was necessary. Several mechanisms for producing left hand polarized MHD waves in the observed frequency range were investigated. Instabilities excited by protons appear unlikely to account for the observations. A resonant instability excited by relativistic electrons escaping from the Jovian magnetosphere is a likely source of free energy consistent with the observations. Evidence for the existence of such a population of electrons was found in both the Low Energy Charged Particle experiments and Cosmic Ray experiments on Voyager 2.

  17. A Multi-wavelength Study of an Isolated MSP Bow Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romani, Roger W.; Slane, Patrick; Green, Andrew

    2017-08-01

    PSR J2124-3358 is the only single MSP known to sport an Halpha bow shock. This shock, now also seen in the UV, encloses an unusual X-ray pulsar wind nebula (PWN) with a long off-axis trail. Combining the X-ray and UV images with AAT/KOALA integral field spectroscopy of the Halpha emission, we have an unusually complete picture of the pulsar's (101 km/s transverse) motion and the latitudinal distribution of its wind flux. These images reveal the 3-D orientation of a hard-spectrum PWN jet and a softer equatorial outflow. Within the context of a thin shock model, we can constrain the total energy output of the pulsar and the neutron star moment of inertia. The IFU spectra show extreme Balmer dominance, which also constrains the nature of the UV shock emission.

  18. Recurrent juvenile ischemic stroke caused by bow hunter's stroke revealed by carotid duplex ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takekawa, Hidehiro; Suzuki, Keisuke; Nishihira, Takahito; Iwasaki, Akio; Hoshiyama, Eisei; Okamura, Madoka; Numao, Ayaka; Suzuki, Shiho; Hirata, Koichi

    2015-07-01

    Bow hunter's stroke (BHS) is a rare cause of vertebrobasilar insufficiency due to rotational vertebral artery (VA) occlusion associated with head turning. We report a juvenile patient presenting with recurrent ischemic stroke caused by BHS, which was revealed by carotid duplex ultrasonography. Carotid duplex ultrasonography performed in the neutral position showed normal findings. However, disappearance of end-diastolic blood flow of contralateral VAs was observed with head rotation. Digital subtraction angiography confirmed occlusion at C1/2 levels in the VA contralateral to the head rotation, bilaterally. Importantly, our patient did not recognize the association of head rotation and previous episodes of stroke. We suggest that BHS should be considered in patients with cryptogenic stroke occurring in the vertebrobasilar artery territory.

  19. Phase ordering of zig-zag and bow-shaped hard needles in two dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavarone, Raffaele; Charbonneau, Patrick; Stark, Holger

    2015-09-21

    We perform extensive Monte Carlo simulations of a two-dimensional bent hard-needle model in both its chiral zig-zag and its achiral bow-shape configurations and present their phase diagrams. We find evidence for a variety of stable phases: isotropic, quasi-nematic, smectic-C, anti-ferromorphic smectic-A, and modulated-nematic. This last phase consists of layers formed by supramolecular arches. They create a modulation of the molecular polarity whose period is sensitively controlled by molecular geometry. We identify transition densities using correlation functions together with appropriately defined order parameters and compare them with predictions from Onsager theory. The contribution of the molecular excluded area to deviations from Onsager theory and simple liquid crystal phase morphology is discussed. We demonstrate the isotropic-quasi-nematic transition to be consistent with a Kosterlitz-Thouless disclination unbinding scenario.

  20. From Bows to Sound-Chests: Tracing the Ancestry of the Violin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janelle R. Finley

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The ancestry of the violin is a subject that has been studied, researched, debated, and written about in great detail. However, despite all of the research and study, the ancestry of the violin is still not certain. This paper presents two schools of thought that propose different theories as to how the ancestry of the violin should be determined and what instruments should be included in the ancestry of the violin. The first school of thought proposes that the violin’s ancestry should be traced through the bow. The second theory proposes that the violin’s ancestry should be traced through the sound-chest of the violin. This paper also presents the different arguments for and against each theory, the importance of this topic, and the paper’s position on this topic. Research for this paper was accomplished through the use of scholarly books on the subject of the history of the violin.

  1. The effects of cervical headgear with an expanded inner bow in the permanent dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlik, Selin Kale; Iscan, Hakan N

    2008-08-01

    In this study, the effects of cervical headgear (CHG) use on the transverse dimension of the maxillary dental arch were evaluated in patients in the permanent dentition. Thirteen girls and 12 boys (mean age: 13.41 +/- 0.52 years) with a bilateral full cusp Class II molar relationship comprised the study group. Fifteen girls and 10 boys with a Class I normal occlusion comprised the controls. In the treatment group, CHG with an expanded inner bow was used for a mean period of 11.2 +/- 5.6 months. The headgear was used for molar distalization and the force magnitude was 196.1 cN. After CHG treatment, the patients underwent non-extraction fixed orthodontic treatment for 14.1 +/- 2.5 months. During this period, the control group received regular dental check-ups. Dental casts obtained at the beginning (T1) and end (T2) of headgear use and at the end of orthodontic treatment (T3) and posteroanterior cephalograms taken at T1 and T2 were evaluated. A Student's t-test was used for intergroup comparison at T1, T2, and T3 and a Mann-Whitney U-test with a Bonferroni correction for comparison of treatment/observation changes. At T2, intercanine (0.96 +/- 0.56 mm), interpremolar (1.6 +/- 0.55 mm for the first premolar, 1.74 +/- 0.65 mm for the second premolar), and intermolar (2.31 +/- 0.75 mm) widths increased, while the distance between the intersection of the zygomatic process and the maxillary alveolar process on the right (JR) and left (JL) did not change. Fixed orthodontic treatment did not have any effect on any of the measurements. With the intentional expansion of the inner bow of CHG, the amount of maxillary dental arch expansion achieved in the permanent dentition was statistically significant (P < 0.017).

  2. Electron Scattering by High-Frequency Whistler Waves at Earth's Bow Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, M.; Wilson, L. B., III; Phan, T. D.; Hull, A. J.; Amano, T.; Hoshino, M.; Argall, M. R.; Le Contel, O.; Agapitov, O.; Gersham, D. J.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Electrons are accelerated to non-thermal energies at shocks in space and astrophysical environments. While different mechanisms of electron acceleration have been proposed, it remains unclear how non-thermal electrons are produced out of the thermal plasma pool. Here, we report in situ evidence of pitch-angle scattering of non-thermal electrons by whistler waves at Earths bow shock. On 2015 November 4, the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission crossed the bow shock with an Alfvn Mach number is approximately 11 and a shock angle of approximately 84deg. In the ramp and overshoot regions, MMS revealed bursty enhancements of non-thermal (0.52 keV) electron flux, correlated with high-frequency (0.2 - 0.4 Omega(sub ce), where Omega(sub ce) is the cyclotron frequency) parallel-propagating whistler waves. The electron velocity distribution (measured at 30 ms cadence) showed an enhanced gradient of phase-space density at and around the region where the electron velocity component parallel to the magnetic field matched the resonant energy inferred from the wave frequency range. The flux of 0.5 keV electrons (measured at 1ms cadence) showed fluctuations with the same frequency. These features indicate that non-thermal electrons were pitch-angle scattered by cyclotron resonance with the high-frequency whistler waves. However, the precise role of the pitch-angle scattering by the higher-frequency whistler waves and possible nonlinear effects in the electron acceleration process remains unclear.

  3. Electron Scattering by High-frequency Whistler Waves at Earth’s Bow Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, M.; Wilson, L. B., III; Phan, T. D.; Hull, A. J.; Amano, T.; Hoshino, M.; Argall, M. R.; Le Contel, O.; Agapitov, O.; Gershman, D. J.; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.; Burch, J. L.; Torbert, R. B.; Pollock, C.; Dorelli, J. C.; Giles, B. L.; Moore, T. E.; Saito, Y.; Avanov, L. A.; Paterson, W.; Ergun, R. E.; Strangeway, R. J.; Russell, C. T.; Lindqvist, P. A.

    2017-06-01

    Electrons are accelerated to non-thermal energies at shocks in space and astrophysical environments. While different mechanisms of electron acceleration have been proposed, it remains unclear how non-thermal electrons are produced out of the thermal plasma pool. Here, we report in situ evidence of pitch-angle scattering of non-thermal electrons by whistler waves at Earth’s bow shock. On 2015 November 4, the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission crossed the bow shock with an Alfvén Mach number ˜11 and a shock angle ˜84°. In the ramp and overshoot regions, MMS revealed bursty enhancements of non-thermal (0.5-2 keV) electron flux, correlated with high-frequency (0.2-0.4 {{{Ω }}}{ce}, where {{{Ω }}}{ce} is the cyclotron frequency) parallel-propagating whistler waves. The electron velocity distribution (measured at 30 ms cadence) showed an enhanced gradient of phase-space density at and around the region where the electron velocity component parallel to the magnetic field matched the resonant energy inferred from the wave frequency range. The flux of 0.5 keV electrons (measured at 1 ms cadence) showed fluctuations with the same frequency. These features indicate that non-thermal electrons were pitch-angle scattered by cyclotron resonance with the high-frequency whistler waves. However, the precise role of the pitch-angle scattering by the higher-frequency whistler waves and possible nonlinear effects in the electron acceleration process remains unclear.

  4. Injection and acceleration of H+ and He2+ at Earth's bow shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Scholer

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available We have performed a number of one-dimensional hybrid simulations (particle ions, massless electron fluid of quasi-parallel collisionless shocks in order to investigate the injection and subsequent acceleration of part of the solar wind ions at the Earth's bow shock. The shocks propagate into a medium containing magnetic fluctuations, which are initially superimposed on the background field, as well as generated or enhanced by the electromagnetic ion/ion beam instability between the solar wind and backstreaming ions. In order to study the mass (M and charge (Q dependence of the acceleration process He2+ is included self-consistently. The upstream differential intensity spectra of H+ and He2+ can be well represented by exponentials in energy. The e-folding energy Ec is a function of time: Ec increases with time. Furthermore the e-folding energy (normalized to the shock ramming energy Ep increases with increasing Alfvén Mach number of the shock and with increasing fluctuation level of the initially superimposed turbulence. When backstreaming ions leave the shock after their first encounter they exhibit already a spectrum which extends to more than ten times the shock ramming energy and which is ordered in energy per charge. From the injection spectrum it is concluded that leakage of heated downstream particles does not contribute to ion injection. Acceleration models that permit thermal particles to scatter like the non-thermal population do not describe the correct physics.Key words. Interplanetary physics (planetary bow shocks · Space plasma physics (charged particle motion and acceleration; numerical simulation studies

  5. Late Holocene environmental change and human impact inferred from three soil monoliths and the Laguna Zurita multi-proxi record in the southeastern Ecuadorian Andes

    OpenAIRE

    Niemann, Holger; Behling,Hermann

    2009-01-01

    Late Holocene vegetation, climate and fire dynamics of mountain forest and paramo ecosystems, as well as human impact, are presented from the upper Rio San Francisco valley, southeastern Ecuadorian Andes. Palaeoenvironmental changes, inferred from three soil monoliths, spanning an altitudinal gradient between 1,990 and 3,200 m and the high resolution multi-proxy sediment record from Laguna Zurita (2,590 m), were investigated by pollen, spore and charcoal analyses, in combination with XRF- and...

  6. Automated bow shock and radiation belt edge identification methods and their application for Cluster, THEMIS/ARTEMIS and Van Allen Probes data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facsko, Gabor; Sibeck, David; Balogh, Tamas; Kis, Arpad; Wesztergom, Viktor

    2017-04-01

    The bow shock and the outer rim of the outer radiation belt are detected automatically by our algorithm developed as a part of the Boundary Layer Identification Code Cluster Active Archive project. The radiation belt positions are determined from energized electron measurements working properly onboard all Cluster spacecraft. For bow shock identification we use magnetometer data and, when available, ion plasma instrument data. In addition, electrostatic wave instrument electron density, spacecraft potential measurements and wake indicator auxiliary data are also used so the events can be identified by all Cluster probes in highly redundant way, as the magnetometer and these instruments are still operational in all spacecraft. The capability and performance of the bow shock identification algorithm were tested using known bow shock crossing determined manually from January 29, 2002 to February 3,. The verification enabled 70% of the bow shock crossings to be identified automatically. The method shows high flexibility and it can be applied to observations from various spacecraft. Now these tools have been applied to Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS)/Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun (ARTEMIS) magnetic field, plasma and spacecraft potential observations to identify bow shock crossings; and to Van Allen Probes supra-thermal electron observations to identify the edges of the radiation belt. The outcomes of the algorithms are checked manually and the parameters used to search for bow shock identification are refined.

  7. Analysis of a high-alpine steep rockfall - the case of the southeastern face of the Piz Lischana (Grisons, Switzerland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büsing, Susanna; Guerin, Antoine; Carrea, Dario; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Derron, Marc-Henri; Phillips, Marcia

    2015-04-01

    Specific studies concerning permafrost degradation and slope instabilities in high mountain environments are rare because of the challenging access and the unpredictability of slope failures. However, it is important to better understand the relationship between permafrost melting and slope instabilities, particularly considering the expected increase of air temperature in the Alps in the coming decades. On 31 July 2011, a rockfall with an estimated volume of 3000 m3 occurred at an altitude of 3050m on the southeastern side of the Lischana mountain, located in the Lower Engadin valley. Luckily the rockfall event was filmed and ice could be observed on the failure plane after analysis of the images. Due to the fact that another crack was opened next to the Lischana summit and to protect the about 1200 mountaineers who climb the mountain in-between the months of July - October, the access to the summit was prohibited by the municipality and the official mountain peak with the visitors book displaced of 50 m. In autumn 2014 at least three rockfalls, including the expected one with the opened crack since 2011, occurred on different slope orientations of the mountain. Two of them took place within 24 hours at the end of September, the third occurred in October. Again ice could be observed on one slope failure, oriented northeast at 2800 m, and thus it is very probable that permafrost has an important role for these observed rockfalls. In order to characterize these events, two 3D high density point clouds have been made by photogrammetry, using the Agisoft Photoscan software; one before and one after the rockfall of September 2014 (situated southeast, next to the Lischana summit). 120 photos were taken during a helicopter flight in July 2014 to produce the first point cloud, and more than 400 photos were taken at the end of September on a ridge to produce the second point cloud. The comparison of the two point clouds allow calculating the volume of the southeastern

  8. Do scrapers increase downstream? Patterns in southeastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We measured scraper biomass and relative abundance and epilithic chlorophyll and organic matter on a single occasion at 17 sites ranging from order 1 to order 4 on five streams in southeastern Australia. Biomass of invertebrate scrapers was not related to chlorophyll concentration and was negatively related to epilithic ...

  9. Groundwater exploitation in the Abakaliki metropolis (southeastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    Full Length Research Paper. Groundwater exploitation in the Abakaliki metropolis. (southeastern Nigeria): Issues and challenges. O. P. Aghamelu*, H. N. Ezeh and A. I. Obasi. Department of Geology and Exploration Geophysics, Ebonyi State University, P.M.B., 053,. Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Accepted 24 September ...

  10. Hydrology of area 54, Northern Great Plains, and Rocky Mountain coal provinces, Colorado and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Gerhard; Daddow, P.D.; Craig, G.S.; ,

    1983-01-01

    A nationwide need for information characterizing hydrologic conditions in mined and potential mine areas has become paramount with the enactment of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977. This report, one in a series covering the coal provinces nationwide, presents information thematically by describing single hydrologic topics through the use of brief texts and accompanying maps, graphs, or other illustrations. The summation of the topical discussions provides a description of the hydrology of the area. Area 54, in north-central Colorado and south-central Wyoming, is 1 of 20 hydrologic reporting areas of the Northern Great Plains and Rocky Mountain coal provinces. Part of the Southern Rocky Mountains and Wyoming Basin physiographic provinces, the 8,380-square-mile area is one of contrasting geology, topography, and climate. This results in contrasting hydrologic characteristics. The major streams, the North Platte, Laramie, and Medicine Bow Rivers, and their principal tributaries, all head in granitic mountains and flow into and through sedimentary basins between the mountain ranges. Relief averages 2,000 to 3,000 feet. Precipitation in the mountains may exceed 40 inches annually, much of it during the winter, which produces deep snowpacks. Snowmelt in spring and summer provides most streamflow. Precipitation in the basins averages 10 to 16 inches annually, insufficient for sustained streamflow; thus, streams originating in the basins are ephemeral. Streamflow quality is best in the mountains where dissolved-solids concentrations generally are least. These concentrations increase as streams flow through sedimentary basins. The increases are mainly natural, but some may be due to irrigation in and adjacent to the flood plains. In the North Platte River, dissolved-solids concentrations are usually less than 300 milligrams per liter; in the Laramie and the Medicine Bow Rivers, the concentrations may average 500 to 850 milligrams per liter. However

  11. Southeastern Power Administration 2008 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-12-29

    Dear Secretary Chu: I am pleased to submit Southeastern Power Administration’s (Southeastern’s) fiscal year (FY) 2008 Annual Report for your review. The information included in this document reflects our agency’s programs, accomplishments, operational and financial activities for the 12-month period beginning October 1, 2007 and ending September 30, 2008. Southeastern marketed more than 4.5 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to 491 wholesale customers in ten southeastern states this past year. Revenues from the sale of this power totaled approximately $263 million. Drought conditions persisted in the southeastern region of the United States during FY 2008 placing strains on our natural and financial resources. Power purchases for FY 2008 totaled $91 million. Approximately $44 million of this amount was for replacement power which is paid only during adverse water conditions in order to meet our customers’ contract requirements. With the continued financial assistance and support of our Federal power customers, funding for capitalized equipment purchases and replacements at U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ (Corps) hydroelectric projects provided much needed repairs and maintenance for these aging facilities. Southeastern’s cyber and physical security programs continued to be reviewed and updated to meet Department of Energy (DOE), Homeland Security, and North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) standards and requirements. In the coming year, Southeastern will continue open communication and cooperation with DOE, the Federal power customers, and the Corps to maximize the benefits of our region’s water resources. Although competing uses of water and the prolonged drought conditions will present another challenging year for our agency, Southeastern’s employees will meet these challenges and continue to provide reliable hydroelectric power to the people in the southeast. Sincerely, Kenneth E.Legg Administrator

  12. Snowy Mountains. Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seshadri, B.

    1959-02-01

    Full Text Available El gran macizo de Snowy Mountains sigue la dirección norte-sur en una extensión de unos 160 km, alcanzando una altitud de 2.225 metros en su pico más alto. A esta región se la llama los Alpes australianos, que están cubiertos de nieve durante casi seis meses del año.

  13. Yucca Mountain Milestone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, Rod

    1997-06-09

    The Department of Energy project to determine if the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is suitable for geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste reached a major milestone in late April when a 25-foot-diameter tunnel boring machine ``holed through'' completing a five-mile-long, horseshoe-shaped excavation through the mountain. When the cutting-head of the giant machine broke through to daylight at the tunnel's south portal, it ended a 2 1/2-year excavation through the mountain that was completed ahead of schedule and with an outstanding safety record. Video of the event was transmitted live by satellite to Washington, DC, where it was watched by Secretary of Energy Frederico Pena and other high-level DOE officials, signifying the importance of the project's mission to find a repository for high-level nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel produced by nuclear power plants. This critical undertaking is being performed by DOE's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). The tunnel is the major feature of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), which serves as an underground laboratory for engineers and scientists to help determine if Yucca Mountain is suitable to serve as a repository for the safe disposal of high-level nuclear waste. Morrison Knudsen's Environmental/Government Group is providing design and construction-management services on the project. The MK team is performing final design for the ESF and viability assessment design for the underground waste repository that will be built only if the site is found suitable for such a mission. In fact, if at anytime during the ESF phase, the site is found unsuitable, the studies will be stopped and the site restored to its natural state.

  14. Cryptic diversity in Ptyodactylus (Reptilia: Gekkonidae) from the northern Hajar Mountains of Oman and the United Arab Emirates uncovered by an integrative taxonomic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simó-Riudalbas, Marc; Metallinou, Margarita; de Pous, Philip; Els, Johannes; Jayasinghe, Sithum; Péntek-Zakar, Erika; Wilms, Thomas; Al-Saadi, Saleh; Carranza, Salvador

    2017-01-01

    The Hajar Mountains of south-eastern Arabia form an isolated massif surrounded by the sea to the east and by a large desert to the west. As a result of their old geological origin, geographical isolation, complex topography and local climate, these mountains provide an important refuge for endemic and relict species of plants and animals. With 19 species restricted to the Hajar Mountains, reptiles are the vertebrate group with the highest level of endemicity, becoming an excellent model for understanding the patterns and processes that generate and shape diversity in this arid mountain range. The geckos of the Ptyodactylus hasselquistii species complex are the largest geckos in Arabia and are found widely distributed across the Arabian Mountains, constituting a very important component of the reptile mountain fauna. Preliminary analyses suggested that their diversity in the Hajar Mountains may be higher than expected and that their systematics should be revised. In order to tackle these questions, we inferred a nearly complete calibrated phylogeny of the genus Ptyodactylus to identify the origin of the Hajar Mountains lineages using information from two mitochondrial and four nuclear genes. Genetic variability within the Hajar Mountains was further investigated using 68 specimens of Ptyodactylus from 46 localities distributed across the entire mountain range and sequenced for the same genes as above. The molecular phylogenies and morphological analyses as well as niche comparisons indicate the presence of two very old sister cryptic species living in allopatry: one restricted to the extreme northern Hajar Mountains and described as a new species herein; the other distributed across the rest of the Hajar Mountains that can be confidently assigned to the species P. orlovi. Similar to recent findings in the geckos of the genus Asaccus, the results of the present study uncover more hidden diversity in the northern Hajar Mountains and stress once again the importance of

  15. Cryptic diversity in Ptyodactylus (Reptilia: Gekkonidae from the northern Hajar Mountains of Oman and the United Arab Emirates uncovered by an integrative taxonomic approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Simó-Riudalbas

    Full Text Available The Hajar Mountains of south-eastern Arabia form an isolated massif surrounded by the sea to the east and by a large desert to the west. As a result of their old geological origin, geographical isolation, complex topography and local climate, these mountains provide an important refuge for endemic and relict species of plants and animals. With 19 species restricted to the Hajar Mountains, reptiles are the vertebrate group with the highest level of endemicity, becoming an excellent model for understanding the patterns and processes that generate and shape diversity in this arid mountain range. The geckos of the Ptyodactylus hasselquistii species complex are the largest geckos in Arabia and are found widely distributed across the Arabian Mountains, constituting a very important component of the reptile mountain fauna. Preliminary analyses suggested that their diversity in the Hajar Mountains may be higher than expected and that their systematics should be revised. In order to tackle these questions, we inferred a nearly complete calibrated phylogeny of the genus Ptyodactylus to identify the origin of the Hajar Mountains lineages using information from two mitochondrial and four nuclear genes. Genetic variability within the Hajar Mountains was further investigated using 68 specimens of Ptyodactylus from 46 localities distributed across the entire mountain range and sequenced for the same genes as above. The molecular phylogenies and morphological analyses as well as niche comparisons indicate the presence of two very old sister cryptic species living in allopatry: one restricted to the extreme northern Hajar Mountains and described as a new species herein; the other distributed across the rest of the Hajar Mountains that can be confidently assigned to the species P. orlovi. Similar to recent findings in the geckos of the genus Asaccus, the results of the present study uncover more hidden diversity in the northern Hajar Mountains and stress once

  16. Cryptic diversity in Ptyodactylus (Reptilia: Gekkonidae) from the northern Hajar Mountains of Oman and the United Arab Emirates uncovered by an integrative taxonomic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simó-Riudalbas, Marc; de Pous, Philip; Els, Johannes; Jayasinghe, Sithum; Péntek-Zakar, Erika; Wilms, Thomas; Al-Saadi, Saleh

    2017-01-01

    The Hajar Mountains of south-eastern Arabia form an isolated massif surrounded by the sea to the east and by a large desert to the west. As a result of their old geological origin, geographical isolation, complex topography and local climate, these mountains provide an important refuge for endemic and relict species of plants and animals. With 19 species restricted to the Hajar Mountains, reptiles are the vertebrate group with the highest level of endemicity, becoming an excellent model for understanding the patterns and processes that generate and shape diversity in this arid mountain range. The geckos of the Ptyodactylus hasselquistii species complex are the largest geckos in Arabia and are found widely distributed across the Arabian Mountains, constituting a very important component of the reptile mountain fauna. Preliminary analyses suggested that their diversity in the Hajar Mountains may be higher than expected and that their systematics should be revised. In order to tackle these questions, we inferred a nearly complete calibrated phylogeny of the genus Ptyodactylus to identify the origin of the Hajar Mountains lineages using information from two mitochondrial and four nuclear genes. Genetic variability within the Hajar Mountains was further investigated using 68 specimens of Ptyodactylus from 46 localities distributed across the entire mountain range and sequenced for the same genes as above. The molecular phylogenies and morphological analyses as well as niche comparisons indicate the presence of two very old sister cryptic species living in allopatry: one restricted to the extreme northern Hajar Mountains and described as a new species herein; the other distributed across the rest of the Hajar Mountains that can be confidently assigned to the species P. orlovi. Similar to recent findings in the geckos of the genus Asaccus, the results of the present study uncover more hidden diversity in the northern Hajar Mountains and stress once again the importance of

  17. Bowing and expansion of natural stone panels: marble and limestone testing and assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grelk, Bent

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural stone has been used as a building material for centuries. In the past, load bearing members were made of entirely of stone, but in the last 50 years new processing techniques have made the production and use of thin facade cladding a profitable venture. Unfortunately however, marble facades on buildings in Europe and elsewhere have undergone severe deterioration. The EC-financed TEAM project (2000-2005 studied the bowing observed on marble facades in both cold and warm climates. TEAM’s main objectives were to understand and explain the expansion, bowing, and strength loss mechanisms governing the decay of marble- and limestone-clad facades, and to draft new European standards to prevent the use of marble and limestone poorly suited to outdoor cladding. A survey of some 200 buildings afforded a clear picture of the geographical, geological and climatic scope of the problem. Detailed case studies of six buildings resulted in a facade assessment methodology that included a monitoring system and risk assessment. Both laboratory and field research was conducted on almost 100 different types of stone from different countries and in place in different climates. The outcome was the determination of the decay mechanisms and critical factors. Two test methods and respective precision statements, one for bowing and the other for irreversible thermal expansion in high humidity conditions, were prepared for submission to CEN TC 246.La piedra natural se ha empleado como material de construcción durante siglos. En el pasado, se solía utilizar en elementos de carga, pero en los últimos 50 años las nuevas técnicas de procesamiento han permitido que sea comercialmente rentable producir y utilizar revestimientos para fachadas de espesor reducido. Desafortunadamente, numerosas fachadas de mármol de edificios tanto en Europa como fuera de ella han sufrido graves problemas derivados del deterioro de la piedra. El proyecto TEAM (2000

  18. Two-Polarisation Physical Model of Bowed Strings with Nonlinear Contact and Friction Forces, and Application to Gesture-Based Sound Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Desvages

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent bowed string sound synthesis has relied on physical modelling techniques; the achievable realism and flexibility of gestural control are appealing, and the heavier computational cost becomes less significant as technology improves. A bowed string sound synthesis algorithm is designed, by simulating two-polarisation string motion, discretising the partial differential equations governing the string’s behaviour with the finite difference method. A globally energy balanced scheme is used, as a guarantee of numerical stability under highly nonlinear conditions. In one polarisation, a nonlinear contact model is used for the normal forces exerted by the dynamic bow hair, left hand fingers, and fingerboard. In the other polarisation, a force-velocity friction curve is used for the resulting tangential forces. The scheme update requires the solution of two nonlinear vector equations. The dynamic input parameters allow for simulating a wide range of gestures; some typical bow and left hand gestures are presented, along with synthetic sound and video demonstrations.

