Sample records for bovoculi cytotoxin-iscom matrix

  1. Moraxella bovoculi em casos de ceratoconjuntivite infecciosa bovina no Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Libardoni


    Full Text Available A ceratoconjuntivite infecciosa (CI, embora raramente fatal, resulta em perdas econômicas significativas para os rebanhos bovinos e ovinos. Os principais agentes causadores dessa enfermidade são Moraxella bovis e Moraxella ovis. Em 2007 foi descrita uma nova espécie também responsável pela CI e denominada Moraxella bovoculi, que até o presente momento, não havia sido relatada no Brasil. Assim, objetivou-se com este trabalho caracterizar e distinguir 54 isolados de Moraxella spp. de amostras clínicas oriundas de 34 bovinos e 17 ovinos, encaminhadas ao Laboratório de Bacteriologia da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria no período de 1990 a 2011, visando a identificação de M. bovoculi. A distinção dos isolados foi fundamentada nas características genotípicas, pela amplificação parcial da região intergênica 16S-23S e clivagem dos produtos da amplificação com enzima RsaI. Como resultados, 25 (46% isolados foram caracterizados como M. bovis, 17 (32% como M. ovis e 12 (22% como M. bovoculi. Logo, conclui-se que M. bovoculi encontra-se presente no rebanho bovino do Rio Grande do Sul e, portanto, no Brasil.

  2. Large genomic differences between Moraxella bovoculi isolates acquired from the eyes of cattle with conjunctivitis versus the deep nasopharynx of asymptomatic cattle (United States)

    Moraxella bovoculi is a recently described bacterium that is associated with infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) or "pinkeye" in cattle. In this study, closed circularized genomes were generated for seven M. bovoculi isolates: three that originated from the eyes of clinical IBK bovine case...

  3. Moraxella bovoculi in cases of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil


    Felipe Libardoni; Scherer, Charles F.C.; Luana Farias; Andréia Vielmo; Claudia Balzan; Vargas,Agueda C.


    A ceratoconjuntivite infecciosa (CI), embora raramente fatal, resulta em perdas econômicas significativas para os rebanhos bovinos e ovinos. Os principais agentes causadores dessa enfermidade são Moraxella bovis e Moraxella ovis. Em 2007 foi descrita uma nova espécie também responsável pela CI e denominada Moraxella bovoculi, que até o presente momento, não havia sido relatada no Brasil. Assim, objetivou-se com este trabalho caracterizar e distinguir 54 isolados de Moraxella spp. de amostras ...

  4. Differences in the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Moraxella bovis, M. bovoculi and M. ovis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazieli Maboni


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the differences in the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Moraxella bovis, M. bovoculi and M. ovis. Thirty-two strains of Moraxella spp. isolated from cattle and sheep with infectious keratoconjunctivitis were tested via broth microdilution method to determine their susceptibility to ampicillin, cefoperazone, ceftiofur, cloxacillin, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, gentamicin, neomycin, oxytetracycline and penicillin. The results demonstrated that Moraxella spp. strains could be considered sensitive for most of the antimicrobials tested in this study, but differences between the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of these three Moraxella species were found. M. bovis might differ from other species due to the higher MIC and MBC values it presented.

  5. Matrix theory

    CERN Document Server

    Franklin, Joel N


    Mathematically rigorous introduction covers vector and matrix norms, the condition-number of a matrix, positive and irreducible matrices, much more. Only elementary algebra and calculus required. Includes problem-solving exercises. 1968 edition.

  6. Matrix calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Bodewig, E


    Matrix Calculus, Second Revised and Enlarged Edition focuses on systematic calculation with the building blocks of a matrix and rows and columns, shunning the use of individual elements. The publication first offers information on vectors, matrices, further applications, measures of the magnitude of a matrix, and forms. The text then examines eigenvalues and exact solutions, including the characteristic equation, eigenrows, extremum properties of the eigenvalues, bounds for the eigenvalues, elementary divisors, and bounds for the determinant. The text ponders on approximate solutions, as well

  7. Matrix analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bhatia, Rajendra


    A good part of matrix theory is functional analytic in spirit. This statement can be turned around. There are many problems in operator theory, where most of the complexities and subtleties are present in the finite-dimensional case. My purpose in writing this book is to present a systematic treatment of methods that are useful in the study of such problems. This book is intended for use as a text for upper division and gradu­ ate courses. Courses based on parts of the material have been given by me at the Indian Statistical Institute and at the University of Toronto (in collaboration with Chandler Davis). The book should also be useful as a reference for research workers in linear algebra, operator theory, mathe­ matical physics and numerical analysis. A possible subtitle of this book could be Matrix Inequalities. A reader who works through the book should expect to become proficient in the art of deriving such inequalities. Other authors have compared this art to that of cutting diamonds. One first has to...

  8. Matrix completion by deep matrix factorization. (United States)

    Fan, Jicong; Cheng, Jieyu


    Conventional methods of matrix completion are linear methods that are not effective in handling data of nonlinear structures. Recently a few researchers attempted to incorporate nonlinear techniques into matrix completion but there still exists considerable limitations. In this paper, a novel method called deep matrix factorization (DMF) is proposed for nonlinear matrix completion. Different from conventional matrix completion methods that are based on linear latent variable models, DMF is on the basis of a nonlinear latent variable model. DMF is formulated as a deep-structure neural network, in which the inputs are the low-dimensional unknown latent variables and the outputs are the partially observed variables. In DMF, the inputs and the parameters of the multilayer neural network are simultaneously optimized to minimize the reconstruction errors for the observed entries. Then the missing entries can be readily recovered by propagating the latent variables to the output layer. DMF is compared with state-of-the-art methods of linear and nonlinear matrix completion in the tasks of toy matrix completion, image inpainting and collaborative filtering. The experimental results verify that DMF is able to provide higher matrix completion accuracy than existing methods do and DMF is applicable to large matrices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Diagnosis using nail matrix. (United States)

    Richert, Bertrand; Caucanas, Marie; André, Josette


    Diagnosing nail matrix diseases requires knowledge of the nail matrix function and anatomy. This allows recognition of the clinical manifestations and assessment of potential surgical risk. Nail signs depend on the location within the matrix (proximal or distal) and the intensity, duration, and extent of the insult. Proximal matrix involvement includes nail surface irregularities (longitudinal lines, transverse lines, roughness of the nail surface, pitting, and superficial brittleness), whereas distal matrix insult induces longitudinal or transverse chromonychia. Clinical signs are described and their main causes are listed to enable readers to diagnose matrix disease from the nail's clinical features. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Matrix Cookbook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kaare Brandt; Pedersen, Michael Syskind

    Matrix identities, relations and approximations. A desktop reference for quick overview of mathematics of matrices.......Matrix identities, relations and approximations. A desktop reference for quick overview of mathematics of matrices....

  11. Matrix differentiation formulas (United States)

    Usikov, D. A.; Tkhabisimov, D. K.


    A compact differentiation technique (without using indexes) is developed for scalar functions that depend on complex matrix arguments which are combined by operations of complex conjugation, transposition, addition, multiplication, matrix inversion and taking the direct product. The differentiation apparatus is developed in order to simplify the solution of extremum problems of scalar functions of matrix arguments.

  12. Matrix with Prescribed Eigenvectors (United States)

    Ahmad, Faiz


    It is a routine matter for undergraduates to find eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a given matrix. But the converse problem of finding a matrix with prescribed eigenvalues and eigenvectors is rarely discussed in elementary texts on linear algebra. This problem is related to the "spectral" decomposition of a matrix and has important technical…

  13. Nanocrystal doped matrixes (United States)

    Parce, J. Wallace; Bernatis, Paul; Dubrow, Robert; Freeman, William P.; Gamoras, Joel; Kan, Shihai; Meisel, Andreas; Qian, Baixin; Whiteford, Jeffery A.; Ziebarth, Jonathan


    Matrixes doped with semiconductor nanocrystals are provided. In certain embodiments, the semiconductor nanocrystals have a size and composition such that they absorb or emit light at particular wavelengths. The nanocrystals can comprise ligands that allow for mixing with various matrix materials, including polymers, such that a minimal portion of light is scattered by the matrixes. The matrixes of the present invention can also be utilized in refractive index matching applications. In other embodiments, semiconductor nanocrystals are embedded within matrixes to form a nanocrystal density gradient, thereby creating an effective refractive index gradient. The matrixes of the present invention can also be used as filters and antireflective coatings on optical devices and as down-converting layers. Processes for producing matrixes comprising semiconductor nanocrystals are also provided. Nanostructures having high quantum efficiency, small size, and/or a narrow size distribution are also described, as are methods of producing indium phosphide nanostructures and core-shell nanostructures with Group II-VI shells.

  14. Cell-matrix adhesion. (United States)

    Berrier, Allison L; Yamada, Kenneth M


    The complex interactions of cells with extracellular matrix (ECM) play crucial roles in mediating and regulating many processes, including cell adhesion, migration, and signaling during morphogenesis, tissue homeostasis, wound healing, and tumorigenesis. Many of these interactions involve transmembrane integrin receptors. Integrins cluster in specific cell-matrix adhesions to provide dynamic links between extracellular and intracellular environments by bi-directional signaling and by organizing the ECM and intracellular cytoskeletal and signaling molecules. This mini review discusses these interconnections, including the roles of matrix properties such as composition, three-dimensionality, and porosity, the bi-directional functions of cellular contractility and matrix rigidity, and cell signaling. The review concludes by speculating on the application of this knowledge of cell-matrix interactions in the formation of cell adhesions, assembly of matrix, migration, and tumorigenesis to potential future therapeutic approaches. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Parallelism in matrix computations

    CERN Document Server

    Gallopoulos, Efstratios; Sameh, Ahmed H


    This book is primarily intended as a research monograph that could also be used in graduate courses for the design of parallel algorithms in matrix computations. It assumes general but not extensive knowledge of numerical linear algebra, parallel architectures, and parallel programming paradigms. The book consists of four parts: (I) Basics; (II) Dense and Special Matrix Computations; (III) Sparse Matrix Computations; and (IV) Matrix functions and characteristics. Part I deals with parallel programming paradigms and fundamental kernels, including reordering schemes for sparse matrices. Part II is devoted to dense matrix computations such as parallel algorithms for solving linear systems, linear least squares, the symmetric algebraic eigenvalue problem, and the singular-value decomposition. It also deals with the development of parallel algorithms for special linear systems such as banded ,Vandermonde ,Toeplitz ,and block Toeplitz systems. Part III addresses sparse matrix computations: (a) the development of pa...

  16. Quasiclassical Random Matrix Theory


    Prange, R. E.


    We directly combine ideas of the quasiclassical approximation with random matrix theory and apply them to the study of the spectrum, in particular to the two-level correlator. Bogomolny's transfer operator T, quasiclassically an NxN unitary matrix, is considered to be a random matrix. Rather than rejecting all knowledge of the system, except for its symmetry, [as with Dyson's circular unitary ensemble], we choose an ensemble which incorporates the knowledge of the shortest periodic orbits, th...

  17. Patience of matrix games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Ibsen-Jensen, Rasmus; Podolskii, Vladimir V.


    For matrix games we study how small nonzero probability must be used in optimal strategies. We show that for image win–lose–draw games (i.e. image matrix games) nonzero probabilities smaller than image are never needed. We also construct an explicit image win–lose game such that the unique optimal...

  18. Fuzzy risk matrix. (United States)

    Markowski, Adam S; Mannan, M Sam


    A risk matrix is a mechanism to characterize and rank process risks that are typically identified through one or more multifunctional reviews (e.g., process hazard analysis, audits, or incident investigation). This paper describes a procedure for developing a fuzzy risk matrix that may be used for emerging fuzzy logic applications in different safety analyses (e.g., LOPA). The fuzzification of frequency and severity of the consequences of the incident scenario are described which are basic inputs for fuzzy risk matrix. Subsequently using different design of risk matrix, fuzzy rules are established enabling the development of fuzzy risk matrices. Three types of fuzzy risk matrix have been developed (low-cost, standard, and high-cost), and using a distillation column case study, the effect of the design on final defuzzified risk index is demonstrated.

  19. Higher Spin Matrix Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Valenzuela


    Full Text Available We propose a hybrid class of theories for higher spin gravity and matrix models, i.e., which handle simultaneously higher spin gravity fields and matrix models. The construction is similar to Vasiliev’s higher spin gravity, but part of the equations of motion are provided by the action principle of a matrix model. In particular, we construct a higher spin (gravity matrix model related to type IIB matrix models/string theory that have a well defined classical limit, and which is compatible with higher spin gravity in A d S space. As it has been suggested that higher spin gravity should be related to string theory in a high energy (tensionless regime, and, therefore to M-Theory, we expect that our construction will be useful to explore concrete connections.

  20. Elementary matrix theory

    CERN Document Server

    Eves, Howard


    The usefulness of matrix theory as a tool in disciplines ranging from quantum mechanics to psychometrics is widely recognized, and courses in matrix theory are increasingly a standard part of the undergraduate curriculum.This outstanding text offers an unusual introduction to matrix theory at the undergraduate level. Unlike most texts dealing with the topic, which tend to remain on an abstract level, Dr. Eves' book employs a concrete elementary approach, avoiding abstraction until the final chapter. This practical method renders the text especially accessible to students of physics, engineeri

  1. Pesticide-Exposure Matrix (United States)

    The "Pesticide-exposure Matrix" was developed to help epidemiologists and other researchers identify the active ingredients to which people were likely exposed when their homes and gardens were treated for pests in past years.

  2. Tendon functional extracellular matrix. (United States)

    Screen, Hazel R C; Berk, David E; Kadler, Karl E; Ramirez, Francesco; Young, Marian F


    This article is one of a series, summarizing views expressed at the Orthopaedic Research Society New Frontiers in Tendon Research Conference. This particular article reviews the three workshops held under the "Functional Extracellular Matrix" stream. The workshops focused on the roles of the tendon extracellular matrix, such as performing the mechanical functions of tendon, creating the local cell environment, and providing cellular cues. Tendon is a complex network of matrix and cells, and its biological functions are influenced by widely varying extrinsic and intrinsic factors such as age, nutrition, exercise levels, and biomechanics. Consequently, tendon adapts dynamically during development, aging, and injury. The workshop discussions identified research directions associated with understanding cell-matrix interactions to be of prime importance for developing novel strategies to target tendon healing or repair. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Matrix Big Brunch


    Bedford, J; Papageorgakis, C.; Rodriguez-Gomez, D.; Ward, J.


    Following the holographic description of linear dilaton null Cosmologies with a Big Bang in terms of Matrix String Theory put forward by Craps, Sethi and Verlinde, we propose an extended background describing a Universe including both Big Bang and Big Crunch singularities. This belongs to a class of exact string backgrounds and is perturbative in the string coupling far away from the singularities, both of which can be resolved using Matrix String Theory. We provide a simple theory capable of...

  4. The Matrix Organization Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gattiker, Urs E.; Ulhøi, John Parm


    This paper gives a short overview of matrix structure and technology management. It outlines some of the characteristics and also points out that many organizations may actualy be hybrids (i.e. mix several ways of organizing to allocate resorces effectively).......This paper gives a short overview of matrix structure and technology management. It outlines some of the characteristics and also points out that many organizations may actualy be hybrids (i.e. mix several ways of organizing to allocate resorces effectively)....

  5. Matrix comparison, Part 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Jesper Wiborg; Borlund, Pia


    The present two-part article introduces matrix comparison as a formal means for evaluation purposes in informetric studies such as cocitation analysis. In the first part, the motivation behind introducing matrix comparison to informetric studies, as well as two important issues influencing such c...... and Procrustes analysis can be used as statistical validation tools in informetric studies and thus help choosing suitable proximity measures....

  6. Hacking the Matrix. (United States)

    Czerwinski, Michael; Spence, Jason R


    Recently in Nature, Gjorevski et al. (2016) describe a fully defined synthetic hydrogel that mimics the extracellular matrix to support in vitro growth of intestinal stem cells and organoids. The hydrogel allows exquisite control over the chemical and physical in vitro niche and enables identification of regulatory properties of the matrix. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Matrix Information Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Bhatia, Rajendra


    This book is an outcome of the Indo-French Workshop on Matrix Information Geometries (MIG): Applications in Sensor and Cognitive Systems Engineering, which was held in Ecole Polytechnique and Thales Research and Technology Center, Palaiseau, France, in February 23-25, 2011. The workshop was generously funded by the Indo-French Centre for the Promotion of Advanced Research (IFCPAR).  During the event, 22 renowned invited french or indian speakers gave lectures on their areas of expertise within the field of matrix analysis or processing. From these talks, a total of 17 original contribution or state-of-the-art chapters have been assembled in this volume. All articles were thoroughly peer-reviewed and improved, according to the suggestions of the international referees. The 17 contributions presented  are organized in three parts: (1) State-of-the-art surveys & original matrix theory work, (2) Advanced matrix theory for radar processing, and (3) Matrix-based signal processing applications.  

  8. MATLAB matrix algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez López, César


    MATLAB is a high-level language and environment for numerical computation, visualization, and programming. Using MATLAB, you can analyze data, develop algorithms, and create models and applications. The language, tools, and built-in math functions enable you to explore multiple approaches and reach a solution faster than with spreadsheets or traditional programming languages, such as C/C++ or Java. MATLAB Matrix Algebra introduces you to the MATLAB language with practical hands-on instructions and results, allowing you to quickly achieve your goals. Starting with a look at symbolic and numeric variables, with an emphasis on vector and matrix variables, you will go on to examine functions and operations that support vectors and matrices as arguments, including those based on analytic parent functions. Computational methods for finding eigenvalues and eigenvectors of matrices are detailed, leading to various matrix decompositions. Applications such as change of bases, the classification of quadratic forms and ...

  9. Dynamic Matrix Rank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg; Frandsen, Peter Frands


    We consider maintaining information about the rank of a matrix under changes of the entries. For n×n matrices, we show an upper bound of O(n1.575) arithmetic operations and a lower bound of Ω(n) arithmetic operations per element change. The upper bound is valid when changing up to O(n0.575) entries...... in a single column of the matrix. We also give an algorithm that maintains the rank using O(n2) arithmetic operations per rank one update. These bounds appear to be the first nontrivial bounds for the problem. The upper bounds are valid for arbitrary fields, whereas the lower bound is valid for algebraically...... closed fields. The upper bound for element updates uses fast rectangular matrix multiplication, and the lower bound involves further development of an earlier technique for proving lower bounds for dynamic computation of rational functions....

  10. Matrix interdiction problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Feng [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kasiviswanathan, Shiva [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    In the matrix interdiction problem, a real-valued matrix and an integer k is given. The objective is to remove k columns such that the sum over all rows of the maximum entry in each row is minimized. This combinatorial problem is closely related to bipartite network interdiction problem which can be applied to prioritize the border checkpoints in order to minimize the probability that an adversary can successfully cross the border. After introducing the matrix interdiction problem, we will prove the problem is NP-hard, and even NP-hard to approximate with an additive n{gamma} factor for a fixed constant {gamma}. We also present an algorithm for this problem that achieves a factor of (n-k) mUltiplicative approximation ratio.

  11. Matrixed business support comparison study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsons, Josh D.


    The Matrixed Business Support Comparison Study reviewed the current matrixed Chief Financial Officer (CFO) division staff models at Sandia National Laboratories. There were two primary drivers of this analysis: (1) the increasing number of financial staff matrixed to mission customers and (2) the desire to further understand the matrix process and the opportunities and challenges it creates.

  12. Elementary matrix algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Hohn, Franz E


    This complete and coherent exposition, complemented by numerous illustrative examples, offers readers a text that can teach by itself. Fully rigorous in its treatment, it offers a mathematically sound sequencing of topics. The work starts with the most basic laws of matrix algebra and progresses to the sweep-out process for obtaining the complete solution of any given system of linear equations - homogeneous or nonhomogeneous - and the role of matrix algebra in the presentation of useful geometric ideas, techniques, and terminology.Other subjects include the complete treatment of the structur

  13. Complex matrix model duality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, T.W.


    The same complex matrix model calculates both tachyon scattering for the c=1 non-critical string at the self-dual radius and certain correlation functions of half-BPS operators in N=4 super- Yang-Mills. It is dual to another complex matrix model where the couplings of the first model are encoded in the Kontsevich-like variables of the second. The duality between the theories is mirrored by the duality of their Feynman diagrams. Analogously to the Hermitian Kontsevich- Penner model, the correlation functions of the second model can be written as sums over discrete points in subspaces of the moduli space of punctured Riemann surfaces. (orig.)

  14. Matrix relation algebras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    el Bachraoui, M.; van de Vel, M.L.J.


    Square matrices over a relation algebra are relation algebras in a natural way. We show that for fixed n, these algebras can be characterized as reducts of some richer kind of algebra. Hence for fixed n, the class of n × n matrix relation algebras has a first-order characterization. As a

  15. Kernelized Bayesian Matrix Factorization. (United States)

    Gönen, Mehmet; Kaski, Samuel


    We extend kernelized matrix factorization with a full-Bayesian treatment and with an ability to work with multiple side information sources expressed as different kernels. Kernels have been introduced to integrate side information about the rows and columns, which is necessary for making out-of-matrix predictions. We discuss specifically binary output matrices but extensions to realvalued matrices are straightforward. We extend the state of the art in two key aspects: (i) A full-conjugate probabilistic formulation of the kernelized matrix factorization enables an efficient variational approximation, whereas full-Bayesian treatments are not computationally feasible in the earlier approaches. (ii) Multiple side information sources are included, treated as different kernels in multiple kernel learning which additionally reveals which side sources are informative. We then show that the framework can also be used for supervised and semi-supervised multilabel classification and multi-output regression, by considering samples and outputs as the domains where matrix factorization operates. Our method outperforms alternatives in predicting drug-protein interactions on two data sets. On multilabel classification, our algorithm obtains the lowest Hamming losses on 10 out of 14 data sets compared to five state-of-the-art multilabel classification algorithms. We finally show that the proposed approach outperforms alternatives in multi-output regression experiments on a yeast cell cycle data set.

  16. A random matrix analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    chaos to galaxies. We demonstrate the applicability of random matrix theory for networks by pro- viding a new dimension to complex systems research. We show that in spite of huge differences ... as mentioned earlier, different types of networks can be constructed based on the nature of connections. For example,.

  17. Constructing the matrix (United States)

    Elliott, John


    As part of our 'toolkit' for analysing an extraterrestrial signal, the facility for calculating structural affinity to known phenomena must be part of our core capabilities. Without such a resource, we risk compromising our potential for detection and decipherment or at least causing significant delay in the process. To create such a repository for assessing structural affinity, all known systems (language parameters) need to be structurally analysed to 'place' their 'system' within a relational communication matrix. This will need to include all known variants of language structure, whether 'living' (in current use) or ancient; this must also include endeavours to incorporate yet undeciphered scripts and non-human communication, to provide as complete a picture as possible. In creating such a relational matrix, post-detection decipherment will be assisted by a structural 'map' that will have the potential for 'placing' an alien communication with its nearest known 'neighbour', to assist subsequent categorisation of basic parameters as a precursor to decipherment. 'Universal' attributes and behavioural characteristics of known communication structure will form a range of templates (Elliott, 2001 [1] and Elliott et al., 2002 [2]), to support and optimise our attempt at categorising and deciphering the content of an extraterrestrial signal. Detection of the hierarchical layers, which comprise intelligent, complex communication, will then form a matrix of calculations that will ultimately score affinity through a relational matrix of structural comparison. In this paper we develop the rationales and demonstrate functionality with initial test results.

  18. Matrix groups for undergraduates

    CERN Document Server

    Tapp, Kristopher


    Matrix groups touch an enormous spectrum of the mathematical arena. This textbook brings them into the undergraduate curriculum. It makes an excellent one-semester course for students familiar with linear and abstract algebra and prepares them for a graduate course on Lie groups. Matrix Groups for Undergraduates is concrete and example-driven, with geometric motivation and rigorous proofs. The story begins and ends with the rotations of a globe. In between, the author combines rigor and intuition to describe the basic objects of Lie theory: Lie algebras, matrix exponentiation, Lie brackets, maximal tori, homogeneous spaces, and roots. This second edition includes two new chapters that allow for an easier transition to the general theory of Lie groups. From reviews of the First Edition: This book could be used as an excellent textbook for a one semester course at university and it will prepare students for a graduate course on Lie groups, Lie algebras, etc. … The book combines an intuitive style of writing w...

  19. Extracellular matrix structure. (United States)

    Theocharis, Achilleas D; Skandalis, Spyros S; Gialeli, Chrysostomi; Karamanos, Nikos K


    Extracellular matrix (ECM) is a non-cellular three-dimensional macromolecular network composed of collagens, proteoglycans/glycosaminoglycans, elastin, fibronectin, laminins, and several other glycoproteins. Matrix components bind each other as well as cell adhesion receptors forming a complex network into which cells reside in all tissues and organs. Cell surface receptors transduce signals into cells from ECM, which regulate diverse cellular functions, such as survival, growth, migration, and differentiation, and are vital for maintaining normal homeostasis. ECM is a highly dynamic structural network that continuously undergoes remodeling mediated by several matrix-degrading enzymes during normal and pathological conditions. Deregulation of ECM composition and structure is associated with the development and progression of several pathologic conditions. This article emphasizes in the complex ECM structure as to provide a better understanding of its dynamic structural and functional multipotency. Where relevant, the implication of the various families of ECM macromolecules in health and disease is also presented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A note on matrix differentiation


    Kowal, Pawel


    This paper presents a set of rules for matrix differentiation with respect to a vector of parameters, using the flattered representation of derivatives, i.e. in form of a matrix. We also introduce a new set of Kronecker tensor products of matrices. Finally we consider a problem of differentiating matrix determinant, trace and inverse.

  1. The cellulose resource matrix. (United States)

    Keijsers, Edwin R P; Yılmaz, Gülden; van Dam, Jan E G


    The emerging biobased economy is causing shifts from mineral fossil oil based resources towards renewable resources. Because of market mechanisms, current and new industries utilising renewable commodities, will attempt to secure their supply of resources. Cellulose is among these commodities, where large scale competition can be expected and already is observed for the traditional industries such as the paper industry. Cellulose and lignocellulosic raw materials (like wood and non-wood fibre crops) are being utilised in many industrial sectors. Due to the initiated transition towards biobased economy, these raw materials are intensively investigated also for new applications such as 2nd generation biofuels and 'green' chemicals and materials production (Clark, 2007; Lange, 2007; Petrus & Noordermeer, 2006; Ragauskas et al., 2006; Regalbuto, 2009). As lignocellulosic raw materials are available in variable quantities and qualities, unnecessary competition can be avoided via the choice of suitable raw materials for a target application. For example, utilisation of cellulose as carbohydrate source for ethanol production (Kabir Kazi et al., 2010) avoids the discussed competition with easier digestible carbohydrates (sugars, starch) deprived from the food supply chain. Also for cellulose use as a biopolymer several different competing markets can be distinguished. It is clear that these applications and markets will be influenced by large volume shifts. The world will have to reckon with the increase of competition and feedstock shortage (land use/biodiversity) (van Dam, de Klerk-Engels, Struik, & Rabbinge, 2005). It is of interest - in the context of sustainable development of the bioeconomy - to categorize the already available and emerging lignocellulosic resources in a matrix structure. When composing such "cellulose resource matrix" attention should be given to the quality aspects as well as to the available quantities and practical possibilities of processing the

  2. Random matrix theory

    CERN Document Server

    Deift, Percy


    This book features a unified derivation of the mathematical theory of the three classical types of invariant random matrix ensembles-orthogonal, unitary, and symplectic. The authors follow the approach of Tracy and Widom, but the exposition here contains a substantial amount of additional material, in particular, facts from functional analysis and the theory of Pfaffians. The main result in the book is a proof of universality for orthogonal and symplectic ensembles corresponding to generalized Gaussian type weights following the authors' prior work. New, quantitative error estimates are derive

  3. Matrix Encryption Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhakim Chillali


    Full Text Available In classical cryptography, the Hill cipher is a polygraphic substitution cipher based on linear algebra. In this work, we proposed a new problem applicable to the public key cryptography, based on the Matrices, called “Matrix discrete logarithm problem”, it uses certain elements formed by matrices whose coefficients are elements in a finite field. We have constructed an abelian group and, for the cryptographic part in this unreliable group, we then perform the computation corresponding to the algebraic equations, Returning the encrypted result to a receiver. Upon receipt of the result, the receiver can retrieve the sender’s clear message by performing the inverse calculation.

  4. Matrix string partition function

    CERN Document Server

    Kostov, Ivan K; Kostov, Ivan K.; Vanhove, Pierre


    We evaluate quasiclassically the Ramond partition function of Euclidean D=10 U(N) super Yang-Mills theory reduced to a two-dimensional torus. The result can be interpreted in terms of free strings wrapping the space-time torus, as expected from the point of view of Matrix string theory. We demonstrate that, when extrapolated to the ultraviolet limit (small area of the torus), the quasiclassical expressions reproduce exactly the recently obtained expression for the partition of the completely reduced SYM theory, including the overall numerical factor. This is an evidence that our quasiclassical calculation might be exact.

  5. Matrix vector analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Eisenman, Richard L


    This outstanding text and reference applies matrix ideas to vector methods, using physical ideas to illustrate and motivate mathematical concepts but employing a mathematical continuity of development rather than a physical approach. The author, who taught at the U.S. Air Force Academy, dispenses with the artificial barrier between vectors and matrices--and more generally, between pure and applied mathematics.Motivated examples introduce each idea, with interpretations of physical, algebraic, and geometric contexts, in addition to generalizations to theorems that reflect the essential structur

  6. Matrix algebra for linear models

    CERN Document Server

    Gruber, Marvin H J


    Matrix methods have evolved from a tool for expressing statistical problems to an indispensable part of the development, understanding, and use of various types of complex statistical analyses. This evolution has made matrix methods a vital part of statistical education. Traditionally, matrix methods are taught in courses on everything from regression analysis to stochastic processes, thus creating a fractured view of the topic. Matrix Algebra for Linear Models offers readers a unique, unified view of matrix analysis theory (where and when necessary), methods, and their applications. Written f

  7. Differences in the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Moraxella bovis, M. bovoculi and M. ovis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grazieli Maboni; Leticia T Gressler; Julia P Espindola; Marcelo Schwab; Caiane Tasca; Luciana Potter; Agueda Castagna Devargas


    .... Thirty-two strains of Moraxella spp. isolated from cattle and sheep with infectious keratoconjunctivitis were tested via broth microdilution method to determine their susceptibility to ampicillin, cefoperazone, ceftiofur, cloxacillin...

  8. Ceramic matrix and resin matrix composites: A comparison (United States)

    Hurwitz, Frances I.


    The underlying theory of continuous fiber reinforcement of ceramic matrix and resin matrix composites, their fabrication, microstructure, physical and mechanical properties are contrasted. The growing use of organometallic polymers as precursors to ceramic matrices is discussed as a means of providing low temperature processing capability without the fiber degradation encountered with more conventional ceramic processing techniques. Examples of ceramic matrix composites derived from particulate-filled, high char yield polymers and silsesquioxane precursors are provided.

  9. Ceramic matrix and resin matrix composites - A comparison (United States)

    Hurwitz, Frances I.


    The underlying theory of continuous fiber reinforcement of ceramic matrix and resin matrix composites, their fabrication, microstructure, physical and mechanical properties are contrasted. The growing use of organometallic polymers as precursors to ceramic matrices is discussed as a means of providing low temperature processing capability without the fiber degradation encountered with more conventional ceramic processing techniques. Examples of ceramic matrix composites derived from particulate-filled, high char yield polymers and silsesquioxane precursors are provided.

  10. Google matrix of Twitter (United States)

    Frahm, K. M.; Shepelyansky, D. L.


    We construct the Google matrix of the entire Twitter network, dated by July 2009, and analyze its spectrum and eigenstate properties including the PageRank and CheiRank vectors and 2DRanking of all nodes. Our studies show much stronger inter-connectivity between top PageRank nodes for the Twitter network compared to the networks of Wikipedia and British Universities studied previously. Our analysis allows to locate the top Twitter users which control the information flow on the network. We argue that this small fraction of the whole number of users, which can be viewed as the social network elite, plays the dominant role in the process of opinion formation on the network.

  11. Matrix membranes and integrability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachos, C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Fairlie, D. [University of Durham (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences; Curtright, T. [University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL (United States). Dept. of Physics


    This is a pedagogical digest of results reported in Curtright, Fairlie, {ampersand} Zachos 1997, and an explicit implementation of Euler`s construction for the solution of the Poisson Bracket dual Nahm equation. But it does not cover 9 and 10-dimensional systems, and subsequent progress on them Fairlie 1997. Cubic interactions are considered in 3 and 7 space dimensions, respectively, for bosonic membranes in Poisson Bracket form. Their symmetries and vacuum configurations are explored. Their associated first order equations are transformed to Nahm`s equations, and are hence seen to be integrable, for the 3-dimensional case, by virtue of the explicit Lax pair provided. Most constructions introduced also apply to matrix commutator or Moyal Bracket analogs.

  12. Light cone matrix product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hastings, Matthew B [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    We show how to combine the light-cone and matrix product algorithms to simulate quantum systems far from equilibrium for long times. For the case of the XXZ spin chain at {Delta} = 0.5, we simulate to a time of {approx} 22.5. While part of the long simulation time is due to the use of the light-cone method, we also describe a modification of the infinite time-evolving bond decimation algorithm with improved numerical stability, and we describe how to incorporate symmetry into this algorithm. While statistical sampling error means that we are not yet able to make a definite statement, the behavior of the simulation at long times indicates the appearance of either 'revivals' in the order parameter as predicted by Hastings and Levitov (e-print arXiv:0806.4283) or of a distinct shoulder in the decay of the order parameter.

  13. Homolumo Gap and Matrix Model

    CERN Document Server

    Andric, I; Jurman, D; Nielsen, H B


    We discuss a dynamical matrix model by which probability distribution is associated with Gaussian ensembles from random matrix theory. We interpret the matrix M as a Hamiltonian representing interaction of a bosonic system with a single fermion. We show that a system of second-quantized fermions influences the ground state of the whole system by producing a gap between the highest occupied eigenvalue and the lowest unoccupied eigenvalue.

  14. Matrix Depot: an extensible test matrix collection for Julia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijian Zhang


    Full Text Available Matrix Depot is a Julia software package that provides easy access to a large and diverse collection of test matrices. Its novelty is threefold. First, it is extensible by the user, and so can be adapted to include the user’s own test problems. In doing so, it facilitates experimentation and makes it easier to carry out reproducible research. Second, it amalgamates in a single framework two different types of existing matrix collections, comprising parametrized test matrices (including Hansen’s set of regularization test problems and Higham’s Test Matrix Toolbox and real-life sparse matrix data (giving access to the University of Florida sparse matrix collection. Third, it fully exploits the Julia language. It uses multiple dispatch to help provide a simple interface and, in particular, to allow matrices to be generated in any of the numeric data types supported by the language.

  15. Ceramic matrix composite article and process of fabricating a ceramic matrix composite article (United States)

    Cairo, Ronald Robert; DiMascio, Paul Stephen; Parolini, Jason Robert


    A ceramic matrix composite article and a process of fabricating a ceramic matrix composite are disclosed. The ceramic matrix composite article includes a matrix distribution pattern formed by a manifold and ceramic matrix composite plies laid up on the matrix distribution pattern, includes the manifold, or a combination thereof. The manifold includes one or more matrix distribution channels operably connected to a delivery interface, the delivery interface configured for providing matrix material to one or more of the ceramic matrix composite plies. The process includes providing the manifold, forming the matrix distribution pattern by transporting the matrix material through the manifold, and contacting the ceramic matrix composite plies with the matrix material.

  16. An Application of Matrix Multiplication

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    linguistics, graph theory applications to biological networks, social networks, electrical engineering. We are well aware of the ever increasing impor- tance of graphical and matrix representations in applications to several day-to-day real life prob- lems. The interconnectedness of the notion of graph, matrix, probability, limits, ...

  17. Matrix Methods to Analytic Geometry. (United States)

    Bandy, C.


    The use of basis matrix methods to rotate axes is detailed. It is felt that persons who have need to rotate axes often will find that the matrix method saves considerable work. One drawback is that most students first learning to rotate axes will not yet have studied linear algebra. (MP)

  18. How to Study a Matrix (United States)

    Jairam, Dharmananda; Kiewra, Kenneth A.; Kauffman, Douglas F.; Zhao, Ruomeng


    This study investigated how best to study a matrix. Fifty-three participants studied a matrix topically (1 column at a time), categorically (1 row at a time), or in a unified way (all at once). Results revealed that categorical and unified study produced higher: (a) performance on relationship and fact tests, (b) study material satisfaction, and…

  19. Developments in Random Matrix Theory


    Snaith, N. C.; Forrester, P. J.; Verbaarschot, J. J. M.


    In this preface to the Journal of Physics A, Special Edition on Random Matrix Theory, we give a review of the main historical developments of random matrix theory. A short summary of the papers that appear in this special edition is also given.

  20. QCD and random matrix theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, A.D. [Niels Bohr Inst., Copenhagen (Denmark)


    Chiral random matrix theory has recently been shown to provide a tool useful for both modeling chiral symmetry restoration in QCD and for providing analytic descriptions of the microscopic spectral content of lattice gauge simulations. The basic ideas of chiral random matrix theory and some recent results are discussed. (orig.) 24 refs.

  1. Quantum mechanics in matrix form

    CERN Document Server

    Ludyk, Günter


    This book gives an introduction to quantum mechanics with the matrix method. Heisenberg's matrix mechanics is described in detail. The fundamental equations are derived by algebraic methods using matrix calculus. Only a brief description of Schrödinger's wave mechanics is given (in most books exclusively treated), to show their equivalence to Heisenberg's matrix  method. In the first part the historical development of Quantum theory by Planck, Bohr and Sommerfeld is sketched, followed by the ideas and methods of Heisenberg, Born and Jordan. Then Pauli's spin and exclusion principles are treated. Pauli's exclusion principle leads to the structure of atoms. Finally, Dirac´s relativistic quantum mechanics is shortly presented. Matrices and matrix equations are today easy to handle when implementing numerical algorithms using standard software as MAPLE and Mathematica.

  2. Machining of Metal Matrix Composites

    CERN Document Server


    Machining of Metal Matrix Composites provides the fundamentals and recent advances in the study of machining of metal matrix composites (MMCs). Each chapter is written by an international expert in this important field of research. Machining of Metal Matrix Composites gives the reader information on machining of MMCs with a special emphasis on aluminium matrix composites. Chapter 1 provides the mechanics and modelling of chip formation for traditional machining processes. Chapter 2 is dedicated to surface integrity when machining MMCs. Chapter 3 describes the machinability aspects of MMCs. Chapter 4 contains information on traditional machining processes and Chapter 5 is dedicated to the grinding of MMCs. Chapter 6 describes the dry cutting of MMCs with SiC particulate reinforcement. Finally, Chapter 7 is dedicated to computational methods and optimization in the machining of MMCs. Machining of Metal Matrix Composites can serve as a useful reference for academics, manufacturing and materials researchers, manu...

  3. Assembly of Fibronectin Extracellular Matrix (United States)

    Singh, Purva; Carraher, Cara; Schwarzbauer, Jean E.


    In the process of matrix assembly, multivalent extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins are induced to self-associate and to interact with other ECM proteins to form fibrillar networks. Matrix assembly is usually initiated by ECM glycoproteins binding to cell surface receptors, such as fibronectin (FN) dimers binding to α5β1 integrin. Receptor binding stimulates FN self-association mediated by the N-terminal assembly domain and organizes the actin cytoskeleton to promote cell contractility. FN conformational changes expose additional binding sites that participate in fibril formation and in conversion of fibrils into a stabilized, insoluble form. Once assembled, the FN matrix impacts tissue organization by contributing to the assembly of other ECM proteins. Here, we describe the major steps, molecular interactions, and cellular mechanisms involved in assembling FN dimers into fibrillar matrix while highlighting important issues and major questions that require further investigation. PMID:20690820

  4. New pole placement algorithm - Polynomial matrix approach (United States)

    Shafai, B.; Keel, L. H.


    A simple and direct pole-placement algorithm is introduced for dynamical systems having a block companion matrix A. The algorithm utilizes well-established properties of matrix polynomials. Pole placement is achieved by appropriately assigning coefficient matrices of the corresponding matrix polynomial. This involves only matrix additions and multiplications without requiring matrix inversion. A numerical example is given for the purpose of illustration.

  5. [Progress on matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors]. (United States)

    Lingling, Jia; Qianbing, Wan


    Continuing advances in dentin bonding technology and adhesives revolutionized bonding of resin-based composite restorations. However, hybrid layers created by contemporary dentin adhesives present imperfect durability, and degradation of collagen matrix by endogenous enzymes is a significant factor causing destruction of hybrid layers. Bond durability can be improved by using enzyme inhibitors to prevent collagen degradation and to preserve integrity of collagen matrix. This review summarizes progress on matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors (including chlorhexidine, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, quaternary ammonium salt, tetracycline and its derivatives, hydroxamic acid inhibitors, bisphosphonate derivative, and cross-linking agents) and suggests prospects for these compounds.

  6. Hadronic matrix elements for Kaons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bijnens, Johan [Department of Theoretical Physics 2, Lund University, Soelvegatan 14A, S-22362 Lund (Sweden); Gamiz, Elvira [CAFPE and Departamento de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos, Universidad de Granada Campus de Fuente Nueva, E-18002 Granada (Spain); Prades, Joaquim [CAFPE and Departamento de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos, Universidad de Granada Campus de Fuente Nueva, E-18002 Granada (Spain)


    We review some work done by us calculating matrix elements for Kaons. Emphasis is put on the matrix elements which are relevant to predict non-leptonic Kaon CP violating observables. In particular, we recall our results for the B{sub K} parameter which governs the K{sup 0}-K{sup 0} mixing and update our results for {epsilon}'inK including estimated all-higher-order CHPT corrections and the new results from recent analytical calculations of the {delta}itI = 3/2 component. Some comments on future prospects on calculating matrix elements for Kaons are also added.

  7. GoM Diet Matrix (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set was taken from CRD 08-18 at the NEFSC. Specifically, the Gulf of Maine diet matrix was developed for the EMAX exercise described in that center...

  8. Newtonian M(atrix) cosmology (United States)

    Álvarez, Enrique; Meessen, Patrick


    A Newtonian matrix cosmology, corresponding to the Banks, Fischler, Shenker and Susskind model of eleven-dimensional M-theory in the infinite momentum frame as a supersymmetric (0+1) M(atrix) model is constructed. Interesting new results are obtained, such as the existence of (much sought for in the past) static solutions. The possible interpretation of the off-diagonal entries as a background geometry is also briefly discussed.

  9. Superstatistics in Random Matrix Theory


    Abul-Magd, A. Y.


    Random matrix theory (RMT) provides a successful model for quantum systems, whose classical counterpart has a chaotic dynamics. It is based on two assumptions: (1) matrix-element independence, and (2) base invariance. Last decade witnessed several attempts to extend RMT to describe quantum systems with mixed regular-chaotic dynamics. Most of the proposed generalizations keep the first assumption and violate the second. Recently, several authors presented other versions of the theory that keep...

  10. Matrix analysis of electrical machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Hancock, N N


    Matrix Analysis of Electrical Machinery, Second Edition is a 14-chapter edition that covers the systematic analysis of electrical machinery performance. This edition discusses the principles of various mathematical operations and their application to electrical machinery performance calculations. The introductory chapters deal with the matrix representation of algebraic equations and their application to static electrical networks. The following chapters describe the fundamentals of different transformers and rotating machines and present torque analysis in terms of the currents based on the p

  11. Matrix factorizations and elliptic fibrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun Omer


    Full Text Available I use matrix factorizations to describe branes at simple singularities of elliptic fibrations. Each node of the corresponding Dynkin diagrams of the ADE-type singularities is associated with one indecomposable matrix factorization which can be deformed into one or more factorizations of lower rank. Branes with internal fluxes arise naturally as bound states of the indecomposable factorizations. Describing branes in such a way avoids the need to resolve singularities. This paper looks at gauge group breaking from E8 fibers down to SU(5 fibers due to the relevance of such fibrations for local F-theory GUT models. A purpose of this paper is to understand how the deformations of the singularity are understood in terms of its matrix factorizations. By systematically factorizing the elliptic fiber equation, this paper discusses geometries which are relevant for building semi-realistic local models. In the process it becomes evident that breaking patterns which are identical at the level of the Kodaira type of the fibers can be inequivalent at the level of matrix factorizations. Therefore the matrix factorization picture supplements information which the conventional less detailed descriptions lack.

  12. Lectures on matrix field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Ydri, Badis


    These lecture notes provide a systematic introduction to matrix models of quantum field theories with non-commutative and fuzzy geometries. The book initially focuses on the matrix formulation of non-commutative and fuzzy spaces, followed by a description of the non-perturbative treatment of the corresponding field theories. As an example, the phase structure of non-commutative phi-four theory is treated in great detail, with a separate chapter on the multitrace approach. The last chapter offers a general introduction to non-commutative gauge theories, while two appendices round out the text. Primarily written as a self-study guide for postgraduate students – with the aim of pedagogically introducing them to key analytical and numerical tools, as well as useful physical models in applications – these lecture notes will also benefit experienced researchers by providing a reference guide to the fundamentals of non-commutative field theory with an emphasis on matrix models and fuzzy geometries.