  19. Non-stationarity of the quasi-perpendicular bow shock: comparison between Cluster observations and simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Comişel

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We have performed full particle electromagnetic simulations of a quasi-perpendicular shock. The shock parameters have been chosen to be appropriate for the quasi-perpendicular Earth's bow shock observed by Cluster on 24 January 2001 (Lobzin et al., 2007. We have performed two simulations with different ion to electron mass ratio: run 1 with mi/me=1840 and run 2 with mi/me=100. In run 1 the growth rate of the modified two-stream instability (MTSI is large enough to get excited during the reflection and upstream gyration of part of the incident solar wind ions. The waves due to the MTSI are on the whistler mode branch and have downstream directed phase velocities in the shock frame. The Poynting flux (and wave group velocity far upstream in the foot is also directed in the downstream direction. However, in the density and magnetic field compression region of the overshoot the waves are refracted and the Poynting flux in the shock frame is directed upstream. The MTSI is suppressed in the low mass ratio run 2. The low mass ratio run shows more clearly the non-stationarity of the shock with a larger time scale of the order of an inverse ion gyrofrequency (Ωci: the magnetic field profile flattens and steepens with a period of ~1.5Ωci−1. This non-stationarity is different from reformation seen in previous simulations of perpendicular or quasi-perpendicular shocks. Beginning with a sharp shock ramp the large electric field in the normal direction leads to high reflection rate of solar wind protons. As they propagate upstream, the ion bulk velocity decreases and the magnetic field increases in the foot, which results in a flattening of the magnetic field profile and in a decrease of the normal electric field. Subsequently the reflection rate decreases and the whole shock profile steepens again. Superimposed on this 'breathing' behavior are in the realistic mass ratio case the waves due to the MTSI. The simulations lead us to a re-interpretation of

  20. Dispersion of low frequency plasma waves upstream of the quasi-perpendicular terrestrial bow shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Dimmock

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Low frequency waves in the foot of a supercritical quasi-perpendicular shock front have been observed since the very early in situ observations of the terrestrial bow shock (Guha et al., 1972. The great attention that has been devoted to these type of waves since the first observations is explained by the key role attributed to them in the processes of energy redistribution in the shock front by various theoretical models. In some models, these waves play the role of the intermediator between the ions and electrons. It is assumed that they are generated by plasma instability that exist due to the counter-streaming flows of incident and reflected ions. In the second type of models, these waves result from the evolution of the shock front itself in the quasi-periodic process of steepening and overturning of the magnetic ramp. However, the range of the observed frequencies in the spacecraft frame are not enough to distinguish the origin of the observed waves. It also requires the determination of the wave vectors and the plasma frame frequencies. Multipoint measurements within the wave coherence length are needed for an ambiguous determination of the wave vectors. In the main multi-point missions such as ISEE, AMPTE, Cluster and THEMIS, the spacecraft separation is too large for such a wave vector determination and therefore only very few case studies are published (mainly for AMPTE UKS AMPTE IRM pair. Here we present the observations of upstream low frequency waves by the Cluster spacecraft which took place on 19 February 2002. The spacecraft separation during the crossing of the bow shock was small enough to determine the wave vectors and allowed the identification of the plasma wave dispersion relation for the observed waves. Presented results are compared with whistler wave dispersion and it is shown that contrary to previous studies based on the AMPTE data, the phase velocity in the shock frame is directed downstream. The consequences of this

  1. Study on the effect of the CANFLEX-NU fuel element bowing on the critical heat flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suk, Ho Chun; Cho, Moon Sung; Jeon, Ji Su

    2001-01-01

    The effect of the CANFLEX-NU fuel element bowing on the critical heat flux is reviewed and analyzed, which is requested by KINS as the Government design licensing condition for the use of the fuel bundles in CANDU power reactors. The effect of the gap between two adjacent fuel elements on the critical heat flux and onset-of-dryout power is studied. The reduction of the width of a single inter-rod gap from its nominal size to the minimum manufacture allowance of 1 mm has a negligible effects on the thermal-hydraulic performance of the bundle for the given set of boundary conditions applied to the CANFLEX-43 element bundle in an uncrept channel. As expected, the in-reactor irradiation test results show that there are no evidence of the element bow problems on the bundle performance.

  2. The effect of element bow on dryout power and post-dryout heat transfer in CANDU fuel bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutradhar, S.C.; Schenk, J.R. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    1997-07-01

    Dryout and post-dryout tests were performed in a modified 37-element simulated CANDU fuel bundle, with one outer element of the last bundle bowed at gradual but controlled steps toward the pressure-tube wall. The dryout power decreased moderately as the gap size was reduced from nominal to about 40%. For smaller-than-40%-gap sizes, however, the dryout power increased in most cases; this resulted in almost equal dryout powers at the nominal and zero gap sizes. The maximum surface temperature of the bowed element at up to 20% overpower increased with decreasing gap sizes; however, for gap sizes smaller than 35% of the nominal gap, the surface temperature fluctuated moderately. (author)

  3. Pattern Switchable Antenna System Using Inkjet-Printed Directional Bow-Tie for Bi-Direction Sensing Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Seung-Hyun; Seo, Yunsik; Lim, Sungjoon

    2015-12-10

    In this paper, we propose a paper-based pattern switchable antenna system using inkjet-printing technology for bi-direction sensor applications. The proposed antenna system is composed of two directional bow-tie antennas and a switching network. The switching network consists of a single-pole-double-throw (SPDT) switch and a balun element. A double-sided parallel-strip line (DSPSL) is employed to convert the unbalanced microstrip mode to the balanced strip mode. Two directional bow-tie antennas have different radiation patterns because of the different orientation of the reflectors and antennas. It is demonstrated from electromagnetic (EM) simulation and measurement that the radiation patterns of the proposed antenna are successfully switched by the SPDT switch.

  4. Key issues for mountain areas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Price, Martin F; Jansky, Libor; Iatsenia, Andrei A

    2004-01-01

    ... and livelihood opportunities . . . ... Safdar Parvez and Stephen F. Rasmussen 86 6 Mountain tourism and the conservation of biological and cultural diversity... Wendy Brewer Lama and Nikhat Sattar 11...

  5. Sattleria revisited: unexpected cryptic diversity on the Balkan Peninsula and in the south-eastern Alps (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huemer, Peter; Timossi, Giovanni

    2014-03-21

    The taxonomy of Sattleria Povolný from the high mountain systems on the Balkan Peninsula and the adjacent parts of the Alps (south-eastern Alps, Dinaric Alps, Rila Mountains) is revised based on recently collected material and re-examined museum vouchers. Adult morphology and molecular data of the COI barcode region support the existence of six strictly allopatric species in this area, including four new species: Sattleria sophiae Timossi, sp. nov. (Parco Paneveggio-Pale di San Martino, Dolomites, Prov. Trento, Italy), Sattleria dolomitica Huemer, sp. nov. (Eastern Dolomites, Prov. South Tyrol, Italy), Sattleria dinarica Huemer, sp. nov. (Durmitor NP, Dinaric Alps, Montenegro) and Sattleria haemusi Huemer, sp. nov. (Rila Mts., Bulgaria; Šar Planina, Macedonia). 

  6. A methodology to select a group of species among 131 tropical (colombian) species for bowed timber applications

    OpenAIRE

    Caicedo-Llano,Natalia

    2014-01-01

    We present a methodology of selecting wood species for architectural purposes, especially when a curved shape is required. First, a mechanical criterion is associated with a morphology, more specifically a characteristic value of stress-strain relation is associated with the attitude of wood for bowing. Second, a filtering is done using data of wood in the green state and in the dry state, and then the wood selection is refined by using relevant criteria related to environment and economic co...

  7. Kaguya observations of the lunar wake in the terrestrial foreshock: Surface potential change by bow-shock reflected ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Masaki N.; Harada, Yuki; Saito, Yoshifumi; Tsunakawa, Hideo; Takahashi, Futoshi; Yokota, Shoichiro; Matsushima, Masaki; Shibuya, Hidetoshi; Shimizu, Hisayoshi

    2017-09-01

    There forms a tenuous region called the wake behind the Moon in the solar wind, and plasma entry/refilling into the wake is a fundamental problem of the lunar plasma science. High-energy ions and electrons in the foreshock of the Earth's magnetosphere were detected at the lunar surface in the Apollo era, but their effects on the lunar night-side environment have never been studied. Here we show the first observation of bow-shock reflected protons by Kaguya (SELENE) spacecraft in orbit around the Moon, confirming that solar wind plasma reflected at the terrestrial bow shock can easily access the deepest lunar wake when the Moon stays in the foreshock (We name this mechanism 'type-3 entry'). In a continuous type-3 event, low-energy electron beams from the lunar night-side surface are not obvious even though the spacecraft location is magnetically connected to the lunar surface. On the other hand, in an intermittent type-3 entry event, the kinetic energy of upward-going field-aligned electron beams decreases from ∼ 80 eV to ∼ 20 eV or electron beams disappear as the bow-shock reflected ions come accompanied by enhanced downward electrons. According to theoretical treatment based on electric current balance at the lunar surface including secondary electron emission by incident electron and ion impact, we deduce that incident ions would be accompanied by a few to several times higher flux of an incident electron flux, which well fits observed downward fluxes. We conclude that impact by the bow-shock reflected ions and electrons raises the electrostatic potential of the lunar night-side surface.

  8. Perspectives on grizzly bear management in Banff National Park and the Bow River Watershed, Alberta: A Q methodology study

    OpenAIRE

    Chamberlain, Emily Carter

    2006-01-01

    Conserving populations of large carnivores such as grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) requires not only biophysical research, but also an understanding of the values and beliefs of the people involved with and affected by carnivore management. I used Q methodology to examine views of stakeholders concerning grizzly bear management in the Banff-Bow Valley region of Alberta, Canada. In recent years, decision-making about bears in this region has been characterized by acrimonious disputes over scienti...

  9. Traction bow for acute reduction of fracture and/or dislocation of the thoracic or thoracolumbar spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G J; Eschenroeder, H C; Redler, M R; Stamp, W G

    1988-01-01

    Treatment of acute fractures and/or fracture dislocations of the thoracic or thoracolumbar spine has traditionally involved bedrest or the use of traction devices with external hanging weights, until surgical correction can be accomplished. A fiberglass tubular traction bow with continuous adjustable elastic tension has been designed for the application of skeletal traction. When used to treat thoracic or thoracolumbar fractures and/or dislocations, it can maintain distraction forces in an uninterrupted fashion. Ten patients with acute fractures and/or dislocations of the thoracic or thoracolumbar spine were treated with this traction bow. All of the spinal deformities showed dramatic improvement within the first 3 h of treatment. The patients all showed immediate lessening of acute severe pain, and those with incomplete neurologic loss showed improvement of their neurologic function. The patients all tolerated the device well and were able to undergo radiologic examination and, ultimately, spinal fusion while they were stabilized in the traction bow. We believe this device is especially valuable for immediate reduction of spine and care of patients with fractures or fracture dislocations of the thoracolumbar spine.

  10. Southeastern Power Administration 2007 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2007-12-28

    Dear Secretary Chu: I am proud to submit Southeastern Power Administration’s (Southeastern’s) fiscal year (FY) 2007 Annual Report for your review. The information included in this report reflects Southeastern’s programs, accomplishments, and financial activities for the 12-month period beginning October 1, 2006 and ending September 30, 2007. Southeastern marketed more than 5 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to 492 wholesale Federal power customers in an 11-state marketing area in FY 2007. Revenues from the sale of this power totaled approximately $219 million. Drought conditions continued to plague the southeast region of the United States during 2007 placing strains on our natural and financial resources. Southeastern purchased more than $40 million in replacement power to meet customer contract requirements to ensure the continued reliability of our nation’s power grid. With the financial assistance and support of our Federal power customers, continued funding for capitalized equipment replacements at various Corps of Engineers’ (Corps) hydroelectric projects provided much needed repairs and maintenance for aging facilities. Southeastern’s cyber and physical security program continued to be reviewed and updated to meet Department of Energy (DOE), Homeland Security, and North American Electric Reliability Corporation standards and requirements. Plans for the upcoming year include communication and cooperation with DOE, Federal power customers, and the Corps to maximize the benefits of our nation’s water resources. Competition for the use of water and the prolonged drought conditions will present another challenging year for our agency. The employees at Southeastern will be proactive in meeting these challenges and providing reliable hydroelectric power to the people in the southeast. Sincerely, Kenneth E. Legg Administrator

  11. A thousand mountains

    OpenAIRE

    Lindenberg, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    In creating a series of short dances and presenting them in a variety of informal settings, my Thesis Project examines the encounter of emotion to body movement and the transfer of feeling that occurs when movement is witnessed by a live audience. In making the dances in this series I have borrowed performance practices and structures from song-writing traditions in order to frame this body of trans-performance work. The performance of A Thousand Mountains serves as an archive of my artistic ...

  12. Modified tandem traction bow appliance compared with facemask therapy in treating Class III malocclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortop, Tuba; Kaygisiz, Emine; Gencer, Deniz; Yuksel, Sema; Atalay, Zeynep

    2014-07-01

    To compare the effects of the modified tandem traction bow appliance (MTTBA) and the facemask in treating patients with Class III malocclusion. The material consisted of the pre-post treatment\\pre-post observation lateral cephalograms of 65 subjects with skeletal and dental Class III malocclusion. In the first group 21 patients (mean age: 10 years, 6 months) were treated with a Delaire-type facemask (FM). In the second group 22 patients treated (mean age: 10 years) with MTTBA. The remaining 22 children (mean age: 9 years, 7 months) were observed without treatment for 11 months. Increase in SNA, N-FH ⊥ A, and ANB angles were significantly greater in the treatment groups compared to the control group. However, ANB angle showed a significantly greater increase in the FM group (2.8 ± 0.30°) than in the MTTBA group (2.0 ± 0.18°). The overjet and molar relation increased significantly in both treatment groups, but in the FM group (5.2 ± 0.40 mm) increase in overjet was significantly greater than in the MTTBA group (4.0 ± 0.27 mm). Mesial movement of upper molar and incisor were found to be greater in the FM group compared to the modified TTBA group. Both appliances were found to be effective in the treatment of Class III malocclusion. Their skeletal and dental effects showed differences due to their design.

  13. Computational fluid dynamics based bulbous bow optimization using a genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Shahid; Huang, Debo

    2012-09-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) plays a major role in predicting the flow behavior of a ship. With the development of fast computers and robust CFD software, CFD has become an important tool for designers and engineers in the ship industry. In this paper, the hull form of a ship was optimized for total resistance using CFD as a calculation tool and a genetic algorithm as an optimization tool. CFD based optimization consists of major steps involving automatic generation of geometry based on design parameters, automatic generation of mesh, automatic analysis of fluid flow to calculate the required objective/cost function, and finally an optimization tool to evaluate the cost for optimization. In this paper, integration of a genetic algorithm program, written in MATLAB, was carried out with the geometry and meshing software GAMBIT and CFD analysis software FLUENT. Different geometries of additive bulbous bow were incorporated in the original hull based on design parameters. These design variables were optimized to achieve a minimum cost function of "total resistance". Integration of a genetic algorithm with CFD tools proves to be effective for hull form optimization.

  14. Postural stability, clicker reaction time and bow draw force predict performance in elite recurve archery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spratford, Wayne; Campbell, Rhiannon

    2017-06-01

    Recurve archery is an Olympic sport that requires extreme precision, upper body strength and endurance. The purpose of this research was to quantify how postural stability variables both pre- and post-arrow release, draw force, flight time, arrow length and clicker reaction time, collectively, impacted on the performance or scoring outcomes in elite recurve archery athletes. Thirty-nine elite-level recurve archers (23 male and 16 female; mean age = 24.7 ± 7.3 years) from four different countries volunteered to participate in this study prior to competing at a World Cup event. An AMTI force platform (1000Hz) was used to obtain centre of pressure (COP) measurements 1s prior to arrow release and 0.5s post-arrow release. High-speed footage (200Hz) allowed for calculation of arrow flight time and score. Results identified clicker reaction time, draw force and maximum sway speed as the variables that best predicted shot performance. Specifically, reduced clicker reaction time, greater bow draw force and reduced postural sway speed post-arrow release were predictors of higher scoring shots. It is suggested that future research should focus on investigating shoulder muscle tremors at full draw in relation to clicker reaction time, and the effect of upper body strength interventions (specifically targeting the musculature around the shoulder girdle) on performance in recurve archers.

  15. Relativistic Electrons Produced by Foreshock Disturbances Observed Upstream of Earth's Bow Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, L. B., III; Sibeck, D. G.; Turner, D. L.; Osmane, A.; Caprioli, D.; Angelopoulos, V.

    2016-01-01

    Charged particles can be reflected and accelerated by strong (i.e., high Mach number) astrophysical collisionless shock waves, streaming away to form a foreshock region in communication with the shock. Foreshocks are primarily populated by suprathermal ions that can generate foreshock disturbances-largescale (i.e., tens to thousands of thermal ion Larmor radii), transient (approximately 5-10 per day) structures. They have recently been found to accelerate ions to energies of several keV. Although electrons in Saturn's high Mach number (M > 40) bow shock can be accelerated to relativistic energies (nearly 1000 keV), it has hitherto been thought impossible to accelerate electrons beyond a few tens of keV at Earth's low Mach number (1 =M shock. Here we report observations of electrons energized by foreshock disturbances to energies up to at least approximately 300 keV. Although such energetic electrons have been previously observed, their presence has been attributed to escaping magnetospheric particles or solar events. These relativistic electrons are not associated with any solar or magnetospheric activity. Further, due to their relatively small Larmor radii (compared to magnetic gradient scale lengths) and large thermal speeds (compared to shock speeds), no known shock acceleration mechanism can energize thermal electrons up to relativistic energies. The discovery of relativistic electrons associated with foreshock structures commonly generated in astrophysical shocks could provide a new paradigm for electron injections and acceleration in collisionless plasmas.

  16. CFD analyses of the rod bowing effect on the subchannel outlet temperature distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekstroem, Karoliina; Toppila, Timo [Fortum Power and Heat, Fortum (Finland)

    2017-09-15

    In the Loviisa 1 and 2 nuclear power plants the subcooling margin of the hottest subchannel of the fuel assembly is monitored. The temperature of the coolant in the hottest subchannel is limited to the constant saturation temperature. Bending of the fuel rods occurs during normal operation due to the differences in the heat profiles of the rods. The coolant temperature will rise more in the subchannel with smaller flow area due to the bending and this has to be taken into account in the safety margin of subchannel enthalpy rise. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations are used to estimate how much the estimated maximum bow of a rod affects the temperature rise of the subchannel. The quantitative uncertainty of the predicted enthalpy rise in fuel bundle subchannel is estimated based on the uncertainty of modelling of mixing between subchannels. The measured turbulence quantities from LDA measurements of cold test assembly made in 1990s in Fortum are compared with CFD results to give uncertainty estimation for turbulence, which is further used for uncertainty estimation of mixing and simulated subchannel enthalpy rise.

  17. ANALISA PENGARUH BENTUK LAMBUNG AXE BOW PADA KAPAL HIGH SPEED CRAFT TERHADAP HAMBATAN TOTAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romadhoni Oni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hambatan merupakan salah satu faktor utama yang mempengaruhi proses perancangan sebuah kapal. Kapal dengan bentuk lambung yang baik akan menghasilkan hambatan yang efisiensi sehingga operasional kapal dan pergerakan kapal lebih baik. Pada ini penelitian dilakukan dengan memodelkan kapal high speed craft tipe Crew boat panjang 38 meter, lebar 7.6 meter, tinggi 3.65 meter dan draft 1.89 meter. Selanjutnya diselidiki model lambung kapal yang menghasilkan hambatan total paling kecil menggunakan pendekatan studi numerik software (maxsuft hullspeed metode savitsky dan holtrop dan software Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD. Hasil penelitian berdasarkan analisa numerik (Maxsuft –Hullspeed dan CFD menujukkan pada kecepatan sevice bentuk lambung model AXE Bow memiliki nilai hambatan yang lebih kecil dibandingkan model kapal planing hull chine (HPC dan rounded hull (RH. Hasil perhitungan numerik dan CFD memiliki nilai yang hampir sama pada setiap variasi model. Hasil komparisi yang dilakukan didapatkan selisih total hambatan pada kecepatan 25 knot yaitu  model HPC 1.8 kN, model HPCAB 5.2 kN, model RH 4.8 kN dan model 5.1 kN. Dari perbandingan kedua metode tersebut memiliki selisih cukup kecil yaitu  kurang dari 5%. Selain mendapatkan nilai hambatan Software CFD akan menghasilkan nilai  perbandingan gaya angkat (lift force, dan total pressure yang terdistribusi  pada permukaan model setiap variasi kecepatan.

  18. Relativistic Electrons Produced by Foreshock Disturbances Observed Upstream of Earth's Bow Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, L. B., III; Sibeck, D. G.; Turner, D. L.; Osmane, A.; Caprioli, D.; Angelopoulos, V.

    2016-01-01

    Charged particles can be reflected and accelerated by strong (i.e., high Mach number) astrophysical collisionless shock waves, streaming away to form a foreshock region in communication with the shock. Foreshocks are primarily populated by suprathermal ions that can generate foreshock disturbances-largescale (i.e., tens to thousands of thermal ion Larmor radii), transient (approximately 5-10 per day) structures. They have recently been found to accelerate ions to energies of several keV. Although electrons in Saturn's high Mach number (M > 40) bow shock can be accelerated to relativistic energies (nearly 1000 keV), it has hitherto been thought impossible to accelerate electrons beyond a few tens of keV at Earth's low Mach number (1 =M electrons energized by foreshock disturbances to energies up to at least approximately 300 keV. Although such energetic electrons have been previously observed, their presence has been attributed to escaping magnetospheric particles or solar events. These relativistic electrons are not associated with any solar or magnetospheric activity. Further, due to their relatively small Larmor radii (compared to magnetic gradient scale lengths) and large thermal speeds (compared to shock speeds), no known shock acceleration mechanism can energize thermal electrons up to relativistic energies. The discovery of relativistic electrons associated with foreshock structures commonly generated in astrophysical shocks could provide a new paradigm for electron injections and acceleration in collisionless plasmas.

  19. Theory of 2{omega}{sub pe} radiation induced by the bow shock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, P.H.; Wu, C.S. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Vinas, A.F.; Reiner, M.J.; Fainberg, J.; Stone, R.G. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)

    1994-12-01

    A new radiation emission mechanism is proposed to explain electromagnetic radiation observed at twice the electron plasma frequency, 2{omega}{sub pe} in the upstream region of the Earth`s bow shock. This radiation has its origin at the electron foreshock boundary where energetic electron beams and intense narrow-band Langmuir waves are observed. The proposed emission mechanism results from the interaction of the electron beam and Langmuir waves that are backscattered off thermal ions. This interaction is described by a nonlinear dispersion equation which incorporates an effect owing to electron trajectory modulation by the backscattered Langmuir waves. Subsequent analysis of the dispersion equation reveals two important consequences. First, a long-wavelength electrostatic quasi-mode with frequency at 2{omega}{sup pe} is excited, and second, the quasi-mode and the electromagnetic mode are nonlinearly coupled. The implication is that, when the excited 2{omega}{sub pe} quasi-mode propagates in an inhomogeneous medium with slightly decreasing density, the quasi-mode can be converted directly into an electromagnetic mode. Hence the eletromagnetic radiation at twice the plasma frequency is generated. Numerical solutions of the dispersion equation with the choice of parameters that describe physical characteristics of the electron foreshock are presented, which illustrates the viability of the new mechanism. 24 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Theory of 2 omega(sub pe) radiation induced by the bow shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Peter H.; Wu, C. S.; Vinas, A. F.-; Reiner, M. J.; Fainberg, J.; Stone, R. G.

    1994-01-01

    A new radiation emission mechanism is proposed to explain electomagnetic radiation observed at twice the electron plasma frequency, 2 omega(sub pe), in the upstream region of the Earth's bow shock. This radiation had its origin at the electron foreshock boundary where energetic electron beams and intense narrow-band Langmiur waves are observed. The proposed emission mechanism results from the interaction of the electron beam and Langmuir waves that are backscattered off thermal ions. This interaction is described by a nonlinear dispersion equation which incorporates an effect owing to electron trajectory modulation by the backscattered Langmuir waves. Subsequent analysis of the dispersion equation reveals two important consequences. First, a long-wavelength electrostatic quasi-mode with frequency at 2 omega(sub pe) is excited, and second, the quasi-mode and the electomagnetic mode are nonlinearly coupled. The implication is that, when the excited 2 omega(sub pe) quasi-mode propagates in an inhomgeneous medium with slightly decreasing density, the quasi-mode can be converted directly into an electromagnetic mode. Hense the electomagnetic radiation at twice the plasma frequency is generated. Numerical solutions of the dispersion equation with the choice of parameters that describe physical characteristics of the electron foreshock are presented, which illustrates the viability of the new mechanism.

  1. The Parametric Study and Fine-Tuning of Bow-Tie Slot Antenna with Loaded Stub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiei, M M; Moghavvemi, Mahmoud; Wan Mahadi, Wan Nor Liza

    2017-01-01

    A printed Bow-Tie slot antenna with loaded stub is proposed and the effects of changing the dimensions of the slot area, the stub and load sizes are considered in this paper. These parameters have a considerable effect on the antenna characteristics as well as its performance. An in-depth parametric study of these dimensions is presented. This paper proposes the necessary conditions for initial approximation of dimensions needed to design this antenna. In order to achieve the desired performance of the antenna fine tuning of all sizes of these parameters is required. The parametric studies used in this paper provide proper trends for initiation and tuning the design. A prototype of the antenna for 1.7GHz to 2.6GHz band is fabricated. Measurements conducted verify that the designed antenna has wideband characteristics with 50% bandwidth around the center frequency of 2.1GHz. Conducted measurements for reflection coefficient (S11) and radiation pattern also validate our simulation results.

  2. Experimental demonstration of bow-shock instability and its numerical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Y.; Ohnishi, N.; Ohtani, K.

    2017-05-01

    An experimental demonstration was carried out in a ballistic range at high Mach numbers with the low specific heat ratio gas hydrofluorocarbon HFC-134a to observe the unstable bow-shock wave generated in front of supersonic blunt objects. The shadowgraph images obtained from the experiments showed instability characteristics, in which the disturbances grow and flow downstream and the wake flow appears wavy because of the shock oscillation. Moreover, the influence of the body shape and specific heat ratio on the instability was investigated for various experimental conditions. Furthermore, the observed features, such as wave structure and disturbance amplitude, were captured by numerical simulations, and it was demonstrated that computational fluid dynamics could effectively simulate the physical instability. In addition, it was deduced that the shock instability is induced by sound emissions from the edge of the object. This inference supports the dependence of the instability on the specific heat ratio and Mach number because the shock stand-off distance is affected by these parameters and limits the sound wave propagation.

  3. Bow hull-form optimization in waves of a 66,000 DWT bulk carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Won Yu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses optimization techniques to obtain bow hull form of a 66,000 DWT bulk carrier in calm water and in waves. Parametric modification functions of SAC and section shape of DLWL are used for hull form variation. Multi-objective functions are applied to minimize the wave-making resistance in calm water and added resistance in regular head wave of λ/L = 0.5. WAVIS version 1.3 is used to obtain wave-making resistance. The modified Fujii and Takahashi's formula is applied to obtain the added resistance in short wave. The PSO algorithm is employed for the optimization technique. The resistance and motion characteristics in calm water and regular and irregular head waves of the three hull forms are compared. It has been shown that the optimal brings 13.2% reduction in the wave-making resistance and 13.8% reduction in the added resistance at λ/L = 0.5; and the mean added resistance reduces by 9.5% at sea state 5.

  4. Tectonic Summaries for Web-served Earthquake Responses, Southeastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Russell L.

    2003-01-01

    This report documents the rationale and strategy used to write short summaries of the seismicity and tectonic settings of domains in southeastern North America. The summaries are used in automated responses to notable earthquakes that occur anywhere east of the Rocky Mountains in the United States or Canada. Specifically, the report describes the geologic and tectonic information, data sources, criteria, and reasoning used to determine the content and format of the summaries, for the benefit of geologists or seismologists who may someday need to revise the summaries or write others. These tectonic summaries are designed to be automatically posted on the World Wide Web as soon as an earthquake?s epicenter is determined. The summaries are part of a larger collection of summaries that is planned to cover the world.

  5. Protected areas in mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton, L. S.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The importance of a global Protected Areas Network in sustaining appropriate mountain development is presented in this paper. Present status of the world’s “official” Protected Areas in the UN List, and the proportion that are in mountain areas, and including international designations (World Heritage and Biosphere Reserves. Current and future challenges in the management of these special areas are also commented.



    El autor destaca la importancia de una Red Mundial de Espacios Protegidos para el desarrollo sostenible de las montañas. Comenta luego el estatus actual de las Áreas Protegidas “oficiales” del Mundo en la Lista de las Naciones Unidas y qué proporción de ellas forma parte de las montañas, sin olvidar las figuras internacionales de protección como Patrimonio de la Humanidad y Reservas de Biosfera. Para terminar, se discuten los problemas de gestión actuales y futuros de estas áreas tan especiales

  6. Upward flow of magmatic fluids from the Old Woman granodiorite, Old Woman Mountains southeastern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Jean; Hoisch, Thomas D.

    1994-05-01

    Isotopic compositions, mineral equilibrium, and field relations at the contact between the midcrustal Cretaceous Old Woman granodiorite and Paleozoic carbonates indicate that water-rich, silica-saturated magmatic fluids were transported upward, away from the pluton, across an impermeable 30- to 40-m thick marble which caps the granodiorite, to higher structural levels along a complex network of hydrologically induced fractures. Within the fractures, fluids reacted to form symmetrical radiating splays of wollastonite with minor amounts of diopside, vesuvianite, and quartz. In many cases, pegmatites are found in the center of these calc-silicate skarns. Cross-cutting pegmatites and wollastonite veins in the aureole indicate that during late stages of crystallization of the granodiorite there were multiple episodes of fluid expulsion. Above the marble layer at higher structural levels, magmatic fluids flowed both laterally and vertically, interacting with lithologies in a more pervasive manner. Values of delta O-18 for calcite in the vein skarns average 11.8% and pegmatite whole rock silicate delta O-18 values average 9.4%. Thus oxygen isotopic compositions are consistent with a magmatic origin for the skarn-forming fluids. Away from the vein skarns, values of delta O-18 for the capping marble range from 18.7 to 22.1% (avg. = 21%) and values of delta C-13 range from -3.8 to -3.0% (avg. = -3.4%). The high delta O-18 values provide evidence that the marble largely retained its premetamorphic isotopic composition, indicating that fluids from the granodiorite did not flow pervasively across the unit. Lithologies at higher structural levels show evidence of more pervasive interaction with magmatic fluids: forsterite-bearing calc-silicates have delta O-18 values down to 11.8% and coarse-grained vesuvianite- and wollastonite-bearing skarns have delta O-18 values of approximately 13%.

  7. Artificial Snowfall from Mountain Clouds

    OpenAIRE

    Ludlam, F. H.

    2011-01-01

    A tentative theory of provoking snowfall from simple orographic clouds is composed, using simplifying assumptions, and it is shown reasonable to suppose that winter snowfall on Central Swedish mountains might be substantially increased by skillful seeding of supercooled mountain clouds.DOI: 10.1111/j.2153-3490.1955.tb01164.x

  8. Potential pathogenic mechanism for stress fractures of the bowed femoral shaft in the elderly: Mechanical analysis by the CT-based finite element method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yoto; Wakabayashi, Yoshiaki; Kurosa, Yoshiro; Fujita, Koji; Okawa, Atsushi

    2014-11-01

    Stress fractures of the bowed femoral shaft (SBFs) may be one of the causes of atypical femoral fractures (AFFs). The CT-based finite element method (CT/FEM) can be used to structurally evaluate bone morphology and bone density based on patient DICOM data, thereby quantitatively and macroscopically assessing bone strength. Here, we clarify the pathogenic mechanism of SBFs and demonstrate this new understanding of AFFs through mechanical analysis by CT/FEM. A prospective clinical study was performed from April 2012 to February 2014. We assembled two study groups, the bowed AFF group (n=4 patients; mean age, 78.0 years) including those with a prior history of AFF associated with bowing deformity and the thigh pain group (n=14 patients; mean age, 78.6 years) comprising outpatients with complaints of thigh pain and tenderness. Stress concentration in the femoral shaft was analysed by CT/FEM, and the visual findings and extracted data were assessed to determine the maximum principal stress (MPS) and tensile stress-strength ratio (TSSR). In addition, we assessed femoral bowing, bone density, and bone metabolic markers. Wilcoxon's rank sum test was used for statistical analysis. All patients in the bowed AFF group showed a marked concentration of diffuse stress on the anterolateral surface. Thirteen patients in the thigh pain group had no significant findings. However, the remaining 1 patient had a finding similar to that observed in the bowed AFF group, with radiographic evidence of bowing deformity and a focally thickened lateral cortex. Patients were reclassified as having SBF (n=5) or non-SBF (n=13). Statistical analysis revealed significant differences in MPS (p=0.0031), TSSR (p=0.0022), and femoral bowing (lateral, p=0.0015; anterior, p=0.0022) between the SBF and non-SBF groups, with no significant differences in bone density or bone metabolic markers. Significant tensile stress due to bowing deformity can induce AFFs. SBFs should be considered a novel subtype of

  9. YUCCA MOUNTAIN PROJECT - A BRIEFING --

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NA

    2003-08-05

    This report has the following articles: Nuclear waste--a long-term national problem; Spent nuclear fuel; High-level radioactive waste; Radioactivity and the environment; Current storage methods; Disposal options; U.S. policy on nuclear waste; The focus on Yucca Mountain; The purpose and scope of the Yucca Mountain Project; The approach for permanently disposing of waste; The scientific studies at Yucca Mountain; The proposed design for a repository at Yucca Mountain; Natural and engineered barriers would work together to isolate waste; Meticulous science and technology to protect people and the environment; Licensing a repository; Transporting waste to a permanent repository; The Environmental Impact Statement for a repository; Current status of the Yucca Mountain Project; and Further information available on the Internet.

  10. Modelling spatial patterns of wildfire occurrence in South-Eastern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development and validation of spatial models for wildfire occurrence at a broad landscape scale. The hotspots databases from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS and logistic regression models are investigated for the comprehensive understanding of environmental and socioeconomic determinants regulating the spatial distribution of wildfires over the 11-year period 2003–2013. The probability of occurrence of at least one fire on a 1 km2 grid cell in a 1,030,000 km2 region located in South-Eastern Australia is studied for the prediction of future fire occurrence. Our research shows that wildfires are most likely to occur in mountainous areas, forests, savannas and lands with high vegetation coverage, and are less likely to occur on grasslands and shrublands. Wildfires also tend to occur in areas near human infrastructures. Environmental variables are strong individual predictors of fire occurrence while socioeconomic variables contribute more to the final model. The influence of environmental and socioeconomic conditions on wildfire occurrence and the spatial patterns of wildfires identified in this study can assist fire managers in implementing appropriate management actions in South-Eastern Australia. This paper also demonstrates the potential of applying the MODIS active fire product in wildfire occurrence studies.

  11. Distribution and abundance of Pleuronectiformes larvae off Southeastern Brazil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garbini, Camilla Nunes; Zani-Teixeira, Maria de Lourdes; Ohkawara, Márcio Hidekazu; Katsuragawa, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was the description of the composition, abundance and density in horizontal and vertical distribution of Pleuronectiformes larvae on the southeastern Brazilian continental shelf...

  12. Using LiDAR to evaluate forest landscapes and health factors and their relationship to habitat of the endangered Mount Graham red squirrel on the Coronado National Forest, Pinaleno Mountains, Arizona [Chap. 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Anhold; Brent Mitchell; Craig Wilcox; Tom Mellin; Melissa Merrick; Ann Lynch; Mike Walterman; Donald Falk; John Koprowski; Denise Laes; Don Evans; Haans. Fisk

    2015-01-01

    The Pinaleno Mountains in southeastern Arizona represent a Madrean sky island ecosystem that contains the southernmost expanse of spruce-fir forest type in North America. This ecosystem is also the last remaining habitat for the Mt. Graham red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus grahamenis), a federally listed endangered species. Due to a general shift in...

  13. Large scale motions of Neptune's bow shock: Evidence for control of the shock position by the rotation phase of Neptune's magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Iver H.; Smith, Charles W.; Kurth, William S.; Gurnett, Donald A.; Moses, Stewart L.

    1991-01-01

    The Voyager 2 spacecraft observed high levels of Langmuir waves before the inbound crossing of Neptune's bow shock, thereby signifying magnetic connection of the bow shock. The Langmuir waves occurred in multiple bursts throughout two distinct periods separated by an 85 minute absence of wave activity. The times of onsets, peaks, and disappearances of the waves were used together with the magnetic field directions and spacecraft position, to perform a 'remote-sensing' analysis of the shape and location of Neptune's bow shock prior to the inbound bow shock crossing. The bow shock is assumed to have a parabolidal shape with a nose location and flaring parameter determined independently for each wave event. The remote-sensing analysis give a shock position consistent with the time of the inbound shock crossing. The flaring parameter of the shock remains approximately constant throughout each period of wave activity but differs by a factor of 10 between the two periods. The absence of waves between two periods of wave activity coincides with a large rotation of the magnetic field and a large increase in the solar wind ram pressure' both these effects lead to magnetic disconnection of the spacecraft from shock. The planetwards motion of the shock's nose from 38.5 R(sub N) to 34.5 R(sub N) during the second time period occurred while the solar wind ram pressure remained constant to within 15 percent. This second period of planetwards motion of the shock is therefore strong evidence for Neptune's bow shock moving in response to the rotation of Neptune's oblique, tilted magnetic dipole. Normalizing the ram pressure, the remotely-sensed shock moves sunwards during the first wave period and planetwards in the second wave period. The maximum standoff distance occurs while the dipole axis is close to being perpendicular to the Sun-Neptune direction. The remote-sensing analysis provides strong evidence that the location of Neptune's bow shock is controlled by Neptune's rotation

  14. Three centuries of winter temperature change on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau and its relationship with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shiyuan; Li, Jinbao; Shi, Jiangfeng; Zhao, Yesi; Huang, Gang

    2017-08-01

    Long-term, high-resolution proxy records containing cold season temperature signals are scarce on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau (TP), limiting our understanding of regional climate and the potential driving forces. In this study, we present a nearly three centuries long reconstruction of winter (December-February) mean temperature for the central Hengduan Mountains, southeastern TP. The reconstruction is derived from a composite tree-ring width chronology of Pinus yunnanensis Franch from two high elevation sites (>3000 m above sea level). Our reconstruction passes all standard calibration-verification schemes and explains nearly 73 % of the variance of the original instrumental data. However, we were constrained to calibrate our full period (1718-2013) reconstruction of December-February mean temperature on the calibration period from 1959 to 1992 only, due to a decrease in temperature sensitivity of tree-ring index exhibited after 1992. Spatial correlation analysis shows that our reconstruction represents large-scale temperature variations in southwest China and the eastern TP. Our reconstructed December-February mean temperature shows a close association with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) over the past three centuries, with warm (cold) periods coinciding with the positive (negative) phases of the AMO. This persistent relationship suggests that the AMO may have been a key driver of multidecadal winter temperature variations on the southeastern TP.

  15. Mapping ecological systems in southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jim Malusa; Donald Falk; Larry Laing; Brooke Gebow

    2013-01-01

    Beginning in 2007 in and around the Huachuca Mountains, the Coronado National Forest and other partners have been mapping ecosystems at multiple scales. The approach has focused on identifying land type associations (LTA), which represent the sum of bedrock and superficial geology, topography, elevation, potential and existing vegetation, soil properties, and local...

  16. Turbulence in breaking mountain waves and atmospheric rotors estimated from airborne in situ and Doppler radar measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Lukas; Serafin, Stefano; Haimov, Samuel; Grubišić, Vanda

    2015-10-01

    Atmospheric turbulence generated in flow over mountainous terrain is studied using airborne in situ and cloud radar measurements over the Medicine Bow Mountains in southeast Wyoming, USA. During the NASA Orographic Clouds Experiment (NASA06) in 2006, two complex mountain flow cases were documented by the University of Wyoming King Air research aircraft carrying the Wyoming Cloud Radar. The structure of turbulence and its intensity across the mountain range are described using the variance of vertical velocity σw2 and the cube root of the energy dissipation rate ɛ1/3 (EDR). For a quantitative analysis of turbulence from the cloud radar, the uncertainties in the Doppler wind retrieval have to be taken into account, such as the variance of hydrometeor fall speed and the contamination of vertical Doppler velocity by the horizontal wind. A thorough analysis of the uncertainties shows that 25% accuracy or better can be achieved in regions of moderate to severe turbulence in the lee of the mountains, while only qualitative estimates of turbulence intensity can be obtained outside the most turbulent regions. Two NASA06 events exhibiting large-amplitude mountain waves, mid-tropospheric wave breaking, and rotor circulations are examined. Moderate turbulence is found in a wave-breaking region with σw2 and EDR reaching 4.8 m2 s-2 and 0.25 m2/3 s-1, respectively. Severe turbulence is measured within the rotor circulations with σw2 and EDR respectively in the ranges of 7.8-16.4 m2 s-2 and 0.50-0.77 m2/3 s-1. A unique result of this study is the quantitative estimation of the intensity of turbulence and its spatial distribution in the interior of atmospheric rotors, provided by the radar-derived turbulence fields.

  17. Nonlinear wave-particle interaction upstream from the Earth's bow shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mazelle

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Well-defined ring-like backstreaming ion distributions have been recently reported from observations made by the 3DP/PESA-High analyzer onboard the WIND spacecraft in the Earth's foreshock at large distances from the bow shock, which suggests a local production mechanism. The maximum phase space density for these distributions remains localized at a nearly constant pitch-angle value for a large number of gyroperiods while the shape of the distribution remains very steady. These distributions are also observed in association with quasi-monochromatic low frequency (~ 50 mHz waves with substantial amplitude (δB/B>0.2. The analysis of the magnetic field data has shown that the waves are propagating parallel to the background field in the right-hand mode. Parallel ion beams are also often observed in the same region before the observation of both the ring-like distributions and the waves. The waves appear in cyclotron resonance with the ion parallel beams. We investigate first the possibility that the ion beams could provide the free energy source for driving an ion/ion instability responsible for the ULF wave occurrence. For that, we solve the wave dispersion relation with the observed parameters. Second, we show that the ring-like distributions could then be produced by a coherent nonlinear wave-particle interaction. It tends to trap the ions into narrow cells in velocity space centered on a well-defined pitch-angle, directly related to the saturation wave amplitude in the analytical theory. The theoretical predictions are in good quantitative agreement with the observations

  18. Spatial variability of near-surface temperature over the coastal mountains in southern Chile (38°S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Sergio; Garreaud, René

    2017-09-01

    The spatial distribution of the near-surface air temperature over a coastal mountain range in southern Chile [Nahuelbuta Mountains (NM), 38°S, maximum height 1300-m ASL] is investigated using in situ measurements, satellite-derived land-surface temperature, and simulations during the austral winter of 2011. Based on a few selected but representative cases, we found that under rainy conditions—either at day or night—temperature decreases with height close to the moist adiabatic lapse rate ( 6.5 °C/km). Likewise, the temperature tends to follow the dry adiabat ( 9.8 °C/km) during daytime under dry- and clear-skies conditions. During clear-skies nights, the temperature also decreases with height over the southeastern side of NM, but it often increases (at about 8 °C/km) over the northwestern side of the mountains. This temperature inversion extends up to about 700-m ASL leading to an average temperature contrast of about 7 °C between the northwestern and southeastern sides of Nahuelbuta by the end of dry nights. These dawns also feature substantial temperature differences (>10 °C) among closely located stations at a same altitude. High-resolution numerical simulations suggest that upstream blocking of the prevailing SE flow, hydrostatic mountain waves, and strong downslope winds is responsible for such distinctive nocturnal temperature distribution.

  19. Glacial effects limiting mountain height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egholm, D L; Nielsen, S B; Pedersen, V K; Lesemann, J-E

    2009-08-13

    The height of mountain ranges reflects the balance between tectonic rock uplift, crustal strength and surface denudation. Tectonic deformation and surface denudation are interdependent, however, and feedback mechanisms-in particular, the potential link to climate-are subjects of intense debate. Spatial variations in fluvial denudation rate caused by precipitation gradients are known to provide first-order controls on mountain range width, crustal deformation rates and rock uplift. Moreover, limits to crustal strength are thought to constrain the maximum elevation of large continental plateaus, such as those in Tibet and the central Andes. There are indications that the general height of mountain ranges is also directly influenced by the extent of glaciation through an efficient denudation mechanism known as the glacial buzzsaw. Here we use a global analysis of topography and show that variations in maximum mountain height correlate closely with climate-controlled gradients in snowline altitude for many high mountain ranges across orogenic ages and tectonic styles. With the aid of a numerical model, we further demonstrate how a combination of erosional destruction of topography above the snowline by glacier-sliding and commensurate isostatic landscape uplift caused by erosional unloading can explain observations of maximum mountain height by driving elevations towards an altitude window just below the snowline. The model thereby self-consistently produces the hypsometric signature of the glacial buzzsaw, and suggests that differences in the height of mountain ranges mainly reflect variations in local climate rather than tectonic forces.

  20. Geology of the Yucca Mountain site area, southwestern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, W.R.; Whitney, J.W.; Buesch, D.C.

    2006-01-01

    Yucca Mountain in southwestern Nevada is a prominent, irregularly shaped upland formed by a thick apron of Miocene pyroclastic-flow and fallout tephra deposits, with minor lava flows, that was segmented by through-going, large-displacement normal faults into a series of north-trending, eastwardly tilted structural blocks. The principal volcanic-rock units are the Tiva Canyon and Topopah Spring Tuffs of the Paintbrush Group, which consist of volumetrically large eruptive sequences derived from compositionally distinct magma bodies in the nearby southwestern Nevada volcanic field, and are classic examples of a magmatic zonation characterized by an upper crystal-rich (>10% crystal fragments) member, a more voluminous lower crystal-poor (underground storage facility, was studied by using rock varnish cation-ratio and 10Be and 36Cl cosmogenic dating methods to determine the length of time bedrock outcrops and hillslope boulder deposits were exposed to cosmic rays, which then served as a basis for calculating long-term erosion rates. The results indicate rates ranging from 0.04 to 0.27 cm/k.y., which represent the maximum downcutting along the summit of Yucca Mountain under all climatic conditions that existed there during most of Quaternary time. Associated studies include the stratigraphy of surficial deposits in Fortymile Wash, the major drainage course in the area, which record a complex history of four to five cut-and-fill cycles within the channel during middle to late Quaternary time. The last 2-4 m of incision probably occurred during the last pluvial climatic period, 22-18 ka, followed by aggradation to the present time. Major faults at Yucca Mountain-from east to west, the Paintbrush Canyon, Bow Ridge, Stagecoach Road, Solitario Canyon, Fatigue Wash, Windy Wash, and Northern and Southern Crater Flat Faults-trend predominantly north, are spaced 1-5 km apart, have bedrock displacements ranging from 125 m to as much as 500 m, and exhibit Quaternary movements of

  1. Proposal for definition of mountain and under-mountain areas

    OpenAIRE

    Josef Navrátil

    2005-01-01

    Spatial definitions of study areas for specific projects are of crucial importance for these projects. It is necessary to come out from the aims of the project for spatial definition of mountain and under-mountain areas in South- Bohemian Region. There are many ways of solution and the definition should be strictly connected with the structured goals of this project. The methods and usage of criteria for definition of study areas will depend on aim identification. There are several possibilit...

  2. Environmental fate and behavior of persistent organic pollutants in Shergyla Mountain, southeast of the Tibetan Plateau of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Nali; Schramm, Karl-Werner; Wang, Thanh; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Zheng, Xiaoyan; Fu, Jianjie; Gao, Yan; Wang, Yawei; Jiang, Guibin

    2014-08-01

    Pristine mountains are ideal settings to study transport and behavior of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) along gradients of climate and land cover. The present work investigated the concentrations and patterns of 28 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), 25 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs), 13 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and 3 hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDs) isomers in the air of the Shergyla Mountain, southeastern Tibetan Plateau. Endosulfan І, hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorobenzene, hexachlorocyclohexanes and dichlorodibenzotrichloroethane and its degradation products (DDTs) were the predominant compounds while PBDEs and HBCDs showed the lowest background concentrations. Most of the target POPs had significantly higher concentrations in summer than those in winter. Increasing trends of the concentrations of DDTs and endosulfan were found with increasing altitude on the western slope in the Shergyla Mountain. Potential forest filter effect was observed based on the lower air concentrations of the target POPs in the forest than the ones out of the forest. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Fen mires with cushion plants in Bale Mountains, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.W. Dullo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In March 2013 we investigated two small peatlands in the Bale Mountains in central Ethiopia. The mires are located on the Sanetti Plateau at an altitude of approximately 4000 metres above mean sea level (a.m.s.l.. Their vegetation is dominated by tussocky Carex species and locally also by a cushion plant Eriocaulon schimperi, which occurs elsewhere in eastern Africa in montane areas at altitudes between 2000 and 4100 m a.m.s.l. We studied the vegetation and pore water at different depths. The pore water chemistry suggested that these mires were groundwater fed, but also received water as precipitation and calcium-poor runoff from adjacent hills. The cushion plants (Eriocaulon schimperi on the Sanetti Plateau resemble Astelia pumila, a cushion plant that dominates large ‘blanket bog type’ mires in south-west Chile and the south-eastern part of Tierra del Fuego (Argentina. Both species appear to expand in slightly degrading fens or bogs under rather extreme environmental conditions. We also discuss possible evolutionary adaptations within the Eriocaulon family to the harsh environment of mountain mires at high altitudes.

  4. geochemistry of schists of northwest obudu plateau, southeastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    REV YOUNG EZENWA OBIOHA

    Evidence of Paleo-Proterozoic (Ca. 1769Ma) component in the Basement Complex of. Southeastern Nigeria. J. Min. Geol. 33: 81- 88. Ekwueme, B. N. and Onyeagocha, A. C., 1986. Geochemistry of metasedimentary rocks of. Uwet area, Oban Massif, Southeastern Nigeria. Geol. Rundsch. 75, 411 – 420. Ephraim, B. E. ...

  5. Efficiency Analysis of Southeastern U.S. Meat Goat Production

    OpenAIRE

    Qushim, Berdikul; Gillespie, Jeffrey; McMillin, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Technical efficiency, scale and scope economies, marginal productive contributions for inputs and outputs, and efficiency drivers were determined for the Southeastern U.S meat goat enterprise. The average technical efficiency was 0.88. We find increasing returns to scale and scope economies for Southeastern U.S. meat goat enterprises.

  6. Flammability of litter from southeastern trees: a preliminary assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Morgan Varner; Jeffrey M. Kane; Erin M. Banwell; Jesse K. Kreye

    2015-01-01

    The southeastern United States possesses a great diversity of woody species and an equally impressive history of wildland fires. Species are known to vary in their flammability, but little is known about southeastern species. We used published data and our own collections to perform standard litter flammability tests on a diverse suite of 25 native overstory trees from...

  7. Bowing, kneeling and 'prostration': athlete's collapse patterns during sudden cardiac arrhythmia/arrest on the field of play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltsezak, Stanislav

    2014-11-01

    Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) on the field of play remains one of the most tragic and challenging events for a team physician. Even with robust regular preparticipation cardiac screening we cannot prevent all cases of SCA. Ability to recognise imminent cardiac arrest occurring on the field of play remains an important step in managing this condition without delay. You Tube was searched for video clips clearly depicting the sequence of an athlete's collapse of cardiac origin. A pattern of collapse was subsequently analysed. 13 cases were available for public viewing on You Tube and demonstrated the final position of collapse. 12 collapses had full video footage of athlete's fall. All athletes were men. 84.6% (11) cases were from football (soccer). 15.4% (2) of cases were from martial arts. In 10 out of 12 cardiac event cases (83.3%) bowing and/or kneeling were followed by decubitus position. 58.3% (7) of cases demonstrated bowing at the beginning of collapse. 58.3% (7) cases had kneeling as an element of collapse. 61.5% (8 out of 13 cases) of casualties adopted position of 'prostration' (ie, prone) as final stage of collapse. When on the field of play, in the absence of head injury, athletes displaying bowing and/or kneeling positions followed by collapse should be assumed to have a life-threatening cardiac event. Final position of 'prostration' was adopted in over half of cardiogenic collapses. A sports medicine professional should bear this in mind and target his/her assessment and treatment accordingly. When attending such casualties, a defibrillator must be taken to the collapsed player. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. STEREO and Wind Observations of Intense Cyclotron Harmonic Waves at the Earth's Bow Shock and Inside the Magnetosheath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breneman, A. W.; Cattell, C.

    2013-01-01

    We present the first observations of electron cyclotron harmonic waves at the Earth's bow shock from STEREO and Wind burst waveform captures. These waves are observed at magnetic field gradients at a variety of shock geometries ranging from quasi-parallel to nearly perpendicular along with whistler mode waves, ion acoustic waves, and electrostatic solitary waves. Large amplitude cyclotron harmonic waveforms are also observed in the magnetosheath in association with magnetic field gradients convected past the bow shock. Amplitudes of the cyclotron harmonic waves range from a few tens to more than 500 millivolts/meter peak-peak. A comparison between the short (15 meters) and long (100 meters) Wind spin plane antennas shows a similar response at low harmonics and a stronger response on the short antenna at higher harmonics. This indicates that wavelengths are not significantly larger than 100 meters, consistent with the electron cyclotron radius. Waveforms are broadband and polarizations are distinctively comma-shaped with significant power both perpendicular and parallel to the magnetic field. Harmonics tend to be more prominent in the perpendicular directions. These observations indicate that the waves consist of a combination of perpendicular Bernstein waves and field-aligned waves without harmonics. A likely source is the electron cyclotron drift instability which is a coupling between Bernstein and ion acoustic waves. These waves are the most common type of high-frequency wave seen by STEREO during bow shock crossings and magnetosheath traversals and our observations suggest that they are an important component of the high-frequency turbulent spectrum in these regions.

  9. Bow shock specularly reflected ions in the presence of low-frequency electromagnetic waves: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Meziane

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available An energetic ion (E≤40 event observed by the CLUSTER/CIS experiment upstream of the Earth's bow shock is studied in detail. The ion event is observed in association with quasi-monochromatic ULF MHD-like waves, which we show modulate the ion fluxes. According to three statistical bow shock position models, the Cluster spacecrafts are located at ~0.5 Re from the shock and the averaged bow shock θBn0 is about ~30°. The analysis of the three-dimensional angular distribution indicates that ions propagating roughly along the magnetic field direction are observed at the onset of the event. Later on, the angular distribution is gyrophase-bunched and the pitch-angle distribution is peaked at α0~θBn0, consistent with the specular reflection production mechanism. The analysis of the waves shows that they are left-handed in the spacecraft frame of reference (right-handed in the solar wind frame and propagate roughly along the ambient magnetic field; we have found that they are in cyclotron-resonance with the field-aligned beam observed just upstream. Using properties of the waves and particles, we explain the observed particle flux-modulation in the context of θBn changes at the shock caused by the convected ULF waves. We have found that the high count rates coincide with particles leaving the shock when θBn angles are less than ~40°, consistent with the specular reflection hypothesis as the production mechanism of ions.