  13. Matrix formalism of synchrobetatron coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobiao Huang


    Full Text Available In this paper we present a complete linear synchrobetatron coupling formalism by studying the transfer matrix which describes linear horizontal and longitudinal motions. With the technique established in the linear horizontal-vertical coupling study [D. Sagan and D. Rubin, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 2, 074001 (1999PRABFM1098-440210.1103/PhysRevSTAB.2.074001], we found a transformation to block diagonalize the transfer matrix and decouple the betatron motion and the synchrotron motion. By separating the usual dispersion term from the horizontal coordinate first, we were able to obtain analytic expressions of the transformation under reasonable approximations. We also obtained the perturbations to the betatron tune and the Courant-Snyder functions. The closed-orbit changes due to finite energy gains at rf cavities and radiation energy losses were studied by the 5×5 extended transfer matrix with the fifth column describing kicks in the 4-dimension phase space.

  14. Supersymmetry in random matrix theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kieburg, Mario


    I study the applications of supersymmetry in random matrix theory. I generalize the supersymmetry method and develop three new approaches to calculate eigenvalue correlation functions. These correlation functions are averages over ratios of characteristic polynomials. In the first part of this thesis, I derive a relation between integrals over anti-commuting variables (Grassmann variables) and differential operators with respect to commuting variables. With this relation I rederive Cauchy- like integral theorems. As a new application I trace the supermatrix Bessel function back to a product of two ordinary matrix Bessel functions. In the second part, I apply the generalized Hubbard-Stratonovich transformation to arbitrary rotation invariant ensembles of real symmetric and Hermitian self-dual matrices. This extends the approach for unitarily rotation invariant matrix ensembles. For the k-point correlation functions I derive supersymmetric integral expressions in a unifying way. I prove the equivalence between the generalized Hubbard-Stratonovich transformation and the superbosonization formula. Moreover, I develop an alternative mapping from ordinary space to superspace. After comparing the results of this approach with the other two supersymmetry methods, I obtain explicit functional expressions for the probability densities in superspace. If the probability density of the matrix ensemble factorizes, then the generating functions exhibit determinantal and Pfaffian structures. For some matrix ensembles this was already shown with help of other approaches. I show that these structures appear by a purely algebraic manipulation. In this new approach I use structures naturally appearing in superspace. I derive determinantal and Pfaffian structures for three types of integrals without actually mapping onto superspace. These three types of integrals are quite general and, thus, they are applicable to a broad class of matrix ensembles. (orig.)

  15. Symmetries and Interactions in Matrix String Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hacquebord, F.H.


    This PhD-thesis reviews matrix string theory and recent developments therein. The emphasis is put on symmetries, interactions and scattering processes in the matrix model. We start with an introduction to matrix string theory and a review of the orbifold model that flows out of matrix string theory

  16. Properties of the matrix A-XY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steerneman, A.G.M.; van Perlo -ten Kleij, Frederieke


    The main topic of this paper is the matrix V = A - XY*, where A is a nonsingular complex k x k matrix and X and Y are k x p complex matrices of full column rank. Because properties of the matrix V can be derived from those of the matrix Q = I - XY*, we will consider in particular the case where A =

  17. Polychoric/Tetrachoric Matrix or Pearson Matrix? A methodological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominguez Lara, Sergio Alexis


    Full Text Available The use of product-moment correlation of Pearson is common in most studies in factor analysis in psychology, but it is known that this statistic is only applicable when the variables related are in interval scale and normally distributed, and when are used in ordinal data may to produce a distorted correlation matrix . Thus is a suitable option using polychoric/tetrachoric matrices in item-level factor analysis when the items are in level measurement nominal or ordinal. The aim of this study was to show the differences in the KMO, Bartlett`s Test and Determinant of the Matrix, percentage of variance explained and factor loadings in depression trait scale of Depression Inventory Trait - State and the Neuroticism dimension of the short form of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire -Revised, regarding the use of matrices polychoric/tetrachoric matrices and Pearson. These instruments was analyzed with different extraction methods (Maximum Likelihood, Minimum Rank Factor Analysis, Unweighted Least Squares and Principal Components, keeping constant the rotation method Promin were analyzed. Were observed differences regarding sample adequacy measures, as well as with respect to the explained variance and the factor loadings, for solutions having as polychoric/tetrachoric matrix. So it can be concluded that the polychoric / tetrachoric matrix give better results than Pearson matrices when it comes to item-level factor analysis using different methods.

  18. Towards Google matrix of brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepelyansky, D.L., E-mail: [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique (IRSAMC), Universite de Toulouse, UPS, F-31062 Toulouse (France); LPT - IRSAMC, CNRS, F-31062 Toulouse (France); Zhirov, O.V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)


    We apply the approach of the Google matrix, used in computer science and World Wide Web, to description of properties of neuronal networks. The Google matrix G is constructed on the basis of neuronal network of a brain model discussed in PNAS 105 (2008) 3593. We show that the spectrum of eigenvalues of G has a gapless structure with long living relaxation modes. The PageRank of the network becomes delocalized for certain values of the Google damping factor {alpha}. The properties of other eigenstates are also analyzed. We discuss further parallels and similarities between the World Wide Web and neuronal networks.

  19. Random matrix theory and multivariate statistics


    Diaz-Garcia, Jose A.; Jáimez, Ramon Gutiérrez


    Some tools and ideas are interchanged between random matrix theory and multivariate statistics. In the context of the random matrix theory, classes of spherical and generalised Wishart random matrix ensemble, containing as particular cases the classical random matrix ensembles, are proposed. Some properties of these classes of ensemble are analysed. In addition, the random matrix ensemble approach is extended and a unified theory proposed for the study of distributions for real normed divisio...

  20. Matrix theory selected topics and useful results

    CERN Document Server

    Mehta, Madan Lal


    Matrices and operations on matrices ; determinants ; elementary operations on matrices (continued) ; eigenvalues and eigenvectors, diagonalization of normal matrices ; functions of a matrix ; positive definiteness, various polar forms of a matrix ; special matrices ; matrices with quaternion elements ; inequalities ; generalised inverse of a matrix ; domain of values of a matrix, location and dispersion of eigenvalues ; symmetric functions ; integration over matrix variables ; permanents of doubly stochastic matrices ; infinite matrices ; Alexander matrices, knot polynomials, torsion numbers.

  1. Regularization in Matrix Relevance Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, Petra; Bunte, Kerstin; Stiekema, Han; Hammer, Barbara; Villmann, Thomas; Biehl, Michael

    A In this paper, we present a regularization technique to extend recently proposed matrix learning schemes in learning vector quantization (LVQ). These learning algorithms extend the concept of adaptive distance measures in LVQ to the use of relevance matrices. In general, metric learning can

  2. Parallel Sparse Matrix - Vector Product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexandersen, Joe; Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov; Dammann, Bernd

    This technical report contains a case study of a sparse matrix-vector product routine, implemented for parallel execution on a compute cluster with both pure MPI and hybrid MPI-OpenMP solutions. C++ classes for sparse data types were developed and the report shows how these class can be used...

  3. Supersymmetry in Random Matrix Theory


    Guhr, Thomas


    Supersymmetry is nowadays indispensable for many problems in Random Matrix Theory. It is presented here with an emphasis on conceptual and structural issues. An introduction to supermathematics is given. The Hubbard-Stratonovich transformation as well as its generalization and superbosonization are explained. The supersymmetric non-linear sigma model, Brownian motion in superspace and the color-flavor transformation are discussed.

  4. The COMPADRE Plant Matrix Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    COMPADRE contains demographic information on hundreds of plant species. The data in COMPADRE are in the form of matrix population models and our goal is to make these publicly available to facilitate their use for research and teaching purposes. COMPADRE is an open-access database. We only request...

  5. Open Membranes in Matrix Theory


    Li, Miao


    We discuss how to construct open membranes in the recently proposed matrix model of M theory. In order to sustain an open membrane, two boundary terms are needed in the construction. These boundary terms are available in the system of the longitudinal five-branes and D0-branes.

  6. Hyper-systolic matrix multiplication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lippert, Th.; Petkov, N.; Palazzari, P.; Schilling, K.

    A novel parallel algorithm for matrix multiplication is presented. It is based on a 1-D hyper-systolic processor abstraction. The procedure can be implemented on all types of parallel systems. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B,V. All rights reserved.

  7. Bilateral matrix-exponential distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Mogens; Esparza, Luz Judith R; Nielsen, Bo Friis


    In this article we define the classes of bilateral and multivariate bilateral matrix-exponential distributions. These distributions have support on the entire real space and have rational moment-generating functions. These distributions extend the class of bilateral phasetype distributions of [1]...

  8. Extracellular matrix and wound healing. (United States)

    Maquart, F X; Monboisse, J C


    Extracellular matrix has been known for a long time as an architectural support for the tissues. Many recent data, however, have shown that extracellular matrix macromolecules (collagens, elastin, glycosaminoglycans, proteoglycans and connective tissue glycoproteins) are able to regulate many important cell functions, such as proliferation, migration, protein synthesis or degradation, apoptosis, etc., making them able to play an important role in the wound repair process. Not only the intact macromolecules but some of their specific domains, that we called "Matrikines", are also able to regulate many cell activities. In this article, we will summarize main findings showing the effects of extracellular matrix macromolecules and matrikines on connective tissue and epithelial cells, particularly in skin, and their potential implication in the wound healing process. These examples show that extracellular matrix macromolecules or some of their specific domains may play a major role in wound healing. Better knowledge of these interactions may suggest new therapeutic targets in wound healing defects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Unravelling the nuclear matrix proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrethsen, Jakob; Knol, Jaco C; Jimenez, Connie R


    The nuclear matrix (NM) model posits the presence of a protein/RNA scaffold that spans the mammalian nucleus. The NM proteins are involved in basic nuclear function and are a promising source of protein biomarkers for cancer. Importantly, the NM proteome is operationally defined as the proteins...

  10. Matrix metalloproteinases in fish biology and matrix turnover. (United States)

    Pedersen, Mona E; Vuong, Tram T; Rønning, Sissel B; Kolset, Svein O


    Matrix metalloproteinases have important functions for tissue turnover in fish, with relevance both for the fish industry and molecular and cellular research on embryology, inflammation and tissue repair. These metalloproteinases have been studied in different fish types, subjected to both aquaculture and experimental conditions. This review highlights studies on these metalloproteinases in relation to both fish quality and health and further, the future importance of fish for basic research studies. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Matrix Factorization for Evolution Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Yu Huang


    Full Text Available We study a matrix factorization problem, that is, to find two factor matrices U and V such that R≈UT×V, where R is a matrix composed of the values of the objects O1,O2,…,On at consecutive time points T1,T2,…,Tt. We first present MAFED, a constrained optimization model for this problem, which straightforwardly performs factorization on R. Then based on the interplay of the data in U, V, and R, a probabilistic graphical model using the same optimization objects is constructed, in which structural dependencies of the data in these matrices are revealed. Finally, we present a fitting algorithm to solve the proposed MAFED model, which produces the desired factorization. Empirical studies on real-world datasets demonstrate that our approach outperforms the state-of-the-art comparison algorithms.

  12. The gravitational S-matrix

    CERN Document Server

    Giddings, Steven B


    We investigate the hypothesized existence of an S-matrix for gravity, and some of its expected general properties. We first discuss basic questions regarding existence of such a matrix, including those of infrared divergences and description of asymptotic states. Distinct scattering behavior occurs in the Born, eikonal, and strong gravity regimes, and we describe aspects of both the partial wave and momentum space amplitudes, and their analytic properties, from these regimes. Classically the strong gravity region would be dominated by formation of black holes, and we assume its unitary quantum dynamics is described by corresponding resonances. Masslessness limits some powerful methods and results that apply to massive theories, though a continuation path implying crossing symmetry plausibly still exists. Physical properties of gravity suggest nonpolynomial amplitudes, although crossing and causality constrain (with modest assumptions) this nonpolynomial behavior, particularly requiring a polynomial bound in c...

  13. Octonions in random matrix theory (United States)

    Forrester, Peter J.


    The octonions are one of the four normed division algebras, together with the real, complex and quaternion number systems. The latter three hold a primary place in random matrix theory, where in applications to quantum physics they are determined as the entries of ensembles of Hermitian random matrices by symmetry considerations. Only for N=2 is there an existing analytic theory of Hermitian random matrices with octonion entries. We use a Jordan algebra viewpoint to provide an analytic theory for N=3. We then proceed to consider the matrix structure X†X, when X has random octonion entries. Analytic results are obtained from N=2, but are observed to break down in the 3×3 case.

  14. Random matrix improved subspace clustering

    KAUST Repository

    Couillet, Romain


    This article introduces a spectral method for statistical subspace clustering. The method is built upon standard kernel spectral clustering techniques, however carefully tuned by theoretical understanding arising from random matrix findings. We show in particular that our method provides high clustering performance while standard kernel choices provably fail. An application to user grouping based on vector channel observations in the context of massive MIMO wireless communication networks is provided.

  15. Random matrix theory within superstatistics


    Abul-Magd, A. Y.


    We propose a generalization of the random matrix theory following the basic prescription of the recently suggested concept of superstatistics. Spectral characteristics of systems with mixed regular-chaotic dynamics are expressed as weighted averages of the corresponding quantities in the standard theory assuming that the mean level spacing itself is a stochastic variable. We illustrate the method by calculating the level density, the nearest-neighbor-spacing distributions and the two-level co...

  16. Staggered chiral random matrix theory


    Osborn, James C.


    We present a random matrix theory (RMT) for the staggered lattice QCD Dirac operator. The staggered RMT is equivalent to the zero-momentum limit of the staggered chiral Lagrangian and includes all taste breaking terms at their leading order. This is an extension of previous work which only included some of the taste breaking terms. We will also present some results for the taste breaking contributions to the partition function and the Dirac eigenvalues.

  17. Octonions in random matrix theory


    Forrester, Peter J.


    The octonions are one of the four normed division algebras, together with the real, complex and quaternion number systems. The latter three hold a primary place in random matrix theory, where in applications to quantum physics they are determined as the entries of ensembles of Hermitian random by symmetry considerations. Only for $N=2$ is there an existing analytic theory of Hermitian random matrices with octonion entries. We use a Jordan algebra viewpoint to provide an analytic theory for $N...

  18. Multivariate Matrix-Exponential Distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Mogens; Nielsen, Bo Friis


    In this article we consider the distributions of non-negative random vectors with a joint rational Laplace transform, i.e., a fraction between two multi-dimensional polynomials. These distributions are in the univariate case known as matrix-exponential distributions, since their densities can be ...... for the multivariate normal distribution. However, the proof is different and involves theory for rational function based on continued fractions and Hankel determinants....

  19. Distributed-memory matrix computations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balle, Susanne Mølleskov


    The main goal of this project is to investigate, develop, and implement algorithms for numerical linear algebra on parallel computers in order to acquire expertise in methods for parallel computations. An important motivation for analyzaing and investigating the potential for parallelism in these......The main goal of this project is to investigate, develop, and implement algorithms for numerical linear algebra on parallel computers in order to acquire expertise in methods for parallel computations. An important motivation for analyzaing and investigating the potential for parallelism....... Several areas in the numerical linear algebra field are investigated and they illustrate the problems that arise as well as the techniques that are related to the use of massively parallel computers: 1.Study of Strassen's matrix-matrix multiplication on the Connection Machine model CM-200. What...... performance can we expect to achieve? Why? 2.Solving systems of linear equations using a Strassen-type matrix-inversion algorithm. A good way to solve systems of linear equations on massively parallel computers? 3.Aspects of computing the singular value decomposition on the Connec-tion Machine CM-5/CM-5E...

  20. MALDI Matrix Research for Biopolymers (United States)

    Fukuyama, Yuko


    Matrices are necessary materials for ionizing analytes in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). The choice of a matrix appropriate for each analyte controls the analyses. Thus, in some cases, development or improvement of matrices can become a tool for solving problems. This paper reviews MALDI matrix research that the author has conducted in the recent decade. It describes glycopeptide, carbohydrate, or phosphopeptide analyses using 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,5-DHB), 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidinium (TMG) salts of p-coumaric acid (CA) (G3CA), 3-aminoquinoline (3-AQ)/α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA) (3-AQ/CHCA) or 3-AQ/CA and gengeral peptide, peptide containing disulfide bonds or hydrophobic peptide analyses using butylamine salt of CHCA (CHCAB), 1,5-diaminonaphthalene (1,5-DAN), octyl 2,5-dihydroxybenzoate (alkylated dihydroxybenzoate, ADHB), or 1-(2,4,6-trihydroxyphenyl)octan-1-one (alkylated trihydroxyacetophenone, ATHAP). PMID:26819908

  1. Superstatistics in Random Matrix Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Y. Abul-Magd


    Full Text Available Random matrix theory (RMT provides a successful model for quantum systems, whose classical counterpart has chaotic dynamics. It is based on two assumptions: (1 matrix-element independence, and (2 base invariance. The last decade witnessed several attempts to extend RMT to describe quantum systems with mixed regular-chaotic dynamics. Most of the proposed generalizations keep the first assumption and violate the second. Recently, several authors have presented other versions of the theory that keep base invariance at the expense of allowing correlations between matrix elements. This is achieved by starting from non-extensive entropies rather than the standard Shannon entropy, or by following the basic prescription of the recently suggested concept of superstatistics. The latter concept was introduced as a generalization of equilibrium thermodynamics to describe non-equilibrium systems by allowing the temperature to fluctuate. We here review the superstatistical generalizations of RMT and illustrate their value by calculating the nearest-neighbor-spacing distributions and comparing the results of calculation with experiments on billiards modeling systems in transition from order to chaos.

  2. "On some definitions in matrix algebra"



    Many definitions in matrix algebra are not standardized. This notediscusses some of thepitfalls associated with undesirable orwrong definitions, anddealswith central conceptslikesymmetry, orthogonality, square root, Hermitian and quadratic forms, and matrix derivatives.

  3. Analytic matrix elements with shifted correlated Gaussians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedorov, D. V.


    Matrix elements between shifted correlated Gaussians of various potentials with several form-factors are calculated analytically. Analytic matrix elements are of importance for the correlated Gaussian method in quantum few-body physics....

  4. Cubic Matrix, Nambu Mechanics and Beyond


    Yoshiharu, KAWAMURA; Department of Physics, Shinshu University


    We propose a generalization of cubic matrix mechanics by introducing a canonical triplet and study its relation to Nambu mechanics. The generalized cubic matrix mechanics we consider can be interpreted as a 'quantum' generalization of Nambu mechanics.

  5. Cubic Matrix, Nambu Mechanics and Beyond


    Kawamura, Y.


    We propose a generalization of cubic matrix mechanics by introducing a canonical triplet and study its relation to Nambu mechanics. The generalized cubic matrix mechanics we consider can be interpreted as a “quantum” generalization of Nambu mechanics.

  6. Glomerular extracellular matrix components and integrins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, L. M.; de Melker, A. A.; Kramer, D.; Kuikman, I.; Chand, A.; Claessen, N.; Weening, J. J.; Sonnenberg, A.


    It has become apparent that extracellular matrix components and their cellular receptors, the integrins, are important regulators of glomerular development and function. In this rapidly evolving field we studied the production of extracellular matrix components and integrins by rat glomerular

  7. The Theory of Quaternion Matrix Derivatives


    Xu, Dongpo; Mandic, Danilo P.


    A systematic theory is introduced for calculating the derivatives of quaternion matrix function with respect to quaternion matrix variables. The proposed methodology is equipped with the matrix product rule and chain rule and it is able to handle both analytic and nonanalytic functions. This corrects a flaw in the existing methods, that is, the incorrect use of the traditional product rule. In the framework introduced, the derivatives of quaternion matrix functions can be calculated directly ...

  8. Efficient Robust Matrix Factorization with Nonconvex Penalties


    Yao, Quanming


    Robust matrix factorization (RMF) is a fundamental tool with lots of applications. The state-of-art is robust matrix factorization by majorization and minimization (RMF-MM) algorithm. It iteratively constructs and minimizes a novel surrogate function. Besides, it is also the only RMF algorithm with convergence guarantee. However, it can only deal with the convex $\\ell_1$-loss and does not utilize sparsity when matrix is sparsely observed. In this paper, we proposed robust matrix factorization...

  9. The matrix reorganized: extracellular matrix remodeling and integrin signaling. (United States)

    Larsen, Melinda; Artym, Vira V; Green, J Angelo; Yamada, Kenneth M


    Via integrins, cells can sense dimensionality and other physical and biochemical properties of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Cells respond differently to two-dimensional substrates and three-dimensional environments, activating distinct signaling pathways for each. Direct integrin signaling and indirect integrin modulation of growth factor and other intracellular signaling pathways regulate ECM remodeling and control subsequent cell behavior and tissue organization. ECM remodeling is critical for many developmental processes, and remodeled ECM contributes to tumorigenesis. These recent advances in the field provide new insights and raise new questions about the mechanisms of ECM synthesis and proteolytic degradation, as well as the roles of integrins and tension in ECM remodeling.

  10. Matrix algebra for higher order moments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Erik


    A large part of statistics is devoted to the estimation of models from the sample covariance matrix. The development of the statistical theory and estimators has been greatly facilitated by the introduction of special matrices, such as the commutation matrix and the duplication matrix, and the

  11. Minimal solution for inconsistent singular fuzzy matrix equations


    Nikuie, M.; M.K. Mirnia


    The fuzzy matrix equations $Ailde{X}=ilde{Y}$ is called a singular fuzzy matrix equations while the coefficients matrix of its equivalent crisp matrix equations be a singular matrix. The singular fuzzy matrix equations are divided into two parts: consistent singular matrix equations and inconsistent fuzzy matrix equations. In this paper, the inconsistent singular fuzzy matrix equations is studied and the effect of generalized inverses in finding minimal solution of an inconsistent singular fu...

  12. The COMPADRE Plant Matrix Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salguero-Gomez, Roberto; Jones, Owen; Archer, C. Ruth


    biological interpretations, facilitating comparisons among populations and species. 3. Thousands of plant matrix population models have been parameterized from empirical data, but they are largely dispersed through peer reviewed and grey literature, and thus remain inaccessible for synthetic analysis. Here...... information (e.g. ecoregion, growth form, taxonomy, phylogeny, etc.) that facilitates interpretation of the numerous demographic metrics that can be derived from the matrices. 4. Synthesis: Large collections of datasets allow broad questions to be addressed at the global scale, e.g. in genetics (Gen...

  13. Linear algebra and matrix analysis for statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Sudipto


    Matrices, Vectors, and Their OperationsBasic definitions and notations Matrix addition and scalar-matrix multiplication Matrix multiplication Partitioned matricesThe ""trace"" of a square matrix Some special matricesSystems of Linear EquationsIntroduction Gaussian elimination Gauss-Jordan elimination Elementary matrices Homogeneous linear systems The inverse of a matrixMore on Linear EquationsThe LU decompositionCrout's Algorithm LU decomposition with row interchanges The LDU and Cholesky factorizations Inverse of partitioned matrices The LDU decomposition for partitioned matricesThe Sherman-W

  14. MatrixPlot: visualizing sequence constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorodkin, Jan; Stærfeldt, Hans Henrik; Lund, Ole


    MatrixPlot: visualizing sequence constraints. Sub-title Abstract Summary : MatrixPlot is a program for making high-quality matrix plots, such as mutual information plots of sequence alignments and distance matrices of sequences with known three-dimensional coordinates. The user can add information...... about the sequences (e.g. a sequence logo profile) along the edges of the plot, as well as zoom in on any region in the plot. Availability : MatrixPlot can be obtained on request, and can also be accessed online at http://www. Contact :

  15. Matrix stiffening promotes a tumor vasculature phenotype. (United States)

    Bordeleau, Francois; Mason, Brooke N; Lollis, Emmanuel Macklin; Mazzola, Michael; Zanotelli, Matthew R; Somasegar, Sahana; Califano, Joseph P; Montague, Christine; LaValley, Danielle J; Huynh, John; Mencia-Trinchant, Nuria; Negrón Abril, Yashira L; Hassane, Duane C; Bonassar, Lawrence J; Butcher, Jonathan T; Weiss, Robert S; Reinhart-King, Cynthia A


    Tumor microvasculature tends to be malformed, more permeable, and more tortuous than vessels in healthy tissue, effects that have been largely attributed to up-regulated VEGF expression. However, tumor tissue tends to stiffen during solid tumor progression, and tissue stiffness is known to alter cell behaviors including proliferation, migration, and cell-cell adhesion, which are all requisite for angiogenesis. Using in vitro, in vivo, and ex ovo models, we investigated the effects of matrix stiffness on vessel growth and integrity during angiogenesis. Our data indicate that angiogenic outgrowth, invasion, and neovessel branching increase with matrix cross-linking. These effects are caused by increased matrix stiffness independent of matrix density, because increased matrix density results in decreased angiogenesis. Notably, matrix stiffness up-regulates matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity, and inhibiting MMPs significantly reduces angiogenic outgrowth in stiffer cross-linked gels. To investigate the functional significance of altered endothelial cell behavior in response to matrix stiffness, we measured endothelial cell barrier function on substrates mimicking the stiffness of healthy and tumor tissue. Our data indicate that barrier function is impaired and the localization of vascular endothelial cadherin is altered as function of matrix stiffness. These results demonstrate that matrix stiffness, separately from matrix density, can alter vascular growth and integrity, mimicking the changes that exist in tumor vasculature. These data suggest that therapeutically targeting tumor stiffness or the endothelial cell response to tumor stiffening may help restore vessel structure, minimize metastasis, and aid in drug delivery.

  16. Mueller matrix roots algorithm and computational considerations. (United States)

    Noble, H D; Chipman, R A


    Recently, an order-independent Mueller matrix decomposition was proposed in an effort to elucidate the nine depolarization degrees of freedom [Handbook of Optics, Vol. 1 of Mueller Matrices (2009)]. This paper addresses the critical computational issues involved in applying this Mueller matrix roots decomposition, along with a review of the principal matrix root and common methods for its calculation. The calculation of the pth matrix root is optimized around p = 10(5) for a 53 digit binary double precision calculation. A matrix roots algorithm is provided which incorporates these computational results. It is applied to a statistically significant number of randomly generated physical Mueller matrices in order to gain insight on the typical ranges of the depolarizing Matrix roots parameters. Computational techniques are proposed which allow singular Mueller matrices and Mueller matrices with a half-wave of retardance to be evaluated with the matrix roots decomposition.

  17. Fragmentation of extracellular matrix by hypochlorous acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woods, Alan A; Davies, Michael Jonathan


    of the MPO-derived oxidant hypochlorous acid (HOCl) with extracellular matrix from vascular smooth muscle cells and healthy pig arteries has been examined. HOCl is rapidly consumed by such matrix samples, with the formation of matrix-derived chloramines or chloramides. The yield of these intermediates...... increases with HOCl dose. These materials undergo a time- and temperature-dependent decay, which parallels the release of sugar and protein components from the treated matrix, consistent with these species being important intermediates. Matrix damage is enhanced by species that increase chloramine....../chloramide decomposition, with copper and iron ions being effective catalysts, and decreased by compounds which scavenge chloramines/chloramides, or species derived from them. The effect of such matrix modifications on cellular behaviour is poorly understood, though it is known that changes in matrix materials can have...

  18. Extracellular Matrix and Liver Disease (United States)

    Arriazu, Elena; Ruiz de Galarreta, Marina; Cubero, Francisco Javier; Varela-Rey, Marta; Pérez de Obanos, María Pilar; Leung, Tung Ming; Lopategi, Aritz; Benedicto, Aitor; Abraham-Enachescu, Ioana


    Abstract Significance: The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a dynamic microenvironment that undergoes continuous remodeling, particularly during injury and wound healing. Chronic liver injury of many different etiologies such as viral hepatitis, alcohol abuse, drug-induced liver injury, obesity and insulin resistance, metabolic disorders, and autoimmune disease is characterized by excessive deposition of ECM proteins in response to persistent liver damage. Critical Issues: This review describes the main collagenous and noncollagenous components from the ECM that play a significant role in pathological matrix deposition during liver disease. We define how increased myofibroblasts (MF) from different origins are at the forefront of liver fibrosis and how liver cell-specific regulation of the complex scarring process occurs. Recent Advances: Particular attention is paid to the role of cytokines, growth factors, reactive oxygen species, and newly identified matricellular proteins in the regulation of fibrillar type I collagen, a field to which our laboratory has significantly contributed over the years. We compile data from recent literature on the potential mechanisms driving fibrosis resolution such as MF’ apoptosis, senescence, and reversal to quiescence. Future Directions: We conclude with a brief description of how epigenetics, an evolving field, can regulate the behavior of MF and of how new “omics” tools may advance our understanding of the mechanisms by which the fibrogenic response to liver injury occurs. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 1078–1097. PMID:24219114

  19. Interpolation of rational matrix functions

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Joseph A; Rodman, Leiba


    This book aims to present the theory of interpolation for rational matrix functions as a recently matured independent mathematical subject with its own problems, methods and applications. The authors decided to start working on this book during the regional CBMS conference in Lincoln, Nebraska organized by F. Gilfeather and D. Larson. The principal lecturer, J. William Helton, presented ten lectures on operator and systems theory and the interplay between them. The conference was very stimulating and helped us to decide that the time was ripe for a book on interpolation for matrix valued functions (both rational and non-rational). When the work started and the first partial draft of the book was ready it became clear that the topic is vast and that the rational case by itself with its applications is already enough material for an interesting book. In the process of writing the book, methods for the rational case were developed and refined. As a result we are now able to present the rational case as an indepe...

  20. Characterization of Metal Matrix Composites (United States)

    Daniel, I. M.; Chun, H. J.; Karalekas, D.


    Experimental methods were developed, adapted, and applied to the characterization of a metal matrix composite system, namely, silicon carbide/aluminim (SCS-2/6061 Al), and its constituents. The silicon carbide fiber was characterized by determining its modulus, strength, and coefficient of thermal expansion. The aluminum matrix was characterized thermomechanically up to 399 C (750 F) at two strain rates. The unidirectional SiC/Al composite was characterized mechanically under longitudinal, transverse, and in-plane shear loading up to 399 C (750 F). Isothermal and non-isothermal creep behavior was also measured. The applicability of a proposed set of multifactor thermoviscoplastic nonlinear constitutive relations and a computer code was investigated. Agreement between predictions and experimental results was shown in a few cases. The elastoplastic thermomechanical behavior of the composite was also described by a number of new analytical models developed or adapted for the material system studied. These models include the rule of mixtures, composite cylinder model with various thermoelastoplastic analyses and a model based on average field theory. In most cases satisfactory agreement was demonstrated between analytical predictions and experimental results for the cases of stress-strain behavior and thermal deformation behavior at different temperatures. In addition, some models yielded detailed three-dimensional stress distributions in the constituents within the composite.

  1. New fault tolerant matrix converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibarra, Edorta; Andreu, Jon; Kortabarria, Inigo; Ormaetxea, Enekoitz; Alegria, Inigo Martinez de; Martin, Jose Luis [Department of Electronics and Telecommunications, University of the Basque Country, Alameda de Urquijo s/n, E-48013 Bilbao (Spain); Ibanez, Pedro [TECNALIA, Energy Unit, Parque Tecnologico de Zamudio, E-48170 Bizkaia (Spain)


    The matrix converter (MC) presents a promising topology that will have to overcome certain barriers (protection systems, durability, the development of converters for real applications, etc.) in order to gain a foothold in the industry. In some applications, where continuous operation must be insured in the case of a system failure, improved reliability of the converter is of particular importance. In this sense, this article focuses on the study of a fault tolerant MC. The fault tolerance of a converter is characterized by its total or partial response in the case of a breakage of any of its components. Taking into consideration that virtually no work has been done on fault tolerant MCs, this paper describes the most important studies in this area. Moreover, a new method is proposed for detecting the breakage of MC semiconductors. Likewise, a new variation of SVM modulation with failure tolerance capacity is presented. This guarantees the continuous operation of the converter and the pseudo-optimum control of a PMSM. This paper also proposes a novel MC topology, which allows the flexible reconfiguration of this converter, when one or several of its semiconductors are damaged. In this way, the MC can continue operating at 100% of its performance without having to double its resources. In this way, it can be said that the solution described in this article represents a step forward towards the development of reliable matrix converters for real applications. (author)

  2. Automatic Generation of Partitioned Matrix Expressions for Matrix Operations (United States)

    Fabregat-Traver, Diego; Bientinesi, Paolo


    We target the automatic generation of formally correct algorithms and routines for linear algebra operations. Given the broad variety of architectures and configurations with which scientists deal, there does not exist one algorithmic variant that is suitable for all scenarios. Therefore, we aim to generate a family of algorithmic variants to attain high-performance for a broad set of scenarios. One of the authors has previously demonstrated that automatic derivation of a family of algorithms is possible when the Partitioned Matrix Expression (PME) of the target operation is available. The PME is a recursive definition that states the relations between submatrices in the input and the output operands. In this paper we describe all the steps involved in the automatic derivation of PMEs, thus making progress towards a fully automated system.

  3. Inequalities involving upper bounds for certain matrix operators

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 116; Issue 3. Inequalities Involving Upper Bounds for Certain Matrix Operators. R Lashkaripour D Foroutannia. Volume ... Keywords. Inequality; norm; summability matrix; Hausdorff matrix; Hilbert matrix; weighted sequence space; Lorentz sequence space.

  4. Collision matrix for Leo satellites (United States)

    McKnight, Darren; Lorenzen, Gary

    The Low Earth Orbit (LEO) is becoming cluttered with thousands of satellites, rocket bodies, and a variety of space garbage. This collection of objects crossing paths at speeds on the order of 10 km/s is creating an increasing collision hazard to many operational systems. The effect that the destruction of LEO satellites will have on other users of the near-Earth environment is of great concern. A model is examined which quantifies the effect of one satellite fragmentation on neighboring satellites. This model is used to evaluate the interdependent hazard to a series of satellite systems. A number of space system fragmentation events are numerically simulated and the collision hazard to each is tabulated. Once all satellites in the matrix have been fragmented separately, a complete collision hazard representation can be depicted. This model has potential for developing an enhanced understanding of a number of aspects of the growing debris hazard in LEO.

  5. The Biblical Matrix of Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigore PIROŞCĂ


    Full Text Available The rationale of this paper is a prime pattern of history of economic thought in the previous ages of classic ancient times of Greek and Roman civilizations using a methodological matrix able to capture the mainstream ideas from social, political and religious events within the pages of Bible. The economic perspective of these events follows the evolution of the seeds of economic thinking within the Fertile Crescent, focused on the Biblical patriarchic heroes’ actions, but also on the empires which their civilization interacted to. The paper aims to discover the path followed by the economic doctrines from the Bible in order to find a match with economic actuality of present days.

  6. Optimized Projection Matrix for Compressive Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Xu


    Full Text Available Compressive sensing (CS is mainly concerned with low-coherence pairs, since the number of samples needed to recover the signal is proportional to the mutual coherence between projection matrix and sparsifying matrix. Until now, papers on CS always assume the projection matrix to be a random matrix. In this paper, aiming at minimizing the mutual coherence, a method is proposed to optimize the projection matrix. This method is based on equiangular tight frame (ETF design because an ETF has minimum coherence. It is impossible to solve the problem exactly because of the complexity. Therefore, an alternating minimization type method is used to find a feasible solution. The optimally designed projection matrix can further reduce the necessary number of samples for recovery or improve the recovery accuracy. The proposed method demonstrates better performance than conventional optimization methods, which brings benefits to both basis pursuit and orthogonal matching pursuit.

  7. Logarithmic universality in random matrix theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Splittorff, K. E-mail:


    Universality in unitary invariant random matrix ensembles with complex matrix elements is considered. We treat two general ensembles which have a determinant factor in the weight. These ensembles are relevant, e.g., for spectra of the Dirac operator in QCD. In addition to the well established universality with respect to the choice of potential, we prove that microscopic spectral correlators are unaffected when the matrix in the determinant is replaced by an expansion in powers of the matrix. We refer to this invariance as logarithmic universality. The result is used in proving that a simple random matrix model with Ginsparg-Wilson symmetry has the same microscopic spectral correlators as chiral random matrix theory.

  8. Eigenvalues properties of terms correspondences matrix (United States)

    Bondarchuk, Dmitry; Timofeeva, Galina


    Vector model representations of text documents are widely used in the intelligent search. In this approach a collection of documents is represented in the form of the term-document matrix, reflecting the frequency of terms. In the latent semantic analysis the dimension of the vector space is reduced by the singular value decomposition of the term-document matrix. Authors use a matrix of terms correspondences, reflecting the relationship between the terms, to allocate a semantic core and to obtain more simple presentation of the documents. With this approach, reducing the number of terms is based on the orthogonal decomposition of the matrix of terms correspondences. Properties of singular values of the term-document matrix and eigenvalues of the matrix of terms correspondences are studied in the case when documents differ substantially in length.

  9. Corner Transfer Matrix Renormalization Group Method


    Nishino, T.; Okunishi, K.


    We propose a new fast numerical renormalization group method,the corner transfer matrix renormalization group (CTMRG) method, which is based on a unified scheme of Baxter's corner transfer matrix method and White's density matrix renormalization groupmethod. The key point is that a product of four corner transfer matrices gives the densitymatrix. We formulate the CTMRG method as a renormalization of 2D classical models.

  10. Matrix-assisted peptide synthesis on nanoparticles. (United States)

    Khandadash, Raz; Machtey, Victoria; Weiss, Aryeh; Byk, Gerardo


    We report a new method for multistep peptide synthesis on polymeric nanoparticles of differing sizes. Polymeric nanoparticles were functionalized via their temporary embedment into a magnetic inorganic matrix that allows multistep peptide synthesis. The matrix is removed at the end of the process for obtaining nanoparticles functionalized with peptides. The matrix-assisted synthesis on nanoparticles was proved by generating various biologically relevant peptides. Copyright © 2014 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. A Generalization of the Alias Matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahci, Murat; Bisgaard, S.


    The investigation of aliases or biases is important for the interpretation of the results from factorial experiments. For two-level fractional factorials this can be facilitated through their group structure. For more general arrays the alias matrix can be used. This tool is traditionally based...... on the assumption that the error structure is that associated with ordinary least squares. For situations where that is not the case, we provide in this article a generalization of the alias matrix applicable under the generalized least squares assumptions. We also show that for the special case of split plot error...... structure, the generalized alias matrix simplifies to the ordinary alias matrix....

  12. Biglycan Modulates Osteoblast Differentiation and Matrix Mineralization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Parisuthiman, Duenpim; Mochida, Yoshiyuki; Duarte, Wagner R; Yamauchi, Mitsuo


    .... The processes of cell differentiation and matrix mineralization were accelerated in S but delayed in AS, indicating that BGN modulates osteoblastic cell differentiation. Introduction : Biglycan (BGN...

  13. Finding Nonoverlapping Substructures of a Sparse Matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinar, Ali; Vassilevska, Virginia


    Many applications of scientific computing rely on computations on sparse matrices. The design of efficient implementations of sparse matrix kernels is crucial for the overall efficiency of these applications. Due to the high compute-to-memory ratio and irregular memory access patterns, the performance of sparse matrix kernels is often far away from the peak performance on a modern processor. Alternative data structures have been proposed, which split the original matrix A into A{sub d} and A{sub s}, so that A{sub d} contains all dense blocks of a specified size in the matrix, and A{sub s} contains the remaining entries. This enables the use of dense matrix kernels on the entries of A{sub d} producing better memory performance. In this work, we study the problem of finding a maximum number of nonoverlapping dense blocks in a sparse matrix, which is previously not studied in the sparse matrix community. We show that the maximum nonoverlapping dense blocks problem is NP-complete by using a reduction from the maximum independent set problem on cubic planar graphs. We also propose a 2/3-approximation algorithm that runs in linear time in the number of nonzeros in the matrix. This extended abstract focuses on our results for 2x2 dense blocks. However we show that our results can be generalized to arbitrary sized dense blocks, and many other oriented substructures, which can be exploited to improve the memory performance of sparse matrix operations.

  14. Basic matrix algebra and transistor circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Zelinger, G


    Basic Matrix Algebra and Transistor Circuits deals with mastering the techniques of matrix algebra for application in transistors. This book attempts to unify fundamental subjects, such as matrix algebra, four-terminal network theory, transistor equivalent circuits, and pertinent design matters. Part I of this book focuses on basic matrix algebra of four-terminal networks, with descriptions of the different systems of matrices. This part also discusses both simple and complex network configurations and their associated transmission. This discussion is followed by the alternative methods of de

  15. A random matrix theory of decoherence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorin, T [Departamento de FIsica, Universidad de Guadalajara, Blvd Marcelino GarcIa Barragan y Calzada OlImpica, Guadalajara CP 44840, JalIsco (Mexico); Pineda, C [Institut fuer Physik und Astronomie, University of Potsdam, 14476 Potsdam (Germany); Kohler, H [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, D-47057 Duisburg (Germany); Seligman, T H [Instituto de Ciencias FIsicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)], E-mail:, E-mail:


    Random matrix theory is used to represent generic loss of coherence of a fixed central system coupled to a quantum-chaotic environment, represented by a random matrix ensemble, via random interactions. We study the average density matrix arising from the ensemble induced, in contrast to previous studies where the average values of purity, concurrence and entropy were considered; we further discuss when one or the other approach is relevant. The two approaches agree in the limit of large environments. Analytic results for the average density matrix and its purity are presented in linear response approximation. The two-qubit system is analysed, mainly numerically, in more detail.

  16. Titanium Matrix Composite Pressure Vessel Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For over 15 years, FMW Composite Systems has developed Metal Matrix Composite manufacturing methodologies for fabricating silicon-carbide-fiber-reinforced titanium...

  17. Matrix Krylov subspace methods for image restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    khalide jbilou


    Full Text Available In the present paper, we consider some matrix Krylov subspace methods for solving ill-posed linear matrix equations and in those problems coming from the restoration of blurred and noisy images. Applying the well known Tikhonov regularization procedure leads to a Sylvester matrix equation depending the Tikhonov regularized parameter. We apply the matrix versions of the well known Krylov subspace methods, namely the Least Squared (LSQR and the conjugate gradient (CG methods to get approximate solutions representing the restored images. Some numerical tests are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  18. Risk matrix model for rotating equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wassan Rano Khan


    Full Text Available Different industries have various residual risk levels for their rotating equipment. Accordingly the occurrence rate of the failures and associated failure consequences categories are different. Thus, a generalized risk matrix model is developed in this study which can fit various available risk matrix standards. This generalized risk matrix will be helpful to develop new risk matrix, to fit the required risk assessment scenario for rotating equipment. Power generation system was taken as case study. It was observed that eight subsystems were under risk. Only vibration monitor system was under high risk category, while remaining seven subsystems were under serious and medium risk categories.

  19. Oxytocin prevents cartilage matrix destruction via regulating matrix metalloproteinases. (United States)

    Wu, Yixin; Wu, Tongyu; Xu, Binbin; Xu, Xiaoyan; Chen, Honggan; Li, Xiyao


    Degradation of the extracellular matrix type II Collagen (Col II) induced by proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is an important hallmark of Osteoarthritis (OA). Oxytocin (OT) is a well-known neurohypophysical hormone that is synthesized in the paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic nuclei (SON) of the hypothalamus. In this study, we have found that oxytocin receptor (OTR) was expressed in human primary chondrocytes, and the expression of which was reduced in chondrocytes from OA patients and in response to TNF-α treatment in a dose dependent manner. Notably, it was shown that TNF-α -induced degradation of Col II was restored by treatment with OT in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, TNF-α treatment (10 ng/mL) highly elevated the expression of MMP-1 and MMP-13 in SW1353 chondrocytes, which were reversed by OT in a dose dependent manner at both gene and protein expression levels. In addition, it was demonstrated that the JAK2/STAT1 pathway was involved in the restoration effects of OT in the degradation of Col II. Lastly, knockdown of OTR abolished the inhibitory effects of OT on the degradation of col II and the induction of MMP-1 and MMP-13 expression, suggesting the involvement of OTR. Our study implied the therapeutic potential of OT for cartilage degradation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Reduction of multipartite qubit density matrixes to bipartite qubit density matrixes and criteria of partial separability of multipartite qubit density matrixes


    Zhong, Zai-Zhe


    The partial separability of multipartite qubit density matrixes is strictly defined. We give a reduction way from N-partite qubit density matrixes to bipartite qubit density matrixes, and prove a necessary condition that a N-partite qubit density matrix to be partially separable is its reduced density matrix to satisfy PPT condition.

  1. Weak matrix elements of kaons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, C. (California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (USA). Inst. for Theoretical Physics); Soni, A. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA))


    We present results from the Wilson fermion part of the Grand Challenge'' weak matrix element project. A new procedure for correcting the chiral behavior of {Beta}{sub LL}{sup sd}, the K{sup 0}-{bar K}{sup 0} {Beta} parameter,'' is proposed and applied. On our largest lattice (24{sup 3} {times} 40 at {beta} = 6.0), we get {Beta}{sub LL}{sup sd} = .86 {plus minus} .11 {plus minus} .05, where the first error is statistical and the second is a measure of the systematic errors due to the procedure and to related finite-size effects. Results for the direct K{sup +} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0} amplitude are also presented. There is some evidence for higher order chiral effects which may make these results compatible both with experiment and with the {Beta}{sub LL}{sup sd} computation. The status of the direct K{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} {pi} {sup +} {pi}{sup {minus}} {Delta}I = 1/2 amplitude is then discussed. 11 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Matrix metalloproteinases in myasthenia gravis. (United States)

    Helgeland, Geir; Petzold, Axel; Luckman, Steven Paul; Gilhus, Nils Erik; Plant, Gordon T; Romi, Fredrik Robert


    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disease with weakness in striated musculature due to anti-acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibodies or muscle specific kinase at the neuromuscular junction. A subgroup of patients has periocular symptoms only; ocular MG (OMG). Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) are increased in several autoimmune diseases, including generalized MG (GMG), and have been suggested to play a role in immune cell infiltration, basement membrane breakdown and autoimmune pathogenesis. Total levels of MMP2, MMP3 and MMP9 were measured in serum by ELISA. The MG patients had increased serum levels of MMP2 (median values 200.7 vs. 159.7 ng/ml, p < 0.001) and MMP9 (median values 629.6 vs. 386.4 ng/ml, p < 0.001) compared to controls. A subgroup of patients had increased MMP3 concentration (p = 0.001). The differences were not dependent on presence of AChR antibodies. No difference was observed between GMG and OMG patients with regard to MMP2 (p = 0.598), MMP3 (p = 0.450) and MMP9 (p = 0.271). The increased MMP levels in our MG patients group and the lack of dependence on anti-AChR antibodies suggest that MMP2, MMP3 and MMP9 play a role in the development of MG. The similarities between GMG and OMG support OMG as a systemic disease. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Analysis Matrix for Smart Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo E. Branchi


    Full Text Available The current digital revolution has ignited the evolution of communications grids and the development of new schemes for productive systems. Traditional technologic scenarios have been challenged, and Smart Cities have become the basis for urban competitiveness. The citizen is the one who has the power to set new scenarios, and that is why a definition of the way people interact with their cities is needed, as is commented in the first part of the article. At the same time, a lack of clarity has been detected in the way of describing what Smart Cities are, and the second part will try to set the basis for that. For all before, the information and communication technologies that manage and transform 21st century cities must be reviewed, analyzing their impact on new social behaviors that shape the spaces and means of communication, as is posed in the experimental section, setting the basis for an analysis matrix to score the different elements that affect a Smart City environment. So, as the better way to evaluate what a Smart City is, there is a need for a tool to score the different technologies on the basis of their usefulness and consequences, considering the impact of each application. For all of that, the final section describes the main objective of this article in practical scenarios, considering how the technologies are used by citizens, who must be the main concern of all urban development.

  4. Matrix perturbations: bounding and computing eigenvalues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reis da Silva, R.J.


    Despite the somewhat negative connotation of the word, not every perturbation is a bad perturbation. In fact, while disturbing the matrix entries, many perturbations still preserve useful properties such as the orthonormality of the basis of eigenvectors or the Hermicity of the original matrix. In

  5. On the Subspace Projected Approximate Matrix method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandts, J.H.; Reis da Silva, R.


    We provide a comparative study of the Subspace Projected Approximate Matrix method, abbreviated SPAM, which is a fairly recent iterative method of computing a few eigenvalues of a Hermitian matrix A. It falls in the category of inner-outer iteration methods and aims to reduce the costs of

  6. Differential analysis of matrix convex functions II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank; Tomiyama, Jun


    We continue the analysis in [F. Hansen, and J. Tomiyama, Differential analysis of matrix convex functions. Linear Algebra Appl., 420:102--116, 2007] of matrix convex functions of a fixed order defined in a real interval by differential methods as opposed to the characterization in terms of divide...

  7. Fabrication of hybrid ceramic matrix composites (United States)

    Haug, S. B.; Dharani, L. R.; Carroll, D. R.


    The desire to improve the transverse properties and microcracking stress of unidirectional continuous fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites has led to development of the hybrid ceramic matrix composite (HCMC). This paper discusses the techniques we used in the fabrication of HCMC specimens used for mechanical characterization.

  8. The Matrix exponential, Dynamic Systems and Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad


    The matrix exponential can be found in various connections in analysis and control of dynamic systems. In this short note we are going to list a few examples. The matrix exponential usably pops up in connection to the sampling process, whatever it is in a deterministic or a stochastic setting...

  9. Modeling and Simulation of Matrix Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Fu-rong; Klumpner, Christian; Blaabjerg, Frede


    This paper discusses the modeling and simulation of matrix converter. Two models of matrix converter are presented: one is based on indirect space vector modulation and the other is based on power balance equation. The basis of these two models is• given and the process on modeling is introduced...

  10. Preparation and Characterization of Sustained Release Matrix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To formulate matrix type sustained-release (SR) tablets of tizanidine hydrochloride (TH) for prolonged drug release and improvement in motor activity after spinal injuries. Methods: Matrix tablets were prepared by the wet granulation method using four polymers (hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose [HPMC] K 100, ethyl ...

  11. Efficient Matrix Models for Relational Learning (United States)


    New York, 1994. [63] Daniel D. Lee and H. Sebastian Seung . Algorithms for non-negative matrix factor- ization. In Todd K. Leen, Thomas G. Dietterich...135] Shenghuo Zhu, Kai Yu, Yun Chi, and Yihong Gong. Combining content and link for classification using matrix factorization. In Wessel Kraaij

  12. Matrix subordinators and related Upsilon transformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Pérez-Abreu, V.


    A class of upsilon transformations of Lévy measures for matrix subordinators is introduced. Some regularizing properties of these transformations are derived, such as absolute continuity and complete monotonicity. The class of Lévy measures with completely monotone matrix densities is characterized....... Examples of infinitely divisible nonnegative definite random matrices are constructed using an upsilon transformation....

  13. Photoacoustic measurement of lutein in biological matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bicanic, D.D.; Luterotti, S.; Becucci, M.; Fogliano, V.; Versloot, P.


    Photoacoustic (PA) spectroscopy was applied for the first time to quantify lutein in a complex biological matrix. Standard addition of lutein to a biological low-lutein matrix was used for the calibration. The PA signal was found linearly proportional (R > 0.98) to lutein concentration up to 0.3%

  14. Confocal microscopy imaging of the biofilm matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlafer, Sebastian; Meyer, Rikke L


    The extracellular matrix is an integral part of microbial biofilms and an important field of research. Confocal laser scanning microscopy is a valuable tool for the study of biofilms, and in particular of the biofilm matrix, as it allows real-time visualization of fully hydrated, living specimens...

  15. Some thoughts about matrix coordinate transformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, Joke [Instituut voor Theoretische Fysica, K.U. Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)], E-mail:; Janssen, Bert [Departamento de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos and Centro Andaluz de Fisica de Particulas Elementales, Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain)], E-mail:; Troost, Walter [Instituut voor Theoretische Fysica, K.U. Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)], E-mail:; Herck, Walter van [Instituut voor Theoretische Fysica, K.U. Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)], E-mail:


    Matrix coordinate transformations are defined as substitution operators without requiring an ordering prescription or an inclusion function from the Abelian coordinate transformations. We construct transforming objects mimicking most of the properties of tensors. We point out some problems with the matrix generalization of contravariant vectors. We suggest to use the substitution operators to search for an inclusion function.

  16. Matrix multiplication operators on Banach function spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, we study the matrix multiplication operators on Banach function spaces and discuss their applications in semigroups for solving the abstract. Cauchy problem. Keywords. Banach function spaces; closed operators; compact operators; Fredholm operators; matrix multiplication operators; semigroups. 1.

  17. Matrix approach to modelling of SAR signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lidicky, L.; Hoogeboom, P.


    The paper presents a matrix approach to implementation of SAR signal generating and processing schemes. This approach is advantageous when matrix oriented software such as Matlab is used. Algorithms written in this type of software packages run faster compared to the same algorithms written for the

  18. Matrix model description of baryonic deformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bena, Iosif; Murayama, Hitoshi; Roiban, Radu; Tatar, Radu


    We investigate supersymmetric QCD with N{sub c} + 1 flavors using an extension of the recently proposed relation between gauge theories and matrix models.The impressive agreement between the two sides provides a beautiful confirmation of the extension of the gauge theory-matrix model relation to this case.

  19. Matrix 3-Lie superalgebras and BRST supersymmetry (United States)

    Abramov, Viktor

    Given a matrix Lie algebra one can construct the 3-Lie algebra by means of the trace of a matrix. In the present paper, we show that this approach can be extended to the infinite-dimensional Lie algebra of vector fields on a manifold if instead of the trace of a matrix we consider a differential 1-form which satisfies certain conditions. Then we show that the same approach can be extended to matrix Lie superalgebras 𝔤𝔩(m,n) if instead of the trace of a matrix we make use of the supertrace of a matrix. It is proved that a graded triple commutator of matrices constructed with the help of the graded commutator and the supertrace satisfies a graded ternary Filippov-Jacobi identity. In two particular cases of 𝔤𝔩(1, 2) and 𝔤𝔩(2, 2), we show that the Pauli and Dirac matrices generate the matrix 3-Lie superalgebras, and we find the non-trivial graded triple commutators of these algebras. We propose a Clifford algebra approach to 3-Lie superalgebras induced by Lie superalgebras. We also discuss an application of matrix 3-Lie superalgebras in BRST-formalism.

  20. Infinite Matrix Products and the Representation of the Matrix Gamma Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-C. Cortés


    Full Text Available We introduce infinite matrix products including some of their main properties and convergence results. We apply them in order to extend to the matrix scenario the definition of the scalar gamma function given by an infinite product due to Weierstrass. A limit representation of the matrix gamma function is also provided.

  1. Block Hadamard measurement matrix with arbitrary dimension in compressed sensing (United States)

    Liu, Shaoqiang; Yan, Xiaoyan; Fan, Xiaoping; Li, Fei; Xu, Wen


    As Hadamard measurement matrix cannot be used for compressing signals with dimension of a non-integral power-of-2, this paper proposes a construction method of block Hadamard measurement matrix with arbitrary dimension. According to the dimension N of signals to be measured, firstly, construct a set of Hadamard sub matrixes with different dimensions and make the sum of these dimensions equals to N. Then, arrange the Hadamard sub matrixes in a certain order to form a block diagonal matrix. Finally, take the former M rows of the block diagonal matrix as the measurement matrix. The proposed measurement matrix which retains the orthogonality of Hadamard matrix and sparsity of block diagonal matrix has highly sparse structure, simple hardware implements and general applicability. Simulation results show that the performance of our measurement matrix is better than Gaussian matrix, Logistic chaotic matrix, and Toeplitz matrix.

  2. Universal portfolios generated by Vandermonde generating matrix (United States)

    Tan, Choon Peng; Yong, Say Loong


    A universal portfolio generated by the one-parameter symmetric positive definite Vandermonde matrix is studied. It is obtained by maximizing the scaled growth rate of the estimated daily wealth return and minimizing the Mahalanobis squared divergence of two portfolio vectors associated with the Vandermonde matrix. The parameter of the Vandermonde matrix is chosen so that the matrix is positive definite. The companion matrices of the three and five-dimensional generating matrices are evaluated to determine the portfolios. Three and five stock-data sets are selected from the local stock exchange in Malaysia and the empirical performance of the portfolios is presented. There is empirical evidence that the use of an appropriate generating Vandermonde matrix may increase the wealth of investors.

  3. Nuclear Matrix Proteins in Human Colon Cancer (United States)

    Keesee, Susan K.; Meneghini, Marc D.; Szaro, Robert P.; Wu, Ying-Jye


    The nuclear matrix is the nonchromatin scaffolding of the nucleus. This structure confers nuclear shape, organizes chromatin, and appears to contain important regulatory proteins. Tissue specific nuclear matrix proteins have been found in the rat, mouse, and human. In this study we compared high-resolution two-dimensional gel electropherograms of nuclear matrix protein patterns found in human colon tumors with those from normal colon epithelia. Tumors were obtained from 18 patients undergoing partial colectomy for adenocarcinoma of the colon and compared with tissue from 10 normal colons. We have identified at least six proteins which were present in 18 of 18 colon tumors and 0 of 10 normal tissues, as well as four proteins present in 0 of 18 tumors and in 10 of 10 normal tissues. These data, which corroborate similar findings of cancer-specific nuclear matrix proteins in prostate and breast, suggest that nuclear matrix proteins may serve as important markers for at least some types of cancer.

  4. Matrix biology: past, present and future. (United States)

    Robert, L


    Matrix biology (the biology of extracellular matrix) is a relatively recent branch of biomedical sciences and comprises a number of subspecialties. From molecular-cell biology, biochemistry, genetics and clinical science of diseases localised at or affecting the matrix rich tissues (connective tissues) as bone, cartilage, vessel wall, skin, eye and some others. The rapid expansion of all these branches of matrix biology is the combined result of the availability of advanced methods of cell and molecular biology and the increasing awareness of the importance of this field for a number of basic and applied sciences. This introduction is a review for the special issue of Pathologie Biologie devoted to 'Matrix Biology' and brushes an impressionistic landscape of the major advances accomplished over the finishing century and tries to predict some of the most important advances to be expected during the coming century.

  5. Development of a Java Package for Matrix Programming


    Lim, Ngee-Peng; Ling, Maurice HT; Lim, Shawn YC; Choi, Ji-Hee; Teo, Henry BK


    We had assembled a Java package, known as MatrixPak, of four classes for the purpose of numerical matrix computation. The classes are matrix, matrix_operations, StrToMatrix, and MatrixToStr; all of which are inherited from java.lang.Object class. Class matrix defines a matrix as a two-dimensional array of float types, and contains the following mathematical methods: transpose, adjoint, determinant, inverse, minor and cofactor. Class matrix_operations contains the following mathematical method...

  6. Nuclear matrix proteins and hereditary diseases. (United States)

    Sjakste, N; Sjakste, T


    The review summarizes literature data on alterations of structure or expression of different nuclear matrix proteins in hereditary syndromes. From the point of view of involvement of nuclear matrix proteins in etiology and pathogenesis of the disease hereditary pathologies can be classified in pathologies with pathogenesis associated with defects of nuclear matrix proteins and pathologies associated to changes of the nuclear matrix protein spectrum. The first group includes laminopathies, hereditary diseases with abnormal nuclear-matrix associated proteins and triplet extension diseases associated with accumulation of abnormal proteins in the nuclear matrix. Laminopathies are hereditary diseases coupled to structural defects of the nuclear lamina. These diseases include Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy, limb girdle muscular dystrophy, dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) with conduction system disease, familial partial lipodystrophy (FPLD), autosomal recessive axonal neuropathy (Charcot-Marie-Tooth disorder type 2, CMT2), mandibuloacral dysplasia (MAD), Hutchison Gilford Progeria syndrome (HGS), Greenberg Skeletal Dysplasia, and Pelger-Huet anomaly (PHA). Most of them are due to mutations in the lamin A/C gene, one - to mutations in emerin gene, some are associated with mutations in Lamin B receptor gene. In Werner's, Bloom's, Cockayne's syndromes, Fanconi anemia, multiple carboxylase deficiency mutations in nuclear matrix protein or enzyme gene lead to deficient DNA repair, abnormal regulation of cell growth and differentiation or other specific metabolic functions. Proteins with a long polyglutamic tract synthesized in the cells of patients with dentato-rubral and pallido-luysian atrophy, myotonic dystrophy and Huntington disease interfere with transcription on the nuclear matrix. Down's syndrome is a representative of the group of diseases with altered nuclear matrix protein spectrum.

  7. Inequalities involving upper bounds for certain matrix operators

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Copson and Hilbert matrix operators, which are recently considered in [5] and [6] and similar to that in [10]. Keywords. Inequality; norm; summability matrix; Hausdorff matrix; Hilbert matrix; weighted sequence space; Lorentz sequence space. 1. Introduction. We study the norm of a certain matrix operator on lp(w) and Lorentz ...

  8. Residual, restarting and Richardson iteration for the matrix exponential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bochev, Mikhail A.; Grimm, Volker; Hochbruck, Marlis


    A well-known problem in computing some matrix functions iteratively is the lack of a clear, commonly accepted residual notion. An important matrix function for which this is the case is the matrix exponential. Suppose the matrix exponential of a given matrix times a given vector has to be computed.

  9. Residual, restarting and Richardson iteration for the matrix exponential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bochev, Mikhail A.

    A well-known problem in computing some matrix functions iteratively is a lack of a clear, commonly accepted residual notion. An important matrix function for which this is the case is the matrix exponential. Assume, the matrix exponential of a given matrix times a given vector has to be computed. We

  10. Partial chord diagrams and matrix models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Fuji, Hiroyuki; Manabe, Masahide

    spectrum. Furthermore, we consider the boundary length and point spectrum that unifies the last two types of spectra. We introduce matrix models that encode generating functions of partial chord diagrams filtered by each of these spectra. Using these matrix models, we derive partial differential equations......In this article, the enumeration of partial chord diagrams is discussed via matrix model techniques. In addition to the basic data such as the number of backbones and chords, we also consider the Euler characteristic, the backbone spectrum, the boundary point spectrum, and the boundary length...

  11. Microlevel thermal effects in metal matrix composites (United States)

    Herakovich, Carl T.


    A method for studying the influence of thermal effects on the inelastic response of metal matrix composites is reviewed. A micromechanics approach based upon the method of cells is shown to be quite versatile for studying a variety of materials response phenomena. Yielding and inelastic response of the composite are predicted as functions of thermal stresses, yielding of the matrix, and imperfect fiber/matrix bonding. Results are presented in the form of yield surfaces and nonlinear stress-strain curves for unidirectional and laminated boron/aluminum and silicon-carbide/titanium.

  12. Learned fusion operators based on matrix completion (United States)

    Risko, Kelly K. D.; Hester, Charles F.


    The efficient and timely management of imagery captured in the battlefield requires methods capable of searching the voluminous databases and extracting highly symbolic concepts. When processing images, a semantic and definition gap exists between machine representations and the user's language. Based on matrix completion techniques, we present a fusion operator that fuses imagery and expert knowledge provided by user inputs during post analysis. Specifically, an information matrix is formed from imagery and a class map as labeled by an expert. From this matrix an image operator is derived for the extraction/prediction of information from future imagery. We will present results using this technique on single mode data.

  13. A matrix model from string field theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syoji Zeze


    Full Text Available We demonstrate that a Hermitian matrix model can be derived from level truncated open string field theory with Chan-Paton factors. The Hermitian matrix is coupled with a scalar and U(N vectors which are responsible for the D-brane at the tachyon vacuum. Effective potential for the scalar is evaluated both for finite and large N. Increase of potential height is observed in both cases. The large $N$ matrix integral is identified with a system of N ZZ branes and a ghost FZZT brane.

  14. A transilient matrix for moist convection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romps, D.; Kuang, Z.


    A method is introduced for diagnosing a transilient matrix for moist convection. This transilient matrix quantifies the nonlocal transport of air by convective eddies: for every height z, it gives the distribution of starting heights z{prime} for the eddies that arrive at z. In a cloud-resolving simulation of deep convection, the transilient matrix shows that two-thirds of the subcloud air convecting into the free troposphere originates from within 100 m of the surface. This finding clarifies which initial height to use when calculating convective available potential energy from soundings of the tropical troposphere.

  15. Generic construction of efficient matrix product operators (United States)

    Hubig, C.; McCulloch, I. P.; Schollwöck, U.


    Matrix product operators (MPOs) are at the heart of the second-generation density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) algorithm formulated in matrix product state language. We first summarize the widely known facts on MPO arithmetic and representations of single-site operators. Second, we introduce three compression methods (rescaled SVD, deparallelization, and delinearization) for MPOs and show that it is possible to construct efficient representations of arbitrary operators using MPO arithmetic and compression. As examples, we construct powers of a short-ranged spin-chain Hamiltonian, a complicated Hamiltonian of a two-dimensional system and, as proof of principle, the long-range four-body Hamiltonian from quantum chemistry.

  16. Celsian Glass-Ceramic Matrix Composites (United States)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Dicarlo, James A.


    Glass-ceramic matrix reinforced fiber composite materials developed for use in low dielectric applications, such as radomes. Materials strong and tough, exhibit low dielectric properties, and endure high temperatures.

  17. Enzyme compartmentalization during biphasic enamel matrix processing. (United States)

    Brookes, S J; Kirkham, J; Shore, R C; Bonass, W A; Robinson, C


    Processing of enamel matrix proteins is essentially biphasic. Secretory stage metalloprotease activity generates a discrete, presumably functional, spectrum of molecules which may also undergo dephosphorylation. Maturation stage serine proteases almost completely destroy the matrix. The present aim was to examine the tissue compartmentalization of these enzyme activities in relation to their possible function. A sequential extraction using synthetic enamel fluid, phosphate buffer and SDS was used to identify enzymes free in the enamel fluid, crystal bound or aggregated with the bulk matrix respectively. Results indicated that the metallo-proteases and alkaline phosphatase were free in the secretory stage enamel fluid while the serine proteases appeared to be largely bound to the maturation stage crystals. The mobility of the metallo-proteases and alkaline phosphatase would ensure efficient initial processing of secretory matrix, while the largely mineral bound serine proteases would ensure retention of protease activity despite massive destruction and protein removal.

  18. Nuclear waste storage container with metal matrix (United States)

    Sump, Kenneth R.


    The invention relates to a storage container for high-level waste having a metal matrix for the high-level waste, thereby providing greater impact strength for the waste container and increasing heat transfer properties.

  19. Development of a Compact Matrix Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bauer


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the development of a matrix converter. Matrix converters belong to the category of direct frequency converters. A converter does not contain DC-link and the output voltage is provided by direct switching of voltage from the input phases. This is enabled by 9 bidirectional switches, which are provided by anti-serial connection of 18 IGBT transistors. The absence of a DC-link is great advantage of the matrix converter, but it also increases the requirements on the converter control. For this reason a new prototype of a matrix converter is being developed with sophisticated modern components (FPGA, Power PC equipped in the control part of the converter. The converter will be used for testing new control algorithms and commutation methods. 

  20. Association between the polymorphisms of matrix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Association between the polymorphisms of matrix metalloproteinases 9 and 3 genes and risk of myocardial infarction in Egyptian patients. Nadia I Sewelam, Eman R Radwan, Ashraf W Andraos, Baher E Ibrahim, Manal M Wilson ...

  1. Design of lipid matrix particles for fenofibrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Dengning; Cui, Fude; Gan, Yong


    The effect of polymorphism of glycerol monostearate (GMS) on drug incorporation and release from lipid matrix particles (LMPs) was investigated using fenofibrate as a model drug. X-ray powder diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry were used to study the polymorphism change of GMS...... and the drug incorporation in GMS matrix. When medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) was absent, melted GMS was frozen to α-form of GMS with drug molecularly dispersed, whereas β-form of GMS was formed with part of drug crystallized out when the ratio of GMS/MCT in the lipid matrix was 2:1 (w/w). For LMP composed......, the polymorphism of GMS is an important factor determining particle stability, drug incorporation, and the release of the drug from LMP. Critical attention should be paid on the investigation as well as control of the lipid polymorphism when formulating lipid-based matrix particles. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc...

  2. Supersymmetric SYK model and random matrix theory (United States)

    Li, Tianlin; Liu, Junyu; Xin, Yuan; Zhou, Yehao


    In this paper, we investigate the effect of supersymmetry on the symmetry classification of random matrix theory ensembles. We mainly consider the random matrix behaviors in the N=1 supersymmetric generalization of Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev (SYK) model, a toy model for two-dimensional quantum black hole with supersymmetric constraint. Some analytical arguments and numerical results are given to show that the statistics of the supersymmetric SYK model could be interpreted as random matrix theory ensembles, with a different eight-fold classification from the original SYK model and some new features. The time-dependent evolution of the spectral form factor is also investigated, where predictions from random matrix theory are governing the late time behavior of the chaotic hamiltonian with supersymmetry.

  3. Research on Radar Importance with Decision Matrix (United States)

    Meng, Lingjie; Du, Yu; Wang, Liuheng


    Considering the characteristic of radar, constructed the evaluation index system of radar importance, established the comprehensive evaluation model based on decision matrix. Finally, by means of an example, the methods of this evaluation on radar importance was right and feasibility.

  4. Microwave Processed Multifunctional Polymer Matrix Composites Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has identified polymer matrix composites (PMCs) as a critical need for launch and in-space vehicles, but the significant costs of such materials limits their...

  5. A matrix of social accounting for Asturias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Argüelles


    Full Text Available A Social Accounting Matrix is an integrated system of accounts that presents in a double-entry table all the transactions made in an economy among productive sectors, production factors, institutional sectors and the rest of the world. In comparison with an Input-Output Table, it offers a greater deal of information and shows completely the circular process of income, captivating more precisely the effects of exogenous changes. One of the main profits of a Social Accounting Matrix is to serve as a database for the development and application of a computable general equilibrium model. This is, in fact, the aim pursued with the elaboration of the Social Accounting Matrix for the Asturian economy presented here. This Matrix has been constructed with data from the 1995 Regional Accounts of Asturias, and its structure has been adapted to its future use as a database for a computable general equilibrium model of this regional economy.

  6. Matrix-exponential distributions in applied probability

    CERN Document Server

    Bladt, Mogens


    This book contains an in-depth treatment of matrix-exponential (ME) distributions and their sub-class of phase-type (PH) distributions. Loosely speaking, an ME distribution is obtained through replacing the intensity parameter in an exponential distribution by a matrix. The ME distributions can also be identified as the class of non-negative distributions with rational Laplace transforms. If the matrix has the structure of a sub-intensity matrix for a Markov jump process we obtain a PH distribution which allows for nice probabilistic interpretations facilitating the derivation of exact solutions and closed form formulas. The full potential of ME and PH unfolds in their use in stochastic modelling. Several chapters on generic applications, like renewal theory, random walks and regenerative processes, are included together with some specific examples from queueing theory and insurance risk. We emphasize our intention towards applications by including an extensive treatment on statistical methods for PH distribu...

  7. Superfund Chemical Data Matrix (SCDM) Query (United States)

    This site allows you to to easily query the Superfund Chemical Data Matrix (SCDM) and generate a list of the corresponding Hazard Ranking System (HRS) factor values, benchmarks, and data elements that you need.

  8. Superfund Chemical Data Matrix (SCDM) Query - Popup (United States)

    This site allows you to to easily query the Superfund Chemical Data Matrix (SCDM) and generate a list of the corresponding Hazardous Ranking System (HRS) factor values, benchmarks, and data elements that you need.

  9. Comix, a new matrix element generator (United States)

    Gleisberg, Tanju; Höche, Stefan


    We present a new tree-level matrix element generator, based on the colour dressed Berends-Giele recursive relations. We discuss two new algorithms for phase space integration, dedicated to be used with large multiplicities and colour sampling.

  10. The revenge of the S-matrix

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    In this talk I will describe recent work aiming to reinvigorate the 50 year old S-matrix program, which aims to constrain scattering of massive particles non-perturbatively. I will begin by considering quantum fields in anti-de Sitter space and show that one can extract information about the S-matrix by considering correlators in conformally invariant theories. The latter can be studied with "bootstrap" techniques, which allow us to constrain the S-matrix. In particular, in 1+1D one obtains bounds which are saturated by known integrable models. I will also show that it is also possible to directly constrain the S-matrix, without using the CFT crutch, by using crossing symmetry and unitarity. This alternative method is simpler and gives results in agreement with the previous approach. Both techniques are generalizable to higher dimensions.

  11. Applied matrix algebra in the statistical sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Basilevsky, Alexander


    This comprehensive text offers teachings relevant to both applied and theoretical branches of matrix algebra and provides a bridge between linear algebra and statistical models. Appropriate for advanced undergraduate and graduate students. 1983 edition.

  12. GB Diet matrix as informed by EMAX (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set was taken from CRD 08-18 at the NEFSC. Specifically, the Georges Bank diet matrix was developed for the EMAX exercise described in that center...

  13. Extracellular matrix component signaling in cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Multhaupt, Hinke A. B.; Leitinger, Birgit; Gullberg, Donald


    Cell responses to the extracellular matrix depend on specific signaling events. These are important from early development, through differentiation and tissue homeostasis, immune surveillance, and disease pathogenesis. Signaling not only regulates cell adhesion cytoskeletal organization...... and motility but also provides survival and proliferation cues. The major classes of cell surface receptors for matrix macromols. are the integrins, discoidin domain receptors, and transmembrane proteoglycans such as syndecans and CD44. Cells respond not only to specific ligands, such as collagen, fibronectin......, or basement membrane glycoproteins, but also in terms of matrix rigidity. This can regulate the release and subsequent biol. activity of matrix-bound growth factors, for example, transforming growth factor-β. In the environment of tumors, there may be changes in cell populations and their receptor profiles...

  14. Study of theophylline stability on polymer matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Kiriaki M.S.; Parra, Duclerc F.; Oliveira, Maria Jose A.; Bustillos, Oscar V.; Lugao, Ademar B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail:


    Theophylline is a bronchodilator, commonly known and used as a drug model in the development of pharmaceutical formulations. The stability of the drug and the matrix, scope of this study, was evaluated in the solid formulation. Polymeric matrix based on PHB containing the drug (theophylline) was prepared and submitted to radiation sterilization at different doses of: 5, 10, 20 and 25 kGy using a Cobalt- 60 source. The modified drug release of theophylline sterilized tablets has been studied. Modern techniques of HPLC (High Pressure Liquid Chromatography), DSC (Differential scanning calorimetry) and TGA (Thermogravimetry analysis) were employed. The results have shown the influence of sterilization by radiation process in both the theophylline and the polymeric drug delivery matrix samples. The increasing of polymeric matrix crosslinking under radiation conditions retards the drug release while the theophylline structure is stable under the radiation (author)

  15. Contact matrix in dilute quantum systems (United States)

    Zhang, Shao-Liang; He, Mingyuan; Zhou, Qi


    Contact has been well established as an important quantity to govern dilute quantum systems, in which the pairwise correlation at short distance traces a broad range of thermodynamic properties. So far, most studies have focused on contact in individual angular momentum channels. Here we point out that, to have a complete description of the pairwise correlation in a general dilute quantum systems, contact should be defined as a matrix. Whereas the diagonal terms of such a matrix include contact of all partial wave scatterings, the off-diagonal terms characterize the coherence of the asymptotic pairwise wave function in the angular momentum space and determine important thermodynamic quantities including the momentum distribution. The contact matrix allows physicists to access unexplored connections between short-range correlations and macroscopic quantum phenomena. As an example, we show the direct connection between the contact matrix and order parameters of a superfluid with mixed partial waves.

  16. Matrix parameters and storage conditions of manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinfurtner, Karlheinz [Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology (IME), Schmallenberg (Germany)


    The literature study presents an overview of storage conditions for manure and information about important matrix parameters of manure such as dry matter content, pH value, total organic carbon, total nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen. The presented results show that for matrix parameters a dissimilarity of cattle and pig manure can be observed but no difference within the species for different production types occurred with exception of calves. A scenario for western and central European countries is derived. (orig.)

  17. Semisupervised kernel matrix learning by kernel propagation. (United States)

    Hu, Enliang; Chen, Songcan; Zhang, Daoqiang; Yin, Xuesong


    The goal of semisupervised kernel matrix learning (SS-KML) is to learn a kernel matrix on all the given samples on which just a little supervised information, such as class label or pairwise constraint, is provided. Despite extensive research, the performance of SS-KML still leaves some space for improvement in terms of effectiveness and efficiency. For example, a recent pairwise constraints propagation (PCP) algorithm has formulated SS-KML into a semidefinite programming (SDP) problem, but its computation is very expensive, which undoubtedly restricts PCPs scalability in practice. In this paper, a novel algorithm, called kernel propagation (KP), is proposed to improve the comprehensive performance in SS-KML. The main idea of KP is first to learn a small-sized sub-kernel matrix (named seed-kernel matrix) and then propagate it into a larger-sized full-kernel matrix. Specifically, the implementation of KP consists of three stages: 1) separate the supervised sample (sub)set X(l) from the full sample set X; 2) learn a seed-kernel matrix on X(l) through solving a small-scale SDP problem; and 3) propagate the learnt seed-kernel matrix into a full-kernel matrix on X . Furthermore, following the idea in KP, we naturally develop two conveniently realizable out-of-sample extensions for KML: one is batch-style extension, and the other is online-style extension. The experiments demonstrate that KP is encouraging in both effectiveness and efficiency compared with three state-of-the-art algorithms and its related out-of-sample extensions are promising too.

  18. Micromechanical Modeling of Woven Metal Matrix Composites (United States)

    Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy


    This report presents the results of an extensive micromechanical modeling effort for woven metal matrix composites. The model is employed to predict the mechanical response of 8-harness (8H) satin weave carbon/copper (C/Cu) composites. Experimental mechanical results for this novel high thermal conductivity material were recently reported by Bednarcyk et al. along with preliminary model results. The micromechanics model developed herein is based on an embedded approach. A micromechanics model for the local (micro-scale) behavior of the woven composite, the original method of cells (Aboudi), is embedded in a global (macro-scale) micromechanics model (the three-dimensional generalized method of cells (GMC-3D) (Aboudi). This approach allows representation of true repeating unit cells for woven metal matrix composites via GMC-3D, and representation of local effects, such as matrix plasticity, yarn porosity, and imperfect fiber-matrix bonding. In addition, the equations of GMC-3D were reformulated to significantly reduce the number of unknown quantities that characterize the deformation fields at the microlevel in order to make possible the analysis of actual microstructures of woven composites. The resulting micromechanical model (WCGMC) provides an intermediate level of geometric representation, versatility, and computational efficiency with respect to previous analytical and numerical models for woven composites, but surpasses all previous modeling work by allowing the mechanical response of a woven metal matrix composite, with an elastoplastic matrix, to be examined for the first time. WCGMC is employed to examine the effects of composite microstructure, porosity, residual stresses, and imperfect fiber-matrix bonding on the predicted mechanical response of 8H satin C/Cu. The previously reported experimental results are summarized, and the model predictions are compared to monotonic and cyclic tensile and shear test data. By considering appropriate levels of porosity

  19. Ubiquitination of specific mitochondrial matrix proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmann, Gilad [The Janet and David Polak Tumor and Vascular Biology Research Center and the Technion Integrated Cancer Center (TICC), The Rappaport Faculty of Medicine and Research Institute, Haifa, 31096 (Israel); Ziv, Tamar [The Smoler Proteomics Center, Faculty of Biology – Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, 32000 (Israel); Braten, Ori [The Janet and David Polak Tumor and Vascular Biology Research Center and the Technion Integrated Cancer Center (TICC), The Rappaport Faculty of Medicine and Research Institute, Haifa, 31096 (Israel); Admon, Arie [The Smoler Proteomics Center, Faculty of Biology – Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, 32000 (Israel); Udasin, Ronald G. [The Janet and David Polak Tumor and Vascular Biology Research Center and the Technion Integrated Cancer Center (TICC), The Rappaport Faculty of Medicine and Research Institute, Haifa, 31096 (Israel); Ciechanover, Aaron, E-mail: [The Janet and David Polak Tumor and Vascular Biology Research Center and the Technion Integrated Cancer Center (TICC), The Rappaport Faculty of Medicine and Research Institute, Haifa, 31096 (Israel)


    Several protein quality control systems in bacteria and/or mitochondrial matrix from lower eukaryotes are absent in higher eukaryotes. These are transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA), The N-end rule ATP-dependent protease ClpAP, and two more ATP-dependent proteases, HslUV and ClpXP (in yeast). The lost proteases resemble the 26S proteasome and the role of tmRNA and the N-end rule in eukaryotic cytosol is performed by the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS). Therefore, we hypothesized that the UPS might have substituted these systems – at least partially – in the mitochondrial matrix of higher eukaryotes. Using three independent experimental approaches, we demonstrated the presence of ubiquitinated proteins in the matrix of isolated yeast mitochondria. First, we show that isolated mitochondria contain ubiquitin (Ub) conjugates, which remained intact after trypsin digestion. Second, we demonstrate that the mitochondrial soluble fraction contains Ub-conjugates, several of which were identified by mass spectrometry and are localized to the matrix. Third, using immunoaffinity enrichment by specific antibodies recognizing digested ubiquitinated peptides, we identified a group of Ub-modified matrix proteins. The modification was further substantiated by separation on SDS-PAGE and immunoblots. Last, we attempted to identify the ubiquitin ligase(s) involved, and identified Dma1p as a trypsin-resistant protein in our mitochondrial preparations. Taken together, these data suggest a yet undefined role for the UPS in regulation of the mitochondrial matrix proteins. -- Highlights: •Mitochondrial matrix contains ubiquitinated proteins. •Ubiquitination occurs most probably in the matrix. •Dma1p is a ubiquitin ligase present in mitochondrial preparations.

  20. Data from acellular human heart matrix


    Sánchez, Pedro L; Fernández-Santos, Mª Eugenia; Espinosa, Mª Angeles; González-Nicolas, Mª Angeles; Acebes, Judith R; Costanza, Salvatore; Moscoso, Isabel; Rodríguez, Hugo; García, Julio; Romero, Jesús; Kren, Stefan M; Bermejo, Javier; Yotti, Raquel; del Villar, Candelas Pérez; Sanz-Ruiz, Ricardo


    Perfusion decellularization of cadaveric hearts removes cells and generates a cell-free extracellular matrix scaffold containing acellular vascular conduits, which are theoretically sufficient to perfuse and support tissue-engineered heart constructs. This article contains additional data of our experience decellularizing and testing structural integrity and composition of a large series of human hearts, “Acellular human heart matrix: a critical step toward whole heat grafts” (Sanchez et al.,...

  1. Quantized Matrix Algebras and Quantum Seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Hans Plesner; Pagani, Chiara


    We determine explicitly quantum seeds for classes of quantized matrix algebras. Furthermore, we obtain results on centres and block diagonal forms of these algebras. In the case where is an arbitrary root of unity, this further determines the degrees.......We determine explicitly quantum seeds for classes of quantized matrix algebras. Furthermore, we obtain results on centres and block diagonal forms of these algebras. In the case where is an arbitrary root of unity, this further determines the degrees....

  2. Recursive Approach in Sparse Matrix LU Factorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Dongarra


    Full Text Available This paper describes a recursive method for the LU factorization of sparse matrices. The recursive formulation of common linear algebra codes has been proven very successful in dense matrix computations. An extension of the recursive technique for sparse matrices is presented. Performance results given here show that the recursive approach may perform comparable to leading software packages for sparse matrix factorization in terms of execution time, memory usage, and error estimates of the solution.

  3. Embedded Lattice and Properties of Gram Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Futa Yuichi


    Full Text Available In this article, we formalize in Mizar [14] the definition of embedding of lattice and its properties. We formally define an inner product on an embedded module. We also formalize properties of Gram matrix. We formally prove that an inverse of Gram matrix for a rational lattice exists. Lattice of Z-module is necessary for lattice problems, LLL (Lenstra, Lenstra and Lov´asz base reduction algorithm [16] and cryptographic systems with lattice [17].

  4. Index matrices towards an augmented matrix calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Atanassov, Krassimir T


    This book presents the very concept of an index matrix and its related augmented matrix calculus in a comprehensive form. It mostly illustrates the exposition with examples related to the generalized nets and intuitionistic fuzzy sets which are examples of an extremely wide array of possible application areas. The present book contains the basic results of the author over index matrices and some of its open problems with the aim to stimulating more researchers to start working in this area.

  5. Polymer Matrix Composite Material Oxygen Compatibility (United States)

    Owens, Tom


    Carbon fiber/polymer matrix composite materials look promising as a material to construct liquid oxygen (LOX) tanks. Based on mechanical impact tests the risk will be greater than aluminum, however, the risk can probably be managed to an acceptable level. Proper tank design and operation can minimize risk. A risk assessment (hazard analysis) will be used to determine the overall acceptability for using polymer matrix composite materials.

  6. Semiclassical form factor of matrix element fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    Eckhardt, B; Eckhardt, Bruno; Main, Joerg


    We analyze within a semiclassical approximation the form factor for the fluctuations of quantum matrix elements around their classical average. We find two contributions: one is proportional to the form factor for the density of states, with an amplitude determined by the squared average of the matrix elements. The other is constant and related to the fluctuations of finite time classical trajectory segments around the phase space average. The results are illustrated for an observable in the quadratic Zeeman effect.



    K. Kandan; Senthilkumar,K.; Dhivya, K.


    This paper deals with the validation and design analysis of Matrix converter for variable frequency using mathematical equations. The analysis was done using Venturini modulation algorithm. The PI controller is used for Matrix converter to reduce Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) in the output current. The comparative study is done for open loop and closed loop PI compensation in MATLAB-Simulink. Furthermore, the output waveforms are produced with significant reduction in the Total Harmonic Dis...

  8. Spectral clustering based on learning similarity matrix. (United States)

    Park, Seyoung; Zhao, Hongyu; Birol, Inanc


    Single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) technology can generate genome-wide expression data at the single-cell levels. One important objective in scRNA-seq analysis is to cluster cells where each cluster consists of cells belonging to the same cell type based on gene expression patterns. We introduce a novel spectral clustering framework that imposes sparse structures on a target matrix. Specifically, we utilize multiple doubly stochastic similarity matrices to learn a similarity matrix, motivated by the observation that each similarity matrix can be a different informative representation of the data. We impose a sparse structure on the target matrix followed by shrinking pairwise differences of the rows in the target matrix, motivated by the fact that the target matrix should have these structures in the ideal case. We solve the proposed non-convex problem iteratively using the ADMM algorithm and show the convergence of the algorithm. We evaluate the performance of the proposed clustering method on various simulated as well as real scRNA-seq data, and show that it can identify clusters accurately and robustly. The algorithm is implemented in MATLAB. The source code can be downloaded at Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  9. Superficial Siderosis after Germinal Matrix Hemorrhage. (United States)

    Yilmaz, U; Meyer, S; Gortner, L; Körner, H; Türkyilmaz, M; Simgen, A; Reith, W; Mühl-Benninghaus, R


    Germinal matrix hemorrhage is a frequent complication of prematurity and can be associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcome, depending on its severity. In addition to parenchymal damage, intraventricular residues of hemorrhage and hydrocephalus MR imaging findings include superficial siderosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and location of superficial siderosis in patients with a history of germinal matrix hemorrhage. We retrospectively identified patients with a history of germinal matrix hemorrhage who underwent MR imaging in our institution between 2008 and 2016. Imaging was evaluated for the presence and location of superficial siderosis. The presence of subependymal siderosis and evidence of hydrocephalus were assessed. Thirty-seven patients with a history of germinal matrix hemorrhage were included; 86.5% had preterm births. The mean age at the first MR imaging was 386 days (range 2-5140 days). The prevalence of superficial siderosis was 67.6%. Superficial siderosis was detected significantly more often when MR imaging was performed within the first year of life (82.8% versus 12.5%, P germinal matrix hemorrhage, but it dissolves and has a low prevalence thereafter. A prospective analysis of its initial severity and speed of dissolution during this first year might add to our understanding of the pathophysiology of neurodevelopmental impairment after germinal matrix hemorrhages. © 2016 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  10. Matrix method for acoustic levitation simulation. (United States)

    Andrade, Marco A B; Perez, Nicolas; Buiochi, Flavio; Adamowski, Julio C


    A matrix method is presented for simulating acoustic levitators. A typical acoustic levitator consists of an ultrasonic transducer and a reflector. The matrix method is used to determine the potential for acoustic radiation force that acts on a small sphere in the standing wave field produced by the levitator. The method is based on the Rayleigh integral and it takes into account the multiple reflections that occur between the transducer and the reflector. The potential for acoustic radiation force obtained by the matrix method is validated by comparing the matrix method results with those obtained by the finite element method when using an axisymmetric model of a single-axis acoustic levitator. After validation, the method is applied in the simulation of a noncontact manipulation system consisting of two 37.9-kHz Langevin-type transducers and a plane reflector. The manipulation system allows control of the horizontal position of a small levitated sphere from -6 mm to 6 mm, which is done by changing the phase difference between the two transducers. The horizontal position of the sphere predicted by the matrix method agrees with the horizontal positions measured experimentally with a charge-coupled device camera. The main advantage of the matrix method is that it allows simulation of non-symmetric acoustic levitators without requiring much computational effort.

  11. Fast matrix multiplication and its algebraic neighbourhood (United States)

    Pan, V. Ya.


    Matrix multiplication is among the most fundamental operations of modern computations. By 1969 it was still commonly believed that the classical algorithm was optimal, although the experts already knew that this was not so. Worldwide interest in matrix multiplication instantly exploded in 1969, when Strassen decreased the exponent 3 of cubic time to 2.807. Then everyone expected to see matrix multiplication performed in quadratic or nearly quadratic time very soon. Further progress, however, turned out to be capricious. It was at stalemate for almost a decade, then a combination of surprising techniques (completely independent of Strassen's original ones and much more advanced) enabled a new decrease of the exponent in 1978–1981 and then again in 1986, to 2.376. By 2017 the exponent has still not passed through the barrier of 2.373, but most disturbing was the curse of recursion — even the decrease of exponents below 2.7733 required numerous recursive steps, and each of them squared the problem size. As a result, all algorithms supporting such exponents supersede the classical algorithm only for inputs of immense sizes, far beyond any potential interest for the user. We survey the long study of fast matrix multiplication, focusing on neglected algorithms for feasible matrix multiplication. We comment on their design, the techniques involved, implementation issues, the impact of their study on the modern theory and practice of Algebraic Computations, and perspectives for fast matrix multiplication. Bibliography: 163 titles.