  10. Bow shock specularly reflected ions in the presence of low-frequency electromagnetic waves: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Meziane

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available An energetic ion (E≤40 event observed by the CLUSTER/CIS experiment upstream of the Earth's bow shock is studied in detail. The ion event is observed in association with quasi-monochromatic ULF MHD-like waves, which we show modulate the ion fluxes. According to three statistical bow shock position models, the Cluster spacecrafts are located at ~0.5 Re from the shock and the averaged bow shock θBn0 is about ~30°. The analysis of the three-dimensional angular distribution indicates that ions propagating roughly along the magnetic field direction are observed at the onset of the event. Later on, the angular distribution is gyrophase-bunched and the pitch-angle distribution is peaked at α0Bn0, consistent with the specular reflection production mechanism. The analysis of the waves shows that they are left-handed in the spacecraft frame of reference (right-handed in the solar wind frame and propagate roughly along the ambient magnetic field; we have found that they are in cyclotron-resonance with the field-aligned beam observed just upstream. Using properties of the waves and particles, we explain the observed particle flux-modulation in the context of θBn changes at the shock caused by the convected ULF waves. We have found that the high count rates coincide with particles leaving the shock when θBn angles are less than ~40°, consistent with the specular reflection hypothesis as the production mechanism of ions.

  11. Summer and winter habitat suitability of Marco Polo argali in southeastern Tajikistan: A modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Eric Ariel L; Valdez, Raul; Michel, Stefan

    2017-11-01

    We modeled summer and winter habitat suitability of Marco Polo argali in the Pamir Mountains in southeastern Tajikistan using these statistical algorithms: Generalized Linear Model, Random Forest, Boosted Regression Tree, Maxent, and Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines. Using sheep occurrence data collected from 2009 to 2015 and a set of selected habitat predictors, we produced summer and winter habitat suitability maps and determined the important habitat suitability predictors for both seasons. Our results demonstrated that argali selected proximity to riparian areas and greenness as the two most relevant variables for summer, and the degree of slope (gentler slopes between 0° to 20°) and Landsat temperature band for winter. The terrain roughness was also among the most important variables in summer and winter models. Aspect was only significant for winter habitat, with argali preferring south-facing mountain slopes. We evaluated various measures of model performance such as the Area Under the Curve (AUC) and the True Skill Statistic (TSS). Comparing the five algorithms, the AUC scored highest for Boosted Regression Tree in summer (AUC = 0.94) and winter model runs (AUC = 0.94). In contrast, Random Forest underperformed in both model runs.

  12. Summer and winter habitat suitability of Marco Polo argali in southeastern Tajikistan: A modeling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Ariel L. Salas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We modeled summer and winter habitat suitability of Marco Polo argali in the Pamir Mountains in southeastern Tajikistan using these statistical algorithms: Generalized Linear Model, Random Forest, Boosted Regression Tree, Maxent, and Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines. Using sheep occurrence data collected from 2009 to 2015 and a set of selected habitat predictors, we produced summer and winter habitat suitability maps and determined the important habitat suitability predictors for both seasons. Our results demonstrated that argali selected proximity to riparian areas and greenness as the two most relevant variables for summer, and the degree of slope (gentler slopes between 0° to 20° and Landsat temperature band for winter. The terrain roughness was also among the most important variables in summer and winter models. Aspect was only significant for winter habitat, with argali preferring south-facing mountain slopes. We evaluated various measures of model performance such as the Area Under the Curve (AUC and the True Skill Statistic (TSS. Comparing the five algorithms, the AUC scored highest for Boosted Regression Tree in summer (AUC = 0.94 and winter model runs (AUC = 0.94. In contrast, Random Forest underperformed in both model runs. Keywords: Ecology, Evolution, Zoology, Environmental science, Geography, Biological sciences

  13. Variation and Trends of Landscape Dynamics, Land Surface Phenology and Net Primary Production of the Appalachian Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yeqiao; Zhao, Jianjun; Zhou, Yuyu; Zhang, Hongyan

    2012-12-15

    The gradients of the Appalachian Mountains in elevations and latitudes provide a unique regional perspective of landscape variations in the eastern United States and a section of the southeastern Canada. This study reveals patterns and trends of landscape dynamics, land surface phenology and ecosystem production along the Appalachian Mountains using time series data from Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) and AVHRR Global Production Efficiency Model (GloPEM) datasets. We analyzed the spatial and temporal patterns of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), length of growing season (LOS) and net primary production (NPP) of selected ecoregions along the Appalachian Mountains regions. We compared the results out of the Appalachian Mountains regions in different spatial contexts including the North America and the Appalachian Trail corridor area. To reveal latitudinal variations we analyzed data and compared the results between 30°N-40°N and 40°N-50°N latitudes. The result revealed significant decreases in annual peak NDVI in the Appalachian Mountains regions. The trend for the Appalachian Mountains regions was -0.0018 (R2=0.55, P<0.0001) NDVI unit decrease per year during 25 years between 1982 and 2006. The LOS had prolonged 0.3 day yr-1 during 25 years over the Appalachian Mountains regions. The NPP increased by 2.68 gC m-2yr-2 in Appalachian Mountains regions from 1981 to 2000. The comparison with the North America reveals the effects of topography and ecosystem compositions of the Appalachian Mountains. The comparison with the Appalachian Trail corridor area provides a regional mega-transect view of the measured variables.

  14. Significance of the 'bow and lean test' for the diagnosis of benign horizontal semicircular canal paroxysmal positional vertigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying CHEN

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To observe and assess the positive rate and accuracy of 'bow and lean test' in the horizontal semicircular canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (HSC-BPPV. Methods Ninety-two HSC-BPPV patients who were diagnosed by head roll test (HRT were enrolled, and then further tested with 'bow and lean test' (BLT between Oct 1, 2010 and Sep 30, 2011. They were treated by Barbecue maneuver or Brandt-Daroff exercise on the basis of HRT and BLT tests. The positive rate of BLT test was analyzed, and its accuracy for diagnosis and success rate for treatment of HSC-BPPV were compared between HRT and BLT. Results Among the 92 patients, 83(90.2% of them showed BLT nystagmus. Fifty-seven of 83 (68.7% patients showed both bowing nystagmus and leaning nystagmus, and 18(21.7% and 8(9.6% respectively showed bowing nystagmus alone or leaning nystagmus alone. Among 92 patients, 74(80.4% of them the affected side could be determined by HRT with 69 BLT positive and 5 BLT negative. Among the 69 BLT-positive patients, 60 patients showed the same result of HRT, and successful result was achieved by manipulation. 9 patients showed different result between BLT and HRT, in whom manipulation failed according to the result of HRT, but succeeded when manipulation was performed according to BLT. In 18 patients(19.6% it was not able to determine the affected side by HRT, but in 14 patients manipulation was successful when BLT result was applied. In 4 patients BLT failed to evoke nystagmus, but after practicing Brandt-Daroff exercise, vertigo and HRT nystagmus disappeared 3 days later. Among the 92 patients, 65(70.7% were cured according to HRT, while 83(90.2% got successful result according to BLT(P < 0.05. Conclusion The positive rate and accuracy for HSC-BPPV by BLT are high. It is a useful method for determining the affected side in HSC-BPPV, and to provide the basis for selecting effective manipulation treatment.

  15. Role of In-segregation in anomalously large band-gap bowings of (In,Al,Ga)N

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorczyka, I.; Suski, T.; Christensen, Niels Egede

    2011-01-01

    Large bowings of the band gap and its pressure coefficient in In-containing nitride semiconductor alloys are observed. Photoluminescence measurements for InxGa1-xN and InxAl1-xN combined with other experimental data show large scatter of the results. A comparison with ab-initio calculations...... suggests that this scatter can be ascribed to the formation of In clusters during the sample preparation. The explanation of the observed anomalies taking into account chemical and size effects indicates a specific nature of InN, different from other nitrides and other In-based binary semiconductors....

  16. A mountain of millipedes IV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Two species of the genus Prionopetalum Attems, 1909, are recorded from the Udzungwa Mountains: P. asperginis sp. nov. and P. kraepelini (Attems, 1896). Prionopetalum stuhlmanni Attems, 1914, is synonymized under P. kraepelini. Odontopyge fasciata Attems, 1896, is transferred from Prionopetalum...

  17. Rocky Mountain Arsenal NPDES Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under NPDES permit CO-0035009, the U.S. Department of Interior's Fish and Wildlife Service is authorized to discharge from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal recycled water pipeline to Lower Derby Lake in Adams County, Colo.

  18. The Table Mountain Field Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Table Mountain Field Site, located north of Boulder, Colorado, is designated as an area where the magnitude of strong, external signals is restricted (by State...

  19. Camera Geolocation From Mountain Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-17

    be reliably extracted from query images. However, in real-life scenarios the skyline in a query image may be blurred or invisible , due to occlusions...extracted from multiple mountain ridges is critical to reliably geolocating challenging real-world query images with blurred or invisible mountain skylines...Buddemeier, A. Bissacco, F. Brucher, T. Chua, H. Neven, and J. Yagnik, “Tour the world: building a web -scale landmark recognition engine,” in Proc. of

  20. Yucca Mountain Project public interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reilly, B.E.

    1990-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is committed to keeping the citizens of Nevada informed about activities that relate to the high-level nuclear waste repository program. This paper presents an overview of the Yucca Mountain Project`s public interaction philosophy, objectives, activities and experiences during the two years since Congress directed the DOE to conduct site characterization activities only for the Yucca Mountain site.

  1. THE SPECIAL FEATURES GEOGRAPHICAL SPREADING BUMBLEBEES KIND BOMBUS SOUTH-EASTERN SLOPE OF THE GREATER CAUCASUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzhamila Sharapatinovna Gasanova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. We studied geographical spreading of bumblebees on South-Eastern slope of the Greater Caucasus by enumerated exponent: accordingly complexions of fauna, zone and landscape spreading. Ascertained special species of Bombus for zone and landscape complexions. Location. SouthEastern slope of the Greater Caucasus.Methods. Except own researches we have analysed collections of bumblebees and scientific literature in institute of zoology of National Academy of Sciences of Azerbajcan Republic. Bumblebees were caught by means of a gauze net and exgauzer. Pollinators were immobilized by means of sulfuric ether in mordant. The caught pollinators were defined with use of determinants: Mamaev E.M. and other, 1976; Osichnyuk A.Z., Panfilov D.V. and other, 1978; Panfilov D.V., 1978; Skchirtladze I.A., 1988. Results of definition of caught material were specified and approved in Institute of Zoology of National Academy of Sciences of Azerbajcan with Dr. Sci. Biol. Aliev Kch.A. and with research associates of the Zakatala reserve candidate of biology Gasanov Sh.O. and Mustafaeva R.G.Results. We belive that bumblebees of Zakatala reserve is possible to belong to 6 faunistic complexes: Palearctic, Transpalearctic, West-Palearctic, Mediterranean, East- Mediterranean, Endemic of Caucasus. The most part, 27 species of bumblebees is found in high mountain landscapes. The 5 types from them are strictly specific for subalpine and high mountainous meadowshrubby landscapes. Only 2 species of bumblebees are specific to the broad-leaved woods and the wood-bushes of low mountainous. There are species of Bombus which are most often met in the Zakatala reserve: B. alagesianus; B. alboluteus; B. alpigenus; B. argillaceus; B. daghestanicus; B. eriophorus caucasicus; B. haematurus; B. hortorum; B. hypnorum; B. lucorum; B. mlokosiewitzi; B. rehbinderi; B. silvarum; B. terrestris; B. tristis insipidus; B. vorticosus. There are most rare species of Bombus in Zakatala reserve: B

  2. Mountain Child: Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audsley, Annie; Wallace, Rebecca M M; Price, Martin F

    2016-12-01

    Objectives This systematic review identifies and reviews both peer-reviewed and 'grey' literature, across a range of disciplines and from diverse sources, relating to the condition of children living in mountain communities in low- and middle-income countries. Findings The literature on poverty in these communities does not generally focus on the particular vulnerabilities of children or the impact of intersecting vulnerabilities on the most marginalised members of communities. However, this literature does contribute analyses of the broader context and variety of factors impacting on human development in mountainous areas. The literature on other areas of children's lives-health, nutrition, child mortality, education, and child labour-focuses more specifically on children's particular vulnerabilities or experiences. However, it sometimes lacks the broader analysis of the many interrelated characteristics of a mountainous environment which impact on children's situations. Themes Nevertheless, certain themes recur across many disciplines and types of literature, and point to some general conclusions: mountain poverty is influenced by the very local specificities of the physical environment; mountain communities are often politically and economically marginalised, particularly for the most vulnerable within these communities, including children; and mountain communities themselves are an important locus for challenging and interrupting cycles of increasing inequality and disadvantage. While this broad-scale review represents a modest first step, its findings provide the basis for further investigation.

  3. Compositional bowing of band energies and their deformation potentials in strained InGaAs ternary alloys: A first-principles study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khomyakov, Petr A.; Luisier, Mathieu; Schenk, Andreas [Integrated Systems Laboratory, Department of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, ETH Zurich, Gloriastrasse 35, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-08-10

    Using first-principles calculations, we show that the conduction and valence band energies and their deformation potentials exhibit a non-negligible compositional bowing in strained ternary semiconductor alloys such as InGaAs. The electronic structure of these compounds has been calculated within the framework of local density approximation and hybrid functional approach for large cubic supercells and special quasi-random structures, which represent two kinds of model structures for random alloys. We find that the predicted bowing effect for the band energy deformation potentials is rather insensitive to the choice of the functional and alloy structural model. The direction of bowing is determined by In cations that give a stronger contribution to the formation of the In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}As valence band states with x ≳ 0.5, compared to Ga cations.

  4. Holocene fire activity and vegetation response in South-Eastern Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Romera, Graciela; Carrión, José S.; Pausas, Juli G.; Sevilla-Callejo, Miguel; Lamb, Henry F.; Fernández, Santiago; Burjachs, Francesc

    2010-05-01

    Since fire has been recognized as an essential disturbance in Mediterranean landscapes, the study of long-term fire ecology has developed rapidly. We have reconstructed a sequence of vegetation dynamics and fire changes across south-eastern Iberia by coupling records of climate, fire, vegetation and human activities. We calculated fire activity anomalies (FAAs) in relation to 3 ka cal BP for 10-8 ka cal BP, 6 ka cal BP, 4 ka cal BP and the present. For most of the Early to the Mid-Holocene uneven, but low fire events were the main vegetation driver at high altitudes where broadleaved and coniferous trees presented a highly dynamic post-fire response. At mid-altitudes in the mainland Segura Mountains, fire activity remained relatively stable, at similar levels to recent times. We hypothesize that coastal areas, both mountains and lowlands, were more fire-prone landscapes as biomass was more likely to have accumulated than in the inland regions, triggering regular fire events. The wet and warm phase towards the Mid-Holocene (between ca 8 and 6 ka cal BP) affected the whole region and promoted the spread of mesophytic forest co-existing with Pinus, as FAAs appear strongly negative at 6 ka cal BP, with a less important role of fire. Mid and Late Holocene landscapes were shaped by an increasing aridity trend and the rise of human occupation, especially in the coastal mountains where forest disappeared from ca 2 ka cal BP. Mediterranean-type vegetation (evergreen oaks and Pinus pinaster- halepensis types) showed the fastest post-fire vegetation dynamics over time.

  5. The origins of mountain geoecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ives, Jack D.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Mountain geoecology, as a sub-discipline of Geography, stems from the life and work of Carl Troll who, in turn, was inspired by the philosophy and mountain travels of Alexander von Humboldt. As founding chair of the IGU Commission on High-Altitude Geoecology (1968, Troll laid the foundations for inter-disciplinary and international mountain research. The paper traces the evolution of the Commission and its close links with the UNESCO Man and Biosphere Programme (1972- and the United Nations University’s mountain Project (1978-. This facilitated the formation of a major force for inclusion of a mountain chapter in AGENDA 21 during the 1992 Rio de Janeiro Herat Summit (UNCED and the related designation by the United Nations of 2002 as the International Year of Mountains. In this way, mountain geoecology not only contributed to worldwide mountain research but also entered the political arena in the struggle for sustainable mountain development and the well-being of mountain people.La geoecología de montaña, como sub-disciplina de la Geografía, entronca con la vida y trabajo de Carl Troll, quien, a su vez, fue inspirado por la filosofía y viajes de Alexander von Humboldt. Como presidente fundador de la comisión de la UGI sobre High Altitude Geoecology (1968, Troll colocó las bases para la investigación interdisciplinar e internacional de las montañas. Este trabajo presenta la evolución de la Comisión y sus estrechas relaciones con el Programa Hombre y Biosfera de UNESCO (1972- y con el Proyecto de montaña de la Universidad de Naciones Unidas (1978-. Esto facilitó la inclusión de un capítulo sobre la montaña en AGENDA 21 durante la Cumbre de la Tierra de Río de Janeiro (UNCED, y la consiguiente designación de 2002 como el Año Internacional de las Montañas por parte de Naciones Unidas. En este sentido, la geoecología de montaña no sólo contribuyó a la investigación de las montañas del mundo sino que también empujó a la pol

  6. Anti-slamming bulbous bow and tunnel stern applications on a novel Deep-V catamaran for improved performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Atlar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available While displacement type Deep-V mono hulls have superior seakeeping behaviour at speed, catamarans typically have modest behaviour in rough seas. It is therefore a logical progression to combine the superior seakeeping performance of a displacement type Deep-V mono-hull with the high-speed benefits of a catamaran to take the advantages of both hull forms. The displacement Deep-V catamaran concept was developed in Newcastle University and Newcastle University's own multi-purpose research vessel, which was launched in 2011, pushed the design envelope still further with the successful adoption of a novel anti-slamming bulbous bow and tunnel stern for improved efficiency. This paper presents the hullform development of this unique vessel to understand the contribution of the novel bow and stern features on the performance of the Deep-V catamaran. The study is also a further validation of the hull resistance by using advanced numerical analysis methods in conjunction with the model test. An assessment of the numerical predictions of the hull resistance is also made against physical model test results and shows a good agreement between them.

  7. Large Scale Earth's Bow Shock with Northern IMF as simulated by PIC code in parallel with MHD model

    CERN Document Server

    Baraka, Suleiman M

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a 3D kinetic model (Particle-in-Cell PIC ) for the description of the large scale Earth's bow shock. The proposed version is stable and does not require huge or extensive computer resources. Because PIC simulations work with scaled plasma and field parameters, we also propose to validate our code by comparing its results with the available MHD simulations under same scaled Solar wind ( SW ) and ( IMF ) conditions. We report new results from the two models. In both codes the Earth's bow shock position is found to be ~14.8 RE along the Sun-Earth line, and ~ 29 RE on the dusk side. Those findings are consistent with past in situ observations. Both simulations reproduce the theoretical jump conditions at the shock. However, the PIC code density and temperature distributions are inflated and slightly shifted sunward when compared to the MHD results. Kinetic electron motions and reflected ions upstream may cause this sunward shift. Species distributions in the foreshock region are depicted...

  8. Understanding the role of Whistler waves at the Bow shock of Earth: MMS observations and dispersion analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, H.; Russell, C.; Schwartz, S. J.; An, X.; Strangeway, R. J.

    2016-12-01

    Abundant wave activity is generated at the bow shock of the Earth, that plays an important role in heating the electrons and ions and dissipating the excess energy of supercritical shocks. The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecrafts, with their state-of-the-art plasma and field instruments onboard, allow us to study these waves and better understand the role they play at the bow shock. We have find broad-band waves up to the electron cyclotron frequency across the shock ramp and slightly downstream of it, with large propagation angles with respect to the background magnetic field direction. Simultaneously, the electrons have quite disturbed velocities and are anisotropic in velocity space. In the same region, narrow-band waves at a few hundred Hertz are also observed with durations under a second. These waves are right-handed circularly polarized and propagate along the magnetic field lines. Both wave types are likely to be whistler mode, probably associated with electron streams in the shock ramp. We perform wave analysis of the magnetic and electric fields observed by MMS and carry out dispersion analysis with the guidance of the plasma observations to understand the wave generation and their effects on the shock and magnetosheath plasmas.

  9. Risk Analysis on Leakage Failure of Natural Gas Pipelines by Fuzzy Bayesian Network with a Bow-Tie Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Shan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pipeline is the major mode of natural gas transportation. Leakage of natural gas pipelines may cause explosions and fires, resulting in casualties, environmental damage, and material loss. Efficient risk analysis is of great significance for preventing and mitigating such potential accidents. The objective of this study is to present a practical risk assessment method based on Bow-tie model and Bayesian network for risk analysis of natural gas pipeline leakage. Firstly, identify the potential risk factors and consequences of the failure. Then construct the Bow-tie model, use the quantitative analysis of Bayesian network to find the weak links in the system, and make a prediction of the control measures to reduce the rate of the accident. In order to deal with the uncertainty existing in the determination of the probability of basic events, fuzzy logic method is used. Results of a case study show that the most likely causes of natural gas pipeline leakage occurrence are parties ignore signage, implicit signage, overload, and design defect of auxiliaries. Once the leakage occurs, it is most likely to result in fire and explosion. Corresponding measures taken on time will reduce the disaster degree of accidents to the least extent.

  10. Recent H-alpha Results on Pulsar B2224+65’s Bow-Shock Nebula, the “Guitar”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Dolch

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We used the 4 m Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT at Lowell observatory in 2014 to observe the Guitar Nebula, an Hα bow-shock nebula around the high-velocity radio pulsar B2224+65. Since the nebula's discovery in 1992, the structure of the bow-shock has undergone significant dynamical changes. We have observed the limb structure, targeting the “body” and “neck” of the guitar. Comparing the DCT observations to 1995 observations with the Palomar 200-inch Hale telescope, we found changes in both spatial structure and surface brightness in the tip, head, and body of the nebula.

  11. Atypical Femoral Shaft Fractures in Female Bisphosphonate Users Were Associated with an Increased Anterolateral Femoral Bow and a Thicker Lateral Cortex: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Pil Jang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our study was to investigate the radiographic characteristics of atypical femoral shaft fractures (AFSFs in females with a particular focus on femoral bow and cortical thickness. We performed a fracture location-, age-, gender-, and ethnicity-matched case-control study. Forty-two AFSFs in 29 patients and 22 typical osteoporotic femoral shaft fractures in 22 patients were enrolled in AFSF group and control group, respectively. With comparing demographics between two groups, radiographically measured femoral bow and cortical thicknesses of AFSF group were compared with control group. All AFSF patients were females with a mean age of 74.4 years (range, 58–85 years. All had a history of bisphosphonate (BP use with a mean duration of 7.3 years (range 1–17 years. Femoral bow of AFSF group was significantly higher than control group on both anteroposterior (AP and lateral radiographs after age correction. Mean femoral bow on an AP radiograph was 12.39°±5.38° in AFSF group and 3.97±3.62° in control group (P<0.0001. Mean femoral bow on the lateral radiograph was 15.71°±5.62° in AFSF group and 10.72°±4.61° in control group (after age correction P=0.003. And cortical thicknesses of AFSF group demonstrated marked disparity between tensile and compressive side of bowed femurs in this study. An adjusted lateral cortical thickness was 10.5±1.4 mm in AFSF group and 8.1±1.3 mm in control group (after age correction P<0.0001 while medial cortical thickness of AFSF group was not statistically different from control group. Correlation analysis showed that the lateral femoral bow on the AP radiograph was solely related to lateral CTI (R=0.378, P=0.002. AFSFs in female BP users were associated with an increased anterolateral femoral bow and a thicker lateral cortex of femurs.

  12. [Comparative analysis of edentulous patients treated traditionally and with the use of a face-bow and Quick Master articulator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubrak, J

    1998-01-01

    Correct determination of the occlusal plane is one of the most difficult stages of treatment. After determining the correct occlusal plane its reproduction is possible thanks to the use of articulators. These instruments simulate movements of the jaw in three planes. One of the most optimal articulators is a semi-adjustable type. These instruments are not complicated and give good treatment results. A modern semiadjustable type of articulator is Quick Master. The face-bow which comes together with this instrument is used for recording and transferring the occlusal relation to the articulator. This allows to mount models in an adequate three dimensional position in relation to the temporo-mandibular joint. The use of these instruments leads to many questions and doubts due to difficulties in their use. Therefore the aim of my study was to elaborate a simple method of occlusal recording. I have also compared the treatment results of edentulous patients treated with the use of an articulator and the use of a traditional method. Prosthetic restorations were prepared among 60 patients. The study material was divided into two groups of 30 patients each. In the control group for preparing complete dentures the Gysi method was employed as the most common. In the study group a face-bow and articulator were used. After preparing complete dentures detailed clinical control examinations were carried out and were repeated 24-48 hours after fitting the dentures and also after 3 and 6 months of their use. Working with the face-bow I have employed my own modification of recording the occlusion. The upper wax rim was placed on a slightly warmed bite fork and drawing pins were placed in the recording block to act as a type of key. The lower rim was warmed and brought to occlusal contact a couple of times. Next the face-bow was inserted. The recorded occlusion was transferred and mounted in the articulator. Teeth in both cases were set up similarly to the Gysi method. Lower teeth

  13. Structural evidence for northeastward movement on the Chocolate Mountains Thrust, southeasternmost California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, J.T.; Haxel, G.B.; Tosdal, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    The Late Cretaceous Chocolate Mountains Thrust of southeastern California and southwestern Arizona places a block of Proterozoic and Mesozoic continental crust over the late Mesozoic continental margin oceanic sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the Orocopia Schist. The Chocolate Mountains Thrust is interpreted as a thrust (burial, subduction) fault rather than a low-angle normal fault. An important parameter required to understand the tectonic significance of the Chocolate Mountains and related thrusts is their sense of movement. The only sense of movement consistent with collective asymmetry of the thrust zone folds is top to the northeast. Asymmetric microstructures studied at several localities also indicate top to the northeast movement. Paleomagnetic data suggest that the original sense of thrusting, prior to Neogene vertical axis tectonic rotation related to the San Andreas fault system, was northward. Movement of the upper plate of the chocolate Mountains thrust evidently was continentward. Continentward thrusting suggests a tectonic scenario in which an insular or peninsular microcontinental fragment collided with mainland southern California. -from Authors

  14. Elevational Distribution and Ecology of Small Mammals on Tanzania's Second Highest Mountain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William T Stanley

    Full Text Available Mt. Meru is Tanzania's second highest mountain and the ninth highest in Africa. The distribution and abundance of small mammals on this massif are poorly known. Here we document the distribution of shrews and rodents along an elevational gradient on the southeastern versant of Mt. Meru. Five sites were sampled with elevational center points of 1950, 2300, 2650, 3000, and 3600 m, using a systematic methodology of standard traps and pitfall lines, to inventory the shrews and rodents of the slope. Ten species of mammal were recorded, comprising 2 shrew and 8 rodent species with the greatest diversity for each group at 2300 m. No species previously unrecorded on Mt. Meru was observed. Two rodent genera that occur in nearby Eastern Arc Mountains (Hylomyscus and Beamys were not recorded. The rodent Lophuromys verhageni and a recently described species of shrew, Crocidura newmarki, are the only endemic mammals on Mt. Meru, and were widespread across the elevational gradient. As in similar small mammal surveys on other mountains of Tanzania, rainfall positively influenced trap success rates for shrews, but not for rodents. This study provides new information on the local small mammal fauna of the massif, but numerous other questions remain to be explored. Comparisons are made to similar surveys of other mountains in Tanzania.

  15. A discussion of the depositional environment and silica sources of the novaculite in Broken Bow, Oklahoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, P.F. (Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States). Earth and Planetary Sciences Dept.)

    1993-03-01

    There has been considerable research and speculation concerning the depositional environment for the silica sources of the Arkansas Novaculite in the Ouachita Mountains. Arkansas Novaculite conformably overlies Missouri Mountain Shale and underlies the Mississippian Stanley Shale group. Structural evidence in the Ouachita's supports a continent-continent collision and/or island arc subduction involving the continental margin of North America during Late Mississippian, after the novaculite sequence (Thomas, 1989, Appalachian-Ouachita orogen beneath the eastern gulf coastal plain, DNAG F-2). When considering the amount of silica required for deposition of massive and relatively pure silica-rich novaculite, the following were taken into account: (1) the source of the silica, (2) what environment will support silica-based marine life, and (3) what environmental conditions would account for thick, clean silica beds. Great quantities of silica most likely came from several sources. Structural evidence supports sources from the suspect Ouachita wedge and volcanic ash. Abundant fossil evidence suggests that a large portion of the silica source can be attributed to marine life such as radiolaria and sponge spicules. Though the role of metamorphic activity could be key in the formation of these novaculites, correlation of structural and sedimentary depositional features, and fossil evidence overwhelmingly indicate a marine environment for the silica source. The predisposition of radiolaria for an open ocean environment, the conodonts' restricted ranges, the preference of most siliceous sponges for a deep ocean environment, and the lack of stratigraphic evidence pointing to a shallowing of the seas, suggest that the Arkansas-Oklahoma novaculites from deep-marine radiolaria deposits with additional deposition from sedimentary sources.

  16. Treeline dynamics in response to climate change in the Min Mountains, southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhi-Jiang; Shen, Guo-Zhen; Tan, Liu-Yi; Kang, Dong-Wei; Wang, Meng-Jun; Kang, Wen; Guo, Wen-Xia; Zeppel, Melanie Jb; Yu, Qiang; Li, Jun-Qing

    2013-12-01

    Abies faxoniana is the dominant plant species of the forest ecosystem on the eastern edge of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, where the treeline is strongly defined by climate. The tree-ring chronologies and age structure of Abies faxoniana were developed in the treeline ecotones on the northwestern and southeastern aspects of the Min Mountains in the Wanglang Nature Reserve to examine the treeline dynamics of recent decades in response to climate change. On the northwestern aspect, correlation analysis showed that the radial growth was significantly and positively correlated with precipitation in current January and monthly mean temperature in current April, but significantly and negatively correlated with monthly mean temperature in previous August. On the southeastern aspect, the radial growth was significantly negatively correlated with monthly mean temperature in previous July and August. The different responses of radial growth to climatic variability on both the aspects might be mainly due to the micro-environmental conditions. The recruitment benefited from the warm temperature in current April, July and September on the northwestern aspect. The responses of radial growth and recruitment to climatic variability were similar on the northwestern slope. Recruitment was greatly restricted by competition with dense bamboos on the southeastern aspect.

  17. The Olympic Mountains Experiment (OLYMPEX)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houze, Robert A. [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; McMurdie, Lynn A. [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Petersen, Walter A. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama; Schwaller, Mathew R. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland; Baccus, William [Olympic National Park, Port Angeles, Washington; Lundquist, Jessica D. [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Mass, Clifford F. [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Nijssen, Bart [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Rutledge, Steven A. [Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado; Hudak, David R. [Environment and Climate Change Canada, King City, Ontario, Canada; Tanelli, Simone [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California; Mace, Gerald G. [University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah; Poellot, Michael R. [University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, North Dakota; Lettenmaier, Dennis P. [University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California; Zagrodnik, Joseph P. [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Rowe, Angela K. [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; DeHart, Jennifer C. [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Madaus, Luke E. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado; Barnes, Hannah C. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington

    2017-10-01

    the Olympic Mountains Experiment (OLYMPEX) took place during the 2015-2016 fall-winter season in the vicinity of the mountainous Olympic Peninsula of Washington State. The goals of OLYMPEX were to provide physical and hydrologic ground validation for the U.S./Japan Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) satellite mission and, more specifically, to study how precipitation in Pacific frontal systems is modified by passage over coastal mountains. Four transportable scanning dual-polarization Doppler radars of various wavelengths were installed. Surface stations were placed at various altitudes to measure precipitation rates, particle size distributions, and fall velocities. Autonomous recording cameras monitored and recorded snow accumulation. Four research aircraft supplied by NASA investigated precipitation processes and snow cover, and supplemental rawinsondes and dropsondes were deployed during precipitation events. Numerous Pacific frontal systems were sampled, including several reaching "atmospheric river" status, warm and cold frontal systems, and postfrontal convection

  18. Hydrology of the Upper Malad River basin, southeastern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluhowski, Edward J.

    1970-01-01

    The report area comprises 485 square miles in the Basin and Range physiographic province. It includes most of eastern' Oneida County and parts of Franklin, Bannock, and Power Counties of southeastern Idaho. Relief is about 5,000 feet; the floor of the Malad Valley is at an average altitude of about 4,400 feet. Agriculture is, by far, ,the principal economic .activity. In 1960 the population of the upper Malad River basin was about 3,600, of which about 60 percent resided in Malad City, the county seat of Oneida County. The climate is semiarid throughout the Malad Valley and its principal tributary valleys; ,above 6,500 feet the climate is subhumid. Annual precipitation ranges from about 13 inches in the lower Malad Valley to more than 30 inches on the highest peaks of the Bannock and Malad ranges. Owing to ,the normally clear atmospheric conditions, large daily and seasonal temperature fluctuations are common. Topography, distance from the Pacific Ocean, .and the general atmospheric circulation are the principal factors governing the climate of the Malad River basin. The westerlies transport moisture from the P.acific Ocean toward southeastern Idaho. The north-south tren4ing mountains flanking the basin are oriented orthogonally to the moisture flux so that they are very effective in removing precipitable water from the air. A minimum uplift of 6,000 feet is required to transport moisture from the Pacific source region; accordingly, most air masses are desiccated long before they reach the Malad basin. Heaviest precipitation is generally associated with steep pressure gradients in the midtroposphere that are so oriented as to cause a deep landward penetration of moisture from the Pacific Ocean. Annual water yields in the project area range from about 0.8 inch in the, lower Malad Valley to more than 19 inches on the high peaks north and east of Malad City. The mean annual water yield for the entire basin is 4 inches, or about 115,000 acre-feet. Evaporation is

  19. Unchanging Incidence of Hip Fracture in Southeastern Norway

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Polesie, Sam; Sigurdsen, Ulf; Bjørgul, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to ascertain trends in the incidence of hip fracture in southeastern Norway by comparing the hip fracture incidence for the years 2008 to 2010 to that of a study from 1998...

  20. Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study, 1998 and 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study for white-tailed deer, performed in 1998 and 2004 by the College of Veterinary Medicine of The University of Georgia.

  1. Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study, Santee National Wildlife Refuge, 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is an unpublished report by the Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study of the Parasitology College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Georgia....

  2. WHITE MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS, NEW MEXICO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segerstrom, Kenneth; Stotelmeyer, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey the White Mountain Wilderness, which constitutes much of the western and northern White Mountains, New Mexico, is appraised to have six areas of probable mineral potential for base and precious metals. If mineral deposits exist in the wilderness, the potential is for small deposits of base and precious metals in veins and breccia pipes or, more significanlty, the possibility for large low-grade disseminated porphyry-type molybdenum deposits. There is little promise for the occurrence of geothermal energy resources in the area.

  3. Yearly report, Yucca Mountain project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brune, J.N.

    1992-09-30

    We proposed to (1) Develop our data logging and analysis equipment and techniques for analyzing seismic data from the Southern Great Basin Seismic Network (SGBSN), (2) Investigate the SGBSN data for evidence of seismicity patterns, depth distribution patterns, and correlations with geologic features (3) Repair and maintain our three broad band downhole digital seismograph stations at Nelson, nevada, Troy Canyon, Nevada, and Deep Springs, California (4) Install, operate, and log data from a super sensitive microearthquake array at Yucca Mountain (5) Analyze data from micro-earthquakes relative to seismic hazard at Yucca Mountain.

  4. [Organization and management of mountain rescues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupin, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Mountain rescue is a matter for specialists. Specific training, a model of organisation under state control, emergency protocols and information and prevention campaigns have helped to improve morbidity and mortality rates in the mountains.

  5. The foreign investments phenomena in south-eastern European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Teodora ALECU

    2010-01-01

    The south-eastern Europe countries have all the common history of the communism policy and economy, which from the foreign investments perspective meant a radical approach, which promoted a nationalism view against foreign capital interference. Similar to China, perhaps India and other countries, the governments of the south-eastern Europe’s countries expressed a rejection to foreign investments, emphasizing the negative effects of such operations, arguing that any foreign capital inflow is f...

  6. The foreign investments phenomena in southeastern European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Teodora ALECU

    2010-01-01

    The south-eastern Europe countries have all the common history of the communism policy and economy, which from the foreign investments perspective meant a radical approach, which promoted a nationalism view against foreign capital interference. Similar to China, perhaps India and other countries, the governments of the south-eastern Europe’s countries expressed a rejection to foreign investments, emphasizing the negative effects of such operations, arguing that any foreign capital inflow is f...

  7. A Precipitation Climatology of the Snowy Mountains, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobald, Alison; McGowan, Hamish; Speirs, Johanna

    2014-05-01

    The precipitation that falls in the Snowy Mountains region of southeastern Australia provides critical water resources for hydroelectric power generation. Water storages in this region are also a major source of agricultural irrigation, environmental flows, and offer a degree of flood protection for some of the major river systems in Australia. Despite this importance, there remains a knowledge gap regarding the long-term, historic variability of the synoptic weather systems that deliver precipitation to the region. This research aims to increase the understanding of long-term variations in precipitation-bearing weather systems resulting in runoff into the Snowy Mountains catchments and reservoirs, and the way in which these are influenced by large-scale climate drivers. Here we present initial results on the development of a climatology of precipitation-bearing synoptic weather systems (synoptic typology), spanning a period of over 100 years. The synoptic typology is developed from the numerical weather model re-analysis data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), in conjunction with regional precipitation and temperature data from a network of private gauges. Given the importance of surface, mid- and upper-air patterns on seasonal precipitation, the synoptic typing will be based on a range of meteorological variables throughout the depth of the troposphere, highlighting the importance of different atmospheric levels on the development and steering of synoptic precipitation bearing systems. The temporal and spatial variability of these synoptic systems, their response to teleconnection forcings and their contribution to inflow generation in the headwater catchments of the Snowy Mountains will be investigated. The resulting climatology will provide new understanding of the drivers of regional-scale precipitation variability at inter- and intra-annual timescales. It will enable greater understanding of how variability in synoptic scale

  8. The seed plant flora of the Mount Jinggangshan region, southeastern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    Full Text Available The Mount Jinggangshan region is located between Jiangxi and Hunan provinces in southeastern China in the central section of the Luoxiao Mountains. A detailed investigation of Mount Jinggangshan region shows that the seed plant flora comprises 2,958 species in 1,003 genera and 210 families (Engler's system adjusted according to Zhengyi Wu's concept. Among them, 23 species of gymnospermae belong to 17 genera and 9 families, and 2,935 species of angiosperms are in 986 genera and 201 families. Moreover, they can also be sorted into woody plants (350 genera and 1,295 species and herbaceous plants (653 genera and 1,663 species. The dominant families are mainly Fagaceae, Lauraceae, Theaceae, Hamamelidaceae, Magnoliaceae, Ericaceae, Styracaceae, Aquifoliaceae, Elaeocarpaceae, Aceraceae, Rosaceae, Corylaceae, Daphniphyllaceae, Symplocaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Pinaceae, Taxodiaceae, Cupressaceae and Taxaceae. Ancient and relic taxa include Ginkgo biloba, Fokieniahodginsii, Amentotaxusargotaenia, Disanthuscercidifolia subsp. longipes, Hamamelismollis, Manglietiafordiana, Magnoliaofficinalis, Tsoongiodendronodorum, Fortuneariasinensis, Cyclocaryapaliurus, Eucommiaulmoides, Sargentodoxacuneata, Bretschneiderasinensis, Camptothecaacuminata, Tapisciasinensis, etc. The flora of Mount Jinggangshan region includes 79 cosmopolitan genera and 924 non-cosmopolitan genera, which are 7.88% and 92.12% of all genera. The latter includes 452 tropical genera (48.92% and 472 temperate genera (51.08%. The temperate elements include 44 genera endemic to China, accounting for 4.76% of all genera. Among 1,003 genera, 465 have only a single species and 401 are oligotypic genera (with 2-5 species. These genera account for 86.34% of all genera. The floristic analysis indicates that the flora of Mount Jinggangshan region is closely related to the flora of Mount Wuyishan region in southeastern China. The flora of Mount Jinggangshan region also contains many elements of central and

  9. Water resources of southeastern Bucks County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jack B.; Mangan, John W.; White, Walter F.

    1951-01-01

    This report has been prepared as a contribution to the development of southeastern Bucks County, Pa. It summarizes available information on the water resources of this 90-square mile area and evaluates current supplies. Future development of the area may change both the available quantity and the quality of the water supply. The effective development of the area demands a continuing knowledge of the water used and the potential quantity and quality of water available from both underground and surface sources. The area is strategically important to a great industrial section of the Bast. Its eastern boundary is a 26-mile segment of the Delaware River along the extreme southeastern border of Bucks County, Pa. (fig. 1). The present.population of the area is about 40,000, including 24,800 in Bristol Borough and Township and 6,770 in Morrisville. The area is traversed by both the Pennsylvania and the Reading Railroads and also by U.S. Highways 1 and 13. These are main transportation routes connecting the great market outlets of Philadelphia and New York. The Delaware River'is navigable from Morrisville to the sea. The area is only a short distance upstream from the Port of Philadelphia, which ranks second only to New York as the most important seaport in the United States. The area is mostly flat, open land 10 to 60 feet above mean sea level. It contains several large Industries, concentrated chiefly in the Bristol area (pi. 1). There are also scattered industries in the Morrisville, Langhorne, and Bensalem areas. However, Bucks County retains some of the characteristics of a farming region. Truck farming and gardening are still carried on to a considerable extent. Along Delaware River below Morrisville the mining of sand and gravel is an Important industry. The facts summarized in this report have been accumulated over a period of 25 years or more by Federal, State, and local agencies in connection with Investigations for other purposes. Most of the data used in this

  10. Storymakers: Hopa Mountain's Early Literacy Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templin, Patricia A.

    2013-01-01

    Hopa Mountain's StoryMakers program is an innovative, research-based program for donating high quality young children's books to parents. Hopa Mountain is a nonprofit organization based in Bozeman, Montana. Hopa Mountain works with groups of rural and tribal citizen leaders who form StoryMakers Community Teams to talk one-on-one with local parents…

  11. 27 CFR 9.205 - Chehalem Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... located in Clackamas, Yamhill, and Washington Counties, Oregon. The boundary of the Chehalem Mountains... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chehalem Mountains. 9.205... Chehalem Mountains. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Chehalem...

  12. Band gap bowings and anomalous pressure effects in III–V nitride alloys: Role of In-segregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorczyca, I.; Suski, T.; Christensen, Niels Egede

    2011-01-01

    are most pronounced in InxAl1-xN, (with x=0.25) and depend strongly on clustering geometry. It is shown that the In–N bonds are shortened when more than one In-cation is bound to one nitrogen anion. The strong hybridization of wave functions (In-p,d-states and N-p-states) at the top of the valence band...... and experimental suggestions about the crucial role of In-segregation in InxGa1-xN and InxAl1-xN, different arrangements of In atoms, uniform and clustered are considered. The presence of In and its clustering introduces a significant reduction of both Eg and dEg/dp, as well as strong bowings. These effects...

  13. Bi-2212 and Y123 highly curved single-crystal-like objects: whiskers, bows and ring-like structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badica, Petre; Agostino, Angelo; Mizanur Rahman Khan, Mohammad; Cagliero, Stefano; Plapcianu, Carmen; Pastero, Linda; Truccato, Marco; Hayasaka, Yuichiro; Jakob, Gerhard

    2012-10-01

    High-temperature superconducting objects of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 and Y Ba2Cu3O7 highly curved in the ab-plane, such as curved/kinked whiskers, bows and ring-like structures, were obtained within a solid-liquid-solid (SLS) grass-like growth mechanism. As-grown objects are crystals with three-dimensional epitaxy similar to conventional single crystals: they can be viewed as crystal parts ‘cut’ from a conventional rectangular crystal. Between our curved objects and conventional crystals, whiskers or thin films there are some differences in the superconducting properties induced only by the shape factors and no new physics is observed. Some details of the growth mechanism are discussed, emphasizing curved-line formation.

  14. Design of a highly nonlinear twin bow-tie polymer photonic quasi-crystal fiber with high birefringence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wei; Lou, Shuqin; Zou, Hui; Han, Bolin

    2014-03-01

    A twin bow-tie polymer-based photonic quasi-crystal fiber with high birefringence, high nonlinearity and low dispersion as well as maintaining single mode operation is presented in the wavelength range 1.8-2.2 μm. Through optimizing fiber structure parameter using a full-vector finite-element method combined with perfectly matched layers boundary condition, the birefringence is as high as 2.43 × 10-3, the nonlinearity is as high as 118 W-1 km-1, and the dispersion is only 25 ps/nm/km at 2 μm with the holes pitch of 3.3 μm. From the point of fabrication, the influences of deviation of each air hole diameter are discussed to verify the robustness of the photonic quasi-crystal fiber designed.

  15. Acceleration of solar wind ions to 1 MeV by electromagnetic structures upstream of the Earth's bow shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasiewicz, K.; Markidis, S.; Eliasson, B.; Strumik, M.; Yamauchi, M.

    2013-05-01

    We present measurements from the ESA/NASA Cluster mission that show in situ acceleration of ions to energies of 1 MeV outside the bow shock. The observed heating can be associated with the presence of electromagnetic structures with strong spatial gradients of the electric field that lead to ion gyro-phase breaking and to the onset of chaos in ion trajectories. It results in rapid, stochastic acceleration of ions in the direction perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field. The electric potential of the structures can be compared to a field of moguls on a ski slope, capable of accelerating and ejecting the fast running skiers out of piste. This mechanism may represent the universal mechanism for perpendicular acceleration and heating of ions in the magnetosphere, the solar corona and in astrophysical plasmas. This is also a basic mechanism that can limit steepening of nonlinear electromagnetic structures at shocks and foreshocks in collisionless plasmas.

  16. Remote sensing of local structure of the quasi-perpendicular Earth's bow shock by using field-aligned beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Miao

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Field-aligned ion beams (FABs originate at the quasi-perpendicular Earth's bow shock and constitute an important ion population in the foreshock region. The bulk velocity of these FABs depends significantly on the shock normal angle, which is the angle between shock normal and upstream interplanetary magnetic field (IMF. This dependency may therefore be taken as an indicator of the local structure of the shock. Applying the direct reflection model to Cluster measurements, we have developed a method that uses proton FABs in the foreshock region for remote sensing of the local shock structure. The comparison of the model results with the multi-spacecraft observations of FAB events shows very good agreement in terms of wave amplitude and frequency of surface waves at the shock front.

  17. Quasiparticle self-consistent GW theory of III-V nitride semiconductors: Bands, gap bowing, and effective masses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, Axel; Christensen, Niels Egede; Gorczyca, I.

    2010-01-01

    The electronic band structures of InN, GaN, and a hypothetical ordered InGaN2 compound, all in the wurtzite crystal structure, are calculated using the quasiparticle self-consistent GW approximation. This approach leads to band gaps which are significantly improved compared to gaps calculated...... on the basis of the local approximation to density functional theory, although generally overestimated by 0.2–0.3 eV in comparison with experimental gap values. Details of the electronic energies and the effective masses including their pressure dependence are compared with available experimental information....... The band gap of InGaN2 is considerably smaller than what would be expected by linear interpolation implying a significant band gap bowing in InGaN alloys....

  18. Lithium and boron analysis by LA-ICP-MS results from a bowed PWR rod with contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puranen Anders

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A previously published investigation of an irradiated fuel rod from the Ringhals 2 PWR, which was bowed to contact with an adjacent rod, identified a significant but highly localised thinning of the clad wall and increased corrosion. Rod fretting was deemed unlikely due to the adhering oxide covering the surfaces. Local overheating in itself was also deemed insufficient to account for the accelerated corrosion. Instead, an enhanced concentration of lithium due to conditions of local boiling was hypothesised to explain the accelerated corrosion. Studsvik has developed a hot cell coupled LA-ICP-MS (Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer equipment that enables a flexible means of isotopic analysis of irradiated fuel and other highly active surfaces. In this work, the equipment was used to investigate the distribution of lithium (7Li and boron (11B in the outer oxide at the bow contact area. Depth profiling in the clad oxide at the opposite side of the rod to the point of contact, which is considered to have experienced normal operating conditions and which has a typical oxide thickness, evidenced levels of ∼10–20 ppm 7Li and a 11B content reaching hundreds of ppm in the outer parts of the oxide, largely in agreement with the expected range of Li and B clad oxide concentrations from previous studies. In the contact area, the 11B content was similar to the reference condition at the opposite side. The 7Li content in the outermost oxide closest to the contact was, however, found to be strongly elevated, reaching several hundred ppm. The considerable and highly localised increase in lithium content at the area of enhanced corrosion thus offers strong evidence for a case of lithium induced breakaway corrosion during power operation, when rod-to-rod contact and high enough surface heat flux results in a very local increase in lithium concentration.

  19. Constraining Genome-Scale Models to Represent the Bow Tie Structure of Metabolism for 13C Metabolic Flux Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler W. H. Backman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of internal metabolic fluxes is crucial for fundamental and applied biology because they map how carbon and electrons flow through metabolism to enable cell function. 13 C Metabolic Flux Analysis ( 13 C MFA and Two-Scale 13 C Metabolic Flux Analysis (2S- 13 C MFA are two techniques used to determine such fluxes. Both operate on the simplifying approximation that metabolic flux from peripheral metabolism into central “core” carbon metabolism is minimal, and can be omitted when modeling isotopic labeling in core metabolism. The validity of this “two-scale” or “bow tie” approximation is supported both by the ability to accurately model experimental isotopic labeling data, and by experimentally verified metabolic engineering predictions using these methods. However, the boundaries of core metabolism that satisfy this approximation can vary across species, and across cell culture conditions. Here, we present a set of algorithms that (1 systematically calculate flux bounds for any specified “core” of a genome-scale model so as to satisfy the bow tie approximation and (2 automatically identify an updated set of core reactions that can satisfy this approximation more efficiently. First, we leverage linear programming to simultaneously identify the lowest fluxes from peripheral metabolism into core metabolism compatible with the observed growth rate and extracellular metabolite exchange fluxes. Second, we use Simulated Annealing to identify an updated set of core reactions that allow for a minimum of fluxes into core metabolism to satisfy these experimental constraints. Together, these methods accelerate and automate the identification of a biologically reasonable set of core reactions for use with 13 C MFA or 2S- 13 C MFA, as well as provide for a substantially lower set of flux bounds for fluxes into the core as compared with previous methods. We provide an open source Python implementation of these algorithms at https://github.com/JBEI/limitfluxtocore.

  20. Influence of atomic kinetics in the simulation of plasma microscopic properties and thermal instabilities for radiative bow shock experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, G; Rodríguez, R; Gil, J M; Suzuki-Vidal, F; Lebedev, S V; Ciardi, A; Rubiano, J G; Martel, P

    2017-03-01

    Numerical simulations of laboratory astrophysics experiments on plasma flows require plasma microscopic properties that are obtained by means of an atomic kinetic model. This fact implies a careful choice of the most suitable model for the experiment under analysis. Otherwise, the calculations could lead to inaccurate results and inappropriate conclusions. First, a study of the validity of the local thermodynamic equilibrium in the calculation of the average ionization, mean radiative properties, and cooling times of argon plasmas in a range of plasma conditions of interest in laboratory astrophysics experiments on radiative shocks is performed in this work. In the second part, we have made an analysis of the influence of the atomic kinetic model used to calculate plasma microscopic properties of experiments carried out on magpie on radiative bow shocks propagating in argon. The models considered were developed assuming both local and nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium and, for the latter situation, we have considered in the kinetic model different effects such as external radiation field and plasma mixture. The microscopic properties studied were the average ionization, the charge state distributions, the monochromatic opacities and emissivities, the Planck mean opacity, and the radiative power loss. The microscopic study was made as a postprocess of a radiative-hydrodynamic simulation of the experiment. We have also performed a theoretical analysis of the influence of these atomic kinetic models in the criteria for the onset possibility of thermal instabilities due to radiative cooling in those experiments in which small structures were experimentally observed in the bow shock that could be due to this kind of instability.

  1. Anatomy of a Mountain Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Berkeley

    1993-01-01

    Provides written tour of Colorado Rockies along San Juan Skyway in which the geological features and formation of the mountain range is explored. Discusses evidence of geologic forces and products such as plate tectonic movement and the Ancestral Rockies; subduction and the Laramide Orogeny; volcanism and calderas; erosion, faulting, land…

  2. A mountain of millipedes V

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Three new genera of Odontopygidae are described, all based on new species from the Udzungwa mountains, Tanzania, and all monotypic: Casuariverpa gen. nov. (type species: C. scarpa gen. et sp. nov.), Yia gen. nov. (type species: Y. geminispina gen. et sp. nov.), and Utiliverpa gen. nov. (type...

  3. A mountain of millipedes I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Twenty new species of the millipede genus Chaleponcus Attems, 1914, are described from the Udzungwa Mountains: C. netus sp. nov., C. quasimodo sp. nov., C. malleolus sp. nov., C. scopus sp. nov., C. nikolajscharffi sp. nov., C. mwanihanensis sp. nov., C. basiliscus sp. nov., C. krai sp. nov., C...

  4. A mountain of millipedes III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    The new genus Geotypodon gen. nov. is described. It includes two species from the Udzungwa Mountains: G. millemanus gen. et sp. nov. (type species) and G. submontanus gen. et sp. nov., one species from nearby Iringa: G. iringensis gen. et sp. nov., and 18 previously described species hitherto...

  5. The Mountaineer-Malaysia Connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jeff

    1997-01-01

    A 26-day summer field course of West Virginia University's (WVU) Recreation and Parks Department took students to Malaysia's mountains and rainforests to observe how Malaysians are managing national parks, problem elephants, and population pressures on parks. The adventure provided powerful learning experiences. Further exchanges between WVU and…

  6. Geophysical Characterization of the Central Yakutat Shelf and Cenozoic Basin Development, Offshore Southeastern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, R. N.