  12. Genetic Relationships Between Chondrules, Rims and Matrix (United States)

    Huss, G. R.; Alexander, C. M. OD.; Palme, H.; Bland, P. A.; Wasson, J. T.


    The most primitive chondrites are composed of chondrules and chondrule fragments, various types of inclusions, discrete mineral grains, metal, sulfides, and fine-grained materials that occur as interchondrule matrix and as chondrule/inclusion rims. Understanding how these components are related is essential for understanding how chondrites and their constituents formed and were processed in the solar nebula. For example, were the first generations of chondrules formed by melting of matrix or matrix precursors? Did chondrule formation result in appreciable transfer of chondrule material into the matrix? Here, we consider three types of data: 1) compositional data for bulk chondrites and matrix, 2) mineralogical and textural information, and 3) the abundances and characteristics of presolar materials that reside in the matrix and rims. We use these data to evaluate the roles of evaporation and condensation, chondrule formation, mixing of different nebular components, and secondary processing both in the nebula and on the parent bodies. Our goal is to identify the things that are reasonably well established and to point out the areas that need additional work.

  13. Multi-threaded Sparse Matrix Sparse Matrix Multiplication for Many-Core and GPU Architectures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deveci, Mehmet [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Trott, Christian Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rajamanickam, Sivasankaran [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Sparse Matrix-Matrix multiplication is a key kernel that has applications in several domains such as scientific computing and graph analysis. Several algorithms have been studied in the past for this foundational kernel. In this paper, we develop parallel algorithms for sparse matrix- matrix multiplication with a focus on performance portability across different high performance computing architectures. The performance of these algorithms depend on the data structures used in them. We compare different types of accumulators in these algorithms and demonstrate the performance difference between these data structures. Furthermore, we develop a meta-algorithm, kkSpGEMM, to choose the right algorithm and data structure based on the characteristics of the problem. We show performance comparisons on three architectures and demonstrate the need for the community to develop two phase sparse matrix-matrix multiplication implementations for efficient reuse of the data structures involved.

  14. Method of producing a hybrid matrix fiber composite (United States)

    Deteresa, Steven J [Livermore, CA; Lyon, Richard E [Absecon, NJ; Groves, Scott E [Brentwood, CA


    Hybrid matrix fiber composites having enhanced compressive performance as well as enhanced stiffness, toughness and durability suitable for compression-critical applications. The methods for producing the fiber composites using matrix hybridization. The hybrid matrix fiber composites comprised of two chemically or physically bonded matrix materials, whereas the first matrix materials are used to impregnate multi-filament fibers formed into ribbons and the second matrix material is placed around and between the fiber ribbons that are impregnated with the first matrix material and both matrix materials are cured and solidified.

  15. Method of forming a ceramic matrix composite and a ceramic matrix component (United States)

    de Diego, Peter; Zhang, James


    A method of forming a ceramic matrix composite component includes providing a formed ceramic member having a cavity, filling at least a portion of the cavity with a ceramic foam. The ceramic foam is deposited on a barrier layer covering at least one internal passage of the cavity. The method includes processing the formed ceramic member and ceramic foam to obtain a ceramic matrix composite component. Also provided is a method of forming a ceramic matrix composite blade and a ceramic matrix composite component.

  16. Google matrix analysis of DNA sequences. (United States)

    Kandiah, Vivek; Shepelyansky, Dima L


    For DNA sequences of various species we construct the Google matrix [Formula: see text] of Markov transitions between nearby words composed of several letters. The statistical distribution of matrix elements of this matrix is shown to be described by a power law with the exponent being close to those of outgoing links in such scale-free networks as the World Wide Web (WWW). At the same time the sum of ingoing matrix elements is characterized by the exponent being significantly larger than those typical for WWW networks. This results in a slow algebraic decay of the PageRank probability determined by the distribution of ingoing elements. The spectrum of [Formula: see text] is characterized by a large gap leading to a rapid relaxation process on the DNA sequence networks. We introduce the PageRank proximity correlator between different species which determines their statistical similarity from the view point of Markov chains. The properties of other eigenstates of the Google matrix are also discussed. Our results establish scale-free features of DNA sequence networks showing their similarities and distinctions with the WWW and linguistic networks.

  17. Google matrix analysis of DNA sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Kandiah

    Full Text Available For DNA sequences of various species we construct the Google matrix [Formula: see text] of Markov transitions between nearby words composed of several letters. The statistical distribution of matrix elements of this matrix is shown to be described by a power law with the exponent being close to those of outgoing links in such scale-free networks as the World Wide Web (WWW. At the same time the sum of ingoing matrix elements is characterized by the exponent being significantly larger than those typical for WWW networks. This results in a slow algebraic decay of the PageRank probability determined by the distribution of ingoing elements. The spectrum of [Formula: see text] is characterized by a large gap leading to a rapid relaxation process on the DNA sequence networks. We introduce the PageRank proximity correlator between different species which determines their statistical similarity from the view point of Markov chains. The properties of other eigenstates of the Google matrix are also discussed. Our results establish scale-free features of DNA sequence networks showing their similarities and distinctions with the WWW and linguistic networks.

  18. Image encryption using the Sudoku matrix (United States)

    Wu, Yue; Zhou, Yicong; Noonan, Joseph P.; Panetta, Karen; Agaian, Sos


    This paper introduces a new effective and lossless image encryption algorithm using a Sudoku Matrix to scramble and encrypt the image. The new algorithm encrypts an image through a three stage process. In the first stage, a reference Sudoku matrix is generated as the foundation for the encryption and scrambling processes. The image pixels' intensities are then changed by using the reference Sudoku matrix values, and then the pixels' positions are shuffled using the Sudoku matrix as a mapping process. The advantages of this method is useful for efficiently encrypting a variety of digital images, such as binary images, gray images, and RGB images without any quality loss. The security keys of the presented algorithm are the combination of the parameters in a 1D chaotic logistic map, a parameter to control the size of Sudoku Matrix and the number of iteration times desired for scrambling. The possible security key space is extremely large. The principles of the presented scheme could be applied to provide security for a variety of systems including image, audio and video systems.

  19. Thermal stress effects in intermetallic matrix composites (United States)

    Wright, P. K.; Sensmeier, M. D.; Kupperman, D. S.; Wadley, H. N. G.


    Intermetallic matrix composites develop residual stresses from the large thermal expansion mismatch (delta-alpha) between the fibers and matrix. This work was undertaken to: establish improved techniques to measure these thermal stresses in IMC's; determine residual stresses in a variety of IMC systems by experiments and modeling; and, determine the effect of residual stresses on selected mechanical properties of an IMC. X ray diffraction (XRD), neutron diffraction (ND), synchrotron XRD (SXRD), and ultrasonics (US) techniques for measuring thermal stresses in IMC were examined and ND was selected as the most promising technique. ND was demonstrated on a variety of IMC systems encompassing Ti- and Ni-base matrices, SiC, W, and Al2O3 fibers, and different fiber fractions (Vf). Experimental results on these systems agreed with predictions of a concentric cylinder model. In SiC/Ti-base systems, little yielding was found and stresses were controlled primarily by delta-alpha and Vf. In Ni-base matrix systems, yield strength of the matrix and Vf controlled stress levels. The longitudinal residual stresses in SCS-6/Ti-24Al-llNb composite were modified by thermomechanical processing. Increasing residual stress decreased ultimate tensile strength in agreement with model predictions. Fiber pushout strength showed an unexpected inverse correlation with residual stress. In-plane shear yield strength showed no dependence on residual stress. Higher levels of residual tension led to higher fatigue crack growth rates, as suggested by matrix mean stress effects.

  20. Random matrix theory and symmetric spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caselle, M.; Magnea, U


    In this review we discuss the relationship between random matrix theories and symmetric spaces. We show that the integration manifolds of random matrix theories, the eigenvalue distribution, and the Dyson and boundary indices characterizing the ensembles are in strict correspondence with symmetric spaces and the intrinsic characteristics of their restricted root lattices. Several important results can be obtained from this identification. In particular the Cartan classification of triplets of symmetric spaces with positive, zero and negative curvature gives rise to a new classification of random matrix ensembles. The review is organized into two main parts. In Part I the theory of symmetric spaces is reviewed with particular emphasis on the ideas relevant for appreciating the correspondence with random matrix theories. In Part II we discuss various applications of symmetric spaces to random matrix theories and in particular the new classification of disordered systems derived from the classification of symmetric spaces. We also review how the mapping from integrable Calogero-Sutherland models to symmetric spaces can be used in the theory of random matrices, with particular consequences for quantum transport problems. We conclude indicating some interesting new directions of research based on these identifications.

  1. Spark plasma sintering of aluminum matrix composites (United States)

    Yadav, Vineet


    Aluminum matrix composites make a distinct category of advanced engineering materials having superior properties over conventional aluminum alloys. Aluminum matrix composites exhibit high hardness, yield strength, and excellent wear and corrosion resistance. Due to these attractive properties, aluminum matrix composites materials have many structural applications in the automotive and the aerospace industries. In this thesis, efforts are made to process high strength aluminum matrix composites which can be useful in the applications of light weight and strong materials. Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) is a relatively novel process where powder mixture is consolidated under the simultaneous influence of uniaxial pressure and pulsed direct current. In this work, SPS was used to process aluminum matrix composites having three different reinforcements: multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), silicon carbide (SiC), and iron-based metallic glass (MG). In Al-CNT composites, significant improvement in micro-hardness, nano-hardness, and compressive yield strength was observed. The Al-CNT composites further exhibited improved wear resistance and lower friction coefficient due to strengthening and self-lubricating effects of CNTs. In Al-SiC and Al-MG composites, microstructure, densification, and tribological behaviors were also studied. Reinforcing MG and SiC also resulted in increase in micro-hardness and wear resistance.

  2. Max–min distance nonnegative matrix factorization

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan


    Nonnegative Matrix Factorization (NMF) has been a popular representation method for pattern classification problems. It tries to decompose a nonnegative matrix of data samples as the product of a nonnegative basis matrix and a nonnegative coefficient matrix. The columns of the coefficient matrix can be used as new representations of these data samples. However, traditional NMF methods ignore class labels of the data samples. In this paper, we propose a novel supervised NMF algorithm to improve the discriminative ability of the new representation by using the class labels. Using the class labels, we separate all the data sample pairs into within-class pairs and between-class pairs. To improve the discriminative ability of the new NMF representations, we propose to minimize the maximum distance of the within-class pairs in the new NMF space, and meanwhile to maximize the minimum distance of the between-class pairs. With this criterion, we construct an objective function and optimize it with regard to basis and coefficient matrices, and slack variables alternatively, resulting in an iterative algorithm. The proposed algorithm is evaluated on three pattern classification problems and experiment results show that it outperforms the state-of-the-art supervised NMF methods.

  3. Phase diagram of matrix compressed sensing (United States)

    Schülke, Christophe; Schniter, Philip; Zdeborová, Lenka


    In the problem of matrix compressed sensing, we aim to recover a low-rank matrix from a few noisy linear measurements. In this contribution, we analyze the asymptotic performance of a Bayes-optimal inference procedure for a model where the matrix to be recovered is a product of random matrices. The results that we obtain using the replica method describe the state evolution of the Parametric Bilinear Generalized Approximate Message Passing (P-BiG-AMP) algorithm, recently introduced in J. T. Parker and P. Schniter [IEEE J. Select. Top. Signal Process. 10, 795 (2016), 10.1109/JSTSP.2016.2539123]. We show the existence of two different types of phase transition and their implications for the solvability of the problem, and we compare the results of our theoretical analysis to the numerical performance reached by P-BiG-AMP. Remarkably, the asymptotic replica equations for matrix compressed sensing are the same as those for a related but formally different problem of matrix factorization.

  4. Redesigning Triangular Dense Matrix Computations on GPUs

    KAUST Repository

    Charara, Ali


    A new implementation of the triangular matrix-matrix multiplication (TRMM) and the triangular solve (TRSM) kernels are described on GPU hardware accelerators. Although part of the Level 3 BLAS family, these highly computationally intensive kernels fail to achieve the percentage of the theoretical peak performance on GPUs that one would expect when running kernels with similar surface-to-volume ratio on hardware accelerators, i.e., the standard matrix-matrix multiplication (GEMM). The authors propose adopting a recursive formulation, which enriches the TRMM and TRSM inner structures with GEMM calls and, therefore, reduces memory traffic while increasing the level of concurrency. The new implementation enables efficient use of the GPU memory hierarchy and mitigates the latency overhead, to run at the speed of the higher cache levels. Performance comparisons show up to eightfold and twofold speedups for large dense matrix sizes, against the existing state-of-the-art TRMM and TRSM implementations from NVIDIA cuBLAS, respectively, across various GPU generations. Once integrated into high-level Cholesky-based dense linear algebra algorithms, the performance impact on the overall applications demonstrates up to fourfold and twofold speedups, against the equivalent native implementations, linked with cuBLAS TRMM and TRSM kernels, respectively. The new TRMM/TRSM kernel implementations are part of the open-source KBLAS software library ( and are lined up for integration into the NVIDIA cuBLAS library in the upcoming v8.0 release.

  5. Membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase-mediated angiogenesis in a fibrin-collagen matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collen, A.; Hanemaaijer, R.; Lupu, F.; Quax, P.H.A.; Lent, N. van; Grimbergen, J.; Peters, E.; Koolwijk, P.; Hinsbergh, V.W.M. van


    Adult angiogenesis, associated with pathologic conditions, is often accompanied by the formation of a fibrinous exudate. This temporary matrix consists mainly of fibrin but is intermingled with plasma proteins and collagen fibers. The formation of capillary structures in a fibrinous matrix in vivo

  6. The minimum amount of "matrix " needed for matrix-assisted pulsed laser deposition of biomolecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabetah, Marshall; Matei, Andreea; Constantinescu, Catalin


    of coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations are performed for a model lysozyme-water system, where the water serves the role of volatile "matrix" that drives the ejection of the biomolecules. The simulations reveal a remarkable ability of a small (5-10 wt %) amount of matrix to cause the ejection...

  7. Quaternion from rotation matrix. [four-parameter representation of coordinate transformation matrix (United States)

    Shepperd, S. W.


    A quaternion is regarded as a four-parameter representation of a coordinate transformation matrix, where the four components of the quaternion are treated on an equal basis. This leads to a unified, compact, and singularity-free approach to determining the quaternion when the matrix is given.

  8. Matrix transformation of Fibonacci band matrix on generalized $bv$-space and its dual spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupam Das


    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce a new sequence space $bv(\\hat{F}$ by using the Fibonacci band matrix $\\hat{F}.$ We also establish a few inclusion relations concerning this space and determine its $\\alpha-,\\beta-,\\gamma-$duals. Finally we characterize some matrix classes on the space $bv(\\hat{F}.$

  9. A framework for general sparse matrix-matrix multiplication on GPUs and heterogeneous processors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Weifeng; Vinter, Brian


    General sparse matrix-matrix multiplication (SpGEMM) is a fundamental building block for numerous applications such as algebraic multigrid method (AMG), breadth first search and shortest path problem. Compared to other sparse BLAS routines, an efficient parallel SpGEMM implementation has to handle...

  10. An Efficient GPU General Sparse Matrix-Matrix Multiplication for Irregular Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Weifeng; Vinter, Brian


    General sparse matrix-matrix multiplication (SpGEMM) is a fundamental building block for numerous applications such as algebraic multigrid method, breadth first search and shortest path problem. Compared to other sparse BLAS routines, an efficient parallel SpGEMM algorithm has to handle extra...

  11. Function of the sperm nuclear matrix. (United States)

    Shaman, Jeffrey A; Yamauchi, Yasuhiro; Ward, W Steven


    Mammalian spermatozoa contain some of the most highly compact chromatin. This is due to the DNA binding proteins, the protamines, which replace most of the histones during spermiogenesis. This chromatin, however, shares some features with somatic cell chromatin. One of these is the organization of DNA into loop domains attached at their bases to a proteinaceous nuclear matrix. Several groups have shown that the sites at which DNA associates with the sperm nuclear matrix contain chromatin structures that are linked with specific functions. Recent data also suggest that the sperm nuclear matrix plays essential roles in the paternal pronucleus of the newly fertilized oocyte, suggesting that the sperm cell provides more information to the new embryo than solely the genetic material it delivers. Here, we will review these data which together give insight into the functional significance and requirements of sperm nuclear structure.

  12. Matrix elements from moments of correlation functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Chia Cheng [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Bouchard, Chris [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Orginos, Konstantinos [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Richards, David G. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)


    Momentum-space derivatives of matrix elements can be related to their coordinate-space moments through the Fourier transform. We derive these expressions as a function of momentum transfer Q2 for asymptotic in/out states consisting of a single hadron. We calculate corrections to the finite volume moments by studying the spatial dependence of the lattice correlation functions. This method permits the computation of not only the values of matrix elements at momenta accessible on the lattice, but also the momentum-space derivatives, providing {\\it a priori} information about the Q2 dependence of form factors. As a specific application we use the method, at a single lattice spacing and with unphysically heavy quarks, to directly obtain the slope of the isovector form factor at various Q2, whence the isovector charge radius. The method has potential application in the calculation of any hadronic matrix element with momentum transfer, including those relevant to hadronic weak decays.

  13. Nanomechanics of the Cartilage Extracellular Matrix (United States)

    Han, Lin; Grodzinsky, Alan J.; Ortiz, Christine


    Cartilage is a hydrated biomacromolecular fiber composite located at the ends of long bones that enables proper joint lubrication, articulation, loading, and energy dissipation. Degradation of extracellular matrix molecular components and changes in their nanoscale structure greatly influence the macroscale behavior of the tissue and result in dysfunction with age, injury, and diseases such as osteoarthritis. Here, the application of the field of nanomechanics to cartilage is reviewed. Nanomechanics involves the measurement and prediction of nanoscale forces and displacements, intra- and intermolecular interactions, spatially varying mechanical properties, and other mechanical phenomena existing at small length scales. Experimental nanomechanics and theoretical nanomechanics have been applied to cartilage at varying levels of material complexity, e.g., nanoscale properties of intact tissue, the matrix associated with single cells, biomimetic molecular assemblies, and individual extracellular matrix biomolecules (such as aggrecan, collagen, and hyaluronan). These studies have contributed to establishing a fundamental mechanism-based understanding of native and engineered cartilage tissue function, quality, and pathology.

  14. Interface matrix method in AFEN framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pogosbekyan, Leonid; Cho, Jin Young; Kim, Young Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    In this study, we extend the application of the interface-matrix(IM) method for reflector modeling to Analytic Flux Expansion Nodal (AFEN) method. This include the modifications of the surface-averaged net current continuity and the net leakage balance conditions for IM method in accordance with AFEN formula. AFEN-interface matrix (AFEN-IM) method has been tested against ZION-1 benchmark problem. The numerical result of AFEN-IM method shows 1.24% of maximum error and 0.42% of root-mean square error in assembly power distribution, and 0.006% {Delta} k of neutron multiplication factor. This result proves that the interface-matrix method for reflector modeling can be useful in AFEN method. 3 refs., 4 figs. (Author)

  15. Google matrix analysis of directed networks (United States)

    Ermann, Leonardo; Frahm, Klaus M.; Shepelyansky, Dima L.


    In the past decade modern societies have developed enormous communication and social networks. Their classification and information retrieval processing has become a formidable task for the society. Because of the rapid growth of the World Wide Web, and social and communication networks, new mathematical methods have been invented to characterize the properties of these networks in a more detailed and precise way. Various search engines extensively use such methods. It is highly important to develop new tools to classify and rank a massive amount of network information in a way that is adapted to internal network structures and characteristics. This review describes the Google matrix analysis of directed complex networks demonstrating its efficiency using various examples including the World Wide Web, Wikipedia, software architectures, world trade, social and citation networks, brain neural networks, DNA sequences, and Ulam networks. The analytical and numerical matrix methods used in this analysis originate from the fields of Markov chains, quantum chaos, and random matrix theory.

  16. A review of Indirect Matrix Converter Topologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem Rahmani


    Full Text Available Abstract—Matrix Converter (MC is a modern direct AC/AC electrical power converter without dc-link capacitor. MC is operated in four quadrant, assuring a control of the output voltage, amplitude and frequency. The matrix converter has recently attracted significant attention among researchers and it has become increasing attractive for applications of wind energy conversion, military power supplies, induction motor drives, etc. Recently, different MC topologies have been proposed and developed which have their own advantages and disadvantages. Matrix converter can be classified as direct and indirect structures. The direct one has been elaborated in previous work. In this paper the indirect MCs are reviewed. Different characteristics of the indirect MC topologies are mentioned to show the strengths and weaknesses of such converter topologies.

  17. Resolving resonances in R-matrix calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, J.M.; Bautista, Manuel A. [Centro de Fisica, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas (IVIC), Caracas (Venezuela)


    We present a technique to obtain detailed resonance structures from R-matrix calculations of atomic cross sections for both collisional and radiative processes. The resolving resonances (RR) method relies on the QB method of Quigley-Berrington (Quigley L, Berrington K A and Pelan J 1998 Comput. Phys. Commun. 114 225) to find the position and width of resonances directly from the reactance matrix. Then one determines the symmetry parameters of these features and generates an energy mesh whereby fully resolved cross sections are calculated with minimum computational cost. The RR method is illustrated with the calculation of the photoionization cross sections and the unified recombination rate coefficients of Fe XXIV, O VI, and Fe XVII. The RR method reduces numerical errors arising from unresolved R-matrix cross sections in the computation of synthetic bound-free opacities, thermally averaged collision strengths and recombination rate coefficients. (author)

  18. Interfaces between a fibre and its matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lilholt, Hans; Sørensen, Bent F.


    The interface between a fibre and its matrix represents an important element in the characterization and exploitation of composite materials. Both theoretical models and analyses of experimental data have been presented in the literature since modern composite were developed and many experiments......, the interfacial energy [J/m2], the interfacial frictional shear stress [MPa] and the mismatch strain [-] between fibre and matrix. The model has been used for the different modes of fibre pull-out and fibre fragmentation. In this paper it is demonstrated that the governing equations for the experimental...... parameters (applied load, debond length and relative fibre/matrix displacement) are rather similar for these test modes. A simplified analysis allows the direct determination of the three interface parameters from two plots for the experimental data. The complete analysis is demonstrated for steel fibres...

  19. Effective Lagrangians and chiral random matrix theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halasz, M.A.; Verbaarschot, J.J.M. [Department of Physics, State University of New York, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States)


    Recently, sum rules were derived for the inverse eigenvalues of the Dirac operator. They were obtained in two different ways: (i) starting from the low-energy effective Lagrangian and (ii) starting from a random matrix theory with the symmetries of the Dirac operator. This suggests that the effective theory can be obtained directly from the random matrix theory. Previously, this was shown for three or more colors with fundamental fermions. In this paper we construct the effective theory from a random matrix theory for two colors in the fundamental representation and for an arbitrary number of colors in the adjoint representation. We construct a fermionic partition function for Majorana fermions in Euclidean spacetime. Their reality condition is formulated in terms of complex conjugation of the second kind.

  20. Random matrix theory with an external source

    CERN Document Server

    Brézin, Edouard


    This is a first book to show that the theory of the Gaussian random matrix is essential to understand the universal correlations with random fluctuations and to demonstrate that it is useful to evaluate topological universal quantities. We consider Gaussian random matrix models in the presence of a deterministic matrix source. In such models the correlation functions are known exactly for an arbitrary source and for any size of the matrices. The freedom given by the external source allows for various tunings to different classes of universality. The main interest is to use this freedom to compute various topological invariants for surfaces such as the intersection numbers for curves drawn on a surface of given genus with marked points, Euler characteristics, and the Gromov–Witten invariants. A remarkable duality for the average of characteristic polynomials is essential for obtaining such topological invariants. The analysis is extended to nonorientable surfaces and to surfaces with boundaries.

  1. Statistical properties of random matrix product states (United States)

    Garnerone, Silvano; de Oliveira, Thiago R.; Haas, Stephan; Zanardi, Paolo


    We study the set of random matrix product states (RMPS) introduced by Garnerone, de Oliveira, and Zanardi [S. Garnerone, T. R. de Oliveira, and P. Zanardi, Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.81.032336 81, 032336 (2010)] as a tool to explore foundational aspects of quantum statistical mechanics. In the present work, we provide an accurate numerical and analytical investigation of the properties of RMPS. We calculate the average state of the ensemble in the nonhomogeneous case, and numerically check the validity of this result. We also suggest using RMPS as a tool to approximate properties of general quantum random states. The numerical simulations presented here support the accuracy and efficiency of this approximation. These results suggest that any generalized canonical state can be approximated with high probability by the reduced density matrix of a RMPS, if the average matrix product states coincide with the associated microcanonical ensemble.

  2. Dentin Matrix Proteins in Bone Tissue Engineering. (United States)

    Ravindran, Sriram; George, Anne


    Dentin and bone are mineralized tissue matrices comprised of collagen fibrils and reinforced with oriented crystalline hydroxyapatite. Although both tissues perform different functionalities, they are assembled and orchestrated by mesenchymal cells that synthesize both collagenous and noncollagenous proteins albeit in different proportions. The dentin matrix proteins (DMPs) have been studied in great detail in recent years due to its inherent calcium binding properties in the extracellular matrix resulting in tissue calcification. Recent studies have shown that these proteins can serve both as intracellular signaling proteins leading to induction of stem cell differentiation and also function as nucleating proteins in the extracellular matrix. These properties make the DMPs attractive candidates for bone and dentin tissue regeneration. This chapter will provide an overview of the DMPs, their functionality and their proven and possible applications with respect to bone tissue engineering.

  3. Betatron coupling: Merging Hamiltonian and matrix approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Calaga


    Full Text Available Betatron coupling is usually analyzed using either matrix formalism or Hamiltonian perturbation theory. The latter is less exact but provides a better physical insight. In this paper direct relations are derived between the two formalisms. This makes it possible to interpret the matrix approach in terms of resonances, as well as use results of both formalisms indistinctly. An approach to measure the complete coupling matrix and its determinant from turn-by-turn data is presented. Simulations using methodical accelerator design MAD-X, an accelerator design and tracking program, were performed to validate the relations and understand the scope of their application to real accelerators such as the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider.

  4. Bioengineering Human Myocardium on Native Extracellular Matrix (United States)

    Guyette, Jacques P.; Charest, Jonathan M; Mills, Robert W; Jank, Bernhard J.; Moser, Philipp T.; Gilpin, Sarah E.; Gershlak, Joshua R.; Okamoto, Tatsuya; Gonzalez, Gabriel; Milan, David J.; Gaudette, Glenn R.; Ott, Harald C.


    Rationale More than 25 million individuals suffer from heart failure worldwide, with nearly 4,000 patients currently awaiting heart transplantation in the United States. Donor organ shortage and allograft rejection remain major limitations with only about 2,500 hearts transplanted each year. As a theoretical alternative to allotransplantation, patient-derived bioartificial myocardium could provide functional support and ultimately impact the treatment of heart failure. Objective The objective of this study is to translate previous work to human scale and clinically relevant cells, for the bioengineering of functional myocardial tissue based on the combination of human cardiac matrix and human iPS-derived cardiac myocytes. Methods and Results To provide a clinically relevant tissue scaffold, we translated perfusion-decellularization to human scale and obtained biocompatible human acellular cardiac scaffolds with preserved extracellular matrix composition, architecture, and perfusable coronary vasculature. We then repopulated this native human cardiac matrix with cardiac myocytes derived from non-transgenic human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and generated tissues of increasing three-dimensional complexity. We maintained such cardiac tissue constructs in culture for 120 days to demonstrate definitive sarcomeric structure, cell and matrix deformation, contractile force, and electrical conduction. To show that functional myocardial tissue of human scale can be built on this platform, we then partially recellularized human whole heart scaffolds with human iPSC-derived cardiac myocytes. Under biomimetic culture, the seeded constructs developed force-generating human myocardial tissue, showed electrical conductivity, left ventricular pressure development, and metabolic function. Conclusions Native cardiac extracellular matrix scaffolds maintain matrix components and structure to support the seeding and engraftment of human iPS-derived cardiac myocytes, and enable

  5. A fixed point method to compute solvents of matrix polynomials


    Marcos, Fernando; Pereira, Edgar


    Matrix polynomials play an important role in the theory of matrix differential equations. We develop a fixed point method to compute solutions of matrix polynomials equations, where the matricial elements of the matrix polynomial are considered separately as complex polynomials. Numerical examples illustrate the method presented.

  6. The Role of Matrix Metalloproteinases in Renal Diseases


    Funda SAĞLAM


    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of zinc dependent proteinases and the main promoters of extracellular matrix degradation. Their role in renal diseases is now being understood better. Several progressive renal diseases are characterized with persistent cell proliferation and abnormal production of extracellular matrix by mesengial cells. Understanding mesengial cell proliferation and the factors regulating extracellular matrix metabolism is therefore becoming more important. MMPs...

  7. Role of work hardening characteristics of matrix alloys in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The strengthening of particulate reinforced metal–matrix composites is associated with a high dislocation density in the matrix due to the difference in coefficient of thermal expansion between the reinforcement and the matrix. While this is valid, the role of work hardening characteristics of the matrix alloys in strengthening of ...

  8. 48 CFR 1652.370 - Use of the matrix. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Use of the matrix. 1652.370... HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION CLAUSES AND FORMS CONTRACT CLAUSES FEHBP Clause Matrix 1652.370 Use of the matrix. (a) The matrix in this section lists the FAR and FEHBAR clauses to be used with...

  9. Formulation and Evaluation of Tramadol HCl Matrix Tablets Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To formulate and prepare controlled release (CR) matrix tablets of tramadol HCl using. Carbopol ... Different natural and synthetic polymers are used for CR matrix systems which have the property to extend the release of drug from matrix system [2]. In matrix systems, the ..... Behera S. Investigation of Drug Polymer.

  10. A Diode Matrix model M792

    CERN Multimedia

    A diode matrix is an extremely low-density form of read-only memory. It's one of the earliest forms of ROMs (dating back to the 1950s). Each bit in the ROM is represented by the presence or absence of one diode. The ROM is easily user-writable using a soldering iron and pair of wire cutters.This diode matrix board is a floppy disk boot ROM for a PDP-11, and consists of 32 16-bit words. When you access an address on the ROM, the circuit returns the represented data from that address.

  11. Cern DD4424 ROM Diode Matrix

    CERN Multimedia

    A diode matrix is an extremely low-density form of read-only memory. It's one of the earliest forms of ROMs (dating back to the 1950s). Each bit in the ROM is represented by the presence or absence of one diode. The ROM is easily user-writable using a soldering iron and pair of wire cutters.This diode matrix board is a floppy disk boot ROM for a PDP-11, and consists of 32 16-bit words. When you access an address on the ROM, the circuit returns the represented data from that address.

  12. New components of the Golgi matrix (United States)

    Xiang, Yi; Wang, Yanzhuang


    The eukaryotic Golgi apparatus is characterized by a stack of flattened cisternae that are surrounded by transport vesicles. The organization and function of the Golgi require Golgi matrix proteins, including GRASPs and golgins, which exist primarily as fiber-like bridges between Golgi cisternae or between cisternae and vesicles. In this review, we highlight recent findings on Golgi matrix proteins, including their roles in maintaining the Golgi structure, vesicle tethering, and novel, unexpected functions. These new discoveries further our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that maintain the structure and the function of the Golgi, as well as its relationship with other cellular organelles such as the centrosome. PMID:21494806

  13. Unitarity Tests of the Neutrino Mixing Matrix

    CERN Document Server

    Qian, X; Diwan, M; Vogel, P


    We discuss unitarity tests of the neutrino mixing (PMNS) matrix. We show that the combination of solar neutrino experiments, medium-baseline and short-baseline reactor antineutrino experiments make it possible to perform the first direct unitarity test of the PMNS matrix. In particular, the measurements of Daya Bay and JUNO (a next generation medium-baseline reactor experiment) will lay the foundation of a precise unitarity test of $|U_{e1}|^2 + |U_{e2}|^2 + |U_{e3}|^2 = 1 $. Furthermore, the precision measurement of $\\sin^22\\theta_{13}$ in both the $\\bar{\

  14. Conducted Emission Evaluation for Direct Matrix Converters (United States)

    Nothofer, A.; Tarisciotti, L.; Greedy, S.; Empringham, L.; De Lillo, L.; Degano, M.


    Matrix converters have been recently proposed as an alternative solution to the standard back-to-back converter in aerospace applications. However, Electromagnetic Interference (EMI), in particular, conducted emissions represent a critical aspect for this converter family. Direct Matrix Converter (DMC) are usually modelled only at the normal operating frequency, but for the research presented in this paper, the model is modified in order to include a detailed high frequency description, which is of interest for conducted emission studies.This paper analyzes the performance of DMC, when different control and modulation techniques are used. Experimental results are shown to validate the simulation models.

  15. Algorithms for quadratic matrix and vector equations

    CERN Document Server

    Poloni, Federico


    This book is devoted to studying algorithms for the solution of a class of quadratic matrix and vector equations. These equations appear, in different forms, in several practical applications, especially in applied probability and control theory. The equations are first presented using a novel unifying approach; then, specific numerical methods are presented for the cases most relevant for applications, and new algorithms and theoretical results developed by the author are presented. The book focuses on “matrix multiplication-rich” iterations such as cyclic reduction and the structured doubling algorithm (SDA) and contains a variety of new research results which, as of today, are only available in articles or preprints.

  16. Computing multiple integrals involving matrix exponentials (United States)

    Carbonell, F.; Jimenez, J. C.; Pedroso, L. M.


    In this paper, a generalization of a formula proposed by Van Loan [Computing integrals involving the matrix exponential, IEEE Trans. Automat. Control 23 (1978) 395-404] for the computation of multiple integrals of exponential matrices is introduced. In this way, the numerical evaluation of such integrals is reduced to the use of a conventional algorithm to compute matrix exponentials. The formula is applied for evaluating some kinds of integrals that frequently emerge in a number classical mathematical subjects in the framework of differential equations, numerical methods and control engineering applications.

  17. Matrix representation of a Neural Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bjørn Klint

    Processing, by David Rummelhart (Rummelhart 1986) for an easy-to-read introduction. What the paper does explain is how a matrix representation of a neural net allows for a very simple implementation. The matrix representation is introduced in (Rummelhart 1986, chapter 9), but only for a two-layer linear...... network and the feedforward algorithm. This paper develops the idea further to three-layer non-linear networks and the backpropagation algorithm. Figure 1 shows the layout of a three-layer network. There are I input nodes, J hidden nodes and K output nodes all indexed from 0. Bias-node for the hidden...

  18. Diffusion method in random matrix theory (United States)

    Grela, Jacek


    We introduce a calculational tool useful in computing ratios and products of characteristic polynomials averaged over Gaussian measures with an external source. The method is based on Dyson’s Brownian motion and Grassmann/complex integration formulas for determinants. The resulting formulas are exact for finite matrix size N and form integral representations convenient for large N asymptotics. Quantities obtained by the method are interpreted as averages over standard matrix models. We provide several explicit and novel calculations with special emphasis on the β =2 Girko-Ginibre ensembles.

  19. Quark Spectra, Topology, and Random Matrix Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, R.G.; Heller, U.M. [SCRI, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32306-4130 (United States); Kiskis, J. [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Narayanan, R. [Department of Physics, Building 510A, Brookhaven National Laboratory, P.O. Box 5000, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)


    Quark spectra in QCD are linked to fundamental properties of the theory including the identification of pions as the Goldstone bosons of spontaneously broken chiral symmetry. The lattice overlap Dirac operator provides a nonperturbative, ultraviolet-regularized description of quarks with the correct chiral symmetry. Properties of the spectrum of this operator and their relation to random matrix theory are studied here. In particular, the predictions from chiral random matrix theory in topologically nontrivial gauge field sectors are tested for the first time. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  20. Stochastic R matrix for Uq (An(1)) (United States)

    Kuniba, A.; Mangazeev, V. V.; Maruyama, S.; Okado, M.


    We show that the quantum R matrix for symmetric tensor representations of Uq (An(1)) satisfies the sum rule required for its stochastic interpretation under a suitable gauge. Its matrix elements at a special point of the spectral parameter are found to factorize into the form that naturally extends Povolotsky's local transition rate in the q-Hahn process for n = 1. Based on these results we formulate new discrete and continuous time integrable Markov processes on a one-dimensional chain in terms of n species of particles obeying asymmetric stochastic dynamics. Bethe ansatz eigenvalues of the Markov matrices are also given.

  1. Geometric Aspects of Iterated Matrix Multiplication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gesmundo, Fulvio


    This paper studies geometric properties of the Iterated Matrix Multiplication polynomial and the hypersurface that it defines. We focus on geometric aspects that may be relevant for complexity theory such as the symmetry group of the polynomial, the dual variety and the Jacobian loci of the hyper......This paper studies geometric properties of the Iterated Matrix Multiplication polynomial and the hypersurface that it defines. We focus on geometric aspects that may be relevant for complexity theory such as the symmetry group of the polynomial, the dual variety and the Jacobian loci...

  2. Matrix Tricks for Linear Statistical Models

    CERN Document Server

    Puntanen, Simo; Styan, George PH


    In teaching linear statistical models to first-year graduate students or to final-year undergraduate students there is no way to proceed smoothly without matrices and related concepts of linear algebra; their use is really essential. Our experience is that making some particular matrix tricks very familiar to students can substantially increase their insight into linear statistical models (and also multivariate statistical analysis). In matrix algebra, there are handy, sometimes even very simple "tricks" which simplify and clarify the treatment of a problem - both for the student and

  3. How to get the Matrix Organization to Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burton, Richard M.; Obel, Børge; Håkonsson, Dorthe Døjbak


    a matrix to work, taking a multi-contingency perspective. We translate the matrix concept for designers and managers who are considering a matrix organization and argue that three factors are critical for its success: (1) Strong purpose: Only choose the matrix structure if there are strong reasons...... for doing so, (2) Alignment among contingencies: A matrix can only be successful if key contingencies are aligned with the matrix’s purpose, and (3) Management of junctions: The success of a matrix depends on how well activities at the junctions of the matrix are managed....

  4. The transfer matrix in four-dimensional CDT


    Ambjorn, Jan; Gizbert-Studnicki, Jakub; Görlich, Andrzej; Jurkiewicz, Jerzy


    The Causal Dynamical Triangulation model of quantum gravity (CDT) has a transfer matrix, relating spatial geometries at adjacent (discrete lattice) times. The transfer matrix uniquely determines the theory. We show that the measurements of the scale factor of the (CDT) universe are well described by an effective transfer matrix where the matrix elements are labeled only by the scale factor. Using computer simulations we determine the effective transfer matrix elements and show how they relate...

  5. An Interactive System of Computer Generated Graphic Displays for Motivating Meaningful Learning of Matrix Operations and Concepts of Matrix Algebra (United States)


    item$S, TLCB%, TLCRZ, TLRB%, TLRRZ, TLRA%,_ TLCA %, BClZ, BRIl COMMON A%, B% COMMON SHARED ROWA%, COLB%, ACBR% ’CALL intro CLEAR , , 1000 ’Increase...MATRIX BOXES TLRA% = 10 ’Top Left Row A MATRIX TLCA % = 16 ’Top Left Column A MATRIX TLCB% = 30 ’Top Left Column B MATRIX TLRB% = 10 ’Top Left row B...MATRIX TLCR% = 45 ’Top Left Column R MATRIX TLRR% = 10 ’Top Left Row R MATRIX IF COLA% 1 THEN ’one column of A TLCA % TLCA % + 13 TLCB% =TLCB% + 7 TLCR

  6. Matrix diffusion coefficients in volcanic rocks at the Nevada test site: Influence of matrix porosity, matrix permeability, and fracture coating minerals (United States)

    Reimus, Paul W.; Callahan, Timothy J.; Ware, S. Doug; Haga, Marc J.; Counce, Dale A.


    Diffusion cell experiments were conducted to measure nonsorbing solute matrix diffusion coefficients in forty-seven different volcanic rock matrix samples from eight different locations (with multiple depth intervals represented at several locations) at the Nevada Test Site. The solutes used in the experiments included bromide, iodide, pentafluorobenzoate (PFBA), and tritiated water ( 3HHO). The porosity and saturated permeability of most of the diffusion cell samples were measured to evaluate the correlation of these two variables with tracer matrix diffusion coefficients divided by the free-water diffusion coefficient ( Dm/ D*). To investigate the influence of fracture coating minerals on matrix diffusion, ten of the diffusion cells represented paired samples from the same depth interval in which one sample contained a fracture surface with mineral coatings and the other sample consisted of only pure matrix. The log of ( Dm/ D*) was found to be positively correlated with both the matrix porosity and the log of matrix permeability. A multiple linear regression analysis indicated that both parameters contributed significantly to the regression at the 95% confidence level. However, the log of the matrix diffusion coefficient was more highly-correlated with the log of matrix permeability than with matrix porosity, which suggests that matrix diffusion coefficients, like matrix permeabilities, have a greater dependence on the interconnectedness of matrix porosity than on the matrix porosity itself. The regression equation for the volcanic rocks was found to provide satisfactory predictions of log( Dm/ D*) for other types of rocks with similar ranges of matrix porosity and permeability as the volcanic rocks, but it did a poorer job predicting log( Dm/ D*) for rocks with lower porosities and/or permeabilities. The presence of mineral coatings on fracture walls did not appear to have a significant effect on matrix diffusion in the ten paired diffusion cell experiments.

  7. Error Analysis of Band Matrix Method


    Taniguchi, Takeo; Soga, Akira


    Numerical error in the solution of the band matrix method based on the elimination method in single precision is investigated theoretically and experimentally, and the behaviour of the truncation error and the roundoff error is clarified. Some important suggestions for the useful application of the band solver are proposed by using the results of above error analysis.

  8. Silica gel matrix immobilized Chlorophyta hydrodictyon africanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Aug 5, 2015 ... Chlorophyta hydrodictyon africanum was immobilized on a silica gel matrix to improve its mechanical properties. The algae-silica gel adsorbent was used for batch sorption studies of a cationic dye, methylene blue (MB). Optimum adsorption was obtained with a dosage of 0.8 g bio sorbent. Results.

  9. Differential analysis of matrix convex functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank; Tomiyama, Jun


    We analyze matrix convex functions of a fixed order defined in a real interval by differential methods as opposed to the characterization in terms of divided differences given by Kraus [F. Kraus, Über konvekse Matrixfunktionen, Math. Z. 41 (1936) 18-42]. We obtain for each order conditions for ma...

  10. Involution symmetries and the PMNS matrix

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Oct 9, 2017 ... C S Lam has suggested that the PMNS matrix (or at least some of its elements) can be predicted by embedding the residual symmetry of the leptonic mass terms into a bigger symmetry. We analyse the possibility that the residual symmetries consist of involution generators only and explore how Lam's idea ...

  11. 5D Black Holes and Matrix Strings


    Dijkgraaf, R; Verlinde, E.; Verlinde, H.


    We derive the world-volume theory, the (non)-extremal entropy and background geometry of black holes and black strings constructed out of the NS IIA fivebrane within the framework of matrix theory. The CFT description of strings propagating in the black hole geometry arises as an effective field theory.

  12. Simulating Microfracture In Metal-Matrix Composites (United States)

    Mital, Subodh K.; Chamis, Christos C.; Gotsis, Pascal K.


    Computational procedures developed for simulating microfracture in metal-matrix/fiber composite materials under mechanical and/or thermal loads at ambient and high temperatures. Procedures evaluate microfracture behavior of composites, establish hierarchies and sequences of fracture modes, and examine influences of compliant layers and partial debonding on properties of composites and on initiation of microfractures in them.

  13. Comparison of transition-matrix sampling procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yevick, D.; Reimer, M.; Tromborg, Bjarne


    We compare the accuracy of the multicanonical procedure with that of transition-matrix models of static and dynamic communication system properties incorporating different acceptance rules. We find that for appropriate ranges of the underlying numerical parameters, algorithmically simple yet high...... accurate procedures can be employed in place of the standard multicanonical sampling algorithm....

  14. The Square Root of a Matrix


    Abadir, Karim M.


    This note derives an explicit formula for the numerical calculation of the square root of a matrix, when this function exists. An example is given as an illustration of the formula. The condition for the existence of the square root is also given.