    2016-12-01

    In southeastern Alaska the collision of the Yakutat Block with North America has led to uplift of the highest costal mountain range in the world, the St. Elias and Chugach Mountains. By 5.5 Ma uplift of the ranges was sufficient to cause glaciation on the continental margin, making it a unique area to study the interactions between tectonics and climate driven processes. This study uses coincident seismic reflection and refraction data from the St. Elias Erosion and Tectonics Project (STEEP) focusing on line STEEP02. We present a high resolution two-dimensional compressional velocity model that helps to elucidate the patterns of deformation offshore of the southeastern Alaskan syntaxis. The velocity model is able to constrain the location of the pinch out of the Poul Creek Formation offshore beneath the mouth of Yakutat Bay. The pinch out of the formation is likely due to an erosional event of the pre-glacial strata associated with the initial formation of the Yakataga fold-and-thrust belt, rather than a depositional feature. This geometry suggests sufficient uplift in the St. Elias syntaxis to cause large scale denudation before deposition of the Yakataga Formation at 6 Ma. The velocity model is transformed to porosity using relationships specific to the Cenozoic sediments on the Yakutat shelf. The Poul Creek Formation is identified as a unit of low velocity, 2.8 km/s, and elevated porosity, .25, across its entire offshore extent and may be a pre-existing weak zone that preferentially accommodates slip when incorporated into the western fold-and-thrust belts. Van Avendonk et al. (2013) identified a zone of lateral compaction 100 km outboard of the offshore Pamplona Zone deformation front along a seismic line perpendicular to STEEP02 which is defined by a landward lateral increase in velocity and decrease porosity in the Yakataga Formation. No landward increase in velocity or decrease in porosity is observed along STEEP02, constraining the deformation front due to

  7. Dengue Virus in Bats from Southeastern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotomayor-Bonilla, Jesús; Chaves, Andrea; Rico-Chávez, Oscar; Rostal, Melinda K.; Ojeda-Flores, Rafael; Salas-Rojas, Mónica; Aguilar-Setien, Álvaro; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Barbachano-Guerrero, Arturo; Gutiérrez-Espeleta, Gustavo; Aguilar-Faisal, J. Leopoldo; Aguirre, A. Alonso; Daszak, Peter; Suzán, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    To identify the relationship between landscape use and dengue virus (DENV) occurrence in bats, we investigated the presence of DENV from anthropogenically changed and unaltered landscapes in two Biosphere Reserves: Calakmul (Campeche) and Montes Azules (Chiapas) in southern Mexico. Spleen samples of 146 bats, belonging to 16 species, were tested for four DENV serotypes with standard reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) protocols. Six bats (4.1%) tested positive for DENV-2: four bats in Calakmul (two Glossophaga soricina, one Artibeus jamaicensis, and one A. lituratus) and two bats in Montes Azules (both A. lituratus). No effect of anthropogenic disturbance on the occurrence of DENV was detected; however, all three RT-PCR–positive bat species are considered abundant species in the Neotropics and well-adapted to disturbed habitats. To our knowledge, this study is the first study conducted in southeastern Mexico to identify DENV-2 in bats by a widely accepted RT-PCR protocol. The role that bats play on DENV's ecology remains undetermined. PMID:24752688

  8. Dengue virus in bats from southeastern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotomayor-Bonilla, Jesús; Chaves, Andrea; Rico-Chávez, Oscar; Rostal, Melinda K; Ojeda-Flores, Rafael; Salas-Rojas, Mónica; Aguilar-Setien, Álvaro; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Barbachano-Guerrero, Arturo; Gutiérrez-Espeleta, Gustavo; Aguilar-Faisal, J Leopoldo; Aguirre, A Alonso; Daszak, Peter; Suzán, Gerardo

    2014-07-01

    To identify the relationship between landscape use and dengue virus (DENV) occurrence in bats, we investigated the presence of DENV from anthropogenically changed and unaltered landscapes in two Biosphere Reserves: Calakmul (Campeche) and Montes Azules (Chiapas) in southern Mexico. Spleen samples of 146 bats, belonging to 16 species, were tested for four DENV serotypes with standard reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) protocols. Six bats (4.1%) tested positive for DENV-2: four bats in Calakmul (two Glossophaga soricina, one Artibeus jamaicensis, and one A. lituratus) and two bats in Montes Azules (both A. lituratus). No effect of anthropogenic disturbance on the occurrence of DENV was detected; however, all three RT-PCR-positive bat species are considered abundant species in the Neotropics and well-adapted to disturbed habitats. To our knowledge, this study is the first study conducted in southeastern Mexico to identify DENV-2 in bats by a widely accepted RT-PCR protocol. The role that bats play on DENV's ecology remains undetermined. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  9. Population density of Sotalia guianensis (Cetacea: Delphinidae in the Cananéia region, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liisa Havukainen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Population density in cetaceans can be estimated through photo-identification, mark-recapture, land-based observations and visual estimative. We the aim to contribute with conservation strategies, we used line transects (distance method to estimate the population density of the river dolphin, S. guianensis, in the estuarine region of Cananéia, Southeastern Brazil. The study, developed from May 2003 until April 2004, during dry and rainy seasons and different times of the day, included a sampling area divided into three sectors according to their proximity to the open sea: Sector I (the closest to the open sea; Sector II (with a large flow of fresh water and a salient declivity; and Sector III (with a large flow of fresh water and non salient declivity. Onboard random sampling was carried out in all three sectors, and dolphins seen from the bow to 90° on both port and starboard sides, were registered along with their position and distance from the boat. The total density found was 12.41ind/km² (CV=25.53% with an average of 2.2 individuals per group for both periods of the day, morning and afternoon. Densities also varied between dry and rainy seasons, being lower in the first with 5.77ind/km² (CV=27.87% than in the second 20.28ind/km² (CV=31.95%, respectively. Regarding the three sectors, a non-causal heterogeneous distribution was found: Sector I was the most populated (D=33.10ind/km², CV=13.34%, followed by Sector II (D=7.8ind/km², CV=21.07% and Sector III (D=3.04ind/km², CV=34.04%. The aforementioned area, due to its proximity to the open sea, has the highest salinity level and therefore has the greatest chance of holding most of the marine fish schools which can be cornered by dolphins on high declivity areas during fishing activities. This suggests that food availability may be the most important factor on the river dolphin’s distribution in the estuary. Similar studies will contribute to a better understanding of these populations

  10. Summary and evaluation of existing geological and geophysical data near prospective surface facilities in Midway Valley, Yucca Mountain Project, Nye County, Nevada; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, J.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swan, F.H.; Wesling, J.R.; Bullard, T.F.; Perman, R.C.; Angell, M.M.; DiSilvestro, L.A. [Geomatrix Consultants, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Midway Valley, located at the eastern base of the Yucca Mountain in southwestern Nevada, is the preferred location of the surface facilities for the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. One goal in siting these surface facilities is to avoid faults that could produce relative displacements in excess of 5 cm in the foundations of the waste-handling buildings. This study reviews existing geologic and geophysical data that can be used to assess the potential for surface fault rupture within Midway Valley. Dominant tectonic features in Midway Valley are north-trending, westward-dipping normal faults along the margins of the valley: the Bow Ridge fault to the west and the Paintbrush Canyon fault to the east. Published estimates of average Quaternary slip rates for these faults are very low but the age of most recent displacement and the amount of displacement per event are largely unknown. Surface mapping and interpretive cross sections, based on limited drillhole and geophysical data, suggest that additional normal faults, including the postulated Midway Valley fault, may exist beneath the Quaternary/Tertiary fill within the valley. Existing data, however, are inadequate to determine the location, recency, and geometry of this faulting. To confidently assess the potential for significant Quaternary faulting in Midway Valley, additional data are needed that define the stratigraphy and structure of the strata beneath the valley, characterize the Quaternary soils and surfaces, and establish the age of faulting. The use of new and improved geophysical techniques, combined with a drilling program, offers the greatest potential for resolving subsurface structure in the valley. Mapping of surficial geologic units and logging of soil pits and trenches within these units must be completed, using accepted state-of-the-art practices supported by multiple quantitative numerical and relative age-dating techniques.

  11. Anomalies of moisture flux associated with Mediterranean cyclones contributing to heavy precipitation in the south-eastern Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, M.; Kaspar, M.

    2009-09-01

    Mediterranean cyclones cause severe weather phenomena not only in the Mediterranean but also in other parts of Europe. It is well known that when a thermally asymmetric Mediterranean cyclone moves along the so-called Vb-track to the north-east, heavy and large-scale precipitation often falls in its rearward cold sector. Precipitation is enhanced especially on the northern windward slopes of mountains due to orographic effects. Significant anomalies of moisture flux from the north typically accompany this synoptic pattern over the area affected with heavy rains. Although the region of the south-eastern Alps is situated between the Mediterranean and central Europe, the above described mechanism can hardly produce heavy rains there because of the position of the region relatively to the cyclone track and different orientation of slopes. The presented study focuses on explanation of the role of Mediterranean cyclones and related moisture fluxes in producing heavy rains in the region. Heavy rain and flood events in eastern Alps were selected from years of 1958-2001 covered by reanalyses ERA40. The selection criterion was based on evaluation of the runoff increases in three rivers (Sava, Drava, Mura) running eastward from the south-eastern Alps. The set of hydro-meteorologically significant events was studied from viewpoints of (i) synoptic causes and (ii) seasonal distribution. A deep trough and/or a Mediterranean cyclone remaining several days approximately over Italy are the typical synoptic patterns of the events. In the warm sector of the cyclone, significant anomalies of moisture flux were detected. The events were concentrated mainly in autumn. This fact was explained by the climatology of moisture flux over the studied region: southern component of flux of moisture is most intense just in autumn there. The findings demonstrate the fact that heavy rains in both central Europe and the south-eastern Alps are connected with Mediterranean cyclones; however, through

  12. Spiders in mountain habitats of the Giant Mountains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Růžička, Vlastimil; Vaněk, J.; Šmilauer, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 4 (2012), s. 341-347 ISSN 1067-4136 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Giant Mountain s (Krkonoše, Karkonosze) * spiders * anemo-orographic systems Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.236, year: 2012 http://www.springerlink.com/content/0k5g721q1155r146/fulltext.pdf

  13. Isotope/Air Temperature Relationships From Snow-Firn Core Time Series at the Northern and Southern Periphery of the Central Asian Mountain System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joswiak, D.; Aizen, E.; Aizen, V.

    2004-12-01

    Spatial variability of stable isotope records from snow pits and snow-firn cores to depths of 21 m are used to examine isotope/air temperature relationships for three locations at the northern and southern periphery of the central Asian mountain system: the West Belukha glaciated Plateau in the Altai, the head of Inylchek Glacier in central Tien Shan, and the Bomi glacierized massif in southeastern Tibet. The 18O records show pronounced maxima and minima, interpreted to represent annual accumulation layers and verified with stratigraphic profiles. Mean δ 18O from the Altai core is -13.6\\permil, -16.0\\permil for the Tien Shan core, and -16.3\\permil for the southeastern Tibet core. Mean annual ranges of the δ 18O signal vary from 9.5\\permil in the Altai core, to 16.6\\permil in the Tien Shan core, and 10.1\\permil in the southeastern Tibet core. Mean deuterium excess varied from 10.9\\permil for the Altai core to 23.0\\permil for the Tien Shan core. Isotope/air temperature relationships are examined for variability of regression lines (slope and intercept) associated with internal and external moisture sources, which vary seasonally. Positive regression line slopes are observed for the Tien Shan and Altai Mountains, with minimum δ 18O values associated with minimum winter temperatures. A negative regression line slope is observed at southeastern Tibet, with minimum δ 18O values associated with heavy amounts of isotopically depleted precipitation occurring during the summer months at this location. These isotope records will aid in providing information important to the forecasting of global climate change linking regional responses with atmospheric circulation patterns from the North Atlantic to Pacific and Indian Oceans. These techniques can be applied to recently recovered deep (surface to bottom) ice cores from the central Tien Shan and Altai Mountains.

  14. Syllabic patterns in South-Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Sawicka

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Syllabic patterns in South-Eastern Europe Whereas in most of the world’s languages syllable patterns are built according to the principles of sonority theory (they have the one-peak syllable pattern, in some Balkan languages, there occur deviations from the one-peak syllable pattern of a systemic nature. Such deviations occur also in the northern Slavic languages. They mainly concern the distribution of nasal consonants and appear either in the onset (Albanian or coda (Romanian. At the very south of Europe the open syllable pattern occurs.   Struktury sylabiczne południowo-wschodniej Europy Podczas gdy zdecydowana większość języków świata preferuje tzw. sonorycznościowy (jednoszczytowy model sylaby, to południowo-wschodnia Europa jest pod tym względem dość zróżnicowana. Odstępstwa od zasady jednoszczytowości występują w językach północnosłowiańskich. Na Bałkanach natomiast odstępstwa takie dotyczą głównie dystrybucji sonantów nosowych i występują albo w nagłosie, albo w wygłosie. Samo południe Europy (dialekty występujące na południowych częściach półwyspów Morza Śródziemnego ma natomiast niesymetryczny model sylaby – w wygłosie wyrazów występują głównie sylaby otwarte.

  15. Managing Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minniear, Timothy D; Buckingham, Steven C

    2009-11-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is caused by the tick-borne bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii. Symptoms range from moderate illness to severe illness, including cardiovascular compromise, coma and death. The disease is prevalent in most of the USA, especially during warmer months. The trademark presentation is fever and rash with a history of tick bite, although tick exposure is unappreciated in over a third of cases. Other signature symptoms include headache and abdominal pain. The antibiotic therapy of choice for R. rickettsii infection is doxycycline. Preventive measures for Rocky Mountain spotted fever and other tick-borne diseases include: wearing long-sleeved, light colored clothing; checking for tick attachment and removing attached ticks promptly; applying topical insect repellent; and treating clothing with permethrin.

  16. Microbial activity at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, J.M.; Meike, A.

    1995-09-25

    The U.S. Department of Energy is engaged in a suitability study for a potential geological repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the containment and storage of commercially generated spent fuel and defense high-level nuclear waste. There is growing recognition of the role that biotic factors could play in this repository, either directly through microbially induced corrosion (MIC), or indirectly by altering the chemical environment or contributing to the transport of radionuclides. As a first step toward describing and predicting these processes, a workshop was held on April 10-12, 1995, in Lafayette, California. The immediate aims of the workshop were: (1) To identify microbially related processes relevant to the design of a radioactive waste repository under conditions similar to those at Yucca Mountain. (2) To determine parameters that are critical to the evaluation of a disturbed subterranean environment. (3) To define the most effective means of investigating the factors thus identified.

  17. Trout Creek Mountain project, Oregon

    OpenAIRE

    Hatfield, Doc; Hatfield, Connie

    1995-01-01

    The Trout Creek Mountain experience is an example of how the land and the people can win by building bridges of understanding and common interest between concerned constituencies. Love of the land, its natural resources, and realization of a need for changing grazing practices to reverse the degradation of riparian areas were the common interests that caused environmentalists, ranchers, the BLM, the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to work togethe...

  18. The physiology of mountain biking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impellizzeri, Franco M; Marcora, Samuele M

    2007-01-01

    Mountain biking is a popular outdoor recreational activity and an Olympic sport. Cross-country circuit races have a winning time of approximately equal 120 minutes and are performed at an average heart rate close to 90% of the maximum, corresponding to 84% of maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max). More than 80% of race time is spent above the lactate threshold. This very high exercise intensity is related to the fast starting phase of the race; the several climbs, forcing off-road cyclists to expend most of their effort going against gravity; greater rolling resistance; and the isometric contractions of arm and leg muscles necessary for bike handling and stabilisation. Because of the high power output (up to 500W) required during steep climbing and at the start of the race, anaerobic energy metabolism is also likely to be a factor of off-road cycling and deserves further investigation. Mountain bikers' physiological characteristics indicate that aerobic power (VO2max >70 mL/kg/min) and the ability to sustain high work rates for prolonged periods of time are prerequisites for competing at a high level in off-road cycling events. The anthropometric characteristics of mountain bikers are similar to climbers and all-terrain road cyclists. Various parameters of aerobic fitness are correlated to cross-country performance, suggesting that these tests are valid for the physiological assessment of competitive mountain bikers, especially when normalised to body mass. Factors other than aerobic power and capacity might influence off-road cycling performance and require further investigation. These include off-road cycling economy, anaerobic power and capacity, technical ability and pre-exercise nutritional strategies.

  19. Micrometeorites from the transantarctic mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochette, P; Folco, L; Suavet, C; van Ginneken, M; Gattacceca, J; Perchiazzi, N; Braucher, R; Harvey, R P

    2008-11-25

    We report the discovery of large accumulations of micrometeorites on the Myr-old, glacially eroded granitic summits of several isolated nunataks in the Victoria Land Transantarctic Mountains. The number (>3,500) of large (>400 mum and up to 2 mm in size) melted and unmelted particles is orders of magnitudes greater than other Antarctic collections. Flux estimates, bedrock exposure ages and the presence of approximately 0.8-Myr-old microtektites suggest that extraterrestrial dust collection occurred over the last 1 Myr, taking up to 500 kyr to accumulate based on 2 investigated find sites. The size distribution and frequency by type of cosmic spherules in the >200-mum size fraction collected at Frontier Mountain (investigated in detail in this report) are similar to those of the most representative known micrometeorite populations (e.g., South Pole Water Well). This and the identification of unusual types in terms of composition (i.e., chondritic micrometeorites and spherulitic aggregates similar to the approximately 480-kyr-old ones recently found in Antarctic ice cores) and size suggest that the Transantarctic Mountain micrometeorites constitute a unique and essentially unbiased collection that greatly extends the micrometeorite inventory and provides material for studies on micrometeorite fluxes over the recent ( approximately 1 Myr) geological past.

  20. Bat assemblages from three Atlantic Forest fragments in Rio de Janeiro state, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Leonan Novaes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bat species richness in Neotropical localities is generally higher than that of any other group of mammals, and surveys of local bat assemblages may provide useful data for conservation management plans. Although the bat fauna of the Rio de Janeiro state is currently one of the best known in Brazil, there are several localities not adequately surveyed yet, and most of them are in the mountainous regions and in the northern portion of the state. From January 2008 to November 2009, we conducted surveys of bats in three localities in the state of Rio de Janeiro (municipalities of Varre-Sai, Sumidouro, and Cantagalo, and our fieldwork constitutes the first assessment of the bat assemblages of these localities. Surveys were conducted using mist nets in four different habitat types in each locality (forest interior, forest edge, riparian forest, and open areas [pastures]. We captured a total of 148 individuals in 17 species, 14 genera and 3 families. Among them, 11 species were recorded in Sumidouro, seven in Cantagalo, and nine in Varre-Sai. Although species richness was low compared with previous surveys in other close localities, we recorded species that have been rarely sampled in Southeastern Brazil (e.g., Macrophyllum macrophyllum [Phyllostomidae]. The results reinforce the importance of sampling different habitats in short surveys to improve the number of species registered.

  1. Groundwater quality in the Southeastern Coastal Plain aquifer system, southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Jeannie; Lindsey, Bruce; Belitz, Kenneth

    2017-01-19

    Groundwater provides nearly 50 percent of the Nation’s drinking water. To help protect this vital resource, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Project assesses groundwater quality in aquifers that are important sources of drinking water. The Southeastern Coastal Plain aquifer system constitutes one of the important areas being evaluated. One or more inorganic constituents with human-health benchmarks were detected at high concentrations in about 6 percent of the study area and at moderate concentrations in about 13 percent. One or more organic constituents with human-health benchmarks were detected at moderate concentrations in about 3 percent of the study area.

  2. Simulated solar wind plasma interaction with the Martian exosphere: influence of the solar EUV flux on the bow shock and the magnetic pile-up boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Modolo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The solar wind plasma interaction with the Martian exosphere is investigated by means of 3-D multi-species hybrid simulations. The influence of the solar EUV flux on the bow shock and the magnetic pile-up boundary is examined by comparing two simulations describing the two extreme states of the solar cycle. The hybrid formalism allows a kinetic description of each ions species and a fluid description of electrons. The ionization processes (photoionization, electron impact and charge exchange are included self-consistently in the model where the production rate is computed locally, separately for each ionization act and for each neutral species. The results of simulations are in a reasonable agreement with the observations made by Phobos 2 and Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft. The position of the bow shock and the magnetic pile-up boundary is weakly dependent of the solar EUV flux. The motional electric field creates strong asymmetries for the two plasma boundaries.

  3. Estimation of the Effect of Green Water and Bow Flare Slamming on the Wave-Induced Vertical Bending Moment Using Closed-Form Ex-pressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Mansour, A. E.

    2003-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The effect of impulsive loads like slamming and green water on deck on the wave-induced bending mo-ment is estimated by a semi-analytical approach. The impulse loads leading to transient vibrations are described in terms of magnitude, phase lag relative to the wave-induced peak and decay...... rate. These loads can be due to bow flare slamming, bottom slamming or green water loads as they all can be characterised by a short duration relative to the wave cycle. The magnitude of the bow flare slamming loads is estimated using accurate results from wedge-shaped sections, Zhao and Faltinsen...... (1993) and for green water loads the results from Buchner (1995) and Wang et al .(1998) are applied. The phase lag relative to the wave-induced peak and the decay rate are derived mainly from published experimental results, Sikora, (1998). The results are given in closed-form expressions...

  4. Chinese tallow: Invading the southeastern Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2000-01-01

    Chinese tallow is an ornamental tree with colorful autumn foliage that can survive full sunlight and shade, flooding, drought, and in some cases fire. To horticulturists this kind of tree sounds like a dream, but to ecologists, land managers, and land owners this kind of tree can be a nightmare, especially when it invades an area and takes over native vegetation. Chinese tallow (Triadica sebifera), a nonnative tree from China, is currently transforming the southeastern Coastal Plain.Over the last 30 years, Chinese tallow has become a common tree in old fields and bottomland swamps of coastal Louisiana. Several studies at the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Wetlands Research Center (NWRC), Lafayette, Louisiana, are aimed at understanding the factors that contribute to Chinese tallow growth, spread, and management.When tallow invades, it eventually monopolizes an area, creating a forest without native animal or plant species. This tree exhibits classic traits of most nonnative invaders: it is attractive so people want to distribute it, it has incredible resiliency, it grows quickly and in a variety of soils, and it is resistant to pests.In the coastal prairie of Louisiana and Texas, Chinese tallow can grow up to 30 feet and shade out native sun-loving prairie species. The disappearing of prairie species is troublesome because less than 1% of original coastal prairie remains, and in Louisiana, less than 500 of the original 2.2 million acres still exist.Tallow reproduces and grows quickly and can cause large-scale ecosystem modification (fig. 1). For example, when it completely replaces native vegetation, it has a negative effect on birds by degrading the habitat. Besides shading out grasses that cattle like to eat, it can also be potentially harmful to humans and animals because of its berries (fig. 2) and plant sap that contain toxins. There is some concern its leaves may shed toxins that change the soil chemistry and make it difficult for other plants to grow.

  5. The foreign investments phenomena in south-eastern European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora ALECU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The south-eastern Europe countries have all the common history of the communism policy and economy, which from the foreign investments perspective meant a radical approach, which promoted a nationalism view against foreign capital interference. Similar to China, perhaps India and other countries, the governments of the south-eastern Europe’s countries expressed a rejection to foreign investments, emphasizing the negative effects of such operations, arguing that any foreign capital inflow is followed by a foreign capital outflow which at the end will destabilize the balance of external payments and will overall result in no favorable effect upon the economy of their countries.

  6. FEASIBILITY OF WIND TO SERVE UPPER SKAGIT'S BOW HILL TRIBAL LANDS AND FEASIBILITY UPDATE FOR RESIDENTIAL RENEWABLE ENERGY.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RICH, LAUREN

    2013-09-30

    A two year wind resource assessment was conducted to determine the feasibility of developing a community scale wind generation system for the Upper Skagit Indian Tribe's Bow Hill land base, and the project researched residential wind resource technologies to determine the feasibility of contributing renewable wind resource to the mix of energy options for our single and multi-family residential units.

  7. Numerical Study of a Three Dimensional Interaction between two bow Shock Waves and the Aerodynamic Heating on a Wedge Shaped Nose Cone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, N.; Wang, J. H.; Shen, L.

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents a numerical investigation on the three-dimensional interaction between two bow shock waves in two environments, i.e. ground high-enthalpy wind tunnel test and real space flight, using Fluent 15.0. The first bow shock wave, also called induced shock wave, which is generated by the leading edge of a hypersonic vehicle. The other bow shock wave can be deemed objective shock wave, which is generated by the cowl clip of hypersonic inlet, and in this paper the inlet is represented by a wedge shaped nose cone. The interaction performances including flow field structures, aerodynamic pressure and heating are analyzed and compared between the ground test and the real space flight. Through the analysis and comparison, we can find the following important phenomena: 1) Three-dimensional complicated flow structures appear in both cases, but only in the real space flight condition, a local two-dimensional type IV interaction appears; 2) The heat flux and pressure in the interaction region are much larger than those in the no-interaction region in both cases, but the peak values of the heat flux and pressure in real space flight are smaller than those in ground test. 3) The interaction region on the objective surface are different in the two cases, and there is a peak value displacement of 3 mm along the stagnation line.

  8. The effect of an outer-element bow on dryout power and post-dryout heat transfer of a 37-element bundle string

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutradhar, S.C. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    Dryout and post-dryout tests were performed with a modified 37-element simulated CANDU fuel string, with one outer element of the last bundle gradually bowed toward the flow tube wall. The element had 8% higher heat flux than the remaining outer ring elements and had the narrowest gap between it and the flow-tube wall. The initial dryout occurred on the bowed element for all element-to-wall gap sizes. The dryout power decreased moderately (4% average) as the gap size was reduced to 13.5% of the nominal (unbowed) gap. For smaller than 13.5% gaps, however, the dryout power increased slightly (1.2%) at the low (10.5 kg/s) flow rate and decreased by 5% at the high (16.0 kg/s) flow rate, compared to the nominal gap dryout power. Surface temperatures of the bowed element were recorded for different gap sizes and up to 20% overpower (maximum). The temperature increased by 26% at the maximum overpower as the element was moved from nominal to zero gap position. (author)

  9. VT Green Mountain National Forest Roadless Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) Revising the 2006 Green Mountain National Forest's Land and Resource Management Plan included a requirement to evaluate opportunities for...

  10. Landscape, Mountain Worship and Astronomy in Socaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyano, Ricardo

    The spatiotemporal analysis of mountain worship in the indigenous community of Socaire, Atacama, northern Chile, relates to cultural, geographical, climatic, psychological, and astronomical information gathered from ethno archaeological studies. We identify a system of offerings to the mountains that incorporates concepts such as ceque (straight line), mayllku (mountain lord or ancestor), and pacha (space and time). Here, the mountains on the visible horizon (Tumisa, Lausa, Chiliques, Ipira, and Miñiques) feature as the fingers on the left hand (PAH Triad). This structure regulates annual activities and rituals and sets the basis for the Socaireños' worldview raised on a humanized landscape.

  11. Agricultural production in Kikwawila village, southeastern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehnder, A; Jeje, B; Tanner, M; Freyvogel, T A

    1987-06-01

    Food production, land utilisation and agricultural structures were surveyed at Kikwawila village, north of Ifakara (Kilombero District, Morogoro Region) in 1984. This study was part of a more comprehensive, longitudinal programme to investigate the health status of a rural community, aiming in particular at the interrelations between nutrition, parasitic infections, immunity and the environment. Out of 340 households, 100 were interviewed and their subsistence farming activities recorded. The soil was found to be of great variability, being fertile where it was of alluvial origin but of reduced potential where it was non-alluvial. In all, 70 plant species were registered as being cultivated, with rice, maize, cassava and beans providing the main staple food. Apart from a few exceptions, the fields were cultivated without any mechanization. The seasonal distribution of agricultural work is described, but no detailed workload analysis of the villagers with regard to age and sex has been performed. At the foot of the mountains, where artificial irrigation has been introduced, dry season cropping was practised in addition to the prevailing wet season farming, which rendered the cultivation of marketable crops (mainly tomatoes) possible. The farmers were found to be imaginative and capable of adapting to various conditions, irrespective of their tribal origins. Alternatively, the quality of the soil and the unreliable availability of water set limits to the potential of food production in the area. Although land is still available, it is becoming more scarce as the human population increases. The further impoverishment of the land represents an imminent danger. Therefore, top priority ought to be given to soil conservation, followed by intercropping and/or crop rotation, seed production and crop protection against game and pests. Means of implementing such measures are discussed. It is suggested that Community Agricultural Workers be installed, elected by the villagers

  12. A Bow-Tie Genetic Architecture for Morphogenesis Suggested by a Genome-Wide RNAi Screen in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Matthew D.; Zhou, Elinor; Kiontke, Karin; Fradin, Hélène; Maldonado, Grayson; Martin, Daniel; Shah, Khushbu; Fitch, David H. A.

    2011-01-01

    During animal development, cellular morphogenesis plays a fundamental role in determining the shape and function of tissues and organs. Identifying the components that regulate and drive morphogenesis is thus a major goal of developmental biology. The four-celled tip of the Caenorhabditis elegans male tail is a simple but powerful model for studying the mechanism of morphogenesis and its spatiotemporal regulation. Here, through a genome-wide post-embryonic RNAi-feeding screen, we identified 212 components that regulate or participate in male tail tip morphogenesis. We constructed a working hypothesis for a gene regulatory network of tail tip morphogenesis. We found regulatory roles for the posterior Hox genes nob-1 and php-3, the TGF-β pathway, nuclear hormone receptors (e.g. nhr-25), the heterochronic gene blmp-1, and the GATA transcription factors egl-18 and elt-6. The majority of the pathways converge at dmd-3 and mab-3. In addition, nhr-25 and dmd-3/mab-3 regulate each others' expression, thus placing these three genes at the center of a complex regulatory network. We also show that dmd-3 and mab-3 negatively regulate other signaling pathways and affect downstream cellular processes such as vesicular trafficking (e.g. arl-1, rme-8) and rearrangement of the cytoskeleton (e.g. cdc-42, nmy-1, and nmy-2). Based on these data, we suggest that male tail tip morphogenesis is governed by a gene regulatory network with a bow-tie architecture. PMID:21408209

  13. Habitat ecology and food and feeding of the herring bow crab Varuna litterata (Fabricius, 1798 of Cochin backwaters, Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lakshmi Devi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Habitat ecology and food and feeding of the herring bow crab, Varuna litterata of Cochin Backwaters, Kerala, India were investigated for a period of one year (April 2011-March 2012. Among the 15 stations surveyed, the crabs were found to occur only in 4 stations, which had a close proximity to the sea. Sediment analysis of the stations revealed that the substratum of these stations is sandy in nature and is rich in organic carbon content (0.79% to 1.07%. These estuarine crabs is euryhaline and are found to be distributed in areas with a sandy substratum, higher organic carbon content and more tidal influx. The stomach contents analysis of crabs examined showed that their diet included crustacean remains, plants, sand and debris, fishes, miscellaneous group and unidentified matter. In adults and sub-adults, crustaceans formed the dominant food group, while in juveniles, sand and debris formed the dominant group. From the present study, V. litterata was found to be a predatory omnivore capable of ingesting both animal and plant tissues.

  14. Lexical study of the bow and arrow game vocabulary and the Parkatêjê log race

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília de Nazaré de Oliveira Ferreira

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The work aims to provide subsidies for the documentation and analysis of the Parkatêjê language through the study of the lexicon of two traditional activities of the Parkatêjê people: the log race and the arrow game. For this, we set two lexical fields, log race and bow and arrow game, which were divided into five semantic fields: physical space; steps and processes; human elements; parts, components, specifications, measurements and instruments. Data collection was carried out in situ by applying linguistic questionnaires to informants of three age groups as the stratification made by Ferreira (2005. The development of this research was based on the theoretical postulations from the ethnolinguistics of Coșeriu (1990, Velarde (1991 and Rodrigues (2005, the Lexicology and lexicography (Biderman (2001 and Dubois et al. (1973; and the Lexical field theory from Coșeriu (1977, Abbade (2011 and Dubois et al. (1973. At the end of the study we achieve the structure and organization of the vocabulary that we propose to investigate, as well linguist peculiarities of the lexicon.

  15. OS X Mountain Lion bible

    CERN Document Server

    Gruman, Galen

    2012-01-01

    The complete guide to Mac OS X, fully updated for the newest release! The Mac's solid, powerful operating system and the exploding popularity of iOS devices are fueling a strong increase in market share for Apple. Previous editions of this book have sold more than 75,000 copies, and this new edition is fully updated with all the exciting features of OS X Mountain Lion, including Game Center, Messages, and Notifications. Written by industry expert Galen Gruman, it covers all the basics and then delves deep into professional and higher-end topics, making it the one book you need to succeed with

  16. Cascade Mountain Range in Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrod, David R.

    2016-01-01

    The Cascade mountain system extends from northern California to central British Columbia. In Oregon, it comprises the Cascade Range, which is 260 miles long and, at greatest breadth, 90 miles wide (fig. 1). Oregon’s Cascade Range covers roughly 17,000 square miles, or about 17 percent of the state, an area larger than each of the smallest nine of the fifty United States. The range is bounded on the east by U.S. Highways 97 and 197. On the west it reaches nearly to Interstate 5, forming the eastern margin of the Willamette Valley and, farther south, abutting the Coast Ranges. 

  17. Millipede outbreaks in Akwa Ibom State, Southeastern Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several millipede outbreaks have been reported in Akwa Ibom State, southeastern Nigeria between 1990 and 2001. Studies which involved field surveys, oral interviews of farmers, on-farm and laboratory observations and field sampling in some reported locations of outbreaks were undertaken. Results showed that nine of ...

  18. Heavy mineral variation in the deep sea sediment of southeastern ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    16.38 E and water depth – 2188 m) located near the Chagos–. Laccadive Ridge in the southeastern Arabian Sea to evaluate the provenance and paleoenvironmental changes during the last 32 kyr. The biogenic carbonate, acid insoluble residue, magnetic susceptibility, total organic carbon (TOC) and clay based humidity ...

  19. Triplet pregnancies in a southeastern Nigerian Hospital: Before the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    optimize the outcome of these pregnancies, especially now that the incidence is bound to increase due to assisted reproductive technologies. Key words: Antenatal complications; Ebonyi State; incidence; increased medical bill; perinatal mortality; triplet pregnancies. Triplet pregnancies in a southeastern Nigerian Hospital: ...

  20. Rabies in the insectivorous bat Tadarida brasiliensis in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uieda Wilson

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the first recorded case of rabies in the insectivorous bat Tadarida brasiliensis in the State of S. Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. The infected bat was found in the afternoon while hanging on the internal wall of an urban building. This observation reinforces the notion as to the caution one must exercise regarding bats found in unusual situations.

  1. Rabies in the insectivorous bat Tadarida brasiliensis in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Uieda

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available This is the first recorded case of rabies in the insectivorous bat Tadarida brasiliensis in the State of S. Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. The infected bat was found in the afternoon while hanging on the internal wall of an urban building. This observation reinforces the notion as to the caution one must exercise regarding bats found in unusual situations.

  2. Trees in the traditional farming systems in Southeastern Nigeria. A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of traditional farming systems in Southeastern Nigeria with specific reference to Imo State was undertaken so as to determine the place and role of trees/shrubs in such systems with a view to building upon this traditional knowledge of tree growing when initiating a new agroforestry strategys for the area. Data were ...

  3. Timing of hummingbird migration in southeastern Arizona: implications for conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan M. Wethington; Stephen M. Russell; George C. West

    2005-01-01

    We examined the distribution and abundance of hummingbirds at three study sites in southeastern Arizona, where over 8,000 individuals of twelve species were banded. Banding occurred at two sites in the early 1990s and is currently active at the third. Anna’s (Calype anna), Black-chinned (Archilochus alexandri), and...

  4. Lowland riparian herpetofaunas: the San Pedro River in southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip C. Rosen

    2005-01-01

    Previous work has shown that southeastern Arizona has a characteristic, high diversity lowland riparian herpetofauna with 62-68 or more species along major stream corridors, and 46-54 species in shorter reaches within single biomes, based on intensive fieldwork and museum record surveys. The San Pedro River supports this characteristic herpetofauna, at least some of...

  5. The Economics Of Goat Production In Southeastern Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The West African Dwarf goat is indigenous to Southeastern Nigeria and is raised by many families under small·scale and intensive management systems. Results showed that the average households kept 6 goats, but that expansion was limited by hour and feed procurement problems. Both males and females owned goats ...

  6. Some Spatial Aspects of Southeastern United States Climatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soule, Peter T.

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on the climatology of an eight-state region in the southern and southeastern United States. Discusses general controls of climate and spatial patterns of various climatic averages. Examines mapped extremes as a means of fostering increased awareness of the variability that exists for climatic conditions in the region. (CMK)

  7. of contrasting features in ohaji, south-eastern nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    year old chaparral and pine biosequence. Soil. Science Society of American Journal, 68, 876-884. Lekwa, G. and Whiteside, E.P. (1986). Coastal plain soils of southeastern Nigeria: I. morphology, classification and genetic relationships. Soil Science. Society of American Journal, 50, 154-160. Maniyunda, L.M., B.A. Raji, ...

  8. Mulching An Arenic Hapludult In Southeastern Nigeria: Effects On ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out over two cropping seasons at Umudike, southeastern Nigeria, to determine the type and quantity of mulch that would improve some selected physical properties of an Arenic Hapludult and optimize the rhizome yield of turmeric. Effects of mulch rate on bulk density (BD), total porosity (TP), ...

  9. Availability of Library Service to Osteopathic Physicians in Southeastern Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Joyce E.; Pings, Vern M.

    This report covers the availability of library service to osteopathic physicians of Detroit and the surrounding area. The appointments of 813 osteopathic physicians were identified from the staff lists of 16 hospitals in southeastern Michigan. A staff physician was identified as having library service if the hospital in which he has an appointment…

  10. Rediscovery of Hyalinobatrachium chirripoi (Anura: Centrolenidae) in southeastern Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubicki, Brian

    2004-03-01

    The Suretka glass frog, Hyalinobatrachium chirripoi, has been recently rediscovered in the southeastern region of Costa Rica. This species was last reported in Costa Rica in the 1950's. H. chirripoi is distinguished from H. colymbiphyllum, which appears to be its most closely Costa Rican related taxon, by having extensive webbing between fingers II-III.

  11. Circulation in the Southeastern Mediterranean Sea (EGITTO-NICOP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-30

    Circulation in the Southeastern Mediterranean Sea (EGITTO-NICOP) Pierre-Marie Poulain Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica ...Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale,Borgo Grotta Gigante, 42/c,34010 Sgonico (Trieste), Italy, , 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER

  12. Economics of conservation systems research in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of conservation systems in crop production is not a new concept in the southeastern United States. In 1978, researchers from across the Southeast met in Griffin, Georgia for the first annual Southern Conservation Agricultural Systems Conference. Four of the ten presentations specifically men...

  13. Sterilization by Minilaparotomy in South-Eastern Nigeria | Nwogu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aimed to assess the trend in acceptance and characteristics of acceptors of female sterilization between January 1999 and December 2006 at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, South-Eastern Nigeria. There were a total of 20,485 new clients, with 212 (1.0%) accepting sterilization between ...

  14. Natural enemies of emerald ash borer in southeastern Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leah S. Bauer; Houping Liu; Robert A. Haack; Toby R. Petrice; Deborah L. Miller

    2004-01-01

    Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), the emerald ash borer (EAB), is native to China, Japan, Korea, Mongolia, Russian Far East, and Taiwan. In 2002, EAB was identified as the causative agent of extensive ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality in southeastern Michigan and nearby southwestern Ontario. EAB was inadvertently...

  15. Time and spatial distribution of rainfall energy load in southeastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daily records of rainfall amount across a period of 7 to 15 years were collected from 8 stations with recording gauges in South-Eastern Nigeria. The stations were Calabar, Enugu, Ikom, Ogoja, Onitsha, Owerri, Port-Harcourt and Umuahia. The monthly and annual kinetic energy contents of these rains were computed using ...

  16. Influences of population pressure change on vegetation greenness in China's mountainous areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Li, Xiubin; Tan, Minghong; Wang, Yahui

    2017-11-01

    Mountainous areas in China account for two-thirds of the total land area. Due to rapid urbanization, rural population emigration in China's mountainous areas is very significant. This raises the question to which degree such population emigration influences the vegetation greenness in these areas. In this study, 9,753 sample areas (each sample measured about 64 square kilometers) were randomly selected, and the influences of population emigration (population pressure change) on vegetation greenness during 2000-2010 were quantitatively expressed by the multivariate linear regression (MLR) model, using census data under the condition of controlling the natural elements such as climatic and landform factors. The results indicate that the vegetation index in the past 10 years has presented an increasing overall trend, albeit with local decrease in some regions. The combined area of the regions with improved vegetation accounted for 81.7% of the total mountainous areas in China. From 2000 to 2010, the rural population significantly decreased, with most significant decreases in the northern and central areas (17.2% and 16.8%, respectively). In China's mountainous areas and in most of the subregions, population emigration has significant impacts on vegetation change. In different subregions, population decrease differently influenced vegetation greenness, and the marginal effect of population decrease on vegetation change presented obvious differences from north to south. In the southwest, on the premise of controlling other factors, a population decrease by one unit could increase the slope of vegetation change by 16.4%; in contrast, in the southeastern, northern, northeastern, and central area, the proportion was about 15.5%, 10.6%, 9.7%, and 7.5%, respectively, for improving the trend of NDVI variation.

  17. Strong Genetic Differentiation of Submerged Plant Populations across Mountain Ranges: Evidence from Potamogeton pectinatus in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Shabnam; Afsharzadeh, Saeed; Saeidi, Hojjatollah; Triest, Ludwig

    2016-01-01

    Biogeographic barriers for freshwater biota can be effective at various spatial scales. At the largest spatial scale, freshwater organisms can become genetically isolated by their high mountain ranges, vast deserts, and inability to cross oceans. Isolation by distance of aquatic plants is expected to be stronger across than alongside mountain ridges whereas the heterogeneity of habitats among populations and temporary droughts may influence connectivity and hamper dispersal. Suitable aquatic plant habitats became reduced, even for the widespread submerged Potamogeton pectinatus L. (also named Stuckenia pectinata) giving structure to various aquatic habitats. We compared the level of genetic diversity in a heterogeneous series of aquatic habitats across Iran and tested their differentiation over distances and across mountain ranges (Alborz and Zagros) and desert zones (Kavir), with values obtained from temperate region populations. The diversity of aquatic ecosystems across and along large geographic barriers provided a unique ecological situation within Iran. P. pectinatus were considered from thirty-six sites across Iran at direct flight distances ranging from 20 to 1,200 km. Nine microsatellite loci revealed a very high number of alleles over all sites. A PCoA, NJT clustering and STRUCTURE analysis revealed a separate grouping of individuals of southeastern Iranian sites and was confirmed by their different nuclear ITS and cpDNA haplotypes thereby indicating an evolutionary significant unit (ESU). At the level of populations, a positive correlation between allelic differentiation Dest with geographic distance was found. Individual-based STRUCTURE analysis over 36 sites showed 7 genetic clusters. FST and RST values for ten populations reached 0.343 and 0.521, respectively thereby indicating that allele length differences are more important and contain evolutionary information. Overall, higher levels of diversity and a stronger differentiation was revealed among

  18. Strong Genetic Differentiation of Submerged Plant Populations across Mountain Ranges: Evidence from Potamogeton pectinatus in Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabnam Abbasi

    Full Text Available Biogeographic barriers for freshwater biota can be effective at various spatial scales. At the largest spatial scale, freshwater organisms can become genetically isolated by their high mountain ranges, vast deserts, and inability to cross oceans. Isolation by distance of aquatic plants is expected to be stronger across than alongside mountain ridges whereas the heterogeneity of habitats among populations and temporary droughts may influence connectivity and hamper dispersal. Suitable aquatic plant habitats became reduced, even for the widespread submerged Potamogeton pectinatus L. (also named Stuckenia pectinata giving structure to various aquatic habitats. We compared the level of genetic diversity in a heterogeneous series of aquatic habitats across Iran and tested their differentiation over distances and across mountain ranges (Alborz and Zagros and desert zones (Kavir, with values obtained from temperate region populations. The diversity of aquatic ecosystems across and along large geographic barriers provided a unique ecological situation within Iran. P. pectinatus were considered from thirty-six sites across Iran at direct flight distances ranging from 20 to 1,200 km. Nine microsatellite loci revealed a very high number of alleles over all sites. A PCoA, NJT clustering and STRUCTURE analysis revealed a separate grouping of individuals of southeastern Iranian sites and was confirmed by their different nuclear ITS and cpDNA haplotypes thereby indicating an evolutionary significant unit (ESU. At the level of populations, a positive correlation between allelic differentiation Dest with geographic distance was found. Individual-based STRUCTURE analysis over 36 sites showed 7 genetic clusters. FST and RST values for ten populations reached 0.343 and 0.521, respectively thereby indicating that allele length differences are more important and contain evolutionary information. Overall, higher levels of diversity and a stronger differentiation was

  19. Monitoring crustal movements in northern Tianshan Mountain based on GPS technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Vilayev

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring results for the period 2009–2014 by ten standard GPS stations allowed to determine the crustal movements of seismically active region in south-eastern Kazakhstan. Maps of movement velocity were made in geocentric coordinate system and in reference system of the Eurasian continent. GPS points displacements reflect the features of modern deformation processes that are notable in the high seismic activity region. The structure of the velocity field divergence qualitatively confirms major deformation in the sublatitudinal direction which is parallel to the main ridge of the northern Tianshan Mountain. The epicenters of earthquakes are in agreement with the border areas of compression–tension, as well as the allocated areas of multidirectional rotary motion. The conclusion is that GPS monitoring of the movements of the Earth's crust can be used to evaluate the territory's stress–strain state for the purpose of seismic zoning and seismic risk assessment.

  20. Return to Black Mountain palaeomagnetic reassessment of the Chatsworth and Ninmaroo formations, western Queensland, Australia

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, K L; Lackie, M A; Schmidt, P W; 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2003.02164.x

    2004-01-01

    Palaeomagnetic results from late Middle Cambrian-Early Ordovician carbonate sequences sampled at Black Mountain (Mt Unbunmaroo), Mt Datson and near Chatsworth Station (southeastern Georgina Basin) are presented. A palaeomagnetic reassessment of these carbonates was designed in an effort to constrain regional magnetization ages as results from an earlier study, conducted at Mt Unbunmaroo, play a pivotal role in a proposed Cambrian inertial interchange true polar wander (IITPW) event. Remanent magnetizations within these carbonates were found to be variably developed with most specimens displaying two of the five isolated components. Component PF, for which goethite is the identified remanence carrier, is thought to reflect a chemical remanent magnetization of recent origin. Component TR, held by haematite, has a palaeomagnetic pole consistent with the Tertiary segment of Australia's apparent polar wander path (APWP) and most probably was acquired as a consequence of prolonged weathering during this period. The...

  1. MICROMORPHOLOGY AND PEDOGENESIS OF MOUNTAINOUS INCEPTISOLS IN THE MANTIQUEIRA RANGE (MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Campos Pinto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTUnderstanding soil formation processes across different landscapes is needed to predict how soil properties will respond to land use change. This study aimed to characterize mountainous Inceptisols (Cambisols under high altitude subtropical climate in southeastern Brazil, by soil physical, chemical and micromorphological analyses, under native forest and pasture. The soil under pasture had a greater bulk density than under forest, resulting in a severe reduction of macroporosity. At two depths, coarse quartz grains are angular, suggesting absence of transportational processes, thus confirming an autochthonous pedogenesis from the underlying gneissic rock. Most feldspars were weathered beyond recognition, but mineral alteration was commonly seen across cleavage plans and edges of micas. The micromorphological results suggest an intermediate stage of mineral weathering and soil development, which is in accordance with properties expected to be found in Inceptisols.

  2. Report on the Status of the Cheat Mountain Salamander in the Cabin Mountain Area of West Virginia 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This outlines the results of field surveys that were conducted for the Cheat Mountain salamander on the Kelley property on three mountains in the Cabin Mountain area...

  3. Mountain prophecies | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-23

    Dec 23, 2010 ... Looking to the mountains may give us an early indication of what's in store for the entire planet. For many people, the United Nations' designation of 2002 as the International Year of Mountains may seem an unlikely choice. After all, 60 per cent of the world's population lives within 500 km of a coastline.

  4. Can wolves help save Japan's mountain forests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber-meyer, Shannon

    2017-01-01

    Japan’s wolves were extinct by 1905. Today Japan's mountain forests are being killed by overabundant sika deer and wild boars. Since the early 1990s, the Japan Wolf Association has proposed wolf reintroduction to Japan to restore rural ecology and to return a culturally important animal. In this article I discuss whether the return of wolves could help save Japan's mountain forests.

  5. Flinders Mountain Range, South Australia Province, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Classic examples of folded mountain ranges and wind erosion of geologic structures abound in the Flinders Mountain Range (30.5S, 139.0E), South Australia province, Australia. Winds from the deserts to the west gain speed as they blow across the barren surface and create interesting patterns as they funnel through the gullies and valleys.

  6. Rocky Mountain Research Station: 2011 Annual Accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rick Fletcher

    2011-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Research Station is one of seven regional units that make up the USDA Forest Service Research and Development organization ­ the most extensive natural resources research organization in the world. We maintain 12 field laboratories throughout a 12-state territory encompassing the Great Basin, Southwest, Rocky Mountains, and parts of the Great Plains...

  7. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Charles R

    2013-04-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is typically undifferentiated from many other infections in the first few days of illness. Treatment should not be delayed pending confirmation of infection when Rocky Mountain spotted fever is suspected. Doxycycline is the drug of choice even for infants and children less than 8 years old. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Rocky Mountain Research Station: 2010 Research Accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rick Fletcher

    2010-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Research Station is one of seven regional units that make up the USDA Forest Service Research and Development organization ­ the most extensive natural resources research organization in the world. We maintain 12 field laboratories throughout a 12-state territory encompassing the Great Basin, Southwest, Rocky Mountains, and parts of the Great Plains...

  9. 36 CFR 13.910 - Mountain climbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mountain climbing. 13.910 Section 13.910 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Provisions § 13.910 Mountain climbing. (a) Climbing Mount McKinley or Mount Foraker without a permit is...

  10. Mountain Bike Wheel Endurance Testing and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Published by Elsevier Ltd. Keywords: Mountain biking; wheels; failure testing 1. Introduction Mountain bike ( MTB ) wheels are subject to a wide range of...accumulates over the life of the wheel and leads to part failure. MTB wheels must be designed to withstand many miles of this loading before failure

  11. National Uranium Resource Evaluation. Volume 1. Summary of the geology and uranium potential of Precambrian conglomerates in southeastern Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlstrom, K.E.; Houston, R.S.; Flurkey, A.J.; Coolidge, C.M.; Kratochvil, A.L.; Sever, C.K.

    1981-02-01

    A series of uranium-, thorium-, and gold-bearing conglomerates in Late Archean and Early Proterozoic metasedimentary rocks have been discovered in southern Wyoming. The mineral deposits were found by applying the time and strata bound model for the origin of uranium-bearing quartz-pebble conglomerates to favorable rock types within a geologic terrane known from prior regional mapping. No mineral deposits have been discovered that are of current (1981) economic interest, but preliminary resource estimates indicate that over 3418 tons of uranium and over 1996 tons of thorium are present in the Medicine Bow Mountains and that over 440 tons of uranium and 6350 tons of thorium are present in Sierra Madre. Sampling has been inadequate to determine gold resources. High grade uranium deposits have not been detected by work to date but local beds of uranium-bearing conglomerate contain as much as 1380 ppM uranium over a thickness of 0.65 meters. This project has involved geologic mapping at scales from 1/6000 to 1/50,000 detailed sampling, and the evaluation of 48 diamond drill holes, but the area is too large to fully establish the economic potential with the present information. This first volume summarizes the geologic setting and geologic and geochemical characteristics of the uranium-bearing conglomerates. Volume 2 contains supporting geochemical data, lithologic logs from 48 drill holes in Precambrian rocks, and drill site geologic maps and cross-sections from most of the holes. Volume 3 is a geostatistical resource estimate of uranium and thorium in quartz-pebble conglomerates.

  12. A sightability model for mountain goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, C.G.; Jenkins, K.J.; Chang, W.-Y.

    2009-01-01

    Unbiased estimates of mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) populations are key to meeting diverse harvest management and conservation objectives. We developed logistic regression models of factors influencing sightability of mountain goat groups during helicopter surveys throughout the Cascades and Olympic Ranges in western Washington during summers, 20042007. We conducted 205 trials of the ability of aerial survey crews to detect groups of mountain goats whose presence was known based on simultaneous direct observation from the ground (n 84), Global Positioning System (GPS) telemetry (n 115), or both (n 6). Aerial survey crews detected 77 and 79 of all groups known to be present based on ground observers and GPS collars, respectively. The best models indicated that sightability of mountain goat groups was a function of the number of mountain goats in a group, presence of terrain obstruction, and extent of overstory vegetation. Aerial counts of mountain goats within groups did not differ greatly from known group sizes, indicating that under-counting bias within detected groups of mountain goats was small. We applied HorvitzThompson-like sightability adjustments to 1,139 groups of mountain goats observed in the Cascade and Olympic ranges, Washington, USA, from 2004 to 2007. Estimated mean sightability of individual animals was 85 but ranged 0.750.91 in areas with low and high sightability, respectively. Simulations of mountain goat surveys indicated that precision of population estimates adjusted for sightability biases increased with population size and number of replicate surveys, providing general guidance for the design of future surveys. Because survey conditions, group sizes, and habitat occupied by goats vary among surveys, we recommend using sightability correction methods to decrease bias in population estimates from aerial surveys of mountain goats.

  13. Treatment with facemask and removable upper appliance versus modified tandem traction bow appliance: the effects on mandibular space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortop, Tuba; Kaygisiz, Emine; Erkun, Safak; Yuksel, Sema

    2017-10-20

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the mandibular arch posterior space changes in Class III patients treated with facemask (FM) with removable upper appliance or modified tandem traction bow appliance (MTTBA). Pre- and post-treatment and pre- and post-observation lateral cephalograms of 76 subjects with skeletal and dental Class III malocclusion from the period 2000-10 years formed the materials of this study. In the first group, 25 patients (10 girls, 15 boys; mean age: 10 years, 1 month) were treated with MTTBA. The average treatment time was 12 months. In the second group, 26 patients were treated (13 girls, 13 boys; mean age: 10 years, 4 months) with a Delaire-type FM. The average treatment time was 13 months. The remaining 25 children (9 girls, 16 boys; mean age: 9 years, 8 months) were observed without treatment for 10 months. ANOVA, Duncan, and paired t-tests were used for statistical evaluation. Although ramus width and mandibular posterior space increased significantly in all groups, no significant differences were found among the groups. Significant increase in tipping of lower molar (L6/GoMe) in the MTTBA group showed a significant difference compared with the FM and control groups. Significant retroclination of the lower incisors (L1/NB) in the MTTBA and FM treatment groups was significantly different compared with the control group. Retroclination of lower incisors in the MTTBA group was significantly greater than that in the FM group. FM and MTTBA treatment approaches did not affect the dimensions of posterior space. To generalize the results of this study, long term evaluation by considering the third molar position should be done.

  14. AHP 21: Review: Moving Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William B. Noseworthy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Moving Mountains stands out among recent discussions of the Southeast Asian Highlands, drawing from twelve contributors with extensive field experience living and working in locales closed to nonCommunist academics between 1945 and 1990 (3. The authors' methodologies focus on the anthropological approach of participant observation combined with oral history. Previously, substantial research had been confined to the experience of "hill tribes" in Northern Thailand (11, unless one gained access to the massive collections of French language research under the École Française d'Extrême Orient (EFEO or the Société Asiatique (SA, both in Paris. As such, this volume's contributors are able to ring out the voices of Southeast Asian Massif populations in a way that demonstrates a mindful assembly of research, while carefully narrating a more complex view of the region than that presented by Scott's (2009:22 "zones of refuge." ...

  15. Occupational Health in Mountainous Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhusupov, Kenesh O; Colosio, Claudio; Tabibi, Ramin; Sulaimanova, Cholpon T

    2015-01-01

    In the period of transition from a centralized economy to the market economy, occupational health services in Kyrgyzstan have survived through dramatic, detrimental changes. It is common for occupational health regulations to be ignored and for basic occupational health services across many industrial enterprises and farms to be neglected. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the present situation and challenges facing occupational health services in Kyrgyzstan. The transition from centralized to the market economy in Kyrgyzstan has led to increased layoffs of workers and unemployment. These threats are followed by increased workload, and the health and safety of workers becomes of little concern. Private employers ignore occupational health and safety; consequently, there is under-reporting of occupational diseases and accidents. The majority of enterprises, especially those of small or medium size, are unsanitary, and the health status of workers remains largely unknown. The low official rates of occupational diseases are the result of data being deliberately hidden; lack of coverage of working personnel by medical checkups; incompetent management; and the poor quality of staff, facilities, and equipment. Because Kyrgyzstan is a mountainous country, the main environmental and occupational factor of enterprises is hypoxia. Occupational health specialists have greatly contributed to the development of occupational medicine in the mountains through science and practice. The enforcement of existing strong occupational health legislation and increased financing of occupational health services are needed. The maintenance of credible health monitoring and effective health services for workers, re-establishment of medical services and sanitary-hygienic laboratories in industrial enterprises, and support for scientific investigations on occupational risk assessment will increase the role of occupational health services in improving the health of the working population

  16. Effects of planting density and genotype on loblolly pine stands growing in the mountains of southeastern Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney E. Will; Thomas C. Hennessey; Thomas B. Lynch; Robert Heinemann; Randal Holeman; Dennis Wilson; Keith Anderson; Gregory Campbell

    2013-01-01

    We determined the effects of planting density (4- by 4-, 6- by 6-, 8- by 8-, and 10- by 10-foot spacing) on stand-level height, diameter at breast height, stem volume, basal area, and periodic annual increment for two loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seed sources. Seed sources for the 25-year-old stands were a North Carolina seed source (NCC 8-01) and...