  15. Rate matrix estimation from site frequency data. (United States)

    Burden, Conrad J; Tang, Yurong


    A procedure is described for estimating evolutionary rate matrices from observed site frequency data. The procedure assumes (1) that the data are obtained from a constant size population evolving according to a stationary Wright-Fisher or decoupled Moran model; (2) that the data consist of a multiple alignment of a moderate number of sequenced genomes drawn randomly from the population; and (3) that within the genome a large number of independent, neutral sites evolving with a common mutation rate matrix can be identified. No restrictions are imposed on the scaled rate matrix other than that the off-diagonal elements are positive, their sum is ≪1, and that the rows of the matrix sum to zero. In particular the rate matrix is not assumed to be reversible. The key to the method is an approximate stationary solution to the diffusion limit, forward Kolmogorov equation for neutral evolution in the limit of low mutation rates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Incremental Nonnegative Matrix Factorization for Face Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Sheng Chen


    Full Text Available Nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF is a promising approach for local feature extraction in face recognition tasks. However, there are two major drawbacks in almost all existing NMF-based methods. One shortcoming is that the computational cost is expensive for large matrix decomposition. The other is that it must conduct repetitive learning, when the training samples or classes are updated. To overcome these two limitations, this paper proposes a novel incremental nonnegative matrix factorization (INMF for face representation and recognition. The proposed INMF approach is based on a novel constraint criterion and our previous block strategy. It thus has some good properties, such as low computational complexity, sparse coefficient matrix. Also, the coefficient column vectors between different classes are orthogonal. In particular, it can be applied to incremental learning. Two face databases, namely FERET and CMU PIE face databases, are selected for evaluation. Compared with PCA and some state-of-the-art NMF-based methods, our INMF approach gives the best performance.

  17. Opportunity potential matrix for Atlantic Canadians (United States)

    Greg Danchuk; Ed Thomson


    Opportunity for provision of Parks Service benefit to Atlantic Canadians was investigated by mapping travel behaviour into a matrix in terms of origin, season, purpose, distance, time, and destination. Findings identified potential for benefit in several activity areas, particularly within residents' own province.

  18. Electromagnetic Compatibility of Matrix Converter System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fligl


    Full Text Available The presented paper deals with matrix converters pulse width modulation strategies design with emphasis on the electromagnetic compatibility. Matrix converters provide an all-silicon solution to the problem of converting AC power from one frequency to another, offering almost all the features required of an ideal static frequency changer. They possess many advantages compared to the conventional voltage or current source inverters. A matrix converter does not require energy storage components as a bulky capacitor or an inductance in the DC-link, and enables the bi-directional power flow between the power supply and load. The most of the contemporary modulation strategies are able to provide practically sinusoidal waveforms of the input and output currents with negligible low order harmonics, and to control the input displacement factor. The perspective of matrix converters regarding EMC in comparison with other types of converters is brightly evident because it is no need to use any equipment for power factor correction and current and voltage harmonics reduction. Such converter with proper control is properly compatible both with the supply mains and with the supplied load. A special digital control system was developed for the realized experimental test bed which makes it possible to achieve greater throughput of the digital control system and its variability.

  19. Effect of matrix metalloproteinase promoter polymorphisms on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) promoter polymorphisms are considered to play roles in the aetiology of endometriosis and adenomyosis, however, the evidence available are inconsistent. We aimed to systematically review the asscociationbetween MMP-1 -1607 1G/2G MMP-2 -735 C/T, MMP-3 -1171 5A/6A and MMP-9 ...

  20. Preliminary research of recombinant matrix extracellular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and predentin, but not by dental pulp cells. Furthermore, we used von kossa staining and the results suggested that, MEPE could induce mineralization and we propose that this protein had a potential effect on dental rehabilitation. Key words: Matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE), mineralization Von kossa.

  1. Marriage as Matrix, Metaphor or Mysticism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Else Marie Wiberg


    Taking Julia Kristeva's 'Tales of Love' with its more or less slight treatment of Bernard's and Luther's peceptions of love as its point of departure, this article shows that both the monk Bernard and the married theologian Luther use conjugal love as a matrix for an abundant, heterogenous love b...

  2. Better Size Estimation for Sparse Matrix Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amossen, Rasmus Resen; Campagna, Andrea; Pagh, Rasmus


    We consider the problem of doing fast and reliable estimation of the number of non-zero entries in a sparse Boolean matrix product. Let n denote the total number of non-zero entries in the input matrices. We show how to compute a 1 ± ε approximation (with small probability of error) in expected...

  3. Young Children, Gender and the Heterosexual Matrix (United States)

    Paechter, Carrie


    In this paper I consider the adult focus of current mainstream gender theory. I relate this to how the concept of the heterosexual matrix originates in a social contract which excludes children from civil society. I argue that this exclusion is problematic both for theoretical reasons and from the perspective of children themselves. I start by…

  4. Random matrix model for disordered conductors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1. Introduction. Matrix models are being successfully employed in a variety of domains of physics includ- ing studies on heavy nuclei [1], mesoscopic disordered conductors [2,3], two-dimensional quantum gravity [4], and chaotic quantum systems [5]. Universal conductance fluctuations in metals [6] and spectral fluctuations in ...

  5. Random matrix model for disordered conductors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Disordered conductors; random matrix theory; Dyson's Coulomb gas model. ... An interesting random walk problem associated with the joint probability distribution of the ensuing ensemble is discussed and its connection with level dynamics is brought out. It is further proved that Dyson's Coulomb gas analogy ...

  6. Matrix model formulation of four dimensional gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Pietri, Roberto


    The attempt of extending to higher dimensions the matrix model formulation of two-dimensional quantum gravity leads to the consideration of higher rank tensor models. We discuss how these models relate to four dimensional quantum gravity and the precise conditions allowing to associate a four-dimensional simplicial manifold to Feynman diagrams of a rank-four tensor model.

  7. "Matrix" sobitub iga filosoofiaga / Rando Tooming

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tooming, Rando


    Andy ja Larry Wachowski ulmefilmide triloogia "Matrix" fenomeni analüüsist ajakirja "Vikerkaar" 2003. aasta 9. numbris, kus sellele on pühendatud nelja filosoofi artiklid ( Slavoj Zhizhek, Jüri Eintalu, Bruno Mölder, Tanel Tammet)

  8. Acellular Dermal Matrix in Postmastectomy Breast Reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M.S. Ibrahim (Ahmed)


    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Over the last decade the use of acellular dermal matrix (ADM) in reconstructive breast surgery has been transformative. Some authors have gone as far as to suggest that it is the single most important advancement in prosthetic breast reconstruction. ADMs are able

  9. On affine non-negative matrix factorization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, Hans; Hansen, Lars Kai


    We generalize the non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) generative model to incorporate an explicit offset. Multiplicative estimation algorithms are provided for the resulting sparse affine NMF model. We show that the affine model has improved uniqueness properties and leads to more accurate id...

  10. Silica gel matrix immobilized Chlorophyta hydrodictyon africanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chlorophyta hydrodictyon africanum was immobilized on a silica gel matrix to improve its mechanical properties. The algae-silica gel adsorbent was used for batch sorption studies of a cationic dye, methylene blue (MB). Optimum adsorption was obtained with a dosage of 0.8 g bio sorbent. Results from sorption studies ...

  11. Polymer matrix electroluminescent materials and devices (United States)

    Marrocco, III, Matthew L.; Motamedi, Farshad J [Claremont, CA; Abdelrazzaq, Feras Bashir [Covina, CA; Abdelrazzaq, legal representative, Bashir Twfiq


    Photoluminescent and electroluminescent compositions are provided which comprise a matrix comprising aromatic repeat units covalently coordinated to a phosphorescent or luminescent metal ion or metal ion complexes. Methods for producing such compositions, and the electroluminescent devices formed therefrom, are also disclosed.

  12. Matrix compliance and the regulation of cytokinesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savitha Sambandamoorthy


    Full Text Available Integrin-mediated cell adhesion to the ECM regulates many physiological processes in part by controlling cell proliferation. It is well established that many normal cells require integrin-mediated adhesion to enter S phase of the cell cycle. Recent evidence indicates that integrins also regulate cytokinesis. Mechanical properties of the ECM can dictate entry into S phase; however, it is not known whether they also can affect the successful completion of cell division. To address this issue, we modulated substrate compliance using fibronectin-coated acrylamide-based hydrogels. Soft and hard substrates were generated with approximate elastic moduli of 1600 and 34,000 Pascals (Pa respectively. Our results indicate that dermal fibroblasts successfully complete cytokinesis on hard substrates, whereas on soft substrates, a significant number fail and become binucleated. Cytokinesis failure occurs at a step following the formation of the intercellular bridge connecting presumptive daughter cells, suggesting a defect in abscission. Like dermal fibroblasts, mesenchymal stem cells require cell-matrix adhesion for successful cytokinesis. However, in contrast to dermal fibroblasts, they are able to complete cytokinesis on both hard and soft substrates. These results indicate that matrix stiffness regulates the successful completion of cytokinesis, and does so in a cell-type specific manner. To our knowledge, our study is the first to demonstrate that matrix stiffness can affect cytokinesis. Understanding the cell-type specific contribution of matrix compliance to the regulation of cytokinesis will provide new insights important for development, as well as tissue homeostasis and regeneration.

  13. The algebras of large N matrix mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halpern, M.B.; Schwartz, C.


    Extending early work, we formulate the large N matrix mechanics of general bosonic, fermionic and supersymmetric matrix models, including Matrix theory: The Hamiltonian framework of large N matrix mechanics provides a natural setting in which to study the algebras of the large N limit, including (reduced) Lie algebras, (reduced) supersymmetry algebras and free algebras. We find in particular a broad array of new free algebras which we call symmetric Cuntz algebras, interacting symmetric Cuntz algebras, symmetric Bose/Fermi/Cuntz algebras and symmetric Cuntz superalgebras, and we discuss the role of these algebras in solving the large N theory. Most important, the interacting Cuntz algebras are associated to a set of new (hidden!) local quantities which are generically conserved only at large N. A number of other new large N phenomena are also observed, including the intrinsic nonlocality of the (reduced) trace class operators of the theory and a closely related large N field identification phenomenon which is associated to another set (this time nonlocal) of new conserved quantities at large N.

  14. Hierarchical matrix approximation of large covariance matrices

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander


    We approximate large non-structured Matérn covariance matrices of size n×n in the H-matrix format with a log-linear computational cost and storage O(kn log n), where rank k ≪ n is a small integer. Applications are: spatial statistics, machine learning and image analysis, kriging and optimal design.

  15. Resin diffusion through demineralized dentin matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARVALHO Ricardo M.


    Full Text Available This paper has focused on the factors that may affect the permeability of adhesive resins into the demineralized dentin matrix during the development of the bonding process. The effects of surface moisture are discussed respectively to the adhesive systems, and the problems related to incomplete hybrid layer formation presented.

  16. Matrix control of stem cell fate. (United States)

    Even-Ram, Sharona; Artym, Vira; Yamada, Kenneth M


    A key challenge in stem cell research is to learn how to direct the differentiation of stem cells toward specific fates. In this issue of Cell, Engler et al. (2006) identify a new factor regulating stem cell fate: the elasticity of the matrix microenvironment. By changing the stiffness of the substrate, human mesenchymal stem cells could be directed along neuronal, muscle, or bone lineages.

  17. Silver Matrix Composites - Structure and Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wieczorek J.


    Full Text Available Phase compositions of composite materials determine their performance as well as physical and mechanical properties. Depending on the type of applied matrix and the kind, amount and morphology of the matrix reinforcement, it is possible to shape the material properties so that they meet specific operational requirements. In the paper, results of investigations on silver alloy matrix composites reinforced with ceramic particles are presented. The investigations enabled evaluation of hardness, tribological and mechanical properties as well as the structure of produced materials. The matrix of composite material was an alloy of silver and aluminium, magnesium and silicon. As the reinforcing phase, 20-60 μm ceramic particles (SiC, SiO2, Al2O3 and Cs were applied. The volume fraction of the reinforcing phase in the composites was 10%. The composites were produced using the liquid phase (casting technology, followed by plastic work (the KOBO method. The mechanical and tribological properties were analysed for plastic work-subjected composites. The mechanical properties were assessed based on a static tensile and hardness tests. The tribological properties were investigated under dry sliding conditions. The analysis of results led to determination of effects of the composite production technology on their performance. Moreover, a relationship between the type of reinforcing phase and the mechanical and tribological properties was established.

  18. Limit properties of monotone matrix functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behrndt, Jussi; Hassi, Seppo; de Snoo, Henk; Wietsma, Rudi


    The basic objects in this paper are monotonically nondecreasing n x n matrix functions D(center dot) defined on some open interval l = (a, b) of R and their limit values D(a) and D(b) at the endpoints a and b which are, in general, selfadjoint relations in C-n. Certain space decompositions induced

  19. Role of metastructural matrixes in optimization ecotourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Leuchin


    Full Text Available In the article possibilities anthropocentric and ecocentric developing paradigms ecotourism are shown. The updating role institutional functions ecotourism an expert by metastructural matrixes of optimization tourist-institutional space (TIS is specified. Long-range directions of socially-ecological interaction in system of ecotourism are designated, measures on optimisation of this interaction are considered.

  20. Fast output-sensitive matrix multiplication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacob, Riko; Stöckel, Morten


    We consider the problem of multiplying two $U \\times U$ matrices $A$ and $C$ of elements from a field $\\F$. We present a new randomized algorithm that can use the known fast square matrix multiplication algorithms to perform fewer arithmetic operations than the current state of the art for output...

  1. The Bushido Matrix for Couple Communication (United States)

    Li, Chi-Sing; Lin, Yu-Fen; Ginsburg, Phil; Eckstein, Daniel


    The concept of Japanese Bushido and its seven virtues were introduced by the authors in this article for the practice and application of couple communication. The Bushido Matrix Worksheet (BMW) was created for enhancing couple's awareness and understanding of each other's values and experiences. An activity and a case study to demonstrate the use…

  2. Extracellular matrix and tissue engineering applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandes, H.A.M.; Moroni, Lorenzo; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; de Boer, Jan


    The extracellular matrix is a key component during regeneration and maintenance of tissues and organs, and it therefore plays a critical role in successful tissue engineering as well. Tissue engineers should recognise that engineering technology can be deduced from natural repair processes. Due to

  3. Proteases decode the extracellular matrix cryptome. (United States)

    Ricard-Blum, Sylvie; Vallet, Sylvain D


    The extracellular matrix is comprised of 1100 core-matrisome and matrisome-associated proteins and of glycosaminoglycans. This structural scaffold contributes to the organization and mechanical properties of tissues and modulates cell behavior. The extracellular matrix is dynamic and undergoes constant remodeling, which leads to diseases if uncontrolled. Bioactive fragments, called matricryptins, are released from the extracellular proteins by limited proteolysis and have biological activities on their own. They regulate numerous physiological and pathological processes such as angiogenesis, cancer, diabetes, wound healing, fibrosis and infectious diseases and either improve or worsen the course of diseases depending on the matricryptins and on the molecular and biological contexts. Several protease families release matricryptins from core-matrisome and matrisome-associated proteins both in vitro and in vivo. The major proteases, which decrypt the extracellular matrix, are zinc metalloproteinases of the metzincin superfamily (matrixins, adamalysins and astacins), cysteine proteinases and serine proteases. Some matricryptins act as enzyme inhibitors, further connecting protease and matricryptin fates and providing intricate regulation of major physiopathological processes such as angiogenesis and tumorigenesis. They strengthen the role of the extracellular matrix as a key player in tissue failure and core-matrisome and matrisome-associated proteins as important therapeutic targets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  4. Algebraic Geometry Solves an Old Matrix Problem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 12. Algebraic Geometry Solves an Old Matrix Problem. R Bhatia. Research News Volume 4 Issue 12 ... Author Affiliations. R Bhatia1. Statistics and Mathematics Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, 7, SJS Sansanwal Marg, New Delhi 110 016, India.

  5. Matrix multiplication operators on Banach function spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we study the matrix multiplication operators on Banach function spaces and discuss their applications in semigroups for solving the abstract Cauchy problem. Author Affiliations. H Hudzik1 Rajeev Kumar2 Romesh Kumar2. Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, Adam Mickiewicz University ...

  6. Using Excel to reduce a Square Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Holoubek


    Full Text Available When solving operations research problems, one can use either specialised computer programs such as Lingo, Lindo, Storm or more universal programs such Excel, Matlab, and R. To obtain the input data, one can use either a program’s own editor or other programs commonly available such as Excel. While the problem-solving methods, being part of various programs, are the subjects of numerous publications (such as Gros, 2003; Jablonský, 2002; Plevný – Žižka, 2007; Stevenson – Ozgur, 2009, the way the input data are obtained, recorded, and processed receives far less attention although this part of problem-solving requires considerable effort and, if the method for data recording is inadequate, may cause subsequent difficulties in their further processing. A problem known as “the travelling salesman problem” (TSP may serve as an example. Here, the input data form a “square matrix of distances”. This paper is concerned with some Excel tools that can be used to obtain and subsequently modify such a square matrix. Given a square m × m matrix, an ordinary user might want to reduce it to an i × i square matrix (where i < m without having to copy data from the matrix, skip some of its rows and/or columns or write a program to implement such a reduction.In her degree project, Kourková, 2009 was looking for an efficient method of reducing an Excel matrix. She had found no relevant papers on this subject concluding that the authors of the commercial program had not considered this. Therefore, she offered her own solution unconventionally using the contingency table menu option. Although this had resulted in the desired submatrix, some of its parts were superfluous and even baffling for the user.For this reason, the authors analyse the method of representing an m × m matrix and the way of its reduction. Finally, a better option is offered to achieve the desired objective as well as other methods of obtaining the required submatrix that even

  7. Solution of the Lyapunov matrix equation for a system with a time-dependent stiffness matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommer, Christian; Kliem, Wolfhard


    The stability of the linearized model of a rotor system with non-symmetric strain and axial loads is investigated. Since we are using a fixed reference system, the differential equations have the advantage to be free of Coriolis and centrifugal forces. A disadvantage is nevertheless the occurrence...... of time-dependent periodic terms in the stiffness matrix. However, by solving the Lyapunov matrix equation we can formulate several stability conditions for the rotor system. Hereby the positive definiteness of a certain averaged stiffness matrix plays a crucial role....

  8. Liver Fibrosis and Altered Matrix Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Neubauer


    Full Text Available Liver fibrosis represents the uniform response of liver to toxic, infectious or metabolic agents. The process leading to liver fibrosis resembles the process of wound healing, including the three phases following tissue injury: inflammation, synthesis of collagenous and noncollagenous extracellular matrix components, and tissue remodelling (scar formation. While a single liver tissue injury can be followed by an almost complete restitution ad integrum, the persistence of the original damaging noxa results in tissue damage. During the establishment of liver fibrosis, the basement membrane components collagen type IV, entactin and laminin increase and form a basement membrane-like structure within the space of Disse. The number of endothelial fenestrae of the sinusoids decreases. These changes of the sinusoids are called 'capillarization' because the altered structure of the sinusoids resembles that of capillaries. At the cellular level, origin of liver fibrogenesis is initiated by the damage of hepatocytes, resulting in the recruitment of inflammatory cells and platelets, and activation of Kupffer cells, with subsequent release of cytokines and growth factors. The hepatic stellate cells seem to be the primary target cells for these inflammatory stimuli, because during fibrogenesis, they undergo an activation process to a myofibroblast-like cell, which represents the major matrix-producing cell. Based on this pathophysiological mechanism, therapeutic methods are developed to inhibit matrix synthesis or stimulate matrix degradation. A number of substances are currently being tested that either neutralize fibrogenic stimuli and prevent the activation of hepatic stellate cells, or directly modulate the matrix metabolism. However, until now, the elimination of the hepatotoxins has been the sole therapeutic concept available for the treatment of liver fibrogenesis in humans.

  9. Regulation of Corneal Stroma Extracellular Matrix Assembly (United States)

    Chen, Shoujun; Mienaltowski, Michael J.; Birk, David E.


    The transparent cornea is the major refractive element of the eye. A finely controlled assembly of the stromal extracellular matrix is critical to corneal function, as well as in establishing the appropriate mechanical stability required to maintain corneal shape and curvature. In the stroma, homogeneous, small diameter collagen fibrils, regularly packed with a highly ordered hierarchical organization, are essential for function. This review focuses on corneal stroma assembly and the regulation of collagen fibrillogenesis. Corneal collagen fibrillogenesis involves multiple molecules interacting in sequential steps, as well as interactions between keratocytes and stroma matrix components. The stroma has the highest collagen V:I ratio in the body. Collagen V regulates the nucleation of protofibril assembly, thus controlling the number of fibrils and assembly of smaller diameter fibrils in the stroma. The corneal stroma is also enriched in small leucine-rich proteoglycans (SLRPs) that cooperate in a temporal and spatial manner to regulate linear and lateral collagen fibril growth. In addition, the fibril-associated collagens (FACITs) such as collagen XII and collagen XIV have roles in the regulation of fibril packing and inter-lamellar interactions. A communicating keratocyte network contributes to the overall and long-range regulation of stromal extracellular matrix assembly, by creating micro-domains where the sequential steps in stromal matrix assembly are controlled. Keratocytes control the synthesis of extracellular matrix components, which interact with the keratocytes dynamically to coordinate the regulatory steps into a cohesive process. Mutations or deficiencies in stromal regulatory molecules result in altered interactions and deficiencies in both transparency and refraction, leading to corneal stroma pathobiology such as stromal dystrophies, cornea plana and keratoconus. PMID:25819456

  10. High-frequency matrix converter with square wave input (United States)

    Carr, Joseph Alexander; Balda, Juan Carlos


    A device for producing an alternating current output voltage from a high-frequency, square-wave input voltage comprising, high-frequency, square-wave input a matrix converter and a control system. The matrix converter comprises a plurality of electrical switches. The high-frequency input and the matrix converter are electrically connected to each other. The control system is connected to each switch of the matrix converter. The control system is electrically connected to the input of the matrix converter. The control system is configured to operate each electrical switch of the matrix converter converting a high-frequency, square-wave input voltage across the first input port of the matrix converter and the second input port of the matrix converter to an alternating current output voltage at the output of the matrix converter.

  11. 2matrix: A Utility for Indel Coding and Phylogenetic Matrix Concatenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson R. Salinas


    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Phylogenetic analysis of DNA and amino acid sequences requires the creation of files formatted specifically for each analysis package. Programs currently available cannot simultaneously code inferred insertion/deletion (indel events in sequence alignments and concatenate data sets. Methods and Results: A novel Perl script, 2matrix, was created to concatenate matrices of non-molecular characters and/or aligned sequences and to code indels. 2matrix outputs a variety of formats compatible with popular phylogenetic programs. Conclusions: 2matrix efficiently codes indels and concatenates matrices of sequences and non-molecular data. It is available for free download under a GPL (General Public License open source license (

  12. Dentin matrix degradation by host Matrix Metalloproteinases: inhibition and clinical perspectives towards regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine eChaussain


    Full Text Available Bacterial enzymes have long been considered solely accountable for the degradation of the dentin matrix during the carious process. However, the emerging literature suggests that host-derived enzymes, and in particular the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs contained in dentin and saliva can play a major role in this process by their ability to degrade the dentin matrix from within. These findings are important since they open new therapeutic options for caries prevention and treatment. The possibility of using MMP inhibitors to interfere with dentin caries progression is discussed. Furthermore, the potential release of bioactive peptides by the enzymatic cleavage of dentin matrix proteins by MMPs during the carious process is discussed. These peptides, once identified, may constitute promising therapeutical tools for tooth and bone regeneration.

  13. Optimizing Tpetra%3CU%2B2019%3Es sparse matrix-matrix multiplication routine.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nusbaum, Kurtis Lee


    Over the course of the last year, a sparse matrix-matrix multiplication routine has been developed for the Tpetra package. This routine is based on the same algorithm that is used in EpetraExt with heavy modifications. Since it achieved a working state, several major optimizations have been made in an effort to speed up the routine. This report will discuss the optimizations made to the routine, its current state, and where future work needs to be done.

  14. Solution of Second-Order IVP and BVP of Matrix Differential Models Using Matrix DTM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Abazari


    Full Text Available We introduce a matrix form of differential transformation method (DTM and apply for nonlinear second-order initial value problems (IVPs and boundary value problems (BVPs of matrix models which are given by (=(,(,( and subject to initial conditions (=0,(=1 and boundary conditions (=0,(=1, where 0,1∈×. Also the convergence of present method is established. Several illustrative examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the present method.

  15. Modeling the formation of cell-matrix adhesions on a single 3D matrix fiber. (United States)

    Escribano, J; Sánchez, M T; García-Aznar, J M


    Cell-matrix adhesions are crucial in different biological processes like tissue morphogenesis, cell motility, and extracellular matrix remodeling. These interactions that link cell cytoskeleton and matrix fibers are built through protein clutches, generally known as adhesion complexes. The adhesion formation process has been deeply studied in two-dimensional (2D) cases; however, the knowledge is limited for three-dimensional (3D) cases. In this work, we simulate different local extracellular matrix properties in order to unravel the fundamental mechanisms that regulate the formation of cell-matrix adhesions in 3D. We aim to study the mechanical interaction of these biological structures through a three dimensional discrete approach, reproducing the transmission pattern force between the cytoskeleton and a single extracellular matrix fiber. This numerical model provides a discrete analysis of the proteins involved including spatial distribution, interaction between them, and study of the different phenomena, such as protein clutches unbinding or protein unfolding. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Random matrix approach to categorical data analysis (United States)

    Patil, Aashay; Santhanam, M. S.


    Correlation and similarity measures are widely used in all the areas of sciences and social sciences. Often the variables are not numbers but are instead qualitative descriptors called categorical data. We define and study similarity matrix, as a measure of similarity, for the case of categorical data. This is of interest due to a deluge of categorical data, such as movie ratings, top-10 rankings, and data from social media, in the public domain that require analysis. We show that the statistical properties of the spectra of similarity matrices, constructed from categorical data, follow random matrix predictions with the dominant eigenvalue being an exception. We demonstrate this approach by applying it to the data for Indian general elections and sea level pressures in the North Atlantic ocean.

  17. Fiber study involving a polyimide matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cano, R.J. [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States); Rommel, M. [Northop Grumman Corp., Pico Rivera, CA (United States); Hinkley, J.A.; Estes, E.D. [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States)


    Mechanical properties are presented for eight different intermediate modulus carbon fiber/ polyimide matrix composites. Two unsized carbon fibers (Thornel T650-42 and Hercules IM9) and two sized carbon fibers (high temperature sized Thornel T650-42 HTS and epoxy sized Toray T1000) were prepregged on the NASA LaRC Multipurpose Tape Machine using the NASA LaRC developed polyimide resin matrix, LaRC{trademark}-PETI-5, and the DuPont developed Avitnid{reg_sign} R1-16. Composite panels fabricated from these prepregs were evaluated to determine their mechanical properties. The data show the effects of using sized fibers on the processing and mechanical properties of polyimide composites.

  18. Delocalization transition for the Google matrix. (United States)

    Giraud, Olivier; Georgeot, Bertrand; Shepelyansky, Dima L


    We study the localization properties of eigenvectors of the Google matrix, generated both from the world wide web and from the Albert-Barabási model of networks. We establish the emergence of a delocalization phase for the PageRank vector when network parameters are changed. For networks with localized PageRank, eigenvalues of the matrix in the complex plane with a modulus above a certain threshold correspond to localized eigenfunctions while eigenvalues below this threshold are associated with delocalized relaxation modes. We argue that, for networks with delocalized PageRank, the efficiency of information retrieval by Google-type search is strongly affected since the PageRank values have no clear hierarchical structure in this case.

  19. Geometric complexity theory and matrix powering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gesmundo, Fulvio; Ikenmeyer, Christian; Panova, Greta


    . Their approach works by multiplying the permanent polynomial with a high power of a linear form (a process called padding) and then comparing the orbit closures of the determinant and the padded permanent. This padding was recently used heavily to show no-go results for the method of shifted partial derivatives...... matrix power. This gives an equivalent but much cleaner homogeneous formulation of geometric complexity theory in which the padding is removed. This radically changes the representation theoretic questions involved to prove complexity lower bounds. We prove that in this homogeneous formulation...... there are no orbit occurrence obstructions that prove even superlinear lower bounds on the complexity of the permanent. This is the first no-go result in geometric complexity theory that rules out superlinear lower bounds in some model. Interestingly---in contrast to the determinant---the trace of a variable matrix...

  20. Aluminum matrix composites reinforced with alumina nanoparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Casati, Riccardo


    This book describes the latest efforts to develop aluminum nanocomposites with enhanced damping and mechanical properties and good workability. The nanocomposites exhibited high strength, improved damping behavior and good ductility, making them suitable for use as wires. Since the production of metal matrix nanocomposites by conventional melting processes is considered extremely problematic (because of the poor wettability of the nanoparticles), different powder metallurgy routes were investigated, including high-energy ball milling and unconventional compaction methods. Special attention was paid to the structural characterization at the micro- and nanoscale, as uniform nanoparticle dispersion in metal matrix is of prime importance. The aluminum nanocomposites displayed an ultrafine microstructure reinforced with alumina nanoparticles produced in situ or added ex situ. The physical, mechanical and functional characteristics of the materials produced were evaluated using different mechanical tests and micros...

  1. System Matrix Analysis for Computed Tomography Imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liubov Flores

    Full Text Available In practical applications of computed tomography imaging (CT, it is often the case that the set of projection data is incomplete owing to the physical conditions of the data acquisition process. On the other hand, the high radiation dose imposed on patients is also undesired. These issues demand that high quality CT images can be reconstructed from limited projection data. For this reason, iterative methods of image reconstruction have become a topic of increased research interest. Several algorithms have been proposed for few-view CT. We consider that the accurate solution of the reconstruction problem also depends on the system matrix that simulates the scanning process. In this work, we analyze the application of the Siddon method to generate elements of the matrix and we present results based on real projection data.

  2. Matrix Factorizations, Minimal Models and Massey Products

    CERN Document Server

    Knapp, J; Knapp, Johanna; Omer, Harun


    We present a method to compute the full non-linear deformations of matrix factorizations for ADE minimal models. This method is based on the calculation of higher products in the cohomology, called Massey products. The algorithm yields a polynomial ring whose vanishing relations encode the obstructions of the deformations of the D-branes characterized by these matrix factorizations. This coincides with the critical locus of the effective superpotential which can be computed by integrating these relations. Our results for the effective superpotential are in agreement with those obtained from solving the A-infinity relations. We point out a relation to the superpotentials of Kazama-Suzuki models. We will illustrate our findings by various examples, putting emphasis on the E_6 minimal model.

  3. Data from acellular human heart matrix. (United States)

    Sánchez, Pedro L; Fernández-Santos, M Eugenia; Espinosa, M Angeles; González-Nicolas, M Angeles; Acebes, Judith R; Costanza, Salvatore; Moscoso, Isabel; Rodríguez, Hugo; García, Julio; Romero, Jesús; Kren, Stefan M; Bermejo, Javier; Yotti, Raquel; Del Villar, Candelas Pérez; Sanz-Ruiz, Ricardo; Elizaga, Jaime; Taylor, Doris A; Fernández-Avilés, Francisco


    Perfusion decellularization of cadaveric hearts removes cells and generates a cell-free extracellular matrix scaffold containing acellular vascular conduits, which are theoretically sufficient to perfuse and support tissue-engineered heart constructs. This article contains additional data of our experience decellularizing and testing structural integrity and composition of a large series of human hearts, "Acellular human heart matrix: a critical step toward whole heat grafts" (Sanchez et al., 2015) [1]. Here we provide the information about the heart decellularization technique, the valve competence evaluation of the decellularized scaffolds, the integrity evaluation of epicardial and myocardial coronary circulation, the pressure volume measurements, the primers used to assess cardiac muscle gene expression and, the characteristics of donors, donor hearts, scaffolds and perfusion decellularization process.

  4. Data from acellular human heart matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro L Sánchez


    Full Text Available Perfusion decellularization of cadaveric hearts removes cells and generates a cell-free extracellular matrix scaffold containing acellular vascular conduits, which are theoretically sufficient to perfuse and support tissue-engineered heart constructs. This article contains additional data of our experience decellularizing and testing structural integrity and composition of a large series of human hearts, “Acellular human heart matrix: a critical step toward whole heat grafts” (Sanchez et al., 2015 [1]. Here we provide the information about the heart decellularization technique, the valve competence evaluation of the decellularized scaffolds, the integrity evaluation of epicardial and myocardial coronary circulation, the pressure volume measurements, the primers used to assess cardiac muscle gene expression and, the characteristics of donors, donor hearts, scaffolds and perfusion decellularization process.

  5. Embedded random matrix ensembles in quantum physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kota, V K B


    Although used with increasing frequency in many branches of physics, random matrix ensembles are not always sufficiently specific to account for important features of the physical system at hand. One refinement which retains the basic stochastic approach but allows for such features consists in the use of embedded ensembles.  The present text is an exhaustive introduction to and survey of this important field. Starting with an easy-to-read introduction to general random matrix theory, the text then develops the necessary concepts from the beginning, accompanying the reader to the frontiers of present-day research. With some notable exceptions, to date these ensembles have primarily been applied in nuclear spectroscopy. A characteristic example is the use of a random two-body interaction in the framework of the nuclear shell model. Yet, topics in atomic physics, mesoscopic physics, quantum information science and statistical mechanics of isolated finite quantum systems can also be addressed using these ensemb...

  6. Graphite matrix materials for nuclear waste isolation (United States)

    Morgan, W. C.


    Manufacturing processes are reviewed herein, with primary emphasis on those processes which might be used to produce a graphic matrix for the waste forms. The approach involves the low temperature compaction of a finely ground powder produced from graphitized petroleum coke. The resultant compacts should have fairly good strength, low permeability to both liquids and gases, and anisotropic physical properties. In particular, the anisotropy of the thermal expansion coefficients and the thermal conductivity should be advantageous for this application. With two possible exceptions, the graphite matrix appears to be superior t the metal alloy matrices which have been recommended in prior studies. The two possible exceptions are the requirements on strength and permeability; both requirements will be strongly influenced by the containment design, including the choice of materials and the waste form, of the multibarrier package.

  7. CMH-17 Volume 5 Ceramic Matrix Composites (United States)

    Andrulonis, Rachael; Kiser, J. Douglas; David, Kaia E.; Davies, Curtis; Ashforth, Cindy


    A wide range of issues must be addressed during the process of certifying CMC (ceramic matrix composite) components for use in commercial aircraft. The Composite Materials Handbook-17, Volume 5, Revision A on ceramic matrix composites has just been revised to help support FAA certification of CMCs for elevated temperature applications. The handbook supports the development and use of CMCs through publishing and maintaining proven, reliable engineering information and standards that have been thoroughly reviewed. Volume 5 contains detailed sections describing CMC materials processing, design analysis guidelines, testing procedures, and data analysis and acceptance. A review of the content of this latest revision will be presented along with a description of how CMH-17, Volume 5 could be used by the FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) and others in the future.

  8. Social patterns revealed through random matrix theory (United States)

    Sarkar, Camellia; Jalan, Sarika


    Despite the tremendous advancements in the field of network theory, very few studies have taken weights in the interactions into consideration that emerge naturally in all real-world systems. Using random matrix analysis of a weighted social network, we demonstrate the profound impact of weights in interactions on emerging structural properties. The analysis reveals that randomness existing in particular time frame affects the decisions of individuals rendering them more freedom of choice in situations of financial security. While the structural organization of networks remains the same throughout all datasets, random matrix theory provides insight into the interaction pattern of individuals of the society in situations of crisis. It has also been contemplated that individual accountability in terms of weighted interactions remains as a key to success unless segregation of tasks comes into play.

  9. Random matrix theory for underwater sound propagation (United States)

    Hegewisch, K. C.; Tomsovic, S.


    Ocean acoustic propagation can be formulated as a wave guide with a weakly random medium generating multiple scattering. Twenty years ago, this was recognized as a quantum chaos problem, and yet random matrix theory, one pillar of quantum or wave chaos studies, has never been introduced into the subject. The modes of the wave guide provide a representation for the propagation, which in the parabolic approximation is unitary. Scattering induced by the ocean's internal waves leads to a power-law random banded unitary matrix ensemble for long-range deep-ocean acoustic propagation. The ensemble has similarities, but differs, from those introduced for studying the Anderson metal-insulator transition. The resulting long-range propagation ensemble statistics agree well with those of full wave propagation using the parabolic equation.

  10. Quantum algorithm for support matrix machines (United States)

    Duan, Bojia; Yuan, Jiabin; Liu, Ying; Li, Dan


    We propose a quantum algorithm for support matrix machines (SMMs) that efficiently addresses an image classification problem by introducing a least-squares reformulation. This algorithm consists of two core subroutines: a quantum matrix inversion (Harrow-Hassidim-Lloyd, HHL) algorithm and a quantum singular value thresholding (QSVT) algorithm. The two algorithms can be implemented on a universal quantum computer with complexity O[log(npq) ] and O[log(pq)], respectively, where n is the number of the training data and p q is the size of the feature space. By iterating the algorithms, we can find the parameters for the SMM classfication model. Our analysis shows that both HHL and QSVT algorithms achieve an exponential increase of speed over their classical counterparts.

  11. Photoacoustic measurement of lutein in biological matrix (United States)

    Bicanic, D.; Luterotti, S.; Becucci, M.; Fogliano, V.; Versloot, P.


    Photoacoustic (PA) spectroscopy was applied for the first time to quantify lutein in a complex biological matrix. Standard addition of lutein to a biological low-lutein matrix was used for the calibration. The PA signal was found linearly proportional (R > 0.98) to lutein concentration up to 0.3% (w/w). The dynamic range of concentrations extends to 1% (w/w) lutein. For a given experimental set-up the responsivity of PA detector within the range of linearity was estimated to 1.1 mV/1% lutein. Precision of repeated analyses is good with average RSD values of 4 and 5% for blanks and spiked samples, respectively. The analytical parameters indicate that the PA method is fast and sensitive enough for quantification of lutein in supplementary drugs and in the lutein-rich foods.

  12. Fetal hypoxia and programming of matrix metalloproteinases. (United States)

    Tong, Wenni; Zhang, Lubo


    Fetal hypoxia adversely affects the brain and heart development, yet the mechanisms responsible remain elusive. Recent studies indicate an important role of the extracellular matrix in fetal development and tissue remodeling. The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their endogenous inhibitors, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) have been implicated in a variety of physiological and pathological processes in the cardiovascular and central nervous systems. This review summarizes current knowledge of the mechanisms by which fetal hypoxia induces the imbalance of MMPs, TIMPs and collagen expression patterns, resulting in growth restriction and aberrant tissue remodeling in the developing heart and brain. Collectively, this information could lead to the development of preventive diagnoses and therapeutic strategies in the fetal programming of cardiovascular and neurological disorders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The super period matrix with Ramond punctures (United States)

    Witten, Edward


    We generalize the super period matrix of a super Riemann surface to the case that Ramond punctures are present. For a super Riemann surface of genus g with 2 r Ramond punctures, we define, modulo certain choices that generalize those in the classical theory (and assuming a certain generic condition is satisfied), a g | r × g | r period matrix that is symmetric in the Z2-graded sense. As an application, we analyze the genus 2 vacuum amplitude in string theory compactifications to four dimensions that are supersymmetric at tree level. We find an explanation for a result that has been found in orbifold examples in explicit computations by D'Hoker and Phong: with their integration procedure, the genus 2 vacuum amplitude always vanishes "pointwise" after summing over spin structures, and hence is given entirely by a boundary contribution.

  14. The Lehmer Matrix and Its Recursive Analogue (United States)


    Suite 1204, Arlington VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to a penalty...and p = 1 (the Fibonacci sequence case), we have 1 12 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 2 1 2 3 2 4 2 5 1 3 2 3 1 3 4 3 5 1 4 2 4 3 4 1 4 5 1 5 2 5 3 5 4 5 1...special cases of the matrix Fn, we take the matrix F0n ob- tained using the Fibonacci sequence, that is, Fn+1 = Fn+Fn−1, F0 = 0, F1 = 1. The determinant

  15. Studying genetic code by a matrix approach. (United States)

    Crowder, Tanner; Li, Chi-Kwong


    Following Petoukhov and his collaborators, we use two length n zero-one sequences, alpha and beta, to represent a length n genetic sequence (alpha/beta) so that the columns of (alpha/beta) have the following correspondence with the nucleotides: C ~ (0/0), U ~ (1/0), G ~ (1/1), A ~ (0/1). Using the Gray code ordering to arrange alpha and beta, we build a 2(n) x 2(n) matrix C(n) including all the 4(n) length n genetic sequences. Furthermore, we use the Hamming distance of alpha and beta to construct a 2(n) x 2(n) matrix D(n). We explore structures of these matrices, refine the results in earlier papers, and propose new directions for further research.

  16. Matrix Metalloproteinases as Regulators of Periodontal Inflammation (United States)

    Franco, Cavalla; Patricia, Hernández-Ríos; Timo, Sorsa; Claudia, Biguetti; Marcela, Hernández


    Periodontitis are infectious diseases characterized by immune-mediated destruction of periodontal supporting tissues and tooth loss. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are key proteases involved in destructive periodontal diseases. The study and interest in MMP has been fuelled by emerging evidence demonstrating the broad spectrum of molecules that can be cleaved by them and the myriad of biological processes that they can potentially regulate. The huge complexity of MMP functions within the ‘protease web’ is crucial for many physiologic and pathologic processes, including immunity, inflammation, bone resorption, and wound healing. Evidence points out that MMPs assemble in activation cascades and besides their classical extracellular matrix substrates, they cleave several signalling molecules—such as cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors, among others—regulating their biological functions and/or bioavailability during periodontal diseases. In this review, we provide an overview of emerging evidence of MMPs as regulators of periodontal inflammation. PMID:28218665

  17. Nanophosphor composite scintillators comprising a polymer matrix (United States)

    Muenchausen, Ross Edward; Mckigney, Edward Allen; Gilbertson, Robert David


    An improved nanophosphor composite comprises surface modified nanophosphor particles in a solid matrix. The nanophosphor particle surface is modified with an organic ligand, or by covalently bonding a polymeric or polymeric precursor material. The surface modified nanophosphor particle is essentially charge neutral, thereby preventing agglomeration of the nanophosphor particles during formation of the composite material. The improved nanophosphor composite may be used in any conventional scintillator application, including in a radiation detector.

  18. Hierarchical matrix approximation of large covariance matrices

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander


    We approximate large non-structured covariance matrices in the H-matrix format with a log-linear computational cost and storage O(nlogn). We compute inverse, Cholesky decomposition and determinant in H-format. As an example we consider the class of Matern covariance functions, which are very popular in spatial statistics, geostatistics, machine learning and image analysis. Applications are: kriging and op- timal design.

  19. Hierarchical matrix approximation of large covariance matrices

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander


    We approximate large non-structured covariance matrices in the H-matrix format with a log-linear computational cost and storage O(n log n). We compute inverse, Cholesky decomposition and determinant in H-format. As an example we consider the class of Matern covariance functions, which are very popular in spatial statistics, geostatistics, machine learning and image analysis. Applications are: kriging and optimal design

  20. Graphite matrix materials for nuclear waste isolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, W.C.


    At low temperatures, graphites are chemically inert to all but the strongest oxidizing agents. The raw materials from which artificial graphites are produced are plentiful and inexpensive. Morover, the physical properties of artificial graphites can be varied over a very wide range by the choice of raw materials and manufacturing processes. Manufacturing processes are reviewed herein, with primary emphasis on those processes which might be used to produce a graphite matrix for the waste forms. The approach, recommended herein, involves the low-temperature compaction of a finely ground powder produced from graphitized petroleum coke. The resultant compacts should have fairly good strength, low permeability to both liquids and gases, and anisotropic physical properties. In particular, the anisotropy of the thermal expansion coefficients and the thermal conductivity should be advantageous for this application. With two possible exceptions, the graphite matrix appears to be superior to the metal alloy matrices which have been recommended in prior studies. The two possible exceptions are the requirements on strength and permeability; both requirements will be strongly influenced by the containment design, including the choice of materials and the waste form, of the multibarrier package. Various methods for increasing the strength, and for decreasing the permeability of the matrix, are reviewed and discussed in the sections in Incorporation of Other Materials and Elimination of Porosity. However, it would be premature to recommend a particular process until the overall multi-barrier design is better defined. It is recommended that increased emphasis be placed on further development of the low-temperature compacted graphite matrix concept.

  1. Ceramic Matrix Composites for Rotorcraft Engines (United States)

    Halbig, Michael C.


    Ceramic matrix composite (CMC) components are being developed for turbine engine applications. Compared to metallic components, the CMC components offer benefits of higher temperature capability and less cooling requirements which correlates to improved efficiency and reduced emissions. This presentation discusses a technology develop effort for overcoming challenges in fabricating a CMC vane for the high pressure turbine. The areas of technology development include small component fabrication, ceramic joining and integration, material and component testing and characterization, and design and analysis of concept components.

  2. Aluminium matrix composites fabricated by infiltration method


    L.A. Dobrzański; M. Kremzer; A.J. Nowak; Nagel, A.


    Purpose: The aim of this work is to examine the structure and properties of metal matrix composites obtained by infiltration method of porous ceramic preforms by liquid aluminium alloy.Design/methodology/approach: Ceramic preforms were manufactured by the sintering method of ceramic powder. The preform material consists of powder Condea Al2O3 CL 2500, however, as the pore forming the carbon fibers Sigrafil C10 M250 UNS were used. Then ceramic preforms were infiltrated with liquid eutectic EN ...

  3. New Polyurethanes with a polyurea matrix


    Peshkov, Vladimir; Behrendt, Gerhard; Evtimova, Rozeta; Herzog, Michael


    Based on a previously published (Peshkov 2011) synthesis route of nanoscale oligourea dispersion polyols (NODP) a new type of polyurethanes with a polyurea matrix was developed. Polyurethanes with high hardness and elasticity were prepared by reacting a formulation based on the NODP’s and di- or polyisocyanates. The polyurethanes obtained as films were characterised by mechanical tests and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). The phase structure depends on the amount of nanoparticles present, t...

  4. Spin Forming of Aluminum Metal Matrix Composites (United States)

    Lee, Jonathan A.; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)


    An exploratory effort between NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and SpinCraft, Inc., to experimentally spin form cylinders and concentric parts from small and thin sheets of aluminum Metal Matrix Composites (MMC), successfully yielded good microstructure data and forming parameters. MSFC and SpinCraft will collaborate on the recent technical findings and develop strategy to implement this technology for NASA's advanced propulsion and airframe applications such as pressure bulkheads, combustion liner assemblies, propellant tank domes, and nose cone assemblies.

  5. The Cartan matrix of a centralizer algebra

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cij = [Pi : Dj ]. The goal of this article is to compute the Cartan matrix of Л. We also describe its radical and principal indecomposable modules. 3. Preliminaries. Let A be a finite ... indecomposable Pi there exists a primitive idempotent ei such that 1 = ∑k i=1 ei and ei 's .... are isomorphic for a fixed value of i. Let Pi = Mλ(E)ei1 ...

  6. Random Matrix Theory and Elliptic Curves (United States)


    lecture on random matrix models for elliptic curves at the combined meeting of the Australian and New Zealand mathematical societies Melbourne, Australia...organizer). Associated with the Chichely meeting will be a special volume of the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society (the world’s oldest...Distribution A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 5 USE OF SUPPORT 8 • JPK was awarded a Royal Society Wolfson Research Merit

  7. Absorption properties of waste matrix materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briggs, J.B. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    This paper very briefly discusses the need for studies of the limiting critical concentration of radioactive waste matrix materials. Calculated limiting critical concentration values for some common waste materials are listed. However, for systems containing large quantities of waste materials, differences up to 10% in calculated k{sub eff} values are obtained by changing cross section data sets. Therefore, experimental results are needed to compare with calculation results for resolving these differences and establishing realistic biases.

  8. Pseudo-Hermitian random matrix theory (United States)

    Srivastava, S. C. L.; Jain, S. R.


    Complex extension of quantum mechanics and the discovery of pseudo-unitarily invariant random matrix theory has set the stage for a number of applications of these concepts in physics. We briefly review the basic ideas and present applications to problems in statistical mechanics where new results have become possible. We have found it important to mention the precise directions where advances could be made if further results become available.

  9. Pseudo-Hermitian random matrix theory


    Srivastava, Shashi C. L.; Jain, S. R.


    Complex extension of quantum mechanics and the discovery of pseudo-unitarily invariant random matrix theory has set the stage for a number of applications of these concepts in physics. We briefly review the basic ideas and present applications to problems in statistical mechanics where new results have become possible. We have found it important to mention the precise directions where advances could be made if further results become available.

  10. A Matrix Formalism for Landau Damping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhakar, Shyam


    Existing methods of analyzing the effect of bunch-to-bunch tune shifts on coupled bunch instabilities are applicable to beams with a single unstable mode, or a few non-interacting unstable modes. We present a more general approach that involves computing the eigenvalues of a reduced state matrix. The method is applied to the analysis of PEP-II longitudinal coupled bunch modes, a large number of which are unstable in the absence of feedback.

  11. Enforced Sparse Non-Negative Matrix Factorization (United States)


    mixture of topics constitutes a document. Other common methods for topic modeling include the following: latent semantic analysis (LSA) [1...probabilistic latent semantic analysis (PLSA) [2], and term frequency- inverse document frequency (TF-IDF) [3] analysis. More recently, non-negative matrix...3, pp. 993–1022, 2003. [2] T. Hofmann, “Probabilistic latent semantic indexing,” in Proceedings of the 22nd Annual International ACM SIGIR

  12. Reducing Actinide Production Using Inert Matrix Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deinert, Mark [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)


    The environmental and geopolitical problems that surround nuclear power stem largely from the longlived transuranic isotopes of Am, Cm, Np and Pu that are contained in spent nuclear fuel. New methods for transmuting these elements into more benign forms are needed. Current research efforts focus largely on the development of fast burner reactors, because it has been shown that they could dramatically reduce the accumulation of transuranics. However, despite five decades of effort, fast reactors have yet to achieve industrial viability. A critical limitation to this, and other such strategies, is that they require a type of spent fuel reprocessing that can efficiently separate all of the transuranics from the fission products with which they are mixed. Unfortunately, the technology for doing this on an industrial scale is still in development. In this project, we explore a strategy for transmutation that can be deployed using existing, current generation reactors and reprocessing systems. We show that use of an inert matrix fuel to recycle transuranics in a conventional pressurized water reactor could reduce overall production of these materials by an amount that is similar to what is achievable using proposed fast reactor cycles. Furthermore, we show that these transuranic reductions can be achieved even if the fission products are carried into the inert matrix fuel along with the transuranics, bypassing the critical separations hurdle described above. The implications of these findings are significant, because they imply that inert matrix fuel could be made directly from the material streams produced by the commercially available PUREX process. Zirconium dioxide would be an ideal choice of inert matrix in this context because it is known to form a stable solid solution with both fission products and transuranics.

  13. ANL Critical Assembly Covariance Matrix Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKnight, Richard D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Grimm, Karl N. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)


    This report discusses the generation of a covariance matrix for selected critical assemblies that were carried out by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) using four critical facilities-all of which are now decommissioned. The four different ANL critical facilities are: ZPR-3 located at ANL-West (now Idaho National Laboratory- INL), ZPR-6 and ZPR-9 located at ANL-East (Illinois) and ZPPr located at ANL-West.

  14. Corrosion Behavior of Metal Matrix Composites (United States)


    high tensile strength make Gif/Cu composites ideal candidates for high heat flux structures such as space power radiator panels where component...Feasibility Studies of Graphite Fiber Reinforced Copper Matrix Composites for Space Power Radiator Panels," NASA TM- 102328, Lewis Research Center...Strength Strengh in 2 in. Hardness Densiry Elasticity Conducuvir/ (KPSI) (KPSI) (%) (Rcckwell) b/•n3) (MPSI) (68cF.BTU /fLhi.°F) DSC GlidCop AL-60 75 bt

  15. Google matrix, dynamical attractors, and Ulam networks. (United States)

    Shepelyansky, D L; Zhirov, O V


    We study the properties of the Google matrix generated by a coarse-grained Perron-Frobenius operator of the Chirikov typical map with dissipation. The finite-size matrix approximant of this operator is constructed by the Ulam method. This method applied to the simple dynamical model generates directed Ulam networks with approximate scale-free scaling and characteristics being in certain features similar to those of the world wide web with approximate scale-free degree distributions as well as two characteristics similar to the web: a power-law decay in PageRank that mirrors the decay of PageRank on the world wide web and a sensitivity to the value alpha in PageRank. The simple dynamical attractors play here the role of popular websites with a strong concentration of PageRank. A variation in the Google parameter alpha or other parameters of the dynamical map can drive the PageRank of the Google matrix to a delocalized phase with a strange attractor where the Google search becomes inefficient.

  16. Matrix Product States for Lattice Field Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Bañuls, Mari Carmen; Cirac, J Ignacio; Jansen, Karl; Saito, Hana


    The term Tensor Network States (TNS) refers to a number of families of states that represent different ans\\"atze for the efficient description of the state of a quantum many-body system. Matrix Product States (MPS) are one particular case of TNS, and have become the most precise tool for the numerical study of one dimensional quantum many-body systems, as the basis of the Density Matrix Renormalization Group method. Lattice Gauge Theories (LGT), in their Hamiltonian version, offer a challenging scenario for these techniques. While the dimensions and sizes of the systems amenable to TNS studies are still far from those achievable by 4-dimensional LGT tools, Tensor Networks can be readily used for problems which more standard techniques, such as Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations, cannot easily tackle. Examples of such problems are the presence of a chemical potential or out-of-equilibrium dynamics. We have explored the performance of Matrix Product States in the case of the Schwinger model, as a widely used ...

  17. Multispectral Palmprint Recognition Using a Quaternion Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yafeng Li


    Full Text Available Palmprints have been widely studied for biometric recognition for many years. Traditionally, a white light source is used for illumination. Recently, multispectral imaging has drawn attention because of its high recognition accuracy. Multispectral palmprint systems can provide more discriminant information under different illuminations in a short time, thus they can achieve better recognition accuracy. Previously, multispectral palmprint images were taken as a kind of multi-modal biometrics, and the fusion scheme on the image level or matching score level was used. However, some spectral information will be lost during image level or matching score level fusion. In this study, we propose a new method for multispectral images based on a quaternion model which could fully utilize the multispectral information. Firstly, multispectral palmprint images captured under red, green, blue and near-infrared (NIR illuminations were represented by a quaternion matrix, then principal component analysis (PCA and discrete wavelet transform (DWT were applied respectively on the matrix to extract palmprint features. After that, Euclidean distance was used to measure the dissimilarity between different features. Finally, the sum of two distances and the nearest neighborhood classifier were employed for recognition decision. Experimental results showed that using the quaternion matrix can achieve a higher recognition rate. Given 3000 test samples from 500 palms, the recognition rate can be as high as 98.83%.

  18. Deghosting based on the transmission matrix method (United States)

    Wang, Benfeng; Wu, Ru-Shan; Chen, Xiaohong


    As the developments of seismic exploration and subsequent seismic exploitation advance, marine acquisition systems with towed streamers become an important seismic data acquisition method. But the existing air–water reflective interface can generate surface related multiples, including ghosts, which can affect the accuracy and performance of the following seismic data processing algorithms. Thus, we derive a deghosting method from a new perspective, i.e. using the transmission matrix (T-matrix) method instead of inverse scattering series. The T-matrix-based deghosting algorithm includes all scattering effects and is convergent absolutely. Initially, the effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated using synthetic data obtained from a designed layered model, and its noise-resistant property is also illustrated using noisy synthetic data contaminated by random noise. Numerical examples on complicated data from the open SMAART Pluto model and field marine data further demonstrate the validity and flexibility of the proposed method. After deghosting, low frequency components are recovered reasonably and the fake high frequency components are attenuated, and the recovered low frequency components will be useful for the subsequent full waveform inversion. The proposed deghosting method is currently suitable for two-dimensional towed streamer cases with accurate constant depth information and its extension into variable-depth streamers in three-dimensional cases will be studied in the future.

  19. Random-matrix theory of quantum transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beenakker, C.W. [Instituut-Lorentz, University of Leiden, 2300 RA Leiden, (The Netherlands)


    This is a review of the statistical properties of the scattering matrix of a mesoscopic system. Two geometries are contrasted: A quantum dot and a disordered wire. The quantum dot is a confined region with a chaotic classical dynamics, which is coupled to two electron reservoirs via point contacts. The disordered wire also connects two reservoirs, either directly or via a point contact or tunnel barrier. One of the two reservoirs may be in the superconducting state, in which case conduction involves Andreev reflection at the interface with the superconductor. In the case of the quantum dot, the distribution of the scattering matrix is given by either Dyson{close_quote}s circular ensemble for ballistic point contacts or the Poisson kernel for point contacts containing a tunnel barrier. In the case of the disordered wire, the distribution of the scattering matrix is obtained from the Dorokhov-Mello-Pereyra-Kumar equation, which is a one-dimensional scaling equation. The equivalence is discussed with the nonlinear {sigma} model, which is a supersymmetric field theory of localization. The distribution of scattering matrices is applied to a variety of physical phenomena, including universal conductance fluctuations, weak localization, Coulomb blockade, sub-Poissonian shot noise, reflectionless tunneling into a superconductor, and giant conductance oscillations in a Josephson junction. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  20. Thermoforming of thermoplastic matrix composites. Part I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, R.C.


    Long-fiber-reinforced polymer matrix composites find widespread use in a variety of commercial applications requiring properties that cannot be provided by unreinforced plastics or other common materials of construction. However, thermosetting matrix resins have long been plagued by production processes that are slow and difficult to automate. This has limited the use of long-fiber-reinforced composites to relatively low productivity applications in which higher production costs can be justified. Unreinforced thermoplastics, by their very nature, can easily be made into sheet form and processed into a variety of formed shapes by various pressure assisted thermoforming means. It is possible to incorporate various types of fiber reinforcement to suit the end use of the thermoformed shape. Recently developed thermoplastic resins can also sometimes correct physical property deficiencies in a thermoset matrix composite. Many forms of thermoplastic composite material now exist that meet all the requirements of present day automotive and aerospace parts. Some of these are presently in production, while others are still in the development stage. This opens the possibility that long-fiber-reinforced thermoplastics might break the barrier that has long limited the applications for fiber-reinforced composites. 37 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Multispectral palmprint recognition using a quaternion matrix. (United States)

    Xu, Xingpeng; Guo, Zhenhua; Song, Changjiang; Li, Yafeng


    Palmprints have been widely studied for biometric recognition for many years. Traditionally, a white light source is used for illumination. Recently, multispectral imaging has drawn attention because of its high recognition accuracy. Multispectral palmprint systems can provide more discriminant information under different illuminations in a short time, thus they can achieve better recognition accuracy. Previously, multispectral palmprint images were taken as a kind of multi-modal biometrics, and the fusion scheme on the image level or matching score level was used. However, some spectral information will be lost during image level or matching score level fusion. In this study, we propose a new method for multispectral images based on a quaternion model which could fully utilize the multispectral information. Firstly, multispectral palmprint images captured under red, green, blue and near-infrared (NIR) illuminations were represented by a quaternion matrix, then principal component analysis (PCA) and discrete wavelet transform (DWT) were applied respectively on the matrix to extract palmprint features. After that, Euclidean distance was used to measure the dissimilarity between different features. Finally, the sum of two distances and the nearest neighborhood classifier were employed for recognition decision. Experimental results showed that using the quaternion matrix can achieve a higher recognition rate. Given 3000 test samples from 500 palms, the recognition rate can be as high as 98.83%.

  2. ABCD Matrix Method a Case Study

    CERN Document Server

    Seidov, Zakir F; Yahalom, Asher


    In the Israeli Electrostatic Accelerator FEL, the distance between the accelerator's end and the wiggler's entrance is about 2.1 m, and 1.4 MeV electron beam is transported through this space using four similar quadrupoles (FODO-channel). The transfer matrix method (ABCD matrix method) was used for simulating the beam transport, a set of programs is written in the several programming languages (MATHEMATICA, MATLAB, MATCAD, MAPLE) and reasonable agreement is demonstrated between experimental results and simulations. Comparison of ABCD matrix method with the direct "numerical experiments" using EGUN, ELOP, and GPT programs with and without taking into account the space-charge effects showed the agreement to be good enough as well. Also the inverse problem of finding emittance of the electron beam at the S1 screen position (before FODO-channel), by using the spot image at S2 screen position (after FODO-channel) as function of quad currents, is considered. Spot and beam at both screens are described as tilted eel...

  3. Typicality in random matrix product states (United States)

    Garnerone, Silvano; de Oliveira, Thiago R.; Zanardi, Paolo


    Recent results suggest that the use of ensembles in statistical mechanics may not be necessary for isolated systems, since typically the states of the Hilbert space would have properties similar to those of the ensemble. Nevertheless, it is often argued that most of the states of the Hilbert space are nonphysical and not good descriptions of realistic systems. Therefore, to better understand the actual power of typicality it is important to ask if it is also a property of a set of physically relevant states. Here we address this issue, studying if and how typicality emerges in the set of matrix product states. We show analytically that typicality occurs for the expectation value of subsystems’ observables when the rank of the matrix product state scales polynomially with the size of the system with a power greater than 2. We illustrate this result numerically and present some indications that typicality may appear already for a linear scaling of the rank of the matrix product state.

  4. Analyticity and the Holographic S-Matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzpatrick, A.Liam; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Kaplan, Jared; /SLAC


    We derive a simple relation between the Mellin amplitude for AdS/CFT correlation functions and the bulk S-Matrix in the flat spacetime limit, proving a conjecture of Penedones. As a consequence of the Operator Product Expansion, the Mellin amplitude for any unitary CFT must be a meromorphic function with simple poles on the real axis. This provides a powerful and suggestive handle on the locality vis-a-vis analyticity properties of the S-Matrix. We begin to explore analyticity by showing how the familiar poles and branch cuts of scattering amplitudes arise from the holographic description. For this purpose we compute examples of Mellin amplitudes corresponding to 1-loop and 2-loop Witten diagrams in AdS. We also examine the flat spacetime limit of conformal blocks, implicitly relating the S-Matrix program to the Bootstrap program for CFTs. We use this connection to show how the existence of small black holes in AdS leads to a universal prediction for the conformal block decomposition of the dual CFT.

  5. Matrix product states for lattice field theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banuls, M.C.; Cirac, J.I. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik (MPQ), Garching (Germany); Cichy, K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Poznan Univ. (Poland). Faculty of Physics; Jansen, K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Saito, H. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences


    The term Tensor Network States (TNS) refers to a number of families of states that represent different ansaetze for the efficient description of the state of a quantum many-body system. Matrix Product States (MPS) are one particular case of TNS, and have become the most precise tool for the numerical study of one dimensional quantum many-body systems, as the basis of the Density Matrix Renormalization Group method. Lattice Gauge Theories (LGT), in their Hamiltonian version, offer a challenging scenario for these techniques. While the dimensions and sizes of the systems amenable to TNS studies are still far from those achievable by 4-dimensional LGT tools, Tensor Networks can be readily used for problems which more standard techniques, such as Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations, cannot easily tackle. Examples of such problems are the presence of a chemical potential or out-of-equilibrium dynamics. We have explored the performance of Matrix Product States in the case of the Schwinger model, as a widely used testbench for lattice techniques. Using finite-size, open boundary MPS, we are able to determine the low energy states of the model in a fully non-perturbativemanner. The precision achieved by the method allows for accurate finite size and continuum limit extrapolations of the ground state energy, but also of the chiral condensate and the mass gaps, thus showing the feasibility of these techniques for gauge theory problems.

  6. Fatigue Behavior of a Functionally-Graded Titanium Matrix Composite

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cunningham, Scott R


    Functionally-graded Titanium Matrix Composites are an attempt to utilize the high-strength properties of a titanium matrix composite with a monolithic alloy having the more practical machining qualities...

  7. Involvement of extracellular matrix constituents in breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lochter, Andre; Bissell, Mina J


    It has recently been established that the extracellular matrix is required for normal functional differentiation of mammary epithelia not only in culture, but also in vivo. The mechanisms by which extracellular matrix affects differentiation, as well as the nature of extracellular matrix constituents which have major impacts on mammary gland function, have only now begun to be dissected. The intricate variety of extracellular matrix-mediated events and the remarkable degree of plasticity of extracellular matrix structure and composition at virtually all times during ontogeny, make such studies difficult. Similarly, during carcinogenesis, the extracellular matrix undergoes gross alterations, the consequences of which are not yet precisely understood. Nevertheless, an increasing amount of data suggests that the extracellular matrix and extracellular matrix-receptors might participate in the control of most, if not all, of the successive stages of breast tumors, from appearance to progression and metastasis.

  8. Revealing Slip Bands In A Metal-Matrix/Fiber Composite (United States)

    Lerch, Bradley A.


    Experimental procedure includes heat treatments and metallographic techniques developed to facilitate studies of deformation of metal-matrix/fiber composite under stress. Reveals slip bands, indicative of plastic flow occurring in matrix during mechanical tests of specimens of composite.

  9. Program For Analysis Of Metal-Matrix Composites (United States)

    Murthy, P. L. N.; Mital, S. K.


    METCAN (METal matrix Composite ANalyzer) is computer program used to simulate computationally nonlinear behavior of high-temperature metal-matrix composite structural components in specific applications, providing comprehensive analyses of thermal and mechanical performances. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  10. Overlap Dirac operator, eigenvalues and random matrix theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Robert G.; Heller, Urs M.; Kiskis, Joe; Narayanan, Rajamani


    The properties of the spectrum of the overlap Dirac operator and their relation to random matrix theory are studied. In particular, the predictions from chiral random matrix theory in topologically non-trivial gauge field sectors are tested.

  11. Mirror of the refined topological vertex from a matrix model

    CERN Document Server

    Eynard, B


    We find an explicit matrix model computing the refined topological vertex, starting from its representation in terms of plane partitions. We then find the spectral curve of that matrix model, and thus the mirror symmetry of the refined vertex. With the same method we also find a matrix model for the strip geometry, and we find its mirror curve. The fact that there is a matrix model shows that the refined topological string amplitudes also satisfy the remodeling the B-model construction.

  12. [The role of changes of matrix metalloproteinase in cardiovascular diseases]. (United States)

    Gasanov, A G; Bershova, T V


    The review summarizes information about changes of extracellular matrix (ECM) in cardiovascular diseases. Special attention is paid to different groups of extra cellular matrix proteins (collagen I and III type, fibronectine) in the development of cardiac fibrosis in chronic heart failure. The role of matrix metalloproteinases in degradation of components of ECM is analyzed. Interrelationship between matrix metalloproteinases and their tissue inhibitors in fibrosis and cardiac structural chances is analyzed.

  13. Epithelial morphogenesis in hydra requires de novo expression of extracellular matrix components and matrix metalloproteinases. (United States)

    Shimizu, Hiroshi; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Jinsong; Leontovich, Alexey; Fei, Kaiyin; Yan, Li; Sarras, Michael P


    As a member of the phylum Cnidaria, the body wall of hydra is organized as an epithelium bilayer (ectoderm and endoderm) with an intervening extracellular matrix (ECM). Previous studies have established the general molecular structure of hydra ECM and indicate that it is organized as two subepithelial zones that contain basement membrane components such as laminin and a central fibrous zone that contains interstitial matrix components such as a unique type I fibrillar collagen. Because of its simple structure and high regenerative capacity, hydra has been used as a developmental model to study cell-ECM interaction during epithelial morphogenesis. The current study extends previous studies by focusing on the relationship of ECM biogenesis to epithelial morphogenesis in hydra, as monitored during head regeneration or after simple incision of the epithelium. Histological studies indicated that decapitation or incision of the body column resulted in an immediate retraction of the ECM at the wound site followed by a re-fusion of the bilayer within 1 hour. After changes in the morphology of epithelial cells at the regenerating pole, initiation of de novo biogenesis of an ECM began within hours while full reformation of the mature matrix required approximately 2 days. These processes were monitored using probes to three matrix or matrix-associated components: basement membrane-associated hydra laminin beta1 chain (HLM-beta1), interstitial matrix-associated hydra fibrillar collagen (Hcol-I) and hydra matrix metalloproteinase (HMMP). While upregulation of mRNA for both HLM-beta1 and Hcol-I occurred by 3 hours, expression of the former was restricted to the endoderm and expression of the latter was restricted to the ectoderm. Upregulation of HMMP mRNA was also associated with the endoderm and its expression paralleled that for HLM-beta1. As monitored by immunofluorescence, HLM-beta1 protein first appeared in each of the two subepithelial zones (basal lamina) at about 7 hours

  14. Teaching Improvement Model Designed with DEA Method and Management Matrix (United States)

    Montoneri, Bernard


    This study uses student evaluation of teachers to design a teaching improvement matrix based on teaching efficiency and performance by combining management matrix and data envelopment analysis. This matrix is designed to formulate suggestions to improve teaching. The research sample consists of 42 classes of freshmen following a course of English…

  15. On two matrix derivatives by Kollo and von Rosen


    Neudecker, Heinz


    The article establishes relationships between the matrix derivatives of Fwith respect to Xas introduced by von Rosen (1988), Kollo and von Rosen (2000) and the Magnus-Neudecker (1999) matrix derivative. The usual transformations apply and the Moore-Penrose inverse of the duplication matrix is used. Both Xand F have the same dimension. Peer Reviewed

  16. Matrix Training of Preliteracy Skills with Preschoolers with Autism (United States)

    Axe, Judah B.; Sainato, Diane M.


    Matrix training is a generative approach to instruction in which words are arranged in a matrix so that some multiword phrases are taught and others emerge without direct teaching. We taught 4 preschoolers with autism to follow instructions to perform action-picture combinations (e.g., circle the pepper, underline the deer). Each matrix contained…

  17. Conversion of a Rhotrix to a "Coupled Matrix" (United States)

    Sani, B.


    In this note, a method of converting a rhotrix to a special form of matrix termed a "coupled matrix" is proposed. The special matrix can be used to solve various problems involving n x n and (n - 1) x (n - 1) matrices simultaneously.

  18. Spin-adapted matrix product states and operators (United States)

    Keller, Sebastian; Reiher, Markus


    Matrix product states (MPSs) and matrix product operators (MPOs) allow an alternative formulation of the density matrix renormalization group algorithm introduced by White. Here, we describe how non-abelian spin symmetry can be exploited in MPSs and MPOs by virtue of the Wigner-Eckart theorem at the example of the spin-adapted quantum chemical Hamiltonian operator.

  19. The Matrix Element Method and Vector-Like Quark Searches

    CERN Document Server

    Morrison, Benjamin


    In my time at the CERN summer student program, I worked on applying the matrix element method to vector-like quark identification. I worked in the ATLAS University of Geneva group under Dr. Olaf Nackenhorst. I developed automated plotting tools with ROOT, a script for implementing and optimizing generated matrix element calculation code, and kinematic transforms for the matrix element method.

  20. Composite Property Dependence on the Fiber, Matrix, and the Interphase (United States)

    Drzal, L. T.


    The matrix properties of a difunctional epoxy, Epon 828, were varied. The Hercules type A fiber was also utilized in this investigation. The fiber and the interface between fiber and matrix were examined in terms of shear strength. Micrographs of the epoxy matrix are presented.

  1. An algebraic study of the matrix meta-population model (United States)

    Sylviani, Sisilia; Carnia, Ema; Supriatna, A. K.


    In studying the population living in some patches, a single patch model usually generalizes into a meta-population model. Roughly speaking a meta-population is population consisting of some sub-populations, such as sub-population reflecting different life stages of the population or different habitat of patches. In a meta-population framework the dynamics of population within and between patches can be easily studied. This paper will discuss the matrix meta-population model that describes the growth and reproduction within the patches denoted by F. The matrix F is obtained by multiplying three matrices; the transpose of a permutation matrix, a block diagonal matrix in which its diagonal blocks is a matrix A j , and the permutation matrix. The matrix A j is the real non-negative matrix that represents the dynamics of population growth in the patch j. The permutation matrix has a special form that has properties that are more specific than the general permutation matrix. This paper will also gives a brief application for the matrix F. This will provide a space for exploring the characterization of the matrix F from algebraic point of view.

  2. Extracellular Matrix Biomarkers for Diagnosis, Prognosis, Imaging, and Targeting (United States)


    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0240 TITLE: Extracellular Matrix Biomarkers for Diagnosis, Prognosis, Imaging, and Targeting PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Extracellular Matrix Biomarkers for Diagnosis, Prognosis, Imaging, and Targeting 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14...the management and treatment of metastatic breast cancer. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Breast Cancer, Metastasis, Extracellular Matrix , Tumor Microenvironment

  3. Pneumococcal microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules targeting of the extracellular matrix. (United States)

    Paterson, Gavin K; Orihuela, Carlos J


    The attachment of bacteria to host cells and tissues, and their subsequent invasion and dissemination are key processes during pathogenesis. In this issue of Molecular Microbiology, Jensch and co-workers provide further molecular insight into these events during infection with the Gram positive bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae. Their characterization of pneumococcal adherence and virulence factor B (PavB), a bacterial surface protein with orthologues in other streptococci, show that it binds to the extracellar matrix components fibronection and plasminogen by virtue of repetitive sequences-designated streptococcal surface repeats. In mice, a pavB mutant showed reduced nasopharyngeal colonization and was attenuated in a lung infection model. As discussed here in the context of the pneumococcus, the study of PavB highlights the central role during microbal pathogenesis of targetting the extracellular matrix by so-called microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules (MSCRAMMs).

  4. Curing of epoxy matrix composite in stratosphere (United States)

    Kondyurin, Alexey; Kondyurina, Irina; Bilek, Marcela

    Large structures for habitats, greenhouses, space bases, space factories are needed for next stage of space exploitation. A new approach enabling large-size constructions in space relies on the use of the polymerization technology of fiber-filled composites with a curable polymer matrix applied in the free space environment. The polymerisation process is proposed for the material exposed to high vacuum, dramatic temperature changes, space plasma, sun irradiation and atomic oxygen (in low Earth orbit), micrometeorite fluence, electric charging and microgravitation. The stratospheric flight experiments are directed to an investigation of the curing polymer matrix under the stratospheric conditions on. The unique combination of low atmospheric pressure, high intensity UV radiation including short wavelength UV and diurnal temperature variations associated with solar irradiation strongly influences the chemical processes in polymeric materials. The first flight experiment with uncured composites was a part of the NASA scientific balloon flight program realised at the NASA stratospheric balloon station in Alice Springs, Australia. A flight cassette installed on payload was lifted with a “zero-pressure” stratospheric balloon filled with Helium. Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility (CSBF) provided the launch, flight telemetry and landing of the balloon and payload. A cassette of uncured composite materials with an epoxy resin matrix was exposed 3 days in the stratosphere (40 km altitude). The second flight experiment was realised in South Australia in 2012, when the cassette was exposed in 27 km altitude. An analysis of the chemical structure of the composites showed, that the space irradiations are responsible for crosslinking of the uncured polymers exposed in the stratosphere. The first prepreg in the world was cured successfully in stratosphere. The investigations were supported by Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, NASA and RFBR (12-08-00970) grants.

  5. Analytical techniques for instrument design - matrix methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, R.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)


    We take the traditional Cooper-Nathans approach, as has been applied for many years for steady-state triple-axis spectrometers, and consider its generalisation to other inelastic scattering spectrometers. This involves a number of simple manipulations of exponentials of quadratic forms. In particular, we discuss a toolbox of matrix manipulations that can be performed on the 6- dimensional Cooper-Nathans matrix: diagonalisation (Moller-Nielsen method), coordinate changes e.g. from ({Delta}k{sub I},{Delta}k{sub F} to {Delta}E, {Delta}Q & 2 dummy variables), integration of one or more variables (e.g. over such dummy variables), integration subject to linear constraints (e.g. Bragg`s Law for analysers), inversion to give the variance-covariance matrix, and so on. We show how these tools can be combined to solve a number of important problems, within the narrow-band limit and the gaussian approximation. We will argue that a generalised program that can handle multiple different spectrometers could (and should) be written in parallel to the Monte-Carlo packages that are becoming available. We will also discuss the complementarity between detailed Monte-Carlo calculations and the approach presented here. In particular, Monte-Carlo methods traditionally simulate the real experiment as performed in practice, given a model scattering law, while the Cooper-Nathans method asks the inverse question: given that a neutron turns up in a particular spectrometer configuration (e.g. angle and time of flight), what is the probability distribution of possible scattering events at the sample? The Monte-Carlo approach could be applied in the same spirit to this question.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Chipoco Quevedo


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The SWOT matrix is the quintessential analysis tool for business purposes, and is taught both in undergraduate and postgraduate courses. However, it is widely understood that the selection of the critical success factors (CSFs that are included for analysis in the matrix is a very subjective and unstructured process, leaving room for bias and arbitrariness. One way to give a better foundation and support to the analysis results is by utilizing Analytic Hierarchical Process (AHP in order to weigh the importance of CSFs in the SWOT matrix and increase reliability of the output. This paper contains the design of a strategy to teach this topic in a marketing planning course, with the addition of a useful technique to overcome the limitations of the tool. RESUMEN La matriz FODA es la herramienta de análisis por excelencia para fines de negocios, y se enseña en cursos de pregrado y postgrado. Sin embargo, se entiende que la elección de los factores críticos de éxito (FCEs que se incluyen en la matriz para el análisis es un proceso muy subjetivo y no estructurado, que da cabida a sesgos y arbitrariedad. Una forma de dar una mejor base y respaldo a los resultados del análisis es mediante la utilización del Proceso Jerárquico Analítico (AHP con el fin de ponderar la importancia de los FCEs en la matriz FODA y aumentar la fiabilidad de los resultados. Este documento contiene el diseño de una estrategia para enseñar este tema en un curso de planificación de marketing, con la adición de una técnica útil para superar las limitaciones de la herramienta.

  7. The requirement of matrix ATP for the import of precursor proteins into the mitochondrial matrix and intermembrane space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuart, Rosemary A.; Gruhler, Albrecht; Klei, Ida van der; Guiard, Bernard; Koll, Hans; Neupert, Walter


    The role of ATP in the matrix for the import of precursor proteins into the various mitochondrial subcompartments was investigated by studying protein translocation at experimentally defined ATP levels. Proteins targeted to the matrix were neither imported or processed when matrix ATP was depleted.

  8. Hermitian Matrix Model with Plaquette Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chekhov, L.; Kristjansen, C.


    We study a hermitian $(n+1)$-matrix model with plaquette interaction, $\\sum_{i=1}^n MA_iMA_i$. By means of a conformal transformation we rewrite the model as an $O(n)$ model on a random lattice with a non polynomial potential. This allows us to solve the model exactly. We investigate the critical...... properties of the plaquette model and find that for $n\\in]-2,2]$ the model belongs to the same universality class as the $O(n)$ model on a random lattice....

  9. The Uniqueness of -Matrix Graph Invariants (United States)

    Dehmer, Matthias; Shi, Yongtang


    In this paper, we examine the uniqueness (discrimination power) of a newly proposed graph invariant based on the matrix defined by Randić et al. In order to do so, we use exhaustively generated graphs instead of special graph classes such as trees only. Using these graph classes allow us to generalize the findings towards complex networks as they usually do not possess any structural constraints. We obtain that the uniqueness of this newly proposed graph invariant is approximately as low as the uniqueness of the Balaban index on exhaustively generated (general) graphs. PMID:24392099

  10. Drilling of polymer-matrix composites

    CERN Document Server

    Krishnaraj, Vijayan; Davim, J Paulo


    Polymeric composites are recognised as good candidates for structural components due to their inherent properties. However, they present several kinds of damages while creating holes for assembly. Delamination is considered the most serious damage since it reduces service life of the component. Thrust and delamination can be controlled by proper drill point geometry. Drilling at high speed is also a current requirement of the aerospace industry. This book focus on drilling of polymer matrix composites for aerospace and defence applications. The book presents introduction to machining of polymer composites and discusses drilling as a processing of composites.

  11. A Random Matrix Approach to Credit Risk (United States)

    Guhr, Thomas


    We estimate generic statistical properties of a structural credit risk model by considering an ensemble of correlation matrices. This ensemble is set up by Random Matrix Theory. We demonstrate analytically that the presence of correlations severely limits the effect of diversification in a credit portfolio if the correlations are not identically zero. The existence of correlations alters the tails of the loss distribution considerably, even if their average is zero. Under the assumption of randomly fluctuating correlations, a lower bound for the estimation of the loss distribution is provided. PMID:24853864

  12. Mechanically alloyed aluminum metal matrix composites (United States)

    Hashiguchi, Don; Tricker, David; Tarrant, Andrew


    Aluminum alloys reinforced with ceramic particles produce a low density metal matrix composite (MMC) with enhanced mechanical and physical properties including relatively high modulus and vibration loss. This paper will outline the capability through Powder Metallurgy processing techniques made by mechanical alloying (MA). MA enables production of MMC's with micron to submicron mean particulate reinforcement size which increases mechanical properties in comparison to larger reinforcement particle size. Smaller reinforcement particles also result in a material that fits well within established value streams enabling conventional post consolidation metalworking and machining methods. The microstructure and properties of MMC's mechanical alloyed with base aluminum alloys 6061B and 2124A will be presented.

  13. Metal Matrix Composite Materials for Aerospace Applications (United States)

    Bhat, Biliyar N.; Jones, C. S. (Technical Monitor)


    Metal matrix composites (MMC) are attractive materials for aerospace applications because of their high specific strength, high specific stiffness, and lower thermal expansion coefficient. They are affordable since complex parts can be produced by low cost casting process. As a result there are many commercial and Department of Defense applications of MMCs today. This seminar will give an overview of MMCs and their state-of-the-art technology assessment. Topics to be covered are types of MMCs, fabrication methods, product forms, applications, and material selection issues for design and manufacture. Some examples of current and future aerospace applications will also be presented and discussed.

  14. A random matrix approach to credit risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C Münnix

    Full Text Available We estimate generic statistical properties of a structural credit risk model by considering an ensemble of correlation matrices. This ensemble is set up by Random Matrix Theory. We demonstrate analytically that the presence of correlations severely limits the effect of diversification in a credit portfolio if the correlations are not identically zero. The existence of correlations alters the tails of the loss distribution considerably, even if their average is zero. Under the assumption of randomly fluctuating correlations, a lower bound for the estimation of the loss distribution is provided.

  15. Heavy-tailed chiral random matrix theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanazawa, Takuya [iTHES Research Group and Quantum Hadron Physics Laboratory, RIKEN,Wako, Saitama, 351-0198 (Japan)


    We study an unconventional chiral random matrix model with a heavy-tailed probabilistic weight. The model is shown to exhibit chiral symmetry breaking with no bilinear condensate, in analogy to the Stern phase of QCD. We solve the model analytically and obtain the microscopic spectral density and the smallest eigenvalue distribution for an arbitrary number of flavors and arbitrary quark masses. Exotic behaviors such as non-decoupling of heavy flavors and a power-law tail of the smallest eigenvalue distribution are illustrated.

  16. Random matrix techniques in quantum information theory (United States)

    Collins, Benoît; Nechita, Ion


    The purpose of this review is to present some of the latest developments using random techniques, and in particular, random matrix techniques in quantum information theory. Our review is a blend of a rather exhaustive review and of more detailed examples—coming mainly from research projects in which the authors were involved. We focus on two main topics, random quantum states and random quantum channels. We present results related to entropic quantities, entanglement of typical states, entanglement thresholds, the output set of quantum channels, and violations of the minimum output entropy of random channels.

  17. Open quantum systems and random matrix theory (United States)

    Mulhall, Declan


    A simple model for open quantum systems is analyzed with random matrix theory. The system is coupled to the continuum in a minimal way. In this paper the effect on the level statistics of opening the system is seen. In particular the Δ3(L ) statistic, the width distribution and the level spacing are examined as a function of the strength of this coupling. The emergence of a super-radiant transition is observed. The level spacing and Δ3(L ) statistics exhibit the signatures of missed levels or intruder levels as the super-radiant state is formed.

  18. Heavy-tailed chiral random matrix theory (United States)

    Kanazawa, Takuya


    We study an unconventional chiral random matrix model with a heavy-tailed probabilistic weight. The model is shown to exhibit chiral symmetry breaking with no bilinear condensate, in analogy to the Stern phase of QCD. We solve the model analytically and obtain the microscopic spectral density and the smallest eigenvalue distribution for an arbitrary number of flavors and arbitrary quark masses. Exotic behaviors such as non-decoupling of heavy flavors and a power-law tail of the smallest eigenvalue distribution are illustrated.

  19. Pseudo-Hermitian random matrix theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.L. [RIBFG, Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF Bidhan nagar, Kolkata-700 064 (India); Jain, S.R. [NPD, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400 085 (India)


    Complex extension of quantum mechanics and the discovery of pseudo-unitarily invariant random matrix theory has set the stage for a number of applications of these concepts in physics. We briefly review the basic ideas and present applications to problems in statistical mechanics where new results have become possible. We have found it important to mention the precise directions where advances could be made if further results become available. (Copyright copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Random matrix techniques in quantum information theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Benoît, E-mail: [Department of Mathematics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Département de Mathématique et Statistique, Université d’Ottawa, 585 King Edward, Ottawa, Ontario K1N6N5 (Canada); CNRS, Lyon (France); Nechita, Ion, E-mail: [Zentrum Mathematik, M5, Technische Universität München, Boltzmannstrasse 3, 85748 Garching (Germany); Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, CNRS, IRSAMC, Université de Toulouse, UPS, F-31062 Toulouse (France)


    The purpose of this review is to present some of the latest developments using random techniques, and in particular, random matrix techniques in quantum information theory. Our review is a blend of a rather exhaustive review and of more detailed examples—coming mainly from research projects in which the authors were involved. We focus on two main topics, random quantum states and random quantum channels. We present results related to entropic quantities, entanglement of typical states, entanglement thresholds, the output set of quantum channels, and violations of the minimum output entropy of random channels.

  1. Domestic tourism in Uruguay: a matrix approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Domínguez Pérez


    Full Text Available In this paper domestic tourism in Uruguay is analyzed by introducing an Origin-Destination matrix approach, and an attraction coefficient is calculated. We show that Montevideo is an attractive destination to every department except itself (even if it emits more trips than it receives, and the Southeast region is the main destination. Another important outcome is the importance of intra-regional patterns, associated to trips to bordering departments. Findings provide destination managers with practical knowledge, useful for reducing seasonality and attracting more domestic tourists throughout the year, as well as to deliver a better service offer, that attracts both usual visitors and new ones from competitive destinations.

  2. Fundamentals of matrix analysis with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Saff, Edward Barry


    This book provides comprehensive coverage of matrix theory from a geometric and physical perspective, and the authors address the functionality of matrices and their ability to illustrate and aid in many practical applications.  Readers are introduced to inverses and eigenvalues through physical examples such as rotations, reflections, and projections, and only then are computational details described and explored.  MATLAB is utilized to aid in reader comprehension, and the authors are careful to address the issue of rank fragility so readers are not flummoxed when MATLAB displays conflict wit


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curmei Catalin Valeriu


    Full Text Available In recent decades we have witnessed an unseen dynamism among companies, which is explained by their desire to engage in more activities that provide a high level of development and diversification. Thus, as companies are diversifying more and more, their managers confront a number of challenges arising from the management of resources for the product portfolio and the low level of resources with which companies can identify, at a time. Responding to these challenges, over time were developed a series of analytical product portfolio methods through which managers can balance the sources of cash flows from the multiple products and also can identify the place and role of products, in strategic terms, within the product portfolio. In order to identify these methods the authors of the present paper have conducted a desk research in order to analyze the strategic marketing and management literature of the last 2 decades. Widely were studied a series of methods that are presented in the marketing and management literature as the main instruments used within the product portfolio strategic planning process. Among these methods we focused on the Arthur D. Little matrix. Thus the present paper has the purpose to outline the characteristics and strategic implications of the ADL matrix within a company’s product portfolio. After conducting this analysis we have found that restricting the product portfolio analysis to the A.D.L. matrix is not a very wise decision. The A.D.L. matrix among with other marketing tools of product portfolio analysis have some advantages and disadvantages and is trying to provide, at a time, a specific diagnosis of a company’s product portfolio. Therefore, the recommendation for the Romanian managers consists in a combined use of a wide range of tools and techniques for product portfolio analysis. This leads to a better understanding of the whole mix of product markets, included in portfolio analysis, the strategic position

  4. The Riccati transfer matrix method. [for computerized structural analysis (United States)

    Horner, G. C.; Pilkey, W. D.


    The Riccati transfer matrix method is a new technique for analyzing structural members. This new technique makes use of an existing large catalog of transfer matrices for various structural members such as rotating shafts. The numerical instability encountered when calculating high resonant frequencies, static response of a flexible member on a stiff foundation, or the response of a long member by the transfer matrix method is eliminated by the Riccati transfer matrix method. The computational time and storage requirements of the Riccati transfer matrix method are about half the values for the transfer matrix method. A rotating shaft analysis demonstrates the numerical accuracy of the method.

  5. On the eigenvalue and eigenvector derivatives of a general matrix (United States)

    Juang, Jer-Nan; Lim, Kyong B.


    The existence of differentiable eigenvalues and eigenvectors for a general matrix is addressed. The eigenspace which contains differentiable eigenvectors is determined and computed by using the concept of subspace intersection in conjunction with the singular value decomposition algorithm. The differentiable eigenvectors associated with repeated eigenvalues should be simultaneously the eigenvectors of the general matrix and its corresponding sensitivity matrix. Furthermore, the derivatives for differentiable eigenvectors associated with repeated eigenvalues can be computed using higher order derivatives of the matrix, whereas the corresponding eigenvalue derivatives are the eigenvalues of the sensitivity matrix.

  6. Systems and methods for deactivating a matrix converter (United States)

    Ransom, Ray M.


    Systems and methods are provided for deactivating a matrix conversion module. An electrical system comprises an alternating current (AC) interface, a matrix conversion module coupled to the AC interface, an inductive element coupled between the AC interface and the matrix conversion module, and a control module. The control module is coupled to the matrix conversion module, and in response to a shutdown condition, the control module is configured to operate the matrix conversion module to deactivate the first conversion module when a magnitude of a current through the inductive element is less than a threshold value.

  7. Nano and hybrid aluminum based metal matrix composites: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muley Aniruddha V.


    Full Text Available Aluminium matrix composites (AMCs are potential light weight engineering materials with excellent properties. AMCs find application in many areas including automobile, mining, aerospace and defence, etc. Due to technological advancements, it is possible to use nano sized reinforcement in Al matrix. Nano sized reinforcements enhance the properties of Al matrix compared to micro sized reinforcements. Hybrid reinforcement imbibe superior properties to aluminium matrix composites as compared with Al composites having single reinforcement. This paper is focused on overview of development in the field of Al based metal matrix with nano and hybrid aluminium based composites.