  17. Geographic Layers as Landscape Drivers for the Marco Polo Argali Habitat in the Southeastern Pamir Mountains of Tajikistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Ariel L. Salas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We described in this report the essential geographic layers used as landscape drivers for the Marco Polo Argali habitat in the eastern Tajik Pamirs. Using remote sensing techniques and geographic information systems (GIS, individual layers were generated in order to acquire more information on argali patterns and habitat suitability and to make the dataset available online. We introduced an improved object-based image analysis in our mapping of the vegetation cover by utilizing spectral, topographic, and texture variables. We exhausted every Landsat image band and texture feature combination to select the best pairing of band-texture components. For vegetation class alone, the producer’s accuracy was 90.8% and the user’s accuracy was 91.6%.

  18. Hydro-climatological influences on long-term dissolved organic carbon in a mountain stream of the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitin K. Singh; Wilmer M. Reyes; Emily S. Bernhardt; Ruchi Bhattacharya; Judy L. Meyer; Jennifer D. Knoepp; Ryan E. Emanuel

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, significant increases in surface water dissolved organic carbon (DOC) have been reported for large aquatic ecosystems of the Northern Hemisphere and have been attributed variously to global warming, altered hydrologic conditions, and atmospheric deposition, among other factors. We analyzed a 25-yr DOC record (1988–2012) available for a...

  19. Mountain biodiversity, its causes and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körner, Christian

    2004-11-01

    The personal safety and well-being of one fifth, and water supply for almost half of all people depend directly or indirectly on the functional integrity of mountain ecosystems, the key component of which is a robust vegetation cover. The green 'coat' of the world's mountains is composed of specialized plants, animals and microbes, all nested in a great variety of microhabitats. Because a single mountain may host a series of climatically different life zones over short elevational distances, mountains are hot spots of biodiversity and priority regions for conservation. With their diverse root systems, plants anchor soils on slopes and prevent erosion. Both landuse and atmospheric changes such as elevated CO2 and climatic warming affect mountain biodiversity. Sustained catchment value depends on sustained soil integrity, which in turn depends on a diverse plant cover. Whether landuse in mountains is sustainable is a question of its consequences for water yield and biodiversity. Given their dependence on mountains, lowlanders should show concern for the highlands beyond their recreational value.

  20. Late glacial aridity in southern Rocky Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, O.K.; Pitblado, B.L. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    1995-09-01

    While the slopes of the present-day Colorado Rocky Mountains are characterized by large stands of subalpine and montane conifers, the Rockies of the late glacial looked dramatically different. Specifically, pollen records suggest that during the late glacial, Artemisia and Gramineae predominated throughout the mountains of Colorado. At some point between 11,000 and 10,000 B.P., however, both Artemisia and grasses underwent a dramatic decline, which can be identified in virtually every pollen diagram produced for Colorado mountain sites, including Como Lake (Sangre de Cristo Mountains), Copley Lake and Splains; Gulch (near Crested Butte), Molas Lake (San Juan Mountains), and Redrock Lake (Boulder County). Moreover, the same pattern seems to hold for pollen spectra derived for areas adjacent to Colorado, including at sites in the Chuska Mountains of New Mexico and in eastern Wyoming. The implications of this consistent finding are compelling. The closest modem analogues to the Artemisia- and Gramineae-dominated late-glacial Colorado Rockies are found in the relatively arid northern Great Basin, which suggests that annual precipitation was much lower in the late-glacial southern Rocky Mountains than it was throughout the Holocene.

  1. INTERNET ADDICTION IN BALKAN AND SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis PETASAKIS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of Internet has increased dramatically in recent years. Although there is no standardized definition of Internet addiction, there is acknowledgement among researchers that this phenomenon does exist. In this study, we identify various similarities and differences among people in the Balkan and South-Eastern European countries about Internet addiction. There are many factors such as cultural differences, gender differences, psychosocial variables, computer attitudes and time.We present the experience from studies concerning Internet addiction in all over the world. A specific research with the use of Young's 20-scale was also conducted in five Balkan and South-Eastern European countries (Republic of Moldova, Romania, Republic of Bulgaria, Hellenic Republic, Republic of Cyprus.The findings are interesting. Although there is a need for Interest using, there are also cases where the addiction, dependence and abuse is apparent.

  2. A clustering of conjugal amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in southeastern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcia, Philippe; Jafari-Schluep, Helene-Farnase; Lardillier, Dominique; Mazyad, Hassan; Giraud, Pieric; Clavelou, Pierre; Pouget, Jean; Camu, William

    2003-04-01

    The origin of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) remains largely unknown but seems to be multifactorial. We believe that ALS clusters may help clinicians understand or analyze the role of environmental factors in ALS pathogenesis. To describe a cluster of conjugal ALS in southeastern France. We describe 9 couples in which both spouses were affected by ALS. Eight of the 9 had lived in southeastern France. In all cases, the spouses were married for more than 10 years. Three couples lived in the same département and 2 of them in the same city. To our knowledge, such a large cluster of conjugal ALS cases has not been previously reported. No precise environmental factors could be identified at the origin of these conjugal cases. We suggest that genetic and environmental factors, or both, may explain the occurrence of this cluster of ALS.

  3. Seismic anisotropy inferred from direct S-wave-derived splitting measurements and its geodynamic implications beneath southeastern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant Tiwari, Ashwani; Singh, Arun; Eken, Tuna; Singh, Chandrani

    2017-04-01

    The present study deals with detecting seismic anisotropy parameters beneath southeastern Tibet near Namcha Barwa Mountain using the splitting of direct S waves. We employ the reference station technique to remove the effects of source-side anisotropy. Seismic anisotropy parameters, splitting time delays, and fast polarization directions are estimated through analyses of a total of 501 splitting measurements obtained from direct S waves from 25 earthquakes ( ≥ 5.5 magnitude) that were recorded at 42 stations of the Namcha Barwa seismic network. We observe a large variation in time delays ranging from 0.64 to 1.68 s, but in most cases, it is more than 1 s, which suggests a highly anisotropic lithospheric mantle in the region. A comparison between direct S- and SKS-derived splitting parameters shows a close similarity, although some discrepancies exist where null or negligible anisotropy has been reported earlier using SKS. The seismic stations with hitherto null or negligible anisotropy are now supplemented with new measurements with clear anisotropic signatures. Our analyses indicate a sharp change in lateral variations of fast polarization directions (FPDs) from consistent SSW-ENE or W-E to NW-SE direction at the southeastern edge of Tibet. Comparison of the FPDs with Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements, absolute plate motion (APM) directions, and surface geological features indicates that the observed anisotropy and hence inferred deformation patterns are not only due to asthenospheric dynamics but are a combination of lithospheric deformation and sub-lithospheric (asthenospheric) mantle dynamics. Direct S-wave-based station-averaged splitting measurements with increased back-azimuths tend to fill the coverage gaps left in SKS measurements.

  4. Periglacial landforms in the Pohorje Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Natek

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to the well-studied Pleistocene glaciation, periglacial phenomena in Slovenia have been given less scientific attention because they are not particularly evident in high mountains due to prevailing carbonate rocks. This, however, is not the case in the Pohorje Mountains: built of igneous and metamorphic rocks, it was not glaciated due to its insufficient elevation, but was subject to periglacial processes. In the article, some of the periglacial landforms of the Pohorje Mountains are presented for the first time, especially nivation hollows in the uppermost zone, and the Jezerc cirque where a smaller glacier, unknown until recently, existed at the peak of the glaciation.

  5. Risk analysis using AS/NZS 4360:2004, Bow-Tie diagram and ALARP on construction projects of Banyumanik Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Diana Puspita; Pujotomo, Darminto; Wardani, Nadira Kusuma

    2017-11-01

    The Determination of risk is an uncertain event. Risks can have negative or positive impacts on project objectives. A project was defined as a series of activities and tasks that have a purpose, specifications, and limits of cost. Banyumanik Hospital Development Project is one of the construction projects in Semarang which have experienced some problems. The first problem is project delays on building stake. The second problem is delay of material supply. Finally, the problem that occurs is less management attention to health safety as evidenced by the unavailability of PPE for the workers. These problems will pose a risk to be a very important risk management performed by contractors at the Banyumanik Hospital Development Project to reduce the impact that would be caused by the risk borne by the provider of construction services. This research aim to risk identification, risk assessment and risk mitigation. Project risk management begins with the identification of risks based on the project life cycle. The risk assessment carried out by AS I NZS 4360: 2004 to the impacts of cost, time and quality. The results obtained from the method of AS I NZS 4360: 2004 is the risk that requires the handling of mitigation. Mitigated risk is the risk that had significant and high level. There are four risks that require risk mitigation with Bow-Tie diagrams which is work accidents, contract delays, material delays and design changes. Bow-Tie diagram method is a method for identifying causal and preventive action and recovery of a risk. Results obtained from Bow-Tie diagram method is a preventive action and recovery. This action is used as input to the ALARP method. ALARP method is used to determine the priority of the strategy proposed in the category broadly acceptable, tolerable, and unacceptable.

  6. Mechanical mastication as a fuels treatment in southeastern forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesse K. Kreye; J. Morgan Varner; Leda N. Kobziar

    2016-01-01

    Mastication is an increasingly common fuels treatment that redistributes ‘‘ladder’’ fuels to the forest floor to reduce vertical fuel continuity, crown fire potential, and fireline intensity. Despite its widespread adoption, it remains unclear how mastication impacts fuels, fire behavior, or plant communities  across Southeastern forest ecosystems. We evaluated these...

  7. LOCATIONAL EFFECTS OF URBANIZATION ON AGRICULTURE IN SOUTHEASTERN PENNSYLVANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Larson, Janelle M.; Findeis, Jill L; Smith, Stephen M

    2000-01-01

    Most agricultural output in the northeastern United States comes from counties that have experienced significant development. A mail survey, with 300 responses, was conducted in southeastern Pennsylvania to determine farmer adaptation to urbanization in this region. Despite development, traditional agriculture still predominates. Changes in land use were examined using multinomial logit models. Results show that changes in population density and farm preservation policies have an influence, a...

  8. Population density of Sotalia guianensis (Cetacea: Delphinidae in the Cananéia region, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liisa Havukainen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Population density in cetaceans can be estimated through photo-identification, mark-recapture, land-based observations and visual estimative. We the aim to contribute with conservation strategies, we used line transects (distance method to estimate the population density of the river dolphin, S. guianensis, in the estuarine region of Cananéia, Southeastern Brazil. The study, developed from May 2003 until April 2004, during dry and rainy seasons and different times of the day, included a sampling area divided into three sectors according to their proximity to the open sea: Sector I (the closest to the open sea; Sector II (with a large flow of fresh water and a salient declivity; and Sector III (with a large flow of fresh water and non salient declivity. Onboard random sampling was carried out in all three sectors, and dolphins seen from the bow to 90° on both port and starboard sides, were registered along with their position and distance from the boat. The total density found was 12.41ind/km² (CV=25.53% with an average of 2.2 individuals per group for both periods of the day, morning and afternoon. Densities also varied between dry and rainy seasons, being lower in the first with 5.77ind/km² (CV=27.87% than in the second 20.28ind/km² (CV=31.95%, respectively. Regarding the three sectors, a non-causal heterogeneous distribution was found: Sector I was the most populated (D=33.10ind/km², CV=13.34%, followed by Sector II (D=7.8ind/km², CV=21.07% and Sector III (D=3.04ind/km², CV=34.04%. The aforementioned area, due to its proximity to the open sea, has the highest salinity level and therefore has the greatest chance of holding most of the marine fish schools which can be cornered by dolphins on high declivity areas during fishing activities. This suggests that food availability may be the most important factor on the river dolphin’s distribution in the estuary. Similar studies will contribute to a better understanding of these populations

  9. Hydraulics and morphology of mountain rivers; literature survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieben, J.

    1993-01-01

    Present knowledge on fluvial processes in mountain rivers should be expanded to enable the development of projects dealing with mountain rivers or mountain-river catchment areas. This study reviews research on hydraulic and morphological features of mountain rivers. A major characteristic of

  10. Denial of women's rights to contraception in southeastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigbu, Chibuike O; Onyebuchi, Azubuike K; Onwudiwe, Elijah N; Iwuji, Stella E

    2013-05-01

    To evaluate the opinions and experiences of married women in southeastern Nigeria regarding their rights to contraception, in addition to the impact of the denial of women's contraceptive rights on unplanned pregnancy rate. A cross-sectional survey of women who registered for prenatal care at 2 federal tertiary healthcare facilities in southeastern Nigeria was conducted. Randomly selected samples of participants were interviewed via a structured, pretested questionnaire. In total, 1204 women participated in the survey. Overall, 526 (43.7%) were unaware of their rights to contraception. Denial of contraceptive rights was reported by 522 (43.4%) women. In total, 174/317 (54.9%) women with unplanned pregnancies blamed denial of access to contraception for their pregnancies. Among the women who had used contraception previously, 61.9% reported that the decision to do so was taken by their spouse. Formal education seemed to increase women's level of awareness of their rights to contraception (P=0.001) but it did not influence the exercising of such rights. A considerable proportion of women in southeastern Nigeria are being denied their rights to contraception, mainly owing to a culture of male dominance. There may be significant health implications for women with unplanned pregnancies arising from such denials. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Recent Jurassic discoveries in southeastern Cass County, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubrey, J.

    1984-09-01

    Southeastern Cass County had lain virtually dormant as a prospective Jurassic oil and gas province since the mid-1960s, when East Linden field was discovered and developed. Then, in 1978, Hilliard Oil and Gas drilled the 1 Johnson and discovered Kildare field (Smackover). Subsequent development thru 1982 proved additional reserves in several Cotton Valley sandstones as well, reconfirming southeastern Cass County as territory for viable Jurassic drilling. Additional drilling occurred when Marshall Exploration redrilled and expanded the old Bloomburg field and Heflin redrilled Queen City field. All of this drilling was successful in the Smackover reservoir, finding sour gas and condensate. Wildcat activity included the two Smackover completions finding South Atlanta field, as well as two completions in formations that are highly debated as to their nomenclature. Cities Service reportedly their well in the Eagle Mills. This well brought national attention to southeastern Cass County, when it was reported on the CBS Saturday evening news. The well initially flowed at rates that were as high as 1800 BOPD, 1396 MCFGD, and 32 BWPD, with pressure of 3250 psi. Just as the excitement was dying down, Primary Fuels, Inc. reentered and deepened the Highland Resources 1 Glass and completed that well in a zone correlative to the Cities Service 1-A Pruitt. The 1 glass potentialed for 200 BOPD, 570 MCFGD, and 32 BWPD, at pressure of 2900 psi. The producing zone was determined to be the Norphlet, which once again was made wildcatters of all previous upper Smackover explorers.

  12. Phytosociological studies of the forests with sessile oak and Norway spruce from South-Eastern Transylvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Indreica

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The forests with sessile oak (Quercus petraea and Norway spruce (Picea abies from south-eastern Transylvania represent a peculiar type of phytocenoses, rather unusual for the present-day vegetation of Romania’s territory. Aim of the study is to provide a detailed description of the vegetation and to identify the phytosociological and typological units to which it could belong. Beside this, stand structure and regeneration status of the main tree species are illustrated. The studied area is located around Carpathian intermountain depressions Braşov and Ciuc, where vegetation had a peculiar history and today sessile oak forests on high altitude exists, interfering with spruce forests. The hypothesis of the process naturalness is supported by vegetation history in the area, climate, stand structure and peculiarities of herb layer composition (the mixture of relic of both mountain-boreal origin and south-European origin, like Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Pyrola rotundifolia and respectively Potentilla micrantha, Lathyrus venetus respectively. Sintaxonomically, studied phytocenoses with sessile oak and spruce belong mainly to acidophilus oak forests (Luzulo luzuloidis-Quercetum petraeae, but some of them resemble oak-hornbeam forests (Carici pilosae-Carpinetum, indicating a more recent change in stand structure and suggesting that not the soil, but the climate is the driving force of succession. Regeneration of sessile oak is at least satisfactory, but the expansion of spruce in such stands could seriously restrict the survival of sessile oak. A new typological unit will be appropriate,for a better management of sessile oak forests with spruce admixture.

  13. Bankfull Curves for the Temperate Rainforests in the Southern Appalachian Mountains of Western North Carolina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MICKEY B. HENSON

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Bankfull hydraulic geometry relationships, also called regional curves, relate bankfull stream channel dimensions and discharge to watershed drainage area. This paper describes results of bankfull curve relationships developed for the temperate rainforests of the Southern Appalachian Mountains primarily on Western North Carolina Mountain streams in the Southeastern United States. Gauge stations for small and larger catchments were selected with a range of 10 to 50 years of continuous or peak discharge measurements, no major impoundments, no significant change in land use over the past 10 years, and impervious cover ranges of <20%. Cross-sectional and longitudinal surveys were measured at each study reach to determine channel dimension, pattern, and profile information. Log-Pearson Type III distributions were used to analyze annual peak discharge data for nine small watersheds sites gauged by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA, Forest Service, Southern Research Station, Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory and for eleven larger watersheds gauged by the United States Geological Survey (USGS. Power function relationships were developed using regression analyses for bankfull discharge, channel cross-sectional area, mean depth, and width as functions of watershed drainage area.

  14. Mapping mountain torrent hazards in the Hexi Corridor using an evidential reasoning approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Youhua; Liu, Jinpeng; Tian, Feng; Wang, Dekai

    2017-02-01

    The Hexi Corridor is an important part of the Silk Road Economic Belt and a crucial channel for westward development in China. Many important national engineering projects pass through the corridor, such as highways, railways, and the West-to-East Gas Pipeline. The frequent torrent disasters greatly impact the security of infrastructure and human safety. In this study, an evidential reasoning approach based on Dempster-Shafer theory is proposed for mapping mountain torrent hazards in the Hexi Corridor. A torrent hazard map for the Hexi Corridor was generated by integrating the driving factors of mountain torrent disasters including precipitation, terrain, flow concentration processes, and the vegetation fraction. The results show that the capability of the proposed method is satisfactory. The torrent hazard map shows that there is high potential torrent hazard in the central and southeastern Hexi Corridor. The results are useful for engineering planning support and resource protection in the Hexi Corridor. Further efforts are discussed for improving torrent hazard mapping and prediction.

  15. New models for Paleoproterozoic orogenesis in the Cheyenne belt region: Evidence from the geology and U-Pb geochronology of the Big Creek Gneiss, southeastern Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D.S.; Snoke, A.W.; Premo, W.R.; Chamberlain, K.R.

    2010-01-01

    The disputed age of the deep crust of the Colorado Province is central to hypotheses for Paleoproterozoic crustal growth in the region. We studied the high-grade Big Creek Gneiss, southeastern Wyoming, as a potential exposure of pre-1780 Ma basement rocks. New geologic mapping and U-Pb geochronological data indicate that the Big Creek Gneiss exposes a deeper, but coeval, level of the Green Mountain arc relative to the predominantly supracrustal section to the west. The Big Creek Gneiss is composed of: supracrustal rocks; a ca. 1780 Ma Green Mountain arc-correlative, bimodal intrusive suite; a ca. 1763 Ma extensional(?) bimodal intrusive suite; and widespread ca. 1630 Ma pegmatitic leucogranite. The mafic member of the younger bimodal suite is documented here for the first time. U-Pb zircon ages from migmatite leucosomes indicate penetrative deformation of the Big Creek Gneiss at ca. 1750 Ma. We find that the postarc intrusive suite is mantle-involved, implying a second period of crustal growth. Shortening postdates arc magmatism by ~20 m.y., implying that termination of arc magmatism and accretion were separate events. Finally, criteria previously used to constrain the polarity of subduction for the Green Mountain arc are not reliable. We propose two competing models: (1) southward-dipping Green Mountain arc subduction (present coordinates), with slab breakoff-related magmatism following arc accretion; or (2) northward-dipping subduction, with extensional postarc magmatism. In both models, high-temperature deformation coincides with accretion along the Cheyenne belt, and extensional magmatism is an important component of crustal growth. We prefer the northward-dipping subduction model because it can be better integrated with regional tectonic events and published isotopic compositions of the igneous rocks. ?? 2010 Geological Society of America.

  16. Recent population trends of mountain goats in the Olympic Mountains, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Kurt J.; Happe, Patricia J.; Beirne, Katherine F.; Hoffman, Roger A.; Griffin, Paul C.; Baccus, William T.; Fieberg, John

    2012-01-01

    Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) were introduced in Washington's Olympic Mountains during the 1920s. The population subsequently increased in numbers and expanded in range, leading to concerns by the 1970s over the potential effects of non-native mountain goats on high-elevation plant communities in Olympic National Park. The National Park Service (NPS) transplanted mountain goats from the Olympic Mountains to other ranges between 1981 and 1989 as a means to manage overabundant populations, and began monitoring population trends of mountain goats in 1983. We estimated population abundance of mountain goats during 18–25 July 2011, the sixth survey of the time series, to assess current population status and responses of the population to past management. We surveyed 39 sample units, comprising 39% of the 59,615-ha survey area. We estimated a population of 344 ± 72 (90% confidence interval [CI]) mountain goats in the survey area. Retrospective analysis of the 2004 survey, accounting for differences in survey area boundaries and methods of estimating aerial detection biases, indicated that the population increased at an average annual rate of 4.9% since the last survey. That is the first population growth observed since the cessation of population control measures in 1990. We postulate that differences in population trends observed in western, eastern, and southern sections of the survey zone reflected, in part, a variable influence of climate change across the precipitation gradient in the Olympic Mountains.

  17. Annual Copper Mountain Conferences on Multigrid and Iterative Methods, Copper Mountain, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, Stephen F. [Front Range Scientific, Inc., Lake City, CO (United States)

    2016-03-25

    This project supported the Copper Mountain Conference on Multigrid and Iterative Methods, held from 2007 to 2015, at Copper Mountain, Colorado. The subject of the Copper Mountain Conference Series alternated between Multigrid Methods in odd-numbered years and Iterative Methods in even-numbered years. Begun in 1983, the Series represents an important forum for the exchange of ideas in these two closely related fields. This report describes the Copper Mountain Conference on Multigrid and Iterative Methods, 2007-2015. Information on the conference series is available at http://grandmaster.colorado.edu/~copper/.

  18. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safety for the Whole Family Evaluate Your Child's Lyme Disease Risk Lyme Disease Lyme Disease Hey! A Tick Bit Me! Bug Bites and Stings Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Lyme Disease Contact Us Print Resources Send to a Friend ...

  19. Cheat Mountain Salamander Survey Summary for 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The primary goal for this project is to establish baseline information on populations of the Cheat Mountain salamander on the refuge. In the future, an additional...

  20. Great Smoky Mountains National Park Geology

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Digital Geologic Units of Great Smoky Mountains National Park and Vicinity, Tennessee and North Carolina consists of geologic units mapped as area (polygon)...

  1. Nuclear Waste Disposal: Alternatives to Yucca Mountain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Holt, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Congress designated Yucca Mountain, NV, as the nation's sole candidate site for a permanent high-level nuclear waste repository in 1987, following years of controversy over the site-selection process...

  2. Rocky Mountain Arsenal : 2006 vegetation management plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this Vegetation Management Plan (VMP) is to describe the approach for implementing vegetation management activities at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal...

  3. THE HIMALAYAN TAHR ON T ABLE MOUNTAIN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    apill esculenta. Nature, Lond. 167: 900-901. HYNES, H B N 1950. The food of freshwater sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatw and Pygos- tew pungitiw), with a review of methods used in. THE HIMALAYAN TAHR ON. T ABLE MOUNTAIN.

  4. Rocky Mountain Arsenal : 2007 vegetation management plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this Vegetation Management Plan (VMP) is to describe the approach for implementing vegetation management activities at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal...

  5. VT Green Mountain National Forest - Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) GMNFTRAILS contains minor Forest Service roads and all trails within the proclamation boundary of the Green Mountain National Forest and many of...

  6. VT Green Mountain National Forest - Trails

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) GMNFTRAILS contains minor Forest Service roads and all trails within the proclamation boundary of the Green Mountain National Forest and many of...

  7. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever: Statistics and Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tick Diseases transmitted by ticks More Statistics and Epidemiology Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Rocky Mountain ... lower case fatality rate observed in recent decades. Epidemiology Figure 1 – Reported incidence and case fatality of ...

  8. Fishery management scenarios : Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The fishery resources at Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) have been managed by the US Fish and Wildlife Service since the early 1960's. Management activities included...

  9. Mountain ranges favour vigorous Atlantic meridional overturning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bablu Sinha; Adam T. Blaker; Joël J.-M. Hirschi; Sarah Bonham; Matthew Brand; Simon Josey; Robin S. Smith; Jochem Marotzke

    2012-01-01

      We use a global Ocean-Atmosphere General Circulation Model (OAGCM) to show that the major mountain ranges of the world have a significant role in maintenance of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC...

  10. Great Smoky Mountains National Park Hydro Plus

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Park Hydro Plus is a value-added attribution of data produced by Great Smoky Mountains National Park and published by the USGS NHD. Not to be confused with the USGS...

  11. Vegetation resources of Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report presents the results of plant ecological studies conducted at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) in 1986 and 1987. The studies were performed by...

  12. VT Green Mountain Power Pole Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) Green Mountain Power (GMP) pole and OVERHEAD linear distribution/sub-transmission model data. THE LINEAR DISTRIBUTION LAYER ONLY INCLUDES OVERHEAD...

  13. [FY 1990 Budget Summary : Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains information related to Rocky Mountain Arsenal's budget for the 1990 fiscal year. The specifics are broken down into seven tasks, task #1 being...

  14. [FY 1996 Budget Summary : Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains information related to Rocky Mountain Arsenal's budget for the 1996 fiscal year. Page 1 is the memorandum from the Service to the U.S. Army...

  15. [FY 1989 Budget Summary : Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a single page document summarizing Rocky Mountain Arsenal's Budget for the 1989 fiscal year. There are three mentioned tasks; Operations & Planning, Law...

  16. Owl Mountain Partnership : An external assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — External review of the Owl Mountain Partnership (OMP) to identify benefits and successes associatedwith collaborative work through the perceptions of participating...

  17. Quartz Mountain/Oklahoma Summer Arts Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frates, Mary Y.; Madeja, Stanley S.

    1982-01-01

    Describes the Quartz Mountain Oklahoma Summer Arts Institute program. It is designed to nurture artistic talent and to provide intensive arts experiences in music, dance, theater, and the visual arts for talented students aged 14-18. (AM)

  18. Excessive deforestation of Gishwati Mountainous forest ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    sigp1. Excessive deforestation of Gishwati. Mountainous forest & biodiversity changes. Introduction. The Change in Forest cover in. Rwanda is result of the high growth of population density. The latter has doubled between 1978 and 2002. Over.

  19. [Nontraumatic medical emergencies in mountain rescues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra Quintana, Eva; Martínez Caballero, Carmen María; Batista Pardo, Sara Abigail; Abella Barraca, Salas; de la Vieja Soriano, María

    2017-10-01

    To describe the clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of patients with nontraumatic medical problems rescued by a Spanish mountain emergency response service (061 Aragon). Retrospective observational analysis of records of mountain rescues completed between July 2010 and December 2016. A total of 164 patients with nontraumatic medical emergencies were rescued; 82.3% were males. Most patients were between the ages of 50 and 59 years. Environmentally related problems, most often hypothermia, accounted for 36.6% of the emergencies. Cardiac problems led to 20.7% and digestive problems to 12.8%. Eighty-two percent of the patients were hiking or engaged in general mountain activities (other than rock climbing, canyoning, hunting, or skiing). Recent years have seen a rise in the number of patients requiring rescue from mountains for nontraumatic medical emergencies, particularly heart problems. The typical patient to expect would be a man between the ages of 50 and 59 years who is hiking in the summer.

  20. Great Smoky Mountains National Park Fish Distribution

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Background and History The brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) is the only trout native to the southern Appalachian Mountains. It was once widespread in Great Smoky...