  8. Solid-Matrix Luminescence Analysis and Coupling Solid-Matrix Luminescence with Separation Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert J. Hurtubise


    In this report, the major results and conclusions of the research over the last two years and five months is considered. The report discusses the mechanistic aspects of oxygen quenching of solid-matrix phosphorescence (SMP), mechanistic aspects of moisture quenching of SMP, interactions and methodology to investigate phosphors in glucose glasses, new methods for coating filter paper for solid-phase microextraction with solid-matrix fluorescence (SMF) and SMP detection, mechanistic consideration of the heavy-atom quenching of the SMF and the enhancement of SMP of benzo[a]pyrene-DNA adducts, and new developments in liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction.

  9. Effects of ductile matrix failure in three dimensional analysis of metal matrix composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo


    Full three dimensional numerical cell model analyses are carried out for a metal reinforced by short fibers, to study the development of ductile matrix failure. A porous ductile material model is used to describe the effect of the nucleation and growth of voids to coalescence. In each case studied...... the computations are continued through the mechanically unstable regime, where an open crack forms near the ends of the fibers by the coalescence of voids in the matrix. Comparison of predictions for an isotropic hardening model and a kinematic hardening model are used to evaluate the effect of a metal that forms...

  10. Non-negative Matrix Factorization for Binary Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob Søgaard; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder

    We propose the Logistic Non-negative Matrix Factorization for decomposition of binary data. Binary data are frequently generated in e.g. text analysis, sensory data, market basket data etc. A common method for analysing non-negative data is the Non-negative Matrix Factorization, though...... this is in theory not appropriate for binary data, and thus we propose a novel Non-negative Matrix Factorization based on the logistic link function. Furthermore we generalize the method to handle missing data. The formulation of the method is compared to a previously proposed method (Tome et al., 2015). We compare...... the performance of the Logistic Non-negative Matrix Factorization to Least Squares Non-negative Matrix Factorization and Kullback-Leibler (KL) Non-negative Matrix Factorization on sets of binary data: a synthetic dataset, a set of student comments on their professors collected in a binary term-document matrix...

  11. Quantitative image analysis for investigating cell-matrix interactions (United States)

    Burkel, Brian; Notbohm, Jacob


    The extracellular matrix provides both chemical and physical cues that control cellular processes such as migration, division, differentiation, and cancer progression. Cells can mechanically alter the matrix by applying forces that result in matrix displacements, which in turn may localize to form dense bands along which cells may migrate. To quantify the displacements, we use confocal microscopy and fluorescent labeling to acquire high-contrast images of the fibrous material. Using a technique for quantitative image analysis called digital volume correlation, we then compute the matrix displacements. Our experimental technology offers a means to quantify matrix mechanics and cell-matrix interactions. We are now using these experimental tools to modulate mechanical properties of the matrix to study cell contraction and migration.

  12. A random matrix approach to language acquisition (United States)

    Nicolaidis, A.; Kosmidis, Kosmas; Argyrakis, Panos


    Since language is tied to cognition, we expect the linguistic structures to reflect patterns that we encounter in nature and are analyzed by physics. Within this realm we investigate the process of lexicon acquisition, using analytical and tractable methods developed within physics. A lexicon is a mapping between sounds and referents of the perceived world. This mapping is represented by a matrix and the linguistic interaction among individuals is described by a random matrix model. There are two essential parameters in our approach. The strength of the linguistic interaction β, which is considered as a genetically determined ability, and the number N of sounds employed (the lexicon size). Our model of linguistic interaction is analytically studied using methods of statistical physics and simulated by Monte Carlo techniques. The analysis reveals an intricate relationship between the innate propensity for language acquisition β and the lexicon size N, N~exp(β). Thus a small increase of the genetically determined β may lead to an incredible lexical explosion. Our approximate scheme offers an explanation for the biological affinity of different species and their simultaneous linguistic disparity.

  13. Biodegradable magnesium-hydroxyapatite metal matrix composites. (United States)

    Witte, Frank; Feyerabend, Frank; Maier, Petra; Fischer, Jens; Störmer, Michael; Blawert, Carsten; Dietzel, Wolfgang; Hort, Norbert


    Recent studies indicate that there is a high demand to design magnesium alloys with adjustable corrosion rates and suitable mechanical properties. An approach to this challenge might be the application of metal matrix composite (MMC) based on magnesium alloys. In this study, a MMC made of magnesium alloy AZ91D as a matrix and hydroxyapatite (HA) particles as reinforcements have been investigated in vitro for mechanical, corrosive and cytocompatible properties. The mechanical properties of the MMC-HA were adjustable by the choice of HA particle size and distribution. Corrosion tests revealed that HA particles stabilised the corrosion rate and exhibited more uniform corrosion attack in artificial sea water and cell solutions. The phase identification showed that all samples contained hcp-Mg, Mg(17)Al(12), and HA before and after immersion. After immersion in artificial sea water CaCO3 was found on MMC-HA surfaces, while no formation of CaCO3 was found after immersion in cell solutions with and without proteins. Co-cultivation of MMC-HA with human bone derived cells (HBDC), cells of an osteoblasts lineage (MG-63) and cells of a macrophage lineage (RAW264.7) revealed that RAW264.7, MG-63 and HBDC adhere, proliferate and survive on the corroding surfaces of MMC-HA. In summary, biodegradable MMC-HA are cytocompatible biomaterials with adjustable mechanical and corrosive properties.

  14. Multiple graph regularized nonnegative matrix factorization

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan


    Non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) has been widely used as a data representation method based on components. To overcome the disadvantage of NMF in failing to consider the manifold structure of a data set, graph regularized NMF (GrNMF) has been proposed by Cai et al. by constructing an affinity graph and searching for a matrix factorization that respects graph structure. Selecting a graph model and its corresponding parameters is critical for this strategy. This process is usually carried out by cross-validation or discrete grid search, which are time consuming and prone to overfitting. In this paper, we propose a GrNMF, called MultiGrNMF, in which the intrinsic manifold is approximated by a linear combination of several graphs with different models and parameters inspired by ensemble manifold regularization. Factorization metrics and linear combination coefficients of graphs are determined simultaneously within a unified object function. They are alternately optimized in an iterative algorithm, thus resulting in a novel data representation algorithm. Extensive experiments on a protein subcellular localization task and an Alzheimer\\'s disease diagnosis task demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Matrix metalloproteinases in exercise and obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaoude J


    Full Text Available Jonathan Jaoude,1 Yunsuk Koh2 1Department of Biology, 2Department of Health, Human Performance, and Recreation, Baylor University, Waco, TX, USA Abstract: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs are zinc- and calcium-dependent endoproteinases that have the ability to break down extracellular matrix. The large range of MMPs’ functions widens their spectrum of potential role as activators or inhibitors in tissue remodeling, cardiovascular diseases, and obesity. In particular, MMP-1, -2, and -9 may be associated with exercise and obesity. Thus, the current study reviewed the effects of different types of exercise (resistance and aerobic on MMP-1, -2, and -9. Previous studies report that the response of MMP-2 and -9 to resistance exercise is dependent upon the length of exercise training, since long-term resistance exercise training increased both MMP-2 and -9, whereas acute bout of resistance exercise decreased these MMPs. Aerobic exercise produces an inconsistent result on MMPs, although some studies showed a decrease in MMP-1. Obesity is related to a relatively lower level of MMP-9, indicating that an exercise-induced increase in MMP-9 may positively influence obesity. A comprehensive understanding of the relationship between exercise, obesity, and MMPs does not exist yet. Future studies examining the acute and chronic responses of these MMPs using different subject models may provide a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that are associated with exercise, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. Keywords: cardiovascular disease, gelatinases, collagenases, TIMP

  16. Raney Distributions and Random Matrix Theory (United States)

    Forrester, Peter J.; Liu, Dang-Zheng


    Recent works have shown that the family of probability distributions with moments given by the Fuss-Catalan numbers permit a simple parameterized form for their density. We extend this result to the Raney distribution which by definition has its moments given by a generalization of the Fuss-Catalan numbers. Such computations begin with an algebraic equation satisfied by the Stieltjes transform, which we show can be derived from the linear differential equation satisfied by the characteristic polynomial of random matrix realizations of the Raney distribution. For the Fuss-Catalan distribution, an equilibrium problem characterizing the density is identified. The Stieltjes transform for the limiting spectral density of the singular values squared of the matrix product formed from inverse standard Gaussian matrices, and standard Gaussian matrices, is shown to satisfy a variant of the algebraic equation relating to the Raney distribution. Supported on , we show that it too permits a simple functional form upon the introduction of an appropriate choice of parameterization. As an application, the leading asymptotic form of the density as the endpoints of the support are approached is computed, and is shown to have some universal features.

  17. Discriminant projective non-negative matrix factorization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naiyang Guan

    Full Text Available Projective non-negative matrix factorization (PNMF projects high-dimensional non-negative examples X onto a lower-dimensional subspace spanned by a non-negative basis W and considers W(T X as their coefficients, i.e., X≈WW(T X. Since PNMF learns the natural parts-based representation Wof X, it has been widely used in many fields such as pattern recognition and computer vision. However, PNMF does not perform well in classification tasks because it completely ignores the label information of the dataset. This paper proposes a Discriminant PNMF method (DPNMF to overcome this deficiency. In particular, DPNMF exploits Fisher's criterion to PNMF for utilizing the label information. Similar to PNMF, DPNMF learns a single non-negative basis matrix and needs less computational burden than NMF. In contrast to PNMF, DPNMF maximizes the distance between centers of any two classes of examples meanwhile minimizes the distance between any two examples of the same class in the lower-dimensional subspace and thus has more discriminant power. We develop a multiplicative update rule to solve DPNMF and prove its convergence. Experimental results on four popular face image datasets confirm its effectiveness comparing with the representative NMF and PNMF algorithms.

  18. Development of the Russian matrix sentence test. (United States)

    Warzybok, Anna; Zokoll, Melanie; Wardenga, Nina; Ozimek, Edward; Boboshko, Maria; Kollmeier, Birger


    To develop the Russian matrix sentence test for speech intelligibility measurements in noise. Test development included recordings, optimization of speech material, and evaluation to investigate the equivalency of the test lists and training. For each of the 500 test items, the speech intelligibility function, speech reception threshold (SRT: signal-to-noise ratio, SNR, that provides 50% speech intelligibility), and slope was obtained. The speech material was homogenized by applying level corrections. In evaluation measurements, speech intelligibility was measured at two fixed SNRs to compare list-specific intelligibility functions. To investigate the training effect and establish reference data, speech intelligibility was measured adaptively. Overall, 77 normal-hearing native Russian listeners. The optimization procedure decreased the spread in SRTs across words from 2.8 to 0.6 dB. Evaluation measurements confirmed that the 16 test lists were equivalent, with a mean SRT of -9.5 ± 0.2 dB and a slope of 13.8 ± 1.6%/dB. The reference SRT, -8.8 ± 0.8 dB for the open-set and -9.4 ± 0.8 dB for the closed-set format, increased slightly for noise levels above 75 dB SPL. The Russian matrix sentence test is suitable for accurate and reliable speech intelligibility measurements in noise.

  19. The matrix metalloproteinase in larynx cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weronika Lucas Grzelczyk


    Full Text Available One of the most common carcinoma occurring in the head and neck is laryngeal cancer. Despite the rapid scientific advances in medicine the prognosis for patients with such type of disease is not satisfying. In the last few years matrix metalloproteinases ‑ MMPs and their tissue inhibitors – TIMPs, mostly MMP‑2 and MMP‑9, arouses a great interest, especially in the process of carcinogenesis. It seems that their impact in the formation and development of laryngeal cancer is significant. MMPs a group of zinc‑ and calcium‑ dependent endopeptidases play crucial role extracellular matrix collagen degradation. That are enzymes, that degrade and the basement membrane by facilitating tumor growth, cell migration and tumor invasion. They are implicated in metastasis and angiogenesis potentiate within the tumor. Clear tendency was observed towards the higher MMPs and TIMPs expression in larynx cancer than in the stroma. Recent studies show correlations between increased MMP‑2 gene expression in the tumor tissue and clinical status, histopathological grading and metastases occurrence. The similar MMP2 over expression dependence were found on tumor recurrence and survival. Many authors pointed out, significant higher MMP‑2 expression as a potential marker of tumor invasiveness and worse prognosis in patients with larynx cancer. However, association of MMP 9 gene expression with laryngeal cancer clinicopathological features and survival of patients are ambiguous. Although, numerous researches show that this relationship does exists. Similar correlations could be found in TIMPs, but further studies are necessary because of small amount of literature.

  20. Unitarity and the Holographic S-Matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzpatrick, A.Liam; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Kaplan, Jared; /SLAC


    The bulk S-Matrix can be given a non-perturbative definition in terms of the flat space limit of AdS/CFT. We show that the unitarity of the S-Matrix, ie the optical theorem, can be derived by studying the behavior of the OPE and the conformal block decomposition in the flat space limit. When applied to perturbation theory in AdS, this gives a holographic derivation of the cutting rules for Feynman diagrams. To demonstrate these facts we introduce some new techniques for the analysis of conformal field theories. Chief among these is a method for conglomerating local primary operators O{sub 1} and O{sub 2} to extract the contribution of an individual primary O{sub {Delta},{ell}} in their OPE. This provides a method for isolating the contribution of specific conformal blocks which we use to prove an important relation between certain conformal block coefficients and anomalous dimensions. These techniques make essential use of the simplifications that occur when CFT correlators are expressed in terms of a Mellin amplitude.

  1. Semiclassical S-matrix for black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Bezrukov, Fedor; Sibiryakov, Sergey


    We propose a semiclassical method to calculate S-matrix elements for two-stage gravitational transitions involving matter collapse into a black hole and evaporation of the latter. The method consistently incorporates back-reaction of the collapsing and emitted quanta on the metric. We illustrate the method in several toy models describing spherical self-gravitating shells in asymptotically flat and AdS space-times. We find that electrically neutral shells reflect via the above collapse-evaporation process with probability exp(-B), where B is the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of the intermediate black hole. This is consistent with interpretation of exp(B) as the number of black hole states. The same expression for the probability is obtained in the case of charged shells if one takes into account instability of the Cauchy horizon of the intermediate Reissner-Nordstrom black hole. Our semiclassical method opens a new systematic approach to the gravitational S-matrix in the non-perturbative regime.

  2. Nuclear matrix – structure, function and pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Wasąg


    Full Text Available The nuclear matrix (NM, or nuclear skeleton, is the non-chromatin, ribonucleoproteinaceous framework that is resistant to high ionic strength buffers, nonionic detergents, and nucleolytic enzymes. The NM fulfills a structural role in eukaryotic cells and is responsible for maintaining the shape of the nucleus and the spatial organization of chromatin. Moreover, the NM participates in several cellular processes, such as DNA replication/repair, gene expression, RNA transport, cell signaling and differentiation, cell cycle regulation, apoptosis and carcinogenesis. Short nucleotide sequences called scaffold/matrix attachment regions (S/MAR anchor the chromatin loops to the NM proteins (NMP. The NMP composition is dynamic and depends on the cell type and differentiation stage or metabolic activity. Alterations in the NMP composition affect anchoring of the S/MARs and thus alter gene expression.This review aims to systematize information about the skeletal structure of the nucleus, with particular emphasis on the organization of the NM and its role in selected cellular processes. We also discuss several diseases that are caused by aberrant NM structure or dysfunction of individual NM elements.

  3. Oriented nanofibers embedded in a polymer matrix (United States)

    Barrera, Enrique V. (Inventor); Rodriguez-Macias, Fernando J. (Inventor); Lozano, Karen (Inventor); Chibante, Luis Paulo Felipe (Inventor); Stewart, David Harris (Inventor)


    A method of forming a composite of embedded nanofibers in a polymer matrix is disclosed. The method includes incorporating nanofibers in a plastic matrix forming agglomerates, and uniformly distributing the nanofibers by exposing the agglomerates to hydrodynamic stresses. The hydrodynamic said stresses force the agglomerates to break apart. In combination or additionally elongational flow is used to achieve small diameters and alignment. A nanofiber reinforced polymer composite system is disclosed. The system includes a plurality of nanofibers that are embedded in polymer matrices in micron size fibers. A method for producing nanotube continuous fibers is disclosed. Nanofibers are fibrils with diameters of 100 nm, multiwall nanotubes, single wall nanotubes and their various functionalized and derivatized forms. The method includes mixing a nanofiber in a polymer; and inducing an orientation of the nanofibers that enables the nanofibers to be used to enhance mechanical, thermal and electrical properties. Orientation is induced by high shear mixing and elongational flow, singly or in combination. The polymer may be removed from said nanofibers, leaving micron size fibers of aligned nanofibers.

  4. Cooled Ceramic Matrix Composite Propulsion Structures Demonstrated (United States)

    Jaskowiak, Martha H.; Dickens, Kevin W.


    NASA's Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) Program has successfully demonstrated cooled ceramic matrix composite (CMC) technology in a scramjet engine test. This demonstration represented the world s largest cooled nonmetallic matrix composite panel fabricated for a scramjet engine and the first cooled nonmetallic composite to be tested in a scramjet facility. Lightweight, high-temperature, actively cooled structures have been identified as a key technology for enabling reliable and low-cost space access. Tradeoff studies have shown this to be the case for a variety of launch platforms, including rockets and hypersonic cruise vehicles. Actively cooled carbon and CMC structures may meet high-performance goals at significantly lower weight, while improving safety by operating with a higher margin between the design temperature and material upper-use temperature. Studies have shown that using actively cooled CMCs can reduce the weight of the cooled flow-path component from 4.5 to 1.6 lb/sq ft and the weight of the propulsion system s cooled surface area by more than 50 percent. This weight savings enables advanced concepts, increased payload, and increased range. The ability of the cooled CMC flow-path components to operate over 1000 F hotter than the state-of-the-art metallic concept adds system design flexibility to space-access vehicle concepts. Other potential system-level benefits include smaller fuel pumps, lower part count, lower cost, and increased operating margin.

  5. Tumorigenic Potential of Extracellular Matrix Metalloproteinase Inducer (United States)

    Zucker, Stanley; Hymowitz, Michelle; Rollo, Ellen E.; Mann, Richard; Conner, Cathleen E.; Cao, Jian; Foda, Hussein D.; Tompkins, David C.; Toole, Bryan P.


    Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN), a glycoprotein present on the cancer cell plasma membrane, enhances fibroblast synthesis of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). The demonstration that peritumoral fibroblasts synthesize most of the MMPs in human tumors rather than the cancer cells themselves has ignited interest in the role of EMMPRIN in tumor dissemination. In this report we have demonstrated a role for EMMPRIN in cancer progression. Human MDA-MB-436 breast cancer cells, which are tumorigenic but slow growing in vivo, were transfected with EMMPRIN cDNA and injected orthotopically into mammary tissue of female NCr nu/nu mice. Green fluorescent protein was used to visualize metastases. In three experiments, breast cancer cell clones transfected with EMMPRIN cDNA were considerably more tumorigenic and invasive than plasmid-transfected cancer cells. Increased gelatinase A and gelatinase B expression (demonstrated by in situ hybridization and gelatin substrate zymography) was demonstrated in EMMPRIN-enhanced tumors. In contrast to de novo breast cancers in humans, human tumors transplanted into mice elicited minimal stromal or inflammatory cell reactions. Based on these experimental studies and our previous demonstration that EMMPRIN is prominently displayed in human cancer tissue, we propose that EMMPRIN plays an important role in cancer progression by increasing synthesis of MMPs. PMID:11395366

  6. Matrix metalloproteinases in stem cell mobilization. (United States)

    Klein, Gerd; Schmal, Olga; Aicher, Wilhelm K


    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) have the capability to migrate back and forth between their preferred microenvironment in bone marrow niches and the peripheral blood, but under steady-state conditions only a marginal number of stem cells can be found in the circulation. Different mobilizing agents, however, which create a highly proteolytic milieu in the bone marrow, can drastically increase the number of circulating HSCs. Among other proteases secreted and membrane-bound matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are known to be involved in the induced mobilization process and can digest niche-specific extracellular matrix components and cytokines responsible for stem cell retention to the niches. Iatrogenic stem cell mobilization and stem cell homing to their niches are clinically employed on a routine basis, although the exact mechanisms of both processes are still not fully understood. In this review we provide an overview on the various roles of MMPs in the induced release of HSCs from the bone marrow. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. The effect of multiple compliant layers at the fiber-matrix interface on residual thermal stresses in metal matrix composites (United States)

    Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Freed, Alan D.


    The large mismatch in thermoelastic properties of the fiber and matrix phases in advanced metal matrix composites, coupled with high consolidation temperatures, produces severe residual stresses that can be large enough to initiate microcracks in the matrix phase adjacent to the fiber/matrix interface. Previous investigations have demonstrated that the use of a compliant interfacial layer between fiber and matrix phases has the potential for reducing these residual stresses. In this paper, the influence of multiple compliant layers in reducing residual thermal stresses is investigated.

  8. Characterization and control of the fiber-matrix interface in ceramic matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowden, R.A.


    Fiber-reinforced SiC composites fabricated by thermal-gradient forced-flow chemical-vapor infiltration (FCVI) have exhibited both composite (toughened) and brittle behavior during mechanical property evaluation. Detailed analysis of the fiber-matrix interface revealed that a silica layer on the surface of Nicalon Si-C-O fibers tightly bonds the fiber to the matrix. The strongly bonded fiber and matrix, combined with the reduction in the strength of the fibers that occurs during processing, resulted in the observed brittle behavior. The mechanical behavior of Nicalon/SiC composites has been improved by applying thin coatings (silicon carbide, boron, boron nitride, molybdenum, carbon) to the fibers, prior to densification, to control the interfacial bond. Varying degrees of bonding have been achieved with different coating materials and film thicknesses. Fiber-matrix bond strengths have been quantitatively evaluated using an indentation method and a simple tensile test. The effects of bonding and friction on the mechanical behavior of this composite system have been investigated. 167 refs., 59 figs., 18 tabs.

  9. Biglycan fragmentation in pathologies associated with extracellular matrix remodeling by matrix metalloproteinases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genovese, Federica; Barascuk, Natasha; Larsen, Lise Skakkebæk


    The proteoglycan biglycan (BGN) is involved in collagen fibril assembly and its fragmentation is likely to be associated with collagen turnover during the pathogenesis of diseases which involve dysregulated extracellular matrix remodeling (ECMR), such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and liver fibrosis...

  10. Drawing a different picture with pencil lead as matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization matrix for fullerene derivatives. (United States)

    Nye, Leanne C; Hungerbühler, Hartmut; Drewello, Thomas


    Inspired by reports on the use of pencil lead as a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization matrix, paving the way towards matrix-free matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization, the present investigation evaluates its usage with organic fullerene derivatives. Currently, this class of compounds is best analysed using the electron transfer matrix trans-2-[3-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-2-methyl-2-propenylidene] malononitrile (DCTB), which was employed as the standard here. The suitability of pencil lead was additionally compared to direct (i.e. no matrix) laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry. The use of (DCTB) was identified as the by far gentler method, producing spectra with abundant molecular ion signals and much reduced fragmentation. Analytically, pencil lead was found to be ineffective as a matrix, however, appears to be an extremely easy and inexpensive method for producing sodium and potassium adducts.

  11. Matrix cracking initiation stress in fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composites (United States)

    Kangutkar, Pramod Balkrishna


    One of the important design parameters in CMC's in the Matrix Cracking Initiation Stress (MCIS) which corresponds to the stress at which first matrix cracks are observed. Above the MCIS, the fibers will be exposed to the oxidizing environment which may degrade the mechanical property of the fibers and thus of the composite. In this thesis a systematic study to explore the effects of matrix toughness and inherent strength, fiber diameter, stiffness and volume fraction, temperature and interfacial bonding on the MCIS was carried out. Composites were fabricated using three different matrices--borosilicate glass, aluminosilicate glass and polycrystalline zirconium silicate (or zircon), and two different reinforcing fibers--an SiC monofilament (140 micron diameter) and an SiC yarn (16 micron diameter). In-situ observations during 3-point bend test inside the SEM indicate that matrix cracking is a local phenomenon and occurs first in the matrix between widest spaced fibers. In all composites the MCIS was found to increase with fiber additions and scaled with the monolithic strength. The relative increase in MCIS over the monolithic strength with fiber volume fraction, however, was found to depend strongly on the a(sub 0)/S ratio, where a(sub 0) is the inherent unreinforced matrix flaw size and S is the inter-fiber spacing. For small ratios, the effect of fiber additions on enhancing MCIS are minimal. As the ratio approaches unity, the role of the fibers in constraining the inherent flaw increases, thereby increasing the MCIS. Thermal residual stresses were also seen to play an important role in determining the MCIS; systems with compressive residual stresses in the matrix show higher MCIS at room temperature than at a higher temperature. In systems such as the 7740/Nicalon, which had negligible thermal stresses, MCIS showed minimal changes on testing at 520 C. Several theoretical models were reviewed and the predictions were compared to the experimental results. It was

  12. Matrix rigidity regulates microtubule network polarization in migration. (United States)

    Raab, Matthew; Discher, Dennis E


    The microtubule organizing center (MTOC) frequently polarizes to a position in front of the nucleus during cell migration, but recent work has shown conflicting evidence for MTOC location in migratory polarized cells. Here, we show that subcellular localization of the MTOC is modulated by extracellular matrix stiffness. In scratch wound assays as well as single cell migration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) the MTOC appears randomly positioned when cells are migrating on soft matrix, whereas on stiff matrix the MTOC is in front of the nucleus. The bulk of the microtubule density is also equally likely to be in front of or behind the nucleus on soft matrix, but it is polarized in front of the nucleus on stiff matrix. This occurred during cell migration with cells in interphase. During cytokinesis, the centrosomes polarize on either side of the chromosomes even on soft matrix, with MIIB localized strongly in the cleavage furrow which depolarizes only on soft matrix as cells exit cytokinesis. When cells are immobilized on micro-patterns printed on the top of substrates of different stiffness, MIIB polarized if the matrix was sufficiently stiff similar to results with migrating cells. However, the MTOC was randomly positioned with respect to the nucleus independent of matrix stiffness. We deduce that cell migration is necessary to orient the MTOC in front of the nucleus and that matrix stiffness helps to drive cell polarization during migration. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Modulation and control of matrix converter for aerospace application (United States)

    Kobravi, Keyhan

    In the context of modern aircraft systems, a major challenge is power conversion to supply the aircraft's electrical instruments. These instruments are energized through a fixed-frequency internal power grid. In an aircraft, the available sources of energy are a set of variable-speed generators which provide variable-frequency ac voltages. Therefore, to energize the internal power grid of an aircraft, the variable-frequency ac voltages should be converted to a fixed-frequency ac voltage. As a result, an ac to ac power conversion is required within an aircraft's power system. This thesis develops a Matrix Converter to energize the aircraft's internal power grid. The Matrix Converter provides a direct ac to ac power conversion. A major challenge of designing Matrix Converters for aerospace applications is to minimize the volume and weight of the converter. These parameters are minimized by increasing the switching frequency of the converter. To design a Matrix Converter operating at a high switching frequency, this thesis (i) develops a scheme to integrate fast semiconductor switches within the current available Matrix Converter topologies, i.e., MOSFET-based Matrix Converter, and (ii) develops a new modulation strategy for the Matrix Converter. This Matrix Converter and the new modulation strategy enables the operation of the converter at a switching-frequency of 40kHz. To provide a reliable source of energy, this thesis also develops a new methodology for robust control of Matrix Converter. To verify the performance of the proposed MOSFET-based Matrix Converter, modulation strategy, and control design methodology, various simulation and experimental results are presented. The experimental results are obtained under operating condition present in an aircraft. The experimental results verify the proposed Matrix Converter provides a reliable power conversion in an aircraft under extreme operating conditions. The results prove the superiority of the proposed Matrix

  14. Predicting structure in nonsymmetric sparse matrix factorizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, J.R. (Xerox Palo Alto Research Center, CA (United States)); Ng, E.G. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))


    Many computations on sparse matrices have a phase that predicts the nonzero structure of the output, followed by a phase that actually performs the numerical computation. We study structure prediction for computations that involve nonsymmetric row and column permutations and nonsymmetric or non-square matrices. Our tools are bipartite graphs, matchings, and alternating paths. Our main new result concerns LU factorization with partial pivoting. We show that if a square matrix A has the strong Hall property (i.e., is fully indecomposable) then an upper bound due to George and Ng on the nonzero structure of L + U is as tight as possible. To show this, we prove a crucial result about alternating paths in strong Hall graphs. The alternating-paths theorem seems to be of independent interest: it can also be used to prove related results about structure prediction for QR factorization that are due to Coleman, Edenbrandt, Gilbert, Hare, Johnson, Olesky, Pothen, and van den Driessche.

  15. Metal Matrix Composites for Rocket Engine Applications (United States)

    McDonald, Kathleen R.; Wooten, John R.


    This document is from a presentation about the applications of Metal Matrix Composites (MMC) in rocket engines. Both NASA and the Air Force have goals which would reduce the costs and the weight of launching spacecraft. Charts show the engine weight distribution for both reuseable and expendable engine components. The presentation reviews the operating requirements for several components of the rocket engines. The next slide reviews the potential benefits of MMCs in general and in use as materials for Advanced Pressure Casting. The next slide reviews the drawbacks of MMCs. The reusable turbopump housing is selected to review for potential MMC application. The presentation reviews solutions for reusable turbopump materials, pointing out some of the issues. It also reviews the development of some of the materials.

  16. Heavy quarks and the CKM matrix

    CERN Document Server

    Peter, K A


    In the last decade, the LEP experiments played a central role in the study of B hadrons (hadrons containing a b quark). New B hadrons have been observed (B/sub S//sup 0/, Lambda /sub B/, Xi /sub b/ and B**) and their production and decay properties have been measured. In this paper we will focus on measurements of the CKM matrix elements: ¿V /sub cb/¿, ¿V/sub ub/¿, ¿V/sub td/¿ and ¿V/sub ts/¿. We will show how all these measurements, together with theoretical developments, have significantly improved our knowledge on the flavour sector of the standard model. (4 refs).

  17. Extracellular matrix motion and early morphogenesis. (United States)

    Loganathan, Rajprasad; Rongish, Brenda J; Smith, Christopher M; Filla, Michael B; Czirok, Andras; Bénazéraf, Bertrand; Little, Charles D


    For over a century, embryologists who studied cellular motion in early amniotes generally assumed that morphogenetic movement reflected migration relative to a static extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffold. However, as we discuss in this Review, recent investigations reveal that the ECM is also moving during morphogenesis. Time-lapse studies show how convective tissue displacement patterns, as visualized by ECM markers, contribute to morphogenesis and organogenesis. Computational image analysis distinguishes between cell-autonomous (active) displacements and convection caused by large-scale (composite) tissue movements. Modern quantification of large-scale 'total' cellular motion and the accompanying ECM motion in the embryo demonstrates that a dynamic ECM is required for generation of the emergent motion patterns that drive amniote morphogenesis. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. Polymer matrix nanocomposites for automotive structural components. (United States)

    Naskar, Amit K; Keum, Jong K; Boeman, Raymond G


    Over the past several decades, the automotive industry has expended significant effort to develop lightweight parts from new easy-to-process polymeric nanocomposites. These materials have been particularly attractive because they can increase fuel efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, attempts to reinforce soft matrices by nanoscale reinforcing agents at commercially deployable scales have been only sporadically successful to date. This situation is due primarily to the lack of fundamental understanding of how multiscale interfacial interactions and the resultant structures affect the properties of polymer nanocomposites. In this Perspective, we critically evaluate the state of the art in the field and propose a possible path that may help to overcome these barriers. Only once we achieve a deeper understanding of the structure-properties relationship of polymer matrix nanocomposites will we be able to develop novel structural nanocomposites with enhanced mechanical properties for automotive applications.

  19. Action correlations and random matrix theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smilansky, Uzy; Verdene, Basile [Department of Physics of Complex Systems, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)


    The correlations in the spectra of quantum systems are intimately related to correlations which are of genuine classical origin, and which appear in the spectra of actions of the classical periodic orbits of the corresponding classical systems. We review this duality and the semiclassical theory which brings it about. The conjecture that the quantum spectral statistics are described in terms of random matrix theory, leads to the proposition that the classical two-point correlation function is also given in terms of a universal function. We study in detail the spectrum of actions of the Baker map, and use it to illustrate the steps needed to reveal the classical correlations, their origin and their relation to symbolic dynamics00.

  20. Quantum graphs and random-matrix theory (United States)

    Pluhař, Z.; Weidenmüller, H. A.


    For simple connected graphs with incommensurate bond lengths and with unitary symmetry we prove the Bohigas-Giannoni-Schmit (BGS) conjecture in its most general form. Using supersymmetry and taking the limit of infinite graph size, we show that the generating function for every (P,Q) correlation function for both closed and open graphs coincides with the corresponding expression of random-matrix theory. We show that the classical Perron-Frobenius operator is bistochastic and possesses a single eigenvalue +1. In the quantum case that implies the existence of a zero (or massless) mode of the effective action. That mode causes universal fluctuation properties. Avoiding the saddle-point approximation we show that for graphs that are classically mixing (i.e. for which the spectrum of the classical Perron-Frobenius operator possesses a finite gap) and that do not carry a special class of bound states, the zero mode dominates in the limit of infinite graph size.

  1. Matrix averages relating to Ginibre ensembles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrester, Peter J [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Rains, Eric M [Department of Mathematics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)], E-mail:


    The theory of zonal polynomials is used to compute the average of a Schur polynomial of argument AX, where A is a fixed matrix and X is from the real Ginibre ensemble. This generalizes a recent result of Sommers and Khoruzhenko (2009 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 42 222002), and furthermore allows analogous results to be obtained for the complex and real quaternion Ginibre ensembles. As applications, the positive integer moments of the general variance Ginibre ensembles are computed in terms of generalized hypergeometric functions; these are written in terms of averages over matrices of the same size as the moment to give duality formulas, and the averages of the power sums of the eigenvalues are expressed as finite sums of zonal polynomials.

  2. Transmission line matrix model for ultrasonic imaging (United States)

    Ciocan, Razvan; Ida, Nathan; Driscoll, Diana


    A transmission-line matrix (TLM) model was developed to simulate the ultrasound propagation in the multi-layer structures. The spatial resolution of the proposed model is better than tenth wavelength. The numerical modeling is carried-out for frequencies that are usually used in ultrasound imagery (3.5 - 25MHz). The acoustic impedance profile of multi-layer structures considered are similar to those found in nondestructive evaluation and in medical imaging. The structures modeled are: brazed joints, stomach and colon walls. Structures with artificial flaws are also modeled. A comparison between real images and numerical generated ones is provided for each considered structure. Both frequency and time domain responses are obtained from the structures under investigation. Both single and array transducer techniques are modeled and their performances are evaluated for the proposed structures. Different shapes for the incident pulse are considered in numerically generated images.

  3. Robust Global Motion Estimation with Matrix Completion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Arrigoni


    Full Text Available In this paper we address the problem of estimating the attitudes and positions of a set of cameras in an external coordinate system. Starting from a conventional global structure-from-motion pipeline, we present some substantial advances. In order to detect outlier relative rotations extracted from pairs of views, we improve a state-of-the-art algorithm based on cycle consistency, by introducing cycle bases. We estimate the angular attitudes of the cameras by proposing a novel gradient descent algorithm based on low-rank matrix completion, that naturally copes with the case of missing data. As for position recovery, we analyze an existing technique from a theoretical point of view, providing some insights on the conditions that guarantee solvability. We provide experimental results on both synthetic and real image sequences for which ground truth calibration is provided.

  4. Saliva: a reliable sample matrix in bioanalytics. (United States)

    Gröschl, Michael


    Saliva is gaining increasing attention as a bioanalytical sample matrix. Mostly because of the easy and noninvasive collection, it is not only beneficial in endocrinological and behavioral science, but also in pediatrics. Saliva also has the advantage of being the only body fluid which can be collected even during physical exercise, for example, during sportive activities, and there are physiological characteristics that make it superior to serum/plasma or urine for specific scientific questions. This review provides an insight into the physiology of saliva formation, explaining how certain compounds enter this bodily fluid, and gives advice for collection, storage and analytical methods. Finally, it presents a number of reliable and proven applications for saliva analysis from scientific fields including endocrinology, sports medicine, forensics and immunology.

  5. Polymer matrix and graphite fiber interface study (United States)

    Adams, D. F.; Zimmerman, R. S.; Odom, E. M.


    Hercules AS4 graphite fiber, unsized, or with EPON 828, PVA, or polysulfone sizing, was combined with three different polymer matrices. These included Hercules 3501-6 epoxy, Hercules 4001 bismaleimide, and Hexcel F155 rubber toughened epoxy. Unidirectional composites in all twelve combinations were fabricated and tested in transverse tension and axial compression. Quasi-isotropic laminates were tested in axial tension and compression, flexure, interlaminar shear, and tensile impact. All tests were conducted at both room temperature, dry and elevated temperature, and wet conditions. Single fiber pullout testing was also performed. Extensive scanning electron microphotographs of fracture surfaces are included, along with photographs of single fiber pullout failures. Analytical/experimental correlations are presented, based on the results of a finite element micromechanics analysis. Correlations between matrix type, fiber sizing, hygrothermal environment, and loading mode are presented. Results indicate that the various composite properties were only moderately influenced by the fiber sizings utilized.

  6. Determination of IBIS mask transmission matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, F. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, CSIC-UV, Edificio Institutos de Paterna, P.O. BOX 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)]. E-mail:; Reglero, V. [Astronomy and Space Science Group, Instituto de Ciencias de los Materiales, Universidad de Valencia, Edificio Institutos de Paterna, E-46071, Valencia (Spain); Chato, R. [Astronomy and Space Science Group, Instituto de Ciencias de los Materiales, Universidad de Valencia, Edificio Institutos de Paterna, E-46071, Valencia (Spain); Rodriguez-Alvarez, M.J. [Instituto de Matematica Multidisciplinar, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, E-46022, Valencia (Spain); Gasent, J.L. [Astronomy and Space Science Group, Instituto de Ciencias de los Materiales, Universidad de Valencia, Edificio Institutos de Paterna, E-46071, Valencia (Spain); Rodrigo, J. [Astronomy and Space Science Group, Instituto de Ciencias de los Materiales, Universidad de Valencia, Edificio Institutos de Paterna, E-46071, Valencia (Spain); Velasco, T. [Astronomy and Space Science Group, Instituto de Ciencias de los Materiales, Universidad de Valencia, Edificio Institutos de Paterna, E-46071, Valencia (Spain)


    The high-angular resolution imager IBIS is one of the two main instruments aboard the ESA INTEGRAL satellite launched in October 2002. IBIS uses coded aperture mask technique in order to provide the required imaging capabilities for energies between 15 and 10 MeV.The precise knowledge of the coded mask response function critically determine the IBIS imaging performances. In this paper, we present a general description of the IBIS coded mask design together with its main features. Transparency and homogeneity values of the IBIS mask flight model from our laboratory measurements are presented with indication of the instrumental set-up used and accuracy achieved. Mask transmission as a function of the energy and incident angle is presented and compared with Monte Carlo simulations. Finally, the mask transmission matrix for on-axis photons corrected for sources at infinity is also discussed.

  7. Secured Economic Dispatch Algorithm using GSDF Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slimane SOUAG


    Full Text Available In this paper we present a new method for solving the secured power flow problem by the economic dispatch using DC power flow method and Generation Shift Distribution Factor (GSDF. A graphical interface in LabVIEW has been created as a virtual instrument. Hence the DC power flow reduces the power flow problem to a set of linear equations, which make the iterative calculation very fast and the GSFD matrix present the effects of single and multiple generator MW change on the transmission line. The effectiveness of the method developed is identified through its application to an IEEE-14 bus test system. The calculation results show excellent performance of the proposed method, in regard to computation time and quality of results.

  8. Perturbation analysis of nonlinear matrix population models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hal Caswell


    Full Text Available Perturbation analysis examines the response of a model to changes in its parameters. It is commonly applied to population growth rates calculated from linear models, but there has been no general approach to the analysis of nonlinear models. Nonlinearities in demographic models may arise due to density-dependence, frequency-dependence (in 2-sex models, feedback through the environment or the economy, and recruitment subsidy due to immigration, or from the scaling inherent in calculations of proportional population structure. This paper uses matrix calculus to derive the sensitivity and elasticity of equilibria, cycles, ratios (e.g. dependency ratios, age averages and variances, temporal averages and variances, life expectancies, and population growth rates, for both age-classified and stage-classified models. Examples are presented, applying the results to both human and non-human populations.

  9. Fracture toughness in metal matrix composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perez Ipiña J.E.


    Full Text Available Evaluations of the fracture toughness in metal matrix composites (Duralcan reinforced with 15% of Al(20(3 and SiC are presented in this work. The application of Elastic Plastic Fracture Mechanics is discussed and the obtained values are compared with the ones obtained by means of Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics. Results show that J IC derived K JC values are higher than the corresponding values obtained by direct application of the linear elastic methodology. The effect of a heat treatment on the material fracture toughness was also evaluated in which the analyzed approaches showed, not only different toughness values, but also opposite tendencies. A second comparison of the J IC and K JC values obtained in this work with toughness values reported in the literature is presented and discussed.

  10. Extracellular Matrix Molecules Facilitating Vascular Biointegration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin K.C. Ng


    Full Text Available All vascular implants, including stents, heart valves and graft materials exhibit suboptimal biocompatibility that significantly reduces their clinical efficacy. A range of biomolecules in the subendothelial space have been shown to play critical roles in local regulation of thrombosis, endothelial growth and smooth muscle cell proliferation, making these attractive candidates for modulation of vascular device biointegration. However, classically used biomaterial coatings, such as fibronectin and laminin, modulate only one of these components; enhancing endothelial cell attachment, but also activating platelets and triggering thrombosis. This review examines a subset of extracellular matrix molecules that have demonstrated multi-faceted vascular compatibility and accordingly are promising candidates to improve the biointegration of vascular biomaterials.

  11. Spectral properties in supersymmetric matrix models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulton, Lyonell, E-mail: [Department of Mathematics and Maxwell Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Garcia del Moral, Maria Pilar, E-mail: [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo, Avda Calvo Sotelo 18, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Restuccia, Alvaro, E-mail: [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Apartado 89000, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo, Avda Calvo Sotelo 18, 33007 Oviedo (Spain)


    We formulate a general sufficiency criterion for discreteness of the spectrum of both supersymmmetric and non-supersymmetric theories with a fermionic contribution. This criterion allows an analysis of Hamiltonians in complete form rather than just their semiclassical limits. In such a framework we examine spectral properties of various (1+0) matrix models. We consider the BMN model of M-theory compactified on a maximally supersymmetric pp-wave background, different regularizations of the supermembrane with central charges and a non-supersymmetric model comprising a bound state of N D2 with m D0. While the first two examples have a purely discrete spectrum, the latter has a continuous spectrum with a lower end given in terms of the monopole charge.

  12. Emdogain stimulates matrix degradation by osteoblasts. (United States)

    Goda, S; Inoue, H; Kaneshita, Y; Nagano, Y; Ikeo, T; Ikeo, Y T; Iida, J; Domae, N


    Emdogain has been used clinically for periodontal regeneration, although the underlying molecular mechanisms are not clear at present. In this study, we hypothesized that Emdogain stimulated degradation of type I collagen via osteoblasts. We showed that Emdogain enhanced cell-mediated degradation of type I collagen in an MMP-dependent manner. Although MG-63 cells spontaneously produced a zymogen form of MMP-1, treatment with Emdogain significantly induced the generation of the active form of this enzyme. We demonstrated that MMP-3 was produced from MG63 cells in response to Emdogain in a MEK1/2-dependent manner. Concomitantly, blocking of MEK1/2 activation by U0126 significantly inhibited the generation of the active form of MMP-1 without affecting the total production of this collagenase. These results suggest that Emdogain facilitates tissue regeneration through the activation of the collagenase, MMP-1, that degrades matrix proteins in bone tissue microenvironments.

  13. Mueller matrix characterization of flexible plastic substrates (United States)

    Hong, Nina; Synowicki, Ron A.; Hilfiker, James N.


    This work reports on Mueller matrix spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization of various flexible plastic substrates that are optically anisotropic with varying degrees of birefringence. The samples are divided into three groups according to the suggested characterization strategy: low birefringence, high birefringence, and twisted birefringence. The first group includes poly(methyl methacrylate) and cyclic olefin copolymer substrates. These are modeled with biaxial anisotropy for the real part of the refractive index while the imaginary part is approximated as isotropic due to small light absorption. The second group includes polyethylene terephthalate and polyethylene naphthalate substrates, which are modeled with biaxial anisotropy for both real and imaginary refractive indices. Lastly, a polyimide substrate is described as two birefringent layers with twisted in-plane orientation.

  14. Construction of random perfect phylogeny matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Sadeghi


    Full Text Available Mehdi Sadeghi1,2, Hamid Pezeshk4, Changiz Eslahchi3,5, Sara Ahmadian6, Sepideh Mah Abadi61National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Tehran, Iran; 2School of Computer Science, 3School of Mathematics, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM, Tehran, Iran; 4School of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Sciences, Center of Excellence in Biomathematics, College of Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran; 5Department of Mathematics, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Tehran, Iran; 6Department of Computer Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, IranPurpose: Interest in developing methods appropriate for mapping increasing amounts of genome-wide molecular data are increasing rapidly. There is also an increasing need for methods that are able to efficiently simulate such data.Patients and methods: In this article, we provide a graph-theory approach to find the necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a phylogeny matrix with k nonidentical haplotypes, n single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, and a population size of m for which the minimum allele frequency of each SNP is between two specific numbers a and b.Results: We introduce an O(max(n2, nm algorithm for the random construction of such a phylogeny matrix. The running time of any algorithm for solving this problem would be Ω (nm.Conclusion: We have developed software, RAPPER, based on this algorithm, which is available at perfect phylogeny, minimum allele frequency (MAF, tree, recursive algorithm 

  15. A competency matrix for global oral health. (United States)

    Benzian, Habib; Greenspan, John S; Barrow, Jane; Hutter, Jeffrey W; Loomer, Peter M; Stauf, Nicole; Perry, Dorothy A


    The Lancet Commission on Education of Health Professionals for the 21(st) Century calls for enhancing health education for the needs and challenges of the 21st century to improve health status globally. To complement the Lancet report, this article makes recommendations for including core global health competencies in the education of health care professionals and specific groups of the public who are relevant to oral health in a global context in order to tackle the burden of oral diseases. Experts from various professional backgrounds developed global oral health competencies for four target groups: Group 1 was defined as dental students, residents/trainee specialists (or equivalent), and dentists; Group 2 was community health workers, dental hygienists, and dental therapists (or the equivalent); Group 3 was health professionals such as physicians, physician assistants, nurses, nurse practitioners, and pharmacists; and Group 4 was non-health professionals in the public arena such as parents, teachers, decision makers, key opinion leaders, and health and consumer advocates. Key competencies for members of each of the four target groups are presented in a matrix. The suggested competency matrix shows that many other health professions and groups in society have potentially crucial roles in the prevention, control, and management of oral diseases globally. Workforce models including a wider range of professionals working together as a team will be needed to tackle the burden of oral diseases in an integrated way in the broader context of non-communicable diseases. Further discussion and research should be conducted to validate or improve the competencies proposed here with regard to their relevance, appropriateness, and completeness.

  16. Cysteine cathepsins and extracellular matrix degradation. (United States)

    Fonović, Marko; Turk, Boris


    Cysteine cathepsins are normally found in the lysosomes where they are involved in intracellular protein turnover. Their ability to degrade the components of the extracellular matrix in vitro was first reported more than 25years ago. However, cathepsins were for a long time not considered to be among the major players in ECM degradation in vivo. During the last decade it has, however, become evident that abundant secretion of cysteine cathepsins into extracellular milieu is accompanying numerous physiological and disease conditions, enabling the cathepsins to degrade extracellular proteins. In this review we will focus on cysteine cathepsins and their extracellular functions linked with ECM degradation, including regulation of their activity, which is often enhanced by acidification of the extracellular microenvironment, such as found in the bone resorption lacunae or tumor microenvironment. We will further discuss the ECM substrates of cathepsins with a focus on collagen and elastin, including the importance of that for pathologies. Finally, we will overview the current status of cathepsin inhibitors in clinical development for treatment of ECM-linked diseases, in particular osteoporosis. Cysteine cathepsins are among the major proteases involved in ECM remodeling, and their role is not limited to degradation only. Deregulation of their activity is linked with numerous ECM-linked diseases and they are now validated targets in a number of them. Cathepsins S and K are the most attractive targets, especially cathepsin K as a major therapeutic target for osteoporosis with drugs targeting it in advanced clinical trials. Due to their major role in ECM remodeling cysteine cathepsins have emerged as an important group of therapeutic targets for a number of ECM-related diseases, including, osteoporosis, cancer and cardiovascular diseases. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Matrix-mediated cell behaviour and properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All

  17. Review of Matrix Decomposition Techniques for Signal Processing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Agarwal,


    Full Text Available Decomposition of matrix is a vital part of many scientific and engineering applications. It is a technique that breaks down a square numeric matrix into two different square matrices and is a basis for efficiently solving a system of equations, which in turn is the basis for inverting a matrix. An inverting matrix is a part of many important algorithms. Matrix factorizations have wide applications in numerical linear algebra, in solving linear systems, computing inertia, and rank estimation is an important consideration. This paper presents review of all the matrix decomposition techniques used in signal processing applications on the basis of their computational complexity, advantages and disadvantages. Various Decomposition techniques such as LU Decomposition, QR decomposition , Cholesky decomposition are discussed here. Keywords –

  18. Control of extracellular matrix assembly by syndecan-2 proteoglycan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klass, C M; Couchman, J R; Woods, A


    Extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition and organization is maintained by transmembrane signaling and integrins play major roles. We now show that a second transmembrane component, syndecan-2 heparan sulfate proteoglycan, is pivotal in matrix assembly. Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells were stably...... transfected with full length (S2) or truncated syndecan-2 lacking the C-terminal 14 amino acids of the cytoplasmic domain (S2deltaS). No differences in the amount of matrix assembly were noted with S2 cells, but those expressing S2deltaS could not assemble laminin or fibronectin into a fibrillar matrix....... The loss of matrix formation was not caused by a failure to synthesize or externalize ECM components as determined by metabolic labeling or due to differences in surface expression of alpha5 or beta1 integrin. The matrix assembly defect was at the cell surface, since S2deltaS cells also lost the ability...

  19. On the resultant property of the Fisher information matrix of a vector ARMA process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, A.; Mélard, G.; Spreij, P.


    A matrix is called a multiple resultant matrix associated to two matrix polynomials when it becomes singular if and only if the two matrix polynomials have at least one common eigenvalue. In this paper a new multiple resultant matrix is introduced. It concerns the Fisher information matrix (FIM) of

  20. A Three-level 4 x 3 Conventinal Matrix Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rong, Runjie; Loh, Poh Chiang; Wang, Peter


    This paper proposes a topology of a three-level 4 × 3 conventional matrix converter with 12 bi-directional switches. PWM control and modulation index compensation have been investigated. Operation theory has been verified by the simulation results using Matlab. The simulation results show...... that the switching output performance of the proposed matrix converter is more efficient than that of existing matrix converters....

  1. Mini-lecture course: Introduction into hierarchical matrix technique

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander


    The H-matrix format has a log-linear computational cost and storage O(kn log n), where the rank k is a small integer and n is the number of locations (mesh points). The H-matrix technique allows us to work with general class of matrices (not only structured or Toeplits or sparse). H-matrices can keep the H-matrix data format during linear algebra operations (inverse, update, Schur complement).

  2. The extracellular matrix of plants: Molecular, cellular and developmental biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    A symposium entitled ``The Extracellular Matrix of Plants: Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology was held in Tamarron, Colorado, March 15--21, 1996. The following topics were explored in addresses by 43 speakers: structure and biochemistry of cell walls; biochemistry, molecular biology and biosynthesis of lignin; secretory pathway and synthesis of glycoproteins; biosynthesis of matrix polysaccharides, callose and cellulose; role of the extracellular matrix in plant growth and development; plant cell walls in symbiosis and pathogenesis.

  3. Parametric Study Of A Ceramic-Fiber/Metal-Matrix Composite (United States)

    Murthy, P. L. N.; Hopkins, D. A.; Chamis, C. C.


    Report describes computer-model parametric study of effects of degradation of constituent materials upon mechanical properties of ceramic-fiber/metal-matrix composite material. Contributes to understanding of weakening effects of large changes in temperature and mechanical stresses in fabrication and use. Concerned mainly with influences of in situ fiber and matrix properties upon behavior of composite. Particular attention given to influence of in situ matrix strength and influence of interphase degradation.

  4. Assembly and development of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm matrix.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luyan Ma


    Full Text Available Virtually all cells living in multicellular structures such as tissues and organs are encased in an extracellular matrix. One of the most important features of a biofilm is the extracellular polymeric substance that functions as a matrix, holding bacterial cells together. Yet very little is known about how the matrix forms or how matrix components encase bacteria during biofilm development. Pseudomonas aeruginosa forms environmentally and clinically relevant biofilms and is a paradigm organism for the study of biofilms. The extracellular polymeric substance of P. aeruginosa biofilms is an ill-defined mix of polysaccharides, nucleic acids, and proteins. Here, we directly visualize the product of the polysaccharide synthesis locus (Psl exopolysaccharide at different stages of biofilm development. During attachment, Psl is anchored on the cell surface in a helical pattern. This promotes cell-cell interactions and assembly of a matrix, which holds bacteria in the biofilm and on the surface. Chemical dissociation of Psl from the bacterial surface disrupted the Psl matrix as well as the biofilm structure. During biofilm maturation, Psl accumulates on the periphery of 3-D-structured microcolonies, resulting in a Psl matrix-free cavity in the microcolony center. At the dispersion stage, swimming cells appear in this matrix cavity. Dead cells and extracellular DNA (eDNA are also concentrated in the Psl matrix-free area. Deletion of genes that control cell death and autolysis affects the formation of the matrix cavity and microcolony dispersion. These data provide a mechanism for how P. aeruginosa builds a matrix and subsequently a cavity to free a portion of cells for seeding dispersal. Direct visualization reveals that Psl is a key scaffolding matrix component and opens up avenues for therapeutics of biofilm-related complications.

  5. Three-level neutral-point-clamped matrix converter topology


    Lee, Meng Yeong


    Matrix converter is a direct AC-AC converter topology that is able to directly convert energy from an AC source to an AC load without the need of a bulky and limited lifetime energy storage element. Due to the significant advantages offered by matrix converter, such as adjustable power factor, capability of regeneration and high quality sinusoidal input/output waveforms, matrix converter has been one of the AC – AC topologies that receive extensive research attention for being an alternative ...

  6. Phenomenology of the CKM (Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa) matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nir, Y.


    The way in which an exact determination of the CKM matrix elements tests the Standard Model is demonstrated by a two generation example. The determination of matrix elements from meson semi-leptonic decays is explained, with an emphasis on the respective reliability of quark level and meson level calculations. The assumptions involved in the use of loop processes are described. Finally, the state of the art of our knowledge of the CKM matrix is presented. 19 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Random matrix theory and three-dimensional QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbaarschot, J.J.M.; Zahed, I. (Department of Physics, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States))


    We suggest that the spectral properties near zero virtuality of three-dimensional QCD follow from a Hermitian random matrix model. The exact spectral density is derived for this family of random matrix models for both even and odd number of fermions. New sum rules for the inverse powers of the eigenvalues of the Dirac operator are obtained. The issue of anomalies in random matrix theories is discussed.

  8. Discrete Painlev\\'e equations and random matrix averages


    Forrester, P. J.; Witte, N. S.


    The $\\tau$-function theory of Painlev\\'e systems is used to derive recurrences in the rank $n$ of certain random matrix averages over U(n). These recurrences involve auxilary quantities which satisfy discrete Painlev\\'e equations. The random matrix averages include cases which can be interpreted as eigenvalue distributions at the hard edge and in the bulk of matrix ensembles with unitary symmetry. The recurrences are illustrated by computing the value of a sequence of these distributions as $...

  9. Doehlert matrix: a chemometric tool for analytical chemistry—review


    Ferreira, Sergio Luis Costa; Santos, Walter N. L. dos; Quintella, Cristina Maria Assis Lopes Tavares da Mata Hermida; B.Neto, Benício; Bosque-Sendra, Juan M.


    p. 1061-1067 A review of the use of the Doehlert matrix as a chemometric tool for the optimization of methods in analytical chemistry and other sciences is presented. The theoretical principles of Doehlert designs are described, including the coded values for the use of this matrix involving two, three, four and five variables. The advantages of this matrix in comparison with other response surface designs, such as central composite and Box–Behnken, designs are discussed. Finally, 57 refer...

  10. Modifying Matrix Materials to Increase Wetting and Adhesion (United States)

    Zhong, Katie


    In an alternative approach to increasing the degrees of wetting and adhesion between the fiber and matrix components of organic-fiber/polymer matrix composite materials, the matrix resins are modified. Heretofore, it has been common practice to modify the fibers rather than the matrices: The fibers are modified by chemical and/or physical surface treatments prior to combining the fibers with matrix resins - an approach that entails considerable expense and usually results in degradation (typically, weakening) of fibers. The alternative approach of modifying the matrix resins does not entail degradation of fibers, and affords opportunities for improving the mechanical properties of the fiber composites. The alternative approach is more cost-effective, not only because it eliminates expensive fiber-surface treatments but also because it does not entail changes in procedures for manufacturing conventional composite-material structures. The alternative approach is best described by citing an example of its application to a composite of ultra-high-molecular- weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibers in an epoxy matrix. The epoxy matrix was modified to a chemically reactive, polarized epoxy nano-matrix to increase the degrees of wetting and adhesion between the fibers and the matrix. The modification was effected by incorporating a small proportion (0.3 weight percent) of reactive graphitic nanofibers produced from functionalized nanofibers into the epoxy matrix resin prior to combining the resin with the UHMWPE fibers. The resulting increase in fiber/matrix adhesion manifested itself in several test results, notably including an increase of 25 percent in the maximum fiber pullout force and an increase of 60-65 percent in fiber pullout energy. In addition, it was conjectured that the functionalized nanofibers became involved in the cross linking reaction of the epoxy resin, with resultant enhancement of the mechanical properties and lower viscosity of the matrix.

  11. Matrix diffusion model. In situ tests using natural analogues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasilainen, K. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)


    Matrix diffusion is an important retarding and dispersing mechanism for substances carried by groundwater in fractured bedrock. Natural analogues provide, unlike laboratory or field experiments, a possibility to test the model of matrix diffusion in situ over long periods of time. This thesis documents quantitative model tests against in situ observations, done to support modelling of matrix diffusion in performance assessments of nuclear waste repositories. 98 refs. The thesis includes also eight previous publications by author.

  12. Surface functionalization of metal organic frameworks for mixed matrix membranes (United States)

    Albenze, Erik; Lartey, Michael; Li, Tao; Luebke, David R.; Nulwala, Hunaid B.; Rosi, Nathaniel L.; Venna, Surendar R.


    Mixed Matrix Membrane (MMM) are composite membranes for gas separation and comprising a quantity of inorganic filler particles, in particular metal organic framework (MOF), dispersed throughout a polymer matrix comprising one or more polymers. This disclosure is directed to MOF functionalized through addition of a pendant functional group to the MOF, in order to improve interaction with a surrounding polymer matrix in a MMM. The improved interaction aids in avoiding defects in the MMM due to incompatible interfaces between the polymer matrix and the MOF particle, in turn increasing the mechanical and gas separation properties of the MMM. The disclosure is also directed to a MMM incorporating the surface functionalized MOF.

  13. Elements of matrix modeling and computing with Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    White, Robert E


    As discrete models and computing have become more common, there is a need to study matrix computation and numerical linear algebra. Encompassing a diverse mathematical core, Elements of Matrix Modeling and Computing with MATLAB examines a variety of applications and their modeling processes, showing you how to develop matrix models and solve algebraic systems. Emphasizing practical skills, it creates a bridge from problems with two and three variables to more realistic problems that have additional variables. Elements of Matrix Modeling and Computing with MATLAB focuses on seven basic applicat

  14. Osmotic pressure can regulate matrix gene expression in Bacillus subtilis. (United States)

    Rubinstein, Shmuel M; Kolodkin-Gal, Ilana; McLoon, Anna; Chai, Liraz; Kolter, Roberto; Losick, Richard; Weitz, David A


    Many bacteria organize themselves into structurally complex communities known as biofilms in which the cells are held together by an extracellular matrix. In general, the amount of extracellular matrix is related to the robustness of the biofilm. Yet, the specific signals that regulate the synthesis of matrix remain poorly understood. Here we show that the matrix itself can be a cue that regulates the expression of the genes involved in matrix synthesis in Bacillus subtilis. The presence of the exopolysaccharide component of the matrix causes an increase in osmotic pressure that leads to an inhibition of matrix gene expression. We further show that non-specific changes in osmotic pressure also inhibit matrix gene expression and do so by activating the histidine kinase KinD. KinD, in turn, directs the phosphorylation of the master regulatory protein Spo0A, which at high levels represses matrix gene expression. Sensing a physical cue such as osmotic pressure, in addition to chemical cues, could be a strategy to non-specifically co-ordinate the behaviour of cells in communities composed of many different species. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Properties of ceramic-reinforced aluminium matrix composites - a review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Das, Dipti Kanta; Mishra, Purna Chandra; Singh, Saranjit; Thakur, Ratish Kumar


    .... The properties discussed include microstructural, optical, physical and mechanical behaviour of ceramic-reinforced aluminium matrix composites and effects of reinforcement fraction, particle size...

  16. Matrix preconditioning: a robust operation for optical linear algebra processors. (United States)

    Ghosh, A; Paparao, P


    Analog electrooptical processors are best suited for applications demanding high computational throughput with tolerance for inaccuracies. Matrix preconditioning is one such application. Matrix preconditioning is a preprocessing step for reducing the condition number of a matrix and is used extensively with gradient algorithms for increasing the rate of convergence and improving the accuracy of the solution. In this paper, we describe a simple parallel algorithm for matrix preconditioning, which can be implemented efficiently on a pipelined optical linear algebra processor. From the results of our numerical experiments we show that the efficacy of the preconditioning algorithm is affected very little by the errors of the optical system.

  17. Sparse Non-negative Matrix Factor 2-D Deconvolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Morten; Schmidt, Mikkel N.


    We introduce the non-negative matrix factor 2-D deconvolution (NMF2D) model, which decomposes a matrix into a 2-dimensional convolution of two factor matrices. This model is an extension of the non-negative matrix factor deconvolution (NMFD) recently introduced by Smaragdis (2004). We derive...... and prove the convergence of two algorithms for NMF2D based on minimizing the squared error and the Kullback-Leibler divergence respectively. Next, we introduce a sparse non-negative matrix factor 2-D deconvolution model that gives easy interpretable decompositions and devise two algorithms for computing...

  18. Multifunctional Metal Matrix Composite Filament Wound Tank Liners Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Metal Matrix Composite (MMC) materials offer tremendous potential for lightweight propellant and pressurant tankage for space applications. Thin MMC liners for COPVs...

  19. Nuclear Matrix Elements for Tests of Local Lorentz Invariance Violation (United States)

    Brown, B. A.; Bertsch, G. F.; Robledo, L. M.; Romalis, M. V.; Zelevinsky, V.


    The nuclear matrix elements for the spin operator and the momentum quadrupole operator are important for the interpretation of precision atomic physics experiments that search for violations of local Lorentz and C P T symmetry and for new spin-dependent forces. We use the configuration-interaction nuclear shell model and self-consistent mean-field theory to calculate the momentum matrix elements for 21Ne, 23Na, 133Cs, 173Yb, and 201Hg. We show that these momentum matrix are strongly suppressed by the many-body correlations, in contrast to the well-known enhancement of the spatial quadrupole nuclear matrix elements.


    Haleem-Smith, Hana; Calderon, Raul; Song, Yingjie; Tuan, Rocky S.; Chen, Faye H.


    Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein/thrombospondin-5 (COMP/TSP5) is an abundant cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) protein that interacts with major cartilage ECM components, including aggrecan and collagens. To test our hypothesis that COMP/TSP5 functions in the assembly of the ECM during cartilage morphogenesis, we have employed mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) chondrogenesis in vitro as a model to examine the effects of COMP over-expression on neo-cartilage formation. Human bone marrow-derived MSCs were transfected with either full-length COMP cDNA or control plasmid, followed by chondrogenic induction in three-dimensional pellet or alginate-hydrogel culture. MSC chondrogenesis and ECM production was estimated based on quantitation of sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) accumulation, immunohistochemistry of the presence and distribution of cartilage ECM proteins, and real-time RT-PCR analyis of mRNA expression of cartilage markers. Our results showed that COMP over-expression resulted in increased total sGAG content during the early phase of MSC chondrogenesis, and increased immuno-detectable levels of aggrecan and collagen type II in the ECM of COMP-transfected pellet and alginate cultures, indicating more abundant cartilaginous matrix. COMP transfection did not significantly increase the transcript levels of the early chondrogenic marker, Sox9, or aggrecan, suggesting that enhancement of MSC cartilage ECM was effected at post-transcriptional levels. These findings strongly suggest that COMP functions in mesenchymal chondrogenesis by enhancing cartilage ECM organization and assembly. The action of COMP is most likely mediated not via direct changes in cartilage matrix gene expression but via interactions of COMP with other cartilage ECM proteins, such as aggrecan and collagens, that result in enhanced assembly and retention. PMID:22095699

  1. Numerical study on optimal Stirling engine regenerator matrix designs taking into account the effects of matrix temperature oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stig Kildegård; Carlsen, Henrik; Thomsen, Per Grove


    the per- formance of the engine, for mapping the effects of regenerator matrix temperature oscillations, and for optimising the regenerator design. The regenerator matrix temperatures were found to oscillate in two modes. The first mode was oscillation of a nearly linear axial matrix temperature profile......A new regenerator matrix design that improves the efficiency of a Stirling engine has been developed in a numerical study of the existing SM5 Stirling engine. A new, detailed, one-dimensional Stirling engine model that delivers results in good agreement with experimental data was used for mapping...... while the second mode bended the ends of the axial matrix temperature profile when gas flowed into the regenerator with a temperature significantly different from the matrix temperature. The first mode of oscillation improved the efficiency of the engine but the second mode reduced both the work output...

  2. Semiempirical Molecular Dynamics (SEMD) I: Midpoint-Based Parallel Sparse Matrix-Matrix Multiplication Algorithm for Matrices with Decay. (United States)

    Weber, Valéry; Laino, Teodoro; Pozdneev, Alexander; Fedulova, Irina; Curioni, Alessandro


    In this paper, we present a novel, highly efficient, and massively parallel implementation of the sparse matrix-matrix multiplication algorithm inspired by the midpoint method that is suitable for matrices with decay. Compared with the state of the art in sparse matrix-matrix multiplications, the new algorithm heavily exploits data locality, yielding better performance and scalability, approaching a perfect linear scaling up to a process box size equal to a characteristic length that is intrinsic to the matrices. Moreover, the method is able to scale linearly with system size reaching constant time with proportional resources, also regarding memory consumption. We demonstrate how the proposed method can be effectively used for the construction of the density matrix in electronic structure theory, such as Hartree-Fock, density functional theory, and semiempirical Hamiltonians. We present the details of the implementation together with a performance analysis up to 185,193 processes, employing a Hamiltonian matrix generated from a semiempirical NDDO scheme.

  3. Stochastic-Strength-Based Damage Simulation Tool for Ceramic Matrix and Polymer Matrix Composite Structures (United States)

    Nemeth, Noel N.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Pineda, Evan J.; Walton, Owen J.; Arnold, Steven M.


    Stochastic-based, discrete-event progressive damage simulations of ceramic-matrix composite and polymer matrix composite material structures have been enabled through the development of a unique multiscale modeling tool. This effort involves coupling three independently developed software programs: (1) the Micromechanics Analysis Code with Generalized Method of Cells (MAC/GMC), (2) the Ceramics Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures Life Prediction Program (CARES/ Life), and (3) the Abaqus finite element analysis (FEA) program. MAC/GMC contributes multiscale modeling capabilities and micromechanics relations to determine stresses and deformations at the microscale of the composite material repeating unit cell (RUC). CARES/Life contributes statistical multiaxial failure criteria that can be applied to the individual brittle-material constituents of the RUC. Abaqus is used at the global scale to model the overall composite structure. An Abaqus user-defined material (UMAT) interface, referred to here as "FEAMAC/CARES," was developed that enables MAC/GMC and CARES/Life to operate seamlessly with the Abaqus FEA code. For each FEAMAC/CARES simulation trial, the stochastic nature of brittle material strength results in random, discrete damage events, which incrementally progress and lead to ultimate structural failure. This report describes the FEAMAC/CARES methodology and discusses examples that illustrate the performance of the tool. A comprehensive example problem, simulating the progressive damage of laminated ceramic matrix composites under various off-axis loading conditions and including a double notched tensile specimen geometry, is described in a separate report.

  4. Development of a Precipitation-Strengthened Matrix for Non-quenchable Aluminum Metal Matrix Composites (United States)

    Vo, Nhon Q.; Sorensen, Jim; Klier, Eric M.; Sanaty-Zadeh, Amirreza; Bayansan, Davaadorj; Seidman, David N.; Dunand, David C.


    Recent developments in metal matrix composite-encapsulated ceramic armor show promise in lightweight armor technology. The system contains ceramic tiles, such as alumina, sandwiched between unreinforced aluminum or aluminum metal matrix composite (Al-MMC), which has a better toughness compared to the ceramic tiles. The sandwich structures should not be quenched during the fabrication, as the large mismatch in the coefficients of thermal expansion between the ceramic tiles and the unreinforced aluminum or Al-MMC creates internal stresses high enough to fracture the ceramic tiles. However, slow cooling of most commercial alloys creates large precipitates making solute unavailable for the formation of fine precipitates during aging. Here, we develop a non-quenched, high-strength metal matrix utilizing dilute Al-Sc-Zr alloys. We demonstrate that the dilute Al-0.09 Sc-0.045 Zr at.% alloy and the same alloy containing 0-4 vol.% alumina short fibers do not result in precipitation upon slow cooling from a high temperature, and can thereafter be aged to increase their strength. They exhibit a moderate strength, but improved ductility and toughness as compared to common armor aluminum alloys, such as AA5083-H131, making them attractive as armor materials and hybrid armor systems.

  5. Classical-limit S-matrix for heavy ion scattering. [S matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donangelo, R.J.


    An integral representation for the classical limit of the quantum mechanical S-matrix is developed and applied to heavy-ion Coulomb excitation and Coulomb-nuclear interference. The method combines the quantum principle of superposition with exact classical dynamics to describe the projectile-target system. A detailed consideration of the classical trajectories and of the dimensionless parameters that characterize the system is carried out. The results are compared, where possible, to exact quantum mechanical calculations and to conventional semiclassical calculations. It is found that in the case of backscattering the classical limit S-matrix method is able to almost exactly reproduce the quantum-mechanical S-matrix elements, and therefore the transition probabilities, even for projectiles as light as protons. The results also suggest that this approach should be a better approximation for heavy-ion multiple Coulomb excitation than earlier semiclassical methods, due to a more accurate description of the classical orbits in the electromagnetic field of the target nucleus. Calculations using this method indicate that the rotational excitation probabilities in the Coulomb-nuclear interference region should be very sensitive to the details of the potential at the surface of the nucleus, suggesting that heavy-ion rotational excitation could constitute a sensitive probe of the nuclear potential in this region. The application to other problems as well as the present limits of applicability of the formalism are also discussed.

  6. Improved Underwater Excitation-Emission Matrix Fluorometer (United States)

    Moore, Casey; daCunha, John; Rhoades, Bruce; Twardowski, Michael


    A compact, high-resolution, two-dimensional excitation-emission matrix fluorometer (EEMF) has been designed and built specifically for use in identifying and measuring the concentrations of organic compounds, including polluting hydrocarbons, in natural underwater settings. Heretofore, most EEMFs have been designed and built for installation in laboratories, where they are used to analyze the contents of samples collected in the field and brought to the laboratories. Because the present EEMF can be operated in the field, it is better suited to measurement of spatially and temporally varying concentrations of substances of interest. In excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorometry, fluorescence is excited by irradiating a sample at one or more wavelengths, and the fluorescent emission from the sample is measured at multiple wavelengths. When excitation is provided at only one wavelength, the technique is termed one-dimensional (1D) EEM fluorometry because the resulting matrix of fluorescence emission data (the EEM) contains only one row or column. When excitation is provided at multiple wavelengths, the technique is termed two-dimensional (2D) EEM fluorometry because the resulting EEM contains multiple rows and columns. EEM fluorometry - especially the 2D variety - is well established as a means of simultaneously detecting numerous dissolved and particulate compounds in water. Each compound or pool of compounds has a unique spectral fluorescence signature, and each EEM is rich in information content, in that it can contain multiple fluorescence signatures. By use of deconvolution and/or other mixture-analyses techniques, it is often possible to isolate the spectral signature of compounds of interest, even when their fluorescence spectra overlap. What distinguishes the present 2D EEMF over prior laboratory-type 2D EEMFs are several improvements in packaging (including a sealed housing) and other aspects of design that render it suitable for use in natural underwater

  7. Population matrix models and palm resource management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available MATRICES DE POPULATIONS ET MISE EN VALEUR DES PALMIERS. Au cours des 20 dernières années, les structures de population de nombreuses espèces de palmiers ont été décrites et discutées. La croissance et la stabilité des populations ont été analysées à l’aide de matrices. Dans cet article, nous reprenons un modèle et en discutons les aspects méthodologiques en vue d’une estimation des paramètres de l’histoire de la vie des palmiers. Les généralisations résultant de précédentes études sont présentées et les conséquences pour la mise en valeur des palmiers, concernant en particulier la confection de toitures, les fruits, la récolte des stipes, sont discutées. MATRICES DE POBLACIONES Y MANEJO DE PALMERAS. En los últimos 20 años, las estructuras de población de numerosas especies de palmeras han sido descritas y discutidas. El crecimiento y la estabilidad de las poblaciones han sido analizadas, utilizando matrices. En el presente artículo, presentamos un modelo y discutimos los aspectos metodológicos específicos para hacer una estimación de los parámetros de la historia de la vida de las palmeras. Son presentadas las generalizaciones diseñadas por estudios previos, y discutidas las implicancias en el manejo de las palmeras, en cuanto a techado, frutas, cosecha de los estípites. Population structures of numerous palm species have been described and discussed in the last 20 years. Population growth and stability have been analyzed with matrix models. In this paper we review matrix models and discuss methodological issues specific to estimating palm life history parameters. Generalizations drawn from previous studies are presented and implications for palm resource management, specifically for thatch, fruit, and stem harvest, are discussed.

  8. Deposition of matrix-free fullerene films with improved morphology by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canulescu, Stela; Schou, Jørgen; Fæster, Søren


    Thin films of C60 were deposited by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) from a frozen target of anisole with 0.67 wt% C60. Above a fluence of 1.5 J/cm2 the C60 films are strongly non-uniform and are resulting from transfer of matrix-droplets containing fullerenes. At low fluence...... the fullerene molecules in the films are intact, the surface morphology is substantially improved and there are no measurable traces of the matrix molecules in the film. This may indicate a regime of dominant evaporation at low fluence which merges into the MAPLE regime of liquid ejection of the host matrix...

  9. Biochemical and biomechanical properties of the pacemaking sinoatrial node extracellular matrix are distinct from contractile left ventricular matrix. (United States)

    Gluck, Jessica M; Herren, Anthony W; Yechikov, Sergey; Kao, Hillary K J; Khan, Ambereen; Phinney, Brett S; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan; Chan, James W; Lieu, Deborah K


    Extracellular matrix plays a role in differentiation and phenotype development of its resident cells. Although cardiac extracellular matrix from the contractile tissues has been studied and utilized in tissue engineering, extracellular matrix properties of the pacemaking sinoatrial node are largely unknown. In this study, the biomechanical properties and biochemical composition and distribution of extracellular matrix in the sinoatrial node were investigated relative to the left ventricle. Extracellular matrix of the sinoatrial node was found to be overall stiffer than that of the left ventricle and highly heterogeneous with interstitial regions composed of predominantly fibrillar collagens and rich in elastin. The extracellular matrix protein distribution suggests that resident pacemaking cardiomyocytes are enclosed in fibrillar collagens that can withstand greater tensile strength while the surrounding elastin-rich regions may undergo deformation to reduce the mechanical strain in these cells. Moreover, basement membrane-associated adhesion proteins that are ligands for integrins were of low abundance in the sinoatrial node, which may decrease force transduction in the pacemaking cardiomyocytes. In contrast to extracellular matrix of the left ventricle, extracellular matrix of the sinoatrial node may reduce mechanical strain and force transduction in pacemaking cardiomyocytes. These findings provide the criteria for a suitable matrix scaffold for engineering biopacemakers.

  10. Force spectroscopy of hepatocytic extracellular matrix components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yongsunthon, R., E-mail: [Corning Incorporated, SP-FR-01, R1S32D, Corning, NY 14831 (United States); Baker, W.A.; Bryhan, M.D.; Baker, D.E.; Chang, T.; Petzold, O.N.; Walczak, W.J.; Liu, J.; Faris, R.A.; Senaratne, W.; Seeley, L.A.; Youngman, R.E. [Corning Incorporated, SP-FR-01, R1S32D, Corning, NY 14831 (United States)


    We present atomic force microscopy and force spectroscopy data of live hepatocytes (HEPG2/C3A liver cell line) grown in Eagle's Minimum Essential Medium, a complex solution of salts and amino acids commonly used for cell culture. Contact-mode imaging and force spectroscopy of this system allowed correlation of cell morphology and extracellular matrix (ECM) properties with substrate properties. Force spectroscopy analysis of cellular 'footprints' indicated that the cells secrete large polymers (e.g., 3.5 {mu}m contour length and estimated MW 1000 kDa) onto their substrate surface. Although definitive identification of the polymers has not yet been achieved, fluorescent-labeled antibody staining has specified the presence of ECM proteins such as collagen and laminin in the cellular footprints. The stretched polymers appear to be much larger than single molecules of known ECM components, such as collagen and heparan sulfate proteoglycan, thus suggesting that the cells create larger entangled, macromolecular structures from smaller components. There is strong evidence which suggests that the composition of the ECM is greatly influenced by the hydrophobicity of the substrate surface, with preferential production and/or adsorption of larger macromolecules on hydrophobic surfaces.

  11. Automated full matrix capture for industrial processes (United States)

    Brown, Roy H.; Pierce, S. Gareth; Collison, Ian; Dutton, Ben; Dziewierz, Jerzy; Jackson, Joseph; Lardner, Timothy; MacLeod, Charles; Morozov, Maxim


    Full matrix capture (FMC) ultrasound can be used to generate a permanent re-focusable record of data describing the geometry of a part; a valuable asset for an inspection process. FMC is a desirable acquisition mode for automated scanning of complex geometries, as it allows compensation for surface shape in post processing and application of the total focusing method. However, automating the delivery of such FMC inspection remains a significant challenge for real industrial processes due to the high data overhead associated with the ultrasonic acquisition. The benefits of NDE delivery using six-axis industrial robots are well versed when considering complex inspection geometries, but such an approach brings additional challenges to scanning speed and positional accuracy when combined with FMC inspection. This study outlines steps taken to optimize the scanning speed and data management of a process to scan the diffusion bonded membrane of a titanium test plate. A system combining a KUKA robotic arm and a reconfigurable FMC phased array controller is presented. The speed and data implications of different scanning methods are compared, and the impacts on data visualization quality are discussed with reference to this study. For the 0.5 m2 sample considered, typical acquisitions of 18 TB/m2 were measured for a triple back wall FMC acquisition, illustrating the challenge of combining high data throughput with acceptable scanning speeds.

  12. Magnetic Nanoparticles Embedded in a Silicon Matrix (United States)

    Granitzer, Petra; Rumpf, Klemens


    This paper represents a short overview of nanocomposites consisting of magnetic nanoparticles incorporated into the pores of a porous silicon matrix by two different methods. On the one hand, nickel is electrochemically deposited whereas the nanoparticles are precipitated on the pore walls. The size of these particles is between 2 and 6 nm. These particles cover the pore walls and form a tube-like arrangement. On the other hand, rather well monodispersed iron oxide nanoparticles, of 5 and 8 nm respectively, are infiltrated into the pores. From their size the particles would be superparamagnetic if isolated but due to magnetic interactions between them, ordering of magnetic moments occurs below a blocking temperature and thus the composite system displays a ferromagnetic behavior. This transition temperature of the nanocomposite can be varied by changing the filling factor of the particles within the pores. Thus samples with magnetic properties which are variable in a broad range can be achieved, which renders this composite system interesting not only for basic research but also for applications, especially because of the silicon base material which makes it possible for today’s process technology. PMID:28879957

  13. Fission Matrix Capability for MCNP Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carney, Sean E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brown, Forrest B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kiedrowski, Brian C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martin, William R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    In a Monte Carlo criticality calculation, before the tallying of quantities can begin, a converged fission source (the fundamental eigenvector of the fission kernel) is required. Tallies of interest may include powers, absorption rates, leakage rates, or the multiplication factor (the fundamental eigenvalue of the fission kernel, k{sub eff}). Just as in the power iteration method of linear algebra, if the dominance ratio (the ratio of the first and zeroth eigenvalues) is high, many iterations of neutron history simulations are required to isolate the fundamental mode of the problem. Optically large systems have large dominance ratios, and systems containing poor neutron communication between regions are also slow to converge. The fission matrix method, implemented into MCNP[1], addresses these problems. When Monte Carlo random walk from a source is executed, the fission kernel is stochastically applied to the source. Random numbers are used for: distances to collision, reaction types, scattering physics, fission reactions, etc. This method is used because the fission kernel is a complex, 7-dimensional operator that is not explicitly known. Deterministic methods use approximations/discretization in energy, space, and direction to the kernel. Consequently, they are faster. Monte Carlo directly simulates the physics, which necessitates the use of random sampling. Because of this statistical noise, common convergence acceleration methods used in deterministic methods do not work. In the fission matrix method, we are using the random walk information not only to build the next-iteration fission source, but also a spatially-averaged fission kernel. Just like in deterministic methods, this involves approximation and discretization. The approximation is the tallying of the spatially-discretized fission kernel with an incorrect fission source. We address this by making the spatial mesh fine enough that this error is negligible. As a consequence of discretization we get a

  14. Metal-Matrix/Hollow-Ceramic-Sphere Composites (United States)

    Baker, Dean M.


    A family of metal/ceramic composite materials has been developed that are relatively inexpensive, lightweight alternatives to structural materials that are typified by beryllium, aluminum, and graphite/epoxy composites. These metal/ceramic composites were originally intended to replace beryllium (which is toxic and expensive) as a structural material for lightweight mirrors for aerospace applications. These materials also have potential utility in automotive and many other terrestrial applications in which there are requirements for lightweight materials that have high strengths and other tailorable properties as described below. The ceramic component of a material in this family consists of hollow ceramic spheres that have been formulated to be lightweight (0.5 g/cm3) and have high crush strength [40.80 ksi (.276.552 MPa)]. The hollow spheres are coated with a metal to enhance a specific performance . such as shielding against radiation (cosmic rays or x rays) or against electromagnetic interference at radio and lower frequencies, or a material to reduce the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the final composite material, and/or materials to mitigate any mismatch between the spheres and the matrix metal. Because of the high crush strength of the spheres, the initial composite workpiece can be forged or extruded into a high-strength part. The total time taken in processing from the raw ingredients to a finished part is typically 10 to 14 days depending on machining required.

  15. Two new constraints for the cumulant matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos-Cordoba, Eloy; Salvador, Pedro; Matito, Eduard [Institut de Química Computacional i Catàlisi (IQCC) and Department de Química, Universitat de Girona, Campus de Montilivi, 17071 Girona, Catalonia (Spain); Piris, Mario [Kimika Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea UPV/EHU, and Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC). P.K. 1072, 20080 Donostia, Euskadi (Spain)


    We suggest new strict constraints that the two-particle cumulant matrix should fulfill. The constraints are obtained from the decomposition of 〈S-^{sup 2}〉, previously developed in our laboratory, and the vanishing number of electrons shared by two non-interacting fragments. The conditions impose stringent constraints into the cumulant structure without any need to perform an orbital optimization procedure thus carrying very small or no computational effort. These constraints are tested on the series of Piris natural orbital functionals (PNOF), which are among the most accurate ones available in the literature. Interestingly, even though all PNOF cumulants ensure correct overall 〈S{sup ^2}〉 values, none of them is consistent with the local spin structure of systems that dissociate more than one pair of electrons. A careful analysis of the local spin components reveals the most important missing contributions in the cumulant expression thus suggesting a means to improve PNOF5. The constraints provide an inexpensive tool for the construction and testing of cumulant structures that complement previously known conditions such as the N-representability or the square of the total spin angular momentum, 〈S{sup ^2}〉.

  16. Novel Modulation Method for Multidirectional Matrix Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saman Toosi


    Full Text Available This study presents a new modulation method for multidirectional matrix converter (MDMC, based on the direct duty ratio pulse width modulation (DDPWM. In this study, a new structure of MDMC has been proposed to control the power flow direction through the stand-alone battery based system and hybrid vehicle. The modulation method acts based on the average voltage over one switching period concept. Therefore, in order to determine the duty ratio for each switch, the instantaneous input voltages are captured and compared with triangular waveform continuously. By selecting the proper switching pattern and changing the slope of the carriers, the sinusoidal input current can be synthesized with high power factor and desired output voltage. The proposed system increases the discharging time of the battery by injecting the power to the system from the generator and battery at the same time. Thus, it makes the battery life longer and saves more energy. This paper also derived necessary equation for proposed modulation method as well as detail of analysis and modulation algorithm. The theoretical and modulation concepts presented have been verified in MATLAB simulation.

  17. Novel modulation method for multidirectional matrix converter. (United States)

    Toosi, Saman; Misron, Norhisam; Hanamoto, Tsuyoshi; Bin Aris, Ishak; Radzi, Mohd Amran Mohd; Yamada, Hiroaki


    This study presents a new modulation method for multidirectional matrix converter (MDMC), based on the direct duty ratio pulse width modulation (DDPWM). In this study, a new structure of MDMC has been proposed to control the power flow direction through the stand-alone battery based system and hybrid vehicle. The modulation method acts based on the average voltage over one switching period concept. Therefore, in order to determine the duty ratio for each switch, the instantaneous input voltages are captured and compared with triangular waveform continuously. By selecting the proper switching pattern and changing the slope of the carriers, the sinusoidal input current can be synthesized with high power factor and desired output voltage. The proposed system increases the discharging time of the battery by injecting the power to the system from the generator and battery at the same time. Thus, it makes the battery life longer and saves more energy. This paper also derived necessary equation for proposed modulation method as well as detail of analysis and modulation algorithm. The theoretical and modulation concepts presented have been verified in MATLAB simulation.

  18. Matrix Recipes for Hard Thresholding Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Kyrillidis, Anastasios


    Given a set of possibly corrupted and incomplete linear measurements, we leverage low-dimensional models to best explain the data for provable solution quality in inversion. A non-exhaustive list of examples includes sparse vector and low-rank matrix approximation. Most of the well-known low dimensional models are inherently non-convex. However, recent approaches prefer convex surrogates that "relax" the problem in order to establish solution uniqueness and stability. In this paper, we tackle the linear inverse problems revolving around low-rank matrices by preserving their non-convex structure. To this end, we present and analyze a new set of sparse and low-rank recovery algorithms within the class of hard thresholding methods. We provide strategies on how to set up these algorithms via basic "ingredients" for different configurations to achieve complexity vs. accuracy tradeoffs. Moreover, we propose acceleration schemes by utilizing memory-based techniques and randomized, $\\epsilon$-approximate, low-rank pr...

  19. Vascular Extracellular Matrix and Arterial Mechanics (United States)



    An important factor in the transition from an open to a closed circulatory system was a change in vessel wall structure and composition that enabled the large arteries to store and release energy during the cardiac cycle. The component of the arterial wall in vertebrates that accounts for these properties is the elastic fiber network organized by medial smooth muscle. Beginning with the onset of pulsatile blood flow in the developing aorta, smooth muscle cells in the vessel wall produce a complex extracellular matrix (ECM) that will ultimately define the mechanical properties that are critical for proper function of the adult vascular system. This review discusses the structural ECM proteins in the vertebrate aortic wall and will explore how the choice of ECM components has changed through evolution as the cardiovascular system became more advanced and pulse pressure increased. By correlating vessel mechanics with physiological blood pressure across animal species and in mice with altered vessel compliance, we show that cardiac and vascular development are physiologically coupled, and we provide evidence for a universal elastic modulus that controls the parameters of ECM deposition in vessel wall development. We also discuss mechanical models that can be used to design better tissue-engineered vessels and to test the efficacy of clinical treatments. PMID:19584318

  20. Micro- and macrorheology of jellyfish extracellular matrix. (United States)

    Gambini, Camille; Abou, Bérengère; Ponton, Alain; Cornelissen, Annemiek J M


    Mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix (ECM) play a key role in tissue organization and morphogenesis. Rheological properties of jellyfish ECM (mesoglea) were measured in vivo at the cellular scale by passive microrheology techniques: microbeads were injected in jellyfish ECM and their Brownian motion was recorded to determine the mechanical properties of the surrounding medium. Microrheology results were compared with macrorheological measurements performed with a shear rheometer on slices of jellyfish mesoglea. We found that the ECM behaved as a viscoelastic gel at the macroscopic scale and as a much softer and heterogeneous viscoelastic structure at the microscopic scale. The fibrous architecture of the mesoglea, as observed by differential interference contrast and scanning electron microscopy, was in accord with these scale-dependent mechanical properties. Furthermore, the evolution of the mechanical properties of the ECM during aging was investigated by measuring microrheological properties at different jellyfish sizes. We measured that the ECM in adult jellyfish was locally stiffer than in juvenile ones. We argue that this stiffening is a consequence of local aggregations of fibers occurring gradually during aging of the jellyfish mesoglea and is enhanced by repetitive muscular contractions of the jellyfish. Copyright © 2012 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.